WorldWideScience

Sample records for holder sample temperature

  1. Sample holder for studying temperature dependent particle guiding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bereczky, R.J.; Toekesi, K.; Kowarik, G.; Aumayr, F.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The so called guiding effect is a complex process involving the interplay of a large number of charged particles with a solid. Although many research groups joined this field and carried out various experiments with insulator capillaries many details of the interactions are still unknown. We investigated the temperature dependence of the guiding since it opens new possibilities both for a fundamental understanding of the guiding phenomenon and for applications. For the temperature dependent guiding experiments a completely new heatable sample holder was designed. We developed and built such a heatable sample holder to make accurate and reproducible studies of the temperature dependence of the ion guiding effect possible. The target holder (for an exploded view see Fig. 1) consists of two main parts, the front and the back plates. The two plates of the sample holder, which function as an oven, are made of copper. These parts surround the capillary in order to guarantee a uniform temperature along the whole tube. The temperature of the copper parts is monitored by a K-Type thermocouple. Stainless steel coaxial heaters surrounding the oven are used for heating. The heating power up to a few watts is regulated by a PID controller. Cooling of the capillary is achieved by a copper feed-through connected to a liquid nitrogen bath outside the UHV chamber. This solution allows us to change the temperature of the sample from -30 deg C up to 90 deg C. Our experiments with this newly developed temperature regulated capillary holder show that the glass temperature (i.e. conductivity) can be used to control the guiding properties of the glass capillary and adjust the conditions from guiding at room temperature to simple geometrical transmission at elevated temperatures. This holds the promise to investigate the effect of conductivity on particle transport (build-up and removal of charge patches) through capillaries in more details

  2. Low conductive support for thermal insulation of a sample holder of a variable temperature scanning tunneling microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzelka, Pavel; Vonka, Jakub; Musilova, Vera

    2013-08-01

    We have designed a supporting system to fix a sample holder of a scanning tunneling microscope in an UHV chamber at room temperature. The microscope will operate down to a temperature of 20 K. Low thermal conductance, high mechanical stiffness, and small dimensions are the main features of the supporting system. Three sets of four glass balls placed in vertices of a tetrahedron are used for thermal insulation based on small contact areas between the glass balls. We have analyzed the thermal conductivity of the contacts between the balls mutually and between a ball and a metallic plate while the results have been applied to the entire support. The calculation based on a simple model of the setup has been verified with some experimental measurements. In comparison with other feasible supporting structures, the designed support has the lowest thermal conductance.

  3. Improved sample holders for the PMMA dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Toshikazu; Sone, Koji; Iso, Katsuaki

    1994-01-01

    PMMA dosimeters are widely used for high dose dosimetry. Dose is determined by measuring the change in optical density of the irradiated PMMA dosimeter element. Measurement precision depends on the mounting method of a dosimeter element in the sample room of a spectrophotometer. We tried to prepare three types of holders, (holders A, B and C in Figs. 1-3), according to the shape of PMMA dosimeter elements. We measured optical density of the irradiated PMMA dosimeter elements by using the three types of holders. It is revealed that the holder of the type A gives more precise results for the Red 4034 or Gammachrome YR dosimeter than that of the type B. The measurements with a spectrophotometer using the type C holder gives better results for the Red acrylic dosimeter than the case of the measurements by the exclusive reader. (author)

  4. Tem holder for sample transfer under reaction conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Zandbergen, Henny W.; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    Environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM) studies are usually performed using conventional sample holders in a dedicated ETEM [1] or in a traditional TEM by use of a dedicated high-pressure cell sample holder [2]. In both cases, the setup defines the conditions regarding gas, pressure......]. Furthermore, dedicated transfer holders have been used to transfer catalyst samples between reactor set-ups and TEM at room temperature in inert atmosphere [5]. To take the full advantage of complementary in situ techniques, transfer under reactions conditions is essential. This study introduces the in situ...... transfer concept by use of a dedicated TEM transfer holder capable of enclosing the sample in a gaseous environment at temperatures up to approx. 900C. By oxidation and reduction experiments of Cu nanoparticles it is shown possible to keep the reaction conditions during transfer outside the microscope...

  5. Broadband sample holder for microwave spectroscopy of superconducting qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averkin, A. S.; Karpov, A.; Glushkov, E.; Abramov, N.; Shulga, K.; Huebner, U.; Il'ichev, E.; Ustinov, A. V.

    2014-01-01

    We present a practical design and implementation of a broadband sample holder suitable for microwave experiments with superconducting integrated circuits at millikelvin temperatures. Proposed design can be easily integrated in standard dilution cryostats, has flat pass band response in a frequency range from 0 to 32 GHz, allowing the RF testing of the samples with substrate size up to 4 × 4 mm 2 . The parasitic higher modes interference in the holder structure is analyzed and prevented via design considerations. The developed setup can be used for characterization of superconducting parametric amplifiers, bolometers, and qubits. We tested the designed sample holder by characterizing of a superconducting flux qubit at 20 mK temperature

  6. Manipulator for rotating and translating a sample holder

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Water, Jeroen [Breugel, NL; van den Oetelaar, Johannes [Eindhoven, NL; Wagner, Raymond [Gorinchem, NL; Slingerland, Hendrik Nicolaas [Venlo, NL; Bruggers, Jan Willem [Eindhoven, NL; Ottevanger, Adriaan Huibert Dirk [Malden, NL; Schmid, Andreas [Berkeley, CA; Olson, Eric A [Champaign, IL; Petrov, Ivan G [Champaign, IL; Donchev, Todor I [Urbana, IL; Duden, Thomas [Kensington, CA

    2011-02-08

    A manipulator for use in e.g. a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) is described, said manipulator capable of rotating and translating a sample holder (4). The manipulator clasps the round sample holder between two members (3A, 3B), said members mounted on actuators (2A, 2B). Moving the actuators in the same direction results in a translation of the sample holder, while moving the actuators in opposite directions results in a rotation of the sample holder.

  7. Transmission electron microscope sample holder with optical features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milas, Mirko [Port Jefferson, NY; Zhu, Yimei [Stony Brook, NY; Rameau, Jonathan David [Coram, NY

    2012-03-27

    A sample holder for holding a sample to be observed for research purposes, particularly in a transmission electron microscope (TEM), generally includes an external alignment part for directing a light beam in a predetermined beam direction, a sample holder body in optical communication with the external alignment part and a sample support member disposed at a distal end of the sample holder body opposite the external alignment part for holding a sample to be analyzed. The sample holder body defines an internal conduit for the light beam and the sample support member includes a light beam positioner for directing the light beam between the sample holder body and the sample held by the sample support member.

  8. 3D printing scanning electron microscopy sample holders: A quick and cost effective alternative for custom holder fabrication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel N Meloni

    Full Text Available A simple and cost effective alternative for fabricating custom Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM sample holders using 3D printers and conductive polylactic acid filament is presented. The flexibility of the 3D printing process allowed for the fabrication of sample holders with specific features that enable the high-resolution imaging of nanoelectrodes and nanopipettes. The precise value of the inner semi cone angle of the nanopipettes taper was extracted from the acquired images and used for calculating their radius using electrochemical methods. Because of the low electrical resistivity presented by the 3D printed holder, the imaging of non-conductive nanomaterials, such as alumina powder, was found to be possible. The fabrication time for each sample holder was under 30 minutes and the average cost was less than $0.50 per piece. Despite being quick and economical to fabricate, the sample holders were found to be sufficiently resistant, allowing for multiple uses of the same holder.

  9. Towards a compact and precise sample holder for macromolecular crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Gergely; Rossi, Christopher; Janocha, Robert; Sorez, Clement; Lopez-Marrero, Marcos; Astruc, Anthony; McCarthy, Andrew; Belrhali, Hassan; Bowler, Matthew W; Cipriani, Florent

    2017-10-01

    Most of the sample holders currently used in macromolecular crystallography offer limited storage density and poor initial crystal-positioning precision upon mounting on a goniometer. This has now become a limiting factor at high-throughput beamlines, where data collection can be performed in a matter of seconds. Furthermore, this lack of precision limits the potential benefits emerging from automated harvesting systems that could provide crystal-position information which would further enhance alignment at beamlines. This situation provided the motivation for the development of a compact and precise sample holder with corresponding pucks, handling tools and robotic transfer protocols. The development process included four main phases: design, prototype manufacture, testing with a robotic sample changer and validation under real conditions on a beamline. Two sample-holder designs are proposed: NewPin and miniSPINE. They share the same robot gripper and allow the storage of 36 sample holders in uni-puck footprint-style pucks, which represents 252 samples in a dry-shipping dewar commonly used in the field. The pucks are identified with human- and machine-readable codes, as well as with radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags. NewPin offers a crystal-repositioning precision of up to 10 µm but requires a specific goniometer socket. The storage density could reach 64 samples using a special puck designed for fully robotic handling. miniSPINE is less precise but uses a goniometer mount compatible with the current SPINE standard. miniSPINE is proposed for the first implementation of the new standard, since it is easier to integrate at beamlines. An upgraded version of the SPINE sample holder with a corresponding puck named SPINEplus is also proposed in order to offer a homogenous and interoperable system. The project involved several European synchrotrons and industrial companies in the fields of consumables and sample-changer robotics. Manual handling of mini

  10. Breeding snow: an instrumented sample holder for simultaneous tomographic and thermal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinzer, B; Schneebeli, M

    2009-01-01

    To study the recrystallization processes during temperature gradient metamorphism of snow, we developed a sample holder that allows applying well-defined and stable thermal gradients to a snow sample while it is scanned in an x-ray micro-tomograph. To this end, both the thermal insulation of the sample as well as image contrast and resolution of the tomography had to be optimized. We solved this conflict by using thin aluminum cylinders in combination with highly insulating foam. This design is light, does not corrupt image quality and provides very good thermal decoupling from the environment. The sample holder was instrumented to measure the effective conductivity of the snow sample and calibrated using five materials of known conductivity. Finite element simulations were consistent with the calibration measurements and gave insight into the internal temperature and heat flux fields. With this setup, geometric and thermal evolution of snow under realistic thermal boundary conditions like alternating temperature gradients can be measured

  11. A sample holder for the study of isothermal heat of hydration of cement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    1998-01-01

    Different techniques for measuring heat of hydration of cement are discussed, and a sample holder designed specially for measuring isothermal heat of hydration is described. A particular characteristic of the sample holder is the vacuum mixing technique which ensures a momentary and homogeneous...

  12. Note: A scanning electron microscope sample holder for bidirectional characterization of atomic force microscope probe tips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenstein, Alon; Goh, M. Cynthia [Department of Chemistry and Institute for Optical Sciences, University of Toronto, 80 St. George Street, Toronto M5S 3H6 (Canada)

    2012-03-15

    A novel sample holder that enables atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips to be mounted inside a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for the purpose of characterizing the AFM tips is described. The holder provides quick and easy handling of tips by using a spring clip to hold them in place. The holder can accommodate two tips simultaneously in two perpendicular orientations, allowing both top and side view imaging of the tips by the SEM.

  13. Automatic gamma radiation scanning device and feed mechanism for plural sample holders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, W.J.

    1976-01-01

    Apparatus is disclosed for measuring the level of gamma radiation contained in a plurality of biological samples which are located on the fibrous sheet member carried by a sample holder. The apparatus is adapted to count the radiation level of the number of closely spaced samples located in rows and columns on the sheet by automatically sequencing through the individual samples within the rows and to advance the holder to bring successive rows into proximity with the detector. The detector is moved from sample to sample within the rows, although a number of detectors can be employed. A plurality of sample holders are automatically advanced to the detector. 25 claims, 5 drawing figures

  14. A sample holder for in-house X-ray powder diffraction studies of protein powders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankær, Christian Grundahl; Harris, Pernille; Ståhl, Kenny

    2011-01-01

    A sample holder for handling samples of protein for in-house X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) analysis has been made and tested on lysozyme. The use of an integrated pinhole reduced the background, and good signal-to-noise ratios were obtained from only 7 l of sample, corresponding to approximatel...... 2-3 mg of dry protein. The sample holder is further adaptable to X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements. Both XRPD and XAS at the Zn K-edge were tested with hexameric Zn insulin....

  15. Evaluation of the uncertainty associated with sample holders in NAA measurements in LAN/IPEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahn, Guilherme S.; Ticianelli, Regina B.; Saiki, Mitiko; Genezini, Frederico A., E-mail: ticianelli@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In IPEN's Neutron Activation Laboratory (LAN/IPEN), thin stainless steel sample holders are used for gamma spectrometry in NAA measurements. This material is very practical, but its chemical composition may be troublesome, as it presents large amounts of elements with intermediate atomic number, with attenuation factors for low-energy gamma-rays that must not be neglected. In this study, count rates obtained using different sample holders were compared. To accomplish that, an Am-241 source, with 59-keV gamma emission, was used so that low-energy gamma attenuation differences can be determined. Moreover, in order to study the energy dependence of these differences, a Ho-166m source was also used. From these results, it was possible to analyze the experimental error associated to the variations between sample holders, with the aim of introducing an addictive term to the uncertainty analysis of comparative Neutron Activation Analysis results. (author)

  16. Thermal Stress FE Analysis of Large-scale Gas Holder Under Sunshine Temperature Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingyu; Yang, Ranxia; Wang, Hehui

    2018-03-01

    The temperature field and thermal stress of Man type gas holder is simulated by using the theory of sunshine temperature field based on ASHRAE clear-sky model and the finite element method. The distribution of surface temperature and thermal stress of gas holder under the given sunshine condition is obtained. The results show that the thermal stress caused by sunshine can be identified as one of the important factors for the failure of local cracked oil leakage which happens on the sunny side before on the shady side. Therefore, it is of great importance to consider the sunshine thermal load in the stress analysis, design and operation of large-scale steel structures such as the gas holder.

  17. Dose computation of Ti activated products for its qualification as a material for the sample holder in FBTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashok Kumar, G.V.S.; Kumar, R.; Venkatasubramani, C.R.; Acharya, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2014-01-01

    Development of a Fast flux experimental facility with a sample holder facility in FBTR has been envisaged to carry out the studies on i) fast neutron activation analysis and ii) fission studies. This paper describes the facility in detail and dose computations that are to be generated due to long irradiation of the material of the sample holder i.e. titanium. (author)

  18. Multielement analysis of aerosol samples by X-ray fluorescence analysis with totally reflecting sample holders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketelsen, P.; Knoechel, A.

    1984-01-01

    Aerosole samples on filter support were analyzed using the X-ray flourescence analytical method (Mo excitation) with totally reflecting sample carrier (TXFA). Wet decomposition of the sample material with HNO 3 in an enclosed system and subsequent sample preparation by evaporating an aliquot of the solution on the sample carrier yields detection limits up to 0.3 ng/cm 2 . The reproducibilities of the measurements of the elements K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb lie between 5 and 25%. Similar detection limits and reproducibilities are obtained, when low-temperature oxygen plasma is employed for the direct ashing of the homogenously covered filter on the sample carrier. For the systematic loss of elements both methods were investigated with radiotracers as well as with inactive techniques. A comparison of the results with those obtained by NAA, AAS and PIXE shows good agreement in most cases. For the bromine determination and the fast coverage of the main elements a possibility for measuring the filter membrane has been indicated, which neglects the ashing step. The corresponding detection limits are up to 3 ng/cm 2 . (orig.) [de

  19. A new sample holder for laser-excited pump-probe magnetic measurements on a Focus photoelectron emission microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miguel, Jorge; Bernien, Matthias; Kuch, Wolfgang; Bayer, Daniela; Aeschlimann, Martin; Sanchez-Barriga, Jaime; Kronast, Florian; Duerr, Hermann A.

    2008-01-01

    A custom-made Omicron-compatible sample holder for time-resolved photoelectron emission microscopy experiments is presented. It comprises a sample plate with four contacts that hosts a chip carrier where the semiconductor substrate is mounted. Covering the sample holder, a 6 mm diameter mask protects electrostatically the sample from the extractor lens voltage while keeping the imaging quality unperturbed. The improvements are a greater sample lifetime and the ability to withstand much higher currents in the stripline that provides the magnetic pulse to the magnetic microstructure

  20. Preparation and Loading Process of Single Crystalline Samples into a Gas Environmental Cell Holder for In Situ Atomic Resolution Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopic Observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straubinger, Rainer; Beyer, Andreas; Volz, Kerstin

    2016-06-01

    A reproducible way to transfer a single crystalline sample into a gas environmental cell holder for in situ transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analysis is shown in this study. As in situ holders have only single-tilt capability, it is necessary to prepare the sample precisely along a specific zone axis. This can be achieved by a very accurate focused ion beam lift-out preparation. We show a step-by-step procedure to prepare the sample and transfer it into the gas environmental cell. The sample material is a GaP/Ga(NAsP)/GaP multi-quantum well structure on Si. Scanning TEM observations prove that it is possible to achieve atomic resolution at very high temperatures in a nitrogen environment of 100,000 Pa.

  1. Practical aspects of the use of the X(2) holder for HRTEM-quality TEM sample preparation by FIB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mierlo, Willem; Geiger, Dorin; Robins, Alan; Stumpf, Matthias; Ray, Mary Louise; Fischione, Paul; Kaiser, Ute

    2014-12-01

    The X(2) holder enables the effective production of thin, electron transparent samples for high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Improvements to the X(2) holder for high-quality transmission electron microscopy (TEM) sample preparation are presented in this paper. We discuss the influence of backscattered electrons (BSE) from the sample holder in determining the lamella thickness in situ and demonstrate that a significant improvement in thickness determination can be achieved by comparatively simple means using the relative BSE intensity. We show (using Monte Carlo simulations) that by taking into account the finite collection angle of the electron backscatter detector, an approximately 20% underestimation of the lamella thickness in a silicon sample can be avoided. However, a correct thickness determination for light-element lamellas still remains a problem with the backscatter method; we introduce a more accurate method using the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) signal for in situ thickness determination. Finally, we demonstrate how to produce a thin lamella with a nearly damage-free surface using the X(2) holder in combination with sub-kV polishing in the Fischione Instruments׳ NanoMill(®) TEM specimen preparation system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Quality control and enhancement of microwelds for Ir-192 sample holders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Alcides; Medina, Max; Cavero, Luis

    2013-01-01

    This study shows the micro quality results of tungsten inert gas welds on stainless steel AISI 304 of 5 sample holders for 30 discs by 3 mm diameter and 0.5 mm thick of Ir-192 sources produced in the Radioisotope Production Plant (RPP) of IPEN, generally used in industrial gammagraphy. Macrographic and conventional metallographic analysis were performed to measure the amplitude, thickness and centering parameters of the weld bead, centered data have helped to determine the parameters for welds with good quality, showing defects due to the misaligned glass lens, low magnification image and high visual angle of incidence across the 200 mm security leaded glass giving a low quality weld image due to the low magnification, large chromatic aberration resulting in a weld outside the seam, this problem was solved by changing the old optical visualization system by an external telescope specially designed for this purpose and raising the workbench so that the optical telescope axis and the weld are horizontally, achieving more rapid processes, reliable and reproducible, this new system has proved more convenient, reliable and reproducible. (authors).

  3. Development and Application of a Sample Holder for In Situ Gaseous TEM Studies of Membrane Electrode Assemblies for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamino, Takeo; Yaguchi, Toshie; Shimizu, Takahiro

    2017-10-01

    Polymer electrolyte fuel cells hold great potential for stationary and mobile applications due to high power density and low operating temperature. However, the structural changes during electrochemical reactions are not well understood. In this article, we detail the development of the sample holder equipped with gas injectors and electric conductors and its application to a membrane electrode assembly of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell. Hydrogen and oxygen gases were simultaneously sprayed on the surfaces of the anode and cathode catalysts of the membrane electrode assembly sample, respectively, and observation of the structural changes in the catalysts were simultaneously carried out along with measurement of the generated voltages.

  4. A 'smart' tube holder enables real-time sample monitoring in a standard lab centrifuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Tony; Moskwa, Nicholas; Halvorsen, Ken

    2018-01-01

    The centrifuge is among the oldest and most widely used pieces of laboratory equipment, with significant applications that include clinical diagnostics and biomedical research. A major limitation of laboratory centrifuges is their "black box" nature, limiting sample observation to before and after centrifugation. Thus, optimized protocols require significant trial and error, while unoptimized protocols waste time by centrifuging longer than necessary or material due to incomplete sedimentation. Here, we developed an instrumented centrifuge tube receptacle compatible with several commercial benchtop centrifuges that can provide real-time sample analysis during centrifugation. We demonstrated the system by monitoring cell separations during centrifugation for different spin speeds, concentrations, buffers, cell types, and temperatures. We show that the collected data are valuable for analytical purposes (e.g. quality control), or as feedback to the user or the instrument. For the latter, we verified an adaptation where complete sedimentation turned off the centrifuge and notified the user by a text message. Our system adds new functionality to existing laboratory centrifuges, saving users time and providing useful feedback. This add-on potentially enables new analytical applications for an instrument that has remained largely unchanged for decades.

  5. Considerations on sample holder design and custom-made non-polarizable electrodes for Spectral Induced Polarization measurements on unsaturated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaouane, C.; Chouteau, M. C.; Fauchard, C.; Cote, P.

    2014-12-01

    Spectral Induced Polarization (SIP) is a geophysical method sensitive to water content, saturation and grain size distribution. It could be used as an alternative to nuclear probes to assess the compaction of soils in road works. To evaluate the potential of SIP as a practical tool, we designed an experiment for complex conductivity measurements on unsaturated soil samples.Literature presents a large variety of sample holders and designs, each depending on the context. Although we might find some precise description about the sample holder, exact replication is not always possible. Furthermore, the potential measurements are often done using custom-made Ag/AgCl electrodes and very few indications are given on their reliability with time and temperature. Our objective is to perform complex conductivity measurements on soil samples compacted in a PVC cylindrical mould (10 cm-long, 5 cm-diameter) according to geotechnical standards. To expect homogeneous current density, electrical current is transmitted through the sample via chambers filled with agar gel. Agar gel is a good non-polarizable conductor within the frequency range (1 mHz -20kHz). Its electrical properties are slightly known. We measured increasing of agar-agar electrical conductivity in time. We modelled the influence of this variation on the measurement. If the electrodes are located on the sample, it is minimized. Because of the dimensions at stake and the need for simple design, potential electrodes are located outside the sample, hence the gel contributes to the measurements. Since the gel is fairly conductive, we expect to overestimate the sample conductivity. Potential electrodes are non-polarizable Ag/AgCl electrodes. To avoid any leakage, the KCl solution in the electrodes is replaced by saturated KCl-agar gel. These electrodes are low cost and show a low, stable, self-potential (<1mV). In addition, the technique of making electrode can be easily reproduced and storage and maintenance are simple

  6. Implementation of a Light Source in a TEM Sample Holder for In-situ Studies of Photocatalytic Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalca, Filippo; Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    can be used inside an environmental TEM (ETEM) allowing specimens to be analyzed during exposure to a controlled gas atmosphere and illumination. The holder is presently being used to study a variety of photoreactive materials and structures, including photocatalysts, photonic devices and solar cells....... For example, electron holography is being used to study p-n junctions both in the presence and in the absence of light in order to assess electron beam induced charging and discharging effects during laser light exposure [3]. Here, we present results from ETEM studies of light-induced phenomena that include...

  7. Studies and developments for the analysis of products of nuclear reprocessing plants with the help of the X-ray fluorescence analysis on totally reflecting sample holders (TXRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diercks, H.; Eggers, I.; Gibau, F.; Haarich, M.; Hastenteufel, S.; Haurand, M.; Knoechel, A.; Salow, H.

    1990-01-01

    Studies with inactive and active simulates of products of nuclear reprocessing plants show the suitability of the X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis on Totally Reflecting Sample Holders (TXRF), to detect the available elements simultaneously by direct measurements of specially prepared thin samples. High dilution enables in the most cases, to avoid working in hot cells and to carry out the analysis in glove boxes. The analysis of uranium products and great amounts of matrix elements containing solutions like LAW and MAW demands the separation of the matrix elements before TXRF measurement. Procedures for this task have been developed. The potential of the new analytical procedure was demonstrated by the analysis of two samples of highly diluted high active wastes. (orig.) With 65 refs., 20 tabs., 81 figs [de

  8. A ‘smart’ tube holder enables real-time sample monitoring in a standard lab centrifuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Tony; Moskwa, Nicholas

    2018-01-01

    The centrifuge is among the oldest and most widely used pieces of laboratory equipment, with significant applications that include clinical diagnostics and biomedical research. A major limitation of laboratory centrifuges is their “black box” nature, limiting sample observation to before and after centrifugation. Thus, optimized protocols require significant trial and error, while unoptimized protocols waste time by centrifuging longer than necessary or material due to incomplete sedimentation. Here, we developed an instrumented centrifuge tube receptacle compatible with several commercial benchtop centrifuges that can provide real-time sample analysis during centrifugation. We demonstrated the system by monitoring cell separations during centrifugation for different spin speeds, concentrations, buffers, cell types, and temperatures. We show that the collected data are valuable for analytical purposes (e.g. quality control), or as feedback to the user or the instrument. For the latter, we verified an adaptation where complete sedimentation turned off the centrifuge and notified the user by a text message. Our system adds new functionality to existing laboratory centrifuges, saving users time and providing useful feedback. This add-on potentially enables new analytical applications for an instrument that has remained largely unchanged for decades. PMID:29659624

  9. Use of a holder-vacuum tube device to save on-site hands in preparing urine samples for head-space gas-chromatography, and its application to determine the time allowance for sample sealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Toshio; Sumino, Kimiaki; Ohashi, Fumiko; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    To facilitate urine sample preparation prior to head-space gas-chromatographic (HS-GC) analysis. Urine samples containing one of the five solvents (acetone, methanol, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone and toluene) at the levels of biological exposure limits were aspirated into a vacuum tube via holder, a device commercially available for venous blood collection (the vacuum tube method). The urine sample, 5 ml, was quantitatively transferred to a 20-ml head-space vial prior to HS-GC analysis. The loaded tubes were stored at +4 ℃ in dark for up to 3 d. The vacuum tube method facilitated on-site procedures of urine sample preparation for HS-GC with no significant loss of solvents in the sample and no need of skilled hands, whereas on-site sample preparation time was significantly reduced. Furthermore, no loss of solvents was detected during the 3-d storage, irrespective of hydrophilic (acetone) or lipophilic solvent (toluene). In a pilot application, high performance of the vacuum tube method in sealing a sample in an air-tight space succeeded to confirm that no solvent will be lost when sealing is completed within 5 min after urine voiding, and that the allowance time is as long as 30 min in case of toluene in urine. The use of the holder-vacuum tube device not only saves hands for transfer of the sample to air-tight space, but facilitates sample storage prior to HS-GC analysis.

  10. Preset pivotal tool holder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmanes, Charles

    1979-01-01

    A tool fixture is provided for precise pre-alignment of a radiused edge cutting tool in a tool holder relative to a fixed reference pivot point established on said holder about which the tool holder may be selectively pivoted relative to the fixture base member to change the contact point of the tool cutting edge with a workpiece while maintaining the precise same tool cutting radius relative to the reference pivot point.

  11. ADJUSTABLE CHIP HOLDER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    An adjustable microchip holder for holding a microchip is provided having a plurality of displaceable interconnection pads for connecting the connection holes of a microchip with one or more external devices or equipment. The adjustable microchip holder can fit different sizes of microchips...

  12. Temperature Control Diagnostics for Sample Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santodonato, Louis J.; Walker, Lakeisha M.H.; Church, Andrew J.; Redmon, Christopher Mckenzie

    2010-01-01

    In a scientific laboratory setting, standard equipment such as cryocoolers are often used as part of a custom sample environment system designed to regulate temperature over a wide range. The end user may be more concerned with precise sample temperature control than with base temperature. But cryogenic systems tend to be specified mainly in terms of cooling capacity and base temperature. Technical staff at scientific user facilities (and perhaps elsewhere) often wonder how to best specify and evaluate temperature control capabilities. Here we describe test methods and give results obtained at a user facility that operates a large sample environment inventory. Although this inventory includes a wide variety of temperature, pressure, and magnetic field devices, the present work focuses on cryocooler-based systems.

  13. Construction and application of a double scanning sample holder; Construction et application d'un porte-echantillon a double balladage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit, J; Cabane, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay(France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1954-07-01

    Crystal growth often interferes in the analysis of orientation textures of annealed sheets; in order to achieve the hitting of a great number of grains by the X-ray beam, the sample must be moved in its own plane, the rolling direction remaining parallel to itself. For the study of rolled uranium annealing, one linear scanning was found insufficient; therefore the authors developed a double scanning sample holder allowing the survey of a surface up to 6 or 8 cm{sup 2}. Thus, for recrystallized samples with a grain diameter up to 1 mm, continuous diffraction lines can be obtained. The first diagrams confirm the dilatometric results relating to the texture changes due to {alpha} annealing hard-rolled sheets or to the {alpha}-{beta} allotropic transformation. (author) [French] L'analyse des textures d'orientation des toles apres recuit est souvent genee par le grossissement des cristaux; pour que le faisceau de rayons X frappe toujours un grand nombre de cristaux, on est alors conduit a deplacer l'echantillon dans son plan, la direction de laminage restant parallele a elle eme. Dans l'etude du recuit de l'uranium lamine, un balladage lineaire est insuffisant; c'est pourquoi on a realise un porte chantillon a double balladage permettant l'exploration d'une surface de 6 a 8 cm{sup 2}; on obtient ainsi des anneaux de diffraction continus avec des echantillons recristallises a grains de diametre inferieur ou egal a 1 mm. Les premiers cliches effectues avec cet appareil ont confirme les resultats dilatometriques concernant le changement de texture par recuit en phase {alpha} des toles laminees a fort taux d'ecrouissage, ainsi que le changement de texture au passage de la transformation allotropique {alpha}-{beta}. (auteur)

  14. Critical current measurements of high-temperature superconducting short samples at a wide range of temperatures and magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongjun; Liu, Huajun; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Huahui; Ci, Lu; Shi, Yi; Lei, Lei

    2018-01-01

    High-Temperature Superconductors (HTS) are potential materials for high-field magnets, low-loss transmission cables, and Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) due to their high upper critical magnetic field (Hc2) and critical temperature (Tc). The critical current (Ic) of HTS, which is one of the most important parameters for superconductor application, depends strongly on the magnetic fields and temperatures. A new Ic measurement system that can carry out accurate Ic measurement for HTS short samples with various temperatures (4.2-80 K), magnetic fields (0-14 T), and angles of the magnetic field (0°-90°) has been developed. The Ic measurement system mainly consists of a measurement holder, temperature-control system, background magnet, test cryostat, data acquisition system, and DC power supply. The accuracy of temperature control is better than ±0.1 K over the 20-80 K range and ±0.05 K when measured below 20 K. The maximum current is over 1000 A with a measurement uncertainty of 1%. The system had been successfully used for YBa2Cu3O7-x(YBCO) tapes Ic determination with different temperatures and magnetic fields.

  15. Critical current measurements of high-temperature superconducting short samples at a wide range of temperatures and magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongjun; Liu, Huajun; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Huahui; Ci, Lu; Shi, Yi; Lei, Lei

    2018-01-01

    High-Temperature Superconductors (HTS) are potential materials for high-field magnets, low-loss transmission cables, and Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) due to their high upper critical magnetic field (H c2 ) and critical temperature (T c ). The critical current (I c ) of HTS, which is one of the most important parameters for superconductor application, depends strongly on the magnetic fields and temperatures. A new I c measurement system that can carry out accurate I c measurement for HTS short samples with various temperatures (4.2-80 K), magnetic fields (0-14 T), and angles of the magnetic field (0°-90°) has been developed. The I c measurement system mainly consists of a measurement holder, temperature-control system, background magnet, test cryostat, data acquisition system, and DC power supply. The accuracy of temperature control is better than ±0.1 K over the 20-80 K range and ±0.05 K when measured below 20 K. The maximum current is over 1000 A with a measurement uncertainty of 1%. The system had been successfully used for YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO) tapes I c determination with different temperatures and magnetic fields.

  16. Low conductive support for thermal insulation of a sample holder of a variable temperature scanning tunneling microscope

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanzelka, Pavel; Vonka, J.; Musilová, Věra

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 8 (2013), 085103:1-6 ISSN 0034-6748 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA TA ČR TE01020233 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Thermal conductiviy * Scanning tunneling microscope Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.584, year: 2013

  17. Improvements in appliance holders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to appliance holders for locating tools, instruments, etc. in operative relationship to workpieces and accessible through passageways of restricted transverse dimensions. The appliance holder described comprises an elongated external frame provided with transversely, outwardly expanding frictional gripping means in two longitudinally spaced sets and with a ring of spur teeth. An inner elongated frame is held within the external frame in two longitudinally spaced rotary bearings and carries a spur wheel which engages the ring of the spur teeth. A motor is arranged to rotate the spur wheel and hence the inner frame in relation to the external frame. A carriage is carried by the inner frame, longitudinally movable by a motor in relation thereto, and a further carriage is mounted on this first carriage. This second cariage is transversely movable in relation to the inner frame and is provided with a face plate for attachment of tools, instruments, etc. A motor is mounted on the first carriage for moving the second carriage. (U.K.)

  18. Sample mounting and transfer for coupling an ultrahigh vacuum variable temperature beetle scanning tunneling microscope with conventional surface probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nafisi, Kourosh; Ranau, Werner; Hemminger, John C.

    2001-01-01

    We present a new ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) chamber for surface analysis and microscopy at controlled, variable temperatures. The new instrument allows surface analysis with Auger electron spectroscopy, low energy electron diffraction, quadrupole mass spectrometer, argon ion sputtering gun, and a variable temperature scanning tunneling microscope (VT-STM). In this system, we introduce a novel procedure for transferring a sample off a conventional UHV manipulator and onto a scanning tunneling microscope in the conventional ''beetle'' geometry, without disconnecting the heating or thermocouple wires. The microscope, a modified version of the Besocke beetle microscope, is mounted on a 2.75 in. outer diameter UHV flange and is directly attached to the base of the chamber. The sample is attached to a tripod sample holder that is held by the main manipulator. Under UHV conditions the tripod sample holder can be removed from the main manipulator and placed onto the STM. The VT-STM has the capability of acquiring images between the temperature range of 180--500 K. The performance of the chamber is demonstrated here by producing an ordered array of island vacancy defects on a Pt(111) surface and obtaining STM images of these defects

  19. A cylindrical specimen holder for electron cryo-tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, Colin M.; Löwe, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The use of slab-like flat specimens for electron cryo-tomography restricts the range of viewing angles that can be used. This leads to the “missing wedge” problem, which causes artefacts and anisotropic resolution in reconstructed tomograms. Cylindrical specimens provide a way to eliminate the problem, since they allow imaging from a full range of viewing angles around the tilt axis. Such specimens have been used before for tomography of radiation-insensitive samples at room temperature, but never for frozen-hydrated specimens. Here, we demonstrate the use of thin-walled carbon tubes as specimen holders, allowing the preparation of cylindrical frozen-hydrated samples of ribosomes, liposomes and whole bacterial cells. Images acquired from these cylinders have equal quality at all viewing angles, and the accessible tilt range is restricted only by the physical limits of the microscope. Tomographic reconstructions of these specimens demonstrate that the effects of the missing wedge are substantially reduced, and could be completely eliminated if a full tilt range was used. The overall quality of these tomograms is still lower than that obtained by existing methods, but improvements are likely in future. - Highlights: • The missing wedge is a serious problem for electron cryo-tomography. • Cylindrical specimens allow the missing wedge to be eliminated. • Carbon nanopipettes can be used as cylindrical holders for tomography of frozen-hydrated specimens. • Cryo-tomography of cylindrical biological samples demonstrates a reduction of deleterious effects associated with the missing wedge

  20. Acceptance Testing of Thermoluminescent Dosimeter Holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanyukha, Alexander; Grypp, Matthew D; Sharp, Thad J; DiRito, John N; Nelson, Martin E; Mavrogianis, Stanley T; Torres, Jeancarlo; Benevides, Luis A

    2018-05-01

    The U.S. Navy uses the Harshaw 8840/8841 dosimetric (DT-702/PD) system, which employs LiF:Mg,Cu,P thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), developed and produced by Thermo Fisher Scientific (TFS). The dosimeter consists of four LiF:Mg,Cu,P elements, mounted in Teflon® on an aluminum card and placed in a plastic holder. The holder contains a unique filter for each chip made of copper, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), Mylar®, and tin. For accredited dosimetry labs, the ISO/IEC 17025:2005(E) requires an acceptance procedure for all new equipment. The Naval Dosimetry Center (NDC) has developed and tested a new non-destructive procedure, which enables the verification and the evaluation of embedded filters in the holders. Testing is based on attenuation measurements of low-energy radiation transmitted through each filter in a representative sample group of holders to verify that the correct filter type and thickness are present. The measured response ratios are then compared with the expected response ratios. In addition, each element's measured response is compared to the mean response of the group. The test was designed and tested to identify significant nonconformities, such as missing copper or tin filters, double copper or double tin filters, or other nonconformities that may impact TLD response ratios. During the implementation of the developed procedure, testing revealed a holder with a double copper filter. To complete the evaluation, the impact of the nonconformities on proficiency testing was examined. The evaluation revealed failures in proficiency testing categories III and IV when these dosimeters were irradiated to high-energy betas.

  1. Freeze Protection in Gas Holders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Duursma, Gail

    In cold weather, the water seals of gasholders need protection from freez- ing to avoid compromising the seal. These holders have a large reservoir of “tank water” at the base which is below ground. At present freeze- protection is achieved by external heating of the seal water which...

  2. Test plan for core sampling drill bit temperature monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    At WHC, one of the functions of the Tank Waste Remediation System division is sampling waste tanks to characterize their contents. The push-mode core sampling truck is currently used to take samples of liquid and sludge. Sampling of tanks containing hard salt cake is to be performed with the rotary-mode core sampling system, consisting of the core sample truck, mobile exhauster unit, and ancillary subsystems. When drilling through the salt cake material, friction and heat can be generated in the drill bit. Based upon tank safety reviews, it has been determined that the drill bit temperature must not exceed 180 C, due to the potential reactivity of tank contents at this temperature. Consequently, a drill bit temperature limit of 150 C was established for operation of the core sample truck to have an adequate margin of safety. Unpredictable factors, such as localized heating, cause this buffer to be so great. The most desirable safeguard against exceeding this threshold is bit temperature monitoring . This document describes the recommended plan for testing the prototype of a drill bit temperature monitor developed for core sampling by Sandia National Labs. The device will be tested at their facilities. This test plan documents the tests that Westinghouse Hanford Company considers necessary for effective testing of the system

  3. Calibration of tip and sample temperature of a scanning tunneling microscope using a superconductive sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stocker, Matthias; Pfeifer, Holger; Koslowski, Berndt, E-mail: berndt.koslowski@uni-ulm.de [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Ulm, D-89069 Ulm (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    The temperature of the electrodes is a crucial parameter in virtually all tunneling experiments. The temperature not only controls the thermodynamic state of the electrodes but also causes thermal broadening, which limits the energy resolution. Unfortunately, the construction of many scanning tunneling microscopes inherits a weak thermal link between tip and sample in order to make one side movable. Such, the temperature of that electrode is badly defined. Here, the authors present a procedure to calibrate the tip temperature by very simple means. The authors use a superconducting sample (Nb) and a standard tip made from W. Due to the asymmetry in the density of states of the superconductor (SC)—normal metal (NM) tunneling junction, the SC temperature controls predominantly the density of states while the NM controls the thermal smearing. By numerically simulating the I-V curves and numerically optimizing the tip temperature and the SC gap width, the tip temperature can be accurately deduced if the sample temperature is known or measureable. In our case, the temperature dependence of the SC gap may serve as a temperature sensor, leading to an accurate NM temperature even if the SC temperature is unknown.

  4. Calibration of tip and sample temperature of a scanning tunneling microscope using a superconductive sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocker, Matthias; Pfeifer, Holger; Koslowski, Berndt

    2014-01-01

    The temperature of the electrodes is a crucial parameter in virtually all tunneling experiments. The temperature not only controls the thermodynamic state of the electrodes but also causes thermal broadening, which limits the energy resolution. Unfortunately, the construction of many scanning tunneling microscopes inherits a weak thermal link between tip and sample in order to make one side movable. Such, the temperature of that electrode is badly defined. Here, the authors present a procedure to calibrate the tip temperature by very simple means. The authors use a superconducting sample (Nb) and a standard tip made from W. Due to the asymmetry in the density of states of the superconductor (SC)—normal metal (NM) tunneling junction, the SC temperature controls predominantly the density of states while the NM controls the thermal smearing. By numerically simulating the I-V curves and numerically optimizing the tip temperature and the SC gap width, the tip temperature can be accurately deduced if the sample temperature is known or measureable. In our case, the temperature dependence of the SC gap may serve as a temperature sensor, leading to an accurate NM temperature even if the SC temperature is unknown

  5. Estimation of river and stream temperature trends under haphazard sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Brian R.; Lyubchich, Vyacheslav; Gel, Yulia R.; Rogala, James T.; Robertson, Dale M.; Wei, Xiaoqiao

    2015-01-01

    Long-term temporal trends in water temperature in rivers and streams are typically estimated under the assumption of evenly-spaced space-time measurements. However, sampling times and dates associated with historical water temperature datasets and some sampling designs may be haphazard. As a result, trends in temperature may be confounded with trends in time or space of sampling which, in turn, may yield biased trend estimators and thus unreliable conclusions. We address this concern using multilevel (hierarchical) linear models, where time effects are allowed to vary randomly by day and date effects by year. We evaluate the proposed approach by Monte Carlo simulations with imbalance, sparse data and confounding by trend in time and date of sampling. Simulation results indicate unbiased trend estimators while results from a case study of temperature data from the Illinois River, USA conform to river thermal assumptions. We also propose a new nonparametric bootstrap inference on multilevel models that allows for a relatively flexible and distribution-free quantification of uncertainties. The proposed multilevel modeling approach may be elaborated to accommodate nonlinearities within days and years when sampling times or dates typically span temperature extremes.

  6. An X-ray diffractometer specimen holder for use with reactive and toxic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huyton, A.; Munden, A.B.

    1979-04-01

    An X-ray diffractometer specimen holder has been designed for analysis of reactive sodium compounds which will satisfactorily seal the sample from the atmosphere. The holder can be readily filled in a glove-box and is easily transported for mounting on a vertical Philips PW 1051 X-ray diffractometer. It is considered that this holder could also be applied to a wide range of other reactive and toxic materials, e.g. plutonium or its compounds. (author)

  7. Vibronic Boson Sampling: Generalized Gaussian Boson Sampling for Molecular Vibronic Spectra at Finite Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Joonsuk; Yung, Man-Hong

    2017-08-07

    Molecular vibroic spectroscopy, where the transitions involve non-trivial Bosonic correlation due to the Duschinsky Rotation, is strongly believed to be in a similar complexity class as Boson Sampling. At finite temperature, the problem is represented as a Boson Sampling experiment with correlated Gaussian input states. This molecular problem with temperature effect is intimately related to the various versions of Boson Sampling sharing the similar computational complexity. Here we provide a full description to this relation in the context of Gaussian Boson Sampling. We find a hierarchical structure, which illustrates the relationship among various Boson Sampling schemes. Specifically, we show that every instance of Gaussian Boson Sampling with an initial correlation can be simulated by an instance of Gaussian Boson Sampling without initial correlation, with only a polynomial overhead. Since every Gaussian state is associated with a thermal state, our result implies that every sampling problem in molecular vibronic transitions, at any temperature, can be simulated by Gaussian Boson Sampling associated with a product of vacuum modes. We refer such a generalized Gaussian Boson Sampling motivated by the molecular sampling problem as Vibronic Boson Sampling.

  8. The effects of spatial sampling choices on MR temperature measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Nick; Vyas, Urvi; de Bever, Josh; Payne, Allison; Parker, Dennis L

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to quantify the effects that spatial sampling parameters have on the accuracy of magnetic resonance temperature measurements during high intensity focused ultrasound treatments. Spatial resolution and position of the sampling grid were considered using experimental and simulated data for two different types of high intensity focused ultrasound heating trajectories (a single point and a 4-mm circle) with maximum measured temperature and thermal dose volume as the metrics. It is demonstrated that measurement accuracy is related to the curvature of the temperature distribution, where regions with larger spatial second derivatives require higher resolution. The location of the sampling grid relative temperature distribution has a significant effect on the measured values. When imaging at 1.0 × 1.0 × 3.0 mm(3) resolution, the measured values for maximum temperature and volume dosed to 240 cumulative equivalent minutes (CEM) or greater varied by 17% and 33%, respectively, for the single-point heating case, and by 5% and 18%, respectively, for the 4-mm circle heating case. Accurate measurement of the maximum temperature required imaging at 1.0 × 1.0 × 3.0 mm(3) resolution for the single-point heating case and 2.0 × 2.0 × 5.0 mm(3) resolution for the 4-mm circle heating case. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Device for high-temperature X-ray diffraction analysis. Ustrojstvo dlya vysokotemperaturnogo rentgenostrukturnogo analiza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epifanov, V G; Zavilinskij, A V; Pet' kov, V V; Polenur, A V

    1975-01-07

    Device for high-temperature X-ray diffraction analysis, containing a vacuum chamber with a window for X-ray transit, in which sample- and standard-holders, heater, thermal shields and means for standard and sample temperature measurement are located, is proposed. In order to increase the working temperature level and the structural change detection accuracy the heater is located between the sample- and standard-holders. The standard-holder is linked with the mechanism of control of its position in relation to the heater. The device is intended for investigating phase transformations by differential thermal analysis method with the simultaneous diffraction pattern detection using X-ray diffractometry method.

  10. High-temperature ultrasonic measurements applied to directly heated samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, R.I.; Taylor, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    High-temperature ultrasonic measurements of Young's modulus were made of graphite samples heated directly. The samples were cylindrical rods of the same geometry as that used in the multiproperty apparatus for simultaneous/consecutive measurements of a number of thermophysical properties to high temperatures. The samples were resonated in simple longitudinal vibration modes. Measurements were performed up to 2000 K. Incorporation of ultrasonic measurements of Young's modulus in the capabilities of the multiproperty apparatus is valuable because (i) ultrasonic measurements can be related to normal destructive measurements of this property; (ii) they can be used for screening materials or acceptance testing of specimens; (iii) they can be used to increase the understanding of thermophysical properties and property correlations. (author)

  11. Dual-temperature acoustic levitation and sample transport apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, E.; Robey, J.; Jacobi, N.; Wang, T.

    1986-01-01

    The properties of a dual-temperature resonant chamber to be used for acoustical levitation and positioning have been theoretically and experimentally studied. The predictions of a first-order dissipationless treatment of the generalized wave equation for an inhomogeneous medium are in close agreement with experimental results for the temperature dependence of the resonant mode spectrum and the acoustic pressure distribution, although the measured magnitude of the pressure variations does not correlate well with the calculated one. Ground-based levitation of low-density samples has been demonstrated at 800 C, where steady-state forces up to 700 dyn were generated.

  12. National Recordal System IK holder catalogue process

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available good, based on IK.? Subsequently, the South African Department of Science and Technology (DST) created a National Indigenous Knowledge Systems Office (NIKSO) that is taking the lead on interfacing IKS with other recognised knowledge holders... is to illustrate the South African National Recordal Systems (NRS) process whereby Indigenous Knowledge (IK) holder?s information is captured in a registry, as specified in South Africa?s Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS) Policy, through an IK cataloguing...

  13. Diffeomorphisms Holder conjugate to Anosov diffeomorphisms

    OpenAIRE

    Gogolev, Andrey

    2008-01-01

    We show by means of a counterexample that a $C^{1+Lip}$ diffeomorphism Holder conjugate to an Anosov diffeomorphism is not necessarily Anosov. The counterexample can bear higher smoothness up to $C^3$. Also we include a result from the 2006 Ph.D. thesis of T. Fisher: a $C^{1+Lip}$ diffeomorphism Holder conjugate to an Anosov diffeomorphism is Anosov itself provided that Holder exponents of the conjugacy and its inverse are sufficiently large.

  14. An integrate-over-temperature approach for enhanced sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yi Qin

    2008-02-14

    A simple method is introduced to achieve efficient random walking in the energy space in molecular dynamics simulations which thus enhances the sampling over a large energy range. The approach is closely related to multicanonical and replica exchange simulation methods in that it allows configurations of the system to be sampled in a wide energy range by making use of Boltzmann distribution functions at multiple temperatures. A biased potential is quickly generated using this method and is then used in accelerated molecular dynamics simulations.

  15. A low temperature scanning force microscope for biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Mats Gustaf Lennart [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-05-01

    An SFM has been constructed capable of operating at 143 K. Two contributions to SFM technology are described: a new method of fabricating tips, and new designs of SFM springs that significantly lower the noise level. The SFM has been used to image several biological samples (including collagen, ferritin, RNA, purple membrane) at 143 K and room temperature. No improvement in resolution resulted from 143 K operation; several possible reasons for this are discussed. Possibly sharper tips may help. The 143 K SFM will allow the study of new categories of samples, such as those prepared by freeze-frame, single molecules (temperature dependence of mechanical properties), etc. The SFM was used to cut single collagen molecules into segments with a precision of {le} 10 nm.

  16. Investigation of a flame holder geometry effect on flame structure in non-premixed combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemi, S. A.; Hajialigol, N.; Fattahi, A.; Heydari, R.; Mazaheri, K.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the effect of flame holder geometry on flame structure is studied. The obtained numerical results using realizable k-ε and β-PDF models show a good agreement with experimental data. The results show that increasing in flame holder length decreases flame length and increases flame temperature. Additionally, it is observed that flame lengths decrease by increasing in flame holder radius and increase for larger radii. Furthermore in various radii, the flame temperature is higher for smaller flame lengths. It was found that behavior of flame structure is mainly affected by the mass flow rate of hot gases that come near the reactant by the recirculation zone.

  17. Investigation of a flame holder geometry effect on flame structure in non-premixed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashemi, S. A.; Hajialigol, N.; Fattahi, A.; Heydari, R. [University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mazaheri, K. [University of Tarbiat Moddares, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    In this paper the effect of flame holder geometry on flame structure is studied. The obtained numerical results using realizable k-ε and β-PDF models show a good agreement with experimental data. The results show that increasing in flame holder length decreases flame length and increases flame temperature. Additionally, it is observed that flame lengths decrease by increasing in flame holder radius and increase for larger radii. Furthermore in various radii, the flame temperature is higher for smaller flame lengths. It was found that behavior of flame structure is mainly affected by the mass flow rate of hot gases that come near the reactant by the recirculation zone.

  18. A MEMS-based heating holder for the direct imaging of simultaneous in-situ heating and biasing experiments in scanning/transmission electron microscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, Luigi; Konings, Stan; Dona, Pleun; Evertz, Francis; Mitterbauer, Christoph; Faber, Pybe; Schampers, Ruud; Jinschek, Joerg R

    2016-04-01

    The introduction of scanning/transmission electron microscopes (S/TEM) with sub-Angstrom resolution as well as fast and sensitive detection solutions support direct observation of dynamic phenomena in-situ at the atomic scale. Thereby, in-situ specimen holders play a crucial role: accurate control of the applied in-situ stimulus on the nanostructure combined with the overall system stability to assure atomic resolution are paramount for a successful in-situ S/TEM experiment. For those reasons, MEMS-based TEM sample holders are becoming one of the preferred choices, also enabling a high precision in measurements of the in-situ parameter for more reproducible data. A newly developed MEMS-based microheater is presented in combination with the new NanoEx™-i/v TEM sample holder. The concept is built on a four-point probe temperature measurement approach allowing active, accurate local temperature control as well as calorimetry. In this paper, it is shown that it provides high temperature stability up to 1,300°C with a peak temperature of 1,500°C (also working accurately in gaseous environments), high temperature measurement accuracy (in-situ S/TEM imaging experiments, but also elemental mapping at elevated temperatures using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Moreover, it has the unique capability to enable simultaneous heating and biasing experiments. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Transient-Absorption Spectroscopy of Cis-Trans Isomerization of N,N-dimethyl-4,4'-Azodianiline with 3D-Printed Temperature-Controlled Sample Holder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosenkov, Dmytro; Shaw, James; Zuczek, Jennifer; Kholod, Yana

    2016-01-01

    The laboratory unit demonstrates a project based approach to teaching physical chemistry laboratory where upper-division undergraduates carry out a transient-absorption experiment investigating the kinetics of cis-trans isomerization of N,N-dimethyl-4,4'-azodianiline. Students participate in modification of a standard flash-photolysis spectrometer…

  20. Recent validation tests of the Edelweiss II detector holders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwamm, F.; Chapellier, M.; Herve, S.; Karolak, M.; Navick, X.-F.

    2006-01-01

    A very good understanding of noise sources is highly important for the sensitivity of a dark matter search experiment. One of these noise contributions in the Edelweiss experiment could be the microphonics and temperature variations caused by vibrations of the cryostat. Recent studies complement an earlier work in describing the effect of the Edelweiss II detector holders on the amplitude of the vibrations seen by the detector. The results of these studies will be presented in this article

  1. Monte Carlo Sampling of Negative-temperature Plasma States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John A. Krommes; Sharadini Rath

    2002-01-01

    A Monte Carlo procedure is used to generate N-particle configurations compatible with two-temperature canonical equilibria in two dimensions, with particular attention to nonlinear plasma gyrokinetics. An unusual feature of the problem is the importance of a nontrivial probability density function R0(PHI), the probability of realizing a set Φ of Fourier amplitudes associated with an ensemble of uniformly distributed, independent particles. This quantity arises because the equilibrium distribution is specified in terms of Φ, whereas the sampling procedure naturally produces particles states gamma; Φ and gamma are related via a gyrokinetic Poisson equation, highly nonlinear in its dependence on gamma. Expansion and asymptotic methods are used to calculate R0(PHI) analytically; excellent agreement is found between the large-N asymptotic result and a direct numerical calculation. The algorithm is tested by successfully generating a variety of states of both positive and negative temperature, including ones in which either the longest- or shortest-wavelength modes are excited to relatively very large amplitudes

  2. 19 CFR 10.7 - Substantial containers or holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial containers or holders. 10.7 Section 10... Exported and Returned § 10.7 Substantial containers or holders. (a) Substantial containers or holders... domestic products exported and returned. When such containers or holders are imported not containing or...

  3. Recovery of an initial temperature from discrete sampling

    KAUST Repository

    DeVore, Ronald; Zuazua, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    The problem of recovering the initial temperature of a body from discrete temperature measurements made at later times is studied. While this problem has a general formulation, the results of this paper are only given in the simplest setting of a

  4. A triple axes multiple target holder assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribedi, L.C.; Narvekar, S.D.; Pillay, R.G.; Tandon, P.N.

    1993-01-01

    We have designed and fabricated a rotatable target holder assembly capable of accommodating 27 targets. The target foils are mounted along two concentric circles on a ss wheel. On the outer circle 18 targets can be mounted each 20deg apart, and on the inner circle the remaining targets are positioned each 40deg apart. The self supporting or carbon backed targets are mounted on thin frames and are placed concentrically at the targets are mounted on thin frames and are placed concentrically at the target position on the wheel. Three degrees of freedom are provided to the target holder assembly. (author). 1 fig

  5. The effectiveness of an endotracheal tube holder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Gun Lim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The security of the endotracheal tube (ETT is important in the anesthesia and intensive care settings. Recently, an ETT holder instead of an adhesive tape is frequently used to provide the fixation of the ETT. There are some studies that focused on the effectiveness of the ETT holder in preventing displacement of ETT compared to an adhesive tape (1, 2. I have experienced the use of an ETT holder (E-holder, KS medical, Bucheon, Korea in many different anesthesia settings and recognized its usefulness and convenience other than ETT security in the following specific settings.  Firstly, the ETT holder is definitely effective for patients undergoing procedures that frequently require the adjustment of ETT (or double lumen tube location including thoracic surgery. The location of double lumen tube needed for lung separation can be modified for effective ventilation during anesthetic induction or surgery, and after position changes. The tube can be easily relocated to the proper place for lung separation and effective ventilation by unlocking/relocking the button of the ETT holder under flexible bronchoscopic guidance (Fig. 1A, which can facilitate the operative procedure to be performed easily and quickly. Secondly, the ETT holder can be useful in procedures requiring the prone position (3. Especially, it is useful in all circumstances requiring the adjustment of ETT in the prone position. For instance, it is definitely useful for patients with Duchene muscular dystrophy undergoing scoliosis surgery under prone position. Adolescent patients with Duchene muscular dystrophy frequently have tracheobronchial malacia. If so, the airway pressure can be elevated due to the narrowing of the lesion of malacia when changed to the prone position (4. To overcome this problem, a reinforced ETT should be relocated so that it passes the narrowed tracheal lesion under flexible bronchoscopic guidance (Fig. 1B. However, the approach for this management is somewhat

  6. Recovery of an initial temperature from discrete sampling

    KAUST Repository

    DeVore, Ronald

    2014-11-01

    The problem of recovering the initial temperature of a body from discrete temperature measurements made at later times is studied. While this problem has a general formulation, the results of this paper are only given in the simplest setting of a finite (one-dimensional), constant coefficient, linear rod. It is shown that with a judicious placement of a thermometer on this rod, the initial temperature profile of the rod can be completely determined by later time measurements. The paper then studies the number of measurements that are needed to recover the initial profile to a prescribed accuracy and provides an optimal reconstruction algorithm under the assumption that the initial profile is in a Sobolev class. © 2014 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  7. Zaria Universal Oxygenator Holder phase I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday Adoga Edaigbini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The conduct of cardiopulmonary bypass surgery requires the use of equipment and devices like the oxygenator. The oxygenator comes in different makes and each manufacturer customizes the carrier or ′holder′ of this device specific to their design. Aim: This paper presents an innovation designed to overcome the need to purchase a different holder for every oxygenator thereby cutting the cost. Materials and Methods: A sheet of iron measuring 1.9 cm (width × 0.1 cm (thickness was used to design the holder circular main frame. Another sheet measuring 2 cm (width × 0.6 cm (thickness × 24 cm (length was used to construct a V-shaped handle with the arms of the V attached to the main frame 7 cm apart. At the narrow base of the handle is a latch requiring two 13-gauge screws to attach the holder to the heart-lung machine. Within the circumference of the main frame are four T-shaped side arms which grip the oxygenator; located at 2, 5, 7 and 11 O′clock positions. The stem of the T consist of a 0.6 cm (thickness × 13 cm (length rod drilled through the main frame. The cross of the T consists of variable lengths of the same sheet as the mainframe attached to the stem by a screw mechanism. At the base of the T, is attached a circular handle (4 cm in diameter made of 0.4 cm iron rod. Result: An oxygenator holder which weighs 1.75 kg with a total length of 54 cm (the diameter of the mainframe is 30 cm. Its advantages include (i affordability, (ii materials are locally accessible, (iii versatility (iv reproducibility. The disadvantages include, (i it requires some time to fit, (ii caution is required in fitting the oxygenator to avoid breakage, (iii a spanner is required to lock the latch. Conclusion: The concept of a universal holder is pertinent, especially in resource poor environments to avoid purchasing a new holder whenever the usual oxygenator common to the centre is unavailable. This device is amenable to further modifications to

  8. Lexan Linear Shaped Charge Holder with Magnets and Backing Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maples, Matthew W.; Dutton, Maureen L.; Hacker, Scott C.; Dean, Richard J.; Kidd, Nicholas; Long, Chris; Hicks, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    A method was developed for cutting a fabric structural member in an inflatable module, without damaging the internal structure of the module, using linear shaped charge. Lexan and magnets are used in a charge holder to precisely position the linear shaped charge over the desired cut area. Two types of charge holders have been designed, each with its own backing plate. One holder cuts fabric straps in the vertical configuration, and the other charge holder cuts fabric straps in the horizontal configuration.

  9. Development of a sample environment for neutron diffraction at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Soo; Lee, Chang Hee; Choi, Yong Nam

    2000-06-01

    This report contains the development of low temperature sample environment for the neutron diffraction and its utilization techniques. With this research, a low temperature experimental facility of T=10-300 K was developed. We measured magnetic peak of La 1 .4Sr 1 .6Mn 2 O 7 due to low temperature phase transition successfully by this unit installed at the sample table of HRPD. Therefore, the research capability for various materials under the low temperature was expanded

  10. Harmonising and Matching IPR Holders at IP Australia

    OpenAIRE

    T’Mir D. Julius; Gaétan de Rassenfosse

    2014-01-01

    This document describes the methodology developed by the Melbourne Institute to: (i) harmonise holders of intellectual property rights (IPRs) at IP Australia (applications for patent, designs, trademarks and plant breeder’s rights); (ii) match Australian IPRs holders to the Australian business register; (iii) identify the ultimate owners within Australia; and (iv) identify which holders are small and medium size enterprises.

  11. 38 CFR 36.4341 - Death or insolvency of holder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Death or insolvency of... Death or insolvency of holder. (a) Immediately upon the death of the holder and without the necessity of... applicable in the event of: (1) Insolvency of holder; (2) Initiation of any bankruptcy or reorganization, or...

  12. 21 CFR 882.4460 - Neurosurgical head holder (skull clamp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neurosurgical head holder (skull clamp). 882.4460... holder (skull clamp). (a) Identification. A neurosurgical head holder (skull clamp) is a device used to clamp the patient's skull to hold head and neck in a particular position during surgical procedures. (b...

  13. Variable-temperature sample system for ion implantation at -192 to +5000C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, C.T.

    1978-04-01

    A variable-temperature sample system based on exchange-gas coupling was developed for ion-implantation use. The sample temperature can be controlled from -192 0 C to +500 0 C with rapid cooling. The system also has provisions for focusing and alignment of the ion beam, electron suppression, temperature monitoring, sample current measuring, and cryo-shielding. Design considerations and operating characteristics are discussed. 5 figures

  14. Holder pasteurization affects S100B concentrations in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peila, Chiara; Coscia, Alessandra; Bertino, Enrico; Li Volti, Giovanni; Galvano, Fabio; Visser, Gerard H A; Gazzolo, Diego

    2018-02-01

    Donor milk (DM) represents an important nutrition source for high-risk newborns. Holder pasteurization (HoP) is the most recommended procedure for DM treatment, providing a good compromise between microbiological safety and biological quality. HoP was previously shown to affect DM cytokines, growth factors and hormones levels, whilst no data concerning the possible effects of HoP on neurobiomarkers (NB) are available. Therefore, our study investigated whether the concentration in DM of a well-known NB involved in brain development/damage, namely S100B, changes due to HoP. We conducted a pretest-test study in 11 mothers, whose DM samples were sub-divided into two parts: the first was immediately frozen (-80 °C); the second was pasteurized with Holder method before freezing. S100B DM levels were measured using a commercially available immunoluminometric assay. S100B protein was detected in all milk samples. Results showed significant differences between groups (p pasteurization stresses and the need to develop new storage techniques to preserve the biological quality of human milk.

  15. Bacteriological, biochemical, and immunological modifications in human colostrum after Holder pasteurisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Martos, I; Montilla, A; de Segura, A Gómez; Escuder, D; Bustos, G; Pallás, C; Rodríguez, J M; Corzo, N; Fernández, L

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of Holder pasteurisation of human colostrum on a variety of microbiological, biochemical, and immunological parameters. Colostrum samples from 10 donors, and 8 samples of mature milk used as controls, were heated at 62.5°C for 30 minutes. Bacterial counts and the concentration of furosine, lactose, myoinositol, glucose, lactulose, cytokines, and immunoglobulins were determined before and after the heat treatment. Mean bacterial counts in nonpasteurised colostrum samples oscillated between 2.72 and 4.13 log10 colony-forming units per millilitre in the agar media tested. Holder pasteurisation led to the destruction of the bacteria originally present in the samples. Furosine was detected in all samples before pasteurisation and increased significantly after the heat treatment (from 6.60 to 20.59 mg/100 g protein). Lactulose content was below the detection limit in nonpasteurised colostrum, but it was detected in all samples and quantified in 7 of them (from 10.68 to 38.02 mg/L) after Holder pasteurisation. Lactose, glucose, and myoinositol concentrations did not change after Holder pasteurisation. The concentrations of most cytokines and immunoglobulins were significantly higher in colostrum than in mature milk samples. Immunoglobulin content, both in colostrum and in milk samples, was reduced during pasteurisation, whereas, among cytokines, only macrophage inflammatory protein-1β, interleukin-7, and granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating factor concentrations were affected by this heat treatment. Lactulose and furosine content could be used as heat treatment indicators in colostrum samples. Holder pasteurisation modified the immunological profile of both colostrum and mature milk.

  16. Method and apparatus for transport, introduction, atomization and excitation of emission spectrum for quantitative analysis of high temperature gas sample streams containing vapor and particulates without degradation of sample stream temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckels, David E.; Hass, William J.

    1989-05-30

    A sample transport, sample introduction, and flame excitation system for spectrometric analysis of high temperature gas streams which eliminates degradation of the sample stream by condensation losses.

  17. Glove holder system for containment shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picco, B.

    1993-01-01

    A glove holder for an isolated chamber used e.g. for handling toxic or radioactive materials and made with at least one access port in its wall, equipped with a ring to which the glove is attached, has a sleeve which connects the ring to the glove proper and protects the forarm. The sleeve is in at least two sections, a first corrugated section and a second, supple section which is able to fold inside the first section. ADVANTAGE - Reduced costs and quantity of waste produced by enabling glove proper only to be replaced. (author)

  18. Stability of Cortisol and Cortisone in Human Breast Milk During Holder Pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Voorn, Bibian; de Waard, Marita; Dijkstra, Lisette R; Heijboer, Annemieke C; Rotteveel, Joost; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Finken, Martijn J J

    2017-12-01

    Human donor milk is the feeding of choice for preterm infants, when own mother's milk is not available. Holder pasteurization is necessary to secure the safety of donor milk, although it can affect milk quality by reduction of nutritional and bioactive components. Recently, research has focused on the potential role of breast milk glucocorticoids for infant development. At this moment, it is unknown whether pasteurization affects milk glucocorticoid levels. Therefore, we assessed whether Holder pasteurization, the most frequently used method nowadays, reduces breast milk cortisol and cortisone levels, using breast milk samples from 30 women who delivered at term. We found tight correlations between pre- and postpasteurization levels of cortisol (R = 0.99) and cortisone (R = 0.98), and good agreement in Passing and Bablok regression analysis. In conclusion, cortisol and cortisone in human term breast milk are not significantly affected by Holder pasteurization.

  19. The effectiveness of cooling conditions on temperature of canine EDTA whole blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Karen M; Serrano, Leslie; Sun, Xiaocun; Flatland, Bente

    2016-01-01

    Preanalytic factors such as time and temperature can have significant effects on laboratory test results. For example, ammonium concentration will increase 31% in blood samples stored at room temperature for 30 min before centrifugation. To reduce preanalytic error, blood samples may be placed in precooled tubes and chilled on ice or in ice water baths; however, the effectiveness of these modalities in cooling blood samples has not been formally evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of various cooling modalities on reducing temperature of EDTA whole blood samples. Pooled samples of canine EDTA whole blood were divided into two aliquots. Saline was added to one aliquot to produce a packed cell volume (PCV) of 40% and to the second aliquot to produce a PCV of 20% (simulated anemia). Thirty samples from each aliquot were warmed to 37.7 °C and cooled in 2 ml allotments under one of three conditions: in ice, in ice after transfer to a precooled tube, or in an ice water bath. Temperature of each sample was recorded at one minute intervals for 15 min. Within treatment conditions, sample PCV had no significant effect on cooling. Cooling in ice water was significantly faster than cooling in ice only or transferring the sample to a precooled tube and cooling it on ice. Mean temperature of samples cooled in ice water was significantly lower at 15 min than mean temperatures of those cooled in ice, whether or not the tube was precooled. By 4 min, samples cooled in an ice water bath had reached mean temperatures less than 4 °C (refrigeration temperature), while samples cooled in other conditions remained above 4.0 °C for at least 11 min. For samples with a PCV of 40%, precooling the tube had no significant effect on rate of cooling on ice. For samples with a PCV of 20%, transfer to a precooled tube resulted in a significantly faster rate of cooling than direct placement of the warmed tube onto ice. Canine EDTA whole blood samples cool most

  20. Head-positioning scintillation camera and head holder therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, T.D.

    1976-01-01

    A holder for immobilizing the head of a patient undergoing a vertex brain scan by a Gamma Scintillation Camera is described. The holder has a uniquely designed shape capable of comfortably supporting the head. In addition, this holder can be both adjustably and removably utilized in combination with the scintillation camera so as to enable the brain scan operation to take place while the patient is in the seated position

  1. Simple method for highlighting the temperature distribution into a liquid sample heated by microwave power field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surducan, V.; Surducan, E.; Dadarlat, D.

    2013-01-01

    Microwave induced heating is widely used in medical treatments, scientific and industrial applications. The temperature field inside a microwave heated sample is often inhomogenous, therefore multiple temperature sensors are required for an accurate result. Nowadays, non-contact (Infra Red thermography or microwave radiometry) or direct contact temperature measurement methods (expensive and sophisticated fiber optic temperature sensors transparent to microwave radiation) are mainly used. IR thermography gives only the surface temperature and can not be used for measuring temperature distributions in cross sections of a sample. In this paper we present a very simple experimental method for temperature distribution highlighting inside a cross section of a liquid sample, heated by a microwave radiation through a coaxial applicator. The method proposed is able to offer qualitative information about the heating distribution, using a temperature sensitive liquid crystal sheet. Inhomogeneities as smaller as 1°-2°C produced by the symmetry irregularities of the microwave applicator can be easily detected by visual inspection or by computer assisted color to temperature conversion. Therefore, the microwave applicator is tuned and verified with described method until the temperature inhomogeneities are solved

  2. The effect of simulated flash heating pasteurisation and Holder pasteurisation on human milk oligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Brodie; Coutsoudis, Anna; Autran, Chloe; Amundson Mansen, Kimberly; Israel-Ballard, Kiersten; Bode, Lars

    2017-08-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) have important protective functions in human milk. A low-cost remote pasteurisation temperature-monitoring system has been designed using FoneAstra, a cell phone-based networked sensing system to monitor simulated flash heat pasteurisation. To compare the pasteurisation effect on HMOs of the FoneAstra FH method with the current Sterifeed Holder method used by human milk banks. Donor human milk samples (n = 48) were obtained from a human milk bank and pasteurised using the two pasteurisation methods. HMOs were purified from samples and labelled before separation using high-performance liquid chromatography. Concentrations of total HMOs, sialylated and fucosylated HMOs and individual HMOs using the two pasteurisation methods were compared using repeated-measures ANOVA. The study demonstrated no difference in total concentration of HMOs between the two pasteurisation methods and a small but significant increase in the total concentration of HMOs regardless of pasteurisation methods compared with controls (unpasteurised samples) (pmilk and therefore is a possible alternative for providing safely sterilised human milk for low- and middle-income countries.

  3. Impact of sample saturation on the detected porosity of hardened concrete using low temperature calorimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Min; Johannesson, Björn

    2014-01-01

    The present work studied the impact of sample saturation on the analysis of pore volume and pore size distribution by low temperature (micro-)calorimetry. The theoretical background was examined, which emphasizes that the freezing/melting temperature of water/ice confined in non-fully saturated p...

  4. Specimen loading list for the varying temperature experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qualls, A.L.; Sitterson, R.G.

    1998-01-01

    The varying temperature experiment HFIR-RB-13J has been assembled and inserted in the reactor. Approximately 5300 specimens were cleaned, inspected, matched, and loaded into four specimen holders. A listing of each specimen loaded into the steady temperature holder, its position in the capsule, and the identification of the corresponding specimen loaded into the varying temperature holder is presented in this report

  5. Pre-analytical sample quality: metabolite ratios as an intrinsic marker for prolonged room temperature exposure of serum samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Anton

    Full Text Available Advances in the "omics" field bring about the need for a high number of good quality samples. Many omics studies take advantage of biobanked samples to meet this need. Most of the laboratory errors occur in the pre-analytical phase. Therefore evidence-based standard operating procedures for the pre-analytical phase as well as markers to distinguish between 'good' and 'bad' quality samples taking into account the desired downstream analysis are urgently needed. We studied concentration changes of metabolites in serum samples due to pre-storage handling conditions as well as due to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. We collected fasting serum samples and subjected aliquots to up to four freeze-thaw cycles and to pre-storage handling delays of 12, 24 and 36 hours at room temperature (RT and on wet and dry ice. For each treated aliquot, we quantified 127 metabolites through a targeted metabolomics approach. We found a clear signature of degradation in samples kept at RT. Storage on wet ice led to less pronounced concentration changes. 24 metabolites showed significant concentration changes at RT. In 22 of these, changes were already visible after only 12 hours of storage delay. Especially pronounced were increases in lysophosphatidylcholines and decreases in phosphatidylcholines. We showed that the ratio between the concentrations of these molecule classes could serve as a measure to distinguish between 'good' and 'bad' quality samples in our study. In contrast, we found quite stable metabolite concentrations during up to four freeze-thaw cycles. We concluded that pre-analytical RT handling of serum samples should be strictly avoided and serum samples should always be handled on wet ice or in cooling devices after centrifugation. Moreover, serum samples should be frozen at or below -80°C as soon as possible after centrifugation.

  6. Global analysis of the temperature and flow fields in samples heated in multizone resistance furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Grande, I.; Rivas, D.; de Pablo, V.

    The temperature field in samples heated in multizone resistance furnaces will be analyzed, using a global model where the temperature fields in the sample, the furnace and the insulation are coupled; the input thermal data is the electric power supplied to the heaters. The radiation heat exchange between the sample and the furnace is formulated analytically, taking into account specular reflections at the sample; for the solid sample the reflectance is both diffuse and specular, and for the melt it is mostly specular. This behavior is modeled through the exchange view factors, which depend on whether the sample is solid or liquid, and, therefore, they are not known a priori. The effect of this specular behavior in the temperature field will be analyzed, by comparing with the case of diffuse samples. A parameter of great importance is the thermal conductivity of the insulation material; it will be shown that the temperature field depends strongly on it. A careful characterization of the insulation is therefore necessary, here it will be done with the aid of experimental results, which will also serve to validate the model. The heating process in the floating-zone technique in microgravity conditions will be simulated; parameters like the Marangoni number or the temperature gradient at the melt-crystal interface will be estimated. Application to the case of compound samples (graphite-silicon-graphite) will be made; the temperature distribution in the silicon part will be studied, especially the temperature difference between the two graphite rods that hold the silicon, since it drives the thermocapillary flow in the melt. This flow will be studied, after coupling the previous model with the convective effects. The possibility of suppresing this flow by the controlled vibration of the graphite rods will be also analyzed. Numerical results show that the thermocapillary flow can indeed be counterbalanced quite effectively.

  7. A low-temperature sample orienting device for single crystal spectroscopy at the SNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherline, T E; Solomon, L; Roberts, C K II; Bruce, D; Gaulin, B; Granroth, G E, E-mail: sherlinete@ornl.gov

    2010-11-01

    A low temperature sample orientation device providing three axes of rotation has been successfully built and is in testing for use on several spectrometers at the spallation neutron source (SNS). Sample rotation about the vertical ({omega}) axis of nearly 360 deg. and out of plane tilts ({phi} and v) of from -3.4 deg. to 4.4 deg. and from -2.8 deg. to 3.5 deg., respectively, are possible. An off-the-shelf closed cycle refrigerator (CCR) is mounted on a room temperature sealed rotary flange providing {omega} rotations of the sample. Out-of-plane tilts are made possible by piezoelectric actuated angular positioning devices mounted on the low temperature head of the CCR. Novel encoding devices based on magnetoresistive sensors have been developed to measure the tilt stage angles. This combination facilitates single crystal investigations from room temperature to 3.1 K. Commissioning experiments of the rotating CCR for both powder and single crystal samples have been performed on the ARCS spectrometer at the SNS. For the powder sample this device was used to continuously rotate the sample and thus average out any partial orientation of the powder. The powder rings observed in S(Q) are presented. For the single crystal sample, the rotation was used to probe different regions of momentum transfer (Q-space). Laue patterns obtained from a single crystal sample at two rotation angles are presented.

  8. New tool holder design for cryogenic machining of Ti6Al4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellin, Marco; Sartori, Stefano; Ghiotti, Andrea; Bruschi, Stefania

    2017-10-01

    The renewed demand of increasing the machinability of the Ti6Al4V titanium alloy to produce biomedical and aerospace parts working at high temperature has recently led to the application of low-temperature coolants instead of conventional cutting fluids to increase both the tool life and the machined surface integrity. In particular, the liquid nitrogen directed to the tool rake face has shown a great capability of reducing the temperature at the chip-tool interface, as well as the chemical interaction between the tool coating and the titanium to be machined, therefore limiting the tool crater wear, and improving, at the same time, the chip breakability. Furthermore, the nitrogen is a safe, non-harmful, non-corrosive, odorless, recyclable, non-polluting and abundant gas, characteristics that further qualify it as an environmental friendly coolant to be applied to machining processes. However, the behavior of the system composed by the tool and the tool holder, exposed to the cryogenics temperatures may represent a critical issue in order to obtain components within the required geometrical tolerances. On this basis, the paper aims at presenting the design of an innovative tool holder installed on a CNC lathe, which includes the cryogenic coolant provision system, and which is able to hinder the part possible distortions due to the liquid nitrogen adduction by stabilizing its dimensions through the use of heating cartridges and appropriate sensors to monitor the temperature evolution of the tool holder.

  9. Experimental set-up for electrical resistivity measurements at low temperature in amorphous and crystalline metallic samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriquez Fernandez, J.M.; Lopez Sanchez, R.J.; Gomez-Sal, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    The experimental set-up to measure the thermal variation of the electrical resistivity between 10.5 K and 300 K, has been developed. A four probe A.C. method with a synchronous-detection (lock'in) technique were the idoneous for our proposes. We have designed a new type of pressure sample-holder adopted to the CS-202 type cryostat. The measurements performed on samples already known have allowed us to determine the sensitivity of our experiments, which is Δ ρ/ρ=2x10 -4 . The measurements performed in the new Y 3 Rh 2 Si 2 compound which at 10 K has no magnetic ordering, are also presented. (author)

  10. Report on the Installation and Preparedness of a Protochips Fusion in-situ Heating Holder for TEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmondson, Philip D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This brief report documents the procurement and installation of a Protochips Fusion (formerly Aduro) high-temperature, high stability transmission electron microscopy (TEM) specimen holder that allows for the high spatial resolution characterization of material specimens at high temperature in situ of an electron microscope. This specimen holder was specifically procured for use with The FEI Talos F200X Scanning/Transmission Electron Microscope (STEM) in Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s (ORNL’s) Low Activation Materials Development and Analysis (LAMDA) Laboratory. The Protochips Fusion holder will enable high-resolution structural and chemical analysis of irradiated materials at high temperature, becoming a unique capability worldwide, and would encourage high-quality in situ experiments to be conducted on irradiated materials.

  11. Ebola Virus and Marburg Virus in Human Milk Are Inactivated by Holder Pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton Spence, Erin; Huff, Monica; Shattuck, Karen; Vickers, Amy; Yun, Nadezda; Paessler, Slobodan

    2017-05-01

    Potential donors of human milk are screened for Ebola virus (EBOV) using standard questions, but testing for EBOV and Marburg virus (MARV) is not part of routine serological testing performed by milk banks. Research aim: This study tested the hypothesis that EBOV would be inactivated in donor human milk (DHM) by standard pasteurization techniques (Holder) used in all North American nonprofit milk banks. Milk samples were obtained from a nonprofit milk bank. They were inoculated with EBOV (Zaire strain) and MARV (Angola strain) and processed by standard Holder pasteurization technique. Plaque assays for EBOV and MARV were performed to detect the presence of virus after pasteurization. Neither EBOV nor MARV was detectable by viral plaque assay in DHM or culture media samples, which were pasteurized by the Holder process. EBOV and MARV are safely inactivated in human milk by standard Holder pasteurization technique. Screening for EBOV or MARV beyond questionnaire and self-deferral is not needed to ensure safety of DHM for high-risk infants.

  12. Optically stimulated luminescence emission spectra from feldspars as a function of sample temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duller, G.A.T.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.

    1997-01-01

    samples have been measured at various sample temperatures. A small but consistent shift of the peak emission wavelength to shorter wavelengths at higher temperatures is observed. However, the magnitude of this shift is sufficiently small that it will not affect measurements of the thermal activation...... energy. A systematic difference is observed between the thermal activation energies measured when using different emission wavelengths. In particular, the thermal activation energy of the emission at 400 nm is typically 0.11 eV, while that at 570 nm from the same samples is 0.03-0.05 eV. Several possible...

  13. Structural analysis of 177-FA redesigned surveillance specimen holder tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pryor, C.W.; Thoren, D.E.; Vames, G.J.; Harris, R.J.

    1976-08-01

    Because of in-service operational problems, the surveillance specimen holder tubes described in B and W topical report BAW-10051 have been redesigned. This report describes the new design and structural analysis for normal operation and upset loading conditions. The results of the analysis demonstrate the adequacy of the new surveillance specimen holder tubes for their design life of 40 years

  14. 12 CFR 569.3 - Holders of proxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Holders of proxies. 569.3 Section 569.3 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PROXIES § 569.3 Holders of proxies. No proxy of a mutual savings association with a term greater than eleven months or solicited at...

  15. Effect of temperature on the breakthrough of a charcoal tube during vinyl chloride monomer sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, J; Park, Y J; Kim, C N; Lim, N G; Lee, S H; Song, J S; Won, J U; Talaska, G

    2000-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of temperature on breakthrough of two standard collection media at various concentrations during vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) sampling. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) methods were evaluated. To determine whether breakthrough of VCM would occur at the extremes of exposure and temperature that might be encountered in some workplaces, air samples containing 4 ppm (10.24 mg/m3), 8 ppm (20.45 mg/m3), 16 ppm (40.98 mg/m3), and 32 ppm (81.80 mg/m3) of VCM were collected at temperatures of 4, 22, and 40 degrees C. Five liters of air was sampled at the rate of 0.05 L/min for 100 min using the activated charcoal tube recommended by NIOSH. A second tube was added to the sampling train to collect any VCM that might not have been absorbed in the first tube. To collect VCM air samples by the OSHA method, two carbon molecular sieve tubes were connected serially and 3 L of air was sampled at the rate of 0.05 L/min for 60 min. A gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector and ultra 2 capillary column was used to analyze VCM. Significant breakthrough was found when sampling at higher temperatures with the NIOSH method. No breakthrough was found when samples were collected using the OSHA media at different temperatures and concentrations. Therefore, under hot ambient conditions (>22 degrees C), the possibility of breakthrough should be considered when sampling VCM by the NIOSH method.

  16. Comparison of Single-Point and Continuous Sampling Methods for Estimating Residential Indoor Temperature and Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James D; Magnusson, Brianna M; Eggett, Dennis; Collingwood, Scott C; Bernhardt, Scott A

    2015-01-01

    Residential temperature and humidity are associated with multiple health effects. Studies commonly use single-point measures to estimate indoor temperature and humidity exposures, but there is little evidence to support this sampling strategy. This study evaluated the relationship between single-point and continuous monitoring of air temperature, apparent temperature, relative humidity, and absolute humidity over four exposure intervals (5-min, 30-min, 24-hr, and 12-days) in 9 northern Utah homes, from March-June 2012. Three homes were sampled twice, for a total of 12 observation periods. Continuous data-logged sampling was conducted in homes for 2-3 wks, and simultaneous single-point measures (n = 114) were collected using handheld thermo-hygrometers. Time-centered single-point measures were moderately correlated with short-term (30-min) data logger mean air temperature (r = 0.76, β = 0.74), apparent temperature (r = 0.79, β = 0.79), relative humidity (r = 0.70, β = 0.63), and absolute humidity (r = 0.80, β = 0.80). Data logger 12-day means were also moderately correlated with single-point air temperature (r = 0.64, β = 0.43) and apparent temperature (r = 0.64, β = 0.44), but were weakly correlated with single-point relative humidity (r = 0.53, β = 0.35) and absolute humidity (r = 0.52, β = 0.39). Of the single-point RH measures, 59 (51.8%) deviated more than ±5%, 21 (18.4%) deviated more than ±10%, and 6 (5.3%) deviated more than ±15% from data logger 12-day means. Where continuous indoor monitoring is not feasible, single-point sampling strategies should include multiple measures collected at prescribed time points based on local conditions.

  17. A simple technique for measuring the superconducting critical temperature of small (>= 10 μg) samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, R.F.R.; Meyer, E.; Silveira, M.F. da.

    1983-01-01

    A simple technique for measuring the superconducting critical temperature of small (>=10μg) samples is described. The apparatus is built in the form of a probe, which can be introduced directly into a liquid He storage dewar and permits the determination of the critical temperature, with an imprecision of +- 0.05 K above 4.2 K, in about 10 minutes. (Author) [pt

  18. Influence of endodontic instrument-holder on sterilization efficacy. A pilot in-vitro study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Carrizo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Infection control is crucial in dentistry and various methods have been designed to assure its efficacy. However, little information exists regarding the influence it could have the instrument-holder of endodontic files. The aim of this research was to determine the influence of three instruments-holders on sterilization efficacy of endodontic files. Methods: A pilot in-vitro study. 60 endodontic files were contaminated by biomechanical preparation of extracted molars with periapical abscess, then processed according to the standard washing method. The endodontic files were divided into 3 groups (n=20 and assigned to 3 instrument-holders: Metallic box (MB, surgical gauze (SG and synthetic sponge (SS. Then, the files were packaged and sterilized by autoclaving (134°C/45min. Microbiological culture was performed in thioglycolate solution for each endodontic file (37ºC/5days. Results: The overall sterilization efficacy was 91.7%, 80% for MB, 100% for SS, and 95% for SG, with no statistically significant differences (p=0.06 between the groups. Conclusions: The lack of differences in the efficacy of sterilization may be due to the reduced sample; therefore, a full-size study is necessary to confirm this outcomes. The results of this study discourage the use of the MB as instrument-holder until a full-size study can confirm this data.

  19. Simple DNA extraction of urine samples: Effects of storage temperature and storage time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Huey Hian; Ang, Hwee Chen; Hoe, See Ying; Lim, Mae-Lynn; Tai, Hua Eng; Soh, Richard Choon Hock; Syn, Christopher Kiu-Choong

    2018-06-01

    Urine samples are commonly analysed in cases with suspected illicit drug consumption. In events of alleged sample mishandling, urine sample source identification may be necessary. A simple DNA extraction procedure suitable for STR typing of urine samples was established on the Promega Maxwell ® 16 paramagnetic silica bead platform. A small sample volume of 1.7mL was used. Samples were stored at room temperature, 4°C and -20°C for 100days to investigate the influence of storage temperature and time on extracted DNA quantity and success rate of STR typing. Samples stored at room temperature exhibited a faster decline in DNA yield with time and lower typing success rates as compared to those at 4°C and -20°C. This trend can likely be attributed to DNA degradation. In conclusion, this study presents a quick and effective DNA extraction protocol from a small urine volume stored for up to 100days at 4°C and -20°C. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The effects of storage temperature and duration of blood samples on DNA and RNA qualities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lien-Hung; Lin, Pei-Hsien; Tsai, Kuo-Wang; Wang, Liang-Jen; Huang, Ying-Hsien; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Li, Sung-Chou

    2017-01-01

    DNA and RNA samples from blood are the common examination target for non-invasive physical tests and/or biomedical studies. Since high-quality DNA and RNA samples guarantee the correctness of these tests and/or studies, we investigated the effects of storage temperature and storage duration of whole blood on DNA and RNA qualities. Subjects were enrolled to donate blood samples which were stored for different durations and at different temperatures, followed by the examinations on RNA quality, qPCR, DNA quality and DNA methylation. For RNA, we observed obvious quality decline with storage duration longer than 24 hours. Storage at low temperature does not keep RNA samples from degradation. And, storing whole blood samples in freezer dramatically damage RNA. For DNA, quality decline was not observed even with storage duration for 15 days. However, DNA methylation significantly altered with storage duration longer than three days. Storage duration within 24 hours is critical for collecting high-quality RNA samples for next-generation sequencing (NGS) assays (RIN≧8). If microarray assays are expected (RIN≧7), storage duration within 32 hours is acceptable. Although DNA is resistant within 15 days when kept in whole blood, DNA quantity dramatically decreases owing to WBC lysis. In addition, duration for more than three days significantly alter DNA methylation status, globally and locally. Our result provides a reference for dealing with blood samples.

  1. Temperature influence on the fast pyrolysis of manure samples: char, bio-oil and gases production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Lopez, Maria; Anastasakis, Kostas; De Jong, Wiebren; Valverde, Jose Luis; Sanchez-Silva, Luz

    2017-11-01

    Fast pyrolysis characterization of three dry manure samples was studied using a pyrolyzer. A heating rate of 600°C/s and a holding time of 10 s were selected to reproduce industrial conditions. The effect of the peak pyrolysis temperature (600, 800 and 1000°C) on the pyrolysis product yield and composition was evaluated. Char and bio-oil were gravimetrically quantified. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyse the char structure. H2, CH4, CO and CO2 were measured by means of gas chromatography (GC). A decrease in the char yield and an increase of the gas yield were observed when temperature increased. From 800°C on, it was observed that the char yield of samples Dig R and SW were constant, which indicated that the primary devolatilization reactions stopped. This fact was also corroborated by GC analysis. The bio-oil yield slightly increased with temperature, showing a maximum of 20.7 and 27.8 wt.% for samples Pre and SW, respectively, whereas sample Dig R showed a maximum yield of 16.5 wt.% at 800°C. CO2 and CO were the main released gases whereas H2 and CH4 production increased with temperature. Finally, an increase of char porosity was observed with temperature.

  2. Testing of a Microfluidic Sampling System for High Temperature Electrochemical MC&A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Candido [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Nichols, Kevin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-11-27

    This report describes the preliminary validation of a high-temperature microfluidic chip system for sampling of electrochemical process salt. Electroanalytical and spectroscopic techniques are attractive candidates for improvement through high-throughput sample analysis via miniaturization. Further, microfluidic chip systems are amenable to micro-scale chemical processing such as rapid, automated sample purification to improve sensor performance. The microfluidic chip was tested to determine the feasibility of the system for high temperature applications and conditions under which microfluidic systems can be used to generate salt droplets at process temperature to support development of material balance and control systems in a used fuel treatment facility. In FY13, the project focused on testing a quartz microchip device with molten salts at near process temperatures. The equipment was installed in glove box and tested up to 400°C using commercial thermal transfer fluids as the carrier phase. Preliminary tests were carried out with a low-melting halide salt to initially characterize the properties of this novel liquid-liquid system and to investigate the operating regimes for inducing droplet flow within candidate carrier fluids. Initial results show that the concept is viable for high temperature sampling but further development is required to optimize the system to operate with process relevant molten salts.

  3. Temperature influence on the fast pyrolysis of manure samples: char, bio-oil and gases production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez-Lopez Maria

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast pyrolysis characterization of three dry manure samples was studied using a pyrolyzer. A heating rate of 600°C/s and a holding time of 10 s were selected to reproduce industrial conditions. The effect of the peak pyrolysis temperature (600, 800 and 1000°C on the pyrolysis product yield and composition was evaluated. Char and bio-oil were gravimetrically quantified. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to analyse the char structure. H2, CH4, CO and CO2 were measured by means of gas chromatography (GC. A decrease in the char yield and an increase of the gas yield were observed when temperature increased. From 800°C on, it was observed that the char yield of samples Dig R and SW were constant, which indicated that the primary devolatilization reactions stopped. This fact was also corroborated by GC analysis. The bio-oil yield slightly increased with temperature, showing a maximum of 20.7 and 27.8 wt.% for samples Pre and SW, respectively, whereas sample Dig R showed a maximum yield of 16.5 wt.% at 800°C. CO2 and CO were the main released gases whereas H2 and CH4 production increased with temperature. Finally, an increase of char porosity was observed with temperature.

  4. Temperature and flow fields in samples heated in monoellipsoidal mirror furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, D.; Haya, R.

    The temperature field in samples heated in monoellipsoidal mirror furnaces will be analyzed. The radiation heat exchange between the sample and the mirror is formulated analytically, taking into account multiple reflections at the mirror. It will be shown that the effect of these multiple reflections in the heating process is quite important, and, as a consequence, the effect of the mirror reflectance in the temperature field is quite strong. The conduction-radiation model will be used to simulate the heating process in the floating-zone technique in microgravity conditions; important parameters like the Marangoni number (that drives the thermocapillary flow in the melt), and the temperature gradient at the melt-crystal interface will be estimated. The model will be validated comparing with experimental data. The case of samples mounted in a wall-free configuration (as in the MAXUS-4 programme) will be also considered. Application to the case of compound samples (graphite-silicon-graphite) will be made; the melting of the silicon part and the surface temperature distribution in the melt will be analyzed. Of special interest is the temperature difference between the two graphite rods that hold the silicon part, since it drives the thermocapillary flow in the melt. This thermocapillary flow will be studied, after coupling the previous model with the convective effects. The possibility of counterbalancing this flow by the controlled vibration of the graphite rods will be studied as well. Numerical results show that suppressing the thermocapillary flow can be accomplished quite effectively.

  5. Successive measurements of streaming potential and electroosmotic pressure with the same core-holder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Chenggang; Hu, Hengshan; Yu, Chunhao; Wang, Jun

    2018-05-01

    Successive measurements of the streaming potential and electroosmotic pressure of each core sample are important for understanding the mechanisms of electrokinetic effects. In previous studies, one plug of the core-holder needs to be replaced in these two experiments, which causes the change of the fluid parameters and the boundary conditions in the core. We design a new core-holder to permit successive experiments without plug replacement, which ensures the consistency of the measurement environment. A two-direction harmonic pressure-driving source is accordingly designed. Using this new equipment, electrokinetic experiments conducted ten core samples at 0.4 mol/L NaCl solution. The results show good agreement between the electrokinetically deduced permeability and premeasured gas permeability. For high salinity saturated samples, the permeability can be inverted from electroosmotic effect instead of the streaming potential.

  6. Design of cross-sensitive temperature and strain sensor based on sampled fiber grating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaohang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper,a cross-sensitive temperature and strain sensor based on sampled fiber grating is designed.Its temperature measurement range is -50-200℃,and the strain measurement rangeis 0-2 000 με.The characteristics of the sensor are obtained using simulation method.Utilizing SPSS software,we found the dual-parameter matrix equations of measurement of temperature and strain,and calibrated the four sensing coefficients of the matrix equations.

  7. Estimation of sampling error uncertainties in observed surface air temperature change in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Wei; Shen, Samuel S. P.; Weithmann, Alexander; Wang, Huijun

    2017-08-01

    This study examines the sampling error uncertainties in the monthly surface air temperature (SAT) change in China over recent decades, focusing on the uncertainties of gridded data, national averages, and linear trends. Results indicate that large sampling error variances appear at the station-sparse area of northern and western China with the maximum value exceeding 2.0 K2 while small sampling error variances are found at the station-dense area of southern and eastern China with most grid values being less than 0.05 K2. In general, the negative temperature existed in each month prior to the 1980s, and a warming in temperature began thereafter, which accelerated in the early and mid-1990s. The increasing trend in the SAT series was observed for each month of the year with the largest temperature increase and highest uncertainty of 0.51 ± 0.29 K (10 year)-1 occurring in February and the weakest trend and smallest uncertainty of 0.13 ± 0.07 K (10 year)-1 in August. The sampling error uncertainties in the national average annual mean SAT series are not sufficiently large to alter the conclusion of the persistent warming in China. In addition, the sampling error uncertainties in the SAT series show a clear variation compared with other uncertainty estimation methods, which is a plausible reason for the inconsistent variations between our estimate and other studies during this period.

  8. Effects of different temperature treatments on biological ice nuclei in snow samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Kazutaka; Maki, Teruya; Kakikawa, Makiko; Kobayashi, Fumihisa; Matsuki, Atsushi

    2016-09-01

    The heat tolerance of biological ice nucleation activity (INA) depends on their types. Different temperature treatments may cause varying degrees of inactivation on biological ice nuclei (IN) in precipitation samples. In this study, we measured IN concentration and bacterial INA in snow samples using a drop freezing assay, and compared the results for unheated snow and snow treated at 40 °C and 90 °C. At a measured temperature of -7 °C, the concentration of IN in untreated snow was 100-570 L-1, whereas the concentration in snow treated at 40 °C and 90 °C was 31-270 L-1 and 2.5-14 L-1, respectively. In the present study, heat sensitive IN inactivated by heating at 40 °C were predominant, and ranged 23-78% of IN at -7 °C compared with untreated samples. Ice nucleation active Pseudomonas strains were also isolated from the snow samples, and heating at 40 °C and 90 °C inactivated these microorganisms. Consequently, different temperature treatments induced varying degrees of inactivation on IN in snow samples. Differences in the concentration of IN across a range of treatment temperatures might reflect the abundance of different heat sensitive biological IN components.

  9. Ergonomic design and evaluation of a diagnostic ultrasound transducer holder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Mohamad Sadegh; Hosseinzadeh, Payam; Zamani, Farhad; Ahmadpoor, Hossein; Dehghan, Naser

    2017-12-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) are injuries and disorders that affect the body's movement and musculoskeletal system. Awkward postures represent one of the major ergonomic risk factors that cause WMSDs among sonographers while working with an ultrasound transducer. This study aimed to design and evaluate a new holder for the ultrasound transducer. In the first phase a new holder was designed for the transducer, considering design principles. Evaluation of the new holder was then carried out by electrogoniometry and a locally perceived discomfort (LPD) scale. The application of design principles to the new holder resulted in an improvement of wrist posture and comfort. Wrist angles in extension, flexion, radial deviation and ulnar deviation were lower with utilization of the new holder. The severity of discomfort based on the LPD method in the two modes of work with and without the new holder was reported with values of 1.3 and 1.8, respectively (p ergonomics design principles was effective in minimizing wrist deviation and increasing comfort while working with the new holder.

  10. INFLUENCE OF STORING AND TEMPERATURE ON RHEOLOGIC AND THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF WHISKY SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hlavac

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Temperature and storing time can be included between the most significant parameters that influence physical properties of food. This article deals with selected rheologic and thermophysical properties of alcohol drink whisky. Our research was oriented on measuring of rheologic and thermophysical characteristics of whisky. There were measured two types of whisky Grant s and Jim Beam from two different producers, both samples had 40 percent of alcohol content. During the experiments were analyzed rheologic parameters as dynamic viscosity, kinematic viscosity and fluidity and thermophysical parameters as thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and volume specific heat. Selected parameters were measured in temperature range 5 to 27 C. Measurements were done on whisky samples in different days during the storage. Measuring of dynamic viscosity was performed by digital rotational viscometer Anton Paar. Principle of measuring is based on dependency of sample resistance against the probe rotation. Density of whisky samples was determined by pycnometric method. Average density at given temperature along with dynamic viscosity value was used at calculation of kinematic viscosity and fluidity was also determined. Measuring of thermophysical parameters was performed by instrument Isomet 2104 Measurement by Isomet is based on analysis of the temperature response of the measured sample to heat flow impulses. Relations of rheologic and thermophysical parameters to the temperature were made and influence of storing time was discussed. From obtained results is clear that dynamic and kinematic viscosity is decreasing exponentially with temperature and fluidity has increasing exponential progress. We found out that both whisky samples had at the beginning and after one week of storage very similar values of rheologic parameters. Very small difference in rheologic parameters of whisky samples was found after two weeks of storing. Values of dynamic and kinematic

  11. Effects of sample size on estimation of rainfall extremes at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boessenkool, Berry; Bürger, Gerd; Heistermann, Maik

    2017-09-01

    High precipitation quantiles tend to rise with temperature, following the so-called Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) scaling. It is often reported that the CC-scaling relation breaks down and even reverts for very high temperatures. In our study, we investigate this reversal using observational climate data from 142 stations across Germany. One of the suggested meteorological explanations for the breakdown is limited moisture supply. Here we argue that, instead, it could simply originate from undersampling. As rainfall frequency generally decreases with higher temperatures, rainfall intensities as dictated by CC scaling are less likely to be recorded than for moderate temperatures. Empirical quantiles are conventionally estimated from order statistics via various forms of plotting position formulas. They have in common that their largest representable return period is given by the sample size. In small samples, high quantiles are underestimated accordingly. The small-sample effect is weaker, or disappears completely, when using parametric quantile estimates from a generalized Pareto distribution (GPD) fitted with L moments. For those, we obtain quantiles of rainfall intensities that continue to rise with temperature.

  12. Effects of sample size on estimation of rainfall extremes at high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Boessenkool

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available High precipitation quantiles tend to rise with temperature, following the so-called Clausius–Clapeyron (CC scaling. It is often reported that the CC-scaling relation breaks down and even reverts for very high temperatures. In our study, we investigate this reversal using observational climate data from 142 stations across Germany. One of the suggested meteorological explanations for the breakdown is limited moisture supply. Here we argue that, instead, it could simply originate from undersampling. As rainfall frequency generally decreases with higher temperatures, rainfall intensities as dictated by CC scaling are less likely to be recorded than for moderate temperatures. Empirical quantiles are conventionally estimated from order statistics via various forms of plotting position formulas. They have in common that their largest representable return period is given by the sample size. In small samples, high quantiles are underestimated accordingly. The small-sample effect is weaker, or disappears completely, when using parametric quantile estimates from a generalized Pareto distribution (GPD fitted with L moments. For those, we obtain quantiles of rainfall intensities that continue to rise with temperature.

  13. Temperature dependence of the calibration factor of radon and radium determination in water samples by SSNTD

    CERN Document Server

    Hunyadi, I; Hakl, J; Baradacs, E; Dezso, Z

    1999-01-01

    The sensitivity of a sup 2 sup 2 sup 6 Ra determination method of water samples by SSNTD was measured as a function of storage temperature during exposure. The method is based on an etched track type radon monitor, which is closed into a gas permeable foil and is immersed in the water sample. The sample is sealed in a glass vessel and stored for an exposure time of 10-30 days. The sensitivity increased more than a factor of two when the storage temperature was raised from 2 deg. C to 30 deg. C. Temperature dependence of the partition coefficient of radon between water and air provides explanation for this dependence. For practical radio- analytical application the temperature dependence of the calibration factor is given by fitting the sensitivity data obtained by measuring sup 2 sup 2 sup 6 Ra standard solutions (in the activity concentration range of 0.1-48.5 kBq m sup - sup 3) at different storage temperatures.

  14. Optimizing headspace sampling temperature and time for analysis of volatile oxidation products in fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbæk, Karen; Jensen, Benny

    1997-01-01

    Headspace-gas chromatography (HS-GC), based on adsorption to Tenax GR(R), thermal desorption and GC, has been used for analysis of volatiles in fish oil. To optimize sam sampling conditions, the effect of heating the fish oil at various temperatures and times was evaluated from anisidine values (AV...

  15. Comparison of room temperature and cyrogenic sample processing in the analysis of chemical contaminants in foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, analytical results were compared when using different approaches to bulk food sample comminution, consisting of a vertical chopper (Blixer) at room temperature and at dry ice cryogenic conditions, followed by further subsample processing (20 g) using liquid nitrogen cryogenic conditio...

  16. Acoustic emission of quasi-isotropic rock samples initiated by temperature gradients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vasin, R.N.; Nikitin, A. N.; Lokajíček, Tomáš; Rudajev, Vladimír

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 10 (2006), s. 815-823 ISSN 1069-3513 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519; CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : seismoacoustic emission * rock sample * temperature gradient Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.092, year: 2006

  17. Observing System Simulation Experiments for the assessment of temperature sampling strategies in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Raicich

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time in the Mediterranean Sea various temperature sampling strategies are studied and compared to each other by means of the Observing System Simulation Experiment technique. Their usefulness in the framework of the Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS is assessed by quantifying their impact in a Mediterranean General Circulation Model in numerical twin experiments via univariate data assimilation of temperature profiles in summer and winter conditions. Data assimilation is performed by means of the optimal interpolation algorithm implemented in the SOFA (System for Ocean Forecasting and Analysis code. The sampling strategies studied here include various combinations of eXpendable BathyThermograph (XBT profiles collected along Volunteer Observing Ship (VOS tracks, Airborne XBTs (AXBTs and sea surface temperatures. The actual sampling strategy adopted in the MFS Pilot Project during the Targeted Operational Period (TOP, winter-spring 2000 is also studied. The data impact is quantified by the error reduction relative to the free run. The most effective sampling strategies determine 25–40% error reduction, depending on the season, the geographic area and the depth range. A qualitative relationship can be recognized in terms of the spread of information from the data positions, between basin circulation features and spatial patterns of the error reduction fields, as a function of different spatial and seasonal characteristics of the dynamics. The largest error reductions are observed when samplings are characterized by extensive spatial coverages, as in the cases of AXBTs and the combination of XBTs and surface temperatures. The sampling strategy adopted during the TOP is characterized by little impact, as a consequence of a sampling frequency that is too low. Key words. Oceanography: general (marginal and semi-enclosed seas; numerical modelling

  18. Observing System Simulation Experiments for the assessment of temperature sampling strategies in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Raicich

    Full Text Available For the first time in the Mediterranean Sea various temperature sampling strategies are studied and compared to each other by means of the Observing System Simulation Experiment technique. Their usefulness in the framework of the Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS is assessed by quantifying their impact in a Mediterranean General Circulation Model in numerical twin experiments via univariate data assimilation of temperature profiles in summer and winter conditions. Data assimilation is performed by means of the optimal interpolation algorithm implemented in the SOFA (System for Ocean Forecasting and Analysis code. The sampling strategies studied here include various combinations of eXpendable BathyThermograph (XBT profiles collected along Volunteer Observing Ship (VOS tracks, Airborne XBTs (AXBTs and sea surface temperatures. The actual sampling strategy adopted in the MFS Pilot Project during the Targeted Operational Period (TOP, winter-spring 2000 is also studied.

    The data impact is quantified by the error reduction relative to the free run. The most effective sampling strategies determine 25–40% error reduction, depending on the season, the geographic area and the depth range. A qualitative relationship can be recognized in terms of the spread of information from the data positions, between basin circulation features and spatial patterns of the error reduction fields, as a function of different spatial and seasonal characteristics of the dynamics. The largest error reductions are observed when samplings are characterized by extensive spatial coverages, as in the cases of AXBTs and the combination of XBTs and surface temperatures. The sampling strategy adopted during the TOP is characterized by little impact, as a consequence of a sampling frequency that is too low.

    Key words. Oceanography: general (marginal and semi-enclosed seas; numerical modelling

  19. Statistical analysis of temperature data sampled at Station-M in the Norwegian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorentzen, Torbjørn

    2014-02-01

    The paper analyzes sea temperature data sampled at Station-M in the Norwegian Sea. The data cover the period 1948-2010. The following questions are addressed: What type of stochastic process characterizes the temperature series? Are there any changes or patterns which indicate climate change? Are there any characteristics in the data which can be linked to the shrinking sea-ice in the Arctic area? Can the series be modeled consistently and applied in forecasting of the future sea temperature? The paper applies the following methods: Augmented Dickey-Fuller tests for testing of unit-root and stationarity, ARIMA-models in univariate modeling, cointegration and error-correcting models are applied in estimating short- and long-term dynamics of non-stationary series, Granger-causality tests in analyzing the interaction pattern between the deep and upper layer temperatures, and simultaneous equation systems are applied in forecasting future temperature. The paper shows that temperature at 2000 m Granger-causes temperature at 150 m, and that the 2000 m series can represent an important information carrier of the long-term development of the sea temperature in the geographical area. Descriptive statistics shows that the temperature level has been on a positive trend since the beginning of the 1980s which is also measured in most of the oceans in the North Atlantic. The analysis shows that the temperature series are cointegrated which means they share the same long-term stochastic trend and they do not diverge too far from each other. The measured long-term temperature increase is one of the factors that can explain the shrinking summer sea-ice in the Arctic region. The analysis shows that there is a significant negative correlation between the shrinking sea ice and the sea temperature at Station-M. The paper shows that the temperature forecasts are conditioned on the properties of the stochastic processes, causality pattern between the variables and specification of model

  20. Calorimeters for Precision Power Dissipation Measurements on Controlled-Temperature Superconducting Radiofrequency Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Binping P.; Kelley, Michael J.; Reece, Charles E.; Phillips, H. L.

    2012-01-01

    Two calorimeters, with stainless steel and Cu as the thermal path material for high precision and high power versions, respectively, have been designed and commissioned for the surface impedance characterization (SIC) system at Jefferson Lab to provide low temperature control and measurement for CW power up to 22 W on a 5 cm dia. disk sample which is thermally isolated from the RF portion of the system. A power compensation method has been developed to measure the RF induced power on the sample. Simulation and experimental results show that with these two calorimeters, the whole thermal range of interest for superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) materials has been covered. The power measurement error in the interested power range is within 1.2% and 2.7% for the high precision and high power versions, respectively. Temperature distributions on the sample surface for both versions have been simulated and the accuracy of sample temperature measurements have been analysed. Both versions have the ability to accept bulk superconductors and thin film superconducting samples with a variety of substrate materials such as Al, Al 2 O 3 , Cu, MgO, Nb and Si

  1. Darfur and the flaws of Holder v HLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Thornton

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available When US Chief Justice Roberts handed down the judgment in Holder v Humanitarian Law Project, he revealed the Supreme Court’s tragic under-estimation of the potential of engagement with non-state armed groups....

  2. 21 CFR 892.1920 - Radiographic head holder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Identification. A radiographic head holder is a device intended to position the patient's head during a... device is also exempt from the current good manufacturing practice requirements of the quality system...

  3. Lathe tool bit and holder for machining fiberglass materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, L. E. (Inventor)

    1972-01-01

    A lathe tool and holder combination for machining resin impregnated fiberglass cloth laminates is described. The tool holder and tool bit combination is designed to accommodate a conventional carbide-tipped, round shank router bit as the cutting medium, and provides an infinite number of cutting angles in order to produce a true and smooth surface in the fiberglass material workpiece with every pass of the tool bit. The technique utilizes damaged router bits which ordinarily would be discarded.

  4. An MR/MRI compatible core holder with the RF probe immersed in the confining fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakerian, M.; Balcom, B. J.

    2018-01-01

    An open frame RF probe for high pressure and high temperature MR/MRI measurements was designed, fabricated, and tested. The open frame RF probe was installed inside an MR/MRI compatible metallic core holder, withstanding a maximum pressure and temperature of 5000 psi and 80 °C. The open frame RF probe was tunable for both 1H and 19F resonance frequencies with a 0.2 T static magnetic field. The open frame structure was based on simple pillars of PEEK polymer upon which the RF probe was wound. The RF probe was immersed in the high pressure confining fluid during operation. The open frame structure simplified fabrication of the RF probe and significantly reduced the amount of polymeric materials in the core holder. This minimized the MR background signal detected. Phase encoding MRI methods were employed to map the spin density of a sulfur hexafluoride gas saturating a Berea core plug in the core holder. The SF6 was imaged as a high pressure gas and as a supercritical fluid.

  5. Enhanced Sampling in Molecular Dynamics Using Metadynamics, Replica-Exchange, and Temperature-Acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Abrams

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We review a selection of methods for performing enhanced sampling in molecular dynamics simulations. We consider methods based on collective variable biasing and on tempering, and offer both historical and contemporary perspectives. In collective-variable biasing, we first discuss methods stemming from thermodynamic integration that use mean force biasing, including the adaptive biasing force algorithm and temperature acceleration. We then turn to methods that use bias potentials, including umbrella sampling and metadynamics. We next consider parallel tempering and replica-exchange methods. We conclude with a brief presentation of some combination methods.

  6. Evaluation of technological properties of samples burned from a clay tailings as a function of temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca, M.; Garcia, G.C.R.; Ribeiro, S.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to start the study of technological properties of a clayey tailings from a mining of quartz sand - Mineracao Sao Joao Batista, Queluz - SP. For this study, clay samples were pressed (32 MPa) and fired at 1250 deg C, 1350 deg C and 1450 deg C for 180 minutes, with rates of heating and cooling of 5 deg C/min. We evaluated the bulk density, water absorption and apparent porosity. The results showed that increasing the firing temperature of 1250°C to 1450°C increased approximately 20% bulk density, while water absorption and apparent porosity decreased by 70% and 64% respectively. Thus, the increase in firing temperature increased the bulk density, decreasing the apparent porosity, resulting in increased mechanical strength of these samples, allowing the use of waste as raw material in the manufacture of ceramics. (author)

  7. A simple, ultrahigh vacuum compatible scanning tunneling microscope for use at variable temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugele, Friedrich Gunther; Kloos, Ch.; Leiderer, P.; Moller, R.

    1996-01-01

    We present the construction of a very compact scanning tunneling microscope (STM) which can be operated at temperatures between 4 and 350 K. The tip and a tiny tip holder are the only movable parts, whereas the sample and the piezoscanner are rigidly attached to the body of the STM. This leads to an

  8. Characterization of Decommissioned PWR Vessel Internals Materials Samples: Material Certification, Fluence, and Temperature (Nonproprietary Version)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krug, M.; Shogan, R.; Fero, A.; Snyder, M.

    2004-01-01

    Pressurized water reactor (PWR) cores, operate under extreme environmental conditions due to coolant chemistry, operating temperature, and neutron exposure. Extending the life of PWRs require detailed knowledge of the changes in mechanical and corrosion properties of the structural austenitic stainless steel components adjacent to the fuel. This report contains basic material characterization information of the as-installed samples of reactor internals material which were harvested from a decommissioned PWR

  9. Compact low temperature scanning tunneling microscope with in-situ sample preparation capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jungdae [Department of Physics, The University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Department of Physics and EHSRC, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Hyoungdo; Schroeder, Allan; Shih, Chih-Kang, E-mail: shih@physics.utexas.edu [Department of Physics, The University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Qin, Shengyong [Department of Physics, The University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); ICQD, Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Kim, Sang-ui [Department of Physics and EHSRC, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Eom, Daejin [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    We report on the design of a compact low temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM) having in-situ sample preparation capability. The in-situ sample preparation chamber was designed to be compact allowing quick transfer of samples to the STM stage, which is ideal for preparing temperature sensitive samples such as ultra-thin metal films on semiconductor substrates. Conventional spring suspensions on the STM head often cause mechanical issues. To address this problem, we developed a simple vibration damper consisting of welded metal bellows and rubber pads. In addition, we developed a novel technique to ensure an ultra-high-vacuum (UHV) seal between the copper and stainless steel, which provides excellent reliability for cryostats operating in UHV. The performance of the STM was tested from 2 K to 77 K by using epitaxial thin Pb films on Si. Very high mechanical stability was achieved with clear atomic resolution even when using cryostats operating at 77 K. At 2 K, a clean superconducting gap was observed, and the spectrum was easily fit using the BCS density of states with negligible broadening.

  10. Compact low temperature scanning tunneling microscope with in-situ sample preparation capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungdae; Nam, Hyoungdo; Qin, Shengyong; Kim, Sang-ui; Schroeder, Allan; Eom, Daejin; Shih, Chih-Kang

    2015-09-01

    We report on the design of a compact low temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM) having in-situ sample preparation capability. The in-situ sample preparation chamber was designed to be compact allowing quick transfer of samples to the STM stage, which is ideal for preparing temperature sensitive samples such as ultra-thin metal films on semiconductor substrates. Conventional spring suspensions on the STM head often cause mechanical issues. To address this problem, we developed a simple vibration damper consisting of welded metal bellows and rubber pads. In addition, we developed a novel technique to ensure an ultra-high-vacuum (UHV) seal between the copper and stainless steel, which provides excellent reliability for cryostats operating in UHV. The performance of the STM was tested from 2 K to 77 K by using epitaxial thin Pb films on Si. Very high mechanical stability was achieved with clear atomic resolution even when using cryostats operating at 77 K. At 2 K, a clean superconducting gap was observed, and the spectrum was easily fit using the BCS density of states with negligible broadening.

  11. Effect of vacuum packing and temperature on survival and hatching of strongyle eggs in faecal samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengupta, Mita Eva; Thapa, Sundar; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2016-01-01

    Strongyle eggs of helminths of livestock usually hatch within a few hours or days after deposition with faeces. This poses a problem when faecal sampling is performed in the field. As oxygen is needed for embryonic development, it is recommended to reduce air supply during transport and refrigerate....... The present study therefore investigated the combined effect of vacuum packing and temperature on survival of strongyle eggs and their subsequent ability to hatch and develop into L3. Fresh faecal samples were collected from calves infected with Cooperia oncophora, pigs infected with Oesophagostomum dentatum......, and horses infected with Strongylus vulgaris and cyathostomins. The samples were allocated into four treatments: vacuum packing and storage at 5 °C or 20 °C (5 V and 20 V); normal packing in plastic gloves closed with a loose knot and storage at 5 °C or 20 °C (5 N and 20 N). The number of eggs per gram...

  12. Double modulation pyrometry: A radiometric method to measure surface temperatures of directly irradiated samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potamias, Dimitrios; Alxneit, Ivo; Wokaun, Alexander

    2017-09-01

    The design, implementation, calibration, and assessment of double modulation pyrometry to measure surface temperatures of radiatively heated samples in our 1 kW imaging furnace is presented. The method requires that the intensity of the external radiation can be modulated. This was achieved by a rotating blade mounted parallel to the optical axis of the imaging furnace. Double modulation pyrometry independently measures the external radiation reflected by the sample as well as the sum of thermal and reflected radiation and extracts the thermal emission as the difference of these signals. Thus a two-step calibration is required: First, the relative gains of the measured signals are equalized and then a temperature calibration is performed. For the latter, we transfer the calibration from a calibrated solar blind pyrometer that operates at a different wavelength. We demonstrate that the worst case systematic error associated with this procedure is about 300 K but becomes negligible if a reasonable estimate of the sample's emissivity is used. An analysis of the influence of the uncertainties in the calibration coefficients reveals that one (out of the five) coefficient contributes almost 50% to the final temperature error. On a low emission sample like platinum, the lower detection limit is around 1700 K and the accuracy typically about 20 K. Note that these moderate specifications are specific for the use of double modulation pyrometry at the imaging furnace. It is mainly caused by the difficulty to achieve and maintain good overlap of the hot zone with a diameter of about 3 mm Full Width at Half Height and the measurement spot both of which are of similar size.

  13. Effect of the Target Motion Sampling Temperature Treatment Method on the Statistics and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitanen, Tuomas; Leppänen, Jaakko

    2014-06-01

    Target Motion Sampling (TMS) is a stochastic on-the-fly temperature treatment technique that is being developed as a part of the Monte Carlo reactor physics code Serpent. The method provides for modeling of arbitrary temperatures in continuous-energy Monte Carlo tracking routines with only one set of cross sections stored in the computer memory. Previously, only the performance of the TMS method in terms of CPU time per transported neutron has been discussed. Since the effective cross sections are not calculated at any point of a transport simulation with TMS, reaction rate estimators must be scored using sampled cross sections, which is expected to increase the variances and, consequently, to decrease the figures-of-merit. This paper examines the effects of the TMS on the statistics and performance in practical calculations involving reaction rate estimation with collision estimators. Against all expectations it turned out that the usage of sampled response values has no practical effect on the performance of reaction rate estimators when using TMS with elevated basis cross section temperatures (EBT), i.e. the usual way. With 0 Kelvin cross sections a significant increase in the variances of capture rate estimators was observed right below the energy region of unresolved resonances, but at these energies the figures-of-merit could be increased using a simple resampling technique to decrease the variances of the responses. It was, however, noticed that the usage of the TMS method increases the statistical deviances of all estimators, including the flux estimator, by tens of percents in the vicinity of very strong resonances. This effect is actually not related to the usage of sampled responses, but is instead an inherent property of the TMS tracking method and concerns both EBT and 0 K calculations.

  14. Double modulation pyrometry: A radiometric method to measure surface temperatures of directly irradiated samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potamias, Dimitrios; Alxneit, Ivo; Wokaun, Alexander

    2017-09-01

    The design, implementation, calibration, and assessment of double modulation pyrometry to measure surface temperatures of radiatively heated samples in our 1 kW imaging furnace is presented. The method requires that the intensity of the external radiation can be modulated. This was achieved by a rotating blade mounted parallel to the optical axis of the imaging furnace. Double modulation pyrometry independently measures the external radiation reflected by the sample as well as the sum of thermal and reflected radiation and extracts the thermal emission as the difference of these signals. Thus a two-step calibration is required: First, the relative gains of the measured signals are equalized and then a temperature calibration is performed. For the latter, we transfer the calibration from a calibrated solar blind pyrometer that operates at a different wavelength. We demonstrate that the worst case systematic error associated with this procedure is about 300 K but becomes negligible if a reasonable estimate of the sample's emissivity is used. An analysis of the influence of the uncertainties in the calibration coefficients reveals that one (out of the five) coefficient contributes almost 50% to the final temperature error. On a low emission sample like platinum, the lower detection limit is around 1700 K and the accuracy typically about 20 K. Note that these moderate specifications are specific for the use of double modulation pyrometry at the imaging furnace. It is mainly caused by the difficulty to achieve and maintain good overlap of the hot zone with a diameter of about 3 mm Full Width at Half Height and the measurement spot both of which are of similar size.

  15. Branched carbon nanofiber network synthesis at room temperature using radio frequency supported microwave plasmas

    OpenAIRE

    Boskovic, BO; Stolojan, V; Zeze, DA; Forrest, RD; Silva, SRP; Haq, S

    2004-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers have been grown at room temperature using a combination of radio frequency and microwave assisted plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The nanofibers were grown, using Ni powder catalyst, onto substrates kept at room temperature by using a purposely designed water-cooled sample holder. Branched carbon nanofiber growth was obtained without using a template resulting in interconnected carbon nanofiber network formation on substrates held at room temperatur...

  16. Mechanical Properties Distribution within Polypropylene Injection Molded Samples: Effect of Mold Temperature under Uneven Thermal Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Liparoti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The quality of the polymer parts produced by injection molding is strongly affected by the processing conditions. Uncontrolled deviations from the proper process parameters could significantly affect both internal structure and final material properties. In this work, to mimic an uneven temperature field, a strong asymmetric heating is applied during the production of injection-molded polypropylene samples. The morphology of the samples is characterized by optical and atomic force microscopy (AFM, whereas the distribution of mechanical modulus at different scales is obtained by Indentation and HarmoniX AFM tests. Results clearly show that the temperature differences between the two mold surfaces significantly affect the morphology distributions of the molded parts. This is due to both the uneven temperature field evolutions and to the asymmetric flow field. The final mechanical property distributions are determined by competition between the local molecular stretch and the local structuring achieved during solidification. The cooling rate changes affect internal structures in terms of relaxation/reorganization levels and give rise to an asymmetric distribution of mechanical properties.

  17. Potential denitrification in arable soil samples at winter temperatures - measurements by 15N gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippold, H.; Foerster, I.; Matzel, W.

    1989-01-01

    In samples from the plough horizon of five soils taken after cereal harvest, denitrification was measured as volatilization of N 2 and N 2 O from 15 N nitrate in the absence of O 2 . Nitrate contents lower than 50 ppm N (related to soil dry matter) had only a small effect on denitrification velocity in four of the five soils. In a clay soil dependence on nitrate concentration corresponded to a first-order reaction. Available C was no limiting factor. Even at zero temperatures remarkable N amounts (on average 0.2 ppm N per day) were still denitrified. The addition of daily turnover rates in relation to soil temperatures prevailing from December to March revealed potential turnovers in the 0-to-30-cm layer of the soils to average 28 ± 5 ppm N. (author)

  18. Knife - Holders in Ancient Egyptian Tombs (Religious and Artistic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dr.Rasha Omran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Studying ancient Egyptian tombs have long been an important source of information regarding many aspects of Egyptian religion. Walls of New Kingdom tombs are often decorated with plenty of painted religious scenes. While they were primarily private structures containing images selected by the person who expected to be housed there for eternity, the funerary monuments also reflect religious beliefs. While numerous researches focused on many of the religious scenes depicted on the walls of ancient Egyptian tombs, no one focused on the knife - holders' scenes. Hence, the current study focused on knife - holders scenes depicted on the walls of both royal and private tombs dating back to the New Kingdom at Thebes. The current study was undertaken to shed light on the meaning and the function of knife in Ancient Egypt. To study the role of the knife-holders in Ancient Egypt. To spot light on the actions and behaviors and locations of the knife-holders in Ancient Egyptian civilization. To spot light on the representations of the knife-holders on the walls of the ancient Egyptians tombs in the Valley of the Kings and Valley of the Queens as well as the private tombs at western Thebes. To focus on the shapes and positions of the Knife-holders in Ancient Egypt. To explain the difference between Knife - Holders and Demons. To achieve the objectives of the study, the required data were collected from periodicals, references presenting Knife Holders scenes. Preserving the scenes of knife - holders on the walls of the royal tombs in the Valley of the Kings and Valley of the Queens dating back to the New Kingdom as well as the private tombs at western Thebes that contributed to the interpretation of all the data gathered from literature. The preliminary results indicated that the term (Knife-Holders is an expression which indicates to tomb-guardians, demons or minor divinities. These minor deities were subordinate to the major gods and goddesses. They

  19. Equipment for linking source stand and film holder carriage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajt, P.; Zeman, M.

    1987-01-01

    A device is described for precision link-up of a source stand provided with a spring-loaded cam and a film holder carriage provided with an arm with catches. The catches are mechanically connected to a control device firmly connected to the bottom part of the film holder carriage arm. The cam whose extended part is slidably mounted in the cover guide is secured in position with springs fitted from both sides. The control device consists of an electromagnet with armature connected to the control device pull-rod. The pull-rod provides mechanical connection of the catches and the control device. Upon pressing the pushbutton, the catches automatically engage the film holder cariage arm so that the motorized source stand operates without connection to the carriage. This significantly facilitates the operation of the equipment and reduces physical effort of the technician. The most significant advantage is the possibility of immediate change in operation mode. (J.B.). 5 figs

  20. Ultrafine-grained porous titanium and porous titanium/magnesium composites fabricated by space holder-enabled severe plastic deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Yuanshen, E-mail: yuanshen.qi@monash.edu [Centre for Advanced Hybrid Materials, Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Contreras, Karla G. [Monash Institute of Medical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Jung, Hyun-Do [Liquid Processing & Casting Technology R& D Group, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoun-Ee [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Gwanggyo, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Lapovok, Rimma [Centre for Advanced Hybrid Materials, Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Estrin, Yuri, E-mail: yuri.estrin@monash.edu [Centre for Advanced Hybrid Materials, Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Laboratory of Hybrid Nanostructured Materials, NUST MISiS, Moscow 119490 (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-01

    Compaction of powders by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) using a novel space holder method was employed to fabricate metallic scaffolds with tuneable porosity. Porous Ti and Ti/Mg composites with 60% and 50% percolating porosity were fabricated using powder blends with two kinds of sacrificial space holders. The high compressive strength and good ductility of porous Ti and porous Ti/Mg obtained in this way are believed to be associated with the ultrafine grain structure of the pore walls. To understand this, a detailed electron microscopy investigation was employed to analyse the interface between Ti/Ti and Ti/Mg particles, the grain structures in Ti particles and the topography of pore surfaces. It was found that using the proposed compaction method, high quality bonding between particles was obtained. Comparing with other powder metallurgy methods to fabricate Ti with an open porous structure, where thermal energy supplied by a laser beam or high temperature sintering is essential, the ECAP process conducted at a relatively low temperature of 400 °C was shown to produce unique properties. - Highlights: • Porous Ti and porous Ti/Mg composite scaffolds were fabricated successfully. • Space holder-enabled severe plastic deformation was first used in this application. • Silicon particles as sacrificial space holders were used for the first time. • Ultrafine-grained microstructure and good bonding between particles were obtained. • Good preosteoblast cell response to as-manufactured porous Ti was achieved.

  1. Tomographic Heating Holder for In Situ TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gontard, Lionel C.; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.; Fernández, Asunción

    2014-01-01

    distributions and changes in active surface area are quantified from tilt series of images acquired after subjecting the specimens to increasing temperatures. The porosity of the alumina support and the sintering mechanisms of the catalysts are shown to depend on distance from the heating filament....

  2. The dependence of orange-red IRSL decay curves of potassium feldspars on sample temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fattahi, Morteza

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of stimulation temperature on the infrared stimulated orange-red (600-650 nm) luminescence emission (orange-red infrared simulated luminescence (IRSL)) in potassium feldspar. Investigations explore the relationship between initial (0-2 s), integral (0-100 s), net initial (0-2 s less background over 2 s), net integral (0-100 s less background over 100 s) and last 2 s of the orange-red IRSL signals obtained for 100 s versus stimulation temperature (20-460 degree sign C) on both unpreheated and preheated samples. In the potassium feldspar sample examined, competition effects, including thermal enhancement, depletion and possibly quenching affect the orange-red IRSL signals measured. Observed effects (e.g., thermal enhancement, thermal activation energy and the decay rate) over the temperature range 20-120 degree sign C may be explained by tunnelling luminescence processes, IR transitions to the conduction band following excitations from ground state of electron trap by acquiring thermal energy from the lattice and or the random-walk band-tail model. Preheating prior to orange-red IRSL and Thermoluminescence (TL) measurements provides evidence that there are both shallow and deep traps responsible for low- and high-temperature orange-red IRSL and TL peaks. The effects of both preheating and IR bleaching on the orange-red thermally stimulated luminescence (red emission during thermoluminescence, RTL) provide evidence that bleached RTL traps have no significant contribution in the production of orange-red IRSL signals

  3. Research on scholarships holders who studied abroad and returned to Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nena A. Vasojevic

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge has become the most valuable resource of the new era and the resource of the future. The intention of this study is to improve knowledge about the problem of migration of educated people from Serbia from the perspective of scholarship holders who, after being abroad, returned to their country. The aim of this research is to show the profile of the scholarship holders of post-academic and post-graduate students, who studied abroad and then returned to Serbia. Their motives for departure and return, as well as their perception of integration into the work environment in Serbia and utilization of their knowledge is presented. Methods: For the purpose of this research a questionnaire was constructed which was distributed online. Collected data were analysed using statistical tools. Results: This research has shown that the primary motive for education abroad is the desire for personal development. It has also been shown that an important factor for the return of students from abroad is their expectation of comparative advantage in the labour market and their belief of getting a desired job. Apart from this, it is shown that the scholarship holders only partially used the acquired knowledge and thus, do not have enough influence in the development of their organizations.Conclusion: The main research contribution is reflected in the improvement of the knowledge about the motivation of scholars to return from developed countries and highlighted problems which scholarship holders have after returning.Implications and research limitation: the results obtained can be generalised to countries that are passing or have recently moved a transition, and are similar in cultural characteristics. The present contains certain limitations that must be taken into account while interpreting final results. The most significant constraint is the sample size, but the obtained results, especially the motives of the scientific experts for a return to the country

  4. Determination of temperature dependence of full matrix material constants of PZT-8 piezoceramics using only one sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Tang, Liguo; Tian, Hua; Wang, Jiyang; Cao, Wenwu; Zhang, Zhongwu

    2017-08-15

    Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) was used to determine the temperature dependence of full matrix material constants of PZT-8 piezoceramics from room temperature to 100 °C. Property variations from sample to samples can be eliminated by using only one sample, so that data self-consistency can be guaranteed. The RUS measurement system error was estimated to be lower than 2.35%. The obtained full matrix material constants at different temperatures all have excellent self-consistency, which can help accurately predict device performance at high temperatures using finite element simulations.

  5. Effect of the Target Motion Sampling temperature treatment method on the statistics and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viitanen, Tuomas; Leppänen, Jaakko

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Use of the Target Motion Sampling (TMS) method with collision estimators is studied. • The expected values of the estimators agree with NJOY-based reference. • In most practical cases also the variances of the estimators are unaffected by TMS. • Transport calculation slow-down due to TMS dominates the impact on figures-of-merit. - Abstract: Target Motion Sampling (TMS) is a stochastic on-the-fly temperature treatment technique that is being developed as a part of the Monte Carlo reactor physics code Serpent. The method provides for modeling of arbitrary temperatures in continuous-energy Monte Carlo tracking routines with only one set of cross sections stored in the computer memory. Previously, only the performance of the TMS method in terms of CPU time per transported neutron has been discussed. Since the effective cross sections are not calculated at any point of a transport simulation with TMS, reaction rate estimators must be scored using sampled cross sections, which is expected to increase the variances and, consequently, to decrease the figures-of-merit. This paper examines the effects of the TMS on the statistics and performance in practical calculations involving reaction rate estimation with collision estimators. Against all expectations it turned out that the usage of sampled response values has no practical effect on the performance of reaction rate estimators when using TMS with elevated basis cross section temperatures (EBT), i.e. the usual way. With 0 Kelvin cross sections a significant increase in the variances of capture rate estimators was observed right below the energy region of unresolved resonances, but at these energies the figures-of-merit could be increased using a simple resampling technique to decrease the variances of the responses. It was, however, noticed that the usage of the TMS method increases the statistical deviances of all estimators, including the flux estimator, by tens of percents in the vicinity of very

  6. Positron annihilation lifetime study of positive temperature coefficient BaTiO3 samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling Chen; Mingkang Teng; Guanghou Wang; Xiaoyun Li; Tianchang Lu

    1989-01-01

    In order to investigate the doped vacancies in BaTiO 3 samples as well as their influence on the positive temperature coefficient (PTC) the positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy was applied. Two groups of BaTiO 3 samples with BaO excess were prepared by doping different concentrations of La 2 O 3 and Nb 2 O 5 , respectively in the range from 0.1 to 3 at%. A third group of samples of two Sb-doped PTC BaTiO 3 semiconductors with excess BaO or TiO 2 were studied by the aid of positron technique before and after being reduced. It is shown that the positron lifetime parameters are sensitive to changes in the vacancy concentration in BaTiO 3 ceramics near the 0.1 mol% region. But they are almost unchanged during reduction processing; the resistivity of samples changed by one to two orders of magnitude through the reduction. It can be concluded that the PTC effect is due to oxygen on the grain boundary rather than vacancies, and that the Heywang-Jonker model is more reasonable

  7. High-temperature short-time pasteurisation of human breastmilk is efficient in retaining protein and reducing the bacterial count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Daniel; Joellenbeck, Mirjam; Winkler, Karl; Kunze, Mirjam; Huzly, Daniela; Hentschel, Roland

    2017-05-01

    Milk banks are advised to use Holder pasteurisation to inactivate the cytomegalovirus, but the process adversely affects the bioactive properties of human breastmilk. This study explored the antibacterial efficacy of an alternative high-temperature short-time (HTST) treatment of human breastmilk and its effect on marker proteins, compared with the Holder method. Breastmilk samples were obtained from 27 mothers with infants in a German neonatal intensive care unit. The samples were either heated to 62°C for five seconds using HTST or processed using Holder pasteurisation, at 63 ± 0.5°C for 30 minutes. Immunoglobulin A, lactoferrin, lysozyme, alkaline phosphatase and bile salt-stimulated lipase concentrations and bacterial colony-forming units/mL were measured before and after heating. HTST-treated samples retained higher rates of immunoglobulin A (95% versus 83%), alkaline phosphatase (6% versus 0%) and bile salt-stimulated lipase (0.8% versus 0.4%) than Holder pasteurisation samples (all p HTST treatment protocol retained some of the bioactive properties of human breastmilk and appeared to have similar antibacterial efficacy to Holder pasteurisation. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Effects of Holder pasteurization on the protein profile of human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peila, Chiara; Coscia, Alessandra; Bertino, Enrico; Cavaletto, Maria; Spertino, Stefano; Icardi, Sara; Tortone, Claudia; Visser, Gerard H A; Gazzolo, Diego

    2016-04-07

    The most widespread method for the treatment of donor milk is the Holder pasteurization (HoP). The available literature data show that HoP may cause degradation of some bioactive components. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of HoP on the protein profile of human milk (HM) using a GeLC-MS method, a proteomic approach and a promising technique able to offer a qualitative HM protein profile. HM samples were collected by standardized methods from 20 mothers carrying both preterm and term newborns. A aliquot of each sample was immediately frozen at -80 °C, whilst another one was Holder pasteurized and then frozen. All samples were then analyzed by GeLC-MS. The protein bands of interest were excised from the gel, digested with trypsin and identified by nano-HPLC-MS/MS analysis. The protein profile before and after HoP showed qualitative differences only in 6 samples out of 20, while in the remaining 14 no detectable differences were found. The differences interested only colostrums and transitional milk samples and regarded the decrease of the electrophoretic bands corresponding to alpha and beta-casein, tenascin, lactoferrin and immunoglobulin. In the majority of samples, HoP did not cause any modification, thereby preserving the biological activity of HM proteins.

  9. New high temperature plasmas and sample introduction systems for analytical atomic emission and mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montaser, A.

    1993-01-01

    In this research, new high-temperature plasmas and new sample introduction systems are explored for rapid elemental and isotopic analysis of gases, solutions, and solids using mass spectrometry and atomic emission spectrometry. During the period January 1993--December 1993, emphasis was placed on (a) analytical investigations of atmospheric-pressure helium inductively coupled plasma (He ICP) that are suitable for atomization, excitation, and ionization of elements possessing high excitation and ionization energies; (b) simulation and computer modeling of plasma sources to predict their structure and fundamental and analytical properties without incurring the enormous cost of experimental studies; (c) spectrosopic imaging and diagnostic studies of high-temperature plasmas; (d) fundamental studies of He ICP discharges and argon-nitrogen plasma by high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometry; and (e) fundamental and analytical investigation of new, low-cost devices as sample introduction systems for atomic spectrometry and examination of new diagnostic techniques for probing aerosols. Only the most important achievements are included in this report to illustrate progress and obstacles. Detailed descriptions of the authors' investigations are outlined in the reprints and preprints that accompany this report. The technical progress expected next year is briefly described at the end of this report

  10. The design of high-temperature thermal conductivity measurements apparatus for thin sample size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Syamsul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the designing, constructing and validating processes of thermal conductivity apparatus using steady-state heat-transfer techniques with the capability of testing a material at high temperatures. This design is an improvement from ASTM D5470 standard where meter-bars with the equal cross-sectional area were used to extrapolate surface temperature and measure heat transfer across a sample. There were two meter-bars in apparatus where each was placed three thermocouples. This Apparatus using a heater with a power of 1,000 watts, and cooling water to stable condition. The pressure applied was 3.4 MPa at the cross-sectional area of 113.09 mm2 meter-bar and thermal grease to minimized interfacial thermal contact resistance. To determine the performance, the validating process proceeded by comparing the results with thermal conductivity obtained by THB 500 made by LINSEIS. The tests showed the thermal conductivity of the stainless steel and bronze are 15.28 Wm-1K-1 and 38.01 Wm-1K-1 with a difference of test apparatus THB 500 are −2.55% and 2.49%. Furthermore, this apparatus has the capability to measure the thermal conductivity of the material to a temperature of 400°C where the results for the thermal conductivity of stainless steel is 19.21 Wm-1K-1 and the difference was 7.93%.

  11. Calorimetric method for current sharing temperature measurements in ITER conductor samples in SULTAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnasco, M.

    2009-01-01

    Several Toroidal Field Conductor short samples with slight layout variations have been assembled and tested in the SULTAN facility at CRPP. The measurement campaigns started in 2007 and are still ongoing. The performance of every conductor is expressed in terms of current sharing temperature (T cs ), i.e. the temperature at which a defined electric field, 10 μV/m, is detected in the cable due to the incipient superconducting-to-normal state transition. The T cs at specific operating conditions is the key design parameter for the ITER conductors and is the main object of the qualification tests. Typically, the average electric field is measured with voltage tap pairs attached on the jacket along the conductor. The inability however to explain observed premature voltage developments opened the discussion about possible alternative measuring methods. The He flow calorimetric method is based on the measurement of the resistive power generation in the conductor. It relies on the detection of very small temperature increases along the conductor in steady state operation. The accuracy and the reliability of the calorimetric method in SULTAN are critically discussed, with particular emphasis on the instrumentation requirements and test procedures. The application of the calorimetric method to the recent SULTAN test campaigns is described with its merits and limits. For future tests of ITER conductors in SULTAN, the calorimetric method for T cs test is proposed as a routine procedure.

  12. Cladding temperature measurement by thermocouples at preirradiated LWR fuel rod samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiling, W.

    1981-12-01

    This report describes the technique to measure cladding temperatures of test fuel rod samples, applied during the in-pile tests on fuel rod failure in the steam loop of the FR2 reactor. NiCr/Ni thermocouples with stainless steel and Inconel sheaths, respectively,of 1 mm diameter were resistance spot weld to the outside of the fuel rod cladding. For the pre-irradiated test specimens, welding had to be done under hot-cell conditions, i.e. under remote handling. In order to prevent the formation of eutectics between zirconium and the chemical elements of the thermocouple sheath at elevated temperatures, the thermocouples were covered with a platinum jacket of 1.4 mm outside diameter swaged onto the sheath in the area of the measuring junction. This thermocouple design has worked satisfactorily in the in-pile experiments performed in a steam atmosphere. Even in the heatup phase, in which cladding temperatures up to 1050 0 C were reached, only very few failures occured. This good performance is to a great part due to a careful control and a thorough inspection of the thermocouples. (orig.) [de

  13. β-Galactosidase activity of commercial lactase samples in raw and pasteurized milk at refrigerated temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, T W; Dunn, M L; Eggett, D L; Ogden, L V

    2011-07-01

    Many consumers are unable to enjoy the benefits of milk due to lactose intolerance. Lactose-free milk is available but at about 2 times the cost of regular milk or greater, it may be difficult for consumers to afford. The high cost of lactose-free milk is due in part to the added cost of the lactose hydrolysis process. Hydrolysis at refrigerated temperatures, possibly in the bulk tank or package, could increase the flexibility of the process and potentially reduce the cost. A rapid β-galactosidase assay was used to determine the relative activity of commercially available lactase samples at different temperatures. Four enzymes exhibited low-temperature activity and were added to refrigerated raw and pasteurized milk at various concentrations and allowed to react for various lengths of time. The degree of lactose hydrolysis by each of the enzymes as a function of time and enzyme concentration was determined by HPLC. The 2 most active enzymes, as determined by the β-galactosidase assay, hydrolyzed over 98% of the lactose in 24h at 2°C using the supplier's recommended dosage. The other 2 enzymes hydrolyzed over 95% of the lactose in 24h at twice the supplier's recommended dosage at 2°C. Results were consistent in all milk types tested. The results show that it is feasible to hydrolyze lactose during refrigerated storage of milk using currently available enzymes. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Research on the tool holder mode in high speed machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenyu, Zhao; Yongquan, Zhou; Houming, Zhou; Xiaomei, Xu; Haibin, Xiao

    2018-03-01

    High speed machining technology can improve the processing efficiency and precision, but also reduce the processing cost. Therefore, the technology is widely regarded in the industry. With the extensive application of high-speed machining technology, high-speed tool system has higher and higher requirements on the tool chuck. At present, in high speed precision machining, several new kinds of clip heads are as long as there are heat shrinkage tool-holder, high-precision spring chuck, hydraulic tool-holder, and the three-rib deformation chuck. Among them, the heat shrinkage tool-holder has the advantages of high precision, high clamping force, high bending rigidity and dynamic balance, etc., which are widely used. Therefore, it is of great significance to research the new requirements of the machining tool system. In order to adapt to the requirement of high speed machining precision machining technology, this paper expounds the common tool holder technology of high precision machining, and proposes how to select correctly tool clamping system in practice. The characteristics and existing problems are analyzed in the tool clamping system.

  15. Gender differentials in market participation among small-holder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender differentials in market participation among small-holder cassava farmers ... The results showed that the female farmers participated and sold more cassava in the market than their male counterparts. ... facilitate faster delivery of farm produce especially perishable commodities such as ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  16. Small holder farmers coping strategies to household food insecurity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study has aimed at examining the small holder farmers' coping strategies to sustained household food insecurity and hunger in Southern Ethiopia (Sidama Zone). In order to collect the required input data, a comprehensive interview schedule was developed. The data were collected from 614 households who were ...

  17. Punishability of office-holders in environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papier, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    The author deals with the question of criminal responsibility of office-holders in the field of environmental law. The provisions in secs. 324-330 of the Penal Code do not grant independent or origin protection from violation of the law. They depend on administrative law regulations. (WG) [de

  18. Small holder farmers coping strategies to household food insecurity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small holder farmers coping strategies to household food insecurity and hunger in Southern Ethiopia. ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... The study further showed that households in the study area employ a range of coping strategies to respond to the high and sustained food insecurity and ...

  19. Socio-economic characteristics of small-holder farmers influencing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic characteristics of small-holder farmers influencing their utilisation of microcredit in the central agricultural zone of Cross River state. ... The findings revealed that about thirty – four percent (33.6%) of the crop farmers fell between 41-50 years while about 51% of the livestock farmers fell between 31-40 years.

  20. Field Portable Low Temperature Porous Layer Open Tubular Cryoadsorption Headspace Sampling and Analysis Part II: Applications*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Megan; Bukovsky-Reyes, Santiago; Bruno, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper details the sampling methods used with the field portable porous layer open tubular cryoadsorption (PLOT-cryo) approach, described in Part I of this two-part series, applied to several analytes of interest. We conducted tests with coumarin and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (two solutes that were used in initial development of PLOT-cryo technology), naphthalene, aviation turbine kerosene, and diesel fuel, on a variety of matrices and test beds. We demonstrated that these analytes can be easily detected and reliably identified using the portable unit for analyte collection. By leveraging efficiency-boosting temperature control and the high flow rate multiple capillary wafer, very short collection times (as low as 3 s) yielded accurate detection. For diesel fuel spiked on glass beads, we determined a method detection limit below 1 ppm. We observed greater variability among separate samples analyzed with the portable unit than previously documented in work using the laboratory-based PLOT-cryo technology. We identify three likely sources that may help explain the additional variation: the use of a compressed air source to generate suction, matrix geometry, and variability in the local vapor concentration around the sampling probe as solute depletion occurs both locally around the probe and in the test bed as a whole. This field-portable adaptation of the PLOT-cryo approach has numerous and diverse potential applications. PMID:26726934

  1. Field portable low temperature porous layer open tubular cryoadsorption headspace sampling and analysis part II: Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Megan; Bukovsky-Reyes, Santiago; Bruno, Thomas J

    2016-01-15

    This paper details the sampling methods used with the field portable porous layer open tubular cryoadsorption (PLOT-cryo) approach, described in Part I of this two-part series, applied to several analytes of interest. We conducted tests with coumarin and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (two solutes that were used in initial development of PLOT-cryo technology), naphthalene, aviation turbine kerosene, and diesel fuel, on a variety of matrices and test beds. We demonstrated that these analytes can be easily detected and reliably identified using the portable unit for analyte collection. By leveraging efficiency-boosting temperature control and the high flow rate multiple capillary wafer, very short collection times (as low as 3s) yielded accurate detection. For diesel fuel spiked on glass beads, we determined a method detection limit below 1 ppm. We observed greater variability among separate samples analyzed with the portable unit than previously documented in work using the laboratory-based PLOT-cryo technology. We identify three likely sources that may help explain the additional variation: the use of a compressed air source to generate suction, matrix geometry, and variability in the local vapor concentration around the sampling probe as solute depletion occurs both locally around the probe and in the test bed as a whole. This field-portable adaptation of the PLOT-cryo approach has numerous and diverse potential applications. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Effect of Sample Storage Temperature and Time Delay on Blood Gases, Bicarbonate and pH in Human Arterial Blood Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadhoseini, Elham; Safavi, Enayat; Seifi, Sepideh; Seifirad, Soroush; Firoozbakhsh, Shahram; Peiman, Soheil

    2015-03-01

    Results of arterial blood gas analysis can be biased by pre-analytical factors, such as time interval before analysis, temperature during storage and syringe type. To investigate the effects of samples storage temperature and time delay on blood gases, bicarbonate and PH results in human arterial blood samples. 2.5 mL arterial blood samples were drawn from 45 patients via an indwelling Intraarterial catheter. Each sample was divided into five equal samples and stored in multipurpose tuberculin plastic syringes. Blood gas analysis was performed on one of five samples as soon as possible. Four other samples were divided into two groups stored at 22°C and 0°C. Blood gas analyses were repeated at 30 and 60 minutes after sampling. PaO2 of the samples stored at 0°C was increased significantly after 60 minutes (P = 0.007). The PaCO2 of the samples kept for 30 and 60 minutes at 22°C was significantly higher than primary result (P = 0.04, P samples stored at 22°C, pH decreased significantly after 30 and 60 minutes (P = 0.017, P = 0.001). There were no significant differences in other results of samples stored at 0°C or 22°C after 30 or 60 minutes. In samples stored in plastic syringes, overestimation of PaO2 levels should be noted if samples cooled before analysis. In samples stored in plastic syringes, it is not necessary to store samples in iced water when analysis delayed up to one hour.

  3. Failure analysis of vise jaw holders for hacksaw machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Ali Al-Bahkali

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Failure analysis in mechanical components has been investigated in many studies in the last few years. Failure analysis and prevention are important functions in all engineering disciplines. Materials engineers are often the lead role in the analysis of failures, where a component or product fails in service or if a failure occurs during manufacturing or production processing. In any case, one must determine the cause of the failure to prevent future occurrences and/or to improve the performance of the device, component or structure. For example, the vise jaw holders of hacksaws can break due to accidental heavy loads or machine misuse. The parts that break are the stationary and movable vise jaw holders and the connecter power screw between the holders. To investigate the failure of these components, a three-dimensional finite element model for stress analysis was performed. First, the analysis identified the broken components of the hacksaw machine. In addition, the type of materials of the broken parts was identified, a CAD model was built, and the hacksaw mechanism was analyzed to determine the accurate applied loads on the broken parts. After analyzing the model using Abaqus CAE software, the results showed that the location of the high stresses was identical with the high-stress locations in the original, broken parts. Furthermore, the power screw was subjected to a high load, which deformed the power screw. Also, the stationary vise jaw holder was broken by impact because it was not touched by the power screw until the movable vise jaw holder broke. A conclusion is drawn from the failure analysis and a way to improve the design of the broken parts is suggested.

  4. Progress report on the varying temperature experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qualls, A.L.; Hurst, M.T.; Raby, D.G.

    1997-01-01

    A capsule has been designed that permits four specimen sets to be irradiated in an RB* location in the High Flux Isotope reactor (HFIR) with distinct temperature histories. During the reporting period critical component prototyping was completed. The results have lead to some design and operational changes from that previously reported. The primary design changes are (1) compression seals in the specimen holes of the beryllium holders, and (2) oxide-dispersion strengthened aluminum alloy (DISPAL) specimen sleeves in all holders. Details of the capsule design are presented in the previous issue of this publication. Four, axially displaced temperature zones are independently controlled. Holder temperatures are monitored by thermocouples and controlled by a combination of adjustable temperature control gas mixtures and auxiliary heaters. The high temperature holders are located in the center of the experimental region, which is centered on the reactor mid-plane, and the low temperature holders are located at the ends of the experimental region

  5. Progress report on the varying temperature experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qualls, A.L.; Hurst, M.T.; Raby, D.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    A capsule has been designed that permits four specimen sets to be irradiated in an RB* location in the High Flux Isotope reactor (HFIR) with distinct temperature histories. During the reporting period critical component prototyping was completed. The results have lead to some design and operational changes from that previously reported. The primary design changes are (1) compression seals in the specimen holes of the beryllium holders, and (2) oxide-dispersion strengthened aluminum alloy (DISPAL) specimen sleeves in all holders. Details of the capsule design are presented in the previous issue of this publication. Four, axially displaced temperature zones are independently controlled. Holder temperatures are monitored by thermocouples and controlled by a combination of adjustable temperature control gas mixtures and auxiliary heaters. The high temperature holders are located in the center of the experimental region, which is centered on the reactor mid-plane, and the low temperature holders are located at the ends of the experimental region.

  6. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  7. Manipulation of Samples at Extreme Temperatures for Fast in-situ Synchrotron Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Richard [Materials Development, Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States)

    2016-04-22

    An aerodynamic sample levitation system with laser beam heating was integrated with the APS beamlines 6 ID-D, 11 ID-C and 20 BM-B. The new capability enables in-situ measurements of structure and XANES at extreme temperatures (300-3500 °C) and in conditions that completely avoid contact with container surfaces. In addition to maintaining a high degree of sample purity, the use of aerodynamic levitation enables deep supercooling and greatly enhanced glass formation from a wide variety of melts and liquids. Development and integration of controlled extreme sample environments and new measurement techniques is an important aspect of beamline operations and user support. Processing and solidifying liquids is a critical value-adding step in manufacturing semiconductors, optical materials, metals and in the operation of many energy conversion devices. Understanding structural evolution is of fundamental importance in condensed materials, geology, and biology. The new capability provides unique possibilities for materials research and helps to develop and maintain a competitive materials manufacturing and energy utilization industry. Test samples were used to demonstrate key features of the capability including experiments on hot crystalline materials, liquids at temperatures from about 500 to 3500 °C. The use of controlled atmospheres using redox gas mixtures enabled in-situ changes in the oxidation states of cations in melts. Significant innovations in this work were: (i) Use of redox gas mixtures to adjust the oxidation state of cations in-situ (ii) Operation with a fully enclosed system suitable for work with nuclear fuel materials (iii) Making high quality high energy in-situ x-ray diffraction measurements (iv) Making high quality in-situ XANES measurements (v) Publishing high impact results (vi) Developing independent funding for the research on nuclear materials This SBIR project work led to a commercial instrument product for the niche market of processing and

  8. Analogue demonstration of a high temperature superconducting sigma-delta modulator with 27 GHz sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrester, M.G.; Hunt, B.D.; Miller, D.L.; Talvacchio, J.; Young, R.M. [Northrop Grumman Science and Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15235-5098 (United States)

    1999-11-01

    We have successfully fabricated and tested a high temperature superconducting (HTS) sigma-delta modulator for analogue-to-digital conversion. This is the first demonstration of a GHz sampling A-to-D in HTS. The 15-junction single-flux-quantum (SFQ) circuit, fabricated using an epitaxial multilayer HTS process with YBCO/Co-YBCO/YBCO edge junctions, was internally clocked at 27 GHz and used to convert a 5.01 MHz signal. The modulator demonstrated a spur-free dynamic range of more than 75 dB. Two-tone measurements with 5.01 MHz and 5.51 MHz signals demonstrated third-order intermodulation products to be lower than -59 dBc. Demonstration of a functional HTS modulator represents a significant milestone in the development of high dynamic range ADCs suitable for such applications as surveillance radar. (author)

  9. Simultaneous Effects of Total Solids Content, Milk Base, Heat Treatment Temperature and Sample Temperature on the Rheological Properties of Plain Stirred Yogurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attilio Converti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology was used to establish a relationship between total solids content, milk base, heat treatment temperature, and sample temperature, and consistency index, flow behaviour index, and apparent viscosity of plain stirred yogurts. Statistical treatments resulted in developments of mathematical models. All samples presented shear thinning fluid behaviour. The increase of the content of total solids (9.3–22.7 % and milk base heat treatment temperature (81.6–98.4 °C resulted in a significant increase in consistency index and a decrease in flow behaviour index. Increase in the sample temperature (1.6–18.4 °C caused a decrease in consistency index and increase in flow behaviour index. Apparent viscosity was directly related to the content of total solids. Rheological properties of yogurt were highly dependent on the content of total solids in milk.

  10. Fitted temperature-corrected Compton cross sections for Monte Carlo applications and a sampling distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienke, B.R.; Devaney, J.J.; Lathrop, B.L.

    1984-01-01

    Simple temperature-corrected cross sections, which replace the static Klein-Nishina set in a one-to-one manner, are developed for Monte Carlo applications. The reduced set is obtained from a nonlinear least-squares fit to the exact photon-Maxwellian electron cross sections by using a Klein-Nishina-like formula as the fitting equation. Two parameters are sufficient, and accurate to two decimal places, to explicitly fit the exact cross sections over a range of 0 to 100 keV in electron temperature and 0 to 1 MeV in incident photon energy. Since the fit equations are Klein-Nishina-like, existing Monte Carlo code algorithms using the Klein-Nishina formula can be trivially modified to accommodate corrections for a moving Maxwellian electron background. The simple two parameter scheme and other fits are presented and discussed and comparisons with exact predictions are exhibited. The fits are made to the total photon-Maxwellian electron cross section and the fitting parameters can be consistently used in both the energy conservation equation for photon-electron scattering and the differential cross section, as they are presently sampled in Monte Carlo photonics applications. The fit equations are motivated in a very natural manner by the asymptotic expansion of the exact photon-Maxwellian effective cross-section kernel. A probability distribution is also obtained for the corrected set of equations

  11. A large deviation principle in H\\"older norm for multiple fractional integrals

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz-Solé, Marta; Torrecilla-Tarantino, Iván

    2007-01-01

    For a fractional Brownian motion $B^H$ with Hurst parameter $H\\in]{1/4},{1/2}[\\cup]{1/2},1[$, multiple indefinite integrals on a simplex are constructed and the regularity of their sample paths are studied. Then, it is proved that the family of probability laws of the processes obtained by replacing $B^H$ by $\\epsilon^{{1/2}} B^H$ satisfies a large deviation principle in H\\"older norm. The definition of the multiple integrals relies upon a representation of the fractional Brownian motion in t...

  12. Multilevel stake holder consensus building in radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreimanis, Andrejs

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The increased demand of our society to its quality of life, global security and environmental safety as well as to observing a basic ethical principle of equity have advanced our attitude towards the recent proposals to develop shared multinational projects in the use of nuclear energy technologies, in particular, to: a) Siting of shared deep repositories for high-level radioactive waste (RW) and spent nuclear fuel safe disposal. In turn, arrangement of multinational facilities requires to gain more complex consensus between all involved parties. Method: We propose an interdisciplinary synergetic approach to multilevel consensus building for siting and construction of shared multinational repositories for RW deep disposal, based on self-organization (SO) of various stake holders, chaos and fuzziness concepts as well as Ashby principle of requisite variety. In the siting of a multi-national repository there appears an essential novel component of stake holder consensus building, namely: to reach consent - political, social, economic, ecological - among international partners, in addition to solving the whole set of intra-national consensus building items. An entire partnering country is considered as a national stake holder, represented by the national government, being faced to simultaneous seeking an upward (international) and a downward (intra-national) consensus in a psychologically stressed environment, having possibly diverse political, economic and social interests. Main Results: Following inferences about building of multilevel consensus are developed: 1) The basis of synergetic approach to stake holder interaction - informational SO, by forming a knowledge-creating stake holder community via cooperation and competition among individuals, public bodies/groups, companies, institutions; 2) Building of international stake holder consensus could be promoted by activating and diversifying multilateral interactions between intra- and international stake

  13. Impact of temperature and time storage on the microbial detection of oral samples by Checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Cássio; dos Santos, Janine Navarro; Pedrazzi, Vinícius; Pita, Murillo Sucena; Monesi, Nadia; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria; de Albuquerque, Rubens Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Molecular diagnosis methods have been largely used in epidemiological or clinical studies to detect and quantify microbial species that may colonize the oral cavity in healthy or disease. The preservation of genetic material from samples remains the major challenge to ensure the feasibility of these methodologies. Long-term storage may compromise the final result. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of temperature and time storage on the microbial detection of oral samples by Checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. Saliva and supragingival biofilm were taken from 10 healthy subjects, aliquoted (n=364) and processed according to proposed protocols: immediate processing and processed after 2 or 4 weeks, and 6 or 12 months of storage at 4°C, -20°C and -80°C. Either total or individual microbial counts were recorded in lower values for samples processed after 12 months of storage, irrespective of temperatures tested. Samples stored up to 6 months at cold temperatures showed similar counts to those immediately processed. The microbial incidence was also significantly reduced in samples stored during 12 months in all temperatures. Temperature and time of oral samples storage have relevant impact in the detection and quantification of bacterial and fungal species by Checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization method. Samples should be processed immediately after collection or up to 6 months if conserved at cold temperatures to avoid false-negative results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cryogen free high magnetic field and low temperature sample environments for neutron scattering - latest developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgoyne, John

    2016-01-01

    Continuous progress has been made over many years now in the provision of low- and ultra-low temperature sample environments, together with new high-field superconducting magnets and increased convenience for both the user and the neutron research facility via new cooling technologies. Within Oxford Instrument's experience, this has been achieved in many cases through close collaboration with neutron scientists, and with the neutron facilities' sample environment leaders in particular. Superconducting magnet designs ranging from compact Small Angle (SANS) systems up to custom-engineered wide-angle scattering systems have been continuously developed. Recondensing, or 'zero boil-off' (ZBO), systems are well established for situations in which a high field magnet is not conducive to totally cryogen free cooling solutions, and offer a reliable route with the best trade-offs of maximum system capability versus running costs and user convenience. Fully cryogen free solutions for cryostats, dilution refrigerators, and medium-field magnets are readily available. Here we will present the latest technology developments in these options, describing the state-of-the art, the relative advantages of each, and the opportunities they offer to the neutron science community. (author)

  15. Design for a low temperature ion implantation and luminescence cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noonan, J.R.; Kirkpatrick, C.G.; Myers, D.R.; Streetman, B.G.

    1976-01-01

    Several simple design changes of a conventional liquid helium optical Dewar can significantly improve the cryostat's versatility for use in low temperature particle irradiation. A bellows assembly provides precise sample positioning and allows convenient access for electrical connections. A heat exchanger consisting of thin walled tubing with a 'goose neck' bend provides a simple, effective means of cooling the sample as well as excellent thermal isolation of the sample holder from the coolant reservoir during controlled anneals. The addition of a vane-type vacuum valve, optical windows, and a rotatable tailpiece facilitates the study of optical properties of materials following low temperature ion implantation. (author)

  16. Effect of Holder pasteurization and frozen storage on macronutrients and energy content of breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Lara, Nadia Raquel; Vieco, Diana Escuder; De la Cruz-Bértolo, Javier; Lora-Pablos, David; Velasco, Noelia Ureta; Pallás-Alonso, Carmen Rosa

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effect of Holder pasteurization and frozen storage at -20°C after pasteurization on fat, total nitrogen, lactose, and energy content of breast milk. Both procedures are routinely practiced in human milk banks. A total of 34 samples of frozen breast milk, donated by 28 women, were collected. Once thawed, an aliquot of each sample was analyzed before pasteurization; the remaining milk was pasteurized (Holder method) and split into 8 aliquots. One aliquot was analyzed after pasteurization and the remainder frozen at -20°C and analyzed 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180 days later. For every aliquot, fat, total nitrogen, lactose, and energy content were determined using the device human Milk Analyzer. We observed a significant reduction in fat (3.5%; -0.17 (-0.29; -0.04) g/dL) and energy content (2.8%; -2.03 (-3.60; -0.46) g/dL) after pasteurization. A significant decrease over time was observed for fat, lactose and energy content. No significant changes were observed for nitrogen content. Mean differences between day 0 postpasteurization and day 180 were -0.13 (-0.21; -0.06) g/dL for fat, -0.08 (-0.13; -0.03) g/dL for lactose, and -1.55 (-2.38; -0.71) kcal/dL for energy content. The relative decreases were 2.8%, 1.7%, and 2.2%, respectively. Overall (postpasteurization + frozen storage), a 6.2% and 5% decrease were observed for fat and energy, respectively. Holder pasteurization decreased fat and energy content of human milk. Frozen storage at -20°C of pasteurized milk significantly reduced fat, lactose, and energy content of human milk.

  17. Choosing health: qualitative evidence from the experiences of personal health budget holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jacqueline; Baxter, Kate; Glendinning, Caroline; Irvine, Annie

    2013-10-01

    Personal health budgets were piloted in the English National Health Service between 2009 and 2012. Semi-structured interviews with a sub-sample of early budget holders aimed to explore their experiences of receiving and using a budget. Over 2000 people from 20 pilot sites were recruited to a multi-method evaluation of the personal health budget pilots. A sub-sample of 58 people was selected for qualitative interviews three months after the offer of a budget; 52 were re-interviewed six months later. The purposively selected sample reflected a range of health conditions, locality, age and gender. Personal health budgets were reported to have positive impacts on health, health care and relatives/family. Benefits often extended beyond the condition for which the budget had been awarded. However, interviewees rarely knew the level of their budget; some reported difficulty in agreeing acceptable uses for their budget; and delays could occur in procuring chosen services or equipment. Patients' experiences offer valuable insights for the roll-out of personal health budgets beyond the pilot phase. Flexibility in how budgets are used may allow maximum benefits to be derived. Clear information about what budgets can and cannot be used for, with suggestions offered, will be useful. People with newly diagnosed or recent sudden onset conditions may need more help to plan their support, but all budget holders are likely to benefit from regular contact with staff for reassurance and continued motivation.

  18. 30 CFR 250.1010 - General requirements for pipeline right-of-way holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... United States or its lessees or right-of-way holders, as the case may be, the full value of all damages...). The right-of-way holder shall make available all records relative to the design, construction... site. Furthermore, the holder is responsible for accidents or damages which might occur as a result of...

  19. 77 FR 69650 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Holders or Containers Which Enter the United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... Activities: Holders or Containers Which Enter the United States Duty Free AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... information collection requirement concerning the Holders or Containers which Enter the United States Duty... concerning the following information collection: Title: Holders or Containers which Enter the United States...

  20. Method of determining coking temperature of coke. [Experimental method of determining final coking temperature using a small sample and calibration graph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mel' nichuk, A.Yu.; Bondarenko, A.K.; Fialkov, B.S.; Khegay, L.U.; Khvan, L.A.; Muzyzhuk, V.D.; Zakharov, A.G.; Zelenskiy, V.P.

    1985-01-01

    The coking temperature of coke should be determined from the magnitude of the ionization current of the medium during heating (3/sup 0//min) of a coke sample (2 g, fraction < 0.2 mm) in an oxidation medium with air supply (1 1/min). The coking temperature is determined from the maximum magnitude of current using a graduated graph constructed during analysis of coke samples obtained with different final coking temperatures. The discrepancy between the established coking temperature and that defined from the proposed method is 8-19/sup 0/, and that defined from electrical resistance of coke is 26-43/sup 0/. In addition to high accuracy, this method reduces the time outlays for making the analysis.

  1. Apparatus for sectioning demountable semiconductor samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopori, B.L.; Wolf, A.

    1984-01-01

    Apparatus for use during polishing and sectioning operations of a ribbon sample is described. The sample holder includes a cylinder having an axially extending sample cavity terminated in a first funnel-shaped opening and a second slot-like opening. A spring-loaded pressure plunger is located adjacent the second opening of the sample cavity for frictional engagement of the sample cavity. A heat softenable molding medium is inserted in the funnel-shaped opening, to surround the sample. After polishing, the heater is energized to allow draining of the molding medium from the sample cavity. During manual polishing, the second end of the sample holder is inserted in a support ring which provides mechanical support as well as alignment of the sample holder during polishing. A gauge block for measuring the protrusion of a sample beyond the second wall of the holder is also disclosed.

  2. Smart Farming: Including Rights Holders for Responsible Agricultural Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly Bronson

    2018-01-01

    This article draws on the literature of responsible innovation to suggest concrete processes for including rights holders in the “smart” agricultural revolution. It first draws upon historical agricultural research in Canada to highlight how productivist values drove seed innovations with particular consequences for the distribution of power in the food system. Next, the article uses document analysis to suggest that a similar value framework is motivating public investment in smart farming i...

  3. A new cryostat for precise temperature control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, B.; Zhou, G.; Liu, L. Q.; Zhang, X.; Xiong, L. Y.; Li, Q.

    2013-09-01

    Gifford-McMahon (GM) cryocoolers are often used in cryostat as cold sources. It has advantages of simple structure and low operating cost as well as disadvantages of vibration and temperature oscillation, which are fatal for some applications that are very sensitive to temperature stability at low temperature. To solve the problem, a thermal analysis model which is used to simulate heat transfer in the cryostat is built and discussed. According to the analysis results, a cryostat that can provide variable temperature (4-20 K) for the accurate temperature control experiments is designed and manufactured. In this cryostat, a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) sheet is used as a thermal damper to reduce the temperature oscillation, with which, the temperature oscillation of the sample cooling holder is less than 4 mK at the 20 K region.

  4. Effects of coagulation temperature on measurements of complement function in serum samples from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, G; Sturfelt, G; Junker, A

    1992-01-01

    Blood samples from 15 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and 15 healthy blood donors were allowed to coagulate for one hour at room temperature, followed by one hour at 4 or 37 degrees C. The complement activity of the serum samples was assessed by three different functional assays...

  5. Temperature-dependent magnetic properties of individual glass spherules, Apollo 11, 12, and 14 lunar samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, A. N.; Sullivan, S.; Alexander, C. C.; Senftle, F. E.; Dwornik, E. J.

    1972-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibility of 11 glass spherules from the Apollo 14 lunar fines have been measured from room temperature to 4 K. Data taken at room temperature, 77 K, and 4.2 K, show that the soft saturation magnetization was temperature independent. In the temperature range 300 to 77 K the temperature-dependent component of the magnetic susceptibility obeys the Curie law. Susceptibility measurements on these same specimens and in addition 14 similar spherules from the Apollo 11 and 12 mission show a Curie-Weiss relation at temperatures less than 77 K with a Weiss temperature of 3-7 degrees in contrast to 2-3 degrees found for tektites and synthetic glasses of tektite composition. A proposed model and a theoretical expression closely predict the variation of the susceptibility of the glass spherules with temperature.

  6. Social Perception of Hydrogen Technologies: The View of Spanish Stake holders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferri Anglada, S.

    2013-01-01

    This technical report presents an overview of the social perception and vision of a sample of Spanish stake holders on hydrogen technologies. The study is based on the implementation of a survey, combining both quantitative and qualitative data. An ad hoc electronic survey was design to collect views and perceptions on several key factors regarding this innovative energy alternative. The group of experts participating (N=130) in the study, comes mainly from research centers, universities and private companies. The survey addresses three major themes: expert views, social acceptability, and contextual factors of hydrogen technologies. The aim is to capture both the current and the future scene as viewed by the experts on hydrogen technologies, identifying key factors in terms of changes, uncertainties, obstacles and opportunities. The objective is to identify potential key features for the introduction, development, promotion, implementation, and large-scale deployment of a highly successful energy proposal in countries such as Iceland, one of the pioneers in base its economy on hydrogen technologies. To conclude, this report illustrates the positive engagement of a sample of Spanish stake holders towards hydrogen technologies that may prove vital in the transition towards the Hydrogen Economy in Spain. (Author)

  7. Estimating Sampling Biases and Measurement Uncertainties of AIRS-AMSU-A Temperature and Water Vapor Observations Using MERRA Reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearty, Thomas J.; Savtchenko, Andrey K.; Tian, Baijun; Fetzer, Eric; Yung, Yuk L.; Theobald, Michael; Vollmer, Bruce; Fishbein, Evan; Won, Young-In

    2014-01-01

    We use MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research Applications) temperature and water vapor data to estimate the sampling biases of climatologies derived from the AIRS/AMSU-A (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A) suite of instruments. We separate the total sampling bias into temporal and instrumental components. The temporal component is caused by the AIRS/AMSU-A orbit and swath that are not able to sample all of time and space. The instrumental component is caused by scenes that prevent successful retrievals. The temporal sampling biases are generally smaller than the instrumental sampling biases except in regions with large diurnal variations, such as the boundary layer, where the temporal sampling biases of temperature can be +/- 2 K and water vapor can be 10% wet. The instrumental sampling biases are the main contributor to the total sampling biases and are mainly caused by clouds. They are up to 2 K cold and greater than 30% dry over mid-latitude storm tracks and tropical deep convective cloudy regions and up to 20% wet over stratus regions. However, other factors such as surface emissivity and temperature can also influence the instrumental sampling bias over deserts where the biases can be up to 1 K cold and 10% wet. Some instrumental sampling biases can vary seasonally and/or diurnally. We also estimate the combined measurement uncertainties of temperature and water vapor from AIRS/AMSU-A and MERRA by comparing similarly sampled climatologies from both data sets. The measurement differences are often larger than the sampling biases and have longitudinal variations.

  8. Time and temperature affect glycolysis in blood samples regardless of fluoride-based preservatives: a potential underestimation of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Mary; Daly, Niamh; O'Kelly, Ruth; Turner, Michael J

    2017-11-01

    Background The inhibition of glycolysis prior to glucose measurement is an important consideration when interpreting glucose tolerance tests. This is particularly important in gestational diabetes mellitus where prompt diagnosis and treatment is essential. A study was planned to investigate the effect of preservatives and temperature on glycolysis. Methods Blood samples for glucose were obtained from consented females. Lithium heparin and fluoride-EDTA samples transported rapidly in ice slurry to the laboratory were analysed for glucose concentration and then held either in ice slurry or at room temperature for varying time intervals. Paired fluoride-citrate samples were received at room temperature and held at room temperature, with analysis at similar time intervals. Results No significant difference was noted between mean glucose concentrations when comparing different sample types received in ice slurry. The mean glucose concentrations decreased significantly for both sets of samples when held at room temperature (0.4 mmol/L) and in ice slurry (0.2 mmol/L). A review of patient glucose tolerance tests reported in our hospital indicated that 17.8% exceeded the recommended diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus. It was predicted that if the results of fasting samples were revised to reflect the effect of glycolysis at room temperature, the adjusted diagnostic rate could increase to 35.3%. Conclusion Preanalytical handling of blood samples for glucose analysis is vital. Fluoride-EDTA is an imperfect antiglycolytic, even when the samples are transported and analysed rapidly provides such optimal conditions. The use of fluoride-citrate tubes may offer a viable alternative in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus.

  9. Influence of sample temperature on the expansion dynamics and the optical emission of laser-induced plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eschlböck-Fuchs, S.; Haslinger, M.J.; Hinterreiter, A.; Kolmhofer, P.; Huber, N. [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Laser-Assisted Diagnostics, Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Rössler, R. [voestalpine Stahl GmbH, A-4031 Linz (Austria); Heitz, J. [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Laser-Assisted Diagnostics, Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Pedarnig, J.D., E-mail: johannes.pedarnig@jku.at [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Laser-Assisted Diagnostics, Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria)

    2013-09-01

    We investigate the influence of sample temperature on the dynamics and optical emission of laser induced plasma for various solid materials. Bulk aluminum alloy, silicon wafer, and metallurgical slag samples are heated to temperature T{sub S} ≤ 500 °C and ablated in air by Nd:YAG laser pulses (wavelength 1064 nm, pulse duration approx. 7 ns). The plasma dynamics is investigated by fast time-resolved photography. For laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) the optical emission of plasma is measured by Echelle spectrometers in combination with intensified CCD cameras. For all sample materials the temporal evolution of plume size and broadband plasma emission vary systematically with T{sub S}. The size and brightness of expanding plumes increase at higher T{sub S} while the mean intensity remains independent of temperature. The intensity of emission lines increases with temperature for all samples. Plasma temperature and electron number density do not vary with T{sub S}. We apply the calibration-free LIBS method to determine the concentration of major oxides in slag and find good agreement to reference data up to T{sub S} = 450 °C. The LIBS analysis of multi-component materials at high temperature is of interest for technical applications, e.g. in industrial production processes. - Highlights: • Size and emission of laser-induced plasma increase with sample temperature Ts. • Mean optical intensity of plasma is independent of Ts. • Plasma temperature and electron number density do not vary with Ts. • Major oxides in steel slag are quantified up to Ts = 450 °C. • Industrial steel slags are analyzed by calibration-free LIBS method.

  10. The R&D of HTGR high temperature helium sampling loop: From HTR-10 to HTR-PM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Chao, E-mail: fangchao@tsinghua.edu.cn [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); The Key Laboratory of Advanced Reactor Engineering and Safety of Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Bao, Xuyin; Yang, Chen; Yang, Yanran; Cao, Jianzhu [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); The Key Laboratory of Advanced Reactor Engineering and Safety of Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-09-15

    A High Temperature Helium Sampling Loop (HTHSL) for studying the transportation (deposition) behavior and total amount of solid fission products in high-temperature helium coming from the steam generator (SG) in the 10 MW High Temperature Gas-cooled Test Reactor (HTR-10) and High Temperature Reactor-Pebble bed Modules (HTR-PM) are researched and designed, respectively. Through the optimal design and simulation based on thermohydraulics analysis, the three-sleeve structure of deposition sampling device (DSD) could realize full-length temperature control evenly so that it could be used to study fission products in the primary circuit of HTR-10. On the other hand, an improved DSD is also designed for HTR-PM based on corresponding simulations, which could be used to sample the important nuclei in the high temperature helium from SG. These schemes offer two different methods to obtain the original source term in the high temperature helium, which will provide deeper understanding for the analysis of source terms of HTGR.

  11. Estimation of effective temperatures in quantum annealers for sampling applications: A case study with possible applications in deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Marcello; Realpe-Gómez, John; Biswas, Rupak; Perdomo-Ortiz, Alejandro

    2016-08-01

    An increase in the efficiency of sampling from Boltzmann distributions would have a significant impact on deep learning and other machine-learning applications. Recently, quantum annealers have been proposed as a potential candidate to speed up this task, but several limitations still bar these state-of-the-art technologies from being used effectively. One of the main limitations is that, while the device may indeed sample from a Boltzmann-like distribution, quantum dynamical arguments suggest it will do so with an instance-dependent effective temperature, different from its physical temperature. Unless this unknown temperature can be unveiled, it might not be possible to effectively use a quantum annealer for Boltzmann sampling. In this work, we propose a strategy to overcome this challenge with a simple effective-temperature estimation algorithm. We provide a systematic study assessing the impact of the effective temperatures in the learning of a special class of a restricted Boltzmann machine embedded on quantum hardware, which can serve as a building block for deep-learning architectures. We also provide a comparison to k -step contrastive divergence (CD-k ) with k up to 100. Although assuming a suitable fixed effective temperature also allows us to outperform one-step contrastive divergence (CD-1), only when using an instance-dependent effective temperature do we find a performance close to that of CD-100 for the case studied here.

  12. Elevated body temperature is linked to fatigue in an Italian sample of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, V M; De Meo, E; Riccitelli, G; Rocca, M A; Comi, G; Filippi, M; Sumowski, J F

    2015-11-01

    Elevated body temperature was recently reported for the first time in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) relative to healthy controls. In addition, warmer body temperature was associated with worse fatigue. These findings are highly novel, may indicate a novel pathophysiology for MS fatigue, and therefore warrant replication in a geographically separate sample. Here, we investigated body temperature and its association to fatigue in an Italian sample of 44 RRMS patients and 44 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Consistent with our original report, we found elevated body temperature in the RRMS sample compared to healthy controls. Warmer body temperature was associated with worse fatigue, thereby supporting the notion of endogenous temperature elevations in patients with RRMS as a novel pathophysiological factor underlying fatigue. Our findings highlight a paradigm shift in our understanding of the effect of heat in RRMS, from exogenous (i.e., Uhthoff's phenomenon) to endogenous. Although randomized controlled trials of cooling treatments (i.e., aspirin, cooling garments) to reduce fatigue in RRMS have been successful, consideration of endogenously elevated body temperature as the underlying target will enhance our development of novel treatments.

  13. Temperature measurement of the reactor materials samples irradiated in the fuel channels of the RA reactor - Annex 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolic, M.; Djalovic, M.

    1964-01-01

    Reactor materials as graphite, stainless steel, magnox, zirconium alloys, etc. were exposed to fast neutron flux inside the fuel elements specially adapted for this purpose. Samples in the form ampoules were placed in capsules inside the fuel channels and cooled by heavy water which cools the fuel elements. In order to monitor the samples temperature 42 thermocouples were placed in the samples. That was necessary for reactor safety reasons and for further interpretation of measured results. Temperature monitoring was done continuously by multichannel milivoltmeters. This paper describes the technique of introducing the thermocouples, compensation instruments, control of the cold ends and adaptation of the instruments for precision (0.5%) temperature measurement in the range 30 deg - 130 deg C; 30 deg - 280 deg C and 30 deg - 80 deg C [sr

  14. Evaluation of the maxillary premolar roots dissociation using radiographic holders with conventional and digital radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Regina Ramalho da Silva Bardauil

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This in vivo study evaluated the dissociation quality of maxillary premolar roots combining variations of vertical and horizontal angulations by using X-ray holders (Rinn -XCP, and made a comparison between two types of intraoral radiography systems - conventional film (Kodak Insight, Rochester, USA and digital radiography (Kodak RVG 6100, Kodak, Rochester, USA. The study sample was comprised of 20 patients with a total of 20 maxillary premolars that were radiographed, using the paralleling angle technique (GP, with a 20º variation of the horizontal angle (GM and 25º variation of the horizontal angle combined with 15º vertical angle (GMV. Each image was independently analyzed by two experienced examiners. These examiners assigned a score to the diagnostic capability of root dissociation and the measurement of the distance between the apexes. Statistical data was derived using the Wilcoxon Signed Rank test, Friedman and T test. The means of the measured distances between buccal and lingual root apexes were greater for the GMV, which ranged from 2.3 mm to 3.3 mm. A statistically significant difference was found between GM and GMV when compared to GP with p < 0.01. An established best diagnostic dissociation roots image was found in the GMV. These results support the use of the anterior X-ray holders which offer a better combined deviation (GMV to dissociate maxillary premolar roots in both radiography systems.

  15. Custom Fit 3D-Printed Brain Holders for Comparison of Histology with MRI in Marmosets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Joseph R.; Sati, Pascal; Leibovitch, Emily; Jacobson, Steven; Silva, Afonso C.; Reich, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    Background MRI has the advantage of sampling large areas of tissue and locating areas of interest in 3D space in both living and ex vivo systems, whereas histology has the ability to examine thin slices of ex vivo tissue with high detail and specificity. Although both are valuable tools, it is currently difficult to make high-precision comparisons between MRI and histology due to large differences inherent to the techniques. A method combining the advantages would be an asset to understanding the pathological correlates of MRI. New Method 3D-printed brain holders were used to maintain marmoset brains in the same orientation during acquisition of ex vivo MRI and pathologic cutting of the tissue. Results The results of maintaining this same orientation show that sub-millimeter, discrete neuropathological features in marmoset brain consistently share size, shape, and location between histology and ex vivo MRI, which facilitates comparison with serial imaging acquired in vivo. Comparison with Existing Methods Existing methods use computational approaches sensitive to data input in order to warp histologic images to match large-scale features on MRI, but the new method requires no warping of images, due to a preregistration accomplished in the technique, and is insensitive to data formatting and artifacts in both MRI and histology. Conclusions The simple method of using 3D-printed brain holders to match brain orientation during pathologic sectioning and MRI acquisition enables rapid and precise comparison of small features seen on MRI to their underlying histology. PMID:26365332

  16. Effect of Holder pasteurization on macronutrients and immunoglobulin profile of pooled donor human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhisivam, B; Vishnu Bhat, B; Rao, Krishna; Kingsley, S M; Plakkal, Nishad; Palanivel, C

    2018-03-27

    The objective of this study was to study the effect of Holder pasteurization on macronutrients and immunoglobulin profile of pooled donor human milk. This descriptive study was conducted in a Human Milk Bank of a tertiary care teaching institute in south India. Thirty random paired pooled donor human milk samples (before and after pasteurization) were analyzed for macronutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrates) using infrared spectroscopy. Similarly, immunoglobulin profile (IgA and IgG) before and after pasteurization was quantified using ELISA. The mean values of protein, fat, and carbohydrates in pooled donor milk pre-pasteurization were 1.6, 3.6, and 6.1 g/dl compared with post-pasteurization values 1.4, 2.7, and 5.9 g/dl, respectively. Pasteurization reduced protein, fat, and energy content of pooled donor milk by 12.5%, 25%, and 16%, respectively. However, carbohydrates were not significantly reduced. Pasteurization decreased IgA by 30% and IgG by 60%. Holder pasteurization of pooled donor human milk decreases protein, fat, and energy content and also reduces the levels of IgA and IgG.

  17. Custom fit 3D-printed brain holders for comparison of histology with MRI in marmosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Joseph R; Sati, Pascal; Leibovitch, Emily; Jacobson, Steven; Silva, Afonso C; Reich, Daniel S

    2016-01-15

    MRI has the advantage of sampling large areas of tissue and locating areas of interest in 3D space in both living and ex vivo systems, whereas histology has the ability to examine thin slices of ex vivo tissue with high detail and specificity. Although both are valuable tools, it is currently difficult to make high-precision comparisons between MRI and histology due to large differences inherent to the techniques. A method combining the advantages would be an asset to understanding the pathological correlates of MRI. 3D-printed brain holders were used to maintain marmoset brains in the same orientation during acquisition of ex vivo MRI and pathologic cutting of the tissue. The results of maintaining this same orientation show that sub-millimeter, discrete neuropathological features in marmoset brain consistently share size, shape, and location between histology and ex vivo MRI, which facilitates comparison with serial imaging acquired in vivo. Existing methods use computational approaches sensitive to data input in order to warp histologic images to match large-scale features on MRI, but the new method requires no warping of images, due to a preregistration accomplished in the technique, and is insensitive to data formatting and artifacts in both MRI and histology. The simple method of using 3D-printed brain holders to match brain orientation during pathologic sectioning and MRI acquisition enables rapid and precise comparison of small features seen on MRI to their underlying histology. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Breakdown of the independent electron picture in mesoscopic samples at low temperatures: The hunt for the Unicorn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, R. A.

    1998-03-01

    A variety of experiments are discussed where, at low temperatures, it appears that the non-interacting picture of electrons in a Fermi liquid description of a mesoscopic sample is breaking down. Specifically, experiments on the temperature dependence of the phase-coherence time, energy relaxation rate, spin-flip scattering time, persistent currents in normal metals and transmission through a barrier in the fractional quantum Hall regime all display low-temperature properties which can not be accounted for in the independent electron picture.

  19. Smart Farming: Including Rights Holders for Responsible Agricultural Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Bronson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article draws on the literature of responsible innovation to suggest concrete processes for including rights holders in the “smart” agricultural revolution. It first draws upon historical agricultural research in Canada to highlight how productivist values drove seed innovations with particular consequences for the distribution of power in the food system. Next, the article uses document analysis to suggest that a similar value framework is motivating public investment in smart farming innovations. The article is of interest to smart farming’s decision makers (from farmers to governance actors and a broader audience – anyone interested in engendering equity through innovation-led societal transitions.

  20. [Complaints by private health insurance policy-holders to the Consumer Protection Bureau in Argentina, 2000-2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzuriaga, María José; Spinelli, Hugo

    2014-05-01

    This paper analyzes problems experienced by policy-holders of voluntary private health insurance plans in Argentina when insurance companies fail to comply with the Consumer Protection Code. The sample consisted of consumer complaints filed with the Consumer Protection Bureau and rulings by the Bureau from 2000 to 2008. One striking issue was recurrent non-compliance with services included in the Mandatory Medical Program and the companies' attempts to blame policy-holders. According to the study, the lack of an information system hinders scientific studies to adequately address the problem. Thus, a comparison with studies on health insurance in other Latin American countries highlighted the importance of such research, the relationship to health systems, constraints on use and denial of citizens' rights to healthcare, and the increasing judicialization of healthcare provision.

  1. Modeling of temperature profiles in an environmental transmission electron microscope using computational fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mølgaard Mortensen, Peter; Willum Hansen, Thomas; Birkedal Wagner, Jakob; Degn Jensen, Anker

    2015-01-01

    The temperature and velocity field, pressure distribution, and the temperature variation across the sample region inside an environmental transmission electron microscope (ETEM) have been modeled by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Heating the sample area by a furnace type TEM holder gives rise to temperature gradients over the sample area. Three major mechanisms have been identified with respect to heat transfer in the sample area: radiation from the grid, conduction in the grid, and conduction in the gas. A parameter sensitivity analysis showed that the sample temperature was affected by the conductivity of the gas, the emissivity of the sample grid, and the conductivity of the grid. Ideally the grid should be polished and made from a material with good conductivity, e.g. copper. With hydrogen gas, which has the highest conductivity of the gases studied, the temperature difference over the TEM grid is less than 5 °C, at what must be considered typical conditions, and it is concluded that the conditions on the sample grid in the ETEM can be considered as isothermal during general use. - Highlights: • Computational fluid dynamics used for mapping flow and temperature in ETEM setup. • Temperature gradient across TEM grid in furnace based heating holder very small in ETEM. • Conduction from TEM grid and gas in addition to radiation from TEM grid most important. • Pressure drop in ETEM limited to the pressure limiting apertures

  2. Low temperature X-ray diffraction studies of natural gas hydrate samples from the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawn, C.J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Div.; Sassen, R. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Geochemical and Environmental Research Group; Ulrich, S.M.; Phelps, T.J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Biosciences Div.; Chakoumakos, B.C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Neutron Scattering Science Div.; Payzant, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science

    2008-07-01

    Quantitative studies of natural clathrate hydrates are hampered by the difficulties associated with obtaining pristine samples for the sea floor without comprising their integrity. This paper discussed X-ray power diffraction studies conducted to measure natural gas hydrate samples obtained from the Green Canyon in the Gulf of Mexico. Data on the hydrate deposits were initially collected in 2002. The X-ray diffraction data were collected in order to examine the structure 2 (s2) gas hydrates as functions of temperature and time. A diffractometer with a theta-theta goniometer modified with a helium closed cycle refrigerator and temperature controller was used. Aragonite, quartz and halite phases were determined in the decomposed sample. Refined phase fractions for both the ice and the s2 hydrate were obtained as a function of temperature. Results of the study demonstrated that the amount of hydrates decreased with increasing temperatures and amounts of time. Large pieces of the hydrate showed heterogenous ice content. Dissociation rates were higher at lower temperatures. It was concluded that unusual trends observed for the smaller lattice parameter of the hydrates resulted from the formation of ice layers that acted as barriers to the released gases and caused increased isostatic pressures around the hydrate core. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Low-temperature dynamic nuclear polarization with helium-cooled samples and nitrogen-driven magic-angle spinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Kent; Tycko, Robert

    2016-03-01

    We describe novel instrumentation for low-temperature solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and magic-angle spinning (MAS), focusing on aspects of this instrumentation that have not been described in detail in previous publications. We characterize the performance of an extended interaction oscillator (EIO) microwave source, operating near 264 GHz with 1.5 W output power, which we use in conjunction with a quasi-optical microwave polarizing system and a MAS NMR probe that employs liquid helium for sample cooling and nitrogen gas for sample spinning. Enhancement factors for cross-polarized (13)C NMR signals in the 100-200 range are demonstrated with DNP at 25K. The dependences of signal amplitudes on sample temperature, as well as microwave power, polarization, and frequency, are presented. We show that sample temperatures below 30K can be achieved with helium consumption rates below 1.3 l/h. To illustrate potential applications of this instrumentation in structural studies of biochemical systems, we compare results from low-temperature DNP experiments on a calmodulin-binding peptide in its free and bound states. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Whole blood samples for adrenocorticotrophic hormone measurement can be stored at room temperature for 4 hours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette; Madsen, Rikke Fogt; Møller, Line Rosengreen

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the stability of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) in whole blood stored on ice and at room temperature for up to 48 hours. This study differs from previous studies by a larger data material. MATERIALS AND METHODS: EDTA-blood sa......INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the stability of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) in whole blood stored on ice and at room temperature for up to 48 hours. This study differs from previous studies by a larger data material. MATERIALS AND METHODS: EDTA......-blood samples from 30 patients were collected, aliquoted and stored on ice or at room temperature for 0, 2, 4, 24, or 48 h before centrifugation, and the plasma was stored frozen until analysis. All samples were analyzed using an automated electrochemiluminescence immunoassay on cobas 6000 e601. The change...

  5. Design and evaluation of a new Peltier-cooled laser ablation cell with on-sample temperature control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konz, Ioana; Fernández, Beatriz; Fernández, M Luisa; Pereiro, Rosario; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2014-01-27

    A new custom-built Peltier-cooled laser ablation cell is described. The proposed cryogenic cell combines a small internal volume (20 cm(3)) with a unique and reliable on-sample temperature control. The use of a flexible temperature sensor, directly located on the sample surface, ensures a rigorous sample temperature control throughout the entire analysis time and allows instant response to any possible fluctuation. In this way sample integrity and, therefore, reproducibility can be guaranteed during the ablation. The refrigeration of the proposed cryogenic cell combines an internal refrigeration system, controlled by a sensitive thermocouple, with an external refrigeration system. Cooling of the sample is directly carried out by 8 small (1 cm×1 cm) Peltier elements placed in a circular arrangement in the base of the cell. These Peltier elements are located below a copper plate where the sample is placed. Due to the small size of the cooling electronics and their circular allocation it was possible to maintain a peephole under the sample for illumination allowing a much better visualization of the sample, a factor especially important when working with structurally complex tissue sections. The analytical performance of the cryogenic cell was studied using a glass reference material (SRM NIST 612) at room temperature and at -20°C. The proposed cell design shows a reasonable signal washout (signal decay within less than 10 s to background level), high sensitivity and good signal stability (in the range 6.6-11.7%). Furthermore, high precision (0.4-2.6%) and accuracy (0.3-3.9%) in the isotope ratio measurements were also observed operating the cell both at room temperature and at -20°C. Finally, experimental results obtained for the cell application to qualitative elemental imaging of structurally complex tissue samples (e.g. eye sections from a native frozen porcine eye and fresh flower leaves) demonstrate that working in cryogenic conditions is critical in such

  6. Note: Low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope with detachable scanner and reliable transfer mechanism for tip and sample exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Weifeng; Wang, Jihao; Wang, Junting; Zhang, Jing; Hou, Yubin; Lu, Qingyou

    2017-12-01

    A homebuilt low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM) featuring a detachable scanner based on a double slider design, along with a reliable transfer mechanism for tip and sample exchange, is present. The coarse motor is decoupled from the scanner, which prevents the motor instabilities including vibrations and drifts from entering the tip-sample loop and thus improves the performance of the STM. In addition, in situ exchange of tips and samples can be implemented easily and reliably using a winch-type transfer mechanism. Atomically resolved images on graphite are demonstrated to show the performance of the proposed STM.

  7. Effect of the sample annealing temperature and sample crystallographic orientation on the charge kinetics of MgO single crystals subjected to keV electron irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughariou, A; Damamme, G; Kallel, A

    2015-04-01

    This paper focuses on the effect of sample annealing temperature and crystallographic orientation on the secondary electron yield of MgO during charging by a defocused electron beam irradiation. The experimental results show that there are two regimes during the charging process that are better identified by plotting the logarithm of the secondary electron emission yield, lnσ, as function of the total trapped charge in the material QT. The impact of the annealing temperature and crystallographic orientation on the evolution of lnσ is presented here. The slope of the asymptotic regime of the curve lnσ as function of QT, expressed in cm(2) per trapped charge, is probably linked to the elementary cross section of electron-hole recombination, σhole, which controls the trapping evolution in the reach of the stationary flow regime. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2014 Royal Microscopical Society.

  8. Field and sample history dependence of the compensation temperature in Sm0.97Gd0.03Al2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidya, U.V.; Rakhecha, V.C.; Sumithra, S.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Grover, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    We present magnetization data on three polycrystalline specimens of Sm 0.97 Gd 0.03 Al 2 : (1) as-cast (grainy texture), (2) powder, and (3) re-melted fast-quenched (plate). The data are presented for nominally zero- (ZFC) and high-field-cooling (HFC) histories. A zero cross-over in magnetization curve at some temperature T=T 0 was seen in ZFC data on grainy and powder samples, but not in the plate sample. At fields surpassing magnetocrystalline anisotropy, a 4f magnetic moment flip was still evidenced by HFC data in all samples at a compensation temperature T comp , which must necessarily be treated as distinct from T 0 (T 0 may not even exist). Proper understanding of T comp should take account of thermomagnetic history effects

  9. Micro-PIXE on thin plant tissue samples in frozen hydrated state: A novel addition to JSI nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavpetič, P.; Pelicon, P.; Vogel-Mikuš, K.; Grlj, N.; Pongrac, P.; Jeromel, L.; Ogrinc, N.; Regvar, M.

    2013-01-01

    Recently we completed a construction of a cryostat at Jožef Stefan Institute (JSI) nuclear microprobe enabling us to analyze various types of biological samples in frozen hydrated state using micro-PIXE/STIM/RBS. Sample load-lock system was added to our existing setup to enable us to quickly insert a sample holder with frozen hydrated tissue samples onto a cold goniometer head cooled with liquid nitrogen inside the measuring chamber. Cryotome-cut slices of frozen hydrated plant samples were mounted between two thin silicon nitride foils and then attached to the sample holder. Sufficient thermal contact between silicon nitride foils and sample holder must be achieved, as well as between the sample holder and the cold goniometer head inside the measuring chamber to prevent melting of the samples. Matrix composition of frozen hydrated tissue is consisted mostly of ice. Thinning of the sample as well as water evaporation during high vacuum and proton beam exposure was inspected by the measurements with RBS and STIM method simultaneously with micro-PIXE. For first measuring attempts a standard micro-PIXE configuration for tissue mapping was used with proton beam cross section of 1.2 × 1.2 μm 2 and a beam current of 100 pA. The temperature of the cold goniometer head was kept below 130 K throughout the entire proton beam exposure. First measurements of thin plant tissue samples in frozen hydrated state show minute sample degradation during the 10 h period of micro-PIXE measurements

  10. Winter temperature, salinity, oxygen, nutrients and isotopes data sampled by aircraft, April 2003 (NODC Accession 0059129)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Winter sampling was performed in the eastern area of the Shelf-Basin Interactions Project using aircraft. Flights began on 1 April 2003 and finished on 15 April....

  11. Field portable low temperature porous layer open tubular cryoadsorption headspace sampling and analysis part I: Instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Thomas J

    2016-01-15

    Building on the successful application in the laboratory of PLOT-cryoadsorption as a means of collecting vapor (or headspace) samples for chromatographic analysis, in this paper a field portable apparatus is introduced. This device fits inside of a briefcase (aluminum tool carrier), and can be easily transported by vehicle or by air. The portable apparatus functions entirely on compressed air, making it suitable for use in locations lacking electrical power, and for use in flammable and explosive environments. The apparatus consists of four aspects: a field capable PLOT-capillary platform, the supporting equipment platform, the service interface between the PLOT-capillary and the supporting equipment, and the necessary peripherals. Vapor sampling can be done with either a hand piece (containing the PLOT capillary) or with a custom fabricated standoff module. Both the hand piece and the standoff module can be heated and cooled to facilitate vapor collection and subsequent vapor sample removal. The service interface between the support platform and the sampling units makes use of a unique counter current approach that minimizes loss of cooling and heating due to heat transfer with the surroundings (recuperative thermostatting). Several types of PLOT-capillary elements and sampling probes are described in this report. Applications to a variety of samples relevant to forensic and environmental analysis are discussed in a companion paper. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Test sample handling apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A test sample handling apparatus using automatic scintillation counting for gamma detection, for use in such fields as radioimmunoassay, is described. The apparatus automatically and continuously counts large numbers of samples rapidly and efficiently by the simultaneous counting of two samples. By means of sequential ordering of non-sequential counting data, it is possible to obtain precisely ordered data while utilizing sample carrier holders having a minimum length. (U.K.)

  13. Stability of Drugs of Abuse in Urine Samples at Room Temperature by Use of a Salts Mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Manuela; Graziano, Silvia; Mastrobattista, Luisa; Minutillo, Adele; Busardo, Francesco Paolo; Scarsella, Gianfranco

    2017-01-01

    It has long been recognized that ensuring analyte stability is of crucial importance in the use of any quantitative bioanalytical method. As analyses are usually not performed directly after collection of the biological samples, but after these have been processed and stored, it is essential that analyte stability can be maintained at storage conditions to ensure that the obtained concentration results adequately reflect those directly after sampling. The conservation of urine samples in refrigerated/ frozen conditions is strongly recommended; but not always feasible. The aim of this study was to assess the stability of some well-known drugs of abuse methamphetamine (MA), 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH), benzoylecgonine (BE), and morphine (MOR) in urine samples kept at room temperature by adding a salt mixture (sodium citrate, sodium ascorbate, borax). Two different urine samples were prepared with and without salt mixture, stored at room temperature and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry at 0, 1, 7, 15, and 30 days after collection/preparation to look for eventual analyte degradation. Methamphetamine showed no significant changes with respect to the time of collection/ preparation (T0) up to 7 days later (T7), with or without salt mixture addiction. Then a significant degradation occurred in both salted and non salted urine. BE decrease was observed starting from day 1 after sample collection in salted and not salted samples, respectively. Salt addition seemed to reduce at least the initial BE degradation, with a significant difference (pstorage. However, the degradation was not more prevented in salted samples at 30 days of storage. A 20% decrease of MOR concentration was observed starting from day 1 after collection/preparation, both in salted and not salted samples with no subsequent decrease. With regard to THCCOOH, a significant decrease was observed starting from 7 days after collection/preparation, with of without

  14. Modeling of temperature profiles in an environmental transmission electron microscope using computational fluid dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter Mølgaard; Jensen, Anker Degn; Hansen, Thomas Willum

    2015-01-01

    The temperature and velocity field, pressure distribution, and the temperature variation across the sample region inside an environmental transmission electron microscope (ETEM) have been modeled by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Heating the sample area by a furnace type TEM holder...... gives rise to temperature gradients over the sample area. Three major mechanisms have been identified with respect to heat transfer in the sample area: radiation from the grid, conduction in the grid, and conduction in the gas. A parameter sensitivity analysis showed that the sample temperature...... was affected by the conductivity of the gas, the emissivity of the sample grid, and the conductivity of the grid. Ideally the grid should be polished and made from a material with good conductivity, e.g. copper. With hydrogen gas, which has the highest conductivity of the gases studied, the temperature...

  15. Update of NIST half-life results corrected for ionization chamber source-holder instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unterweger, M.P.; Fitzgerald, R.

    2014-01-01

    As reported at the ICRM 2011, it was discovered that the source holder used for calibrations in the NIST 4πγ ionization chamber (IC) was not stable. This has affected a large number of half-life measurement results previously reported and used in compilations of nuclear data. Corrections have been made on all of the half-life data based on the assumption that the changes to the ionization chamber response were gradual. The corrections are energy dependent and therefore radionuclide specific. This presentation will review our results and present the recommended changes in half-life values and/or uncertainties. - Highlights: • The NIST half-life data is corrected for sample positioning variations and refitted. • These results are reported and increased errors in the reported values are given. • Longer lived radionuclides are discussed

  16. Daily indoor-to-outdoor temperature and humidity relationships: a sample across seasons and diverse climatic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Jennifer L; Dockery, Douglas W

    2016-02-01

    The health consequences of heat and cold are usually evaluated based on associations with outdoor measurements collected at a nearby weather reporting station. However, people in the developed world spend little time outdoors, especially during extreme temperature events. We examined the association between indoor and outdoor temperature and humidity in a range of climates. We measured indoor temperature, apparent temperature, relative humidity, dew point, and specific humidity (a measure of moisture content in air) for one calendar year (2012) in a convenience sample of eight diverse locations ranging from the equatorial region (10 °N) to the Arctic (64 °N). We then compared the indoor conditions to outdoor values recorded at the nearest airport weather station. We found that the shape of the indoor-to-outdoor temperature and humidity relationships varied across seasons and locations. Indoor temperatures showed little variation across season and location. There was large variation in indoor relative humidity between seasons and between locations which was independent of outdoor airport measurements. On the other hand, indoor specific humidity, and to a lesser extent dew point, tracked with outdoor, airport measurements both seasonally and between climates, across a wide range of outdoor temperatures. These results suggest that, in general, outdoor measures of actual moisture content in air better capture indoor conditions than outdoor temperature and relative humidity. Therefore, in studies where water vapor is among the parameters of interest for examining weather-related health effects, outdoor measurements of actual moisture content can be more reliably used as a proxy for indoor exposure than the more commonly examined variables of temperature and relative humidity.

  17. Data analysis of a polycrystalline nickel sample obtained with neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parente, C.B.R.; Mazzochi, V.L.; Araujo Kaschny, J.R. de; Costa, M.S. da; Rizzo, P.; Campos, W.M.S.

    1990-01-01

    A simple analysis of the nickel structure was made. Neutron diffraction data were used, obtained with polycrystalline nickel placed in a cylindrical sample-holder with dimensions of 1,5cm of diameter and 5cm of height. The theoretical intensities were calculated of 3 forms: 1. without considering the temperature and obsorption effects, 2. considering only the temperature effect and 3. considering both the temperature and absorption effects. The disagreement factors found in this 3 cases were, respectively, R 1 = 13.4%, R 2 = 7,7% e R 3 = 7,5%. (L.C.)

  18. The Effect of Holder Pasteurization on Activin A Levels in Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peila, Chiara; Coscia, Alessandra; Bertino, Enrico; Li Volti, Giovanni; Galvano, Fabio; Barbagallo, Ignazio; Visser, Gerard H A; Gazzolo, Diego

    2016-11-01

    There is evidence that mother's own milk is the best nutrient in terms of multiorgan protection and infection prevention. However, when maternal milk is scarce, the solution can be represented by donor milk (DM), which requires specific storage procedures such as Holder Pasteurization (HoP). HoP is not free from side effects since it is widely known that it causes qualitative/quantitative changes in milk composition, particularly in the protein content. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of HoP on Activin A, a neurobiomarker known to play an important role in the development and protection of the central nervous system. In 24 mothers who delivered preterm (n = 12) and term (n = 12) healthy newborns, we conducted a pretest/test study where the milk donors acted as their own controls. Each sample was divided into two parts: the first was frozen at -80°C (Group 1); the second was Holder-pasteurized before freezing at -80°C (Group 2). Activin A was quantified using an ELISA test. Activin A was detected in all samples. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the two groups, also when the analysis was stratified for gestational age at delivery and milk maturation degree (p > 0.05, for both). The present findings on the absence of any side effects of HoP on the milk concentration of Activin A offer additional support to the efficacy of HoP in DM storage. Our data open up to further investigations on neurobiomarkers' assessment in human milk and their preanalytical stability according to storage procedures.

  19. Task 08/41, Low temperature loop at the RA reactor, Review IV - Maximum temperature values in the samples without forced cooling; Zadatak 08/41, Niskotemperaturna petlja u reaktoru 'RA', Pregled IV - Maksimalne temperature u uzorcima bez prinudnog hladjenja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaric, Z [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1961-12-15

    The quantity of heat generated in the sample was calculated in the Review III. In stationary regime the heat is transferred through the air layer between the sample and the wall of the channel to the heavy water of graphite. Certain value of maximum temperature t{sub 0} is achieved in the sample. The objective of this review is determination of this temperature. [Serbo-Croat] Kolicina toplote generisana u uzorku, izracunata u pregledu III, u ravnoteznom stanju odvodi se kroz vazdusni sloj izmedju uzorka i zida kanala na tesku vodu odnosno grafit, pri cemu se u uzorku dostize izvesna maksimalna temperatura t{sub 0}. Odredjivanje ove temperature je predmet ovog pregleda.

  20. Quantitative determination of the specific heat and the glass transition of moist samples by temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubnell, M; Schawe, J E

    2001-04-17

    In differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), remnant moisture loss in samples often overlaps and distorts other thermal events, e.g. glass transitions. To separate such overlapping processes, temperature modulated DSC (TMDSC) has been widely used. In this contribution we discuss the quantitative determination of the heat capacity of a moist sample from TMDSC measurements. The sample was a spray-dried pharmaceutical compound run in different pans (hermetically-sealed pan, pierced lid pan [50 microm] and open pan). The apparent heat capacity was corrected for the remaining amount of moisture. Using this procedure we could clearly identify the glass transition of the dry and the moist sample. We found that a moisture content of about 6.2% shifts the glass transition by about 50 degrees C.

  1. Effects of Low-Temperature Plasma-Sterilization on Mars Analog Soil Samples Mixed with Deinococcus radiodurans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janosch Schirmack

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We used Ar plasma-sterilization at a temperature below 80 °C to examine its effects on the viability of microorganisms when intermixed with tested soil. Due to a relatively low temperature, this method is not thought to affect the properties of a soil, particularly its organic component, to a significant degree. The method has previously been shown to work well on spacecraft parts. The selected microorganism for this test was Deinococcus radiodurans R1, which is known for its remarkable resistance to radiation effects. Our results showed a reduction in microbial counts after applying a low temperature plasma, but not to a degree suitable for a sterilization of the soil. Even an increase of the treatment duration from 1.5 to 45 min did not achieve satisfying results, but only resulted in in a mean cell reduction rate of 75% compared to the untreated control samples.

  2. Design and construction of a heat stage for investigations of samples by atomic force microscopy above ambient temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækmark, Thomas Rosleff; Bjørnholm, Thomas; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    1997-01-01

    The construction from simple and cheap commercially available parts of a miniature heat stage for the direct heating of samples studied with a commercially available optical-lever-detection atomic force microscope is reported. We demonstrate that by using this heat stage, atomic resolution can...... be obtained on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite at 52 °C. The heat stage is of potential use for the investigation of biological material at physiological temperatures. ©1997 American Institute of Physics....

  3. Serum thromboxane B2 (TXB2 Determination is Influenced by Sample Incubation Temperature in Healthy Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Jerin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of serum thromboxane B2 (TXB2 production by platelets is a specific test for assessment of platelet cyclooxygenase (COX-1 activity following administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of sample incubation at 37 °C for one hour on serum TXB2 concentration in comparison with incubation at room temperature. A total of 54 blood samples for serum TXB2 measurements were collected from six healthy beagle dogs into two separate serum tubes. While one group of tubes was incubated in a 37 °C water bath, the second group of tubes was left to coagulate at room temperature, both for one hour. Serum TXB2 concentrations were measured by ELISA. The mean concentration (± SD of serum TXB2 in the group of samples that were incubated at 37 °C was significantly (P 2 concentration in healthy beagle dogs and demonstrate that validated methods for assessment of COX-1 activity by measurement of serum TXB2 should be used in order to make results more reliable and comparable between different studies. The results of this study might be of great help in planning NSAID studies in dogs by providing the information that TXB2 generation by platelets is influenced profoundly by incubation temperature.

  4. Inactivation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in cows' milk at pasteurization temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, I R; Ball, H J; Neill, S D; Rowe, M T

    1996-01-01

    The thermal inactivation of 11 strains of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis at pasteurization temperatures was investigated. Cows' milk inoculated with M. paratuberculosis at two levels (10(7) and 10(4) CFU/ml) was pasteurized in the laboratory by (i) a standard holder method (63.5 degrees C for 30 min) and (ii) a high-temperature, short-time (HTST) method (71.7 degrees C for 15 s). Additional heating times of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 40 min at 63.5 degrees C were included to enable the construction of a thermal death curve for the organism. Viability after pasteurization was assessed by culture on Herrold's egg yolk medium containing mycobactin J (HEYM) and in BACTEC Middlebrook 12B radiometric medium supplemented with mycobactin J and sterile egg yolk emulsion. Confirmation of acid-fast survivors of pasteurization as viable M. paratuberculosis cells was achieved by subculture on HEYM to indicate viability coupled with PCR using M. paratuberculosis-specific 1S900 primers. When milk was initially inoculated with 10(6) to 10(7) CFU of M. paratuberculosis per ml, M. paratuberculosis cells were isolated from 27 of 28 (96%) and 29 of 34 (85%) pasteurized milk samples heat treated by the holder and HTST methods, respectively. Correspondingly, when 10(3) to 10(4) CFU of M. paratuberculosis per ml of milk were present before heat treatment, M. paratuberculosis cells were isolated from 14 of 28 (50%) and 19 of 33 (58%) pasteurized milk samples heat treated by the holder and HTST methods, respectively. The thermal death curve for M. paratuberculosis was concave in shape, exhibiting a rapid initial death rate followed by significant "tailing." Results indicate that when large numbers of M. paratuberculosis cells are present in milk, the organism may not be completely inactivated by heat treatments simulating holder and HTST pasteurization under laboratory conditions. PMID:8593064

  5. 19 CFR 134.22 - General rules for marking of containers or holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... required for any good of a NAFTA country which is a usual container. (c) Containers or holders bearing a U.S. address. Containers or holders of imported merchandise bearing the name and address of an... shaped or fitted to contain a specific good or set of goods such as a camera case or an eyeglass case, or...

  6. 7 CFR 1463.105 - Base quota levels for eligible quota holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Base quota levels for eligible quota holders. 1463.105 Section 1463.105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY... TRANSITION PROGRAM Tobacco Transition Payment Program § 1463.105 Base quota levels for eligible quota holders...

  7. 78 FR 9720 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Holders or Containers Which Enter the United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... Activities: Holders or Containers Which Enter the United States Duty Free AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... or Containers which enter the United States Duty Free. This is a proposed extension of an information..., or other technological techniques or other forms of information. Title: Holders or Containers which...

  8. 7 CFR 762.144 - Repurchase of guaranteed portion from a secondary market holder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... discrepancy is resolved. (iii) In the case of a request for Agency purchase, the Agency will only pay interest... and the amount due the holder. (ii) Any discrepancy between the amount claimed by the holder and the... approved by the Agency. The Agency will not participate in resolution of any such discrepancy. When there...

  9. 14 CFR 26.33 - Holders of type certificates: Fuel tank flammability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Holders of type certificates: Fuel tank... Tank Flammability § 26.33 Holders of type certificates: Fuel tank flammability. (a) Applicability. This... part 25 of this chapter. (2) Exception. This paragraph (b) does not apply to— (i) Fuel tanks for which...

  10. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1610 - Specimen Holder Supported in Specimen Rack

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specimen Holder Supported in Specimen Rack 3 Figure 3 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT... Holder Supported in Specimen Rack ER25MR08.002 ...

  11. 26 CFR 1.860C-1 - Taxation of holders of residual interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of holders of residual interests. 1.860C-1 Section 1.860C-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.860C-1 Taxation of holders...

  12. 14 CFR Appendix O to Part 121 - Hazardous Materials Training Requirements For Certificate Holders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... K of this chapter. The training requirements for various categories of persons are defined by job... to persons actually performing the job function. Training requirements for certificate holders.... The method of delivering the training will be determined by the certificate holder. The certificate...

  13. Low temperature x-ray microanalysis of highly mineralised biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clode, P.L.; Marshall, A.T.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Scleractinian corals are highly calcified animals that possess a massive CaCO 3 skeleton, which is associated with a thin, two-layered epithelium. The presence of the skeleton often precludes the use of conventional techniques for examination of the tissue by light and electron microscopy and necessitates an innovative approach to specimen preparation and analysis. Using a preparatory technique devised by the current authors (Clode and Marshall, 2001), we have applied low temperature x-ray microanalysis to frozen-hydrated preparations of the highly mineralised scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis. This has allowed us to identify sites of Ca accumulation and to suggest possible modes of Ca movement across the tissue prior to deposition within the skeleton. Mucocytes, seawater (SW) zones, symbiotic algae (zooxanthellae) and lipid were all found to contain high concentrations of Ca. A significant Ca gradient that increased inwardly, from the oral ectoderm toward the skeleton, was evident within each of these features except lipid. This data suggests that Ca uptake and accumulation occurs via an active, transcellular route. The presence of high S, K and Ca concentrations in the SW immediately adjacent to the external surface of the polyp is indicative of a mucous layer creating a Donnan matrix. This matrix may facilitate Ca uptake from the surrounding SW into the tissue, and is also likely to selectively influence diffusional properties at the SW - oral ectodermal interface. Copyright (2002) Australian Society for Electron Microscopy Inc

  14. Study of Low Temperature Baking Effect on Field Emission on Nb Samples Treated by BEP, EP, and BCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Andy; Jin, Song; Rimmer, Robert; Lu, Xiang Yang; Zhao, K.; MacIntyre, Laura; Ike, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Field emission is still one of the major obstacles facing Nb superconducting radio frequency (SRF) community for allowing Nb SRF cavities to reach routinely accelerating gradient of 35 MV/m that is required for the international linear collider. Nowadays, the well know low temperature baking at 120 C for 48 hours is a common procedure used in the SRF community to improve the high field Q slope. However, some cavity production data have showed that the low temperature baking may induce field emission for cavities treated by EP. On the other hand, an earlier study of field emission on Nb flat samples treated by BCP showed an opposite conclusion. In this presentation, the preliminary measurements of Nb flat samples treated by BEP, EP, and BCP via our unique home-made scanning field emission microscope before and after the low temperature baking are reported. Some correlations between surface smoothness and the number of the observed field emitters were found. The observed experimental results can be understood, at least partially, by a simple model that involves the change of the thickness of the pent-oxide layer on Nb surfaces.

  15. Compact design of a transmission electron microscope-scanning tunneling microscope holder with three-dimensional coarse motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, K.; Jompol, Y.; Olin, H.; Olsson, E.

    2003-01-01

    A scanning tunneling microscope (STM) with a compact, three-dimensional, inertial slider design is presented. Inertial sliding of the STM tip, in three dimensions, enables coarse motion and scanning using only one piezoelectric tube. Using the same electronics both for scanning and inertial sliding, step lengths of less than 5% of the piezo range were achieved. The compact design, less than 1 cm3 in volume, ensures a low mechanical noise level and enables us to fit the STM into the sample holder of a transmission electron microscope (TEM), while maintaining atomic scale resolution in both STM and TEM imaging

  16. High-resolution room-temperature sample scanning superconducting quantum interference device microscope configurable for geological and biomagnetic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, L. E.; Holzer, J. R.; McBride, K. K.; Lima, E. A.; Baudenbacher, F.; Radparvar, M.

    2005-05-01

    We have developed a scanning superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) microscope system with interchangeable sensor configurations for imaging magnetic fields of room-temperature (RT) samples with submillimeter resolution. The low-critical-temperature (Tc) niobium-based monolithic SQUID sensors are mounted on the tip of a sapphire and thermally anchored to the helium reservoir. A 25μm sapphire window separates the vacuum space from the RT sample. A positioning mechanism allows us to adjust the sample-to-sensor spacing from the top of the Dewar. We achieved a sensor-to-sample spacing of 100μm, which could be maintained for periods of up to four weeks. Different SQUID sensor designs are necessary to achieve the best combination of spatial resolution and field sensitivity for a given source configuration. For imaging thin sections of geological samples, we used a custom-designed monolithic low-Tc niobium bare SQUID sensor, with an effective diameter of 80μm, and achieved a field sensitivity of 1.5pT/Hz1/2 and a magnetic moment sensitivity of 5.4×10-18Am2/Hz1/2 at a sensor-to-sample spacing of 100μm in the white noise region for frequencies above 100Hz. Imaging action currents in cardiac tissue requires a higher field sensitivity, which can only be achieved by compromising spatial resolution. We developed a monolithic low-Tc niobium multiloop SQUID sensor, with sensor sizes ranging from 250μm to 1mm, and achieved sensitivities of 480-180fT /Hz1/2 in the white noise region for frequencies above 100Hz, respectively. For all sensor configurations, the spatial resolution was comparable to the effective diameter and limited by the sensor-to-sample spacing. Spatial registration allowed us to compare high-resolution images of magnetic fields associated with action currents and optical recordings of transmembrane potentials to study the bidomain nature of cardiac tissue or to match petrography to magnetic field maps in thin sections of geological samples.

  17. Low temperature study of mechanically alloyed Fe{sub 67.5}Ni{sub 32.5} Invar sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenzuela, J.L. [Departamento de Física, Universidad del Valle, A. A. 25360, Cali (Colombia); Valderruten, J.F. [Departamento de Ingeniería, Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Bucaramanga (Colombia); Pérez Alcázar, G.A., E-mail: gpgeperez@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidad del Valle, A. A. 25360, Cali (Colombia); Colorado, H.D. [Departamento de Física, Universidad del Valle, A. A. 25360, Cali (Colombia); Romero, J.J. [Instituto de Microelectrónica de Madrid, CNM, CSIC, C/Isaac Newton 8, Tres Cantos, 28760 Madrid (Spain); González, J.M. [Unidad Asociada ICMM-IMA, Apdo. 155, Las Rozas, 28230 Madrid (Spain); Greneche, J.M. [LUNAM, Université du Maine, Institut des Molécules et Matériaux du Mans, UMR CNRS 6283, 72085 Le Mans, Cedex 9 (France); Marco, J.F. [Instituto de Química-Física ' ' Rocasolano' ' , CSIC, C/Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-07-01

    The study at low temperatures of powder of the Invar alloy, Fe{sub 67.5}Ni{sub 32.5}, produced by mechanical alloying, shows that the sample presents two structural phases, the Fe–Ni BCC and the Fe–Ni FCC. The {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectra obtained in this sample at different temperatures were fitted considering two hyperfine magnetic field distributions. The first one having the larger mean field and only one peak (at ca. 35 T, varying with T), is associated with the BCC phase, and the second one, presenting several broad peaks (distributed between 10 and 35 T), is associated to the FCC phase. A singlet, which is associated to low spin Fe sites of the FCC phase, was also considered. The mean hyperfine magnetic field of the BCC phase increases monotonically as temperature decreases, while that of the FCC phase presents an anomaly near 75 K. The real part of the ac magnetic susceptibility temperature scans presents a peak whose position increases from 31 to 39 K, when the ac field frequency increases from 100 to 5000 Hz. These results permit to associate the detected anomaly to the occurrence of a reentrant spin glass transition. - Highlights: • XRD detect the BCC and FCC nanocrystalline phases in the Invar Fe{sub 67.5}Si{sub 32.5}. • Mössbauer spectra were fitted with two HMFDs and a singlet. • The MHMF and the isomer shift of the FCC structure present a kink near 61 K. • Magnetic susceptibility proved that this anomaly corresponds to a RSG- F transition. • The Invar composition of the MA Fe{sub 67.5}Si{sub 32.5} alloy presents the frustration phenomena.

  18. Three-dimensional temperature fields of the North Patagonian Sea recorded by Magellanic penguins as biological sampling platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Juan E.; Pisoni, Juan P.; Quintana, Flavio

    2017-04-01

    Temperature is a primary determinant of biogeographic patterns and ecosystem processes. Standard techniques to study the ocean temperature in situ are, however, particularly limited by their time and spatial coverage, problems which might be partially mitigated by using marine top predators as biological platforms for oceanographic sampling. We used small archival tags deployed on 33 Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus), and obtained 21,070 geo-localized profiles of water temperature, during late spring of 2008, 2011, 2012 and 2013; in a region of the North Patagonian Sea with limited oceanographic records in situ. We compared our in situ data of sea surface temperature (SST) with those available from satellite remote sensing; to describe the three-dimensional temperature fields around the area of influence of two important tidal frontal systems; and to study the inter-annual variation in the three-dimensional temperature fields. There was a strong positive relationship between satellite- and animal-derived SST data although there was an overestimation by remote-sensing by a maximum difference of +2 °C. Little inter-annual variability in the 3-dimensional temperature fields was found, with the exception of 2012 (and to a lesser extent in 2013) where the SST was significantly higher. In 2013, we found weak stratification in a region which was unexpected. In addition, during the same year, a warm small-scale vortex is indicated by the animal-derived temperature data. This allowed us to describe and better understand the dynamics of the water masses, which, so far, have been mainly studied by remote sensors and numerical models. Our results highlight again the potential of using marine top predators as biological platforms to collect oceanographic data, which will enhance and accelerate studies on the Southwest Atlantic Ocean. In a changing world, threatened by climate change, it is urgent to fill information gaps on the coupled ocean-atmosphere system

  19. Electron microscopic observation at low temperature on superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Yasuhiro; Hashimoto, Hatsujiro; Yoshida, Hiroyuki.

    1991-01-01

    The authors have observed superconducting materials with a high resolution electron microscope at liquid helium temperature. First, observation was carried out on Nb system intermetallic compounds such as Nb 3 Al and Nb 3 Sn of Al 5 type and Nb 3 Ge of 11 type at extremely low temperature. Next, the observation of high temperature superconductive ceramics in the state of superconductivity was attempted. In this paper, first the development of the liquid helium sample holder for a 400 kV electron microscope to realize the observation is reported. Besides, the sample holder of Gatan Co. and an extremely low temperature, high resolution electron microscope with a superconducting lens are described. The purpose of carrying out the electron microscope observation of superconductors at low temperature is the direct observation of the crystalline lattice image in the state of superconductivity. Also the structural transformation from tetragonal crystals to rhombic crystals in Al 5 type superconductors can be observed. The results of observation are reported. (K.I.)

  20. The potential effect of differential ambient and deployment chamber temperatures on PRC derived sampling rates with polyurethane foam (PUF) passive air samplers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, Karen, E-mail: k.kennedy@uq.edu.a [University of Queensland, EnTox (National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology), 39 Kessels Rd., Coopers Plains QLD 4108 (Australia); Hawker, Darryl W. [Griffith University, School of Environment, Nathan QLD 4111 (Australia); Bartkow, Michael E. [University of Queensland, EnTox (National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology), 39 Kessels Rd., Coopers Plains QLD 4108 (Australia); Carter, Steve [Queensland Health Forensic and Scientific Services, Coopers Plains QLD 4108 (Australia); Ishikawa, Yukari; Mueller, Jochen F. [University of Queensland, EnTox (National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology), 39 Kessels Rd., Coopers Plains QLD 4108 (Australia)

    2010-01-15

    Performance reference compound (PRC) derived sampling rates were determined for polyurethane foam (PUF) passive air samplers in both sub-tropical and temperate locations across Australia. These estimates were on average a factor of 2.7 times higher in summer than winter. The known effects of wind speed and temperature on mass transfer coefficients could not account for this observation. Sampling rates are often derived using ambient temperatures, not the actual temperatures within deployment chambers. If deployment chamber temperatures are in fact higher than ambient temperatures, estimated sampler-air partition coefficients would be greater than actual partition coefficients resulting in an overestimation of PRC derived sampling rates. Sampling rates determined under measured ambient temperatures and estimated deployment chamber temperatures in summer ranged from 7.1 to 10 m{sup 3} day{sup -1} and 2.2-6.8 m{sup 3} day{sup -1} respectively. These results suggest that potential differences between ambient and deployment chamber temperatures should be considered when deriving PRC-based sampling rates. - Internal deployment chamber temperatures rather than ambient temperatures may be required to accurately estimate PRC-based sampling rates.

  1. Assessment of conditions of the spent nuclear fuel stored in the stainless steel channel-holders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, M.; Sotic, O.; Cupac, S.; Maksin, T.; Dasic, N.

    2003-01-01

    The IAEA technical co-operation project 'Safe Removal of Spent Fuel of the Vinca RA Research Reactor' is carried out at the Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro, since January 2003. Present activities will provide up-to-date information on the conditions of the spent nuclear fuel, stored in the stainless steel channel-holders ('chekhols') and on the water quality in the storage basins. Water samples taken out from the chekhols and the basins are measured to determine their activity and chemical parameters. Until September 2003, about 1/3 of the chekhols containing spent fuel elements with initial enrichment of 2% and 80% of uranium were inspected. High activity of Cs-137 was found in several water samples taken out from chekhols. All water samples show very high electrical conductivity, while those taken from the basins show the presence of chlorides and aluminium ions, too. Information on established procedures and measuring results are given in this paper. The obtained results, so far, show that the spent nuclear fuel elements are leaking in about 10% of chekhols. (author)

  2. A simple cryo-holder facilitates specimen observation under a conventional scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chih-Yuan; Huang, Rong-Nan; Kuo-Huang, Ling-Long; Kuo, Tai-Chih; Yang, Ya-Yun; Lin, Ching-Yeh; Jane, Wann-Neng; Chen, Shiang-Jiuun

    2012-02-01

    A pre-cryogenic holder (cryo-holder) facilitating cryo-specimen observation under a conventional scanning electron microscope (SEM) is described. This cryo-holder includes a specimen-holding unit (the stub) and a cryogenic energy-storing unit (a composite of three cylinders assembled with a screw). After cooling, the cryo-holder can continue supplying cryogenic energy to extend the observation time for the specimen in a conventional SEM. Moreover, the cryogenic energy-storing unit could retain appropriate liquid nitrogen that can evaporate to prevent frost deposition on the surface of the specimen. This device is proved feasible for various tissues and cells, and can be applied to the fields of both biology and material science. We have employed this novel cryo-holder for observation of yeast cells, trichome, and epidermal cells in the leaf of Arabidopsis thaliana, compound eyes of insects, red blood cells, filiform papillae on the surface of rat tongue, agar medium, water molecules, penicillium, etc. All results suggested that the newly designed cryo-holder is applicable for cryo-specimen observation under a conventional SEM without cooling system. Most importantly, the design of this cryo-holder is simple and easy to operate and could adapt a conventional SEM to a plain type cryo-SEM affordable for most laboratories. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. A time-sorting pitfall trap and temperature datalogger for the sampling of surface-active arthropods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall S. McMunn

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nearly all arthropods display consistent patterns of activity according to time of day. These patterns of activity often limit the extent of animal co-occurrence in space and time. Quantifying when particular species are active and how activity varies with environmental conditions is difficult without the use of automated devices due to the need for continuous monitoring. Time-sorting pitfall traps passively collect active arthropods into containers with known beginning and end sample times. The trap described here, similar to previous designs, sorts arthropods by the time they fall into the trap using a rotating circular rack of vials. This trap represents a reduction in size, cost, and time of construction, while increasing the number of time windows sampled. The addition of temperature data collection extends functionality, while the use of store-bought components and inclusion of customizable software make the trap easy to reproduce and use.

  4. Effect of stress on the superconducting transition temperature in indium, indium-alloy, tin, and tin-alloy whisker samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.W. Jr.; Davis, W.T.; Chandler, J.H.; Skove, M.J.

    1977-01-01

    The dependence of the superconducting transition temperature (T/sub c/) on stress (sigma) for pure In and Sn samples was found to be in qualitative agreement with earlier work. For convenience T/sub c/ is expressed as a function of the experimentally measured strain (epsilon), which is proportional to sigma. The effect of alloying on the initial dependence of the T/sub c/-vs-epsilon curves, (per. delta T/sub c//per. delta epsilon)/sub epsilon = 0/ = eta, was quite different for the In and Sn alloys. The In samples were alloyed with a maximum of 4.8 at.% Tl, 7.9 at.% Sn, and 6.7 at.% Pd; the Sn samples were alloyed with a maximum of 0.3 at.% Cd, 6.0 at.% In, 0.3 at.% Sb, and 2.2 at.% Bi. The addition of impurities had a large effect on eta for the In alloys, with eta reversing sign for some Sn and Pb alloy contents (chi). The T/sub c/-vs-epsilon curves also became nonlinear for some chi. The possible relationship of the In alloy results to changes in the Fermi surface due to the addition of impurities is discussed. For the Sn alloy samples, there was no change in eta with any impurity. The change in room-temperature resistivity with strain was also measured. There was only a slight decrease in the dependence of resistivity on strain for the In--Sn and In--Pb data and no effect on the In--Tl or Sn alloy data

  5. STATISTICAL ASSESSMENT OF CAREERS OF DOCTORATE HOLDERS SURVEY BY CORRESPONDENCE ANALYSIS: THE CASE OF TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Zerrin AŞAN GREENACRE

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, doctorate holders are not only academician and researcher, also they play roles across a wide range of working areas within society. These areas are increasing multiway. The aim of this study is to give statistical evaluation careers of doctorate holders survey using  the correspondence analysis with supplementary variables. In this paper  we focused on careers of doctorate holders  in Turkey. It was held a survey by  Turkish   Statistical Institute on this s...

  6. A new holder and surface MRI coil for the examination of the newborn infant hip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasny, R. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. of Technology, Aachen (Germany)); Casser, H.R. (Dept. of Orthopedics, Univ. of Technology, Aachen (Germany)); Requardt, H. (Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany)); Botschek, A. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. of Technology, Aachen (Germany))

    1993-11-01

    A special holder was developed for examination of the infant hip joint using MRI. This holder allows the infant hip joint to be examined both in a neutral position and in various defined functional positions. A special integrated surface coil, also developed for this purpose, provides the high spatial resolution required for assessment of the fine joint structures. Thirty infants were examined and the new device has proved useful in advanced hip dysplasia, therapy-resistant subluxation and luxation, and for operative therapy planning (reconstruction of the acetabular roof, redirectional osteotomies). Interpretation errors due to misprojection can be eliminated to a large extent since the holder allows standardized and reproducible positioning. (orig.)

  7. Influence of pH, Temperature and Sample Size on Natural and Enforced Syneresis of Precipitated Silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Wilhelm

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of silica is performed by mixing an inorganic, silicate-based precursor and an acid. Monomeric silicic acid forms and polymerizes to amorphous silica particles. Both further polymerization and agglomeration of the particles lead to a gel network. Since polymerization continues after gelation, the gel network consolidates. This rather slow process is known as “natural syneresis” and strongly influences the product properties (e.g., agglomerate size, porosity or internal surface. “Enforced syneresis” is the superposition of natural syneresis with a mechanical, external force. Enforced syneresis may be used either for analytical or preparative purposes. Hereby, two open key aspects are of particular interest. On the one hand, the question arises whether natural and enforced syneresis are analogous processes with respect to their dependence on the process parameters: pH, temperature and sample size. On the other hand, a method is desirable that allows for correlating natural and enforced syneresis behavior. We can show that the pH-, temperature- and sample size-dependency of natural and enforced syneresis are indeed analogous. It is possible to predict natural syneresis using a correlative model. We found that our model predicts maximum volume shrinkages between 19% and 30% in comparison to measured values of 20% for natural syneresis.

  8. Novel sample preparation for operando TEM of catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Benjamin K.; Barker, Trevor M.; Crozier, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    A new TEM sample preparation method is developed to facilitate operando TEM of gas phase catalysis. A porous Pyrex-fiber pellet TEM sample was produced, allowing a comparatively large amount of catalyst to be loaded into a standard Gatan furnace-type tantalum heating holder. The increased amount of catalyst present inside the environmental TEM allows quantitative determination of the gas phase products of a catalytic reaction performed in-situ at elevated temperatures. The product gas concentration was monitored using both electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and residual gas analysis (RGA). Imaging of catalyst particles dispersed over the pellet at atomic resolution is challenging, due to charging of the insulating glass fibers. To overcome this limitation, a metal grid is placed into the holder in addition to the pellet, allowing catalyst particles dispersed over the grid to be imaged, while particles in the pellet, which are assumed to experience identical conditions, contribute to the overall catalytic conversion inside the environmental TEM cell. The gas within the cell is determined to be well-mixed, making this assumption reasonable. - Highlights: • High in-situ conversion of CO to CO 2 achieved by a novel TEM sample preparation method. • A 3 mm fiber pellet increases the TEM sample surface area by 50×. • Operando atomic resolution is maintained by also including a 3 mm grid in the sample. • Evidence for a well-mixed gas composition inside the ETEM cell is given

  9. Order-parameter-aided temperature-accelerated sampling for the exploration of crystal polymorphism and solid-liquid phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Tang-Qing; Vanden-Eijnden, Eric; Chen, Pei-Yang; Chen, Ming; Samanta, Amit; Tuckerman, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The problem of predicting polymorphism in atomic and molecular crystals constitutes a significant challenge both experimentally and theoretically. From the theoretical viewpoint, polymorphism prediction falls into the general class of problems characterized by an underlying rough energy landscape, and consequently, free energy based enhanced sampling approaches can be brought to bear on the problem. In this paper, we build on a scheme previously introduced by two of the authors in which the lengths and angles of the supercell are targeted for enhanced sampling via temperature accelerated adiabatic free energy dynamics [T. Q. Yu and M. E. Tuckerman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 015701 (2011)]. Here, that framework is expanded to include general order parameters that distinguish different crystalline arrangements as target collective variables for enhanced sampling. The resulting free energy surface, being of quite high dimension, is nontrivial to reconstruct, and we discuss one particular strategy for performing the free energy analysis. The method is applied to the study of polymorphism in xenon crystals at high pressure and temperature using the Steinhardt order parameters without and with the supercell included in the set of collective variables. The expected fcc and bcc structures are obtained, and when the supercell parameters are included as collective variables, we also find several new structures, including fcc states with hcp stacking faults. We also apply the new method to the solid-liquid phase transition in copper at 1300 K using the same Steinhardt order parameters. Our method is able to melt and refreeze the system repeatedly, and the free energy profile can be obtained with high efficiency

  10. Fatigue behavior of highly porous titanium produced by powder metallurgy with temporary space holders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Özbilen, Sedat [Forschungszentrum Jülich, Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK), 52425 Jülich (Germany); Gazi University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Teknikokullar, Ankara (Turkey); Liebert, Daniela [Forschungszentrum Jülich, Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK), 52425 Jülich (Germany); Beck, Tilmann [Forschungszentrum Jülich, Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK), 52425 Jülich (Germany); University of Kaiserslautern, Lehrstuhl für Werkstoffkunde (WKK), D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Bram, Martin, E-mail: m.bram@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich, Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK), 52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2016-03-01

    Porous titanium cylinders were produced with a constant amount of temporary space holder (70 vol.%). Different interstitial contents were achieved by varying the starting powders (HDH vs. gas atomized) and manufacturing method (cold compaction without organic binders vs. warm compaction of MIM feedstocks). Interstitial contents (O, C, and N) as a function of manufacturing were measured by chemical analysis. Samples contained 0.34–0.58 wt.% oxygen, which was found to have the greatest effect on mechanical properties. Quasi-static mechanical tests under compression at low strain rate were used for reference and to define parameters for cyclic compression tests. Not unexpectedly, increased oxygen content increased the yield strength of the porous titanium. Cyclic compression fatigue tests were conducted using sinusoidal loading in a servo-hydraulic testing machine. Increased oxygen content was concomitant with embrittlement of the titanium matrix, resulting in significant reduction of compression cycles before failure. For samples with 0.34 wt.% oxygen, R, σ{sub min} and σ{sub max} were varied systematically to estimate the fatigue limit (~ 4 million cycles). Microstructural changes induced by cyclic loading were then characterized by optical microscopy, SEM and EBSD. - Highlights: • Systematic variation of the oxygen content from 0.34 to 0.58 wt.%. • Systematic study of the relationship between fatigue limit and oxygen content. • Critical oxygen equivalent seems to be 0.35 wt.% to avoid embrittlement. • Identification of the failure modes by light microscopy, SEM and EBSD.

  11. Fatigue behavior of highly porous titanium produced by powder metallurgy with temporary space holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbilen, Sedat; Liebert, Daniela; Beck, Tilmann; Bram, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Porous titanium cylinders were produced with a constant amount of temporary space holder (70 vol.%). Different interstitial contents were achieved by varying the starting powders (HDH vs. gas atomized) and manufacturing method (cold compaction without organic binders vs. warm compaction of MIM feedstocks). Interstitial contents (O, C, and N) as a function of manufacturing were measured by chemical analysis. Samples contained 0.34-0.58 wt.% oxygen, which was found to have the greatest effect on mechanical properties. Quasi-static mechanical tests under compression at low strain rate were used for reference and to define parameters for cyclic compression tests. Not unexpectedly, increased oxygen content increased the yield strength of the porous titanium. Cyclic compression fatigue tests were conducted using sinusoidal loading in a servo-hydraulic testing machine. Increased oxygen content was concomitant with embrittlement of the titanium matrix, resulting in significant reduction of compression cycles before failure. For samples with 0.34 wt.% oxygen, R, σ(min) and σ(max) were varied systematically to estimate the fatigue limit (~4 million cycles). Microstructural changes induced by cyclic loading were then characterized by optical microscopy, SEM and EBSD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Gasket-holder to put in place gaskets for connection of pipes with clamp fittings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiori, R.

    1989-01-01

    Gasket-holder comprising 2 arms with tongues holding the gasket and fixing devices on a pipe clamp fitting and centering means. Application is made to fit circular gaskets on pipe with conic end in adverse environment [fr

  13. 32 CFR 767.9 - Content of permit holder's final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RULES APPLICATION GUIDELINES FOR ARCHEOLOGICAL RESEARCH PERMITS ON SHIP AND AIRCRAFT WRECKS UNDER THE.... The permit holder's final report shall include the following: (a) A site history and a contextual...

  14. Temperature-dependent shock initiation of LX-17 explosive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, R.S.; Chau, H.H.; Druce, R.L.; Moua, K.

    1995-02-01

    LX-17 samples, heated to temperatures up to 250 C, were impacted by 3 to 10-mm-wide, 50.8-mm-long strips of 0.13-mm-thick Kapton polyimide film at velocities up to 7.7 km/s. The Kapton strips were laminated onto a thin aluminum bridge foil and were launched to the desired velocity by discharging a capacitor bank through the foil, causing the foil to explode. The LX-17 samples were confined in a steel holder and heated in an oven to the desired temperature. After the capacitor bank was charged, the LX-17 sample in its steel holder was remotely drawn out of the oven on rails and positioned over the bridge-foil/Kapton-strip laminate. When the sample was in position, the bank was discharged, launching the Kapton strip against the LX-17 surface. The shock initiation threshold was measured for 3, 7, and 10-mm-wide strips at room temperature, 200 C and 250 C. The authors found a significant reduction in the velocity threshold and in the critical area for initiation when the samples were heated. The authors compare the results with the earlier data of Bloom, who measured the initiation threshold of LX-17 over the density range 1.8--1.91 g/cm{sup 3} at room temperature and {minus}54 C. LX-17 has a large coefficient of thermal expansion, as reported by Urtiew, et al., which reduces its density significantly t elevated temperatures. They find that the change of shock initiation threshold with temperature is consistent with the change in sample density, using the relation between threshold and density reported by Bloom.

  15. Influence of sample temperature and environmental humidity on measurements of benzene in ambient air by transportable GC-PID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Romero-Trigueros

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Calibration of in situ analysers of air pollutants is usually done with dry standards. In this paper, the influence of sample temperature and environmental humidity on benzene measurements by gas chromatography coupled with a photoionisation detector (GC-PID is studied. Two reference gas mixtures (40 and 5 µg m−3 nominal concentration benzene in air were subjected to two temperature cycles (20/5/20 °C and 20/35/20 °C and measured with two identical GC-PIDs. The change in sample temperature did not produce any significant change in readings. Regarding ambient humidity, the chromatographs were calibrated for benzene with dry gases and subjected to measure reference standards with humidity (20 and 80 % at 20 °C. When measuring a concentration of 0.5 µg m−3 benzene in air, the levels of humidity tested did not produce any significant interference in measurements taken with any of the analysers. However, when measuring a concentration of 40 µg m−3, biases in measurements of 18 and 21 % for each respective analyser were obtained when the relative humidity of the sample was 80 % at 20 °C. Further tests were carried out to study the nature of this interference. Results show that humidity interference depends on both the amount fractions of water vapour and benzene. If benzene concentrations in an area are close to its annual limit value (5 µg m−3, biases of 2.2 % can be expected when the absolute humidity is 8.6 g cm−3 – corresponding to a relative humidity of 50 % at 20 °C. This can be accounted for in the uncertainty budget of measurements with no need for corrections. If benzene concentrations are above the annual limit value, biases become higher. Thus, in these cases, actions should be taken to reduce the humidity interference, as an underestimation of benzene concentrations may cause a mismanagement of air quality in these situations.

  16. Effects of storage time and temperature on pH, specific gravity, and crystal formation in urine samples from dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albasan, Hasan; Lulich, Jody P; Osborne, Carl A; Lekcharoensuk, Chalermpol; Ulrich, Lisa K; Carpenter, Kathleen A

    2003-01-15

    To determine effects of storage temperature and time on pH and specific gravity of and number and size of crystals in urine samples from dogs and cats. Randomized complete block design. 31 dogs and 8 cats. Aliquots of each urine sample were analyzed within 60 minutes of collection or after storage at room or refrigeration temperatures (20 vs 6 degrees C [68 vs 43 degrees F]) for 6 or 24 hours. Crystals formed in samples from 11 of 39 (28%) animals. Calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals formed in vitro in samples from 1 cat and 8 dogs. Magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) crystals formed in vitro in samples from 2 dogs. Compared with aliquots stored at room temperature, refrigeration increased the number and size of crystals that formed in vitro; however, the increase in number and size of MAP crystals in stored urine samples was not significant. Increased storage time and decreased storage temperature were associated with a significant increase in number of CaOx crystals formed. Greater numbers of crystals formed in urine aliquots stored for 24 hours than in aliquots stored for 6 hours. Storage time and temperature did not have a significant effect on pH or specific gravity. Urine samples should be analyzed within 60 minutes of collection to minimize temperature- and time-dependent effects on in vitro crystal formation. Presence of crystals observed in stored samples should be validated by reevaluation of fresh urine.

  17. A new analytical application of nylon-induced room-temperature phosphorescence: Determination of thiabendazole in water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, R.A. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Ciencias Bioquimicas y Farmaceuticas, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Suipacha 531 (2000) Rosario (Argentina); Escandar, G.M. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Ciencias Bioquimicas y Farmaceuticas, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Suipacha 531 (2000) Rosario (Argentina)]. E-mail: gescanda@fbioyf.unr.edu.ar

    2006-06-30

    This paper discusses the first analytical determination of the widely used fungicide thiabendazole by nylon-induced phosphorimetry. Nylon was investigated as a novel solid-matrix for inducing room-temperature phosphorescence of thiabendazole, which was enhanced under the effect of external heavy-atom salts. Among the investigated salts, lead(II) acetate was the most effective in yielding a high phosphorescence signal. An additional enhancement of the phosphorescence emission was attained when the measurements were carried out under a nitrogen atmosphere. There was only a moderate increase in the presence of cyclodextrins. The room-temperature phosphorescence lifetimes of the adsorbed thiabendazole were measured under different working conditions and, in all cases, two decaying components were detected. On the basis of the obtained results, a very simple and sensitive phosphorimetric method for the determination of thiabendazole was established. The analytical figures of merit obtained under the best experimental conditions were: linear calibration range from 0.031 to 0.26 {mu}g ml{sup -1} (the lowest value corresponds to the quantitation limit), relative standard deviation, 2.4% (n = 5) at a level of 0.096 {mu}g ml{sup -1}, and limit of detection calculated according to 1995 IUPAC Recommendations equal to 0.010 {mu}g ml{sup -1} (0.03 ng/spot). The potential interference from common agrochemicals was also studied. The feasibility of determining thiabendazole in real samples was successfully evaluated through the analysis of spiked river, tap and mineral water samples.

  18. Easy and fast extraction methods to determine organochlorine pesticides in sewage sludge, soil, and water samples based at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Tayane C R; Santos, Rizia R; Cacique, Ane P; De Sá, Ludimara J; Silvério, Flaviano O; Pinho, Gevany P

    2018-03-04

    Organochlorine pesticides present in sewage sludge can contaminate soil and water when they are used as either fertilizer or agricultural soil conditioner. In this study, the technique solid-liquid extraction with low temperature purification was optimized and validated for determination of ten organochlorine pesticides in sewage sludge and soil samples. Liquid-liquid extraction with low temperature purification was also validated for the same compounds in water. Analyses were performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry operating in the selective ion monitoring mode. After optimization, the methods showed recoveries between 70% and 115% with relative standard deviation lower than 13% for all target analytes in the three matrices. The linearity was demonstrated in the range of 20 to 70 µg L -1 , 0.5 to 60 µg L -1 , and 3 to 13 µg L -1 , for sludge, soil, and acetonitrile, respectively. The limit of quantification ranged between 2 and 40 µg kg -1 , 1 and 6 µg kg -1 , and 0.5 µg L -1 for sludge, soil, and water, respectively. The methods were used in the study of pesticide lixiviation carried out in a poly vinyl chlorine column filled with soil, which had its surface layer mixed with sludge. The results showed that pesticides are not leached into soil, part of them is adsorbed by the sewage sludge (4-40%), and most pesticides are lost by volatilization.

  19. Effects of Re-heating Tissue Samples to Core Body Temperature on High-Velocity Ballistic Projectile-tissue Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Caitlin; Henneberg, Maciej; Wachsberger, Christian; Maiden, Nicholas; Kumaratilake, Jaliya

    2017-11-01

    Damage produced by high-speed projectiles on organic tissue will depend on the physical properties of the tissues. Conditioning organic tissue samples to human core body temperature (37°C) prior to conducting ballistic experiments enables their behavior to closely mimic that of living tissues. To minimize autolytic changes after death, the tissues are refrigerated soon after their removal from the body and re-heated to 37°C prior to testing. This research investigates whether heating 50-mm-cube samples of porcine liver, kidney, and heart to 37°C for varying durations (maximum 7 h) can affect the penetration response of a high-speed, steel sphere projectile. Longer conditioning times for heart and liver resulted in a slight loss of velocity/energy of the projectile, but the reverse effect occurred for the kidney. Possible reasons for these trends include autolytic changes causing softening (heart and liver) and dehydration causing an increase in density (kidney). © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. Impact of Small Holder Dairy Farm on the Air Quality in Gunungpati District, Semarang Municipality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiastuti, E.; Kustono; Adiarto; Nurliyani; Sugiharto, S.

    2018-02-01

    The study aimed to investigate the impact of small holder dairy farm on the air quality in the farm and surrounding area. The study was conducted in three farmer groups in the District of Gunungpati, including the farmer groups in the villages of Nangkasawit, Plalangan and Sumurejo. Samplings of air quality were conducted in four points (locations), i.e., inside the barn, 100 m, 200 m and 300 m from the area of farm. Parameters observed were emission of NH3 CO2, H2S and CH4. Results showed that the levels of NH3 in the barn, 100 m, 200 m and 300 m from the farm area in Nangkasawit village were 0.211, 0.107, 0.104 and 0,035 ppm, respectively. The levels of NH3 in Plalangan village were 0.289, 0.231, 0.13 and 0.108 ppm, respectively, and in Sumurejo village were 0.109, 0.110, 0.082 and 0.046 ppm, respectively. The levels of H2S in Nangkasawit, Plalangan and Sumurejo villages at the entire points of observations were air quality was better (lower contamination) with the farther distance of locations from the barn.

  1. Altitude Performance Characteristics of Turbojet-engine Tail-pipe Burner with Variable-area Exhaust Nozzle Using Several Fuel Systems and Flame Holders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lavern A; Meyer, Carl L

    1950-01-01

    A tail-pipe burner with a variable-area exhaust nozzle was investigated. From five configurations a fuel-distribution system and a flame holder were selected. The best configuration was investigated over a range of altitudes and flight Mach numbers. For the best configuration, an increase in altitude lowered the augmented thrust ratio, exhaust-gas total temperature, and tail-pipe combustion efficiency, and raised the specific fuel consumption. An increase in flight Mach number raised the augmented thrust ratio but had no apparent effect on exhaust-gas total temperature, tail-pipe combustion efficiency, or specific fuel consumption.

  2. Extreme-temperature lab on a chip for optogalvanic spectroscopy of ultra small samples - key components and a first integration attempt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, Martin; Khaji, Zahra; Persson, Anders; Sturesson, Peter; Breivik, Johan Söderberg; Thornell, Greger; Klintberg, Lena

    2016-01-01

    This is a short summary of the authors’ recent R and D on valves, combustors, plasma sources, and pressure and temperature sensors, realized in high-temperature co-fired ceramics, and an account for the first attempt to monolithically integrate them to form a lab on a chip for sample administration, preparation and analysis, as a stage in optogalvanic spectroscopy. (paper)

  3. Custom sample environments at the ALBA XPEEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerster, Michael, E-mail: mfoerster@cells.es; Prat, Jordi; Massana, Valenti; Gonzalez, Nahikari; Fontsere, Abel; Molas, Bernat; Matilla, Oscar; Pellegrin, Eric; Aballe, Lucia

    2016-12-15

    A variety of custom-built sample holders offer users a wide range of non-standard measurements at the ALBA synchrotron PhotoEmission Electron Microscope (PEEM) experimental station. Some of the salient features are: an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) suitcase compatible with many offline deposition and characterization systems, built-in electromagnets for uni- or biaxial in-plane (IP) and out-of-plane (OOP) fields, as well as the combination of magnetic fields with electric fields or current injection. Electronics providing a synchronized sinusoidal signal for sample excitation enable time-resolved measurements at the 500 MHz storage ring RF frequency. - Highlights: • Custom sample environment for XPEEM at ALBA. • Sample holders with electromagnets, in-plane dipole, in-plane quadruple and out-of-plane. • Sample holders with printed circuit boards for electric contacts including electromagnets. • UHV suitcase adapter. • Synchronized 500 MHz electrical excitation for time resolved measurements.

  4. 14 CFR 121.693 - Load manifest: All certificate holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (including corrections for altitude and gradient, and wind and temperature conditions existing at the takeoff... approved limits. (e) Names of passengers, unless such information is maintained by other means by the...

  5. Analysis of the sensitivity and sample-furnace thermal-lag of a differential thermal analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roura, P.; Farjas, J.

    2005-01-01

    The heat exchange between the horizontal furnace of a differential thermal analyzer (DTA) and the sample is analyzed with the aim of understanding the parameters governing the thermal signal. The resistance due to radiation and conduction through the gas has been calculated and compared to the experimental values of the thermal-lag between the sample and furnace and apparatus sensitivity. The overall evolution of these parameters with the temperature and their relative values are well understood by considering the temperature differences that arise between the sample and holder. Two RC thermal models are used for describing the apparatus performance at different temperature ranges. Finally, the possibility of improving the signal quality through the control of the leak resistances is stressed

  6. Brittle Fracture Behaviors of Large Die Holders Used in Hot Die Forging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weifang Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Brittle fracture of large forging equipment usually leads to catastrophic consequences. To avoid this kind of accident, the brittle fracture behaviors of a large die holder were studied by simulating the practical application. The die holder is used on the large die forging press, and it is made of 55NiCrMoV7 hot-work tool steel. Detailed investigations including mechanical properties analysis, metallographic observation, fractography, transmission electron microscope (TEM analysis and selected area electron diffraction (SAED were conducted. The results reveal that the material generated a large quantity of large size polyhedral M23C6 (M: Fe and Cr mainly and elongated M3C (M: Fe mainly carbides along the martensitic lath boundaries when the die holder was recurrently tempered and water-cooled at 250 °C during the service. The large size carbides lead to the material embrittlement and impact toughness degradation, and further resulted in the brittle fracture of the die holder. Therefore, the operation specification must be emphasized to avoid the die holder being cooled by using water, which is aimed at accelerating the cooling.

  7. Effect of electrical stimulation and cooking temperature on the within-sample variation of cooking loss and shear force of lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, P K; Babiker, S A

    1983-01-01

    Electrical stimulation decreased the shear force and increased the cooking loss in seven paired lamb Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscles. This treatment did not have any effect on the within-sample variation. Cooking in 55°, 65° and 75°C water baths for 90 min caused a linear increase in the cooking loss and shear force. There was no stimulation-cooking temperature interaction observed. Cooking temperature also had no effect on the within-sample variation. A possible explanation as to why electrical stimulation did not affect the within-sample variation is given. Copyright © 1983. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Position of document holder and work related risk factors for neck pain among computer users: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambusam, S; Baharudin, O; Roslizawati, N; Leonard, J

    2015-01-01

    Document holder is used as a remedy to address occupational neck pain among computer users. An understanding on the effects of the document holder along with other work related risk factors while working in computer workstation requires attention. A comprehensive knowledge on the optimal location of the document holder in computer use and associated work related factors that may contribute to neck pain reviewed in this article. A literature search has been conducted over the past 14 years based on the published articles from January 1990 to January 2014 in both Science Direct and PubMed databases. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) keywords for search were neck muscle OR head posture OR muscle tension' OR muscle activity OR work related disorders OR neck pain AND/OR document location OR document holder OR source document OR copy screen holder.Document holder placed lateral to the screen was most preferred to reduce neck discomfort among occupational typists. Document without a holder was placed flat on the surface is least preferred. The head posture and muscle activity increases when the document is placed flat on the surface compared to when placed on the document holder. Work related factors such as static posture, repetitive movement, prolong sitting and awkward positions were the risk factors for chronic neck pain. This review highlights the optimal location for document holder for computer users to reduce neck pain. Together, the importance of work related risk factors for to neck pain on occupational typist is emphasized for the clinical management.

  9. Naval Reserve Force: Cost and Benefit Analysis of Reducing the Number of Naval Surface Reserve Force Operating Budget Holders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Eric

    1997-01-01

    .... This thesis examines one of Commander Naval Surface Reserve Force's initiatives for reducing the current number of Operating Budget holder's Comptroller Departments without sacrificing efficiency...

  10. Measurement of sample temperatures under magic-angle spinning from the chemical shift and spin-lattice relaxation rate of 79Br in KBr powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Kent R; Tycko, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Accurate determination of sample temperatures in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with magic-angle spinning (MAS) can be problematic, particularly because frictional heating and heating by radio-frequency irradiation can make the internal sample temperature significantly different from the temperature outside the MAS rotor. This paper demonstrates the use of (79)Br chemical shifts and spin-lattice relaxation rates in KBr powder as temperature-dependent parameters for the determination of internal sample temperatures. Advantages of this method include high signal-to-noise, proximity of the (79)Br NMR frequency to that of (13)C, applicability from 20 K to 320 K or higher, and simultaneity with adjustment of the MAS axis direction. We show that spin-lattice relaxation in KBr is driven by a quadrupolar mechanism. We demonstrate a simple approach to including KBr powder in hydrated samples, such as biological membrane samples, hydrated amyloid fibrils, and hydrated microcrystalline proteins, that allows direct assessment of the effects of frictional and radio-frequency heating under experimentally relevant conditions.

  11. Ecological Diversity of Soil Fauna as Ecosystem Engineers in Small-Holder Cocoa Plantation in South Konawe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laode Muhammad Harjoni Kilowasid

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Taxa diversity within soil fauna functional groups can affected ecosystem functioning such as ecosystem engineers,which influence decomposition and nutrient cycling. The objective of this study is to describe ecological diversityvariation within soil fauna as ecosystem engineers in soil ecosystem of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. plantation.Sampling was conducted during one year period from five different ages of plantation. Soil fauna removed from soilcore using hand sorting methods. A total of 39 genera of soil fauna as ecosystem engineers were found during thesestudies. Thirty five genera belong to the group of Formicidae (ants, three genera of Isoptera (termites, and onegenera of Oligochaeta (earthworms. Ecological diversity variation within ecosystem engineers was detected withSimpson indices for dominance and evenness. The highest diversity of ecosystem engineers was in the young ageof plantation. This study reinforces the importance biotic interaction which contributed to the distribution andabundance within soil fauna community as ecosystem engineers in small-holder cocoa plantation.

  12. Increasing the Deep Drawability of Al-1050 Aluminum Sheet using Multi-Point Blank Holder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavas, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum alloys have been widely used in the fields of automobile and aerospace industries. Due to their bad cold-formability in deep drawing, a lot of forming methods have been implemented to increase the drawing height and the limiting drawing rate (LDR. The conventional deep drawing process is limited to a certain limit drawing ratio beyond which failure will ensue. The purpose of this experimental study is to examine the possibilities of increasing this limitation using the multi-point blank holder. The results from the experiments showed that the multi-point blank holder is effective way to promote deep drawability of Al-1050 sheet.

  13. Modeling returns to education and labour market outcomes of doctoral degree holders in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Simeonova-Ganeva, Ralitsa; Panayotova, Nataliya; Ganev, Kaloyan

    2013-01-01

    In this study we present the theoretical framework of the so called Mincerian equations used for modelling returns to education. Then, we construct a conceptual framework which allows us to answer the question “What happens to doctoral degree holders in the labour market?”. We analyse data for about 45,000 PhD graduates in Bulgaria from the NSI survey Career development of PhD degree holders run in 2007, 2009, and 2010. An attempt is made to measure pay gaps in terms of gender and major of st...

  14. Research Amplitudo Vibration On Holder Due To The Process Of Lathe Nozzle Rocket RX 450

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediwan; Budi Djatmiko, Agus; Dody Arisandi, EfFendy; Purnomo, Heri; Ibadi, Mahfud

    2018-04-01

    The main function of the rocket nozzle is to convert the enthalpy efficiency from combustion gas to kinetic energy and also to make high velocity out of the gas. The rocket nozzle usually consists of a converging and diverging part. With a smaller area on the neck and enlarged at the exit area. The velocity flow through the nozzle enlarges into the speed of sound through the neck and then becomes super sonic in the divergent part. Nozzle making or machining using conventional lathes, first performed is drilling on a massive metal that is bonded to the veneer, then after a sufficient gap is done deep-boring. At the time of the process of lathe in the nozzle RX 450 there is an obstacle that is vibrating tool holder chisel or holder so it is worried about not precision of the process of lathe. This should not happen because it can cause failure in the latter for it needs to be studied and studied further so that the lathe process goes accordingly. The holder material of ST 60 with a modulus of elasticity 200 GPa and a nozzle material of AISI 4340 alloy steel with σyield = 470 MPa, Shear Modulus G = 80 GPa. The purpose of this research is to observe the amplitude of vibration on the holder due to RX- 450 nozzle lathe processing for the purpose of amplitude that occurs in accordance with the desired so that the nozzle structure is no damage process. The result of the research was obtained holder with length (L) 80cm, profile width (B) 5 cm, height of profile (H) 10 cm, turning machine ω = 8.98 rad / sec and natural holder frequency ωn = 89.8 rad / second, Amplitude of vibration of δ = 1.21 mm, while the amplitude of the design X = 1.22 mm From the results of this study it can be said that the holder of a chisel or holder can be used as a tool at the time of RX nozzle retrieval process and is quite safe because it works under the condition ω/ω n Rocket Payload "AKPV Engineering University of Wyoming 2009 )

  15. Design and burn-up analyses of new type holder for silicon neutron transmutation doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komeda, Masao; Arai, Masaji; Tamai, Kazuo; Kawasaki, Kozo

    2016-07-01

    We have developed a new silicon irradiation holder with a neutron filter to increase the irradiation efficiency. The neutron filter is made of an alloy of aluminum and B4C particles. We fabricated a new holder based on the results of design analyses. This filter has limited use in applications requiring prolonged use due to a decrease in the amount of (10)B in B4C particles. We investigated the influence of (10)B reduction on doping distribution in a silicon ingot by using the Monte Carlo Code MVP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Novel sample preparation for operando TEM of catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Benjamin K; Barker, Trevor M; Crozier, Peter A

    2015-09-01

    A new TEM sample preparation method is developed to facilitate operando TEM of gas phase catalysis. A porous Pyrex-fiber pellet TEM sample was produced, allowing a comparatively large amount of catalyst to be loaded into a standard Gatan furnace-type tantalum heating holder. The increased amount of catalyst present inside the environmental TEM allows quantitative determination of the gas phase products of a catalytic reaction performed in-situ at elevated temperatures. The product gas concentration was monitored using both electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and residual gas analysis (RGA). Imaging of catalyst particles dispersed over the pellet at atomic resolution is challenging, due to charging of the insulating glass fibers. To overcome this limitation, a metal grid is placed into the holder in addition to the pellet, allowing catalyst particles dispersed over the grid to be imaged, while particles in the pellet, which are assumed to experience identical conditions, contribute to the overall catalytic conversion inside the environmental TEM cell. The gas within the cell is determined to be well-mixed, making this assumption reasonable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Feasibility of scaffold production using Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy and naphthalene as space holder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Persio Mozart; Komorizono, Amanda Akemy; Antonini, Leonardo; Rodrigues Junior, Durval, E-mail: persiomozart@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia

    2016-07-01

    Full text: The tissue engineering has as goal the repairing of bone defects, usually using a synthetic structure with pores in three dimensions, named scaffold. The structure of the scaffolds present interconnected pores, with controlled porosity, according to the process used to produce the scaffold. The present work has as main objective the processing of the Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy (percentages in weight) using the powder metallurgy technique named space-holder, to obtain porous scaffolds for osseointegration. Firstly, elementary powders of Ti, Nb, and Zr were weighted to obtain the composition 74wt.%Ti+13wt.%Nb+13wt.%Zr, such that 3.5g was direct mixed with naphthalene, named 'control' condition, and 3.5g was milled in a SPEX mill for 8h (sample MA8h), using grinding midia of tungsten carbide and isopropyl alcohol as process controlling agent. Both powders, in 'control' and MA8h conditions, were mixed with naphthalene powder (50% in volume and particle size in the range from 500μm to 1mm) for 30 minutes. The powders mixed with naftalen were pressed to obtain green bodies and sintered at 1000°C for 1h in vacuum better than 5 x 10{sup -5} mbar. The sintered samples were characterized using XRD, He picnometry, optical microscopy, SEM-EDX, and microhardness test. From the XRD results, it could be found the presence of titanium α and β phases, also present in the SEM-EDX analyses. The SEM analyses also showed, in the samples, the presence of widmantäten microstructure and a structure of pores, with size in the range from 300μm to 1mm. The observed pores were also interconnected and were connected to the surface. From the results of He picnometry and microscopy, it could be observed that the samples presented porosity in the range from 30% to 50% in volume. It could be concluded that it is possible to obtain scaffolds of the Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy using the techniques developed in the present work. (author)

  18. Development of an automatic sample changer and a data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchini, Ricardo M.; Estevez, Jorge; Vollmer, Alberto E.; Iglicki, Flora A.

    1999-01-01

    An automatic electro-pneumatic sample changer with a rotating sample holder is described. The changer is coupled through an electronic interface with the data acquisition station. The software to automate the system has been designed. (author)

  19. Optimization of basic parameters in temperature-programmed gas chromatographic separations of multi-component samples within a given time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Repka, D.; Krupcik, J.; Brunovska, A.; Leclercq, P.A.; Rijks, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    A new procedure is introduced for the optimization of column peak capacity in a given time. The opitmization focuses on temperature-programmed operating conditions, notably the initial temperature and hold time, and the programming rate. Based conceptually upon Lagrange functions, experiments were

  20. Flux mapping at 77 K and local measurement at lower temperature of thin-wall YBaCuO single-domain samples oxygenated under high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaud, X., E-mail: Xavier.chaud@grenoble.cnrs.f [CRETA, CNRS, 25, Avenue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Noudem, J. [CRISMAT/ENSICAEN, CNRS, 6 bd Marechal Juin, 14050 Caen (France); Prikhna, T.; Savchuk, Y. [ISM, National Acad. of Sciences of Ukraine, 2 Avtozavodskaya Street, Kiev, 04074 (Ukraine); Haanappel, E. [LNCMP, UMR 5147, 143 avenue de Rangueil, 31400 Toulouse (France); Diko, P. [IEP, Slovak Acad. of Sciences, Watsonova 47, 043 53, Kosice (Slovakia); Zhang, C.P. [SMRC, NIN, 96 Weiyang Road, Xi' an 710016 (China)

    2009-10-15

    YBCO single-domain samples are suitable for the production of high trapped fields in the range 20-77 K using a cryocooler or liquid nitrogen. But the oxygenation process required to actually transform the single domains into superconductors induces an extensive crack network that is limiting the material performances. Thin-wall geometry has been introduced to reduce the diffusion paths and to enable a progressive oxygenation strategy. As a consequence cracks are drastically reduced. In addition the use of a high oxygen pressure (16 MPa) speeds up further the process by displacing the oxygen-temperature equilibrium towards the higher temperature of the phase diagram. The advantage of thin-wall geometry is that such an annealing can be applied directly to a much larger sample. Remarkable results are obtained without any doping by the combination of thin walls and oxygen high pressure. While classical plain samples yield 300-400 mT, a trapped field of 840 mT has been measured at 77 K on a 16 mm diameter Y123 thin-wall single-domain sample with an annealing time as short as 3 days. Local measurements with a fixed Hall probe on top of the sample were performed at lower temperature after magnetization either in a static field or in a pulse field. The trapped field is significantly higher at lower temperature. Cryocoolers become the key to compromise between performances and cryogenic cost around 40 K.

  1. Device for radioactivity measurement of liquid samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamaziere, J.

    1983-01-01

    The device for low activity gamma measurements comprises an automatic changer for sample transfer from a conveyor to a measuring chamber. The conveyor includes a horizontal table were are regularly distributed sample holders. A lift allows a vertical motion of a plate for the exposition in front of a detector [fr

  2. Measured thermal and fast neutron fluence rates for ATF-1 holders during ATR cycle 160A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, B. J.; Miller, D. T.

    2017-01-01

    This report contains the thermal (2200 m/s) and fast (E>1MeV) neutron fluence rate data for the ATF-1 holders located in core for ATR Cycle 160A which were measured by the Radiation Measurements Laboratory (RML).

  3. Landscape effects on pollinator communities and pollination services in small-holder agroecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zou, Yi; Bianchi, Felix J.J.A.; Jauker, Frank; Xiao, Haijun; Chen, Junhui; Cresswell, James; Luo, Shudong; Huang, Jikun; Deng, Xiangzheng; Hou, Lingling; Werf, van der Wopke

    2017-01-01

    Pollination by insects is key for the productivity of many fruit and non-graminous seed crops, but little is known about the response of pollinators to landscapes dominated by small-holder agriculture. Here we assess the relationships between landscape context, pollinator communities (density and

  4. 12 CFR 611.1210 - Advance notices-commencement resolution and notice to equity holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advance notices-commencement resolution and notice to equity holders. 611.1210 Section 611.1210 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM..., within 10 days of adopting the commencement resolution, your bank and the other Farm Credit banks must...

  5. 13 CFR 120.651 - Claim to FTA by Registered Holder to replace Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Claim to FTA by Registered Holder to replace Certificate. 120.651 Section 120.651 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Secondary Market Miscellaneous Provisions § 120.651 Claim to FTA by Registered...

  6. Assessing the authority of political office-holders : The leadership capital index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennister, Mark; t Hart, Paul; Worthy, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that the extent to which political office-holders can effectively attain and wield authority is a function of the stock of ‘leadership capital’. Drawing on the concept of political capital, the article defines leadership capital as aggregate authority composed of three

  7. Measured thermal and fast neutron fluence rates for ATF-1 holders during ATR cycle 160A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, B. J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Miller, D. T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-06-06

    This report contains the thermal (2200 m/s) and fast (E>1MeV) neutron fluence rate data for the ATF-1 holders located in core for ATR Cycle 160A which were measured by the Radiation Measurements Laboratory (RML).

  8. Do people really want freedom of choice? : Assessing preferences of pension holders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, Harry; Henkens, Kene

    2018-01-01

    Reforms of private pension plans across the world are involving the introduction of more options for pension holders to make choices to suit their preferences. Freedom of choice is not, however, a unidimensional concept despite being commonly perceived as such by policy makers. Using a unique panel

  9. 48 CFR 252.205-7000 - Provision of information to cooperative agreement holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... has an agreement with the Defense Logistics Agency to furnish procurement technical assistance to business entities. (b) The Contractor shall provide cooperative agreement holders, upon their request, with... defense contracts. The list shall include the business address, telephone number, and area of...

  10. Stability of Cortisol and Cortisone in Human Breast Milk During Holder Pasteurization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Voorn, Bibian; de Waard, Marita; Dijkstra, Lisette R.; Heijboer, Annemieke C.; Rotteveel, Joost; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Finken, Martijn J. J.

    2017-01-01

    Human donor milk is the feeding of choice for preterm infants, when own mother's milk is not available. Holder pasteurization is necessary to secure the safety of donor milk, although it can affect milk quality by reduction of nutritional and bioactive components. Recently, research has focused on

  11. CFD analysis of a scramjet combustor with cavity based flame holders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummitha, Obula Reddy; Pandey, Krishna Murari; Gupta, Rajat

    2018-03-01

    Numerical analysis of a scramjet combustor with different cavity flame holders has been carried out using ANSYS 16 - FLUENT tool. In this research article the internal fluid flow behaviour of the scramjet combustor with different cavity based flame holders have been discussed in detail. Two dimensional Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes governing(RANS) equations and shear stress turbulence (SST) k - ω model along with finite rate/eddy dissipation chemistry turbulence have been considered for modelling chemical reacting flows. Due to the advantage of less computational time, global one step reaction mechanism has been used for combustion modelling of hydrogen and air. The performance of the scramjet combustor with two different cavities namely spherical and step cavity has been compared with the standard DLR scramjet. From the comparison of numerical results, it is found that the development of recirculation regions and additional shock waves from the edge of cavity flame holder is increased. And also it is observed that with the cavity flame holder the residence time of air in the scramjet combustor is also increased and achieved stabilized combustion. From this research analysis, it has been found that the mixing and combustion efficiency of scramjet combustor with step cavity design is optimum as compared to other models.

  12. Foot-controlled robotic-enabled endoscope holder for endoscopic sinus surgery: A cadaveric feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jason Y K; Leung, Iris; Navarro-Alarcon, David; Lin, Weiyang; Li, Peng; Lee, Dennis L Y; Liu, Yun-hui; Tong, Michael C F

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of a unique prototype foot-controlled robotic-enabled endoscope holder (FREE) in functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Cadaveric study. Using human cadavers, we investigated the feasibility, advantages, and disadvantages of the robotic endoscope holder in performing endoscopic sinus surgery with two hands in five cadaver heads, mimicking a single nostril three-handed technique. The FREE robot is relatively easy to use. Setup was quick, taking less than 3 minutes from docking the robot at the head of the bed to visualizing the middle meatus. The unit is also relatively small, takes up little space, and currently has four degrees of freedom. The learning curve for using the foot control was short. The use of both hands was not hindered by the presence of the endoscope in the nasal cavity. The tremor filtration also aided in the smooth movement of the endoscope, with minimal collisions. The FREE endoscope holder in an ex-vivo cadaver test corroborated the feasibility of the robotic prototype, which allows for a two-handed approach to surgery equal to a single nostril three-handed technique without the holder that may reduce operating time. Further studies will be needed to evaluate its safety profile and use in other areas of endoscopic surgery. NA. Laryngoscope, 126:566-569, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  13. Development of a magnetic measurement device for thin ribbon samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yuta; Todaka, Takashi; Enokizono, Masato

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a magnetic measurement device for thin ribbon samples, which are produced by rapid cooling technique. This device enables us to measure magnetic properties easily by only inserting a ribbon sample into a sample holder. The sample holder was made by bakelite to fix any width sample. A long solenoid coil was used to generate a uniform magnetic field and the sample holder was placed at the mid part of the solenoid. The magnetic field strength was measured using a shunt resistor and the magnetic flux density and magnetization in sample ribbons were evaluated by using search coils. The accuracy of measurement was verified with an amorphous metal ribbon sample. Next, we have measured magnetic properties of some magnetic shape memory alloys, which have different compositions. The measured results are compared and we clarified the effect of Sm contents on the magnetic properties

  14. Development and application of a high-temperature sampling probe for burning chamber conditions of fluidized-bed combustion; Korkean laempoetilan naeytteenottosondin kehittaeminen ja soveltaminen leijukerrospolton tulipesaeolosuhteisiin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larjava, K.; Paerkkae, M.; Jormanainen, P.; Roine, J.; Paakkinen, K. [VTT Chemistry, Espoo (Finland); Linna, V. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    A sampling probe for the burning chamber conditions of fluidized-bed combustion will be developed in this project. The probe will be suitable for sampling vaporous heavy and alkali metals and other condensing compounds (e.g. chlorides) as well combustion gases and alternatively also flue gas particles at high temperatures. The knowledge gained with the probe will help understanding, developing and modeling combustion processes and will thus aid the manufacturers of the boilers. (author)

  15. Standard Procedure for Dose Assessment using the film holder NRPB/AERE and the film AGFA Monitoring 2/10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillen, J.A.

    1998-07-01

    This paper describes the calculation method to assess dose and energy using the film holder from NRPB/AERE and the film Agfa Monitoring 2/10. Also includes all the steps since preparing the standard curve, fitting of calibration curve, dose assesment, description of filtration of the film holder and the form of the calibration curve

  16. Sample taking device for toxic and/or radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finsterwalder, L.; Zeh, H.; Schaarschmidt, U.

    1979-01-01

    An apparatus for taking samples of toxic and/or radioactive liquid substances by introducing such substances into sample vessels includes a holder for holding such a vessel, at least one needle head filling system composed of upwardly pointing hollow needles for introducing a sample of one such substance into such a vessel at a filling position, and inlet and outlet conduits for pneumatically conveying vessels to or from the holder at a transfer position. The holder is composed of a turntable having a sleeve for accommodating such vessel and is mounted to undergo rotary movement to convey a sample vessel held in the sleeve between the filling and transfer positions. The apparatus further includes a stand supporting the filling system below the holder and a lifting device connected for imparting a translational movement to the holder to bring a vessel in the holder to operative association with the filling system. The lifting device is arranged so that the translational movement which it produces is independent of the rotary movement of the turntable

  17. Highly identified power-holders feel responsible: The interplay between social identification and social power within groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Annika; Sassenberg, Kai; Ellemers, Naomi; Scheepers, Daan; de Wit, Frank

    2018-01-01

    Power relations affect dynamics within groups. Power-holders' decisions not only determine their personal outcomes, but also the outcomes of others in the group that they control. Yet, power-holders often tend to overlook this responsibility to take care of collective interests. The present research investigated how social identification - with the group to which both the powerful and the powerless belong - alters perceived responsibility among power-holders (and the powerless). Combining research on social power and social identity, we argue that power-holders perceive more responsibility than the powerless when strongly (rather than when weakly) identifying with the group. A study among leaders and an experiment supported this, highlighting that although power-holders are often primarily concerned about personal outcomes, they do feel responsible for considering others' interests when these others are included in the (social) self. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Branched carbon nanofiber network synthesis at room temperature using radio frequency supported microwave plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boskovic, Bojan O.; Stolojan, Vlad; Zeze, Dagou A.; Forrest, Roy D.; Silva, S. Ravi P.; Haq, Sajad

    2004-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers have been grown at room temperature using a combination of radio frequency and microwave assisted plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The nanofibers were grown, using Ni powder catalyst, onto substrates kept at room temperature by using a purposely designed water-cooled sample holder. Branched carbon nanofiber growth was obtained without using a template resulting in interconnected carbon nanofiber network formation on substrates held at room temperature. This method would allow room-temperature direct synthesized nanofiber networks over relatively large areas, for a range of temperature sensitive substrates, such as organic materials, plastics, and other polymers of interest for nanoelectronic two-dimensional networks, nanoelectromechanical devices, nanoactuators, and composite materials

  19. Development and application of a high-temperature sampling probe for burning chamber conditions in fluidized-bed combustion; Korkean laempoetilan naeytteenottosondin kehittaeminen ja soveltaminen leijukerrospolton tulipesaeolosuhteisiin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larjava, K.; Paerkkae, M. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland); Linna, V. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Environmental Technology

    1997-10-01

    Determination of heavy and alkali metals and other condensing compounds (e.g. chlorides) in combustion chamber conditions is limited by the poor suitability of traditional methods for sampling at high temperatures. IFRF has developed a high-temperature sampling probe for sampling HCN and NH{sub 3}, which has been tested for sampling of NH{sub 3} by Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden. VTT Chemical Technology and Chalmers University of Technology have in their preliminary experiments determined contents of vaporous heavy metals in the combustion chamber of a 12 MW circulating fluidized-bed boiler using this probe. According to the results, the modified probe is suitable for heavy metal determination in combustion chamber. Based on this series of experiments, modification of the probe has been started on the own financing of VTT Chemical Technology and a field measurement was performed in November 1994 to test the present version of the probe. Based on the results of that measurement, the probe has been modified further on as a part of this LIEKKI 2 project. Similar kind of a principle has been applied in the probe which has been developed by VTT Energy during 1994. The probe is built for determination of gas composition of fluidized bed in full-scale boilers. The purpose of this project is to develop and test a sampling probe for fluidized bed combustion. The main advantage of the probe is that condensation losses in sampling due to high temperature gradients can be avoided. Thus, the probe is very suitable for sampling vaporous heavy and alkali metals and other condensing species as well as burning gases and alternatively also solids at high temperatures

  20. Unprecedented Integral-Free Debye Temperature Formulas: Sample Applications to Heat Capacities of ZnSe and ZnTe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pässler

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Detailed analytical and numerical analyses are performed for combinations of several complementary sets of measured heat capacities, for ZnSe and ZnTe, from the liquid-helium region up to 600 K. The isochoric (harmonic parts of heat capacities, CVh(T, are described within the frame of a properly devised four-oscillator hybrid model. Additional anharmonicity-related terms are included for comprehensive numerical fittings of the isobaric heat capacities, Cp(T. The contributions of Debye and non-Debye type due to the low-energy acoustical phonon sections are represented here for the first time by unprecedented, integral-free formulas. Indications for weak electronic contributions to the cryogenic heat capacities are found for both materials. A novel analytical framework has been constructed for high-accuracy evaluations of Debye function integrals via a couple of integral-free formulas, consisting of Debye’s conventional low-temperature series expansion in combination with an unprecedented high-temperature series representation for reciprocal values of the Debye function. The zero-temperature limits of Debye temperatures have been detected from published low-temperature Cp(T data sets to be significantly lower than previously estimated, namely, 270 (±3 K for ZnSe and 220 (±2 K for ZnTe. The high-temperature limits of the “true” (harmonic lattice Debye temperatures are found to be 317 K for ZnSe and 262 K for ZnTe.

  1. High temperature and pressure electrochemical test station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Allebrod, Frank; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2013-01-01

    An electrochemical test station capable of operating at pressures up to 100 bars and temperatures up to 400 ◦C has been established. It enables control of the partial pressures and mass flow of O2, N2, H2, CO2, and H2O in a single or dual environment arrangement, measurements with highly corrosive...... media, as well as localized sampling of gas evolved at the electrodes for gas analysis. A number of safety and engineering design challenges have been addressed. Furthermore, we present a series of electrochemical cell holders that have been constructed in order to accommodate different types of cells...... and facilitate different types of electrochemical measurements. Selected examples of materials and electrochemical cells examined in the test station are provided, ranging from the evaluation of the ionic conductivity of liquid electrolytic solutions immobilized in mesoporous ceramic structures...

  2. MgO melting curve constraints from shock temperature and rarefaction overtake measurements in samples preheated to 2300 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fat'yanov, O. V.; Asimow, P. D.

    2014-05-01

    Continuing our effort to obtain experimental constraints on the melting curve of MgO at 100-200 GPa, we extended our target preheating capability to 2300 K. Our new Mo capsule design holds a long MgO crystal in a controlled thermal gradient until impact by a Ta flyer launched at up to 7.5 km/s on the Caltech two-stage light-gas gun. Radiative shock temperatures and rarefaction overtake times were measured simultaneously by a 6-channel VIS/NIR pyrometer with 3 ns time resolution. The majority of our experiments showed smooth monotonic increases in MgO sound speed and shock temperature with pressure from 197 to 243 GPa. The measured temperatures as well as the slopes of the pressure dependences for both temperature and sound speed were in good agreement with those calculated numerically for the solid phase at our peak shock compression conditions. Most observed sound speeds, however, were ~800 m/s higher than those predicted by the model. A single unconfirmed data point at 239 GPa showed anomalously low temperature and sound speed, which could both be explained by partial melting in this experiment and could suggest that the Hugoniot of MgO preheated to 2300 K crosses its melting line just slightly above 240 GPa.

  3. MgO melting curve constraints from shock temperature and rarefaction overtake measurements in samples preheated to 2300 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fat'yanov, O V; Asimow, P D

    2014-01-01

    Continuing our effort to obtain experimental constraints on the melting curve of MgO at 100-200 GPa, we extended our target preheating capability to 2300 K. Our new Mo capsule design holds a long MgO crystal in a controlled thermal gradient until impact by a Ta flyer launched at up to 7.5 km/s on the Caltech two-stage light-gas gun. Radiative shock temperatures and rarefaction overtake times were measured simultaneously by a 6-channel VIS/NIR pyrometer with 3 ns time resolution. The majority of our experiments showed smooth monotonic increases in MgO sound speed and shock temperature with pressure from 197 to 243 GPa. The measured temperatures as well as the slopes of the pressure dependences for both temperature and sound speed were in good agreement with those calculated numerically for the solid phase at our peak shock compression conditions. Most observed sound speeds, however, were ∼800 m/s higher than those predicted by the model. A single unconfirmed data point at 239 GPa showed anomalously low temperature and sound speed, which could both be explained by partial melting in this experiment and could suggest that the Hugoniot of MgO preheated to 2300 K crosses its melting line just slightly above 240 GPa.

  4. Time and temperature dependent analytical stability of dry-collected Evalyn HPV self-sampling brush for cervical cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejegod, Ditte Møller; Pedersen, Helle; Alzua, Garazi Peña

    2018-01-01

    As a new initiative, HPV self-sampling to non-attenders using the dry Evalyn self-sampling brush is offered in the Capital Region of Denmark. The use of a dry brush is largely uncharted territory in terms of analytical stability. In this study we aim to provide evidence on the analytical quality...

  5. Sample-size resonance, ferromagnetic resonance and magneto-permittivity resonance in multiferroic nano-BiFeO{sub 3}/paraffin composites at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lei; Li, Zhenyu; Jiang, Jia; An, Taiyu; Qin, Hongwei; Hu, Jifan, E-mail: hujf@sdu.edu.cn

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, we demonstrate that ferromagnetic resonance and magneto-permittivity resonance can be observed in appropriate microwave frequencies at room temperature for multiferroic nano-BiFeO{sub 3}/paraffin composite sample with an appropriate sample-thickness (such as 2 mm). Ferromagnetic resonance originates from the room-temperature weak ferromagnetism of nano-BiFeO{sub 3}. The observed magneto-permittivity resonance in multiferroic nano-BiFeO{sub 3} is connected with the dynamic magnetoelectric coupling through Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya (DM) magnetoelectric interaction or the combination of magnetostriction and piezoelectric effects. In addition, we experimentally observed the resonance of negative imaginary permeability for nano BiFeO{sub 3}/paraffin toroidal samples with longer sample thicknesses D=3.7 and 4.9 mm. Such resonance of negative imaginary permeability belongs to sample-size resonance. - Highlights: • Nano-BiFeO{sub 3}/paraffin composite shows a ferromagnetic resonance. • Nano-BiFeO{sub 3}/paraffin composite shows a magneto-permittivity resonance. • Resonance of negative imaginary permeability in BiFeO{sub 3} is a sample-size resonance. • Nano-BiFeO{sub 3}/paraffin composite with large thickness shows a sample-size resonance.

  6. Sample-size resonance, ferromagnetic resonance and magneto-permittivity resonance in multiferroic nano-BiFeO3/paraffin composites at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lei; Li, Zhenyu; Jiang, Jia; An, Taiyu; Qin, Hongwei; Hu, Jifan

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, we demonstrate that ferromagnetic resonance and magneto-permittivity resonance can be observed in appropriate microwave frequencies at room temperature for multiferroic nano-BiFeO 3 /paraffin composite sample with an appropriate sample-thickness (such as 2 mm). Ferromagnetic resonance originates from the room-temperature weak ferromagnetism of nano-BiFeO 3 . The observed magneto-permittivity resonance in multiferroic nano-BiFeO 3 is connected with the dynamic magnetoelectric coupling through Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya (DM) magnetoelectric interaction or the combination of magnetostriction and piezoelectric effects. In addition, we experimentally observed the resonance of negative imaginary permeability for nano BiFeO 3 /paraffin toroidal samples with longer sample thicknesses D=3.7 and 4.9 mm. Such resonance of negative imaginary permeability belongs to sample-size resonance. - Highlights: • Nano-BiFeO 3 /paraffin composite shows a ferromagnetic resonance. • Nano-BiFeO 3 /paraffin composite shows a magneto-permittivity resonance. • Resonance of negative imaginary permeability in BiFeO 3 is a sample-size resonance. • Nano-BiFeO 3 /paraffin composite with large thickness shows a sample-size resonance.

  7. Genotyping for DQA1 and PM loci in urine using PCR-based amplification: effects of sample volume, storage temperature, preservatives, and aging on DNA extraction and typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, N T; Chaturvedi, A K; Canfield, D V

    1999-05-31

    Urine is often the sample of choice for drug screening in aviation/general forensic toxicology and in workplace drug testing. In some instances, the origin of the submitted samples may be challenged because of the medicolegal and socioeconomic consequences of a positive drug test. Methods for individualization of biological samples have reached a new boundary with the application of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in DNA profiling, but a successful characterization of the urine specimens depends on the quantity and quality of DNA present in the samples. Therefore, the present study investigated the influence of storage conditions, sample volume, concentration modes, extraction procedures, and chemical preservations on the quantity of DNA recovered, as well as the success rate of PCR-based genotyping for DQA1 and PM loci in urine. Urine specimens from male and female volunteers were divided and stored at various temperatures for up to 30 days. The results suggested that sample purification by dialfiltration, using 3000-100,000 molecular weight cut-off filters, did not enhance DNA recovery and typing rate as compared with simple centrifugation procedures. Extraction of urinary DNA by the organic method and by the resin method gave comparable typing results. Larger sample volume yielded a higher amount of DNA, but the typing rates were not affected for sample volumes between 1 and 5 ml. The quantifiable amounts of DNA present were found to be greater in female (14-200 ng/ml) than in male (4-60 ng/ml) samples and decreased with the elapsed time under both room temperature (RT) and frozen storage. Typing of the male samples also demonstrated that RT storage samples produced significantly higher success rates than that of frozen samples, while there was only marginal difference in the DNA typing rates among the conditions tested using female samples. Successful assignment of DQA1 + PM genotype was achieved for all samples of fresh urine, independent of gender

  8. Determining solid-fluid interface temperature distribution during phase change of cryogenic propellants using transient thermal modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellur, K.; Médici, E. F.; Hermanson, J. C.; Choi, C. K.; Allen, J. S.

    2018-04-01

    Control of boil-off of cryogenic propellants is a continuing technical challenge for long duration space missions. Predicting phase change rates of cryogenic liquids requires an accurate estimation of solid-fluid interface temperature distributions in regions where a contact line or a thin liquid film exists. This paper described a methodology to predict inner wall temperature gradients with and without evaporation using discrete temperature measurements on the outer wall of a container. Phase change experiments with liquid hydrogen and methane in cylindrical test cells of various materials and sizes were conducted at the Neutron Imaging Facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Two types of tests were conducted. The first type of testing involved thermal cycling of an evacuated cell (dry) and the second involved controlled phase change with cryogenic liquids (wet). During both types of tests, temperatures were measured using Si-diode sensors mounted on the exterior surface of the test cells. Heat is transferred to the test cell by conduction through a helium exchange gas and through the cryostat sample holder. Thermal conduction through the sample holder is shown to be the dominant mode with the rate of heat transfer limited by six independent contact resistances. An iterative methodology is employed to determine contact resistances between the various components of the cryostat stick insert, test cell and lid using the dry test data. After the contact resistances are established, inner wall temperature distributions during wet tests are calculated.

  9. Influence of frost damage and sample preconditioning on the porosity characterization of cement based materials using low temperature calorimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Min; Fridh, Katja; Johannesson, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Low temperature calorimetry (LTC) can be used to study the meso-porosity of cement based materials. The influence of frost damage on the meso-porosity determination by LTC was explored on a model material MCM-41 and two cement pastes by conducting repeated cycles of freezing and melting measureme...

  10. Temperature measurement of the reactor materials samples irradiated in the fuel channels of the RA reactor - Annex 16; Prilog 16 - Merenje temperature uzoraka reaktorskih materijala ozracivanih u gorivnim kanalima reaktora RA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolic, M; Djalovic, M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Reaktor RA, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1964-12-15

    Reactor materials as graphite, stainless steel, magnox, zirconium alloys, etc. were exposed to fast neutron flux inside the fuel elements specially adapted for this purpose. Samples in the form ampoules were placed in capsules inside the fuel channels and cooled by heavy water which cools the fuel elements. In order to monitor the samples temperature 42 thermocouples were placed in the samples. That was necessary for reactor safety reasons and for further interpretation of measured results. Temperature monitoring was done continuously by multichannel milivoltmeters. This paper describes the technique of introducing the thermocouples, compensation instruments, control of the cold ends and adaptation of the instruments for precision (0.5%) temperature measurement in the range 30 deg - 130 deg C; 30 deg - 280 deg C and 30 deg - 80 deg C. Ozracivanje uzoraka materijala za izgradnju reaktora kao sto su grafit, nerdjajuci celik, magnox, legure cirkonijuma, aluminijuma itd. vrseno je u fluksu brzih neutrona unutar samih gorivnih elemenata koji su specijalno adaptirani za ovu svrhu. Uzorci u vidu ampula smesteni su u kapsulu od aluminijuma i postavljeni unutar kanala gde su hladjeni cirkulacijom teske vode koja hladi same gorivne elemente. U cilju kontrole temperature uzoraka radi bezbednosti samog reaktora, kao i radi kasnije interpretacije rezultata ispitivanja radijacionog ostecenja materijala, ugradjeno je 42 termopara u uzorke. Kontrola temperature je vrsena kontinualno visekanalnim registratorima. U radu je prikazana tehnika izvodjenja termoparova, kompenzacionih vodova, kontrola hladnih krajeva i prilagodjenje instrumentacije za merenje i registraciju temperature sa tacnoscu 0,5% u opsezima 30 deg - 130 deg C; 30 deg - 280 deg C i 30 deg - 80 deg C (author)

  11. Electronic properties of polyamide-PPy/metal junction and electrical conductivity of a typical sample at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suenel, N.; Sedef, A.G.; Parlak, M.; Toppare, L.

    2005-01-01

    Electronic properties of junctions fabricated by polyamide-polypyrrole composite films polymerized with adjusted doping concentration and various metal contacts (In, Al, Au and Ag) were investigated. For the junctions giving good rectification I 0 , n and φ b were specified. Conductivity of polyamide-polypyrrole composite polymer was obtained as a function of temperature in the 70-320 K range and was found to obey the VRH model. In addition the Mott parameters were evaluated

  12. Electronic properties of polyamide-PPy/metal junction and electrical conductivity of a typical sample at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suenel, N. [Gaziosmanpasa University, Physics Department, Tasliciftlik Kampasu, Tokat (Turkey)]. E-mail: nsunel@gop.edu.tr; Sedef, A.G. [Gaziosmanpasa University, Physics Department, Tasliciftlik Kampasu, Tokat (Turkey); Parlak, M. [Middle East Technical University, Physics Department, Ankara (Turkey); Toppare, L. [Middle East Technical University, Chemistry Department, Ankara (Turkey)

    2005-05-15

    Electronic properties of junctions fabricated by polyamide-polypyrrole composite films polymerized with adjusted doping concentration and various metal contacts (In, Al, Au and Ag) were investigated. For the junctions giving good rectification I{sub 0}, n and {phi}{sub b} were specified. Conductivity of polyamide-polypyrrole composite polymer was obtained as a function of temperature in the 70-320 K range and was found to obey the VRH model. In addition the Mott parameters were evaluated.

  13. 17 CFR 240.14a-7 - Obligations of registrants to provide a list of, or mail soliciting material to, security holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., form of proxy or other communication to such holders, including to the extent known or reasonably... provided for under applicable state law identifying the proposal or other corporate action that will be the subject of the security holder's solicitation or communication and attesting that: (i) The security holder...

  14. The use of room temperature phosphorescence for the determination of uranium in tin-tailings mineral samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meor Yusof bin Meor Sulaiman

    1988-01-01

    The possibility of using phosphorescence technique in determining uranium in mineral samples and its comparison with that of fluorescence using high carbonate flux is presented. Samples used are tin-tailings mineral such as monazite, xenotime, ilmenite and zircon. The calibration graph obtained shows a linear relationship between the concentration range of 0-55 ppm U. From here, analysis of the standard showed that the result obtained and that of the certified value are consistent. HN0 3 :H 2 SO 4 (1:3) and phosphoric acid leaching methods are tried and the results show that phosphoric acid is the better method for phosphate mineral. Comparison of the results obtained from this technique and that of the direct and extraction methods of fluorimetry are also made. Phosphorescence is found to be a better method in determining uranium in this type of samples. (author)

  15. The X-ray luminosity-temperature relation of a complete sample of low-mass galaxy clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, S.; Maughan, B. J.; Giles, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    found for massive clusters to a steeper slope for the lower mass sample studied here. Thanks to our rigorous treatment of selection biases, these measurements provide a robust reference against which to compare predictions of models of the impact of feedback on the X-ray properties of galaxy groups....... (T), taking selection biases fully into account. The logarithmic slope of the bolometric L-T relation was found to be 3.29 ± 0.33, consistent with values typically found for samples of more massive clusters. In combination with other recent studies of the L-T relation, we show...

  16. Preparation and characterization of porous Mg-Zn-Ca alloy by space holder technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annur, D.; Lestari, Franciska P.; Erryani, A.; Sijabat, Fernando A.; G. P. Astawa, I. N.; Kartika, I.

    2018-04-01

    Magnesium had been recently researched as a future biodegradable implant material. In the recent study, porous Mg-Zn-Ca alloys were developed using space holder technique in powder metallurgy process. Carbamide (10-20%wt) was added into Mg-6Zn-1Ca (in wt%) alloy system as a space holder to create porous structure material. Sintering process was done in a tube furnace under Argon atmosphere in 610 °C for 5 hours. Porous structure of the resulted alloy was examined using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), while the phase formation was characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Further, mechanical properties of porous Mg-Zn-Ca alloy was examined through compression testing. Microstructure characterization showed higher content of Carbamide in the alloy would give different type of pores. However, compression test showed that mechanical properties of Mg-Zn-Ca alloy would decrease significantly when higher content of carbamide was added.

  17. Head holder using negative pressure bag packed with plastic beads in xenon CT CBF study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Yuzo; Sakai, Noboru

    2003-01-01

    Employing analysis of cerebral blood flow (CBF) confidence maps, we investigated the usefulness of a head holder using a negative pressure bag packed with plastic beads in a xenon CT CBF study. A total of 272 consecutive patients for the CBF study were enrolled and classified into 3 groups: 88 patients with a negative pressure bag (M group), 87 patients with an air pillow (A group), and 97 patients with a sponge pillow (S group). The degree of effect of head movements on the CBF measurement in each patient was expressed as a confidence value (mean of the confidence values at one CT slice). The mean of confidence value in the M group (0.461) was statistically lower than that in the A group (0.866) and that in the S group (1.043). These findings showed that the head holder described here was useful for obtaining CBF maps of high quality in a xenon CT CBF study. (author)

  18. Experimental verification of a deep drawing tool system for adaptive blank holder pressure distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Søren; Endelt, Benny Ørtoft

    2012-01-01

    In deep drawing, the strain path in the blank during the forming process can be significantly affected by application of temporal and spatial variation of the blank holder force. In this study, an active tool system capable of controlling the distribution of the blank holder force is presented...... which can be integrated into existing stacked deep drawing tools without need for modification of the press. A working system is presented consisting of a controller, designated volume displacement cavity pressure supply units and a shimming plate. It is applied to the deep drawing of a rectangular...... to the conventional shimming method using paper or metal shims between the tool plates. The tool system’s ability to influence the material flow is investigated by performing a series of deep drawing experiments. Eight different cavity pressure schemes are applied during the punch stroke and the scheme’s effects...

  19. A Modeling approach for analysis and improvement of spindle-holder-tool assembly dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Budak, Erhan; Ertürk, A.; Erturk, A.; Özgüven, H. N.; Ozguven, H. N.

    2006-01-01

    The most important information required for chatter stability analysis is the dynamics of the involved structures, i.e. the frequency response functions (FRFs) which are usually determined experimentally. In this study, the tool point FRF of a spindle-holder-tool assembly is analytically determined by using the receptance coupling and structural modification techniques. Timoshenko’s beam model is used for increased accuracy. The spindle is also modeled analytically with elastic supports repre...

  20. Experimental and numerical examination of eddy (Foucault) currents in rotating micro-coils: Generation of heat and its impact on sample temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Pedro M.; Jacquinot, Jacques-François; Sakellariou, Dimitris

    2009-09-01

    The application of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to systems of limited quantity has stimulated the use of micro-coils (diameter Foucault (eddy) currents, which generate heat. We report the first data acquired with a 4 mm MACS system and spinning up to 10 kHz. The need to spin faster necessitates improved methods to control heating. We propose an approximate solution to calculate the power losses (heat) from the eddy currents for a solenoidal coil, in order to provide insight into the functional dependencies of Foucault currents. Experimental tests of the dependencies reveal conditions which result in reduced sample heating and negligible temperature distributions over the sample volume.

  1. Experimental and numerical examination of eddy (Foucault) currents in rotating micro-coils: Generation of heat and its impact on sample temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Pedro M; Jacquinot, Jacques-François; Sakellariou, Dimitris

    2009-09-01

    The application of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to systems of limited quantity has stimulated the use of micro-coils (diameter Foucault (eddy) currents, which generate heat. We report the first data acquired with a 4mm MACS system and spinning up to 10kHz. The need to spin faster necessitates improved methods to control heating. We propose an approximate solution to calculate the power losses (heat) from the eddy currents for a solenoidal coil, in order to provide insight into the functional dependencies of Foucault currents. Experimental tests of the dependencies reveal conditions which result in reduced sample heating and negligible temperature distributions over the sample volume.

  2. The Effect of Temperature and Injection Rate during Water Flooding Using Carbonate Core Samples: An Experimental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Ahmadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In many reservoirs, after water flooding, a large volume of oil is still left behind. Hot water injection is the most basic type of thermal recovery which increase recovery by improved sweep efficiency and thermal expansion of crude.In the present work, the effects of injection rate and the temperature of the injected water were surveyed by using core flooding apparatus. Water flooding was performed at different rates (0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 cc/min and temperatures (20 and 90 °C, and the reservoir temperature was about 63 °C. Oil recovery during hot water injection was more than water injection. Moreover, it was concluded that at injection rates of 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 cc/min breakthrough time in hot water injection occurred 10 min later in comparison to water injection. The results showed that higher oil recovery and longer breakthrough time were obtained as a result of reducing injection rate. In the first 50 minutes, the oil recovery at injection rates of 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 cc/min was 27.5, 34, and 46% respectively. It was found that at the beginning of injection, thermal and non-thermal injection recovery factors are approximately equal. Moreover, according to the results, recovery factor at the lowest rate in hot water (T=90 °C and q=0.2 cc/min is the best condition to obtain the highest recovery.

  3. Design and construction of an adiabatic calorimeter for samples of less than 1 cm3 in the temperature range T = 15 K to T = 350 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, Brian E.; Boerio-Goates, Juliana; Woodfield, Brian F.

    2006-01-01

    A small-scale adiabatic calorimeter has been constructed as part of a larger project to study the thermodynamics of nanomaterials and to facilitate heat capacity measurements on samples of insufficient quantity to run on our current large-scale adiabatic apparatus. This calorimeter is designed to measure the heat capacity of samples whose volume is less than 0.8 cm 3 over a temperature range of T = 13 K to T = 350 K. Heat capacity results on copper, sapphire, and benzoic acid show the accuracy of the measurements to be better than ±0.4% for temperatures higher than T = 50 K. The reproducibility of these measurements is generally better than ±0.25%

  4. MgO melting curve constraints from shock temperature and rarefaction overtake measurements in samples preheated to 2300 K

    OpenAIRE

    Fat'yanov, Oleg V.; Asimow, P. D.

    2014-01-01

    Continuing our effort to obtain experimental constraints on the melting curve of MgO at 100-200 GPa, we extended our target preheating capability to 2300 K. Our new Mo capsule design holds a long MgO crystal in a controlled thermal gradient until impact by a Ta flyer launched at up to 7.5 km/s on the Caltech two-stage light-gas gun. Radiative shock temperatures and rarefaction overtake times were measured simultaneously by a 6-channel VIS/NIR pyrometer with 3 ns time resolution. The majority ...

  5. Proposal of a Budget-Friendly Camera Holder for Endoscopic Ear Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturan, Orhan; Yenigun, Alper; Aksoy, Fadlullah; Ertas, Burak

    2018-01-01

    Endoscopic ear surgery (EES) is increasingly a preferred technique in otologic society. It offers excellent visualization of the anatomical structures directly and behind the corners with variable angled telescopes. It also provides reduced operative morbidity due to being able to perform surgical interventions with less invasive approaches. Operative preparation and setup time and cost of endoscopy system are less expensive compared with surgical microscopes. On the other hand, the main disadvantage of EES is that the surgery has to be performed with 1 single hand. It is certainly restrictive for an ear surgeon who has been operating with 2 hands under otologic microscopic views for years and certainly requires a learning period and perseverance. Holding the endoscope by a second surgeon is not executable because of insufficient surgical space.Endoscope/camera holders have been developed for those who need the comfort and convenience afforded by double-handed microscopic ear surgery. An ideal endoscope holder should be easy-to-set up, easily controlled, providing a variety of angled views, allowing the surgeon to operate with 2 hands and, budget-friendly. In this article, a commercially available 11-inch magic arm camera holder is proposed by the authors to be used in EES due to its versatile, convenient, and budget-friendly features. It allows 2-handed EES through existing technology and is affordable for surgeons looking for a low-cost and practical solution.

  6. Inactivation of high-risk human papillomaviruses by Holder pasteurization: implications for donor human milk banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donalisio, Manuela; Cagno, Valeria; Vallino, Marta; Moro, Guido E; Arslanoglu, Sertac; Tonetto, Paola; Bertino, Enrico; Lembo, David

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have recently reported the detection of oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV) in human milk of a minority of lactating mothers. These findings raised safety concerns in the context of human donor milk banking given the potential risk of HPV transmission to recipient infants. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the Holder pasteurization, a procedure currently in use in human donor milk banks for milk pasteurization, completely inactivates high-risk and low-risk HPV. HPV pseudoviruses (PsV) were generated, spiked into cell culture medium or donor human milk and subjected to thermal inactivation. HPV PsV infectivity and morphological integrity was analyzed by cell-based assay and by electron microscopy, respectively. The Holder pasteurization completely inactivated the infectivity of high-risk (types 16 and 18) and low-risk (type 6) HPV both in cell culture medium and in human milk causing PsV particle disassembly. The results presented here indicate that the Holder pasteurization is an efficient procedure to inactivate high-risk and low-risk HPV thus preventing the potential risk of their transmission through human donor milk.

  7. Lab-scale development of a high temperature aerosol particle sampling probe system for field measurements in thermochemical conversion of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindskog, M.; Malik, A.; Pagels, J.; Sanati, M. [Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden). Div. of Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology

    2010-07-01

    Thermochemical conversion of biomass requires both combustion in an oxygen rich environment and gasification in an oxygen deficient environment. Therefore, the mass concentration of fly ash from combustion processes is dominated by inorganic compounds, and the particulate matter obtained from gasification is dominated by carbonaceous compounds. The fine fly ash particles can initiate corrosion and fouling and also increases emissions of fine particulates to the atmosphere. This study involved the design of a laboratory scale setup consisting of a high temperature sampling probe and an aerosol generation system to study the formation of fine particle from biomass gasification processes. An aerosol model system using potassium chloride (KCl) as the ash compound and Di Octyl Sebacate oil (DOS) as the volatile organic part was used to test the high temperature sampling probe. Tests conducted at 200 degrees C showed good reproducibility of the aerosol generator. The tests also demonstrated suitable dilution ratios which enabled the denuder to absorb all of the gaseous organic compounds in the set up, thus enabling measurement of only the particle phase. Condensable organic concentrations of 1-68 mg/m{sup 3} were easily handled by the high temperature sampling probe system, indicating that the denuder worked well. Additional tests will be performed using an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMST) to verify that the denuder can capture all of the gaseous organic compounds also when condensed onto agglomerated soot particles. 6 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.

  8. A time-sorting pitfall trap and temperature datalogger for the sampling of surface-active arthropods

    OpenAIRE

    McMunn, Marshall S.

    2017-01-01

    Nearly all arthropods display consistent patterns of activity according to time of day. These patterns of activity often limit the extent of animal co-occurrence in space and time. Quantifying when particular species are active and how activity varies with environmental conditions is difficult without the use of automated devices due to the need for continuous monitoring. Time-sorting pitfall traps passively collect active arthropods into containers with known beginning and end sample times. ...

  9. New experimental space for irradiating samples by RA reactor fast neutron flux at temperatures up to 100 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavicevic, M.; Novakovic, M.; Zecevic, V.

    1961-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present adaptation of the RA reactor which would enable samples irradiation by fast neutrons and describe new experimental possibilities. New experimental space was achieved using hollow fuel elements which have been reconstructed to enable placement of irradiation capsules inside the tube. This paper includes thermal analysis and describes problems related to operation, safety and radiation protection issues which arise from using reconstructed fuel elements

  10. Social Perception of Hydrogen Technologies: The View of Spanish Stake holders; Percepcion Social de las Tecnologias del Hidrogeno. La Vision de los Stakeholders Espanoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferri Anglada, S.

    2013-07-01

    This technical report presents an overview of the social perception and vision of a sample of Spanish stake holders on hydrogen technologies. The study is based on the implementation of a survey, combining both quantitative and qualitative data. An ad hoc electronic survey was design to collect views and perceptions on several key factors regarding this innovative energy alternative. The group of experts participating (N=130) in the study, comes mainly from research centers, universities and private companies. The survey addresses three major themes: expert views, social acceptability, and contextual factors of hydrogen technologies. The aim is to capture both the current and the future scene as viewed by the experts on hydrogen technologies, identifying key factors in terms of changes, uncertainties, obstacles and opportunities. The objective is to identify potential key features for the introduction, development, promotion, implementation, and large-scale deployment of a highly successful energy proposal in countries such as Iceland, one of the pioneers in base its economy on hydrogen technologies. To conclude, this report illustrates the positive engagement of a sample of Spanish stake holders towards hydrogen technologies that may prove vital in the transition towards the Hydrogen Economy in Spain. (Author)

  11. Resistor holder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, John H.

    1989-01-01

    A resistor device for use with electrostatic particle accelerators includes a resistor element positioned within a tubular housing having a fixed end cap at one end thereof and a movable end cap at the other end thereof. The tubular housing, fixed end cap, and movable end cap serve as an electromagnetic field for the resistor element. Conductive disks engage opposite ends of the resistor element and concentrically position the resistor element within the tubular housing. Helical springs engage the conductive disks and the end caps to yieldably support the movable end caps and resistor element for yieldable axial movement relative to the tubular housing. An annular conducting ring is secured to the tubular housing and is spaced radially from the movable end cap and cooperates with the latter to define an annular spark gap.

  12. Sample environment for neutron scattering measurements of internal stresses in engineering materials in the temperature range of 6 K to 300 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichek, O; Timms, J D; Kelleher, J F; Down, R B E; Offer, C D; Kabra, S; Zhang, S Y

    2017-02-01

    Internal stresses in materials have a considerable effect on material properties including strength, fracture toughness, and fatigue resistance. The ENGIN-X beamline is an engineering science facility at ISIS optimized for the measurement of strain and stress using the atomic lattice planes as a strain gauge. Nowadays, the rapidly rising interest in the mechanical properties of engineering materials at low temperatures has been stimulated by the dynamic development of the cryogenic industry and the advanced applications of the superconductor technology. Here we present the design and discuss the test results of a new cryogenic sample environment system for neutron scattering measurements of internal stresses in engineering materials under a load of up to 100 kN and in the temperature range of 6 K to 300 K. Complete cooling of the system starting from the room temperature down to the base temperature takes around 90 min. Understanding of internal stresses in engineering materials at cryogenic temperatures is vital for the modelling and designing of cutting-edge superconducting magnets and other superconductor based applications.

  13. 42 CFR 60.43 - Limitation, suspension, or termination of the eligibility of a HEAL lender or holder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... notice, sent by certified mail, specifying his or her intention to terminate the lender or holder's... that a HEAL lender fails to meet the statutory definition of an “eligible lender.” (d) This section...

  14. [Delayed testing for the diagnosis of fungi in the urines. Evaluation of the BD Vacutainer C&S tubes for the storage of urine samples at room temperature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baixench, M T; Al-Sheikh, M; Paugam, A

    2005-01-01

    The study included 37 urine samples which have been artificially infected with low levels (10(3) CFU/mL) of various fungi strains. We compared the effects of sample storage, up to 48 hours, at room temperature, in a urine evacuated tube containing specific additives with storage at + 4 degrees C, for the same length of time, in a urine evacuated tube without any additives. There have been no differences of results (speed of growth and colony size) between the 2 modes of storage. However, the experience has shown that samples needed a careful mixing before seeding to avoid underdetection of the strains. Based on the study results, the BD Vacutainer C&S tubes are suitable for delayed testing for the diagnosis of urine fungal infection.

  15. Insider patent holder licensing in an oligopoly market with different cost structures: Fixed-fee, royalty, and auction

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-Chung Chang

    2010-01-01

    The issue of the optimal licensing contract in firms having different cost structures is studied when the innovator is a producing patent holder who has three alternative licensing strategies, namely, the fixed-fee, royalty rate, and auction strategies. We conclude that the auction licensing strategy is not the best strategy when the innovator is a producing patent holder. This finding differs from that of Kabiraj (2004) where the auction licensing method is the optimal licensing strategy whe...

  16. Amorphous and liquid samples structure and density measurements at high pressure - high temperature using diffraction and imaging techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guignot, N.; King, A.; Clark, A. N.; Perrillat, J. P.; Boulard, E.; Morard, G.; Deslandes, J. P.; Itié, J. P.; Ritter, X.; Sanchez-Valle, C.

    2016-12-01

    Determination of the density and structure of liquids such as iron alloys, silicates and carbonates is a key to understand deep Earth structure and dynamics. X-ray diffraction provided by large synchrotron facilities gives excellent results as long as the signal scattered from the sample can be isolated from its environment. Different techniques already exist; we present here the implementation and the first results given by the combined angle- and energy-dispersive structural analysis and refinement (CAESAR) technique introduced by Wang et al. in 2004, that has never been used in this context. It has several advantages in the study of liquids: 1/ the standard energy-dispersive technique (EDX), fast and compatible with large multi-anvil presses frames, is used for fast analysis free of signal pollution from the sample environment 2/ some limitations of the EDX technique (homogeneity of the sample, low resolution) are irrelevant in the case of liquid signals, others (wrong intensities, escape peaks artifacts, background subtraction) are solved by the CAESAR technique 3/ high Q data (up to 15 A-1 and more) can be obtained in a few hours (usually less than 2). We present here the facilities available on the PSICHE beamline (SOLEIL synchrotron, France) and a few results obtained using a Paris-Edinburgh (PE) press and a 1200 tons load capacity multi-anvil press with a (100) DIA compression module. X-ray microtomography, used in conjunction with a PE press featuring rotating anvils (RotoPEc, Philippe et al., 2013) is also very effective, by simply measuring the 3D volume of glass or liquid spheres at HPHT, thus providing density. This can be done in conjunction with the CAESAR technique and we illustrate this point. Finally, absorption profiles can be obtained via imaging techniques, providing another independent way to measure the density of these materials. References Y. Wang et al., A new technique for angle-dispersive powder diffraction using an energy

  17. Independent Subspace Analysis of the Sea Surface Temperature Variability: Non-Gaussian Sources and Sensitivity to Sampling and Dimensionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. L. Pires

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an expansion of multivariate time-series data into maximally independent source subspaces. The search is made among rotations of prewhitened data which maximize non-Gaussianity of candidate sources. We use a tensorial invariant approximation of the multivariate negentropy in terms of a linear combination of squared coskewness and cokurtosis. By solving a high-order singular value decomposition problem, we extract the axes associated with most non-Gaussianity. Moreover, an estimate of the Gaussian subspace is provided by the trailing singular vectors. The independent subspaces are obtained through the search of “quasi-independent” components within the estimated non-Gaussian subspace, followed by the identification of groups with significant joint negentropies. Sources result essentially from the coherency of extremes of the data components. The method is then applied to the global sea surface temperature anomalies, equatorward of 65°, after being tested with non-Gaussian surrogates consistent with the data anomalies. The main emerging independent components and subspaces, supposedly generated by independent forcing, include different variability modes, namely, The East-Pacific, the Central Pacific, and the Atlantic Niños, the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, along with the subtropical dipoles in the Indian, South Pacific, and South-Atlantic oceans. Benefits and usefulness of independent subspaces are then discussed.

  18. Metal-poor dwarf galaxies in the SIGRID galaxy sample. II. The electron temperature-abundance calibration and the parameters that affect it

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholls, David C.; Dopita, Michael A.; Sutherland, Ralph S.; Jerjen, Helmut; Kewley, Lisa J., E-mail: David.Nicholls@anu.edu.au [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Rd., Weston ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2014-07-20

    In this paper, we use the Mappings photoionization code to explore the physical parameters that impact on the measurement of electron temperature and abundance in H II regions. In our previous paper, we presented observations and measurements of physical properties from the spectra of 17 H II regions in 14 isolated dwarf irregular galaxies from the SIGRID sample. Here, we analyze these observations further, together with three additional published data sets. We explore the effects of optical thickness, electron density, ionization parameter, ionization source, and non-equilibrium effects on the relation between electron temperature and metallicity. We present a standard model that fits the observed data remarkably well at metallicities between one-tenth and 1 solar. We investigate the effects of optically thin H II regions, and show that they can have a considerable effect on the measured electron temperature, and that there is evidence that some of the observed objects are optically thin. We look at the role of the ionization parameter and find that lower ionization parameter values give better fits at higher oxygen abundance. We show that higher pressures combined with low optical depth, and also κ electron energy distributions at low κ values, can generate the apparent high electron temperatures in low-metallicity H II regions, and that the former provides the better fit to observations. We examine the effects of these parameters on the strong line diagnostic methods. We extend this to three-dimensional diagnostic grids to confirm how well the observations are described by the grids.

  19. A New Cryogenic Sample Manipulator For SRC's Scienta 2002 System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundelach, Chad T.; Fisher, Mike V.; Hoechst, Hartmut

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the first bench tests of a sample manipulator which was recently designed at SRC for the Scienta 2002 User system. The manipulator concept utilizes the 10 deg. angular window of the Scienta in the horizontal plane (angle dispersion) by rotating the sample normal around the vertical axis while angular scans along the vertical axis (energy dispersion) are continuous within ±30 deg. relative to the electron lens by rotating the sample around the horizontal axis. With this concept it is possible to precisely map the entire two-dimensional k-space of a crystal by means of stitching together 10 deg. wide stripes centered +15 deg. to -50 deg. relative to the sample normal. Three degrees of translational freedom allow positioning the sample surface at the focal point of the analyzer. Two degrees of rotational freedom are available at this position for manipulating the sample. Samples are mounted to a standard holder and transferred to the manipulator via a load-lock system attached to a prep chamber. The manipulator is configured with a cryogenic cold head, an electrical heater, and a temperature sensor permitting continuous closed-loop operation for 20-380 K

  20. Thermal conductivity measurements of impregnated Nb3Sn coil samples in the temperature range of 3.5 K to 100 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koettig, T.; Maciocha, W.; Bermudez, S.; Rysti, J.; Tavares, S.; Cacherat, F.; Bremer, J.

    2017-02-01

    In the framework of the luminosity upgrade of the LHC, high-field magnets are under development. Magnetic flux densities of up to 13 T require the use of Nb3Sn superconducting coils. Quench protection becomes challenging due to the high stored energy density and the low stabilizer fraction. The thermal conductivity and diffusivity of the combination of insulating layers and Nb3Sn based cables are an important thermodynamic input parameter for quench protection systems and superfluid helium cooling studies. A two-stage cryocooler based test stand is used to measure the thermal conductance of the coil sample in two different heat flow directions with respect to the coil package geometry. Variable base temperatures of the experimental platform at the cryocooler allow for a steady-state heat flux method up to 100 K. The heat is applied at wedges style copper interfaces of the Rutherford cables. The respective temperature difference represents the absolute value of thermal conductance of the sample arrangement. We report about the measurement methodology applied to this kind of non-uniform sample composition and the evaluation of the used resin composite materials.

  1. Airfoil sampling of a pulsed Laval beam with tunable vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry: application to low-temperature kinetics and product detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soorkia, Satchin; Liu, Chen-Lin; Savee, John D; Ferrell, Sarah J; Leone, Stephen R; Wilson, Kevin R

    2011-12-01

    A new pulsed Laval nozzle apparatus with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron photoionization quadrupole mass spectrometry is constructed to study low-temperature radical-neutral chemical reactions of importance for modeling the atmosphere of Titan and the outer planets. A design for the sampling geometry of a pulsed Laval nozzle expansion has been developed that operates successfully for the determination of rate coefficients by time-resolved mass spectrometry. The new concept employs airfoil sampling of the collimated expansion with excellent sampling throughput. Time-resolved profiles of the high Mach number gas flow obtained by photoionization signals show that perturbation of the collimated expansion by the airfoil is negligible. The reaction of C(2)H with C(2)H(2) is studied at 70 K as a proof-of-principle result for both low-temperature rate coefficient measurements and product identification based on the photoionization spectrum of the reaction product versus VUV photon energy. This approach can be used to provide new insights into reaction mechanisms occurring at kinetic rates close to the collision-determined limit.

  2. X-Ray Temperatures, Luminosities, and Masses from XMM-Newton Follow-up of the First Shear-selected Galaxy Cluster Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, Amruta J.; Hughes, John P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers the State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Wittman, David, E-mail: amrejd@physics.rutgers.edu, E-mail: jph@physics.rutgers.edu, E-mail: dwittman@physics.ucdavis.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2017-04-20

    We continue the study of the first sample of shear-selected clusters from the initial 8.6 square degrees of the Deep Lens Survey (DLS); a sample with well-defined selection criteria corresponding to the highest ranked shear peaks in the survey area. We aim to characterize the weak lensing selection by examining the sample’s X-ray properties. There are multiple X-ray clusters associated with nearly all the shear peaks: 14 X-ray clusters corresponding to seven DLS shear peaks. An additional three X-ray clusters cannot be definitively associated with shear peaks, mainly due to large positional offsets between the X-ray centroid and the shear peak. Here we report on the XMM-Newton properties of the 17 X-ray clusters. The X-ray clusters display a wide range of luminosities and temperatures; the L {sub X} − T {sub X} relation we determine for the shear-associated X-ray clusters is consistent with X-ray cluster samples selected without regard to dynamical state, while it is inconsistent with self-similarity. For a subset of the sample, we measure X-ray masses using temperature as a proxy, and compare to weak lensing masses determined by the DLS team. The resulting mass comparison is consistent with equality. The X-ray and weak lensing masses show considerable intrinsic scatter (∼48%), which is consistent with X-ray selected samples when their X-ray and weak lensing masses are independently determined.

  3. Correlation of the levels of glycosaminoglycans between urine and dried urine in filter paper samples and their stability over time under different storage temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breier, Ana Carolina; Cé, Jaqueline; Coelho, Janice Carneiro

    2014-06-10

    Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) are a group of lysosomal storage diseases caused by the deficiency/absence of enzymes which catalyze the degradation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). The use of biological samples dried on filter paper has been increasing because it makes it easy to ship them to reference laboratories. Urinary GAGs are the main biomarkers of MPS and, thus, we studied the correlations of determinations to GAGs and creatinine, as well as compared the GAGs' profile on electrophoresis, between urine and dried urine in filter paper (DUFP) samples. We also assessed the GAG stability over time under different storage temperatures. We quantified the GAG concentration in both sample types and compared the results by Pearson correlation. The results were very similar, with r=0.97 for creatinine and with r=0.94 and r=0.98 for GAGs for controls and patients, respectively, with similar electrophoretic profiles. The GAG stability in DUFP was up to 30days at -20, 4, and 25°C and up to 21days at 37°C. Our proposal assessed urinary GAGs in DUFP and concluded that these samples can be used in the investigation of MPS, replacing urine samples in neonatal screening and monitoring of therapies, due to ease of transportation and storage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Effect of Holder Pasteurization on Nutrients and Biologically-Active Components in Donor Human Milk: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peila, Chiara; Moro, Guido E; Bertino, Enrico; Cavallarin, Laura; Giribaldi, Marzia; Giuliani, Francesca; Cresi, Francesco; Coscia, Alessandra

    2016-08-02

    When a mother's milk is unavailable, the best alternative is donor milk (DM). Milk delivered to Human Milk Banks should be pasteurized in order to inactivate the microbial agents that may be present. Currently, pasteurization, performed at 62.5 °C for 30 min (Holder Pasteurization, HoP), is recommended for this purpose in international guidelines. Several studies have been performed to investigate the effects of HoP on the properties of DM. The present paper has the aim of reviewing the published papers on this topic, and to provide a comparison of the reported variations of biologically-active DM components before and after HoP. This review was performed by searching the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAL and Cochrane Library databases. Studies that clearly identified the HoP parameters and compared the same DM samples, before and after pasteurization, were focused on. A total of 44 articles satisfied the above criteria, and were therefore selected. The findings from the literature report variable results. A possible explanation for this may be the heterogeneity of the test protocols that were applied. Moreover, the present review spans more than five decades, and modern pasteurizers may be able to modify the degradation kinetics for heat-sensitive substances, compared to older ones. Overall, the data indicate that HoP affects several milk components, although it is difficult to quantify the degradation degree. However, clinical practices demonstrate that many beneficial properties of DM still persist after HoP.

  5. Evaluation of the effect of a laparoscopic robotized needle holder on ergonomics and skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensignor, Thierry; Morel, Guillaume; Reversat, David; Fuks, David; Gayet, Brice

    2016-02-01

    Laparoscopy generates technical and ergonomics difficulties due to limited degrees of freedom (DOF) of forceps. To reduce this limitation, a new 5-mm robotized needle holder with two intracorporeal DOF, Jaimy(®), has been developed. The aim of this study was to evaluate its effects on ergonomics and skills. Fourteen surgeons including eight senior and six residents were crossover randomized and stratified based on experience. Three suturing tasks were performed with both Jaimy(®) and a classic needle holder (NH): task 1: Peg-Board; task 2: hexagonal suture; task 3: frontal suture. Postural ergonomics of the dominant arm were evaluated with an ergonomics score (RULA score) thanks to motion capture, and muscular ergonomics with electromyography of six muscular groups (flexor and extensor carpis, biceps, triceps, deltoid, trapeze). Performance outcomes are a quantitative and qualitative score, and skills outcomes are the measurement of the number of movements and the path length travelled by the instrument. The RULA score showed a statistically improved posture with Jaimy(®) (p < 0.001). The cumulative muscular workload (CMW) of four muscles was not different. However, the CMW was in favor of the NH for the flexor carpi ulnaris (p < 0.001) and the triceps (p = 0.027). The number of movements was not different (p = 0.39) although the path length was shorter with Jaimy(®) (p = 0.012). The score for task 1 was in favor of the NH (p = 0.006) with a higher quantity score. Task 2 score was not different (p = 0.086): The quality part of the score was in favor of Jaimy(®) (p = 0.009) and the quantity part was higher with the NH (p = 0.04). The score for task 3 was higher with Jaimy(®) (p = 0.001). This study suggests that the use of a robotized needle holder improves both posture and the quality of laparoscopic sutures.

  6. Liquid scintillation systems and apparatus for measuring high-energy radiation emitted by samples in standard laboratory test tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benvenutti, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    Liquid scintillation detection system employs improved sample holders in which the cap of a glass vial is provided with a well for receiving a standard laboratory test tube containing a radioactive sample. The well is immersed in a liquid scintillator in the vial, the scintillator containing lead acetate solution to enhance its efficiency. A commercially available beta-counting liquid scintillation apparatus is modified to provide gamma-counting with the improved sample holders

  7. Update of NIST half-life results corrected for ionization chamber source-holder instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterweger, M P; Fitzgerald, R

    2014-05-01

    As reported at the ICRM 2011, it was discovered that the source holder used for calibrations in the NIST 4πγ ionization chamber (IC) was not stable. This has affected a large number of half-life measurement results previously reported and used in compilations of nuclear data. Corrections have been made on all of the half-life data based on the assumption that the changes to the ionization chamber response were gradual. The corrections are energy dependent and therefore radionuclide specific. This presentation will review our results and present the recommended changes in half-life values and/or uncertainties. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Development of a versatile TEM specimen holder for the characterization of photocatalytic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalca, Filippo; Langhammer, C.; Hansen, Thomas Willum

    2011-01-01

    conventional TEM analysis on photocatalysts with several in situ TEM techniques including environmental TEM (ETEM), in situ photo activation and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) spectroscopy [3-4]. These experiments are facilitated by the construction of a specimen holder capable of illuminating....../on nanomaterials and thin films. We present results from combined ETEM-LSPR studies of thermally-induced catalytic phenomena and on metal nanoparticle sintering, an important process in catalysis, which we study in situ in both real and model systems by means of indirect nanoplasmonic sensing and ETEM....

  9. Development technique for deep drawing without blank holder to produce circular cup of brass alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Hassan Saleh; Ammer Khalaf Ali

    2015-01-01

    Of this technique compared to the conventional deep drawing is that the circular cup can be carried out in single action press with limit In this paper a new mechanism for deep drawing was proposed to produce circular cup from thin plate without blank holder. In this technique the die assembly includes punch, die and die-punch. A 2D axisymmetric finite element model was built using DEFORM software. Effect of die geometry (half- cone angle) on maximum load, thickness distribution, strain distr...

  10. Electron energy loss spectroscopy of excitons in two-dimensional-semiconductors as a function of temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Tizei, Luiz H. G.; Lin, Yung-Chang; Lu, Ang-Yd; Li, Lain-Jong; Suenaga, Kazu

    2016-01-01

    We have explored the benefits of performing monochromated Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy(EELS) in samples at cryogenic temperatures. As an example, we have observed the excitonic absorption peaks in single layer Transition Metal Dichalcogenides. These peaks appear separated by small energies due to spin orbit coupling. We have been able to distinguish the split for MoS2 below 300 K and for MoSe2 below 220 K. However, the distinction between peaks is only clear at 150 K. We have measured the change in absorption threshold between 150 K and 770 K for MoS2 and MoSe2. We discuss the effect of carbon and ice contamination in EELSspectra. The increased spectral resolution available made possible with modern monochromators in electron microscopes will require the development of stable sample holders which reaches temperatures far below that of liquid nitrogen.

  11. Electron energy loss spectroscopy of excitons in two-dimensional-semiconductors as a function of temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Tizei, Luiz H. G.

    2016-04-21

    We have explored the benefits of performing monochromated Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy(EELS) in samples at cryogenic temperatures. As an example, we have observed the excitonic absorption peaks in single layer Transition Metal Dichalcogenides. These peaks appear separated by small energies due to spin orbit coupling. We have been able to distinguish the split for MoS2 below 300 K and for MoSe2 below 220 K. However, the distinction between peaks is only clear at 150 K. We have measured the change in absorption threshold between 150 K and 770 K for MoS2 and MoSe2. We discuss the effect of carbon and ice contamination in EELSspectra. The increased spectral resolution available made possible with modern monochromators in electron microscopes will require the development of stable sample holders which reaches temperatures far below that of liquid nitrogen.

  12. Design of a low temperature translation balance for the measurement of paramagnetic and diamagnetic susceptibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mowry, G.S.

    1979-05-01

    A modified Foex and Forrer Translation Balance has been designed for measuring the paramagnetic and diamagnetic properties of materials over the temperature range 77-300/sup 0/K. The systems' temperature range can eventually be extended to 4.2/sup 0/K. The apparatus incorporates a vertical Dewar of Standard variety in addition to a horizontal Dewar for cooling the sample holder and adjacent horizontal supports. The design also allows for the placement of a thermocouple junction in direct contact with a sample. The balance sensitivity, defined as the change in displacement per unit applied force, is 0.0044 cm/dyne. The precision of the balance is +- .5% with an accuracy of 1.5%.

  13. Repositioning accuracy: Comparison of a noninvasive head holder with thermoplastic mask for fractionated radiotherapy and a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, Reinhart; Bale, Reto; Vogele, Michael; Nevinny-Stickel, Meinhart; Bluhm, Anja; Auer, Thomas; Hessenberger, Gerhart; Lukas, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To compare accuracy, clinical feasibility, and subjective patient impression between a noninvasive head holder (Vogele Bale Hohner [VBH]; Wellhoefer Dosimetry, Schwarzenbruck, Germany) developed at the University of Innsbruck and the thermoplastic mask fixation system for use in fractionated external radiotherapy. We present a case report of an actual patient fixated in the VBH head holder during radiation therapy. Materials and Methods: The VBH head holder consists of an individualized vacuum dental cast connected to a head plate via two hydraulic arms allowing noninvasive, reproducible head fixation of even uncooperative patients. Accuracy was tested and compared with that of the thermoplastic mask using the Phillips EasyGuide navigation system on five volunteers. Specific external registration points served as landmarks and their positions were compared after each repositioning. System and operator inaccuracy were also taken into account. The times taken for production and repositioning of the respective fixation devices were compared, and subjective impressions were noted. Results: Mean VBH head holder repositioning accuracy was 1.02 mm while that of the thermoplastic mask was 3.05 mm. 69% of mask repositionings showed a deviation > 2 mm and 41% > 3 mm (as opposed to 8% and 1% respectively for the VBH head holder) Those points located farthest away from the respective plane of fixation showed the largest deviations. Both production and repositioning times were similar between the systems; depending upon the patient, the VBH head holder was generally better tolerated than the mask system. Conclusion: Due to its significantly better repositioning accuracy compared to that of the thermoplastic mask, the VBH head holder is especially suited for external radiation requiring precise repositioning due to critical tissues in immediate surrounding of the area to be irradiated

  14. A simultaneous derivatization of 3-monochloropropanediol and 1,3-dichloropropane with hexamethyldisilazane-trimethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate at room temperature for efficient analysis of food sample analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bai Qin; Wan Mohamed Radzi, Che Wan Jasimah Bt; Khor, Sook Mei

    2016-02-05

    This paper reports the application of hexamethyldisilazane-trimethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (HMDS-TMSOTf) for the simultaneous silylation of 3-monochloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) and 1,3-dicholoropropanol (1,3-DCP) in solid and liquid food samples. 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP are chloropropanols that have been established as Group 2B carcinogens in clinical testing. They can be found in heat-processed food, especially when an extended high-temperature treatment is required. However, the current AOAC detection method is time-consuming and expensive. Thus, HMDS-TMSOTf was used in this study to provide a safer, and cost-effective alternative to the HFBI method. Three important steps are involved in the quantification of 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP: extraction, derivatization and quantification. The optimization of the derivatization process, which involved focusing on the catalyst volume, derivatization temperature, and derivatization time was performed based on the findings obtained from both the Box-Behnken modeling and a real experimental set up. With the optimized conditions, the newly developed method was used for actual food sample quantification and the results were compared with those obtained via the standard AOAC method. The developed method required less samples and reagents but it could be used to achieve lower limits of quantification (0.0043mgL(-1) for 1,3-DCP and 0.0011mgL(-1) for 3-MCPD) and detection (0.0028mgL(-1) for 1,3-DCP and 0.0008mgL(-1) for 3-MCPD). All the detected concentrations are below the maximum tolerable limit of 0.02mgL(-1). The percentage of recovery obtained from food sample analysis was between 83% and 96%. The new procedure was validated with the AOAC method and showed a comparable performance. The HMDS-TMSOTf derivatization strategy is capable of simultaneously derivatizing 1,3-DCP and 3-MCPD at room temperature, and it also serves as a rapid, sensitive, and accurate analytical method for food samples analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B

  15. Evaluation of the BD Vacutainer Plus Urine C&S Preservative Tubes compared with nonpreservative urine samples stored at 4°C and room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisinger, Stephen W; Schwartz, Matthew; Dam, Lisa; Riedel, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    The stability of urine specimens submitted for culture remains a challenge for many laboratories because of delays in specimen transport. We evaluated the usefulness of BD Vacutainer Plus Urine C&S Preservative Tube in ensuring specimen stability. Clinical urine specimens collected in sterile collection cups (n = 110) were plated onto sheep blood and MacConkey agar following standard laboratory procedures guidelines. Thereafter, specimens were divided into 3 storage conditions: nonpreservative, refrigerated; nonpreservative, room temperature (RT); BD Vacutainer Plus Urine C&S Preservative Tube, RT. For each sample type, additional cultures were set up at 2, 4, 24, and 48 hours. Initially, 18 specimens had no growth, 32 showed mixed skin flora, and 60 yielded at least 1 uropathogen. Increased colony counts of uropathogens were observed for nonpreserved urine samples stored at RT; these changes were statistically significant. Minor differences between refrigerated urine samples and BD Vacutainer Plus Urine C&S Preservative Tube samples were seen but were not statistically significant. The use of preservative-containing collection tubes is desirable to ensure specimen stability when prompt processing or refrigeration is not feasible.

  16. Current sharing temperature of NbTi SULTAN samples compared to prediction using a single pinning mechanism parametrization for NbTi strand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pong, Ian; Vostner, Alexander; Devred, Arnaud; Bessette, Denis; Mitchell, Neil; Bordini, Bernardo; Bottura, Luca; Jewell, Matthew; Long Feng; Wu Yu

    2012-01-01

    NbTi strands to be used in four of the six ITER poloidal field (PF) coils, all the correction coils (CC) and all the superconducting feeder busbars are being produced in China. Short full-size qualification conductor (cabled and jacketed) samples have been developed at ASIPP and tested at CRPP. Single pinning mechanism parametrization for this Chinese strand (type S2) has been obtained using the Bottura scaling law. The determination of the scaling parameters using a Kramer-type regression method will be described. A comparison between the critical temperature at the operating current and field of a single strand as determined by the parametrization and the current sharing temperature (T CS ) of a few conductor samples tested at the SULTAN facility will be made. The validity and limitation of the estimation will be discussed. The estimated T CS dependence on various (superconducting critical as well as geometric and volumetric) parameters will be assessed using the modelled critical surface. Errors propagated from critical current (I c ) measurements of the strands and parameter fitting, and other uncertainties, will be quantified. (paper)

  17. Comparison of 2 electronic cowside tests to detect subclinical ketosis in dairy cows and the influence of the temperature and type of blood sample on the test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwersen, M; Klein-Jöbstl, D; Pichler, M; Roland, L; Fidlschuster, B; Schwendenwein, I; Drillich, M

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the suitability of 2 electronic hand-held devices [FreeStyle Precision (FSP), Abbott GmbH & Co. KG, Wiesbaden, Germany and GlucoMen LX Plus (GLX), A. Menarini GmbH, Vienna, Austria] for measuring β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) in dairy cows. Three experiments were conducted to evaluate (1) the diagnostic performance of the devices, (2) the effect of the type of blood sample, and (3) the influence of the ambient temperature on the determined results. A total of 415 blood samples from lactating Holstein and Simmental cows were collected and analyzed with both devices (whole blood) and in a laboratory (serum). Correlation coefficients between whole-blood and serum BHBA concentrations were highly significant, with 94% for the FSP and 80% for the GLX device. Based on thresholds for subclinical ketosis of 1.2 and 1.4 mmol of BHBA/L, results obtained with the hand-held devices were evaluated by receiver operating characteristics analyses. This resulted in adjusted thresholds of 1.2 and 1.4 mmol/L for the FSP and 1.1 and 1.3 mmol/L for the GLX device. Applying these thresholds, sensitivities were 98 and 100% for the FSP and 80 and 86% for the GLX device, respectively. Corresponding specificities were 90 and 97% for the FSP and 87 and 96% for the GLX device, respectively. Additionally, concentrations of BHBA were tested with both devices in whole blood, EDTA-added whole blood, and in their resulting serum and plasma, collected from 65 animals. Determined BHBA concentrations were similar within each device for whole and EDTA-added blood, and in serum and plasma, but differed between whole blood and serum and between EDTA-added blood and plasma. Blood samples with low (0.4 mmol/L), medium (1.1 mmol/L), and high (1.6 mmol/L) BHBA concentrations were stored between +5 to +32°C and analyzed repeatedly at temperature levels differing by 4°C. Additionally, devices and test strips were stored at equal conditions and used for measurement

  18. Raising awareness about protection and control of nuclear materials held by 'small-scale holders'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladsous, D.; Coulie, E.; Giorgio, M.

    2013-01-01

    In France, the activities carried out by the 'small-scale holders' of nuclear materials are organized by a specific regulatory system which defines in a detailed way their obligations and the means of control of the government. The first part of the article presents the legal framework relating to the use of nuclear materials by small-scale holders in civilian fields. The importance of the declaration of the nuclear material inventory is clearly emphasized and must be prepared and transmitted to the Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) every year. The second part describes how this declaration is used to provide basic information for the competent Ministry and the inspectors to check the correct application of the regulatory requirements relating to physical protection and to the control of nuclear materials. Finally, the last part presents the on-site inspections carried out by sworn and accredited inspectors under the authority of the competent Authority, which provide an overall picture and allow an evaluation of the risks of theft, loss or diversion of these materials. (authors)

  19. Running Mechanics and Metabolic Responses with Water Bottles and Bottle Belt Holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Heather K; Zdziarski, Laura A; Fallgatter, Kyle; Negron, Giorgio; Chen, Cong; Leavitt, Trevor; Horodyski, MaryBeth; Wasser, Joseph G; Vincent, Kevin R

    2018-01-18

    This study determined whether differential kinematics, kinetics, rates of energy use and cardiopulmonary responses occurred during running with water bottles and bottle belt holders compared to running only. Trained runners (N=42; 27.2±6.4 yr) ran on an instrumented treadmill for four conditions in a randomized order: 1) control run (CON); 2) hand-held full water bottle (FULL, 16.9 fluid oz; 454 g); 3) hand-held half-full water bottle (HALF, 8.4 fluid oz.; 227 g); and 4) waist-worn bottle belt holder (BELT; hydration belt; 676 g). Gas exchange was measured using a portable gas analyzer. Kinetic and kinematic responses were determined via standard 3D videographic techniques. Interactions of limb side (right, left) by study condition (CON, FULL, HALF, BELT) were tested for rates of oxygen use and energy expenditure, and kinematic and kinetic parameters. No significant limb side × condition interactions existed for rates of oxygen use or energy expenditure. A significant interaction occurred with sagittal elbow flexion (pwater by hand or on the waist does not significantly change kinematics of running motion, rates of oxygen use and energy expenditure or cardiopulmonary measures over short durations. Runners are likely making adjustments to joint moments and powers that preserve balance and protect the lower extremity joints while maintaining the rates of oxygen use and energy expenditure.

  20. Impact of the Flame-Holder Heat-Transfer Characteristics on the Onset of Combustion Instability

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Seunghyuck

    2013-10-03

    In this article, we investigate the impact of heat transfer between the flame and the flameholder on the dynamic stability characteristics of a 50-kW backward-facing step combustor. We conducted a series of tests where two backward step blocks were used, made of ceramic and stainless steel, whose thermal conductivities are 1.06 and 12 W/m/K, respectively. Stability characteristics of the two flame-holder materials were examined using measurements of the dynamic pressure and flame chemiluminescence over a range of operating conditions. Results show that with the ceramic flameholder, the onset of instability is significantly delayed in time and, for certain operating conditions, disappears altogether, whereas with the higher conductivity material, the combustor becomes increasingly unstable over a range of operating conditions. We explain these trends using the heat flux through the flameholder and the change in the burning velocity near the step wall. Results suggest a potential approach using low-thermal-conductivity material near the flame-holder as passive dynamics suppression methods. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  1. Volatile Constituents, Inorganic Elements and Primary Screening of Bioactivity of Black Coral Cigarette Holders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganggang Shi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Black corals (BC have been used for a long time in Chinese medicine, and may have some pharmaceutical functions when used as material for cigarette holders in southeast China. This study is aimed to investigate the bioactivities of volatile constituents in BC and to explore the folklore behind the use of BC cigarette holders (BCCHs. We extracted the volatile constituents of BC by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE with carbon dioxide (CO2-SFE, then identified and analyzed the constituents by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. In total, 15 components were reliably identified in BC and found to be biologically active. These included triethyl phosphate, butylated hydroxytoluene, cedrol, n-hexadecanoic acid, squalene, and cholesterol. Meanwhile 13 inorganic elements (P, Ca, Mg, S, B, Si, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ba, etc. were determined by inductively coupled plasma spectrometer (ICPS. In the bioactivity tests, the BC extract (BCE showed a scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radicals and hydroxyl radicals by phenanthroline-Fe (II oxidation and moderate inhibition of Gram-positive microorganisms. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of BC, which are related to the active chemical composition, may explain the perceived benefit for cigarette smokers who use BCCHs.

  2. Comparison of a high temperature torch integrated sample introduction system with a desolvation system for the analysis of microsamples through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Raquel; Cañabate, Águeda; Bresson, Carole; Chartier, Frédéric; Isnard, Hélène; Maestre, Salvador; Nonell, Anthony; Todolí, José-Luis

    2017-03-01

    This work describes for the first time the comparison of the analytical performances obtained with a high temperature torch integrated sample introduction system (hTISIS) against those found with a commercially available desolvation system (APEX) associated with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A double pass spray chamber was taken as the reference system. Similar detection limits and sensitivities were obtained in continuous injection mode at low liquid flow rates for the APEX and hTISIS operating at high temperatures. In contrast, in the air-segmented injection mode, the detection limits obtained with hTISIS at high temperatures were up to 12 times lower than those found for the APEX. Regarding memory effects, wash out times were shorter in continuous mode and peaks were narrower in air segmented mode for the hTISIS as compared to the APEX. Non spectral interferences (matrix effects) were studied with 10% nitric acid, 2% methanol, for an ICP multielemental solution and a hydro-organic matrix containing 70% (v/v) acetonitrile in water, 15 mmol L- 1 ammonium acetate and 0.5% formic acid containing lanthanide complexes. In all the cases, matrix effects were less severe for the hTISIS operating at 200 °C and the APEX than for the double pass spray chamber. Finally, two spiked reference materials (sea water and Antartic krill) were analyzed. The hTISIS operating at 200 °C gave the best results compared to those obtained with the APEX and the double pass spray chamber. In conclusion, despite the simplicity of the hTISIS, it provided, at low liquid flow rates, results similar to or better than those obtained with the by other sample introduction systems.

  3. Material selection for the tool holder working under hard milling conditions using different multi criteria decision making methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çalışkan, Halil; Kurşuncu, Bilal; Kurbanoğlu, Cahit; Güven, Şevki Yılmaz

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The material selection problem for tool holders used in hard milling was solved. ► EXPROM2, TOPSIS and VIKOR methods were used for ranking the alternative materials. ► The weighting of criteria was performed by compromised weighting method. ► The best material for the tool holder was selected as Fe–5Cr–Mo–V aircraft steel. -- Abstract: Nowadays machining of materials in their hardened state, also called hard machining, is a challenge in production of tools and molds. It has some advantages such as lower process time and lower manufacturing cost when compared to conventional machining. In machining of hard workpiece materials, however, very high stresses act on the tool holder through the cutting tool. These stresses necessitate the tool holder to have some specific properties. Especially in hard milling, the tool holder should have high stiffness and should be able to dissipate the energy generated during interrupted cutting. Material cost of the tool holder is also important since lower costs provide a competitive advantage for manufacturers. The material selection for the tool holder should be conducted considering aforementioned requirements. To tackle the difficulty of the material selection with specific properties from a large number of alternatives, multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods have been used. In this paper a decision model including extended PROMETHEE II (EXPROM2) (preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation), TOPSIS (technique for order performance by similarity to ideal solution) and VIKOR (VIšekriterijumsko KOmpromisno Rangiranje) methods were used for the selection of the best material for the tool holder used in hard milling. The criteria weighting was performed by compromised weighting method composed of AHP (analytic hierarchy process) and Entropy methods. The candidate materials were ranked by using these methods and the results obtained by each method were compared. It was confirmed

  4. A Study on consensus development through stake holder engagement for the use of nuclear energy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Yoshiko; Sawada, Tetsuo; Fujii, Yasuhiko

    2008-01-01

    In order to alleviate the distrust surrounding the use of nuclear energy and operation of nuclear facilities, as well as to foster trust and find better ways to live in harmony with society, it is essential for the state and electric power utilities not to provide one-sided information, but to formulate adequate bilateral communication and dialogue with stake holders. In this study, we conducted a case study focused on four stake holder meetings with a view to ensuring safety in the use of nuclear energy and operation of nuclear facilities in Japan; the 'Community Meeting for Securing the Transparency of Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station (Chiiki-no-kai)'; the 'Monitoring and Evaluation Conference on Environmental Radiation', established by communities where nuclear facilities are installed; the 'Round-Table Conference on Nuclear Power Policy' and the 'Conference for Public Participation and Decision Making for Nuclear Energy Policy' organized by Japan Atomic Energy Commission. As a consequence, it has been observed that in each case varying opinions were summarized through stake holder meetings, but the fact that no system exists to reflect these opinions in design of the nuclear energy policy has emerged as a controversial point. This study suggests future efforts in regard to the requirements in Japan for stake holder meetings that are necessary for fostering trust and mutual understanding among stake holders including the state and local government, electric power utilities and local residents. (author)

  5. Warm Deep Drawing of Rectangular Parts of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Sheet Adopting Variable Blank Holder Force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Yinghong; Chang Qunfeng; Li Dayong; Zeng Xiaoqin

    2007-01-01

    AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet with good shape and formability is fabricated by warm cross rolling. Uniaxial tensile tests are conducted using a Gleeble 3500 thermal - mechanical simulator, and the mechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet are analyzed. A warm deep drawing process of square part is also simulated by the finite element method. The influences of blank holder force on the formability are numerically investigated. A double-action hydraulic press that can realize adjustable blank holder forces is developed and its working principle and control system are introduced. Some warm deep drawing experiments of square parts of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet are also performed. Different variation schemes of the blank holder force with the stroke of the punch are tested, and the experiment results are compared. Results show that the suitable blank holder force variation scheme is a ladder curve with the punch stroke. Adopting the variable blank holder force technique can improve 13.2% of the drawing depth of square parts of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet

  6. Photoelectron spectroscopy under ambient pressure and temperature conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank Ogletree, D.; Bluhm, Hendrik; Hebenstreit, Eleonore D.; Salmeron, Miquel

    2009-01-01

    We describe the development and applications of novel instrumentation for photoemission spectroscopy of solid or liquid surfaces in the presence of gases under ambient conditions of pressure and temperature. The new instrument overcomes the strong scattering of electrons in gases by the use of an aperture close to the surface followed by a differentially-pumped electrostatic lens system. In addition to the scattering problem, experiments in the presence of condensed water or other liquids require the development of special sample holders to provide localized cooling. We discuss the first two generations of Ambient Pressure PhotoEmission Spectroscopy (APPES) instruments developed at synchrotron light sources (ALS in Berkeley and BESSY in Berlin), with special focus on the Berkeley instruments. Applications to environmental science and catalytic chemical research are illustrated in two examples.

  7. An experimental platform for triaxial high-pressure/high-temperature testing of rocks using computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatz, Guenther; Lapene, Alexandre; Castanier, Louis M.; Kovscek, Anthony R.

    2018-04-01

    A conventional high-pressure/high-temperature experimental apparatus for combined geomechanical and flow-through testing of rocks is not X-ray compatible. Additionally, current X-ray transparent systems for computed tomography (CT) of cm-sized samples are limited to design temperatures below 180 °C. We describe a novel, high-temperature (>400 °C), high-pressure (>2000 psi/>13.8 MPa confining, >10 000 psi/>68.9 MPa vertical load) triaxial core holder suitable for X-ray CT scanning. The new triaxial system permits time-lapse imaging to capture the role of effective stress on fluid distribution and porous medium mechanics. System capabilities are demonstrated using ultimate compressive strength (UCS) tests of Castlegate sandstone. In this case, flooding the porous medium with a radio-opaque gas such as krypton before and after the UCS test improves the discrimination of rock features such as fractures. The results of high-temperature tests are also presented. A Uintah Basin sample of immature oil shale is heated from room temperature to 459 °C under uniaxial compression. The sample contains kerogen that pyrolyzes as temperature rises, releasing hydrocarbons. Imaging reveals the formation of stress bands as well as the evolution and connectivity of the fracture network within the sample as a function of time.

  8. FlexED8: the first member of a fast and flexible sample-changer family for macromolecular crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Gergely; Felisaz, Franck; Sorez, Clement; Lopez-Marrero, Marcos; Janocha, Robert; Manjasetty, Babu; Gobbo, Alexandre; Belrhali, Hassan; Bowler, Matthew W; Cipriani, Florent

    2017-10-01

    Automated sample changers are now standard equipment for modern macromolecular crystallography synchrotron beamlines. Nevertheless, most are only compatible with a single type of sample holder and puck. Recent work aimed at reducing sample-handling efforts and crystal-alignment times at beamlines has resulted in a new generation of compact and precise sample holders for cryocrystallography: miniSPINE and NewPin [see the companion paper by Papp et al. (2017, Acta Cryst., D73, 829-840)]. With full data collection now possible within seconds at most advanced beamlines, and future fourth-generation synchrotron sources promising to extract data in a few tens of milliseconds, the time taken to mount and centre a sample is rate-limiting. In this context, a versatile and fast sample changer, FlexED8, has been developed that is compatible with the highly successful SPINE sample holder and with the miniSPINE and NewPin sample holders. Based on a six-axis industrial robot, FlexED8 is equipped with a tool changer and includes a novel open sample-storage dewar with a built-in ice-filtering system. With seven versatile puck slots, it can hold up to 112 SPINE sample holders in uni-pucks, or 252 miniSPINE or NewPin sample holders, with 36 samples per puck. Additionally, a double gripper, compatible with the SPINE sample holders and uni-pucks, allows a reduction in the sample-exchange time from 40 s, the typical time with a standard single gripper, to less than 5 s. Computer vision-based sample-transfer monitoring, sophisticated error handling and automatic error-recovery procedures ensure high reliability. The FlexED8 sample changer has been successfully tested under real conditions on a beamline.

  9. On-line hydrogen-isotope measurements of organic samples using elemental chromium: An extension for high temperature elemental-analyzer techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehre, Matthias; Renpenning, Julian; Gilevska, Tetyana; Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B.; Meijer, Harro A.J.; Brand, Willi A.; Schimmelmann, Arndt

    2015-01-01

    The high temperature conversion (HTC) technique using an elemental analyzer with a glassy carbon tube and filling (temperature conversion/elemental analysis, TC/EA) is a widely used method for hydrogen isotopic analysis of water and many solid and liquid organic samples with analysis by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). However, the TC/EA IRMS method may produce inaccurate δ2H results, with values deviating by more than 20 mUr (milliurey = 0.001 = 1‰) from the true value for some materials. We show that a single-oven, chromium-filled elemental analyzer coupled to an IRMS substantially improves the measurement quality and reliability for hydrogen isotopic compositions of organic substances (Cr-EA method). Hot chromium maximizes the yield of molecular hydrogen in a helium carrier gas by irreversibly and quantitatively scavenging all reactive elements except hydrogen. In contrast, under TC/EA conditions, heteroelements like nitrogen or chlorine (and other halogens) can form hydrogen cyanide (HCN) or hydrogen chloride (HCl) and this can cause isotopic fractionation. The Cr-EA technique thus expands the analytical possibilities for on-line hydrogen-isotope measurements of organic samples significantly. This method yielded reproducibility values (1-sigma) for δ2H measurements on water and caffeine samples of better than 1.0 and 0.5 mUr, respectively. To overcome handling problems with water as the principal calibration anchor for hydrogen isotopic measurements, we have employed an effective and simple strategy using reference waters or other liquids sealed in silver-tube segments. These crimped silver tubes can be employed in both the Cr-EA and TC/EA techniques. They simplify considerably the normalization of hydrogen-isotope measurement data to the VSMOW-SLAP (Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water-Standard Light Antarctic Precipitation) scale, and their use improves accuracy of the data by eliminating evaporative loss and associated isotopic fractionation while

  10. On-line hydrogen-isotope measurements of organic samples using elemental chromium: an extension for high temperature elemental-analyzer techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehre, Matthias; Renpenning, Julian; Gilevska, Tetyana; Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B; Meijer, Harro A J; Brand, Willi A; Schimmelmann, Arndt

    2015-01-01

    The high temperature conversion (HTC) technique using an elemental analyzer with a glassy carbon tube and filling (temperature conversion/elemental analysis, TC/EA) is a widely used method for hydrogen isotopic analysis of water and many solid and liquid organic samples with analysis by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). However, the TC/EA IRMS method may produce inaccurate δ(2)H results, with values deviating by more than 20 mUr (milliurey = 0.001 = 1‰) from the true value for some materials. We show that a single-oven, chromium-filled elemental analyzer coupled to an IRMS substantially improves the measurement quality and reliability for hydrogen isotopic compositions of organic substances (Cr-EA method). Hot chromium maximizes the yield of molecular hydrogen in a helium carrier gas by irreversibly and quantitatively scavenging all reactive elements except hydrogen. In contrast, under TC/EA conditions, heteroelements like nitrogen or chlorine (and other halogens) can form hydrogen cyanide (HCN) or hydrogen chloride (HCl) and this can cause isotopic fractionation. The Cr-EA technique thus expands the analytical possibilities for on-line hydrogen-isotope measurements of organic samples significantly. This method yielded reproducibility values (1-sigma) for δ(2)H measurements on water and caffeine samples of better than 1.0 and 0.5 mUr, respectively. To overcome handling problems with water as the principal calibration anchor for hydrogen isotopic measurements, we have employed an effective and simple strategy using reference waters or other liquids sealed in silver-tube segments. These crimped silver tubes can be employed in both the Cr-EA and TC/EA techniques. They simplify considerably the normalization of hydrogen-isotope measurement data to the VSMOW-SLAP (Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water-Standard Light Antarctic Precipitation) scale, and their use improves accuracy of the data by eliminating evaporative loss and associated isotopic fractionation while

  11. Commissioning and modification of the low temperature scanning polarization microscope (TTSPM) and imaging of the local magnetic flux density distribution in superconducting niobium samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenzweig, Matthias Sebastian Peter

    2014-01-01

    The dissertation is separated into two different parts, which will be presented in the following. Part I of the dissertation is about the commissioning and the modification of the ''low-temperature scanning polarization microscope'' which was designed in a previous dissertation of Stefan Guenon [1]. A scanning polarization microscope has certain advantages compared to conventional polarization microscopes. With a scanning polarization microscope it is easily possible to achieve a high illumination intensity, which is important to realize a high signal-to-noise ratio. Moreover, the confocal design of the scanning polarization microscope improves the resolution of the microscope by a factor of 1.4. Normally, it is not necessary to post-process the images by means of differential frame method to eliminate the contrast of non-magnetic origin. In contrast to conventional polarization microscopes the low-temperature scanning polarization microscope is able to image electronic transport properties via beam-induced voltage variation in addition to the magneto-optical effects. In this dissertation, it was possible to demonstrate the performance capability of the scanning polarization microscope at room temperature as well as at low temperatures. The investigation of the polar Kerr-effect has been carried out with a BaFe 12 O 19 -test sample whereas the measurements of the longitudinal Kerr-effect have been carried out with an in-plane magnetized acceleration sensor. Furthermore, an independent room temperature construction for out-of-plane measurements in a magnetic field up to 1 Tesla has been designed and implemented within the framework of a diploma thesis, supervised by the author of this dissertation. Using this construction, it was possible to gain experimental results regarding the interlayer exchange coupling between iron-terbium alloys (Fe 1-x Tb x ) and cobalt-platinum multilayers (vertical stroke Co/Pt vertical stroke n ). Indeed, it has been

  12. Trace mercury determination in drinking and natural water samples by room temperature ionic liquid based-preconcentration and flow injection-cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinis, Estefanía M; Bertón, Paula; Olsina, Roberto A; Altamirano, Jorgelina C; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G

    2009-08-15

    A liquid-liquid extraction procedure (L-L) based on room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) was developed for the preconcentration and determination of mercury in different water samples. The analyte was quantitatively extracted with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C(4)mim][PF(6)]) under the form of Hg-2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol (Hg-5-Br-PADAP) complex. A volume of 500 microl of 9.0 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid was used to back-extract the analyte from the RTIL phase into an aqueous media prior to its analysis by flow injection-cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-CV-AAS). A preconcentration factor of 36 was achieved upon preconcentration of 20 mL of sample. The limit of detection (LOD) obtained under the optimal conditions was 2.3ngL(-1) and the relative standard deviation (RSD) for 10 replicates at 1 microg L(-1) Hg(2+) was 2.8%, calculated with peaks height. The method was successfully applied to the determination of mercury in river, sea, mineral and tap water samples and a certified reference material (CRM).

  13. Trace mercury determination in drinking and natural water samples by room temperature ionic liquid based-preconcentration and flow injection-cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinis, Estefania M.; Berton, Paula; Olsina, Roberto A.; Altamirano, Jorgelina C.; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G.

    2009-01-01

    A liquid-liquid extraction procedure (L-L) based on room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) was developed for the preconcentration and determination of mercury in different water samples. The analyte was quantitatively extracted with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C 4 mim][PF 6 ]) under the form of Hg-2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol (Hg-5-Br-PADAP) complex. A volume of 500 μl of 9.0 mol L -1 hydrochloric acid was used to back-extract the analyte from the RTIL phase into an aqueous media prior to its analysis by flow injection-cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-CV-AAS). A preconcentration factor of 36 was achieved upon preconcentration of 20 mL of sample. The limit of detection (LOD) obtained under the optimal conditions was 2.3 ng L -1 and the relative standard deviation (RSD) for 10 replicates at 1 μg L -1 Hg 2+ was 2.8%, calculated with peaks height. The method was successfully applied to the determination of mercury in river, sea, mineral and tap water samples and a certified reference material (CRM).

  14. Tests of a High Temperature Sample Conditioner for the Waste Treatment Plant LV-S2, LV-S3, HV-S3A and HV-S3B Exhaust Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaherty, Julia E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Glissmeyer, John A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-18

    Tests were performed to evaluate a sample conditioning unit for stack monitoring at Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) exhaust stacks with elevated air temperatures. The LV-S2, LV-S3, HV-S3A and HV-S3B exhaust stacks are expected to have elevated air temperature and dew point. At these emission points, exhaust temperatures are too high to deliver the air sample directly to the required stack monitoring equipment. As a result, a sample conditioning system is considered to cool and dry the air prior to its delivery to the stack monitoring system. The method proposed for the sample conditioning is a dilution system that will introduce cooler, dry air to the air sample stream. This method of sample conditioning is meant to reduce the sample temperature while avoiding condensation of moisture in the sample stream. An additional constraint is that the ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 standard states that at least 50% of the 10 μm aerodynamic diameter (AD) particles present in the stack free stream must be delivered to the sample collector. In other words, depositional loss of particles should be limited to 50% in the sampling, transport, and conditioning systems. Based on estimates of particle penetration through the LV-S3 sampling system, the diluter should perform with about 80% penetration or better to ensure that the total sampling system passes the 50% or greater penetration criterion.

  15. Sampling inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Keiichi.

    1996-01-01

    A holder is inserted to a holder guide, and is stopped at a position where one end of a hook disposed to the holder is not in contact with the holder guide (a position where hooks do not work). A cap incorporated with wiping paper is pushed up into a holder by a device rod with the wiping paper situated downwardly. The hooks of the holder are engaged to the grooves of the cap to secure the cap. The holder is moved to a predetermined place to wipe off the deposited materials on the surface of a vessel which contains radioactive wastes. Then, the holder is inserted to the holder guide, and is stopped at a position where the one end of the holder is raised. The securement of the gap is released, the cap is forced into a recovering cover by a discharging rod. The hooks of the recovering cover are caught by the grooves of the cap to secure the cap. Then, the cap is transported to a radioactivity measuring chamber. (I.N.)

  16. Investigation of holder pressure and size effects in micro deep drawing of rectangular work pieces driven by piezoelectric actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminzahed, Iman; Mashhadi, Mahmoud Mosavi; Sereshk, Mohammad Reza Vaziri

    2017-02-01

    Micro forming is a manufacturing process to fabricate micro parts with high quality and a cost effective manner. Deep drawing could be a favorable method for production of complicated parts in macro and micro sizes. In this paper piezoelectric actuator is used as a novel approach in the field of micro manufacturing. Also, in current work, investigations are conducted with four rectangular punches and blanks with various thicknesses. Blank holder pressure effects on thickness distributions, punch force, and springback are studied. According to the results of this work, increasing of blank holder pressure in scaled deep drawing, in contrast to thickness of drawn part, leads to decrease in the punch forces and springback. Furthermore, it is shown that in micro deep drawing, the effects of holder pressure on mentioned parameters can be ignored. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. 15N tracer technique for studying efficiency of deep placed fertilizer through nutriseed holder in direct seeded rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asha, V.S.; Arulmozhiselvan, K.

    2006-01-01

    In order to estimate N use efficiency in deep placement of NPK straight fertilizers, two pot experiments were conducted in high clay soil with direct seeded rice. 15 N urea was used as a tracer. A newly designed 'Nutriseed Holder' was used for simultaneous deep placement of fertilizers and sowing of seeds. Each holder had two cavities, one on top for holding seed and another one at bottom for holding fertilizer material. By implanting a holder in puddled soil, a rice hill was established. The length (5 or 10 cm) and width (8 or 12 mm) of nutriseed holder was standardized while evaluating the effect of Azolla, neem and seed inoculants. Appreciably, deep placement of plain NPK fertilizer in 12 mm holder placed at 5 cm depth recorded the highest grain yield with a yield increase of 81.8 per cent during rabi 2002 (cv CO 43) and 84.8 per cent during summer 2003 (cv CO 47) over broadcast application. Further, it increased recovery of added JSN in grain + straw to the tune of 57.1 per cent in rabi and 54.7 per cent in summer as compared to broadcast application (26.1% in rabi, 34.2 in summer). Deep placement enhanced more retention in soil (up to 9.0% in rabi, 14.6% in summer) whereas broadcast application enhanced more retention in Azolla biomass that was grown in floodwater (up to 2.3 % in rabi, 4.3 % in summer). Use of 12 mm width nutriseed holder aiding deep placement at 5 cm depth was found suitable for deriving high yield and N use efficiency. (author)

  18. An ultrahigh vacuum fast-scanning and variable temperature scanning tunneling microscope for large scale imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconescu, Bogdan; Nenchev, Georgi; de la Figuera, Juan; Pohl, Karsten

    2007-10-01

    We describe the design and performance of a fast-scanning, variable temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM) operating from 80 to 700 K in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV), which routinely achieves large scale atomically resolved imaging of compact metallic surfaces. An efficient in-vacuum vibration isolation and cryogenic system allows for no external vibration isolation of the UHV chamber. The design of the sample holder and STM head permits imaging of the same nanometer-size area of the sample before and after sample preparation outside the STM base. Refractory metal samples are frequently annealed up to 2000 K and their cooldown time from room temperature to 80 K is 15 min. The vertical resolution of the instrument was found to be about 2 pm at room temperature. The coarse motor design allows both translation and rotation of the scanner tube. The total scanning area is about 8 x 8 microm(2). The sample temperature can be adjusted by a few tens of degrees while scanning over the same sample area.

  19. Technical basis for the reduction of the maximum temperature TGA-MS analysis of oxide samples from the 3013 destructive examination program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scogin, J. H.

    2016-01-01

    Thermogravimetric analysis with mass spectroscopy of the evolved gas (TGA-MS) is used to quantify the moisture content of materials in the 3013 destructive examination (3013 DE) surveillance program. Salts frequently present in the 3013 DE materials volatilize in the TGA and condense in the gas lines just outside the TGA furnace. The buildup of condensate can restrict the flow of purge gas and affect both the TGA operations and the mass spectrometer calibration. Removal of the condensed salts requires frequent maintenance and subsequent calibration runs to keep the moisture measurements by mass spectroscopy within acceptable limits, creating delays in processing samples. In this report, the feasibility of determining the total moisture from TGA-MS measurements at a lower temperature is investigated. A temperature of the TGA-MS analysis which reduces the complications caused by the condensation of volatile materials is determined. Analysis shows that an excellent prediction of the presently measured total moisture value can be made using only the data generated up to 700 °C and there is a sound physical basis for this estimate. It is recommended that the maximum temperature of the TGA-MS determination of total moisture for the 3013 DE program be reduced from 1000 °C to 700 °C. It is also suggested that cumulative moisture measurements at 550 °C and 700°C be substituted for the measured value of total moisture in the 3013 DE database. Using these raw values, any of predictions of the total moisture discussed in this report can be made.

  20. Technical basis for the reduction of the maximum temperature TGA-MS analysis of oxide samples from the 3013 destructive examination program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scogin, J. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-24

    Thermogravimetric analysis with mass spectroscopy of the evolved gas (TGA-MS) is used to quantify the moisture content of materials in the 3013 destructive examination (3013 DE) surveillance program. Salts frequently present in the 3013 DE materials volatilize in the TGA and condense in the gas lines just outside the TGA furnace. The buildup of condensate can restrict the flow of purge gas and affect both the TGA operations and the mass spectrometer calibration. Removal of the condensed salts requires frequent maintenance and subsequent calibration runs to keep the moisture measurements by mass spectroscopy within acceptable limits, creating delays in processing samples. In this report, the feasibility of determining the total moisture from TGA-MS measurements at a lower temperature is investigated. A temperature of the TGA-MS analysis which reduces the complications caused by the condensation of volatile materials is determined. Analysis shows that an excellent prediction of the presently measured total moisture value can be made using only the data generated up to 700 °C and there is a sound physical basis for this estimate. It is recommended that the maximum temperature of the TGA-MS determination of total moisture for the 3013 DE program be reduced from 1000 °C to 700 °C. It is also suggested that cumulative moisture measurements at 550 °C and 700°C be substituted for the measured value of total moisture in the 3013 DE database. Using these raw values, any of predictions of the total moisture discussed in this report can be made.

  1. Temperature-controlled micro-TLC: a versatile green chemistry and fast analytical tool for separation and preliminary screening of steroids fraction from biological and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzycki, Paweł K; Slączka, Magdalena M; Zarzycka, Magdalena B; Bartoszuk, Małgorzata A; Włodarczyk, Elżbieta; Baran, Michał J

    2011-11-01

    This paper is a continuation of our previous research focusing on development of micro-TLC methodology under temperature-controlled conditions. The main goal of present paper is to demonstrate separation and detection capability of micro-TLC technique involving simple analytical protocols without multi-steps sample pre-purification. One of the advantages of planar chromatography over its column counterpart is that each TLC run can be performed using non-previously used stationary phase. Therefore, it is possible to fractionate or separate complex samples characterized by heavy biological matrix loading. In present studies components of interest, mainly steroids, were isolated from biological samples like fish bile using single pre-treatment steps involving direct organic liquid extraction and/or deproteinization by freeze-drying method. Low-molecular mass compounds with polarity ranging from estetrol to progesterone derived from the environmental samples (lake water, untreated and treated sewage waters) were concentrated using optimized solid-phase extraction (SPE). Specific bands patterns for samples derived from surface water of the Middle Pomerania in northern part of Poland can be easily observed on obtained micro-TLC chromatograms. This approach can be useful as simple and non-expensive complementary method for fast control and screening of treated sewage water discharged by the municipal wastewater treatment plants. Moreover, our experimental results show the potential of micro-TLC as an efficient tool for retention measurements of a wide range of steroids under reversed-phase (RP) chromatographic conditions. These data can be used for further optimalization of SPE or HPLC systems working under RP conditions. Furthermore, we also demonstrated that micro-TLC based analytical approach can be applied as an effective method for the internal standard (IS) substance search. Generally, described methodology can be applied for fast fractionation or screening of the

  2. Measured Thermal and Fast Neutron Fluence Rates for ATF-1 Holders During ATR Cycle 157D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Larry Don [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Miller, David Torbet [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This report contains the thermal (2200 m/s) and fast (E>1MeV) neutron fluence rate data for the ATF-1 holders located in core for ATR Cycle 157D which were measured by the Radiation Measurements Laboratory (RML) as requested by the Power Reactor Programs (ATR Experiments) Radiation Measurements Work Order. This report contains measurements of the fluence rates corresponding to the particular elevations relative to the 80-ft. core elevation. The data in this report consist of (1) a table of the ATR power history and distribution, (2) a hard copy listing of all thermal and fast neutron fluence rates, and (3) plots of both the thermal and fast neutron fluence rates. The fluence rates reported are for the average power levels given in the table of power history and distribution.

  3. Monosyllabic Place Holders in Child Acquisition of Spanish as a Second Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrella Nicolás

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Monosyllabic place holders (MPHs have been studied extensively in first-language (L1 acquisition of Spanish and other Romance languages. However, the study of MPHs in second-language (L2 acquisition, both by children and adults, has received much less attention. This study provides evidence for the presence of MPHs in the L2 Spanish of two L1 Moroccan Arabic children living in Spain. The age difference between the children (10;9 for Rachida and 6;10 for Khalid allows us to address the issue of whether the younger child would use MPHs, as is the case in L1 acquisition. However, what the data show is that both children used MPHs, although Khalid’s MPH rate was slightly higher than Rachida’s. Therefore, based on these findings we argue that MPHs can constitute a strategy available for all child learners of Spanish.

  4. Moving Object Detection Using Scanning Camera on a High-Precision Intelligent Holder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuoyang; Xu, Tingfa; Li, Daqun; Zhang, Jizhou; Jiang, Shenwang

    2016-01-01

    During the process of moving object detection in an intelligent visual surveillance system, a scenario with complex background is sure to appear. The traditional methods, such as “frame difference” and “optical flow”, may not able to deal with the problem very well. In such scenarios, we use a modified algorithm to do the background modeling work. In this paper, we use edge detection to get an edge difference image just to enhance the ability of resistance illumination variation. Then we use a “multi-block temporal-analyzing LBP (Local Binary Pattern)” algorithm to do the segmentation. In the end, a connected component is used to locate the object. We also produce a hardware platform, the core of which consists of the DSP (Digital Signal Processor) and FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) platforms and the high-precision intelligent holder. PMID:27775671

  5. Moving Object Detection Using Scanning Camera on a High-Precision Intelligent Holder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuoyang Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available During the process of moving object detection in an intelligent visual surveillance system, a scenario with complex background is sure to appear. The traditional methods, such as “frame difference” and “optical flow”, may not able to deal with the problem very well. In such scenarios, we use a modified algorithm to do the background modeling work. In this paper, we use edge detection to get an edge difference image just to enhance the ability of resistance illumination variation. Then we use a “multi-block temporal-analyzing LBP (Local Binary Pattern” algorithm to do the segmentation. In the end, a connected component is used to locate the object. We also produce a hardware platform, the core of which consists of the DSP (Digital Signal Processor and FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array platforms and the high-precision intelligent holder.

  6. The role of stake holders in the Italian debate on the national radioactive waste deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantone, Marie C.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In early 2003, following an increased concern about the international terrorist threat, the Italian Government declared an emergency status for national nuclear installations, and in particular for radioactive waste deposits. A working group of experts - mainly from the Society for the Management of Nuclear Installations (SOGIN) and the Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Environment (ENEA) - was appointed and charged with the analysis of the technical aspects implied in the creation of a repository to host permanently LLRW and MLRW as well as to host temporarily HLRW. In November 2003 the Italian Government passed a decree to authorize the creation of a national nuclear waste repository within a geological salt deposit in the territory of Scanzano Jonico, in the Basilicata Region. The decision was made without any negotiation with the local population and the authorities of Scanzano Jonico. The lack of transparent communication and the attempt to impose the project 'from the top' was perceived as a 'deceptive strategy'. The population of the entire region spontaneously organized a mass protest movement against the project; blockades were carried out on the major highway connecting Northern to Southern Italy and the controversy gained the attention of the national mass media. Two weeks later, the Italian government withdrew the decree. Presently, the Italian nuclear waste is distributed over more than 20 locations in 11 different Regions, and the creation of a national disposal site has been postponed. The present study aims at highlighting the reasons behind social conflicts on nuclear waste risks. We will examine the attitudes and the communication strategies of the different stake holders which took part in the public debate on the Italian nuclear waste dump. Drawing on methodologies used in media studies, we are carrying out a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the main national and local newspapers in order to draw a 'map' of the

  7. Holder continuity of bounded weak solutions to generalized parabolic p-Laplacian equations II: singular case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukjung Hwang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Here we generalize quasilinear parabolic p-Laplacian type equations to obtain the prototype equation $$ u_t - \\hbox{div} \\Big(\\frac{g(|Du|}{|Du|} Du\\Big = 0, $$ where g is a nonnegative, increasing, and continuous function trapped in between two power functions $|Du|^{g_0 -1}$ and $|Du|^{g_1 -1}$ with $1Holder continuous with some degree of commonality between degenerate and singular types. By using geometric characters, our proof does not rely on any of alternatives which is based on the size of solutions.

  8. Temperature dependence of liquid lithium film formation and deuterium retention on hot W samples studied by LID-QMS. Implications for future fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, A.; Sepetys, A.; González, M.; Tabarés, F. L.

    2018-04-01

    Liquid metal (LM) divertor concepts explore an alternative solution to the challenging power/particle exhaust issues in future magnetic fusion reactors. Among them, lithium (Li) is the most promising material. Its use has shown important advantages in terms of improved H-mode plasma confinement and heat handling capabilities. In such scenario, a possible combination of tungsten (W) on the first wall and liquid Li on the divertor could be an acceptable solution, but several issues related to material compatibility remain open. In particular, the co-deposition of Li and hydrogen isotopes on W components could increase the associated tritium retention and represent a safety risk, especially if these co-deposits can uncontrollably grow in remote/plasma shadowed zones of the first wall. In this work, the retention of Li and deuterium (D) on tungsten at different surface temperature (200 °C-400 °C) has been studied by exposing W samples to Li evaporation under several D2 gaseous environments. Deuterium retention in the W-Li films has been quantified by using laser induced desorption-mass spectrometry (LID-QMS). Additional techniques as thermal desorption spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, profilemetry and flame atomic emission spectroscopy were implemented to corroborate the retention results and for the qualitative and quantitative characterization of the films. The results showed a negligible (below LID sensibility) D uptake at T surface  =  225 °C, when the W-Li layer is exposed to simultaneous Li evaporation and D2 gas exposition (0.67 Pa). Pre-lithiated samples were also exposed to higher D2 pressures (133.3 Pa) at different temperatures (200 °C-400 °C). A non-linear drastic reduction in the D retention with increasing temperatures was found on the W-Li films, presenting a D/Li atomic ratio at 400 °C lower than 0.1 at.% on a thin film of  ≈100 nm thick. These results bode well (in terms of tritium inventory) for the potential

  9. Safeguards-relevant information collection from small holders – experiences and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundén, Erika; Dufva, Martina; Dahlberg, Joakim

    2015-01-01

    A number of universities, research institutions, hospitals, and other businesses are in possession of relatively small amounts of nuclear material. In some cases the material is in activities related to the nuclear fuel cycle, but there is also a wide variety of other applications. Regardless of application, material accountancy must be reported to the European Commission (EC) and, in Sweden, to the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM). However, checking the completeness and correctness of the reports from operators with very small amounts of nuclear material can easily be forgotten or viewed as being less important. Starting in the beginning of 2013 SSM increased its effort in this area and began working more actively gathering information and checking its correctness. Informing the operators in possession of nuclear material of the rules and regulations is a major part of this work, as it has been noted that the knowledge level of safeguarding nuclear material in many locations is very low. This paper will give a description of the work being performed by SSM to ensure that information related to the possession of nuclear material are gathered and correctly declared. It will give an overview of the different procedures that are applied to different categories of small holders in Sweden (where the differences are mostly due to historical reasons). It will also entail some of the challenges met along the way; such as explaining to radiographers that for nuclear non-proliferation purposes it is the shielding uranium container which is of interest, not the isotope emitting the radiation. What we have experienced being the major differences between collecting information from small holders as compared to larger nuclear facilities will also be outlined. The paper ends with an outline for future work.

  10. 14 CFR 120.11 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 61 certificate holder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals Certificated Under Parts 61, 63, and 65 § 120.11 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 61 certificate holder. (a) This...

  11. 14 CFR 120.15 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 65 certificate holder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals Certificated Under Parts 61, 63, and 65 § 120.15 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 65 certificate holder. (a) This...

  12. 14 CFR 120.13 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 63 certificate holder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals Certificated Under Parts 61, 63, and 65 § 120.13 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 63 certificate holder. (a) This...

  13. 48 CFR 339.7001 - Request for approval to make an award to other than a GSA BPA holder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Use of General Services Administration Blanket Purchase Agreements for Independent Risk Analysis... micro-purchase threshold, that obtaining the required services from a source other than a GSA BPA holder... include additional supporting rationale to document the best value decision, as appropriate. ...

  14. Specimen holder for an electron microscope and device and method for mounting a specimen in an electron microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandbergen, H.W.; Latenstein van Voorst, A.; Westra, C.; Hoveling, G.H.

    1996-01-01

    A specimen holder for an electron microscope, comprising a bar-shaped body provided adjacent one end with means for receiving a specimen, with means being present for screening the specimen from the environment at least temporarily in airtight and moisture-proof manner in a first position, which

  15. 14 CFR 193.17 - How must design and production approval holders handle information they receive from the FAA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How must design and production approval... REGULATIONS PROTECTION OF VOLUNTARILY SUBMITTED INFORMATION § 193.17 How must design and production approval... under § 193.9(a)(2) to the holders of design approvals of production approvals issued by the FAA, the...

  16. Determinants of Increasing Duration of First Unemployment among First Degree Holders in Rwanda: A Logistic Regression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niragire, François; Nshimyiryo, Alphonse

    2017-01-01

    Unexpectedly, the duration of first unemployment among first degree holders has quickly increased in Rwanda after considerable loss of the skilled labour during the war and Genocide perpetrated against Tutsi in 1994. The time it takes a higher education graduate to land a first employment is a key indicator for the evaluation of and optimal…

  17. Whether power holders construe their power as responsibility or opportunity influences their tendency to take advice from others

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, F.R.C.; Scheepers, D.; Ellemers, N.; Sassenberg, Kai; Scholl, Annika

    Empirical evidence suggests that power elicits a generic tendency to disregard advice. We examined different responses power holders may show in their tendency to take advice depending on the construal of power. We report a field study and an experiment among managers and other powerful

  18. Measured thermal and fast neutron fluence rates for ATF-1 holders during ATR cycle 158B/159A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Larry Don [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Miller, David Torbet [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Walker, Billy Justin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This report contains the thermal (2200 m/s) and fast (E>1MeV) neutron fluence rate data for the ATF-1 holders located in core for ATR Cycle 158B/159A which were measured by the Radiation Measurements Laboratory (RML).

  19. Power Holders and Social Dynamics of Participatory Development and Reconstruction: Cases from the Democratic Republic of Congo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyamusugulwa, P.M.; Hilhorst, D.

    2015-01-01

    One of the challenges of participatory development and reconstruction programs is how and where to engage with power holders. This paper analyses the dynamics of power relations within a community-driven reconstruction program in the Democratic Republic of Congo. It shows that, in some

  20. The Two-Year College as a First Choice, Second Chance Institution for Baccalaureate-Degree Holders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Barbara K.

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on degree-seeking baccalaureate-degree holders at one two-year technical institute in the Midsouth to determine why they chose to study at the two-year college and how they compared their two-year college experience with their baccalaureate educational experience. Findings indicated the technical college was their first choice…

  1. 17 CFR 270.32a-2 - Exemption for initial period from vote of security holders on independent public accountant for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... from vote of security holders on independent public accountant for certain registered separate accounts... from vote of security holders on independent public accountant for certain registered separate accounts... 32(a) of the Act that selection of an independent public accountant shall have been submitted for...

  2. Re-evaluation of SiC permeation coefficients at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Yasushi, E-mail: yama3707@kansai-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Engineering Science, Kansai Univ., Yamate-cho, Suita, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan); Murakami, Yuichiro; Yamaguchi, Hirosato; Yamamoto, Takehiro; Yonetsu, Daigo [Faculty of Engineering Science, Kansai Univ., Yamate-cho, Suita, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan); Noborio, Kazuyuki [Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, Univ. of Toyama, Toyama, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Konishi, Satoshi [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto Univ., Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The deuterium permeation coefficients of CVD-SiC at 600–950 °C were evaluated. • The wraparound flow was reduced to less than 1/100th of the permeation flow. • CVD-SiC materials are very effective as hydrogen isotope permeation barriers. - Abstract: Since 2007, our group has studied the deuterium permeation and diffusion coefficients for SiC materials at temperatures above 600 °C as a means of evaluating the tritium inventory and permeation in fusion blankets. During such measurements, control and evaluation of the wraparound flow through the sample holder are important, and so the heated sample holder is enclosed by a glass tube and kept under vacuum during experimental trials. However, detailed studies regarding the required degree of vacuum based on model calculations have shown that the wraparound flow is much larger than expected, and so can affect measurements at high temperatures. We therefore modified the measurement apparatus based on calculations involving reduced pressure in the glass tube, and are now confident that the measurement error is only several percent, even at 950 °C. In this paper, recent experimental results obtained with a chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-SiC sample over the temperature range of 600–950 °C are presented, showing that the permeation coefficient for CVD-SiC is more than three orders of magnitude smaller than that for stainless steel (SS316) at 600 °C, and that at 950 °C, the coefficient for CVD-SiC is almost equal to that for SUS316 at 550 °C.

  3. Elemental distribution and sample integrity comparison of freeze-dried and frozen-hydrated biological tissue samples with nuclear microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vavpetič, P., E-mail: primoz.vavpetic@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Vogel-Mikuš, K. [Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jeromel, L. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Ogrinc Potočnik, N. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); FOM-Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pongrac, P. [Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Department of Plant Physiology, University of Bayreuth, Universitätstr. 30, 95447 Bayreuth (Germany); Drobne, D.; Pipan Tkalec, Ž.; Novak, S.; Kos, M.; Koren, Š.; Regvar, M. [Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pelicon, P. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2015-04-01

    The analysis of biological samples in frozen-hydrated state with micro-PIXE technique at Jožef Stefan Institute (JSI) nuclear microprobe has matured to a point that enables us to measure and examine frozen tissue samples routinely as a standard research method. Cryotome-cut slice of frozen-hydrated biological sample is mounted between two thin foils and positioned on the sample holder. The temperature of the cold stage in the measuring chamber is kept below 130 K throughout the insertion of the samples and the proton beam exposure. Matrix composition of frozen-hydrated tissue is consisted mostly of ice. Sample deterioration during proton beam exposure is monitored during the experiment, as both Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry (EBS) and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) in on–off axis geometry are recorded together with the events in two PIXE detectors and backscattered ions from the chopper in a single list-mode file. The aim of this experiment was to determine differences and similarities between two kinds of biological sample preparation techniques for micro-PIXE analysis, namely freeze-drying and frozen-hydrated sample preparation in order to evaluate the improvements in the elemental localisation of the latter technique if any. In the presented work, a standard micro-PIXE configuration for tissue mapping at JSI was used with five detection systems operating in parallel, with proton beam cross section of 1.0 × 1.0 μm{sup 2} and a beam current of 100 pA. The comparison of the resulting elemental distributions measured at the biological tissue prepared in the frozen-hydrated and in the freeze-dried state revealed differences in elemental distribution of particular elements at the cellular level due to the morphology alteration in particular tissue compartments induced either by water removal in the lyophilisation process or by unsatisfactory preparation of samples for cutting and mounting during the shock-freezing phase of sample preparation.

  4. Mechanical Conversion for High-Throughput TEM Sample Preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendrick, Anthony B; Moore, Thomas M; Zaykova-Feldman, Lyudmila

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method of direct mechanical conversion from lift-out sample to TEM sample holder. The lift-out sample is prepared in the FIB using the in-situ liftout Total Release TM method. The mechanical conversion is conducted using a mechanical press and one of a variety of TEM coupons, including coupons for both top-side and back-side thinning. The press joins a probe tip point with attached TEM sample to the sample coupon and separates the complete assembly as a 3mm diameter TEM grid, compatible with commercially available TEM sample holder rods. This mechanical conversion process lends itself well to the high through-put requirements of in-line process control and to materials characterization labs where instrument utilization and sample security are critically important

  5. Initial experience using a robotic-driven laparoscopic needle holder with ergonomic handle: assessment of surgeons' task performance and ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Margallo, Juan A; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco M

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the surgeons' performance and ergonomics during the use of a robotic-driven needle holder in laparoscopic suturing tasks. Six right-handed laparoscopic surgeons with different levels of experience took part in this study. Participants performed a set of three different intracorporeal suturing tasks organized in ten trials during a period of five weeks. Surgeons used both conventional (Conv) and robotic (Rob) laparoscopic needle holders. Precision using the surgical needle, quality of the intracorporeal suturing performance, execution time and leakage pressure for the urethrovesical anastomosis, as well as the ergonomics of the surgeon's hand posture, were analyzed during the first, fifth and last trials. No statistically significant differences in precision and quality of suturing performance were obtained between both groups of instruments. Surgeons required more time using the robotic instrument than using the conventional needle holder to perform the urethrovesical anastomosis, but execution time was significantly reduced after training ([Formula: see text] 0.05). There were no differences in leakage pressure for the anastomoses carried out by both instruments. After training, novice surgeons significantly improved the ergonomics of the wrist ([Formula: see text] 0.05) and index finger (Conv: 36.381[Formula: see text], Rob: 30.389[Formula: see text]; p = 0.024) when using the robotic instrument compared to the conventional needle holder. Results have shown that, although both instruments offer similar technical performance, the robotic-driven instrument results in better ergonomics for the surgeon's hand posture compared to the use of a conventional laparoscopic needle holder in intracorporeal suturing.

  6. Versatile variable temperature and magnetic field scanning probe microscope for advanced material research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jin-Oh; Choi, Seokhwan; Lee, Yeonghoon; Kim, Jinwoo; Son, Donghyeon; Lee, Jhinhwan

    2017-10-01

    We have built a variable temperature scanning probe microscope (SPM) that covers 4.6 K-180 K and up to 7 T whose SPM head fits in a 52 mm bore magnet. It features a temperature-controlled sample stage thermally well isolated from the SPM body in good thermal contact with the liquid helium bath. It has a 7-sample-holder storage carousel at liquid helium temperature for systematic studies using multiple samples and field emission targets intended for spin-polarized spectroscopic-imaging scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) study on samples with various compositions and doping conditions. The system is equipped with a UHV sample preparation chamber and mounted on a two-stage vibration isolation system made of a heavy concrete block and a granite table on pneumatic vibration isolators. A quartz resonator (qPlus)-based non-contact atomic force microscope (AFM) sensor is used for simultaneous STM/AFM operation for research on samples with highly insulating properties such as strongly underdoped cuprates and strongly correlated electron systems.

  7. Diffusion of HTO, {sup 36}Cl{sup -}, {sup 125}I{sup -} and {sup 22}Na{sup +} in Opalinus Clay: Effect of Confining Pressure, Sample Orientation, Sample Depth and Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Loon, L.R.; Soler, J.M

    2004-02-01

    respect to {sup 36}Cl{sup -}. This is caused by a weak sorption of {sup 125}I{sup -} on the Opalinus Clay. The distribution coefficients, calculated from the rock capacity factor {sup 36}Cl{sup -}. The effective diffusion coefficients of {sup 125}I{sup -} are comparable with those of {sup 36}Cl{sup -}. Out-diffusion data of HTO, {sup 36}Cl{sup -} and {sup 22}Na{sup +} are in good agreement with the through-diffusion data. In the case of {sup 125}I{sup -} the agreement is less. The flux calculated with D{sub e} and {alpha} derived from through-diffusion measurements is smaller than the observed flux. This indicates that other (unknown) processes are taking place. The diffusion coefficients measured in this study on Mont Terri samples are in good agreement with recent measurements of three other laboratories, within the framework of a laboratory comparison exercise. The values of the diffusion-accessible porosities, however, show a larger degree of scatter, indicating that through-diffusion is not the Lyer is method of choice for obtaining reliable porosity values. Diffusion parallel to the bedding is higher than diffusion perpendicular to the bedding. The effective diffusion coefficient for diffusion parallel to bedding is a factor of 4 - 6 larger than for diffusion perpendicular to the bedding. This is due to the layered structure of the Opalinus Clay, resulting in a smaller tortuosity factor for diffusion along the bedding planes. The observed effect was similar for HTO, {sup 36}Cl{sup -} and {sup 22}Na{sup +}. This anisotropy is more pronounced for the Opalinus Clay from Benken than for Mont Terri, indicating that the clay platelets are more preferentially oriented in the case of Benken OPA. The temperature dependence of diffusion of HTO in OPA is of an Arrhenius type. The activation energy (22 kJomol{sup -1}), however, is larger than for diffusion in bulk water (18 kJomol{sup -1}). This indicates that confined water in the narrow pores of the Opalinus Clay has partly a

  8. Investigation on cause of malfunction of wide range monitor (WRM) in high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR). Sample tests and destructive tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Masanori; Saito, Kenji; Haga, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Shinji; Katsuyama, Kozo; Motegi, Toshihiro; Takada, Kiyoshi; Higashimura, Keisuke; Fujii, Junichi; Ukai, Takayuki; Moriguchi, Yusuke

    2012-11-01

    An event, in which one of WRMs were disabled to detect the neutron flux in the reactor core, occurred during the period of reactor shut down of HTTR in March, 2010. The actual life time of WRM was unexpectedly shorter than the past developed life time. Investigation of the cause of the outage of WRM toward the recovery of the life time up to the past developed life is one of the issues to develop the technology basis of High Temperature Gas cooled Reactor (HTGR). Then, two experimental investigations were carried out to reveal the cause of the malfunction by specifying the damaged part causing the event in the WRM. One is an experiment using a mock-up sample test which strength degradation at assembly process and heat cycle to specify the damaged part in the WRM. The other is a destructive test in Fuels Monitoring Facility (FMF) to specify the damaged part in the WRM. This report summarized the results of the destructive test and the experimental investigation using the mock-up to reveal the cause of malfunction of WRM. (author)

  9. Incubation of premise plumbing water samples on Buffered Charcoal Yeast Extract agar at elevated temperature and pH selects for Legionella pneumophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenendaal, Harm R; Brouwer-Hanzens, Anke J; van der Kooij, Dick

    2017-10-15

    Worldwide, over 90% of the notified cases of Legionnaires' disease are caused by Legionella pneumophila. However, the standard culture medium for the detection of Legionella in environmental water samples, Buffered Charcoal Yeast Extract (BCYE) agar of pH 6.9 ± 0.4 with or without antimicrobial agents incubated at 36 ± 1 °C, supports the growth of a large diversity of Legionella species. BCYE agar of elevated pH or/and incubation at elevated temperature gave strongly reduced recoveries of most of 26 L. non-pneumophila spp. tested, but not of L. pneumophila. BCYE agar of pH 7.3 ± 0.1, incubated at 40 ± 0.5 °C (BCYE pH 7.3/40 °C) was tested for selective enumeration of L. pneumophila. Of the L. non-pneumophila spp. tested, only L. adelaidensis and L. londiniensis multiplied under these conditions. The colony counts on BCYE pH 7.3/40 °C of a L. pneumophila serogroup 1 strain cultured in tap water did not differ significantly from those on BCYE pH 6.9/36 °C when directly plated and after membrane filtration and showed repeatability's of 13-14%. By using membrane filtration L. pneumophila was detected in 58 (54%) of 107 Legionella-positive water samples from premise plumbing systems under one or both of these culture conditions. The L. pneumophila colony counts (log-transformed) on BCYE pH 7.3/40 °C were strongly related (r 2  = 0.87) to those on BCYE pH 6.9/36 °C, but differed significantly (p < 0.05) by a mean of - 0.12 ± 0.30 logs. L. non-pneumophila spp. were detected only on BCYE pH 6.9/36 °C in 49 (46%) of the samples. Hence, BCYE pH 7.3/40 °C can facilitate the enumeration of L. pneumophila and their isolation from premise plumbing systems with culturable L. non-pneumophila spp., some of which, e.g. L. anisa, can be present in high numbers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluating the Effect of Holding Time and Storage Temperature on the Chemical Stability of Drinking Water Samples Collected from Military Forward Deployed Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    thank you for the analysis and data mining support you provided during the course of my research. I would also like to thank Dr. Cara Olsen, Dr...refrigerator (General Electric ) temperature was at 4°C. The temperature varied from 2-5 °C, as noted from observed temperature readings taken two to three

  11. In-situ transmission electron microscopy of the solid-phase epitaxial growth of GaAs: sample preparation and artifact characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llewellyn, D.J.; Llewellyn, D.J.; Belay, K.B.; Ridgway, M.C.

    1998-01-01

    In-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been used to characterize the solid phase epitaxial growth of amorphized GaAs at a temperature of 260 deg C. To maximize heat transfer from the heated holder to the sample and minimize electron-irradiation induced artifacts, non-conventional methodologies were utilized for the preparation of cross-sectional samples. GaAs 3x1 mm rectangular wafers were cleaved then glued face-to-face to form a wafer stack size of 3x3 mm while maintaining the TEM region at the center. This stack was subsequently polished on the cross-section to a thickness of ∼ 200 μm. A 3 mm disc was then cut perpendicular to the cross-section using a Gatan ultrasonic cutter. The disc was polished then dimpled on both sides to a thickness of ∼ 15 μm. This was ion-beam milled at liquid nitrogen temperature to an electron-transparent layer. From a comparison of in-situ and ex-situ measurements of the recrystallization rate, the actual sample temperature during in-situ characterization was estimated to deviate by ≤ 20 deg C from that of the heated holder. The influence of electron-irradiation was found to be negligible by comparing the recrystallization rate and microstructure of irradiated and unirradiated regions of comparable thickness. Similarly, the influence of the 'thin-foil effect' was found to be negligible by comparing the recrystallization rate and microstructure of thick and thin regions, the former determined after the removal of the sample from the microscope and further ion-beam milling of tens of microns of material. In conclusion, the potential influence of artifacts during in-situ TEM can be minimized by the appropriate choice of sample preparation procedures. (authors)

  12. Enhancement of the spectral selectivity of complex samples by measuring them in a frozen state at low temperatures in order to improve accuracy for quantitative analysis. Part II. Determination of viscosity for lube base oils using Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mooeung; Chung, Hoeil

    2013-03-07

    The use of selectivity-enhanced Raman spectra of lube base oil (LBO) samples achieved by the spectral collection under frozen conditions at low temperatures was effective for improving accuracy for the determination of the kinematic viscosity at 40 °C (KV@40). A collection of Raman spectra from samples cooled around -160 °C provided the most accurate measurement of KV@40. Components of the LBO samples were mainly long-chain hydrocarbons with molecular structures that were deformable when these were frozen, and the different structural deformabilities of the components enhanced spectral selectivity among the samples. To study the structural variation of components according to the change of sample temperature from cryogenic to ambient condition, n-heptadecane and pristane (2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane) were selected as representative components of LBO samples, and their temperature-induced spectral features as well as the corresponding spectral loadings were investigated. A two-dimensional (2D) correlation analysis was also employed to explain the origin for the improved accuracy. The asynchronous 2D correlation pattern was simplest at the optimal temperature, indicating the occurrence of distinct and selective spectral variations, which enabled the variation of KV@40 of LBO samples to be more accurately assessed.

  13. Post-purchase reassessment and improvement of neuroendoscope holder: importance of physician-manufacturer communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yoshikazu; Nakata, Yusuke; Tominaga, Teiji

    2014-01-01

    Modern medical management requires constant quality improvement of the various instruments used for surgical procedures. Higher quality, less complicated handling, and reduced maintenance are all desirable qualities. However, any improvements in instrumentation require that surgeons must clearly understand the application of the device by adherence to the manufacturer's instructions. The weakness of this one-way information flow depends on the low interest among medical personnel for post-purchase reassessment. Service industries have research departments to investigate the post-purchase behavior of customers, and service recovery is considered essential to retain customers after service failure. All service providers can suffer service failures, and even the best providers may make errors in delivering service. Such an approach has been increasingly adopted in the risk management at medical institutions. We report our clinical trials of the post-purchase reassessment and product improvement of surgical instrumentation. Medical personnel reassessed the use of a newly developed endoscope holder based on the manufacturer's manual and made recommendations for possible improvements, which were examined by the manufacturer. Simple but important improvement was achieved for reducing the instability and uncertainty of instrument fixation. This bi-directional post-purchase communication between medical personnel and manufacturers can improve risk management in medical institutions.

  14. DIAGNOSIS OF BANKRUPTCY RISK IN THE FURNITURE INDUSTRY USING THE CANON-HOLDER AND ALTMAN MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu MĂRGINEAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The financial and economic crisis that started in 2008 caused negative effects felt by the entire European economy, affecting more or less all of the world's economies. This paper aims to study the diagnosis of bankruptcy risk using the Canon-Holder and Altman methods, from a theoretical point of view and with practical examples on a company in the furniture industry in Romania. In a context of economic uncertainty, the relevance of such an analysis designed to quantify the risk of bankruptcy for companies is the default. The financial data used is real and descriptively analyzed, we analyzed a period of eight years, between 2006-2013. As a method of analysis complementary to the financial analysis of the background of companies, the diagnosis of bankruptcy risk using the score method, using the specific models known in the specialty literature, brings relevant information concerning the problem of risk assessment. We concluded in the case study the opportunity of such an analysis for the furniture industry through the results obtained in the case studies, the method is a useful tool, especially for the practitioners in the sector.

  15. Shaft seals with an easily removable cylinder holder for low-pressure steam turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, A. E.; Rodionov, D. A.; Pimenov, E. V.; Sobolev, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problems that occur at the operation of LPC shaft seals (SS) of turbines, particularly, their bearings. The problems arising from the deterioration of oil-protecting rings of SS and bearings and also the consequences in which they can result are considered. The existing SS housing construction types are considered. Their operational features are specified. A new SS construction type with an easily removable holder is presented. The construction of its main elements is described. The sequence of operations of the repair personnel at the restoration of the new SS type spacings is proposed. The comparative analysis of the new and the existing SS construction types is carried out. The assessment results of the efficiency, the operational convenience, and the economic effect after the installation of the new type seals are given. The conclusions about the offered construction prospects are made by results of the comparative analysis and the carried-out assessment. The main advantage of this design is the possibility of spacings restoration both in SS and in oil-protecting rings during a short-term stop of a turbine, even without its cooling. This construction was successfully tested on the working K-300-23.5 LMP turbine. However, its adaptation for other turbines is quite possible.

  16. A Simple Refining Technique of Coconut Oil for Small Holder Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugeng Triyono

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple refining equipment and process for small holder industries of edible coconut oil has beeninvestigated. The equipment consisted of 20-L filtering and NaOH neutralization bottles. Filtration wasintended to remove impurities such as gums and pigment, while neutralization was to remove free fattyacids (FFA and other non-fat materials. In the experiment, the crude coconut oil was found to have impurityof 0.16%, FFA of 8.02%, saponification number of 270, and water content of 0.33%. The results showed thateither granular activated carbon (GAC or zeolite filtration can be chosen individually to remove physicalimpurity. The GAC or zeolite-filtered coconut oil contained impurity less than the SNI standard of 0.05%.In term of FFA; however, the NaOH neutralized coconut oil did not meet the SNI standard of 0.3%. AfterNaOH neutralization, the GAC filtered oil contained 1.20% FFA; while the zeolite filtered oil contained1.32%. These FFA contents were definitely higher than the SNI standard, but could satisfy APCC standardfor grade IV coconut oil which is 5%. The refined coconut oils could also satisfy the SNI standard ofsaponification number which is 196 – 206 at minimum. In term of water content, either the filtered or theneutralized oil could also satisfy the SNI standard of 0.3%. In short, the proposed technique could helpfarmers refine their raw coconut oil, and hopefully improve its marketability.

  17. Temperature impact on the micro structure of tungsten exposed to He irradiation in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, Elodie; Sakamoto, Ryuichi; Tokitani, Masayuki; Masuzaki, Suguru; Hayashi, Hiromi; Yamada, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Naoaki

    2017-01-01

    A new temperature controlled material probe was designed for the exposure of tungsten samples to helium plasma in the LHD. Samples were exposed to estimated fluences of ∼10 23  m −2 and temperatures ranging from 65 to 600 °C. Transmission Electron Microscopy analysis allowed the study of the impact of He irradiation under high temperatures on tungsten micro structure for the first time in real-plasma exposure conditions. Both dislocation loops and bubbles appeared from low to medium temperatures and saw an impressive increase of size (factor 4 to 6) most probably by coalescence as the temperature reaches 600 °C, with 500 °C appearing as a threshold for bubble growth. Annealing of the samples up to 800 C highlighted the stability of the dislocation damages formed by helium irradiation at high surface temperature, as bubbles and dislocation loops seem to conserve their characteristics. Additional studies on cross-sections showed that bubbles were formed much deeper (70–100 nm) than the heavily damaged surface layer (10–20 nm), raising concern about the impact on the material mechanical properties conservation and potential additional trapping of hydrogen isotopes. - Highlights: • Design and test of a temperature-controlled sample holder to expose samples in LHD. • Dislocation loops and bubbles created in W even at low fluences and temperatures. • Heavily damaged layer (10–20 nm thick) very rich in damages formed at the surface. • He bubbles observed much deeper than implantation range (until 100 nm). • He effects not only at the surface, raising concerns for properties conservation.

  18. High-Temperature Short-Time Pasteurization System for Donor Milk in a Human Milk Bank Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Escuder-Vieco; Irene Espinosa-Martos; Juan M. Rodríguez; Nieves Corzo; Antonia Montilla; Pablo Siegfried; Carmen R. Pallás-Alonso; Carmen R. Pallás-Alonso; Leónides Fernández

    2018-01-01

    Donor milk is the best alternative for the feeding of preterm newborns when mother's own milk is unavailable. For safety reasons, it is usually pasteurized by the Holder method (62.5°C for 30 min). Holder pasteurization results in a microbiological safe product but impairs the activity of many biologically active compounds such as immunoglobulins, enzymes, cytokines, growth factors, hormones or oxidative stress markers. High-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization has been proposed as an...

  19. Quadrupole lamp furnace for high temperature (up to 2050 K) synchrotron powder x-ray diffraction studies in air in reflection geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarin, P.; Yoon, W.; Jurkschat, K.; Zschack, P.; Kriven, W. M.

    2006-01-01

    A four-lamp thermal image furnace has been developed to conduct high temperature x-ray diffraction in reflection geometry on oxide ceramic powder samples in air at temperatures ≤2050 K using synchrotron radiation. A refractory crucible made of Pt20%Rh alloy was used as a specimen holder. A material with well characterized lattice expansion properties was used as an internal crystallographic thermometer to determine the specimen temperature and displacement. The performance of the apparatus was verified by measurement of the thermal expansion properties of CeO 2 , MgO, and Pt which were found to be within ±3% of the acceptable values. The advantages, limitations, and important considerations of the instrument developed are discussed

  20. Shielded scanning electron microscope for radioactive samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouse, R.S.; Parsley, W.B.

    1977-01-01

    A small commercial SEM had been successfully shielded for examining radioactive materials transferred directly from a remote handling facility. Relatively minor mechanical modifications were required to achieve excellent operation. Two inches of steel provide adequate shielding for most samples encountered. However, samples reading 75 rad/hr γ have been examined by adding extra shielding in the form of tungsten sample holders and external lead shadow shields. Some degradation of secondary electron imaging was seen but was adequately compensated for by changing operating conditions

  1. Precision tool holder with flexure-adjustable, three degrees of freedom for a four-axis lathe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bono, Matthew J [Pleasanton, CA; Hibbard, Robin L [Livermore, CA

    2008-03-04

    A precision tool holder for precisely positioning a single point cutting tool on 4-axis lathe, such that the center of the radius of the tool nose is aligned with the B-axis of the machine tool, so as to facilitate the machining of precision meso-scale components with complex three-dimensional shapes with sub-.mu.m accuracy on a four-axis lathe. The device is designed to fit on a commercial diamond turning machine and can adjust the cutting tool position in three orthogonal directions with sub-micrometer resolution. In particular, the tool holder adjusts the tool position using three flexure-based mechanisms, with two flexure mechanisms adjusting the lateral position of the tool to align the tool with the B-axis, and a third flexure mechanism adjusting the height of the tool. Preferably, the flexures are driven by manual micrometer adjusters. In this manner, this tool holder simplifies the process of setting a tool with sub-.mu.m accuracy, to substantially reduce the time required to set the tool.

  2. An optimum source neutron spectrum and holder shape for extra-corporal treatment of liver cancer by BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nievaart, Sander; Moss, Ray; Sauerwein, Wolfgang; Malago, Massimo; Kloosterman, Jan Leen; Hagen, Tim van der; Dam, Hugo van

    2006-01-01

    In extra-corporal treatment of liver cancer by BNCT, it is desired to have an as homogeneous as possible thermal neutron field throughout the organ. Previous work has shown that when using an epithermal neutron beam, the shape of the holder in which the liver is placed is the critical factor. This study develops the notion further as to what is the optimum neutron spectrum to perform such treatments. In the design calculations, when using Monte Carlo techniques, it is shown that when the expected contributions of the source neutrons in every part of the liver is calculated, a linear optimization scheme such as the Simplex method results in a mix of thermal and epithermal source neutrons to get the highest homogeneity for the thermal neutron field. This optimisation method is demonstrated in 3 holder shapes: cuboid, cylindrical and spherical with each 3 volumes of 2, 4 and 6 litres. A 10 cm thick cuboid model, irradiated from both sides gives the highest homogeneity. The spherical (rotating) holder has the lowest homogeneity but the highest contribution of every source neutron to the thermal neutrons in the liver. This can be advantageous when using a relatively small sized neutron beam with a low strength. (author)

  3. Vermicomposting as manure management strategy for urban small-holder animal farms – Kampala case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalander, Cecilia Helena; Komakech, Allan John; Vinnerås, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Poor manure management can increase burden of disease and environmental impact. • A low-maintenance vermicompost reactor was set-up in Kampala, Uganda. • High material reduction (45.9%) and waste-to-biomass conversion (3.6% on a TS basis). • Five year return on investment of 275% of system in Uganda. • Technically and economically viable system for improved urban manure management. - Abstract: Inadequate organic waste management can contribute to the spread of diseases and have negative impacts on the environment. Vermicomposting organic waste could have dual beneficial effects by generating an economically viable animal feed protein in the form of worm biomass, while alleviating the negative effects of poor organic waste management. In this study, a low-maintenance vermicomposting system was evaluated as manure and food waste management system for small-holder farmers. A vermicomposting system using the earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae and treating cow manure and food waste was set up in Kampala, Uganda, and monitored for 172 days. The material degradation and protein production rates were evaluated after 63 days and at the end of the experiment. The material reduction was 45.9% and the waste-to-biomass conversion rate was 3.5% in the vermicomposting process on a total solids basis. A possible increase in the conversion rate could be achieved by increasing the frequency of worm harvesting. Vermicomposting was found to be a viable manure management method in small-scale urban animal agriculture; the return of investment was calculated to be 280% for treating the manure of a 450 kg cow. The vermicompost was not sanitised, although hygiene quality could be improved by introducing a post-stabilisation step in which no fresh material is added. The value of the animal feed protein generated in the process can act as an incentive to improve current manure management strategies

  4. THE LEGAL PROTECTION FOR REAL LAND RIGHT HOLDER IN CASE OF FORGED RINCIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirwana Nirwana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The legal Protection For Real Land Right Holder in Case of Forged Rincik. The research aimed to investigate (1 the legal protection for the land owner whose possession was based on rincik evidence, and (2 the legal protection on the good-will buyer based on the forged rincik document used in the land sale transaction. This was the normative legal research, also called the library research or documentary study because the research was only conducted on the written regulations or other legal materials or secondary data consisting of the primary and secondary legal materials. The interview was performed to strengthen the theories and opinions in the research. The research also used the Secondary data. the data were analysed and presented using the qualitative descriptive method. The research result indicate that: (1 the real land owner with rincik possession issued after the year 1960 based on the decision of Indonesian Supreme Court No. 560K / PID / 2008 has not been fully protected due to the fact that the seller is funished for forging the rincik., returning the right to the land owner can not be carried out due to the decision of Indonesian Supreme Court Number. 482 / PK / Pdt / 2014 which make the buyer win, while the real land owner is the directed to sue the land seller to give the compensation: and (2 the legal protection on the good faith buyer based on forget rincik in the land sale transaction has been fully protected and has the ringt to possess the land based on the decision of Indonesian Supreme Court Number. 482/PK/Pdt/2014 because the buyer has bought the land in the presence of Temporary Land Title Registar.

  5. Vermicomposting as manure management strategy for urban small-holder animal farms – Kampala case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalander, Cecilia Helena, E-mail: cecilia.lalander@slu.se [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Komakech, Allan John [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Agricultural & Bio-systems Engineering, Makerere University, Kampala (Uganda); Vinnerås, Björn [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Poor manure management can increase burden of disease and environmental impact. • A low-maintenance vermicompost reactor was set-up in Kampala, Uganda. • High material reduction (45.9%) and waste-to-biomass conversion (3.6% on a TS basis). • Five year return on investment of 275% of system in Uganda. • Technically and economically viable system for improved urban manure management. - Abstract: Inadequate organic waste management can contribute to the spread of diseases and have negative impacts on the environment. Vermicomposting organic waste could have dual beneficial effects by generating an economically viable animal feed protein in the form of worm biomass, while alleviating the negative effects of poor organic waste management. In this study, a low-maintenance vermicomposting system was evaluated as manure and food waste management system for small-holder farmers. A vermicomposting system using the earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae and treating cow manure and food waste was set up in Kampala, Uganda, and monitored for 172 days. The material degradation and protein production rates were evaluated after 63 days and at the end of the experiment. The material reduction was 45.9% and the waste-to-biomass conversion rate was 3.5% in the vermicomposting process on a total solids basis. A possible increase in the conversion rate could be achieved by increasing the frequency of worm harvesting. Vermicomposting was found to be a viable manure management method in small-scale urban animal agriculture; the return of investment was calculated to be 280% for treating the manure of a 450 kg cow. The vermicompost was not sanitised, although hygiene quality could be improved by introducing a post-stabilisation step in which no fresh material is added. The value of the animal feed protein generated in the process can act as an incentive to improve current manure management strategies.

  6. 3Wave propagation in rock samples under medium and low temperature conditions. Characteristics of methane hydrate-BSR phenomena; Chu teion ryoiki ni okeru ganseki shiryo no hado denpa tokusei. 1. Methane hydrate BSR gensho no kosatsu suitei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rokugawa, S; Kato, Y; Matsushima, J; Sano, A [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-10-22

    In relation to sea-bottom pseudo reflection face and methane hydrate in seismic exploration records, fundamental experimental studies have been made. In order to get a handhold to elucidate phenomena accompanying methane hydrate, the studies have investigated wave propagation behavior of rock samples and sandy sediments under medium and low temperature conditions. The experiments have used a constant-temperature cooling water circulating equipment to control temperatures of each sample. The samples were placed in a cooler box with the vibration transmitter and receiver fixedly installed, and changes of the waves against temperature change were measured. Sand-stones and two kinds of tuffs were used as rock samples for the measurement. Artificial sand sample soaked in water was used as a substitute for a methane hydrate layer. As a result of the experiments, the relation between the hydrate layer and the gas layer was comprehended. In addition, the blanking phenomenon was thought occurring as a result of the nearly whole substance presenting the speed of ice due to freezing of the sediments, rather than by what is described in the ground homogeneousness theory. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  7. Design and construction of a holder to the safety handling of Cs-137 to be used in cervix cancer treatments using intracavitary brachytherapy by afterloading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, E.; Lea, D.

    1996-01-01

    In venezuelan public hospitals where cervix cancer treatments are performed by means of Cs-137 manual afterloading systems, the handling of the sources is done with two type of holders, metallic and plastic, the plastic holders are pieces of induced serious radio-sanitary problem such as loser of the Cs-137 source and radioactive contamination in the treatment area, this has caused the interruption of the treatments in many hospitals. This interruption had a high social cost because of the thousands women waiting for intracavitary therapy. To start again with the treatments, the metallic holders were required but there were not enough funds in the budget, because of this problem in a short time IVIS'S health physics drew and made a low price source holder. (authors). 2 figs., 2 tabs

  8. 16S rRNA Gene Pyrosequencing of Reference and Clinical Samples and Investigation of the Temperature Stability of MicroBiome Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-16

    ambient temperatures are greatly variable, the temperature fluctuation may play a significant role and a pilot study on microbiome tem- perature...EI, Kamal MA, Yasir M: Role of gut microbiota in obesity, type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 2014, 13(2):305–311...Ryabin T, Hall JR, Hartmann M, Hollister EB, Lesniewski RA, Oakley BB, Parks DH, Robinson CJ, Sahl JW, Stres B, Thallinger GG, Van Horn DJ, Weber CF

  9. Canadian Public and Stake holder Engagement Approach to a Spent Nuclear Fuel Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yong Soo; Kim, Youn Ok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Whang, Joo Ho [Kyunghee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    After Canada has struggled with a radioactive waste problem over for 20 years, the Canadian government finally found out that its approach by far has been lack of social acceptance, and needed a program such as public and stake holder engagement (PSE) which involves the public in decision-making process. Therefore, the government made a special law, called Nuclear Fuel Waste Act (NFWA), to search for an appropriate nuclear waste management approach. NFWA laid out three possible approaches which were already prepared in advance by a nuclear expert group, and required Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) to be established to report a recommendation as to which of the proposed approaches should be adopted. However, NFWA allowed NWMO to consider additional management approach if the other three were not acceptable enough. Thus, NWMO studied and created a fourth management approach after it had undertaken an comparison of the benefits, risks and costs of each management approach: Adaptive Phased Management. This approach was intended to enable the implementers to accept any technological advancement or changes even in the middle of the implementation of the plan. The Canadian PSE case well shows that technological R and D are deeply connected with social acceptance. Even though the developments and technological advancement are carried out by the scientists and experts, but it is important to collect the public opinion by involving them to the decision-making process in order to achieve objective validity on the R and D programs. Moreover, in an effort to ensure the principles such as fairness, public health and safety, security, and adoptability, NWMO tried to make those abstract ideas more specific and help the public understand the meaning of each concept more in detail. Also, they utilized a variety of communication methods from face-to-face meeting to e-dialogue to encourage people to participate in the program as much as possible. Given the fact that Korea

  10. Division of nuclear liabilities between different license holders and owners - 59214

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindskog, Staffan; Sjoeblom, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Sweden was one of the first six countries to build and operate a nuclear power reactor. Thus, there exists a corresponding legacy in terms of liabilities for decommissioning and waste management of the historic facilities. Compliance with the Polluter Pays Principle (PPP) and its corollary on equity between generations implies that plans for decommissioning must be made and funds set aside for its execution. The need for precision in the cost estimates often governs the timing of the technical planning. Cost estimates are treacherous since cost raisers may be identified and evaluated only after considerable efforts have been made. Further complications and challenges arise as a result of changes that take place between construction and decommissioning of facilities in terms of the entities involved as owners, operators, license holders, Authorities and financiers. From this perspective, the present paper summarizes the general legislation as well as the legislation that applies particularly to nuclear activities. It also summarizes the relation between the nuclear decommissioning fund system and financial reporting. Three examples are provided that wholly or partially fall under the Studsvik act (that specifically covers old facilities): - The Aagesta nuclear power plant; - The Ranstad uranium mining and beneficiation facility; - The Neutron Research Laboratory at Studsvik; The findings include the following: - It is important that the legislation be clear as to what is included and not. - The rationale for the legislation should also be clear and well communicated. - Old agreements can be significant for the assessment of liabilities, even in cases where a party may no longer exist. - Support for assessment of when activities are continuing or not (which may have a strong significance for the liability) can be found in court cases on chemically contaminated soil. - Analysis of facilities and the work carried out at different times can be very helpful in

  11. Canadian Public and Stake holder Engagement Approach to a Spent Nuclear Fuel Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Yong Soo; Kim, Youn Ok; Whang, Joo Ho

    2008-01-01

    After Canada has struggled with a radioactive waste problem over for 20 years, the Canadian government finally found out that its approach by far has been lack of social acceptance, and needed a program such as public and stake holder engagement (PSE) which involves the public in decision-making process. Therefore, the government made a special law, called Nuclear Fuel Waste Act (NFWA), to search for an appropriate nuclear waste management approach. NFWA laid out three possible approaches which were already prepared in advance by a nuclear expert group, and required Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) to be established to report a recommendation as to which of the proposed approaches should be adopted. However, NFWA allowed NWMO to consider additional management approach if the other three were not acceptable enough. Thus, NWMO studied and created a fourth management approach after it had undertaken an comparison of the benefits, risks and costs of each management approach: Adaptive Phased Management. This approach was intended to enable the implementers to accept any technological advancement or changes even in the middle of the implementation of the plan. The Canadian PSE case well shows that technological R and D are deeply connected with social acceptance. Even though the developments and technological advancement are carried out by the scientists and experts, but it is important to collect the public opinion by involving them to the decision-making process in order to achieve objective validity on the R and D programs. Moreover, in an effort to ensure the principles such as fairness, public health and safety, security, and adoptability, NWMO tried to make those abstract ideas more specific and help the public understand the meaning of each concept more in detail. Also, they utilized a variety of communication methods from face-to-face meeting to e-dialogue to encourage people to participate in the program as much as possible. Given the fact that Korea

  12. Development of adjustable head holder couch in H and H cancer radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Jae Goo; Song, Ki Won; Kim, Jin Man; Park, Myoung Hwan [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    In case of all patients who receive radiation therapy, a treatment plan is established and all steps of treatment are planned in the same geometrical condition. In case of head and neck cancer patients who undergo simulated treatment through computed tomography (CT), patients are fixed onto a table for planning, but laid on the top of the treatment table in the radiation therapy room. This study excogitated and fabricated an adjustable holder for head and neck cancer patients to fix patient's position and geometrical discrepancies when performing radiation therapy on head and neck cancer patients, and compared the error before and after adjusting the position of patients due to difference in weight to evaluate the correlation between patients' weight and range of error. Computed tomography system(High Advantage, GE, USA) is used for phantom to maintain the supine position to acquire the images of the therapy site for IMRT. IMRT 4MV X-rays was used by applying the LINAC(21EX, Varian, U.S.A). Treatment planning system (Pinnacle, ver. 9.1h, Philips, Madison, USA) was used. The setup accuracy was compared with each measurement was repeated five times for each weight (0, 15, and 30Kg) and CBCT was performed 30 times to find the mean and standard deviation of errors before and after the adjustment of each weight. SPSS ver.19.0(SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL,USA) statistics program was used to perform the Wilcoxon Rank test for significance evaluation and the Spearman analysis was used as the tool to analyze the significance evaluation of the correlation of weight. As a result of measuring the error values from CBCT before and after adjusting the position due to the weight difference, X,Y,Z axis was 0.4±0.8 mm, 0.8±0.4 mm, 0 for 0Kg before the adjustment. In 15Kg CBCT before and after adjusting the position due to the weight difference, X,Y,Z axis was 0.2±0.8 mm, 1.2±0.4 mm, 2.0±0.4 mm. After adjusting position was X,Y,Z axis was 0.2±0.4, 0.4±0.5 mm, 0.4±0.5 mm

  13. Development of adjustable head holder couch in H and H cancer radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Jae Goo; Song, Ki Won; Kim, Jin Man; Park, Myoung Hwan

    2014-01-01

    In case of all patients who receive radiation therapy, a treatment plan is established and all steps of treatment are planned in the same geometrical condition. In case of head and neck cancer patients who undergo simulated treatment through computed tomography (CT), patients are fixed onto a table for planning, but laid on the top of the treatment table in the radiation therapy room. This study excogitated and fabricated an adjustable holder for head and neck cancer patients to fix patient's position and geometrical discrepancies when performing radiation therapy on head and neck cancer patients, and compared the error before and after adjusting the position of patients due to difference in weight to evaluate the correlation between patients' weight and range of error. Computed tomography system(High Advantage, GE, USA) is used for phantom to maintain the supine position to acquire the images of the therapy site for IMRT. IMRT 4MV X-rays was used by applying the LINAC(21EX, Varian, U.S.A). Treatment planning system (Pinnacle, ver. 9.1h, Philips, Madison, USA) was used. The setup accuracy was compared with each measurement was repeated five times for each weight (0, 15, and 30Kg) and CBCT was performed 30 times to find the mean and standard deviation of errors before and after the adjustment of each weight. SPSS ver.19.0(SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL,USA) statistics program was used to perform the Wilcoxon Rank test for significance evaluation and the Spearman analysis was used as the tool to analyze the significance evaluation of the correlation of weight. As a result of measuring the error values from CBCT before and after adjusting the position due to the weight difference, X,Y,Z axis was 0.4±0.8 mm, 0.8±0.4 mm, 0 for 0Kg before the adjustment. In 15Kg CBCT before and after adjusting the position due to the weight difference, X,Y,Z axis was 0.2±0.8 mm, 1.2±0.4 mm, 2.0±0.4 mm. After adjusting position was X,Y,Z axis was 0.2±0.4, 0.4±0.5 mm, 0.4±0.5 mm

  14. Temperature dependence of gafchromic MD-55 dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klassen, Norman V.; Zwan, Len van der; Cygler, Joanna

    1997-01-01

    Objective: Gafchromic MD-55 is a fairly new, thin film dosimeter that develops a blue color (λ max = 676 nm) when irradiated with ionizing radiation. The increase in absorbance is nearly proportional to the absorbed dose. MD-55 can be used for high precision dosimetry if care is taken to assure reproducible film orientation in the spectrophotometer as well as temperature control during both irradiation and reading. In order to achieve the maximum sensitivity of this dosimeter the readings of the optical density should be taken at λ max . It was reported for another type of Gafchromic film (DM-1260), that both λ max and ε max decrease with an increase in the temperature of the spectrophotometer. The purpose of this study was to characterize the reading temperature dependence of the new type of Gafchromic film available on the market and to find optimal conditions for using it for high precision dosimetry. Materials and Methods: Irradiations were carried out using 60 Co gamma rays from an Eldorado irradiator. The dosimeters were sandwiched in a lucite phantom with 4.4 mm build-up and irradiated in the center of a 10 cm x 10 cm field at 1 meter from the source. The temperature during irradiations was 22 deg. C. The dose rate was about 0.68 Gy/min. Measurements of optical density were made using a Cary 210 spectrophotometer. A bandpass of 3.5 nm was used. The temperature of the baseplate of the sample holder was regulated to +/-0.05 deg. C and measured by a probe lying on the baseplate. In all cases, values of OD were only recorded after they had come to a constant value, which was reached within 5 minutes of inserting the dosimeter into the sample chamber of the spectrophotometer. Results: The temperature dependence of the OD at 676 nm was measured in 2 studies using 6 dosimeters that had received 0, 1.0, 3.5, 6.2, 14.5 Gy. Readings were taken at 7 temperatures between 18.8 and 28.1 deg. C. By returning to the initial temperature several hours later, it was found

  15. Characterization of YBaCuO films deposited by the sputtering method using a temple-bell-type substrate holder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajikawa, H.; Fukumoto, Y.; Shibutani, K.; Hayashi, S.; Ishibashi, K.; Inoue, K.

    1992-01-01

    The as-grown YBaCuO films deposited by the off-axis sputtering method using a temple-bell type substrate holder showed a good crystalline quality with a minimum yield value x min of 0.9 MeV He ions of 3.8%. The post-annealing degraded the crystalline quality to increase x min up to 11.8%, though it improved both the T c and J c . It was supposed that the degradation was caused by the re-arrangement of oxygen atoms. (orig.)

  16. Dose assessment for CEGB users of the Kodak type 2 film used in the NRPB/AERE holder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.J.

    1980-07-01

    Some work, complementary to that of the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) and the Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE), has been done at Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories (BNL) on the response of the Kodak Type 2 film in the NRPB/AERE holder. Initial results indicate that the combination forms a satisfactory dosemeter. Comparison between the BNL and NRPB results shows differences which appear to be due to the fact that the angle of incidence was 90 0 for the former and 35 0 for the latter. Some conclusions are drawn on dosimetry but in general, for CEGB users, no substantial changes from existing procedures are required. (author)

  17. Solo Intracorporeal Esophagojejunostomy Reconstruction Using a Laparoscopic Scope Holder in Single-Port Laparoscopic Total Gastrectomy for Early Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sang-Hoon; Son, Sang-Yong; Jung, Do Hyun; Park, Young Suk; Shin, Dong Joon; Park, Do Joong; Kim, Hyung-Ho

    2015-06-01

    Single-incision laparoscopic total gastrectomy for gastric cancer has recently been reported by Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. However, this is not a popular procedure primarily because of the technical difficulties involved in achieving consistent intracorporeal esophagojejunostomy. At Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, we recently introduced a simple, easy-to-use, low-profile laparoscopic manual scope holder that enables the maintenance of a stable field of view, the most demanding condition in single-port gastrectomy. In this technical report, we describe in detail the world's first solo single-incision laparoscopic total gastrectomy with D1+ lymph node dissection and intracorporeal esophagojejunostomy for proximal early gastric cancer.

  18. Free at Last: Rejecting Equal Sovereignty and Restoring the Constitutional Right to Vote: Shelby County v. Holder

    OpenAIRE

    Guinier, C. Lani; Blacksher, James

    2014-01-01

    The "equal sovereignty" principle the Supreme Court majority relied on in Shelby County v. Holder to strike down the coverage formula in Section 4 of the Voting Rights Act is rooted in the jurisprudence of slavery. In the infamous 1857 case of Dred Scott v. Sandford, Chief Justice Roger Taney held that black Americans, slave or free, were not members of the sovereign people and could never be "citizens" within the meaning of the Constitution. Otherwise, he said, blacks would be entitled to al...

  19. A novel feedback control system – Controlling the material flow in deep drawing using distributed blank-holder force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Endelt, Benny Ørtoft; Tommerup, Søren; Danckert, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    The performance of a feedback control system is often limited by the quality of the model on which it is based, and often the controller design is based on trial and error due to insufficient modeling capabilities. A framework is proposed where the controller design is based on classical state...... on a deep drawing operation where the objective was to control material flow throughout the part using only spatial information regarding flange draw-in. The control system controls both the magnitude and distribution of the blank-holder force. The methodology proved stable and flexible with respect...

  20. The Market for Ph.D. Holders in Greece: Probit and Multinomial Logit Analysis of their Employment Status

    OpenAIRE

    Joan Daouli; Eirini Konstantina Nikolatou

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the factors influencing the probability that a Ph.D. holder in Greece will work in the academic sector, as well as the probability of his or her choosing employment in various sectors of industry and occupational categories. Probit/multinomial logit models are employed using the 2001 Census data. The empirical results indicate that being young, married, having a Ph.D. in Natural Sciences and/or in Engineering, granted by a Greek university, increa...

  1. A new apparatus design for high temperature (up to 950 °C) quasi-elastic neutron scattering in a controlled gaseous environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Wahish, Amal; Armitage, D.; Hill, B.; Mills, R.; Santodonato, L.; Herwig, K. W.; Al-Binni, U.; Jalarvo, N.; Mandrus, D.

    2015-01-01

    A design for a sample cell system suitable for high temperature Quasi-Elastic Neutron Scattering (QENS) experiments is presented. The apparatus was developed at the Spallation Neutron Source in Oak Ridge National Lab where it is currently in use. The design provides a special sample cell environment under controlled humid or dry gas flow over a wide range of temperature up to 950 °C. Using such a cell, chemical, dynamical, and physical changes can be studied in situ under various operating conditions. While the cell combined with portable automated gas environment system is especially useful for in situ studies of microscopic dynamics under operational conditions that are similar to those of solid oxide fuel cells, it can additionally be used to study a wide variety of materials, such as high temperature proton conductors. The cell can also be used in many different neutron experiments when a suitable sample holder material is selected. The sample cell system has recently been used to reveal fast dynamic processes in quasi-elastic neutron scattering experiments, which standard probes (such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) could not detect. In this work, we outline the design of the sample cell system and present results demonstrating its abilities in high temperature QENS experiments

  2. A new apparatus design for high temperature (up to 950°C) quasi-elastic neutron scattering in a controlled gaseous environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Wahish, Amal; Armitage, D; al-Binni, U; Hill, B; Mills, R; Jalarvo, N; Santodonato, L; Herwig, K W; Mandrus, D

    2015-09-01

    A design for a sample cell system suitable for high temperature Quasi-Elastic Neutron Scattering (QENS) experiments is presented. The apparatus was developed at the Spallation Neutron Source in Oak Ridge National Lab where it is currently in use. The design provides a special sample cell environment under controlled humid or dry gas flow over a wide range of temperature up to 950 °C. Using such a cell, chemical, dynamical, and physical changes can be studied in situ under various operating conditions. While the cell combined with portable automated gas environment system is especially useful for in situ studies of microscopic dynamics under operational conditions that are similar to those of solid oxide fuel cells, it can additionally be used to study a wide variety of materials, such as high temperature proton conductors. The cell can also be used in many different neutron experiments when a suitable sample holder material is selected. The sample cell system has recently been used to reveal fast dynamic processes in quasi-elastic neutron scattering experiments, which standard probes (such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) could not detect. In this work, we outline the design of the sample cell system and present results demonstrating its abilities in high temperature QENS experiments.

  3. Is it acceptable to use coagulation plasma samples stored at room temperature and 4°C for 24 hours for additional prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen, antithrombin, and D-dimer testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimac, V; Coen Herak, D

    2017-10-01

    Coagulation laboratories are faced on daily basis with requests for additional testing in already analyzed fresh plasma samples. This prompted us to examine whether plasma samples stored at room temperature (RT), and 4°C for 24 hours can be accepted for additional prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen (Fbg), antithrombin (AT), and D-dimer testing. We measured PT, aPTT, Fbg in 50 and AT in 30 plasma samples with normal and pathological values, within 4 hours of blood collection (baseline results) and after 24-hours storage at RT (primary tubes), and 4°C (aliquots). D-dimer stability was investigated in 20 samples stored in primary tubes at 4°C. No statistically significant difference between baseline results and results in samples stored at RT and 4°C was observed for PT (P=.938), aPTT (P=.186), Fbg (P=.962), AT (P=.713), and D-dimers (P=.169). The highest median percentage changes were found for aPTT, being more pronounced for samples stored at 4°C (13.0%) than at RT (8.7%). Plasma samples stored both at RT and 4°C for 24 hours are acceptable for additional PT, Fbg, and AT testing. Plasma samples stored 24 hours in primary tubes at 4°C are suitable for D-dimer testing. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A novel high-temperature combustion based system for stable isotope analysis of dissolved organic carbon in aqueous samples. : I development and validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Federherr, E.; Cerli, C.; Kirkels, F. M. S. A.; Kalbitz, K.; Kupka, H. J.; Dunsbach, R.; Lange, L.; Schmidt, T. C.

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE: Traditionally, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) stable isotope analysis (SIA) is performed using either offline sample preparation followed by elemental analyzer/isotope ratiomass spectrometry (EA/IRMS) or a wet chemical oxidation (WCO)-based device coupled to an isotope ratio mass

  5. Marine sediments monitoring studies for trace elements with the application of fast temperature programs and solid sampling high resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orani, Anna Maria; Han, Eunmi; Mandjukov, Petko; Vassileva, Emilia, E-mail: e.vasileva-veleva@iaea.org

    2015-01-01

    Analytical procedure for the determination of As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Co and Cr in marine sediment samples using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR CS AAS) and direct solid sample analysis has been developed. The application of fast programs in combination with direct solid sampling allows to eliminate the drying and pretreatment steps, however makes impossible the use of liquid standards for calibration. Iridium treated platforms were applied throughout the present study. Calibration technique based on the use of solid certified reference materials (marine sediments) similar to the nature of the analyzed sample and statistics of regression analysis were applied to the real sediment samples. The instrumental parameters were optimized in order to obtain reproducible and interference free analytical signals. The ISO-17025 requirements and Eurachem guidelines were followed in the validation of the proposed analytical procedure. Accordingly, blanks, selectivity, calibration, linearity, working range, trueness, repeatability reproducibility, limits of detection and quantification and expanded uncertainty (k = 2) for all investigated elements were assessed. Two different approaches for the estimation of measurement uncertainty were applied and obtained results compared. The major contributors to the combined uncertainty of the analyte mass fraction were found to be the homogeneity of the samples and the microbalance precision. The influence of sample particle sizes on the total combined uncertainty was also evaluated. Traceability to SI system of units of the obtained by the proposed analytical procedure results was demonstrated. Additionally, validation of the methodology developed was effectuated by the comparison of the obtained results with independent method e.g. ICP-MS with external calibration. The use of solid sampling HR CS AAS for the determination of trace elements in marine sediment matrix gives significant advantages

  6. High temperature measurements of the microwave dielectric properties of ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeraky, T.A.

    1999-06-01

    Equipment has been developed for the measurement of dielectric properties at high temperature from 25 to 1700 deg. C in the microwave frequency range 614.97 to 3620.66 MHz using the cavity perturbation technique, to measure the permittivity of a range of ceramic materials. The complex permittivities of the standard materials, water and methanol, were measured at low temperature and compared with the other published data. A statistical analysis was made for the permittivity measurements of water and methanol using sample holders of different diameter. Also the measurements of these materials were used to compare the simple perturbation equation with its modifications and alternation correction methods for sample shape and the holes at the two endplates of the cavity. The dielectric properties of solid materials were investigated from the permittivity measurements on powder materials, shown in table 4.7, using the dielectric mixture equations. Two kinds of ceramics, oxide and nitrides, were selected for the high temperature dielectric measurements in microwave frequency ranges. Pure zirconia, yttria-stabilised zirconia, and Magnesia-stabilised zirconia are the oxide ceramics while aluminium nitride and silicon nitride are the nitride ceramics. A phase transformation from monoclinic to tetragonal was observed in pure zirconia in terms of the complex permittivity measurements, and the conduction mechanism in three regions of temperature was suggested to be ionic in the first region and a mixture of ionic and electronic in the second. The phase transition disappeared with yttria-stabilised zirconia but it was observed with magnesia-stabilised zirconia. Yttria doped zirconia was fully stabilised while magnesia stabilised was partially stabilised zirconia. The dielectric property measurements of aluminium nitride indicated that there is a transition from AIN to AlON, which suggested that the external layer of the AIN which was exposed to the air, contains alumina. It was

  7. A theoretical study on the accuracy of the T-history method for enthalpy–temperature curve measurement: analysis of the influence of thermal gradients inside T-history samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazo, Javier; Delgado, Mónica; Lázaro, Ana; Dolado, Pablo; Peñalosa, Conchita; Marín, José María; Zalba, Belén

    2015-01-01

    The present work analyses the effect of radial thermal gradients inside T-history samples on the enthalpy temperature curve measurement. A conduction heat transfer model has been utilized for this purpose. Some expressions have been obtained that relate the main dimensionless numbers of the experiments with the deviations in specific heat capacity, phase change enthalpy and phase change temperature estimations. Although these relations can only be strictly applied to solid materials (e.g. measurements of shape stabilized phase change materials), they can provide some useful and conservative bounds for the deviations of the T-history method. Biot numbers emerge as the most relevant dimensionless parameters in the accuracy of the specific heat capacity and phase change enthalpy estimation whereas this model predicts a negligible influence of the temperature levels used for the experiments or the Stefan number. (paper)

  8. The effect of alumina particles on the microstructural and mechanical properties of copper foams fabricated by space-holder method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, C.; Aguilar, C.; Lascano, S.; Pérez, L.; López, M.; Mangalaraja, R. V.

    2018-05-01

    The copper foam is an interesting field of research because of its several advantages as an engineering material. Powder metallurgy presents an alternative route to obtain a porous structure with high strength to weight ratio and functional properties. The viability of processing copper foam separately with two different space-holders such as ammonium hydrogen carbonate (NH4HCO3) and sodium chloride (NaCl) of 50 vol% was studied. The green compacts obtained under 200 MPa were sintered at different cycles for the complete removal of space-holder. The sintered foams were characterized by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and uniaxial testing machine (UTM) to study their structural features and compressive strength, respectively. The results showed that NaCl particles were the best alternative to obtain a porous structure, hence two different sizes (1 and 0.01 μm) of alumina (Al2O3) particles with 2, 4 and 6 vol% were used to fabricate copper foams. As a result, a bimodal structure consisting of macro and micropores with a highly interconnected porosity was achieved. In addition, the smaller size alumina particles promoted a higher density of pores, however, the compressive strength was reduced for the higher volume fraction of alumina particles.

  9. Highly porous open cell Ti-foam using NaCl as temporary space holder through powder metallurgy route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Nidhi; Mondal, D.P.; Dutta Majumdar, J.; Badkul, Anshul; Jha, A.K.; Khare, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► NaCl crystals has been used as space holder. ► Variation of NaCl:Ti ratio varies porosity (65–80%). ► NaCl is cubic but the cells are spherical. ► Two types of pores: micro and macro pores are obtained. ► Foams are suitable for bones scaffolds and engineering applications. - Abstract: Open cell Titanium-foam (Ti-foam) with varying porosities (65–80%) was prepared using sodium chloride (NaCl) particles as space holder through powder metallurgy route. In order to ensure sufficient handling strength in cold compacted pallets, 2 wt.% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solutions (5 wt.% PVA in water) was mixed with the mixture of Ti and NaCl powders prior to cold compaction. After sintering, NaCl salt was removed by dissolving it in hot water. Detailed Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and X-ray diffraction studies of the prepared Ti-foams were conducted to examine any physical and chemical changes in the phase constituents. The micro-architectural characteristics, density vis-a-vis porosity, and compressive deformation behavior of the synthesized foams were evaluated to examine their suitability as biomaterial and engineering applications

  10. Etching of Niobium Sample Placed on Superconducting Radio Frequency Cavity Surface in Ar/CL2 Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, Janardan; Phillips, Larry; Valente, Anne-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Plasma based surface modification is a promising alternative to wet etching of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. It has been proven with flat samples that the bulk Niobium (Nb) removal rate and the surface roughness after the plasma etchings are equal to or better than wet etching processes. To optimize the plasma parameters, we are using a single cell cavity with 20 sample holders symmetrically distributed over the cell. These holders serve the purpose of diagnostic ports for the measurement of the plasma parameters and for the holding of the Nb sample to be etched. The plasma properties at RF (100 MHz) and MW (2.45 GHz) frequencies are being measured with the help of electrical and optical probes at different pressures and RF power levels inside of this cavity. The niobium coupons placed on several holders around the cell are being etched simultaneously. The etching results will be presented at this conference.

  11. Etching of Niobium Sample Placed on Superconducting Radio Frequency Cavity Surface in Ar/CL2 Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janardan Upadhyay, Larry Phillips, Anne-Marie Valente

    2011-09-01

    Plasma based surface modification is a promising alternative to wet etching of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. It has been proven with flat samples that the bulk Niobium (Nb) removal rate and the surface roughness after the plasma etchings are equal to or better than wet etching processes. To optimize the plasma parameters, we are using a single cell cavity with 20 sample holders symmetrically distributed over the cell. These holders serve the purpose of diagnostic ports for the measurement of the plasma parameters and for the holding of the Nb sample to be etched. The plasma properties at RF (100 MHz) and MW (2.45 GHz) frequencies are being measured with the help of electrical and optical probes at different pressures and RF power levels inside of this cavity. The niobium coupons placed on several holders around the cell are being etched simultaneously. The etching results will be presented at this conference.

  12. Study of the calcination temperature in samples of calcium phosphate synthesized by the method of direct way; Estudo da temperatura de calcinacao em amostras de fosfatos de calcio sintetizadas pelo metodo de via direta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, M.G.; Santos, P.T.A.; Costa, A.C.F.M, E-mail: patyquimica@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (DEMA/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais

    2012-07-01

    The use of phosphates in bioceramics have attracted the interest of many researchers, especially when it is in the Ca / P = 1.67, which allows the obtention of the hydroxyapatite. This work aims to investigate different calcination temperatures on the structural and morphological characteristics of samples of calcium phosphates synthesized by the method of direct way, aiming for hydroxyapatite as a major phase. For this purpose, we used the calcium hydroxide and phosphoric acid in the Ca / P = 1.67. The samples were calcined at temperatures of 600, 700, 800, 900, 1000, 1100, 1200 and 1350°C/2h, and characterized by XRD, FTIR and Size Distribution. The XRD showed that 600-800°C, the major phase is the tricalcium phosphate, 900-1100°C, there is a phase calcium pyrophosphate. And at 1200 and 1350 ° C, there is a phase monetite. The infrared spectrum showed the characteristic vibrations of calcium phosphates in all conditions studied. It was observed from the results of FTIR presence of bands of the P-OH group and HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3}, for all temperatures studied. The highest average size of agglomerates of 108.05 mM was observed for the temperature of 1100 ° C. (author)

  13. Effect of current distribution on the voltage-temperature characteristics: study of the NbTi PF-FSJS sample for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zani, L.; Ciazynski, D.; Gislon, P.; Stepanov, B.; Huber, S.

    2004-01-01

    Various tests, either on full-size joint samples or on model coils confirmed that current distribution may play a crucial role in the electrical behaviour of CICC in operating conditions. In order to evaluate its influence, CEA developed a code (ENSIC) the main feature of which is a CICC electrical model including a discrete resistive network associated with superconducting lengths. Longitudinal and transverse resistances are also modeled, representing either joint or conductor. In our paper we will present the comparison of experimental results with ENSIC calculations for one International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) sample prototype relevant to poloidal field (PF) coils: the PF-full-size joint sample (PF-FSJS). In this purpose, the current distribution has been measured thanks to a segmented Rogowski coils system. Current distribution effects on the basic characteristics (T CS , n-value etc) of the cable compared to single strand will be discussed. This study aims at putting light on the global strand state in a conductor and is also useful to evaluate some intrinsic parameters hardly measurable (effective interpetal transverse contact resistance for example) allowing further application in coils

  14. Development of optical tools for the characterization of selective solar absorber at elevated temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, Philemon; Braillon, Julien; Delord, Christine; Raccurt, Olivier

    2016-05-01

    Durability of solar components for CSP (Concentrated Solar Power Plant) technologies is a key point to lower cost and ensure their large deployment. These technologies concentrated the solar radiation by means of mirrors on a receiver tube where it is collected as thermal energy. The absorbers are submitted to strong environmental constraints and the degradation of their optical properties (emittance and solar absorbance) have a direct impact on performance. The objective is to develop new optical equipment for characterization of this solar absorber in condition of use that is to say in air and at elevated temperature. In this paper we present two new optical test benches developed for optical characterization of solar absorbers in condition of use up to 800°C. The first equipment is an integrated sphere with heated sample holder which measures the hemispherical reflectance between 280 and 2500 nm to calculate the solar absorbance at high temperature. The second optical test bench measures the emittance of samples up to 1000°C in the range of 1.25 to 28.57 µm. Results of high temperature measurements on a series of metallic absorbers with selective coating and refractory material for high thermal receiver are presented.

  15. Micro/nano-mechanical test system employing tensile test holder with push-to-pull transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yunje; Cyrankowski, Edward; Shan, Zhiwei; Asif, Syed Amanula Syed

    2013-05-07

    A micromachined or microelectromechanical system (MEMS) based push-to-pull mechanical transformer for tensile testing of micro-to-nanometer scale material samples including a first structure and a second structure. The second structure is coupled to the first structure by at least one flexible element that enables the second structure to be moveable relative to the first structure, wherein the second structure is disposed relative to the first structure so as to form a pulling gap between the first and second structures such that when an external pushing force is applied to and pushes the second structure in a tensile extension direction a width of the pulling gap increases so as to apply a tensile force to a test sample mounted across the pulling gap between a first sample mounting area on the first structure and a second sample mounting area on the second structure.

  16. Characterizing Mobile/Less-Mobile Porosity and Solute Exchange in Dual-Domain Media Using Tracer Experiments and Electrical Measurements in a Hassler-Type Core Holder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falzone, S.; Slater, L. D.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Parker, B. L.; Keating, K.; Robinson, J.

    2017-12-01

    Mass transfer is the process by which solute is retained in less-mobile porosity domains, and later released into the mobile porosity domain. This process is often responsible for the slow arrival and gradual release of contaminants and solute tracers. Recent studies have outlined methods using dual-domain mass transfer (DDMT) models for characterizing this phenomenon. These models use the non-linear relationship of bulk (σb) and fluid (σf) conductivity, collected from electrical methods during tracer experiments, to characterize the less-mobile/mobile porosity ratio (β) and the mass-transfer rate coefficient (α). DDMT models use the hysteretic σb-σf relationship observed while solute tracers are injected and then flushed from a sample media. Due to limitations in observing the hysteretic σb-σf relationship, this method has not been used to characterize low permeability samples. We have developed an experimental method for testing porous rock cores that allows us to develop a fundamental understanding of contaminant storage and release in consolidated rock. We test the approach on cores from sedimentary rock sites where mass transfer is expected to occur between hydraulically connected fractures and the adjacent low permeability rock matrix. Our method uses a Hassler-type core holder, designed to apply confining pressure around the outside of a sample core, which hydraulically isolates the sample core, allowing water to be injected into it at increased pressures. The experimental apparatus was also designed to measure σb with spectral induced polarization (SIP) measurements, and σf from a sampling port located at the center of the core. Cores were initially saturated with a solution with high electrical conductivity ( 80000 μS/cm). DI water was then injected into the cores at elevated pressures (>60 psi) and the saturating solution was flushed from the cores, in order to generate flow rates fast enough to capture the non-linear σb-σf relationship

  17. Cross-Cultural Comparative Analysis of Lay and Stake holder Reasoning about Fusion Energy in Spain and the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prades, A; Horlick-Jones, T; Oltra, C; Navajas, J

    2009-07-01

    This report presents the results of a cross-cultural comparative analysis of two corpora of data from Spain and the UK on lay and stake holders understanding and reasoning about fusion energy. The very same novel methodological approach was applied in Spain and the UK to promote a learning and deliberative process about fusion energy. A brief description of the method is included first, followed by the description of the two corpora of data. Next the main Spanish findings data are discussed in the light of the UK data and then vice versa (in other words, we first interrogate the UK corpus of data to look for resonances or places of tension with the Spanish findings, and then the other way around). Then we present the results of evaluating the Spanish and UK group-based processes as engagement exercises. Finally, the key conclusions of this cross-cultural data analysis are summarized. (Author) 40 refs.

  18. Cross-Cultural Comparative Analysis of Lay and Stake holder Reasoning about Fusion Energy in Spain and the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prades, A.; Horlick-Jones, T.; Oltra, C.; Navajas, J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of a cross-cultural comparative analysis of two corpora of data from Spain and the UK on lay and stake holders understanding and reasoning about fusion energy. The very same novel methodological approach was applied in Spain and the UK to promote a learning and deliberative process about fusion energy. A brief description of the method is included first, followed by the description of the two corpora of data. Next the main Spanish findings data are discussed in the light of the UK data and then vice versa (in other words, we first interrogate the UK corpus of data to look for resonances or places of tension with the Spanish findings, and then the other way around). Then we present the results of evaluating the Spanish and UK group-based processes as engagement exercises. Finally, the key conclusions of this cross-cultural data analysis are summarized. (Author) 40 refs.

  19. Determination of arsenic in water samples by Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence using pre-concentration with alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Haydn [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Dpto. De Fisica, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Sartenejas, Baruta (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Marco Parra, Lue-Meru, E-mail: luemerumarco@yahoo.e [Universidad Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado, Dpto. Quimica y Suelos, Decanato de Agronomia, Tarabana, Cabudare, Edo.Lara (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Bennun, Leonardo [Universidad de Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Greaves, Eduardo D. [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Dpto. De Fisica, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Sartenejas, Baruta (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    The determination of arsenic in water samples requires techniques of high sensitivity. Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) allows the determination but a prior separation and pre-concentration procedure is necessary. Alumina is a suitable substrate for the selective separation of the analytes. A method for separation and pre-concentration in alumina, followed by direct analysis of the alumina is evaluated. Quantification was performed using the Al-K{alpha} and Co-K{alpha} lines as internal standard in samples prepared on an alumina matrix, and compared to a calibration with aqueous standards. Artificial water samples of As (III) and As (V) were analyzed after the treatment. Fifty milliliters of the sample at ppb concentration levels were mixed with 10 mg of alumina. The pH, time and temperature were controlled. The alumina was separated from the slurry by centrifugation, washed with de-ionized water and analyzed directly on the sample holder. A pre-concentration factor of 100 was found, with detection limit of 0.7 {mu}gL{sup -1}. The percentage of recovery was 98% for As (III) and 95% for As (V) demonstrating the suitability of the procedure.

  20. Determination of arsenic in water samples by Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence using pre-concentration with alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Haydn; Marco Parra, Lue-Meru; Bennun, Leonardo; Greaves, Eduardo D.

    2010-01-01

    The determination of arsenic in water samples requires techniques of high sensitivity. Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) allows the determination but a prior separation and pre-concentration procedure is necessary. Alumina is a suitable substrate for the selective separation of the analytes. A method for separation and pre-concentration in alumina, followed by direct analysis of the alumina is evaluated. Quantification was performed using the Al-Kα and Co-Kα lines as internal standard in samples prepared on an alumina matrix, and compared to a calibration with aqueous standards. Artificial water samples of As (III) and As (V) were analyzed after the treatment. Fifty milliliters of the sample at ppb concentration levels were mixed with 10 mg of alumina. The pH, time and temperature were controlled. The alumina was separated from the slurry by centrifugation, washed with de-ionized water and analyzed directly on the sample holder. A pre-concentration factor of 100 was found, with detection limit of 0.7 μgL -1 . The percentage of recovery was 98% for As (III) and 95% for As (V) demonstrating the suitability of the procedure.

  1. Improving the productivity of imported dairy cattle on small-holder farms in Morocco through supplementation with fish silage blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerouali, A.

    1999-01-01

    The present study was designed to identify problems that lower the productivity of imported dairy cattle in Morocco. For this purpose, a comprehensive survey was carried out on 8 small-holder farms over a period of two years. Analysis of the data collected indicated that in most of the herds reproductive performance was adequate (calving intervals ranging from 338 ± 11 to 420 ± 31 and services to conception ranging from 1.14 ± 0.13 to 1.91 ± 0.3), but the animals had difficulty in meeting the nutrient requirements for milk production. Although some farmers provided supplements to their animals they were either expensive or not available at the required time. One possible way of alleviating the problem was the introduction of a fish by-product into the dairy cattle ration. Two experiments were conducted, one at the Institute experimental farm and the other at a private farm selected for the survey. In both experiments, fish silage blocks were incorporated into the ration of dairy cattle in replacement of an equal amount of the most commonly used supplements. The introduction of fish silage blocks in the ration did not affect their intake or body condition. In addition, the yield and quality of the milk were maintained. This substitution allowed the farmer to utilize by-products from the fish industry which are readily available and less costly than most conventional supplementary feeds. It is concluded, that the proposed utilization of fish silage blocks will reduce the production costs and improve the economic efficiency of the small-holder farms. (author)

  2. A field survey on coffee beans drying methods of Indonesian small holder farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siagian, Parulian; Setyawan, Eko Y.; Gultom, Tumiur; Napitupulu, Farel H.; Ambarita, Himsar

    2017-09-01

    Drying agricultural product is a post-harvest process that consumes significant energy. It can affect the quality of the product. This paper deals with literature review and field survey of drying methods of coffee beans of Indonesia farmers. The objective is to supply the necessary information on developing continuous solar drier. The results show that intermittent characteristic of sun drying results in a better quality of coffee beans in comparison with constant convective drying. In order to use energy efficiently, the drying process should be divided into several stages. In the first stage when the moist content is high, higher drying air temperature is more effective. After this step, where the moist content is low, lower drying air temperature is better. The field survey of drying coffee beans in Sumatera Utara province reveals that the used drying process is very traditional. It can be divided into two modes and depend on the coffee beans type. The Arabica coffee is firstly fermented and dried to moisture content of 80% using sun drying method, then followed by Green House model of drying up to moisture content about 12%. The latter typically spends 3 days of drying time. On the other hand, The Robusta coffee is dried by exposing to the sun directly without any treatment. After the coffee beans dried follow by peeled process. These findings can be considered to develop a continuous solar drying that suitable for coffee beans drying.

  3. Probing electronic interactions using electron tunneling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pratap

    Sample preparation. Chamber. Sample manipulators. Vibration Isolation. Table. Cryostat. Load lock. STM Head. Magnet. Sample holder. Tip. Tip holder. Piezo electric tube. Coarse positioner. Macor. Cu housing for sample holder. PCB. Cu shielding can. Steel studs. Our Toy: The TIFR milli-Kelvin STM. Lowest temperature:.

  4. A matter of focus: Power-holders feel more responsible after adopting a cognitive other-focus, rather than a self-focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholl, Annika; Sassenberg, Kai; Scheepers, Daan; Ellemers, Naomi|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/086631276; de Wit, Frank

    Social power implies responsibility. Yet, power-holders often follow only their own interests and overlook this responsibility. The present research illuminates how a previously adopted cognitive focus guides perceived responsibility when a person receives high (vs. low) power. In three experiments,

  5. 26 CFR 1.860E-1 - Treatment of taxable income of a residual interest holder in excess of daily accruals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Treatment of taxable income of a residual interest holder in excess of daily accruals. 1.860E-1 Section 1.860E-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment...

  6. Who Will Do Science? Trends, and Their Causes in Minority and Female Representation among Holders of Advanced Degrees in Science and Mathematics. A Special Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Sue E.

    This paper describes trends in and causes of minority and female representation among holders of advanced science and math degrees. The minority groups studied are Blacks, Hispanic Americans, American Indians, and Asian Americans, all of whom are compared with Whites. The degrees looked at include those in math, the computer sciences, physical…

  7. 17 CFR 270.18f-2 - Fair and equitable treatment for holders of each class or series of stock of series investment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fair and equitable treatment for holders of each class or series of stock of series investment companies. 270.18f-2 Section 270.18f... or series of stock of series investment companies. (a) For purposes of this § 270.18f-2 a series...

  8. Determinants of the Job Satisfaction of PhD Holders: An Analysis by Gender, Employment Sector, and Type of Satisfaction in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escardíbul, Josep-Oriol; Afcha, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the determinants of job satisfaction of PhD holders in Spain. Specifically, we consider overall job satisfaction as well as basic and motivational satisfaction, following Herzberg's typology (based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs). Using representative data for Spain's PhD population--collected from the Spanish Survey on Human Resources…

  9. The Motivation and Identity Challenges for PhD Holders in the Transition to Science and Mathematics Teaching in Secondary Education: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whannell, Robert; Allen, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Australian secondary education has endured a chronic shortage of qualified mathematics and science teachers for a number of years, particularly in rural and remote areas. A longitudinal research project examining the capacity for the holders of PhD level qualifications in mathematics and science to be utilised as one means of addressing this…

  10. Electron emission of cathode holder of vacuum diode of an intense electron-beam accelerator and its effect on the output voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Bing Cheng

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The vacuum diode which is used to generate relativistic electron beams is one of the most important parts of a pulsed-power modulator. In this paper, the electron emission of cathode holder of a vacuum diode and its effect on the output voltage is investigated by experiments on an intense electron-beam accelerator with 180 ns full width at half maximum and 200–500 kV output voltage. First, the field emission is analyzed and the electric field of the vacuum chamber is calculated. Then, the flatness of the output voltage is discussed before and after adding an insulation plate when a water load is used. It is found that the electron emission at the edges of the cathode holder is the main reason to cause the change of the flatness. Last, a piece of polyester film is used as a target to further show the electron emission of the cathode holder. This analysis shows that decreasing the electron emission of the cathode holder in such a pulse power modulator could be a good way to improve the quality of the output voltage.

  11. Integrating sphere based reflectance measurements for small-area semiconductor samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylan, S.; Howells, C. T.; Dahlem, M. S.

    2018-05-01

    This article describes a method that enables reflectance spectroscopy of small semiconductor samples using an integrating sphere, without the use of additional optical elements. We employed an inexpensive sample holder to measure the reflectance of different samples through 2-, 3-, and 4.5-mm-diameter apertures and applied a mathematical formulation to remove the bias from the measured spectra caused by illumination of the holder. Using the proposed method, the reflectance of samples fabricated using expensive or rare materials and/or low-throughput processes can be measured. It can also be incorporated to infer the internal quantum efficiency of small-area, research-level solar cells. Moreover, small samples that reflect light at large angles and develop scattering may also be measured reliably, by virtue of an integrating sphere insensitive to directionalities.

  12. An environmental sample chamber for reliable scanning transmission x-ray microscopy measurements under water vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Stephen T.; Nigge, Pascal; Prakash, Shruti; Gilles, Mary K. [Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Laskin, Alexander; Wang, Bingbing [William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Tyliszczak, Tolek [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Leone, Stephen R. [Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    We have designed, fabricated, and tested a compact gas-phase reactor for performing in situ soft x-ray scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) measurements. The reactor mounts directly to the existing sample holder used in the majority of STXM instruments around the world and installs with minimal instrument reconfiguration. The reactor accommodates many gas atmospheres, but was designed specifically to address the needs of measurements under water vapor. An on-board sensor measures the relative humidity and temperature inside the reactor, minimizing uncertainties associated with measuring these quantities outside the instrument. The reactor reduces x-ray absorption from the process gas by over 85% compared to analogous experiments with the entire STXM instrument filled with process gas. Reduced absorption by the process gas allows data collection at full instrumental resolution, minimizes radiation dose to the sample, and results in much more stable imaging conditions. The reactor is in use at the STXM instruments at beamlines 11.0.2 and 5.3.2.2 at the Advanced Light Source.

  13. A high-temperature, ambient-pressure ultra-dry operando reactor cell for Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Köck, Eva-Maria; Kogler, Michaela; Pramsoler, Reinhold; Klötzer, Bernhard; Penner, Simon, E-mail: simon.penner@uibk.ac.at [Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Innsbruck, Innrain 80-82, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2014-08-15

    The construction of a newly designed high-temperature, high-pressure FT-IR reaction cell for ultra-dry in situ and operando operation is reported. The reaction cell itself as well as the sample holder is fully made of quartz glass, with no hot metal or ceramic parts in the vicinity of the high-temperature zone. Special emphasis was put on chemically absolute water-free and inert experimental conditions, which includes reaction cell and gas-feeding lines. Operation and spectroscopy up to 1273 K is possible, as well as pressures up to ambient conditions. The reaction cell exhibits a very easy and variable construction and can be adjusted to any available FT-IR spectrometer. Its particular strength lies in its possibility to access and study samples under very demanding experimental conditions. This includes studies at very high temperatures, e.g., for solid-oxide fuel cell research or studies where the water content of the reaction mixtures must be exactly adjusted. The latter includes all adsorption studies on oxide surfaces, where the hydroxylation degree is of paramount importance. The capability of the reaction cell will be demonstrated for two selected examples where information and in due course a correlation to other methods can only be achieved using the presented setup.

  14. Development and testing of an X-ray fluorescence source holder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csikai, J.

    1983-02-01

    For elemental analysis of low Z materials, the techniques of radioisotope excited X-ray emission was improved by the application of a vacuum chamber permitting the analysis of several samples without destroying the vacuum. The optimal geometry was determined, and the chamber designed and constructed to allow improved quantitative analysis of elements with Z<25. The contents of Ar in air permits the easy monitoring of the vacuum in the chamber, as this gas is also excited and emits characteristic X-rays. To maintain a low vacuum on the top of a solid-state detector, is important in laboratories with a high relative humidity, which can be detrimental to the thin Be window of the detector

  15. Boat sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citanovic, M.; Bezlaj, H.

    1994-01-01

    This presentation describes essential boat sampling activities: on site boat sampling process optimization and qualification; boat sampling of base material (beltline region); boat sampling of weld material (weld No. 4); problems accompanied with weld crown varieties, RPV shell inner radius tolerance, local corrosion pitting and water clarity. The equipment used for boat sampling is described too. 7 pictures

  16. Graph sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, L.-C.; Patone, M.

    2017-01-01

    We synthesise the existing theory of graph sampling. We propose a formal definition of sampling in finite graphs, and provide a classification of potential graph parameters. We develop a general approach of Horvitz–Thompson estimation to T-stage snowball sampling, and present various reformulations of some common network sampling methods in the literature in terms of the outlined graph sampling theory.

  17. Sieve-based device for MALDI sample preparation. I. Influence of sample deposition conditions in oligonucleotide analysis to achieve significant increases in both sensitivity and resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molin, Laura; Cristoni, Simone; Crotti, Sara; Bernardi, Luigi Rossi; Seraglia, Roberta; Traldi, Pietro

    2008-11-01

    Spraying of oligonucleotide-matrix solutions through a stainless steel (ss) sieve (38 microm, 450 mesh) leads to the formation, on the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) sample holder, of uniformly distributed microcrystals, well separated from each other. When the resulting sample holder surface is irradiated by laser, abundant molecular species form, with a clear increase in both intensity and resolution with respect to values obtained by 'Dried Droplet', 'Double Layer', and 'Sandwich' deposition methods. In addition, unlike the usual situation, the sample is perfectly homogeneous, and identical spectra are obtained by irradiating different areas. On one hand, the data indicate that this method is highly effective for oligonucleotide MALDI analysis, and on the other, that it can be validly employed for fully automated MALDI procedures.

  18. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF SMALL HOLDER RICE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS IN EBONYI STATE SOUTH EAST, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwaobiala C.U.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Economic analysis of Upland and Swamp rice production in Ebonyi State, South east Nigeria was studied and analyzed in 2011 farming season. Purposive and multistage random sampling technique was used to select agricultural blocks, circles and rice farmers. The sample size was 240 rice farmers (120 Agricultural Development Programme (ADP Upland rice contact farmers and 120 Agricultural Development Programme (ADP Swamp contact rice farmers. Data for the analysis were collected from a structured questionnaire. The result indicates that mean ages of upland rice farmers was 37.3 years while swamp rice farmers had 39.2 years. The mean farming experience for both farmers were 8.5 years (upland rice farmers and 8.8 years (swamp rice farmers with farm sizes of 1.2 and 1.1 hectares for upland rice farmers and swamp rice farmers respectively. Upland rice farmers had an annual farm income of 189,410.00 NGN (1,222USD as against 201,166.00 NGN (1,297.85USD for Swamp rice farmers. The multiple regression (Cobb Douglas estimates of the determinants of output of upland rice showed that coefficients age, farming experience, farm size, variable inputs and farm income were positively signed at given levels of probability while capital inputs was negative. The Cobb Douglas regression estimates of the determinants of output of Swamp rice showed that the coefficients of education, labour cost, farm size, variable inputs and farm income were positively signed and significant at given levels of probability as well as capital inputs which was negative. The result indicates that net profit from Upland rice cultivation was 92,800.00 NGN (598.71USD with a Benefit Cost Ratio of N1.55 (1.56USD. The net profit from Swamp rice cultivation was 132,090.00 NGN (852.19USD and a Benefit Cost Ratio of 1.75 NGN (1.75USD. Access to credit to rice farmers, subsidy on farm inputs, dissemination of improved rice technologies by extension agents and formation of farmer groups were advocated

  19. Bringing light into the nano-world: What can you do with an atomic force microscope on top of your synchrotron radiation sample holder?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Mario Manuel Silveira

    2009-01-01

    This thesis had as a major objective to combine scanning probe microscopy in particular, atomic force microscopy with synchrotron light spectroscopies. The combination of these two types of spectroscopies is meant to be in-situ and in real time. Thus this thesis aimed at introducing new types of experimental techniques suitable for the investigation of nano-sized materials. The proposed new instrumentation, would provide chemical-specific contrast at unprecedented lateral resolution of up to 10-40 nanometers, thus overcoming existing limitations of the two families of spectroscopy methods and opening a wide range of research opportunities and challenges. For the purpose of combining these techniques an atomic force microscope was developed. The atomic force microscope (AFM) was developed around a quartz tuning fork crystal which was used as the sensor with which atomic forces are detected. The developed AFM was then used in several beam lines with essentially two different purposes. A first goal was to do spectroscopy, such as the measurement of an absorption edge, locally with the tip of the AFM. Such measurements were indeed done, but the lateral resolution is still dominated by the X-ray beam size rather than by the tip apex shape. The AFM tip was also used to measure Bragg peaks from crystals with sizes on the nanometer scale. A second goal was to use the AFM as an instrument to mechanical interact with nano-sized systems while the X-ray beam was used to probe changes in the lattice parameter of the studied systems. Thus the AFM tip was used to elastically indent a SiGe crystal while diffraction was simultaneously measured. It was possible to observe shifts of the Bragg peak as a consequence of the applied pressure. The in-situ combination of AFM with synchrotron light permitted, in this way, to measure the Young modulus of a crystal at the nano-scale without any kind of adjustable parameter. (author)

  20. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling

  1. Ensemble Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Xiuyuan; Van Roy, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Thompson sampling has emerged as an effective heuristic for a broad range of online decision problems. In its basic form, the algorithm requires computing and sampling from a posterior distribution over models, which is tractable only for simple special cases. This paper develops ensemble sampling, which aims to approximate Thompson sampling while maintaining tractability even in the face of complex models such as neural networks. Ensemble sampling dramatically expands on the range of applica...

  2. Process-response coastal-recession model and its application to the Holderness coast (UK); Modelo proceso-respuesta de recesion de acantilados por variacion del nivel del mar. Aplicacion en la Costa de Holderness (Reino Unido)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castedo, R.; Paredes, C.; Fernandez, M.; Vega, R. de la

    2012-11-01

    At the moment the development of predictive cliff-erosion models is limited from a geomorphologic perspective due to the complex interactions existing between coupled processes acting over wide scales of time and space. Current models incorporate a probabilistic framework in order to simulate coastal recession events or cliff failure and tend to assess the effects of climate change through changes in the mean sea lea level. According to this procedure, the resulting simulations of cliffs with different behaviours might produce identical annual retreat characteristics even if their potential response to changing environments may not be the same. Thus, a new process-response model is developed to incorporate the behavioural characteristics of cohesive clay coasts with a protective talus wedge under erosive processes. To this end, the model incorporates dynamic marine processes such as variations in mean sea level, tides and waves together with cliff evolution in the shape of erosion, cliff failure and the formation of foot talus deposits. Cliff erosion is calculated on the basis of sea-level changes, wave incidence, shore platform slope and the uniaxial compressive strength of the rock over each tidal cycle. After each cycle the geomechanical stability against topple movement of the cliff face is evaluated and in the event of failure, a talus wedge is formed. The model has been corroborated by an assessment of profile evolution at various locations along a rapidly retreating area on the coast of Holderness in the UK. The results represent an important step-forward in linking material properties to cliff recession processes and the subsequent long-term coastal response in the face of changing sea-level conditions. (Author) 72 refs.

  3. Sample vial inserts: A better approach for sampling heterogeneous slurry samples in the SRS Defense Waste Processing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C.J.; Goode, S.R.

    1996-01-01

    A convenient and effective new approach for analyzing DWPF samples involves the use of inserts with volumes of 1.5--3 ml placed in the neck of 14 ml sample vials. The inserts have rims that conform to the rim of the vials so that they sit straight and stable in the vial. The DWPF tank sampling system fills the pre-weighed insert rather than the entire vial, so the vial functions only as the insert holder. The shielded cell operator then removes the vial cap and decants the insert containing the sample into a plastic bottle, crucible, etc., for analysis. Inert materials such as Teflon, plastic, and zirconium are used for the insert so it is unnecessary to separate the insert from the sample for most analyses. The key technique advantage of using inserts to take DWPF samples versus filling sample vials is that it provides a convenient and almost foolproof way of obtaining and handling small volumes of slurry samples in a shielded cell without corrupting the sample. Since the insert allows the entire sample to be analyzed, this approach eliminates the errors inherent with subsampling heterogeneous slurries that comprise DWPF samples. Slurry samples can then be analyzed with confidence. Analysis times are dramatically reduced by eliminating the drying and vitrification steps normally used to produce a homogeneous solid sample. Direct dissolution and elemental analysis of slurry samples are achieved in 8 hours or less compared with 40 hours for analysis of vitrified slurry samples. Comparison of samples taken in inserts versus full vials indicate that the insert does not significantly affect sample composition

  4. SIMS analysis using a new novel sample stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miwa, Shiro; Nomachi, Ichiro; Kitajima, Hideo

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a novel sample stage for Cameca IMS-series instruments that allows us to adjust the tilt of the sample holder and to vary the height of the sample surface from outside the vacuum chamber. A third function of the stage is the capability to cool sample to -150 deg. C using liquid nitrogen. Using this stage, we can measure line profiles of 10 mm in length without any variation in the secondary ion yields. By moving the sample surface toward the input lens, the primary ion beam is well focused when the energy of the primary ions is reduced. Sample cooling is useful for samples such as organic materials that are easily damaged by primary ions or electrons

  5. SIMS analysis using a new novel sample stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miwa, Shiro [Materials Analysis Lab., Sony Corporation, 4-16-1 Okata, Atsugi 243-0021 (Japan)]. E-mail: Shiro.Miwa@jp.sony.com; Nomachi, Ichiro [Materials Analysis Lab., Sony Corporation, 4-16-1 Okata, Atsugi 243-0021 (Japan); Kitajima, Hideo [Nanotechnos Corp., 5-4-30 Nishihashimoto, Sagamihara 229-1131 (Japan)

    2006-07-30

    We have developed a novel sample stage for Cameca IMS-series instruments that allows us to adjust the tilt of the sample holder and to vary the height of the sample surface from outside the vacuum chamber. A third function of the stage is the capability to cool sample to -150 deg. C using liquid nitrogen. Using this stage, we can measure line profiles of 10 mm in length without any variation in the secondary ion yields. By moving the sample surface toward the input lens, the primary ion beam is well focused when the energy of the primary ions is reduced. Sample cooling is useful for samples such as organic materials that are easily damaged by primary ions or electrons.

  6. SU-E-I-55: The Contribution to Skin Dose Due to Scatter From the Patient Table and the Head Holder During Fluoroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, N; Xiong, Z; Vijayan, S; Rudin, S; Bednarek, D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine contributions to skin dose due to scatter from the table and head holder used during fluoroscopy, and also to explore alternative design material to reduce the scatter dose. Methods: Measurements were made of the primary and scatter components of the xray beam exiting the patient table and a cylindrical head holder used on a Toshiba Infinix c-arm unit as a function of kVp for the various beam filters on the machine and for various field sizes. The primary component of the beam was measured in air with the object placed close to the x-ray tube with an air gap between it and a 6 cc parallel-plate ionization chamber and with the beam collimated to a size just larger than the chamber. The primary plus scatter radiation components were measured with the object moved to a position in the beam next to the chamber for larger field sizes. Both sets of measurements were preformed while keeping the source-to-chamber distance fixed. The scatter fraction was estimated by taking the ratio of the difference between the two measurements and the reading that included both primary and scatter. Similar measurements were also made for a 2.3 cm thick Styrofoam block which could substitute for the patient support. Results: The measured scatter fractions indicate that the patient table as well as the head holder contributes an additional 10–16% to the patient entrance dose depending on field size. Forward scatter was reduced with the Styrofoam block so that the scatter fraction was about 4–5%. Conclusion: The results of this investigation demonstrated that scatter from the table and head holder used in clinical fluoroscopy contribute substantially to the skin dose. The lower contribution of scatter from Styrofoam suggests that there is an opportunity to redesign patient support accessories to reduce the skin dose. Partial support from NIH grant R01EB002873 and Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation Equipment Grant

  7. Heat Transfer Analysis of an Optimized, Flexible Holder System for Freeze-Drying in Dual Chamber Cartridges Using Different State-of-the-Art PAT Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpus, Christoph; Pikal, Michael; Friess, Wolfgang

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the heat transfer characteristics of an optimized flexible holder device, using Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy, the Pressure Rise Test, and the gravimetric procedure. Two different controlled nucleation methods were tested, and an improved sublimation process, "preheated plate," was developed. Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy identified an initial sublimation burst phase. Accordingly, steady-state equations were adapted for the gravimetric procedure, to account for this initial non-steady-state period. The heat transfer coefficient, K DCC , describing the transfer from the holder to the DCC, was the only heat transfer coefficient showing a clear pressure dependence with values ranging from 3.81E-04 cal/(g·cm 2 ·K) at 40 mTorr to 7.38E-04 cal/(g·cm 2 ·K) at 200 mTorr. The heat transfer coefficient, K tot , reflecting the overall energy transfer via the holder, increased by around 24% from 40 to 200 mTorr. This resulted in a pressure-independent sublimation rate of around 42 ± 1.06 mg/h over the whole pressure range. Hence, this pressure-dependent increase in energy transfer completely compensated the decrease in driving force of sublimation. The "flexible holder" shows a substantially reduced impact of atypical radiation, improved drying homogeneity, and ultimately a better transferability of the freeze-drying cycle for process optimization. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. SU-E-I-55: The Contribution to Skin Dose Due to Scatter From the Patient Table and the Head Holder During Fluoroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, N; Xiong, Z; Vijayan, S; Rudin, S; Bednarek, D [Toshiba Stroke and Vascular Research Center, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To determine contributions to skin dose due to scatter from the table and head holder used during fluoroscopy, and also to explore alternative design material to reduce the scatter dose. Methods: Measurements were made of the primary and scatter components of the xray beam exiting the patient table and a cylindrical head holder used on a Toshiba Infinix c-arm unit as a function of kVp for the various beam filters on the machine and for various field sizes. The primary component of the beam was measured in air with the object placed close to the x-ray tube with an air gap between it and a 6 cc parallel-plate ionization chamber and with the beam collimated to a size just larger than the chamber. The primary plus scatter radiation components were measured with the object moved to a position in the beam next to the chamber for larger field sizes. Both sets of measurements were preformed while keeping the source-to-chamber distance fixed. The scatter fraction was estimated by taking the ratio of the difference between the two measurements and the reading that included both primary and scatter. Similar measurements were also made for a 2.3 cm thick Styrofoam block which could substitute for the patient support. Results: The measured scatter fractions indicate that the patient table as well as the head holder contributes an additional 10–16% to the patient entrance dose depending on field size. Forward scatter was reduced with the Styrofoam block so that the scatter fraction was about 4–5%. Conclusion: The results of this investigation demonstrated that scatter from the table and head holder used in clinical fluoroscopy contribute substantially to the skin dose. The lower contribution of scatter from Styrofoam suggests that there is an opportunity to redesign patient support accessories to reduce the skin dose. Partial support from NIH grant R01EB002873 and Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation Equipment Grant.

  9. Extração de matéria orgânica aquática por abaixamento de temperatura: uma metodologia alternativa para manter a identidade da amostra Extraction of aquatic organic matter by temperature decreasing: an alternative methodology to keep the original sample characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana N. H. Martins de Almeida

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work was developed an alternative methodology to separation of aquatic organic matter (AOM present in natural river waters. The process is based in temperature decreasing of the aqueous sample under controlled conditions that provoke the freezing of the sample and separation of the dark extract, not frozen and rich in organic matter. The results showed that speed of temperature decreasing exerts strongly influence in relative recovery of organic carbon, enrichment and time separation of the organic matter present in water samples. Elemental composition, infrared spectra and thermal analysis results showed that the alternative methodology is less aggressive possible in the attempt of maintaining the integrity of the sample.

  10. [The randomized controlled trial of the treatment for clavicular fracture by rotatory manual reduction with forceps holder and retrograde percutaneous pinning transfixation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Hong-zheng; Yang, Mao-qing; Tan, Yuan-chao; Fu, Song

    2008-07-01

    To study the curative effect and safety of rotatory manual reduction with forceps holder and retrograde percutaneous pinning transfixation in treating clavicular fracture. All 201 cases of clavicular fractures were randomly divided into treatment group (101 cases) and control group (100 cases). The treatment group was treated by rotatory manual reduction with forceps holder and retrograde percutaneous pinning transfixation. The control group was treated by open reduction and internal fixation with Kirschner pin. All cases were followed up for 4 to 21 months (mean 10.6 months). SPSS was used to analyze clinic healing time of fracture and shoulder-joint function in both two groups. After operation, 101 cases of treatment group achieved union of fracture and the clinical healing time was 28 to 49 days (mean 34.5+/-2.7 days). In control group,there were 4 cases with nonunion of fracture,the other 96 cases were union,the clinical healing time was 36 to 92 days (mean 55.3+/-4.8 days). The excellent and good rate of shoulder-joint function was 100% in treatment group and 83% in control group. By t-test and chi2-test, there was significant difference between the two groups in curative effect (Pmanual reduction with forceps holder and retrograde pinning transfixation can be used in various kinds of clavicular shaft fracture, with many virtues such as easy operation, reliable fixation, short union time of fracture, good functional recovery of shoulder-joint and no incision scar affecting appearance.

  11. Temperature control in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnaley, G.

    1986-01-01

    The patent concerns a method for controlling the temperature of silicon wafers (or samples), during ion beam treatment of the wafers, in a vacuum. The apparatus and method are described for irradiation and temperature control of the samples. The wafers are mounted on a drum which is rotated through the ion beam, and are additionally heated by infra-red lamps to achieve the desired temperature. (U.K.)

  12. Laser sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbatenko, A A; Revina, E I

    2015-01-01

    The review is devoted to the major advances in laser sampling. The advantages and drawbacks of the technique are considered. Specific features of combinations of laser sampling with various instrumental analytical methods, primarily inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, are discussed. Examples of practical implementation of hybrid methods involving laser sampling as well as corresponding analytical characteristics are presented. The bibliography includes 78 references

  13. The preventive Control of White Root Rot Disease in Small Holder Rubber Plantation Using Botanical, Biological and Chemical Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Prasetyo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The preventive control of white root rot disease in small holder plantation using botanical, biological, and chemical agents. A field and laboratory experiment were conducted from June 2008 to December 2009 in Panumangan, Tulang Bawang - Lampung. The  field experiment was intended to evaluate the effect of  botanical plants (Alpinia galanga, Sansiviera auranthii, and Marantha arundinacea, biological agents (organic matter and Trichoderma spp., and chemical agents (lime and natural sulphur on the incidence of white root rot disease and population of some soil microbes. The laboratory experiment was conducted  to observe the mechanism of botanical agents  in controlling white root rot disease. In the field experiment, the treatments were applied  in the experimental plot with cassava plant infection as the indicator. The variables  examined were the incidence of  white root rot and population of soil microbes. In the laboratory experiment, culture of R. microporus was grown in PDA containing root exudate of the antagonistic plant (botanical agent. The variable examined was colony diameter of R. microporus growing in the PDA plates. The results of the  field experiment  showed that planting of the botanical agents, and application of Trichoderma spp., as well as natural sulphur, decreased the incidence of white root rot disease. The effectiveness of M. arundinacea and Trichoderma spp. was comparable to natural  sulphur. The laboratory experiment showed only root exudate of  A. galanga and  S. auranthii that were significantly inhibit the growth of R. microporus.

  14. Dishevelled binds the Discs large 'Hook' domain to activate GukHolder-dependent spindle positioning in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D Garcia

    Full Text Available Communication between cortical cell polarity cues and the mitotic spindle ensures proper orientation of cell divisions within complex tissues. Defects in mitotic spindle positioning have been linked to various developmental disorders and have recently emerged as a potential contributor to tumorigenesis. Despite the importance of this process to human health, the molecular mechanisms that regulate spindle orientation are not fully understood. Moreover, it remains unclear how diverse cortical polarity complexes might cooperate to influence spindle positioning. We and others have demonstrated spindle orientation roles for Dishevelled (Dsh, a key regulator of planar cell polarity, and Discs large (Dlg, a conserved apico-basal cell polarity regulator, effects which were previously thought to operate within distinct molecular pathways. Here we identify a novel direct interaction between the Dsh-PDZ domain and the alternatively spliced "I3-insert" of the Dlg-Hook domain, thus establishing a potential convergent Dsh/Dlg pathway. Furthermore, we identify a Dlg sequence motif necessary for the Dsh interaction that shares homology to the site of Dsh binding in the Frizzled receptor. Expression of Dsh enhanced Dlg-mediated spindle positioning similar to deletion of the Hook domain. This Dsh-mediated activation was dependent on the Dlg-binding partner, GukHolder (GukH. These results suggest that Dsh binding may regulate core interdomain conformational dynamics previously described for Dlg. Together, our results identify Dlg as an effector of Dsh signaling and demonstrate a Dsh-mediated mechanism for the activation of Dlg/GukH-dependent spindle positioning. Cooperation between these two evolutionarily-conserved cell polarity pathways could have important implications to both the development and maintenance of tissue homeostasis in animals.

  15. A Tale of Two Majors: Explaining the Gender Gap in STEM Employment among Computer Science and Engineering Degree Holders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Sassler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We examine factors contributing to the gender gap in employment in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM among men and women with bachelor’s degrees in computer science and engineering, the two largest and most male-dominated STEM fields. Data come from the National Science Foundation’s (NSF Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System (SESTAT from 1995 to 2008. Different factors are associated with persistence in STEM jobs among computer science and engineering degree holders. Conditional on receiving a degree in computer science, women are 14 percentage points less likely to work in STEM than their male counterparts. Controlling for demographic and family characteristics did little to change this gender gap. Women with degrees in engineering are approximately 8 percentage points less likely to work in STEM than men, although about half of this gap is explained by observed differences between men and women. We document a widening gender gap in STEM employment in computer science, but this gender gap narrows across college cohorts among those with degrees in engineering. Among recent computer science graduates, the gender gap in STEM employment for white, Hispanic, and black women relative to white men is even larger than for older graduates. Gender and race gaps in STEM employment for recent cohorts of engineering graduates are generally small, though younger Asian women and men no longer have an employment advantage relative to white men. Our results suggest that a one-size-fits-all approach to increasing women’s representation in the most male-dominated STEM fields may not work.

  16. Derfor holder stamceller sammen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Johanne

    2013-01-01

    Professor Joshua Brickman fra DanStem har i samarbejde med forskere fra The MRC Centre for Regenerative Medicine (CRM) ved University of Edinburgh identificeret en række faktorer, som regulerer embryonale stamcellers evne til at forny sig selv. Et af de centrale elementer er proteinet Oct4, og...

  17. Patients as Rights Holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brännmark, Johan

    2017-07-01

    Autonomy and consent have been central values in Western moral and political thought for centuries. One way of understanding the bioethical models that started to develop, especially in the 1970s, is that they were about the fusion of a long-standing professional ethics with the core values underpinning modern political institutions. That there was a need for this kind of fusion is difficult to dispute, especially since the provision of health care has in most developed countries become an ever more important concern of our political institutions, with governments playing a significant role in regulating and facilitating the provision of health care and in many countries even largely organizing it. There is, nevertheless, still room for dispute about how best to achieve this fusion and how to best think about autonomy and consent in a biomedical context. The simplest model we can have is probably about how being a person is largely about having the capacity of autonomous choice and that the main mode through which we exercise autonomy is by providing informed consent. Yet, liberal democracy's core idea that human beings have a high and equal value is also found in other accounts of the person. The human-rights framework provides an alternative model for thinking about personhood and about patient care. The human-rights approach is grounded, not in an account of autonomy (although it has something to say about autonomy), but in an account of the moral and political personhood that people possess merely by being human beings. In this approach, values like dignity and integrity, both highly relevant in a bioethical context, are identified as distinct values rather than being derived from and therefore reduced to respect for autonomous choice. The human-rights approach can supplement the problematic notion of autonomy that has been central to bioethics by placing this notion in a broader, strongly pluralistic framework. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  18. Exame do líquido cefalorraquidiano: influência da temperatura, tempo e preparo da amostra na estabilidade analítica Cerebrospinal fluid exam: influence of sample preparation, temperature and time on analytical stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Ferreira Dimas

    2008-04-01

    . However, there are a few studies about the stability of its analytes during the pre-analytical stage. OBJECTIVE: To identify existing data about the influence of temperature and storage time, freezing/thawing cycles and pre-treatments (centrifugation, denaturation, serum addition on the stability of CSF analytes. METHOD: A systematic review of articles in the literature was conducted by use of Key words: in English such as "storage", "cerebrospinal fluid", "CSF", "stability", "temperature" and "period", based on data from PubMed, Highwire Press, Lilacs and Amazonas Library, free digital archives of biomedical research articles. RESULTt: The search found nine articles, what results from the lack of studies about this subject. Different CSF constituents were analyzed: number of cells and their morphology, total protein, glucose, lactate, amino acids, creatine, creatinine, biomarkers and enzymes. The methodologies employed were: optical microscopy, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, Imunoblot/SDS-PAGE and spectrometry. CONCLUSION: The literature review confirms that the stability of CSF samples is influenced by temperature, storage time and conditions of pre-analytical preparation. The findings of this systematic review may contribute to improving the knowledge about CSF examination, as well as to better understanding the sample stability.

  19. Soil sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortunati, G.U.; Banfi, C.; Pasturenzi, M.

    1994-01-01

    This study attempts to survey the problems associated with techniques and strategies of soil sampling. Keeping in mind the well defined objectives of a sampling campaign, the aim was to highlight the most important aspect of representativeness of samples as a function of the available resources. Particular emphasis was given to the techniques and particularly to a description of the many types of samplers which are in use. The procedures and techniques employed during the investigations following the Seveso accident are described. (orig.)

  20. Language sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan; Bakker, Dik

    1998-01-01

    This article has two aims: [1] to present a revised version of the sampling method that was originally proposed in 1993 by Rijkhoff, Bakker, Hengeveld and Kahrel, and [2] to discuss a number of other approaches to language sampling in the light of our own method. We will also demonstrate how our...... sampling method is used with different genetic classifications (Voegelin & Voegelin 1977, Ruhlen 1987, Grimes ed. 1997) and argue that —on the whole— our sampling technique compares favourably with other methods, especially in the case of exploratory research....