WorldWideScience

Sample records for hole drilling operations

  1. Drilling history of core hole DB-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diediker, L.D.; Ledgerwood, R.K.

    1980-09-01

    This core hole was drilled to obtain hydrologic and chemical data on the permeable zones of the Saddle Mountains and Wanapum Formations. These data were obtained by testing the zones that were penetrated during drilling. This testing-as-drilled method reduced the potential problems of interflow and water contamination. This report summarizes the drilling and coring operations; geologic logging, hydrologic testing, and geophysical logging activities; and cementing operations of DB-15 during drilling. The successful completion of DB-15 demonstrated that hydrologic testing can be conducted during core drilling operations. More reliable head measurements and uncontaminated representative water samples from isolated permeable zones, which have not been exposed to potential open borehole cross-flow and head equilibration problems, were benefits derived from the testing-as-drilled method. Disadvantages of the technique were a longer time to complete the borehole caused by time required for testing and increased drilling costs due to rig standby time during testing. Extension of the testing-as-drilled method to the drilling of future core holes is recommended. An evaluation should be made of the required hydrologic data and expected borehole stratigraphy before and during drilling to allow uninterrupted drilling in zones of low permeability that can be tested after drilling is complete

  2. Drilling miniature holes, Part III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1978-07-01

    Miniature components for precision electromechanical mechanisms such as switches, timers, and actuators typically require a number of small holes. Because of the precision required, the workpiece materials, and the geometry of the parts, most of these holes must be produced by conventional drilling techniques. The use of such techniques is tedious and often requires considerable trial and error to prevent drill breakage, minimize hole mislocation and variations in hole diameter. This study of eight commercial drill designs revealed that printed circuit board drills produced better locational and size repeatability than did other drills when centerdrilling was not used. Boring holes 1 mm in dia, or less, as a general rule did not improve hole location in brass or stainless steel. Hole locations of patterns of 0.66-mm holes can be maintained within 25.4-..mu..m diametral positional tolerance if setup misalignments can be eliminated. Size tolerances of +- 3.8 ..mu..m can be maintained under some conditions when drilling flat plates. While these levels of precision are possible with existing off-the-shelf drills, they may not be practical in many cases.

  3. Drilling history core hole DC-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-10-01

    Core hole DC-8 was completed in August, 1978 by Boyles Brothers Drilling Company, Spokane, Washington, under subcontract to Fenix and Scission, Inc. The hole was cored for the US Department of Energy and the Rockwell Hanford Operations' Basalt Waste Isolation Program. Fenix and Scisson, Inc. furnished the engineering, daily supervision of the core drilling activities, and geologic core logging for hole DC-8. Core hole DC-8 is located on the Hanford Site near the Wye Barricade and 50 feet northwest of rotary hole DC-7. The Hanford Site vation coordinates for DC-8 are North 14,955.94 feet and West 14,861.92 coordinates for DC-8 are North 14,955.94 feet and West 14,861.92 mean sea level. The purpose of core hole DC-8 was to core drill vertically through the basalt and interbed units for stratigraphic depth determination and core collection, and to provide a borehole for hydrologic testing and cross-hole seismic shear and pressure wave velocity studies with rotary hole DC-7. The total depth of core hole DC-8 was 4100.5 feet. Core recovery exceeded 97 percent of the total footage cored

  4. Drilling history core hole DC-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    Core hole DC-8 was completed in August, 1978 by Boyles Brothers Drilling Company, Spokane, Washington, under subcontract to Fenix and Scission, Inc. The hole was cored for the US Department of Energy and the Rockwell Hanford Operations' Basalt Waste Isolation Program. Fenix and Scisson, Inc. furnished the engineering, daily supervision of the core drilling activities, and geologic core logging for hole DC-8. Core hole DC-8 is located on the Hanford Site near the Wye Barricade and 50 feet northwest of rotary hole DC-7. The Hanford Site vation coordinates for DC-8 are North 14,955.94 feet and West 14,861.92 coordinates for DC-8 are North 14,955.94 feet and West 14,861.92 mean sea level. The purpose of core hole DC-8 was to core drill vertically through the basalt and interbed units for stratigraphic depth determination and core collection, and to provide a borehole for hydrologic testing and cross-hole seismic shear and pressure wave velocity studies with rotary hole DC-7. The total depth of core hole DC-8 was 4100.5 feet. Core recovery exceeded 97 percent of the total footage cored.

  5. Drilling history core hole DC-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    Core hole DC-4 was completed at a depth of 3998 feet in December, 1978 by Boyles Brothers Drilling Company, Spokane, Washington, under subcontract to Fenix and Scission, Inc. The hole was cored for the US Department of Energy and the Rockwell Hanford Operations' Basalt Waste Isolation Program. Fenix and Sicsson, Inc. furnished the engineering, daily supervision of the cable tool and core drilling activities, and geological core logging for DC-4. Core hole DC-4 is located on the Hanford Site about 3 miles east of the Yakima Barricade and approximately 103 feet southwest of rotary hole DC-5, which was completed to 3990 feet in February, 1978. Hanford Site coordinates reported for hole DC-4 are north 49,385.62 feet and west 85,207.63 feet, and Washington State coordinates are north 454,468.73 feet and east 2,209,990.87 feet. No elevation survey is available for hole DC-4, but it is approximately 745 feet above mean sea level based upon the survey of hole DC-5, which has a reported elevation of 745.16 feet on the top of the 3-inch flange. The purpose of core hole DC-4 was to core drill vertically through the basalt and interbed units for stratigraphic depth determination and core collection, and to provide a borehole for hydrologic testing, cross-hole seismic shear, and pressure wave velocity studies with rotary hole DC-5. Hole DC-4 was drilled through the overburden into basalt bedrock by cable tool methods (0-623 feet) and continuously cored through the final interval (623 to 3998 feet).Core recovery was 95.8 percent of the total footage cored

  6. Quality in drilling operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, E; Gervais, I [Sedco Forex Jacintoport Facility, Channelview, TX (United States); Le Moign, Y; Pangarkar, S; Stibbs, B [Sedco Forex, Montrouge (France); McMorran, P [Sedco Forex, Pau (France); Nordquist, E [Dubai Petroleum Company, Dubai (United Arab Emirates); Pittman, T [Sedco Forex, Perth (Australia); Schindler, H [Sedco Forex, Dubai (United Arab Emirates); Scott, P [Woodside Offshore Petroleum Pty. Ltd., Perth (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    Driven by cost and profitability pressures, quality has taken on new meaning and importance in the oil field during the past decade. In drilling operations, new initiatives have led to cooperative team efforts between operators and drilling contractors to enhance quality. In this article examples are given of how one drilling contractor, by adopting a quality culture, is reaping major benefits for its clients as well as its employees. 22 figs., 19 refs.

  7. Quality in drilling operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, E.; Gervais, I. [Sedco Forex Jacintoport Facility, Channelview, TX (United States); Le Moign, Y.; Pangarkar, S.; Stibbs, B. [Sedco Forex, Montrouge (France); McMorran, P. [Sedco Forex, Pau (France); Nordquist, E. [Dubai Petroleum Company, Dubai (United Arab Emirates); Pittman, T. [Sedco Forex, Perth (Australia); Schindler, H. [Sedco Forex, Dubai (United Arab Emirates); Scott, P. [Woodside Offshore Petroleum Pty. Ltd., Perth (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Driven by cost and profitability pressures, quality has taken on new meaning and importance in the oil field during the past decade. In drilling operations, new initiatives have led to cooperative team efforts between operators and drilling contractors to enhance quality. In this article examples are given of how one drilling contractor, by adopting a quality culture, is reaping major benefits for its clients as well as its employees. 22 figs., 19 refs.

  8. DOE HIGH-POWER SLIM-HOLE DRILLING SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. William C. Maurer; John H. Cohen; J. Chris Hetmaniak; Curtis Leitko

    1999-09-01

    This project used a systems approach to improve slim-hole drilling performance. A high power mud motor, having a double-length power section, and hybrid PDC/TSP drill bit were developed to deliver maximum horsepower to the rock while providing a long life down hole. This high-power slim-hole drilling system drills much faster than conventional slim-hole motor and bit combinations and holds significant potential to reduce slim-hole drilling costs. The oil and gas industries have been faced with downward price pressures since the 1980s. These pressures are not expected to be relieved in the near future. To maintain profitability, companies have had to find ways to reduce the costs of producing oil and gas. Drilling is one of the more costly operations in the production process. One method to reduce costs of drilling is to use smaller more mobile equipment. Slim holes have been drilled in the past using this principle. These wells can save money not only from the use of smaller drilling equipment, but also from reduced tubular costs. Stepping down even one casing size results in significant savings. However, slim holes have not found wide spread use for three reasons. First, until recently, the price of oil has been high so there were no forces to move the industry in this direction. Second, small roller bits and motors were not very reliable and they drilled slowly, removing much of the economic benefit. The third and final reason was the misconception that large holes were needed everywhere to deliver the desired production. Several factors have changed that will encourage the use of slim holes. The industry now favors any method of reducing the costs of producing oil and gas. In addition, the industry now understands that large holes are not always needed. Gas, in particular, can have high production rates in smaller holes. New materials now make it possible to manufacture improved bits and motors that drill for long periods at high rates. All that remains is to

  9. Design aspects of the Alpha Repository: VI. Selection and cost analysis of large hole drilling equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, D.B.; Grams, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    An evaluation of common drilling practices and technology and applicability of currently available drilling machinery in the excavation of the canister emplacement holes for the Alpha Repository is presented. Sections are included on drilling system applications, descriptions of drilling operations, and drill system performance

  10. Emplacement hole drill evaluation and specification study. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Results of a conceptual design program are presented for mine floor drilling in preparation for radioactive waste disposal. Two classes of drills can be used to drill emplacement holes in salt. Both are sufficiently rugged and reliable. Raise borers have a higher capital cost and require more modifications, but are more flexible in other applications and require less labor. The life cycle cost for the raise borers and for the auger rigs are about the same, while the life cycle costs of bucket drills are much higher. As long as the hole is 36 inches in diameter or less and 40 feet deep or less in salt, then the auger rig is recommended because of the lower capital cost and lower operating cost. This recommended system represents what is thought to be the best combination of available drill components assembled into a drill rig which will provide at least adequate performance. Furthermore, this drill system can be procured from at least three manufacturers. If the facility criteria change significantly, however, then the drill rig recommendations will have to be reassessed on the merits of the changes. The drill rig manufacturers can be quite flexible in combining components provided the buyer is willing to accept components with which the manufacturer has had experience. If this condition can be met, then most drill rig manufacturers will include the associated design cost as part of the drill cost. If special components are required, however, then the number of manufacturers willing to participate in a procurement may be severely reduced

  11. Permeability of granular beds emplaced in vertical drill holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, S.K.; Morrison, F.A. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    To determine the permeabilities of granular materials emplaced in vertical drill holes used for underground nuclear tests, an experiment at the USDOE Nevada Test Site (NTS) was conducted. As the hole is being filled, falling material increases pressure above and within the granular beds beneath. When the filling operation starts or stops, a transient pressure response occurs within the beds; measurements of this response in beds of various compositions were made. The permeabilities after emplacement were found by matching analytical predictions of the response to these data. This information is useful in assuring the containment of nuclear tests conducted in such drill holes

  12. 30 CFR 56.7013 - Covering or guarding drill holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Covering or guarding drill holes. 56.7013 Section 56.7013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7013 Covering or guarding drill holes. Drill holes large enough to...

  13. 30 CFR 57.7013 - Covering or guarding drill holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Covering or guarding drill holes. 57.7013 Section 57.7013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7013 Covering or guarding drill holes. Drill holes...

  14. Geologic investigations of drill hole sloughing problems, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drellack, S.L. Jr.; Davies, W.J.; Gonzales, J.L.; Hawkins, W.L.

    1983-01-01

    Severe sloughing zones encountered while drilling large diameter emplacement holes in Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, have been identified, correlated and predicted through detailed geologic investigations. In central and southeastern Area 7 and in northern Area 3, the unstable zones are a very fine-grained, well-sorted, unconsolidated sand deposit, probably eolian in origin, which will readily flow into large diameter drill holes. Other areas exhibit hole erosion related to poor induration or extensive zeolitization of the Tertiary tuff units which are very friable and porous. By examining drill hole samples, geophysical logs, caliper logs and drilling histories, these problem zones can be characterized, correlated and then projected into nearby sites. Maps have been generated to show the depth, thickness and areal extent of these strata. In some cases, they are local and have a lenticular geometry, while in others they are quite extensive. The ability to predict such features can enhance the quality of the hole construction and completion operations to avoid costly delays and the loss of valuable testing real estate. The control of hole enlargements will also eliminate related containment concerns, such as stemming uncertainties

  15. Alteration in the IRDP drill hole compared with other drill holes in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristmannsdóttir, Hrefna

    1982-08-01

    The overall alteration pattern in the drill hole at Reydarfjördur is very similar to alteration patterns observed in Icelandic geothermal areas and in low-grade metamorphosed basalts in deep crustal sections elsewhere in Iceland. However more detail is obtained by the study of the IRDP drill core than by study of drill cuttings sampled in previous drill holes in Iceland. A comparatively high fossil thermal gradient is obtained at Reydarfjördur by a combination of mineral stability data and the observed occurence of secondary minerals. This high gradient is consistent with the measured dike dilation at the drill site and the location of the drill site adjacent to a central volcano.

  16. Slim hole drilling and testing strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Dennis L.; Garg, Sabodh K.; Goranson, Colin

    2017-12-01

    The financial and geologic advantages of drilling slim holes instead of large production wells in the early stages of geothermal reservoir assessment has been understood for many years. However, the practice has not been fully embraced by geothermal developers. We believe that the reason for this is that there is a poor understanding of testing and reservoir analysis that can be conducted in slim holes. In addition to reservoir engineering information, coring through the cap rock and into the reservoir provides important data for designing subsequent production well drilling and completion. Core drilling requires significantly less mud volume than conventional rotary drilling, and it is typically not necessary to cure lost circulation zones (LCZ). LCZs should be tested by either production or injection methods as they are encountered. The testing methodologies are similar to those conducted on large-diameter wells; although produced and/or injected fluid volumes are much less. Pressure, temperature and spinner (PTS) surveys in slim holes under static conditions can used to characterize temperature and pressure distribution in the geothermal reservoir. In many cases it is possible to discharge slim holes and obtain fluid samples to delineate the geochemical properties of the reservoir fluid. Also in the latter case, drawdown and buildup data obtained using a downhole pressure tool can be employed to determine formation transmissivity and well properties. Even if it proves difficult to discharge a slim hole, an injection test can be performed to obtain formation transmissivity. Given the discharge (or injection) data from a slimhole, discharge properties of a large-diameter well can be inferred using wellbore modeling. Finally, slim hole data (pressure, temperature, transmissivity, fluid properties) together with reservoir simulation can help predict the ability of the geothermal reservoir to sustain power production.

  17. 30 CFR 77.1011 - Drill holes; guarding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill holes; guarding. 77.1011 Section 77.1011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Control § 77.1011 Drill holes; guarding. Drill holes large enough to constitute a hazard shall be covered...

  18. Lithology and Stratigraphy of Holes Drilled in LANL-Use Areas of the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lance B. Prothro; Sigmund L. Drellack, Jr.; Brian M. Allen

    1999-07-01

    Geologic data for ten holes drilled in areas used by Los Alamos National Laboratory at the Nevada Test Site are presented in this report. The holes include emplacement holes, instrumentation holes, and Underground Test Area wells drilled during calendar years 1991 through 1995. For each hole a stratigraphic log, a detailed lithologic log, and one or two geologic cross sections are presented, along with a supplemental data sheet containing information about the drilling operations, geology, or references. For three of the holes, graphic data summary sheets with geologic and geophysical data are provided as plates.

  19. Drilling history core hole DC-6 Hanford, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-06-01

    Core hole DC-6 was completed in May 1978 by Boyles Brothers Drilling Company, Spokane, Washington, under subcontract to Fenix and Scisson, Inc. The hole was cored for the US Department of Energy and the Rockwell Hanford Operations' Basalt Waste Isolation Program. Fenix and Scisson, Inc. furnished the engineering, daily supervision of the core drilling activities, and geologic core logging for hole DC-6. Core hole DC-6 is located within the boundary of the Hanford Site at the old Hanford town site. The Hanford Site coordinates for DC-6 are North 54,127.17 feet and West 17,721.00 feet. The surface elevation is approximately 402 feet above sea level. The purpose of core hole DC-6 was to core drill vertically through the basalt and interbed units for stratigraphic depth determination and core collection and to provide a borehole for hydrologic testing. The total depth of core hole DC-6 was 4336 feet. Core recovery was 98.4% of the total footage cored

  20. Advantages and limitations of remotely operated sea floor drill rigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenthal, T.; Smith, D. J.; Wefer, G.

    2009-04-01

    A variety of research targets in marine sciences including the investigation of gas hydrates, slope stability, alteration of oceanic crust, ore formation and palaeoclimate can be addressed by shallow drilling. However, drill ships are mostly used for deep drillings, both because the effort of building up a drill string from a drill ship to the deep sea floor is tremendous and control on drill bit pressure from a movable platform and a vibrating drill string is poor especially in the upper hundred meters. During the last decade a variety of remotely operated drill rigs have been developed, that are deployed on the sea bed and operated from standard research vessels. These developments include the BMS (Bentic Multicoring System, developed by Williamson and Associates, operated by the Japanese Mining Agency), the PROD (Portable Remotely Operated Drill, developed and operated by Benthic Geotech), the Rockdrill 2 (developed and operated by the British geological Survey) and the MeBo (German abbreviation for sea floor drill rig, developed and operated by Marum, University of Bremen). These drill rigs reach drilling depths between 15 and 100 m. For shallow drillings remotely operated drill rigs are a cost effective alternative to the services of drill ships and have the major advantage that the drilling operations are performed from a stable platform independent of any ship movements due to waves, wind or currents. Sea floor drill rigs can be deployed both in shallow waters and the deep sea. A careful site survey is required before deploying the sea floor drill rig. Slope gradient, small scale topography and soil strength are important factors when planning the deployment. The choice of drill bits and core catcher depend on the expected geology. The required drill tools are stored on one or two magazines on the drill rig. The MeBo is the only remotely operated drill rig world wide that can use wire line coring technique. This method is much faster than conventional

  1. Numerical analysis of drilling hole work-hardening effects in hole-drilling residual stress measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Liu, Y. H.

    2008-11-01

    The hole-drilling strain gage method is an effective semi-destructive technique for determining residual stresses in the component. As a mechanical technique, a work-hardening layer will be formed on the surface of the hole after drilling, and affect the strain relaxation. By increasing Young's modulus of the material near the hole, the work-hardening layer is simplified as a heterogeneous annulus. As an example, two finite rectangular plates submitted to different initial stresses are treated, and the relieved strains are measured by finite element simulation. The accuracy of the measurement is estimated by comparing the simulated residual stresses with the given initial ones. The results are shown for various hardness of work-hardening layer. The influence of the relative position of the gages compared with the thickness of the work-hardening layer, and the effect of the ratio of hole diameter to work-hardening layer thickness are analyzed as well.

  2. The relationship of cutting force with hole quality in drilling process of AISI H13 steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tekaüt İsmail

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The harmony of the drilling machine-cutting tool-work piece is very important for producing the machine part with the ideal dimensions. For this purpose in this study, the effect of cutting forces on hole quality (surface roughness, diameter deviation and circular deviation was investigated by 14 mm diameter uncoated and (AlCrN monolayer coated carbide drills for drilling AISI H13 hot work tool steel on vertical machining center. Four different cutting speeds (60, 75, 90 and 108 m / min and three different feed rates (0.15, 0.20 and 0.25 mm / rev were used in the experiments. Cutting forces have been found to be effective in improving hole quality. Better hole quality has obtained with coated drills than uncoated drills in experiments. It has been observed that coated drills have the effect of improving the hole quality due to the operation with less cutting force and better chip evacuation.

  3. Study of the radon released from open drill holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacer, J.C.

    1981-06-01

    The radon emanating from three open drill holes was measured at a site of known uranium mineralization in the Red Desert of south central Wyoming. The radon flux from the soil and drill holes was measured by the accumulator method with activated charcoal cartridges. The surface soil was found to release radon at an average rate of 0.41 atoms/cm 2 /sec; the radon emanating from the holes was more variable than that from the soil. The three holes studied released an average of 47 atoms/cm 2 /sec of radon. This average is equivalent to the radon released to the atmosphere by 14.5 ft 2 of soil. The data indicate that the radon emanated from an open drill hole is not as significant as other possible activities at a drill site (i.e. digging a trench or drilling a hole) or from household activities involving the usage of water

  4. Osseous drill holes to promote granulation tissue: Radiologic appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resnik, C.S.; Reiner, B.I.; Diaconis, J.N.; Goldberg, N.H.

    1991-01-01

    Skin grafting following extensive soft-tissue loss is often delayed until adequate granulation tissue can be generated. Surgical drill holes into the marrow cavity promote development of granulation tissue. This article illustrates the radiology appearance of these drill holes in four patients. (orig.)

  5. Accounting for the temperature conditions during deep prospecting hole drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shcherban, A N; Cheniak, V P; Zolotarenko, U P

    1977-01-01

    A methodology is described for calculating and controlling the temperature in inclined holes in order to establish a non-steady-state heat exchange between the medium circulating in the hole, and the construction components and rock. In order to verify the proposed methodology, the temperature of the drilling fluid is measured directly during the drilling process using a specially-designed automatic device which is lowered into the hole with the drilling string and turned on automatically at a given depth. This device makes it possible to record the drilling fluid temperature on magnetic tape, and convert the sensor signals arriving from the drilling string and the annular space. A comparison of calculation and experimental data confirmed the sufficiently high accuracy of the methods for predicting the thermal conditions in drilling deep prospecting holes.

  6. Ferroacryl mud for drilling deep bore holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisyanskiy, V I; Chepiga, V I; Devydenko, V N

    1982-01-01

    The composition, technology of production and control of the parameters of a ferroacyl (FAR) mud for drilling for prospecting holes in the Donets-Basin are developed. The mud consists of Chasov Yal clay (150-160 kg), hypane (40 1), iron sulfate (1kg) and water (approximately 1 m/sup 3/). The mud exhibits the following parameters: density 1.05 -1.1 g/cm/sup 3/, viscosity 20-21 s; water yield 3-5 cm/sup 3/; crust 0.5 mm. Compared to existing flushing fluids based on hypane the FAR contains fewer components and the cost of the materials is considerably less. It features very high flocculating properties.

  7. Statistical test of reproducibility and operator variance in thin-section modal analysis of textures and phenocrysts in the Topopah Spring member, drill hole USW VH-2, Crater Flat, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, L.M.; Byers, F.M. Jr.; Broxton, D.E.

    1989-06-01

    A thin-section operator-variance test was given to the 2 junior authors, petrographers, by the senior author, a statistician, using 16 thin sections cut from core plugs drilled by the US Geological Survey from drill hole USW VH-2 standard (HCQ) drill core. The thin sections are samples of Topopah Spring devitrified rhyolite tuff from four textural zones, in ascending order: (1) lower nonlithophysal, (2) lower lithopysal, (3) middle nonlithophysal, and (4) upper lithophysal. Drill hole USW-VH-2 is near the center of the Crater Flat, about 6 miles WSW of the Yucca Mountain in Exploration Block. The original thin-section labels were opaqued out with removable enamel and renumbered with alpha-numeric labels. The sliders were then given to the petrographer operators for quantitative thin-section modal (point-count) analysis of cryptocrystalline, spherulitic, granophyric, and void textures, as well as phenocryst minerals. Between operator variance was tested by giving the two petrographers the same slide, and within-operator variance was tested by the same operator the same slide to count in a second test set, administered at least three months after the first set. Both operators were unaware that they were receiving the same slide to recount. 14 figs., 6 tabs

  8. Control procedure for well drilling operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourdon, J C

    1988-09-09

    A control procedure of rotary drilling operations is proposed. It uses the Drill off test. The drill-off test permits to determine the rock drill speed variation as a function of the wright applied on the top of the pipe. We can deduce from that a rock drill wear parameter. The method permits to prevent a rupture and its grave economic consequences.

  9. The experimental research on electrodischarge drilling of high aspect ratio holes in Inconel 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipiec, Piotr; Machno, Magdalena; Skoczypiec, Sebastian

    2018-05-01

    In recent years the drilling operations become important area of electrodischarge machining (EDM) application. This especially concerns drilling of, small (D 10) holes in difficult-to-cut materials (i.e. nickel or titanium alloys). Drilling of such a holes is significantly beyond mechanical drilling capabilities. Therefore electrodischarge machining is good and cost efficient alternative for such application. EDM gives possibility to drill accurate, burr free and high aspect ratio holes and is applicable to machine wide range of conductive materials, irrespective of their hardness and toughness. However it is worth to underline its main disadvantages such as: significant tool wear, low material removal rate and poor surface integrity. The last one is especially important in reliable applications in aircraft or medical industry.

  10. Borehole Plugging Program. Plugging of ERDA No. 10 drill hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulick, C.W. Jr.

    1979-06-01

    A requirement exists to plug exploratory drill holes located in the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant area of Southeastern New Mexico. Sandia Laboratories, in cooperation with the US Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Concrete Laboratory, developed pumpable and durable cement grouts. These grouts were successfully used to plug an existing drill hole in the area. Results of this project are presented, along with comments and conclusions

  11. Big-hole drilling - the state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackey, M.D.

    1983-01-01

    The art of big-hole drilling has been in a continual state of evolution at the Nevada Test Site since the start of underground testing in 1961. Emplacement holes for nuclear devices are still being drilled by the rotary-drilling process, but almost all the hardware and systems have undergone many changes during the intervening years. The current design of bits, cutters, and other big-hole-drilling hardware results from contributions of manufacturers and Test Site personnel. The dual-string, air-lift, reverse-circulation system was developed at the Test Site. Necessity was really the Mother of this invention, but this circulation system is worthy of consideration under almost any condition. Drill rigs for big-hole drilling are usually adaptations of large oil-well drill rigs with minor modifications required to handle the big bits and drilling assemblies. Steel remains the favorite shaft lining material, but a lot of thought is being given to concrete linings, especially precast concrete

  12. Micro-hole drilling and cutting using femtosecond fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huan; Yang, Lih-Mei; Liu, Jian

    2014-05-01

    Micro-hole drilling and cutting in ambient air are presented by using a femtosecond fiber laser. At first, the micro-hole drilling was investigated in both transparent (glasses) and nontransparent (metals and tissues) materials. The shape and morphology of the holes were characterized and evaluated with optical and scanning electron microscopy. Debris-free micro-holes with good roundness and no thermal damage were demonstrated with the aspect ratio of 8∶1. Micro-hole drilling in hard and soft tissues with no crack or collateral thermal damage is also demonstrated. Then, trench micromachining and cutting were studied for different materials and the effect of the laser parameters on the trench properties was investigated. Straight and clean trench edges were obtained with no thermal damage.

  13. Hole quality and burr reduction in drilling aluminium sheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Piska, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Optimization of the metal drilling process requires creation of minimum amount of burrs and uniform appearance of the drilled holes. In this paper, an experimental investigation was performed on 2 mm sheets of wrought aluminium alloy Al99.7Mg0.5Cu-H24, using 1.6 and 2 mm diameter drills. Cutting...... data, clamping conditions, and drill geometry were varied in order to optimize the process and reach the desired quality. The results revealed possible reduction of burr occurrence on both the entry and exit side of the sheet, requiring no additional deburring. The demand on the uniform appearance...... of drilled holes was fulfilled as well as high productivity achieved. Such optimized process results in a noticeable production cost reduction....

  14. Hole quality and burr reduction in drilling aluminium sheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Piska, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Optimization of the metal drilling process requires creation of minimum amount of burrs and uniform appearance of the drilled holes. In this paper, an experimental investigation was performed on 2 mm sheets of wrought aluminium alloy Al99.7Mg0.5Cu-H24, using 1.6 and 2 mm diameter drills. Cutting...... data, clamping conditions, and drill geometry were varied in order to optimize the process and reach the desired quality. The results revealed possible reduction of burr occurrence on both the entry and exit side of the sheet, requiring no additional deburring. The demand on the uniform appearance...... of drilled holes was fulfilled as well as high productivity achieved. Such optimized process results in a noticeable production cost reduction....

  15. High precision, rapid laser hole drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jim J.; Friedman, Herbert W.; Comaskey, Brian J.

    2013-04-02

    A laser system produces a first laser beam for rapidly removing the bulk of material in an area to form a ragged hole. The laser system produces a second laser beam for accurately cleaning up the ragged hole so that the final hole has dimensions of high precision.

  16. 30 CFR 816.15 - Casing and sealing of drilled holes: Permanent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Casing and sealing of drilled holes: Permanent...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.15 Casing and sealing of drilled holes: Permanent. When no longer needed... exploration hole, other drilled hole or borehole, well, and other exposed underground opening shall be capped...

  17. Filter construction technology in mining drilling hole for in-situ leaching of multilayer deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yan; Hu Baishi; Tan Yahui; Yang Lizhi; Li Xiaojian; Wang Xiaodong; Chang Jingtao; Qin Hao

    2014-01-01

    Taking a typical multilayer sandstone uranium deposit as example, study was carried out on filter construction technology in mining drilling hole for in-situ leaching of multilayer deposit. According to the character of multilayer sandstone, four injecting holes and one drawning hole were designed between the P13-P15 exploration lines, five different methods were used to construct filter. Construction technology by different methods was introduced and the advantages and disadvantages of the construction filter with five methods were analysed. As far as five experimental drilling holes, layered gravel-filling hole construction technology is a suitable method for construction multilayer filter with continuous construction, simple operation and good effect of well completion. (authors)

  18. Economic environmental management of drilling operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longwell, H.J.; Akers, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents significant environmental and regulatory initiatives developed by Exxon's New Orleans Drilling Organization. Specifically, the paper will cover drilling waste minimization techniques and disposal options, recycling of drilling waste streams, and environmentally managed drilling location design considerations. The implementation of some of these initiatives at Exxon's Chalkley field land locations have resulted in a fifty percent reduction in drilling location waste management costs. Some of these same initiatives have been successfully applied to Exxon's barge drilling locations. For operations at the environmentally sensitive Mobile Bay, Exxon contracted with a local company and assisted in the development of an economically and environmentally superior drilling waste disposal and treatment system. In summary, it is possible for drilling operators to pro-actively manage escalating environmental and regulatory challenges through the implementation of economic and practical initiatives

  19. 30 CFR 816.13 - Casing and sealing of drilled holes: General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Casing and sealing of drilled holes: General...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.13 Casing and sealing of drilled holes: General requirements. Each exploration hole, other drill or borehole, well, or other exposed underground opening shall be cased, sealed...

  20. Fracture coatings in Topopah Spring Tuff along drill hole wash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, B.A.; Chipera, S.J.; Bish, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    Fracture-lining minerals are being studied as part of site characterization to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a potential high level nuclear waste repository. Fracture coatings in the Paintbrush Group provide information on potential flow paths above the water table both toward and away from the potential repository and provide information on the distribution of fracture-lining minerals needed to model thermal effects of waste emplacement. Fracture coatings within the predominantly non-zeolitic Paintbrush Group vary both with depth and laterally across Yucca Mountain, whereas fracture coatings in tuffs below the Paintbrush Group are related to the mineralogy of the tuffs and follow a consistent pattern of distribution with predominantly quartz, calcite, and manganese oxides in the devitrified intervals and mordenite and clinoptilolite in the zeolitic intervals. The zeolites stellerite and heulandite are more abundant in fractures in the Topopah Spring Tuff in drill holes USW G-1 and UE-25 a number-sign l, located along Drill Hole Wash (at the northern end of Yucca Mountain) than in core from other parts of Yucca Mountain. Buesch et al. (2) present evidence for a complex fault system along Drill Hole Wash. To investigate the possibility that the abundant fracture-lining zeolites in USW G-1 and UE-25 a number-sign 1 are related to the Drill Hole Wash fault, the Topopah Spring Tuff was examined in drill cores from USW UZ-14, USW G-1, USW NRG-7/7a, and UE-25 a number-sign l

  1. Archive of Core and Site/Hole Data and Photographs from the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) operated the D/V GLOMAR CHALLENGER from 1968-1983, drilling 1,112 holes at 624 sites worldwide. The DSDP was funded by the US...

  2. Design of a Pneumatic Tool for Manual Drilling Operations in Confined Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicki, Benjamin

    This master's thesis describes the design process and testing results for a pneumatically actuated, manually-operated tool for confined space drilling operations. The purpose of this device is to back-drill pilot holes inside a commercial airplane wing. It is lightweight, and a "locator pin" enables the operator to align the drill over a pilot hole. A suction pad stabilizes the system, and an air motor and flexible drive shaft power the drill. Two testing procedures were performed to determine the practicality of this prototype. The first was the "offset drill test", which qualified the exit hole position error due to an initial position error relative to the original pilot hole. The results displayed a linear relationship, and it was determined that position errors of less than .060" would prevent the need for rework, with errors of up to .030" considered acceptable. For the second test, a series of holes were drilled with the pneumatic tool and analyzed for position error, diameter range, and cycle time. The position errors and hole diameter range were within the allowed tolerances. The average cycle time was 45 seconds, 73 percent of which was for drilling the hole, and 27 percent of which was for positioning the device. Recommended improvements are discussed in the conclusion, and include a more durable flexible drive shaft, a damper for drill feed control, and a more stable locator pin.

  3. Hole Drilling Technique – on site stress measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Schueremans, Luc

    2009-01-01

    2. Hole Drilling Technique for onsite stress measurement has been used to validate the stress level at 2 pillars of the Sint-Jacobschurch (Leuven, B). The technique allows estimating the stress in a stone from measuring deformation when a small hole is made. It is a low intrusive technique. The application of it is limited to local stress measurements and is a complement to stress estimate from calculations of from the use of –for example- flat jacks. In addition to the flat-jack technique...

  4. SMART MONITORING AND DECISION MAKING FOR REGULATING ANNULUS BOTTOM HOLE PRESSURE WHILE DRILLING OIL WELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Vega

    Full Text Available Abstract Real time measurements and development of sensor technology are research issues associated with robustness and safety during oil well drilling operations, making feasible the diagnosis of problems and the development of a regulatory strategy. The major objective of this paper is to use an experimental plant and also field data, collected from a basin operation, offshore Brazil, for implementing smart monitoring and decision making, in order to assure drilling inside operational window, despite the commonly observed disturbances that produce fluctuations in the well annulus bottom hole pressure. Using real time measurements, the performance of a continuous automated drilling unit is analyzed under a scenario of varying levels of rate of penetration; aiming pressure set point tracking (inside the operational drilling window and also rejecting kick, a phenomenon that occurs when the annulus bottom hole pressure is inferior to the porous pressure, producing the migration of reservoir fluids into the annulus region. Finally, an empirical model was built, using real experimental data from offshore Brazil basins, enabling diagnosing and regulating a real drilling site by employing classic and advanced control strategies.

  5. Roundness and taper of holes during drilling composites of various thickness by HSS drill bit under dry condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakib, M. S.; Rahman, Motiur; Ferdous, M.; Dhar, N. R.

    2017-12-01

    Polymer Matrix Composites are extending a wide range of applications in aviation in recent eras because of their better economics, well established processing, high temperature properties, high resistance to corrosion and fatigue. Directional properties of composites are dependent on the fibre orientation. Composites being anisotropic in nature are difficult to drill and machining and tooling of the composites remained a great challenge over time. This paper addresses the issues of various machining problems such as delamination, fibre pull-out, cracks on varying drilling parameters like feed rate and drilling speed. Experimental drilling was carried out on Fibre Reinforced Plastic composites with HSS drill bit. Results reveal that as the number of holes increases the entry and exit diameter and tapper of holes vary and also varying composite thickness results in a difference in hole roundness and tapper. This experiment summarizes that for achieving acceptable tool life and hole quality demands a drill designed with composites.

  6. Hole-to-surface resistivity measurements at Gibson Dome (drill hole GD-1) Paradox basin, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    Hole-to-surface resistivity measurements were made in a deep drill hole (GD-1), in San Juan County, Utah, which penetrated a sequence of sandstone, shale, and evaporite. These measurements were made as part of a larger investigation to study the suitability of an area centered around the Gibson Dome structure for nuclear waste disposal. The magnitude and direction of the total electric field resulting from a current source placed in a drill hole is calculated from potential difference measurements for a grid of closely-spaced stations. A contour map of these data provides a detailed map of the distribution of the electric field away from the drill hole. Computation of the apparent resistivity from the total electric field helps to interpret the data with respect to the ideal situation of a layered earth. Repeating the surface measurements for different source depths gives an indication of variations in the geoelectric section with depth. The quantitative interpretation of the field data at Gibson Dome was hindered by the pressure of a conductive borehole fluid. However, a qualitative interpretation of the field data indicates the geoelectric section around drill hole GD-1 is not perfectly layered. The geoelectric section appears to dip to the northwest, and contains anomalies in the resistivity distribution that may be representative of localized thickening or folding of the salt layers.

  7. The tunnel project. Drill hole logging and structural geologic studies in the Grualia, the Lunner county

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elvebakk, Harald; Braathen, Alvar; Roenning, Jan S.; Nordgulen, Oeystein

    2001-01-01

    In connection with the project ''Environmental and community useful tunnels'' the Norwegian Geologic Survey (NGU) has made geologic and geophysical investigations along parts of the tunnel at the Grualia in the Lunner county. The purpose of the geologic studies was to map and investigate weakness zones in the rock foundations. The geophysical studies aimed at testing techniques that was in little use in preliminary studies for tunnel operations. The methods used have been optical inspection of drill holes, measurements of temperature and conductivity in the water and the measuring of the natural gamma radiation in the drill holes. The resistivity in the drill holes is also determined and test pumping with flow measurements is carried out in order to calculate the well water influx capacity. These methods may contribute to information about the rock condition (cracking, water influx). Previously the NGU has made 2D resistivity measurements at the ground in the tunnel in order to map the weakness zones. The results from the measurements in 6 wells show large variations in the rock qualities. The wells are drilled towards indicated weakness zones. Open water conducting cracks and sections with largely cracked rocks are detected in or in the proximity of the tunnel route. The weakness zone between the hornfels and the syenite west of the Langvatnet is largely cracked, has a large water conducting capacity and there are some unstable masses. Further east several open, water- conducting cracks are detected in the syenite. Furthest to the east in the route cracked and unstable rocks are found. Several of the holes are blocked by ravines which confirm the poor rock quality. In the particular areas problems are to be expected during the operation with respect to water influx and stability. Methodically the drill hole studies have shown great value for the follow up of the 2D resistivity measurements on the ground. The indicated weakness zones through the 2D have been

  8. 30 CFR 816.14 - Casing and sealing of drilled holes: Temporary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Casing and sealing of drilled holes: Temporary. 816.14 Section 816.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.14 Casing and sealing of drilled holes: Temporary. Each exploration hole...

  9. Enhancing down-the-hole air hammer capacity in directional drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klishin, V. I.; Timonin, V. V.; Kokoulin, D. I.; Alekseev, S. E.; Kubanychbek, B.

    2017-09-01

    The authors discuss the issue connected with drilling trajectory deviation and present the technique of rotary-percussion drilling with a down-the-hole air hammer. The article describes pilot testing of the air hammer drill PNB76 in Berezovskaya Mine. The ways of improving the air hammer drill are identified, and the basic diagram and R&D test data are given.

  10. Effects of specialized drill bits on hole defects of CFRP laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Xu, Jinyang; Chen, Ming

    2018-05-01

    Drilling is a conventional machining process widely applied to carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) for the riveting and fastening purposes in the aerospace and automotive industries. However, the machining mechanism of CFRP composites differ significantly from that of homogeneous metal alloys owing to their prominent anisotropy and heterogeneity. Serious hole defects such as fiber pullout, matrix debonding and delamination are generally produced during the hole-making process, resulting in the poor machined surface quality, low fatigue durability or even the part rejections. In order to minimize the defects especially the delamination damage in composites drilling, specialized drill bits are often a primary choice being widely adopted in a real production. This paper aims to study the effects of two drills differing in geometrical characteristics during the drilling of CFRP laminates. A number of drilling experiments were carried out with the aim to evaluate the drilling performance of different drill bits. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the drilled surfaces to study the surface roughness. A high frequency scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) was applied to characterize the drilled hole morphologies with a particular focus on the delamination damage occurring in the CFRP laminates. The obtained results indicate that the fiber orientation relative to the cutting direction is a key factor affecting hole morphology and hole wall defects can be reduced by utilizing specialized drill geometries. Moreover, the dagger drill was confirmed outperforming the brad spur drill from the aspect of reducing drilling-induced delamination.

  11. Drilling and the associated drillhole measurements of the pilot hole ONK-PH5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehberg, A.; Hirvonen, H.; Jurvanen, T.; Kemppainen, K.; Mustonen, A.; Niemonen, J.; Poellaenen, J.; Rouhiainen, P.; Rautio, T.

    2006-09-01

    The construction of the ONKALO access tunnel started in September 2004 at Olkiluoto. Most of the investigations related to the construction of the access tunnel aim to ensure successful excavations, reinforcement and sealing. Pilot holes are drillholes, which are core drilled along the tunnel profile. The length of the pilot holes typically varies from several tens of metres to a couple of hundred metres. The pilot holes are aimed to confirm the quality of the rock mass for tunnel construction, and in particular to identify water conductive fractured zones and to provide information that could result in modifications of the existing construction plans. The pilot hole ONK-PH5 was drilled from chainage 991.4 to chainage 1194 in January 2006. The length of the hole is 202.64 m and the vertical depth of the hole from zero level is about 88.2-107.5 m. The aim during the drilling work was to orient core samples as much as possible. The deviation of the drillhole was measured during and after the drilling phase. One steering operation by wedging was made at the hole depth of 128.58 metres. Electric conductivity was measured from the collected returning water samples. Logging of the core samples included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracturing, fracture frequency, RQD, fractured zones, core loss and weathering. The rock mechanical logging was based on Q-classification. The tests to determine rock strength and deformation properties were made with a Rock Tester-equipment. Due to high inflow (c. 200 L/min) mainly from the depth section 56-58 metres no geophysical surveys were carried out in the hole. Flow logging was carried out only from 58 metres to the bottom of the hole. Difference Flow method was used for the determination of hydraulic conductivity in fractures and fractured zones in the drillhole. The overlapping i.e. the detailed flow logging mode was used. The flow logging was performed with 0.5 m section length and with 0.1 m depth increment. Flow

  12. Residual stress measurement in veneering ceramic by hole-drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainjot, Amélie K; Schajer, Gary S; Vanheusden, Alain J; Sadoun, Michaël J

    2011-05-01

    Mismatch in thermal expansion properties between veneering ceramic and metallic or high-strength ceramic cores can induce residual stresses and initiate cracks when combined with functional stresses. Knowledge of the stress distribution within the veneering ceramic is a key factor for understanding and predicting chipping failures, which are well-known problems with Yttria-tetragonal-zirconia-polycrystal based fixed partial dentures. The objectives of this study are to develop a method for measuring the stress profile in veneering ceramics and to compare ceramic-fused-to-metal compounds to veneered Yttria-tetragonal-zirconia-polycrystal ceramic. The hole-drilling method, often used for engineering measurements, was adapted for use with veneering ceramic. Because of the high sensitivity needed in comparison with industrial applications, a high sensitivity electrical measurement chain was developed. All samples exhibited the same type of stress vs. depth profile, starting with compressive at the ceramic surface, decreasing with depth and becoming tensile at 0.5-1.0mm from the surface, and then becoming slightly compressive again. The zirconia samples exhibited a stress depth profile of larger magnitude. The hole drilling method was shown be a practical tool for measuring residual stresses in veneering ceramics. Copyright © 2010 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Method for Cleaning Laser-Drilled Holes on Printed Wiring Boards by Plasma Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirogaki, Toshiki; Aoyama, Eiichi; Minagi, Ryu; Ogawa, Keiji; Katayama, Tsutao; Matsuoka, Takashi; Inoue, Hisahiro

    We propose a new method for cleaning blind via holes after laser drilling of PWBs using oxygen plasma treatment. This report dealt with three kinds of PWB materials: epoxy resin and two kinds of aramid fiber reinforced plastics (AFRP: Technora or Kevlar fiber reinforcement). We observed the drilled holes after plasma treatment using both an optical and a scanning electric microscope (SEM). It was confirmed that adequate etching took place in the drilled holes by plasma treatment. We also compared the hole wall and hole bottom after plasma treatment with ones after chemical etching. It was clear that there was no damage to the aramid fiber tip on the hole wall, and that a smooth roughness of the hole wall was obtained by means of plasma treatment. As a result, we demonstrated that the plasma treatment is effective in cleaning the laser drilled holes of PWBs.

  14. Coral ages and island subsidence, Hilo drill hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.G.; Ingram, B.L.; Ludwig, K. R.; Clague, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    A 25.8-m-thick sedimentary section containing coral fragments occurs directly below a surface lava flow (the ???1340 year old Panaewa lava flow) at the Hilo drill hole. Ten coral samples from this section dated by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon and five by thermal infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS) 230Th/U methods show good agreement. The calcareous unit is 9790 years old at the bottom and 1690 years old at the top and was deposited in a shallow lagoon behind an actively growing reef. This sedimentary unit is underlain by a 34-m-thick lava flow which in turn overlies a thin volcaniclastic silt with coral fragments that yield a single 14C date of 10,340 years. The age-depth relations of the dated samples can be compared with proposed eustatic sea level curves after allowance for island subsidence is taken. Island subsidence averages 2.2 mm/yr for the last 47 years based on measurements from a tide gage near the drill hole or 2.5-2.6 mm/yr for the last 500,000 years based on the ages and depths of a series of drowned coral reefs offshore from west Hawaii. The age-depth measurements of coral fragments are more consistent with eustatic sea levels as determined by coral dating at Barbados and Albrolhos Islands than those based on oxygen isotopic data from deep sea cores. The Panaewa lava flow entered a lagoon underlain by coral debris and covered the drill site with 30.9 m of lava of which 11 m was above sea level. This surface has now subsided to 4.2 m above sea level, but it demonstrates how a modern lava flow entering Hilo Bay would not only change the coastline but could extensively modify the offshore shelf.

  15. Environment-friendly drilling operation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Huaidong; Jing, Ning; Zhang, Yanna; Huang, Hongjun; Wei, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Under the circumstance that international safety and environmental standards being more and more stringent, drilling engineering is facing unprecedented challenges, the extensive traditional process flow is no longer accepted, the new safe and environment-friendly process is more suitable to the healthy development of the industry. In 2015, CNPCIC adopted environment-friendly drilling technology for the first time in the Chad region, ensured the safety of well control, at the same time increased the environmental protection measure, reduced the risk of environmental pollution what obtain the ratification from local government. This technology carries out recovery and disposal of crude oil, cuttings and mud without falling on the ground. The final products are used in road and well site construction, which realizes the reutilization of drilling waste, reduces the operating cost, and provides a strong technical support for cost-cutting and performance-increase of drilling engineering under low oil price.

  16. An accurate estimation and optimization of bottom hole back pressure in managed pressure drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boniface Aleruchi ORIJI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Managed Pressure Drilling (MPD utilizes a method of applying back pressure to compensate for wellbore pressure losses during drilling. Using a single rheological (Annular Frictional Pressure Losses, AFPL model to estimate the backpressure in MPD operations for all sections of the well may not yield the best result. Each section of the hole was therefore treated independently in this study as data from a case study well were used. As the backpressure is a function of hydrostatic pressure, pore pressure and AFPL, three AFPL models (Bingham plastic, Power law and Herschel Bulkley models were utilized in estimating the backpressure. The estimated backpressure values were compared to the actual field backpressure values in order to obtain the optimum backpressure at the various well depths. The backpressure values estimated by utilizing the power law AFPL model gave the best result for the 12 1/4" hole section (average error % of 1.855% while the back pressures estimated by utilizing the Herschel Bulkley AFPL model gave the best result for the 8 1/2" hole section (average error % of 12.3%. The study showed that for hole sections of turbulent annular flow, the power law AFPL model fits best for estimating the required backpressure while for hole sections of laminar annular flow, the Herschel Bulkley AFPL model fits best for estimating the required backpressure.

  17. Drilling and the associated drillhole measurements of the pilot hole ONK-PH6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehberg, A.; Hirvonen, H.; Kemppainen, K.; Niemonen, J.; Nordbaeck, N.; Poellaenen, J.; Rouhiainen, P.; Rautio, T.; Tarvainen, A.-M.

    2007-08-01

    The construction of the ONKALO access tunnel started in September 2004 at Olkiluoto. Most of the investigations related to the construction of the access tunnel aim to ensure successful excavations, reinforcement and sealing. Pilot holes are drillholes, which are core drilled along the tunnel profile. The length of the pilot holes typically varies from several tens of metres to a couple of hundred metres. The pilot holes are aimed to confirm the quality of the rock mass for tunnel construction, and in particular to identify water conductive fractured zones and to provide information that could result in modifications of the existing construction plans. The pilot hole ONK-PH6 was drilled from chainage 1404 to chainage 1559 in September 2006. The length of the hole is 155.04 m. The aim during the drilling work was to orient core samples as much as possible. The deviation of the drillhole was measured during and after the drilling phase. One steering operation by wedging was made at the hole depth of 94.05 metres (top of the wedge). Electric conductivity was measured from the collected returning water samples. Logging of the core samples included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracturing, fracture frequency, RQD, fractured zones, core loss and weathering. The rock mechanical logging was based on Q-classification. The tests to determine rock strength and deformation properties were made with a Rock Tester-equipment. Difference Flow method was used for the determination of hydraulic conductivity in fractures and fractured zones in the drillhole. The overlapping i.e. the detailed flow logging mode was used. Besides flow logging Single Point Resistance (SPR), Electric Conductivity (EC) and temperature of the drillhole water were also measured. The flow logging was performed with 0.5 m section length and with 0.1 m depth increment. Water loss tests were conducted in the hole excluding the section 89.04 - 101.04 metres due to the wedge. Geophysical logging

  18. Geology of the U12n.07 UG-3 drill hole, area 12, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, S.S.; Cunningham, M.J.

    1975-11-01

    The U12n.07 UG-3 horizontal drill hole, located near the eastern edge of the center of Rainier Mesa, Nevada Test Site, was drilled to a total depth of 809 m (2,653 ft). This hole was drilled to further evaluate the tunnel-level stratigraph, and structure southwest of the U12n tunnel complex. The drill hole is collared in the middle of Tertiary tunnel bed 3A and penetrates upsection through tunnel beds 3 and 4 and terminates in subunit 4K, all of Tertiary age. Stratigraphy, structure, engineering geology, and physical properties and their relation to tunnel engineering are discussed

  19. Study on super-long deep-hole drilling of titanium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhanfeng; Liu, Yanshu; Han, Xiaolan; Zheng, Wencui

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the super-long deep-hole drilling of a titanium alloy was investigated. According to material properties of the titanium alloy, an experimental approach was designed to study three issues discovered during the drilling process: the hole-axis deflection, chip morphology, and tool wear. Based on the results of drilling experiments, crucial parameters for the super-long deep-hole drilling of titanium alloys were obtained, and the influences of these parameters on quality of the alloy's machining were also evaluated. Our results suggest that the developed drilling process is an effective method to overcome the challenge of super-long deep-hole drilling on difficult-to-cut materials.

  20. Hole Quality Assessment in Drilling of Glass Microballoon/Epoxy Syntactic Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrith, H. S.; Doddamani, Mrityunjay; Gaitonde, Vinayak; Gupta, Nikhil

    2018-05-01

    Syntactic foams reinforced with glass microballoons are used as alternatives for conventional materials in structural application of aircrafts and automobiles due to their unique properties such as light weight, high compressive strength, and low moisture absorption. Drilling is the most commonly used process of making holes for assembling structural components. In the present investigation, grey relation analysis (GRA) is used to optimize cutting speed, feed, drill diameter, and filler content to minimize cylindricity, circularity error, and damage factor. Experiments based on full factorial design are conducted using a vertical computer numerical control machine and tungsten carbide twist drills. GRA reveals that a combination of lower cutting speed, filler content, and drill diameter produces a good quality hole at optimum intermediate feed in drilling syntactic foams composites. GRA also shows that the drill diameter has a significant effect on the hole quality. Furthermore, damage on the hole exit side is analyzed using a scanning electron microscope.

  1. Measuring the optical properties of IceCube drill holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongen Martin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The IceCube Neutrino Observatory consists of 5160 digital optical modules (DOMs in a cubic kilometer of deep ice below the South Pole. The DOMs record the Cherenkov light from charged particles interacting in the ice. A good understanding of the optical properties of the ice is crucial to the quality of the event reconstruction. While the optical properties of the undisturbed ice are well understood, the properties of the refrozen drill holes still pose a challenge. A new data-acquisition and analysis approach using light originating from LEDs within one DOM detected by the photomultiplier of the same DOM will be described. This method allows us to explore the scattering length in the immediate vicinity of the considered DOMs.

  2. Gradient index metamaterials realized by drilling hole arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei Zhonglei; Cui Tiejun; Bai Jing

    2010-01-01

    Gradient index metamaterials have wide applications in the microwave and optical fields. Based on the quasi-static theory, such materials at the microwave band have been realized by drilling hole arrays on ordinary dielectric materials. As applications of the gradient index metamaterials, novel devices including a 45 0 dielectric wave-bending structure, a 16 0 wave-steering lens and a microwave focusing lens are designed and fabricated. Field mapping measurements validate the proposed gradient index metamaterials and the device designs. The method can be directly and easily extended to the design of cloaks, various lenses, beam shifters and beam-steering devices. It can also be applied in the optical band as long as quasi-static conditions are satisfied. The method and the devices may find applications in integrated circuit systems.

  3. Estimation grade of uranium from drill hole gamma logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juliao, B.

    1986-01-01

    Radiometric grade of uranium deposits can be determined from drill hole gamma logs. The calculation of uranium oxide content can be obtained with good precision when the uranium ore is in radioactive equilibrium, containing only a small amount of thorium and no interference of potassium. This is the case of uranium ore from the Lagoa Real Uranium Province presented in this paper. The radioactive disequilibrium study in this province were made working over nine hundred samples analised with this special purpose in the CDTN-NUCLEBRAS laboratories. The data obtained indicated that the uranium in the ore is in perfect equilibrium with their daughter gamma emitters. Futhermore, the amount of Th and K is of no significance, so that the gamma counting represents exactly the uranium content of the ore. (author) [pt

  4. Mineralogy of drill hole UE-25pnumber1 at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chipera, S.J.; Bish, D.L.

    1988-05-01

    Drill hole UE-25p/number sign/1 is located east of the candidate repository block at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and as such provides information on the geology of the accessible environment. The hole was drilled to a depth of 1807 m (5923 ft) and is unique in that it penetrates tuffs that are older than any volcanic units previously encountered in drill holes at Yucca Mountain. In addition, it is the only hole drilled to date that penetrates the base of the tuff sequence and enters the underlying Paleozoic dolomite basement. We have examined the mineralogy of drill cuttings, core, and sidewall samples from drill hole UE-25p/number sign/1 is similar to that in the other drill holes examined at Yucca Mountain. The only significant differences in mineralogy from other drill holes include the presence of dolomite in the Paleozoic carbonate rocks and the occurrence of up to 3% laumontite, a Ca-zeolite, in four samples of the Lithic Ridge Tuff. 15 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Drilling holes in rock for final storage of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nord, G.

    1980-09-01

    This report delas with the technical and economic aspects of the drilling of vertical holes with diameters of 1.5 metres and 1 metre in the Swedish bedrock. The holes will be 7.7 metres in depth and located on a level approximately 500 metres below the ground surface. There is no directly applicable technique for the construction of the above-mentioned holes from a small tunnel. The data presented in this report are based to a great extent on information supplied by the manufacturers of drilling equipment, and by underground construction contractors. Three different techniques for drilling the holes have been delat with in the report: shaft boring, stitch drilling (three alternative methods) and core drilling. In order to produce the required 233 holes per year, the following sets of equipment must be purchased, and personnel engaged. A hole with a diameter of 1.5 m and a depth of 7.7 m requires 3 to 7 sets of equipment for shaft boring or stitch drilling and engages 12 to 27 employees. The cost per hole varies between 24.200 and 31.200 SKr. Core drilling requires 7 sets of equipment, engages 29 persons and costs 55.300 SKr per hole. A hole with a diameter of 1.0 m requires less personnel and costs between 19.700 and 25.800 per hole except for core drilling where the cost per hole is estimated to 43.900 SKr. Interest costs account for 10 percent - 15 percent of the above-mentioned costs. Our aim has been to calculate the costs for the different methods on as similar a basis as possible, but a margin of error of +- 15 percent entails and overlapping of the cost span for most of the methods considered. (G.B.)

  6. Density of basalt core from Hilo drill hole, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.G.

    2001-01-01

    Density measurements of 1600 samples of core from 889 to 3097 m depth below sea level in the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Program hole near Hilo, Hawaii show marked differences between the basaltic rock types and help define stratigraphy in the hole. Water-saturated densities of subaerial lava flows (occurring above 1079 m depth) have the broadest range because of the large density variation within a single lava flow. Water-saturated densities commonly range from 2.0 to 3.0 with an average of 2.55 ?? 0.24 g/cc. Dikes and sills range from 2.8 to 3.1 g/cc). Densities of hyaloclastite commonly range from 2.3 to 2.7, with an overall average of about 2.5 g/cc. The low-density of most hyaloclastite is due primarily to palagonitization of abundant glass and presence of secondary minerals in the interstices between fragments. Four principal zones of pillow lava, separated by hyaloclastite, occur in the drill core. The shallowest (1983-2136 m) is paradoxically the densest, averaging 3.01 ?? 0.10 g/cc. The second (2234-2470 m) is decidedly the lightest, averaging 2.67 ?? 0.13 g/cc. The third (2640-2790 m) and fourth (2918-bottom at 3097 m) are high, averaging 2.89 ?? 0.17 and 2.97 ?? 0.08 g/cc, respectively. The first pillow zone includes degassed pillows i.e. lava erupted on land that flowed into the sea. These pillows are poor in vesicles, because the subaerial, one-atmosphere vesicles were compressed when the flow descended to deeper water and higher pressure. The second (low-density, non-degassed) pillow zone is the most vesicle-rich, apparently because it was erupted subaqueously at a shallow depth. The higher densities of the third and fourth zones result from a low vesicularity of only a few percent and an olivine content averaging more than 5% for the third zone and about 10% for the fourth zone. The uppermost hyaloclastite extending about 400 m below the bottom of the subaerial basalt is poorly cemented and absorbs up to 6 wt% of water when immersed. Progressing

  7. Measurements of the state of stress in deep drill holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeaetaeinen, A.; Saerkkae, P.

    1985-05-01

    The state of stress in rock is one of the most important parameters in the safe planning of stable underground openings in rock. At the same time, it is very difficult to be determined from a great distance. The common methods for the determination of state of stress in bedrock are usually not able to do this from a distance over 30 m. This work is a survey on rock stress determination methods usable in deep, over 500 m, drill holes. It also contains a recommendation for a method to determine the state of stress in Lavia test hole. The presented recommendation for the measurement of the state of stress contains an estimation on the working time for the measurement as well as the amount and location of the measuring points. The examination of the methods has been concentrated on three methods, hydraulic fracturing, overcoring by Vattenfall and differential strain analysis. Theoretical background of these methods has been analyzed. A special interest has been laid on the fundamental assumptions of different methods and their influence on the reliability of the results and the interpretation of the state of stress. The comparison of the methods has been made by literature and user interviews. Equipment and personnel needed, and way of measurement are described for the methods. The parameters measured and their possible sources of errors are described, too, as well as the fundamental assumptions and potential difficulties in the measurement. The organizations in Scandinavia performing measurements and their abilities to do measurements and interpretation are presented. Readiness to interpretation in Finland is described shortly

  8. Editorial Commentary: The Larger Holes or Larger Number of Holes We Drill in the Coracoid, the Weaker the Coracoid Becomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Paul

    2016-06-01

    The larger holes or larger number of holes we drill in the coracoid, the weaker the coracoid becomes. Thus, minimizing bone holes (both size and number) is required to lower risk of coracoid process fracture, in patients in whom transosseous shoulder acromioclavicular joint reconstruction is indicated. A single 2.4-mm-diameter tunnel drilled through both the clavicle and the coracoid lowers the risk of fracture, but the risk cannot be entirely eliminated. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Geology of hole drill thermal infra basaltic (Guarani Aquifer System) in Salto Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goso, C.; Muzio, R.; Marmisolle, J.; De Souza, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the lithological description of a thermal infrabasaltic (Guarani Aquifer System) hole drill cutting in Dayman (Kanarek Hotel), Salto department (Uruguay). This hole drill shows 152 meters of Buena Vista Formation (Upper Permian- Lower Triassic), 188 meters of Tacuarembo Formation (Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous) and 940meters of Arapey Formation (Lower Cretaceous). Petrographical studies of six basaltic levels were done [es

  10. In situ measurement of plasma and shock wave properties inside laser-drilled metal holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brajdic, Mihael; Hermans, Martin; Horn, Alexander; Kelbassa, Ingomar

    2008-10-01

    High-speed imaging of shock wave and plasma dynamics is a commonly used diagnostic method for monitoring processes during laser material treatment. It is used for processes such as laser ablation, cutting, keyhole welding and drilling. Diagnosis of laser drilling is typically adopted above the material surface because lateral process monitoring with optical diagnostic methods inside the laser-drilled hole is not possible due to the hole walls. A novel method is presented to investigate plasma and shock wave properties during the laser drilling inside a confined environment such as a laser-drilled hole. With a novel sample preparation and the use of high-speed imaging combined with spectroscopy, a time and spatial resolved monitoring of plasma and shock wave dynamics is realized. Optical emission of plasma and shock waves during drilling of stainless steel with ns-pulsed laser radiation is monitored and analysed. Spatial distributions and velocities of shock waves and of plasma are determined inside the holes. Spectroscopy is accomplished during the expansion of the plasma inside the drilled hole allowing for the determination of electron densities.

  11. 30 CFR 77.1902 - Drilling and mucking operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling and mucking operations. 77.1902... COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1902 Drilling and mucking operations. Diesel-powered equipment used in the drilling, mucking, or other excavation of any slope or shaft shall be permissible, and such...

  12. On KNBK for the preparation of shafts of drill-holes for the sinking casing strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanov, V B; Shchukin, R K

    1981-01-01

    An experimental preparation of drill-holes for reinforcement performed by the Kubanomor neftagazprom firm is given based on the use of traditional KNBK of increasing rigidity after the interval has been completely drilled and KNBK inserted into the superchisel part of the flywheel, UBTS or rotary stabilizer, the outer diameters of which are determined computationally and help in preparation of the shaft for reinforcement in the process of rotary drilling.

  13. Geophysical Well-Log Measurements in Three Drill Holes at Salt Valley, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Daniels, Jeffrey J.; Hite, Robert J.; Scott, James H.; U.S. Geological Survey

    1980-01-01

    Three exploratory drill holes were drilled at Salt Valley, Utah, to study the geologic, physical, geochemical, and hydrologic properties of the evaporite sequence in the Permian Paradox Member of the Hermosa Formation. The results of these studies will be used to help to determine the suitability of salt deposits in the Paradox basin as a storage medium for radioactive waste material.

  14. Selected stratigraphic data for drill holes located in Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site. Rev. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drellack, S.L. Jr.

    1997-02-01

    Stratigraphic data are presented in tabular form for 72 holes drilled in Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site, between 1950 and 1993. Three pairs of data presentations are included for each hole: depth to formation tops, formation thicknesses, and formation elevations are presented in both field (English) and metric units. Also included for each hole, where available, are various construction data (hole depth, hole diameter, surface location coordinates) and certain information of hydrogeologic significance (depth to water level, top of zeolitization). The event name is given for holes associated with a particular nuclear test. An extensive set of footnotes is included, which indicates data sources and provides other information. The body of the report describes the stratigraphic setting of Frenchman Flat, gives drill-hole naming conventions and database terminology, and provides other background and reference material

  15. Results from exploratory drill hole UE2ce, Northwest Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, near the NASH Event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawloski, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    Exploratory drill hole UE2ce was drilled in January 1977 to determine geologic and geophysical characteristics of this site. This report presents geophysical logs, lithology, geologic structure, water table measurements, and physical properties for this drill hole. The data are then extrapolated to the NASH site, an event in U2ce, 55.6 m due north of UE2ce

  16. Small subchondral drill holes improve marrow stimulation of articular cartilage defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldracher, Mona; Orth, Patrick; Cucchiarini, Magali; Pape, Dietrich; Madry, Henning

    2014-11-01

    Subchondral drilling is an established marrow stimulation technique. Osteochondral repair is improved when the subchondral bone is perforated with small drill holes, reflecting the physiological subchondral trabecular distance. Controlled laboratory study. A rectangular full-thickness chondral defect was created in the trochlea of adult sheep (n = 13) and treated with 6 subchondral drillings of either 1.0 mm (reflective of the trabecular distance) or 1.8 mm in diameter. Osteochondral repair was assessed after 6 months in vivo by macroscopic, histological, and immunohistochemical analyses and by micro-computed tomography. The application of 1.0-mm subchondral drill holes led to significantly improved histological matrix staining, cellular morphological characteristics, subchondral bone reconstitution, and average total histological score as well as significantly higher immunoreactivity to type II collagen and reduced immunoreactivity to type I collagen in the repair tissue compared with 1.8-mm drill holes. Analysis of osteoarthritic changes in the cartilage adjacent to the defects revealed no significant differences between treatment groups. Restoration of the microstructure of the subchondral bone plate below the chondral defects was significantly improved after 1.0-mm compared to 1.8-mm drilling, as shown by higher bone volume and reduced thickening of the subchondral bone plate. Likewise, the microarchitecture of the drilled subarticular spongiosa was better restored after 1.0-mm drilling, indicated by significantly higher bone volume and more and thinner trabeculae. Moreover, the bone mineral density of the subchondral bone in 1.0-mm drill holes was similar to the adjacent subchondral bone, whereas it was significantly reduced in 1.8-mm drill holes. No significant correlations existed between cartilage and subchondral bone repair. Small subchondral drill holes that reflect the physiological trabecular distance improve osteochondral repair in a translational

  17. Numerical investigation of a novel connection in tempered glass using holes drilled after tempering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Henrik

    2013-01-01

    , the hole and the adhesive. In the paper a short discussion of the change in residual stresses due to the drilling and a FE-model for the loading of the pin in the hole is developed. From this model, the stress state occurring in such joints is investigated assuming both elastic and ideal plastic behaviour...

  18. Archive of Core and Site/Hole Data and Photographs from the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) operated the drilling vessel JOIDES Resolution from 1984-2003 for over 100 cruises worldwide. The ODP was funded by the U.S....

  19. Residual stress measurement of PMMA by combining drilling-hole with digital speckle correlation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, X. F.; Xiong, T. C.; Xu, H. M.; Wan, J. P.; Long, G. R.

    2008-11-01

    The residual stresses of the PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate) specimens after being drilled, reamed and polished respectively are investigated using the digital speckle correlation experimental method,. According to the displacement fields around the correlated calculated region, the polynomial curve fitting method is used to obtain the continuous displacement fields, and the strain fields can be obtained from the derivative of the displacement fields. Considering the constitutive equation of the material, the expression of the residual stress can be presented. During the data processing, according to the fitting effect of the data, the calculation region of the correlated speckles and the degree of the polynomial fitting curve is decided. These results show that the maximum stress is at the hole-wall of the drilling hole specimen and with the increasing of the diameter of the drilled hole, the residual stress resulting from the hole drilling increases, whereas the process of reaming and polishing hole can reduce the residual stress. The relative large discrete degree of the residual stress is due to the chip removal ability of the drill bit, the cutting feed of the drill and other various reasons.

  20. Real-time depth measurement for micro-holes drilled by lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Hsiang; Powell, Rock A.; Jiang, Lan; Xiao, Hai; Chen, Shean-Jen; Tsai, Hai-Lung

    2010-02-01

    An optical system based on the confocal principle has been developed for real-time precision measurements of the depth of micro-holes during the laser drilling process. The capability of the measuring system is theoretically predicted by the Gaussian lens formula and experimentally validated to achieve a sensitivity of 0.5 µm. A nanosecond laser system was used to drill holes, and the hole depths were measured by the proposed measuring system and by the cut-and-polish method. The differences between these two measurements are found to be 5.0% for hole depths on the order of tens of microns and 11.2% for hundreds of microns. The discrepancies are caused mainly by the roughness of the bottom surface of the hole and by the existence of debris in the hole. This system can be easily implemented in a laser workstation for the fabrication of 3D microstructures.

  1. Helicopter-supported drilling operation in Papua New Guinea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, E.R.; Juneau, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on drilling cost per foot of Chevron's helilift drilling operation in the remote Southern Highlands of Papua New Guinea, reduced from 1360 to 267 S/ft (4462 to 876$/m) during the period from 1985 to 1989. The operation provides many challenges, as it is thousands of miles from major oil-field supply centers. This requires advanced will-planning and logistical management of drilling materials so that they arrive at the drilling rig in a timely manner. The wells are also drilled into structurally complex geology without the aid of seismic data which can lead to unexpected results

  2. Effect of cooling methods on hole quality in drilling of aluminium 6061-6T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M N; Boswell, B

    2016-01-01

    The influence of cooling method and drilling parameters on hole production has been investigated experimentally and analytically by measuring the hole quality. A three-level, three-parameter experiment was conducted using design-of-experiment methodology. The three levels of independent input parameters were: for cooling method—flood drilling, minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) drilling and cryogenic drilling; for feed rate—0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 mm/rev; and for cutting speed—60, 75 and 100 m/min. The selected work and tool materials were aluminium 6061-6T and high speed steel (HSS), respectively. The measured output parameters were the three most widely used quality characteristics of drilled holes - diameter error, circularity and surface roughness. The results were analysed applying three methods: Pareto ANOVA, Taguchi method and traditional analysis. The findings revealed that the cooling method has a significant effect on diameter error (contribution ratio 88.27%), moderate effect on surface roughness (contribution ratio 41.74%) and relatively small effect on circularity (contribution ratio 23.64%). The best results for the dimensional accuracy and surface roughness were achieved by MQL drilling. Cryogenic drilling produced the best circularity results; however, in terms of dimensional accuracy and surface roughness it was the worst. (paper)

  3. Axially symmetrical stresses measurement in the cylindrical tube using DIC with hole-drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yinji; Yao, Xuefeng; Zhang, Danwen

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a new method combining the digital image correlation (DIC) with the hole-drilling technology to characterize the axially symmetrical stresses of the cylindrical tube is developed. First, the theoretical expressions of the axially symmetrical stresses in the cylindrical tube are derived based on the displacement or strain fields before and after hole-drilling. Second, the release of the axially symmetrical stresses for the cylindrical tube caused by hole-drilling is simulated by the finite element method (FEM), which indicates that the axially symmetrical stresses of the cylindrical tube calculated by the cylindrical solution is more accuracy than that for traditionally planar solution. Finally, both the speckle image information and the displacement field of the cylindrical tube before and after hole-drilling are extracted by combining the DIC with the hole-drilling technology, then the axially symmetrical loading induced stresses of the cylindrical tube are obtained, which agree well with the results from the strain gauge method.

  4. Slant rigs offer big payoffs in shallow drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.; Edwards, B.

    1992-01-01

    Slant hole drilling technology can result in considerable savings over conventionally drilled deviated holes because mud motors and deviation control with measurement while drilling tools are usually unnecessary. The benefits of using slant hole rigs for development drilling improve after the bit walk tendencies and the correct bottom hole assemblies have been determined for a particular area. This article discusses three recent drilling operations that successfully used slant drilling technology on land-based projects: drilling for heavy oil in Alberta, drilling for gas in Alberta, and drilling a river crossing for a gas pipeline in British Columbia. These examples demonstrate the flexibility of slant drilling technology

  5. Drilling and associated drillhole measurements of the pilot hole ONK-PH11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karttunen, P.; Mancini, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Poellaenen, J.; Tarvainen, A.-M.; Toropainen, V.; Pere, T.

    2011-01-01

    The construction of the ONKALO access tunnel started in September 2004 at Olkiluoto. Most of the investigations related to the construction of the access tunnel aim to ensure successful excavations, reinforcement and sealing. Pilot holes are drillholes, which are core drilled along the tunnel profile. The length of the pilot holes typically varies from several tens of metres to a couple of hundred metres. The pilot holes are aimed to confirm the quality of the rock mass for tunnel construction, and in particular to identify water conductive fractured zones and to provide information that could result in modifications of the existing construction plans. The pilot hole ONK-PH11 was drilled from chainage 3922 to chainage 4053 in October 2009. The length of the hole is 131.21 metres. The aim during the drilling work was to orient core samples as much as possible. The deviation of the drillhole was measured during and after the drilling phase. Electric conductivity was measured from the collected returning water samples. Hydraulic conductivity of the fractures or fractured zones was measured by Posiva Flow Log equipment. During flow measurements also electric conductivity and temperature were measured. In flow logging test sections of 0.5 m and increments of 0.1 m were used. The water loss measurements were performed after drilling was completed by the drilling company. Logging of the core samples included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracturing, RQD, fractured zones, weathering and possible intersections. The rock mechanical logging was based on Q-classification. The rock strength and deformation were determined with Rock Tester -equipment. Geophysical logging and optical imaging of the pilot hole included the fieldwork of all surveys, the integration of the data as well as interpretation of the acoustic and drillhole radar data. The groundwater samples were collected from the open hole without any packers. The collected groundwater samples were

  6. NNWSI [Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations] hole histories: Unsaturated zone-neutron holes: 76 boreholes drilled between May 1984 and February 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    This is a compilation of data from seventy-four shallow alluvial exploratory core holes and two shallow calibration core holes. The boreholes were drilled to obtain undisturbed alluvial cores, to determine vertical distribution of moisture content and water potential, and to run neutron moisture logs. Data presented in the hole histories include all locations, daily activities and review of hole conditions

  7. Percussive Augmenter of Rotary Drills for Operating as a Rotary-Hammer Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Jack Barron (Inventor); Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Scott, James Samson (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A percussive augmenter bit includes a connection shaft for mounting the bit onto a rotary drill. In a first modality, an actuator percussively drives the bit, and an electric slip-ring provides power to the actuator while being rotated by the drill. Hammering action from the actuator and rotation from the drill are applied directly to material being drilled. In a second modality, a percussive augmenter includes an actuator that operates as a hammering mechanism that drives a free mass into the bit creating stress pulses that fracture material that is in contact with the bit.

  8. Geology of the UE12t No. 3 vertical drill hole, area 12, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, S.S.

    1975-11-01

    The UE12t No. 3 vertical drill hole, located near the north end of Rainier Mesa, was drilled to a total depth of 663 m (2,176 ft). The UE12t No. 3 vertical hole was drilled to further evaluate the subsurface stratigraphy northwest of the t-tunnel complex area in preparation for mining of the U12t.03 (Husky Pup) drift. The drill hole is collared in the Rainier Mesa Member of the Timber Mountain Tuff and penetrates down the stratigraphic section through the Paintbrush Tuff, the welded Grouse Canyon Member of the Belted Range Tuff, tunnel beds 5-3, the Tub Spring Member of the Belted Range Tuff, tunnel bed 2, Crater Flat Tuff, tunnel bed 1, Redrock Valley Tuff, and bottoms in older Tertiary tuffaceous and Paleozoic quartzite rubble having a partially argillized, tuffaceous, soillike matrix. The tuff of Dead Horse Flat and the bedded and ash-flow tuffs of Area 20 were not differentiated in the logging of this drill hole. Stratigraphy, structure, engineering geology, and physical properties and their relation to tunneling are discussed

  9. Preliminary petrographic and geophysical interpretations of the exploratory geothermal drill hole and core, Redstone, New Hampshire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoag, R.B. Jr.; Stewart, G.W.

    1977-06-30

    A 3000 foot diamond drill hole was drilled in the Conway Granite in Redstone, New Hampshire. A comprehensive detailed petrographic and physical study of this core was made. The purpose of this study is to supply a sound data base for future geothermal and uranium-thorium studies of the drill core. An estimate of the heat flow potential of the Redstone drill hole gives a heat flow of 1.9 HFU. If only the red phase of the Conway Granite had been intersected the heat flow may have been as much as 2.7 HFU, reaching a temperature of 260/sup 0/C at 6 km. The drill hole intersected four lithologies; the green and red phase of the Conway Granite, the Albany quartz syenite and a medium-grained, hastingsite-biotite granite. The red phase has the highest and most irregular radioactivity. The irregularity is mainly due to minor variations in lithology. The drill core intersected several alteration zones up to a thickness of 150 feet. These alteration zones represent passage of low to medium temperature fluids which might have been mineralized. The Conway Granite has the physical and chemical characteristics necessary for the formation of vein type uranium deposits. The presence of unexplained radiometric anomalies lends support to the existence of such deposits.

  10. Drilling and geohydrologic data for test hole USW UZ-1, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitfield, M.S.; Thordarson, W.; Hammermeister, D.P.; Warner, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents data collected to determine the hydrologic characteristics of tuffaceous rocks penetrated in test hole USW UZ-1. The borehole is the first of two deep, large-diameter, unsaturated-zone test holes dry drilled using the vacuum/reverse-air-circulation method. This test hole was drilled in and near the southwestern part of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, in a program conducted in cooperation with the US Department of Energy. These investigations are part of the Yucca Mountain Project (formerly the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations) to identify a potentially suitable site for the storage of high-level radioactive wastes. Data are presented for bit and casing configurations, coring methods, sample collection, drilling rate, borehole deviation, and out-of-gage borehole. Geologic data for this borehole include geophysical logs, a lithologic log of drill-bit cuttings, and strike and distribution of fractures. Hydrologic data include water-content and water-potential measurements of drill-bit cuttings, water-level measurements, and physical and chemical analyses of water. Laboratory measurements of moisture content and matric properties from the larger drill-bit cutting fragments were considered to be representative of in-situ conditions. 3 refs., 5 figs., 10 tabs

  11. Investigation on the Effect of a Pre-Center Drill Hole and Tool Material on Thrust Force, Surface Roughness, and Cylindricity in the Drilling of Al7075

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Ghasemi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Drilling is one of the most useful metal cutting processes and is used in various applications, such as aerospace, electronics, and automotive. In traditional drilling methods, the thrust force, torque, tolerance, and tribology (surface roughness are related to the cutting condition and tool geometry. In this paper, the effects of a pre-center drill hole, tool material, and drilling strategy (including continuous and non-continuous feed on thrust force, surface roughness, and dimensional accuracy (cylindricity have been investigated. The results show that using pre-center drill holes leads to a reduction of the engagement force and an improvement in the surface quality and cylindricity. Non-continuous drilling reduces the average thrust force and cylindricity value, and High Speed Steels HSS-Mo (high steel speed + 5–8% Mo reduces the maximum quantity of cutting forces. Moreover, cylindricity is directly related to cutting temperature and is improved by using a non-continuous drilling strategy.

  12. Investigation on the Effect of a Pre-Center Drill Hole and Tool Material on Thrust Force, Surface Roughness, and Cylindricity in the Drilling of Al7075.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Amir Hossein; Khorasani, Amir Mahyar; Gibson, Ian

    2018-01-16

    Drilling is one of the most useful metal cutting processes and is used in various applications, such as aerospace, electronics, and automotive. In traditional drilling methods, the thrust force, torque, tolerance, and tribology (surface roughness) are related to the cutting condition and tool geometry. In this paper, the effects of a pre-center drill hole, tool material, and drilling strategy (including continuous and non-continuous feed) on thrust force, surface roughness, and dimensional accuracy (cylindricity) have been investigated. The results show that using pre-center drill holes leads to a reduction of the engagement force and an improvement in the surface quality and cylindricity. Non-continuous drilling reduces the average thrust force and cylindricity value, and High Speed Steels HSS-Mo (high steel speed + 5-8% Mo) reduces the maximum quantity of cutting forces. Moreover, cylindricity is directly related to cutting temperature and is improved by using a non-continuous drilling strategy.

  13. Surveillance procedure for the rotary drilling operations of a well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltier, B; Deshais, R

    1988-06-17

    A surveillance procedure for the rotary drilling operations of a well is proposed. When the drilling pipe is drawn out of the well, or put into the well, pipe elements are taken away or added. At each moment the height of the trepan in the well is measured, together with the traction force of the lifting engine. The device permits to avoid the important damage that can be caused by an error on the drilling pipe's length.

  14. Surveillance procedure for the rotary drilling operations of a well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltier, B.; Deshais, R.

    1988-06-17

    A surveillance procedure for the rotary drilling operations of a well is proposed. When the drilling pipe is drawn out of the well, or put into the well, pipe elements are taken away or added. At each moment the height of the trepan in the well is measured, together with the traction force of the lifting engine. The device permits to avoid the important damage that can be caused by an error on the drilling pipe's length.

  15. Geophysical well-log measurements in three drill holes at Salt Valley, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, J.J.; Hite, R.J.; Scott, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Three exploratory drill holes were drilled at Salt Valley, Utah, to study the geologic, physical, geochemical, and hydrologic properties of the evaporite sequence in the Permian Paradox Member of the Hermosa Formation. The results of these studies will be used to help to determine the suitability of salt deposits in the Paradox basin as a storage medium for radioactive waste material. The following geophysical well-log measurements were made in each of the three drill holes: (1) density, (2) neutron, (3) acoustic velocity, (4) normal resistivity, and (5) gamma ray. Widely spaced resistivity and conductivity well-log measurements were made in the deep drill hole. Each of these well-log measurements shows the division of the evaporite sequence into halite and interbed sections. At the present time the most useful well-logging measurements for determining the individual lithologies in an evaporite sequence are gamma ray, neutron, density, and acoustic velocity. The high resistivity contrast between the drilling fluid (0.5 ohm-m) and salt (10,000 ohm-m) makes it difficult to obtain quantitative measurements of electrical properties in an evaporite sequence. Tests of widely spaced electrode configurations show that the effects of the brine on the resistivity measurements can be reduced, and the depth of investigation increased, by increasing the source-receiver electrode spacing. Tests of a single-coil induction probe show good resolution of the contrasting electrical properties of the various interbed lithologies

  16. Standard test method for determining residual stresses by the hole-drilling strain-gage method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 Residual Stress Determination: 1.1.1 This test method specifies a hole-drilling procedure for determining residual stress profiles near the surface of an isotropic linearly elastic material. The test method is applicable to residual stress profile determinations where in-plane stress gradients are small. The stresses may remain approximately constant with depth (“uniform” stresses) or they may vary significantly with depth (“non-uniform” stresses). The measured workpiece may be “thin” with thickness much less than the diameter of the drilled hole or “thick” with thickness much greater than the diameter of the drilled hole. Only uniform stress measurements are specified for thin workpieces, while both uniform and non-uniform stress measurements are specified for thick workpieces. 1.2 Stress Measurement Range: 1.2.1 The hole-drilling method can identify in-plane residual stresses near the measured surface of the workpiece material. The method gives localized measurements that indicate the...

  17. Remarks on Residual Stress Measurement by Hole-Drilling and Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Barile

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hole drilling is the most widespread method for measuring residual stress. It is based on the principle that drilling a hole in the material causes a local stress relaxation; the initial residual stress can be calculated by measuring strain in correspondence with each drill depth. Recently optical techniques were introduced to measure strain; in this case, the accuracy of the final results depends, among other factors, on the proper choice of the area of analysis. Deformations are in fact analyzed within an annulus determined by two parameters: the internal and the external radius. In this paper, the influence of the choice of the area of analysis was analysed. A known stress field was introduced on a Ti grade 5 sample and then the stress was measured in correspondence with different values of the internal and the external radius of analysis; results were finally compared with the expected theoretical value.

  18. Remarks on residual stress measurement by hole-drilling and electronic speckle pattern interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barile, Claudia; Casavola, Caterina; Pappalettera, Giovanni; Pappalettere, Carmine

    2014-01-01

    Hole drilling is the most widespread method for measuring residual stress. It is based on the principle that drilling a hole in the material causes a local stress relaxation; the initial residual stress can be calculated by measuring strain in correspondence with each drill depth. Recently optical techniques were introduced to measure strain; in this case, the accuracy of the final results depends, among other factors, on the proper choice of the area of analysis. Deformations are in fact analyzed within an annulus determined by two parameters: the internal and the external radius. In this paper, the influence of the choice of the area of analysis was analysed. A known stress field was introduced on a Ti grade 5 sample and then the stress was measured in correspondence with different values of the internal and the external radius of analysis; results were finally compared with the expected theoretical value.

  19. Lower crustal section of the Oman Ophiolite drilled in Hole GT1A, ICDP Oman Drilling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umino, S.; Kelemen, P. B.; Matter, J. M.; Coggon, J. A.; Takazawa, E.; Michibayashi, K.; Teagle, D. A. H.

    2017-12-01

    Hole GT1A (22° 53.535'N, 58° 30.904'E) was drilled by the Oman Drilling Project (OmDP) into GT1A of the Samail ophiolite, Oman. OmDP is an international collaboration supported by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program, the Deep Carbon Observatory, NSF, IODP, JAMSTEC, and the European, Japanese, German and Swiss Science Foundations, with in-kind support in Oman from the Ministry of Regional Municipalities and Water Resources, Public Authority of Mining, Sultan Qaboos University, and the German University of Technology. Hole GT1A was diamond cored in 22 Jan to 08 Feb 2017 to a total depth of 403.05 m. The outer surfaces of the cores were imaged and described on site before being curated, boxed and shipped to the IODP drill ship Chikyu, where they underwent comprehensive visual and instrumental analysis. Hole GT1A drilled the lower crustal section in the southern Oman Ophiolite and recovered 401.52 m of total cores (99.6% recovery). The main lithology is dominated by olivine gabbro (65.9%), followed in abundance by olivine-bearing gabbro (21.5%) and olivine melagabbro (3.9%). Minor rock types are orthopyroxene-bearing olivine gabbro (2.4%), oxide-bearing olivine gabbro (1.5%), gabbro (1.1%), anorthositic gabbro (1%), troctolitic gabbro (0.8%); orthopyroxene-bearing gabbro (0.5%), gabbronorite (0.3%); and dunite (0.3%). These rocks are divided into Lithologic Unit I to VII at 26.62 m, 88.16 m, 104.72 m, 154.04 m, 215.22 m, 306.94 m in Chikyu Curated Depth in descending order; Unit I and II consist of medium-grained olivine gabbro with lower olivine abundance in Unit II. Unit III is medium-grained olivine melagabbros, marked by an increase in olivine. Unit IV is relatively homogenous medium-grained olivine gabbros with granular textures. Unit V is identified by the appearance of fine-grained gabbros, but the major rocktypes are medium grained olivine gabbros. Unit VI is medium-grained olivine gabbro, marked by appearance of orthopyroxene. Unit VII

  20. Structure in continuously cored, deep drill holes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, with notes on calcite occurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, W.J.

    1992-12-01

    A study of more than 22,000 feet of core from five deep drill holes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, provided data on the attitude and vertical distribution of faults and fractures, the sense of fault displacement, and the occurrence of calcite. The study was done mainly to look for evidence of fault flattening at depth, but no consistent downward decrease in dip of faults was found, and no increase in strata rotation was evident with increasing depth. In the two drill holes located near prominent faults that dip toward the holes (USW G-3 and G-2), an apparent increase in the frequency of faults occurs below the tuffs and lavas of Calico Hills. Some of this increase occurs in brittle lavas and flow breccias in the lower part of the volcanic section. In the two holes presumed to be relatively removed from the influence of important faults at depth, the vertical distribution of faults is relatively uniform. Calcite occurs mainly in two general zones, voids in welded portions of the Paintbrush Tuff, and in a deeper zone, mostly below 3,500 feet. Calcite is least abundant in USW G-4, which may reflect the fewer faults and fractures encountered in that drill hole

  1. INTEGRATED DRILLING SYSTEM USING MUD ACTUATED DOWN HOLE HAMMER AS PRIMARY ENGINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John V. Fernandez; David S. Pixton

    2005-12-01

    A history and project summary of the development of an integrated drilling system using a mud-actuated down-hole hammer as its primary engine are given. The summary includes laboratory test results, including atmospheric tests of component parts and simulated borehole tests of the hammer system. Several remaining technical hurdles are enumerated. A brief explanation of commercialization potential is included. The primary conclusion for this work is that a mud actuated hammer can yield substantial improvements to drilling rate in overbalanced, hard rock formations. A secondary conclusion is that the down-hole mud actuated hammer can serve to provide other useful down-hole functions including generation of high pressure mud jets, generation of seismic and sonic signals, and generation of diagnostic information based on hammer velocity profiles.

  2. Application of Grid Planning Method in Drilling-Blasting Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Dambov, Risto; Spasovski, Orce

    2012-01-01

    The problem occurs almost every day in operation and causes troubles to mining engineers. The right performance of drilling-blasting work is important for the successful operation of the entire excavation. The aim of the paper is to point out the importance of planning and how it can contribute to the right organization and make drilling-blasting and other mining activities in mine operations easier. Defining the activities and practical example that has been given are carried out by the u...

  3. Overview of Hole GT2A: Drilling middle gabbro in Wadi Tayin massif, Oman ophiolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takazawa, E.; Kelemen, P. B.; Teagle, D. A. H.; Coggon, J. A.; Harris, M.; Matter, J. M.; Michibayashi, K.

    2017-12-01

    Hole GT2A (UTM: 40Q 655960.7E / 2529193.5N) was drilled by the Oman Drilling Project (OmDP) into Wadi Gideah of Wadi Tayin massif in the Samail ophiolite, Oman. OmDP is an international collaboration supported by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program, the Deep Carbon Observatory, NSF, IODP, JAMSTEC, and the European, Japanese, German and Swiss Science Foundations, with in-kind support in Oman from the Ministry of Regional Municipalities and Water Resources, Public Authority of Mining, Sultan Qaboos University, and the German University of Technology. Hole GT2A was diamond cored in 25 Dec 2016 to 18 Jan 2017 to a total depth of 406.77 m. The outer surfaces of the cores were imaged and described on site before being curated, boxed and shipped to the IODP drill ship Chikyu, where they underwent comprehensive visual and instrumental analysis. 33 shipboard scientists were divided into six teams (Igneous, Alteration, Structural, Geochem, Physical Properties, Paleomag) to describe and analyze the cores. Hole GT2A drilled through the transition between foliated and layered gabbro. The transition zone occurs between 50 and 150 m curation corrected depth (CCD). The top 50 m of Hole GT2A is foliated gabbro whereas the bottom 250 m consists of layered gabbro. Brittle fracture is observed throughout the core. Intensity of alteration vein decreases from the top to the bottom of the hole. On the basis of changes in grain size and/or modal abundance and/or appearance/disappearance of igneous primary mineral(s) five lithological units are defined in Hole GT2A (Unit I to V). The uppermost part of Hole GT2A (Unit I) is dominated by fine-grained granular olivine gabbro intercalated with less dominant medium-grained granular olivine gabbro and rare coarse-grained varitextured gabbro. The lower part of the Hole (Units II, III and V) is dominated by medium-grained olivine gabbro, olivine melagabbro and olivine-bearing gabbro. Modally-graded rhythmic layering with

  4. Drilling and associated drillhole measurements of the pilot hole ONK-PH9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karttunen, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Poellaenen, J.; Tarvainen, A.-M.; Toropainen, V.; Lamminmaeki, T.; Kosunen, P.

    2010-01-01

    The construction of the ONKALO access tunnel started in September 2004 at Olkiluoto. Most of the investigations related to the construction of the access tunnel aim to ensure successful excavations, reinforcement and sealing. Pilot holes are drillholes, which are core drilled along the tunnel profile. The length of the pilot holes typically varies from several tens of metres to a couple of hundred metres. The pilot holes are aimed to confirm the quality of the rock mass for tunnel construction, and in particular to identify water conductive fractured zones and to provide information that could result in modifications of the existing construction plans. The pilot hole ONK-PH9 was drilled from chainage 3263 to chainage 3413.27 in November 2008. The length of the hole is 150.3 metres. The aim during the drilling work was to orient core samples as much as possible. The deviation of the drillhole was measured during and after the drilling phase. Electric conductivity was measured from the collected returning water samples. Hydraulic conductivity of the fractures or fractured zones was measured by Posiva Flow Log equipment. The measurements were done in two phases. During flow measurements also electric conductivity, grounding resistance and temperature were measured. In flow logging test sections of 0.5 m and increments of 0.1 m were used. The water loss measurements were performed after drilling was completed by the drilling company. Logging of the core samples included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracturing, fracture frequency, RQD, fractured zones, core loss, and weathering. The rock mechanical logging was based on Q-classification. The rock strength and deformation were determined with Rock Tester equipment. Geophysical logging and optical imaging of the pilot hole included the fieldwork of all surveys, the integration of the data as well as interpretation of the acoustic and drillhole radar data. One of the objectives of the geochemical study

  5. Drilling and associated drillhole measurements of the pilot hole ONK-PH10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancini, P.; Karttunen, P.; Lokkila, M.; Pekkanen, J.; Poellaenen, J.; Tarvainen, A.-M.; Toropainen, V.; Kosunen, P.; Pere, T.

    2010-08-01

    The construction of the ONKALO access tunnel started in September 2004 at Olkiluoto. Most of the investigations related to the construction of the access tunnel aim to ensure successful excavations, reinforcement and sealing. Pilot holes are drillholes, which are core drilled along the tunnel profile. The length of the pilot holes typically varies from several tens of metres to a couple of hundred metres. The pilot holes are aimed to confirm the quality of the rock mass for tunnel construction, and in particular to identify water conductive fractured zones and to provide information that could result in modifications of the existing construction plans. The pilot hole ONK-PH10 was drilled from chainage 3459 to chainage 3639 in March 2009. The length of the hole is 180.00 metres. The drilling was done as orientated core drilling. The deviation of the drillhole was measured during and after the drilling phase. Electric conductivity was measured from the collected returning water samples. Logging of the core samples included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracturing, fracture frequency, RQD, fractured zones, core loss, and weathering. The rock mechanical logging was based on Q-classification. The test to determine rock strength and deformation were made with Rock Tester -equipment. Water conductivity of the fractures or fractured zones was measured by Posiva Flow Log equipment. The measurements were done in two phases. During flow measurements also grounding resistance electric conductivity and temperature were measured. In flow logging test, sections of 0.5 m with increments of 0.1 m were used. Water loss measurements were conducted in the hole section 3.70-180.00 m dhd. Geophysical logging and optical imaging of the pilot hole included the fieldwork of all surveys, the integration of the data as well as interpretation of the acoustic and drillhole radar data. One of the objectives of the geochemical study was to get information of the composition of

  6. Drilling and associated drillhole measurements of the pilot hole ONK-PH12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toropainen, V.; Tarvainen, A.-M.; Poellaenen, J.; Pekkanen, J.; Pere, T.; Kaepyaho, E.; Lahti, M.

    2011-01-01

    The construction of the ONKALO access tunnel started in September 2004 at Olkiluoto. Most of the investigations related to the construction of the access tunnel aim to ensure successful excavations, reinforcement and sealing. Pilot holes are drillholes, which are core drilled along the tunnel profile. The length of the pilot holes typically varies from several tens of metres to a couple of hundred metres. The pilot holes are aimed to confirm the quality of the rock mass for tunnel construction, and in particular to identify water conductive fractured zones and to provide information that could result in modifications of the existing construction plans. The pilot hole ONK-PH12 was drilled from ONKALO chainage 4092 to chainage 4215 in January 2010. The length of the hole is 123.96 metres. The drilling method was orientated core drilling. The deviation of the drillhole was measured during and after the drilling phase. Electric conductivity was measured from the collected returning water samples. Logging of the core samples included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracturing, fracture frequency, RQD, fractured zones, core loss, and weathering. The rock mechanical logging was based on Q-classification. The test to determine rock strength and deformation were made with Rock Tester -equipment. Water conductivity of the fractures or fractured zones was measured by Posiva Flow Log equipment. The measurements were done in two phases. During flow measurements also grounding resistance electric conductivity and temperature were measured. In flow logging test, sections of 0.5 m with increments of 0.1 m were used. Water loss measurements were conducted in the drillhole section 5.0-123.85 m dhd. Geophysical logging as well as optical and acoustic imaging of the pilot hole included the fieldwork of all surveys, the integration of the data as well as interpretation of the acoustic and drillhole radar data. Groundwater sampling was not applicable because no

  7. Waste minimization for land-based drilling operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurber, N.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses engineering variables that should be addressed to minimize waste-toxicity and generation while drilling land-based wells. Proper balance of these variables provides both operational and environmental benefits

  8. Waste minimization for land-based drilling operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurber, N.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses many of the engineering variables that should be addressed to minimize waste toxicity and generation during the drilling of land-based wells. Proper balance of these variables suggests both operational and environmental benefits

  9. Phase III Drilling Operations at the Long Valley Exploratory Well (LVF 51-20)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.

    1999-06-01

    During July-September, 1998, a jointly funded drilling operation deepened the Long Valley Exploratory Well from 7178 feet to 9832 feet. This was the third major drilling phase of a project that began in 1989, but had sporadic progress because of discontinuities in tiding. Support for Phase III came from the California Energy Commission (CEC), the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP), the US Geological Survey (USGS), and DOE. Each of these agencies had a somewhat different agenda: the CEC wants to evaluate the energy potential (specifically energy extraction from magma) of Long Valley Caldera; the ICDP is studying the evolution and other characteristics of young, silicic calderas; the USGS will use this hole as an observatory in their Volcano Hazards program; and the DOE, through Sandia, has an opportunity to test new geothermal tools and techniques in a realistic field environment. This report gives a description of the equipment used in drilling and testing; a narrative of the drilling operations; compiled daily drilling reports; cost information on the project; and a brief summary of engineering results related to equipment performance and energy potential. Detailed description of the scientific results will appear in publications by the USGS and other researchers.

  10. Analysis and 3D inspection system of drill holes in aeronautical surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, R.; Granero, L.; Sanz, M.; García, J.; Micó, V.

    2017-06-01

    In aerospace industry, the structure of the aircraft is assembled using small parts or a combination of them that are made with different materials, such as for instance aluminium, titanium, composites or even 3D printed parts. The union between these small parts is a critical point for the integrity of the aircraft. The quality of this union will decide the fatigue of adjacent components and therefore the useful life of them. For the union process the most extended method is the rivets, mainly because their low cost and easy manufacturing. For this purpose it is necessary to made drill holes in the aeronautical surface to insert the rivets. In this contribution, we present the preliminary results of a 3D inspection system [1] for drill holes analysis in aeronautical surfaces. The system, based in optical triangulation, was developed by the Group of Optoelectronic Image Processing from the University of Valencia in the framework of the Airbus Defence and Space (AD&S), MINERVA project (Manufacturing industrial - means emerging from validated automation). The capabilities of the system permits to generate a point cloud with 3D information and GD&T (geometrical dimensions and tolerances) characteristics of the drill hole. For the inner surface defects detection, the system can generate an inner image of the drill hole with a scaled axis to obtain the defect position. In addition, we present the analysis performed for the drills in the wing station of the A-400 M. In this analysis the system was tested for diameters in the range of [10 - 15.96] mm, and for Carbon Fibre.

  11. Geology of the USW SD-9 drill hole, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engstrom, D.A.; Rautman, C.A.

    1996-10-01

    Drill hole USW SD-9 is one of several holes drilled under Site Characterization Plan Study as part of the characterization program at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, which has been proposed as the potential location of a repository for high-level nuclear waste. The SD-9 drill hole is located in the northern part of the potential repository area. Quantitative and semiquantitative data are included in this report for cover recovery, rock-quality designation (RQD), lithophysal cavity abundance, and fracturing. These data are spatially variable, both within and among the major formational-level stratigraphic units. Nonwelded intervals in general exhibit higher recoveries and more intact (higher) RQD values than welded intervals. The most intact, highest-RQD materials encountered within the Topopah Spring belong to the lower 33.3 ft of the middle nonlithophysal zone. This report includes quantitative data for the framework material properties of porosity, bulk and particle density, and saturated hydraulic conductivity. Graphical analysis of variations in these laboratory hydrologic properties indicates first-order control of material properties by the degree of welding and the presence of zeolite minerals. Many major lithostratigraphic contacts are not well expressed in the material-property profiles; contacts of material-property units are related more to changes in the intensity of welding. Approximate in-situ saturation data of samples preserved immediately upon recovery from the hole are included in the data tabulation

  12. Evaluation of Hole Quality in Hardened Steel with High-Speed Drilling Using Different Cooling Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln Cardoso Brandão

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluates the hole quality on AISI H13 hardened steel using high-speed drilling. Specimens were machined with new and worn out drills with 8.6 mm diameter and (TiAlN coating. Two levels of cutting speed and three levels of cooling/lubrication systems (flooded, minimum lubrication quantity, and dry were used. The hole quality is evaluated on surface roughness (Ra parameter, diameter error, circularity, and cylindricity error. A statistical analysis of the results shows that the cooling/lubrication system significantly affects the hole quality for all measured variables. This analysis indicates that dry machining produces the worst results. Higher cutting speeds not only prove beneficial to diameter error and circularity errors, but also show no significant difference on surface roughness and cylindricity errors. The effects of the interaction between the cooling/lubrication systems, tool wear, and cutting speed indicate that only cylindricity error is influenced. Thus, the conclusion is that the best hole quality is produced with a higher cutting speed using flooded or minimum lubrication quantity independent of drill wear.

  13. Geology of the USW SD-9 drill hole, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstrom, D.A. [Spectra Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rautman, C.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Drill hole USW SD-9 is one of several holes drilled under Site Characterization Plan Study as part of the characterization program at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, which has been proposed as the potential location of a repository for high-level nuclear waste. The SD-9 drill hole is located in the northern part of the potential repository area. Quantitative and semiquantitative data are included in this report for cover recovery, rock-quality designation (RQD), lithophysal cavity abundance, and fracturing. These data are spatially variable, both within and among the major formational-level stratigraphic units. Nonwelded intervals in general exhibit higher recoveries and more intact (higher) RQD values than welded intervals. The most intact, highest-RQD materials encountered within the Topopah Spring belong to the lower 33.3 ft of the middle nonlithophysal zone. This report includes quantitative data for the framework material properties of porosity, bulk and particle density, and saturated hydraulic conductivity. Graphical analysis of variations in these laboratory hydrologic properties indicates first-order control of material properties by the degree of welding and the presence of zeolite minerals. Many major lithostratigraphic contacts are not well expressed in the material-property profiles; contacts of material-property units are related more to changes in the intensity of welding. Approximate in-situ saturation data of samples preserved immediately upon recovery from the hole are included in the data tabulation.

  14. Thermal stress measurement in continuous welded rails using the hole-drilling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuan; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco; Fateh, Mahmood

    2016-04-01

    The absence of expansion joints in Continuous Welded Rail (CWR) has created the need for the railroad industry to determine the in-situ level of thermal stresses so as to prevent train accidents caused by rail buckling in hot weather and by rail breakage in cold weather. The development of non-destructive or semi-destructive methods for determining the level of thermal stresses in rails is today a high research priority. This study explores the known hole-drilling method as a possible solution to this problem. A new set of calibration coefficients to compute the relieved stress field with the finer hole depth increments was determined by a 3D Finite Element Analysis that modeled the entire hole geometry, including the mechanics of the hole bottom and walls. To compensate the residual stress components, a linear relationship was experimentally established between the longitudinal and the vertical residual stresses of two common sizes of rails, the 136RE and the 141RE, with statistical significance. This result was then utilized to isolate the longitudinal thermal stress component in hole-drilling tests conducted on the 136RE and 141RE thermally-loaded rails at the Large-scale CWR Test-bed of UCSD's Powell Research Laboratories. The results from the Test-bed showed that the hole-drilling procedure, with the appropriate residual stress compensation, can indeed estimate the in-situ thermal stresses to achieve a +/-5°F accuracy of Neutral Temperature determination with a 90% statistical confidence, which is the desired industry gold standard.

  15. An experimental result of surface roughness machining performance in deep hole drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Azizah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an experimental result of a deep hole drilling process for Steel material at different machining parameters which are feed rate (f, spindle speed (s, the depth of the hole (d and MQL, number of drops (m on surface roughness, Ra. The experiment was designed using two level full factorial design of experiment (DoE with centre points to collect surface roughness, Ra values. The signal to noise (S/N ratio analysis was used to discover the optimum level for each machining parameters in the experiment.

  16. Drilling and the associated drillhole measurements of the pilot hole ONK-PH7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehberg, A.; Kemppainen, K.; Lampinen, H.; Niemonen, J.; Poelloenen, J.; Rouhiainen, P.; Rautio, T.; Tarvainen, A.-M.

    2007-12-01

    The construction of the ONKALO access tunnel started in September 2004 at Olkiluoto. Most of the investigations related to the construction of the access tunnel aim to ensure successful excavations, reinforcement and sealing. Pilot holes are drillholes, which are core drilled along the tunnel profile. The length of the pilot holes typically varies from several tens of metres to a couple of hundred metres. The pilot holes are aimed to confirm the quality of the rock mass for tunnel construction, and in particular to identify water conductive fractured zones and to provide information that could result in modifications of the existing construction plans. The pilot hole ONK-PH7 was drilled from chainage 1880 to chainage 1980.31 in February 2007. The length of the hole is 100.31 m. The aim during the drilling work was to orient core samples as much as possible. The deviation of the drillhole was measured during and after the drilling phase. Electric conductivity was measured from the collected returning water samples. Logging of the core samples included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracturing, fracture frequency, RQD, fractured zones, core loss and weathering. The rock mechanical logging was based on Q-classification. The tests to determine rock strength and deformation properties were made with a Rock Tester-equipment. Difference Flow method was used for the determination of hydraulic conductivity in fractures and fractured zones in the drillhole. The overlapping i.e. the detailed flow logging mode was used. Besides flow logging Single Point Resistance (SPR), Electric Conductivity (EC) and temperature of the drillhole water were also measured. The flow logging was performed with 0.5 m section length and with 0.1 m depth increment. Water loss measurements were conducted between the hole depth of 1.18 m and the hole bottom. Geophysical logging and optical imaging of the pilot hole included the fieldwork of all surveys, the integration of the data as

  17. Drilling and the associated drillhole measurements of the pilot hole ONK-PH4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehberg, A.; Heikkinen, E.; Hirvonen, H.; Kemppainen, K.; Majapuro, J.; Niemonen, J.; Poellaenen, J.; Rouhiainen, P.; Rautio, T.

    2006-09-01

    The construction of the ONKALO access tunnel started in September 2004 at Olkiluoto. Most of the investigations related to the construction of the access tunnel aim to ensure successful excavations, reinforcement and sealing. Pilot holes are drillholes, which are core drilled along the tunnel profile. The length of the pilot holes typically varies from several tens of metres to a couple of hundred metres. The pilot holes are mostly aimed to confirm the quality of the rock mass for tunnel construction, and in particular to identify water conductive fractured zones and to provide information that could result in modifications of the existing construction plans. The pilot hole ONK-PH4 was drilled in October 2005. The length of the hole is 96.01 metres. During the drilling work core samples were oriented as much as possible. The deviation of the hole was measured during and after the drilling phase. Electric conductivity was measured from the collected returning water samples. Geological logging of the core samples included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracturing, fracture frequency, RQD, fractured zones, core loss and weathering. The rock mechanical logging was based on Q-classification. The tests to determine rock strength and deformation properties were made with a Rock Tester-equipment. Difference Flow method was used for the determination of hydraulic conductivity in fractures and fractured zones in the hole. The overlapping i.e. the detailed flow logging mode was used. The flow logging was performed with 0.5 m section length and with 0.1 m depth increment. Water loss tests (Lugeon tests) were used to give background information for the grouting design. Geophysical logging and optical imaging of the pilot hole PH4 included the field work of all surveys, the integration of the data as well as interpretation of the acoustic and drillhole radar data. One of the objectives of the geochemical study was to get information of composition of ONKALO

  18. Sandia's Geothermal Advanced Drill Rig Instrumentation Assists Critical Oil and Gas Drilling Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staller, George E.; Whitlow, Gary

    1999-01-01

    On November 23, 1998, an 18,000-foot-deep wild-cat natural gas well being drilled near Bakersfield, CA blew out and caught fire. All attempts to kill this well failed, and the well continues to flow under limited control, producing large volumes of natural gas, salt water, and some oil. The oil and some of the water is being separated and trucked off site, and the remaining gas and water is being burned at the well head. A relief well is being drilled approximately one-quarter mile away in an attempt to intercept the first well. If the relief well is successful, it will be used to cement in and kill the first well. Epoch Wellsite Services, Inc., the mud-logging company for the initial well and the relief well, requested Sandia's rolling float meter (RFM) for these critical drilling operations. The RFM is being used to measure the mud outflow rate and detect kicks while drilling the relief well, which will undoubtedly encounter reservoir conditions similar to those responsible for the blow out. Based on its prior experience with the RFM, Epoch believes that it is the only instrument capable of providing the level of accuracy and response to mudflow needed to quickly detect kicks and minimize the risk of a blowout on this second critical well. In response to the urgent request from industry, Sandia and Epoch technicians installed the RFM on the relief well return line, and completed its initial calibration. The data from the RFM is displayed in real-time for the driller, the companyman, and the toolpusher via Epochs RIGWATCH Drilling Instmmentation System. The RFM has already detected several small kicks while drilling toward the annulus of the blown out well. A conventional paddle meter is located downstream of the RFM to provide redundancy and the opportunity to compare the two meters in an actual drilling operation, The relief well is nearing 14,000 feet deep, targeting an intercept of the first well near 17,600 feet. The relief well is expected to be completed in

  19. Jet impinging onto a laser drilled tapered hole: Influence of tapper location on heat transfer and skin friction at hole surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuja, S. Z.; Yilbas, B. S.

    2013-02-01

    Jet emerging from a conical nozzle and impinging onto a tapered hole in relation to laser drilling is investigated and the influence taper location on the heat transfer and skin friction at the hole wall surface is examined. The study is extended to include four different gases as working fluid. The Reynolds stress model is incorporated to account for the turbulence effect in the flow field. The hole wall surface temperature is kept at 1500 K to resemble the laser drilled hole. It is found that the location of tapering in the hole influences the heat transfer rates and skin friction at the hole wall surface. The maximum skin friction coefficient increases for taper location of 0.25 H, where H is the thickness of the workpiece, while Nusselt number is higher in the hole for taper location of 0.75 H.

  20. Depth measurements of drilled holes in bone by laser triangulation for the field of oral implantology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quest, D.; Gayer, C.; Hering, P.

    2012-01-01

    Laser osteotomy is one possible method of preparing beds for dental implants in the human jaw. A major problem in using this contactless treatment modality is the lack of haptic feedback to control the depth while drilling the implant bed. A contactless measurement system called laser triangulation is presented as a new procedure to overcome this problem. Together with a tomographic picture the actual position of the laser ablation in the bone can be calculated. Furthermore, the laser response is sufficiently fast as to pose little risk to surrounding sensitive areas such as nerves and blood vessels. In the jaw two different bone structures exist, namely the cancellous bone and the compact bone. Samples of both bone structures were examined with test drillings performed either by laser osteotomy or by a conventional rotating drilling tool. The depth of these holes was measured using laser triangulation. The results and the setup are reported in this study.

  1. Archive of Core and Site/Hole Data and Photographs from the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The US Science Operator for the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) operated the drilling vessel JOIDES Resolution from 2004-2013 for worldwide expeditions...

  2. A drill-hole geodatabase as a tool to investigate geological hazard in Napoli Urban Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albericoa, I.; Lirer, L.; Petrosino, P.

    2003-04-01

    Geological investigations in urban areas are complicated by the absence of good outcrops and field exposures, as a result of the density of civil buildings and railway and road network. On the other side, in urban areas geological investigation represents a basic tool to decisional support for the management of present private buildings and public works and for the planning of new ones. This is much more true in urban areas very exposed to geological hazard (volcanic, hydrogeological, seismic) where the high exposed value greatly rises the risk. The methodology to deal with the geological hazard in urban areas here presented is the reconstruction of buried geological formations deduced by drill-holes stratigraphy.The test area is represented by the whole municipality of Napoli city, that proves very apt to the investigation of the hazard in urban areas since it stands over an active volcanic area, comprised between the Campi Flegrei volcanic field and the Somma-Vesuvio district, that both gave explosive and effusive activity through the last centuries. Besides, the extension of the main part of the city constrained between the coastline and the belt of volcanic hills together with the presence of loose material due to pyroclastic activity makes the alluvional events an other hazardous phenomenon for the city. The performed up datable drill-holes geodata-base for the city of Napoli at present contains the record of about 800 holes stratigraphy, collected through the main public and private bodies, reflecting the drill-holes surveys made along the last 50 years before constructing the main railways, roads and aqueduct network. Drill-holes data have been interpreted and can now be read under various viewpoints (geological, lithological, volcanological); the present work presents the first results of the geological hazard investigation. The investigation of buried stratigraphy in the eastern area allows to identify the presence of pyroclastic flow deposits from Somma

  3. Evaluating operational efficiency of drainage holes in the Belchatow coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marek, A.; Paluch, W.

    1979-03-01

    This paper characterizes drainage holes used for lowering water level in the Belchatow brown coal surface mine in central Poland. Machines and installations used for drilling holes, and filter construction are described. Two types of filters are evaluated, one based an a steel construction, the other an a concrete- asbestos construction. The problem of evaluating operational efficiency of drainage holes is discussed. Yield of the well is presented as the factor characterizing operational efficiency of the hole. Factors influencing yield of the well are described. The proposed analysis of drainage hole efficiency makes it possible to compare efficiency of work of the filters with steel construction and asbestos-concrete construction. Under conditions of the Belchatow mine the asbestos-concrete filters are more efficient than steel filters. All drainage holes at the mine are characterized by declining efficiency. This can be caused prematurely by silting up. (2 refs.) (In Polish)

  4. The effect of optical system design for laser micro-hole drilling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chien-Fang; Lan, Yin-Te; Chien, Yu-Lun; Young, Hong-Tsu

    2017-08-01

    Lasers are a promising high accuracy tool to make small holes in composite or hard material. They offer advantages over the conventional machining process, which is time consuming and has scaling limitations. However, the major downfall in laser material processing is the relatively large heat affect zone or number of molten burrs it generates, even when using nanosecond lasers over high-cost ultrafast lasers. In this paper, we constructed a nanosecond laser processing system with a 532 nm wavelength laser source. In order to enhance precision and minimize the effect of heat generation with the laser drilling process, we investigated the geometric shape of optical elements and analyzed the images using the modulation transfer function (MTF) and encircled energy (EE) by using optical software Zemax. We discuss commercial spherical lenses, including plano-convex lenses, bi-convex lenses, plano-concave lenses, bi-concave lenses, best-form lenses, and meniscus lenses. Furthermore, we determined the best lens configuration by image evaluation, and then verified the results experimentally by carrying out the laser drilling process on multilayer flexible copper clad laminate (FCCL). The paper presents the drilling results obtained with different lens configurations and found the best configuration had a small heat affect zone and a clean edge along laser-drilled holes.

  5. Laser drilling of superdeep micron holes in various materials with a programmable control of laser radiation parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basiev, Tasoltan T; Osiko, Vyacheslav V; Gavrilov, A V; Smetanin, S N; Fedin, A V

    2007-01-01

    The possibilities of enhancing the efficiency of laser drilling of micron holes, increasing their depth, and eliminating their conic shape are studied by using a single-mode loop Nd:YAG laser with self-phase conjugation on the gain gratings and passive Q-switching by a scanned gradiently coloured F 2 - :LiF crystal. Holes of diameters 15-150 μm and depth up to 20 mm with the aspect ratio (ratio of the hole depth to its diameter) of 50-155 are drilled in various metals and alloys. It is shown that passive Q-switch scanning during drilling provides the increase in the depth and speed of the laser drilling of superdeep holes by a factor of 1.5-2. (laser technologies)

  6. Drilling and the associated drillhole measurements of the pilot hole ONK-PH8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karttunen, P.; Poellaenen, J.; Rautio, T.; Tarvainen, A.-M.; Lamminmaeki, T.; Kemppainen, K.; Kosunen, P.; Lampinen, H.

    2009-02-01

    The construction of the ONKALO access tunnel started in September 2004 at Olkiluoto. Most of the investigations related to the construction of the access tunnel aim to ensure successful excavations, reinforcement and sealing. Pilot holes are drillholes, which are core drilled along the tunnel profile. The length of the pilot holes typically varies from several tens of metres to a couple of hundred metres. The pilot holes are aimed to confirm the quality of the rock mass for tunnel construction, and in particular to identify water conductive fractured zones and to provide information that could result in modifications of the existing construction plans. The pilot hole ONK-PH8 was drilled from chainage 3116 to chainage 3266.29 in June- July 2008. The length of the hole is 150.29 metres. The aim during the drilling work was to orient core samples as much as possible. The deviation of the drillhole was measured during and after the drilling phase. Electric conductivity was measured from the collected returning water samples. Water conductivity of the fractures or fractured zones was measured by Posiva Flow Log equipment. The measurements were done in two phases. During flow measurements also grounding resistance, electric conductivity and temperature were measured. In flow logging test sections of 0.5 m and increments of 0.1 m were used. The water loss measurements failed. Logging of the core samples included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracturing, fracture frequency, RQD, fractured zones, core loss, and weathering. The rock mechanical logging was based on Q-classification. The test to determine rock strength and deformation were made with Rock Tester-equipment. Geophysical logging and optical imaging of the pilot hole included the fieldwork of all surveys, the integration of the data as well as interpretation of the acoustic and drillhole radar data. One of the objectives of the geochemical study was to get information of the composition of ONKALO

  7. Process for opening up carboniferous seams for underground gasification by drilling production holes downwards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokschin, J L; Volk, A F; Starinskii, A A

    1977-12-01

    This process will reduce drilling costs and times by 20 to 25% and will improve gasification under the influence of a thin liquid medium connecting adjacent holes. After determining the approximate depth and thickness of the seam to be opened up, e.g. by geological means, production holes of 100 to 400 mm (diameter) are made down to a depth of 400 m or more, by well-known boring bars and chisels. After passing the top of the seam (the roof of the seam), which can be recognised by discoloration of the drilling liquid, one goes 1/2 to 1 metre deeper and one determines the depth of the roof the seam exactly by the reduced natural radioactivity at the boundary layer, by introducing a gamma sensor on to the boring bar. The production holes are taken down in a second borehold to a free space 0.6 to 2 metres above the floor of the seam (bottom of the seam), according to the thickness of the seam. After replacing the boring bar by a feedpipe one continues to drill using a boring bar of smaller cutting diameter inside this tube. This hole reaches from the foot of the pipe of the feedpipe to the floor of the seam. It is preferably flushed with gas but may be flushed with liquid. A thin liquid introduced into this hole penetrates the surrounding mass of the seam horizontally (unhindered by any armouring) and represents the required connection to neighbouring bores for gasification. The process is suitable for mining coal, combustible shale oil, bituminous rock, heavy natural oil where this process is based on gasification, melting or dissolving of those deposits.

  8. Drilling and associated Drillhole measurements of the Pilot Hole ONK-PH14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aalto, P.; Toropainen, V.; Tarvainen, A.-M.; Pekkanen, J.; Poellaenen, J.; Lamminmaeki, T.

    2011-09-01

    The construction of ONKALO access tunnel started in September 2004 at Olkiluoto. During the construction, investigations serving both research and construction purposes need to be done. Investigations can be done for example in so called pilot holes. Pilot holes are cored drillholes to be drilled to the tunnel profile. The length of the holes varies from some tens of metres to some hundreds of metres. The purpose of the holes is to confirm the quality of the rock mass for tunnel construction, especially to identify water conductive fractures/fractured zones and to provide information that could result in modifications of the existing construction plans. The pilot hole ONK-PH14 was drilled in June 2010. Drilling was started in chainage 4313.6. The length of the hole was 150.80 metres. The deviation of the drillhole was measured during and after the drilling. Additionally, oriented core samples were collected from the drill core and the electric conductivity of returning water was measured. Logging of the core samples included following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracturing, fracture frequency, RQD, fractured zones, core loss and weathering. The rock mechanical logging was based on Q-classification. The strength and deformation properties of the rock were defined by using Rock-Tester equipment. Hydraulic measurements were made by using the PFL DIFF (Posiva Flow log, Difference Flow Method). PFL DIFF measurements were performed with a 0.5 m section length and with 0.1 m length increments. With PFL DIFF tool the locations of transmissive fractures were detected. Simultaneously, the electric conductivity (EC) of the drillhole water and fracture specific water, temperature of the drillhole water, single point resistance (SPR) of the drillhole wall and the prevailing water pressure were measured. Water loss measurements were done after the drilling by the tool developed by Posiva. The tool was in test use during the measurements. The groundwater sample was

  9. Drilling and associated Drillhole measurements of the Pilot Hole ONK-PH14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aalto, P. (ed.); Lahti, M.; Kosunen, P.; Pere, T. [Posiva Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Toropainen, V.; Tarvainen, A.-M. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland); Pekkanen, J.; Poellaenen, J. [Poeyry Finland Oy, Espoo (Finland); Lamminmaeki, T. [Teollisuuden Voima Oyj, Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-08-15

    The construction of ONKALO access tunnel started in September 2004 at Olkiluoto. During the construction, investigations serving both research and construction purposes need to be done. Investigations can be done for example in so called pilot holes. Pilot holes are cored drillholes to be drilled to the tunnel profile. The length of the holes varies from some tens of metres to some hundreds of metres. The purpose of the holes is to confirm the quality of the rock mass for tunnel construction, especially to identify water conductive fractures/fractured zones and to provide information that could result in modifications of the existing construction plans. The pilot hole ONK-PH14 was drilled in June 2010. Drilling was started in chainage 4313.6. The length of the hole was 150.80 metres. The deviation of the drillhole was measured during and after the drilling. Additionally, oriented core samples were collected from the drill core and the electric conductivity of returning water was measured. Logging of the core samples included following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracturing, fracture frequency, RQD, fractured zones, core loss and weathering. The rock mechanical logging was based on Q-classification. The strength and deformation properties of the rock were defined by using Rock-Tester equipment. Hydraulic measurements were made by using the PFL DIFF (Posiva Flow log, Difference Flow Method). PFL DIFF measurements were performed with a 0.5 m section length and with 0.1 m length increments. With PFL DIFF tool the locations of transmissive fractures were detected. Simultaneously, the electric conductivity (EC) of the drillhole water and fracture specific water, temperature of the drillhole water, single point resistance (SPR) of the drillhole wall and the prevailing water pressure were measured. Water loss measurements were done after the drilling by the tool developed by Posiva. The tool was in test use during the measurements. The groundwater sample was

  10. Geology of drill hole UE25p No. 1: A test hole into pre-Tertiary rocks near Yucca Mountain, southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, M.D.; Waddell, S.J.; Vick, G.S.; Stock, J.M.; Monsen, S.A.; Harris, A.G.; Cork, B.W.; Byers, F.M. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Yucca Mountain in southern Nye County, Nevada, has been proposed as a potential site for the underground disposal of high-level nuclear waste. An exploratory drill hole designated UE25p No. 1 was drilled 3 km east of the proposed repository site to investigate the geology and hydrology of the rocks that underlie the Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary rock sequence forming Yucca Mountain. Silurian dolomite assigned to the Roberts Mountain and Lone Mountain Formations was intersected below the Tertiary section between a depth of approximately 1244 m (4080 ft) and the bottom of the drill hole at 1807 m (5923 ft). These formations are part of an important regional carbonate aquifer in the deep ground-water system. Tertiary units deeper than 1139 m (3733 ft) in drill hole UE25p No. 1 are stratigraphically older than any units previously penetrated by drill holes at Yucca Mountain. These units are, in ascending order, the tuff of Yucca Flat, an unnamed calcified ash-flow tuff, and a sequence of clastic deposits. The upper part of the Tertiary sequence in drill hole UE25p No. 1 is similar to that found in other drill holes at Yucca Mountain. The Tertiary sequence is in fault contact with the Silurian rocks. This fault between Tertiary and Paleozoic rocks may correlate with the Fran Ridge fault, a steeply westward-dipping fault exposed approximately 0.5 km east of the drill hole. Another fault intersects UE25p No. 1 at 873 m (2863 ft), but its surface trace is concealed beneath the valley west of the Fran Ridge fault. The Paintbrush Canyon fault, the trace of which passes less than 100 m (330 ft) east of the drilling site, intersects drill hole UE25p No. 1 at a depth of approximately 78 m (255 ft). The drill hole apparently intersected the west flank of a structural high of pre-Tertiary rocks, near the eastern edge of the Crater Flat structural depression

  11. Drilling and associated drillhole measurements of the pilot hole ONK-PH13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarvainen, A.-M.; Toropainen, V.; Pekkanen, J.; Poellaenen, J.; Kosunen, P.; Lahti, M.; Pere, T.; Aalto, P.

    2011-04-01

    The construction of ONKALO access tunnel started in September 2004 at Olkiluoto. During the construction, investigations serving both research and construction purposes need to be done. Investigations can be done for example in so called pilot holes. Pilot holes are cored drillholes to be drilled to the tunnel profile. The length of the holes varies from some tens of meters to some hundreds of meters. The purpose of the holes is to confirm the quality of the rock mass for tunnel construction, especially to identify water conductive fractures/fracture zones and provide information that could result in modifications of the existing construction plans. The pilot hole ONK-KR13 was drilled in March 2010. Drilling was started from chainage 4201. The final length of the hole was 140.05 meters. The deviation of the drillhole was measured during and after the drilling. Additionally, oriented core samples were collected and electric conductivity of returning water from the drill hole was measured. Logging of the core samples included following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracturing, fracture frequency, RQD, fractured zones, core loss and weathering. The rock mechanical logging was based on Q-classification. The strength and deformation properties of the rock were defined by using Rock-Tester equipment. Hydraulic measurements were made by using the PFL DIFF (Posiva Flow Log, Difference Flow method). PFL DIFF measurements were performed with a 0.5 m section length and with 0.1 m length increments. With PFL DIFF tool the locations of flowing fractures and their transmissivities were detected. Simultaneously, the electric conductivity (EC) of the drillhole water and fracture-specific water, temperature of the drillhole water, single point resistance (SPR) of the drillhole wall and the prevailing water pressure profile were measured. Water loss measurements were done after the drilling by the tool developed by Posiva. The equipment was in test use during the measurements

  12. Rotary Drill Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savilow, Bill

    This training outline for rotary drill operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

  13. Measurement of the magnetic field inside the holes of a drilled bulk high-Tc superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lousberg, Gregory P.; Fagnard, Jean-François; Noudem, Jacques G.; Ausloos, Marcel; Vanderheyden, Benoit; Vanderbemden, Philippe

    2009-04-01

    We use macroscopic holes drilled in a bulk YBCO superconductor to probe its magnetic properties in the volume of the sample. The sample is subjected to an AC magnetic flux with a density ranging from 30 to 130 mT and the flux in the superconductor is probed by miniature coils inserted in the holes. In a given hole, three different penetration regimes can be observed: (i) the shielded regime, where no magnetic flux threads the hole; (ii) the gradual penetration regime, where the waveform of the magnetic field has a clipped sine shape whose fundamental component scales with the applied field; and (iii) the flux concentration regime, where the waveform of the magnetic field is nearly a sine wave, with an amplitude exceeding that of the applied field by up to a factor of two. The distribution of the penetration regimes in the holes is compared with that of the magnetic flux density at the top and bottom surfaces of the sample, and is interpreted with the help of optical polarized light micrographs of these surfaces. We show that the measurement of the magnetic field inside the holes can be used as a local characterization of the bulk magnetic properties of the sample.

  14. Better well control through safe drilling margin identification, influx analysis and direct bottom hole pressure control method for deep water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veeningen, Daan [National Oilwell Varco IntelliServ (NOV), Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Currently, well control events are almost exclusively detected by using surface measurements. Measuring a volume increase in the 'closed loop' mud circulation system; a standpipe pressure decrease; or changes in a variety of drilling parameters provide indicators of a kick. Especially in deep water, where the riser comprises a substantial section of the well bore, early kick detection is paramount for limiting the severity of a well bore influx and improve the ability to regain well control. While downhole data is presently available from downhole tools nearby the bit, available data rates are sparse as mud pulse telemetry bandwidth is limited and well bore measurements compete with transmission of other subsurface data. Further, data transfer is one-directional, latency is significant and conditions along the string are unknown. High-bandwidth downhole data transmission system, via a wired or networked drill string system, has the unique capability to acquire real-time pressure and temperature measurement at a number of locations along the drill string. This system provides high-resolution downhole data available at very high speed, eliminating latency and restrictions that typically limit the availability of downhole data. The paper describes well control opportunities for deep water operations through the use of downhole data independent from surface measurements. First, the networked drill string provides efficient ways to identify pore pressure, fracture gradient, and true mud weight that comprise the safe drilling margin. Second, the independent measurement capability provides early kick detection and improved ability to analyze an influx even with a heterogeneous mud column through distributed along-string annular pressure measurements. Third, a methodology is proposed for a direct measurement method using downhole real-time pressure for maintaining constant bottom hole pressure during well kills in deep water. (author)

  15. A comprehensive literature review reflecting fifteen years of debate regarding the representativity of reverse circulation vs blast hole drill sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engström, Karin

    2017-01-01

    Blast hole sampling is widely used for grade control by the mining industry all over the world, both in precious and base metal open pit mining. Blast hole (BH) samples are often regarded as inferior in comparison to “proper drill sampling” like reverse circulation (RC) and diamond (core) drilling...... (DD), and are accused of lacking representativity by the sampling community. The present paper aims at collecting all peer reviewed publications from 2000 onwards that concern open pit mine sampling performance of BH, RC and/or DD drill sampling. This will form a comprehensive literature review...

  16. Optimizing capital and time expenditures for drilling service operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zazovskiy, F Ya; Soltysyak, T I

    1980-01-01

    The operational efficiency of drilling services operations management are examined. The structure of time expenditure is analyzed for repair operations according to equipment type employed by the Ivano-Frankovsk Drilling Management under the Ukrneft' enterprise during 1977. The results of this analysis are weighed against a series of service operations carried out at industrial enterprises and connected with technical disruptions. Some of the cases examined include service competion operations outside of the industrial units when technical processes are disrupted only for the change of equipment which has outlived its usefulness and is no longer in series production. First of all, time expended for repair work can be reduced to zero during the drilling of shallow wells which do not require extensive drilling time. The actual savings, both in time and money, as far as repair work is concerned, hinges on the actual time factor for total oil depetion. An equation is provided for optimal time expenditure necessary for repair work and equipment replacement. An actual example is given from the Dolinsk UBR (Drillin Management) under the Ukrneft' enterprise where time spent on actual service operations has appeared to be less than the optimal figure cited in the above material. This is possible because of increased capital expenditures.

  17. Drilling and the associated borehole measurements of the pilot hole ONK-PH2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehberg, A.; Aaltonen, I.; Kemppainen, K.; Mattila, J.; Heikkinen, E.; Lahti, M.; Pussinen, V.; Niemonen, J.; Paaso, N.; Rouhiainen, P.

    2005-11-01

    The construction of the ONKALO access tunnel started in September 2004 at Olkiluoto. Most of the investigations related to the construction of the access tunnel aim to ensure successful excavations, reinforcement and sealing. Pilot holes are boreholes, which are core drilled along the tunnel profile. The length of the pilot holes typically varies from several tens of metres to a couple of hundred metres. The pilot holes will mostly aim to confirm the quality of the rock mass for tunnel construction, and in particular at identifying water conductive fractured zones and at providing information that could result in modifications of the existing construction plans. The pilot hole ONK-PH2 was drilled in December 2004. The length of the borehole is about 122 metres. The aim during the drilling work was to orientate core samples as much as possible. The deviation of the borehole was measured during and after the drilling phase. Electric conductivity was measured from the collected returning water samples. Logging of the core samples included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracturing, fracture frequency, RQD, fractured zones, core loss and weathering. The rock mechanical logging was based on Q-classification. The tests to determine rock strength and deformation properties were made with a Rock Tester-equipment. Difference Flow method was used for the determination of hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic head in fractures and fractured zones in the borehole. The overlapping i.e. the detailed flow logging mode was used. The flow logging was performed with 0.5 m section length and with 0.1 m depth increments. Geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging surveys of the pilot hole PH2 included the field work of all the surveys, the integration of the data as well as interpretation of the acoustic and borehole radar data. One of the objectives of the geochemical study was to get information of composition of ONKALO's groundwater before the construction will

  18. Drilling and the associated borehole measurements of the pilot hole ONK-PH3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehberg, A.; Heikkinen, E.; Hirvonen, H.; Kemppainen, K.; Majapuro, J.; Niemonen, J.; Poellaenen, J.; Rouhiainen, P.

    2006-03-01

    The construction of the ONKALO access tunnel started in September 2004 at Olkiluoto. Most of the investigations related to the construction of the access tunnel aim to ensure successful excavations, reinforcement and sealing. Pilot holes are boreholes, which are core drilled along the tunnel profile. The length of the pilot holes typically varies from several tens of metres to a couple of hundred metres. The pilot holes will mostly aim to confirm the quality of the rock mass for tunnel construction, and in particular at identifying water conductive fractured zones and at providing information that could result in modifications of the existing construction plans. The pilot hole ONK-PH3 was drilled in September 2005. The length of the borehole is 145.04 metres. The aim during the drilling work was to orientate core samples as much as possible. The deviation of the borehole was measured during and after the drilling phase. Electric conductivity was measured from the collected returning water samples. Logging of the core samples included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracturing, fracture frequency, RQD, fractured zones, core loss and weathering. The rock mechanical logging was based on Q-classification. The tests to determine rock strength and deformation properties were made with a Rock Tester-equipment. Difference Flow method was used for the determination of hydraulic conductivity in fractures and fractured zones in the borehole. The overlapping i.e. the detailed flow logging mode was used. The flow logging was performed with 0.5 m section length and with 0.1 m depth increments. Water loss tests (Lugeon tests) and a pressure build-up test were used to give background information for the grouting design. Geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging surveys of the pilot hole PH3 included the field work of all the surveys, the integration of the data as well as interpretation of the acoustic and borehole radar data. One of the objectives of the

  19. Optimization of bridging agents size distribution for drilling operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldmann, Alex; Andrade, Alex Rodrigues de; Pires Junior, Idvard Jose; Martins, Andre Leibsohn [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mails: awaldmann@petrobras.com.br; andradear.gorceix@petrobras.com.br; idvard.gorceix@petrobras.com.br; aleibsohn@petrobras.com.br

    2008-07-01

    The conventional drilling technique is based on positive hydrostatic pressure against well walls to prevent inflows of native fluids into the well. Such inflows can cause security problems for the team well and to probe. As the differential pressure of the well to reservoir is always positive, the filtrate of the fluid tends to invade the reservoir rock. Minimize the invasion of drilling fluid is a relevant theme in the oil wells drilling operations. In the design of drilling fluid, a common practice in the industry is the addition of bridging agents in the composition of the fluid to form a cake of low permeability at well walls and hence restrict the invasive process. The choice of drilling fluid requires the optimization of the concentration, shape and size distribution of particles. The ability of the fluid to prevent the invasion is usually evaluated in laboratory tests through filtration in porous media consolidated. This paper presents a description of the methods available in the literature for optimization of the formulation of bridging agents to drill-in fluids, predicting the pore throat from data psychotherapy, and a sensitivity analysis of the main operational parameters. The analysis is based on experimental results of the impact of the size distribution and concentration of bridging agents in the filtration process of drill-in fluids through porous media submitted to various different differential of pressure. The final objective is to develop a software for use of PETROBRAS, which may relate different types and concentrations of bridging agents with the properties of the reservoir to minimize the invasion. (author)

  20. Borehole gravity meter survey in drill hole USW G-4, Yucca Mountain Area, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healey, D.L.; Clutsom, F.G.; Glover, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Drill hole USW G-4 was logged with the US Geological Survey borehole gravity meter (BHGM) BH-6 as part of a detailed study of the lithostratigraphic units penetrated by this hole. Because the BHGM measures a larger volume of rock than the conventional gamma-gamma density tool, it provides an independent and more accurate measurement of the in situ average bulk density of thick lithologic units. USW G-4 is an especially important hole because of its proximity to the proposed exploratory shaft at Yucca Mountain. The BHGM data were reduced to interval densities using a free-air gradient (F) of 0.3083 mGal./m (0.09397 mGal/ft) measured at the drill site. The interval densities were further improved by employing an instrument correction factor of 1.00226. This factor was determined from measurements obtained by taking gravity meter BH-6 over the Charleston Peak calibration loop. The interval density data reported herein, should be helpful for planning the construction of the proposed shaft

  1. Oceanic crustal velocities from laboratory and logging measurements of Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Hole 1256D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Lisa A.; Salisbury, Matthew H.

    2011-09-01

    Drilling and logging of Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Hole 1256D have provided a unique opportunity for systematically studying a fundamental problem in marine geophysics: What influences the seismic structure of oceanic crust, porosity or composition? Compressional wave velocities (Vp) logged in open hole or from regional refraction measurements integrate both the host rock and cracks in the crust. To determine the influence of cracks on Vp at several scales, we first need an accurate ground truth in the form of laboratory Vp on crack-free, or nearly crack-free samples. We measured Vp on 46 water-saturated samples at in situ pressures to determine the baseline velocities of the host rock. These new results match or exceed Vp logs throughout most of the hole, especially in the lower dikes and gabbros, where porosities are low. In contrast, samples measured at sea under ambient laboratory conditions, had consistently lower Vp than the Vp logs, even after correction to in situ pressures. Crack-free Vp calculated from simple models of logging and laboratory porosity data for different lithologies and facies suggest that crustal velocities in the lavas and upper dikes are controlled by porosity. In particular, the models demonstrate significant large-scale porosity in the lavas, especially in the sections identified as fractured flows and breccias. However, crustal velocities in the lower dikes and gabbros are increasingly controlled by petrology as the layer 2-3 boundary is approached.

  2. Measurement of residual stress fields in FHPP welding: a comparison between DSPI combined with hole-drilling and neutron diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viotti, Matias R.; Albertazzi, Armando; Staron, Peter; Pisa, Marcelo

    2013-04-01

    This paper shows a portable device to measure mainly residual stress fields outside the optical bench. This system combines the traditional hole drilling technique with Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometry. The novel feature of this device is the high degree of compaction since only one base supports simultaneously the measurement module and the hole-drilling device. The portable device allows the measurement of non-uniform residual stresses in accordance with the ASTM standard. In oil and gas offshore industries, alternative welding procedures among them, the friction hydro pillar processing (FHPP) is highlighted and nowadays is an important maintenance tool since it has the capability to produce structure repairs without risk of explosions. In this process a hole is drilled and filled with a consumable rod of the same material. The rod, which could be cylindrical or conical, is rotated and pressed against the hole, leading to frictional heating. In order to assess features about the residual stress distribution generated by the weld into the rod as well as into the base material around the rod, welded samples were evaluated by neutron diffraction and by the hole drilling technique having a comparison between them. For the hole drilling technique some layers were removed by using electrical discharge machining (EDM) after diffraction measurements in order to assess the bulk stress distribution. Results have shown a good agreement between techniques.

  3. Toward a better understanding of glass gravity-feed micro-hole drilling with electrochemical discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalali, M; Maillard, P; Wüthrich, R

    2009-01-01

    Spark-assisted chemical engraving (SACE) is a flexible, simple and inexpensive method for machining electrically non-conductive materials. SACE is particularly interesting because of the high drilling speed that can be achieved compared to other micromachining technologies. In this paper, the issue of drilling speed decreasing from 100 µm s −1 to 10 µm s −1 for micro-hole depths more than 200–300 µm is analyzed. To understand better the material removal mechanism, with the target to eliminate this limit, a model for the material removal mechanism as a hybrid mechanism combining local heating and chemical etching is presented and compared with experimental data. The comparison between the model and experiment allowed the estimation of the machining temperature to be around 600 °C

  4. Listvenite logging on D/V CHIKYU: Hole BT1B, Oman Drilling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, P. B.; Beinlich, A.; Morishita, T.; Greenberger, R. N.; Johnson, K. T. M.; Lafay, R.; Michibayashi, K.; Harris, M.; Phase I Science Party, T. O. D. P.

    2017-12-01

    Listvenite, quartz-carbonate altered ultramafic rock containing minor fuchsite (Cr-muscovite) forms by complete carbonation of peridotite and is thus an attractive objective for carbon mitigation studies. However, reaction controls and evolution of listvenite are still enigmatic. Here we present the first results of Phase 1 of the ICDP (International Continental Drilling Program) Oman Drilling Project and subsequent core logging using the analytical facilities on board the research vessel D/V CHIKYU. Hole BT1B contains 300 m of continuous drill core intersecting alluvium, listvenite-altered serpentinite, serpentinite, ophicarbonate and the underlying metamorphic sole of the Semail ophiolite, Oman. The drill core has been systematically investigated by visual core description, thin section petrography, X-ray fluorescence core logging, X-ray diffractometry, visible-shortwave infrared imaging spectroscopy and X-ray Computer Tomography. Our observations show that listvenite is highly variable in texture and color on the mm to m scale. Listvenite was visually categorized into 5 principal color groups: the dominant dark red (47 %), light red (19 %), orange (14 %), pale (2 %) and green (16 %). The presence of hematite/goethite results in dark reddish, red and orange hues. Light grey or pale colored listvenite lacks hematite and/or goethite veins and may represent the `true' listvenite. Green listvenite is characterized by the presence of cm-sized quartz-fuchsite intergrowths. Five zones of serpentinite, which vary in thickness between several tens of cm and 4 m, are intercalated within the massive listvenite of Hole BT1B. Gradational listvenite-serpentinite transition zones contain the ophicarbonate assemblage (magnesite + serpentine) and sometimes additional talc, representing intermediate carbonation reaction progress. Preservation of the former mesh texture and bastite after orthopyroxene in the listvenite suggest that the listvenite precursor had already been

  5. Archaeological studies at Drill Hole U20az Pahute Mesa, Nye county, Nevada. [Contains bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, A.H.; Hemphill, M.L.; Henton, G.H.; Lockett, C.L.; Nials, F.L.; Pippin, L.C.; Walsh, L.

    1991-07-01

    During the summer of 1987, the Quaternary Sciences Center (formerly Social Science Center) of the Desert Research Institute (DRI), University of Nevada System, conducted data recovery investigations at five archaeological sites located near Drill Hole U20az on the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. These sites were among 12 recorded earlier during an archaeological survey of the drill hole conducted as part of the environmental compliance activities of the Department of Energy (DOE). The five sites discussed in this report were considered eligible for the National Register of Historic Places and were in danger of being adversely impacted by construction activities or by effects of the proposed underground nuclear test. Avoidance of these sites was not a feasible alternative; thus DRI undertook a data recovery program to mitigate expected adverse impacts. DRI's research plan included controlled surface collections and excavation of the five sites in question, and had the concurrence of the Nevada Division of Historic Preservation and Archaeology and the Advisory Council of Historic Preservation. Of the five sites investigated, the largest and most complex, 26Ny5207, consists of at least three discrete artifact concentrations. Sites 26Ny5211 and 26Ny5215, both yielded considerable assemblages. Site 26Ny5206 is very small and probably is linked to 26Ny5207. Site 26Ny5205 contained a limited artifact assemblage. All of the sites were open-air occurrences, and, with one exception contained no or limited subsurface cultural deposits. Only two radiocarbon dates were obtained, both from 26Ny5207 and both relatively recent. While the investigations reported in the volume mitigate most of the adverse impacts from DOE activities at Drill Hole U20az, significant archaeological sites may still exist in the general vicinity. Should the DOE conduct further activities in the region, additional cultural resource investigations may be required. 132 refs., 71 figs., 44 tabs.

  6. Geology of drill hole USW VH-2, and structure of Crater Flat, southwestern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, W.J.; Parrish, L.D.

    1985-01-01

    A 1219 meter (4000 ft) drill hole in Crater Flat shows the absence of buried Pliocene or Quaternary volcanic rocks, and penetrates a section of Timber Mountain, Paintbrush, and the upper part of the Crater Flat Tuffs, similar to that exposed adjacent to Crater Flat. A prominent negative aeromagnetic anomaly between the drill hole and Bare Mountain is attributed to a westward thickening section of a reversely magnetized Miocene basalt. The relatively shallow depth of this basalt in the west-central part of Crater Flat indicates that no large amount of tectonic movement has occurred in approximately the last 10 m.y. Massive brecciated wedges of Paleozoic rocks are penetrated in two stratigraphic intervals in the drill hole; the older one, between the Tiva Canyon Member of the Paintbrush Tuff and the Rainier Mesa Member of the Timber Mountain Tuff, correlates with the time of maximum faulting east of Crater Flat in the Yucca Mountain area. The younger slide masses are correlated with a large slide block of probable late Miocene age exposed along the southwestern rim of Crater Flat. The structural pattern and style buried beneath central and western Crater Flat is deduced to be similar to that exposed at Yucca Mountain, but less developed. The major fault system controlling the steep east face of Bare Mountain, though probably still active, is believed to have developed mainly as a result of caldera collapse between 13 and 14 m.y. ago. Relations between faulting and four episodes of basalt eruption in the Crater Flat area strongly suggest contemporaneity of the two processes. 17 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  7. A comparison of residual stresses in built-up steel beams using hole-drilling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawafleh, M. A.; Hunaiti, Y. M.; Younes, R. M.

    2009-01-01

    Residual stresses have a significant effect on the stability resistance of metal building systems. An experimental program was conducted to measure these stresses in built-up steel beams using incremental hole-drilling method. The experimental results reveal that the predicted residual stress type of pattern for built-up I-sections with fillet welds on one side of the web is not the same as the pattern of residual stresses in built-up I-sections with fillet welds on both sides of the web

  8. Evaluation of machining effect for the residual stress of SA508 by hole drilling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Kun; Lee, Kyoung Soo; Song, Ki O; Kim, Young Shin

    2009-01-01

    Residual stresses on a surface of the material are welcome or undesirable since it's direction, compression or tensile. But especially for the fatigue, it is not negligible effect on the material strength. These residual stresses developed during the manufacturing processes involving material deformation, heat treatment, machining. The object of this paper is verifying the effect of machining what is mostly used for SA508. For verifying the effect of machining, three different kind of machining have been achieved, milling, grinding, wire cutting. Also to measure the residual stress, hole drill method and indentation method are used.

  9. Modeling pellet impact drilling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalyov, A. V.; Ryabchikov, S. Ya; Isaev, Ye D.; Ulyanova, O. S.

    2016-03-01

    The paper describes pellet impact drilling which could be used to increase the drilling speed and the rate of penetration when drilling hard rocks. Pellet impact drilling implies rock destruction by metal pellets with high kinetic energy in the immediate vicinity of the earth formation encountered. The pellets are circulated in the bottom hole by a high velocity fluid jet, which is the principle component of the ejector pellet impact drill bit. The experiments conducted has allowed modeling the process of pellet impact drilling, which creates the scientific and methodological basis for engineering design of drilling operations under different geo-technical conditions.

  10. Preliminary analysis of geophysical logs from drill hole UE-25p No. 1, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, D.C.; Kibler, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Geophysical logs from drill hole UE-25p No. 1 correlate well with logs through the same geologic units from other drill holes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The in-situ physical properties of the rocks as determined from well logs are consistent with laboratory-measured physical properties of core from other drill holes. The density, neutron and caliper logs are very spiky through most of the Topopah Spring Member. This spikiness occurs on the same logs in cored holes where the Topopah Spring Member is highly fractured and lithophysal. The uranium channel of the spectral gamma-ray log through the Topopah Spring Member correlates with uranium logs from cored holes where most of the fractures have not been healed or filled with materials that concentrate uranium. Therefore, fracture porosity and permeability of the Topopah Spring Member are expected to be high and consistent with fracture analysis from other drill holes on Yucca Mountain, and hydrologic tests from well J-13. The Paleozoic dolomites which underlie the Tertiary tuffs are intensely brecciated, and the uranium count rate is much higher than normal for dolomites because uranium has been concentrated in the recementing material. 19 references, 1 figure, 2 tables

  11. How we improved operations in drilling pre-salt wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hougaz, Augusto Borella [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Martins, Luiz Felipe; Bittencourt, Jessica Lima; Braz, Luciano Machado [Genesis do Brasil, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Damski, Carlos [Genesis Petroleum Technology Pty Ltd. (GPT), Bentley, WA (Australia)

    2012-07-01

    The development of pre-salt wells offshore Brazil has been one of the most challenging projects in history of E and P. Facing water depths of 2000+ meters, a salt layer 2000 meters thick to reach reservoirs at 7000 meters below sea level, has to use technological and procedural techniques never used before. In those 2 years of exploration of those fields many technologies were tested and improved. This paper describes the systematic approach was taken to analyze, plan and follow-up the development of drilling operations campaign in those fields, and the case study of overall process improvement. The assumption was to apply a risk analysis tool which uses previous data to analyze the performance and plan future time. The goals of this process are continuous improvement of execution and process control for each operation. Looking into previous performance, new interventions were planned more accurately and further improvements were studied. The frequent follow up of the drilling intervention was done using the statistical base to compare the most recent results. At operational level it was possible to see if the last operation was done in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd or 4th quartile of its related statistical distribution, as well as to verify the difference within P10 and P90, which indicates the control of each operation execution process. The same process was done for some rig related operations and for the whole intervention at end of it. Close contact with the intervention progress was kept and actions taken in any major deviation from the plan. This paper describes the case study where the process control and optimization of the total time for drilling 10 wells with similar design was measured between March 2009 and May 2011. It resulted in significant improvement in the drilling process. (author)

  12. Petroleum drilling and production operations in the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    Decades of offshore and inland petroleum drilling and production in the Gulf of Mexico and on the Gulf Coast have provided the much needed energy and chemical feedstocks to the nation, and also have made an impact on the environment in the area. Our study showed deposits of contaminated sediment on the ocean floor around offshore platforms, old reserve pits, and dump sites next to many surface facilities and compressor stations. The substances found on the ocean floor and in dump sites are simple or emulsified mixtures of silt, hydrocarbons, and water. The cleaning of the ocean floor and pits is an economic and technical challenge. Hydrocarbons are from crude oil and chemical additions fro various operational necessities, including additions of biocides, corrosion inhibitors, antifreezes, and coagulants. When the new government regulations lower the allowable maximum total organic carbon level to the 50 ppm range, these hydrocarbons can no longer be ignored by drilling and production operators

  13. Number & operations task & drill sheets : grades 3-5

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat

    2011-01-01

    For grades 3-5, our Common Core State Standards-based combined resource meets the number & operations concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. The task sheets introduce the mathematical concepts to the students around a central problem taken from real-life experiences, while the drill sheets provide warm-up and timed practice questions for the students to strengthen their procedural proficiency skills.

  14. Geology of the UE17e drill hole, Area 17, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodson, J.N.; Hoover, D.L.

    1979-03-01

    The UE17e drill hole, located at the northwest corner of Syncline Ridge, was cored from 3.05 m (10 ft) to a total depth of 914.4 m (3,000 ft) in unit J (Mississippian) of the Eleana (Devonian and Mississippian) to obtain samples for mineral, chemical, and physical-property analyses. UE17e penetrated 73.5 m (241 ft) of the quartzite subunit and 840.9 m (2,759 ft) of the argillite subunit of unit J. Less than 0.4 percent quartzite is present in the argillite subunit. Dips range from 12 0 to 18 0 . Twenty-three faults were observed in the core or on geophysical logs. Most of these faults affect only a few meters of the core and probably have displacements of a few meters. The majority of fractures are parallel to bedding planes. Fracture frequency ranges from 3.4 to 9.4 fractures per meter in the upper part of the cored interval and 1.4 to 5.9 fractures per meter in the lower part of the cored interval. The core index indicates that the lower part of the hole is more competent than the upper part. Lower competency in the upper part of the hole may be caused by weathering and/or near-surface stress relief. Physical, mechanical, and thermal property measurements indicate that bedding and fracturing are the major factors in variation of properties between samples. 17 figures, 10 tables

  15. Influence of Cutting Parameters on the Surface Roughness and Hole Diameter of Drilling Making Parts of Alluminium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Stasiūnas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article researches the drilling process of an aluminium alloy. The paper is aimed at analyzing the influence of cutting speed, feed and hole depth considering hole diameter and hole surface roughness of aluminum alloy 6082 in the dry drilling process and at making empirical formulas for cutting parameters. The article also describes experimental techniques and equipment, tools and measuring devices. Experimental studies have been carried out using different cutting parameters. The obtained results have been analyzed using computer software. According to the existing techniques for measuring, surface roughness and hole diameters have been measured, empirical models have been created and the results of the conducted experiments have been inspected. The findings and recommendations are presented at the end of the work.Artcile in Lithuanian

  16. Operational Review of the First Wireline In Situ Stress Test in Scientific Ocean Drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey Moore

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Scientific ocean drilling’s first in situ stress measurement was made at Site C0009A during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP Expedition 319 as part of Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE Stage 2. The Modular Formation Dynamics Tester (MDT, Schlumbergerwireline logging tool was deployed in riser Hole C0009A to measure in situ formation pore pressure, formation permeability (often reported as mobility=permeability/viscosity, and the least principal stress (S3 at several isolated depths (Saffer et al., 2009; Expedition 319 Scientists, 2010. The importance of in situ stress measurements is not only for scientific interests in active tectonic drilling, but also for geomechanical and well bore stability analyses. Certain in situ tools were not previously available for scientific ocean drilling due to the borehole diameter and open hole limits of riserless drilling. The riser-capable drillship, D/V Chikyu,now in service for IODP expeditions, allows all of the techniques available to estimate the magnitudes and orientations of 3-D stresses to be used. These techniques include downhole density logging for vertical stress, breakout and caliper log analyses for maximum horizontal stress, core-based anelastic strain recovery (ASR, used in the NanTroSEIZE expeditions in 2007–2008, and leak-off test (Lin et al., 2008 and minifrac/hydraulic fracturing (NanTroSEIZE Expedition319 in 2009. In this report, the whole operational planning process related to in situ measurements is reviewed, and lessons learned from Expedition 319 are summarized for efficient planning and testing in the future.

  17. Drillings and associated drillhole measurements of the investigation holes in the EDZ tunnel at Chainage 3620

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacklen, N.; Hurmerinta, E.; Pekkanen, J.; Tarvainen, A.-M.; Toropainen, V.; Kosunen, P.

    2010-05-01

    The R and D programme called EDZ (Excavation Damaged Zone) programme was started in autumn 2007 according to TKS 2006 programme. To continue with EDZ programme development work the EDZ09 project was established in 2009. This report describes the R and D activities performed in the Work Package 2 'TOSI' (Verification) of EDZ09 project. The aim of the EDZ09 project was to develop the method for the verification of EDZ in different parts of the tunnel profile; to characterize the EDZ in the tunnel as well as in the shaft in order to demonstrate the applicability of the method; to complete the tasks in such a timetable that the results are available before ONKALO reaches the depth of - 420 m; to avoid unwanted changes in the bedrock around the access tunnel, which cannot be eliminated by sealing or other methods when applying the verification method or excavation techniques; to demonstrate the function of the method to be developed for verification of EDZ under construction conditions - the applicability of the method has to be demonstrated despite of changes in rock conditions and direction of underground spaces; to obtain information of EDZ in order to assess where the zone would be continuous/discontinuous; to determine the hydrological changes within the damaged zone. The experimental studies were carried out in Posiva's underground research facility, ONKALO, at the depth level c. -340 m at chainage 3620. Two parallel c. 50 m long pilot holes, ONK-PP199 and ONK-PP200, were drilled prior to the excavation of the investigation tunnel ONK-TKU-3620, the EDZ tunnel. ONK-PP199 was drilled inside and ONK-PP200 outside the EDZ tunnel profile. The purpose of the pilot holes was to acquire and adjust geological, geophysical, hydrogeological and rock mechanical knowledge prior to the excavation of the EDZ tunnel, and to define the baseline conditions close to the tunnel profile before excavation. Also, the pilot hole ONK-PP200, drilled outside the EDZ tunnel profile, was used

  18. 77 FR 62247 - Dynamic Positioning Operations Guidance for Vessels Other Than Mobile Offshore Drilling Units...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... Operations Guidance for Vessels Other Than Mobile Offshore Drilling Units Operating on the U.S. Outer... ``Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit Dynamic Positioning Guidance''. The notice recommended owners and operators of Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODUs) follow Marine Technology Society (MTS) Dynamic Positioning...

  19. Federal Environmental Regulations Impacting Hydrocarbon Exploration, Drilling, and Production Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Herbert B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    Waste handling and disposal from hydrocarbon exploration, drilling, and production are regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) through federal and state regulations and/or through implementation of federal regulations. Some wastes generated in these operations are exempt under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) but are not exempt under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), and other federal environmental laws. Exempt wastes remain exempt only if they are not mixed with hazardous wastes or hazardous substances. Once mixture occurs, the waste must be disposed as a hazardous material in an approved hazardous waste disposal facility. Before the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990, air emissions from production, storage, steam generation, and compression facilities associated with hydrocarbon exploration, drilling, and production industry were not regulated. A critical proposed regulatory change which will significantly effect Class II injection wells for disposal of produced brine and injection for enhanced oil recovery is imminent. Federal regulations affecting hydrocarbon exploration, drilling and production, proposed EPA regulatory changes, and a recent significant US Court of Appeals decision are covered in this report. It appears that this industry will, in the future, fall under more stringent environmental regulations leading to increased costs for operators.

  20. Chemical analyses of potash-bearing horizons from 21 exploratory holes drilled at a tentative site for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Eddy County, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griswold, G.B.

    1977-09-01

    Sandia Laboratories drilled 21 potash drill holes over an 18,960-acre site in east-central Eddy County, New Mexico, to evaluate potash resources as part of their Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project. This report furnishes assay information on samples obtained from the drilling program

  1. Flux dynamics and magnetovoltage measurements in a macroscopic cylindrical hole drilled in BSCCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yetis, H.; Altinkok, A.; Olutas, M. [Abant Izzet Baysal University, Department of Physics, Turgut Gulez Research Laboratory, 14280 Bolu (Turkey); Kilic, A. [Abant Izzet Baysal University, Department of Physics, Turgut Gulez Research Laboratory, 14280 Bolu (Turkey)], E-mail: kilic_a@ibu.edu.tr; Kilic, K. [Abant Izzet Baysal University, Department of Physics, Turgut Gulez Research Laboratory, 14280 Bolu (Turkey)

    2007-10-01

    Slow transport relaxation measurements (V-t curves) and magnetovoltage measurements (V-H curves) were carried out in a polycrystalline sample of Bi{sub 1.7}Pb{sub 0.3}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (BSCCO) with a macroscopic cylindrically drilled hole (CH). The time evolution of quenched state in V-t curves was interpreted in terms of enhancement of the superconducting order parameter and the relaxation of moving entity. Upon cycling of the external magnetic field with different sweep rates, unusual counter clockwise hysteresis effects and asymmetry in V-H curves are observed in BSCCO sample with CH, which can also be correlated to the trapping of the macroscopic flux bundles in CH.

  2. Flux dynamics and magnetovoltage measurements in a macroscopic cylindrical hole drilled in BSCCO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yetis, H.; Altinkok, A.; Olutas, M.; Kilic, A.; Kilic, K.

    2007-01-01

    Slow transport relaxation measurements (V-t curves) and magnetovoltage measurements (V-H curves) were carried out in a polycrystalline sample of Bi 1.7 Pb 0.3 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O x (BSCCO) with a macroscopic cylindrically drilled hole (CH). The time evolution of quenched state in V-t curves was interpreted in terms of enhancement of the superconducting order parameter and the relaxation of moving entity. Upon cycling of the external magnetic field with different sweep rates, unusual counter clockwise hysteresis effects and asymmetry in V-H curves are observed in BSCCO sample with CH, which can also be correlated to the trapping of the macroscopic flux bundles in CH

  3. Measurement of heat treatment induced residual stresses by using ESPI combined with hole-drilling method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Cheng

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, residual stresses in heat treated specimen were measured by using ESPI (Electronic Speckle-Pattern Interferometry combined with the hole-drilling method. The specimen, made of SUS 304 austenitic stainless steel, was quenched and water cooled to room temperature. Numerical simulation using a hybrid FDM/FEM package was also carried out to simulate the heat treatment process. As a result, the thermal stress fields were obtained from both the experiment and the numerical simulation. By comparision of stress fields, results from the experimental method and numerical simulation well agreed to each other, therefore, it is proved that the presented experimental method is applicable and reliable for heat treatment induced residual stress measurement.

  4. Flux dynamics and magnetovoltage measurements in a macroscopic cylindrical hole drilled in BSCCO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetiş, H.; Altinkok, A.; Olutaş, M.; Kiliç, A.; Kiliç, K.

    2007-10-01

    Slow transport relaxation measurements (V-t curves) and magnetovoltage measurements (V-H curves) were carried out in a polycrystalline sample of Bi1.7Pb0.3Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox (BSCCO) with a macroscopic cylindrically drilled hole (CH). The time evolution of quenched state in V-t curves was interpreted in terms of enhancement of the superconducting order parameter and the relaxation of moving entity. Upon cycling of the external magnetic field with different sweep rates, unusual counter clockwise hysteresis effects and asymmetry in V-H curves are observed in BSCCO sample with CH, which can also be correlated to the trapping of the macroscopic flux bundles in CH.

  5. Chemistry and geothermometry of brine produced from the Salton Sea Scientific drill hole, Imperial Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J.M.; Fournier, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    The December 29-30, 1985, flow test of the State 2-14 well, also known as the Salton Sea Scientific drill hole, produced fluid from a depth of 1865-1877 m at a reservoir temperature of 305????5??C. Samples were collected at five different flashing pressures. The brines are Na-Ca-K-Cl-type waters with very high metal and low SO4 and HCO3 contents. Compositions of the flashed brines were normalized relative to the 25??C densities of the solutions, and an ionic charge balance was achieved by adjusting the Na concentration. Calculated Na/K geothermometer temperatures, using equations suggested by different investigators, range from 326?? to 364??C. The Mg/K2 method gives a temperature of about 350??C, Mg/Li2 about 282??, and Na/Li 395??-418??C. -from Authors

  6. Basaltic litho-stratigraphy of Ocean Drilling Program Hole 504B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, P.K.; Lovell, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Hole 504B is located in 5.9 Ma old crust to the south of the Costa Rica Rift. It has been drilled and cored successively on three occasions to a total depth of 1562.1 m below the sea floor and penetrates both basaltic pillows and dykes. Appraisal of the drilled section is difficult because of the low proportion of recovered material (average 20%). In September 1986 a suite of downhole nuclear logs were run. Part of this sequence, the interval 4200-4600 m below sea level, which covers the pillow-dyke transition zone, has been used in this study. The log derived geochemical estimates may be explained in terms of the basaltic mineralogy with the superimposed effects of alteration. Poor correlation between laboratory-measured and log-derived geochemical estimates are due to this alteration, problems of sampling and the absence of a boron sleeve when the tools were run. Alteration and sampling account for the much greater observed variations in the log data and the bias in SiO 2 and CaO abundances. Statistical analysis allows the logs to be presented in the form of a ''geochemical stratigraphy'' which correlates well with the known sequence within the interval studied. (author)

  7. A study for high accuracy measurement of residual stress by deep hole drilling technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Houichi; Okano, Shigetaka; Mochizuki, Masahito

    2012-08-01

    The deep hole drilling technique (DHD) received much attention in recent years as a method for measuring through-thickness residual stresses. However, some accuracy problems occur when residual stress evaluation is performed by the DHD technique. One of the reasons is that the traditional DHD evaluation formula applies to the plane stress condition. The second is that the effects of the plastic deformation produced in the drilling process and the deformation produced in the trepanning process are ignored. In this study, a modified evaluation formula, which is applied to the plane strain condition, is proposed. In addition, a new procedure is proposed which can consider the effects of the deformation produced in the DHD process by investigating the effects in detail by finite element (FE) analysis. Then, the evaluation results obtained by the new procedure are compared with that obtained by traditional DHD procedure by FE analysis. As a result, the new procedure evaluates the residual stress fields better than the traditional DHD procedure when the measuring object is thick enough that the stress condition can be assumed as the plane strain condition as in the model used in this study.

  8. Mesoscopic Structural Observations of Cores from the Chelungpu Fault System, Taiwan Chelungpu-Fault Drilling Project Hole-A, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Sone

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural characteristics of fault rocks distributed within major fault zones provide basic information in understanding the physical aspects of faulting. Mesoscopic structural observations of the drilledcores from Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project Hole-A are reported in this article to describe and reveal the distribution of fault rocks within the Chelungpu Fault System.

  9. Influence of friction on buckling of a drill string in the circular channel of a bore hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Gulyayev

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Enhancement of technology and techniques for drilling deep directed oil and gas bore hole is one of the most important problems of the current petroleum industry. Not infrequently, the drilling of these bore holes is attended by occurrence of extraordinary situations associated with technical accidents. Among these is the Eulerian loss of stability of a drill string in the channel of a curvilinear bore hole. Methods of computer simulation should play a dominant role in prediction of these states. In this paper, a new statement of the problem of critical buckling of the drill strings in 3D curvilinear bore holes is proposed. It is based on combined use of the theory of curvilinear elastic rods, Eulerian theory of stability, theory of channel surfaces, and methods of classical mechanics of systems with nonlinear constraints. It is noted that the stated problem is singularly perturbed and its solutions have the shapes of localized harmonic wavelets. The calculation results showed that the friction effects lead to essential redistribution of internal axial forces, as well as changing the eigenmode shapes and sites of their localization. These features make the buckling phenomena less predictable and raise the role of computer simulation of these effects.

  10. Mineralogy of drill holes J-13, UE-25A No. 1, and USW G-1 at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bish, D.L.; Chipera, S.J.

    1986-09-01

    The mineralogy of drill holes J-13, UE-25A No. 1, and USW G-1 was previously determined using qualitative and semiquantitative techniques, and most of the available data were neither complete nor accurate. New quantitative x-ray diffraction data were obtained for rocks from all three of these drill holes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These quantitative analyses employed both external and internal standard x-ray powder diffraction methods and permitted the precise determination of all phases commonly found in the tuffs at Yucca Mountain, including glass and opal-CT. These new data supplant previous analyses and include numerous additional phases. New findings of particular importance include better constraints on the distribution of the more soluble silica polymorphs, cristobalite and opal-CT. Opal-CT was associated solely with clinoptilolite-bearing horizons, and cristobalite disappearance coincided with the appearance of analcime in USW G-1. Unlike previous analyses, we identified significant amounts of smectite in drill hole J-13. We found no evidence to support previous reports of the occurrence of erionite or phillipsite in these drill holes

  11. Tool path planning of hole-making operations in ejector plate of injection mould using modified shuffled frog leaping algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol M. Dalavi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of hole-making operations in manufacturing industry plays a vital role. Tool travel and tool switch planning are the two major issues in hole-making operations. Many industrial applications such as moulds, dies, engine block, automotive parts etc. requires machining of large number of holes. Large number of machining operations like drilling, enlargement or tapping/reaming are required to achieve the final size of individual hole, which gives rise to number of possible sequences to complete hole-making operations on the part depending upon the location of hole and tool sequence to be followed. It is necessary to find the optimal sequence of operations which minimizes the total processing cost of hole-making operations. In this work, therefore an attempt is made to reduce the total processing cost of hole-making operations by applying relatively new optimization algorithms known as shuffled frog leaping algorithm and proposed modified shuffled frog leaping algorithm for the determination of optimal sequence of hole-making operations. An industrial application example of ejector plate of injection mould is considered in this work to demonstrate the proposed approach. The obtained results by the shuffled frog leaping algorithm and proposed modified shuffled frog leaping algorithm are compared with each other. It is seen from the obtained results that the results of proposed modified shuffled frog leaping algorithm are superior to those obtained using shuffled frog leaping algorithm.

  12. Laser-drilled micro-hole arrays on polyurethane synthetic leather for improvement of water vapor permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.; Wang, A.H.; Zheng, R.R.; Tang, H.Q.; Qi, X.Y.; Ye, B.

    2014-01-01

    Three kinds of lasers at 1064, 532 and 355 nm wavelengths respectively were adopted to construct micro-hole arrays on polyurethane (PU) synthetic leather with an aim to improve water vapor permeability (WVP) of PU synthetic leather. The morphology of the laser-drilled micro-holes was observed to optimize laser parameters. The WVP and slit tear resistance of the laser-drilled leather were measured. Results show that the optimized pulse energy for the 1064, 532 and 355 nm lasers are 0.8, 1.1 and 0.26 mJ, respectively. The diameters of the micro-holes drilled with the optimized laser pulse energy were about 20, 15 and 10 μm, respectively. The depths of the micro-holes drilled with the optimized pulse energy were about 21, 60 and 69 μm, respectively. Compared with the untreated samples, the highest WVP growth ratio was 38.4%, 46.8% and 53.5% achieved by the 1064, 532 and 355 nm lasers, respectively. And the highest decreasing ratio of slit tear resistance was 11.1%, 14.8%, and 22.5% treated by the 1064, 532 and 355 nm lasers, respectively. Analysis of the interaction mechanism between laser beams at three kinds of laser wavelengths and the PU synthetic leather revealed that laser micro-drilling at 355 nm wavelength displayed both photochemical ablation and photothermal ablation, while laser micro-drilling at 1064 and 532 nm wavelengths leaded to photothermal ablation only.

  13. Laser-drilled micro-hole arrays on polyurethane synthetic leather for improvement of water vapor permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Wang, A. H.; Zheng, R. R.; Tang, H. Q.; Qi, X. Y.; Ye, B.

    2014-06-01

    Three kinds of lasers at 1064, 532 and 355 nm wavelengths respectively were adopted to construct micro-hole arrays on polyurethane (PU) synthetic leather with an aim to improve water vapor permeability (WVP) of PU synthetic leather. The morphology of the laser-drilled micro-holes was observed to optimize laser parameters. The WVP and slit tear resistance of the laser-drilled leather were measured. Results show that the optimized pulse energy for the 1064, 532 and 355 nm lasers are 0.8, 1.1 and 0.26 mJ, respectively. The diameters of the micro-holes drilled with the optimized laser pulse energy were about 20, 15 and 10 μm, respectively. The depths of the micro-holes drilled with the optimized pulse energy were about 21, 60 and 69 μm, respectively. Compared with the untreated samples, the highest WVP growth ratio was 38.4%, 46.8% and 53.5% achieved by the 1064, 532 and 355 nm lasers, respectively. And the highest decreasing ratio of slit tear resistance was 11.1%, 14.8%, and 22.5% treated by the 1064, 532 and 355 nm lasers, respectively. Analysis of the interaction mechanism between laser beams at three kinds of laser wavelengths and the PU synthetic leather revealed that laser micro-drilling at 355 nm wavelength displayed both photochemical ablation and photothermal ablation, while laser micro-drilling at 1064 and 532 nm wavelengths leaded to photothermal ablation only.

  14. The interpretation of geochemical logs from the oceanic basement: mineral modelling in Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 735B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, P.K.; Lovell, M.A.; Bristow, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    Leg 118 of the Ocean Drilling Program was carried out in the vicinity of the Southwest Indian Ridge. Of the boreholes drilled, by far the most important and scientifically spectacular is Hole 735B which was located on a shallow platform adjacent to the Atlantis II Transform. This hole penetrates some 500 m of gabbroic rocks representing Layer 3 of the oceanic crust. The recovered gabbros show considerable variation both in mineralogy and in the degree of deformation. Core recovery averages 87% and there is excellent control and correlation between the core and the wide range of logs obtained. Mineralogy logs are derived and presented using both core sample data and downhole geochemical logs for Hole 735B. The problems of transforming these data for the particular mineralogy encountered are discussed. (Author)

  15. Advanced Drilling through Diagnostics-White-Drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FINGER, JOHN T.; GLOWKA, DAVID ANTHONY; LIVESAY, BILLY JOE; MANSURE, ARTHUR J.; PRAIRIE, MICHAEL R.

    1999-01-01

    A high-speed data link that would provide dramatically faster communication from downhole instruments to the surface and back again has the potential to revolutionize deep drilling for geothermal resources through Diagnostics-While-Drilling (DWD). Many aspects of the drilling process would significantly improve if downhole and surface data were acquired and processed in real-time at the surface, and used to guide the drilling operation. Such a closed-loop, driller-in-the-loop DWD system, would complete the loop between information and control, and greatly improve the performance of drilling systems. The main focus of this program is to demonstrate the value of real-time data for improving drilling. While high-rate transfer of down-hole data to the surface has been accomplished before, insufficient emphasis has been placed on utilization of the data to tune the drilling process to demonstrate the true merit of the concept. Consequently, there has been a lack of incentive on the part of industry to develop a simple, low-cost, effective high-speed data link. Demonstration of the benefits of DWD based on a high-speed data link will convince the drilling industry and stimulate the flow of private resources into the development of an economical high-speed data link for geothermal drilling applications. Such a downhole communication system would then make possible the development of surface data acquisition and expert systems that would greatly enhance drilling operations. Further, it would foster the development of downhole equipment that could be controlled from the surface to improve hole trajectory and drilling performance. Real-time data that would benefit drilling performance include: bit accelerations for use in controlling bit bounce and improving rock penetration rates and bit life; downhole fluid pressures for use in the management of drilling hydraulics and improved diagnosis of lost circulation and gas kicks; hole trajectory for use in reducing directional

  16. On-line depth measurement for laser-drilled holes based on the intensity of plasma emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chao-Ching; Chiu, Chih-Mu; Chang, Yuan-Jen; Hsu, Jin-Chen; Kuo, Chia-Lung

    2014-09-01

    The direct time-resolved depth measurement of blind holes is extremely difficult due to the short time interval and the limited space inside the hole. This work presents a method that involves on-line plasma emission acquisition and analysis to obtain correlations between the machining processes and the optical signal output. Given that the depths of laser-machined holes can be estimated on-line using a coaxial photodiode, this was employed in our inspection system. Our experiments were conducted in air under normal atmospheric conditions without gas assist. The intensity of radiation emitted from the vaporized material was found to correlate with the depth of the hole. The results indicate that the estimated depths of the laser-drilled holes were inversely proportional to the maximum plasma light emission measured for a given laser pulse number.

  17. Spectral and spatial resolving of photoelectric property of femtosecond laser drilled holes of GaSb(1-x)Bi(x).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, C B; Zha, F X; Song, Y X; Shao, J; Dai, Y; Chen, X R; Ye, J Y; Wang, S M

    2015-07-15

    Femtosecond laser drilled holes of GaSbBi were characterized by the joint measurements of photoconductivity (PC) spectroscopy and laser-beam-induced current (LBIC) mapping. The excitation light in PC was focused down to 60 μm presenting the spectral information of local electronic property of individual holes. A redshift of energy band edge of about 6-8 meV was observed by the PC measurement when the excitation light irradiated on the laser drilled holes. The spatial resolving of photoelectric property was achieved by the LBIC mapping which shows "pseudo-holes" with much larger dimensions than the geometric sizes of the holes. The reduced LBIC current with the pseudo-holes is associated with the redshift effect indicating that the electronic property of the rim areas of the holes is modified by the femtosecond laser drilling.

  18. DALI - drilling advisor with logic interpretations: methodological issues for designing underbalanced drilling operations. Improving efficiency using case-based reasonic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, Gustavo A.; Velazquez C, David [Mexican Oil Institute, Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    A system that applies a method of knowledge-intensive case-based reasoning, for repair and prevention of unwanted events in the domain of offshore oil well drilling, has been developed in cooperation with an oil company. From several reoccurring problems during oil well drilling the problem of 'lost circulation', i.e. loss of circulating drilling fluid into the geological formation, was picked out as a pilot problem. An extensive general knowledge model was developed for the domain of oil well drilling. Different cases were created on the basis of information from one Mexican Gulf operator. When the completed CBR-system was tested against a new case, cases with descending similarity were selected by the tool. In an informal evaluation, the two best fitting cases proved to give the operator valuable advise on how to go about solving the new case (author)

  19. Lake Eĺ gygytgyn Drilling under way: State of the operation and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melles, M.; Brigham-Grette, J.; Minyuk, P.; Koeberl, C.; Scientific Party, EĺGygytgyn

    2009-04-01

    Lake Eĺgygytgyn, located in central Chukotka, NE Siberia, was formed 3.6 million years ago by a meteorite impact and has never been glaciated or desiccated. This makes Lake Eĺgygytgyn a unique target of an interdisciplinary, multi-national drilling campaign, which currently is carried out as part of the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP). Drilling operations started in Nov./Dec. 2008, when a 142 m long sediment core was retrieved from the permafrost deposits in the western lake catchment by the local drilling company Chaun Mine Geological Company (CGE). The core penetrated coarse-grained, ice-rich alluvial sediments with variable contents of fine-grained material. It will be investigated for the environmental history, including potential lake-level changes, and the permafrost characteristics, in order to learn more about the influences of catchment changes on the lake sedimentation. Besides, the hole was permanently instrumented for future ground temperature monitoring as part of the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (www.gtnp.org/index_e.html). The major drilling effort will commence in Febr. 2009, when two sites in the central part of Lake Eĺgygytgyn shall be drilled down to 630 m below the lake floor. Drilling will be carried out by DOSECC, using a new GLAD 800 system that will be operated from an enclosed platform on the lake ice. Drilling objectives include replicate overlapping cores from the up to 420 m thick lake sediment fill. The cores promise to yield the longest, most continuous record of climate change in the terrestrial Arctic, extending back one million years prior to the intensification of the Northern Hemisphere Glaciation at the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary, thus offering unique insight into the climatic and environmental history of the Arctic and its comparison with records from lower latitude marine and terrestrial sites to better understand hemispheric and global climate change. Coring shall be continued up to 300 m

  20. Propagation of Measurement-While-Drilling Mud Pulse during High Temperature Deep Well Drilling Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hongtao; Meng, Yingfeng; Li, Gao; Wei, Na; Liu, Jiajie; Ma, Xiao; Duan, Mubai; Gu, Siman; Zhu, Kuanliang; Xu, Xiaofeng

    2013-01-01

    Signal attenuates while Measurement-While-Drilling (MWD) mud pulse is transmited in drill string during high temperature deep well drilling. In this work, an analytical model for the propagation of mud pulse was presented. The model consists of continuity, momentum, and state equations with analytical solutions based on the linear perturbation analysis. The model can predict the wave speed and attenuation coefficient of mud pulse. The calculated results were compared with the experimental dat...

  1. The Role of Well Control Training in Developing Safe Onshore and Offshore Oil Drilling Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulhassn, Aber

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates the role of the International Well Control Forum (IWCF) Rotary Drilling Well Control Training Program in developing safe oil drilling operations from the perspective of onshore and offshore drilling crews. The research methodology is a qualitative case study. A total of 40 IWCF candidates were interviewed, with 10 from…

  2. Evaluation of four biodegradable, injectable bone cements in an experimental drill hole model in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rechenberg, Brigitte; Génot, Oliver R; Nuss, Katja; Galuppo, Larry; Fulmer, Mark; Jacobson, Evan; Kronen, Peter; Zlinszky, Kati; Auer, Jörg A

    2013-09-01

    Four cement applications were tested in this investigation. Two dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD-brushite) hydraulic cements, an apatite hydraulic fiber loaded cement, and a calcium sulfate cement (Plaster of Paris) were implanted in epiphyseal and metaphyseal cylindrical bone defects in sheep. The in vivo study was performed to assess the biocompatibility and bone remodeling of four cement formulations. After time periods of 2, 4, and 6 months, the cement samples were clinically and histologically evaluated. Histomorphometrically, the amount of new bone formation, fibrous tissue, and bone marrow and the area of remaining cement were measured. In all specimens, no signs of inflammation were detectable either macroscopically or microscopically. Cements differed mainly in their resorption time. Calcium sulfate was already completely resorbed at 2 months and showed a variable amount of new bone formation and/or fibrous tissue in the original drill hole over all time periods. The two DCPD cements in contrast were degraded to a large amount at 6 months, whereas the apatite was almost unchanged over all time periods. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. The archaeology of drill hole U20bc, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLane, A.R.; Hemphill, M.L.; Livingston, S.J.; Pippin, L.C.; Walsh, L.A.

    1992-01-01

    Impacts to four sites near drill hole U20bc on Pahute Mesa in the northwestern part of the Nevada Test Site were mitigated through data recovery. The work was done during 1988 by the Desert Research Institute for the Department of Energy, Nevada Field Office (DOE/NV)- The four sites that warranted data recovery were 26NY3171, 26NY3173, 26NY5561 and 26NY5566. These sites had previously been determined eligible to the National Register of Historic Places. They were temporary camps that contained lithic debitage, projectile points, milling stones and pottery, and therefore contributed significant information concerning the prehistory of the area. The study of the archaeological remains shows that the prehistoric people subsisted on plant foods and game animals as determined by the artifacts including manos, metates, pottery, lithic scrapers, and projectile points. The time sensitive arfifacts (pottery and diagnostic points) suggest that the region was used from about 12,000 B.P. to just before the historic period, possibly 150 years ago. DOE/NV has met its obligation to mitigate adverse impacts to the cultural resources at U20bc. Therefore, it is recommended that this project proceed as planned

  4. Temperature measurements in small holes drilled in superconducting bulk during pulsed field magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishiro, H.; Naito, T.; Furuta, D.; Kakehata, K.

    2010-11-01

    The time dependence of the temperatures T(z, t) has been measured along the thickness direction z in several drilled holes in a superconducting bulk during pulsed field magnetization (PFM) and the heat generation and heat transfer in the bulk have been discussed. In the previous paper [H. Fujishiro, S. Kawaguchi, K. Kakehata, A. Fujiwara, T. Tateiwa, T. Oka, Supercond. Sci. Technol. 19 (2006) S540], we calculated the T(z, t) profiles in the bulk by solving a three-dimensional heat-diffusion equation to reproduce the measured T(t) on the bulk surface; the heat generation took place adiabatically and the calculated T(z, t) was isothermal along the z direction. In this study, the measured T(z, t) at the top surface was higher than that at the bottom surface just after the pulse field application at t < 0.5 s, and then became isothermal with increasing time. These results suggest that the magnetic flux intrudes inhomogeneously into the bulk from the edge of the top surface and the periphery at the early stage. The inhomogeneous magnetic flux intrusion and the flux trap during PFM change depending on the strength of the pulsed field and the pulse number in the successive pulse field application.

  5. Preliminary geologic and geophysical data of the UE25a-3 exploratory drill hole, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldonado, F.; Muller, D.C.; Morrison, J.N.

    1979-09-01

    The UE25a-3 drill hole, located in the Calico Hills area, was drilled as part of an effort to evaluate the Calico Hills area as a possible nuclear waste repository site. The purpose of the drill hole was to verify the existence of an intrusive crystalline body in the subsurface and to determine the stratigraphy, structure, and nature of fractures of the cored rocks. Cored samples were obtained for mineral, chemical, and material property analyses. Numerous high-angle faults and brecciated zones were intersected by the drill hole. The units cored were intensely fractured with fracture analysis of the core consisting of frequency of fractures, dips of fractures, open and closed (sealed) fractures and types of fracture sealing or coating material. Twenty-four hundred and thirty fractures, representing approximately 30 percent of the fractures present, indicate an average fracture frequency of 13.2 fractures per meter, predominantly high-angle dips with 66 percent of the fractures closed. Fractures in the argillite interval are sealed or coated predominantly with kaolinite, nacrite, and dickite. Calcite, chlorite, and magnetite are present in fractures in the altered argillite interval. Fractures in the marble interval are sealed or coated with calcite, dolomite, and ferruginous clay. The core index indicates that the lower half of the drilled interval is more competent than the upper half. Borehole geophysical logs were run by the Birdwell Division of Seismograph Service Corporation for geologic correlations and lithologic characterizations. The logs include: caliper, density, resistivity, spontaneous potential, Vibroseis, 3-D velocity, neutron, and gamma-ray logs

  6. Detailed petrographic descriptions and microprobe data for tertiary silicic volcanic rocks in drill hole USW G-1, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caporuscio, F.A.; Warren, R.G.; Broxton, D.E.

    1985-12-01

    This report contains detailed petrographic descriptions of 74 thin sections from drill hole USW G-1 at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These descriptions are keyed to the distinctions between devitrified, vitrophyre, vitric, and zeolitized intervals below the Topopah Spring Member repository horizon. The petrographic features of the zeolitized intervals down through the Crater Flat tuff, as well as the sorption properties determined from these intervals, suggest that these zeolite occurrences may each have comparable sorptive capability.

  7. Preliminary report on the geology and geophysics of drill hole UE25a-1, Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spengler, R.W.; Muller, D.C.; Livermore, R.B.

    1979-01-01

    A subsurface geologic study in connection with the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations has furnished detailed stratigraphic and structural information about tuffs underlying northeastern Yucca Mountain on the Nevada Test Site. Drill hole UE25a-1 penetrated thick sequences of nonwelded to densely welded ash-flow and bedded tuffs of Tertiary age. Stratigraphic units that were identified from the drill-hole data include the Tiva Canyon and Topopah Spring Members of the Paintbrush Tuff, tuffaceous beds of Calico Hills, and the Prow Pass and Bullfrog Members of the Crater Flat Tuff. Structural analysis of the core indicated densely welded zones to be highly fractured. Many fractures show near-vertical inclinations and are commonly coated with secondary silica, manganese and iron oxides, and calcite. Five falt zones were recognized, most of which occurred in the Topopah Spring Member. Shear fractures commonly show oblique-slip movement and some suggest a sizable component of lateral compression. Graphic logs are included that show the correlation of lithology, structural properties, and geophysical logs. Many rock units have characteristic log responses but highly fractured zones, occurring principally in the Tiva Canyon and Topopah Spring Members restricted log coverage to the lower half of the drill hole

  8. Mathematical basis for the process of model simulation of drilling operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipovetskiy, G M; Lebedinskiy, G L

    1979-01-01

    The authors describe the application of a method for the model simulation of drilling operations and for the solution of problems concerned with the planning and management of such operations. A description is offered for an approach to the simulator process when the drilling operations are part of a large system. An algorithm is provided for calculating complex events.

  9. Detailed petrographic descriptions and microprobe data for drill holes USW-G2 and UE25b-1H, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broxton, D.; Vaniman, D.; Caporuscio, F.; Arney, B.; Heiken, G.

    1982-10-01

    Drill holes USW-G2 and UE25b-1H at Yucca Mountain, Nevada penetrate a thick sequence of volcanic rocks consisting of voluminous ash-flow tuffs, intercalated with thin bedded tuffs and minor lavas. This report provides detailed petrologic descriptions that were summarized in an earlier report. Microprobe analyses of feldspars and mafic phenocrysts as well as secondary feldspars are tabulated for these drill holes for the first time in this report

  10. Drilling the leading edge of the mantle wedge and the underlying metamorphic sole of the Samail Ophiolite: Hole BT1B, Oman Drilling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, T.; Kelemen, P. B.; Coggon, J. A.; Harris, M.; Matter, J. M.; Michibayashi, K.; Takazawa, E.; Teagle, D. A. H.

    2017-12-01

    Hole BT1B (23°21.861' N, 58°10.957' E) was drilled by the Oman Drilling Project (OmDP) on the north side of Wadi Mansah in the Samail ophiolite, Oman. OmDP is an international collaboration supported by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program, Deep Carbon Observatory, NSF, IODP, JAMSTEC, and the European, Japanese, German and Swiss Science Foundations, with in-kind support in Oman from the Ministry of Regional Municipalities and Water Resources, Public Authority of Mining, Sultan Qaboos University, and the German University of Technology. Hole BT1B was cored from 6 to 23 March 2017, to a depth of 300.05 m. The outer surfaces of the cores were imaged and described onsite before being curated, boxed and shipped to the IODP drill ship Chikyu. Hole BT1B sampled carbonated peridotite (listvenite), 2 carbonate-veined serpentinite bands at 80-100 and 180-185 m depth, a few cm of ultracataclasite and 70 cm of fault gouge at 197 m depth, followed by 103 m metamorphic sole. Onboard Chikyu, BT1B underwent X-ray computed tomography (CT) and multi-sensor logging, imaging and spectroscopy, macroscopic and thin section observations, physical properties measurements, and XRF, XRD and ICP-MS analyses. 1st authors of abstracts reporting initial results are Beinlich (matrix characteristics), de Obeso (modeling mass transfer), Godard (XRF and ICP-MS whole rock data), Greenberger (infrared spectroscopy), Johnson (XRF core scanner), Kelemen (overall petrology), Manning (veins), and Michibayashi (X-ray CT). Listvenite is composed of carbonate + quartz + Fe-oxyhydroxides, + minor relict spinel ± chromian mica (fuchsite). The mineralogy suggests formation at < 150°C. The bulk rock density is similar to that of gabbro but the P-wave velocity is generally higher. Rock textures suggest viscous deformation, while additional brittle deformation is recorded by older veins and younger breccias and faults. The metamorphic sole consists of fine-grained to microcrystalline

  11. Local Operators in the Eternal Black Hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadodimas, Kyriakos; Raju, Suvrat

    2015-11-20

    In the AdS/CFT correspondence, states obtained by Hamiltonian evolution of the thermofield doubled state are also dual to an eternal black-hole geometry, which is glued to the boundary with a time shift generated by a large diffeomorphism. We describe gauge-invariant relational observables that probe the black hole interior in these states and constrain their properties using effective field theory. By adapting recent versions of the information paradox we show that these observables are necessarily described by state-dependent bulk-boundary maps, which we construct explicitly.

  12. Percussion drilling cone penetrometer with wireless operating in-tip gaschromatograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracht, C.; Matz, G. [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Percussion drilling cone penetrometric analysis is the fast alternative to soil sampling and laboratory analyses. Online detection enables the characterization of a large variety of contaminants in soil. This becomes very important in the reactivation of contaminated sites. Therefore a new system has been constructed, which avoids tedious harness handling through the penetrometer drill rods and minimizes the time for an analysis down to 30 minutes per drill hole. This system enables the in-situ analysis of soil gases up to a depth of 10 to 15 meters. This system consists of a remote controlled in-tip mounted gaschromatograph, a special gas inlet module and a data transfer unit including a rechargeable battery pack. The modules are shock proved to be suitable for percussion drilling techniques and can be removed easily for maintenance. A PDA (Pocket PC) controls the subsoil gaschromatograph unit, calculates and displays the concentration of the detected compounds and stores the acquired data. The gaschromatograph until is optimized to analyze VOCs e.g. BTEX within 10 seconds per analysis. It consists of a loop inlet, a capillary column and a Photo Ionization Detector. It is microcontroller operated and battery powered. The inlet module is optimized soil gases. It includes a sensor and solenoid valve system for water protection and humidity acquisition while drilling. A completely charged battery pack provides up to three hours of analyses. It could be exchanged fast and easy to enable continuous analyses. Digital data transfer between subsoil unit and surface is provided wireless by IR light through the rods. On surface data is transferred wireless by BLUETOOTH radio link to the PDA. The depth of the penetrometer, global position and local time are acquired on-line onto the surface and are transferred on request by BLUETOOTH radio link to the PDA. The wireless data transfer and battery powered modules avoid time consuming cable handling and enable this cone

  13. Experimental study on effects of drilling parameters on respirable dust production during roof bolting operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hua; Luo, Yi; McQuerrey, Joe

    2018-02-01

    Underground coalmine roof bolting operators exhibit a continued risk for overexposure to airborne levels of respirable coal and crystalline silica dust from the roof drilling operation. Inhaling these dusts can cause coal worker's pneumoconiosis and silicosis. This research explores the effect of drilling control parameters, specifically drilling bite depth, on the reduction of respirable dust generated during the drilling process. Laboratory drilling experiments were conducted and results demonstrated the feasibility of this dust control approach. Both the weight and size distribution of the dust particles collected from drilling tests with different bite depths were analyzed. The results showed that the amount of total inhalable and respirable dust was inversely proportional to the drilling bite depth. Therefore, control of the drilling process to achieve proper high-bite depth for the rock can be an important approach to reducing the generation of harmful dust. Different from conventional passive engineering controls, such as mist drilling and ventilation approaches, this approach is proactive and can cut down the generation of respirable dust from the source. These findings can be used to develop an integrated drilling control algorithm to achieve the best drilling efficiency as well as reducing respirable dust and noise.

  14. Local Operators in the Eternal Black Hole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papadodimas, Kyriakos; Raju, Suvrat

    2015-01-01

    In the AdS/CFT correspondence, states obtained by Hamiltonian evolution of the thermofield doubled state are also dual to an eternal black-hole geometry, which is glued to the boundary with a time shift generated by a large diffeomorphism. We describe gauge-invariant relational observables that

  15. Influence of veneer thickness on residual stress profile in veneering ceramic: measurement by hole-drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainjot, Amélie K; Schajer, Gary S; Vanheusden, Alain J; Sadoun, Michaël J

    2012-02-01

    The veneering process of frameworks induces residual stresses and can initiate cracks when combined with functional stresses. The stress distribution within the veneering ceramic as a function of depth is a key factor influencing failure by chipping. This is a well-known problem with Yttria-tetragonal-zirconia-polycrystal based fixed partial dentures. The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of veneer thickness on the stress profile in zirconia- and metal-based structures. The hole-drilling method, often used for engineering measurements, was adapted for use with veneering ceramic. The stress profile was measured in bilayered disc samples of 20 mm diameter, with a 1 mm thick zirconia or metal framework. Different veneering ceramic thicknesses were performed: 1 mm, 1.5 mm, 2 mm, 2.5 mm and 3 mm. All samples exhibited the same type of stress vs. depth profile, starting with compressive at the ceramic surface, decreasing with depth up to 0.5-1.0 mm from the surface, and then becoming compressive again near the framework, except for the 1.5 mm-veneered zirconia samples which exhibited interior tensile stresses. Stresses in the surface of metal samples were not influenced by veneer thickness. Variation of interior stresses at 1.2 mm from the surface in function of veneer thickness was inverted for metal and zirconia samples. Veneer thickness influences in an opposite way the residual stress profile in metal- and in zirconia-based structures. A three-step approach and the hypothesis of the crystalline transformation are discussed to explain the less favorable residual stress development in zirconia samples. Copyright © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of cooling rate on residual stress profile in veneering ceramic: measurement by hole-drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainjot, Amélie K; Schajer, Gary S; Vanheusden, Alain J; Sadoun, Michaël J

    2011-09-01

    The manufacture of dental crowns and bridges generates residual stresses within the veneering ceramic and framework during the cooling process. Residual stress is an important factor that control the mechanical behavior of restorations. Knowing the stress distribution within the veneering ceramic as a function of depth can help the understanding of failures, particularly chipping, a well-known problem with Yttria-tetragonal-zirconia-polycrystal based fixed partial dentures. The objective of this study is to investigate the cooling rate dependence of the stress profile in veneering ceramic layered on metal and zirconia frameworks. The hole-drilling method, often used for engineering measurements, was adapted for use with veneering ceramic. The stress profile was measured in bilayered disc samples 20 mm in diameter, with a 0.7 mm thick metal or Yttria-tetragonal-zirconia-polycrystal framework and a 1.5mm thick veneering ceramic. Three different cooling procedures were investigated. The magnitude of the stresses in the surface of the veneering ceramic was found to increase with cooling rate, while the interior stresses decreased. At the surface, compressive stresses were observed in all samples. In the interior, compressive stresses were observed in metal samples and tensile in zirconia samples. Cooling rate influences the magnitude of residual stresses. These can significantly influence the mechanical behavior of metal-and zirconia-based bilayered systems. The framework material influenced the nature of the interior stresses, with zirconia samples showing a less favorable stress profile than metal. Copyright © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigation on hole manufacture in 42CrMo4 steel using 3-flute carbide drills and 6-flute cermet reamers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Pavel; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2009-01-01

    An investigation on cutting forces and hole quality using carbide 3-flute self-centering drills and 6-flute cermet reamers was performed on 42CrMo4 alloy steel. Different depths of cuts were analyzed with respect to cutting thrust and cutting torque, hole diameter, form and surface integrity. Goo...

  18. Geological-geotechnical studies for siting the Superconducting Super Collider in Illinois: results of drilling large-diameter holes in 1986. Environmental geology notes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaiden, R.C.; Hasek, M.J.; Gendron, C.R.; Curry, B.B.; Graese, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) has completed an extensive four-year exploration of the area near Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) at Batavia, 30 miles west of Chicago. The comprehensive investigation was conducted to locate the most suitable site for construction and operation of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) - a 20-trillion electron volt (TeV) subatomic particle accelerator. Underlying the proposed site in northeastern Illinois, between 250 and 600 feet deep, are the Galena and Platteville dolomites - strong, stable, nearly impermeable bedrock. To confirm that these bedrock units are suitable for construction of the SSC, ISGS geologists designed a four-year study including test drilling, rock sampling and analysis, geophysical logging, hydrogeologic studies, and seismic exploration. Initially, the study covered parts of six counties. Subsequent research focused on successively smaller areas until the final stage of test drilling in spring 1986 concentrated on a proposed corridor for the SSC tunnel. From 1984 to 1986, thirty 3-inch-diameter test holes were drilled and more than 2 miles of bedrock core was recovered for stratigraphic description and geotechnical analysis

  19. Propagation of Measurement-While-Drilling Mud Pulse during High Temperature Deep Well Drilling Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Signal attenuates while Measurement-While-Drilling (MWD mud pulse is transmited in drill string during high temperature deep well drilling. In this work, an analytical model for the propagation of mud pulse was presented. The model consists of continuity, momentum, and state equations with analytical solutions based on the linear perturbation analysis. The model can predict the wave speed and attenuation coefficient of mud pulse. The calculated results were compared with the experimental data showing a good agreement. Effects of the angular frequency, static velocity, mud viscosity, and mud density behavior on speed and attenuation coefficients were included in this paper. Simulated results indicate that the effects of angular frequency, static velocity, and mud viscosity are important, and lower frequency, viscosity, and static velocity benefit the transmission of mud pulse. Influenced by density behavior, the speed and attenuation coefficients in drill string are seen to have different values with respect to well depth. For different circulation times, the profiles of speed and attenuation coefficients behave distinctly different especially in lower section. In general, the effects of variables above on speed are seen to be small in comparison.

  20. Analysis of the custom design/fabrication/testing requirements for a large-hole drilling machine for use in an underground radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grams, W.H.; Gnirk, P.F.

    1976-01-01

    This report presents an analysis of the fabrication and field test requirements for a drilling machine that would be applicable to the drilling of large diameter holes for the emplacement of radioactive waste canisters in an underground repository. On the basis of a previous study in 1975 by RE/SPEC Inc. for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, it was concluded that none of the commercially available machines were ideally suited for the desired drilling application, and that it was doubtful whether a machine with the required capabilities would become available as a standard equipment item. The results of the current study, as presented herein, provide a definitive basis for selecting the desired specifications, estimating the design, fabrication, and testing costs, and analyzing the cost-benefit characteristics of a custom-designed drilling machine for the emplacement hole drilling task

  1. Lithologic and geophysical logs of drill holes Felderhoff Federal 5-1 and 25-1, Amargosa Desert, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, W.J.; Grow, J.A.; Keller, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    Two wildcat oil and gas exploration holes drilled in 1991 on the northern edge of the Amargosa Desert penetrated Tertiary and Quaternary sedimentary rocks, alluvium, and basalt, possible Tertiary volcanic or volcaniclastic rocks, and Tertiary (?) and Paleozoic carbonate rocks. The easternmost of the two holes, Felderhoff-Federal 5-1, encountered about 200 feet of alluvium, underlain by 305 feet of basalt breccia and basalt, about 345 feet of probable Tertiary tuffaceous sedimentary rocks, and 616 feet of dense limestone and dolomite of uncertain age. Drill hole 25-1 penetrated 240 feet of alluvium and marl (?), and 250 feet of basalt breccia (?) and basalt, 270 feet of tuff (?) and/or tuffaceous sedimentary rocks, 360 feet of slide blocks (?) and large boulders of Paleozoic carbonate rocks, and 2,800 feet of Paleozoic limestone and dolomite. The two drill holes are located within a northerly trending fault zone defined largely by geophysical data; this fault zone lies along the east side of a major rift containing many small basalt eruptive centers and, farther north, several caldera complexes. Drill hole 25-1 penetrated an inverted paleozoic rock sequence; drill hole 5-1 encountered two large cavities 24-inches wide or more in dense carbonate rock of uncertain, but probable Paleozoic age. These openings may be tectonic and controlled by a regional system of northeast-striking faults

  2. Results of exploratory drill hole UE7nS East-Central Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagoner, J.L.; Ramspott, L.D.

    1981-01-01

    Exploratory hole UE7nS was drilled to a depth of 672.1 m in East-Central Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, as part of a program sponsored by the Nuclear Monitoring Office (NMO) of the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). The purpose of the program is to determine the geologic and geophysical characteristics of selected locations that have demonstrated anomalous seismic signals. The purpose for drilling UE7nS was to provide the aforementioned data for emplacement site U7n. This report presents lithologic and stratigraphic descriptions, geophysical logs, physical properties, and water table measurements. An analysis of these data has been made and a set of recommended values is presented

  3. Results of exploratory drill hole UE7nS East-Central Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagoner, J.L.; Ramspott, L.D.

    1981-03-02

    Exploratory hole UE7nS was drilled to a depth of 672.1 m in East-Central Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, as part of a program sponsored by the Nuclear Monitoring Office (NMO) of the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). The purpose of the program is to determine the geologic and geophysical characteristics of selected locations that have demonstrated anomalous seismic signals. The purpose for drilling UE7nS was to provide the aforementioned data for emplacement site U7n. This report presents lithologic and stratigraphic descriptions, geophysical logs, physical properties, and water table measurements. An analysis of these data has been made and a set of recommended values is presented.

  4. Residual stress measurement of electron beam welded copper plates using prism hole drilling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laakkonen, M.

    2013-12-01

    Eleven electron beam (EB) welded copper plates were measured in this investigation with Prism hole drilling equipment made by Stresstech Oy. All samples contained a linear weld in their center. Two different sets of plates were measured in this investigation. The first set included five samples (X436, X437, X438, X439 and X440) which were welded using four different welding speeds. Samples X439 and X440 were welded with the same speed but X440 is the only sample of the set that received a cosmetic pass. The second set received heat treatments at four different temperatures. Samples X456 and X458 were annealed at the same temperature but sample X456 received a cosmetic pass while X458 did not. Samples X455 and X457 were both annealed at a different temperature, with (X455) or without (X457) the cosmetic pass. Two areas were machined from the samples. About five millimeters was machined from the surfaces on the both of areas. Machined surfaces located on the top surfaces. The measurement points on the top surface are located on the weld and 20 mm and 120 mm from the weld on machined areas. Lower surface measurements are located -20 mm, 20 mm and 120 mm from the weld. All measurements were about 122 mm from the edges perpendicular to the weld. The top surfaces of all samples were machined in two areas across the weld. About 5 mm were removed. Stress measurements on the top surfaces were performed in these two areas, on the weld and 20 mm and 120 mm away from the weld. Stresses were also measured on the back sides, at -20 mm, 20 mm and 120 mm distance from the weld. All measurement locations were about 122mm from the sample edges. Most of the measurements give tensile strengths from 0 MPa to 30 MPa. Stresses parallel to the weld were slightly higher than weld stresses in transverse direction. The machined surfaces have residual stress values above 30 MPa near the surface. (orig.)

  5. Residual stress measurement of electron beam welded copper plates using prism hole drilling method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laakkonen, M. [Stresstech Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2013-12-15

    Eleven electron beam (EB) welded copper plates were measured in this investigation with Prism hole drilling equipment made by Stresstech Oy. All samples contained a linear weld in their center. Two different sets of plates were measured in this investigation. The first set included five samples (X436, X437, X438, X439 and X440) which were welded using four different welding speeds. Samples X439 and X440 were welded with the same speed but X440 is the only sample of the set that received a cosmetic pass. The second set received heat treatments at four different temperatures. Samples X456 and X458 were annealed at the same temperature but sample X456 received a cosmetic pass while X458 did not. Samples X455 and X457 were both annealed at a different temperature, with (X455) or without (X457) the cosmetic pass. Two areas were machined from the samples. About five millimeters was machined from the surfaces on the both of areas. Machined surfaces located on the top surfaces. The measurement points on the top surface are located on the weld and 20 mm and 120 mm from the weld on machined areas. Lower surface measurements are located -20 mm, 20 mm and 120 mm from the weld. All measurements were about 122 mm from the edges perpendicular to the weld. The top surfaces of all samples were machined in two areas across the weld. About 5 mm were removed. Stress measurements on the top surfaces were performed in these two areas, on the weld and 20 mm and 120 mm away from the weld. Stresses were also measured on the back sides, at -20 mm, 20 mm and 120 mm distance from the weld. All measurement locations were about 122mm from the sample edges. Most of the measurements give tensile strengths from 0 MPa to 30 MPa. Stresses parallel to the weld were slightly higher than weld stresses in transverse direction. The machined surfaces have residual stress values above 30 MPa near the surface. (orig.)

  6. Magnetic properties of cores from the Wenchuan Earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling Hole-2 (WFSD-2), China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L., Jr.; Sun, Z.; Li, H.; Cao, Y.; Ye, X.; Wang, L.; Zhao, Y.; Han, S.

    2015-12-01

    During an earthquake, seismic slip and frictional heating may cause the physical and chemical alterations of magnetic minerals within the fault zone. Rock magnetism provides a method for understanding earthquake dynamics. The Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling Project (WFSD) started right after 2008 Mw7.9 Wenchuan earthquake, to investigate the earthquake faulting mechanism. Hole 2 (WFSD-2) is located in the Pengguan Complex in the Bajiaomiao village (Dujiangyan, Sichuan), and reached the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault (YBF). We measured the surface magnetic susceptibility of the cores in WFSD-2 from 500 m to 1530 m with an interval of 1 cm. Rocks at 500-599.31 m-depth and 1211.49-1530 m-depth are from the Neoproterozoic Pengguang Complex while the section from 599.31 m to 1211.49 m is composed of Late Triassic sediments. The magnetic susceptibility values of the first part of the Pengguan Complex range from 1 to 25 × 10-6 SI, while the second part ranges from 10 to 200 × 10-6 SI, which indicate that the two parts are not from the same rock units. The Late Triassic sedimentary rocks have a low magnetic susceptibility values, ranging from -5 to 20 × 10-6 SI. Most fault zones coincide with the high value of magnetic susceptibility in the WFSD-2 cores. Fault rocks, mainly fault breccia, cataclasite, gouge and pseudotachylite within the WFSD-2 cores, and mostly display a significantly higher magnetic susceptibility than host rocks (5:1 to 20:1). In particular, in the YBF zone of the WFSD-2 cores (from 600 to 960 m), dozens of stages with high values of magnetic susceptibility have been observed. The multi-layered fault rocks with high magnetic susceptibility values might indicate that the YBF is a long-term active fault. The magnetic susceptibility values change with different types of fault rocks. The gouge and pseudotachylite have higher values of magnetic susceptibility than other fault rocks. Other primary rock magnetism analyses were then performed to

  7. Methodology for definition of bending radius and pullback force in HDD (Horizontal Directional Drilling) operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Danilo Machado L. da; Rodrigues, Marcos V. [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Venaas, Asle [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Oslo (Norway); Medeiros, Antonio Roberto de [Subsea 7 (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    Bending is a primary loading experienced by pipelines during installation and operation. Significant bending in the presence of tension is experienced during installation by the S-lay method, as the pipe conforms to the curvature of the stinger and beyond in the over bend region. Bending in the presence of external pressure is experienced in the sag bend of all major installation methods (e.g., reeling, J-lay, S-lay) as well as in free-spans on the sea floor. Bending is also experienced by pipelines during installation by horizontal directional drilling. HDD procedures are increasingly being utilized around the world not only for crossings of rivers and other obstacles but also for shore approach of offshore pipelines. During installation the pipeline experience a combination of tensile, bending, and compressive stresses. The magnitude of these stresses is a function of the approach angle, bending radius, pipe diameter, length of the borehole, and the soil properties at the site. The objective of this paper is to present an overview of some aspects related to bending of the product pipe during HDD operations, which is closely related to the borehole path as the pipeline conforms to the curvature of the hole. An overview of the aspects related to tensile forces is also presented. The combined effect of bending and tensile forces during the pullback operation is discussed. (author)

  8. Integral analysis of the drill string dynamic behaviour to optimize drilling operation; Analise integrada do comportamento dinamico da coluna para otimizacao de perfuracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Araken [Smith International do Brasil, Macae, RJ (Brazil); Placido, Joao C.R.; Percy, Joseir G.; Falcao, Jose; Freire, Helena; Ono, Eduardo H.; Masculo, Miguel S. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Azuaga, Denise; Frenzel, Mark [Smith International Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    For a performance preview of a drilling system is necessary a dynamic and integrated modeling for understanding all system forces resulting from the combination of the rock strength, cut structure action, drilling parameters, BHA and all others drilling components. This study must predict, for the drill string, vibrations and torsions, from bit to surface, its origins and its effects, and provides the best way to reduce these vibrations, determining the best bit, BHA and drilling parameters. Thereby, this study eliminates the trial and error approach and the operation risks. This paper aims to present studies of optimization for two drilling wells conducted in Brazil, one in Santos Basin and other in Campos Basin, and compares the numerical simulations results with the data from drilling operations. (author)

  9. Measurement of laser absorptivity for operating parameters characteristic of laser drilling regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M; Berthe, L; Fabbro, R; Muller, M [Laboratoire pour l' Application des Lasers de Puissance, UPR CNRS no1578, 16 Bis, Avenue Prieur de la Cote D' Or, 94114 Arcueil Cedex (France)], E-mail: matthieu.schneider@gmail.com

    2008-08-07

    Laser drilling in the percussion regime is commonly used in the aircraft industry to drill sub-millimetre holes in metallic targets. Characteristic laser intensities in the range of 10 MW cm{sup -2} are typically employed for drilling metallic targets. With these intensities the temperature of the irradiated matter is above the vaporization temperature and the drilling process is led by hydrodynamic effects. Although the main physical processes involved are identified, this process is not correctly understood or completely controlled. A major characteristic coefficient of laser-matter interaction for this regime, which is the absorptivity of the laser on the irradiated surface, is still unknown, because of the perturbing effects due to laser beam geometrical trapping inside the drilled hole. So, by using time resolved experiments, this study deals with the direct measurement of the variation of the intrinsic absorption of aluminium, nickel and steel materials, as a function of the incident laser intensity up to 20 MW cm{sup -2}. We observe that for this incident intensity, the absorptivity can reach up to 80%. This very high and unexpected value is discussed by considering the microscopic behaviour of the heated matter near the vapour-liquid interface that undergoes possible Rayleigh-Taylor instability or volume absorption.

  10. Measurement of laser absorptivity for operating parameters characteristic of laser drilling regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, M.; Berthe, L.; Fabbro, R.; Muller, M.

    2008-08-01

    Laser drilling in the percussion regime is commonly used in the aircraft industry to drill sub-millimetre holes in metallic targets. Characteristic laser intensities in the range of 10 MW cm-2 are typically employed for drilling metallic targets. With these intensities the temperature of the irradiated matter is above the vaporization temperature and the drilling process is led by hydrodynamic effects. Although the main physical processes involved are identified, this process is not correctly understood or completely controlled. A major characteristic coefficient of laser-matter interaction for this regime, which is the absorptivity of the laser on the irradiated surface, is still unknown, because of the perturbing effects due to laser beam geometrical trapping inside the drilled hole. So, by using time resolved experiments, this study deals with the direct measurement of the variation of the intrinsic absorption of aluminium, nickel and steel materials, as a function of the incident laser intensity up to 20 MW cm-2. We observe that for this incident intensity, the absorptivity can reach up to 80%. This very high and unexpected value is discussed by considering the microscopic behaviour of the heated matter near the vapour-liquid interface that undergoes possible Rayleigh-Taylor instability or volume absorption.

  11. Listvenite formation from peridotite: Insights from Oman Drilling Project hole BT1B and preliminary reaction path model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Obeso, J. C.; Kelemen, P. B.; Manning, C. E.; Michibayashi, K.; Harris, M.

    2017-12-01

    Oman Drilling Project hole BT1B drilled 300 meters through the basal thrust of the Samail ophiolite. The first 200 meters of this hole are dominated by listvenites (completely carbonated peridotites) and serpentinites. Below 200 meters the hole is mainly composed of metasediments and metavolcanics. This core provides a unique record of interaction between (a) mantle peridotite in the leading edge of the mantle wedge and (b) hydrous, CO2 rich fluids derived from subducting lithologies similar to those in the metamorphic sole. We used EQ3/6 to simulate a reaction path in which hydrous fluid in equilibrium with qtz + calcite + feldspar + chlorite or smectite reacts with initially fresh peridotite at 100°C (the estimated temperature of alteration, Falk & Kelemen GCA 2015) and 5 kb. Water was first equilibrated with minerals observed during core description in the metamorphic sole at 100°C and 5kb. This fluid is then reacted with olivine enstatite and diopside (Mg#90) approximating the average composition of residual mantle peridotite (harzburgite) in Oman. Secondary minerals resulting from complete reaction are then reacted again with the initial fluid in an iterative process, up to water/rock > 1000. Water/rock close to 1 results in complete serpentinization of the peridotite, with chrysotile, brucite and magnetite as the only minerals. Water/rock >10 produces carbonates, chlorite and talc. Further increasing water/rock to > 100 produces assemblages dominated by carbonates and quartz with minor muscovite, similar to listvenites of hole BT1B that contain qtz + carbonates + Fe-oxyhydroxides + relict spinel ± chromian muscovite and fuchsite. The results of this preliminary model are consistent with the complex veining history of core from BT1B, with carbonate/iron oxide veins in both listvenites and serpentinites interpreted to be the earliest record of peridotite carbonation after initial serpentinization.

  12. Wellsite computers--their increasing role in drilling operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keenan, P.G.; Dyson, P.M.

    1981-01-01

    The increasing expense and complexity of exploration drilling, coupled with rapid advances in computer and microprocessor technology, have led to the development of computer-assisted wellsite logging units from their humble beginnings as simple hot wire gas detectors. The main applications of this technology can be recognized in the following areas: (a) Safety of wellsite personnel, rig and downhole equipment. (b) Increased drilling efficiency with the resultant time and cost savings. (c) Simulation of possible events allowing comparisons between actual and expected data to assist decision making at the wellsite. (d) Storage of data on tape/disk to allow rapid retrieval of data for postwell analysis and report production. 6 refs

  13. Stress analysis of thermal sprayed coatings using a semi-destructive hole-drilling strain gauge method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolhof, V.; Musil, J.; Cepera, M.; Zeman, J.

    1995-01-01

    Residual stress is an important parameter in coating technology since it often relates to the maximum coating thickness which can be deposited without spallation, and this applies to coatings produced by different thermal spray and thin film technologies. Indeed, the mechanisms by which residual stress is built up or locked into a coating depends markedly on the deposition process and coating structure (growth structure, phase composition) in the same way too. Methods for determining residual stresses in materials include both destructive and non-destructive methods. This contribution describes semi-destructive hole-drilling strain gauge method modified for measurement of residual stresses in thermal sprayed coatings. This method of stress analysis was used for determination of stress levels in thermal sprayed WC-17% Co coatings onto 13% Cr steel substrates. Results show that deposition conditions and final coating structure influence directly the residual stress level in the coatings. It is proved that semi-destructive hole-tube drilling measurement is effective reproducible method of coating stress analysis and good solution for optimization of deposition process

  14. Interpretation of geophysical well-log measurements in drill hole UE25a-1, Nevada Test Site, Radioactive Waste Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagstrum, J.T.; Daniels, J.J.; Scott, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    An exploratory hole (UE25a-1) was drilled at Nevada Test Site (NTS) to determine the suitability of pyroclastic deposits as storage sites for radioactive waste. Studies have been conducted to investigate the stratigraphy, structure, mineralogy, petrology, and physical properties of the tuff units encountered in the drill hole. This report deals with the interpretation of physical properties for the tuff units from geophysical well-log measurements. The ash-flow and bedded tuff sequences at NTS comprise complex lithologies of variously welded tuffs with superimposed crystallization and altered zones. To characterize these units, resistivity, density, neutron, gamma-ray, induced polarization, and magnetic susceptibility geophysical well-log measurements were made. Although inherently subjective, a consistent interpretation of the well-log measurements was facilitated by a computer program designed to interpret well logs either individually or simultaneously. The broad features of the welded tuff units are readily distinguished by the geophysical well-log measurements. However, many details revealed by the logs indicate that more work is necessary to clarify the casual elements of well-log response in welded tuffs

  15. Minimization of the hole overcut and cylindricity errors during rotary ultrasonic drilling of Ti-6Al-4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, M.; Anwar, S.; El-Tamimi, A.; Pervaiz, S.

    2018-04-01

    Titanium and its alloys e.g. Ti6Al4V have widespread applications in aerospace, automotive and medical industry. At the same time titanium and its alloys are regarded as difficult to machine materials due to their high strength and low thermal conductivity. Significant efforts have been dispensed to improve the accuracy of the machining processes for Ti6Al4V. The current study present the use of the rotary ultrasonic drilling (RUD) process for machining high quality holes in Ti6Al4V. The study takes into account the effects of the main RUD input parameters including spindle speed, ultrasonic power, feed rate and tool diameter on the key output responses related to the accuracy of the drilled holes including cylindricity and overcut errors. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to study the influence of the input parameters on cylindricity and overcut error. Later, regression models were developed to find the optimal set of input parameters to minimize the cylindricity and overcut errors.

  16. An evaluation of calculation procedures affecting the constituent factors of equivalent circulating density for drilling hydraulics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, William J

    1997-12-31

    This Dr. ing. thesis covers a study of drilling hydraulics offshore. The purpose of drilling hydraulics is to provide information about downhole pressure, suitable surface pump rates, the quality of hole cleaning and optimum tripping speeds during drilling operations. Main fields covered are drilling hydraulics, fluid characterisation, pressure losses, and equivalent circulating density. 197 refs., 23 figs., 22 tabs.

  17. An evaluation of calculation procedures affecting the constituent factors of equivalent circulating density for drilling hydraulics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, William J.

    1996-12-31

    This Dr. ing. thesis covers a study of drilling hydraulics offshore. The purpose of drilling hydraulics is to provide information about downhole pressure, suitable surface pump rates, the quality of hole cleaning and optimum tripping speeds during drilling operations. Main fields covered are drilling hydraulics, fluid characterisation, pressure losses, and equivalent circulating density. 197 refs., 23 figs., 22 tabs.

  18. 76 FR 76689 - Cibola National Forest, Mount Taylor Ranger District, NM, Mount Taylor Combined Exploratory Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... National Forest, Mount Taylor Ranger District, NM, Mount Taylor Combined Exploratory Drilling AGENCY... proposed action is to approve two Plans of Operations for exploratory uranium drilling on the Cibola... San Mateo. In total, there are up to 279 drill holes that would be drilled over a period not to exceed...

  19. Study of the location of testing area in residual stress measurement by Moiré interferometry combined with hole-drilling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Le; Xie, HuiMin; Zhu, RongHua; Wu, Dan; Che, ZhiGang; Zou, ShiKun

    2014-04-01

    This paper investigates the effect of the location of testing area in residual stress measurement by Moiré interferometry combined with hole-drilling method. The selection of the location of the testing area is analyzed from theory and experiment. In the theoretical study, the factors which affect the surface released radial strain ɛ r were analyzed on the basis of the formulae of the hole-drilling method, and the relations between those factors and ɛ r were established. By combining Moiré interferometry with the hole-drilling method, the residual stress of interference-fit specimen was measured to verify the theoretical analysis. According to the analysis results, the testing area for minimizing the error of strain measurement is determined. Moreover, if the orientation of the maximum principal stress is known, the value of strain will be measured with higher precision by the Moiré interferometry method.

  20. Simultaneous sand control and liner cement system: keeping well productivity by optimizing drilling and completion operations in mature fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa, Andrea Nicolino de; Silva, Dayana Nunes e; Calderon, Agostinho [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The need to reduce oil extraction costs by increasing the recovery factor in mature fields unconsolidated sandstone reservoirs motivated the development of drilling and completion techniques that integrate the various interfaces of engineering the well, resulting in a final well configuration that provides maximum oil production at a lower cost. Due to the continued growth of drilling and completion of new wells or deviation of old wells in the design of mesh density field with an advanced degree of exploitation, PETROBRAS took the challenge to seek options for projects well, in order to maintain productivity and reduce their construction time, with the optimization of drilling and sand control systems. To achieve these goals, PETROBRAS developed the SCARS - Simultaneous Sand Control and Liner Cementing System, a pioneer technique in the global oil industry, which consists of a one trip sequence of operations in which sand control screens and liner are installed followed by the open hole gravel pack operation performed with the alpha and beta waves deposition technique, using a non aqueous system as a carrier fluid. The sequence is completed by liner cementing in the same trip. The great success of this project was based on the definition of a specific application scenario and demands allowing optimization of the system. This project started with the development of a non aqueous system as a gravel pack carrier fluid in order to perform an open hole gravel pack with the alpha/beta wave deposition technique along with the development and optimization of SCARS procedures. This article details the planning and execution phases of this project and also presents a broad description of the technical aspects. (author)

  1. Certain problems in the economics of deep drilling operations conducted in the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umanskiy, L.M.; Repina, I.S.

    1981-01-01

    The authors provide analysis and evaluation of technical-economic indicators for borehole drilling conducted at great depths in the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Republic. Suggestions are made for improving such drilling operations in this area.

  2. Abrasive water jet drilling of cooling holes in aeroengines: preliminary experimental study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlaváček, Petr; Zlámal, T.; Sitek, Libor

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2018), s. 2218-2222 ISSN 1803-1269 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406; GA MPO(CZ) FV10446 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : abrasive water jet * drilling * thermal barrier coating Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools OBOR OECD: Mechanical engineering http://www.mmscience.eu/2018.html

  3. Thermal numerical assessment of jawbone drilling factor during implantology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Pirjamali Neisiani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Optimization drilling parameters in order to temperature decrease during creation of hole in the bone is an interested issue. The aim of this study was to achieve optimum values of drilling parameters based on the creation of minimum temperature during jawbone drilling. Materials and Methods: In this study two models of mandible and maxilla was created and teeth 2, 5 and 8 from maxilla and teeth 25, 28 and 31 from mandible were removed. The drilling operation was performed under different conditions on jawbone models using finite element analysis and the maximum temperatures were measured in adjacent of holes. Results: Drill bit head angle of 70 degrees was created the lowest maximum temperature during drilling operation. The lowest maximum temperatures were observed in the drill bit rotational speed, drill bit feed rate and the force exerted on the drill bit equal to 200 rpm, 120 mm/min and 60 N, respectively. The use of irrigation can decrease the maximum bone temperature about 7ºC. The maximum temperature differences in various regions of mandible and maxilla were approximately about 1ºC. Conclusion: Sharpness of drill bit head angle, reduction of drill bit rotational speed, increasing drill bit feed rate and exerted force on drill bit and also the use of irrigation played effective roles in temperature decrease during jawbone drilling. Drilling site did not have important effect on the temperature changes during jawbone drilling.

  4. Weld residual stresses near the bimetallic interface in clad RPV steel: A comparison between deep-hole drilling and neutron diffraction data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, M.N., E-mail: mjames@plymouth.ac.uk [School of Marine Science and Engineering, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Newby, M.; Doubell, P. [Eskom Holdings SOC Ltd, Lower Germiston Road, Rosherville, Johannesburg (South Africa); Hattingh, D.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Serasli, K.; Smith, D.J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bristol, Queen' s Building, University Walk, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Identification of residual stress trends across bimetallic interface in stainless clad RPV. • Comparison between deep hole drilling (DHD – stress components in two directions) and neutron diffraction (ND – stress components in three directions). • Results indicate that both techniques can assess the trends in residual stress across the interface. • Neutron diffraction gives more detailed information on transient residual stress peaks. - Abstract: The inner surface of ferritic steel reactor pressure vessels (RPV) is clad with strip welded austenitic stainless steel primarily to increase the long-term corrosion resistance of the ferritic vessel. The strip welding process used in the cladding operation induces significant residual stresses in the clad layer and in the RPV steel substrate, arising both from the thermal cycle and from the very different thermal and mechanical properties of the austenitic clad layer and the ferritic RPV steel. This work measures residual stresses using the deep hole drilling (DHD) and neutron diffraction (ND) techniques and compares residual stress data obtained by the two methods in a stainless clad coupon of A533B Class 2 steel. The results give confidence that both techniques are capable of assessing the trends in residual stresses, and their magnitudes. Significant differences are that the ND data shows greater values of the tensile stress peaks (∼100 MPa) than the DHD data but has a higher systematic error associated with it. The stress peaks are sharper with the ND technique and also differ in spatial position by around 1 mm compared with the DHD technique.

  5. Weld residual stresses near the bimetallic interface in clad RPV steel: A comparison between deep-hole drilling and neutron diffraction data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, M.N.; Newby, M.; Doubell, P.; Hattingh, D.G.; Serasli, K.; Smith, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Identification of residual stress trends across bimetallic interface in stainless clad RPV. • Comparison between deep hole drilling (DHD – stress components in two directions) and neutron diffraction (ND – stress components in three directions). • Results indicate that both techniques can assess the trends in residual stress across the interface. • Neutron diffraction gives more detailed information on transient residual stress peaks. - Abstract: The inner surface of ferritic steel reactor pressure vessels (RPV) is clad with strip welded austenitic stainless steel primarily to increase the long-term corrosion resistance of the ferritic vessel. The strip welding process used in the cladding operation induces significant residual stresses in the clad layer and in the RPV steel substrate, arising both from the thermal cycle and from the very different thermal and mechanical properties of the austenitic clad layer and the ferritic RPV steel. This work measures residual stresses using the deep hole drilling (DHD) and neutron diffraction (ND) techniques and compares residual stress data obtained by the two methods in a stainless clad coupon of A533B Class 2 steel. The results give confidence that both techniques are capable of assessing the trends in residual stresses, and their magnitudes. Significant differences are that the ND data shows greater values of the tensile stress peaks (∼100 MPa) than the DHD data but has a higher systematic error associated with it. The stress peaks are sharper with the ND technique and also differ in spatial position by around 1 mm compared with the DHD technique

  6. Drilling the near cortex with elongated figure-of-8 holes to reduce the stiffness of a locking compression plate construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jerry Yongqiang; Zhou, Zhihong; Ang, Benjamin Fu Hong; Yew, Andy Khye Soon; Chou, Siaw Meng; Chia, Shi-Lu; Koh, Joyce Suang Bee; Howe, Tet Sen

    2015-12-01

    To compare the stiffness of locking compression plate (LCP) constructs with or without drilling the near cortex with elongated figure-of-8 holes. 24 synthetic bones were sawn to create a 10-mm gap and were fixed with a 9-hole 4.5-mm narrow LCP. In 12 bones, the near cortex of the adjacent holes to the LCP holes was drilled to create elongated figure-of-8 holes before screw insertion. The stiffness of LCP constructs under axial loading or 4-point bending was assessed by (1) dynamic quasi-physiological testing for fatigue strength, (2) quasi-static testing for stiffness, and (3) testing for absolute strength to failure. None of the 24 constructs had subcatastrophic or catastrophic failure after 10 000 cycles of fatigue loading (p=1.000). The axial stiffness reduced by 16% from 613±62 to 517±44 N/mm (p=0.012) in the case group, whereas the bending stiffness was 16±1 Nm2 in both groups (p=1.000). The maximum axial load to catastrophic failure was 1596±84 N for the control group and 1627±48 N for the case group (p=0.486), whereas the maximum bending moment to catastrophic failure was 79±12 and 80±10 Nm, respectively (p=0.919). Drilling the near cortex with elongated figure-of-8 holes reduces the axial stiffness of the LCP construct, without compromising its bending stiffness or strength.

  7. Stratigraphy and structure of volcanic rocks in drill hole USW-G1, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spengler, R.W.; Byers, F.M. Jr.; Warner, J.B.

    1981-01-01

    Detailed subsurface studies in connection with the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations program are being conducted to investigate the stratigraphic and structural features of volcanic rocks underlying Yucca Mountain, a volcanic highland situated along the western boundary of the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. As part of this continuing effort, drill hole USW-G1 was cored from 292 ft to a depth of 6000 ft from March to August 1980. The stratigraphic section is composed of thick sequences of ash-flow tuff and volcanic breccia interbedded with subordinate amounts of fine- to coarse-grained volcaniclastic rocks. All rocks are of Tertiary age and vary in composition from rhyolite to dacite. The 3005-ft level in the drill hole represents a significant demarcation between unaltered and altered volcanic rocks. For the most part, tuff units above 3005 ft appear devitrified and show little secondary alteration except within tuffaceous beds of Calico Hills, where the rock contains 60 to 80% zeolites. Below 3005 ft, most rocks show intermittent to pervasive alteration to clay minerals and zeolites. Examination of core for structural features revealed the presence of 61 shear fractures, 528 joints, and 4 conspicuous fault zones. Shear fractures mainly occurred in the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff, flow breccia, and near fault zones. Nearly 88% of shear and joint surfaces show evidence of coatings. Approximately 40% of the fractures were categorized as completely healed. Rock quality characteristics as defined by the core index indicate that greater amounts of broken and lost core are commonly associated with (1) the densely welded zone of the Topopah Spring, (2) highly silicified zones, and (3) fault zones

  8. Elemental Geochemistry of Samples From Fault Segments of the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) Drill Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourscher, S. N.; Schleicher, A. M.; van der Pluijm, B. A.; Warr, L. N.

    2006-12-01

    Elemental geochemistry of mudrock samples from phase 2 drilling of the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) is presented from bore hole depths of 3066 m to 3169 m and from 3292 m to 3368 m, which contain a creeping section and main trace of the fault, respectively. In addition to preparation and analysis of whole rock sample, fault grains with neomineralized, polished surfaces were hand picked from well-washed whole rock samples, minimizing the potential contamination from drilling mud and steel shavings. The separated fractions were washed in deionized water, powdered using a mortar and pestle, and analyzed using an Inductively Coupled Plasma- Optical Emission Spectrometer for major and minor elements. Based on oxide data results, systematic differences in element concentrations are observed between the whole rock and fault rock. Two groupings of data points are distinguishable in the regions containing the main trace of the fault, a shallow part (3292- 3316 m) and a deeper section (3320-3368 m). Applying the isocon method, assuming Zr and Ti to be immobile elements in these samples, indicates a volume loss of more than 30 percent in the shallow part and about 23 percent in the deep part of the main trace. These changes are minimum estimates of fault-related volume loss, because the whole rock from drilling samples contains variable amount of fault rock as well. Minimum estimates for volume loss in the creeping section of the fault are more than 50 percent when using the isocon method, comparing whole rock to plucked fault rock. The majority of the volume loss in the fault rocks is due to the dissolution and loss of silica, potassium, aluminum, sodium and calcium, whereas (based on oxide data) the mineralized surfaces of fractures appear to be enriched in Fe and Mg. The large amount of element mobility within these fault traces suggests extensive circulation of hydrous fluids along fractures that was responsible for progressive dissolution and leaching

  9. Implementation and Development of the Incremental Hole Drilling Method for the Measurement of Residual Stress in Thermal Spray Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, T.; Bartuli, C.; Sebastiani, M.; Loreto, A.

    2005-12-01

    The experimental measurement of residual stresses originating within thick coatings deposited by thermal spray on solid substrates plays a role of fundamental relevance in the preliminary stages of coating design and process parameters optimization. The hole-drilling method is a versatile and widely used technique for the experimental determination of residual stress in the most superficial layers of a solid body. The consolidated procedure, however, can only be implemented for metallic bulk materials or for homogeneous, linear elastic, and isotropic materials. The main objective of the present investigation was to adapt the experimental method to the measurement of stress fields built up in ceramic coatings/metallic bonding layers structures manufactured by plasma spray deposition. A finite element calculation procedure was implemented to identify the calibration coefficients necessary to take into account the elastic modulus discontinuities that characterize the layered structure through its thickness. Experimental adjustments were then proposed to overcome problems related to the low thermal conductivity of the coatings. The number of calculation steps and experimental drilling steps were finally optimized.

  10. Petrochemical variation of Topopah Spring tuff matrix with depth (stratigraphic level), drill hole USW G-4, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byers, F.M. Jr.

    1985-12-01

    This study describes and interprets petrochemical variation of the matrix (excluding fractures and large gas cavities) of the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff. This tuff includes the candidate host rock for a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain on the Nevada Test Site. Cored hole USW G-4, near the site of a potential exploratory shaft at Yucca Mountain, penetrated 359.4 m (1179 ft) of the member within the unsaturated zone. This study shows that petrographic textures and chemistry of the matrix vary systematically within recognizable lithologic subunits related to crystallization (cooling) zones, welding (compaction) zones, and compositional zones (rhyolite versus quartz latite). The methods used for this study include petrographic modal thin section analysis using an automated counter and electron microprobe analysis of the groundmass. Distinctive textural categories are defined, and they can be ranked from finest to coarsest as vitrophyre (glass), cryptocrystalline groundmass, spherulites, granophyre, lithic fragments, and phenocrysts. The two main groundmass compositions are also defined: rhyolite high silica) and quartz latite. The value of these petrochemical studies lies in providing microscopic criteria for recognizing the zonal subunits where they may have greatly limited exposure, as in mined drifts and in core from horizontal drill holes. For example, the lower nonlithophysal zone can be distinguished microscopically from the middle nonlithophysal zone by (1) degree of compaction, (2) amount of quartz, and (3) amount of lithic fragments. The variability between these textural categories should also be considered in designing physical and chemical tests of the Topopah Spring

  11. Petrochemical variation of Topopah Spring tuff matrix with depth (stratigraphic level), drill hole USW G-4, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byers, F.M. Jr.

    1985-12-01

    This study describes and interprets petrochemical variation of the matrix (excluding fractures and large gas cavities) of the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff. This tuff includes the candidate host rock for a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain on the Nevada Test Site. Cored hole USW G-4, near the site of a potential exploratory shaft at Yucca Mountain, penetrated 359.4 m (1179 ft) of the member within the unsaturated zone. This study shows that petrographic textures and chemistry of the matrix vary systematically within recognizable lithologic subunits related to crystallization (cooling) zones, welding (compaction) zones, and compositional zones (rhyolite versus quartz latite). The methods used for this study include petrographic modal thin section analysis using an automated counter and electron microprobe analysis of the groundmass. Distinctive textural categories are defined, and they can be ranked from finest to coarsest as vitrophyre (glass), cryptocrystalline groundmass, spherulites, granophyre, lithic fragments, and phenocrysts. The two main groundmass compositions are also defined: rhyolite high silica) and quartz latite. The value of these petrochemical studies lies in providing microscopic criteria for recognizing the zonal subunits where they may have greatly limited exposure, as in mined drifts and in core from horizontal drill holes. For example, the lower nonlithophysal zone can be distinguished microscopically from the middle nonlithophysal zone by (1) degree of compaction, (2) amount of quartz, and (3) amount of lithic fragments. The variability between these textural categories should also be considered in designing physical and chemical tests of the Topopah Spring.

  12. Nondestructive continuous physical property measurements of core samples recovered from hole B, Taiwan Chelungpu-Fault Drilling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirono, Tetsuro; Yeh, En-Chao; Lin, Weiren; Sone, Hiroki; Mishima, Toshiaki; Soh, Wonn; Hashimoto, Yoshitaka; Matsubayashi, Osamu; Aoike, Kan; Ito, Hisao; Kinoshita, Masataka; Murayama, Masafumi; Song, Sheng-Rong; Ma, Kuo-Fong; Hung, Jih-Hao; Wang, Chien-Ying; Tsai, Yi-Ben; Kondo, Tomomi; Nishimura, Masahiro; Moriya, Soichi; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Fujiki, Toru; Maeda, Lena; Muraki, Hiroaki; Kuramoto, Toshikatsu; Sugiyama, Kazuhiro; Sugawara, Toshikatsu

    2007-07-01

    The Taiwan Chelungpu-Fault Drilling Project was undertaken in 2002 to investigate the faulting mechanism of the 1999 Mw 7.6 Taiwan Chi-Chi earthquake. Hole B penetrated the Chelungpu fault, and core samples were recovered from between 948.42- and 1352.60-m depth. Three major zones, designated FZB1136 (fault zone at 1136-m depth in hole B), FZB1194, and FZB1243, were recognized in the core samples as active fault zones within the Chelungpu fault. Nondestructive continuous physical property measurements, conducted on all core samples, revealed that the three major fault zones were characterized by low gamma ray attenuation (GRA) densities and high magnetic susceptibilities. Extensive fracturing and cracks within the fault zones and/or loss of atoms with high atomic number, but not a measurement artifact, might have caused the low GRA densities, whereas the high magnetic susceptibility values might have resulted from the formation of magnetic minerals from paramagnetic minerals by frictional heating. Minor fault zones were characterized by low GRA densities and no change in magnetic susceptibility, and the latter may indicate that these minor zones experienced relatively low frictional heating. Magnetic susceptibility in a fault zone may be key to the determination that frictional heating occurred during an earthquake on the fault.

  13. Monitoring radionuclides in subsurface drinking water sources near unconventional drilling operations: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Andrew W.; Knight, Andrew W.; Eitrheim, Eric S.; Schultz, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    Unconventional drilling (the combination of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling) to extract oil and natural gas is expanding rapidly around the world. The rate of expansion challenges scientists and regulators to assess the risks of the new technologies on drinking water resources. One concern is the potential for subsurface drinking water resource contamination by naturally occurring radioactive materials co-extracted during unconventional drilling activities. Given the rate of expansion, opportunities to test drinking water resources in the pre- and post-fracturing setting are rare. This pilot study investigated the levels of natural uranium, lead-210, and polonium-210 in private drinking wells within 2000 m of a large-volume hydraulic fracturing operation – before and approximately one-year following the fracturing activities. Observed radionuclide concentrations in well waters tested did not exceed maximum contaminant levels recommended by state and federal agencies. No statistically-significant differences in radionuclide concentrations were observed in well-water samples collected before and after the hydraulic fracturing activities. Expanded monitoring of private drinking wells before and after hydraulic fracturing activities is needed to develop understanding of the potential for drinking water resource contamination from unconventional drilling and gas extraction activities. - Highlights: • Natural radionuclides in ground water near unconventional drilling operations were investigated. • Natural uranium ( nat U), lead-210 ( 210 Pb), and polonium-210 ( 210 Po) levels are described. • No statistically significant increases in natural radioactivity post-drilling were observed

  14. Long-term impacts of unconventional drilling operations on human and animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, Michelle; Oswald, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Public health concerns related to the expansion of unconventional oil and gas drilling have sparked intense debate. In 2012, we published case reports of animals and humans affected by nearby drilling operations. Because of the potential for long-term effects of even low doses of environmental toxicants and the cumulative impact of exposures of multiple chemicals by multiple routes of exposure, a longitudinal study of these cases is necessary. Twenty-one cases from five states were followed longitudinally; the follow-up period averaged 25 months. In addition to humans, cases involved food animals, companion animals and wildlife. More than half of all exposures were related to drilling and hydraulic fracturing operations; these decreased slightly over time. More than a third of all exposures were associated with wastewater, processing and production operations; these exposures increased slightly over time. Health impacts decreased for families and animals moving from intensively drilled areas or remaining in areas where drilling activity decreased. In cases of families remaining in the same area and for which drilling activity either remained the same or increased, no change in health impacts was observed. Over the course of the study, the distribution of symptoms was unchanged for humans and companion animals, but in food animals, reproductive problems decreased and both respiratory and growth problems increased. This longitudinal case study illustrates the importance of obtaining detailed epidemiological data on the long-term health effects of multiple chemical exposures and multiple routes of exposure that are characteristic of the environmental impacts of unconventional drilling operations.

  15. Electric motor for laser-mechanical drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Daryl L.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2017-10-10

    A high power laser drilling system utilizing an electric motor laser bottom hole assembly. A high power laser beam travels within the electric motor for performing a laser operation. A system includes a down hole electrical motor having a hollow rotor for conveying a high power laser beam having a wavelength less than 1060 nm through the electrical motor.

  16. Real time observation system for monitoring environmental impact on marine ecosystems from oil drilling operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godø, Olav Rune; Klungsøyr, Jarle; Meier, Sonnich; Tenningen, Eirik; Purser, Autun; Thomsen, Laurenz

    2014-07-15

    Environmental awareness and technological advances has spurred development of new monitoring solutions for the petroleum industry. This paper presents experience from a monitoring program off Norway. To maintain operation within the limits of the government regulations Statoil tested a new monitoring concept. Multisensory data were cabled to surface buoys and transmitted to land via wireless communication. The system collected information about distribution of the drilling wastes and the welfare of the corals in relation to threshold values. The project experienced a series of failures, but the backup monitoring provided information to fulfil the requirements of the permit. The experience demonstrated the need for real time monitoring and how such systems enhance understanding of impacts on marine organisms. Also, drilling operations may improve by taking environmental information into account. The paper proposes to standardize and streamline monitoring protocols to maintain comparability during all phases of the operation and between drill sites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Review of casing while drilling technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavković Bojan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional drilling methods have been plagued with huge operational and financial challenges, such as cost of purchasing, inspecting, handling, transporting the drill equipment and most importantly, tripping in-and-out of the drill string whenever the Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA needs a replacement, needs of wiper trip or when total depth is reached. The tripping in-and-out of the drill string not only contributes to Non Productive Time (NPT but also leads to well control difficulties including wellbore instability and lost circulation. All this has led Oil and Gas industry, as well as any other engineering industry, to seek for new ways and methods in order to reduce these problems. Thanks to the advances in technical solutions and constant improvements of conventional drilling methods, a new drilling method - casing while drilling has been developed. Casing Drilling encompasses the process of simultaneously drilling and casing a well, using the active casing and thus optimizes the production. This paper presents a review of casing while drilling method (CwD and its practical usage in drilling wells. The comparison of conventional drilling method and casing while drilling is also presented. The CwD method achieves significantly better results than conventional drilling method.

  18. Geohydrologic and drill-hole data for test well USW H-4, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, M.S.; Thordarson, William; Eshom, E.P.

    1984-01-01

    Data are presented on drilling operations, lithology, geophysical well logs, sidewall-core samples, water-level monitoring, pumping tests, injection tests, radioactive-tracer borehole flow survey, and water chemistry for test well USW H-4. The well is one of a series of test wells drilled in the southwestern part of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy. These test wells are part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations to identify sites for storage of high-level radioactive wastes. Test well USW H-4 was drilled in ash-flow tuff to a total depth of 1,219 meters. Depth to water below land surface was 519 meters or at an altitude of 730 meters above sea level. After test pumping at a rate of 17.4 liters per second for approximately 9 days, the drawdown was 4.85 meters. A radioactive borehole-flow survey indicated that the Bullfrog Member was the most productive geologic unit, producing 36.5 percent of the water in the well. The second most productive geologic unit was the Tram Member, which produced 32 percent of the water. The water in test well USW H-4 is predominantly a soft, sodium bicarbonate type of water typical of water produced in tuffaceous rocks in southern Nevada. (USGS)

  19. Effect of diameter of the drill hole on torque of screw insertion and pushout strength for headless tapered compression screws in simulated fractures of the lateral condyle of the equine third metacarpal bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Ryan S; Galuppo, Larry D; Stover, Susan M

    2006-05-01

    To compare variables for screw insertion, pushout strength, and failure modes for a headless tapered compression screw inserted in standard and oversize holes in a simulated lateral condylar fracture model. 6 pairs of third metacarpal bones from horse cadavers. Simulated lateral condylar fractures were created, reduced, and stabilized with a headless tapered compression screw by use of a standard or oversize hole. Torque, work, and time for drilling, tapping, and screw insertion were measured during site preparation and screw implantation. Axial load and displacement were measured during screw pushout. Effects of drill hole size on variables for screw insertion and screw pushout were assessed by use of Wilcoxon tests. Drill time was 59% greater for oversize holes than for standard holes. Variables for tapping (mean maximum torque, total work, positive work, and time) were 42%, 70%, 73%, and 58% less, respectively, for oversize holes, compared with standard holes. Variables for screw pushout testing (mean yield load, failure load, failure displacement, and failure energy) were 40%, 40%, 47%, and 71% less, respectively, for oversize holes, compared with standard holes. Screws could not be completely inserted in 1 standard and 2 oversize holes. Enlarging the diameter of the drill hole facilitated tapping but decreased overall holding strength of screws. Therefore, holes with a standard diameter are recommended for implantation of variable pitch screws whenever possible. During implantation, care should be taken to ensure that screw threads follow tapped bone threads.

  20. Drill-hole data, drill-site geology, and geochemical data from the study of Precambrian uraniferous conglomerates of the Medicine Bow Mountains and Sierra Madre of southeastern Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlstrom, K.E.; Houston, R.S.; Schmidt, T.G.; Inlow, D.; Flurkey, A.J.; Kratochvil, A.L.; Coolidge, C.M.; Sever, C.K.; Quimby, W.F.

    1981-02-01

    This volume is presented as a companion to Volume 1: The Geology and Uranium Potential of Precambrian Conglomerates in the Medicine Bow Mountains and Sierra Madre of Southeastern Wyoming; and to Volume 3: Uranium Assessment for Precambrian Pebble Conglomerates in Southeastern Wyoming. Volume 1 summarized the geologic setting and geologic and geochemical characteristics of uranium-bearing conglomerates in Precambrian metasedimentary rocks of southeastern Wyoming. Volume 3 is a geostatistical resource estimate of U and Th in quartz-pebble conglomerates. This volume contains supporting geochemical data, lithologic logs from 48 drill holes in Precambrian rocks of the Medicine Bow Mountains and Sierra Madre, and drill site geologic maps and cross-sections from most of the holes

  1. Drill-hole data, drill-site geology, and geochemical data from the study of Precambrian uraniferous conglomerates of the Medicine Bow Mountains and Sierra Madre of southeastern Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlstrom, K.E.; Houston, R.S.; Schmidt, T.G.; Inlow, D.; Flurkey, A.J.; Kratochvil, A.L.; Coolidge, C.M.; Sever, C.K.; Quimby, W.F.

    1981-02-01

    This volume is presented as a companion to Volume 1: The Geology and Uranium Potential of Precambrian Conglomerates in the Medicine Bow Mountains and Sierra Madre of Southeastern Wyoming; and to Volume 3: Uranium Assessment for Precambrian Pebble Conglomerates in Southeastern Wyoming. Volume 1 summarized the geologic setting and geologic and geochemical characteristics of uranium-bearing conglomerates in Precambrian metasedimentary rocks of southeastern Wyoming. Volume 3 is a geostatistical resource estimate of U and Th in quartz-pebble conglomerates. This volume contains supporting geochemical data, lithologic logs from 48 drill holes in Precambrian rocks of the Medicine Bow Mountains and Sierra Madre, and drill site geologic maps and cross-sections from most of the holes.

  2. Elemental composition of airborne dust in the Shale Shaker House during an offshore drilling operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, A B; Larsen, E; Hansen, L V; Lyngsaae, M; Kunze, H

    1991-12-01

    During 2 days of an offshore drilling operation in the North Sea, 16 airborne dust samples from the atmosphere of the Shale Shaker House were collected onto filters. During this operation, drilling mud composed of a water slurry of barite (BaSO4) together with minor amounts of additives, among them chrome lignosulphonate and chrome lignite, was circulated between the borehole and the Shale Shaker House. The concentration of airborne dust in the atmosphere was determined and the elemental composition of the particles analysed by both PIXE (proton-induced X-ray emission) and ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry). The total amount of dust collected varied from 0.04 to 1.41 mg m-3 with barium (Ba) as the single most abundant element. The open shale shakers turned out to be the major cause of generation of dust from the solid components of the drilling mud.

  3. Origin and depositional environment of clastic deposits in the Hilo drill hole, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeson, M.H.; Clague, D.A.; Lockwood, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Volcaniclastic units cored at depths of about 87, 164, 178, 226, and 246 m below sea level and carbonate units located between depths of 27 and 53 m below sea level in the Hilo drill core were found to be deposited at or near sea level. Four of these units are hydroclastic deposits, formed when subaerially erupted Mauna Loa lava flows entered the ocean and fragmented to produce quenched, glassy fragments during hydrovolcanic explosions. Ash units 24 and 26, at 178 m depth, accumulated at sea level in a freshwater bog. They contain pyroxenes crystallized from tholeiitic magma that we infer erupted explosively at the summit of Kilauea volcano. Two carbon-rich layers from these ashes have a weighted average radiocarbon age of 38.6 ?? 0.9 ka; the ashes probably correlate with the oldest and thickest part of the Pahala ash. Ash unit 44, at the transition from Mauna Kea to Mauna Loa lava flows, was probably nearly 3.2 m thick and is inferred to be equivalent to the lower thick part of the composite Homelani ash mapped in Hilo and on the flanks of Mauna Kea. The age of this part of Homelani ash is between 128 ?? 33 and 200 ?? 10 ka; it may have erupted subglacially during the Pohakuloa glacial maxima on Mauna Kea. Beach sand units 12 and 22 were derived from nearby Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea lava flows. The middle of beach sand unit 38 was derived mainly from lava erupted near the distal end of the subaerial east rift zone of Kilauea volcano; these sands were transported about 33 km northwest to Hilo Bay by prevailing longshore currents. Combined age, depth, and sea level markers in the core allow us to determine that lava flow recurrence intervals averaged one flow every 4 kyr during the past 86 kyr and one flow every 16 kyr between 86 and 200 ka at the drill site and that major explosive eruptions that deposit thick ash in Hilo have occurred only twice in the last 400 kyr. These recurrence intervals support the moderate lava flow hazard zonation (zone 3) for coastal Hilo

  4. Rock thermal property measurements with the Posiva TERO56 drill hole device in the forsmark study site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukkonen, I.; Suppala, I.; Korpisalo, A.

    2007-10-01

    Thermal properties were measured in situ in Forsmark at the SKB study site constructed for large-scale thermal conductivity investigations in an outcrop of anisotropic granite. The Posiva TERO56 drill hole tool was used for in situ measurements in four 20 m deep boreholes KFM90C, D, E and F located within very short distances of each other (less than 2.3 m). Measurements were done at depths of 10-18 m in water-filled holes. The bedrock is granite with thin amphibolite and pegmatite layers and thin felsic veins. The measurement principle of the TERO56 logging device is based on conduction of heat from a cylindrical source placed in a borehole and the thermal parameter values are calculated with a least squares inversion algorithm. Measurements in Forsmark consisted typically of 6 hours heating time followed by 10 hours cooling time, but in one measurement the heating time was reduced to of 2 h 45 min and the cooling time to 5 hours. Average thermal conductivity values range from 3.37 to 3.91 W m -1 K -1 with standard deviations between 0.01 and 0.04 W m -1 K -1 . The result is plausible considering the quite homogeneous target geology and short distances between different experiment stations. Diffusivity values, however, vary much more, and averages range from 0.68 to 2.08 A 10 -6 m 2 s -1 with standard deviations ranging from 0.04 to 0.09 A 10 -6 m 2 s -1 . Variations may be attributed to small flow effects or time-dependent temperature trends related to thermal equilibration of the probe. (orig.)

  5. Automated Kick Control Procedure for an Influx in Managed Pressure Drilling Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Within drilling of oil and gas wells, the Managed Pressure Drilling (MPD method with active control of wellbore pressure during drilling has partly evolved from conventional well control procedures. However, for MPD operations the instrumentation is typically more extensive compared to conventional drilling. Despite this, any influx of formation fluids (commonly known as a kick during MPD operations is typically handled by conventional well control methods, at least if the kick is estimated to be larger than a threshold value. Conventional well control procedures rely on manual control of the blow out preventer, pumps, and choke valves and do not capitalize on the benefits from the instrumentation level associated with MPD. This paper investigates two alternative well control procedures specially adapted to backpressure MPD: the dynamic shut-in (DSI procedure and the automatic kick control (AKC procedure. Both methods capitalize on improvements in Pressure While Drilling (PWD technology. A commercially available PWD tool buffers high-resolution pressure measurements, which can be used in an automated well control procedure. By using backpressure MPD, the choke valve opening is tuned automatically using a feedback-feedforward control method. The two procedures are evaluated using a high fidelity well flow model and cases from a North Sea drilling operation are simulated. The results show that using AKC procedure reduces the time needed to establish control of the well compared to DSI procedure. It also indicates that the AKC procedure reduces the total kick size compared to the DSI procedure, and thereby reduces the risk of lost circulation.

  6. Multiple-factor analysis of the net cost of drilling operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnaushevskaya, Zh I; Kukhtevich, L I; Lisovskaya, G F; Maguryak, N S; Nasinnik, Z A

    1979-01-01

    Basic factors in the rise in net cost of drilling operations are examined in the association ''Ukrneft''. A mathematical model of their net cost is constructed which takes into consideration the given factors. A number of measures are suggested and their specific influence on the decrease in net cost of well construction is defined.

  7. Gabbroic lithologies of the dike-gabbro transition, Hole GT3A, Oman Drilling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, A. P. M.; Koepke, J.; Morishita, T.; Beinlich, A.; Johnson, K. T. M.; Greenberger, R. N.; Harris, M.; Michibayashi, K.; de Obeso, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    Hole GT3A intersects 400 m of oceanic crust providing unique insight into the dike-gabbro transition and the variability of the high level gabbros in the Samail ophiolite. Olivine gabbro and olivine bearing gabbro occur exclusively within the Upper Gabbro Sequence (16 % thickness; 111.02 m - 127.89 m) whereas oxide gabbro and disseminated oxide gabbro represent ca 5 % of the Lower Gabbro Sequence (233.84 m - 398.21 m). Gabbro with less than 1 vol. % olivine and oxide is the most common lithology in both Gabbro Sequences (10-13 %). Most gabbroic rocks were classified as "varitextured" due to textural and grain size macroscopic variations forming irregular domains/patches. Varitextured gabbros are medium-grained (1-5 mm), with seriate grain size distribution and subophitic/poikilitic to granular textural domains. Poikilitic domains comprise clinopyroxene with plagioclase chadacrysts, whereas in granular domains plagioclase interstices are filled by green-brown magmatic hornblende; plagioclase is zoned in both domains. Olivine (bearing) gabbros have 4-8 mm skeletal olivine pseudomorphs with roundish inclusions of chromite and plagioclase. Oxide (disseminated) gabbros comprise variable amounts of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, Oman paleo ridge.

  8. A flexible method for residual stress measurement of spray coated layers by laser made hole drilling and SLM based beam steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osten, W.; Pedrini, G.; Weidmann, P.; Gadow, R.

    2015-08-01

    A minimum invasive but high resolution method for residual stress analysis of ceramic coatings made by thermal spraycoating using a pulsed laser for flexible hole drilling is described. The residual stresses are retrieved by applying the measured surface data for a model-based reconstruction procedure. While the 3D deformations and the profile of the machined area are measured with digital holography, the residual stresses are calculated by FE analysis. To improve the sensitivity of the method, a SLM is applied to control the distribution and the shape of the holes. The paper presents the complete measurement and reconstruction procedure and discusses the advantages and challenges of the new technology.

  9. [NIR and XRD analysis of drill-hole samples from Zhamuaobao iron-graphite deposit, Inner Mongolia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying-kui; Cao, Jian-jin; Wu, Zheng-quan; Dai, Dong-le; Lin, Zu-xu

    2015-01-01

    The author analyzed the 4202 drill-hole samples from Zhamuaobao iron-graphite deposit by using near infrared spectroscopy(NIR) and X-ray diffraction(XRD) measuring and testing techniques, and then compared and summarized the results of two kinds of testing technology. The results indicate that some difference of the mineral composition exists among different layers, the lithology from upper to deeper is the clay gravel layer of tertiary and quaternary, mudstone, mica quartz schist, quartz actinolite scarn, skarnization marble, iron ore deposits, graphite deposits and mica quartz schist. The petrogenesis in different depth also shows difference, which may indicate the geological characteristic to some extent. The samples had mainly undergone such processes as oxidization, carbonation, chloritization and skarn alteration. The research results can not only improve the geological feature of the mining area, but also have great importance in ore exploration, mining, mineral processing and so on. What's more, as XRD can provide preliminary information about the mineral composition, NIR can make further judgement on the existence of the minerals. The research integrated the advantages of both NIR and XRD measuring and testing techniques, put forward a method with two kinds of modern testing technology combined with each other, which may improve the accuracy of the mineral composition identification. In the meantime, the NIR will be more wildly used in geography on the basis of mineral spectroscopy.

  10. Diamond-set drill bits: savings achieved at Cominak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artru, P.; Bibert, F.X.; Croisat, G.

    1988-01-01

    Rotary instead of percussion adoption of drilling in the underground Akouta mine (Niger) has been the cause of important savings in blasting and bolting operations. Other savings affect capital expenditures and indirect savings are coming from better working conditions. For blast holes drilling and bolting, spare parts expenditures are 2.4 times lower with rotary drilling. Drilling rods are cheaper and last longer with rotary drilling. A rotary equipped Jumbos fleet is cheaper to maintain and is 18% more available, due to less mechanical and other breakdowns. Total savings for the mine owner and operator Cominak reach more than a billion of CFA francs [fr

  11. Best of the lot : engineered measurement-while-drilling tool improves efficiency of operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahony, J.

    2010-10-15

    NuEra Oilfield Services Inc. combines various technologies, including advanced bearing assemblies and compact wireless decoders that interface with downhole directional tools, to engineer unique, purpose-built measurement-while-drilling (MWD) tool string packages. The 9-metre-long MWD tool string is lowered into the drill pipe from the surface. The directional module monitors the position of the drill bit, which the driller can monitor using an electronic drilling recorder at the surface. The directional drillstring uses a mud motor with adjustable bent housing to correct the direction of the well, as the system cannot steer while drilling. At bottomhole, mud circulation continues after the rotation of the drillstring has been stopped, driving the mud motor, which in turn drives the drill bit, permitting a new direction to be taken even though the drillstring is not turning. The operator points the bent housing in a new direction and slides the bit along before restarting the rotation of the drillstring. The NuEra drillstring uses a new bearing pack that makes the mud motor more robust and longer-lived, preventing costly down time for operators. The bearing pack is designed to distribute the load geometrically so that only one-third of the weight-on-bit is on the bearings at any point in time, which extends bearing life and reduces repair costs. The custom selection and mating of superior components made by different tool manufacturers has resulted in the MWD tool string that is reliable and able to pump more and carry more weight. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  12. New drilling optimization technologies make drilling more efficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, D.C.-K. [Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada). Sperry Division

    2004-07-01

    Several new technologies have been adopted by the upstream petroleum industry in the past two decades in order to optimize drilling operations and improve drilling efficiency. Since financial returns from an oil and gas investment strongly depend on drilling costs, it is important to reduce non-productive time due to stuck pipes, lost circulation, hole cleaning and well bore stability problems. The most notable new technologies are the use of computer-based instrumentation and data acquisition systems, integrated rig site systems and networks, and Measurement-While-Drilling and Logging-While-Drilling (MWD/LWD) systems. Drilling optimization should include solutions for drillstring integrity, hydraulics management and wellbore integrity. New drilling optimization methods emphasize information management and real-time decision making. A recent study for drilling in shallow water in the Gulf of Mexico demonstrates that trouble time accounts for 25 per cent of rig time. This translates to about $1.5 MM U.S. per well. A reduction in trouble time could result in significant cost savings for the industry. This paper presents a case study on vibration prevention to demonstrate how the drilling industry has benefited from new technologies. 13 refs., 10 figs.

  13. Stratigraphy, structure, and some petrographic features of Tertiary volcanic rocks at the USW G-2 drill hole, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldonado, F.; Koether, S.L.

    1983-01-01

    A continuously cored drill hole penetrated 1830.6 m of Tertiary volcanic strata comprised of the following in descending order: Paintbrush Tuff, tuffaceous beds of Calico Hills, Crater Flat Tuff, lava and flow breccia (rhyodacitic), tuff of Lithic Ridge, bedded and ash-flow tuff, lava and flow breccia bedded tuff, conglomerate and ash-flow tuff, and older tuffs of USW G-2. Comparison of unit thicknesses at USW G-2 to unit thicknesses at previously drilled holes at Yucca Mountain indicate: (1) thickening of the Paintbrush Tuff members and tuffaceous beds of Calico Hills toward the northern part of Yucca Mountain; (2) thickening of the Prow Pass Member but thinning of the Bullfrog Member and Tram unit; (3) thinning of the tuff of Lithic Ridge; (4) presence of about 280 m of lava and flow breccia not previously penetrated by any drill hole; and (5) presence of an ash-flow tuff unit at the bottom of the drill hole not previously intersected, apparently the oldest unit penetrated at Yucca Mountain to date. Petrographic features of some of the units include: (1) decrease in quartz and K-feldspar and increases in biotite and plagioclase with depth in the tuffaceous beds of Calico Hills; (2) an increase in quartz phenocrysts from the top to the bottom members of the Crater Flat Tuff; (3) a low quartz content in the tuff of Lithic Ridge, suggesting tapping of the magma chamber at quartz-poor levels; (4) a change in zeolitic alteration from heulandite to clinoptilolite to mordenite with increasing depth; (5) lavas characterized by a rhyolitic top and dacitic base, suggesting reverse compositional zoning; and (6) presence of hydrothermal mineralization in the lavas that could be related to an itrusive under Yucca Mountain or to volcanism associated with the Timber Mountain-Claim Canyon caldera complex. A fracture analysis of the core resulted in tabulation of 7848 fractures, predominately open and high angle

  14. Twist-Drill or Burr Hole Craniostomy for Draining Chronic Subdural Hematomas: How to Choose It for Chronic Subdural Hematoma Drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seong-Jong; Hwang, Sun-Chul; Im, Soo Bin

    2016-10-01

    Although twist-drill craniostomy (TDC) has a number of procedural advantages and an equivalent outcome compared to burr hole craniostomy (BHC) for the treatment of chronic subdural hematomas (CSDHs), the latter technique remains the preferred method. We analyzed symptomatic CSDHs in whom TDC at the pre-coronal suture entry point (PCSEP) was the primary method for hematoma drainage and BHC on the parietal was the secondary option. CSDHs in 86 consecutive patients were included. TDC at the PCSEP, which is 1 cm anterior to coronal suture at the level of the superior temporal line, was the primary operational technique when the hematoma thickness was suitable, and BHC was performed via the parietal when TDC was unreasonable or failed. The clinical feasibility and outcomes of these approaches were analyzed. Of the 86 patients, 68 (79.1%) were treated by TDC, and 18 (20.9%) by BHC. All patients showed improvements in their symptoms after hematoma drainage. Neither morbidity nor mortality was associated with either technique, and there were no differences in drainage days between the groups. Ten patients had bilateral hematomas and were treated using TDC. Two patients were not sufficiently treated by TDC and, as a result, BHC was applied. Only six hematomas (7% of 86 hematomas) exhibited insufficient thickness on the computed tomography to perform TDC. When the hematoma was thick enough, a majority of the CSDHs were drained using TDC at the PCSEP as the first procedure, which was especially useful for bilateral hematomas and in elderly patients.

  15. Uranium Geologic Drilling Project, Sand Wash Basin, Moffat and Routt Counties, Colorado:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This environmental assessment of drill holes in Moffat and Routt Counties, Colorado considered the current environment; potential impacts from site preparation, drilling operations, and site restoration; coordination among local, state and federal plans; and consideration of alternative actions for this uranium drilling project

  16. Radon/radium detection increases uranium drilling effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, R.H.; Cook, L.M.

    1979-01-01

    The use of portable radon detectors has become routine in reconnaissance uranium surveys where water and sediment samples are analyzed in field labs for radon and radium, and in detailed work where drill hole locations are pinpointed by field determinations of radon in soil gas from shallow holes. During the drilling program itself, however, very few operators are taking advantage of radon and radium analyses to decide whether a barren drill hole was a near miss or whether the immediate area can be written off. The technique, which is outlined here, is effective both above and below the water table

  17. Effect of Osteonecrosis Intervention Rod Versus Core Decompression Using Multiple Small Drill Holes on Early Stages of Necrosis of the Femoral Head: A Prospective Study on a Series of 60 Patients with a Minimum 1-Year-Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Haixiong; Ye, Dongping; Liang, Weiguo; Yao, Yicun

    2015-01-01

    The conventional CD used 10 mm drill holes associated with a lack of structural support. Thus, alternative methods such as a tantalum implant, small drill holes, and biological treatment were developed to prevent deterioration of the joint. The treatment of CD by multiple 3.2 mm drill holes could reduce the femoral neck fracture and partial weight bearing was allowed. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of osteonecrosis intervention rod versus core decompression using multiple small drill holes on early stages of necrosis of the femoral head. From January 2011 to January 2012, 60 patients undergoing surgery for osteonecrosis with core decompression were randomly assigned into 2 groups based on the type of core decompression used: (1) a total of 30 osteonecrosis patients (with 16 hips on Steinburg stageⅠ,20 hips on Steinburg stageⅡ) were treated with a porous tantalum rod insertion. The diameter of the drill hole for the intervention rod was 10mm.(2) a total of 30 osteonecrosis patients (with 14 hips on Steinburg stageⅠ,20 hips on Steinburg stageⅡ) were treated with core decompression using five drill holes on the lateral femur, the diameter of the hole was 3.2 mm. The average age of the patient was 32.6 years (20-45 years) and the average time of follow-up was 25.6 months (12- 28 months) in the rod implanted group. The average age of the patient was 35.2 years (22- 43 years) and the average time of follow-up was 26.3 months (12-28 months) in the small drill holes group. The average of surgical time was 40 min, and the mean volume of blood loss was 30 ml in both surgical groups. The average of Harris score was improved from 56.2 ± 7.1 preoperative to 80.2 ± 11.4 at the last follow-up in the rod implanted group (p holes group (pholes group. No significant difference was observed in radiographic stage between the two groups. There was no favourable result on the outcome of a tantalum intervention implant compared to multiple small drill holes. CD via

  18. Steel, hard metal and diamonds. The history of drilling blast holes in mining and tunneling; Stahl, Hartmetall und Diamanten. Zur Geschichte des Sprenglochbohrens im Berg- und Tunnelbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feistkorn, E. [Inst. fuer Vortrieb und Gewinnung, DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Beginning of the blasting technique in mining and tunneling during the 17th century required drilling holes to take the explosive. Following the use of hammer and wedge, drilling was done over a long period of time by hand with mallet and drillsteel. Continuously, during the 19th century the handwork was replaced by drilling machines. Technically, the evolution of drilling equipment is marked by electrohydraulic control and automatization with the assistance of microelectronics. Regarding the material, the introduction of hard metal and - in addition for rotary drilling - the development of synthetic diamond material are the main features. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mit der Einfuehrung der Sprengtechnik im Bergbau und Tunnelbau im 17. Jahrhundert mussten verfahrensbedingt Bohrloecher zur Aufnahme des Sprengstoffes hergestellt werden. In Anlehnung an die Arbeit mit Schlaegel und Eisen erfolgte dies lange Zeit manuell mit dem Bohrfaeustel und Stahlbohrern. Die Handarbeit wurde waehrend der 2. Haelfte des 19. Jahrhunderts kontinuierlich durch Bohrmaschinen verdraengt. Maschinentechnisch ist die weitere Entwicklung durch elektrohydraulische Steuerungen und die Automatisierung der Bohrgeraete mit Hilfe der Mikroelektronik gekennzeichnet. Materialtechnisch stellen die Einfuehrung des Hartmetalls und beim drehenden Bohren zusaetzlich die Entwicklung synthetischer Diamantwerkstoffe die herausragenden Marksteine dar. (orig.)

  19. Arthroscopically assisted stabilization of acute high-grade acromioclavicular joint separations in a coracoclavicular Double-TightRope technique: V-shaped versus parallel drill hole orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Natascha; Haas, Norbert P; Scheibel, Markus; Gerhardt, Christian

    2013-10-01

    The arthroscopically assisted Double-TightRope technique has recently been reported to yield good to excellent clinical results in the treatment of acute, high-grade acromioclavicular dislocation. However, the orientation of the transclavicular-transcoracoidal drill holes remains a matter of debate. A V-shaped drill hole orientation leads to better clinical and radiologic results and provides a higher vertical and horizontal stability compared to parallel drill hole placement. This was a cohort study; level of evidence, 2b. Two groups of patients with acute high-grade acromioclavicular joint instability (Rockwood type V) were included in this prospective, non-randomized cohort study. 15 patients (1 female/14 male) with a mean age of 37.7 (18-66) years were treated with a Double-TightRope technique using a V-shaped orientation of the drill holes (group 1). 13 patients (1 female/12 male) with a mean age of 40.9 (21-59) years were treated with a Double-TightRope technique with a parallel drill hole placement (group 2). After 2 years, the final evaluation consisted of a complete physical examination of both shoulders, evaluation of the Subjective Shoulder Value (SSV), Constant Score (CS), Taft Score (TF) and Acromioclavicular Joint Instability Score (ACJI) as well as a radiologic examination including bilateral anteroposterior stress views and bilateral Alexander views. After a mean follow-up of 2 years, all patients were free of shoulder pain at rest and during daily activities. Range of motion did not differ significantly between both groups (p > 0.05). Patients in group 1 reached on average 92.4 points in the CS, 96.2 % in the SSV, 10.5 points in the TF and 75.9 points in the ACJI. Patients in group 2 scored 90.5 points in the CS, 93.9 % in the SSV, 10.5 points in the TF and 84.5 points in the ACJI (p > 0.05). Radiographically, the coracoclavicular distance was found to be 13.9 mm (group 1) and 13.4 mm (group 2) on the affected side and 9.3 mm (group 1

  20. Structural and physical property characterization in the Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling project — hole 1 (WFSD-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haibing; Xu, Zhiqin; Niu, Yixiong; Kong, Guangsheng; Huang, Yao; Wang, Huan; Si, Jialiang; Sun, Zhiming; Pei, Junling; Gong, Zheng; Chevalier, Marie-Luce; Liu, Dongliang

    2014-04-01

    The Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling project (WFSD) started right after the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake to investigate its faulting mechanism. Hole 1 (WFSD-1) reached the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault (YBF), and core samples were recovered from 32 to 1201.15 m-depth. Core investigation and a suite of geophysical downhole logs (including P-wave velocity, natural gamma ray, self-potential, resistivity, density, porosity, temperature, magnetic susceptibility and ultrasound borehole images) were acquired in WFSD-1. Integrated studies of cores and logs facilitate qualitative and quantitative comparison of the structures and physical properties of rocks. Logging data revealed that the geothermal gradient of the volcanic Pengguan complex (above 585.75 m) is 1.85 °C/100 m, while that of the sedimentary Xujiahe Formation (below 585.75 m) is 2.15 °C/100 m. In general, natural gamma ray, resistivity, density, porosity, P-wave velocity and magnetic susceptibility primarily depend on the rock lithology. All major fault zones are characterized by high magnetic susceptibility, low density and high porosity, with mostly low resistivity, high natural gamma ray and sound wave velocity. The high magnetic susceptibility values most likely result from the transformation of magnetic minerals by frictional heating due to the earthquake. The YBF exposed in WFSD-1 can be subdivided into five different parts based on different logging responses, each of them corresponding to certain fault-rocks. The high gamma radiation, porosity and P-wave velocity, as well as low resistivity and temperature anomalies indicate that the Wenchuan earthquake fault zone is located at 585.75-594.5 m-depth, with an average inclination and dip angle of N305° and 71°, respectively. The fact that the fracture directions in the hanging wall and footwall are different suggests that their stress field direction is completely different, implying that the upper Pengguan complex may not be local.

  1. Influence of zirconia framework thickness on residual stress profile in veneering ceramic: measurement by hole-drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainjot, Amélie K; Schajer, Gary S; Vanheusden, Alain J; Sadoun, Michaël J

    2012-04-01

    Framework design is reported to influence chipping in zirconia-based restorations, which is an important cause of failure of such restorations. Residual stress profile in the veneering ceramic after the manufacturing process is an important predictive factor of the mechanical behavior of the material. The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of framework thickness on the stress profile measured in zirconia-based structures. The stress profile was measured with the hole-drilling method in bilayered disc samples of 20mm diameter with a 1.5 mm thick veneering ceramic layer. Six different framework thicknesses from 0.5 mm to 3 mm were studied. Two different cooling procedures were also investigated. Compressive stresses were observed in the surface, and tensile stresses in the depth of most of the samples. The slow cooling procedure was found to promote the development of interior tensile stresses, except for the sample with a 3mm thick framework. With the tempering procedure, samples with a 1.5 mm thick framework exhibited the most favorable stress profile, while thicker and thinner frameworks exhibited respectively in surface or interior tensile stresses. The measurements performed highlight the importance of framework thickness, which determine the nature of stresses and can explain clinical failures encountered, especially with thin frameworks. The adequate ratio between veneering ceramic and zirconia is hard to define, restricting the range of indications of zirconia-based restorations until a better understanding of such a delicate veneering process is achieved. Copyright © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of thermal expansion mismatch on residual stress profile in veneering ceramic layered on zirconia: Measurement by hole-drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainjot, Amélie K; Najjar, Achref; Jakubowicz-Kohen, Boris D; Sadoun, Michaël J

    2015-09-01

    Mismatch in thermal expansion coefficient between core and veneering ceramic (Δα=αcore-αveneer, ppm/°C) is reported as a crucial parameter influencing veneer fractures with Yttria-tetragonal-zirconia-polycrystal (Y-TZP) prostheses, which still constitutes a misunderstood problem. However, the common positive Δα concept remains empirical. The objective of this study is to investigate the Δα dependence of residual stress profiles in veneering ceramic layered on Y-TZP frameworks. The stress profile was measured with the hole-drilling method in bilayered disc samples of 20mm diameter with a 0.7mm thick Y-TZP framework and a 1.5mm thick veneer layer. 3 commercial and 4 experimental veneering ceramics (n=3 per group) were used to obtain different Δα varying from -1.3ppm/°C to +3.2ppm/°C, which were determined by dilatometric analyses. Veneer fractures were observed in samples with Δα≥+2.3 or ≤-0.3ppm/°C. Residual stress profiles measured in other groups showed compressive stresses in the surface, these stresses decreasing with depth and then becoming more compressive again near the interface. Small Δα variations were shown to induce significant changes in residual stress profiles. Compressive stress near the framework was found to decrease inversely to Δα. Veneer CTE close to Y-TZP (+0.2ppm/°C Δα) gived the most favorable stress profile. Yet, near the framework, Δα-induced residual stress varied inversely to predictions. This could be explained by the hypothesis of structural changes occurrence within the Y-TZP surface. Consequently, the optimum Δα value cannot be determined before understanding Y-TZP's particular behavior when veneered. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Residual stress profiles in veneering ceramic on Y-TZP, alumina and ZTA frameworks: measurement by hole-drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, K A; Sadoun, M J; Cesar, P F; Mainjot, A K

    2014-02-01

    The residual stress profile developed within the veneering ceramic during the manufacturing process is an important predicting factor in chipping failures, which constitute a well-known problem with yttria-tetragonal-zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) based restorations. The objectives of this study are to measure and to compare the residual stress profile in the veneering ceramic layered on three different polycrystalline ceramic framework materials: Y-TZP, alumina polycrystal (AL) and zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA). The stress profile was measured with the hole-drilling method in bilayered disk samples of 19 mm diameter with a 0.7 mm thick Y-TZP, AL or ZTA framework and a 1.5mm thick layer of the corresponding veneering ceramic. The AL samples exhibited increasing compressive stresses with depth, while compressive stresses switching into interior tensile stresses were measured in Y-TZP samples. ZTA samples exhibited compressive stress at the ceramic surface, decreasing with depth up to 0.6mm from the surface, and then becoming compressive again near the framework. Y-TZP samples exhibited a less favorable stress profile than those of AL and ZTA samples. Results support the hypothesis of the occurrence of structural changes within the Y-TZP surface in contact with the veneering ceramic to explain the presence of tensile stresses. Even if the presence of Y-TZP in the alumina matrix seems to negatively affect the residual stress profiles in ZTA samples in comparison with AL samples, the registered profiles remain positive in terms of veneer fracture resistance. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Modification of the trapped field in bulk high-temperature superconductors as a result of the drilling of a pattern of artificial columnar holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lousberg, Gregory P; Vanderbemden, Ph; Vanderheyden, B; Fagnard, J-F; Ausloos, M

    2010-01-01

    The trapped magnetic field is examined in bulk high-temperature superconductors that are artificially drilled along their c-axis. The influence of the hole pattern on the magnetization is studied and compared by means of numerical models and Hall probe mapping techniques. To this aim, we consider two bulk YBCO samples with a rectangular cross-section that are drilled each by six holes arranged either on a rectangular lattice (sample I) or on a centered rectangular lattice (sample II). For the numerical analysis, three different models are considered for calculating the trapped flux: (i), a two-dimensional (2D) Bean model neglecting demagnetizing effects and flux creep, (ii), a 2D finite-element model neglecting demagnetizing effects but incorporating magnetic relaxation in the form of an E - J power law, and, (iii), a 3D finite element analysis that takes into account both the finite height of the sample and flux creep effects. For the experimental analysis, the trapped magnetic flux density is measured above the sample surface by Hall probe mapping performed before and after the drilling process. The maximum trapped flux density in the drilled samples is found to be smaller than that in the plain samples. The smallest magnetization drop is found for sample II, with the centered rectangular lattice. This result is confirmed by the numerical models. In each sample, the relative drops that are calculated independently with the three different models are in good agreement. As observed experimentally, the magnetization drop calculated in the sample II is the smallest one and its relative value is comparable to the measured one. By contrast, the measured magnetization drop in sample (1) is much larger than that predicted by the simulations, most likely because of a change of the microstructure during the drilling process.

  5. Survey of seismic conditions of drilling and blasting operations near overhead electricity power lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshunov, G. I.; Afanasev, P. I.; Bulbasheva, I. A.

    2017-10-01

    The monitoring and survey results of drilling and blasting operations are specified during the development of Afanasyevsky deposit of cement raw materials for a 110 kV electricity power lines structure. Seismic explosion waves and air shock waves were registered in the course of monitoring. The dependency of peak particle velocities on the scaled distance and explosive weight by the delay time was obtained.

  6. New high-performance, water-based fluid benefits Santos basin operations with excellent inhibition and drilling efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Tom; West, Gary [Halliburton Baroid, Santos, SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    For decades drilling fluids companies have been striving to create a water-based fluid (WBF) that yields performance similar to that of an invert emulsion in the areas of hole stability, rate of penetration (ROP) and lubricity. The HYDRO-GUARD system is a new highly inhibitive WBF that can yield drilling performance approaching that of an invert emulsion system. The new system uses a new combination of polymeric additives designed to inhibit reactive clays, minimize colloidal solids buildup, and produce a lubricious, gauge wellbore. This paper compares the field performance of the HYDRO-GUARD system on two recent Santos Basin wells drilled to over 5,000 m with the performance of synthetic-based fluids (SBF) used historically in the same area. Bottom hole temperatures (BHT) on these wells exceeded 315 deg F (157 deg C). Performance measures such as hole cleaning, penetration rates, hole stability, and torque and drag will be reviewed as well as general system benefits. (author)

  7. Waterjet drilling in porcine bone: the effect of the nozzle diameter and bone architecture on the hole dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Dunnen, Steven; Mulder, Lars; Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.; Dankelman, Jenny; Tuijthof, Gabrielle J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Using waterjets instead of rigid drill bits for bone drilling can be beneficial due to the absence of thermal damage and a consequent sharp cut. Additionally, waterjet technology allows the development of flexible instruments that facilitate maneuvering through complex joint spaces. Controlling the

  8. Determination of three-dimensional stress orientations in the Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling (WFSD) hole-1: A preliminary result by anelastic strain recovery measurements of core samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, J.; Lin, W.; Wang, L.; Tang, Z.; Sun, D.; Gao, L.; Wang, W.

    2010-12-01

    A great and destructive earthquake (Ms 8.0; Mw 7.9), Wunchuan earthquake struck on the Longmen Shan foreland trust zone in Sichuan province, China on 12 May 2008 (Xu et al., 2008; Episodes, Vol.31, pp.291-301). As a rapid response scientific drilling project, Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling (WFSD) started on 6 November 2008 shorter than a half of year from the date of earthquake main shock. The first pilot borehole (hole-1) has been drilled to the target depth (measured depth 1201 m MD, vertical depth 1179 m) at Hongkou, Dujianyan, Sichuan and passed through the main fault of the earthquake around 589 m MD. We are trying to determine three dimensional in-situ stress states in the WFSD boreholes by a core-based method, anelastic strain recovery (ASR) method (Lin et al., 2006; Tectonophysics, Vol4.26, pp.221-238). This method has been applied in several scientific drilling projects (TCDP: Lin et al., 2007; TAO, Vol.18, pp.379-393; NanTtoSEIZE: Byrne et al., 2009; GRL, Vol.36, L23310). These applications confirm the validity of using the ASR technique in determining in situ stresses by using drilled cores. We collected total 15 core samples in a depth range from 340 m MD to 1180 m MD, approximately for ASR measurements. Anelastic normal strains, measured every ten minutes in nine directions, including six independent directions, were used to calculate the anelastic strain tensors. The data of the ASR tests conducted at hole-1 is still undergoing analysis. As a tentative perspective, more than 10 core samples showed coherent strain recovery over one - two weeks. However, 2 or 3 core samples cannot be re-orientated to the global system. It means that we cannot rink the stress orientation determined by the core samples to geological structure. Unfortunately, a few core samples showed irregular strain recovery and were not analyzed further. The preliminary results of ASR tests at hole-1 show the stress orientations and stress regime changes a lot with the

  9. Probabilistic risk analysis of casing drilling operation for an onshore Brazilian well; Analise probabilistica de risco de uma operacao de casing drilling para um poco terrestre no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacinto, Carlos M.C.; Petersen, Flavia C.; Placido, Joao C.R. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Garcia, Pauli A.A. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In the present paper, one presents an approach to hazard identification and risks quantification concerning the use of retrievable BHA, of a casing drilling system, in 12 1/4 phase of an onshore well. The adopted approach can be subdivided as: execution of a hazard and operability study; prioritization of critical deviance; modeling of critical deviance by mean of event sequence diagram, fault tree and Bayesian network; modeling and simulation of a dynamic decision tree and experts' opinion analysis. As results, one has obtained: the time distribution to achieve the different ends modeled in the decision tree, i.e., sidetrack, or operation canceling, or success; the probabilities to achieve each modeled end and all recommendation to improve the success probability. The approach proved to be efficient in order that it presents significant results to support the decisions involving the casing drilling operations. (author)

  10. Data integration modeling applied to drill hole planning through semi-supervised learning: A case study from the Dalli Cu-Au porphyry deposit in the central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatehi, Moslem; Asadi, Hooshang H.

    2017-04-01

    In this study, the application of a transductive support vector machine (TSVM), an innovative semi-supervised learning algorithm, has been proposed for mapping the potential drill targets at a detailed exploration stage. The semi-supervised learning method is a hybrid of supervised and unsupervised learning approach that simultaneously uses both training and non-training data to design a classifier. By using the TSVM algorithm, exploration layers at the Dalli porphyry Cu-Au deposit in the central Iran were integrated to locate the boundary of the Cu-Au mineralization for further drilling. By applying this algorithm on the non-training (unlabeled) and limited training (labeled) Dalli exploration data, the study area was classified in two domains of Cu-Au ore and waste. Then, the results were validated by the earlier block models created, using the available borehole and trench data. In addition to TSVM, the support vector machine (SVM) algorithm was also implemented on the study area for comparison. Thirty percent of the labeled exploration data was used to evaluate the performance of these two algorithms. The results revealed 87 percent correct recognition accuracy for the TSVM algorithm and 82 percent for the SVM algorithm. The deepest inclined borehole, recently drilled in the western part of the Dalli deposit, indicated that the boundary of Cu-Au mineralization, as identified by the TSVM algorithm, was only 15 m off from the actual boundary intersected by this borehole. According to the results of the TSVM algorithm, six new boreholes were suggested for further drilling at the Dalli deposit. This study showed that the TSVM algorithm could be a useful tool for enhancing the mineralization zones and consequently, ensuring a more accurate drill hole planning.

  11. On Formal and Informal Factors: Enabling Learning for Safe Offshore Drilling Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trygve J. Steiro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional safety thinking has been concerned with investigating accident causations in order to learn from these. However, successful operations constitute the great majority of all the operations. It would thus be interesting to add a focus towards learning from operations that go well. The purpose of the current study is to identify factors that might contribute to successful operations in terms of safety. This purpose is approached by an empirical study consisting of 10 interviews with people who work on board a drilling rig currently operating in Norway. The informants who participated in the interviews hold different positions and come from different companies represented on board the rig. The findings in this study show that it can be difficult to characterize or define successful operations. The definition will be subjective; however, there are some common features of successful operations. Maintaining the life and health of people are the number one priority. A successful operation should also result in the intended product even though it might take some more time than planned. A successful operation is created by many factors and conditions. This study identified 27 factors that might contribute to successful operations in terms of safety. A lot of the theory explaining successful operations focuses on informal factors related to humans and their actions. However, the findings in this study implies that there must be both formal and informal factors present.

  12. Mineralogy and Origin of Sediments From Drill Holes on the Continental Margin Off Florida, 1965-1969 (NODC Accession 7100714)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Drill cores obtained during the Joint Oceanographic Institutions' Deep Earth Sampling Program from the continental shelf, the Florida-Hatteras Slope, and the Blake...

  13. Tethyan Anhydrite Preserved in the Lower Ocean Crust of the Samail Ophiolite? Evidence from Oman Drilling Project Holes GT1A and 2A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teagle, D. A. H.; Harris, M.; Crispini, L.; Deans, J. R.; Cooper, M. J.; Kelemen, P. B.; Alt, J.; Banerjee, N.; Shanks, W. C., III

    2017-12-01

    Anhydrite is important in mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems because of the high concentrations of calcium and sulfate in modern seawater and anhydrite's retrograde solubility. Because anhydrite hosts many powerful tracers of fluid-rock interactions (87Sr/86Sr, δ18O, δ34S, trace elements, fluid inclusions) it is useful for tracing the chemical evolution of hydrothermal recharge fluids and estimating time-integrated fluid fluxes. Anhydrite can form from heated seawater (>100°C), through water-rock reaction, or by mixing of seawater and hydrothermal fluids. Although abundant in active hydrothermal mounds, and predicted to form from downwelling, warming fluids during convection, anhydrite is rare in drill core from seafloor lavas, sheeted dikes and upper gabbros, with only minor amounts in ODP Holes 504B and 1256D. Because anhydrite can dissolve during weathering, its occurrence in ophiolites is unexpected. Instead, gypsum is present in Macquarie Island lavas and Miocene gypsum fills cavities within the Cretaceous Troodos ore deposits. Thus, the occurrence of numerous anhydrite veins in cores from the gabbroic lower crust of the Samail ophiolite in Oman was unanticipated. To our knowledge, anhydrite in Oman gabbros has not been previously reported. Oman Drilling Project Holes GT1A and GT2A were drilled into the Wadi Gideah section of the Wadi Tayin massif. Both recovered 400 m of continuous core from sections of layered gabbros (GT1) and the foliated-layered gabbro transition (GT2). Anhydrite is present throughout both holes, some in vein networks but more commonly as isolated 1-110 mm veins (>60 mm ave). Anhydrite is mostly the sole vein filling but can occur with greenschist minerals such as epidote, quartz, chlorite and prehnite. Anhydrite commonly exhibits prismatic and bladed textures but can also be capriciously microcrystalline. Though definitive cross cutting relationships are elusive, anhydrite veins cut across some greenschist veins. Anhydrite is

  14. Heave disturbance attenuation in managed pressure drilling from a floating platform using model predictive control

    OpenAIRE

    Hatlevik, Edvin

    2014-01-01

    Since a large part of the Norwegian oil shelf has been active for over a generation, many fields begin to be depleted and the drilling operations requires tight down hole pressure margins. And by improving the pressure control for the drilling operations former undrillable wells becomes drillable. Which will make the the oilfields more profitable, and extend their life expectancy. It will also make drilling operations safer by preventing kicks and preventing environmental damages caused by mu...

  15. Analysis of materials modifications caused by UV laser micro drilling of via holes in AlGaN/GaN transistors on SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernicke, Tim [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany)]. E-mail: tim.wernicke@fbh-berlin.de; Krueger, Olaf [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Herms, Martin [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Wuerfl, Joachim [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Kirmse, Holm [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Institut fuer Physik, AG Kristallographie, Newtonstr. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Neumann, Wolfgang [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Institut fuer Physik, AG Kristallographie, Newtonstr. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Behm, Thomas [Technische Universitaet Bergakademie Freiberg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Bernhard-von-Cotta-Str. 4, 09596 Freiberg (Germany); Irmer, Gert [Technische Universitaet Bergakademie Freiberg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Bernhard-von-Cotta-Str. 4, 09596 Freiberg (Germany); Traenkle, Guenther [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2007-07-31

    Pulsed UV laser drilling can be applied to fabricate vertical electrical interconnects (vias) for AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor devices on single-crystalline silicon carbide (SiC) substrate. Through-wafer micro holes with a diameter of 50-100 {mu}m were formed in 400 {mu}m thick bulk 4H-SiC by a frequency-tripled solid-state laser (355 nm) with a pulse width of {<=}30 ns and a focal spot size of {approx}15 {mu}m. The impact of laser machining on the material system in the vicinity of micro holes was investigated by means of micro-Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. After removing the loosely deposited debris by etching in buffered hydrofluoric acid, a layer of <4 {mu}m resolidified material remains at the side walls of the holes. The thickness of the resolidified layer depends on the vertical distance to the hole entry as observed by scanning electron microscopy. Micro-Raman spectra indicate a change of internal strain due to laser drilling and evidence the formation of nanocrystalline silicon (Si). Microstructure analysis of the vias' side walls using cross sectional TEM reveals altered degree of crystallinity in SiC. Layers of heavily disturbed SiC, and nanocrystalline Si are formed by laser irradiation. The layers are separated by 50-100 nm thick interface regions. No evidence of extended defects, micro cracking or crystal damage was found beneath the resolidified layer. The precision of UV laser micro ablation of SiC using nanosecond pulses is not limited by laser-induced extended crystal defects.

  16. Practical application of failure criteria in determining safe mud weight windows in drilling operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gholami

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Wellbore instability is reported frequently as one of the most significant incidents during drilling operations. Analysis of wellbore instability includes estimation of formation mechanical properties and the state of in situ stresses. In this analysis, the only controllable parameter during drilling operation is the mud weight. If the mud weight is larger than anticipated, the mud will invade into the formation, causing tensile failure of the formation. On the other hand, a lower mud weight can result in shear failures of rock, which is known as borehole breakouts. To predict the potential for failures around the wellbore during drilling, one should use a failure criterion to compare the rock strength against induced tangential stresses around the wellbore at a given mud pressure. The Mohr–Coulomb failure criterion is one of the commonly accepted criteria for estimation of rock strength at a given state of stress. However, the use of other criteria has been debated in the literature. In this paper, Mohr–Coulomb, Hoek–Brown and Mogi–Coulomb failure criteria were used to estimate the potential rock failure around a wellbore located in an onshore field of Iran. The log based analysis was used to estimate rock mechanical properties of formations and state of stresses. The results indicated that amongst different failure criteria, the Mohr–Coulomb criterion underestimates the highest mud pressure required to avoid breakouts around the wellbore. It also predicts a lower fracture gradient pressure. In addition, it was found that the results obtained from Mogi–Coulomb criterion yield a better comparison with breakouts observed from the caliper logs than that of Hoek–Brown criterion. It was concluded that the Mogi–Coulomb criterion is a better failure criterion as it considers the effect of the intermediate principal stress component in the failure analysis.

  17. Observation of unusual irreversible/reversible effects in a macroscopic cylindrical hole drilled in superconducting Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yetis, H.; Kilic, A.; Kilic, K.; Altinkok, A.; Olutas, M.

    2008-01-01

    Current-voltage (I-V) measurements were carried out for different current sweep rates (dI/dt) of transport current at zero magnetic field (H = 0) and H ≠ 0 in a polycrystalline sample of Bi 1.7 Pb 0.3 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O x (BSCCO) with a macroscopic cylindrical hole (CH) drilled. Similar measurements were also performed in the same BSCCO sample without CH for a comparison before drilling CH. For the same values of H, T, and dI/dt taken for both samples, it was observed that hysteresis effects appear in I-V curves upon cycling of transport current in upward and downward directions which contain the increasing and decreasing current values, respectively. However these effects which are seen in I-V curves of BSCCO sample with CH is more prominent than that of the BSCCO sample without CH. Further, the irreversibility effects in I-V curves of the BSCCO sample without CH disappears for H ≠ 0 exhibiting nearly a linear behaviour, whereas the hysteretic behaviour in I-V curves of the BSCCO sample with CH is still observed. This interesting behaviour could be evaluated that macroscopic cylindrical hole improves pinning properties of sample acting as a macroscopic flux pinning center for flux lines

  18. Observation of unusual irreversible/reversible effects in a macroscopic cylindrical hole drilled in superconducting Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yetis, H. [Department of Physics, Turgut Gulez Research Laboratory, Abant Izzet Baysal University, 14280 Bolu (Turkey)], E-mail: yetis_h@ibu.edu.tr; Kilic, A.; Kilic, K.; Altinkok, A.; Olutas, M. [Department of Physics, Turgut Gulez Research Laboratory, Abant Izzet Baysal University, 14280 Bolu (Turkey)

    2008-09-15

    Current-voltage (I-V) measurements were carried out for different current sweep rates (dI/dt) of transport current at zero magnetic field (H = 0) and H {ne} 0 in a polycrystalline sample of Bi{sub 1.7}Pb{sub 0.3}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (BSCCO) with a macroscopic cylindrical hole (CH) drilled. Similar measurements were also performed in the same BSCCO sample without CH for a comparison before drilling CH. For the same values of H, T, and dI/dt taken for both samples, it was observed that hysteresis effects appear in I-V curves upon cycling of transport current in upward and downward directions which contain the increasing and decreasing current values, respectively. However these effects which are seen in I-V curves of BSCCO sample with CH is more prominent than that of the BSCCO sample without CH. Further, the irreversibility effects in I-V curves of the BSCCO sample without CH disappears for H {ne} 0 exhibiting nearly a linear behaviour, whereas the hysteretic behaviour in I-V curves of the BSCCO sample with CH is still observed. This interesting behaviour could be evaluated that macroscopic cylindrical hole improves pinning properties of sample acting as a macroscopic flux pinning center for flux lines.

  19. Analysis of residual transverse stresses in a thick UD glass/polyester pultruded profile using hole drilling with strain gage and digital image correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Onur; Baran, Ismet; Ersoy, Nuri; Akkerman, Remko

    2018-05-01

    Process induced stresses inherently exist in fiber reinforced polymer composites particularly in thick parts due to the presence of non-uniform cure, shrinkage and thermal expansion/contraction during manufacturing. In order to increase the reliability and the performance of the composite materials, process models are developed to predict the residual stress formation. The accuracy of the process models is dependent on the geometrical (micro to macro), material and process parameters as well as the numerical implementation. Therefore, in order to have reliable process modelling framework, there is a need for validation and if necessary calibration of the developed models. This study focuses on measurement of the transverse residual stresses in a relatively thick pultruded profile (20×20 mm) made of glass/polyester. Process-induced residual stresses in the middle of the profile are examined with different techniques which have never been applied for transverse residual stresses in thick unidirectional composites. Hole drilling method with strain gage and digital image correlation are employed. Strain values measured from measurements are used in a finite element model (FEM) to simulate the hole drilling process and predict the residual stress level. The measured released strain is found to be approximately 180 μm/m from the strain gage. The tensile residual stress at the core of the profile is estimated approximately as 7-10 MPa. Proposed methods and measured values in this study will enable validation and calibration of the process models based on the residual stresses.

  20. Geochemistry of core samples of the Tiva Canyon Tuff from drill hole UE-25 NRG number-sign 3, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterman, Z.E.; Futa, K.

    1996-01-01

    The Tiva Canyon Tuff of Miocene age is composed of crystal-poor, high-silica rhyolite overlain by a crystal-rich zone that is gradational in composition from high-silica rhyolite to quartz latite. Each of these zones is divided into subzones that have distinctive physical, mineralogical, and geochemical features.Accurate identification of these subzones and their contacts is essential for detailed mapping and correlation both at the surface and in the subsurface in drill holes and in the exploratory studies facility (ESF). This report presents analyses of potassium (K), calcium (Ca), titanium (Ti), rubidium (Rb), strontium (Sr), yttrium (Y), zirconium (Zr), niobium (Nb), barium (Ba), lanthanum (La), and cerium (Ce) in core samples of the Tiva Canyon Tuff from drill hole UE-25 NRG number-sign 3. The concentrations of most of these elements are remarkably constant throughout the high-silica rhyolite, but at its upper contact with the crystal-rich zone, Ti, Zr, Ba, Ca, Sr, La, Ce, and K begin to increase progressively through the crystal-rich zone. In contrast, Rb and Nb decrease, and Y remains essentially constant. Initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios are relatively uniform in the high-silica rhyolite with a mean value of 0.7117, whereas initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios decrease upward in the quartz latite to values as low as 0.7090

  1. Fugitive methane leak detection using mid-infrared hollow-core photonic crystal fiber containing ultrafast laser drilled side-holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Jason; Challener, William; Kasten, Matthias; Choudhury, Niloy; Palit, Sabarni; Pickrell, Gary; Homa, Daniel; Floyd, Adam; Cheng, Yujie; Yu, Fei; Knight, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    The increase in domestic natural gas production has brought attention to the environmental impacts of persistent gas leakages. The desire to identify fugitive gas emission, specifically for methane, presents new sensing challenges within the production and distribution supply chain. A spectroscopic gas sensing solution would ideally combine a long optical path length for high sensitivity and distributed detection over large areas. Specialty micro-structured fiber with a hollow core can exhibit a relatively low attenuation at mid-infrared wavelengths where methane has strong absorption lines. Methane diffusion into the hollow core is enabled by machining side-holes along the fiber length through ultrafast laser drilling methods. The complete system provides hundreds of meters of optical path for routing along well pads and pipelines while being interrogated by a single laser and detector. This work will present transmission and methane detection capabilities of mid-infrared photonic crystal fibers. Side-hole drilling techniques for methane diffusion will be highlighted as a means to convert hollow-core fibers into applicable gas sensors.

  2. Experimental Study on Environment Friendly Tap Hole Clay for Blast Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siva kumar, R.; Mohammed, Raffi; Srinivasa Rao, K.

    2018-03-01

    Blast furnace (BF) is the best possible route of iron production available. Blast furnace is a high pressure vessel where iron ore is melted and liquid iron is produced. The liquid iron is tapped through the hole in Blast Furnace called tap hole. The tapped liquid metal flowing through the tap hole is plugged using a clay called tap hole clay. Tap hole clay (THC) is a unshaped refractory used to plug the tap hole. The tap hole clay extruded through the tap hole using a gun. The tap hole clay is designed to expand and plug the tap hole. The tap hole filled with clay is drilled using drill bit and the hole made through the tap hole to tap the liquid metal accumulated inside the furnace. The number of plugging and drilling varies depending on the volume of the furnace. The tap hole clay need to have certain properties to avoid problems during plugging and drilling. In the present paper tap hole clay properties in industrial use was tested and studied. The problems were identified related to tap hole clay manufacturing. Experiments were conducted in lab scale to solve the identified problems. The present composition was modified with experimental results. The properties of the modified tap hole clay were found suitable and useful for blast furnace operation with lab scale experimental results.

  3. Geochemical and Mineralogical Profiles Across the Listvenite- Metamorphic Transition in the Basal Megathrust of the Oman Ophiolite: First Results from Drilling at Oman Drilling Project Hole BT1B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godard, M.; Bennett, E.; Carter, E.; Kourim, F.; Lafay, R.; Noël, J.; Kelemen, P. B.; Michibayashi, K.; Harris, M.

    2017-12-01

    The transition from the base of the Oman ophiolite to the underlying metamorphic sole was drilled at Hole BT1B (Sumail Massif) during Phase 1 of Oman Drilling Project (Winter 2016-2017). 74 samples were collected from the 300m of recovered cores for whole rock geochemical and XRD analyses. 55 listvenites, ophicarbonates and serpentinites, and 19 schists and greenstones were analyzed for major and minor elements (XRF) and for CO2 and S concentrations (CHNS) aboard DV Chikyu (ChikyuOman, Summer 2017). Analyses for trace elements (ICP-MS) at the University of Montpellier are in progress. The composition of listvenites, ophicalcites and serpentinites recovered at Hole BT1B record extensive interactions between CO2-rich fluids and the serpentinized peridotites. These reactions involved addition of SiO2 and formation of carbonates at the expense of the serpentinized peridotite protolith. All samples recovered from the mantle section are enriched in fluid mobile and incompatible trace elements compared to the mean composition of the Oman mantle. These enrichments are up to 103 times the Oman mantle for Rb and Ba. They mimic the pattern of the samples from the metamorphic sole. This suggests that the composition of the listvenites in these elements is controlled by that of contaminating fluids that may have originated in the same lithologies as those drilled at the base of Hole BT1B. Listvenites, ophicalcites and serpentinites also show notable downhole chemical variations, with listvenites showing marked variations in Al2O3 and TiO2. Occurrence of lherzolites and cpx-harzburgites has been reported at the base of the Oman dominantly harzburgitic mantle section. The observed variations in the listvenites (Al2O3 and TiO2) could be related to the composition of their protolith, the deepest having more fertile compositions. Alternatively, the observed downhole changes in the composition of listvenites may relate to the progressive equilibration of the reacting ultramafic

  4. Development of a bottom-hole gamma-ray diagnostic capability for high-level environments, during CTBT on-site inspection drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontenot, R.; Shakir, S.; Heuze, F.; Butler, M.

    1998-05-01

    Testing completed at NTS confirmed that the Anadrill gamma-ray tool was fully operational up to 50,000 API, as specified in the initial objective. Recorded results were within expected ranges when compared to the hand-held detector. The gamma-ray module will require special 'high-rate' detection software to be loaded prior to drilling operations. The other components within the VIPER system have been modified to operate with either software (normal or 'high-rate') installed in the gamma-ray module. The successful completion of this test is but one step towards the main goal. The next step will be testing this module in the VIPER tool during an actual 're-entry' drilling operation, which could be performed at NTS on a former U.S. event. (author)

  5. Avoiding pollution in scientific ocean drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, T.J.G.

    1999-01-01

    Scientific ocean drilling has been carried out in the world's oceans since the nineteen sixties. From 1968-83 the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP), managed by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in California under a contract with the US National Science Foundation, employed the drilling vessel Glomar Challenger for this purpose. In January 1985 the Ocean Drilling Program (GDP), operated by Texas A and M University, began operations with the drillship JOIDES Resolution which continue to this day. The principal funding agency remains the US National Science Foundation, but since its inception GDP has been an international program and currently receives financial support from 21 countries. The ODP operates globally and, as with DSDP before it, drills without a riser or blowout preventer in a wide range of geological environments. Water depths at GDP drill sites have ranged from 38 m to 5969 m, but are typically within the range 1000-5000 m. Depths of penetration at GDP drill sites, while generally less than 1000 m, have ranged up to 2111 m below the sea floor. The drilling fluid is seawater, although occasional slugs of mud are circulated to clean or condition the hole. Thus drilling is carried out without well control, i.e. without the ability to control pressures within the well. Because of the absence of well control, it is vital to ensure that the drillship does not drill into an accumulation of oil or gas. Drilling into a charged reservoir and causing oil or gas to escape into the marine environment is recognised as the main pollution hazard in scientific ocean drilling

  6. Optimum fluid design for drilling and cementing a well drilled with coil tubing technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swendsen, O.; Saasen, A.; Vassoy, B. [Statoil (Norway); Skogen, E.; Mackin, F.; Normann, S. H.

    1998-12-31

    The strategy, design and drilling fluid and cementing operations in the first two wells drilled with coil tubing technology in the Gullfaks field in the Tampen Spur Area of the Norwegian sector of the North Sea are discussed. The drilling fluid use was a solids-free potassium formate/polymer brine-based fluid with a density of 1,50-1.56 g/cc, with flow properties characterized by very low fluid loss due to high extensional viscosity, a low viscosity at all shear rates, and a low degree of shear-thinning. The low viscous drilling fluid is considered to have been the major contributing factor in achieving excellent hole cleaning, no differential sticking, successful setting of cement kick-off plugs, problem-free running of the liner, and excellent zonal isolation when cementing the liner. These experiences led the authors to conclude that it is possible to formulate a brine-based solids-free drilling fluid with low viscosity and fluid loss properties for most formation pressure regimes, and that such a drilling fluid is well suited to drilling highly deviated slim hole wells where hole cleaning and differential sticking present special challenges. 12 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  7. Drill-string design for directional wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, R; Corbett, K T [Exxon Production Research Co., Houston, TX (USA)

    1983-01-01

    This paper is concerned with predicting the tension and torsion loads on drill strings in directional wells and with adjusting the string design or well plan to provide adequate strength. Drill-string drag is the incremental force that is required to move the pipe up or down in the hole; torque is the moment required to rotate the pipe. Drag forces are usually given relative to the string weight measured with the string roating but not reciprocating. Measured from the roating string weight, the pick-up drag is usually slightly greater than the slack-off drag. The magnitudes of torque and drag are related in any particular well; high drag forced and exessive torque loads normally occur together. There are a number of phenomena wich contribute to torque and drag. Included are tight hole conditions, sloughing hole, keyseats, differential sticking, cuttings build up due to poor hole cleaning and sliding wellbore friction. With the exception of sliding friction, these causes are associated with problem conditions in the wellbore. Conversely, in wells with good hole conditions, the primary source of torque and drag is sliding friction. This paper is only concerned with the torque and drag caused by sliding friction. The cabability to predict frictional loads on drill pipe has two main benefits. First, more complete knowledge of drill-string loading allows use of improved drill-string design techniques. Drill-string components can be chosen using a systematic approach considering the force involved. Second, deep, highly-deviated wells can be planned to minimize torque and drag. Use of torque and drag as a criteria to select the most appropriate well path will help ensure successful drilling operations to total depth. 1 fig., 2 tabs. (Author).

  8. Method and apparatus for determining fluid circulation conditions in well drilling operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehrig, G.F.; Speers, J.M.

    1986-09-09

    A system is described for monitoring the delta flow-rate of drilling fluid in the course of circulating drilling fluid through a well from a drilling rig, comprising: an inflow flowmeter adapted for establishing a first signal representing the rate at which drilling fluid is injected into the well from the drilling rig; an outflow flowmeter adapted for establishing a second signal representing the rate at which drilling fluid is returned to the drilling rig from the well; and a signal processing system adapted for receiving the first and second signals and calculating a third signal representing the filtered difference between the first and second signals, the signal processing system being adapted to repeatedly update the degree of filtering applied in calculating the third signal in accordance with a relation serving to increase the degree of filtering in response to an increase in the magnitude of the cyclical variations in the rate at which drilling fluid is returned to the drilling rig and to decrease the degree of filtering in response to a decrease in the magnitude of the cyclical variations in the rate at which drilling fluid is returned to the drilling rig.

  9. Tesco's Bob Tessari: launching a drilling revolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budd, G.

    2002-07-01

    The 'Casing Drilling' technology, patented by Tesco, which allows operators to simultaneously drill, case and evaluate oil and gas wells, is described. The system is claimed to substantially reduce the amount of lost circulation, loss of well control and bore hole instability problems that have been documented to account for about 25 per cent of total rig time on a well, and at least $4 billion (or 10 per cent of the $40 billion annual global drilling tab) spent on 'unscheduled events' associated with tripping drill pipe. With the Casing Drilling process, wells are drilled using standard oilfield casing instead of drill pipe. The host of downhole problems associated with tripping in and out of the hole are avoided, as the casing pipe is never removed. Instead, drill bits and other downhole tools are tripped through the casing with wireline at a rate of about 500 ft per minute, drastically reducing tripping time. Tesco also developed the portable top drive, the manufacture and rental of which constitutes a large part of the company's business, besides helping technologically to make Casing Drilling possible. Much of the company's success is attributed to the tenacity and zest for innovative approaches of the company's CEO, Bob Tessari, who is largely responsible for the company finding itself at the centre of a drilling technology revolution.

  10. Analysis of Single-Hole and Cross-Hole Tracer Tests Conducted at the Nye County Earl Warning Drilling Program Well Complex, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. Umari; J.D. Earle; M.F. Fahy

    2006-01-01

    As part of the effort to understand the flow and transport characteristics downgradient from the proposed high-level radioactive waste geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, single- and cross-hole tracer tests were conducted from December 2004 through October 2005 in boreholes at the Nye County 22 well complex. The results were analyzed for transport properties using both numerical and analytical solutions of the governing advection dispersion equation. Preliminary results indicate effective flow porosity values ranging from 1.0 x 10 -2 for an individual flow path to 2.0 x 10 -1 for composite flow paths, longitudinal dispersivity ranging from 0.3 to 3 m, and a transverse horizontal dispersivity of 0.03 m. Individual flow paths identified from the cross-hole testing indicate some solute diffusion into the stagnant portion of the alluvial aquifer

  11. 30 CFR 33.34 - Drilling test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling test. 33.34 Section 33.34 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.34 Drilling test. (a) A drilling test shall consist of drilling a set of 10 test holes, without...

  12. X-ray Fluorescence Core Scanning of Oman Drilling Project Holes BT1B and GT3A Cores on D/V CHIKYU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K. T. M.; Kelemen, P. B.; Michibayashi, K.; Greenberger, R. N.; Koepke, J.; Beinlich, A.; Morishita, T.; Jesus, A. P. M.; Lefay, R.

    2017-12-01

    The JEOL JSX-3600CA1 energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence core logger (XRF-CL) on the D/V Chikyu provides quantitative element concentrations of scanned cores. Scans of selected intervals are made on an x-y grid with point spacing of 5 mm. Element concentrations for Si, Al, Ti, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Na, K, Cr, Ni, S and Zn are collected for each point on the grid. Accuracy of element concentrations provided by the instrument software is improved by applying empirical correction algorithms. Element concentrations were collected for 9,289 points from twenty-seven core intervals in Hole BT1B (basal thrust) and for 6,389 points from forty core intervals in Hole GT3A (sheeted dike-gabbro transition) of the Oman Drilling Project on the D/V Chikyu XRF-CL during Leg 2 of the Oman Drilling Project in August-September, 2017. The geochemical data are used for evaluating downhole compositional details associated with lithological changes, unit contacts and mineralogical variations and are particularly informative when plotted as concentration contour maps or downhole concentration diagrams. On Leg 2 additional core scans were made with X-ray Computed Tomography (X-ray CT) and infrared images from the visible-shortwave infrared imaging spectroscopy (IR) systems on board. XRF-CL, X-ray CT and IR imaging plots used together provide detailed information on rock compositions, textures and mineralogy that assist naked eye visual observations. Examples of some uses of XRF-CL geochemical maps and downhole data are shown. XRF-CL and IR scans of listvenite clearly show zones of magnesite, dolomite and the Cr-rich mica, fuchsite that are subdued in visual observation, and these scans can be used to calculate variations in proportions of these minerals in Hole BT1B cores. In Hole GT3A XRF-CL data can be used to distinguish compositional changes in different generations of sheeted dikes and gabbros and when combined with visual observations of intrusive relationships the detailed geochemical

  13. MONDO Project: real time ocean monitoring through Lagrangian drifters during offshore drilling operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mafra, Tatiana [Eni Oil do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Fragoso, Mauricio da Rocha; Santos, Francisco Alves dos; Cruz, Leonardo M. Marques A.; Pellegrini, Julio A.C.; Cerrone, Bruna Nogueira [Prooceano, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Assireu, Arcilan Trevenzoli [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Monitoring the ocean conditions during offshore operations is essential for both operational and environmental aspects. Environmentally, not only to know better the environment where the activity is taking place, but also to be able to provide fast and accurate response in case of accidents. MONDO Project (Monitoring by Ocean Drifters) is a pioneer initiative from ENI Oil do Brasil and PROOCEANO that aimed to monitor currents as a part of a metoceanographic data monitoring project of drilling operations in Brazilian Waters, in Santos Basin throughout September to November 2007, 40 satellite tracked ocean drifters were deployed will be transmitting data up to November 2008. The results of this project can be used to study a wide range of subjects about ocean dynamics. Following the principles of social and environmental responsibility, MONDO Project aims to benefit the local ecosystem in increasing the scientific knowledge of the area to calibrate hydrodynamic models that will lead to more accurate modeling results and, as a consequence, to a better management of contingency plans. Based on these principles, the project will also provide unrestricted access to oceanographic data even after the end of operations. (author)

  14. Experience with drilling and blasting work during construction of Mochovce nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mraz, M.; Vojta, A.; Podel, R.

    1986-01-01

    The results are discussed of four years of investigating the technical and economic parameters of drilling and blasting equipment employed on the building site of the Mochovce nuclear power plant. The technical and operating characteristics are given of tested breaking and drilling sets manufactured by various foreign companies. The final choice was based on output, hard currency prices, power demand, operating reliability and number of personnel required for operation. The optimal set consists of two Hausherr HBM 70 drilling systems (holes with a diameter of 130 to 150 mm) and two ROC 601-02 Atlas Copco machines (auxiliary work, breaking foundation holes for nuclear reactors). (J.C.)

  15. Humvee Armor Plate Drilling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    When drilling holes in hard steel plate used in up-armor kits for Humvee light trucks, the Anniston Army Depot, Anniston, Alabama, requested the assistance of the National Center for Defense Manufacturing and Machining (NCDMM...

  16. Fifty Years of Soviet and Russian Drilling Activity in Polar and Non-Polar Ice: A Chronological History

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    cable being separated from the drill, and further drilling ceased. The drilling operation consisted of three men working one shift. They achieved a...thickness is 160–180 m according to radio-echo sounding data. A 93-m-deep hole was drilled by two men over 127 hours (the total penetration time of...TR-07-20 89 Figure 31. KEMS-112 electro-mechanical core drill: (1) drill head, (2) core barrel, (3) nipple , (4) barrel, (5) chip filter, (6

  17. Drilling reorganizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    As the first in a proposed series of steps that would move scientific ocean drilling from its own niche within the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Directorate for Astronomical, Atmospheric, Earth, and Ocean Sciences (AAEO) into the agency's Division of Ocean Sciences, Grant Gross, division director, has been appointed acting director of the Office of Scientific Ocean Drilling (OSOD). Gross will retain the directorship of the division, which also is part of AAEO. Allen M. Shinn, Jr., OSOD director for nearly 2 years, has been reassigned effective July 10 to a position in NSF's Office of Planning and Resource Management.The move aims to tie drilling operations more closely to the science with which it is associated, Gross said. This first step is an organizational response to the current leaning toward using a commercial drilling vessel as the drilling platform, he said. Before the market for such commercial drill ships opened (Eos, February 22, 1983, p . 73), other ship options for scientific ocean drilling included refurbishing the aging Glomar Challenger or renovating, at great expense, the Glomar Explorer. A possible next step in the reorganization is to make OSOD the third section within the Ocean Sciences Division. Currently, the division is divided into the Oceanographic Facilities and Support Section and the Ocean Sciences Research Section.

  18. Measurement of Forces and Torques during Non Homogeneous Material Drilling Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Hazny Aziz; Muhammad Azmi Ayub

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to measure the forces and toques that produce in the drilling process of non-homogenous material (bone). An automated five degree of freedom CRS CataLyst-5 robot used during the drilling process together with the six degree freedom of force toque sensor. A force torque controller that built in Matlab Simulink environment is used to control the drilling process of the robot. Different feed rate will be used during the experimental of the drilling process. The sen...

  19. Optimizing Geothermal Drilling: Oil and Gas Technology Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denninger, Kate; Eustes, Alfred; Visser, Charles; Baker, Walt; Bolton, Dan; Bell, Jason; Bell, Sean; Jacobs, Amelia; Nagandran, Uneshddarann; Tilley, Mitch; Quick, Ralph

    2015-09-02

    There is a significant amount of financial risk associated with geothermal drilling. This study of drilling operations seeks opportunities to improve upon current practices and technologies. The scope of this study included analyzing 21 geothermal wells and 21 oil and gas wells. The goal was to determine a 'Perfect Well' using historical data to compare the best oil and gas well to the best geothermal well. Unfortunately, limitations encountered in the study included missing data (bit records, mud information, etc.) and poor data collection practices An online software database was used to format drilling data to IADC coded daily drilling reports and generate figures for analysis. Six major issues have been found in geothermal drilling operations. These problems include lost circulation, rig/ equipment selection, cementing, penetration rate, drilling program, and time management. As a result of these issues, geothermal drilling averaged 56.4 days longer than drilling comparable oil and gas wells in the wells in this study. Roughly $13.9 million was spent on non-productive time in the 21 geothermal wells, compared with only $1.3 million in the oil and gas wells, assuming a cost of $50,000 per day. Comparable events such as drilling the same sized hole, tripping in/out, cementing, and running the same size casing took substantially less time in the oil and gas wells. Geothermal wells were drilled using older and/or less advanced technology to depths less than 10,000 feet, while oil and gas wells reached 12,500 feet faster with purpose built rigs. A new approach is now underway that will optimize drilling programs throughout the drilling industry using Mechanical Specific Energy (MSE) as a tool to realize efficient drilling processes. Potential improvements for current geothermal operations are: the use of electronic records, real time services, and official glossary terms to describe rig operations, and advanced drilling rigs/technology.

  20. CASING DRILLING TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Casing drilling is an alternative option to conventional drilling and uses standard oilfield casing instead of drillstring. This technology is one of the greatest developments in drilling operations. Casing drilling involves drilling and casing a well simultaneously. In casing driling process, downhole tools can be retrieved, through the casing on wire-line, meaning tool recovery or replacement of tools can take minutes versus hours under conventional methods. This process employs wireline-retrievable tools and a drill-lock assembly, permitting bit and BHA changes, coring, electrical logging and even directional or horizontal drilling. Once the casing point is reached, the casing is cemented in place without tripping pipe.

  1. Dewatering cuts drilling mud and disposal costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, G.; Pharis, B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on rig site dewatering of drilling fluids with recycling of processed water that can help an operator to comply with environmental rules by reducing volumes of waste and reducing long term liabilities. It can also reduce disposal costs and provide a cleaner drill site overall. Rig site dewatering is the process of injecting coagulants or flocculating chemicals into the mud entering a large clarifying centrifuge. This coagulates the fine, drilled particles allowing them to be separated from the fluid which can then be handled separately. Most of the environmental concerns during the 1980s involved hazardous materials and toxic wastes. Drilling fluids, many of which are chemically benign, have escaped many of the difficult-to-comply-with rules and regulations. During the 1990s, however, operators may be required to submit a written plan for liquid waste reduction for even nonhazardous materials. Many states and local agencies may institute total bans on oil field wastes. Drilling rigs typically produce about 1 bbl of liquid waste for every 1 ft of hole drilled. Thus, a typical drilling operation can produce a large quantity of waste

  2. Structural Characterization of the Foliated-Layered Gabbro Transition in Wadi Tayin of the Samail Ophiolite, Oman; Oman Drilling Project Holes GT1A and GT2A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, J. R.; Crispini, L.; Cheadle, M. J.; Harris, M.; Kelemen, P. B.; Teagle, D. A. H.; Matter, J. M.; Takazawa, E.; Coggon, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Oman Drilling Project Holes GT1A and GT2A were drilled into the Wadi Tayin massif, Samail ophiolite and both recovered ca. 400 m of continuous core through a section of the layered gabbros and the foliated-layered gabbro transition. Hole GT1A is cut by a discrete fault system including localized thin ultracataclastic fault zones. Hole GT2A is cut by a wider zone of brittle deformation and incipient brecciation. Here we report the structural history of the gabbros reflecting formation at the ridge to later obduction. Magmatic and high temperature history- 1) Both cores exhibit a pervasive, commonly well-defined magmatic foliation delineated by plagioclase, olivine and in places clinopyroxene. Minor magmatic deformation is present. 2) The dip of the magmatic foliation varies cyclically, gradually changing dip by 30o from gentle to moderate over a 50 m wavelength. 3) Layering is present throughout both cores, is defined by changes in mode and grain size ranging in thickness from 2 cm to 3 m and is commonly sub-parallel to the foliation. 4) There are no high temperature crystal-plastic shear zones in the core. Key observations include: no simple, systematic shallowing of dip with depth across the foliated-layered gabbro transition and layering is continuous across this transition. Cyclic variation of magmatic foliation dip most likely reflects the process of plate separation at the ridge axis. Near-axis faulting- i) On or near-axis structures consist of epidote-amphibole bearing hydraulic breccias and some zones of intense cataclasis with intensely deformed epidote and seams of clay and chlorite accompanied by syntectonic alteration of the wall rock. Early veins are filled with amphibole, chlorite, epidote, and anhydrite. ii) The deformation ranges from brittle-ductile, causing local deflection of the magmatic foliation, to brittle offset of the foliation and core and mantle structures in anhydrite veins. iii) The prevalent sense of shear is normal and slickenfibers

  3. Technical performance of drilling operations of wells Erslev 1 and 2 on Mors Salt Dome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomm, H.

    1982-01-01

    This paper deals strictly with the performance of the drilling itself. The wells were designed and drilled by an international team of experts, using a Cabot Franks Explorer 900 rig. The two exploration wells were located in the top area of the Mors Saltdome after geological and geophysical investigations at a distance of about 1 100 m. (EG)

  4. A theory of operation of a hydraulic drilling machine with a distributor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Totev, S Kh; Tsvetkov, Kh K

    1982-01-01

    The moment of impact of a striker piston against a drilling instrument is studied. The basic parameters of the drilling machine are identified, including cycle length, piston travel, impact velocity and impact energy. Formulas are acquired for rating the cited parameters.

  5. A self propelled drilling system for hard-rock, horizontal and coiled tube drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biglin, D.; Wassell, M.

    1997-12-31

    Several advancements are needed to improve the efficiency and reliability of both hard rock drilling and extended reach drilling. This paper will present a Self Propelled Drilling System (SPDS) which can grip the borehole wall in order to provide a stable platform for the application of weight on bit (WOB) and resisting the reactive torque created by the downhole drilling motor, bit and formation interaction. The system will also dampen the damaging effects of drill string vibration. This tool employs two hydraulically activated anchors (front and rear) to grip the borehole wall, and a two-way thrust mandrel to apply both the drilling force to the bit, and a retraction force to pull the drill string into the hole. Forward drilling motion will commence by sequencing the anchor pistons and thrust mandrel to allow the tool to walk in a stepping motion. The SPDS has a microprocessor to control valve timing, sensing and communication functions. An optional Measurement While Drilling (MWD) interface can provide two-way communication of critical operating parameters such as hydraulic pressure and piston location. This information can then be telemetered to the surface, or used downhole to autonomously control system parameters such as anchor and thrust force or damping characteristics.

  6. Crosswell Imaging Technology & Advanced DSR Navigation for Horizontal Directional Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Stolarczyk

    2008-08-08

    The objective of Phase II is to develop and demonstrate real-time measurement-while-drilling (MWD) for guidance and navigation of drill strings during horizontal drilling operations applicable to both short and long holes. The end product of Phase II is a functional drill-string assembly outfitted with a commercial version of Drill String Radar (DSR). Project Objectives Develop and demonstrate a dual-phase methodology of in-seam drilling, imaging, and structure confirmation. This methodology, illustrated in Figure 1, includes: (1) Using RIM to image between drill holes for seam thickness estimates and in-seam structures detection. Completed, February 2005; and (2) Using DSR for real-time MWD guidance and navigation of drillstrings during horizontal drilling operations. Completed, November 2008. As of November 2008, the Phase II portion of Contract DE-FC26-04NT42085 is about 99% complete, including milestones and tasks original outlined as Phase II work. The one percent deficiency results from MSHA-related approvals which have yet to be granted (at the time of reporting). These approvals are pending and are do not negatively impact the scope of work or project objectives.

  7. Straddle packer system design and operation for vertical characterization of open bore holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, J.K.

    1994-01-01

    Bore holes open to large intervals provide groundwater samples and test results which represent an unknown integration of properties throughout the depth of the hole. The State of Idaho's INEL Oversight Program is utilizing a custom straddle-packer system to develop a vertical characterization of water chemistry and hydrology in selected open bore holes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This report describes the design and operation for bore hole zone isolation, water sampling, and hydrologic testing. To reduce potential influences on in situ water chemistry, the system utilizes chemically inert components to the extent possible. Straddle packer systems are effective in producing representative water samples from isolated formations. Hydrologic testing is limited by the ability to produce a measurable stress on the aquifer in individual formations, and head measurement sensitivity. 4 figs

  8. Quantitative Assessment of Resilience in the operatives unitsof National Iranian Drilling Company (regional study: Khuzestan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arassi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Resilience engineering is a new approach in safety science. Its goal is to maintain organizational capacity in an acceptable level to help system in managing the crisis. Indeed, resilience engineering rely on systems abilities instead of weaknesses, and try to find indicators that help the system durability. .Material and Method: In this study,first, 6 resilience engineering factors were chosen and sent toexperts in the form of paired comparison sheets. On the other hand, a valid standard questionnaire distributed among drilling rigs operational workers for measuring the NIDC resilience level. Finally,the priority of corrective actionswas determinedaccording to the score of the two analyzedquestionnaires. .Results: The results of resilience engineering factors weighting showed that the management commitment has the highest value andthe second place belonged to the correct culture. The indicators’scores,based on the distributed questionnaires among workers, showed that all of the six factors had similar scoreswhich can be evaluated as fairly good. Finally, the results of prioritization of indicators ofresilience engineering, basedon the combination ofthe questionnaire and experts opinions showed that management commitment is the most effective resilience factor in the organization. ..Conclusion: Management commitment and the current culture are the most importantcontributing factorsin company resilience level. Experienced workforce was the best strengthof the company and the effect of financial issues on resilience and safety was the biggest problem ahead.

  9. Casing drilling - first experience in Brazil; Casing drilling - primeira experiencia no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placido, Joao Carlos Ribeiro; Medeiros, Fernando; Lucena, Humberto; Medeiros, Joao Carlos Martins de; Costa, Vicente Abel Soares Rosa da; Silva, Paulo Roberto Correa da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Alves, Renato J.M. [Tesco, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes the 'Casing Drilling' technology and its first experience in Brazil. This new process of casing while drilling was first developed to reduce costs. This system integrates the drilling process and casing running in one operation, promoting a more efficient well construction system, reducing trip time and costs of drill pipes and their transportation. Besides, this methodology intends to eliminate hole problems related to trouble zones with abnormal pressure with loss circulation, to overcome zones with wellbore instabilities, and to facilitate well control. Two companies have been identified using this technology: Tesco and Weatherford. However, there are differences between the techniques used by these companies, which are described in this paper. In the first experience in Brazil, it was decided to field test the technology developed by Tesco. This paper describes the preparation, the operation and the results of this first test. (author)

  10. Metamorphism Near the Dike-Gabbro Transition in the Ocean Crust Based on Preliminary Results from Oman Drilling Project Hole GT3A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, C. E.; Nozaka, T.; Harris, M.; Michibayashi, K.; de Obeso, J. C.; D'Andres, J.; Lefay, R.; Leong, J. A. M.; Zeko, D.; Kelemen, P. B.; Teagle, D. A. H.

    2017-12-01

    Oman Drilling Project Hole GT3A intersected 400 m of altered basaltic dikes, gabbros, and diorites. The 100% recovery affords an unprecedented opportunity to study metamorphism and hydrothermal alteration near the dike-gabbro transition in the ocean crust. Hydrothermal alteration is ubiquitous; all rocks are at least moderately altered, and mean alteration intensity is 54%. The earliest alteration in all rock types is background replacement of igneous minerals, some of which occurred at clinopyroxene amphibolite facies, as indicated by brown-green hornblende, calcic plagioclase, and secondary cpx. In addition, background alteration includes greenschist, subgreenschist, and zeolite facies minerals. More extensive alteration is locally observed in halos around veins, patches, and zones related to deformation. Dense networks of hydrothermal veins record a complex history of fluid-rock alteration. During core description, 10,727 individual veins and 371 vein networks were logged in the 400 m of Hole GT3A. The veins displayed a range of textures and connectivities. The total density of veins in Hole GT3A is 26.8 veins m-1. Vein density shows no correlation with depth, but may be higher near dike margins and faults. Vein minerals include amphibole, epidote, quartz, chlorite, prehnite, zeolite (chiefly laumontite) and calcite in a range of combinations. Analysis of crosscutting relations leads to classification of 4 main vein types. In order of generally oldest to youngest these are: amphibole, quartz-epidote-chlorite (QEC), zeolite-prehnite (ZP), and calcite. QEC and ZP vein types may contain any combination of minerals except quartz alone; veins filled only by quartz may occur at any relative time. Macroscopic amphibole veins are rare and show no variation with depth. QEC vein densities appear to be higher (>9.3 veins m-1) in the upper 300 m of GT3A, where dikes predominate. In contrast, there are 5.5 veins m-1 at 300-400 m, where gabbros and diorites are abundant. ZP

  11. Preliminary study on the effect of parenteral naloxone, alone and in association with calcium gluconate, on bone healing in an ovine "drill hole" model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langhoff Jens D

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several diseases affect bone healing and physiology. Many drugs that are commonly used in orthopaedics as "analgesics" or anti-inflammatory agents impair bone healing. Stressful conditions are associated with decreased serum osteocalcin concentration. High endorphin levels alter calcium metabolism, blocking the membrane channels by which calcium normally enters cells. The consequent decrease of intracellular calcium impairs the activities of calcium-related enzymes. Naloxone is a pure opioid antagonist. Morphine-induced osteocalcin inhibition was abolished when osteoblasts were incubated with naloxone. Naloxone restored the altered cellular and tissue physiology by removing β-endorphins from specific receptors. However, this is only possible if the circulating Ca concentration is adequate. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of parenteral naloxone administration in inducing fast mineralization and callus remodelling in a group of sheep with a standardised bone lesion. Methods Twenty ewes were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups. Group A acted as control, group B received a solution of calcium gluconate, group C a solution of naloxone, and group D a solution of calcium gluconate and naloxone. A transverse hole was drilled in the left metacarpus, including both cortices, then parenteral treatment was administered intramuscularly, daily for four weeks. Healing was evaluated by weekly radiographic examination for eight weeks. For quantitative evaluation, the ratio of the radiographic bone density between the drill area and the adjacent cortical bone was calculated. After eight weeks the sheep were slaughtered and a sample of bone was collected for histopathology Results Group D showed a higher radiographic ratio than the other groups. Sheep not treated with naloxone showed a persistently lower ratio in the lateral than the medial cortex (P Conclusion A low-dose parenteral regimen of naloxone enhances

  12. Elastic wave velocities, chemistry and modal mineralogy of crustal rocks sampled by the Outokumpu scientific drill hole: Evidence from lab measurements and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, H.; Mengel, K.; Strauss, K. W.; Ivankina, T. I.; Nikitin, A. N.; Kukkonen, I. T.

    2009-07-01

    The Outokumpu scientific deep drill hole intersects a 2500 m deep Precambrian crustal section comprising a 1300 m thick biotite-gneiss series (mica schists) at top, followed by a 200 m thick meta-ophiolite sequence, underlain again by biotite gneisses (mica schists) (500 m thick) with intercalations of amphibolite and meta-pegmatoids (pegmatitic granite). From 2000 m downward the dominating rock types are meta-pegmatoids (pegmatitic granite). Average isotropic intrinsic P- and S-wave velocities and densities of rocks were calculated on the basis of the volume fraction of the constituent minerals and their single crystal properties for 29 core samples covering the depth range 198-2491 m. The modal composition of the rocks is obtained from bulk rock (XRF) and mineral chemistry (microprobe), using least squares fitting. Laboratory seismic measurements on 13 selected samples representing the main lithologies revealed strong anisotropy of P- and S-wave velocities and shear wave splitting. Seismic anisotropy is strongly related to foliation and is, in particular, an important property of the biotite gneisses, which dominate the upper and lower gneiss series. At in situ conditions, velocity anisotropy is largely caused by oriented microcracks, which are not completely closed at the pressures corresponding to the relatively shallow depth drilled by the borehole, in addition to crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) of the phyllosilicates. The contribution of CPO to bulk anisotropy is confirmed by 3D velocity calculations based on neutron diffraction texture measurements. For vertical incidence of the wave train, the in situ velocities derived from the lab measurements are significantly lower than the measured and calculated intrinsic velocities. The experimental results give evidence that the strong reflective nature of the ophiolite-derived rock assemblages is largely affected by oriented microcracks and preferred crystallographic orientation of major minerals, in

  13. Simulation of friction stir drilling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayabaskar, P.; Hynes, N. Rajesh Jesudoss

    2018-05-01

    The project is the study of the thermal drilling process. The process is a hole forming process in the sheet metals using the heat generated by means of friction. The main advantage of the process over the conventional drilling process is that the holes formed using this process does not need any backing arrangements such as weld nuts, rivet nuts etc. Because the extruded bush itself acts as a supporting structure for the fasteners. This eliminates the need for the access to the backside of the work material for fastening operations. The major factors contributing the thermal drilling operation are the spindle speed and the thrust force required for forming a hole. The process of finding out the suitable thrust force and the speed for drilling a particular material with particular thickness is a tedious process. The process can be simplified by forming a mathematical model by combining the empirical formulae from the literature. These formulae were derived in the literature from the experimental trials by following certain assumptions. In this paper a suitable mathematical model is formed by replicating the experiments and tried to be validated by the results from numerical analysis. The numerical analysis of the model is done using the ANSYS software.

  14. Potential environmental benefits from regulatory consideration of synthetic drilling muds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, C.J.; Veil, J.A.

    1995-02-01

    When drilling exploration and production wells for oil and gas, drillers use specialized drilling fluids, referred to as muds, to help maintain well control and to remove drill cuttings from the hole. Historically, either water-based muds (WBMs) or oil-based muds (OBMs) have been used for offshore wells. Recently, in response to US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations and drilling-waste discharge requirements imposed by North Sea nations, the drilling industry has developed several types of synthetic-based muds (SBMs) that combine the desirable operating qualities of OBMs with the lower toxicity and environmental impact qualities of WBMs. This report describes the operational, environmental, and economic features of all three types of muds and discusses potential EPA regulatory barriers to wider use of SBMs

  15. A Force Sensorless Method for CFRP/Ti Stack Interface Detection during Robotic Orbital Drilling Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Fang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Drilling carbon fiber reinforced plastics and titanium (CFRP/Ti stacks is one of the most important activities in aircraft assembly. It is favorable to use different drilling parameters for each layer due to their dissimilar machining properties. However, large aircraft parts with changing profiles lead to variation of thickness along the profiles, which makes it challenging to adapt the cutting parameters for different materials being drilled. This paper proposes a force sensorless method based on cutting force observer for monitoring the thrust force and identifying the drilling material during the drilling process. The cutting force observer, which is the combination of an adaptive disturbance observer and friction force model, is used to estimate the thrust force. An in-process algorithm is developed to monitor the variation of the thrust force for detecting the stack interface between the CFRP and titanium materials. Robotic orbital drilling experiments have been conducted on CFRP/Ti stacks. The estimate error of the cutting force observer was less than 13%, and the stack interface was detected in 0.25 s (or 0.05 mm before or after the tool transited it. The results show that the proposed method can successfully detect the CFRP/Ti stack interface for the cutting parameters adaptation.

  16. Testing of Vegetable-Based dutting Fluid by Hole Making Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Walter; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2000-01-01

    in connection with the development of vegetable based cutting oils. Results show that drilling and tapping qualify as operations in which cutting forces can be resolved within one test when they differ by less than 1 percent by taking 6 repetitions, and measurements could be repeated with relative standard...... development and testing of vegetable based oils of equal or better performance than a reference commercial mineral oil....

  17. Drilling rig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galiopa, A A; Yegorov, E K

    1981-01-04

    A drilling rig is proposed which contains a tower, lifter in the form of n infinite chain, and mobile rotator with holding device connected to the chain, and pipe holder. In order to accelerate the auxiliary operations to move the drilling string and unloaded rotator, the rotator is equipped with a clamp with means for transverse connection of it to both branches of the chain, while the pipe holders equipped with a clamp with means of connecting it to one of the branches of the chain.

  18. 30 CFR 57.7055 - Intersecting holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intersecting holes. 57.7055 Section 57.7055... Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7055 Intersecting holes. Holes shall not be drilled where there is a danger of intersecting a misfired hole or a hole containing explosives, blasting agents...

  19. 30 CFR 56.7055 - Intersecting holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intersecting holes. 56.7055 Section 56.7055... Piercing Drilling § 56.7055 Intersecting holes. Holes shall not be drilled where there is a danger of intersecting a misfired hole or a hole containing explosives blasting agents, or detonators. [56 FR 46508, Sept...

  20. Rock melting technology and geothermal drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    National awareness of the potential future shortages in energy resources has heightened interest in exploration and utilization of a variety of geothermal energy (GTE) reservoirs. The status of conventional drilling of GTE wells is reviewed briefly and problem areas which lead to higher drilling costs are identified and R and D directions toward solution are suggested. In the immediate future, an expanded program of drilling in GTE formations can benefit from improvements in drilling equipment and technology normally associated with oil or gas wells. Over a longer time period, the new rock-melting drill bits being developed as a part of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's Subterrene Program offer new solutions to a number of problems which frequently hamper GTE drilling, including the most basic problem - high temperature. Two of the most favorable characteristics of rock-melting penetrators are their ability to operate effectively in hot rock and produce glass linings around the hole as an integral part of the drilling process. The technical advantages to be gained by use of rock-melting penetrators are discussed in relation to the basic needs for GTE wells.

  1. Residual stress evaluation by X-Ray diffraction and hole-drilling in an API 5L X70 steel pipe bent by hot induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceglias, Rodrigo Braga; Alves, Juciane Maria; Botelho, Ramon Alves; Baeta Junior, Eustaquio de Souza; Santos, Igor Cuzzuol dos; Moraes, Nicki Robbers Darciano Cajueiro de; Oliveira, Rebeca Vieira de; Diniz, Saulo Brinco; Brandao, Luiz Paulo

    2016-01-01

    The API 5L X70 steel is used in high-pressure gas transmission pipelines. Because of this, knowledge of presence of residual stress and their magnitude is important to assess the material integrity in service. For the pipeline manufacturing, tubes need to be curved which is often made using the hot induction bending process. This process can introduce different residual stress depending of tube position. For this research, in order to evaluate the residual stress, was used an API 5L X70 tube that was previously curved by hot induction process. Samples were taken from the extrados, intrados, neutral line and straight section of the curved tube. Residual stresses were studied by two conventional methods: X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Hole-Drilling, which are destructive and non-destructive methods, respectively, in order to assess their qualitative responses. Each of these methods presents particular methodologies in sample preparation and material analysis, but also they differ in factors such time consumption and cost of the analysis. The qualitative responses obtained by the two different methods were comparable and satisfactory and pointed out the existence of a compressive residual stress state in steel pipe. (author)

  2. Residual stress measurements in a ferritic steel/In625 superalloy dissimilar metal weldment using neutron diffraction and deep-hole drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skouras, A.; Paradowska, A.; Peel, M.J.; Flewitt, P.E.J.; Pavier, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the use of non-invasive and semi-invasive techniques to measure the residual stresses in a large dissimilar weldment. This took the form of a butt weld between two sections of a P92 steel pipe, joined using an In625 welding consumable. Residual stress measurements have been carried out on the 30 mm thick welded pipe using the deep-hole drilling technique to characterise the through wall section residual stress distribution for the weld metal, HAZ and parent material. In addition, neutron diffraction measurements have been carried out within the weld zone. Diffraction patterns presented a high intensity and sharp peaks for the base P92 steel material. However measurements in the weld superalloy material were proven problematic as very weak diffraction patterns were observed. A thorough examination of the weld material suggested that the likely cause of this phenomenon was texture in the weld material created during the solidification phase of the welding procedure. This paper discusses the challenges in the execution and interpretation of the neutron diffraction results and demonstrates that realistic measurements of residual stresses can be achieved, in complex dissimilar metal weldments. Highlights: ► One of the few papers to measure residual stresses on dissimilar metal welds. ► Paper managed to provide realistic measurements of residual stresses using the DHD and ND technique. ► Results of this study have demonstrated the effect of texture during the ND measurements.

  3. Residual stress evaluation by X-Ray diffraction and hole-drilling in an API 5L X70 steel pipe bent by hot induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceglias, Rodrigo Braga; Alves, Juciane Maria; Botelho, Ramon Alves; Baeta Junior, Eustaquio de Souza; Santos, Igor Cuzzuol dos; Moraes, Nicki Robbers Darciano Cajueiro de; Oliveira, Rebeca Vieira de; Diniz, Saulo Brinco; Brandao, Luiz Paulo, E-mail: brandao@ime.eb.br [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Mecanica e de Materiais

    2016-09-15

    The API 5L X70 steel is used in high-pressure gas transmission pipelines. Because of this, knowledge of presence of residual stress and their magnitude is important to assess the material integrity in service. For the pipeline manufacturing, tubes need to be curved which is often made using the hot induction bending process. This process can introduce different residual stress depending of tube position. For this research, in order to evaluate the residual stress, was used an API 5L X70 tube that was previously curved by hot induction process. Samples were taken from the extrados, intrados, neutral line and straight section of the curved tube. Residual stresses were studied by two conventional methods: X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Hole-Drilling, which are destructive and non-destructive methods, respectively, in order to assess their qualitative responses. Each of these methods presents particular methodologies in sample preparation and material analysis, but also they differ in factors such time consumption and cost of the analysis. The qualitative responses obtained by the two different methods were comparable and satisfactory and pointed out the existence of a compressive residual stress state in steel pipe. (author)

  4. Impact of Drilling Operations on Lunar Volatiles Capture: Thermal Vacuum Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhenz, Julie E.; Paulsen, Gale; Zacny, Kris; Smith, Jim

    2015-01-01

    In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) enables future planetary exploration by using local resources to supply mission consumables. This idea of 'living off the land' has the potential to reduce mission cost and risk. On the moon, water has been identified as a potential resource (for life support or propellant) at the lunar poles, where it exists as ice in the subsurface. However, the depth and content of this resource has yet to be confirmed on the ground; only remote detection data exists. The upcoming Resource Prospector mission (RP) will 'ground-truth' the water using a rover, drill, and the RESOLVE science package. As the 2020 planned mission date nears, component level hardware is being tested in relevant lunar conditions (thermal vacuum). In August 2014 a series of drilling tests were performed using the Honeybee Robotics Lunar Prospecting Drill inside a 'dirty' thermal vacuum chamber at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The drill used a unique auger design to capture and retain the lunar regolith simulant. The goal of these tests was to investigate volatiles (water) loss during drilling and sample transfer to a sample crucible in order to validate this regolith sampling method. Twelve soil samples were captured over the course of two tests at pressures of 10(exp-5) Torr and ambient temperatures between -80C to -20C. Each sample was obtained from a depth of 40 cm to 50 cm within a cryogenically frozen bed of NU-LHT-3M lunar regolith simulant doped with 5 wt% water. Upon acquisition, each sample was transferred and hermetically sealed inside a crucible. The samples were later baked out to determine water wt% and in turn volatile loss by following ASTM standard practices. Of the twelve tests, four sealed properly and lost an average of 30% of their available water during drilling and transfer. The variability in the results correlated well with ambient temperature (lower the temperature lower volatiles loss) and the trend agreed with the sublimation rates for the

  5. Drilling technology advances on four fronts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budd, G.

    2002-01-01

    Trends and advances in drilling technology are discussed. Four different major trends have been identified. One of these is proprietary case drilling which is said to allow operators to simultaneously drill, case, and evaluate oil and gas wells. In proprietary case drilling, the well is drilled with standard oil field casing which remains in the hole all the time, eliminating the need for tripping. Drill bits and other downhole tools are lowered via wireline inside the casing and latched to the last joint of casing. Wells are drilled either by rotating the casing or by using a downhole mud motor for steering, using conventional directional tools. This technology was introduced by Tesco and is marketed in 25 countries along with a full range of drilling products and services. Super single rigs are an other trend which, owing to their versatility, combined with relatively small environmental footprint have become the rig of choice in a growing number of drilling programs. Super single rigs use 45-ft. joints of drill pipe, more versatile top drives and they have an automated pipe handling system. Super singles can be used on both vertical and slant wells and offer advantages of lower costs, higher efficiencies and greater drilling depths. Given their low environmental impact hydraulic capability, super singles also find application where zero disturbance rules are in effect, as for example, in some parts of southern Alberta. Directional drilling and MWD are most associated with SAGD projects but they also have been used and made significant difference in other spheres of oil recovery as well. The fact is that about 35 percent of wells drilled today are drilled with some form of directional drilling; this will stimulate the growth of ever more advanced MWD technology. Northern rigs are in a class of their own in that here the emphasis is on keeping the crew warm, as opposed to lots of gadgets. The most immediately-visible heat-conserving modification is the 60-ft wind

  6. Drilling and blasting parameters in sublevel caving in Sheregesh mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremenko, AA; Filippov, VN; Konurin, AI; Khmelinin, AP; Baryshnikov, DV; Khristolyubov, EA

    2018-03-01

    The factors that influence geomechanical state of rock mass in Sheregesh Mine are determined. The authors discuss a variant of geotechnology with fan drilling. The drill-hole patterns and drilling-and-blasting parameters are presented. The revealed causes of low-quality fragmentation of rocks include the presence of closed and open fractures at different distances from drill-hole mouths, both in case of rings and fans, as well as the blocking of drill-holes with rocks.

  7. Developmental test report, assessment of XT-70E percussion drill rig operation in tank farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, L.F.

    1996-01-01

    The following report documents the testing of the XT-70E percussion drill rig for use in the 241-SX Tank Farm. The test is necessary to support evaluation of the safety and authorization level of the proposed activity of installing up to three new drywells in the 241- SX Tank Farm. The proposed activity plans to install drywells by percussion drilling 7 inch O.D./6 inch I.D. pipe in close proximity of underground storage tanks and associated equipment. The load transmitted from the drill rig's percussion hammer through the ground to the tank structure and equipment is not known and therefore testing is required to ensure the activity is safe and authorized

  8. Well drilling by rotary percussive drill above ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabatier, G.

    1987-01-01

    Originally, the Well Drilling Section of Cogema used only the diamond core drilling technique. The appearance of independent rotation for compressed air rock drills has led to the use and to the development of this drilling system, as a drill core is not indispensable, when the material of the search is radioactive. During the last few years, hydraulic drills have replaced the compressed air drills and have resulted in a very marked improvement: - of the penetration rates; - of the depth achieved. The Well Drilling Section of Cogema has to drill about 400 km per year with rock drills above ground and holds also the record for depth achieved with this technique, i.e. 400 m in granite. In France, the costs of these types of drilling are for the same depth of the order of one-quarter of the core drilling and half of the drilling with a down-the-hole drill. Cogema has greatly developed the types of well logging which now permits the extension of this type of drilling to the search for other materials than uranium [fr

  9. Parameters affecting mechanical and thermal responses in bone drilling: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JuEun; Chavez, Craig L; Park, Joorok

    2018-04-11

    Surgical bone drilling is performed variously to correct bone fractures, install prosthetics, or for therapeutic treatment. The primary concern in bone drilling is to extract donor bone sections and create receiving holes without damaging the bone tissue either mechanically or thermally. We review current results from experimental and theoretical studies to investigate the parameters related to such effects. This leads to a comprehensive understanding of the mechanical and thermal aspects of bone drilling to reduce their unwanted complications. This review examines the important bone-drilling parameters of bone structure, drill-bit geometry, operating conditions, and material evacuation, and considers the current techniques used in bone drilling. We then analyze the associated mechanical and thermal effects and their contributions to bone-drilling performance. In this review, we identify a favorable range for each parameter to reduce unwanted complications due to mechanical or thermal effects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Determination of type, magnitude and direction of residual stresses generated in the welding of AISI H-13 steel with the hole drilling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia; I; Maldonado, C; Bedolla, A; Velez, M; Medina, A; Bejar, L

    2006-01-01

    AISI H-13 steel is considered to be a highly ultra resistant steel because its resistance to stress surpasses 1380 MPa. This steel is widely used in tools that heavily used, especially under high temperatures, such as: awls, molds for pressing, extrusion dies, extrusion tools from heat impact, tools for producing screws, bolts, rivets and taps, molds for centrifugal smelting, tools for presses with shaped pieces, knives for hot cutting, among others. The weldability of AISI H-13 steel is generally poor, but it is possible if the proper precautions are taken. Cracking is perhaps the factor that most limits the weldability of AISI H-13 steel. The tendency to crack during welding for this type of steel occurs in the base metal and the zone close to the supporting material (cold cracking). The interlayer covering technique is used in the repair, welding and recovery of pieces of high alloy steels in order to avoid cracking and to lower the residual stresses generated by obstructed contraction and martensitic transformation. This work defined the type, magnitude and direction of residual stresses at different distances starting from the center of the welded union on the 25.4 mm thick AISI H-13 steel sheet. The welding was carried out in a test piece with Y-Groove geometry following JIS Z 3158 standard, using the SMAW process and an AISI 312 stainless steel interlayer between the base metal and the supporting metal. The hole-drilling method was used to measure the type, magnitude and direction of residual stresses using extensometric gauge rosette CEA-06-062UM-120 and CEA-06-062RE-120 following the guidelines established by ASTM E 837 standard. Based on the relaxed deformations that were measured, the type, magnitude and direction of residual stresses were determined with the H-DRILL residual stress program for biaxial condition. The results indicate that under these welding conditions the residual strains at different distances from the welded union are from stress and

  11. Optimization of Operating Parameters for Minimum Mechanical Specific Energy in Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrick, Todd [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Efficiency in drilling is measured by Mechanical Specific Energy (MSE). MSE is the measure of the amount of energy input required to remove a unit volume of rock, expressed in units of energy input divided by volume removed. It can be expressed mathematically in terms of controllable parameters; Weight on Bit, Torque, Rate of Penetration, and RPM. It is well documented that minimizing MSE by optimizing controllable factors results in maximum Rate of Penetration. Current methods for computing MSE make it possible to minimize MSE in the field only through a trial-and-error process. This work makes it possible to compute the optimum drilling parameters that result in minimum MSE. The parameters that have been traditionally used to compute MSE are interdependent. Mathematical relationships between the parameters were established, and the conventional MSE equation was rewritten in terms of a single parameter, Weight on Bit, establishing a form that can be minimized mathematically. Once the optimum Weight on Bit was determined, the interdependent relationship that Weight on Bit has with Torque and Penetration per Revolution was used to determine optimum values for those parameters for a given drilling situation. The improved method was validated through laboratory experimentation and analysis of published data. Two rock types were subjected to four treatments each, and drilled in a controlled laboratory environment. The method was applied in each case, and the optimum parameters for minimum MSE were computed. The method demonstrated an accurate means to determine optimum drilling parameters of Weight on Bit, Torque, and Penetration per Revolution. A unique application of micro-cracking is also presented, which demonstrates that rock failure ahead of the bit is related to axial force more than to rotation speed.

  12. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER. LASER PLASMA: The mechanism of the drilling of holes in vertical metallic plates by cw CO2 laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhanskii, V. V.; Loboiko, A. I.; Antonova, G. F.; Krasyukov, A. G.; Sayapin, V. P.

    1999-02-01

    The possibility of making a hole in a vertical plate with the aid of laser radiation at a surface temperature not exceeding the boiling point is analysed neglecting the vapour pressure. The mechanism of the degradation of the liquid layer involving a reduction of its thickness, as a result of the redistribution of the molten mass owing to the operation of the force of gravity and of thermocapillary convection, is examined. The theoretical dependence of the critical size of the molten zone on the plate thickness is obtained and a comparison is made with experimental data.

  13. Drilling Experiments of Dummy Fuel Rods Using a Mock-up Drilling Device and Detail Design of Device for Drilling of Irradiated Nuclear Fuel Rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Yong; Lee, H. K.; Chun, Y. B.; Park, S. J.; Kim, B. G

    2007-07-15

    KAERI are developing the safety evaluation method and the analysis technology for high burn-up nuclear fuel rod that is the project, re-irradiation for re-instrumented fuel rod. That project includes insertion of a thermocouple in the center hole of PWR nuclear fuel rod with standard burn-up, 3,500{approx}4,000MWD/tU and then inspection of the nuclear fuel rod's heat performance during re-irradiation. To re-fabricate fuel rod, two devices are needed such as a drilling machine and a welding machine. The drilling machine performs grinding a center hole, 2.5 mm in diameter and 50 mm in depth, for inserting a thermocouple. And the welding machine is used to fasten a end plug on a fuel rod. Because these two equipment handle irradiated fuel rods, they are operated in hot cell blocked radioactive rays. Before inserting any device into hot cell, many tests with that machine have to be conducted. This report shows preliminary experiments for drilling a center hole on dummy of fuel rods and optimized drilling parameters to lessen operation time and damage of diamond dills. And the design method of a drilling machine for irradiated nuclear fuel rods and detail design drawings are attached.

  14. Pre-operative Screening and Manual Drilling Strategies to Reduce the Risk of Thermal Injury During Minimally Invasive Cochlear Implantation Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Neal P; Fichera, Loris; Kesler, Kyle; Zuniga, M Geraldine; Mitchell, Jason E; Webster, Robert J; Labadie, Robert F

    2017-09-01

    This article presents the development and experimental validation of a methodology to reduce the risk of thermal injury to the facial nerve during minimally invasive cochlear implantation surgery. The first step in this methodology is a pre-operative screening process, in which medical imaging is used to identify those patients that present a significant risk of developing high temperatures at the facial nerve during the drilling phase of the procedure. Such a risk is calculated based on the density of the bone along the drilling path and the thermal conductance between the drilling path and the nerve, and provides a criterion to exclude high-risk patients from receiving the minimally invasive procedure. The second component of the methodology is a drilling strategy for manually-guided drilling near the facial nerve. The strategy utilizes interval drilling and mechanical constraints to enable better control over the procedure and the resulting generation of heat. The approach is tested in fresh cadaver temporal bones using a thermal camera to monitor temperature near the facial nerve. Results indicate that pre-operative screening may successfully exclude high-risk patients and that the proposed drilling strategy enables safe drilling for low-to-moderate risk patients.

  15. Second half work to boost 1991 drilling in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzet, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that U.S. well completions in 1991 will increase about 8% compared with 1990 if operators stick with present spending plans during the second half. Operators are expected to realize $76.4 billion in wellhead revenues this year, 10.7% less than the 1990 estimate. However, they are expected to invest a larger share of those revenues in drilling this year than they did in 1990. With less than half the year remaining, here is Oil and Gas Journal's updated look at 1991 U.S. drilling: The rotary rig count will average 1,050, up from last year's average of 1,010. Operators will drill about 31,654 oil wells, gas wells, and dry holes compared with an estimated 29,170 drilled in 1990. Exploratory drilling will decline to 5,711 wildcats. Total footage drilled will exceed 152 million ft of hole; average well depth is expected to be about 4,805 ft. Major oil companies drilled 2,602 wells in the U.S. during first half 1991 and plan to drill 2,569 the rest of this year. Meanwhile, drilling in western Canada will likely total 5,900 wells this year

  16. Robotic and Human-Tended Collaborative Drilling Automation for Subsurface Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Brian; Cannon, Howard; Stoker, Carol; Davis, Kiel

    2005-01-01

    Future in-situ lunar/martian resource utilization and characterization, as well as the scientific search for life on Mars, will require access to the subsurface and hence drilling. Drilling on Earth is hard - an art form more than an engineering discipline. Human operators listen and feel drill string vibrations coming from kilometers underground. Abundant mass and energy make it possible for terrestrial drilling to employ brute-force approaches to failure recovery and system performance issues. Space drilling will require intelligent and autonomous systems for robotic exploration and to support human exploration. Eventual in-situ resource utilization will require deep drilling with probable human-tended operation of large-bore drills, but initial lunar subsurface exploration and near-term ISRU will be accomplished with lightweight, rover-deployable or standalone drills capable of penetrating a few tens of meters in depth. These lightweight exploration drills have a direct counterpart in terrestrial prospecting and ore-body location, and will be designed to operate either human-tended or automated. NASA and industry now are acquiring experience in developing and building low-mass automated planetary prototype drills to design and build a pre-flight lunar prototype targeted for 2011-12 flight opportunities. A successful system will include development of drilling hardware, and automated control software to operate it safely and effectively. This includes control of the drilling hardware, state estimation of both the hardware and the lithography being drilled and state of the hole, and potentially planning and scheduling software suitable for uncertain situations such as drilling. Given that Humans on the Moon or Mars are unlikely to be able to spend protracted EVA periods at a drill site, both human-tended and robotic access to planetary subsurfaces will require some degree of standalone, autonomous drilling capability. Human-robotic coordination will be important

  17. Transformation of Serpentinite to Listvenite as Recorded in the Vein History of Rocks From Oman Drilling Project Hole BT1B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, C. E.; Kelemen, P. B.; Michibayashi, K.; Harris, M.; Urai, J. L.; de Obeso, J. C.; Jesus, A. P. M.; Zeko, D.

    2017-12-01

    Oman Drilling Project Hole BT1B intersected 191 m of listvenite (magnesite + quartz rock) and serpentinite in the hanging wall of the basal thrust of the Oman ophiolite. Recovery was 100%. Listvenite is the dominant lithology in the upper plate rocks (166 m). Its shows wide color and textural variation, including pseudomorphic replacement of serpentinized peridotite. Serpentinite was encountered in two main contiguous intervals totaling 25 m. In light of the strongly metasomatic nature for the origin of listvenite, a substantial portion of the core description effort was dedicated to characterization of the complex veining history recorded in the hole. Dense veining is recorded in both lithologies. The density of 200/m. The density of veins >1 mm was 50-100/m, with somewhat higher densities recorded in serpentinite than in listvenite. In order of oldest to youngest, the main vein types in serpentinite are microscopic mesh-textured serpentine veins, macroscopic serpentine veins, carbonate-oxide veins, and carbonate veins. The vein paragenesis in listvenite is: early carbonate-oxide veins, followed by carbonate and carbonate-quartz veins, then late carbonate veins. The carbonate-oxide and carbonate veins are shared by the lithologies and hold clues to the transformation of ultramafic rocks to listvenite. Carbonate-oxide veins form a distinctive set that is interpreted to be the earliest record of carbonate formation in serpentinite. They contain Fe-oxide, usually hematite, on a medial line, with antitaxial magnesite crystals growing outward and showing terminations against wall rock minerals. Antitaxial textures may be evidence of positive reaction volumes. In serpentinite, secondary serpentine after earlier serpentine is common at vein margins. Carbonate-oxide veins are the earliest observed in listvenite, where they may form isolated veins to dense, aligned networks that impart a foliated texture. In some cases, they appear to predate replacement of serpentine by

  18. SHRIMP zircon dating and LA-ICPMS Hf analysis of early Precambrian rocks from drill holes into the basement beneath the Central Hebei Basin, North China Craton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusheng Wan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Central Hebei Basin (CHB is one of the largest sedimentary basins in the North China Craton, extending in a northeast–southwest direction with an area of >350 km2. We carried out SHRIMP zircon dating, Hf-in-zircon isotopic analysis and a whole-rock geochemical study on igneous and metasedimentary rocks recovered from drill holes that penetrated into the basement of the CHB. Two samples of gneissic granodiorite (XG1-1 and gneissic quartz diorite (J48-1 have magmatic ages of 2500 and 2496 Ma, respectively. Their zircons also record metamorphic ages of 2.41–2.51 and ∼2.5 Ga, respectively. Compared with the gneissic granodiorite, the gneissic quartz diorite has higher ΣREE contents and lower Eu/Eu* and (La/Ybn values. Two metasedimentary samples (MG1, H5 mainly contain ∼2.5 Ga detrital zircons as well as late Paleoproterozoic metamorphic grains. The zircons of different origins have εHf (2.5 Ga values and Hf crustal model ages ranging from 0 to 5 and 2.7 to 2.9 Ga, respectively. Therefore, ∼2.5 Ga magmatic and Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks and late Neoarchean to early Paleoproterozoic and late Paleoproterozoic tectono-thermal events have been identified in the basement beneath the CHB. Based on regional comparisons, we conclude that the early Precambrian basement beneath the CHB is part of the North China Craton.

  19. Fluid inclusion from drill hole DW-5, Hohi geothermal area, Japan: Evidence of boiling and procedure for estimating CO2 content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasada, M.; Roedder, E.; Belkin, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    Fluid inclusion studies have been used to derive a model for fluid evolution in the Hohi geothermal area, Japan. Six types of fluid inclusions are found in quartz obtained from the drill core of DW-5 hole. They are: (I) primary liquid-rich with evidence of boiling; (II) primary liquid-rich without evidence of boiling; (III) primary vapor-rich (assumed to have been formed by boiling); (IV) secondary liquid-rich with evidence of boiling; (V) secondary liquid-rich without evidence of boiling; (VI) secondary vapor-rich (assumed to have been formed by boiling). Homogenization temperatures (Th) range between 196 and 347??C and the final melting point of ice (Tm) between -0.2 and -4.3??C. The CO2 content was estimated semiquantitatively to be between 0 and 0.39 wt. % based on the bubble behavior on crushing. NaCl equivalent solid solute salinity of fluid inclusions was determined as being between 0 and 6.8 wt. % after minor correction for CO2 content. Fluid inclusions in quartz provide a record of geothermal activity of early boiling and later cooling. The CO2 contents and homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions with evidence of boiling generally increase with depth; these changes, and NaCl equivalent solid solute salinity of the fluid can be explained by an adiabatic boiling model for a CO2-bearing low-salinity fluid. Some high-salinity inclusions without CO2 are presumed to have formed by a local boiling process due to a temperature increase or a pressure decrease. The liquid-rich primary and secondary inclusions without evidence of boiling formed during the cooling process. The salinity and CO2 content of these inclusions are lower than those in the boiling fluid at the early stage, probably as a result of admixture with groundwater. ?? 1986.

  20. Injury Rates on New and Old Technology Oil and Gas Rigs Operated by the Largest United States Onshore Drilling Contractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackley, David J.; Retzer, Kyla D.; Hubler, Warren G.; Hill, Ryan D.; Laney, A. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Background Occupational fatality rates among oil and gas extraction industry and specifically among drilling contractor workers are high compared to the U.S. all-industry average. There is scant literature focused on non-fatal injuries among drilling contractors, some of which have introduced engineering controls to improve rig efficiency and reduce injury risk. Methods We compared injury rates on new and old technology rigs operated by the largest U.S. drilling contractor during 2003–2012, stratifying by job type and grouping outcomes by injury severity and body part affected. Results Six hundred seventy-one injuries were recorded over 77.4 million person-hours. The rate on new rigs was 66% of that on old rigs. Roughnecks had lower injury rates on new rigs, largely through reduced limb injury rates. New rigs had lower rates in each non-fatal injury severity category. Conclusions For this company, new technology rigs appear to provide a safer environment for roughnecks. Future studies could include data from additional companies. PMID:25164118

  1. Injury rates on new and old technology oil and gas rigs operated by the largest United States onshore drilling contractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackley, David J; Retzer, Kyla D; Hubler, Warren G; Hill, Ryan D; Laney, A Scott

    2014-10-01

    Occupational fatality rates among oil and gas extraction industry and specifically among drilling contractor workers are high compared to the U.S. all-industry average. There is scant literature focused on non-fatal injuries among drilling contractors, some of which have introduced engineering controls to improve rig efficiency and reduce injury risk. We compared injury rates on new and old technology rigs operated by the largest U.S. drilling contractor during 2003-2012, stratifying by job type and grouping outcomes by injury severity and body part affected. Six hundred seventy-one injuries were recorded over 77.4 million person-hours. The rate on new rigs was 66% of that on old rigs. Roughnecks had lower injury rates on new rigs, largely through reduced limb injury rates. New rigs had lower rates in each non-fatal injury severity category. For this company, new technology rigs appear to provide a safer environment for roughnecks. Future studies could include data from additional companies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The Successful Operation of Hole-type Gaseous Detectors at Cryogenic Temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Pereiale, L.; Iacobaeus, C.; Francke, T.; Lund-Jensen, B.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Picchi, P.; Pietropaolo, F.; Tokanai, F.

    2004-01-01

    We have demonstrated that hole-type gaseous detectors, GEMs and capillary plates, can operate up to 77 K. For example, a single capillary plate can operate at gains of above 10E3 in the entire temperature interval between 300 until 77 K. The same capillary plate combined with CsI photocathodes could operate perfectly well at gains (depending on gas mixtures) of 100-1000. Obtained results may open new fields of applications for capillary plates as detectors of UV light and charge particles at cryogenic temperatures: noble liquid TPCs, WIMP detectors or LXe scintillating calorimeters and cryogenic PETs.

  3. 瓦斯抽放煤层增透深孔聚能爆破钻孔参数%Drilling parameters of deep-hole cumulative blasting to improve coal seam permeability in gas drainage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭德勇; 吕鹏飞; 单智勇; 谢安

    2013-01-01

    以焦作煤业集团九里山矿煤层深孔聚能爆破试验为基础,利用数值模拟分析了爆破煤体应力变化规律,发现聚能爆破效应导致应力峰值增大,扩大了煤体裂隙区范围.同时对聚能爆破钻孔参数进行优化,确定了合理的炮孔直径、爆破孔间距、爆破孔与邻近抽放孔及煤层顶底板间距.现场试验结果表明:优化的钻孔参数不仅使聚能爆破增透效果显著而且保证了爆破过程的安全.%Based on coal seam deep-hole cumulative blasting experiments in Jiulishan Coal Mine of Jiaozuo Coal Group, the law of stress change in a blasting coal body was analyzed by numerical simulation. It is found that cumulative blasting effect leads to the increase of peak stress and enlarges the crack zone range of the coal body. Drilling parameters for cumulative blasting, such as blast hole diameter, blast hole spacing, distance between the blast hole and the adjacent gas drainage hole, and distance from the blast hole to the coal seam roof and floor, were determined by optimization. Field experimental results show that after using these optimized drilling parameters the cumulative blasting not only gets remarkable permeability increasing effect but also ensures blasting safety.

  4. Gaspe hole sets depth record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1970-03-09

    The deepest diamond-cored hole in the Western Hemisphere, Gulf Sunnybank No. 1 on the Gaspe Peninsula of Quebec, has been completed at a depth of 11,600 ft. This is the deepest cored hole to be drilled anywhere in search of oil and gas production, and the deepest to be drilled using a wire-line core recovery technique. The well was completed in 183 days, and was cored continuously below the surface casing which was set and cemented at 1,004 ft. After underreaming a portion of the bottom of the hole, intermediate casing was set and cemented at 8,000 ft as a safety precaution against possible high oil or gas-fluid pressure. Actual coring time, after deducting time for underreaming and casing operations, was 152 days. Because of the cost of transporting a conventional oil-drilling rig to the E. location, the 89-ft mining rig was modified for the project. The contractor was Heath and Sherwood Drilling (Western) Ltd.

  5. The LITA Drill and Sample Delivery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, G.; Yoon, S.; Zacny, K.; Wettergreeng, D.; Cabrol, N. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Life in the Atacama (LITA) project has a goal of demonstrating autonomous roving, sample acquisition, delivery and analysis operations in Atacama, Chile. To enable the sample handling requirement, Honeybee Robotics developed a rover-deployed, rotary-percussive, autonomous drill, called the LITA Drill, capable of penetrating to ~80 cm in various formations, capturing and delivering subsurface samples to a 20 cup carousel. The carousel has a built-in capability to press the samples within each cup, and position target cups underneath instruments for analysis. The drill and sample delivery system had to have mass and power requirements consistent with a flight system. The drill weighs 12 kg and uses less than 100 watt of power to penetrate ~80 cm. The LITA Drill auger has been designed with two distinct stages. The lower part has deep and gently sloping flutes for retaining powdered sample, while the upper section has shallow and steep flutes for preventing borehole collapse and for efficient movement of cuttings and fall back material out of the hole. The drill uses the so called 'bite-sampling' approach that is samples are taken in short, 5-10 cm bites. To take the first bite, the drill is lowered onto the ground and upon drilling of the first bite it is then retracted into an auger tube. The auger with the auger tube are then lifted off the ground and positioned next to the carousel. To deposit the sample, the auger is rotated and retracted above the auger tube. The cuttings retained on the flutes are either gravity fed or are brushed off by a passive side brush into the cup. After the sample from the first bite has been deposited, the drill is lowered back into the same hole to take the next bite. This process is repeated until a target depth is reached. The bite sampling is analogous to peck drilling in the machining process where a bit is periodically retracted to clear chips. If there is some fall back into the hole once the auger has cleared the hole, this

  6. IODP Expedition 319, NanTroSEIZE Stage 2: First IODP Riser Drilling Operations and Observatory Installation Towards Understanding Subduction Zone Seismogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Toczko

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE is a major drilling project designed to investigate fault mechanics and the seismogenic behavior of subduction zone plate boundaries. Expedition 319 is the first riser drilling operation within scientific ocean drilling. Operations included riser drilling at Site C0009 in the forearc basin above the plate boundary fault, non-riser drilling at Site C0010 across the shallow part of the megasplay faultsystem—which may slip during plate boundary earthquakes—and initial drilling at Site C0011 (incoming oceanic plate for Expedition 322. At Site C0009, new methods were tested, including analysis of drill mud cuttings and gas, and in situ measurements of stress, pore pressure, and permeability. These results, in conjunction with earlier drilling, will provide a the history of forearc basin development (including links to growth of the megasplay fault system and modern prism, b the first in situ hydrological measurements of the plate boundary hanging wall, and c integration of in situ stress measurements (orientation and magnitude across the forearc and with depth. A vertical seismic profile (VSP experiment provides improved constraints on the deeper structure of the subduction zone. At Site C0010, logging-while-drilling measurements indicate significantchanges in fault zone and hanging wall properties over short (<5 km along-strike distances, suggesting different burial and/or uplift history. The first borehole observatory instruments were installed at Site C0010 to monitor pressure and temperature within the megasplay fault zone, and methods of deployment of more complex observatoryinstruments were tested for future operations.

  7. 30 CFR 77.1010 - Collaring holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collaring holes. 77.1010 Section 77.1010... Control § 77.1010 Collaring holes. (a) Starter steels shall be used when collaring holes with hand-held drills. (b) Men shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or...

  8. Hole history, rotary hole DC-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    Purpose of hole DC-3 was to drill into the Umtanum basalt flow using both conventional rotary and core drilling methods. The borehole is to be utilized for geophysical logging, future hydrological testing, and the future installation of a borehole laboratory for long-term pressure, seismic, and moisture migration or accumulation recording in the Umtanum basalt flow in support of the Basalt Waste Isolation Program. Hole DC-3 is located east of the 200 West barricaded area on the Hanford reservation

  9. On target : extreme engineering's tools used for fundamental and high-end drilling operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, G.

    2006-09-15

    Positioned at the bottom of the drillstring, measurement-while-drilling systems can discern the location of the drillbit and transmit information back to the surface in the form of pulses in the mud system. The technology is costly, time-consuming and provides a limited amount of information. This article presented details of new devices developed by Extreme Engineering Ltd. to communicate drillbit location information from the bottom of the well to the surface in real time. The XPulse is a mud pulse system with continuous directional measuring capacity that allows operators on location to perform fundamental directional drilling operations without using a technician to interpret data. Installed behind the drillbit, the device records azimuth and inclination when the bit is sitting idle. Inclination is measured using a set of 3 axis accelerometers, quartz crystal devices that are sensitive to the Earth's gravitational force. Azimuth is measured with a flux gate magnetometer that senses its orientation to the Earth's magnetic field. The 2 data are computed to give an orientation of the drillbit in three-dimensional space. Extreme Engineering Ltd. has also developed XAct, a new set of tools using acoustic telemetry to transmit data to the surface using piezo ceramic materials. The acoustic energy is transmitted up the steel drillpipe at the rate of 20 bits per second to the surface, where an electro acoustic receiver detects it. The rate is sufficient to transmit large amounts of geological and drilling information to the surface in real time. Designed for high-end applications, the new suite of tools has cost the company almost $30 million to develop. It was concluded that industry response to the new technologies has been positive. 4 figs.

  10. Process based analysis of manually controlled drilling processes for bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teicher, Uwe; Achour, Anas Ben; Nestler, Andreas; Brosius, Alexander; Lauer, Günter

    2018-05-01

    The machining operation drilling is part of the standard repertoire for medical applications. This machining cycle, which is usually a multi-stage process, generates the geometric element for the subsequent integration of implants, which are screwed into the bone in subsequent processes. In addition to the form, shape and position of the generated drill hole, it is also necessary to use a technology that ensures an operation with minimal damage. A surface damaged by excessive mechanical and thermal energy input shows a deterioration in the healing capacity of implants and represents a structure with complications for inflammatory reactions. The resulting loads are influenced by the material properties of the bone, the used technology and the tool properties. An important aspect of the process analysis is the fact that machining of bone is in most of the cases a manual process that depends mainly on the skills of the operator. This includes, among other things, the machining time for the production of a drill hole, since manual drilling is a force-controlled process. Experimental work was carried out on the bone of a porcine mandible in order to investigate the interrelation of the applied load during drilling. It can be shown that the load application can be subdivided according to the working feed direction. The entire drilling process thus consists of several time domains, which can be divided into the geometry-generating feed motion and a retraction movement of the tool. It has been shown that the removal of the tool from the drill hole has a significant influence on the mechanical load input. This fact is proven in detail by a new evaluation methodology. The causes of this characteristic can also be identified, as well as possible ways of reducing the load input.

  11. NEW APPROACHES TO THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINING TECHNOLOGY OF DIMENSION STONE USING A CLOSE-SET DRILLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Kalchuk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the current state the non-blasting monolith extraction technology was conducted. The further research direction was substantiated. Has been considered and justified the rational parameters of close-set drilling technology of dimension stones. Solution is offered that consist the combined drilling (a close-set and a holes line drilling, that provides to increase of stone splitting efficiency under its own weight. The calculation of the parameters of the scheme of partial underdrilling at a monolith of stone with the purpose of reducing the volume of drilling works is given. Diagrams of tensile stress changes depending on the specific area of splitting were built. A rational correlation between the drilling parameters of the holes has been established by solving the problems of loading the cantilever beam and stress concentration by the Kirsch solution. The most important parameter for the implementation of this technology is the ratio of monoloth hight to its length. Engineering formulas are proposed for calculating the technological parameters of the realization of the “gravitational-hole” stone splitting. The configuration of a rough block of stones is determined under which this technology can be realized. Creating of close-set holes provides the increase of maximal tensile stress with equal values of specific splitting area ratio. It is established that the effective drilling depth of close-set holes is 43,2 % of monolith height. It is estimated that combined drilling method application of savings from drilling operation will be 11,36 %.

  12. Optimizing Geothermal Drilling: Oil and Gas Technology Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilley, Mitch; Eustes, Alfred; Visser, Charles; Baker, Walt; Bolton, Dan; Bell, Jason; Nagandran, Uneshddarann; Quick, Ralph

    2015-01-26

    There is a significant amount of financial risk associated with geothermal drilling; however, there are opportunities to improve upon current practices and technologies used. The scope of this drilling operational study included 21 geothermal wells and 21 oil and gas wells. The goal was to determine a 'perfect well' using historical data to compare the best oil and gas well to the best geothermal well. Unfortunately, limitations encountered in the study included missing data (bit records, mud information, etc.), poor data collection, and difficult to ascertain handwriting. An online software database was used to format drilling data to IADC coded daily drilling reports and generate analysis figures. Six major issues have been found in geothermal drilling operations. These problems include lost circulation, rig/equipment selection, cementing, penetration rate, drilling program, and time management. As a result of these issues, geothermal drilling averages 56.4 days longer than drilling comparable oil and gas wells in the wells in this study. Roughly $13.9 million would be lost due to non-productive time in the 21 geothermal wells and only $1.3 million in the oil and gas wells, assuming a cost of $50,000 per day. Comparable events such as drilling the same sized hole, tripping in/out, cementing, and running the same size casing took substantially less time in the oil and gas wells. Geothermal wells were drilled using older and/or less advanced technology to depths less than 10,000 feet, while oil and gas wells reached 12,500 feet faster with purpose built rigs. A new approach is now underway that will optimize drilling programs throughout the drilling industry. It is the use of Mechanical Specific Energy (MSE) as a tool to realize efficient drilling processes. However, a work-flow must also be established in order for there to be an efficient drilling program. Potential improvements for current geothermal operations are: the use of electronic records, real

  13. A feasibility study of the disposal of radioactive waste in deep ocean sediments by drilled emplacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bury, M.R.C.

    1983-08-01

    This report describes the second phase of a study of the feasibility of disposal and isolation of high level radioactive waste in holes drilled deep into the sediments of the ocean. In this phase, work has concentrated on establishing the state of the art of the various operations and developing the design, in particular the drilling operation, the loading of flasks containing waste canisters from supply vessels onto the platform, the handling of radioactive waste on board, and its emplacement into predrilled holes. In addition, an outline design of the offshore platform has been prepared. (author)

  14. New weld coating process for directional horizontal drilling operations; Neues Schweissnaht-Beschichtungsverfahren fuer Horizontalbohrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quast, M. [Denso GmbH, Leverkusen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Corrosion protective coatings of steel pipes laid by horizontal directional drilling are particularly stressed. Thermosetting compounds based on polyurethane or expoxides have proven their performance for the protection of welded joints of such pipes. The application of thermosetting joint coatings can currently be carried out in a lamination process, resulting in glass reinforced plastics coatings, or by spatula in case of polyurethane based materials. Both application procedures require a certain period of time and come along with drawbacks, which are typical for the application of reactive resins. This report describes a new procedure for the coating of welded joint areas of steel pipes with polyurethane reactive resins. By use of a special casing system the complications of applying the coating material by spatula are avoided. Consequently one can take complete advantage of using polyurethane coatings for HDD laid pipes without suffering from typical handling drawbacks. (orig.)

  15. Electric motor for laser-mechanical drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Daryl L.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2015-07-07

    A high power laser drilling system utilizing an electric motor laser bottom hole assembly. A high power laser beam travels within the electric motor for advancing a borehole. High power laser drilling system includes a down hole electrical motor having a hollow rotor for conveying a high power laser beam through the electrical motor.

  16. Characterization of tuyere-level core-drill coke samples from blast furnace operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Dong; N. Paterson; S.G. Kazarian; D.R. Dugwell; R. Kandiyoti [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2007-12-15

    A suite of tuyere-level coke samples have been withdrawn from a working blast furnace during coal injection, using the core-drilling technique. The samples have been characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (FT-RS), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. The 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) extracts of the cokes sampled from the 'bosh', the rear of the 'bird's nest', and the 'dead man' zones were found by SEC to contain heavy soot-like materials (ca. 10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} apparent mass units). In contrast, NMP extracts of cokes taken from the raceway and the front of the 'bird's nest' only contained a small amount of material of relatively lower apparent molecular mass (up to ca. 10{sup 5} u). Since the feed coke contained no materials extractable by the present method, the soot-like materials are thought to have formed during the reactions of volatile matter released from the injectant coal, probably via dehydrogenation and repolymerization of the tars. The Raman spectra of the NMP-extracted core-drilled coke samples showed variations reflecting their temperature histories. Area ratios of D-band to G-band decreased as the exposure temperature increased, while intensity ratios of D to G band and those of 2D to G bands increased with temperature. The graphitic (G), defect (D), and random (R) fractions of the carbon structure of the cokes were also derived from the Raman spectra. The R fractions decreased with increasing temperature, whereas G fractions increased, while the D fractions showed a more complex variation with temperature. These data appear to give clues regarding the graphitization mechanism of tuyere-level cokes in the blast furnace. 41 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Heat accumulation during sequential cortical bone drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, Andrew C; Tai, Bruce L; Belmont, Barry; Irwin, Todd A; Shih, Albert; Holmes, James R

    2016-03-01

    Significant research exists regarding heat production during single-hole bone drilling. No published data exist regarding repetitive sequential drilling. This study elucidates the phenomenon of heat accumulation for sequential drilling with both Kirschner wires (K wires) and standard two-flute twist drills. It was hypothesized that cumulative heat would result in a higher temperature with each subsequent drill pass. Nine holes in a 3 × 3 array were drilled sequentially on moistened cadaveric tibia bone kept at body temperature (about 37 °C). Four thermocouples were placed at the center of four adjacent holes and 2 mm below the surface. A battery-driven hand drill guided by a servo-controlled motion system was used. Six samples were drilled with each tool (2.0 mm K wire and 2.0 and 2.5 mm standard drills). K wire drilling increased temperature from 5 °C at the first hole to 20 °C at holes 6 through 9. A similar trend was found in standard drills with less significant increments. The maximum temperatures of both tools increased from drill sizes was found to be insignificant (P > 0.05). In conclusion, heat accumulated during sequential drilling, with size difference being insignificant. K wire produced more heat than its twist-drill counterparts. This study has demonstrated the heat accumulation phenomenon and its significant effect on temperature. Maximizing the drilling field and reducing the number of drill passes may decrease bone injury. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Stability of midface fracture repair using absorbable plate and screw system pilot holes drilled and pin placement at angles other than 90°.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carron, Michael A; Zuliani, Giancarlo; Pereira, Lucio; Abuhamdan, Maher; Thibault, Adrianna; Dau, Nathan; Bir, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Conventional plating systems use titanium plates for fixation of fractures, with benefits of strength and biocompatibility. However, titanium plates require that screws be placed at a 90° angle to the pilot holes. In the midface, this becomes extremely difficult. Today, a variety of craniomaxillofacial osteosynthesis systems are available, including resorbable plating systems. Specifically, the KLS Martin Sonic Weld system ultrasonically fuses the plate and the head of the pin when placed and will fill the pilot hole grooves completely even at less than 90° angles, which provides a tremendous advantage in midface fracture repair. To determine if the KLS Martin Sonic Weld system provides plate-screw construct stability in human heads even when placed at acute angles at the midface buttresses. DESIGN, SETTING, AND SPECIMENS: Twenty cadaveric head specimens with the mandible removed were prepared by creating osteotomies in the midface buttresses bilaterally. Specimens were defleshed and placed in a 2-part testing rig to hold and position the head for testing in a standard material testing system. Testing was performed at the Wayne State University Bioengineering test laboratories, Detroit, Michigan, using an Instron device and high-speed camera. Specimens were plated on one side of the midface using the KLS Martin Sonic Weld system with pilot holes and pins placed at 90° angles. On the contralateral side, the buttresses were plated with the KLS Martin Sonic Weld system at 60°, 45°, and 30° angles. Data were collected using the TDAS data acquisition system and were compared with matched pairs within each specimen. Ultrasonically vibrated pins placed into absorbable mini-plates at less than 90° angles with the KLS Martin Sonic Weld system were compared with the same amount of stress as the system placed at a 90° angle before demonstrating plate-screw construct failure. RESULTS Fifty-seven paired tests were collected, with 114 total tests. Twenty failures were

  19. Design and Exploitation Problems of Drill String in Directional Drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bednarz Stanislaw

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Drill string design for directional drilling requires accounting for a number of factors. First, types and expected values of loads should be determined. Then, elements of the drill string should be so selected as to enable realization of the plan at specified loads. Some of additional factors, e. g. purchase, exploitation cost, geological conditions in the bore-hole, washing of the bore-hole, stability, trajectory, rig parameters, accuracy of gauges, pumps parameters remain in conflict. Drill pipes are made of rolled pipes, upset and welded with tool joints to 9,5 m long; the shorter ones can be made of hot forged rods. Exploitation requirements, being a result of practical experience supported by theoretical and laboratory analyses should be a part of syllabuses of technical staff educational programs. Apart from designing the string, it is also vital to lower the risk of a drilling failure. The significance of these aspects seems to be unquestionable.

  20. Dome-shaped PDC cutters drill harder rock effectively

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, D.P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that rock mechanics and sonic travel time log data indicate that bits with convex-shaped polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) cutters can drill harder rock formations than comparable bits with flat PDC cutters. The Dome-shaped cutters have drilled carbonate formations with sonic travel times as small as 50 μsec/ft, compared to the standard cutoff of 75 μsec/ft for flat PCD cutters. Recent field data from slim hole wells drilled in the Permian basin have shown successful applications of the 3/8-in. Dome cutter in the Grayburg dolomite with its sonic travel times as low as 50-55 μsec/ft and compressive strengths significantly greater than the standard operating range for PDC bit applications. These field data indicate that the Dome cutters can successfully drill hard rock. The convex cutter shape as good impact resistance, cuttings removal, heat dissipation, and wear resistance

  1. Casing drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heenan, D. [Tesco Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    This paper reviewed the experience that Tesco has gained by drilling several wells using only casings as the drill stem. Tesco has manufactured a mobile and compact hydraulic drilling rig called the Casing Drilling {sup TM} system. The system could be very effective and efficient for exploration and development of coalbed methane (CBM) reserves which typically require extensive coring. Continuous coring while drilling ahead, along wire line retrieval, can offer time savings and quick core recovery of large diameter core which is typically required for exploration core desorption tests. The proposed system may also have the potential to core or drill typically tight gas sands or underbalanced wells with air or foam. This would reduce drilling fluid damage while simultaneously finding gas. Compared to conventional drill pipes, Casing Drilling {sup TM} could also be effective with water production from shallow sands because of the smaller annual clearance which requires less air volumes to lift any produced water. 9 figs.

  2. Deep drilling KLX 02. Drilling and documentation of a 1700 m deep borehole at Laxemar, Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, O [VBB VIAK AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    1994-08-01

    In this report the preparation and execution of the deep core drilling KLX 02 is described. The hole was drilled with the wireline methods, NQ dimension (diameter 76 mm), to a final depth of 1700.5 m. Prior to core drilling a diameter 215 mm pilot hole was pre drilled to 200 m with controlled hammer drilling (DTH). In this hole casing and air-lift equipment was installed with the aim to support the circulation of drilling fluid. During core drilling there was a measurement of major drilling parameters and drilling fluid in and out of hole. As a fluid tracer uranine was used. Each 300 m of core drilling air-lift pump tests were performed. After completion a flow-meter log was run to finalize the project phase. It can be concluded that both the pre drilling and core drilling methods used proved to be successful. No severe technical problem occurred. However, potential risks have been pointed at in the report. The air-lift system functioned only partly and has to be modified for further use. Also the technique for monitoring of drilling parameters needs improvement as does the method for air-lift pump tests with packer. The organisation model for planning and realization functioned satisfactory and can be recommended for similar future projects. 9 refs, numerous tabs and figs.

  3. Deep drilling KLX 02. Drilling and documentation of a 1700 m deep borehole at Laxemar, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, O.

    1994-08-01

    In this report the preparation and execution of the deep core drilling KLX 02 is described. The hole was drilled with the wireline methods, NQ dimension (diameter 76 mm), to a final depth of 1700.5 m. Prior to core drilling a diameter 215 mm pilot hole was pre drilled to 200 m with controlled hammer drilling (DTH). In this hole casing and air-lift equipment was installed with the aim to support the circulation of drilling fluid. During core drilling there was a measurement of major drilling parameters and drilling fluid in and out of hole. As a fluid tracer uranine was used. Each 300 m of core drilling air-lift pump tests were performed. After completion a flow-meter log was run to finalize the project phase. It can be concluded that both the pre drilling and core drilling methods used proved to be successful. No severe technical problem occurred. However, potential risks have been pointed at in the report. The air-lift system functioned only partly and has to be modified for further use. Also the technique for monitoring of drilling parameters needs improvement as does the method for air-lift pump tests with packer. The organisation model for planning and realization functioned satisfactory and can be recommended for similar future projects. 9 refs, numerous tabs and figs

  4. Drillings at Veitsivaara in Hyrynsalmi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkkanen, H.; Oehberg, A.

    1990-04-01

    According to Governmen's decision in principle Teollisuuden Voima Oy is obliged to make bedrock investigations for the final disposal of the spent fuel produced by its power plant in Olkiluoto. Areas in Kuhmo, Hyrynsalmi, Sievi, Konginkangas and Olkiluoto were selected for the preliminary site investigations to be carried out during years 1987-1992. In Veitsivaara, Hyrynsalmi the investigation program was started in April 1987. During years 1987-1988 a deep borehole (1002 m) and 4 and 500 m deep additional boreholes were core drilled in the area. Various parameters were measured from the flushing water during the drilling. Corelogging included collecting detailed data of fractures and determining the weathering degree and petrographical properties. Rock mechanical properties, uniaxial compressive strength, Young's modulus and Poisso's ratio were measured from core samples. The flushing water needed in the drillings was pumped from 100 m deep borehole wells drilled with down-the-hole method in the vicinity of the borehole. The water was labeled with 2 tracers before use. About 75 m deep hole was percussion drilled near the borehole KR1. The spreading of the flushing water in the upper part of bedrock and the quality off the ground of the groundwater were studied by taking watersamples from the hole. 30 vertical holes were core drilled down to the depth of 10 m in bedrock with a light drilling unit. Drilling was carried out in order to determine the thickness of the overburden, to investigate the geophysical anomaly sources and to support geological mapping in areas covered with overburden. Groundwater hydraulics is one of the main subjects during the preliminary site investigation phase. For that reason 7 multilevel piezometers were installed on the site to monitore hydraulic head in 3 levels in the uppermost part of bedrock. The work consisted of borehole drillings to the depth of 100 m, geophysical borehole loggings and installation of piezometers. In addition

  5. Popular epidemiology and "fracking": citizens' concerns regarding the economic, environmental, health and social impacts of unconventional natural gas drilling operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Martha; Saberi, Poune; Pepino, Richard; Strupp, Emily; Bugos, Eva; Cannuscio, Carolyn C

    2015-06-01

    Pennsylvania sits atop the Marcellus Shale, a reservoir of natural gas that was untapped until the 2004 introduction of unconventional natural gas drilling operations (UNGDO) in the state. Colloquially known as fracking, UNGDO is a controversial process that employs large volumes of water to fracture the shale and capture gas; it has become a multi-billion dollar industry in Pennsylvania. We analyzed letters to the editor of the most widely circulated local newspaper in the most heavily drilled county in Pennsylvania (Bradford County) in order to characterize residents' concerns and their involvement in popular epidemiology--the process by which citizens investigate risks associated with a perceived environmental threat. We reviewed 215 letters to the editor that referenced natural gas operations and were published by The Daily Review between January 1, 2008 and June 8, 2013. We used NVivo 10 to code and analyze letters and identify major themes. Nvivo is qualitative data analysis software (http://www.qsrinternational.com/products_nvivo.aspx) that allows researchers to code and analyze "unstructured" data, including text files of any type (e.g., interview transcripts, news articles, letters, archival materials) as well as photographs and videos. Nvivo can be used to classify, sort, query, comment on, and share data across a research group. Letters demonstrated citizen engagement in beginning and intermediate stages of lay epidemiology, as well as discord and stress regarding four main issues: socio-economic impacts, perceived threats to water, population growth and implications, and changes to the rural landscape. Residents called for stronger scientific evidence and a balance of economic development and health and environmental protections. Citizens' distress regarding UNGDO appeared to be exacerbated by a dearth of information to guide economic growth and health, environmental, and social concerns. This analysis proposes locally informed questions to guide future

  6. You say you want a revolution: casing drilling targets 30 per cent well-cost saving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polczer, S.; Marsters, S.

    1999-10-01

    Casing drilling is a new method of drilling that eliminates drill strings by using standard casing to simultaneously drill and case wells. Tesco Corporation of Calgary acquired patent rights to casing drilling technology in 1995. The company now offers a conversion kit for existing drill rigs as well a new compact casing drilling rig for shallow markets. The single derrick will be rated at 1,500 meters, but initially it will be used to drill 700-800 meter gas wells in southeast Alberta. Some cost savings will be realized at these shallow depths, but the real cost saving advantages will be realized on deep holes. In the meantime, improvements are planned to the cutting structures of the under-rimming bit to increase safety and withstand higher torque loads. It will be also necessary to adapt techniques such as directional drilling and logging to the casing drilling conveyance mechanism which has been only partially successful thus far, especially in the retrieving mode. Another challenge already met, involved ensuring that casing could be run in high-compression loads without damage to connections. Despite these problems, the system attracted considerable attention with several international companies placing orders for immediate delivery. Another system, this one developed by Sperry-Sun Drilling Services and known as a 'casing while drilling' (CWD) system, is strictly a downhole assembly and is targeted for offshore use and deeper vertical holes. This system is currently being tested in two commercial operations in offshore Indonesia for Unocal Corporation. Despite numerous problems to fill casing with fluid during connections, penetration rates of 300-400 feet per hour were achieved.

  7. Operational performace of horizontal drillings in the deep aquiferous gas storage Kalle; Betriebsverhalten von Horizontalbohrungen im tiefen Aquifergasspeicher Kalle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klafki, M.; Kammel, D. [DBI Gas- und Umwelttechnik GmbH, Freiberg (Germany); Below, P.J. [VEW Energie AG, Dortmund (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The aquiferous structure Kalle, located in the Emsland, has contained compressed natural gas in the middle sandstone formation of the Volpriehausen-sandstone for 20 years. The storage stratum is between 2100 and 2200 m deep, 10-13 m thick and sufficiently porous and permeable. Gas storage operation and operational performance of the horizontal holes are described in this article. Filling and injection performance are also described. (orig./MSK) [Deutsch] Die im Emsland gelegene Aquiferstruktur Kalle fuehrt im Volpriehausen-Sandstein der geologischen Formation `Mittlerer Buntsandstein` nunmehr seit fast 20 Jahren eingepresstes Erdgas. Die Speicherschicht ist dort 2100 bis 2200 m tief, 10 bis 13 m maechtig und ausreichend poroes und permeabel. Im Folgenden werden der Gasspeicherbetrieb und das Betriebsverhalten der Horizontalbohrungen beschrieben. Das Ausspeisungsverhalten und das Injektionsverhalten werden ebenfalls erlaeutert. (orig./MSK)

  8. Modeling the time and cost to drill an offshore well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    The objective in drilling a hydrocarbon well is to make hole as quickly as possible subject to the technological, operational, quality, and safety constraints associated with the process. These objectives are frequently conflicting and depend on factors that are subject to significant private and market uncertainty. There is no way to identify all of the relevant characteristics of drilling operations, but through use of statistical analysis and empirical modeling, it is possible to develop relations that characterize and benchmark drilling performance under a suitable set of assumptions. The purpose of this paper is to develop the conceptual framework to model the time and cost to drill an offshore well and to illustrate the methodology on a test set of wells in the Gulf of Mexico. The physical characteristics of the wellbore and operational aspects of drilling, including variables such as the drilled interval, horizontal displacement, aspect ratio, number of casing strings, and mud weight, serve as the primary descriptive factors in the functional relations constructed.

  9. Description of work for 100-DR-2 Operable Unit Vadose Drilling/test pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naiknimbalkar, N.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the scope of work for the boreholes/test pits of the 100-DR-2 Operable Unit. Sampling and field activities include: Soil screening; geologic sampling; soil sampling (physical property); analytical sampling and depths; and geophysical logging

  10. Design and development of solid carbide step drill K34 for machining of CFRP and GFRP composite laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaswamy, T.; Nagaraja, R.

    2018-04-01

    The Study focused on design and development of solid carbide step drill K34 to drill holes on composite materials such as Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) and Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP). The step drill K34 replaces step wise drilling of diameter 6.5mm and 9 mm holes that reduces the setup time, cutting speed, feed rate cost, delamination and increase the production rate. Several researchers have analyzed the effect of drilling process on various fiber reinforced plastic composites by carrying out using conventional tools and machinery. However, this process operation can lead to different kind of damages such as delamination, fiber pullout, and local cracks. To avoid the problems encountered at the time of drilling, suitable tool material and geometry is essential. This paper deals with the design and development of K34 Carbide step drill used to drill holes on CFRP and GFRP laminates. An Experimental study carried out to investigate the tool geometry, feed rate and cutting speed that avoids delamination and fiber breakage.

  11. 21 CFR 872.4130 - Intraoral dental drill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intraoral dental drill. 872.4130 Section 872.4130...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4130 Intraoral dental drill. (a) Identification. An intraoral dental drill is a rotary device intended to be attached to a dental handpiece to drill holes in...

  12. Drilling unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umanchik, N P; Demin, A V; Khrustalev, N N; Linnik, G N; Lovchev, S V; Rozin, M M; Sidorov, R V; Sokolov, S I; Tsaregradskiy, Yu P

    1981-01-01

    A drilling unit is proposed which includes a hydraulic lifter, hydraulic multiple-cylinder pump with valve distribution and sectional drilling pump with separators of the working and flushing fluid. In order to reduce metal consumption and the overall dimensions of the drilling unit, the working cavity of each cylinder of the hydraulic multiple-cylinder pump is equipped with suction and injection valves and is hydraulically connected to the working cavity by one of the sections of the drilling pump.

  13. Drillings at Kivetty in Konginkangas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkkanen, H.; Oehberg, A.

    1990-05-01

    According to Government's decision in principle Teollisuuden Voima Oy is obliged to make bedrock investigations for the final disposal of the spent fuel produced by its power plant in Olkiluoto. Areas in Kuhmo, Hyrynsalmi, Sievi, Konginkangas and Olkiluoto were selected for the preliminary site investigations to be carried out during years 1987-1992. In Kivetty, Konginkangas the investigation program was started in spring 1988. During years 1988-1989 a deep borehole (1019 m) and 4 about 500 m deep additional boreholes were core drilled in the area. The structure of the holes makes it possible to carry out many investigations in the holes. Various parameters were measured from the flushing water during the drilling. Corelogging included collecting detailed data of fractures and determining the weathering degree and petrographical properties. Rock mechanical properties, uniaxial compressive strength, Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio were measured from core samples. The flushing water needed in the drillings was pumped from 100 m deep borehole wells drilled with down-the-hole method in the vicinity of the borehole. The water was labeled with 2 tracers before use. 30 vertical holes were core drilled down to the depth of 10 m in bedrock with a light drilling unit. Drilling was carried out in order to determine the thickness of the overburden to investigate the geophysical anomaly sources and to support geological mapping in areas covered with overburden. Groundwater hydraulics is one of the main subjects during the preliminary site investigation phase. For that reason 7 multilevel piezometers were installed on the site to monitore hydraulic head in 3 levels in the uppermost part of bedrock. The work consisted of borehole drillings to the depth of 100 m, geophysical borehole loggings and installation of piezometers. In addition about 65 shotholes were drilled for VSP-, tubewave and seismic measurements

  14. Drillings at Syyry in Sievi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkkanen, H.; Oehberg, A.

    1990-10-01

    According to Government's decision in principle Teollisuuden Voima Oy is obliged to make bedrock investigations for the final disposal of the spent fuel produced by its power plant in Olkiluoto. Areas in Kuhmo, Hyrynsalmi, Sievi, Konginkangas and Olkiluoto were selected for the preliminary site investigations to be carried out during years 1987-1992. In Syyry, Sievi the investigation program was started in spring 1988. During years 1988-1989 a deep borehole (1022 m) and 4 about 500-700 m deep additional boreholes were core drilled in the area. The structure of the holes makes it possible to carry out many investigations in the holes. Various parameters were measured from the flushing water during the drilling. Corelogging included collecting detailed data of fractures and determining the weathering degree and petrographical properties. Rock mechanical properties, uniaxial compressive strength, Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio were measured from core samples. The flushing water needed in the drillings was pumped from 100 m deep borehole wells drilled with down-the-hole method in the vicinity of the borehole. The water was labeled with 2 tracers before use. 35 vertical holes were core drilled down to the depth of 10-20 m in bedrock with a light drilling unit. Drilling was carried out in order to determine the thickness of the overburden, to investigate the geophysical anomaly sources and to support geological mapping in areas covered with overburden. Groundwater hydraulics is one of the main subjects during the preliminary site investigation phase. For that reason 7 multilevel piezometers were installed on the site to monitore hydraulic head in 3 levels in the uppermost part of bedrock. The work consisted of borehole drillings to the depth of 100 m, geophysical borehole loggings and installation of piezometers. In addition about 85 shotholes were drilled for VSP-, tubewave and seismic measurements

  15. Assessment of the Technology and Practice for Determining Casing Degradation during Offshore Drilling Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    industries. Transport of hydrocarbons Castagnet. A.COG. InStituto de Energia Atomica. Sao Paulo (Brazil). Divisao de ApI icacao de Radioisotopos na...DETECTOR*; MEETING PAPER; OPERATING CONDITION; PIPELINE*; PRESSURE: SAFETY EQUIPMENT; SOLAR ENERGY: THERMAL INSULATION: TUBE; VALVE Leaks In gas grids

  16. Mineralization and trace element distribution in pyrite using EMPA in exploration drill holes from Cheshmeh Zard gold district, Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Alaminia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Pyrite is the most abundant sulfide mineral in low sulfidation ore deposits. Experimental studies have shown that low-temperature ( 200°C from hydrothermal or metamorphic fluids (Butler and Rickard, 2000. Framboidal pyrite mostly occurs in sedimentary environments, though it could also form during metamorphism and hydrothermal alteration (Scott et al., 2009. The pyrite formed tends to be enriched in various trace elements such as Au and As. For this study we have combined the geology, alteration, mineralization with recent studies of the description of the deposit from core logging and underground mapping and geochemistry in the CheshmehZard gold district and also investigated the compositional variation and textural differences between pyrite types. This study is based on the results of our alteration and mineralization mapping and detailed logging of 1937.8 m of drill core. Materials and Methods Geology, hydrothermal alteration and mineralization were examined in drill holes along several cross sections. Host-rock alteration minerals and veins were determined for 11 samples using standard X-ray diffraction (XRD and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF techniques. Polished sections were studied by reflected light microscopy and backscattered electron images (BSE. In this study, the trace-element composition of pyrite samples from the Au-III vein system was obtained using electron microprobe analyzer (EMPA data. All analyseswere carried out at the department of Materials Engineering and Physics of the University of Salzburg in Austria. The EMPA measurements and BSE imaging were made using a JXA-8600 electron microprobe. Spot analyses of 30 pyrite grains from CheshmehZard are given in Table 1. Results The study area is located in the north of Khorasan Razavi Province 45 km to the south of Neyshabour. The area near CheshmehZard could become important as a site of economically significant gold mineralization. Six gold-bearing vein

  17. Elaborating and Making Rational Decisions in Designing Process Operations of a Group of Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Solov'ev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To manufacture engineering products are used expensive multi-purpose CNC machines with five operated coordinates, allowing a single setup of the work-piece to process a group of holes in the housing part from all sides.Because of the haphazard arrangement of a large number of holes available in the space it is difficult to ensure the effective use of these machines.Onsite operational research, conducted on six CNC GS-500 models, involved actual observations and time measurements during 15 working shifts, processing of observation results, and calculations of equipment performance parameters such as machine utilization rate, arrangement and changeover time loss, and real output. Time loss (downtime because of arrangement amounted 44.52%, while that of due to changeover was 20.1% of the total downtime value. These downtimes hide irrational design solutions concerning the engineering process and a large number of changeovers for a new operation to process a group of the specified work-pieces.It is found that to reduce the changeover downtimes it is necessary to increase, first of all, the average number of single tool travels per one setup in generalized characteristics of a group of the work-pieces. That means to increase a changeover concentration of processing within a single operation, as well as to choose rational values for machining a batch of the work-pieces. Under study conditions, it is, at least. 20-50 pieces.To implement a development of the principle of increasing concentration of the processing changeovers it is advised to apply the developed mathematical models, algorithms, and programs that can be used, as modules or their parts, in computer-aided design (CAD systems. This allows a 3-5 times reduction in time to find the rational option of the work-piece position on the machine work surface when developing a process technology, a review and an analysis of more than the usual number of such possible options. It also improves the

  18. Site-specific waste management instruction for the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadley, J.T.

    1996-07-01

    This site-specific waste management instruction provides guidance for the management of waste generated as a result of groundwater well installations in the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit (OU). The well installations are necessary to implement the Remedial Action (RA) option (pump-and-treat using ion exchange) to prevent discharge of hexavalent chromium at levels above those considered protective of aquatic life in the Columbia River and riverbed sediments

  19. Site-specific waste management instruction for the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit drilling. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadley, J.T.

    1996-08-01

    This site-specific waste management instruction provides guidance for the management of waste generated as a result of groundwater well installations in the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit (OU). The well installations are necessary to implement the Remedial Action (RA) option (pump-and-treat using ion exchange) to prevent discharge of hexavalent chromium at levels above those considered protective of aquatic life in the Columbia River and riverbed sediments

  20. Drilling contract issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davison, G.B.; Worden, D.R.; Borbridge, G.K.D.

    1997-01-01

    Some selected issues which are facing both operators and contractors in drilling for oil and gas, such as the allocation of risk by contract and by statute and the implementation of new technologies, were discussed. There are three varieties of written drilling contracts used in Canada: (1) day work and meterage contracts, (2) master drilling agreements, and (3) contracts that are used in construction projects that do not specifically relate to drilling. Issues relevant to the contractual allocation of risk, to implementing new drilling technologies, to reconciling contract and statute liability, and the formation of strategic alliances for mutual benefit, and the factors contributing to the success of such alliances were explored. 12 refs

  1. Core drilling of drillholes OL-PP66-69 at Olkiluoto 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuusirati, J.; Tarvainen, A.-M.

    2009-04-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled four 24.88 - 25.39 m long investigation drillholes at Olkiluoto in June 2008. The identification numbers of the holes are OL-PP66, OL-PP67, OL-PP68 and OL-PP69. The drillholes are 75.7 mm by diameter. Drillholes were core drilled with the diamond drill rig Diamec 1000. The drilling water was taken from the ONKALO drilling water pipeline and premixed sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The labelled drilling water was driven to the drilling places in a tank. In addition to drilling the drill cores were logged and reported by geologist. During geological investigation the following parameters were logged: lithology, foliation, fracture parameters, fractured zones, core loss, weathering, fracture frequency, RQD and rock quality. The main rock types in the drillholes are diatexitic and veined gneisses and pegmatitic granite. The average fracture frequency in holes varied from 3.9 pcs/m to 5.8 pcs/m. The average RQD values varied from 84 % to 93 %. In the drillhole OL-PP66 two fractured zones were penetrated and in OL-PP69 one fractured zone. The drill cores OL-PP67 and OL-PP68 showed no fractured zones. Smoy also carried out optical imaging of the drillholes. The assignment included the field work and the data processing. This report describes the field operation, the equipment as well as the processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and PDF format. (orig.)

  2. DYNAMIC MODELLING OF VIBRATIONS ASSISTED DRILLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu LADONNE

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The number of multi-materials staking configurations for aeronautical structures is increasing, with the evolution of composite and metallic materials. For drilling the fastening holes, the processes of Vibration Assisted Drilling (VAD expand rapidly, as it permits to improve reliability of drilling operations on multilayer structures. Among these processes of VAD, the solution with forced vibrations added to conventional feed to create a discontinuous cutting is the more developed in industry. The back and forth movement allows to improve the evacuation of chips by breaking it. This technology introduces two new operating parameters, the frequency and the amplitude of the oscillation. To optimize the process, the choice of those parameters requires first to model precisely the operation cutting and dynamics. In this paper, a kinematic modelling of the process is firstly proposed. The limits of the model are analysed through comparison between simulations and measurements. The proposed model is used to develop a cutting force model that allows foreseeing the operating conditions which ensure good chips breaking and tool life improvement.

  3. Understanding how the placement of an asymmetric vibration damping tool within drilling while underreaming can influence performance and reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabbara, Alan; McCarthy, John; Burnett, Timm; Forster, Ian [National Oilwell Varco Downhole Ltd. (NOV), Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes the work, on test rigs and full-scale drilling rigs, carried out with respect to placement of an Asymmetric Vibration Damping Tool (AVDT) within drilling while under reaming operations. An AVDT, by virtue of the forward synchronous motion imposed on the drill string, offers benefits in minimizing down hole vibration-related tool failures and therefore maximizing rate of penetration (ROP). Of interest in using the AVDT is the tendency to minimize stick slip by means of the parasitic torque it generates. This is of particular importance during under reaming operations. While under reaming, stick slip can result in low (ROP) and potentially an increased incidence of down hole tool failures. The use of an AVDT in these operations has been shown to significantly reduce stick slip. However, due to the forward synchronous motion caused by the AVDT, there is the potential to cause eccentric wear to the Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) components in the vicinity of the AVDT. If allowed to progress, this eccentric wear can cause a reduction in down hole tool life and drilling performance. Eliminating eccentric wear would be beneficial in reducing repair costs, extending component life and further improving drilling performance. To minimize eccentric wear and maximize drilling performance, the placement of the AVDT within the BHA is critical. This paper describes how the placement of intermediate stabilizers between the AVDT and the under reamer can minimize eccentric wear to the under reamer and the adjacent drill string due to the forward synchronous whirl induced by the AVDT. This approach allows the full benefits of the AVDT to be recognized while reducing the potentially damaging effects of eccentric wear to other BHA components. The work has drawn upon small-scale rig testing, full-scale testing at the Ullrigg test facility in Norway and from real-world drilling and under reaming operations in the USA. (author)

  4. The condition and ways to develop operations to establish standards for drilling muds in the ''Grozneft''' Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranov, V S; Volkova, A P

    1979-01-01

    Four intervals are strictly defined in the geological section of the sites of ''Grozneft''', which require the use of different types of drilling muds (R). The upper part of the section to the Karagano-Chokraksk sediments inclusively should be drilled with wash through by limestone clay mud, whose use should begin immediately after the lowering of the conducter. The upper Maykop sediments should be drilled with the use of a weighted limestone mud, strictly observing the concentration of the lime and the caustic soda in the mud. In the deposits of the lower Maykop, where the temperature reaches 120/sup 0/C, a gypsum and clay mud should be used, using oxyl for regulating its viscosity. In the deposits of the Upper Cretaceous, for which absorption is characteristic, it is expedient to wash through with water or clay mud, processed by UShchR and bichromate. The deposits of the lower Cretaceous should be drilled with wash through by a gypsum mud, processed by lignosulfonates, where it is recommended to use KSSB-4. The capability is assumed of using chlorocalcium clay mud in drilling the Maykop clays. A condition for the effective use of any types of drilling muds is the improved system for removing drilled out rock from the mud.

  5. Ultrasonic/Sonic Rotary-Hammer Drills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Kassab, Steve

    2010-01-01

    removal of cuttings in the same manner as that of a twist drill: An USRoHD includes a USDC and a motor with gearhead (see figure). The USDC provides the bit hammering and the motor provides the bit rotation. Like a twist drill bit, the shank of the tool bit of the USRoHD is fluted. As in the operation of a twist drill, the rotation of the fluted drill bit removes cuttings from the drilled hole. The USRoHD tool bit is tipped with a replaceable crown having cutting teeth on its front surface. The teeth are shaped to promote fracturing of the rock face through a combination of hammering and rotation of the tool bit. Helical channels on the outer cylindrical surface of the crown serve as a continuation of the fluted surface of the shank, helping to remove cuttings. In the event of a failure of the USDC, the USRoHD can continue to operate with reduced efficiency as a twist drill. Similarly, in the event of a failure of the gearmotor, the USRoHD can continue to operate with reduced efficiency as a USDC.

  6. Performance evaluation of NEEM oil and HONGE Oil as cutting fluid in drilling operation of mild steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothi, P. N.; Susmitha, M.; Sharan, P.

    2017-04-01

    Cutting fluids are used in machining industries for improving tool life, reducing work piece and thermal deformation, improving surface finish and flushing away chips from the cutting zone. Although the application of cutting fluids increases the tool life and Machining efficiency, but it has many major problems related to environmental impacts and health hazards along with recycling & disposal. These problems gave provision for the introduction of mineral, vegetable and animal oils. These oils play an important role in improving various machining properties, including corrosion protection, lubricity, antibacterial protection, even emulsibility and chemical stability. Compared to mineral oils, vegetable oils in general possess high viscosity index, high flash point, high lubricity and low evaporative losses. Vegetable oils can be edible or non-edible oils and Various researchers have proved that edible vegetable oils viz., palm oil, coconut oil, canola oil, soya bean oil can be effectively used as eco-friendly cutting fluid in machining operations. But in present situations harnessing edible oils for lubricants formation restricts the use due to increased demands of growing population worldwide and availability. In the present work, Non-edible vegetable oil like Neem and Honge are been used as cutting fluid for drilling of Mild steel and its effect on cutting temperature, hardness and surface roughness are been investigated. Results obtained are compared with SAE 20W40 (petroleum based cutting fluid)and dry cutting condition.

  7. Evidence-based Effective Triage Operation During Disaster: Application of Human-trajectory Data to Triage Drill Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Shoichi; Yoda, Ikushi; Takeda, Munekazu; Kuroshima, Satomi; Uchida, Kotaro; Kawai, Kentaro; Yukioka, Tetsuo

    2015-02-01

    Though many governmental and nongovernmental efforts for disaster prevention have been sought throughout Japan since the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, most of the preparation efforts for disasters have been based more on structural and conventionalized regulations than on scientific and objective grounds. Problem There has been a lack of scientific knowledge for space utilization for triage posts in disaster drill sessions. This report addresses how participants occupy and make use of the space within a triage post in terms of areas of use and occupied time. The trajectories of human movement by using Ubiquitous Stereo Vision (USV) cameras during two emergency drill sessions held in 2012 in a large commercial building have been measured. The USV cameras collect each participant's travel distance and the wait time before, during, and after undergoing triage. The correlation between the wait time and the space utilization of patients at a triage post has been analyzed. In the first session, there were some spaces not entirely used. This was caused largely by a patient who arrived earlier than others and lingered in the middle area, which caused the later arrivals to crowd the entrance area. On the other hand, in the second session, the area was used in a more evenly-distributed manner. This is mainly because the earlier arrivals were guided to the back space of the triage post (ie, the opposite side of the entrance), and the late arrivals were also guided to the front half, which was not occupied by anyone. As a result, the entire space was effectively utilized without crowding the entrance. This study has shown that this system could measure people's arrival times and the speed of their movements at the triage post, as well as where they are placed until they receive triage. Space utilization can be improved by efficiently planning and controlling the positioning of arriving patients. Based on the results, it has been suggested that for triage

  8. Methods to ensure optimal off-bottom and drill bit distance under pellet impact drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalyov, A. V.; Isaev, Ye D.; Vagapov, A. R.; Urnish, V. V.; Ulyanova, O. S.

    2016-09-01

    The paper describes pellet impact drilling which could be used to increase the drilling speed and the rate of penetration when drilling hard rock for various purposes. Pellet impact drilling implies rock destruction by metal pellets with high kinetic energy in the immediate vicinity of the earth formation encountered. The pellets are circulated in the bottom hole by a high velocity fluid jet, which is the principle component of the ejector pellet impact drill bit. The paper presents the survey of methods ensuring an optimal off-bottom and a drill bit distance. The analysis of methods shows that the issue is topical and requires further research.

  9. Drilling cost analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    Drilling assumes greater importance in present day uranium exploration which emphasizes to explore more areas on the basis of conceptual model than merely on surface anomalies. But drilling is as costly as it is important and consumes a major share (50% to 60%) of the exploration budget. As such the cost of drilling has great bearing on the exploration strategy as well as on the overall cost of the project. Therefore, understanding the cost analysis is very much important when planning or intensifying an exploration programme. This not only helps in controlling the current operations but also in planning the budgetary provisions for future operations. Also, if the work is entrusted to a private party, knowledge of in-house cost analysis helps in fixing the rates of drilling in different formations and areas to be drilled. Under this topic, various factors that contribute to the cost of drilling per meter as well as ways to minimize the drilling cost for better economic evaluation of mineral deposits are discussed. (author)

  10. Method and apparatus for monitoring fluid flow between a borehole and the surrounding formations in the course of drilling operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J. L.; Gehrig, G. F.; Speers, J. M.

    1985-11-19

    A method and apparatus for establishing the rate at which fluid is transferred between a borehole and the surrounding formations in the course of moving drill string upward or downward in the borehole. A bell nipple is situated at the upper portion of the borehole. While tripping, drilling fluid is circulated into the borehole and exits through an outflow port in the bell nipple. The level of drilling fluid is maintained constant at the outflow port. Meters are provided to measure inflow and outflow rates. Circuitry is provided to establish the volume rate at which the amount of drill string within the borehole changes. The outputs of the meters and rate establishing means are summed to establish the compensated rate at which fluid is transferred between the formations and the borehole. This compensated rate is compared to an alarm limit. An alarm is activated if the compensated rate exceeds the alarm limit.

  11. Effective Geothermal Utilisation close to the surface by the TT-Geothermal Radial Drilling (GRD-Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Joachim Bayer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the late 1970-Years, Tracto-Technik developped a very effective radial-shaped percussion system for a geothermal heating, the ECOtherm-System, which was very well accepted by customers. Nowadays, a radial-shaped drilling system, operating some decameters below the surface, was developped by Tracto-Technik, which offers the chance of a very effective drilling for the use of geothermal energy. The main advantage of this development is the reduction of drilling costs by new constructions and new handling possibilities. Drilling processes like the rod connecting or the drill-hole enlargement were solved in other ways as usual, by very time-shortening and effective ways, which are presented in the paper. The new TT-Geothermal radial drilling methods need only a very small but highly effective drilling unit, which reduces the operational drilling cost in a enormous way. All operational drilling steps are reduced to less than a half time as usual. By these GRD-methods, the use of surface-close geothermal energy is simplified and less expansive.

  12. Evaluation of accuracy in implant site preparation performed in single- or multi-step drilling procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marheineke, Nadine; Scherer, Uta; Rücker, Martin; von See, Constantin; Rahlf, Björn; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Stoetzer, Marcus

    2018-06-01

    Dental implant failure and insufficient osseointegration are proven results of mechanical and thermal damage during the surgery process. We herein performed a comparative study of a less invasive single-step drilling preparation protocol and a conventional multiple drilling sequence. Accuracy of drilling holes was precisely analyzed and the influence of different levels of expertise of the handlers and additional use of drill template guidance was evaluated. Six experimental groups, deployed in an osseous study model, were representing template-guided and freehanded drilling actions in a stepwise drilling procedure in comparison to a single-drill protocol. Each experimental condition was studied by the drilling actions of respectively three persons without surgical knowledge as well as three highly experienced oral surgeons. Drilling actions were performed and diameters were recorded with a precision measuring instrument. Less experienced operators were able to significantly increase the drilling accuracy using a guiding template, especially when multi-step preparations are performed. Improved accuracy without template guidance was observed when experienced operators were executing single-step versus multi-step technique. Single-step drilling protocols have shown to produce more accurate results than multi-step procedures. The outcome of any protocol can be further improved by use of guiding templates. Operator experience can be a contributing factor. Single-step preparations are less invasive and are promoting osseointegration. Even highly experienced surgeons are achieving higher levels of accuracy by combining this technique with template guidance. Hereby template guidance enables a reduction of hands-on time and side effects during surgery and lead to a more predictable clinical diameter.

  13. Clean subglacial access: prospects for future deep hot-water drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, David; Hodgson, Dominic A.; Smith, Andrew M.; Rose, Mike; Ross, Neil; Mowlem, Matt; Parnell, John

    2016-01-01

    Accessing and sampling subglacial environments deep beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet presents several challenges to existing drilling technologies. With over half of the ice sheet believed to be resting on a wet bed, drilling down to this environment must conform to international agreements on environmental stewardship and protection, making clean hot-water drilling the most viable option. Such a drill, and its water recovery system, must be capable of accessing significantly greater ice depths than previous hot-water drills, and remain fully operational after connecting with the basal hydrological system. The Subglacial Lake Ellsworth (SLE) project developed a comprehensive plan for deep (greater than 3000 m) subglacial lake research, involving the design and development of a clean deep-ice hot-water drill. However, during fieldwork in December 2012 drilling was halted after a succession of equipment issues culminated in a failure to link with a subsurface cavity and abandonment of the access holes. The lessons learned from this experience are presented here. Combining knowledge gained from these lessons with experience from other hot-water drilling programmes, and recent field testing, we describe the most viable technical options and operational procedures for future clean entry into SLE and other deep subglacial access targets. PMID:26667913

  14. Detailed cross sections of the Eocene Green River Formation along the north and east margins of the Piceance Basin, western Colorado, using measured sections and drill hole information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents two detailed cross sections of the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado, constructed from eight detailed measured sections, fourteen core holes, and two rotary holes. The Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin contains the world’s largest known oil shale deposit with more than 1.5 billion barrels of oil in place. It was deposited in Lake Uinta, a long-lived saline lake that once covered much of the Piceance Basin and the Uinta Basin to the west. The cross sections extend across the northern and eastern margins of the Piceance Basin and are intended to aid in correlating between surface sections and the subsurface in the basin.

  15. HORIZONTAL WELL DRILL-IN FLUIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Main objective of horizontal driling is to place a drain-hole for a long distance within the pay zone to enhance productivity or injectivity. In drilling horizontal wells, more serious problems appear than in drilling vertical wells. These problems are: poor hole cleaning, excessive torque and drag, hole filling, pipe stucking, wellbore instability, loss of circulation, formation damage, poor cement job, and difficulties at logging jobs. From that reason, successful drilling and production of horizontal well depends largely on the fluid used during drilling and completion phases. Several new fluids, that fulfill some or all of required properties (hole cleaning, cutting suspension, good lubrication, and relative low formation damage, are presented in this paper.

  16. Cascade geothermal drilling/corehole N-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanberg, C.A.; Combs, J. (Geothermal Resources International, Inc., San Mateo, CA (USA)); Walkey, W.C. (GEO Operator Corp., Bend, OR (USA))

    1988-07-19

    Two core holes have been completed on the flanks of Newberry Volcano, Oregon. Core hole GEO N-1 has a heat flow of 180 mWm-2 reflecting subsurface temperature sufficient for commerical exploitation of geothermally generated electricity. GEO N-3, which has a heat flow of 86 mWm-2, is less encouraging. Considerable emphasis has been placed on the ''rain curtain'' effect with the hope that a detailed discussion of this phenomenon at two distinct localities will lead to a better understanding of the physical processes in operation. Core hole GEO N-1 was cored to a depth of 1387 m at a site located 9.3 km south of the center of the volcano. Core hole GEO N-3 was cored to a depth of 1220 m at a site located 12.6 km north of the center of the volcano. Both core holes penetrated interbedded pyroclastic lava flows and lithic tuffs ranging in composition from basalt to rhyolite with basaltic andesite being the most common rock type. Potassium-argon age dates range up to 2 Ma. Difficult drilling conditions were encountered in both core holes at depths near the regional water table. Additionally, both core holes penetrate three distinct thermal regimes (isothermal (the rain curtain), transition, and conductive) each having its own unique features based on geophysical logs, fluid geochemistry, age dates, and rock alteration. Smectite alteration, which seems to control the results of surface geoelectrical studies, begins in the isothermal regime close to and perhaps associated with the regional water table. 28 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Cascade geothermal drilling/corehole N-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanberg, C.A.

    1988-07-19

    Two core holes have been completed on the flanks of Newberry Volcano, Oregon. Core holes GEO N-1 has a heat flow of 180 mWm-2 reflecting subsurface temperature sufficient for commercial exploitation of geothermally generated electricity. GEO N-3, which has a heat flow of 86 mWm-2, is less encouraging. Considerable emphasis has been placed on the rain curtain'' effect with the hope that a detailed discussion of this phenomenon at two distinct localities will lead to a better understanding of the physical processes in operation. Core hole GEO N-1 was cored to a depth of 1387 m at a site located 9.3 km south of the center of the volcano. Core hole GEO N-3 was cored to a depth of 1220 m at a site located 12.6 km north of the center of the volcano. Both core holes penetrated interbedded pyroclastic lava flows and lithic tuffs ranging in composition from basalt to rhyolite with basaltic andesite being the most common rock type. Potassium-argon age dates range up to 2 Ma. Difficult drilling conditions were encountered in both core holes at depths near the regional water table. Additionally, both core holes penetrate three distinct thermal regimes (isothermal (the rain curtain), transition, and conductive) each having its own unique features based on geophysical logs, fluid geochemistry, age dates, and rock alteration. Smectite alteration, which seems to control the results of surface geoelectrical studies, begins in the isothermal regime close to and perhaps associated with the regional water table.

  18. Early Detection and Localization of Downhole Incidents in Managed Pressure Drilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willersrud, Anders; Imsland, Lars; Blanke, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    Downhole incidents such as kick, lost circulation, pack-off, and hole cleaning issues are important contributors to downtime in drilling. In managed pressure drilling (MPD), operations margins are typically narrower, implying more frequent incidents and more severe consequences. Detection...... and handling of symptoms of downhole drilling contingencies at an early stage are therefore crucial for the reliability and safety of MPD operations. In this paper we describe a method for early detection and localization of such incidents, based on a fit for purpose model of the downhole pressure hydraulics...... successfully been tested on experimental data from a medium-scale horizontal flow loop in Sta- vanger, Norway. The flow loop represents a 700 m borehole with emulation of the following downhole contingencies: drillstring washout, drill bit nozzle plugging, gas influx and fluid loss. In the tests...

  19. Status Report A Review of Slimhole Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Tao; Carroll, Herbert B.

    1994-09-01

    This 1994 report reviews the various applications of slimhole technology including for exploration in remote areas, low-cost development wells, reentering existing wells, and horizontal and multilateral drilling. Advantages of slimholes to regular holes are presented. Limitations and disadvantages of slimholes are also discussed. In 1994, slimhole drilling was still an ongoing development technology. (DJE 2005)

  20. [The new eubacterium Roseomonas baikalica sp. nov. isolated from core samples collected by deep-hole drilling of the bottom of Lake Baĭkal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, I S; Pechurkina, N I; Morozova, O V; Riabchikova, E I; Belikov, S I; Puchkova, L I; Emel'ianova, E K; Torok, T; Repin, V E

    2007-01-01

    Microbiological analysis of samples of sedimentary rocks from various eras of the geological history of the Baikal rift has enabled us to isolate a large number of microorganisms that can be classified into new, previously undescribed species. The present work deals with the identification and study of the morphological, biochemical, and physiological properties of one such strain, Che 82, isolated from sample C-29 of 3.4-3.5 Ma-old sedimentary rocks taken at a drilling depth of 146.74 m. As a result of our investigations, strain Che 82 is described as a new bacterial species, Roseomonas baikalica sp. nov., belonging to the genus Roseomonas within the family Methylobacteriaceae, class Alphaproteobacteria.

  1. Development of computational tool to interpret real time Pd (Pressure While Drilling) data; Desenvolvimento de ferramenta computacional interpretadora de dados de PWD (Pressure While Drilling) em tempo real

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandelman, Roni Abensur; Waldmann, Alex Tadeu de Almeida; Martins, Andre Leibsohn [Centro de Pesquisas da Petrobras (CENPES). Gerencia de Tecnologia de Engenharia de Poco (Brazil)], e-mails: roniag@petrobras.com.br, awaldmann@petrobras.com.br, aleibsohn@petrobras.com.br; Teixeira, Gleber Tacio; Aragao, Atila Fernando Lima [E and P Servicos. Gerencia de Servicos de Poco (Brazil)], e-mail: gleber@petrobras.com.br, atila_aragao@petrobras.com.br; Rezende, Mauricio Seiji; Kern, Eduardo; Maliska Junior, Clovis [Engineering Simulation and Scientific Software (ESSS), (Brazil)], e-mails: mauricio@esss.com.br, kern@esss.com.br, coi@esss.com.br

    2008-12-15

    Drilling offshore oil wells is a very expensive and complex process, in which all the efforts must be taken to keep the annular pressure between a minimum pressure (pore pressure) and a maximum pressure (fracture pressure) which define the operational window limits. Several phenomena impact the bottom hole annular pressures, such as: ineffective hole cleaning, gel breaking when circulation is resumed, drill string movement (surge and swab), trips, pills displacement, kicks, etc. The correct interpretation of pressure while drilling (PWD) data is a very powerful toll to identify and prevent these phenomena. Nowadays, an expert monitors bottom hole pressures data and identifies undesirable events. The main goal of this project is the development of a computational tool to monitor pressure (and mud logging) data in real time to identify the causes of abnormal pressure variations, helping the operators to take decisions rapidly. Besides that, the tool allows the user to handle PWD data in a flexible architecture. This flexibility allows the incorporation of new methods of events identification as they are developed. The ultimate goals is to obtain a tool which serves both for the key study of the problems and physical, specific phenomena found during drilling, both for real-time monitoring to assist professionals involved in the process. (author)

  2. Using epiphytic lichens to monitor nitrogen deposition near natural gas drilling operations in the Wind River Range, WY, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill A. McMurray; Dave W. Roberts; Mark E. Fenn; Linda H. Geiser; Sarah Jovan

    2013-01-01

    Rapid expansion of natural gas drilling in Sublette County, WY (1999-present), has raised concerns about the potential ecological effects of enhanced atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition to the Wind River Range (WRR) including the Class I BridgerWilderness. We sampled annual throughfall (TF) N deposition and lichen thalli N concentrations under forest canopies in four...

  3. Importance of drill string assembly swivel in horizontal drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund Tasak

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A part of the drill string – the swivel (rotational connector – accomplishes an important task in the horizontal drilling. Its malfunctioning makes it impossible to draw in ( install large diameter and length pipelines. The causes of the connector break-down during the horizontal drilling are investigated in the paper. The drilling has been made for twenty inches gas pipeline installation during reaming operations. A trouble was encountered making good work conditions of a system consisting of the drilling machine drill string reamer swivel tube shield of Cardan joint and the gas pipeline 500 m long. In this case, the swivel brokes down and the planned operation was not finished. The assessment of improper drilling conditions, selection of operation system components, and drilling parameters and the insufficient technological supervising have created an excessive risk of failure. A proper application of technical analysis would considerably decrease the hazard of failure which cause large costs, delays and decrease of confidence to the drilling contractor and pipeline installation.

  4. The 40Ar/39Ar and K/Ar dating of lavas from the Hilo 1-km core hole, Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, W.D.; Turrin, B.D.; Renne, P.R.; Lanphere, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Mauna Kea lava flows cored in the HilIo hole range in age from <200 ka to about 400 ka based on 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating and K-Ar analyses of 16 groundmass samples and one coexisting plagioclase. The lavas, all subaerially deposited, include a lower section consisting only of tholeiitic basalts and an upper section of interbedded alkalic, transitional tholeiitic, and tholeiitic basalts. The lower section has yielded predominantly complex, discordant 40Ar/39Ar age spectra that result from mobility of 40Ar and perhaps K, the presence of excess 40Ar, and redistribution of 39Ar by recoil. Comparison of K-Ar ages with 40Ar/39Ar integrated ages indicates that some of these samples have also lost 39Ar. Nevertheless, two plateau ages of 391 ?? 40 and 400 ?? 26 ka from deep in the hole, combined with data from the upper section, show that the tholeiitic section accumulated at an average rate of about 7 to 8 m/kyr and has an mean recurrence interval of 0.5 kyr/flow unit. Samples from the upper section yield relatively precise 40Ar/39Ar plateau and isotope correlation ages of 326 ?? 23, 241 ?? 5, 232 ?? 4, and 199 ?? 9 ka for depths of -415.7 m to -299.2 m. Within their uncertainty, these ages define a linear relationship with depth, with an average accumulation rate of 0.9 m/kyr and an average recurrence interval of 4.8 kyr/flow unit. The top of the Mauna Kea sequence at -280 m must be older than the plateau age of 132 ?? 32 ka, obtained for the basal Mauna Loa flow in the corehole. The upward decrease in lava accumulation rate is a consequence of the decreasing magma supply available to Mauna Kea as it rode the Pacific plate away from its magma source, the Hawaiian mantle plume. The age-depth relation in the core hole may be used to test and refine models that relate the growth of Mauna Kea to the thermal and compositional structure of the mantle plume.

  5. Post-drilling changes in seabed landscape and megabenthos in a deep-sea hydrothermal system, the Iheya North field, Okinawa Trough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Ryota; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Kawagucci, Shinsuke; Takaya, Yutaro; Nozaki, Tatsuo; Chen, Chong; Fujikura, Katsunori; Miwa, Tetsuya; Takai, Ken

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in seafloor exploitation such as mineral mining in deep-sea hydrothermal fields, but the environmental impact of anthropogenic disturbance to the seafloor is poorly known. In this study, the effect of such anthropogenic disturbance by scientific drilling operations (IODP Expedition 331) on seabed landscape and megafaunal habitation was surveyed for over 3 years using remotely operated vehicle video observation in a deep-sea hydrothermal field, the Iheya North field, in the Okinawa Trough. We focused on observations from a particular drilling site (Site C0014) where the most dynamic change of landscape and megafaunal habitation was observed among the drilling sites of IODP Exp. 331. No visible hydrothermal fluid discharge had been observed at the sedimentary seafloor at Site C0014, where Calyptogena clam colonies were known for more than 10 years, before the drilling event. After drilling commenced, the original Calyptogena colonies were completely buried by the drilling deposits. Several months after the drilling, diffusing high-temperature hydrothermal fluid began to discharge from the sedimentary subseafloor in the area of over 20 m from the drill holes, 'artificially' creating a new hydrothermal vent habitat. Widespread microbial mats developed on the seafloor with the diffusing hydrothermal fluids and the galatheid crab Shinkaia crosnieri endemic to vents dominated the new vent community. The previously soft, sedimentary seafloor was hardened probably due to barite/gypsum mineralization or silicification, becoming rough and undulated with many fissures after the drilling operation. Although the effects of the drilling operation on seabed landscape and megafaunal composition are probably confined to an area of maximally 30 m from the drill holes, the newly established hydrothermal vent ecosystem has already lasted 2 years and is like to continue to exist until the fluid discharge ceases and thus the ecosystem in the area has

  6. ResonantSonic drilling. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The technology of ResonantSonic drilling is described. This technique has been demonstrated and deployed as an innovative tool to access the subsurface for installation of monitoring and/or remediation wells and for collection of subsurface materials for environmental restoration applications. The technology uses no drilling fluids, is safe and can be used to drill slant holes

  7. Revisiting elastic anisotropy of biotite gneiss from the Outokumpu scientific drill hole based on new texture measurements and texture-based velocity calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenk, H.-R.; Vasin, R. N.; Kern, H.; Matthies, S.; Vogel, S. C.; Ivankina, T. I.

    2012-10-01

    A sample of biotite gneiss from the Outokumpu deep drilling project in Finland was investigated by Kern et al. (2008) for crystal preferred orientation and elastic anisotropy. Considerable differences between measured acoustic velocities and velocities calculated on the basis of texture patterns were observed. Measured P-wave anisotropy was 15.1% versus a Voigt average yielding 7.9%. Here we investigate the same sample with different methods and using different averaging techniques. Analyzing time-of-flight neutron diffraction data from Dubna-SKAT and LANSCE-HIPPO diffractometers with the Rietveld technique, much stronger preferred orientation for biotite is determined, compared to conventional pole-figure analysis reported previously. The comparison reveals important differences: HIPPO has much better counting statistics but pole figure coverage is poor. SKAT has better angular resolution. Using the new preferred orientation data and applying a self-consistent averaging method that takes grain shapes into account, close agreement of calculated and measured P-wave velocities is observed (12.6%). This is further improved by adding 0.1 vol.% flat micropores parallel to the biotite platelets in the simulation (14.9%).

  8. Reliability Analysis of Drilling Operation in Open Pit Mines / Analiza niezawodności urządzeń wiertniczych wykorzystywanych w kopalniach odkrywkowych

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimdel, M. J.; Ataei, M.; Kakaei, R.; Hoseinie, S. H.

    2013-06-01

    Considering the high investment and operation costs, reliability analysis of mining machineries is essential to achieve a lean operation and to prevent the unwanted stoppages. In open pit mining, drilling, as the initial stage of the exploitation operations, has a significant role in the other stages. Failure of drilling machines causes total delay in blasting operation. In this paper, the reliability of drilling operation has been analyzed using the Markov method. The failure and operation data of four heavy rotary drilling machines in Sarcheshme copper mine in Iran have been used as a case study. Failure rate and repair rate of all machines have been calculated using available data. Then, 16 possible operation states have been defined and the probability of being of drilling fleet in each of the states was calculated using Markov theory. The results showed that there was 77.2% probability that all machines in fleet were in operational condition. It means that, considering 360 working days per year, drilling operation will be in a reliable condition in 277.92 days. Biorąc pod uwagę wysokość kosztów inwestycyjnych a także eksploatacyjnych, przeprowadzenie analizy niezawodności maszyn i urządzeń górniczych jest sprawą kluczową dla zapewnienia sprawnego działania i dla wyeliminowania niepożądanych przestojów. W kopalniach odkrywkowych prace wiertnicze prowadzone w początkowych etapach eksploatacji mają ogromne znaczenie również w późniejszych fazach działalności przedsięwzięcia. Awaria urządzeń wiertniczych powoduje opóźnienia przy pracach strzałowych. W pracy tej przeanalizowano niezawodność urządzeń wiertniczych w oparciu o metodę Markowa. Jako studium przypadku wykorzystano dane zebrane w trakcie eksploatacji i awarii czterech obrotowych urządzeń wiertniczych wykorzystywanych w kopalni rud miedzi Sarcheshme w Iranie. Awaryjność maszyn i zakres oraz częstość napraw obliczono na podstawie dostępnych danych. Zdefiniowano 16

  9. Drilling of bone: A comprehensive review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Rupesh Kumar; Panda, S.S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Bone fracture treatment usually involves restoring of the fractured parts to their initial position and immobilizing them until the healing takes place. Drilling of bone is common to produce hole for screw insertion to fix the fractured parts for immobilization. Orthopaedic drilling during surgical process causes increase in the bone temperature and forces which can cause osteonecrosis reducing the stability and strength of the fixation. Methods A comprehensive review of all the relevant investigations carried on bone drilling is conducted. The experimental method used, results obtained and the conclusions made by the various researchers are described and compared. Result Review suggests that the further improvement in the area of bone drilling is possible. The systematic review identified several consequential factors (drilling parameters and drill specifications) affecting bone drilling on which there no general agreement among investigators or are not adequately evaluated. These factors are highlighted and use of more advanced methods of drilling is accentuated. The use of more precise experimental set up which resembles the actual situation and the development of automated bone drilling system to minimize human error is addressed. Conclusion In this review, an attempt has been made to systematically organize the research investigations conducted on bone drilling. Methods of treatment of bone fracture, studies on the determination of the threshold for thermal osteonecrosis, studies on the parameters influencing bone drilling and methods of the temperature measurement used are reviewed and the future work for the further improvement of bone drilling process is highlighted. PMID:26403771

  10. Microgravity Drill and Anchor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew A.; King, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    microspine toes that independently find holes and ledges on a rock to create an anchor. Once the system is anchored, a linear translation mechanism moves the drill axially into the surface while maintaining the proper WOB. The linear translation mechanism is composed of a ball screw and stepper motor that can translate a carriage with high precision and applied load. The carriage slides along rails using self-aligning linear bearings that correct any axial misalignment caused by bending and torsion. The carriage then compresses a series of springs that simultaneously transmit the load to the drill along the bit axis and act as a suspension that compensates for the vibration caused by percussive drilling. The drill is a compacted, modified version of an off-the-shelf rotary percussive drill, which uses a custom carbide-tipped coring bit. By using rotary percussive drilling, the drill time is greatly reduced. The percussive action fractures the rock debris, which is removed during rotation. The final result is a 0.75-in. (.1.9- cm) diameter hole and a preserved 0.5- in. (.1.3-cm) diameter rock core. This work extends microspine technology, making it applicable to astronaut missions to asteroids and a host of robotic sampling concepts. At the time of this reporting, it is the first instrument to be demonstrated using microspine anchors, and is the first self-contained drill/anchor system to be demonstrated that is capable of drilling in inverted configurations and would be capable of drilling in microgravity.

  11. A new design of automatic vertical drilling tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfeng Ma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to effectively improve penetration rates and enhance wellbore quality for vertical wells, a new Automatic Vertical Drilling Tool (AVDT based on Eccentric Braced Structure (EBS is designed. Applying operating principle of rotary steering drilling, AVDT adds offset gravity block automatic induction inclination mechanism. When hole straightening happens, tools take essentric moment to be produced by gravity of offset gravity lock to control the bearing of guide force, so that well straightening is achieved. The normal tool's size of the AVDT is designed as 215.9 mm,other major components' sizes are worked out by the result of theoretical analysis, including the offset angle of EBS. This paper aims to introduce the structure, operating principle, theoretical analysis and describe the key components' parameters setting of the AVDT.

  12. Design and development of a quiet, self-thrusting blast hole

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ottermann, RW

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available and demonstrated. The primary output of this project is a quiet, ergonomically, reliable blast hole drilling system, which is used to drill suitable blast holes by workers responsible for drilling these holes. The system has to be safe and reliable with reduced...

  13. Drilling mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusayev, A A; Bibikov, K V; Simonenkov, I D; Surkova, K I

    1982-01-01

    Drilling mud is proposed which contains clay, water, water output reducer, pH regulator, viscosity reducer and hydrogen sulfide absorber. In order to improve the absorbing capacity of the drilling mud with pH 8-11 and simultaneously preservation of the technological properties of the mud, it contains as the absorber of hydrogen sulfide pyrite cinders with the following ratio of components, % by mass: clay 5.0-35.0; water output reducer 0.2-2.0; pH regulator 0.05-0.25; viscosity reducer 0.1-1.0; pyrite cinders 0.5-4.0; water--the rest.

  14. Study of waste generation in the drilling and cementing operations during construction of offshore oil and gas wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Ferraço de Campos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This literature review aims to present drilling and cementing activities which take place during the construction of offshore oil and gas wells, listing the waste generated in each step. IBAMA, the environmental agency that regulates the activity, allows two disposal options for these wastes: disposal in open sea or treatment followed by disposal on shore. The documentary research applied in this article details the destination options showing that the monitoring required by the environmental agency is a way to track the actual results of the activities described.

  15. Modern Shale Gas Horizontal Drilling: Review of Best Practices for Exploration Phase Planning and Execution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nathaniel Harding; Stephen Smith; John Shelton; Mike D. Bumaman

    2009-01-01

    The challenging characteristics of shale formations often require horizontal drilling to economically develop their potential. While every shale gas play is unique, there are several best practices for the proper planning and execution of a horizontal well. In planning a horizontal well, the optimal method and technology for building inclination and extending the lateral section must be determined. Properly specified logging-while-drilling tools are essential to keep the wellbore within the target formation. Planning must also focus on casing design. Doing so will help ensure stability and enable reliable and productive completions. Shales pose a challenge for these elements of well planning due to their thin strata and potentially low mechanical competence when foreign fluids are introduced. Once a plan is developed, executing it is even more important to prove a viable exploration program. Fast, efficient drilling with wellbore control and minimal torque and drag should be the priority. This may be achieved by focusing on fluid hydraulics and rheology and bottom hole assembly. Managed pressure drilling (MPD) will help fast drilling, well control and stability. If MPD can be combined with new generation rotary steerable systems that allow the drill string to maintain rotation, impressive efficiencies are possible. Modern drilling parameter analysis represents the newest opportunity for executing shale gas horizontal wells. A method for ROP analysis to improve operational parameters and equipment selection is also proposed.

  16. Numerical investigation of the prospects of high energy laser in drilling oil and gas wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agha, K.R.; Belhaj, H.A.; Mustafiz, S.; Islam, M.R.; Bjorndalen, N.

    2004-01-01

    Rotary drilling is the primary method used to reach oil and gas formations that was developed over a century ago. Many problems persist with this method, including downtime due to dull bits, the lack of precise vertical or horizontal wells and formation fluid leakage during drilling due to the lack of a seal around the hole. Laser drilling is a new technology that has been proposed as a method to eliminate the current problems while drilling and provide a less expensive alternative to conventional methods. This paper discussed the development of a numerical model based on the fundamental heat transfer and fluid flow phenomena including conduction, melting and vaporization responsible for material removal by laser drilling process. The paper addressed the thermal process involved in laser drilling of sandstone and limestone rocks as well as aluminum and mild steel. The paper outlined the parametric study and discussed the design considerations for a field application. Economical and environmental impacts were also included. It was concluded that more experimental investigation is needed to fully understand the laser operation and to enhance the integrity of the numerical models. In addition, it was concluded that field equipment must be designed to meet the changes in drilling requirements. 19 refs., 10 figs

  17. 30 CFR 250.463 - Who establishes field drilling rules?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who establishes field drilling rules? 250.463... GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Other Drilling Requirements § 250.463 Who establishes field drilling rules? (a) The District Manager may...

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF QUARRY SOLUTION VERSION 1.0 FOR QUICK COMPUTATION OF DRILLING AND BLASTING PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. ADEBAYO

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Computation of drilling cost, quantity of explosives and blasting cost are routine procedure in Quarry and all these parameters are estimated manually in most of the quarries in Nigeria. This paper deals with the development of application package QUARRY SOLUTION Version 1.0 for quarries using Visual Basic 6.0. In order to achieve this data were obtained from the quarry such as drilling and blasting activities. Also, empirical formulae developed by different researchers were used for computation of the required parameters viz: practical burden, spacing, length of hole, cost of drilling consumables, drilling cost, powder factor, quantity of column charge, total quantity of explosives, volume of blast and blasting cost. The output obtained from the software QUARRY SOLUTION Version 1.0 for length of drilling, drilling cost, total quantity of explosives, volume of blast and blasting cost were compared with the results manually computed for these routine parameters estimated during drilling and blasting operation in quarry, it was then discovered that they followed the same trend. The computation from the application package revealed that 611 blast-holes require 3326.71 kg of high explosives (166 cartons of explosives and 20147.2 kg of low explosives (806 bags of explosives. The total cost was computed to be N 5133999:50 ($ 32087.49. Moreover, the output showed that these routine parameters estimated during drilling and blasting could be computed within a short time frame using this QUARRY SOLUTION, therefore, improving productivity and efficiency. This application package is recommended for use in open-pit and quarries when all necessary inputs are supplied.

  19. Study on drilling induced delamination of woven kenaf fiber reinforced epoxy composite using carbide drills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaily, M.; Hassan, C. H. Che; Jaharah, A. G.; Azmi, H.; Afifah, M. A.; Khairusshima, M. K. Nor

    2018-04-01

    In this research study, it presents the influences of drilling parameters on the delamination factor during the drilling of woven kenaf fiber reinforced epoxy composite laminates when using the carbide drill bits. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of drilling parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate and drill sizes on the delamination produced when drilling woven kenaf reinforced epoxy composite using the non-coated carbide drill bits. The damage generated on the woven kenaf reinforced epoxy composite laminates were observed both at the entrance and exit surface during the drilling operation. The experiments were conducted according to the Box Behnken experimental designs. The results indicated that the drill diameter has a significant influence on the delamination when drilling the woven kenaf fiber reinforced epoxy composites.

  20. Controlled drilling technology for HLW management. Directional drilling and mechanics/stress measurements in the borehole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiho, Kenzo; Shin, Koichi; Okada, Tetsuji; Obuchi, Yasuyoshi; Sunaga, Takayuki; Hase, Kazunori

    2013-01-01

    Since 2000, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) has been conducting the project on controlled drilling and the logging/measurement technologies in its boreholes. Especially borehole pressure meter and bore hole stress measurement apparatus which can apply to the controlled drilling system was developed. The bore hole was drilled to the 1000 m long in order to intersect the Omagari fault located at Horonobe town in Hokkaido and its core recovery was 99.8% as of FY. 2011. Using borehole logging/measurement/survey, the geological, hydrological, geo-mechanical, geophysical and geochemical data were collected and the Omagari fault was characterized. (author)

  1. Aerated drilling cutting transport analysis in geothermal well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakhyudin, Aris; Setiawan, Deni; Dwi Marjuan, Oscar

    2017-12-01

    Aeratad drilling widely used for geothermal drilling especially when drilled into predicted production zone. Aerated drilling give better performance on preventing lost circulation problem, improving rate of penetration, and avoiding drilling fluid invasion to productive zone. While well is drilled, cutting is produced and should be carried to surface by drilling fluid. Hole problem, especially pipe sticking will occur while the cutting is not lifted properly to surface. The problem will effect on drilling schedule; non-productive time finally result more cost to be spent. Geothermal formation has different characteristic comparing oil and gas formation. Geothermal mainly has igneous rock while oil and gas mostly sedimentary rock. In same depth, formation pressure in geothermal well commonly lower than oil and gas well while formation temperature geothermal well is higher. While aerated drilling is applied in geothermal well, Igneous rock density has higher density than sedimentary rock and aerated drilling fluid is lighter than water based mud hence minimum velocity requirement to transport cutting is larger than in oil/gas well drilling. Temperature and pressure also has impact on drilling fluid (aerated) density. High temperature in geothermal well decrease drilling fluid density hence the effect of pressure and temperature also considered. In this paper, Aerated drilling cutting transport performance on geothermal well will be analysed due to different rock and drilling fluid density. Additionally, temperature and pressure effect on drilling fluid density also presented to merge.

  2. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF CUTTING FLUID EFFECTS IN DRILLING. (R825370C057)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were designed and conducted on aluminum alloys and gray cast iron to determine the function of cutting fluid in drilling. The variables examined included speed, feed, hole depth, tool and workpiece material, cutting fluid condition, workpiece temperatures and drill...

  3. Boring of full scale deposition holes using a novel dry blind boring method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autio, J.; Kirkkomaeki, T.

    1996-11-01

    As a part of the Finnish radioactive waste disposal research three holes (the size of deposition holes) were bored in the research tunnel at Olkiluoto in Finland. A novel full-face boring technique was used based on rotary crushing of rock and removal of crushed rock by vacuum flushing through the drill string an the purpose of the work was to demonstrate the feasibility of the technique. During the boring test procedures were carried out in order to determine the effect of charges in operating parameters on the performance of the boring machine and the quality of the hole. (refs.)

  4. Boring of full scale deposition holes using a novel dry blind boring method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Autio, J.; Kirkkomaeki, T. [Saanio and Riekkola Consulting Engineers, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-11-01

    As a part of the Finnish radioactive waste disposal research three holes (the size of deposition holes) were bored in the research tunnel at Olkiluoto in Finland. A novel full-face boring technique was used based on rotary crushing of rock and removal of crushed rock by vacuum flushing through the drill string an the purpose of the work was to demonstrate the feasibility of the technique. During the boring test procedures were carried out in order to determine the effect of charges in operating parameters on the performance of the boring machine and the quality of the hole. (refs.).

  5. Environmental Measurement While Drilling System for Real-Time Field Screening of Contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A.; Williams, C.V.

    1999-01-01

    Sampling during environmental drilling is essential to fully characterize the spatial distribution and migration of subsurface contaminants. However, analysis of the samples is expensive and time-consuming: off-site laboratory analysis can take weeks or months. Real-time information on environmental conditions, drill bit location and temperature during drilling is valuable in many environmental restoration operations. This type of information can be used to provide field screening data and improved efficiency of site characterization activities. The Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling (EMWD) System represents an innovative blending of new and existing technology in order to obtain real-time data during drilling. The system consists of two subsystems. The down-hole subsystem (at the drill bit) consists of sensors, a power supply, a signal conditioning and transmitter board, and a radio-frequency (RF) coaxial cable. The up-hole subsystem consists of a battery pack/coil, pickup coil, receiver, and personal computer. The system is compatible with fluid miser drill pipe, a directional drilling technique that uses minimal drilling fluids and generates little to no secondary waste. In EMWD, downhole sensors are located behind the drill bit and linked by a high-speed data transmission system to a computer at the surface. Sandia-developed Windowstrademark-based software is used for data display and storage. As drilling is conducted, data is collected on the nature and extent of contamination, enabling on-the-spot decisions regarding drilling and sampling strategies. Initially, the downhole sensor consisted of a simple gamma radiation detector, a Geiger-Mueller tube (GMT). The design includes data assurance techniques to increase safety by reducing the probability of giving a safe indication when an unsafe condition exists. The EMWD system has been improved by the integration of a Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) in place of the GMT. The GRS consists of a sodium iodide

  6. Precision hole punching on composite fiber reinforced polymer panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, A. B.; Zain, M. S. M.; Chan, H. Y.; Samad, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Structural materials, such as composite panels, can only be assembled, and in most cases through the use of fasteners, which are fitted into the drilled holes. However, drilling is costly and time consuming, thus affecting productivity. This research aims to develop an alternative method to drilling. In this paper, the precision of the holes was measured and the effects of the die clearance to the areas around the holes were evaluated. Measurement and evaluation were performed based on the profile of the holes constructed using Alicona IFM, a 3D surface measurement technique. Results showed that punching is a potential alternative to drilling but still requires improvements.

  7. Influence of Drilling Parameters on Torque during Drilling of GFRP Composites Using Response Surface Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, N. S.; Kulkarni, S. M.

    2018-01-01

    Polymer based composites have marked their valuable presence in the area of aerospace, defense and automotive industry. Components made of composite, are assembled to main structure by fastener, which require accurate, precise high quality holes to be drilled. Drilling the hole in composite with accuracy require control over various processes parameters viz., speed, feed, drill bit size and thickens of specimen. TRIAC VMC machining center is used to drill the hole and to relate the cutting and machining parameters on the torque. MINITAB 14 software is used to analyze the collected data. As a function of cutting and specimen parameters this method could be useful for predicting torque parameters. The purpose of this work is to investigate the effect of drilling parameters to get low torque value. Results show that thickness of specimen and drill bit size are significant parameters influencing the torque and spindle speed and feed rate have least influence and overlaid plot indicates a feasible and low region of torque is observed for medium to large sized drill bits for the range of spindle speed selected. Response surface contour plots indicate the sensitivity of the drill size and specimen thickness to the torque.

  8. Drilling mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babets, M A; Nechayev, N D; Vinogradova, G P

    1982-01-01

    A drilling mud is proposed which contains clay, alkali, water and stabilizer reagent. It is distinguished by the fact that in order to improve the viscosity and static shear stress, the stabilizer reagent contained is composted solid general wastes with the following ratio of components (% by weight): clay 10-15, alkali 0.1-0.2; composted solid general wastes 2-5; water--the rest.

  9. Bucket drill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezverkhiy, V.M.; Nabokov, I.M.; Podoksik, D.Z.; Sadovskiy, S.S.; Shanyukevich, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    The bucket drill including a cylindrical housing with bottom, ground intake windows and cutting knives is hinged to the housing, the mechanism of rotation of the cutting knives including rods connected by the cutter knives, and drive shaft is distinguished by the fact that in order to improve the effectiveness of drilling by automatic change in the angle of cutting depending on the strength of the drillable rock, the drill is equipped with elastic elements and cap with annular slits in which there are elastic elements. The mechanism of rotation of the cutting knives is equipped with levers hinged to the housing, pins with shaft and rocker arm. The rods are made with a slit and from one end are rigidly connected to the cutting knives, and from the other end to the levers by means of pins which are arranged in slits of the rod with the possibility of movement. The upper ends of the levers are installed with the possibility of movement in the pins whose shafts are arranged with the possibility of rotation in the rocker arm rigidly connected to the drive shaft. The drive shaft is equipped with cantilevers installed in the cap with the possibility of rotation and interaction with the elastic elements.

  10. 30 CFR 250.458 - What quantities of drilling fluids are required?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations... the daily inventories of drilling fluid and drilling fluid materials, including weight materials and... drilling fluid material to maintain well control, you must suspend drilling operations. [68 FR 8423, Feb...

  11. Laser Drilling - Drilling with the Power of Light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iraj A. Salehi; Brian C. Gahan; Samih Batarseh

    2007-02-28

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) has been the leading investigator in the field of high power laser applications research for well construction and completion applications. Since 1997, GTI (then as Gas Research Institute- GRI) has investigated several military and industrial laser systems and their ability to cut and drill into reservoir type rocks. In this report, GTI continues its investigation with a 5.34 kW ytterbium-doped multi-clad high power fiber laser (HPFL). When compared to its competitors; the HPFL represents a technology that is more cost effective to operate, capable of remote operations, and requires considerably less maintenance and repair. Work performed under this contract included design and implementation of laboratory experiments to investigate the effects of high power laser energy on a variety of rock types. All previous laser/rock interaction tests were performed on samples in the lab at atmospheric pressure. To determine the effect of downhole pressure conditions, a sophisticated tri-axial cell was designed and tested. For the first time, Berea sandstone, limestone and clad core samples were lased under various combinations of confining, axial and pore pressures. Composite core samples consisted of steel cemented to rock in an effort to represent material penetrated in a cased hole. The results of this experiment will assist in the development of a downhole laser perforation or side tracking prototype tool. To determine how this promising laser would perform under high pressure in-situ conditions, GTI performed a number of experiments with results directly comparable to previous data. Experiments were designed to investigate the effect of laser input parameters on representative reservoir rock types of sandstone and limestone. The focus of the experiments was on laser/rock interaction under confining pressure as would be the case for all drilling and completion operations. As such, the results would be applicable to drilling, perforation, and

  12. Hole cleaning: new project criteria by uncertainties consideration; Limpeza de pocos: novos criterios de projeto atraves da consideracao de incertezas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzberg, Bruno B.; Costa, Suzana S.; Fontoura, Sergio A.B. da [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil. Grupo de Tecnologia e Engenharia de Petroleo; Martins, Andre L. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2004-07-01

    The current work presents a probabilistic modeling of drilling cuttings removal, an operation known as hole cleaning. This operation is yet a critical issue on high inclined well drilling, especially on the sea. Problems as stuck pipe and eventual well deviation can be caused by the inefficacy of this operation. The proposed analysis aims quantify the risk of occurrence of theses problems. The drilling program must refuse situation that may present risks bigger than the determined by the project. The probabilistic approach is justified by the fact that some of the more relevant parameters of hole cleaning model present associated uncertainties. These uncertainties can be caused by fluctuation of the parameters while drilling, intrinsic variations of rock properties or by the imprecision of the estimative methods. For considering these uncertainties, the Monte Carlo simulation method is applied to the hole cleaning problem. Through the proposed analysis, one can quantify the probability to occur a bed height bigger than a height considered critical for the operation and the probability to occur a solid concentration on the drilling fluid bigger than a concentration considered critic. The valuation of these probabilities is then suggested as a tool for the elaboration of new criteria's that will help in decision-making during well planning. (author)

  13. Drilling mortar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodorescu, V; Ditulescu, E

    1979-01-30

    A method is proposed for producing stable drilling mortar from drilled rock which makes it possible to stabilize the walls of the borehole and to maintain producing horizons of oil and gas wells in an undisturbed state. The proposed drilling mortar includes 5-12 wt.-% dry modified calcium lignosulfonate in the form of a solution containing about 30% dry matter with the addition of 0.1 wt.-% anti-foaming agent consisting of C/sub 19/-C/sub 20/ alcohol dissolved in a light petroleum product; cream of milk with about 10 wt.-% Ca(OH)/sub 2/ in a quantity sufficient for reducing the pH value of the ions down to 10.5; sodium chloride in amounts from 5 mg to 100 ml (aqueous phase); ordinarily used agents for ensuring the necessary density, viscosity, and filterability. For example, the preparation of the drilling fluid begins with the processing under laboratory conditions of lignosulfonic pulp obtained in the production of yeast fodder with the following characteristics: specific density, 1.15 kgf/dm/sup 3/; water content, 67% (according to the Dean and Stark method); pH 4.0. In the vessel is placed 1000 cm/sup 3/ lignosulfonic pulp containing 33% dry matter, and the pulp is heated to 90-95/sup 0/C by means of a water bath. To the heated pulp 33 cm/sup 3/ formic acid at a 40-% concentration is added by mixing. The specific temperature of the pulp is maintained in the constant mixing process for two hours. Then the cream of milk containing 10 wt.-% Ca(OH)/sub 2/ is added to raise the pH to 10.5. The cooled product is calcium lignosulfonate. To produce a stable form of the drilling mortar, 750 g clay and 10 g trass gel are added to a vessel containing 1500 cm/sup 3/ fresh water by means of mixing. The resulting dispersed mass remains at rest for 12 hours for purposes of hydration. Then 2 g of an anti-foaming agent dissolved in 6 cm/sup 3/ benzene is introduced to 1000 cm/sup 3/ modified calcium lignosulfonate produced by the above method.

  14. Automatic real time drilling support on Ekofisk utilizing eDrilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rommetveit, Rolv; Bjorkevoll, Knut S.; Halsey, George W.; Kluge, Roald; Molde, Dag Ove; Odegard, Sven Inge [SINTEF Petroleum Research, Trondheim (Norway); Herbert, Mike [HITEC Products Drilling, Stavanger (Norway); ConocoPhillips Norge, Stavanger (Norway)

    2008-07-01

    eDrilling is a new and innovative system for real time drilling simulation, 3D visualization and control from a remote drilling expert centre. The concept uses all available real time drilling data (surface and downhole) in combination with real time modelling to monitor and optimize the drilling process. This information is used to visualize the wellbore in 3D in real time. eDrilling has been implemented in an Onshore Drilling Center in Norway. The system is composed of the following elements, some of which are unique and ground-breaking: an advanced and fast Integrated Drilling Simulator which is capable to model the different drilling sub-processes dynamically, and also the interaction between these sub-processes in real time; automatic quality check and corrections of drilling data; making them suitable for processing by computer models; real time supervision methodology for the drilling process using time based drilling data as well as drilling models / the integrated drilling simulator; methodology for diagnosis of the drilling state and conditions. This is obtained from comparing model predictions with measured data. Advisory technology for more optimal drilling. A Virtual Wellbore, with advanced visualization of the downhole process. Dat low and computer infrastructure. e-Drilling has been implemented in an Onshore Drilling Center on Ekofisk in Norway. The system is being used on drilling operations, and experiences from its use are presented. The supervision and diagnosis functionalities have been useful in particular, as the system has given early warnings on ECD and friction related problems. This paper will present the eDrilling system as well as experiences from its use. (author)

  15. The new designs of diamond drill bits for composite polymers tooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan Yu. Melentiev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The author explores the drilling operation of some new engineering materials such as carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP and other polymers that have an anisotropic structure, high-strength and elastic properties combined with low heat endurance. Such combination of properties makes impossible the simple transfer of the existing technologies for classic materials working to considered new class. At the same time, the existing tools cannot assure the specified quality of tooled products at the current productivity and tool life. Aim: The aim of this research is to increase the process efficiency of diamond drilling in composite polymers by developing the new designs of diamond drill bits. Materials and Methods: One of the most promising directions to solve this problem is the diamond coated abrasive type tool. This paper addresses and classifies the existing types of diamond drill bits according to their application and operation. The literature data analysis of known disadvantages during drilling operation, the quality of surface and joining face was performed. Results: The experimental researches of the author prove the negative meaning of the already known but kept out fact – the drill core blocking. The most important factors and structural features affecting the CFRP drilling process are revealed. The accounting of these factors allowed creating the set of unique designs of diamond drill bits for different purposes. The presented patented models has different allowance distribution schemes and cutting forces, thus satisfy the mechanical requirements of quality, productivity, tool life and hole geometry in the tooling of the specified material class.

  16. Key technologies for well drilling and completion in ultra-deep sour gas reservoirs, Yuanba Gasfield, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxiang Xia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Yuanba Gasfield is a large gas field discovered by Sinopec in the Sichuan Basin in recent years, and another main exploration area for natural gas reserves and production increase after the Puguang Gasfield. The ultra-deep sour gas reservoir in the Yuanba Gasfield is characterized by complicated geologic structure, deep reservoirs and complex drilled formation, especially in the continental deep strata which are highly abrasive with low ROP (rate of penetration and long drilling period. After many years of drilling practice and technical research, the following six key drilling and completion technologies for this type reservoir are established by introducing new tools and technologies, developing specialized drill bits and optimizing drilling design. They are: casing program optimization technology for ROP increasing and safe well completion; gas drilling technology for shallow continental strata and high-efficiency drilling technology for deep high-abrasion continental strata; drilling fluid support technologies of gas–liquid conversion, ultra-deep highly-deviated wells and horizontal-well lubrication and drag reduction, hole stability control and sour gas contamination prevention; well cementing technologies for gas medium, deep-well long cementing intervals and ultra-high pressure small space; horizontal-well trajectory control technologies for measuring instrument, downhole motor optimization and bottom hole assembly design; and liner completion modes and completion string optimization technologies suitable for this gas reservoir. Field application shows that these key technologies are contributive to ROP increase and efficiency improvement of 7000 m deep horizontal wells and to significant operational cycle shortening.

  17. Deep drilling in the Chesapeake Bay impact structure - An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohn, G.S.; Koeberl, C.; Miller, K.G.; Reimold, W.U.

    2009-01-01

    The late Eocene Chesapeake Bay impact structure lies buried at moderate depths below Chesapeake Bay and surrounding landmasses in southeastern Virginia, USA. Numerous characteristics made this impact structure an inviting target for scientific drilling, including the location of the impact on the Eocene continental shelf, its threelayer target structure, its large size (??85 km diameter), its status as the source of the North American tektite strewn field, its temporal association with other late Eocene terrestrial impacts, its documented effects on the regional groundwater system, and its previously unstudied effects on the deep microbial biosphere. The Chesapeake Bay Impact Structure Deep Drilling Project was designed to drill a deep, continuously cored test hole into the central part of the structure. A project workshop, funding proposals, and the acceptance of those proposals occurred during 2003-2005. Initial drilling funds were provided by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Supplementary funds were provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Science Mission Directorate, ICDP, and USGS. Field operations were conducted at Eyreville Farm, Northampton County, Virginia, by Drilling, Observation, and Sampling of the Earth's Continental Crust (DOSECC) and the project staff during September-December 2005, resulting in two continuously cored, deep holes. The USGS and Rutgers University cored a shallow hole to 140 m in April-May 2006 to complete the recovered section from land surface to 1766 m depth. The recovered section consists of 1322 m of crater materials and 444 m of overlying postimpact Eocene to Pleistocene sediments. The crater section consists of, from base to top: basement-derived blocks of crystalline rocks (215 m); a section of suevite, impact melt rock, lithic impact breccia, and cataclasites (154 m); a thin interval of quartz sand and lithic blocks (26 m); a

  18. Design and Construction of Wireless Control System for Drilling Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nang Su Moan Hsam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Drilling machine is used for boring holes in various materials and used in woodworking metalworking construction and do-it-yourself projects. When the machine operate for a long time the temperature increases and so we need to control the temperature of the machine and some lubrication system need to apply to reduce the temperature. Due to the improvement of technology the system can be controlled with wireless network. This control system use Window Communication Foundation WCF which is the latest service oriented technology to control all drilling machines in industries simultaneously. All drilling machines are start working when they received command from server. After the machine is running for a long time the temperature is gradually increased. This system used LM35 temperature sensor to measure the temperature. When the temperature is over the safely level that is programmed in host server the controller at the server will command to control the speed of motor and applying some lubrication system at the tip and edges of drill. The command from the server is received by the client and sends to PIC. In this control system PIC microcontroller is used as an interface between the client computer and the machine. The speed of motor is controlled with PWM and water pump system is used for lubrication. This control system is designed and simulated with 12V DC motor LM35 sensor LCD displayand relay which is to open the water container to spray water between drill and work piece. The host server choosing to control the drilling machine that are overheat by selecting the clients IP address that is connected with that machine.

  19. Planetary Drilling and Resources at the Moon and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Drilling on the Moon and Mars is an important capability for both scientific and resource exploration. The unique requirements of spaceflight and planetary environments drive drills to different design approaches than established terrestrial technologies. A partnership between NASA and Baker Hughes Inc. developed a novel approach for a dry rotary coring wireline drill capable of acquiring continuous core samples at multi-meter depths for low power and mass. The 8.5 kg Bottom Hole Assembly operated at 100 We and without need for traditional drilling mud or pipe. The technology was field tested in the Canadian Arctic in sandstone, ice and frozen gumbo. Planetary resources could play an important role in future space exploration. Lunar regolith contains oxygen and metals, and water ice has recently been confirmed in a shadowed crater at the Moon.s south pole. Mars possesses a CO2 atmosphere, frozen water ice at the poles, and indications of subsurface aquifers. Such resources could provide water, oxygen and propellants that could greatly simplify the cost and complexity of exploration and survival. NASA/JSC/EP/JAG

  20. Diagnostic System of Drill Condition in Laminated Chipboard Drilling Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swiderski Bartosz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an on-line automatic system for recognition of the drill condition in a laminated chipboard drilling process. Two states of the drill are considered: the sharp enough (still able to drill holes acceptable for processing quality and worn out (excessive drill wear, not satisfactory from the quality point of view of the process. The automatic system requires defining the diagnostic features, which are used as the input attributes to the classifier. The features have been generated from 5 registered signals: feed force, cutting torque, noise, vibration and acoustic emission. The statistical parameters defined on the basis of the auto regression model of these signals have been used as the diagnostic features. The sequential step-wise feature selection is applied for choosing the most discriminative set of features. The final step of recognition is done by support vector machine classifier working in leave one out mode. The results of numerical experiments have confirmed good quality of the proposed diagnostic system.

  1. Parameter definition using vibration prediction software leads to significant drilling performance improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Dalmo; Hanley, Chris Hanley; Fonseca, Isaac; Santos, Juliana [National Oilwell Varco, Houston TX (United States); Leite, Daltro J.; Borella, Augusto; Gozzi, Danilo [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The understanding and mitigation of downhole vibration has been a heavily researched subject in the oil industry as it results in more expensive drilling operations, as vibrations significantly diminish the amount of effective drilling energy available to the bit and generate forces that can push the bit or the Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) off its concentric axis of rotation, producing high magnitude impacts with the borehole wall. In order to drill ahead, a sufficient amount of energy must be supplied by the rig to overcome the resistance of the drilling system, including the reactive torque of the system, drag forces, fluid pressure losses and energy dissipated by downhole vibrations, then providing the bit with the energy required to fail the rock. If the drill string enters resonant modes of vibration, not only does it decreases the amount of available energy to drill, but increases the potential for catastrophic downhole equipment and drilling bit failures. In this sense, the mitigation of downhole vibrations will result in faster, smoother, and cheaper drilling operations. A software tool using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been developed to provide better understanding of downhole vibration phenomena in drilling environments. The software tool calculates the response of the drilling system at various input conditions, based on the design of the wellbore along with the geometry of the Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) and the drill string. It identifies where undesired levels of resonant vibration will be driven by certain combinations of specific drilling parameters, and also which combinations of drilling parameters will result in lower levels of vibration, so the least shocks, the highest penetration rate and the lowest cost per foot can be achieved. With the growing performance of personal computers, complex software systems modeling the drilling vibrations using FEA has been accessible to a wider audience of field users, further complimenting with real time

  2. Advanced Seismic While Drilling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Radtke; John Fontenot; David Glowka; Robert Stokes; Jeffery Sutherland; Ron Evans; Jim Musser

    2008-06-30

    . An APS Turbine Alternator powered the SeismicPULSER{trademark} to produce two Hz frequency peak signals repeated every 20 seconds. Since the ION Geophysical, Inc. (ION) seismic survey surface recording system was designed to detect a minimum downhole signal of three Hz, successful performance was confirmed with a 5.3 Hz recording with the pumps running. The two Hz signal generated by the sparker was modulated with the 3.3 Hz signal produced by the mud pumps to create an intense 5.3 Hz peak frequency signal. The low frequency sparker source is ultimately capable of generating selectable peak frequencies of 1 to 40 Hz with high-frequency spectra content to 10 kHz. The lower frequencies and, perhaps, low-frequency sweeps, are needed to achieve sufficient range and resolution for realtime imaging in deep (15,000 ft+), high-temperature (150 C) wells for (a) geosteering, (b) accurate seismic hole depth, (c) accurate pore pressure determinations ahead of the bit, (d) near wellbore diagnostics with a downhole receiver and wired drill pipe, and (e) reservoir model verification. Furthermore, the pressure of the sparker bubble will disintegrate rock resulting in an increased overall rates of penetration. Other applications for the SeismicPULSER{trademark} technology are to deploy a low-frequency source for greater range on a wireline for Reverse Vertical Seismic Profiling (RVSP) and Cross-Well Tomography. Commercialization of the technology is being undertaken by first contacting stakeholders to define the value proposition for rig site services utilizing SeismicPULSER{trademark} technologies. Stakeholders include national oil companies, independent oil companies, independents, service companies, and commercial investors. Service companies will introduce a new Drill Bit SWD service for deep HTHP wells. Collaboration will be encouraged between stakeholders in the form of joint industry projects to develop prototype tools and initial field trials. No barriers have been identified

  3. Drilling mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranovskiy, V D; Brintsev, A I; Gusev, V G; Katenev, Ye P; Pokhorenko, I V

    1979-10-25

    A drilling mud is proposed, which contains a dispersion medium, a dispersion phase, for instance, clay, a stabilizer reagent, for instance, carboxymethylcellulose and a weighter. In order to reduce the viscosity and to increase the stability of the mud it contains as the dispersion medium a 75% aqueous solution of the L-7 reagent. To increase the salt resistance of the mud, it additionally contains sodium chloride in a volume of 4.04.5 percent by weight, and to regulate the alkalinity, it additionally contains sodium hydroxide in a volume of 1.1 to 1.3 percent by weight.

  4. Three years experience with forward-site mass casualty triage-, evacuation-, operating room-, ICU-, and radiography-enabled disaster vehicles: development of usage strategies from drills and deployments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Jane L; Kirby, Neil R; Waterson, James A

    2014-01-01

    Delineation of the advantages and problems related to the use of forward-site operating room-, Intensive Care Unit (ICU)-, radiography-, and mass casualty-enabled disaster vehicles for site evacuation, patient stabilization, and triage. The vehicles discussed have six ventilated ICU spaces, two ORs, on-site radiography, 21 intermediate acuity spaces with stretchers, and 54 seated minor acuity spaces. Each space has piped oxygen with an independent vehicle-loaded supply. The vehicles are operated by the Dubai Corporate Ambulance Services. Their support hospital is the main trauma center for the Emirate of Dubai and provides the vehicles' surgical, intensivist, anesthesia, and nursing staff. The disaster vehicles have been deployed 264 times in the last 5 years (these figures do not include deployments for drills). Introducing this new service required extensive initial planning and ongoing analysis of the performance of the disaster vehicles that offer ambulance services and receiving hospitals a large array of possibilities in terms of triage, stabilization of priority I and II patients, and management of priority III patients. In both drills and in disasters, the vehicles were valuable in forward triage and stabilization and in the transport of large numbers of priority III patients. This has avoided the depletion of emergency transport available for priority I and II patients. The successful utilization of disaster vehicles requires seamless cooperation between the hospital staffing the vehicles and the ambulance service deploying them. They are particularly effective during preplanned deployments to high-risk situations. These vehicles also potentially provide self-sufficient refuges for forward teams in hostile environments.

  5. Initial report on drilling into seismogenic zones of M2.0 - M5.5 earthquakes from deep South African gold mines (DSeis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Hiroshi; Durrheim, Raymond; Yabe, Yasuo; Ito, Takatoshi; van Aswegen, Gerrie; Grobbelaar, Michelle; Funato, Akio; Ishida, Akimasa; Ogasawara, Hiroyuki; Mngadi, Siyanda; Manzi, Musa; Ziegler, Martin; Ward, Tony; Moyer, Pamela; Boettcher, Margaret; Ellsworth, Bill; Liebenberg, Bennie; Wechsler, Neta; Onstott, Tullis; Berset, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    The International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) approved our proposal (Ogasawara et al., EGU 2016) to drill into and around seismogenic zones where critically stressed faults initiated ruptures at depth. The drilling targets include four ruptures equivalent to M2.0, 2.8, 3.5, and 5.5 that dynamically and quasi-statically evolved in 2.9 Ga hard rock in the Witwatersrand basin, South Africa. Major advantages of our drilling locations are the large quantity and high-quality of existing data from dense seismic arrays both on surface and near-field underground in three deep South African gold mines. Additionally, the great depths (1.0 to 3.3 km from surface) to collar holes reduce drilling costs significantly and enable a larger number of holes to be drilled. Flexibility in drilling direction will also allow us to minimize damage in borehole or drilled cores. With the ICDP funds, we will conduct full-core drilling of 16 holes with drilling ranges from 50 to 750 m to recover both materials and fractures in and around the seismogenic zones, followed by core and borehole logging. Additional in-hole monitoring at close proximity will be supported by co-mingled funds and will follow the ICDP drilling. Expected magnitudes of maximum shear stress are several tens of MPa. We have established an overcoring procedure to measure 3D-stress state for adverse underground working conditions so as not to interfere with mining operations. This procedure was optimized based on the Compact Conic-ended Borehole Overcoring (CCBO) technique (ISRM suggested; Sugawara and Obara, 1999). Funato and Ito (2016 IJRMMS) developed a diametrical core deformation analysis (DCDA) method to measure differential stress using only drilled core by assuming diametrical change with roll angles caused by elastic in-axisymmetrical expansion during drilling. A gold mine has already drilled a hole to intersect the hypocenter of a 2016 M3.5 earthquake and carried out the CCBO stress measurement in

  6. Advanced control strategies for a drill rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, A.; Hiller, M.; Fink, B.

    1996-01-01

    The construction of tunnels is usually undertaken using a combination of blasting and drilling to achieve rock excavation. Easy handling and high accuracy, and thus greater efficiency, in drilling rigs is an essential ingredient of successful competition in the market place. This article describes a cartesian control concept used for a twin boom drill rig. This simplifies the handling of a drilling boom, reduces the duration of a working cycle and increases security. A remote control system has been added to the drill rig to support the operator working in complicated environments. (UK)

  7. MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF UNSTEADY FLOW BEHAVIOR IN DEEPWATER CONTROLLED MUD-CAP DRILLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwei Li

    Full Text Available Abstract A new mathematical model was developed in this study to simulate the unsteady flow in controlled mud-cap drilling systems. The model can predict the time-dependent flow inside the drill string and annulus after a circulation break. This model consists of the continuity and momentum equations solved using the explicit Euler method. The model considers both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids flowing inside the drill string and annular space. The model predicts the transient flow velocity of mud, the equilibrium time, and the change in the bottom hole pressure (BHP during the unsteady flow. The model was verified using data from U-tube flow experiments reported in the literature. The result shows that the model is accurate, with a maximum average error of 3.56% for the velocity prediction. Together with the measured data, the computed transient flow behavior can be used to better detect well kick and a loss of circulation after the mud pump is shut down. The model sensitivity analysis show that the water depth, mud density and drill string size are the three major factors affecting the fluctuation of the BHP after a circulation break. These factors should be carefully examined in well design and drilling operations to minimize BHP fluctuation and well kick. This study provides the fundamentals for designing a safe system in controlled mud-cap drilling operati.

  8. Reduced abrasion drilling fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    A reduced abrasion drilling fluid system and method of drilling a borehole by circulating the reduced abrasion drilling fluid through the borehole is disclosed. The reduced abrasion drilling fluid comprises a drilling fluid, a first additive and a weighting agent, wherein the weighting agent has a

  9. Reduced abrasion drilling fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    A reduced abrasion drilling fluid system and method of drilling a borehole by circulating the reduced abrasion drilling fluid through the borehole is disclosed. The reduced abrasion drilling fluid comprises a drilling fluid, a first additive and a weighting agent, wherein the weighting agent has a

  10. Dual gradient drilling: barite separation from the mud using hydrocyclones; Perfuracao com duplo gradiente: a separacao da barita do fluido de perfuracao utilizando hidrociclones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Aline T.; Medronho, Ricardo A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2004-07-01

    The proximity of the pores pressure and fracture pressure curves in deep water drilling makes it an expensive and complicated operation. It is possible to minimize this problem by reducing the pressure inside the riser at the sea floor level. Injecting low density drilling mud at that point is an alternative, producing a condition called as dual gradient drilling. Hydrocyclones are simple apparatuses and their high capacity and efficiency make them appropriate for operations were the occupied floor space plays an important hole, as in offshore drilling. The idea behind this work is to divide the drilling mud in two streams, one more concentrated in barite for re-injection into the drilling column, and other more diluted for injecting into the riser at the sea floor. In this work, CFD - computational fluid dynamics - was used to investigate barite separation from drilling mud using hydrocyclones. The results indicate that the injection of a lower density mud, less concentrate in barite, in the riser at sea floor level may be a possible and less complicated alternative for dual gradient drilling. (author)

  11. Evaluation of drilling fluids flow regime in annular sections; Avaliacao do regime de escoamento de fluidos de perfuracao em secoes anulares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Maria das Gracas Pena [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Setor de Tecnologia de Perfuracao

    1990-12-31

    The determination of the transition zone between the laminar and turbulent flow regimes of particular importance in optimizing the hydraulics of drilling operations. The principal advantage which laminar flow in the annular space has in drilling operations in the avoidance of wall enlargement (wash-outs), maintaining formation integrity as much as possible. On the other hand, a lower-energy regime such as laminar flow does not provide the same cuttings-carrying capacity as that obtained when the drilling fluid is in turbulent flow. However, to be able to optimize the hydraulics it is necessary to have determined, among other parameters, the transition zone, in order to maximize the drilling rate while obtaining the hole clear of cuttings and maintaining the hole diameter constant over the whole of the section drilled. This paper presents, based on experimental results obtained on the SHS physical simulator, the transition zone expressed through the critical Reynolds numbers and those for low stable turbulence of various drilling fluids tested over the temperature range of 25-80 deg C. (author) 20 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Rock characterization while drilling and application of roof bolter drilling data for evaluation of ground conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Rostami

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in mine health and safety, roof collapse and instabilities are still the leading causes of injury and fatality in underground mining operations. Improving safety and optimum design of ground support requires good and reliable ground characterization. While many geophysical methods have been developed for ground characterizations, their accuracy is insufficient for customized ground support design of underground workings. The actual measurements on the samples of the roof and wall strata from the exploration boring are reliable but the related holes are far apart, thus unsuitable for design purposes. The best source of information could be the geological back mapping of the roof and walls, but this is disruptive to mining operations, and provided information is only from rock surface. Interpretation of the data obtained from roof bolt drilling can offer a good and reliable source of information that can be used for ground characterization and ground support design and evaluations. This paper offers a brief review of the mine roof characterization methods, followed by introduction and discussion of the roof characterization methods by instrumented roof bolters. A brief overview of the results of the preliminary study and initial testing on an instrumented drill and summary of the suggested improvements are also discussed.

  13. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Venus is one of the planets in the solar systems that are considered for potential future exploration missions. It has extreme environment where the average temperature is 460 deg C and its ambient pressure is about 90 atm. Since the existing actuation technology cannot maintain functionality under the harsh conditions of Venus, it is a challenge to perform sampling and other tasks that require the use of moving parts. Specifically, the currently available electromagnetic actuators are limited in their ability to produce sufficiently high stroke, torque, or force. In contrast, advances in developing electro-mechanical materials (such as piezoelectric and electrostrictive) have enabled potential actuation capabilities that can be used to support such missions. Taking advantage of these materials, we developed a piezoelectric actuated drill that operates at the temperature range up to 500 deg C and the mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) configuration. The detailed results of our study are presented in this paper

  14. Innovative techniques cut costs in wetlands drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, A.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on an approach to drilling oil and gas wells in sensitive wetlands areas contributed to a savings of over $1.2 million on a three-well, $3 million drilling project in south Louisiana. ARCO Oil and Gas Co. drilled a three-well project in the Bayou Sale field with a truck-mounted workover rig and a modified solids-control system. This smaller equipment eliminated the need to build a large location in the marsh. Traditional drilling techniques require a large drillsite to accommodate all the equipment of a modern drilling complex. However, recently imposed environmental regulations substantially limit, and in some cases prohibit, the use of these conventional techniques for drilling wells in wetlands areas. Based on the potentially huge economic and operational impact on the drilling industry because of these stricter regulations, alternatives to these traditional practices are essential

  15. NNWSI [Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations] hole histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-11-01

    This report is a compilation of data from twelve boreholes drilled in Area 25 under the guidance of the Sandia National Laboratory. They were drilled to provide samples and alluvial thickness determinations for the repository surface facilities, especially with respect to foundation conditions. Data presented in the hole histories include all locations, daily activities and review of hole conditions

  16. Alternative p-doped hole transport material for low operating voltage and high efficiency organic light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murawski, Caroline, E-mail: caroline.murawski@iapp.de; Fuchs, Cornelius; Hofmann, Simone; Leo, Karl [Institut für Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universität Dresden, George-Bähr-Str. 1, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Gather, Malte C. [Institut für Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universität Dresden, George-Bähr-Str. 1, 01062 Dresden (Germany); SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, KY16 9SS Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    We investigate the properties of N,N′-[(Diphenyl-N,N′-bis)9,9,-dimethyl-fluoren-2-yl]-benzidine (BF-DPB) as hole transport material (HTL) in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and compare BF-DPB to the commonly used HTLs N,N,N′,N′-tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)-benzidine (MeO-TPD), 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis(N,N′-di-p-methylphenylamino)-9,9′-spirobifluorene (Spiro-TTB), and N,N′-di(naphtalene-1-yl)-N,N′-diphenylbenzidine (NPB). The influence of 2,2′-(perfluoronaphthalene-2,6-diylidene)dimalononitrile (F6-TCNNQ p-dopant) concentration in BF-DPB on the operation voltage and efficiency of red and green phosphorescent OLEDs is studied; best results are achieved at 4 wt. % doping. Without any light extraction structure, BF-DPB based red (green) OLEDs achieve a luminous efficacy of 35 .1 lm/W (74 .0 lm/W) at 1000 cd/m{sup 2} and reach a very high brightness of 10 000 cd/m{sup 2} at a very low voltage of 3.2 V (3.1 V). We attribute this exceptionally low driving voltage to the high ionization potential of BF-DPB which enables more efficient hole injection from BF-DPB to the adjacent electron blocking layer. The high efficiency and low driving voltage lead to a significantly lower luminous efficacy roll-off compared to the other compounds and render BF-DPB an excellent HTL material for highly efficient OLEDs.

  17. Theoretical analysis of multiphase flow during oil-well drilling by a conservative model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas-Lopez, Ruben

    2005-11-01

    In order to decrease cost and improve drilling operations is necessary a better understood of the flow mechanisms. Therefore, it was carried out a multiphase conservative model that includes three mass equations and a momentum equation. Also, the measured geothermal gradient is utilized by state equations for estimating physical properties of the phases flowing. The mathematical model is solved by numerical conservative schemes. It is used to analyze the interaction among solid-liquid-gas phases. The circulating system consists as follow, the circulating fluid is pumped downward into the drilling pipe until the bottom of the open hole then it flows through the drill bit, and at this point formation cuttings are incorporated to the circulating fluid and carried upward to the surface. The mixture returns up to the surface by an annular flow area. The real operational conditions are fed to conservative model and the results are matched up to field measurements in several oil wells. Mainly, flow rates, drilling rate, well and tool geometries are data to estimate the profiles of pressure, mixture density, equivalent circulating density, gas fraction and solid carrying capacity. Even though the problem is very complex, the model describes, properly, the hydrodynamics of drilling techniques applied at oil fields. *Authors want to thank to Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo and Petroleos Mexicanos for supporting this research.

  18. Prediction of sonic flow conditions at drill bit nozzles to minimize complications in UBD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, B.; Ghalambor, A. [Louisiana Univ., Lafayette, LA (United States); Al-Bemani, A.S. [Sultan Qaboos Univ. (Oman)

    2002-06-01

    Sonic flow at drill bit nozzles can complicate underbalanced drilling (UBD) operations, and should be considered when choosing bit nozzles and fluid injection rates. The complications stem from pressure discontinuity and temperature drop at the nozzle. UBD refers to drilling operations where the drilling fluid pressures in the borehole are maintained at less than the pore pressure in the formation rock in the open-hole section. UBD has become a popular drilling method because it offers minimal lost circulation and reduces formation damage. This paper presents an analytical model for calculating the critical pressure ratio where two-phase sonic flow occurs. In particular, it describes how Sachdeva's two-phase choke model can be used to estimate the critical pressure ratio at nozzles that cause sonic flow. The critical pressure ratio charts can be coded in spreadsheets. The critical pressure ratio depends on the in-situ volumetric gas content, or gas-liquid ratio, which depends on gas injection and pressure. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  19. Development and application of a packer-type drilling-free liner hanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Tang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In liner cementing, the upper cement plug and inner components of a common hanger needs to be drilled out after cementing, which will result in a poor cementing quality or even gas leakage at the flare opening. Therefore, a new packer-type drilling-free liner hanger has been developed, and a hydraulic setting-control packer, a flexible drilling-free seal box, and an auxiliary bearing back-off mechanism that go with the line hanger have been designed at the same time. Specific operation procedures include: (1 run in the liner string to the designed depth, then fully circulate the drilling fluid, finally drop the ball. When the tripping ball gets into the seat, the pressure will go up to cut off the hanging control pin and set the hanger; (2 continue to hold the pressure and cut off the ball seat pin to form circulation; (3 trip in the drill pipe to exert pressure on the hanger, back off to release the hanger from the running tool; (4 lower the drill pipe plug upon the completion of cement injection, cut off the releasing control pin of hollow casing plug, and run down further to bump with the bumping assembly; (5 remove the cementing head and connect the kelly driver, hold pressure again, then slowly pull up the drill tools, exert hydraulic pressure on the setting hydraulic cylinder of the packer assembly to cut off the setting control pin and set the packer; and (6 pull up the tools to the flare opening and wash out excessive cement slurry by circulating to realize free drilling of the whole hole. The successful application of the liner hanger in 127 mm diameter liner in Well BQ203-H1 indicates that the packer-type liner hanger has such advantages as easy hanging and back-off, accurate bumping, simple setting, and sound sealing performance.

  20. A study in cost analysis of aggregate production as depending on drilling and blasting design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilim, Niyazi; Çelik, Arif; Kekeç, Bilgehan

    2017-10-01

    Since aggregate production has vital importance for many engineering projects-such as construction, highway and plant-mixed concrete production-this study was undertaken to determine how the costs for such production are affected by the design of drilling and blasting processes used. Aggregates are used in the production of concrete and asphalt, which are critical resources for the construction sector. The ongoing population increase and the growth of living standards around the world drive the increasing demand for these products. As demand grows, competition has naturally arisen among producers in the industry. Competition in the market has directly affected prices, which leads to the need for new measures and cost analysis on production costs. The cost calculation is one of the most important parameters in mining activities. Aggregate production operations include drilling, blasting, secondary crushing (if necessary), loading, hauling and crushing-screening, and each of these factors affects cost. In this study, drilling and blasting design parameters (such as hole diameter, hole depth, hole distance and burden) were investigated and evaluated for their effect on the total cost of quarrying these products, based on a particular quarry selected for this research. As the result of evaluation, the parameters actually driving costs have been identified, and their effects on the cost have been determined. In addition, some suggestions are presented regarding production design which may lead to avoiding increased production costs.

  1. Optimizing drilling performance using a selected drilling fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judzis, Arnis [Salt Lake City, UT; Black, Alan D [Coral Springs, FL; Green, Sidney J [Salt Lake City, UT; Robertson, Homer A [West Jordan, UT; Bland, Ronald G [Houston, TX; Curry, David Alexander [The Woodlands, TX; Ledgerwood, III, Leroy W.

    2011-04-19

    To improve drilling performance, a drilling fluid is selected based on one or more criteria and to have at least one target characteristic. Drilling equipment is used to drill a wellbore, and the selected drilling fluid is provided into the wellbore during drilling with the drilling equipment. The at least one target characteristic of the drilling fluid includes an ability of the drilling fluid to penetrate into formation cuttings during drilling to weaken the formation cuttings.

  2. Development of controlled drilling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiho, Kenzo; Miyakawa, Kimio; Suzuki, Koichi; Sunaga, Takayuki

    2008-01-01

    In Japan, the soft sedimentary rock of the Neogene tertiary is being focused as a host rock for the High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) disposal. Especially, the soft sedimentary rock at the offshore, region is thought to be one of the best candidates, since there is no driving force of the underground water. The measurement and logging in the bore hole in order to check the hydro-geological and geomechanical conditions of the host rock is a very important way to examine the potentially of the disposal candidates. The CRIEPI (Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry) has been conducting the project about the controlled drilling technology and the measurement and logging technologies in its borehole. In 2000, as the beginning year of the project, we made the conceptual design of the drilling and measuring systems, and made key tools concerning each technology on an experimental basis. We have been developing sub tools constructing drilling and measuring systems since 2000, and applying these systems to the Horonobe site recent 5 years. We will briefly report the outline of the system and the results of drilling and measurement that were carried out at the Horonobe site. (author)

  3. Ice drilling for blasting boreholes in deep seismic surveys (JARE-43 by steam type drilling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Watanabe

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A seismic exploration was accomplished in the austral summer of 2001-2002 by the 43rd Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-43 along a profile oblique to that held by JARE-41 on the Mizuho Plateau, East Antarctica. We used a steam type drilling system to obtain seven blasting boreholes. We spent 7 to 8 hours to make an enough depth of the hole for one shot point. The holes were 35 to 40 cm in diameter and 23.5 to 28.7 m in depth. The average drilling speed was 3.25 m/hr.

  4. Description of work vadose drilling at the 1301-N and 1325-N facilities, 100-NR-1 operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This description of work (DOW) details the field activities associated with the sampling of the vadose zone soils beneath the 1301-N and 1325-N cribs and trenches and will serve as a field guide for those performing the work. These activities are undertaken pursuant to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al., 1994a) Milestone M-16-94-01H-Tl and the June 30, 1994 Milestone Change Request M-16-94-02 (Ecology et al., 1994b). Three vadose zone borings, 1301-N-1, 1301-N-2, and 1325-N-1, will be constructed to investigate the vertical and horizontal distribution of radionuclide contamination in sediments beneath the cribs and trenches. The boreholes are also intended to intersect subsurface areas that may have been contaminated by dangerous wastes, i.e., metals, in effluent disposed during past operation of the facilities. This limited field investigation will provide data for the evaluation of remedial alternatives. Data from the investigation are expected to confirm that the cribs and trenches are high priority sites in the 100-NR-1 operable unit. Data, from the investigation will be used to evaluate alternatives for closure of the 1301-N and 1325-N sites. The contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) for the 1301-N/1325-N limited field investigation are presented in Table 1

  5. Running casing on conventional wells with Casing Drilling {sup TM} technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, T.M.; Schneider, W.P.; Johns, R.P.; Zipse, K.D. [Tesco Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Casing Drilling{sup TM} is a newly developed and efficient well construction method that combines drilling and casing running processes into a single operation. This radical change to the entire well casing running process eliminates standard components and processes that are inefficient and hazardous. The commercialization of this new technology has resulted in the development of custom equipment and procedures designed to efficiently handle casings on a drilling rig, including conventionally drilled wells. The technology offers safer casing running operations and makes it possible to ream casing to the bottom. In addition, less people are needed to operate the portable Casing Drive System (CDS). One of the primary components of the system is the top drive which provides the power for rotation and torque. The CDS supports full axial and torsional load for running the casing. The well can be circulated while running the casing. The casing can be washed and reamed to the bottom whenever a tight hole is encountered. Thirty one operators have successfully used the CDS on more than 150 onshore and offshore wells in 7 countries. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 12 figs.

  6. Replacement team of mining drilling rigs

    OpenAIRE

    Hamodi, Hussan; Lundberg, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a practical model to calculate the optimal replacement time (ORT) of drilling rigs used in underground mining. As a case study, cost data for drilling rig were collected over four years from a Swedish mine. The cost data include acquisition, operating, maintenance and downtime costs when using a redundant rig. A discount rate is used to determine the value of these costs over time. The study develops an optimisation model to identify the ORT of a mining drilling rig which ...

  7. Test plan for core drilling ignitability testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witwer, K.S.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this testing is to determine if ignition occurs while core drilling in a flammable gas environment. Drilling parameters are chosen so as to provide bounding conditions for the core sampling environment. If ignition does not occur under the conditions set forth in this test, then a satisfactory level of confidence will be obtained which would allow field operations under the normal drilling conditions

  8. Western Canada drilling cycle optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    The oil and gas industry in western Canada operates in annual and seasonal cycles with peak activity periods that require a large skilled labour force for short periods of time. This study examines why seismic and drilling activity is greatest during the first quarter of the year instead of being distributed evenly over the year. The objective of the study was to provide recommendations that would help optimize the industry cycle. The study includes an analysis of historical trends that validate the industry first quarter peaking activity. It also includes interviews with 36 industry representatives and provides insight and validation of trends. The final phase of the report includes recommendations that both industry and governments may wish to implement. The study includes financial, operational and environmental considerations. It was shown that natural gas directed drilling activity is strongly correlated with changes in natural gas prices. In the case of oil drilling activity, peak activity responds to oil prices from the prior quarter. In general, drilling and seismic costs are higher in the winter months because of increased demand for equipment and services. In addition winter drilling operations require a diesel fired boiler to generate steam. 36 refs., 2 tabs., 52 figs

  9. Device for storing drilling pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolasinski, A; Wedrychowicz, J

    1981-02-16

    The patented device contains a profiled arch 14 (see figure) installed in the upper part of the drilling rig 15. On base 16 of the drilling unit, there is bin 1 which is installed on frame 2 to which it is hinge connected with the help of pin 3. On the other side, the bin rests on rollers 4 which are attached to lever 5 of lifting mechanism 6. Bin 1 is a series of parallel-arranged guides rigidly connected by transverse beams. Frame 2 contains the collapsible support 10. During operation of the device, the hydraulic lifter 6 with the help of frame 5 and rollers 4 lifts bin 1 with drilling pipes installed on it, giving it an angle of 4/sup 0/ in relation to the plane of frame 2. The collapsible support 10 is installed in a vertical position and holds bin 1. This position of bin 1 is the most suitable for movement of the vertically installed drilling pipes on the guides. The distinguishing feature of the patented device is the possibility of convenient arrangement of the drilling pipes on the guides of bin 1. Because of this, the time spent on lifting and lowering the drill apparatus is considerably reduced.

  10. Investigation of analytical methods in thermal stratification analysis. Evaluation of flow rates through flow holes for normal and scram conditions of 40% power operation with AQUA code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Yoshihiro; Muramatsu, Toshiharu

    1997-08-01

    Thermal stratification phenomena are observed in an upper plenum of liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) under reactor scram conditions, which give rise to thermal stress on structural components. Therefore it is important to evaluate characteristics of phenomena in the design of the internal structure in an LMFBR plenum. To evaluate flow rates through flow holes of the prototype fast breeder reactor, MONJU, numerical analyses were carried out with AQUA code for normal and scram conditions with 40% power operation. Through comparison of analysis results and measured temperature, thermal stratification phenomena in 300 second period after the scram was evaluated. Flow rate through the upper flow holes, the lower flow holes and annular gap between the inner barrel and the reactor vessel were evaluated with the measured temperature and the analysis results individually. (J.P.N.)

  11. Numerical Modeling of Foam Drilling Hydraulics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozcan Baris

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of foam as a drilling fluid was developed to meet a special set of conditions under which other common drilling fluids had failed. Foam drilling is defined as the process of making boreholes by utilizing foam as the circulating fluid. When compared with conventional drilling, underbalanced or foam drilling has several advantages. These advantages include: avoidance of lost circulation problems, minimizing damage to pay zones, higher penetration rates and bit life. Foams are usually characterized by the quality, the ratio of the volume of gas, and the total foam volume. Obtaining dependable pressure profiles for aerated (gasified fluids and foam is more difficult than for single phase fluids, since in the former ones the drilling mud contains a gas phase that is entrained within the fluid system. The primary goal of this study is to expand the knowledge-base of the hydrodynamic phenomena that occur in a foam drilling operation. In order to gain a better understanding of foam drilling operations, a hydrodynamic model is developed and run at different operating conditions. For this purpose, the flow of foam through the drilling system is modeled by invoking the basic principles of continuum mechanics and thermodynamics. The model was designed to allow gas and liquid flow at desired volumetric flow rates through the drillstring and annulus. Parametric studies are conducted in order to identify the most influential variables in the hydrodynamic modeling of foam flow.

  12. Influence of non-edible vegetable based oil as cutting fluid on chip, surface roughness and cutting force during drilling operation of Mild Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susmitha, M.; Sharan, P.; Jyothi, P. N.

    2016-09-01

    Friction between work piece-cutting tool-chip generates heat in the machining zone. The heat generated reduces the tool life, increases surface roughness and decreases the dimensional sensitiveness of work material. This can be overcome by using cutting fluids during machining. They are used to provide lubrication and cooling effects between cutting tool and work piece and cutting tool and chip during machining operation. As a result, important benefits would be achieved such longer tool life, easy chip flow and higher machining quality in the machining processes. Non-edible vegetable oils have received considerable research attention in the last decades owing to their remarkable improved tribological characteristics and due to increasing attention to environmental issues, have driven the lubricant industry toward eco friendly products from renewable sources. In the present work, different non-edible vegetable oils are used as cutting fluid during drilling of Mild steel work piece. Non-edible vegetable oils, used are Karanja oil (Honge), Neem oil and blend of these two oils. The effect of these cutting fluids on chip formation, surface roughness and cutting force are investigated and the results obtained are compared with results obtained with petroleum based cutting fluids and dry conditions.

  13. Deep-Time drilling in the Australian Archean: the Agouron Institute geobiological drilling project. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buick, R.

    2010-12-01

    The Agouron Institute has sponsored deep-time drilling across the South African Archean-Proterozoic boundary, investigating the rise of oxygen over an onshore-offshore environmental transect. It is now supporting a drilling program in the Australian Archean of the Pilbara Craton, addressing a similar theme but with the added goal of resolving controversy over the age and origin of hydrocarbon biomarker molecules in ancient kerogenous shales. As these have been claimed to provide evidence for the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis long before the rise of atmospheric oxygen to persistently high levels during the ~2.3 Ga “Great Oxidation Event”, their syngenesis with their host shales is thus of critical importance for the interpretation of Earth’s early oxygenation history. During the first drilling season, 3 holes were drilled using techniques and equipment to minimize organic geochemical contamination (new drill-string components cleaned before drilling potentially biomarker-bearing rocks, pre-contamination of drilling fluid with a synthetic organic compound of similar geochemical characteristics to biomarkers, sterile cutting and storage of samples immediately upon retrieval from the core-barrel). The initial hole was a blank control for organic geochemistry, drilled into rocks too metamorphosed to retain biomarker molecules. These rocks, cherts, carbonates and pelites of the 3.52 Ga Coucal Formation, Coonterunah Group, have been metamorphosed to upper greenschist facies at temperatures near 500°C and so should have had any ancient soluble hydrocarbons destroyed. However, because they contain both carbonate and organic carbon, these rocks can instead provide isotopic information about the earliest evolution of biological metabolism as they possess residues of both the reactant and product sides of the carbon-fixation reaction. The second hole sampled an on-shore section of carbonates and kerogenous shales in the ~2.65 Ga Carawine Dolomite and Lewin Shale

  14. Results from Testing of Two Rotary Percussive Drilling Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriechbaum, Kristopher; Brown, Kyle; Cady, Ian; von der Heydt, Max; Klein, Kerry; Kulczycki, Eric; Okon, Avi

    2010-01-01

    The developmental test program for the MSL (Mars Science Laboratory) rotary percussive drill examined the e ect of various drill input parameters on the drill pene- tration rate. Some of the input parameters tested were drill angle with respect to gravity and percussive impact energy. The suite of rocks tested ranged from a high strength basalt to soft Kaolinite clay. We developed a hole start routine to reduce high sideloads from bit walk. The ongoing development test program for the IMSAH (Integrated Mars Sample Acquisition and Handling) rotary percussive corer uses many of the same rocks as the MSL suite. An additional performance parameter is core integrity. The MSL development test drill and the IMSAH test drill use similar hardware to provide rotation and percussion. However, the MSL test drill uses external stabilizers, while the IMSAH test drill does not have external stabilization. In addition the IMSAH drill is a core drill, while the MSL drill uses a solid powdering bit. Results from the testing of these two related drilling systems is examined.

  15. Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling System and Horizontal Directional Drilling Technology Demonstration, Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.V.; Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A.; Myers, D.A.; Gardner, M.G.; Williamson, T.; Huffman, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling (EMWD) system and Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) were successfully demonstrated at the Mock Tank Leak Simulation Site and the Drilling Technology Test Site, Hanford, Washington. The use of directional drilling offers an alternative to vertical drilling site characterization. Directional drilling can develop a borehole under a structure, such as a waste tank, from an angled entry and leveling off to horizontal at the desired depth. The EMWD system represents an innovative blend of new and existing technology that provides the capability of producing real-time environmental and drill bit data during drilling operations. The technology demonstration consisted of the development of one borehole under a mock waste tank at a depth of approximately minus8 m (minus27 ft.), following a predetermined drill path, tracking the drill path to within a radius of approximately1.5 m (5 ft.), and monitoring for zones of radiological activity using the EMWD system. The purpose of the second borehole was to demonstrate the capability of drilling to a depth of ∼ -21 m (-70 ft.), the depth needed to obtain access under the Hanford waste tanks, and continue drilling horizontally. This report presents information on the HDD and EMWD technologies, demonstration design, results of the demonstrations, and lessons learned

  16. HIGH-POWER TURBODRILL AND DRILL BIT FOR DRILLING WITH COILED TUBING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Radtke; David Glowka; Man Mohan Rai; David Conroy; Tim Beaton; Rocky Seale; Joseph Hanna; Smith Neyrfor; Homer Robertson

    2008-03-31

    Commercial introduction of Microhole Technology to the gas and oil drilling industry requires an effective downhole drive mechanism which operates efficiently at relatively high RPM and low bit weight for delivering efficient power to the special high RPM drill bit for ensuring both high penetration rate and long bit life. This project entails developing and testing a more efficient 2-7/8 in. diameter Turbodrill and a novel 4-1/8 in. diameter drill bit for drilling with coiled tubing. The high-power Turbodrill were developed to deliver efficient power, and the more durable drill bit employed high-temperature cutters that can more effectively drill hard and abrasive rock. This project teams Schlumberger Smith Neyrfor and Smith Bits, and NASA AMES Research Center with Technology International, Inc (TII), to deliver a downhole, hydraulically-driven power unit, matched with a custom drill bit designed to drill 4-1/8 in. boreholes with a purpose-built coiled tubing rig. The U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory has funded Technology International Inc. Houston, Texas to develop a higher power Turbodrill and drill bit for use in drilling with a coiled tubing unit. This project entails developing and testing an effective downhole drive mechanism and a novel drill bit for drilling 'microholes' with coiled tubing. The new higher power Turbodrill is shorter, delivers power more efficiently, operates at relatively high revolutions per minute, and requires low weight on bit. The more durable thermally stable diamond drill bit employs high-temperature TSP (thermally stable) diamond cutters that can more effectively drill hard and abrasive rock. Expectations are that widespread adoption of microhole technology could spawn a wave of 'infill development' drilling of wells spaced between existing wells, which could tap potentially billions of barrels of bypassed oil at shallow depths in mature producing areas. At the same time, microhole

  17. Cutting and drilling studies using high power visible lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kautz, D.D.; Dragon, E.P.; Werve, M.E.; Hargrove, R.S.; Warner, B.E.

    1993-01-01

    High power and radiance laser technologies developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory such as copper-vapor and dye lasers show great promise for material processing tasks. Evaluation of models suggests significant increases in welding, cutting, and drilling capabilities, as well as applications in emerging technologies such as micromachining, surface treatment, and stereolithography. Copper lasers currently operate at 1.8 kW output at approximately three times the diffraction limit and achieve mean time between failures of more than 1,000 hours. Dye lasers have near diffraction limited beam quality at greater than 1.0 kW. Results from cutting and drilling studies in titanium and stainless steel alloys show that cuts and holes with extremely fine features can be made with dye and copper-vapor lasers. High radiance beams produce low distortion and small heat-affected zones. The authors have accomplished very high aspect ratios (> 60:1) and features with micron scale (5-50 μm) sizes. The paper gives a description of the equipment; discusses cutting theory; and gives experimental results of cutting and drilling studies on Ti-6Al-4V and 304 stainless steel

  18. Numerical Investigation of Influences of Drilling Arrangements on the Mechanical Behavior and Energy Evolution of Coal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong-bin Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Destress drilling method is one of the commonly used methods for mitigating rock bursts, especially in coal mining. To better understand the influences of drilling arrangements on the destress effect is beneficial for rock burst mitigation. This study first introduced the rock burst mitigation mechanism of the destress drilling method and then numerically investigated the influences of drilling arrangements on the mechanical properties of coal models through uniaxial compression tests. Based on the test results, the energy evolution (i.e., the energy dissipation and bursting energy indexes influenced by different drilling arrangements was analyzed. When the drilling diameter, the number of drilling holes in one row, or the number of drilling rows increases, the bearing capacity of specimens nonlinearly decreases, but the energy dissipation index increases. In addition, the drilling diameter or the number of drilling holes in one row affects the failure mode weakly, which is different from that of the number of drilling rows. Consequently, the bursting energy index decreases as increasing the drilling diameter or the number of drilling holes in one row, but as increasing the number of drilling rows, the variation law of bursting energy index is not obvious. At last, the influencing mechanism of drilling arrangement on the rock burst prevention mechanism of the destress drilling method was discussed and revealed.

  19. Mud pressure simulation on large horizontal directional drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placido, Rafael R.; Avesani Neto, Jose O.; Martins, Pedro R.R.; Rocha, Ronaldo [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas do Estado de Sao Paulo (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) is being extensively used in Brazil for installation of oil and gas pipelines. This trenchless technology is currently used in crossings of water bodies, environmental sensitive areas, densely populated areas, areas prone to mass movement and anywhere the traditional technology is not suitable because of the risks. One of the unwanted effects of HDD is collapsing of the soil surrounding the bore-hole, leading to loss of fluid. This can result in problems such as reducing the drilling efficiency, ground heave, structures damage, fluid infiltration and other environmental problems. This paper presents four simulations of down-hole fluid pressures which represents two different geometrical characteristics of the drilling and two different soils. The results showed that greater depths are needed in longer drillings to avoid ground rupture. Thus the end section of the drilling often represents the critical stage. (author)

  20. Research on technical and technological parameters of inclined drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. В. Двойников

    2017-03-01

    Analysis of investigation results showed that the main source of oscillations is linked to bending and compressing stresses, caused by well deviations as well as rigidity of the drilling tool. In effect, in the bottom-hole assembly occur auto-oscillations, making it impossible to correct azimuth and zenith angles. Alteration of rigidity in the bottom part of the tool and drilling parameters, implying reduced rotation speed of the drill string and regulation of drill bit pressure, can partially solve this problem, though increase in rotation speed is limited by technical characteristics of existing top drive systems.

  1. Development of a jet-assisted polycrystalline diamond drill bit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pixton, D.S.; Hall, D.R.; Summers, D.A.; Gertsch, R.E.

    1997-12-31

    A preliminary investigation has been conducted to evaluate the technical feasibility and potential economic benefits of a new type of drill bit. This bit transmits both rotary and percussive drilling forces to the rock face, and augments this cutting action with high-pressure mud jets. Both the percussive drilling forces and the mud jets are generated down-hole by a mud-actuated hammer. Initial laboratory studies show that rate of penetration increases on the order of a factor of two over unaugmented rotary and/or percussive drilling rates are possible with jet-assistance.

  2. Black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feast, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    This article deals with two questions, namely whether it is possible for black holes to exist, and if the answer is yes, whether we have found any yet. In deciding whether black holes can exist or not the central role in the shaping of our universe played by the forse of gravity is discussed, and in deciding whether we are likely to find black holes in the universe the author looks at the way stars evolve, as well as white dwarfs and neutron stars. He also discusses the problem how to detect a black hole, possible black holes, a southern black hole, massive black holes, as well as why black holes are studied

  3. Trends in the Drilling Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Czekaj

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum Industry is trying to achieve sustainable development goals. Each year new solutions are implemented to minimize the environmental impact of drilling operations. The paper presents trends in the drilling waste management caused by introducing the sustainable development into the petroleum industry. Old solutions such as the drilling waste disposal at the waste dump or dumping ground are not acceptable from the environmental point of view. The paper presents an analysis of new solutions as the sustainable solutions. The most important problem is the chemical pollution in cuttings and the waste drilling mud. The industrial solutions as well as the laboratory research on the pollution removing from drilling wastes are analysed. The most promising method seems to be the recycling and design for the environment of drilling mud.

  4. D