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Sample records for hnis radioiodine gene

  1. 99Tcm pertechnetate uptake by hepatoma cells induced by tissue specific hNIS gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Libo; Luo Quanyong; Yu Yongli; Yuan Zhibin; Lu Hankui; Zhu Ruisen; Guo Lihe

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Human sodium/iodide symporter (hNIS) gene could be used both as an ideal reporter gene and promising therapeutic gene. Rather than radioiodine, 99 Tc m pertechnetate has been proven to be a better radiopharmaceutical for tracing and imaging purposes. Herein, the authors investigated the feasibility of monitoring hNIS gene expression in hepatoma cells using 99 Tc m pertechnetate as a tracer. Methods: Hepatoma cells MH3924A were stably transfected with recombinant retroviral vector in which hNIS cDNA was driven by murine albumin enhancer/promoter (mAlb) and coupled to hygromycin resistance gene. The uptake and efflux of 99 Tc m pertechnetate by transfected hepatoma cells were tested with 99 Tc m pertechnetate (74 kBq) solution adulterated into the culture media and counted after media suspension discharge at different intervals. In further tests, 50 μmol/L NaClO 4 and 500 μmol/L Ouabain were added into the media for 99 Tc m inhibition tests. For in vive studies, five ACI rats bearing NIS transfected hepatoma xenografts were injected with 99 Tc m pertechnetate (15.8 MBq) and followed by dynamic acquisition (0.57 1, 2 and 4 h) with small gamma camera to semi-quantitatively analyze the radioactivity distribution. Results: In vitro tests, the peak uptake of 99 Tc m pertechnetate by cultured transfected MH3924A cells was up to 254 folds higher than that by the wild type cells. 99 Tc m uptake by transfected cells were significantly inhibited by NaClO 4 down to 2.44% (P 99 Tc m pertechnetate out of cultured transfected cells became rapid immediately after renewal of culture media (half life 99 Tc m accumulations by hNIS transfected tumor xenografts were obvious in early phases of the acquisition with peak uptake at 12 min and gradually declining later on. Conclusions: hNIS transfected hepatoma cells can avidly uptake 99 Tc m pertechnetate both in vitro and in vive. It is feasible to utilize 99 Tc m pertechnetate for monitoring and even quantitatively analyzing

  2. The construction and identification of hypoxia-regulated recombinant plasmid with reporter gene hNIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Qunchao; Wu Jinchang; Zhou Jundong; Gu Ke

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To construct pShuttle-5 × HRE-CMV-NIS recombinant plasmid regulated by hypoxia-responsive element, which can possibly by used to detect the expression of hypoxia induced factor-α (HIF-1α) gene under hypoxia condition. Methods: Artificially synthesize the nucleotide sequences of five copies of hypoxia response elements (HREs) were cloned into pGL3-promoter vector to construct pGL3-promoter-5 × HRE vector. Human sodium/iodide symporter (hNIS) gene cDNA was amplified from human genome by RT-PCR, and subcloned into pGL3-promoter-5 × HRE vector then was sequenced. After treated with CoCl 2 as hypoxia mimic, HEK293 cells were transfected with recombinant plasmid with hNIS gene, while cells treated with DMSO as the control. Meanwhile, pcDNA3.1-HIF-1α and recombinant hNIS gene vectors were transfected into HEK293 cells at the ratio of 3 to 1, while co-transfection with pcDNA3.1 and pShuttle-NIS vectors cells were taken as the control. NIS mRNA expression was analyzed by qRT-PCR while function of NIS protein was tested by 99m TcO 4 - -uptake. Results: The sequence data of hNIS gene in recombinant plasmid were in accordance with those reported in the literatures. Compared with control groups, HEK293 cells co-transfected with both pShuttle-5 × HRE-CMV-NIS and HIF-1α gene vectors and CoCl 2 -treated after pShuttle-NIS transfecting presented higher mRNA expressions of NIS and 99m TcO 4 - uptake (P<0.01). Conclusion: HIF-1α can be bound to and activate pShuttle-5 × HRE-CMV-NIS in cells to accumulate radioactive nuclide 99m TcO 4 - and this technique is potential for detection of expression and activity of HIF-1α, the indicator of cell hypoxia. (authors)

  3. Comparison of human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) gene expression between lentiviral and adenoviral vectors in rat mesenchymal stem cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, So Yeon; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sung Jin; Lee, Heui Ran; Kim, Hyun Joo; Chung, June Key; Kim, Sang Eun

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative comparison of transgene expression within stem cells between lentivirus and adenovirus-mediated delivery systems has not been done. Here, we evaluated the human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) gene expression in rat mesenchymal stem cell (rMSC) transduced by lentivirus or adenovirus, and compared the hNIS expression quantitatively between the two delivery systems. Lentiviral-mediated stably hNIS expressing rMSC (lenti-hNIS-rMSC) was constructed by cloning the hNIS gene into pLenti6/UbC/V5-DEST (Invitrogen) to obtain pLenti-hNIS, transducing rMSC with the pLenti-hNIS, and selecting with blasticidin for 3 weeks. Recombinant adenovirus expressing hNIS gene (Rad-hNIS) was produced by homologous recombination and Rad-hNIS transduced rMSC (adeno-hNIS-rMSC) was evaluated for the hNIS expression 48 hours post infection at MOI 1, 5, 20, 50, and 100. The hNIS expression in lenti-hNIS-rMSC or adeno-hNIS-rMSC was assessed by immunocytochemistry, western blot, and I-125 uptake. Immunocytochemistry using mono-clonal anti-hNIS antibody revealed that intensity of hNIS immunoreactivity in lenti-hNIS-rMSC was greater than that in adeno-hNIS-rMSC at MOl 20 but lower than that at MOl 50. Western blot analysis also showed that lenti-hNIS-rMSC was intermediate between adeno-hNIS-rMSCs at MOl 20 and 50 in hNIS expression. However in vitro I-125 uptake test demonstrated that iodide uptake in lenti-hNIS-rMSC (297046659 picomole/106 cells) was greater than that in adeno-hNIS-rMSC at MOI 100 (61682134 picomole/106 cells). These results suggest that lentivirus mediated hNIS expression is greater in terms of hNIS function but lower in terms of hNIS protein amount than adenovirus mediated hNIS expression 48 hours post infection. Stem cell tracking using hNIS as a reporter gene should be conducted in consideration of relative viral efficiency of transgene expression

  4. Comparison of Human Sodium/Iodide Symporter (hNIS) Gene Expressions between Lentiviral and Adenoviral Vectors in Rat Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, So Yeon; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Hyun Joo; Chung, June Key; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Jin; Lee, Heui Ran [Medical Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    Quantitative comparison of transgene expression within stem cells between lentivirus and adenovirusmediated delivery systems has not been reported. Here, we evaluated the human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) gene expression in rat mesenchymal stem cell (rMSC) transduced by lentivirus or adenovirus, and compared the hNIS expression quantitatively between the two delivery systems. Lentiviral-mediated hNIS expressing rMSC (lenti-hNIS-rMSC) was constructed by cloning hNIS gene into pLenti6/UbC/V5-DEST (Invitrogen) to obtain pLenti-hNIS, transducing rMSC with the pLenti-hNIS, and selecting with blasticidin for 3 weeks. Recombinant adenovirus expressing hNIS gene (Rad-hNIS) was produced by homologous recombination and transduction efficiency of Rad-hNIS into rMSC evaluated by Rad-GFP was 19.1{+-}4.7%, 54.0{+-}6.4%, 85.7{+-}8.7%, and 98.4{+-}1.3% at MOI 1, 5, 20, and 100, respectively. The hNIS expressions in lenti-hNIS-rMSC or adeno-hNIS-rMSC were assessed by immunocytochemistry, western blot, and I-125 uptake. Immunocytochemistry and western blot analyses revealed that hNIS expressions in lenti-hNIS-rMSC were greater than those in adeno-hNIS-rMSC at MOI 20 but lower than at MOI 50. However in vitro I-125 uptake test demonstrated that iodide uptake in lenti-hNIS-rMSC (29,704{+-}6,659 picomole/10{sup 6} cells) was greater than that in adeno-hNIS-rMSC at MOI 100 (6,168{+-}2,134 picomole/10{sup 6} cells). Despite lower amount of expressed protein, hNIS function in rMSC was greater by lentivirus than by adenovirus mediated expression. Stem cell tracking using hNIS as a reporter gene should be conducted in consideration of relative vector efficiency for transgene expression.

  5. Comparison of Human Sodium/Iodide Symporter (hNIS) Gene Expressions between Lentiviral and Adenoviral Vectors in Rat Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, So Yeon; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Hyun Joo; Chung, June Key; Kim, Sang Eun; Kim, Sung Jin; Lee, Heui Ran

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative comparison of transgene expression within stem cells between lentivirus and adenovirusmediated delivery systems has not been reported. Here, we evaluated the human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) gene expression in rat mesenchymal stem cell (rMSC) transduced by lentivirus or adenovirus, and compared the hNIS expression quantitatively between the two delivery systems. Lentiviral-mediated hNIS expressing rMSC (lenti-hNIS-rMSC) was constructed by cloning hNIS gene into pLenti6/UbC/V5-DEST (Invitrogen) to obtain pLenti-hNIS, transducing rMSC with the pLenti-hNIS, and selecting with blasticidin for 3 weeks. Recombinant adenovirus expressing hNIS gene (Rad-hNIS) was produced by homologous recombination and transduction efficiency of Rad-hNIS into rMSC evaluated by Rad-GFP was 19.1±4.7%, 54.0±6.4%, 85.7±8.7%, and 98.4±1.3% at MOI 1, 5, 20, and 100, respectively. The hNIS expressions in lenti-hNIS-rMSC or adeno-hNIS-rMSC were assessed by immunocytochemistry, western blot, and I-125 uptake. Immunocytochemistry and western blot analyses revealed that hNIS expressions in lenti-hNIS-rMSC were greater than those in adeno-hNIS-rMSC at MOI 20 but lower than at MOI 50. However in vitro I-125 uptake test demonstrated that iodide uptake in lenti-hNIS-rMSC (29,704±6,659 picomole/10 6 cells) was greater than that in adeno-hNIS-rMSC at MOI 100 (6,168±2,134 picomole/10 6 cells). Despite lower amount of expressed protein, hNIS function in rMSC was greater by lentivirus than by adenovirus mediated expression. Stem cell tracking using hNIS as a reporter gene should be conducted in consideration of relative vector efficiency for transgene expression

  6. Radioiodine uptake of undifferentiated thyroid cancer cells by adenovirus-mediated Na+/ I- symporter gene transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, Y.; Lee, Y. J.; Shin, J. H.; Oh, H. J.; Chung, J. K.; Lee, M. C.; Cho, B. Y. [College of Medicine, Univ. of Seoul National, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, K. H. [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    To increase radioiodine uptake on undifferentiated thyroid cancer cell (ARO cells) by adenovirus-mediated human Na+/I- symporter (hNIS) gene transfer. Recombinant adenovirus Ad-hNIS was manufactured successfully. After transfecting Ad-hNIS on ARO cells, in vitro I-125 uptake and efflux studies were performed. For in vivo studies, 1.510'8 p.f.u. (50 1) of Ad-hNIS was injected into xenograft ARO tumors on the R thigh of BALB/c nu/nu mice (n=12), and same amount of normal saline was injected into xenograft ARO tumors on the L thigh. Two, 3, 4 and 6 days after intratumoral injection of Ad-hNIS, I-131 images (3 mice per day) were taken and xenograft tumors on both thighs were all excised. Total RNA was extracted from each tumor tissue and RT-PCR was performed to confirm the hNIS expression of Ad-hNIS injected xenograft ARO tumors. I-125 uptake of Ad-hNIS transfected ARO cells was increased up to 233 folds at 120 minutes in vitro. I-125 efflux study revealed rapid washout of I-125 from Ad-hNIS transfected ARO cells. On dynamic image, I-131 uptake of Ad-hNIS injected ARO tumor was continuously increased until 60 minutes. Mean count ratios of xenograft ARO tumors (R/L) of 60 minutes I-131 images at 2, 3, 4 and 6 days after Ad-hNIS injection were 2.85, 2.54, 2.31, and 2.18, each. On RT-PCR, hNIS expression of Ad-hNIS transfected ARO xenograft tumors was confirmed. Radioiodine uptake was successfully increased in ARO cells by adenovirus-mediated hNIs gene transfer both in vitro and in vivo.

  7. Feasibility of dual reporter gene in rat myoblast cell line using human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Jin; Lee, You La; Ahn, Sohn Joo; Choi, Chang Ik; Lee, Sang Woo; Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Lee, Jae Tae [School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    To develop a non-invasive combined imaging method of gamma camera and optical imaging to assess rat myoblast cell line, H9c2, we constructed retrovirus containing hNIS and EGFP gene, and transfected to rat myoblast cell and monitored hNIS and EGFP expression. Rat myoblast cell line, H9C2, was transfected with hNIS and EGFP gene using retrovirus (H9C2-NG). The expression of hNIS and EGFP gene was determined by RT-PCR and fluorescence microscopy, respectively. The uptake and efflux of I-125 were measured in the transfected and wild type cell lines. Each cell line was injected to 4 flank sites (H9c2: 1X107 or 2X107, H9C2-NG: 1X107 or 2X107) in nude mouse. Scintigraphic image was performed at 3h, 1 day after H9C2 and H9C2-NG cell inoculation. We performed gamma camera and animal PET imaging to evaluate NIS expression. Also, GFP image obtained using optical imaging system. The expression of hNIS and EGFP gene was confirmed by RT-PCR. In iodide uptake, H9C2-NG cells accumulated 274.52.2 pmol/ mg protein at 30 min. But wild type cell line did not uptake iodide. In fluorescent microscopy, H9C2-NG cells were highly fluorescent than that of H9C2 cells. In iodide efflux study, 50% of radioactivity flowed out during the first 10min. Scintigraphy showed increased uptake of Tc-99m in H9c2-NG than in H9C2 for 1 day. Also, H9C2-NG cells showed high signal-to-background fluorescent spots in animal body. In this study, NIS and EGFP reporter gene were successfully transfected by a retrovirus in myoblast cell line, and the transfected cell can be easily visualized in vivo. These results suggest that NIS and EGFP gene has an excellent feasibility as a reporter gene, and it can be used to monitor cell trafficking for monitoring.

  8. Feasibility of a novel positive feedback effect of 131I-promoted Bac-Egr1-hNIS expression in malignant glioma via baculovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Rui; Tian Lipeng; Han Bing; Xu Haoping; Zhang Miao; Li Biao

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: As intracellular iodine is released rapidly, increased expression of sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) is required for effective radioiodine treatment of tumor. As Egr1 promoter is activated by 131 I and may promote human NIS (hNIS) expression, hNIS also induces 131 I uptake and activates Egr1, so the existence of a positive feedback effect of 131 I-promoted Egr1-hNIS expression is possible. Our purpose was to investigate the possible existence of this positive feedback effect through a series of in vitro pioneer studies. Method: Recombinant baculovirus (Bac-Egr1-hNIS) encoding the hNIS gene under the control of a radiation-inducible Egrl promoter was constructed. To test 131 I-promoted hNIS expression, human malignant glioma U87 cells were transfected with Bac-Egr1-hNIS, stimulated with or without 131 I; the expression of hNIS protein was detected by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry test. In addition, the uptake and efflux of 131 I were determined after the incubation of Bac-Egr1-hNIS-transfected U87 cells with or without 131 I. Results: Immunocytochemical staining and flow cytometry test showed a higher hNIS protein expression in Bac-Egr1-hNIS-transfected U87 cells with 131 I stimulation than in cells without stimulation. Bac-Egr1-hNIS-transfected U87 cells accumulated up to about 4.05 times of 131 I after 131 I stimulation. The amount of 131 I uptake in both groups showed a baculovirus dose-dependent manner. However, rapid efflux of radioactivity was observed in both groups, with 50% lost during the first 2 min after the 131 I-containing medium had been replaced by a nonradioactive medium. Conclusion: Our results indicated that an improved transgene expression of 131 I-stimulated hNIS in U87 cells using a baculovirus vector containing the Egr1 promoter is possible, and the increased expression of hNIS is responsible for a higher 131 I uptake. It might provide a reference for the existence of a positive feedback effect in 131 I-promoted Bac-Egr1-hNIS

  9. Transfer of the sodium/iodide symporter gene into gliomas for radioiodine therapy in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Jian; Li Wei; Liu Xiaohua; Xiao Qian; Jia Qiang; Li Ning

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The most frequent brain tumors are the gliomas. Glioblastomas are largely incurable secondary, to their rapid, aggressive and diffusely infiltrative growth pattern and hypervascularity. This study aimed at investigating the possibility of transecting human sodium/iodide symporter (hNIS) gene into human glioma cell lines to facilitate radioactive iodide treatment in vitro. Methods: Transecting hNIS gene into human glioma cell lines U251 was performed by recombinant expression plasmids with lipofectamine 2000-plasmid complexes. The hNIS gene cell lines with stable expression (hNIS-U251) were selected through G418 antibiotic constraint. The hNIS-U251 gene cell lines were then evaluated for their biologic functions, including 125 I uptake assay, 125 I influx-course, 125 I-efflux-course, 131 I inhibitory effect on cellular proliferation by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyhe-trazolium bromide (MTT) assay and flow cytometer. Results: We were successful in transecting hNIS gene into human glioma cell lines by recombinant expression plasmids, and were able to obtain hNIS gene cell lines (hNIS-U251) with stable expression. The hNIS-U251 cell lines could intake and bind radioactive iodide by hNIS gene. The uptakes of 125 I were 117 fold higher in hNIS-U251 cell lines than U251 cell lines [(50 469.88 ± 997.29), (432.92 ± 89.28) counts·min -1 , respectively]. And the proliferation index of hNIS-U251 cell lines was lower than U251 cell lines after incubating with 131 I. Conclusion: The hNIS gene with stable gene expression (hNIS- U251) cell lines could be labeled by 131 I with a high efficiency, thereby may function effectively in the treatment of glioma-related brain tumors. (authors)

  10. The effect of tanespimycin (17-AAG) on radioiodine accumulation in sodium iodide symporter expressing cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Kyoung Hyun; Youn, Hyewon; Song, Myung Geun; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key

    2012-01-01

    The heat shock protein 90 inhibitor, tanespimycin, is an anticancer agent known to increase iodine accumulation in normal and cancerous thyroid cells. Iodine accumulation is regulated by membrane proteins such as sodium iodide sym porter (NIS) and pendrin (PDS), and thus we attempted to characterize the effects of tanespimycin on those genes. Cells were incubated with tanespimycin in order to evaluate 125 I accumulation and efflux ability. Radioiodine uptake and efflux were measured by a gamma counter and normalized by protein amount. RT PCR were performed to measure the level of gene expression. After tanespimycin treatment, 125 uptake was in creased by ∼2.5 fold in FRTL 5, hNIS ARO. and hNIS MDA MB 231 cells, but no changes were detected in the hNIS HeLa cells. Tanespimycin significantly reduced the radioiodine efflux rate only in the FRTL 5 cell. in the FRTL 5 and hNIS ARO cells, PDS mRNA levels were markedly reduced; the only other observed alteration in the levels of NIS mRNA after tanespimtycin treatment was an observed increase in the h hNIS ARO cells. These results indicate that cellular responses against tanespimycin treatment differed between the normal rat thyroid cells and human cancer cells, and the reduction in the 125I efflux rate by tanespimycin in the normal rat thyroid cells might be attributable to reduced PDS gene expression

  11. Radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaduban, M.

    1978-01-01

    The physical, chemical radiochemical and radiometric properties of radioiodine significant for the radiochemical analysis are summarized. The occurrence of iodine, especially in the biosphere organic part, the calculation of the amount of iodine radioisotopes formed under different conditions, the spectrometric and integral methods of measuring the radioactivity of the most important iodine radioisotopes, the methods of separating iodine and its respective chemical forms are described. (M.K.)

  12. Imaging of adenovirus-mediated expression of human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) by 99mTcO4 scan in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Woo; Moon, D. H.; Park, S. Y.; Jin, J.; Kim, S. J.; Lee, H.

    2002-01-01

    We have evaluated the feasibility of human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) as a reporter gene by 99m TcO 4 scan in vivo. Recombinant adenovirus encoding hNIS (Rad-hNIS) gene was introduced to FRO cell. hNIS expression was assessed by western blot and 99m TcO 4 uptake in vitro. 99m TcO 4 scan were obtained in BALB/c mice 48 hrs post injection of Tris buffer, Rad-hNIS (1x10 9 or 2x10 8 pfu), or Rad-LacZ (1x10 9 pfu) via the tail vein (n=5-7 for each group). Biodistribution study and RT-PCR were performed. A series of 99m TcO 4 scans were obtained in 2 mice until 21 days post Rad-hNIS injection. FRO readily expressed hNIS protein and incorporated significantly higher level of 99m TcO 4 in vitro. With 99m TcO 4 scan, prominent hepatic uptake was observed only in the mice with 1x10 9 pfu of Rad-hNIS. Liver/lung ratio was increased in this group from 15 (5.7±2.5) till 60 min(6.7±3.6) (p 99m TcO 4 uptake (22.7±11.2 %ID/g) and hNIS mRNA expression were exclusively noticed in livers of this group. The persistent hepatic uptake was observed for up one week. NaClO 4 inhibited the hepatic uptake of 99m TcO 4 . hNIS holds a promising potential as an effective reporter gene for noninvasive/repeated imaging in combination with 99m TcO 4

  13. Imaging of adenovirus-mediated expression of human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) by {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4} scan in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Woo; Moon, D. H.; Park, S. Y.; Jin, J.; Kim, S. J.; Lee, H. [Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    We have evaluated the feasibility of human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) as a reporter gene by {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4} scan in vivo. Recombinant adenovirus encoding hNIS (Rad-hNIS) gene was introduced to FRO cell. hNIS expression was assessed by western blot and {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4} uptake in vitro. {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4} scan were obtained in BALB/c mice 48 hrs post injection of Tris buffer, Rad-hNIS (1x10{sup 9} or 2x10{sup 8} pfu), or Rad-LacZ (1x10{sup 9} pfu) via the tail vein (n=5-7 for each group). Biodistribution study and RT-PCR were performed. A series of {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4} scans were obtained in 2 mice until 21 days post Rad-hNIS injection. FRO readily expressed hNIS protein and incorporated significantly higher level of {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4} in vitro. With {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4} scan, prominent hepatic uptake was observed only in the mice with 1x10{sup 9} pfu of Rad-hNIS. Liver/lung ratio was increased in this group from 15 (5.7{+-}2.5) till 60 min(6.7{+-}3.6) (p<0.01). Significantly increased {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4} uptake (22.7{+-}11.2 %ID/g) and hNIS mRNA expression were exclusively noticed in livers of this group. The persistent hepatic uptake was observed for up one week. NaClO{sub 4} inhibited the hepatic uptake of {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}. hNIS holds a promising potential as an effective reporter gene for noninvasive/repeated imaging in combination with {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}.

  14. Human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) in fibroadenoma breast--a immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Ruchi; Shrivastava, Ashutosh; Tandon, Ashwani; Godbole, Madan M; Kumar, Sandeep; Das, Vinita; Dwivedi, Varsha; Pal, Lily

    2011-02-01

    Human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS), responsible for the active transport of iodine is an integral plasma membrane glycoprotein present in the thyroid cells and extrathyroid tissues like breast and salivary glands. If its functional form is unequivocally shown in benign or malignant breast tissues, then it may serve as a basis for diagnosis and treatment using radioactive iodine. With an aim to analyze the hNIS expression in a distinct benign breast condition of fibroadenoma, biopsy proven fibroadenoma tissues, normal non-lactating breast tissue and biopsy proven infiltrating duct carcinoma tissues were examined for hNIS expression using immunohistochemistry. Out of 20 biopsy proven fibroadenoma tissues, 19 (95%) showed positivity for hNIS protein and only one was negative. Of these 10% were mildly positive, 50% cases were moderately positive and 35% showed intense positivity. None of the control tissue obtained from reduction mammoplasty specimens or normal breast tissues samples (5 cms away from the tumor) were positive, hNIS was also intensely positive in 9 out of 10 (90%) infiltrating duct carcinoma tissues and moderately positive in one case. These preliminary results show that hNIS was present in high frequency as demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in fibroadenoma breast.

  15. Radioiodinated bleomycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, S.E.; Liu, R.H.

    1976-01-01

    Radioiodinated bleomycin is a useful imaging agent for body tissues. Its production by iodination of bleomycin with radioactive iodide ions in the presence of an oxidizing agent is described. 7 claims, no drawings

  16. Radioiodine dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J R [Biomedical Research Branch, Health Sciences Div., Chalk River, Ontario (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Lab.

    1981-01-01

    The estimation of individual doses for radiation protection and for risk assessment purposes from a radioiodine intake requires a knowledge of the distribution and retention of the radioiodine (primarily in the thyroid), and a knowledge of the average energy deposited in each organ of interest per radioactive decay (S-factors). This paper reviews a model for distribution and retention used previously for adults, and extends the model to include all ages. The extended model also includes the effects of stable iodine intakes on radioiodine uptakes explicitly. Included in the paper is a tabulation of existing adult S-factors for selected radioiodines and the extension of S-factors for the thyroid to all age groups. Finally, doses per unit intake are calculated and tabulated. A discussion and some calculations of the effects of stable iodine intake on committed doses are given.

  17. Radioiodine dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    The estimation of individual doses for radiation protection and for risk assessment purposes from a radioiodine intake requires a knowledge of the distribution and retention of the radioiodine (primarily in the thyroid), and a knowledge of the average energy deposited in each organ of interest per radioactive decay (S-factors). This paper reviews a model for distribution and retention used previously for adults, and extends the model to include all ages. The extended model also includes the effects of stable iodine intakes on radioiodine uptakes explicitly. Included in the paper is a tabulation of existing adult S-factors for selected radioiodines and the extension of S-factors for the thyroid to all age groups. Finally, doses per unit intake are calculated and tabulated. A discussion and some calculations of the effects of stable iodine intake on committed doses are given. (author)

  18. In vivo image of radioiodinated IVDU and IVFRU in HSV-TK gene tranduced hepatocellular carcinoma bearing buffalo rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tae Sup; Choi, T. H.; Ahn, S. H.; Woo, K. S.; Chung, W. S.; Lee, S. J.; Choi, C. W. [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-07-01

    The extent of gene delivery and expression in gene therapy with suicide genes such as herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) is assessed with measurement of selective localization of radioiodinated HSV-tk substrates in HSV-tk expressing tumor. We compared n vitro uptake of {sup 125}I-IVDU, IVFRU and in vivo image of HSV-tk gene tranduced hepatocellular carcinoma model. Using H{sub 2}O{sub 2}(hydrogen peroxide), IVDU and IVFRU was radiolabeled as carrier free form. The uptake of {sup 125}I-IVDU IVFRU was determined with increasing incubation periods in MCA-tk and MCA cell line (1X10{sup 6}cell/flask). The cell harvested and counted after incubation of 15, 30, 60, 120, 240, 480 minutes. For estimating accumulation of radiolabelled IVDU, IVFRU in HSV-tk expressing tumor, MCA-tk cells (1 X 10{sup 6}/100 {mu}l) injected intramuscularly into right thigh of buffalo rats. To determine selective localization of radiolabelled IVDU, IVFRU in HSV-tk expressing hepatocellular carcinoma bearing buffalo rats, MCA-tk cells (1X 10{sup 7} cell/100 {mu}l) were injected subcutaneously into both shoulders of buffalo rats. Established tumor mass implanted into liver of buffalo rats using intra-hepatic tumor injection. Two weeks later, {sup 123}I labelled IVDU, IVFRU(7.4 X 10{sup 7}Bq/200 {mu}l) injected intravenously into tail veins of each buffalo rats. Gamma camera used as revealing localization of {sup 123}I-IVDU, IVFRU in MCA-tk cells grafts rats and in vivo image was taken 2 hrs, 24 hrs after injection. radioiodinated IVDU, IVFRU were radiolabeled with {sup 123}I as labeling yield 70%, {sup 125}I as 84%. Two compounds showed minimal uptake in MCA cell line, but in MCA-tk cell line, increased uptake was observed. The ratio of MCA-tk to MCA was up to 116-fold in {sup 125}I-IVDU, up to 37-fold in {sup 125}I-IVFRU at 480 min. The uptake of IVDU was 4 times higher than IVFRU in MCA-tk cells. Gamma camera images of HSV-tk gene tranduced MCA tumor showed accumulation of {sup 123}I

  19. Radioiodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, J.F. Jr.; Deliso, H.B.

    1992-01-01

    For over 40 years now, radioiodine ( 131 I) has remained one of the most useful radionuclide for diagnosis and therapy in Nuclear Medicine. The wide application of radioiodine in the study of the thyroid gland and in the management of its disorders has been most rewarding. The medical literature is replete with reports of its efficacy, failures, and complications, but most of these studies have been conducted among Caucasian persons and in relatively affluent societies. Very few reports are available from the less developed and economically depressed areas of the world where thyroid disorders abound or and are even endemic. This chapter is an attempt to highlight the use of radioactive iodine therapy in the developing countries, particularly those in the Asian region

  20. Radioiodine therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Jr, J F; Deliso, H B

    1993-12-31

    For over 40 years now, radioiodine ({sup 131}I) has remained one of the most useful radionuclide for diagnosis and therapy in Nuclear Medicine. The wide application of radioiodine in the study of the thyroid gland and in the management of its disorders has been most rewarding. The medical literature is replete with reports of its efficacy, failures, and complications, but most of these studies have been conducted among Caucasian persons and in relatively affluent societies. Very few reports are available from the less developed and economically depressed areas of the world where thyroid disorders abound or and are even endemic. This chapter is an attempt to highlight the use of radioactive iodine therapy in the developing countries, particularly those in the Asian region

  1. Chemical forms of radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachikawa, Enzo

    1979-01-01

    Release of radioiodine built-up during reactor operations presents a potential problem from the standpoint of environmental safety. Among the chemical forms of radioiodine, depending upon the circumstances, organic iodides cast a most serious problem because of its difficulties in the trapping and because of its stability compared to other chemical forms. Furthermore, pellet-cladding interaction (PCl) fuel failures in LWR fuel rods are believed to be stress corrosion cracks caused by embrittling fission product species, radioiodine. To deal with these problems, knowledge is required on the chemical behaviors of radioiodine in and out of fuels, as well as the release behaviors from fuels. Here a brief review is given of these respects, in aiming at clearing-up the questions still remaining unknown. The data seem to indicate that radioiodine exists as a combined form in fuels. upon heating slightly irradiated fuels, the iodine atoms are released in a chemical form associated with uranium atoms. Experiments, however, as needed with specimen of higher burnup, where the interactions of radioiodine with metallic fission products could be favored. The dominant release mechanism of radioiodine under normal operating temperatures will be diffusion to grain boundaries leading to open surfaces. Radiation-induced internal traps, however, after the rate of diffusion significantly. The carbon sources of organic iodides formed under various conditions and its formation mechanisms have also been considered. (author)

  2. Radioiodine in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabova, T.

    1981-01-01

    Behaviour was studied of radioiodine in different soil subtypes sampled in the vicinity of the A-1 nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice. Radioiodine sorption is mainly affected by the amount of humus and by the clay fraction of soil. The highest sorption was recorded for meadow chernozem and the lowest for rendzina soils. At the same pH, soils with a higher level of organic matter adsorb more radioiodine. Upon applying radioiodate in soil samples, reduction to iodide takes place. Under the action of anions, radioiodine sorption decreases, the effect decreasing as follows: H 2 PO 4 - >SO 2- >Cl - >NO 3 - . The highest desorption was caused by 0.1 N NaOH solution. (author)

  3. In vitro radionuclide therapy and in vivo scintigraphic imaging of alpha fetoprotein producing hepatocellular carcinoma by targeted sodium iodide symporter gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang Il; Lee, Yong Jin; Lee, Tae Sup; Song, Inho; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Lim, Sang Moo; Kang, Joo Hyun [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, June Key [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    This study aimed to develop a gene expression targeting method for specific imaging and therapy of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) producing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, using an adenovirus vector containing the human sodium/iodide symporter (hNIS) gene driven by an AFP enhancer/promoter. The recombinant adenovirus vector, AdAFPhNIS (containing the hNIS gene driven by human AFP enhancer/promoter) was prepared. After in vitro infection by the adenovirus, hNIS gene expression in AFP producing cells and in AFP nonproducing cells was investigated using {sup 125}I uptake assay and semi quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The killing effect of {sup 131}I vitro clonogenic assay. In addition, tumor bearing mice were intravenously injected with the adenovirus, and scintigraphic images were obtained. The expression of hNIS was efficiently demonstrated by {sup 125}I uptake assay in AFP producing cells, but not in AFP nonproducing cells. AFP producing HCC targeted gene expression was confirmed at the mRNA level. Furthermore, in vitro clonogenic assay showed that hNIS gene expression induced by AdAFPhNIS infection in AFP producing cells caused more sensitivity to {sup 131}I than that in AFP nonproducing cells. Injected intravenously in HuH-7 tumor xenografts mice by adenovirus, the functional hNIS gene expression was confirmed in tumor by in vivo scintigraphic imaging. An AFP producing HCC was targeted with an adenovirus vector containing the hNIS gene using the AFP enhancer/promoter in vitro and in vivo. These findings demonstrate that AFP producing HCC specific molecular imaging and radionuclide gene therapy are feasible using this recombinant adenovirus vector system.

  4. In vitro radionuclide therapy and in vivo scintigraphic imaging of alpha fetoprotein producing hepatocellular carcinoma by targeted sodium iodide symporter gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwang Il; Lee, Yong Jin; Lee, Tae Sup; Song, Inho; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Lim, Sang Moo; Kang, Joo Hyun; Chung, June Key

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a gene expression targeting method for specific imaging and therapy of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) producing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, using an adenovirus vector containing the human sodium/iodide symporter (hNIS) gene driven by an AFP enhancer/promoter. The recombinant adenovirus vector, AdAFPhNIS (containing the hNIS gene driven by human AFP enhancer/promoter) was prepared. After in vitro infection by the adenovirus, hNIS gene expression in AFP producing cells and in AFP nonproducing cells was investigated using 125 I uptake assay and semi quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The killing effect of 131 I vitro clonogenic assay. In addition, tumor bearing mice were intravenously injected with the adenovirus, and scintigraphic images were obtained. The expression of hNIS was efficiently demonstrated by 125 I uptake assay in AFP producing cells, but not in AFP nonproducing cells. AFP producing HCC targeted gene expression was confirmed at the mRNA level. Furthermore, in vitro clonogenic assay showed that hNIS gene expression induced by AdAFPhNIS infection in AFP producing cells caused more sensitivity to 131 I than that in AFP nonproducing cells. Injected intravenously in HuH-7 tumor xenografts mice by adenovirus, the functional hNIS gene expression was confirmed in tumor by in vivo scintigraphic imaging. An AFP producing HCC was targeted with an adenovirus vector containing the hNIS gene using the AFP enhancer/promoter in vitro and in vivo. These findings demonstrate that AFP producing HCC specific molecular imaging and radionuclide gene therapy are feasible using this recombinant adenovirus vector system

  5. Synthesis of radioiodinated labeled peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matloobi, M.; Rafii, H.; Beigi, D.; Khalaj, A.; Kamali-Dehghan, M.

    2003-01-01

    Optimization of radioiodination of peptides is covered by both a direct method in which a constituent tyrosine residue is labeled and indirect method by using an iodinated derivative (SIB) of N succinimidyl 3-(tri-n-butylstannyl) benzoate (ATE) as the intermediate. Radioiodination of IgG and FMLF were performed by direct method using Chloramine-T as an oxidant but since Formyl-Methyl-Leucyl-Phenylalanine, FMLF, does not lend itself for direct radioiodination we performed labeling of FMLF by indirect method via radioiodined SIB at different pH. (author)

  6. (Radioiodinated free fatty acids)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Jr., F. F.

    1987-12-11

    The traveler participated in the Second International Workshop on Radioiodinated Free Fatty Acids in Amsterdam, The Netherlands where he presented an invited paper describing the pioneering work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving the design, development and testing of new radioiodinated methyl-branched fatty acids for evaluation of heart disease. He also chaired a technical session on the testing of new agents in various in vitro and in vivo systems. He also visited the Institute for Clinical and Experimental Nuclear Medicine in Bonn, West Germany, to review, discuss, plan and coordinate collaborative investigations with that institution. In addition, he visited the Cyclotron Research Center in Liege, Belgium, to discuss continuing collaborative studies with the Osmium-191/Iridium-191m radionuclide generator system, and to complete manuscripts and plan future studies.

  7. Teenage hyperthyroidism and radioiodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, F.A.; Nisa, L.; Hoque, M.; Jehan, A.H.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Objective: To assess the efficacy of radioiodine therapy in teenage patients with hyperthyroidism. Method: The medical records of 28 patients (age range 16 -18 years) were purposely selected from a pool of 3637 hyperthyroid patients treated with radioiodine during the period January 1982 to December 2006. Data for analysis included the age, sex, clinical symptoms, type of hyperthyroidism, antithyroid medications received, doses of radioiodine therapy given and the outcome of the therapy after one and five years. Results: The mean age of the patients treated for hyperthyroidism was 17.60 ± 0.73 years and 82 % were females. The most common type of hyperthyroidism was Graves' disease (75%). All patients were pre-treated with antithyroid drugs for variable duration periods (6 months to 2 years). The mean administered dose of radioiodine was 10.69 ± 2.77 mCi. The dose of I-131 was calculated on the basis of gland size and morphology (assessment by palpation and scintigraphy) and percentage of radioactive iodine uptake. Effective control of hyperthyroidism after radioiodine treatment occurred in 60.72% patients with a single dose, 35.71% required a second dose and 3.57% required more than two doses. Frequency of early hypothyroidism within one year was 38.09 % in Graves' disease and 33.33% in toxic multinodular goiter. Most patients (66.66%) in the toxic nodule group remained euthyroid up to one year after I-131 therapy. Overall incidence rates of hypothyroidism after 1 year and 5 years of radioiodine therapy were 32.14% and 75%, respectively. Conclusion: Hyperthyroidism in the teen group of patients was effectively controlled with radioiodine. There were no early side effects. The only long-term effect was hypothyroidism. Appearance of early/late hypothyroidism showed a direct relationship with the type of hyperthyroidism and the dose of radioiodine administered. In general, patients with Graves' disease showed a greater tendency in the evolution of early

  8. Radioiodine therapy for hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andres-Barrenechea, E.C.

    2001-01-01

    A ten year study (1988-98) was done at the Veterans Memorial Medical Center on radioiodine (RAI) therapy for hyperthyroidism. A total of 162 patients received 131-I after careful selection hence was included in this study. A predominantly female population was seen (81%) compared to only (19%) males. The most frequent age group were in the third and fourth decades of life. Those included had clinical manifestations of thyrotoxicosis aside from the abnormal thyroid function tests and elevated RAI uptake. Almost all were given antithyroid drugs and beta-blockers prior to RAI ablation. Doses ranged from 7 to 12 mCi depending on gland size and degree of toxicity. Success rate of treatment was 92% which meant that the symptoms were abated and there was shrinkage of the thyroid gland after a single dose of iodine. The most common short term complications were sialitis and local neck tenderness while hypothyroidism was the commonest long term complication. (author)

  9. Radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.V.; Hurley, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism is a clinical symptom complex caused by elevated thyroid hormone levels. Of the disorders in which it appears, the most common is Graves' disease; toxic nodular goiter (Plummer's disease) is considerably less frequent. Recent studies suggest that Graves' disease is autoimmune in origin and is probably caused by a genetic defect in immunoserveillance in which thyroid-stimulating antibodies interact with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor sites on thyroid follicular cell membranes to increase synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones. Toxic nodular goiter is characterized by the secretion of increased amounts of thyroid hormone by localized autonomous areas of increased function within the thyroid gland. Other forms of hyperthyroidism are discussed. Radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroidism is described

  10. Radioiodination of antibodies for tumor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, G.B.

    1983-01-01

    In view of the great potential of radioiodinated antibody for the detection and treatment of cancer, the present article deals with the various techniques of radioiodination of antibody and their uses. Topics include methods of iodination of antibody, advantages and disadvantages of different methods, and effects of radioiodination on the antibody molecules with respect to their physiochemical and immunologic reactivity. In addition, the clinical usefulness of radioiodinated antibodies is discussed. (Auth.)

  11. Radioiodination of humic substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, K.; Kupsch, H. [Inst. of Interdisciplinary Isotope Research, Leipzig (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The known IODO-GEN trademark -method was adapted for radiolabeling of humic and fulvic acids with {sup 131}I. The water insoluble oxidizing agent 1,3,4,6tetrachloro-3{alpha},6{alpha}-diphenylglycoluril (IODO-GEN trademark) forms an iodous ion species (I{sup +}), which undergoes an electrophilic I/H-substitution on aromatic moieties of the humic and fulvic acids. This method offers mild conditions with a lesser extent of oxidative alterations of the target molecule, accompanied by an easy handling due to the virtual water-insolubility of the oxidizing agent. The method was optimized and different techniques were tested for the purification of the radioiodinated humic material. The yield of the labeling procedure varies between 45 and 75% depending on the provenance of the humic material and the applied purification method. A specific activity up to 40 MBq/mg was achieved. Furthermore, the known inherent photo-susceptibility of the iodinated humic substance and the influence of reducing agents were verified. An additional release of {sup 131}I up to 20% and up to 35%, respectively were observed. (orig.)

  12. Radioiodine removal in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Technical means are reviewed available for the retention of radioiodine in nuclear power plants and fuel reprocessing plants, its immobilization, storage, and disposal. The removal of iodine species from gaseous effluents of nuclear power plants using impregnated activated charcoal is dealt with. Various scrubbing techniques for trapping iodine from the head-end and dissolver off-gases are discussed as well as solid adsorbents for iodine which may be used to clean up other gaseous streams. Current practices and activities for radioiodine treatment and management in Belgian, Dutch, Swedish, USSR and UK nuclear installations are presented

  13. Endocrine ophthalmopathy and radioiodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, F. Anders

    2006-01-01

    Endocrine ophthalmopathy is to some degree present in most patients with Graves' disease. In few cases, a severe form of the condition develops and in the majority of these cases, the course of the eye problems has been influenced by the treatment for thyrotoxicosis. In this regard, radioiodine therapy has been increasingly recognized as carrying a special risk. Here, the current understanding of endocrine ophthalmopathy and the risks associated with the development of severe eye disease are discussed. The results of a retrospective investigation of patients with severe eye disease in our hospital, and the experience with corticosteroid administration following radioiodine in order to reduce the risk of ophthalmopathy, are also presented

  14. Radioiodine therapy and thyrostatic drugs and iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moka, D.; Dietlein, M.; Schicha, H. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Cologne, Joseph Stelzmannstrasse 9, 50924 Koeln (Germany)

    2002-08-01

    Radioiodine therapy is now the most common definite treatment for persistent hyperthyroidism. The outcome of radioiodine therapy depends mainly on the absorbed energy dose in the diseased thyroid tissue. The administered activity and the resulting target dose in the thyroid depend on both the biokinetics of radioiodine and the actual therapeutic effect of radioiodine in the thyroid. Thyrostatic drugs have a major influence on the kinetics of radioiodine in the thyroid and may additionally have a radioprotective effect. Pre-treatment with thyrostatic medication lowers the effective half-life and uptake of radioiodine. This can reduce the target dose in the thyroid and have a negative influence on the outcome of the therapy. Discontinuation of medication shortly before radioiodine administration can increase the absorbed energy dose in the thyroid without increasing the whole-body exposure to radiation as much as would a higher or second radioiodine administration. Furthermore, administration of non-radioactive iodine-127 2-3 days after radioiodine administration can also increase the effective half-life of radioiodine in the thyroid. Thus, improving the biokinetics of radioiodine will allow lower activities to be administered with lower effective doses to the rest of the body, while achieving an equally effective target dose in the thyroid. (orig.)

  15. Radioiodine in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grauby, A.; Saas, A.

    1979-01-01

    An experimental procedure was developed in order to follow the pathways of radioiodine, 129 I especially, through the various compartments of nuclear plant environment: atmosphere, soil, plants, precipitations, ... A partial evaluation of the results is made. Data are supplied on iodine transfer into soil, iodine distribution one year later, release of iodine at the level of soil and plants. The intake of various forms of iodine in a soil and the evaluation of availability to plants by chemical tests showed that radioactive iodine ( 125 I) reached equilibrium with stable iodine after 120 - 140 days of incubation. During this time, there was a large amount of iodine exchangeable against a KI solution N/10. Equilibrium was reached progressively by iodine transfer on soil organic molecules. According to the origin of contamination, the transfer was more or less fast and differences were especially noticed in volatile iodine release and on chemical mobility. During intake, potential hazard of soil, groundwater, plant and atmospheric contaminations was greater. Iodine-129 is presently one of the chief contributors to air pollution around nuclear installations because of its radioactive half-life (1.72 x 10 7 yr) rather than on account of the amounts released. Just as with iodine-131, it is released into the atmosphere under many chemical forms. However, 129 I reaches man through several food chains and not only through the air-grass-cow-milk food chain. The values of its deposition rate on soil and plants are fairly dispersed because of its changing reactivity due to its chemical instability. On account of this chemical complexity, the transfer of iodine along the air-soil-plant system was studied using 125 I. (author)

  16. Radioiodine therapy and subsequent pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandao, Carmen Dolores G.; Miranda, Angelica E.; Corres, Nilson Duarte; Sieiro Neto, Lino; Corbo, Rossana; Vaisman, Mario

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate abortion and fetal congenital anomaly rates in women previously submitted to radioiodine therapy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Study design: A case-control study of 108 pregnant women, 48 cases whose pregnancies were evaluated after they had undergone radioiodine therapy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma, and the control group consisted of 60 healthy pregnant women. Results: Of a total of 66 pregnancies, 14 conceived within the first year, 51 one or more years after the last administration of 131 I, the medical record of one patient was not available. The interval between the last radioiodine therapy administration and conception ranged from 1 month to 10 years. There were a total of 4 miscarriages, 2 of them for unknown reasons. There was one case of congenital anomaly and two preterms birth. Nine women presented the following pregnancy events: placental insufficiency, hypertensive crisis, placental detachment, risk of miscarriage, preterm labour and four miscarriages. No statistical difference was observed between the studied and control groups. Conclusion: Radioiodine was followed by no significant increase in untoward effects in neither the pregnancy nor the offspring. (author)

  17. New prospects in radioiodine production technologies and radioiodination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J [Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia, Budapest. Izotopintezete

    1984-01-01

    A new economical dry distillation procedure was developed to produce /sup 131/I or /sup 125/I from irradiated TeO/sub 2/ melt and xenon gas, respectively. The method can be applied to the thermodesorptive radioiodination of different types of water soluble or insoluble organic compounds: oleic acid, prostaglandin, insulin, ACTH, antipyrine. The labelling procedure is based on the thermolysis of the stable Pt(I) surface compound.

  18. Radioiodine therapy of thyroid autonomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiners, Christoph; Schneider, Peter [Clinic and Policlinic for Nuclear Medicine, University of Wuerzburg, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 2, 97080 Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2002-08-01

    Over half a century, treatment of thyroid autonomy with an oral dose of iodine-131 has proven to be effective. The optimum management strategy for the patient is, however, still a matter of debate. The article provides an overview of the pathogenesis of functional autonomy and its clinical relevance. According to the guidelines on both sides of the Atlantic, radioiodine treatment is considered the most comfortable and economical approach to the treatment of the toxic nodular goitre. Some differences in the preparation procedures in the guidelines of the American and the German Society of Nuclear Medicine are discussed with respect to therapy results and the subtypes of thyroid autonomy. The results of studies are summarised concerning changes in thyroid function and thyroid volume after a course of radioiodine treatment. Therapy-related risks, such as immunogenic hypothyroidism or thyroid cancer, are discussed. {sup 131}I treatment of functional autonomy and hyperthyroidism is considered an effective and safe procedure. (orig.)

  19. Radioiodine therapy of thyroid autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiners, Christoph; Schneider, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Over half a century, treatment of thyroid autonomy with an oral dose of iodine-131 has proven to be effective. The optimum management strategy for the patient is, however, still a matter of debate. The article provides an overview of the pathogenesis of functional autonomy and its clinical relevance. According to the guidelines on both sides of the Atlantic, radioiodine treatment is considered the most comfortable and economical approach to the treatment of the toxic nodular goitre. Some differences in the preparation procedures in the guidelines of the American and the German Society of Nuclear Medicine are discussed with respect to therapy results and the subtypes of thyroid autonomy. The results of studies are summarised concerning changes in thyroid function and thyroid volume after a course of radioiodine treatment. Therapy-related risks, such as immunogenic hypothyroidism or thyroid cancer, are discussed. 131 I treatment of functional autonomy and hyperthyroidism is considered an effective and safe procedure. (orig.)

  20. Radioiodine treatment of Grave's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidenreich, P.; Vogt, H.; Dorn, R.; Graf, G.; Kopp, J.

    2001-01-01

    In Germany radioiodine therapy of Grave's disease is performed in patients older than 20 years, after at least one year of unsuccessful antithyroid therapy, intolerance against antithyroid medication, recurrences after surgical interventions and small goiters. Hyperthyroidism is eliminated with an ablative dose concept (300 Gy) in more than 90% associated with rate of hypothyroidism in the outcome of also more than 90%. Adverse prognostic factors are an insufficient dose to the thyroid and/or concomitant antithyreoid medication. Radioiodine therapy in Germany must be an inpatient single time approach due to quality assurance and radiation protection reasons. The mean hospitalization is only 3-4 days with the patient being discharged at an annual dose of less than 1 mSv at 2 m distance (dose rate at discharge [de

  1. Beyond radioiodine: novel therapies in advanced thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugen, Bryan R.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Thyroid cancer is a relatively common endocrine malignancy. Fortunately, many patients do well with standard therapy including surgery and radioiodine. A minority of patients have poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma that is unresponsive to radioiodine therapy. Redifferentiation agents that 'reprogram ' these tumors to concentrate radioiodine would be of great value in treating patients with advanced thyroid cancer. The retinoid isotretinoin is the most extensively studied of these agents. It appears that 20-40% of patients respond to isotretinoin treatment by concentration of radioiodine in metastatic tumors, but the clinical utility of this redifferentiation is still unclear. In vitro studies suggest that the retinoid receptors RARβ and RXRγ are required for this effect. Abnormal DNA methylation may be an early event in thyroid tumorigenesis and methylation of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) may play a role in loss of iodine concentration in these tumors. Inhibitors of methylation (5-azacytidine, phenylacetate and sodium butyrate) have been shown to increase NIS expression and iodine uptake in cell culture models, but published trials in humans are not yet available. Histone acetylation is required for efficient transcription of genes necessary for differentiated function. Proteins that cause histone deacetylation inhibit gene transcription and differentiated function. Inhibitors of histone deacetylation (depsipeptide, trichostatin A) have been shown to increase NIS expression and iodine uptake in poorly differentiated and undifferentiated cell lines. Finally, commonly used agents such as thiazolidine diones (diabetes) and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (hypercholesterolemia) have shown promise in preliminary in vitro studies in advanced thyroid cancer cell lines. Our own work has focused on receptor-selective retinoids and thiazolidine diones as potential therapy in patients with advanced thyroid cancer based on nuclear hormone receptor

  2. Radioiodine Therapy for Graves’ Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhdomi, B.K.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of grave diseases include Antithyroid medications, Iodine-131 therapy and Surgery. First patient treated with radioiodine (Iodine-130) in 1941, while Iodine-131 therapy was introduced in 1946. Factors affecting treatment include Iodine uptake; Size of goitre; Length of time I-131 is retained in the gland; Homogeneity of distribution within the gland; Radiosensitivity of thyroid cells and Drug interactions. Some side effects include Transient sore throat or mild dysphagia; Exacerbation of ophthalmopathy; Radiation thyroiditis and no increase in incidence of thyroid cancer and Leukemia or other malignancies. There no harmful effect upon Health of progeny; Fertility and Reproductive history

  3. Radioiodine uptake in inactive pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakheet, S.M.; Powe, J.; Al Suhaibani, H.; Hammami, M.M.; Bazarbashi, M.

    1999-01-01

    Radioiodine may accumulate at sites of inflammation or infection. We have seen such accumulation in six thyroid cancer patients with a history of previously treated pulmonary tuberculosis. We also review the causes of false-positive radioiodine uptake in lung infection/inflammation. Eight foci of radioiodine uptake were seen on six iodine-123 diagnostic scans. In three foci, the uptake was focal and indistinguishable from thyroid cancer pulmonary metastases from thyroid cancer. In the remaining foci, the uptake appeared nonsegmental, linear or lobar, suggesting a false-positive finding. The uptake was unchanged, variable in appearance or non-persistent on follow-up scans and less extensive than the fibrocystic changes seen on chest radiographs. In the two patients studied, thyroid hormone level did not affect the radioiodine lung uptake and there was congruent gallium-67 uptake. None of the patients had any evidence of thyroid cancer recurrence or of reactivation of tuberculosis and only two patients had chronic intermittent chest symptoms. Severe bronchiectasis, active tuberculosis, acute bronchitis, respiratory bronchiolitis, rheumatoid arthritis-associated lung disease and fungal infection such as Allescheria boydii and aspergillosis can lead to different patterns of radioiodine chest uptake mimicking pulmonary metastases. Pulmonary scarring secondary to tuberculosis may predispose to localized radioiodine accumulation even in the absence of clinically evident active infection. False-positive radioiodine uptake due to pulmonary infection/inflammation should be considered in thyroid cancer patients prior to the diagnosis of pulmonary metastases. (orig.)

  4. Radioiodine in the Savannah River Site environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kantelo, M.V.; Bauer, L.R.; Marter, W.L.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Zeigler, C.C.

    1993-01-15

    Radioiodine, which is the collective term for all radioactive isotopes of the element iodine, is formed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) principally as a by-product of nuclear reactor operations. Part of the radioiodine is released to the environment during reactor and reprocessing operations at the site. The purpose of this report is to provide an introduction to radioiodine production and disposition, its status in the environment, and the radiation dose and health risks as a consequence of its release to the environment around the Savannah River Plant. A rigorous dose reconstruction study is to be completed by thee Center for Disease Control during the 1990s.

  5. Radioiodine in the Savannah River Site environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantelo, M.V.; Bauer, L.R.; Marter, W.L.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Zeigler, C.C.

    1993-01-01

    Radioiodine, which is the collective term for all radioactive isotopes of the element iodine, is formed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) principally as a by-product of nuclear reactor operations. Part of the radioiodine is released to the environment during reactor and reprocessing operations at the site. The purpose of this report is to provide an introduction to radioiodine production and disposition, its status in the environment, and the radiation dose and health risks as a consequence of its release to the environment around the Savannah River Plant. A rigorous dose reconstruction study is to be completed by thee Center for Disease Control during the 1990s

  6. Radioiodine uptake by plants from soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabova, T.

    1976-01-01

    The uptake and accumulation of radioiodine by wheat, maize and peas from various types of soil have been studied. The uptake depends on the type of soil, on its content of organic matter and on the amount of fertilizer. Radioiodine is mainly accumulated in the roots. Accumulation in above-ground plant parts decreases in the following order: wheat, maize, peas. Uptake was highest from humus and clay soils and lowest from black and meadow soils. Application of chloride fertilizer or carrier iodine lead to an increase of radioiodine uptake in the whole plant. (author)

  7. A review of age dependent radioiodine dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Age dependent models of radioiodine metabolism in humans have been described. These models have been used to calculate age dependent committed doses to the thyroid from intakes of radioiodines. A model of fetal iodine metabolism is also described and used to calculate fetal thyroid doses from intakes of radioiodines by the mother. These doses are calculated using model parameter values thought to be representative of average for North American/European populations. Considerable variability from these results can be expected for individuals. In addition, population with significant differences in stable iodine intake, and in body parameters, will have model parameters somewhat different than the ones described in this paper. These different model parameters will result in different doses from intakes of radioiodines, but it is doubtful if the differences in population would be as large as the variation between individuals. 25 refs.; 11 figs.; 1 table

  8. Radioiodine treatment for pediatric hyperthyroid Grave's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ma; Jiawei, Xie; Guoming, Wang; Jianbin, Liu; Wanxia, Liu; Driedger, Al; Shuyao, Zuo; Qin, Zhang

    2009-10-01

    Grave's disease (GD) is an autoimmune disease in which excessive amounts of thyroid hormones circulate in the blood. Treatment for pediatric GD includes (1) antithyroid drugs (ATD), (2) radioiodine, and (3) thyroidectomy. Yet, the optimal therapy remains controversial. We collected studies from all electronically available sources as well as from conferences held in China. All studies using radioiodine and/or ATD and/or thyroidectomy were included. Information was found on 1,874 pediatric GD patients treated with radioiodine, 1,279 patients treated with ATD and 1,362 patients treated surgically. The cure rate for radioiodine was 49.8%; the incidence of hypothyroidism, 37.8%; of relapse, 6.3%; of adverse effects, 1.55%; and of drop outs, 0.6%. These data show that radioiodine treatment is safe and effective in pediatric GD with significant lower incidence of relapse and adverse effects but significantly higher incidence of hypothyroidism as compared with both ATD and thyroidectomy. For the time being, radioiodine treatment for pediatric GD remains an excellent first-line therapy and a good second-line therapy for patients with ATD failure, severe complications, or poor compliance.

  9. Radioiodinated tracers for myocardial imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, P.V.; Corbett, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in the efficient production of high purity radioiodine (123I) and new efficient radiolabeling techniques have allowed the development of new classes of cardiovascular radiopharmaceuticals. These include 123I-labeled fatty acids to assess myocardial metabolism, 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) for myocardial neuronal activity, labeled monoclonal antibodies for myocardial necrosis, and labeled lipoproteins for receptor concentration. 123I-labeled fatty acids and MIBG are under clinical investigation with encouraging results. 123I- and 111In-labeled fragments of monoclonal antibodies to myosin have been used for imaging myocardial necrosis in humans. The development of radiotracers for imaging of cholinergic and adrenergic receptors is still in the experimental stage. Recent advances in imaging instrumentation and radiopharmaceuticals have resulted in cardiac imaging applications beyond blood pool ventriculography, perfusion, and infarct-avid imaging. Developments of radioiodine (123I)-labeled agents promise to play an important role in the assessment of myocardial metabolism, neuronal activity, and receptor concentration. The chemistry of iodine is well defined compared with that of 99mTc; therefore, iodine isotopes are well suited for labeling biologically important molecules. Among the iodine isotopes, 123I has nearly ideal nuclear properties for nuclear medical applications with a 13.3-hour half-life (T1/2) and 159 keV gamma emission (83%). Despite the nearly ideal chemical and nuclear properties of 123I, the widespread application of 123I-based radiopharmaceuticals in clinical practice has been limited by high production costs (123I is produced in a cyclotron), relatively limited availability, and the presence of undesirable radionuclidic impurities (124I, T1/2 = 4.2 days; 125I, T1/2 = 60 days; 126I, T1/2 = 13.1 days). 77 references

  10. Radiostatine and radioiodine uptake characterization in sodium iodine symporter-expressing cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrich, T.; Helmeke, H.J.; Meyer, G.J.; Knapp, W.H.; Poetter, E.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The sodium iodide symporter (NIS) has been recognized as an attractive target for cancer gene therapy. Here we investigated NIS-mediated transport of the high LET α-emitter astatine, 211 At, in comparison to radioiodine. A constitutive expression vector harbouring the human NIS cDNA was used in combination with reporter gene vectors for transient transfection of 13 different human cancer cell lines. Radioiodine uptake was measured as well as transfection efficiencies. Six stable NIS-expressing cell lines (3 derived from thyroid carcinomas, 2 colon carcinoma, 1 glioblastoma) were generated by antibiotic selection. NIS expression was monitored by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Subsequently the radioastatine and radioiodine uptake characteristics of genetically modified cells were studied in comparison to the respective control cells. After xenotransplantation in nude mice in vivo tumor imaging by scintigraphy and biodistribution studies following organ removal were performed. Transient transfection of NIS cDNA led to high specific sodium perchlorate-sensitive radioiodine uptake in NIS-expressing cells that roughly correlates to transfection efficiencies. Similarly, stable NIS-expressing cell lines were able to concentrate high levels of radioiodine and in addition showed comparable transport capacity for radioastatine. Accumulation of 211 At was inhibited by sodium perchlorate like iodide uptake and displayed dependency an extracellular Na + - and I - -ions as well. Compared to wash-out experiments in cell culture the effective half life of radioiodine and radioastatine in vivo was significantly prolonged. Preliminary dose calculations by MIRD concepts indicated higher tumor radiation doses for 211 At compared to 131 I. Tumor cells of different origins transfected with the NIS-expression vector specifically and significantly take-up radioiodine and radioastatine in vitro and in vivo. The data provide direct evidence that the NIS efficiently transports

  11. The history of radioiodine therapy beginnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Olegovich Rumiantsev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This report contains historical review of radioiodine therapy invention and clinical implementation for the treatment of patients with diffuse toxic goiter and differentiated thyroid cancer. In 1923 Henry Plummer has strongly recommended to prescribe stable iodine in patients with Grave’s diseases after surgery in order to prevent thyrotoxic storm. Radioactive isotopes of iodine for the first time were obtained by Enrico Fermi in 1934 in laboratory. Clinical implementation of radioiodine was started in 40th years of past century. In 1940 experimentally have been shown that thyroid gland with Grave’s disease accumulated as much as 80% of radioiodine administered activity. Saul Hertz was the first physician who used radioactive iodine in January, 1941 with purpose to treat diffuse toxic goiter patients. Samuel Seidlin was first who used radioiodine in March, 1943 to treat patient with functioned differentiated thyroid cancer metastases. In Russia radioiodine treatment of patients started since 1982 in Medical Radiological Research Centre (former Institute of Medical Radiology, Obninsk.

  12. Radioiodinated ligands for dopamine receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, H.F.

    1994-01-01

    The dopamine receptor system is important for normal brain function; it is also the apparent action site for various neuroleptic drugs for the treatment of schizophrenia and other metal disorders. In the past few years radioiodinated ligands for single photon emission tomography (SPECT) have been successfully developed and tested in humans: [ 123 I]TISCH for D1 dopamine receptors; [ 123 I]IBZM, epidepride, IBF and FIDA2, four iodobenzamide derivatives, for D2/D3 dopamine receptors. In addition, [ 123 I]β-CIT (RTI-55) and IPT, cocaine derivatives, for the dopamine reuptake site are potentially useful for diagnosis of loss of dopamine neurons. The first iodinated ligand, (R)trans-7-OH-PIPAT, for D3 dopamine receptors, was synthesized and characterized with cloned cell lines (Spodoptera frugiperda, Sf9) expressing the D2 and D3 dopamine receptors and with rat basal forebrain membrane preparations. Most of the known iodobenzamides displayed similar potency in binding to both D2 and D3 dopamine receptors expressed in the cell lines. Initial studies appear to suggest that by fine tuning the structures it may be possible to develop agents specific for D2 and D3 dopamine receptors. It is important to investigate D2/D3 selectivity for this series of potent ligands

  13. Procedure guideline for radioiodine test (version 3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietlein, M.; Schicha, H.; Eschner, W.; Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Medizinische Physik; Koeln Univ.; Lassmann, M.; Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Medizinische Physik; Wuerzburg Univ.; Leisner, B.; Allgemeines Krankenhaus St. Georg, Hamburg; Reiners, C.; Wuerzburg Univ.

    2007-01-01

    The version 3 of the procedure guideline for radioiodine test is an update of the guideline previously published in 2003. The procedure guideline discusses the pros and cons of a single measurement or of repeated measurements of the iodine-131 uptake and their optimal timing. Different formulas are described when one, two or three values of the radioiodine kinetic are available. The probe with a sodium-iodine crystal, alternatively or additionally the gamma camera using the ROI-technique are instrumentations for the measurement of iodine-131 uptake. A possible source of error is an inappropriate measurement (sonography) of the target volume. The patients' preparation includes the withdrawal of antithyroid drugs 2-3 days before radioiodine administration. The patient has to avoid iodine-containing medication and the possibility of additives of iodine in vitamin- and electrolyte-supplementation has to be considered. (orig.)

  14. Research on removal of radioiodine by charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wangchang; Huang Yuying; Wu Yianwei; Jia Ming; Guo Liangtian

    1993-01-01

    The major R and D work carried out in the CIRP laboratory on removal of radioiodine is introduced, which involves the adsorption performances of various kinds of fruit shell base and coal base charcoal impregnated with chemicals, the influence of various parameters, the technique of non-destructive test for commercial scale iodine adsorber, and the iodine samplers for both gross iodine and iodine in different forms. The experimental results have been applied to the design and test of iodine adsorber and the monitoring of airborne radioiodine

  15. Government-industry conference on airborne radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchsted, C.A.

    1975-01-01

    The Working Group on Airborne Radioiodine met at AEC Headquarters on March 28, 1974. Dr. Alex Perge gave the introduction for the Division of Waste Management and Transportation, noting the Commission hopes that private industry will take a bigger share in the future in funding and initiating needed research; that there should be a greater effort in the direction of reducing the quantity of material that becomes contaminated as an avenue toward reducing the airborne radioiodine problem, and toward reducing the waste generated to a form suitable for direct storage; and that the Commission must ensure valid bases for future regulations governing airborne releases and contamination. Dr. First discussed the background of the review committee and its outgrowth from the earlier organization meeting. He noted that its function will be the coordination of efforts concerned with the radioiodine problem and the dissemination of information and research data. A major objective of this meeting was to identify subjects for discussion at the Government-Industry Conference of Adsorbers and Adsorbents which will be held in conjunction with the 13th AEC Air Cleaning Conference in August. Mr. Dempsey noted that the gaseous effluent program had been inherited by WMT from the Division of Operational Safety, and that an important function of these continuing meetings of the Working Group will be to guide WMT in the expenditure of funds and assignment of research related to the radioiodine problem. (U.S.)

  16. Immobilization of radioiodine in synthetic boracite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babad, H.; Strachan, D.M.

    1982-09-23

    A nuclear waste storage product is disclosed in which radioiodine is incorporated in a synthetic boracite. The boracite may be prepared by reacting a transition metal iodide with an alkali horate under mild hydrothermal conditions, drying the reaction product, and then hot pressing.

  17. Imaging of human sodium-iodide symporter gene expression mediated by recombinant adenovirus in skeletal muscle of living rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hyun Suk; Park, Seong-Wook; Lee, Heuiran; Kim, Sung Jin; Lee, Won Woo; Yang, You-Jung; Moon, Dae Hyuk

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of non-invasive imaging of recombinant adenovirus-mediated human sodium-iodide symporter (hNIS) gene expression by 99m TcO 4 - scintigraphy in skeletal muscle of rats. Replication-defective recombinant adenovirus encoding hNIS gene [Rad-CMV-hNIS 5 x 10 7 , 2 x 10 8 or 1 x 10 9 plaque forming units (pfu)] or β-galactosidase gene (Rad-CMV-LacZ 1 x 10 9 pfu) was injected into the right biceps femoris muscle of rats (n=5-6 for each group). Three days after gene transfer, scintigraphy was performed using a gamma camera 30 min after injection of 99m TcO 4 - (1.85 MBq). An additional two rats injected with 1 x 10 9 pfu of Rad-CMV-hNIS underwent 99m TcO 4 - scintigraphy with sodium perchlorate. After the imaging studies, rats were sacrificed for assessment of the biodistribution of 99m TcO 4 - and measurement of hNIS mRNA expression. In all the rats injected with 1 x 10 9 pfu of Rad-CMV-hNIS, hNIS expression was successfully imaged by 99m TcO 4 - scintigraphy, while rats injected with Rad-CMV-LacZ or lower doses of Rad-CMV-hNIS failed to show uptake. The biodistribution studies indicated that a significantly different amount of 99m TcO 4 - was retained in the liver (p 9 pfu of Rad-CMV-hNIS. The muscular hNIS mRNA level quantified by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was significantly higher in rats injected with 1 x 10 9 pfu of Rad-CMV-hNIS (p 9 pfu of Rad-CMV-hNIS were specifically inhibited by sodium perchlorate. This study illustrated that 99m TcO 4 - scintigraphy can monitor Rad-CMV-hNIS-mediated gene expression in skeletal muscle of rats, non-invasively and quantitatively. (orig.)

  18. Imaging of human sodium-iodide symporter gene expression mediated by recombinant adenovirus in skeletal muscle of living rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hyun Suk; Park, Seong-Wook [Department of Internal Medicine (Cardiology), Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1 Pungnap-dong, Songpa-gu, 138-736, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Heuiran; Kim, Sung Jin [Department of Microbiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Won Woo [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Yang, You-Jung; Moon, Dae Hyuk [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

    2004-09-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of non-invasive imaging of recombinant adenovirus-mediated human sodium-iodide symporter (hNIS) gene expression by {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} scintigraphy in skeletal muscle of rats. Replication-defective recombinant adenovirus encoding hNIS gene [Rad-CMV-hNIS 5 x 10{sup 7}, 2 x 10{sup 8} or 1 x 10{sup 9} plaque forming units (pfu)] or {beta}-galactosidase gene (Rad-CMV-LacZ 1 x 10{sup 9} pfu) was injected into the right biceps femoris muscle of rats (n=5-6 for each group). Three days after gene transfer, scintigraphy was performed using a gamma camera 30 min after injection of {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} (1.85 MBq). An additional two rats injected with 1 x 10{sup 9} pfu of Rad-CMV-hNIS underwent {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} scintigraphy with sodium perchlorate. After the imaging studies, rats were sacrificed for assessment of the biodistribution of {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} and measurement of hNIS mRNA expression. In all the rats injected with 1 x 10{sup 9} pfu of Rad-CMV-hNIS, hNIS expression was successfully imaged by {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} scintigraphy, while rats injected with Rad-CMV-LacZ or lower doses of Rad-CMV-hNIS failed to show uptake. The biodistribution studies indicated that a significantly different amount of {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} was retained in the liver (p<0.001) and the right muscle (p<0.05), with the highest uptake in rats injected with 1 x 10{sup 9} pfu of Rad-CMV-hNIS. The muscular hNIS mRNA level quantified by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was significantly higher in rats injected with 1 x 10{sup 9} pfu of Rad-CMV-hNIS (p<0.05), with a positive correlation with the imaging counts (r=0.810, p<0.05) and the biodistribution (r=0.847, p<0.001). Hot spots in rats injected with 1 x 10{sup 9} pfu of Rad-CMV-hNIS were specifically inhibited by sodium perchlorate. This study illustrated that {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} scintigraphy can monitor Rad-CMV-hNIS-mediated gene expression in

  19. Guideline for radioiodine therapy for benign thyroid diseases (version 4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietlein, M.; Schicha, H.; Moser, E.; Reiners, C.; Schneider, P.; Schober, O.

    2007-01-01

    Version 4 of the guideline for radioiodine therapy for benign thyroid diseases includes an interdisciplinary consensus ondecision making for antithyroid drugs, surgical treatment and radioiodine therapy. The quantitative description of a specific goiter volume for radioiodine therapy or operation was cancelled. For patients with nodular goiter with or without autonomy, manifold circumstances are in favor of surgery (suspicion on malignancy, large cystic nodules, mediastinal goiter, severe compression of the trachea) or in favor of radioiodine therapy (treatment of autonomy, age of patient, co-morbidity, history of prior subtotal thyroidectomy, profession like teacher, speaker or singer). For patients with Graves' disease, radioiodine therapy or surgery are recommended in the constellation of high risk of relapse (first-line therapy), persistence of hyperthyroidism or relapse of hyperthyroidism. After counseling, the patient gives informed consent to the preferred therapy. The period after radioiodine therapy of benign disorders until conception of at least four months was adapted to the European recommendation. (orig.)

  20. Evaluation of radioiodinated and radiocopper labeled monovalent fragments of monoclonal antibody chCE7 for targeting of neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrel, Francois; Amstutz, Hanspeter; Novak-Hofer, Ilse; Schubiger, P. August

    1997-01-01

    Monovalent fragments of antineuroblastoma antibody mAb chCE7 were evaluated for their in vitro and in vivo tumor cell binding properties. Single chain fragments were constructed from the variable region genes cloned from hybridoma cells, expressed in E.coli and purified by metal chelate affinity chromatography. Radioiodinated CE7-scFv fragments were found to bind with high affinity (K d ∼10 -9 M) to target cells in vitro but formed aggregates at 37 deg. C, and bound to serum proteins in vitro and in vivo. Circular Dichroism spectra revealed the protein to be in a conformationally altered form and no permanent 'refolding' could be achieved. In contrast, chCE7-Fab fragments were found to bind to target tumor cells with similar affinity than the parent mAb chCE7 (K d ∼10 -10 M), showed no tendency to aggregate and were stable in serum both in vitro and in vivo. Kinetics of association and dissociation of radioiodinated scFv and Fab fragments were found to be rapid. Radioiodination with the Iodogen method led to impaired immunoreactivity which was found to further increase the off- rates of radioiodinated fragments from tumor cells. Radioiodination with the Bolton-Hunter reagent as well as labeling of chCE7-Fab fragments with 67 Cu via the macrocyclic CPTA ligand led to fully immunoreactive Fab fragments. Radioiodinated and radiocopper labeled monovalent CE7 fragments did not internalize into target tumor cells as the parent mAb and its F(ab') 2 fragment. A comparison of the biodistribution in tumor bearing nude mice of the radiocopper labeled monovalent, non internalizing Fab fragments with the internalizing divalent F(ab') 2 fragments showed in both cases high levels of radioactivity in the kidneys. Concerning tumor uptake, radioactivity from both internalizing and non internalizing fragments remained associated with tumor tissue for longer times than in case of the corresponding radioiodinated fragments. When compared with the radioiodinated forms, tumor uptake

  1. Current status of radioiodine (131I) treatment of hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.V.; Hurley, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Radioiodine appears to be increasingly selected as the primary form of therapy for most hyperthyroid adults. Some controversy exists concerning the use of I-131 in children and adolescents as well as in some patients with toxic nodular goiter. The technical aspects of radioiodine administration reviewed in this chapter include the biologic basis of I-131 use, dose strategies, measurement and evaluation of radioiodine parameters, and I-125 treatment of hyperthyroidism. The management of patients before and after I-131 treatment is discussed as well as posttreatment hypothyroidism and complications of radioiodine treatment

  2. Thyrotoxicosis and radioiodine therapy: Does the dose matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Collier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are 3 treatment options for thyrotoxicosis: Antithyroid drugs, Surgery and radioiodine. The choice of treatment varies geographically. Radioiodine therapy is preferred in the United States. The aim of radioiodine is to destroy sufficient thyroid tissue to cure the hyperthyroidism. There is a lack of consensus towards what dose of radioiodine should be used. Several methods are used to determine the dose. In our practice we administer 400 MBq to patients with Graves and in patients with large multinodular goiter, we would administer 800 MBq.

  3. Radioiodination of proteins by reductive alkylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panuska, J.R.; Parker, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    The use of the aliphatic aldehyde, para-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde as the reactive moiety in the radioiodination of proteins by reductive alkylation is described. The para-hydroxyphenyl group is radiolabeled with 125 I, reacted through its aliphatic aldehyde group with primary amino groups on proteins to form a reversible Schiff base linkage which can then be stabilized with the mild reducing agent NaCNBH 3 . The introduction of the methylene group between the benzene ring and the aldehyde group increases its reactivity with protein amino groups permitting efficient labeling at low aldehyde concentrations. Using this method, radioiodinated proteins with high specific activity can be produced. The reductive alkylation procedure is advantageous in that the labeling conditions are mild, the reaction is specific for lysyl residues, and the modification of the epsilon-ammonium group of lysine results in ionizable secondary amino groups avoiding major changes in protein charge

  4. Radioiodine treatment for malignant thyroid disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Gertrud [Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology

    2006-12-15

    Radioiodine treatment for thyroid disease has been given for half a decade in Sweden. The most common indication for treatment is hyperthyroidism, when iodine uptake is high. The situation in which radioiodine treatment is used in thyroid cancer is less favourable and measures therefore have to be taken to optimize the treatment. Treatment should be performed early in the course of the disease to achieve the highest possible differentiation. Before treatment the iodine and goitrogen intake should be kept low. Stimulation of the thyrocytes by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) should be high. It is conventionally achieved by thyroid hormone withdrawal rendering the patient hypothyroid, or by the recently available recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) which can be recommended for ablation of the thyroid remnant after thyroidectomy and for treatment of metastases in fragile patients unable to undergo hypothyroidism. Finally, stunning - the negative effect of a prior test dose from radioactive iodine - should be avoided.

  5. Results of radioiodine therapy of hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, A.

    1980-01-01

    Between 1971 and 1977, 102 hyperthyroidism patients were treated with 131 I. The average age of the patients was 64 years. In 78 patients, hyperthyroidism was due to decompensated autonomous adenoma, 24 patients presented with diffuse hyperthyroidism. The patients were observed for 14 to 24 months. Until early 1976, diagnosis and therapy success assessment were based on thyroid scintiscanning, radioiodine two-phase tests, PBI 131 , T 4 tests, and T 3 tests. Since 1976, the radioiodine two-phase test has been replaced by the TRH test, the TRH-RIA, and the T 4 -RIA. The patients were given 3 to 25 mCi 131 I. In 88 cases, euthyroidism was reached after a single therapy; in 8 cases, after two therapies; in 1 case, after three therapies; in 4 cases, after 4 therapies; in 1 case, after 5 therapies. Euthyroidism was thus reached in 96% of all cases after 131 I therapy of hyperthyroidism. (orig./MG) [de

  6. Transmission of radioiodine through sampling lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unrein, P.J.; Pelletier, C.A.; Cline, J.E.; Voilleque, P.G.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental program to measure radioiodine transmission through sampling lines is described. The transmission depends upon both deposition on and resuspension from the walls of the line. The deposition and resuspension processes are themselves controlled by the length, diameter, and material of the line and the conditions under which it is operated. The operating conditions under study are sampling flow rate, temperature and relative humidity. Measurement results have been interpreted in terms of a four-compartment model of radioiodine deposition and resuspension. The model is applied to each of twenty or more segments of the line. Experimental measurements of short-term transmission fractions and the deposition velocities derived from them are presented for six lines. Data on resuspension rates for the same lines were obtained and are also discussed

  7. Indirect labeling of proteins with radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Elaine Bortoleti de; Lavinas, Tatiana; Muramoto, Emiko; Pereira, Nilda P.S. de; Silva, Constancia P.G.; Tavares, Leoberto C.

    2000-01-01

    A procedure is described for the radioiodination of proteins using an iodinated derivative of N succinimidyl 3-(tri-n-butylstannyl)benzoate (ATE), previously described by Zalutsky. ATE was obtained in a high pure form and the iodination has been performed with 131-Iodine in 70-80% yield. Protein labeling studies performed with human IgG indicate that the ATE intermediate is an important alternative to conventional labeling methods. (author)

  8. Radioiodination via isotope exchange in pivalic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weichert, J.P.; Van Dort, M.E.; Groziak, M.P.; Counsell, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of benzoic and aryl aliphatic mono and polyiodinated acids and esters (sterol, triglyceride) were radioiodinated in 55-99% radiochemical yield by isotope exchange with Na 125 i in a melt of pivalic acid. In general, the reaction was complete in 1 h at 155 0 C with little or no substrate decomposition. High specific activity studies afforded 125 I-labeled iopanoic acid with a specific activity of over 700 Ci/mmol. (author)

  9. Synthesis and biological evaluation of [18F]tetrafluoroborate: a PET imaging agent for thyroid disease and reporter gene imaging of the sodium/iodide symporter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jauregui-Osoro, Maite; Sunassee, Kavitha; Weeks, Amanda J.; Berry, David J.; Paul, Rowena L.; Cleij, Marcel; O'Doherty, Michael J.; Marsden, Paul K.; Szanda, Istvan; Blower, Philip J.; Banga, Jasvinder Paul; Clarke, Susan E.M.; Ballinger, James R.; Cheng, Sheue-Yann

    2010-01-01

    The human sodium/iodide symporter (hNIS) is a well-established target in thyroid disease and reporter gene imaging using gamma emitters 123 I-iodide, 131 I-iodide and 99m Tc-pertechnetate. However, no PET imaging agent is routinely available. The aim of this study was to prepare and evaluate 18 F-labelled tetrafluoroborate ([ 18 F]TFB) for PET imaging of hNIS. [ 18 F]TFB was prepared by isotopic exchange of BF 4 - with [ 18 F]fluoride in hot hydrochloric acid and purified using an alumina column. Its identity, purity and stability in serum were determined by HPLC, thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and mass spectrometry. Its interaction with NIS was assessed in vitro using FRTL-5 rat thyroid cells, with and without stimulation by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), in the presence and absence of perchlorate. Biodistribution and PET imaging studies were performed using BALB/c mice, with and without perchlorate inhibition. [ 18 F]TFB was readily prepared with specific activity of 10 GBq/mg. It showed rapid accumulation in FRTL-5 cells that was stimulated by TSH and inhibited by perchlorate, and rapid specific accumulation in vivo in thyroid (SUV = 72 after 1 h) and stomach that was inhibited 95% by perchlorate. [ 18 F]TFB is an easily prepared PET imaging agent for rodent NIS and should be evaluated for hNIS PET imaging in humans. (orig.)

  10. Follow up of Graves' Opthalmopathy after radioiodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, M.S.R.; Paul, A. K.; Rahman, H.A.

    2002-01-01

    Graves' ophthalmopathy may first appear or worsen during or after treatment for hyperthyroidism. We followed up 158 Graves' hyperthyroid patients treated with radioiodine of which 49 had Grave's' ophthalmopathy during presentation in Nuclear Medicine Centre, Khulna during the period from 1995 to 2000. The aim of our study is to see the effect of radioiodine in Graves' ophthalmopathy. All the patients received radioiodine at fixed dose regime ranged from 7 mCi to 12 mCi. The duration of follow up was at least 12 months Graves' ophthalmopathy patients, 4 (4/49 i.e., 8.2%) showed exaggeration of ophthalmopathy and the rest (45/49 i.e., 91.8%) remained unchanged. None of ophthalmopathy developed among any of Graves' hyperthyroid or disappeared after radioiodine treatment during follow up period. From the study we concluded that eye changes in Graves' hyperthyroidism remain unchanged or exaggerated after radioiodine therapy and needs ophthalmologist care.(author)

  11. Quality control of radioiodinated gastrin for radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginabreda, M.G.P.; Borghi, V.C.; Bettarello, A.

    1988-07-01

    Radioiodinated human gastrin has been prepared at IPEN laboratory for radioimmunoassay use. This work developed the quality control of this tracer analyzing parameters of the labelling reaction, chromatographic purification and radioimmunoassay. The radioiodination yield obtained in five experiments was reproducible and similar when analyzed on 7% polyaraylamide gel eletrophoresis - PAGE - (mean + - SD of 51.70 + - 10.76%) and by1 25 I incorporation checked through thrichloroacetic acid precipitation - TCA - (57-36 + - 9.69%). Similary, after purification the labelled gastrin revaled high and reproducible purity degree when submitted to PAGE (96.57 + - 1.06%) and CA (94.82 + - 4.20%) analysis. The respective specific activities varied from 62 to 307 uCi/ug, being determined by the self-displacement method, which is based on the immunoactivity of the tracer. In this way, the antibody titers required to bind 50% of the tracer ranged from 1:32.000 to 1:180.000. Consequently, the respective doses producing 50% fall in the maximum response of the radioimmunoassays ranged from 155.0 to 24.0 pmol/1, but remained unchanged for each tracer even after three months of its preparations. The tracers presented very low non-specific binding values (1.78 + - 0.79%), stablespecific binding values (46.49 + - 5.65%) and a good between-assay precision, evaluated by an internal quality control sample (25.71 + - 4.30%) with coefficient of variation of 16.74%). The PAGE analysis of the unlabeled gastrin used in the first and last radioiodination revealed an unique and unaltered component, confirming the quality of the tracers. (author) [pt

  12. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma referred for radioiodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Balawi, Ibrahim A.; Meir, Hadir M.; Yousef, Mohammad K.; Nayel, Hala A.; Al-Mobarak, Mohammad F.

    2001-01-01

    The current work was conducted to study the disease status and treatment results of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma referred for radioactive iodine therapy. Retrospective review of 78 patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma referred for radioiodine therapy in the Nuclear Medicine Unit, King Abdulaziz Hospital and Oncology Center, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Analysis of the clinicopathologic characteristics, age correlation to different risk factors, treatment protocol and results were performed. Seventy seven percent were female and the female to male ratio was 3.5:1. The age of patients ranged between 13-63 years with a median age of 36 years. Cervical lymph node involvement was detected in 22 patients (25%). Papillary carcinoma was encountered in 78 patients (90%) and follicular carcinoma in 9 patients (10%). Analysis of the clinicopathologic characteristics showed no statistically significant difference between patients in the different age groups except for extrathyroid extension and lymph node involvement. Patients older than 45 years had a statistically significant lower incidence of nodal involvement and higher incidence of extra thyroid extension (P<0.02). In the current study we used a high dose method (Radioiodine-131 dose 75-100mCi) for thyroid remnant ablation after thyroidectomy (total or near total) in 67 patients. An Iodine 131 dose of 150 mCi was used in 12 patients with radioiodine-avid cervical lymph nodes and in 3 patients with gross residual tumor. In 4 patients with distant metastases an Iodine 131 dose of 200 mCi was used. For the whole study group the 5 year overall survival and disease-free survival was 96% and 88%. The current study, as with many other retrospective studies, concluded that despite the fact that differentiated thyroid carcinoma is among the most curable cancers, some patients are still at high risk for recurrent disease and associated mortality. (author)

  13. Radio-iodine treatment of hyperthyroid cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.R.; Cayzer, J.; Dillon, E.A.; Smidt, K.P.

    1991-01-01

    Thirty-two elderly domestic shorthaired cats (mean age 12.9 years) were treated with radioiodine (131I). The dose of 131I administered ranged from 39 mBq to 134 mBq. Twenty-eight cats became euthyroid after treatment, one became hypothyroid and three remained hyperthyroxaemic. Two of the hyperthyroxaemic cats were successfully re-treated with 131I. Five cats died from concurrent diseases within one year of treatment. The administration of a dose of 131I selected by assessing the severity of the clinical signs, the size of the thyroid gland(s) and the serum level of thyroxine was an effective treatment for hyperthyroidism

  14. Guidelines for radioiodinated MIBG scintigraphy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Pierre; Colarinha, Paula; Fettich, Jure; Fischer, Sibylle; Frökier, Jörgen; Giammarile, Francesco; Gordon, Isky; Hahn, Klaus; Kabasakal, Levent; Mann, Mike; Mitjavila, Mercedes; Piepsz, Amy; Porn, Ute; Sixt, Rune; van Velzen, Jeannette

    2003-05-01

    These guidelines on the use of radioiodinated (99m)Tc-MIBG scintigraphy in children, which summarise the views of the Paediatric Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine, provide a framework which may prove helpful to nuclear medicine teams in daily practice. They have been influenced by the conclusions of the "Consensus Guidelines for MIBG Scintigraphy" (Paris, November 6, 1997) of the European Neuroblastoma Group and by those of the Oncological Committee of the French Society of Nuclear Medicine. The guidelines should be taken in the context of "good practice" and any local/national rules which apply to nuclear medicine examinations.

  15. Radioiodine and radiotherapy in the management of thyroid cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    Radioiodine is an important adjuvant treatment in the management of resectable papillary and follicular thyroid cancers in all patients except those with the best prognostic features. External radiation is also an important adjuvant therapy in these patients, especially those with tumors that extend beyond the thyroid gland and invade the trachea, esophagus, nerves, and blood vessels; it is especially important in treating patients whose tumors do not concentrate radioiodine. Radioiodine may be curative in patients with microscopic distant metastases demonstrated by radioiodine scanning. Even unresectable primary papillary and follicular cancers may be eradicated by combined therapy with radioiodine and radiotherapy. Radioiodine plays no significant role in the treatment of medullary or anaplastic thyroid cancers, but external radiation may eradicate microscopic thyroid bed or nodal disease when persistent disease is indicated by elevated calcitonin levels in medullary thyroid cancer patients. Anaplastic thyroid cancers are usually unresectable and are not eradicated by conventional radiotherapy or by any of the novel radiation techniques, with or without chemotherapy. In all types of thyroid cancer, external radiotherapy may produce beneficial palliative results in patients with distant metastases, but the use of radioiodine should always be explored in papillary and follicular thyroid cancer patients. 30 references

  16. Radiation protection principles for radioiodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiners, C.; Lassmann, M.

    1999-01-01

    In Germany, approximately 30,000 treatments with radioiodine are performed yearly on patients with benign or malignant thyroid diseases. These are carried out generally in specialized therapy wards which are equipped with radiation protection facilities. Ambulant (fractionated) radioiodine treatment is not permitted in Germany. More recently, the situation has been that the discharge of patients is permitted, when they have spent a stay of at least 48 hours in the ward without the dose rate exceeding 3.5 μSv/hour at 2 meters distance from them, corresponding to 1 mSv/year (this correlates to a residual activity in the body of the patient of 250 MBq). The radiation exposure of personnel in the therapy ward due to both external and internal exposure lies within a range of a few mSv per year. According to recent studies, the exposure to family members and close friends via external exposure, inhalation or incorporation does not exceed the effective dose of 1 mSv/year. This value has been laid down in a recommendation by the European Union as the dose constraint for children; for adults younger than 60 years of age, 3 mSv are recommended, for older persons 15 mSv. (orig.) [de

  17. Behaviour of radioiodine in gaseous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, P.J.

    1968-01-01

    Because of the different chemical forms in which radioiodine occurs in the gaseous state, it is important when designing efficient filters to know the chemical forms which may be present in the effluent gases when various operations are being carried out and to know the effect of different gaseous environments on the filtration efficiency. To obtain this information it is necessary to have available reliable means of characterizing different chemical forms and to sample gaseous effluents when these operations are being carried out. This paper describes the use for identifying molecular iodine of metallic screens in a multi-component sampling pack in different gaseous environments. Using multi-component sampling packs, the fractionation of iodine nuclides between different chemical forms was measured in the effluent gases escaping from an in-pile test loop in which the fuel was deliberately ruptured by restricting the flow of coolant. Sequential samples were taken for six hours after the rupture and it was possible to follow during this period the individual behaviours of 13 '1I, 133 I and 135 I. Simultaneous samples were also obtained of the noble gases in the effluent gas stream and of the iodine nuclides in the loop coolant. Similar experiments have been carried out with a view to characterizing the different chemical behaviour of radioiodine as it is released from a variety of operations in the nuclear industry including the cutting of fuel sections in metallurgical examination caves and an incinerator. (author)

  18. Radioiodination of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.; Wang, L.; Yin, D.

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, increasing biochemical and radiochemical research has been performed to develop radiolabelled peptides as specific ligands for tumour associated receptors. VIP, a 28-amino acid peptide containing two tyrosines and three lysines, has demonstrated that various tumour cells express significantly higher amounts of VIP-receptors and could be applied to the clinic diagnosis. For these purposes, radiohalogenation of VIP by direct and indirect method was studied. Direct labelling works well for radioiodine but is limited to dehalogenation of labelling products in vivo. Conjugate labelling methods including Boltonhunter and wood reagents were developed but introduction of such a molecule to peptides may lead to the decrease of biological activity in vivo. In order to resolve these problems, N-Succinimidyl-3-(tri-nbutylstannyl) benzoate (ATE) was elected for the radioiodination of VIP and already employed to radioiodination of IgG successfully. The in vitro stability and biological activity would be compared in these two methods. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and human immunoglobulin (IgG) were radioiodinated by direct and indirect methods. Iodogen was employed in direct method and N-Succinimidyl-3-(tri-n-butylstannyl) benzoate (ATE) was applied as a prosthetic group in the conjugation labelling. The subject of our study was optimizing the radiohalogenation of IgG and VIP followed by separation and analysis of reaction products. The advantages and disadvantages were illustrated by comparing the in vitro stability and biological activity in these two methods. Na 123 I was prepared by nuclear reaction of 124 Te(p, 2n) 123 I using cyclone-30. More than 95% of radiochemical purity, more than 95% of radionuclide purity and about 100 mCi/mL of radioactivity concentration were obtained. ATE was supplied by Dr. Pozzi and radioiodinated with iodogen and 96% of labelling efficiency was obtained. The stability of radioactive S 125 IB kept well in dark at 4

  19. Reduction of thyroid volume following radioiodine therapy for functional autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luster, M.; Jacob, M.; Thelen, M.H.; Michalowski, U.; Deutsch, U.; Reiners, C.

    1995-01-01

    In a retrospective study we evaluated the data of 112 patients who underwent radioiodine treatment for functional autonomy of the thyroid at Essen University Hospital from 1988 to 1993. Therapeutic activities of radioiodine were administered after individual determination of activity for intended radiation doses (150-300 Gy) taking into consideration autonomously functioning volume, maximum uptake, and effective half-life. The achieved dose was calculated by means of measurement of the radioiodine kinetics during therapy. Depending on the type of autonomous function of the thyroid (solitary autonomously functioning nodule, multiple autonomously functioning nodules, autonomously functioning thyroid tissue) volume reductions between 39 and 46% were found approximately 6 months after treatment. (orig.) [de

  20. Immunogenic hyperthyroidism following radioiodine ablation of focal autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boddenberg, B.; Voth, E.; Schicha, H.

    1993-01-01

    Immunogenic hyperthyroidism rarely develops after radioiodine elimination of focal autonomous thyroid tissue. We observed this phenomenon in 8 patients between 1989 and 1992. The occurrence of immunogenic hyperthyroidism shortly after elimination of autonomous nodules has not been studied nor is it properly understood. Most studies known today describe the development of autonomous nodules in the course of immunogenic hyperthyroidism or ignore the chronologic order of occurrence. The possibility that immunogenic hyperthyroidism may occur after radioiodine therapy of autonomous nodules, makes a consequent follow-up within the first year following radioiodine therapy mandatory. (orig.) [de

  1. Extrathyroidal Radioiodine Accumulation in a Fibroadenoma of the Breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoung Hyoun; Kim, Hun Soo; Park, Soon-Ah

    2017-02-01

    A 45-year-old woman with a differentiated thyroid carcinoma received adjuvant radioiodine therapy following total thyroidectomy and left modified radical neck dissection. A posttherapy planar radioiodine scan showed multifocal uptake in the thyroid bed and left chest. SPECT/CT revealed a fibroadenoma in the left breast. Six months later, an I scan showed no iodine avidity in the breast fibroadenoma, whereas ultrasonography showed no significant change in the size of the fibroadenoma. Altered radioiodine uptake of a breast fibroadenoma can be observed on follow-up scans after cytotoxic radioiodide treatment in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

  2. Clinical research of juvenile hyperthyroidism treatment with radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Ling; Zhang Chunying; Chen Yue

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects and side effects in the radioiodine management of juvenile hyperthyroidism. Methods: 80 patients with poor effects using anti-thyroid drug were assigned to receive 131 I therapy. The follows of therapy outcome were assessed 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after the start of treatment. One follows up per 1-3 years. Results: Among 80 patients followed by 6 months, clinical response was excellent in 65 patients (81%), good in 15 (19%). There were 12 patients with hypothyroidism followed 4 years, and with no other side effects. Conclusion: The good therapeutic effect was obtained in radioiodine treatment for juvenile hyperthyroidism. Radioiodine was effective to juvenile hyperthyroidism

  3. Labelling of proteins with radioiodine and their application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franek, M.; Hampl, J.; Rodak, L.; Hruska, K.; Prochazka, Z.

    1975-01-01

    Various techniques of labelling proteins and peptides with radioactive iodine are reviewed. Particular attention is focused on the mechanism of iodination of tyrosine used as a model substance for radioiodination of proteins. Particular consideration is given to recent techniques attaining high specific radioactivity without side effects on the protein molecule and to factors affecting the rate of iodination and its character (buffers, polarity of the reaction environment, molecule type, etc.). The suitability is shown of radioiodinated proteins in the studies of protein metabolism and in the radioimmunoanalytical determination of substances of both the protein and non-protein nature. The possibility of further application of radioiodinated protein is discussed. (author)

  4. The indirect radioiodination of vasoactive intestinal peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lihua; Li Junling; Yin Duanzhi; Zhang Lei; Zhang Xiuli; Wang Yongxian

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To seek for an effective way to acquire radiolabeled vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) with excellent in vivo stability. N-succinimidyl-3-iodo-125-benzoate (S 125 IB) came from radioiodination of N-succinimidyl-3-(tri-n-butylstannyl) benzoate (ATE) precursor and then conjugated with VIP to form 125 IBA-VIP. The labelling procedure was optimized; the in vitro stability and biological activity were evaluated. Methods: 1) Radiolabeling of ATE precursor was achieved with iodogen oxidant and the influential factors were considered in this procedure. The labeling efficiency was determined by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and the purification was carried out by Sep-pak silica gel cartridge. The stability was detected by TLC after 2 h storage in dark at 4 degree C. 2) Conjugation of S 125 IB and VIP. The labelling efficiency was determined with RP TLC and the purification was carried out with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, RP C18 column). Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitation method was applied to evaluate the in vitro stability while the biological activity was determined by cell binding experiments with SGC7901 cell lines. Results: 1) S 125 IB experiments. The radioiodination of ATE was performed well for 5 min at 25 degree C with 10 micrograms of iodogen at suitable mole ratio (3-8:1) of ATE/Na 125 I, the labelling efficiency was about 96%. The stability was kept well at 4 degree C in dark, no significant decrease of S 125 IB was observed. 2) The conjugation efficiency of S 125 IB and VIP was above 75% with TLC. HPLC showed the different retention time (t R ) as follows, 125 IBA-VIP: 13.3 min, S 125 IB: 19.6 min, VIP: 8.32 min. The stability of 125 IBA-VIP was better than 125 I-VIP from direct radioiodination of VIP with iodogen oxidant, only 2.85% decrease was found after 7 d at 4 degree C. The biological activity of 125 IBA-VIP was kept as well as 125 I-VIP under the condition of 37 degree C 60 min. Conclusions: The indirect

  5. Obtention of a prosthetic group for labelling of radioiodinated proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Josefina da S.; Colturato, Maria Tereza; Araujo, Elaine B. de

    2000-01-01

    Antibodies and peptides labeled with radionuclides has been extensively used in radioimmunotherapy and radioimmunodetection. The principal problem with the use of radioiodinated proteins is the in vivo dehalogenation. The use of prosthetic groups for indirect labeling of proteins with radioiodine has showed to be useful on labeling proteins with greater in vivo stability. A procedure is described for the preparation of an radioiodinated prosthetic group (N-succinimidyl 4-radioiodine-benzoate-SIB), using procedure described by Stocklin et al, with the iodination of p-bromo-benzoic acid and subsequent reaction with TSTU. Preliminary labeling results showed that the prosthetic group can be obtained in a good yield. The coupling of the SIB to the protein will be studied using human IgG as protein model. (author)

  6. Radioiodination of melagenine-II with I-125 (preliminary study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caso, R.; Ruiz, M.

    1996-01-01

    Radioiodination of Melagenine-II with I-125 farmacokinetic studies was made, using Chloramine-T method. Radiochemical purity and stability of the labelled product were determined by radiochromatography. The labelled Melagenine-II showed two radioactive fractions

  7. Radioiodine-induced thyroid storm. Case report and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDermott, M.T.; Kidd, G.S.; Dodson, L.E. Jr.; Hofeldt, F.D.

    1983-08-01

    Thyroid storm developed following radioiodine therapy in a 43-year-old man with Graves' disease, weight loss, myopathy, severe thyrotoxic hypercalcemia, and a pituitary adenoma. The hypercalcemia may have been a significant, and previously unreported, predisposing factor for the radioiodine-associated thyroid storm. This case and 15 other well-documented cases of radioiodine-associated storm found in the literature are reviewed, as are several other cases of less severe exacerbations of thyrotoxicosis associated with radioiodine therapy. Although not often seen, these complications are often fatal. High-risk patients, such as the elderly, those with severe thyrotoxicosis, and those with significant underlying diseases, may benefit from preventive measures such as the judicious use of thyrostatic medications during the periods before and after isotope administration.

  8. Radioiodine-induced thyroid storm. Case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDermott, M.T.; Kidd, G.S.; Dodson, L.E. Jr.; Hofeldt, F.D.

    1983-01-01

    Thyroid storm developed following radioiodine therapy in a 43-year-old man with Graves' disease, weight loss, myopathy, severe thyrotoxic hypercalcemia, and a pituitary adenoma. The hypercalcemia may have been a significant, and previously unreported, predisposing factor for the radioiodine-associated thyroid storm. This case and 15 other well-documented cases of radioiodine-associated storm found in the literature are reviewed, as are several other cases of less severe exacerbations of thyrotoxicosis associated with radioiodine therapy. Although not often seen, these complications are often fatal. High-risk patients, such as the elderly, those with severe thyrotoxicosis, and those with significant underlying diseases, may benefit from preventive measures such as the judicious use of thyrostatic medications during the periods before and after isotope administration

  9. Three cases of respiratory failure after I-131 radioiodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Ken; Uchiyama, Masayuki; Fukuda, Kunihiko

    2016-01-01

    We report three cases of respiratory failure after I-131 radioiodine therapy. All cases involved relapsed cervical lesions, and two showed edema of the larynx. Emergency tracheostomy was performed to treat the respiratory failure in one case while the others were treated conservatively. All patients showed improvements without after-effects. Patients who undergo I-131 radioiodine therapy, especially those with cervical lesions, should be carefully monitored for this rare complication after treatment. (author)

  10. Local reactions to radioiodine in the treatment of thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burmeister, L.A.; du Cret, R.P.; Mariash, C.N. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis (USA))

    1991-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the rate of local complications resulting from radioiodine ablation of thyroid cancer in patients with a residual intact thyroid lobe to that in patients who had more extensive surgical treatment prior to radioiodine administration. We retrospectively studied 59 patients who had received 131I between 1979 and 1989. The patients were divided into two groups, depending on the extent of their previous surgical thyroid excision. Group 1 comprised 10 patients with a lobectomy or hemithyroidectomy before the ablative radioiodine dose, and Group 2 comprised 49 patients with more extensive thyroid excision (near-total or subtotal thyroidectomy) before the radioiodine treatment. Sixty percent of the 10 patients in Group 1 experienced some degree of neck pain or tenderness following radioiodine ablation of their residual thyroid. In one case, the local reaction was very severe and accompanied by the development of transient hyperthyroidism. There was only a 6% local complication rate in the patients who had undergone more extensive thyroid excision before ablative therapy (p less than 0.001), and none had a severe reaction. Patients with only unilateral surgical excision before radioiodine therapy have a higher rate of local complications than do patients treated with more extensive surgery prior to radioiodine ablation. If radioiodine is to be employed in such patients, they should be informed of this possible complication. Since evidence supports a dose effect in the pathogenesis of the complications, we recommend using a dose of less than 30 mCi for the initial ablation in these patients even though it may be necessary to repeat this dose to complete thyroid ablation.

  11. Local reactions to radioiodine in the treatment of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burmeister, L.A.; du Cret, R.P.; Mariash, C.N.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the rate of local complications resulting from radioiodine ablation of thyroid cancer in patients with a residual intact thyroid lobe to that in patients who had more extensive surgical treatment prior to radioiodine administration. We retrospectively studied 59 patients who had received 131I between 1979 and 1989. The patients were divided into two groups, depending on the extent of their previous surgical thyroid excision. Group 1 comprised 10 patients with a lobectomy or hemithyroidectomy before the ablative radioiodine dose, and Group 2 comprised 49 patients with more extensive thyroid excision (near-total or subtotal thyroidectomy) before the radioiodine treatment. Sixty percent of the 10 patients in Group 1 experienced some degree of neck pain or tenderness following radioiodine ablation of their residual thyroid. In one case, the local reaction was very severe and accompanied by the development of transient hyperthyroidism. There was only a 6% local complication rate in the patients who had undergone more extensive thyroid excision before ablative therapy (p less than 0.001), and none had a severe reaction. Patients with only unilateral surgical excision before radioiodine therapy have a higher rate of local complications than do patients treated with more extensive surgery prior to radioiodine ablation. If radioiodine is to be employed in such patients, they should be informed of this possible complication. Since evidence supports a dose effect in the pathogenesis of the complications, we recommend using a dose of less than 30 mCi for the initial ablation in these patients even though it may be necessary to repeat this dose to complete thyroid ablation

  12. Metal organic framework MIL-101 for radioiodine capture and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaad, Thaer; Assfour, Bassem

    2017-09-01

    we report on the use of metal organic frameworks(MOFs) for radioiodine recovery and storage. One MOF (namely MIL-101) was prepared and investigated in detail to demonstrate the iodine removal efficiency and capacity of MOFs. The typical sorption kinetics and uptake isotherms were measured using radioactive iodine (123 I) for the first time. Our measurements indicate that MOFs can capture and store radioiodine in very high efficiency and fast kinetics.

  13. Radioiodine in kelp from western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, K.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.; Wood, W.; Smith, C.

    1987-01-01

    As part of a program to survey low levels of radioactivity in the marine environment of the southern hemisphere, we have studied the distribution and uptake of 131 I found in the subtidal kelp Ecklonia radiata, on the west coast of Australia. Concentrations of 5 to 75 fCi/g of 131 I exist in this species over a considerable distance along the coast. We have characterized the principal source of the 131 I and found a general temporal correlation between the amount of radioiodine discharged from sewer outfalls and its concentration in kelp. Transplant experiments have enabled us to estimate uptake and depuration rates, and our results are consistent with laboratory measurements made by others

  14. Radioiodine therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.; Rajashekharrao, B.

    1999-01-01

    Radioiodine ( 131 I) therapy has been in use for the treatment of thyroid diseases. Although the use of 131 I has been in vogue for a long time, its use in therapy for well-differentiated thyroid cancer is still controversial. This is because, thyroid cancers (TC) are generally slow growing tumors, with low mortality and normal spans of survival. To record recurrence and mortality, long-term follow-up studies over a period of two to three decades are needed to establish definite conclusions on the acceptable modes of treatment. The most reliable conclusions regarding 131 I treatment are obtained from studies reported on a large series of patients followed over a period of 3 decades or more from a single institute with a more or less unchanged protocol of management

  15. Scintigraphy with radioiodinated free fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, F.C.

    1985-01-01

    In this thesis several clinical and animal experimental studies of free fatty acids labeled with radioiodine are discussed. These radiolabeled fatty acids are used for cardiac imaging. Besides, the elimination rate of the radioactivity from the myocardium, as observed during a scintigraphic study, is correlated with fatty acid metabolism. Uptake and distribution of I-heptadecanoic acid (I-HDA) and I-phenylpentadecanoic acid (I-PPA) are compared with those of thallium-201 (Tl-201) in the normal and ischemic canine myocardium. For determination of the elimination rate (expressed in terms of halftime values) of the radioactivity from the myocardium, regions of interest have to be drawn over a scintigram. A method is described resulting in more reliable demarcation of normal and abnormal regions within the scintigram. (Auth.)

  16. Radioiodine in kelp from Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, K.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.; Wood, W.

    1988-01-01

    As part of a program to survey low levels of radioactivity in the marine environment of the southern hemisphere, the distribution and uptake of 131 I found in the subtidal kelp Ecklonia radiata, on the west coast of Australia were studied. Concentrations of 5 to 75 fCi/g of 131 I exist in this species over a considerable distance along the coast. The principal source of the 131 I was characterized; a general temporal correlation was found between the amount of radioiodine discharged from sewer outfalls and its concentration in kelp. Transplant experiments enabled to estimate uptake and depuration rates, and the results are consistent with laboratory measurements, elsewhere. (author) 21 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  17. Radioiodine in kelp from western Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, K.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.; Wood, W.; Smith, C.

    1987-03-25

    As part of a program to survey low levels of radioactivity in the marine environment of the southern hemisphere, we have studied the distribution and uptake of /sup 131/I found in the subtidal kelp Ecklonia radiata, on the west coast of Australia. Concentrations of 5 to 75 fCi/g of /sup 131/I exist in this species over a considerable distance along the coast. We have characterized the principal source of the /sup 131/I and found a general temporal correlation between the amount of radioiodine discharged from sewer outfalls and its concentration in kelp. Transplant experiments have enabled us to estimate uptake and depuration rates, and our results are consistent with laboratory measurements made by others.

  18. Radioiodinated fatty acids for cardiological diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machulla, H.-J.; Knust, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    The development of fatty acids labelled with iodine-123 is reviewed. The variety of methods for producing 123 I and introducing radioiodine into the molecule is discussed and the important points of the biochemical background are recalled with the aim of finding a broad application for 123 I-labelled fatty acids. The results of the pharmacokinetic studies and biochemical analysis are presented as they prove that both 17- 123 I-heptadecanoic acid (IHA) and 15-(rho- 123 I-phenyl)pentadecanoic acid (IPPA) exhibit analogous behaviour to that of the naturally occurring fatty acids. Clinical applications demonstrated two fields of importance: (i) applications solely for imaging the heart and (ii) assessment of myocardial turnover rates of fatty acids for functional diagnosis. Moreover, very recent studies show that the provision of information about prognosis of myocardial diseases and the applied cardiological therapy appear to be possible. (author)

  19. Clinical experience with outpatient radioiodine therapy in hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csenkey-Sinko, I.; Roka, R.; Sera, T.; Csernay, L.; Pavics, L.; Valkusz, Z.; Julesz, J.

    1999-01-01

    Since 1993, outpatient radioiodine therapy has been available in Hungary. The reported study evaluated the efficacy of outpatient radioiodine treatment in subjects with hyperthyroidism. The data on 238 patients with Graves' disease and 123 patients with thyroid autonomy were analyzed retrospectively. All patients were treated within the period 1994 - 1999. The activities of radioiodine were calculated individually. The dose applied in Graves' disease was 150 Gy, and that in thyroid autonomy was 300 Gy. The efficacy of the treatment was evaluated 3,6 and 12 months after radioiodine therapy. In patients with persistent hyperthyroidism, repeated therapy was performed. Overall,the radioiodine therapy was successful in 84% of the Graves' disease patients. In thyroid autonomy, treatment with 300 Gy was successful in 79% of the patients. The efficacy of radioiodine treatment was similar to the results of one-dose application. It was concluded that radioidine therapy with an absorbed dose of 150 Gy in Graves' disease and with an absorbed dose of 300 Gy in thyroid autonomy proved successful by the method applied. (author)

  20. The principles of radioiodine dosimetry following a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvonova, I.A.

    1996-01-01

    Based upon the experience of radioiodine dosimetry after the Chernobyl accident main principals of radioiodine measurements and dosimetry in thyroid glands of population in case of a radiation accident are discussed in the report. For the correct dose estimation following the radioiodine measurement in the thyroid one should know the ''history'' of radionuclide intake into the body of a contaminated person. So a measurement of radioiodine thyroid content should be accompanied by asking questions of investigated persons about, their life style and feeding after a nuclear incident. These data coincidently with data of radionuclides dynamic in the air and food (especially in milk products) are used for the development of radioiodine intake model and then for thyroid dose estimation. The influence of stable iodine prophylaxis and other countermeasures on values are discussed in dependence on the time of its using. Some methods of thyroid dose reconstruction used after the Chernobyl accident in Russia for a situation of thyroid radioiodine measurements lacking in a contaminated settlement are presented in the report. (author). 16 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  1. The principles of radioiodine dosimetry following a nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zvonova, I A [Institute of Radiation Hygiene, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1996-08-01

    Based upon the experience of radioiodine dosimetry after the Chernobyl accident main principals of radioiodine measurements and dosimetry in thyroid glands of population in case of a radiation accident are discussed in the report. For the correct dose estimation following the radioiodine measurement in the thyroid one should know the ``history`` of radionuclide intake into the body of a contaminated person. So a measurement of radioiodine thyroid content should be accompanied by asking questions of investigated persons about, their life style and feeding after a nuclear incident. These data coincidently with data of radionuclides dynamic in the air and food (especially in milk products) are used for the development of radioiodine intake model and then for thyroid dose estimation. The influence of stable iodine prophylaxis and other countermeasures on values are discussed in dependence on the time of its using. Some methods of thyroid dose reconstruction used after the Chernobyl accident in Russia for a situation of thyroid radioiodine measurements lacking in a contaminated settlement are presented in the report. (author). 16 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs.

  2. Radioiodine 131I metabolism in human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Toru

    1976-01-01

    Metabolic fate of orally administered 131 I in human was studied. Chronological observations of whole body radioactivity distribution and thyroid 131 I uptake curve revealed that 131 I metabolism was greatly affected by the amount of dietary iodine intake. Under the high iodine intake exceeding 1 mg per day, uptake curve showed biphasic descending type, that is, rapid accumulation during 3 to 6 hours and rapid fall up to 48 hours and gradual decrease afterwards. While, ascending type, monophasic and maximal at 24 hours, was found universary under low iodine intake less than 500 μg per day. Thyroid function should not be affected by the amount of iodine intake, and we analysed 131 I metabolism using a new four compartments which included intrathyroidal inorganic iodine pool. The results, especially hormone production rate, were found quite useful even under high iodine intake. Thyroidal organic iodine contents were calculated as approximately 2.5 mg and this value was much less than previously reported values from other countries. Administered radioiodine were mixed up with stable body iodine and reached equilibration by around 10 days. From seroimmunological, histological (microscopic and electron microscopic) studies, and irradiation studies to the cultured human thyroid cells, we concluded that this unexpected phenomenon was derived from chromosomal damage which induced gradual decrease in cell population because of inability to reproduce. Carcinogenic and genetic effects were not serious, and only three leukemic patients were reported in this country and 484 normal babies were born from 7,500 treated parents. Thus, therapeutic dose of 131 I was proved rather safe, and even when exposed to radioiodine, administration of perchlorate or thiocyanate, excessive iodine and TSH seemed effective to avoid radiation injuries. (auth.)

  3. The imunocytochemical advances in prognosis of metastasis radioiodine resistant of papillary thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelyins'ka, G.V.

    2015-01-01

    The topical issues is the problem of prognosis of metastasis radioiodine resistant metastasis. We offered the methods of prognosis of metastasis radioiodine resistant of papillary thyroid carcinoma with the help of immunocytochemical detection of the cytokeratin 17 and thyroid peroxidase. With the purpose of prognosis of metastasis radioiodine resistibility the cytokeratin 17 is taped in punctates of primary papillary carcinomas. This approach allows predict response of metastases on radioiodine therapy to choose proper therapeutic approach

  4. Our experience with radioiodine therapy of thyroid functional autonomies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, Otakar

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In this paper the author presents his experience with radioiodine therapy of thyroid functional autonomies. The objectives of this study were to establish the efficacy and determine the adverse effects of radioiodine therapy of patients with thyroid functional autonomies. The main pathologic attribute of thyroid functional autonomies is the loss of regulation in the axis of hypothalamus-hypophysis-thyroid. The main cause of functional autonomy of the thyroid is iodine deficiency. Over a period of 30 years (1974-2004) 799 patients (age from 33 to 86 years; average age 58.7 years; the female: male ration was 7.4:1) with unifocal functional autonomy (UFA), multifocal functional autonomy (MFA) and disseminated functional autonomy (DFA) received at least one treatment of radioiodine. For diagnostics and the evaluation of radioiodine therapeutic effect of functional autonomies a thyroid scintigraphy is the basic and necessary procedure. In some patients a common scintigraphy with special imaging modulation, in some patients a scintigraphy after suppression or stimulation by means of thyroid hormones or TSH were done. We have also performed a thyroid ultrasonography, an assessment of a serum level of a total and free thyroxine, total triiodothyronine, TSH, radioiodine accumulation test, estimation of radioiodine effective half-life, in some patients TRH-TSH test. The follow-up examinations were done in all patients after 4-6 months, another examination after one year in 545 patients and after two years in 254 patients. One therapeutic dose received 733 patients (91.74%) and it was sufficient for an elimination of functional autonomies. Some patients were retreated if there was the evidence of small or no treatment effect and no elimination of functional autonomies. Two radioiodine treatments received 62 patients (7.76%) and three treatments 4 patients (0.5%). We advocate individual pre-therapeutic dosimetry to determine the activity necessary to achieve a

  5. The optimal time of discontinuing methimazole before radioiodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moosavi, Z.; Zakavi, R.

    2001-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism is a common disease and one of the best methods for its treatment is radioiodine therapy with Treatment with antithyroid drugs brings patients to euthyroidism before radioiodine therapy. Antithyroid drugs should be discontinued before radioiodine therapy to increase thyroid uptake. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal time of methimazole discontinuation. One hundred eighty four patients, who were referred for radioiodine therapy were classified in 3 groups according to the duration of methimazole discontinuation before thyroid uptake (RAIU) measurement. Group 1,2 and 3 were patients who discontinued methimazole (48-72 h rs), (72-120 h rs) and more than 120 h rs before RAIU measurement, respectively. Mean thyroid uptake in group 1, 2 and 3 was (64±151.1%), (60.1±14.1%) and (59.3±12.8), respectively. No significant difference was noted in thyroid uptake between these groups (F= 1.83, P<0.16). This study shows that 48-72 h rs of methimazole discontinuation before radioiodine therapy is enough and longer term abstention is not associated with higher uptake

  6. Graves' disease and toxic nodular goiter - radioiodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schicha, H.; Dietlein, M.

    2002-01-01

    At the 15th conference on the human thyroid in Heidelberg in 2001 the following aspects of the radioiodine therapy of benign thyroid disorders were presented: General strategies for therapy of benign thyroid diseases, criterions for conservative or definitive treatment of hyperthyroidism as first line therapy and finally preparation, procedural details, results, side effects, costs and follow-up care of radioiodine therapy as well as legal guidelines for hospitalization in Germany. The diagnosis Graves' hyperthyroidism needs the decision, if rather a conservative treatment or if primary radioiodine therapy is the best therapeutic approach. In the USA 70-90% of these patients are treated with radioiodine as first line therapy, whereas in Germany the conservative therapy for 1-1.5 years is recommended for 90%. This review describes subgroups of patients with Graves' disease showing a higher probability to relapse after conservative treatment. Comparing benefits, adverse effects, costs, and conveniences of both treatment strategies the authors conclude that radioiodine therapy should be preferred as first line therapy in 60-70% of the patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism. (orig.) [de

  7. Long-lived radioiodine in Japanese environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, R.; Watanabe, M.; Kurihara, K.

    2000-01-01

    The amount of long-lived radioiodine, 129 I (half-life 1.57 x 10 7 y) in the Japanese environment has been studied by measuring thyroids of humans and animals. The collected samples thyroids of (1) humans in Ibaraki Prefecture, in Kanto district, the central part of Japan, (2) cattle in Aomori Prefecture, north part of Japan, and (3) wild deer in Chiba Prefecture, in Kanto district. The measured mean isotopic ratio 129 I/ 127 I for thyroids of cattle in Aomori Prefecture is 3.5 ± 1.8 x 10 -9 . A higher value of 14 ± 5 x 10 -9 has been obtained for thyroids of wild deer in Kanto district. On the other hand, the measured ratio for human thyroids in Kanto district is 1 ± 0.2 x 10 -9 . This value is significantly lower than that of cattle thyroids in Aomori and also those reported for human thyroids in Europe and USA. The higher mean ratio for cattle thyroid in Kanto district is possibly explained by the influence of nuclear reprocessing plant. Lower mean ratio for human thyroid might be due to higher dietary intake of algae. (author)

  8. labelling of some pharmaceutical compounds with radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, N.F.M.

    2001-01-01

    electrophilic radioiodination of three of medically important compounds namely, pindolol (Pin) , benzamide (s(-)BZM) and lysuride (LIS) was carried out by using several oxidizing agents such as chloramine- T, iodogen, iodine monochloride at room temperature and hydrogen peroxide at 100 0 C. the factors affecting the percent radiochemical yield such as substrate concentration, Ph, oxidizing agent concentration , reaction time and the concentration of K1 carrier were studied. the conditions, which gave high radiochemical yield, were summarized in one reaction to give the optimum radiochemical yield . optimization of the radiochemical yield resulted in 90% for radioiodobenzamide ( * IBZM) when the reaction was carried out in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (Ph-3) or in ammonium acetate buffer (ph=4) for 5 minutes reaction time . A radiochemical yield of 50% of * IPIN was obtained when the reaction was carried out in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (Ph=7) for 30 min. a radiochemical yield of 70% of * ILIS was obtained when the reaction was affected in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (Ph=7) within 30 min reaction time

  9. Experience and outcome of radioiodine therapy in hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, S.H.; Paul, A.K.; Rahman, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Radioiodine is being increasingly used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism. The primary reasons for choosing radioiodine therapy are its effectiveness, ease of administration, relatively low cost and paucity of side effects. Here we presented our experiences and outcome of radioiodine therapy in hyperthyroidism in a divisional referral centre.We retrospectively analyzed 203 patients receiving radioiodine therapy for hyperthyroidism in Centre for Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound, Khulna during the period from July 1994 to June 2004. All the patients had clinical signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism as well as elevated triiodothyronine (T 3 ), thyroxine (T 4 ) and suppressed thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). T 3 , T 4 and TSH were done in all cases. Radionuclide scan and ultrasound of thyroid gland, radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU), thyroid microsomal antibody (TMAb) and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was done in selected cases. We assessed all patients prior to radioiodine therapy. Elderly patients and all those with cardiac complications and severe hyperthyroidism were pretreated with a short course of antithyroid drug in full dosages until they were clinically and biochemically euthyroid. Ninety five patients were on antithyroid medication (Neomercazole) prior to radioiodine therapy. Antithyroid medication were stopped 3 days before radioiodine therapy and restarted 3 days later and continued for 1 to 2 months depending on patient's symptoms. The rest of the patients received either no treatment or beta-blocker prior to radioiodine therapy. Menstrual history was taken in female patients and pregnancy was excluded by ultrasonography in doubtful cases before administering radioiodine. The likely consequences of the treatment were fully explained to the patients and attendants, the usual precautions for radiation protection of the public and the necessity of the follow-up were discussed and verbal consent was taken before administering radioiodine

  10. Sorption of radioiodine in organo-clays and -soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bors, J.

    1990-01-01

    In the framework of investigations on the sorption of radioiodine to natural and artificially altered soil components, a number of clay minerals and natural soils were treated with quaternary alkylammonium ions to replace the exchangeable metal cations. With help of batch experiments the resulting organo-clays were tested with respect to their sorption capability of radioiodine quantified by the distribution ratio (R D -value). Treatment of bentonite, vermiculite and cretaceous clay as well as of samples from natural horizons of chernozem soil with hexadecylpyridinium (HDPY + ) and benzethonium (BE + ) exhibited sorptions rates and amounts, which are several orders of magnitude higher than those of the respective untreated samples. Moderate increases of the R D -values were found after cation exchange with hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA + ), while the applications of trimethylphenylammonium (TMPA + ) and tetramethylammonium (TMA + ) were ineffective. Considerable sorption of radioiodine was observed with the commercially available Bentone. (orig.)

  11. Sorption of radioiodine in organo-clays and -soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bors, J. (Niedersaechsisches Inst. fuer Radiooekologie, Hannover (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-01-01

    In the framework of investigations on the sorption of radioiodine to natural and artificially altered soil components, a number of clay minerals and natural soils were treated with quaternary alkylammonium ions to replace the exchangeable metal cations. With help of batch experiments the resulting organo-clays were tested with respect to their sorption capability of radioiodine quantified by the distribution ratio (R{sub D}-value). Treatment of bentonite, vermiculite and cretaceous clay as well as of samples from natural horizons of chernozem soil with hexadecylpyridinium (HDPY{sup +}) and benzethonium (BE{sup +}) exhibited sorptions rates and amounts, which are several orders of magnitude higher than those of the respective untreated samples. Moderate increases of the R{sub D}-values were found after cation exchange with hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA{sup +}), while the applications of trimethylphenylammonium (TMPA{sup +}) and tetramethylammonium (TMA{sup +}) were ineffective. Considerable sorption of radioiodine was observed with the commercially available Bentone. (orig.).

  12. Effect of temperature on the radioiodination of human growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed-Ali, S.A.; Salacinski, P.R.; Landon, J.

    1981-01-01

    Studies have been undertaken to assess the effect of altering the temperature at which human growth hormone is radioiodinated on the incorporation of 125 I and the immunoreactivity and stability of the labelled hormone. Employing highly purified monomeric hormone it proved possible, by the iodogen procedure, to prepare a labelled product of high specific activity irrespective of temperature. However, in radioiodinations performed at ambient temperature (20 to 25 degrees) significant amounts of the labelled hormone were in an aggregated form which was less immunoreactive than the 125 I-labelled monomeric hormone. Such aggregation was largely prevented by radioiodinating at low temperature (0 to 4 degrees) and even the large monomeric peak was more immunoreactive (about 95% bound in antibody excess) than the monomeric peak from iodinations performed at room temperature

  13. Influence of radioiodine therapy on urinary iodine excretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meller, B.; Lauer, I.; Baehre, M.; Richter, E.

    1998-01-01

    In 214 patients with benign thyroid diseases the time-course of urinary iodine excretion (UIE) was investigated in order to identify changes after radioiodine therapy (RITh). Method: UIE was measured photometrically (cerium-arsenite method) and related to urinary creatinine on the first and last day of the radioiodine test and the three days, seven days, four weeks, and six months after 131 I administration. Results: As compared with the level found immediately before radioiodine therapy, median UIE had almost doubled four weeks after therapy and was still significantly elevated six months after therapy. This increase correlated significantly with the target volume as measured by scintigraphy and sonography. Conclusions: The persistent elevation of UIE for months after RITh is a measure of treatment-induced damage to thyrocytes. Therefore, in view of the unfavourable kinetics of iodine that follow it, RITh should if possible be given via a single-dose regime. (orig.) [de

  14. Sources of radioiodine at pressurized water reactors. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelletier, C.A.; Cline, J.E.; Barefoot, E.D.; Hemphill, R.T.; Voilleque, P.G.; Emel, W.A.

    1978-11-01

    The report determines specific components and operations at operating pressurized water reactors that have a potential for being significant emission sources of radioactive iodine. The relative magnitudes of these specific sources in terms of the chemical forms of the radioiodine and the resultant annual averages from major components are established. The data are generalized for broad industry use for predictive purposes. The conclusions of this study indicate that the majority of radioiodine emanating from the primary side of pressurized water reactors comes from a few major areas; in some cases these sources are locally treatable; the interaction of radioiodine with plant interior surfaces is an important phenomenon mediating the source and affecting its release to the atmosphere; the chemical form varies depending on the circumstances of the release

  15. Evaluation of methods for retention of radioiodine during processing of irradiated 237Np

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, G.H.; Kelley, J.A.

    1975-06-01

    Methods of removing radioiodine from 237 Np-- 238 Pu dissolver solution and process off-gas were investigated. This program is part of a continuing effort to reduce releases of radionuclides from plant operations. Experimental data show: Greater than 99.9 percent of the radioiodine in dissolver solution can be removed by precipitation, in situ, of manganese dioxide. Silver zeolite will sorb greater than 99.9 percent of radioiodine in process off-gas. Other solid sorbents and nitric acid-mercuric nitrate scrubber solutions do not remove appreciable amounts of radioiodine from process off-gas, because radioiodine is present principally as relatively unreactive organic iodine compounds. (U.S.)

  16. Absorption of radioiodine in silver nitrate molecular sieve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delfino, C.A.; Molinari, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    Obtainment method and control techniques of materials for the retention of radioiodine in gaseous effluents of nuclear installations. The experimental section is referred to the following processes: preparation of absorbents using, as basis, a molecular sieve and zeolite; impregnation with AgNO 3 ; efficiency determination; efficiency study as a function of the specific charge and bed length; optimization of Ag-consumption; resistance to the gas flux, bed temperature, specific surface, and nitrogen oxides effects. With the described impregnation method, materials, whose properties made them suitable for use in filters for the radioiodine retention and comparable to the imported manufactured materials, may be obtained. (R.J.S.) [es

  17. Mixed species radioiodine air sampling readout and dose assessment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distenfeld, C.H.; Klemish, J.R. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    This invention provides a simple, reliable, inexpensive and portable means and method for determining the thyroid dose rate of mixed airborne species of solid and gaseous radioiodine without requiring highly skilled personnel, such as health physicists or electronics technicians. To this end, this invention provides a means and method for sampling a gas from a source of a mixed species of solid and gaseous radioiodine for collection of the mixed species and readout and assessment of the emissions therefrom by cylindrically, concentrically and annularly molding the respective species around a cylindrical passage for receiving a conventional probe-type Geiger-Mueller radiation detector

  18. Production of radioiodinated prosthetic group for indirect protein labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Josefina da Silva

    2001-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies and their fragments and, more recently, radiolabeled peptides have been extensively studied in order to develop radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic and therapy in Nuclear Medicine. The radioiodination of proteins can be done by a direct method, with radioiodine being incorporated in to a tyrosine residue of the protein by electrophilic substitution. The main problem in the use of radioiodinated proteins, is that they are often dehalogenated in vivo by the action of specific enzymes, probably because of the structural similarity between iodophenyl groups and thyroid hormones. Several protein radioiodination methods have been developed in order to minimize this in vivo dehalogenation using prosthetic groups for indirect labeling. In this case, the radioiodine is first incorporated in to the prosthetic group that is subsequently attached to a terminal amino group or to a ε-amino group of lysine residue. The aim of this work is to obtain a radioiodinated prosthetic group for indirect labeling of proteins. The prosthetic group selected was the N-succinimidyl-4-radioiodine benzoate (SIB), obtained by the iodination of the p-bromobenzoic acid followed by the reaction with TSTU (0-(N-succinimidyl)-N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl uronium tetrafluoroborate) The results of these studies showed that the p-radio iodobenzoic acid was obtained with a radiochemical purity greater than 92% and a labeling yield of about 65%. Some reaction parameters were studied like temperature, time and Cu Cl mass (cataliser). The SIB was quantitatively obtained from p-radio iodobenzoic acid, using basic medium and after removing the water from the reaction using an nitrogen stream. The kinetic of this reaction is very fast with complete consumption of the p-radioiodebenzoic acid after 5 minutes. The coupling of the SIB prosthetic group to the protein was studied using Human Immunoglobulin (IgG) as a protein model. In a comparative way, the same protein was used on direct labeling

  19. Radioiodine treatment in children with thyroid cancer from Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiners, C.; Biko, J.; Geworski, L.; Olthoff, M.; Demidchik, E.P.; Streffer, C.; Paretzke, H.; Voigt, G.; Kenigsberg, Y.; Bauer, W.; Heinemann, G.; Pfob, H.

    1996-01-01

    Between 1st of April 1993 and 15th of November 1995, 95 children from Belarus with most advanced stages of thyroid cancer have been treated totally 305 times with radioiodine in Germany. In spite of a high frequency of advanced tumor stages pT4 (82%), lymph node metastases (95%) and distant metastases (55%) in those selected children, the preliminary results of radioiodine treatment are promising. In 55% of the children complete remission and in 44% partial remission of thyroid cancer could be achieved. In no case progressive disease under treatment has been observed

  20. Preparation and characterization of a radioiodinated bacterial lipopolysaccharide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulevitch, R J [Scripps Clinic and Research Foundation, La Jolla, Calif. (USA)

    1978-03-01

    Radioiodinated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from E.coli 0111:B4 has been prepared by reacting p-OH methylbenzimidate with 0111:B4 LPS at alkaline pH. The resulting LPS derivative has been radiolabeled with Na/sup 125/I. Specific activities of up to 5..mu..Ci/..mu..g LPS may be obtained by this technique and significantly the preparation of the radioiodinated LPS does not alter the biophysical, immunologic or biologic properties of 0111:B4 LPS. The methods described here are applicable to any 'protein free' LPS preparation containing primary amino groups.

  1. Environmental radioiodine in thyroids of grazing animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Middlesworth, L.

    1990-01-01

    Animal thyroids are excellent indicators of environmental contamination from radioiodine, a fact largely unappreciated before 1954. From continuous monitoring of excised thyroids in Nal well-detectors, we know that high-altitude releases of mixed fission products caused increases of 10 3 to 10 5 times the minimal detectable level of 131 I (3.7 mBq/g) in sheep thyroids from the United States, Europe, Asia, Australia, and New Zealand. Within 6 weeks after high-altitude releases, sheep thyroids from different continents of the same hemisphere contained comparable concentrations of 131 I: more than 10 4 times greater concentrations than cow's milk and 5 x 10 3 times greater concentrations than human thyroids from similar areas. In contrast, during the low-altitude Chernobyl release, average 131 I concentrations in animal thyroids, at distances greater than 1,200 km from Chernobyl, were distributed as the inverse square of the distance from the source. 129 I concentrations measured since 1984 with a germanium well-detector in thyroids of sheep slaughtered in Birmingham, England, ranged from 3 to 50 mBq/g organ weight. Similar quantities of 125 I were present intermittently in thyroids of sheep slaughtered in Birmingham since 1986. The source of the 125 I, which is not a fission product, is not clear. For comparison, deer thyroids from the Savannah River Reservation, USA, contained 10 to 7 x 10 5 mBq 129 I/g. Although this isotope is not a biological hazard, it is a long-lived tracer of fission products

  2. Radioiodine Remnant Ablation: A Critical Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bal, Chandra Sekhar; Padhy, Ajit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Radioiodine remnant ablation (RRA) is considered a safe and effective method for eliminating residual thyroid tissue, as well as microscopic disease if at all present in thyroid bed following thyroidectomy. The rationale of RRA is that in the absence of thyroid tissue, serum thyroglobulin (Tg) measurement can be used as an excellent tumor marker. Other considerations are like the presence of significant remnant thyroid tissue makes detection and treatment of nodal or distant metastases difficult. Rarely, microscopic disease in the thyroid bed if not ablated, in the future, could be a source of anaplastic transformation. On the other hand, microscopic tumor emboli in distant sites could be the cause of distant metastasis too. The ablation of remnant tissue would in all probability eliminate these theoretical risks. It may be noted that all these are unproven contentious issues except postablation serum Tg estimation that could be a good tumor marker for detecting early biochemical recurrence in long-term follow-up strategy. Radioactive iodine is administered as a form of “adjuvant therapy” for remnant ablation. There have been several reports with regard to the administered dose for remnant ablation. The first report of a prospective randomized clinical trial was published from India by a prospective randomized study conducted at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi in the year 1996. The study reported that increasing the empirical 131 I initial dose to more than 50 mCi results in plateauing of the dose-response curve and thus, conventional high-dose remnant ablation needs critical evaluation. Recently, two important studies were published: One from French group and the other from UK on a similar line. Interestingly, all three studies conducted in three different geographical regions of the world showed exactly similar conclusion. The new era of low-dose remnant ablation has taken a firm scientific footing across the continents

  3. A survey of owners' perceptions and experiences of radioiodine treatment of feline hyperthyroidism in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Lara A; Murray, Jane K; Bovens, Catherine Pv; Hibbert, Angie

    2014-08-01

    The efficacy of radioiodine treatment of feline hyperthyroidism is well established; however, limited information is known about owners' perceptions or experiences of radioiodine. This study aimed to examine factors that influence owner treatment choices and their opinions following radioiodine. Surveys were sent to owners of cats referred for radioiodine treatment between 2002 and 2011 (radioiodine group; 264 cats) and owners of non-radioiodine-treated hyperthyroid cats seen at first-opinion practices (control group; 199 cats). The response rate was 67.0% (310 returned: 175 radioiodine, 135 control). Of 135 controls, 72 (53.3%) were unaware of radioiodine as a treatment option. Owners of cats ⩾15 years old and uninsured cats were less likely to pursue radioiodine. Cost of treatment, travel distance, potential human or animal health risks and waiting periods for radioiodine had a low impact on owners' treatment choice. Owners reported a moderate level of concern about treatment hospitalisation length, which included (158 respondents) the possibility of the cat being unhappy 130 (82.3%), owner missing the cat 102 (64.6%), inappetence 50 (31.6%), other pets missing the cat 32 (20.3%), development of co-morbid disease 28 (17.7%) and side effects 25 (15.8%). Owners assessed their cat's quality of life on a scale of 1 (very poor) to 10 (excellent), as 4 (4) (median [interquartile range]) pre-radioiodine (134 respondents) and 9 (2) post-radioiodine (131 respondents). Of 132 respondents, 121 (91.7%) were happy with their decision to choose radioiodine. The results of this questionnaire may assist veterinarians in addressing common owner concerns when discussing radioiodine as a treatment option for hyperthyroidism. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  4. Radioiodine: a boon and a bane emergency preparedness during accidental release of radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahuja, D.N.

    1997-01-01

    Radioiodine, can be a double edged sword and can be dangerous and lethal. It will turn out to be a bane rather than a boon, exposing millions of individuals in and far away from the side of accident across geographical borders depending upon the weather conditions. Iodine is an indispensable element because of its being a constituent of the thyroid hormones, biosynthesized and released from the thyroid gland for the growth and over all metabolic functions. This gland weighing 20-30 g in a normal human adult, is comparatively very vascular organ with 5 lit. of blood flowing through it every hour. It contains 90% of the body iodine amounting to 5000-7000 μg, in the form of iodo aminoacids

  5. Chronic myeloid leukaemia following radioiodine therapy for carcinoma thyroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bundi, R S; Scott, J S; Halnan, K E [Institute of Radiotherapeutics, Glasgow (UK)

    1977-01-01

    The majority of cases reported in the literature of leukemia following treatment of thyroid disease (thyrotoxicosis and carcinoma) are of acute variety. A description is given of the development of chronic myeloid leukemia in a case of carcinoma of the thyroid treated with radioiodine and megavoltage X-ray therapy. The case history contains details of radioiodine and X-ray doses administered over the years 1961 to 1972 to a male patient, on whom a right hemithyroidectomy was carried out in 1960. The results of blood counts are also recorded for the period up to 1973. The patient died, at 57, in 1974. A total of 860 mCi of /sup 131/I was administered and the first abnormal blood count was noted two months after the last therapeutic dose. Estimates have been made of blood and thyroid doses from /sup 131/I. There has been only one other report in the literature of the development of chronic myeloid leukemia following radioiodine therapy for carcinoma of the thyroid, and although the leukemogenic hazard of /sup 131/I cannot be ruled out for this patient, it is possible that the development of leukemia was coincidental rather than due to the radioiodine therapy.

  6. The secondary hypothyroidism after radioiodine therapy and the replacement treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Ying; Xu Xiaohui

    2004-01-01

    The secondary hypothyroidism is the most important intercurrent disease after radioiodine therapy. The early hypothyroidism and the late hypothyroidism are incompletely different in pathogenesis. It needs researching further. there has not yet been an affirmable answer to choose the distillates from animal hypothyroid extract or complex preparation of levo-thyroxine in replacement treatment. (authors)

  7. Turbulent transfer characteristics of radioiodine effluents from air to grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markee, E. H. [ARFRO, Environmental Science Services Administration, Idaho Falls, Idaho (United States)

    1967-07-01

    A total of 20 controlled field releases of radioiodine have been performed at the National Reactor Testing Station in Idaho as a portion of a program to study the transmission of gaseous radioiodine through the air-vegetation-cow-milk-human chain. Most of the releases were conducted over typical pasture grasses during different wind and stability conditions. Radioiodine adherence to grass and carbon plates was measured during most of the tests. Vertical air concentration profiles and turbulence parameters were measured to determine flux characteristics. Analysis of the data reveals the complex interdisciplinary nature of transfer of radioiodine from air to a natural surface. The data are in reasonable agreement with the deposition models of Sheppard and Chamberlain when corrections for the physical and biological receptiveness of the grass and grass density are made. The average ratios of momentum to mass flux were found to be 0.9 in stable conditions and 1.4 in unstable conditions. These ratios demonstrate the effect on mass flux in the lowest 4m by a surface that acts as a partial sink for gaseous effluents. This series of releases indicates the need for further research on the biological receptiveness of grass and turbulent transfer within a grass canopy. (author)

  8. Radioiodine therapy versus antithyroid medications for Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chao; Xie, Jiawei; Wang, Hui; Li, Jinsong; Chen, Suyun

    2016-02-18

    Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. Both antithyroid medications and radioiodine are commonly used treatments but their frequency of use varies between regions and countries. Despite the commonness of the diagnosis, any possible differences between the two treatments with respect to long-term outcomes remain unknown. To assess the effects of radioiodine therapy versus antithyroid medications for Graves' disease. We performed a systematic literature search in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE and EMBASE and the trials registers ICTRP Search Portal and ClinicalTrials.gov. The date of the last search was September 2015 for all databases. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effects of radioiodine therapy versus antithyroid medications for Graves' disease with at least two years follow-up. Two authors independently screened titles and abstracts for relevance. One author carried out screening for inclusion, data extraction and 'Risk of bias' assessment and a second author checked this. We presented data not suitable for meta-analysis as descriptive data. We analysed the overall quality of evidence utilising the GRADE instrument. We included two RCTs involving 425 adult participants with Graves' disease in this review. Altogether 204 participants were randomised to radioiodine therapy and 221 to methimazole therapy. A single dose of radioiodine was administered. The duration of methimazole medication was 18 months. The period of follow-up was at least two years, depending on the outcome measured. For most outcome measures risk of bias was low; for the outcomes health-related quality of life as well as development and worsening of Graves' ophthalmopathy risks of performance bias and detection bias were high in at least one of the two RCTs.Health-related quality of life appeared to be similar in the radioiodine and methimazole treatment groups, however no quantitative data were reported (425 participants; 2 trials; low quality evidence

  9. A New Technology Developed to Remove Aqueous Radioiodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Yeop; Baik, Min Hoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Radioiodine is considered as a critical radionuclide by the International Commission on Radiological Protection(ICRP) in terms of the radiation and radiotoxicity risks to nature and human health. In addition, there were reports about great increases of thyroid cancer in children in Belarus from 1990. In natural environments, there were several reports for the unusual increase of radioactive iodine ratios in most environmental samples (i.e. soils, vegetables, and seafoods). Iodine usually exists as iodide, iodate, and organic iodine in the environment. Iodide is considered as the most difficult form among the iodine species to treat by the conventional adsorption-based technology. This is why urgent new technology is needed to suppress such a progressive accumulation of radioiodine in natural environments. The conventional methods based on the anion-exchange and adsorption techniques have been difficult to manage the growing release of radioiodine for decades. Here we suggest a new solution that uses a biostimulant way to isolate radioiodine. We discovered that natural SRB can play an important intermediary role to get anionic iodide and cationic copper combined strongly as perfect counterions by enzymatic Cu-reduction.

  10. Radioiodine therapy and subsequent pregnancy; Gravidez apos radioiodoterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao, Carmen Dolores G.; Miranda, Angelica E.; Corres, Nilson Duarte; Sieiro Neto, Lino; Corbo, Rossana; Vaisman, Mario [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Endocrinology and Nuclear Medicine; Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Hospital dos Servidores do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); E-mail: loloi@zaz.com.br

    2007-06-15

    Objectives: To evaluate abortion and fetal congenital anomaly rates in women previously submitted to radioiodine therapy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Study design: A case-control study of 108 pregnant women, 48 cases whose pregnancies were evaluated after they had undergone radioiodine therapy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma, and the control group consisted of 60 healthy pregnant women. Results: Of a total of 66 pregnancies, 14 conceived within the first year, 51 one or more years after the last administration of {sup 131}I, the medical record of one patient was not available. The interval between the last radioiodine therapy administration and conception ranged from 1 month to 10 years. There were a total of 4 miscarriages, 2 of them for unknown reasons. There was one case of congenital anomaly and two preterms birth. Nine women presented the following pregnancy events: placental insufficiency, hypertensive crisis, placental detachment, risk of miscarriage, preterm labour and four miscarriages. No statistical difference was observed between the studied and control groups. Conclusion: Radioiodine was followed by no significant increase in untoward effects in neither the pregnancy nor the offspring. (author)

  11. Outcome of Radioiodine Therapy in a West African Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onimode, Yetunde A; Ankrah, Alfred; Adedapo, Kayode S

    Hyperthyroidism continues to be a pressing public health concern in West Africa. Its prevalence in Africa has been quoted as 1.2%-9.9%, with Graves' disease as its most common cause. Radioiodine-131 (RAI) therapy of hyperthyroidism recently commenced in two government hospitals in Ghana and Nigeria.

  12. Results of radioiodine therapy of benign thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pronath, A.

    1982-01-01

    The goal of this work is the quantification of therapy results of a radioiodine therapy with Iodine 131 on 367 patients with the following benign thyroid diseases: euthyroidal struma, hyperthyroidism, hyperthyroidal struma and autonomous adenoma. 1. Euthyroidal struma - subjective improvement and objective diminution of the struma by 63%, subjective or objective improvement by 21% of the patients. Including the probable successful therapies the success rate was all together 90.1%. 2. Hyperthyroidism - after one-time/more-time (18.6%) radioiodine therapy the success rate was 71.5/85.7% including latent (8.6/10.0%) and manifest (7.1/8.5%) hypothroidism. 3. Hyperthyroidal struma - after one-time/more-time (16.9%) radioiodine therapy the success rate was 74.7/90.1% including latent (-/5.7%) and manifest (1.4/2.8%) hypothyroidism. 4. Autonomous adenoma - after one-time/two-time (5.2%) radioiodine therapy the success rate was 80.5/84.6% including 15.5% latent hypothyroidism. The results will be discussed in comparison to published data and to operation and thyrostatic treatment. (TRV) [de

  13. Guideline for radioiodine therapy for benign thyroid diseases (version 3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietlein, M.; Schicha, H.; Dressler, J.; Gruenwald, F.; Leisner, B.; Moser, E.; Reiners, C.; Schneider, P.; Schober, O.

    2004-01-01

    The version 3 of the guideline for radioiodine therapy for benign thyroid diseases presents first of all a revision of the version 2. The chapter indication for radioiodine therapy, surgical treatment or antithyroid drugs bases on an interdisciplinary consensus. The manifold criteria for decision making consider the entity of thyroid disease (autonomy, Graves' disease, goitre, goitre recurrence), the thyroid volume, suspicion of malignancy, cystic nodules, risk of surgery and co-morbidity, history of subtotal thyroidectomy, persistent or recurrent thyrotoxicosis caused by Graves' disease including known risk factors for relapse, compression of the trachea caused by goitre, requirement of direct therapeutic effect as well as the patient's preference. Because often some of these criteria are relevant, the guideline offers the necessary flexibility for individual decisions. Further topics are patients' preparation, counseling, dosage concepts, procedural details, results, side effects and follow-up care. The prophylactic use of glucocorticoids during radioiodine therapy in patients without preexisting ophthalmopathy as well as dosage and duration of glucocorticoid medication in patients with preexisting ophthalmopathy need to be clarified in further studies. The pragmatic recommendations for the combined use of radioiodine and glucocorticoids remained unchanged in the 3 rd version. (orig.) [de

  14. Disparity of radioiodine and radiothallium concentrations in chronic thyroiditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimaoka, K.; Parthasarathy, K.L.; Friedman, M.; Rao, U.

    1980-01-01

    Three cases of chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto's disease) presented with thyroid nodules, showed disparate uptakes of radioiodine and radiothallium. All patients were clinically euthyroid and had positive antithyroid antibody titers. On cytological and/or pathological examinations, they were consistent with chronic thyroiditis.

  15. Radioiodine (I-131) therapy and the influence of antithyroid medication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duldulao, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Radioiodine therapy began to play a major role in the management of hyperthyroidism as early as 1941. It later evolved to become what it is today, the treatment of choice for majority of patients who are suffering from Graves' disease and toxic nodular goiter. It is generally considered safe, inexpensive, effective, and devoid of major side effects. Despite the extensive experience with radioactive therapy, the adjunctive role of antithyroid medication remains controversial. Some authors claim that it has a positive influence on the outcome of radioiodine therapy while others insist otherwise. The reasons behind the adjunctive use of antithyroid medication include a more rapid attainment of euthyroid state and a decrease in the rise of developing thyroid crisis. However, a higher treatment failure rate is observed compared to radioiodine alone. This is due to the reputed radioprotective effect of the antithyroid medication. As a result, higher doses of I-131 are needed in order to obtain the desired effect but, unfortunately, that would also increase the radiation exposure to the rest of the body. The majority of clinicians would require discontinuation of the medication a few days before therapy to overcome these undesirable effects but the question is, is this safe? The issue of when antithyroid medication is warranted is a big question to the clinician. For optimal use of radioiodine therapy, appropriate selection criteria and good clinical judgment concerning pretreatment with antithyroid medication are required. Otherwise, we may put some patients into unnecessary increased risk and added cost. (author)

  16. Synthesis, chemical and biological quality control of radioiodinated peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafii, H.; Khalaj, A.; Beiki, D.; Motameidi, F.; Maloobi, M.; Karimian-dehghan, M.; Keshavarrzi, F.

    2002-01-01

    Iodinated compounds with I-131, 125 and 123 have been widely used for biochemical function studies. In conjunction with SPECT, [I-123] labelled proteins have various diagnostic and therapeutic applications in nuclear medicine. Preparation of some radioiodinated peptides with tyrosine and/or lysine groups on their main chain molecules can be carried out with both direct and indirect methods, but lack of these groups in molecule cause the molecule dose not lend itself for direct radioiodination. In this study, human IgG and Formyl-Methyl-Leucyl-Phenylalanine, FMLF, have been chosen as a model compounds for direct and indirect radioiodination respectively. Here, we will describe the labelling procedure of [I-125] IgG using chloramine-T as a suitable oxidant agent and [I-125 and I-131] FMLF by indirect method using ATE/SIB as a prosthetic group in multi-step reactions. The obtained results for chemical quality control of intermediate radioiodinated SIB by HPLC and two labelled IgG and FMLF will be also discussed. Biological results, biodistribution studies and SPECT scans on mice per-injected labelled FMLF show a low uptake of thyroid but a high at urine and bladder, perhaps because of low molecular weight of FMLF. In this case, it seems to be better to separate the reaction mixture of labelled FMLF by BPLC than Sephadex-G50 gel filtration. (Author)

  17. Radio-iodine therapy and Helicobacter pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gholamrezanezhad, A.; Mirpour, S.; Saghari, M.; Abdollahzadeh, J.; Pourmoslemi, A.; Yarmand, S.

    2008-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the most important cause of gastritis and related morbidities. Following consumption, radioactive iodine accumulates considerably in the stomach. On the basis of this observation, we decided to determine whether the high radiation induced by radio-iodine in the stomach is effective in the eradication of this infection. All consecutive patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma, who were referred for radio-iodine therapy [dose 117.1±24.4 mCi (4.3±0.9 GBq), range 100-200 mCi (3.7-7.4 GBq)], were enrolled. To detect H. pylori infection, the urease breath test (UBT) was performed 1-2 h before radio-iodine consumption and the test was repeated 2 months later. Of 88 patients, 71 had pre-treatment positive UBT. Of these, 23 patients had negative post-treatment result, which means a significant reduction (26.1%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 16.8-35.5%) in the number of positive UBT results in our treated population (32.4% of UBT-positive cases became UBT-negative). Considering the high prevalence of reinfection in developing countries, the therapeutic benefit would have been more considerable if the second UBT had been done with a lag time of less than 2 months. Although radio-iodine therapy is not a logical method for the treatment of patients suffering from H. pylori, our finding provides indirect evidence about the radiosensitivity of bacteria, the future clinical applications of which need to be further evaluated. Also this finding can be useful for the food industry, where radiation is used widely to sterilize food. Regarding the possibility of H. pylori suppression, we recommend not using UBT for screening for the infection for at least within 2 months following radio-iodine therapy. (author)

  18. Radioiodine therapy in non-toxic multinodular goitre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, S.R.; Rahman, H.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The effect of radioiodine in the treatment of non-toxic multinodular goitre has not been adequately evaluated. The aim of the study was to see the effect of radioiodine on thyroid size and function in patients with non-toxic multinodular goitre. We prospectively studied 55 non-toxic multinodular goitre patients treated with radioiodine of which 15 were males and 40 were females with age ranged from 25 years to 60 years (mean ± SD 40.45 ± 10.70 years) for a minimum of 12 months. Patients who were selected were those with local compression symptoms or for cosmetic reasons and the treatment was chosen because of a high operative risk or refusal to be operated on. Thyroid volume and T3, T4, TSH of all patients were determined before treatment and 6 months interval after treatment. Radioiodine was given in the dose ranged from 333 MBq (9 mCi) to 555 MBq (15 mCi) (mean ± SD 11.45 ± 2.04 mCi). The mean thyroid volume was reduced from 44.75 ± 37.44 ml to 28.76 ± 27.25 ml at 12 months (p < 0.001) i.e., reduced by 35.73%. Thyroid volume reduction at 6 months was 21.07%. Hypothyroidism occurred in 9.1% of the patients at 12 months. Side effects were few. Three cases developed radiation thyroiditis and two cases developed hyperthyroidism that was managed conservatively. It has been concluded that radioiodine is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of non-toxic multinodular goitre and may be the treatment of choice in elderly patients, in patients in whom surgery is contraindicated and in patients who are unwilling to undergo surgery. (author)

  19. Synthesis and biological evaluation of [{sup 18}F]tetrafluoroborate: a PET imaging agent for thyroid disease and reporter gene imaging of the sodium/iodide symporter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauregui-Osoro, Maite; Sunassee, Kavitha; Weeks, Amanda J.; Berry, David J.; Paul, Rowena L.; Cleij, Marcel; O' Doherty, Michael J.; Marsden, Paul K.; Szanda, Istvan; Blower, Philip J. [King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences, London (United Kingdom); Banga, Jasvinder Paul [King' s College London, Division of Cell and Gene Based Therapy, London (United Kingdom); Clarke, Susan E.M.; Ballinger, James R. [Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Cheng, Sheue-Yann [National Cancer Institute, Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Bethesda (United States)

    2010-11-15

    The human sodium/iodide symporter (hNIS) is a well-established target in thyroid disease and reporter gene imaging using gamma emitters {sup 123}I-iodide, {sup 131}I-iodide and {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate. However, no PET imaging agent is routinely available. The aim of this study was to prepare and evaluate {sup 18}F-labelled tetrafluoroborate ([{sup 18}F]TFB) for PET imaging of hNIS. [{sup 18}F]TFB was prepared by isotopic exchange of BF{sub 4} {sup -} with [{sup 18}F]fluoride in hot hydrochloric acid and purified using an alumina column. Its identity, purity and stability in serum were determined by HPLC, thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and mass spectrometry. Its interaction with NIS was assessed in vitro using FRTL-5 rat thyroid cells, with and without stimulation by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), in the presence and absence of perchlorate. Biodistribution and PET imaging studies were performed using BALB/c mice, with and without perchlorate inhibition. [{sup 18}F]TFB was readily prepared with specific activity of 10 GBq/mg. It showed rapid accumulation in FRTL-5 cells that was stimulated by TSH and inhibited by perchlorate, and rapid specific accumulation in vivo in thyroid (SUV = 72 after 1 h) and stomach that was inhibited 95% by perchlorate. [{sup 18}F]TFB is an easily prepared PET imaging agent for rodent NIS and should be evaluated for hNIS PET imaging in humans. (orig.)

  20. Characterization and restoration of performance of 'aged' radioiodine removing activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, W.P.

    1997-01-01

    The degradation of radioiodine removal performance for impregnated activated carbons because of ageing is well established. However, the causes for this degradation remain unclear. One theory is that this reduction in performance from the ageing process results from an oxidation of the surface of the carbon. Radioiodine removing activated carbons that failed radioiodine removal tests showed an oxidized surface that had become hydrophilic compared with new carbons. We attempted to restore the performance of these 'failed' carbons with a combination of thermal and chemical treatment. The results of these investigations are presented and discussed with the view of extending the life of radioiodine removing activated carbons. 4 refs., 2 tabs

  1. Primary hyperthyroidism--diagnosis and treatment. Indications and contraindications for radioiodine therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgul, Edyta; Sowinski, Jerzy

    2011-01-01

    Isotope therapy is one of the methods used in primary hyperthyroidism. The therapy is based on short-range beta radiation emitted from radioactive iodine. Radioiodine administration must always be preceded by pharmacological normalization of thyroid function. Otherwise, post-radiation thyrocyte destruction and thyroid hormones release may lead to hyperthyroidism exacerbation. Indications for radioiodine therapy in Graves-Basedow disease include recurrent hyperthyroidism after thyrostatic treatment or thyroidectomy and side-effects observed during thyrostatic treatment. In toxic nodule, isotope therapy is the first choice therapy. Radioiodine is absorbed only in autonomous nodule. Therefore, it destroys only this area and does not damage the remaining thyroid tissue. In toxic goitre, radioiodine is used mostly in recurrent nodules. Absolute contraindications for radioiodine treatment are pregnancy and lactation. Relative contraindications are thyroid nodules suspected of malignancy and age under 15 years. In patients with thyroid nodules suspected of malignancy, radioiodine treatment may be applied as a preparation for surgery, if thyrostatic drugs are ineffective or contraindicated. In children, radioiodine therapy should be considered in recurrent toxic goitre and when thyrostatic drugs are ineffective. In patients with Graves-Basedow disease and thyroid-associated orbitopathy, radioiodine treatment may increase the inflammatory process and exacerbate the ophthalmological symptoms. However, thyroid-associated orbitopathy cannot be considered as a contraindication for isotope therapy. The potential carcinogenic properties of radioiodine, especially associated with tissues with high iodine uptake (thyroid, salivary glands, stomach, intestine, urinary tract, breast), have not been confirmed.

  2. Behavior of gasketless deep bed charcoal filters for radioiodine removal in LWR power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, J.G.; Deuber, H.; Furrer, J.; Gerlach, K.

    1981-01-01

    The removal efficiency of radioiodine filters can be affected by mechanical leakage, aging and poisoning, desorption of radioiodine originally removed by the activated carbon and also by the occurrence of penetrating iodine compounds. To provide high decontamination factors only the gasketless deep bed filter type seems to be appropriate. The experience gathered and the data given in this paper are based on the surveillance testing of radioiodine filters in all German nuclear power plants and on laboratory research work which has been done over years to evaluate the operating behavior of deep bed radioiodine filters and to prove their reliability

  3. Radioiodine therapy of benign thyroid disorders: functional thyroid autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkelmann, S.

    2005-01-01

    In the last 15 years, several concepts have been developed to further improve the outcome of radioiodine therapy in functional thyroid autonomy. Results of radioiodine therapy in functional autonomy are considerably better than in Graves' disease. All of the currently-applied concepts offer healing rates of 75-100%, but they differ considerably in the hypothyreosis rates attained. The target volume can be precisely determined by sonography only in unifocal autonomy. In the case of multifocal and disseminated autonomy, the entire thyroid is taken as the target volume and the focal dose is reduced ('dosimetric compromise'). TcTUs-based dose concepts calculate the functionally autonomous volume from the TcTUs and replace the target volume by sonography, in the TcTUs-adapted dose concepts, sonographic target volume is left and the focal dose varied in dependence of the suppression uptake. The objective is to attain a high rate of success with a low rate of hypothyreosis. (orig.)

  4. Radioiodine therapy within the German DRG-system 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, R.; Dressler, J.

    2005-01-01

    With introduction of a diagnosis-related groups system (DRG-system) in Germany the previous duration of stay based refunding is also replaced for the radioiodine therapies by a performance oriented reimbursement system. Since the at first optional start of the DRG-system in 2003 the adaptations which take place every year should lead, up to the planned end of the convergence phase in 2009, to a transparent, fair and economical financing system of the stationary hospital service. The physician is responsible for the right and complete coding of the diagnoses and procedures, which serve as essential parameters for the determination of the diagnosis related group (DRG) of a hospital case. In the actual version of the year 2005 the DRG-system still supplies for radioiodine therapy of thyroid carcinoma some unclarity in the coding of the diagnosis, as well as clear inadequacy with the fair mapping of the therapy costs. (orig.)

  5. Single dose planning for radioiodine-131 therapy of Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, Tamotsu; Yokoyama, Kunihiko; Kinuya, Seigo; Taki, Junichi; Michigishi, Takatoshi; Tonami, Norihisa

    2004-01-01

    Patients with Graves' disease were studied one year after radioiodine-131 therapy to assess the relationship between the effectiveness of the therapy and the radioiodine doses used. Patients were classified into three groups according to thyroid function as hyperthyroidism, euthyroidism and hypothyroidism at one year after I-131 therapy. In these groups we compared the mean values of dose, dose per thyroid weight calculated with I-123 uptake before the therapy (pre D/W), dose per thyroid weight calculated with therapeutic I-131 uptake (post D/W), and absorbed dose. No significant differences were found between the three groups in terms of dose or pre D/W. The mean values of post D/W and absorbed dose in the non-hyperthyroid (euthyroid and hypothyroid) group were significantly greater than those in the hyperthyroid group. Post D/W of 6.3 MBq/g was a threshold separating the non-hyperthyroid group from the hyperthyroid group. There was no correlation between pre D/W and post D/W; however, the mean post D/W was significantly greater than the mean pre D/W. All patients with pre D/W above 6.3 MBq/g showed non-hyperthyroidism at one year after the radioiodine treatment. No indicators before the radioiodine therapy had significant relationships with the effectiveness of the therapy at one year after the treatment. However, the single therapy planned for setting the pre D/W above 6.3 MBq/g will certainly make the patients non-hyperthyroid. As this proposal of dose planning is based on a small number of patients, further study is needed. (author)

  6. Does radioiodine cause the ophthalmopathy of Graves' disease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougall, I.R.

    1993-01-01

    This editorial briefly reviews studies which might answer the question as to whether radioiodine treatment causes the ophthalmopathy of Graves' disease. However, the data do not allow any conclusion one way or the other. Other possible causal factors are discussed. Further studies are required to define whether treatment of hyperthyroidism aggravates the ophthalmopathy and whether one thereby is worse than the others and by how much. (UK)

  7. Airway complication occurring during radioiodine treatment for Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinuya, Seigo; Yoneyama, Tatsuya; Michigishi, Takatoshi

    2007-01-01

    Airway complications rarely occur in 131 I radioiodine therapy for Graves' disease. This study presents two cases in which 131 I therapy caused this acute complication. The patients complained of the symptom 6 h and 33 h after administration of 131 I. A histamine H1 receptor antagonist and hydrocortisone rapidly resolved symptoms in both cases. These two cases remind physicians that 131 I therapy for Graves' disease may cause potentially life-threatening complications. (author)

  8. Optimization of Inpatient Management of Radioiodine Treatment in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Min Jae; Kim, Jung Hyun; Jeong, Jae Min; Lee, Dong Soo; Jang, Jung Chan; Kim, Chang Ho

    2008-01-01

    We established a model to calculate radioactive waste from sewage disposal tank of hospitals to optimize the number of patients receiving inpatient radioiodine therapy within the safety guideline in our country. According to this model and calculation of radioactivity concentration using the number of patients per week, the treatment dose of radioiodine, the capacity and the number of sewage tanks and the daily amount of water waste per patient, estimated concentration of radioactivity in sewage waste upon disposal from disposal tanks after long term retention were within the safety guideline (30 Bq/L) in all the hospitals examined. In addition to the fact that we could increase the number of patients in two thirds of hospitals, we found that the daily amount of waste water was the most important variable to allow the increase of the number of patients within the safety margin of disposed radioactivity. We propose that saving the water amount be led to increase the number of patients and they allow two patients in an already furnished hospital inpatient room to meet the increasing need of inpatient radioiodine treatment for thyroid cancer

  9. Radioiodine-treatment (RIT) of functional thyroidal autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meller, J.; Sahlmann, C.O.; Becker, W.

    2002-01-01

    Since 1942, therapy with radioiodine (RIT) has gained a major role in the treatment of benign thyroid disorders, notably hyperthyroidism caused by Graves' disease or toxic multinodular goitre (thyroid autonomy). In iodine deficient areas thyroid autonomy accounts for 40-50% of all cases with hyperthyroidism. RIT has become a cost-effective first-line procedure in autonomy-patients with latent or overt hyperthyroidism, especially in the absence of a large goitre, after thyroid surgery and in elderly patients with associated conditions who carry a high intra- or perioperative risk. Decisions concerning the definitive treatment of thyroid autonomy should take into account previous episodes of hyperthyroidism, objective parameters of risk stratification in euthyroid patients as well as concomitant diseases and the probability of iodine exposure in the future. In Central Europe the majority of investigators prefer to estimate the therapeutic activity individually by a radioiodine test. TCTUs (global 99m-Tc-pertechnetate thyroid uptake under suppression) - based dose concepts have been proven to be highly effective in the elimination of autonomy and carry a low (< 10%) risk of postradioiodtherapeutic hypothyroidism. Radioiodine therapy for autonomy has been found to be both effective and safe and without major early or late side effects. The most frequent complication is hypothyroidism requiring lifelong follow-up. (author)

  10. Dry Distillation of Radioiodine from TeO2 Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Koziorowski

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available As medical cyclotrons are becoming more abundant, 123I and 124I are getting more attention as alternatives to 131I for diagnostics of thyroid disease. Both 123I and 124I provide better diagnostics, deliver less dose to patients and both reduce the risk of thyroid stunning, facilitating subsequent therapy. Dry distillation of radioiodine from tellurium dioxide targets has become the standard approach to producing these radioiodines. Setting up such a production of radioiodine is associated with a lengthy optimization of the process and for this purpose natural tellurium is often used for economical reasons. In this paper, the distillation parameters are scrutinized to ensure optimal distillation temperature, in order to minimize time spent and prevent loss of expensive target material. It is further demonstrated how the individual iodine isotopes, produced from proton bombardment of natTe, will diffuse out of the target in a time dependent ratio. We believe the effect is due to the isotopes having their maximum cross section at different energies. The individual isotopes produced will thus have their highest concentration at different depths in the target. This results in individual mean diffusion lengths and diffusion times for the different isotopes.

  11. Radioiodine therapy in Graves` disease; Radioiodtherapie der Immunhyperthyreose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuemichen, C. [Rostock Univ., Zentrum fuer Radiologie, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    Analogous to subtotal struma resection, stable long-term results are attained with radioiodine therapy of immunohyperthyreosis only with an ablative therapy concept. Hypothyreosis is thus no longer an undesired or unavoidable side effect of radioiodine therapy, but constitutes part of the treatment principle. In addition to the negligible theoretical low late risk of radiation effect, an increase in immunostimulation is induced in the majority of patients by means of increased antigen presentation. In a minority of patients, this has detrimental effects on the treatment results and leads to a requirement for relatively high focal doses (200-300 Gy) to achieve a generally satisfactory therapeutic result. In individual cases, endocrine orbitopathy may be exacerbated or elicited. It is therefore recommended that radioiodine therapy of immunohyperthyreosis should be undertaken with cortisone protection as a matter of principle. (orig.) [Deutsch] In Analogie zur subtotalen Strumaresektion werden auch mit der Radioiodtherapie der Immunhyperthyreose nur mit einem ablativen Therapiekonzept stabile Langzeitergebnisse erzielt. Die Hypothyreose ist somit nicht laenger unerwuenschte oder unvermeidliche Nebenwirkung der Radioiodtherapie, sondern Bestandteil des Behandlungsprinzips. Neben dem vernachlaessigbar geringen theoretischen Spaetrisiko durch Strahleneinwirkung wird bei einem Grossteil der Patienten durch eine vermehrte Antigenpraesentation eine Zunahme der Immunstimulation induziert, die bei einem kleineren Teil der Patienten das Behandlungsergebnis beeintraechtigt und dazu fuehrt, dass relativ hohe Herddosen (200-300 Gy) fuer ein insgesamt zufriedenstellendes Behandlungsergebnis erforderlich werden. In Einzelfaellen kann hierdurch auch eine endokrine Orbitopathie verschlechtert oder neu ausgeloest werden. Es wird daher empfohlen, die Radioiodtherapie der Immunhyperthyreose grundsaetzlich unter Kortisonschutz vorzunehmen. (orig.)

  12. Radioiodine therapy of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules: usefulness of an implemented dose calculation algorithm allowing reduction of radioiodine amount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavo, M; Bagnara, M C; Pomposelli, E; Altrinetti, V; Calamia, I; Camerieri, L; Giusti, M; Pesce, G; Reitano, C; Bagnasco, M; Caputo, M

    2013-09-01

    Radioiodine is a common option for treatment of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules. Due to the expected selective radioiodine uptake by adenoma, relatively high "fixed" activities are often used. Alternatively, the activity is individually calculated upon the prescription of a fixed value of target absorbed dose. We evaluated the use of an algorithm for personalized radioiodine activity calculation, which allows as a rule the administration of lower radioiodine activities. Seventy-five patients with single hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule eligible for 131I treatment were studied. The activities of 131I to be administered were estimated by the method described by Traino et al. and developed for Graves'disease, assuming selective and homogeneous 131I uptake by adenoma. The method takes into account 131I uptake and its effective half-life, target (adenoma) volume and its expected volume reduction during treatment. A comparison with the activities calculated by other dosimetric protocols, and the "fixed" activity method was performed. 131I uptake was measured by external counting, thyroid nodule volume by ultrasonography, thyroid hormones and TSH by ELISA. Remission of hyperthyroidism was observed in all but one patient; volume reduction of adenoma was closely similar to that assumed by our model. Effective half-life was highly variable in different patients, and critically affected dose calculation. The administered activities were clearly lower with respect to "fixed" activities and other protocols' prescription. The proposed algorithm proved to be effective also for single hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule treatment and allowed a significant reduction of administered 131I activities, without loss of clinical efficacy.

  13. Radioiodine therapy in Graves' disease - A retrospective analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, B.R.; Bhattacharya, A.; Dutta, P.; Bhansali, A.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Radioiodine is a safe form of treatment for all patients with primary hyperthyroidism. The thyroid's unique capacity to store iodine (thus also radioiodine) makes it a natural target for radioiodine therapy. We retrospectively analyzed the outcome of radioiodine therapy in a cohort of 151 patients of primary hyperthyroidism treated on an outpatient basis in our institute from January 2001 to November 2006. Of these 151 patients, 113 (38 male, 75 female; age range: 17- 65 years) were of Graves' disease. The median duration of symptoms in these patients was 4 years. (Range: 3 months to 20 years). Diagnosis was established on basis of clinical, biochemical and scintigraphic features. All the patients were treated medically with Neomercazole (Carbimazole) for varying durations (median 3.5 years). The dose range varied from 5 to 80 mg per day (median 20 mg per day). Clinical assessment of thyroid size revealed 39 patients with grade 0, 14 with grade 1, 30 with grade 2, and 30 with grade 3 goiters. Pre-therapy radioactive iodine uptake was done in 28 patients, which showed median values of 50 % at 4 hrs, 57.45 % at 24 hrs, and 56.2 % at 48 hrs respectively. These patients were treated empirically with I-131 in a dose range of 5 to 15 mCi, depending upon the clinical presentation and the RAIU values. Remission of symptoms with a single dose therapy was noticed in 68 patients. Of the 83 patients, 15 became hypothyroid within 3 months. These patients were on Neomercazole for a varying period of 2 to 20 years, at a dose range of 10 to 80 mg per day. 14 patients achieved remission after 2 doses with a cumulative RAI dose in the range of 10 to 19 mCi, at a median period of 7 to 24 months. Eight patients still showed hyperthyroid activity even after a second dose and are on follow-up. Seven patients achieved remission with a cumulative dose range of 17 to 35 mCi at a median duration of 10 months. One patient of Graves' disease who took Neomercazole for 10 years, at

  14. The clinical value of immunosuppression in Graves' ophthalmopathy after radioiodine therapy for hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yue; Qiu Ling; Zhang Chunying; Long Shuiqing; Gan Xilun

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The chief clinical characteristics of Graves disease are hyperthyroidism and ophthalmopathy. To assess the values of using immunosuppression in Graves ophthalmopathy. Method: 415 patients with Graves hyperthyroidism were studied. They were randomly assigned to receive radioiodine, methimazole from 1.5 to 2 years, radioiodine followed by a 3-month course of prednisone. The changes in thyroid function and progression of ophthalmopathy were evaluated. Results: Among the 138 patients treated with radioiodine, 19 patients had new or worsening ophthalmopathy; 117 had no changes in their eyes; 2 patients had improvement in their eye disease. Among the 138 patients treated with methimazole, 3 patients had new or worsening ophthalmopathy; 133 had no changes in their eyes; 2 patients had improvement in their eye disease. Among the 139 patients treated with radioiodine and prednisone, no patient had new or worsening ophthalmopathy; 107 had no changes in their eyes; 32 patients had improvement in their eye disease. The frequency of improvement of ophthalmopathy was significantly higher in the radioiodine-prednisone group than in either the radioiodine group or the methimazole group (P<0.001 for both comparisons). Conclusions: The administration of prednisone after radioiodine therapy was associated with improvement of ophthalmopathy. Worsening of ophthalmopathy after radioiodine therapy is often transient and can be prevented by the administration of prednisone

  15. Radioiodine uptake in young carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) retarded in growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysak, A.

    1978-01-01

    In the light of results obtained in recent years, radioiodine disposition in young carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), retarded in growth is described. The pharynx centre accumulates most of the administered radioiodine. Activation of renal centre takes place already after 10 days of intensive feeding. (author)

  16. Optimized protocol for the radioiodination of hydrazone-type polymer drug delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedláček, Ondřej; Kučka, Jan; Hrubý, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Hydrazone conjugates of polymers with doxorubicin represent a very promising tool for cancer chemotherapy. However, these conjugates are very difficult to radiolabel with iodine radionuclides, which possess otherwise very advantageous nuclear properties to, e.g., follow biodistribution. In this study, we developed a robust protocol for the high-yield radioiodination of hydrazone-type drug delivery systems with doxorubicin. In particular, it is crucial that the polymer radioiodination step be performed before the deprotection of the hydrazide and doxorubicin binding. - Highlights: • Hydrazone-type drug delivery systems with doxorubicin were radioiodinated. • Radioiodination was performed via polymer-bound phenolic moiety. • Radioiodination step must be performed before deprotection and drug binding

  17. Anti-thyrotropin receptor antibody levels after radioiodine therapy in patients of childbearing age with Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Mizuho; Tojo, Katsuyoshi; Tajima, Naoko; Yoshimura, Hiroshi; Ito, Koichi

    2006-01-01

    Following radioiodine therapy for Graves' disease, transient elevation of anti-thyrotropin receptor antibody (TRAb) is observed. Elevation of TRAb causes neonatal hyperthyroidism. Serum TRAb levels before radioiodine therapy, 2 months to 1 year, 1 to 2 years, 2 to 3 years, and 3 to 4 years after radioiodine therapy were retrospectively analyzed in 25 women of childbearing age with Graves' disease. The normal range for TRAb is ≤15%. The one patient with serum TRAb levels <10% before radioiodine therapy did not have TRAb levels ≥50% after radioiodine therapy. However, in patients with serum TRAb levels of 10% to 30% before radioiodine therapy (n=8), TRAb were ≥50% in 75.0% 2 months to 1 year after radioiodine therapy, in 25.0% 1 to 2 years after, and in 37.5% 2 to 4 years after. In patients with serum TRAb levels of 30% to 50% before radioiodine therapy (n=3), TRAb levels were ≥50% in 33.3% 2 months to 1 year after radioiodine therapy and in 0.0% 1 to 4 years after. In patients with serum TRAb levels of 50% to 70% before radioiodine therapy (n=6), TRAb were ≥50% in 83.3% 2 months to 1 year after radioiodine therapy, in 66.6% 1 to 2 years after, and in 33.3% 2 to 4 years after. In patients with serum TRAb levels ≥70% before radioiodine therapy (n=7), TRAb levels were ≥50% in 100% 2 months to 1 year after radioiodine therapy, in 85.7% 1 to 2 years after, in 71.4% 2 to 3 years after, and in 57.1% 3 to 4 years after. Serum TRAb levels are more likely to be ≥50% after radioiodine therapy in patients with high serum TRAb levels before radioiodine therapy. (author)

  18. Lithium as an adjunct to radioiodine therapy in Graves' disease for prolonging the intrathyroidal effective half-life of radioiodine. Useful or not?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunkelmann, S.; Kuenstner, H.; Nabavi, E.; Eberlein, U.; Groth, P.; Schuemichen, C. [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Zentrum fuer Radiologie

    2006-07-01

    Aim: Evaluation of intrathyroidal kinetics of radioiodine with and without lithium as adjunct with respect to the increase in radiation dose delivered to the thyroid. Patients, methods: 267 patients in three groups were included in the study. Group I with 227 patients served as control group, Group II with 21 patients and Group III with 19 patients were distinguished by an intrathyroidal half-life of radioiodine below 3.5 days in the diagnostic test. Patients in Group III received 885 mg lithium carbonate a day for 2 weeks as adjunct to radioiodine therapy. Both diagnostic and therapeutic radioiodine kinetics were followed up by at least 10 uptake measurements within a minimum of 48 h. Kinetics of radioiodine were defined mathematically as balance of the thyroidal iodine intake and excretion by a two-compartment model. Results: Under therapy the maximum uptake of radioiodine was reduced by nearly 10% in all groups, in Group I, the effective half-life as well as the product of maximum uptake x effective half-life as an equivalent of radiation dose independent of thyroid volume was lowered in the same magnitude. In Group II, the energy-dose equivalent remained constant under therapy. With adjunct lithium in Group III, the effective half-life was prolonged significantly by factor 1.61{+-}0.49 and the volume-independent energy-dose equivalent by factor 1.39{+-}0.37. No severe side effects of lithium were observed. Conclusion: Using lithium as adjunct to radio-iodine therapy increases the radiation dose delivered to the thyroid by 39% on average and nearly 30% of radioiodine activity can be saved in these patients. Lithium is recommended in patients with very short effective half-life in the diagnostic test in order to reduce the activity required and whole-body radiation dose. (orig.)

  19. Characterization of radioiodine therapy failures in Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabri, O.; Zimny, M.; Schreckenberger, M.; Reinartz, P.; Nowak, B.; Ostwald, E.; Schaefer, W.; Block, S.; Setani, K.; Buell, U.

    2001-01-01

    Aim of this study was a characterization of radioiodine therapy (RIT) failures in Graves' disease without simultaneous carbimazole. Method: 226 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of Graves' disease received 686.8 ± 376.4 MBq of iodine-131 orally for thyroid ablation. Target dose was 250 Gy. All patients were followed up for 6 months. Therapy failures were compared with successes regarding possible influencing variables initial thyroid volume, thyroid function, immune activity (TRAb), I-131 uptake, effective half-life, absorbed energy dose, age and gender. Results: 212 of 226 patients (93.8%) were treated successfully, 14 (6.2%) showed a hyperthyroidism relapse within 6 months which required a second radioiodine therapy. A success rate of 92.5% (62/67) could also be achieved with 67 patients who were hyperthyroid at the time of RIT. Compared to the therapy successes, the 14 failures achieved significantly lower absorbed doses (223.8 ± 76.6 Gy vs. 285.2 ± 82.1 Gy, p 0.2). Of the 14 failures, n = 8 reached an absorbed dose 250 Gy. Stepwise logistic regression revealed only absorbed energy dose as a variable significantly influencing therapy success (p 0.2) or gender (p = 0.13). Two-tailed Fisher's exact test showed no significant influence of gender on success rates (failures/successes: male 1/36, female 13/176, p = 0.48). Conclusions: Except for the absorbed energy dose, no other significant variable influencing the outcome of radioiodine therapy in Graves' disease without simultaneous carbimazole could be found. It should be noted, though, that 5 therapy failures (2.2%) reached an absorbed energy dose of >250 Gy. (orig.) [de

  20. The deposition of radioiodine onto rice plant from atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shigeo; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Yoshida, Satoshi; Sumiya, Misako; Ohmomo, Yoichiro.

    1994-01-01

    Radiation dose estimations are usually made with the aid of assessment models in which model parameters such as the transfer factors of radionuclides from one environmental compartment to another are involved. In simple models the parameters are often described as the concentration ratio of a radionuclide between two compartments, when the system is under equilibrium condition. In this paper, the authors introduce the values of the parameters of radioiodine obtained by tracer experiments. Laboratory experiments on the transfer parameters of radionuclides from the atmosphere to rice plant were carried out in the atmosphere-to-crops system (deposition pathway). It is known that the typical chemical species of gaseous iodine in the atmosphere are elemental iodine (I 2 ) and methyliodide (CH 3 I). The deposition characteristics of both chemical species of gaseous iodine to rice grains were obtained. Mass normalized deposition velocity (V D ) and grain number normalized deposition velocity (V S ) of gaseous elemental iodine (I 2 ) and also methyliodide (CH 3 I) on unhulled rice were measured. Both V D and V S of methyliodide were about one percent of those of elemental iodine. Distribution pattern of methyliodide between unhulled rice and brown rice was significantly lower than that of elemental one. For wet deposition, we investigated the retention of radioiodines (iodide [I - ] and iodate [IO 3 - ] on rice grains and their translocation from the surface of the grains to brown rice. Though the ears were dipped into the solution containing 125 I - or 125 IO 3 - more than 15 min., both iodine species in the solutions were hardly taken up to the rice grains. The transfer rates of iodide and iodate, which are defined as 'the amount of the iodine in brown rice' divided by 'the amount of iodide in unhulled rice' were about 0.015 and 0.04, respectively. The rates were not changed with time after the radioiodine application. (author)

  1. Rapid labelling of rose bengal and iothalamate with radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, J.

    1981-01-01

    Rapid and simple methods for tagging rose bengal and iothalamate with radioactive iodine are proposed. In both cases, the reaction takes place in a penicillintype vial. In the first method, Chloramine-T, was added to a vial containing rose bengal and radioiodide. Tagging iothalamate requires heating a mixture of iothalamate and radioactive iodine in the autoclave. A high radiochemical yield was obtained in the two procedures. This obviated the need of separating the small amount of free radioiodine present in the final product. (author)

  2. Fast radioiodination of rose bengal at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbruggen, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    Polyhalogenated dyes based on aromatic ring systems such as fluorosceins have been used for the evaluation of hepatobiliary function since 1909. In 1955 rose bengal was radioiodinated and a radiocontrastdye become a radiopharmaceutical. In the present study an improved method, based on the chloramine-T method, has been developed for labelling rose bengal. This method was chosen for its short reaction time, its mild conditions and its high yield. The optimum values of the reaction parameters have been determined, and resulted in a slightly higher yield, within a shorter time and without breakdown products being present

  3. Guideline for radioiodine therapy for benign thyroid diseases (version 3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietlein, M.; Schicha, H. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin der Univ. zu Koeln (Germany); Dressler, J. [Nuklearmedizinische Klinik der Henriettenstiftung, Hannover (Germany); Gruenwald, F. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin der Univ. Frankfurt (Germany); Leisner, B. [Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin des Allg. Krankenhauses St. Georg, Hamburg (Germany); Moser, E. [Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin der Radiologischen Universitaetsklinik Freiburg (Germany); Reiners, C.; Schneider, P. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin der Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany); Schober, O. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin der Univ. Muenster (Germany)

    2004-12-01

    The version 3 of the guideline for radioiodine therapy for benign thyroid diseases presents first of all a revision of the version 2. The chapter indication for radioiodine therapy, surgical treatment or antithyroid drugs bases on an interdisciplinary consensus. The manifold criteria for decision making consider the entity of thyroid disease (autonomy, Graves' disease, goitre, goitre recurrence), the thyroid volume, suspicion of malignancy, cystic nodules, risk of surgery and co-morbidity, history of subtotal thyroidectomy, persistent or recurrent thyrotoxicosis caused by Graves' disease including known risk factors for relapse, compression of the trachea caused by goitre, requirement of direct therapeutic effect as well as the patient's preference. Because often some of these criteria are relevant, the guideline offers the necessary flexibility for individual decisions. Further topics are patients' preparation, counseling, dosage concepts, procedural details, results, side effects and follow-up care. The prophylactic use of glucocorticoids during radioiodine therapy in patients without preexisting ophthalmopathy as well as dosage and duration of glucocorticoid medication in patients with preexisting ophthalmopathy need to be clarified in further studies. The pragmatic recommendations for the combined use of radioiodine and glucocorticoids remained unchanged in the 3{sup rd} version. (orig.) [German] Die Version 3 der Leitlinie zur Radioiodtherapie (RIT) bei benignen Schilddruesenerkrankungen stellt im Wesentlichen eine redaktionelle Ueberarbeitung der Version 2 dar. Im Kapitel Indikation und Empfehlungen fuer eine Radioiodtherapie, eine Operation oder eine thyreostatische Therapie bei gutartigen Schilddruesenerkrankungen basiert die Leitlinie auf einem interdisziplinaer abgestimmten Konzept. Die Entscheidungskriterien sind multifaktoriell und beruecksichtigen die Art der Schilddruesenerkrankung (Autonomie, Morbus Basedow, Struma, Rezidivstruma

  4. Extraction, radioiodination, and in vivo catabolism of equine fibrinogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyne, C.P.; Hornof, W.J.; Kelly, A.B.; O'Brien, T.R.; DeNardo, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    Equine fibrinogen was isolated and aliquots were stored frozen at -70 C before radiolabeling with 125I (half-life = 60.2 days; gamma = 35 keV, using monochloroiodine reagent. Radioiodination efficiencies were 49% to 53%, resulting in a labeled product with 98% protein-bound activity and 91% clottable radioactivity. In 6 equine in vivo investigations, plasma half-lives of 125I-labeled fibrinogen were from 4.1 to 5.2 days, corresponding to a mean daily plasma elimination rate of approximately 15%

  5. Thyroid emergencies following radioiodine therapy - Two case reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasmine, Sufia; Haque, Fatema Sultana; Karim, M. A.

    2002-01-01

    Thyrotoxicosis and well differentiated thyroid carcinomas are the two most common pathological conditions where radioiodine is used. Patients with well differentiated thyroid carcinomas are the candidates for post operative radio iodine therapy. It is currently the most popular and frequently used method of treatment. Its use is safe and cost effective. The results are usually eventless but in some exceptional cases emergencies that occurred after administration of I-131. One emergency occurred after I-131 administration for Graves' disease and the second case happened after therapeutic application of I-131 for treatment of local recurrences of thyroid cancer.(author)

  6. Radioiodinated free fatty acids; can we measure myocardial metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, F.C.; Eenige, M.J. van; Duwel, C.M.B.; Roos, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of radioiodinated free fatty acids for ''metabolic imaging'', the kinetics and distribution pattern of metabolites of heptadecanoic acid I 131 (HDA I 131) were studied in canine myocardium throughout metabolic interventions. In control dogs and in dogs during glucose/insulin and sodium lactate infusion, biopsy specimens were taken during a go-min period after HDA I 131 administration and analyzed. Clearly distinct patterns of distribution and elimination were seen during the metabolic interventions, indicating the usefulness of iodinated fatty acids for metabolic studies. (orig.)

  7. Preliminary study of attitude and knowledge of thyroid cancer patients to radioiodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thongpraparn, Thonnapong; Pusuwan, Pawana; Tocharoenchai, Chiraporn; Siriphitukyotin, Oratai; Wongsawat, Wanwimon; Chaudakshetrin, Pachee; Putrasreni, Nucharee

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study is to survey the attitude and knowledge of radiation and radioiodine treatment in thyroid cancer patients. Fifty-two thyroid cancer patients who were prepared for radioactive iodine treatment at Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital were requested to fill the questionaires before and after receiving the information about radioiodine treatment. The questionaires consisted of 12 questions of which the first five were about the attitude to radiation and radioiodine treatment. The rest was about an information on radioiodine treatment. For data analysis, firstly the percentage of correct answer of each question was calculated and compared between pre- and post-test. Secondly all patients were categorized into 2 groups according to their education: upto high school, and undergraduate or higher. The attitude and the understanding about radioiodine treatment were analyzed in each group. The results show that post-test gives higher percentages of correct answers for all questions with an average of 29% improvement. For upto high school group, the attitude improves from 69.4% to 97.2% and the understanding about radioiodine treatment improves from 88.9% to 100%. Similarly, for the undergraduate or higher group,the attitude improves from 93.3% to 100% and the understanding about radioiodine treatment improves from 73.3% to 100%. It may be concluded that our education intervention is informative and the well-educated patients have better attitude to radiation

  8. Subjective perception of radioactivity. No change post successful treatment with radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenberg, L.S.; Mueller, S.P.; Beyer, T.; Bockisch, A.

    2009-01-01

    We assess the attitude of patients with thyroid disease towards radiation and radioactivity before and after radioiodine therapy by means of a cultural-anthropological approach. We evaluate in patient interviews how their subjective attitude towards radioactivity as an abstract term and towards radioactivity in the medical context on the basis of their personal experiences with radionuclide therapy. 29 patients with autonomously functioning thyroid lesions (17 women, 12 men, 35-79 years) were included in this study. All patients were interviewed prior to and 22-27 month post radioiodine therapy in an open dialogue with the principal investigator. Patients were asked to describe their attitude towards radioactivity in general and towards radioiodine therapy in particular. Patients were asked to use a scoring system (1: positive, 5: negative) to quantify their perception of radioactivity. The personal perception of radioactivity as an abstract term does not change significantly (p = 0.15) before and after radioiodine therapy. This perception is linked to mostly negative impressions of radiactivity. However, patients become more positive when assessing the value of radioactivity as part of their therapy regimen. Thus, we observe a significant increase in percepted value of radioactivity post radioiodine therapy (p = 0.03). Patients continue to view radioactivity as something negative despite treatment success following radioiodine therapy. Our results provide useful information for patient information by the nuclear medicine physician prior to a radioiodine therapy. (orig.)

  9. Paradoxical effects of radioiodine therapy in functional thyroid autonomy and mild immunothyropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkelmann, S.; Rudolph, F.; Prillwitz, A.; Groth, P.; Schuemichen, C.

    1998-01-01

    Aim: To examine all cases with Graves' disease after radioiodine therapy of autonomously functioning thyroid tissue (AFFT) in order to find the cause. Methods: We retrospectively studied 1428 pts who were treated between 11/93 and 3/97 with radioiodine for AFTT and who underwent at least one control examination. Results: 15 (1.1%) of all pts developed Graves' disease 8.4 (4-13) months after radioiodine therapy. There was no direct suggestion of Graves' disease (TRAK negative, no endocrine ophthalmopathy) in any pt at the time of radioiodine therapy. More detailed analysis of anamnestic data, however, revealed evidence that immunothyropathy predated radioiodine therapy in 11 of the 15 pts. Paradoxical effects of radioiodine therapy manifested as an increase in immunothyropathy 14 pts, a deterioration in metabolism in 11 pts and a first occurrence of endocrine ophthalmopathy in 5 pts. Conclusion: Exacerbation of preexisting, functional primarily insignificant immunothyropathia is held responsible in most cases for the observed paradoxical effects after radioiodine therapy, resulting in radiation-induced manifest Graves' disease; however no therapeutical consequences are recommended. (orig.) [de

  10. The synthesis of radioiodinated carbohydrates and butyrothenones as potential imaging agents for computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterhouse, R.N.

    1993-01-01

    Positron Emission tomography (PET) and Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) are two relatively new imaging techniques which allow for the non-invasive evaluation of biochemical processes in living subjects. Currently, SPECT is more widely accessible than PET, however, only a limited number of radiotracers have been successfully developed for imaging by SPECT. Two classes of radioiodinated compounds were developed as potential imaging agents for SPECT: (1) Radioiodinated carbohydrates for the assessment of glucose metabolism and (2) Radioiodinated butyrothienones for the evaluation of dopamine D 2 receptors in the brain. In both classes of compounds, the radioiodine was attached to an sp 2 hybridized carbon atom to provide radiotracers that were chemically and metabolically stable. Radioiodine incorporation was easily accomplished by radioiododestannylation of vinyl- and aryl-trialkylstannanes in the presence of an oxidizing agent. The incorporation of radioiodine into small molecules can have a significant effect on the biological activity of the resulting radiotracer because of the relatively large size and lipophilicity of the iodine atom. Preliminary evaluations of the effectiveness of the radioiodinated carbohydrates and butyrothienones as imaging agents are presented

  11. Small-molecule MAPK inhibitors restore radioiodine incorporation in mouse thyroid cancers with conditional BRAF activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Debyani; Santos, Elmer; Ryder, Mabel; Knauf, Jeffrey A.; Liao, Xiao-Hui; West, Brian L.; Bollag, Gideon; Kolesnick, Richard; Thin, Tin Htwe; Rosen, Neal; Zanzonico, Pat; Larson, Steven M.; Refetoff, Samuel; Ghossein, Ronald; Fagin, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced human thyroid cancers, particularly those that are refractory to treatment with radioiodine (RAI), have a high prevalence of BRAF (v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1) mutations. However, the degree to which these cancers are dependent on BRAF expression is still unclear. To address this question, we generated mice expressing one of the most commonly detected BRAF mutations in human papillary thyroid carcinomas (BRAFV600E) in thyroid follicular cells in a doxycycline-inducible (dox-inducible) manner. Upon dox induction of BRAFV600E, the mice developed highly penetrant and poorly differentiated thyroid tumors. Discontinuation of dox extinguished BRAFV600E expression and reestablished thyroid follicular architecture and normal thyroid histology. Switching on BRAFV600E rapidly induced hypothyroidism and virtually abolished thyroid-specific gene expression and RAI incorporation, all of which were restored to near basal levels upon discontinuation of dox. Treatment of mice with these cancers with small molecule inhibitors of either MEK or mutant BRAF reduced their proliferative index and partially restored thyroid-specific gene expression. Strikingly, treatment with the MAPK pathway inhibitors rendered the tumor cells susceptible to a therapeutic dose of RAI. Our data show that thyroid tumors carrying BRAFV600E mutations are exquisitely dependent on the oncoprotein for viability and that genetic or pharmacological inhibition of its expression or activity is associated with tumor regression and restoration of RAI uptake in vivo in mice. These findings have potentially significant clinical ramifications. PMID:22105174

  12. Stunning in radioiodine therapy of benign thyroid disease. Quantification and therapeutic relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krohn, T.; Meyer, P.T.; Knollmann, D.; Nowak, B.; Schaefer, W.M.; Ocklenburg, C.

    2008-01-01

    In radioiodine therapy of benign thyroid disease, a reduction of radioiodine uptake is known for consecutive administrations of 131I, which needs to be considered in therapy planning. Aim: Analysis of uptake reduction with regard on the time interval between radioiodine administration and the delivered dose to the thyroid tissue. Patients, methods: 200 patients were enrolled in the study and distributed into two groups (matched for diagnoses), each containing 32 patients with Graves' disease (target dose 250 Gy), 24 with focal (400 Gy), 44 with disseminated thyroid autonomy (150 Gy). In one group, a second fraction of radioiodine was given after 48 h (2d) due to an unexpected low radioiodine uptake or effective half-life, whereas in the other group the second fraction was given after 96 h (4d). Results: There was no significant difference between delivered doses due to the first fraction after four days: 2d: 86 ± 48 Gy (extrapolated) vs. 4d: 87 ± 41 Gy, p > 0.05. In 2d, delivered dose at time of second administration was significantly lower (51 μ 29 Gy) than in 4d (p < 0.01). The radioiodine uptake of the second fraction relative to the initial uptake was significantly lower in the 4d (4d: 63 ± 25% vs. 2d: 82 ± 24%, p < 0.01). In addition, a correlation between uptake reduction and delivered dose and an influence of the time interval between radioiodine administrations could be shown. Conclusions: Relative uptake of subsequent radioiodine fractions decreases with time after first administration and with increasing delivered dose to the thyroid. If a second fraction of 131I is given at an earlier time, the same therapeutic effect can be reached using lower amounts of activity, minimising radiation exposure and increasing efficiency of radioiodine therapy. (orig.)

  13. Savannah River Site radioiodine atmospheric releases and offsite maximum doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marter, W.L.

    1990-01-01

    Radioisotopes of iodine have been released to the atmosphere from the Savannah River Site since 1955. The releases, mostly from the 200-F and 200-H Chemical Separations areas, consist of the isotopes, I-129 and 1-131. Small amounts of 1-131 and 1-133 have also been released from reactor facilities and the Savannah River Laboratory. This reference memorandum was issued to summarize our current knowledge of releases of radioiodines and resultant maximum offsite doses. This memorandum supplements the reference memorandum by providing more detailed supporting technical information. Doses reported in this memorandum from consumption of the milk containing the highest I-131 concentration following the 1961 1-131 release incident are about 1% higher than reported in the reference memorandum. This is the result of using unrounded 1-131 concentrations of I-131 in milk in this memo. It is emphasized here that this technical report does not constitute a dose reconstruction in the same sense as the dose reconstruction effort currently underway at Hanford. This report uses existing published data for radioiodine releases and existing transport and dosimetry models

  14. Radioiodine therapy of hyperthyroidism at 25 years experience in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mai Trong Khoa; Phan Sy An; Phan Van Duyet; Tran Dinh Ha

    2004-01-01

    In Vietnam, hyperthyroidism is a common problem with a local prevalence of 1.48%, higher in females (1.78%) and 1.19% in males. Radioiodine (I-131) is used successfully since more than 60 years in the world and more than 20 years in Vietnam for treatment of hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism can be due to Graves' disease (diffuse toxic goiter); toxic multinodular goiter and solitary toxic nodule; thyroiditis; iodine - induced hyperthyroidism (Job-Basedow's disease)... In Vietnam, the most common cause of hyperthyroidism is toxic diffuse goiter. There are 3 main Methods for treatment of hyperthyroidism: antithyroid drug; surgery; radioiodine. In our country, less than half of the patients with hyperthyroidism are treated primarily with radioiodine in recent years. Since 1978, 13226 patients with hyperthyroidism (1784 males and 11442 females) have been treated and have been followed-up at the Nuclear Medicine Departments in other parts of Vietnam (North, Middle, South Vietnam). After treatment with I-131, these patients were followed up at 3 to 4 months interval for the first year and 6 to 12 monthly henceforth. The average dose of I-131 was 6.8 ± 1.9 mCi. Out of the 13226 patients, 5216 (39.4%) became clinically hypothyroid, 7841 (59.3 %) were euthyroid and 169 (1.3%) remained hyperthyroidism.Administration of a single dose resulted in control of thyrotoxicosis in 9911 (74.9%) patients. 2581 (19.5%) patients required 2 doses and a further 734 (5.5%) needed 3 doses of 1-131.At the end of the first year, 511 (3.9%) of patients were clinically hypothyroid. From the second to tenth year, there was a 2.2% annual increase in incidence of hypothyroidism. From the eleventh year on wards, the incidence of hypothyroidism was 1% per year. There was no significant difference in prevalence of hypothyroidism at the time of review in patients treated with a single dose and those requiring repeated treatment (p>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in the

  15. A method for the radiohalogenation of proteins resulting in decreased thyroid uptake of radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalutsky, M.R.; Narula, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    A procedure is described for the radioiodination of proteins using an iodinated derivative of N-succinimidyl 3-(tri-n-butylstannyl) benzoate (ATE). Adequate removal of unreacted ATE from [ 125 I]ATE was necessary for optimal protein radioiodination. Labelling efficiencies of greater than 60% could be obtained after a 20 min incubation of goat IgG with [ 125 I]ATE at 4 0 C. Paired-label experiments with goat IgG labeled with 125 I using ATE and 131 I using Iodogen demonstrated that use of the ATE reagent for protein labeling significantly reduced (P < 0.005) the thyroid uptake of radioiodine. (author)

  16. Radioiodine Treatment of Well-Differentiated thyroid cancer in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrenechea, E.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Well-differentiated thyroid cancer (DTCA) in children is quite different from the adult- onset disease in that they are more aggressive at the time of diagnosis and with metastases and has a higher risk for recurrence. Some studies claim it to be less lethal and hence treatment protocols may be different from that of the adult. This study was made to analyze the need for RAI therapy as one of the cornerstone of treatment aside from surgery and thyroid hormone suppression as well as to determine the behavior of WDTCA in children. Results: The incidence of DTCA is varied and ranges from 1-10% in several published series. In the Philippines where thyroid cancer in adults ranks 5th in mortality for both sexes, the incidence is likewise very low, around 0.5-1% for ages 18 years and below in a ten year study. It was predominantly a female population (74%) as compared to the males (26%). Fifteen cases were reviewed and included as most were given RAI (87%). Most presented as a solitary nodule and with lymph node metastases. Thirteen cases were papillary in nature and only two cases were follicular. The incidence of nodal metastases was 53% while lung metastases were seen in 20% of cases. Of the 13 cases that underwent RAI therapy, three cases of lung metastases needed repeat therapy. In the cases with lymph node metastases, 2 cases also had recurrence and which necessitated repeat RAI therapy. The two cases that did not get RAI therapy had progressive disease on follow- up after 5 and 7 years respectively from surgery. Discussion: Primary treatment for DTC should consist of surgery, radioiodine ablation and thyroid hormone suppression. We must rely on pediatric outcome studies and the high frequency of multifocal intrathyroidal disease, loco- regional spread and extra cervical metastases often seen as initial presentations of this particular group. The more advanced disease at diagnosis for children, propensity for recurrence as well as the greater radioiodine

  17. Application of lithium carbonate on radioiodine treatment of Graves' hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zha Jinshun; Huang Chunling; Jiang Tingyin; Jiang Yan

    2011-01-01

    Effectiveness of radioiodine for Graves' hyperthyroidism depends on retention time of 131 I in the thyroid, and may be effected by several factors, including previous treatment with antithyroid drugs,goiter volume, 24 h thyroidal radioactive iodine uptake and so on. A short course of therapy with low dose of lithium carbonate increased retention of 131 I in the thyroid and prolong the intrathyroidal effective half-life of 131 I before and after 131 I therapy in patients with Graves' disease, because of the actions that lithium blocks the release of organic iodine and thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland without affecting thyroidal radioactive iodine uptake. Therefore, using lithium as adjunct to radioiodine therapy increases the radiation dose delivered to the thyroid, to result in reduced the activity required and whole-body radiation dose in patients with very short effective half-life, and so improve the cure rate of hyperthyroidism. A short course of lithium carbonate therapy can be considered a useful adjunct to 131 I therapy for obtaining a more rapid control of thyrotoxicosis and avoiding its transient exacerbation because of methimazole withdrawal prior to 131 I administration or in patients who cannot tolerate or do not respond to antithyroid drugs, and for helping to prevent the radioiodine-associated increase in serum free thyroid hormone concentrations. In addition, lithium carbonate enhances the effectiveness of 131 I therapy, in terms of prompter control of hyperthyroidism in patients with small or large goiters. At the same time, lithium also may increases the rate of permanent control of hyperthyroidism in patients with large goiters. In summary, in the short-term lithium plays an important role as an adjunct to 131 I, since it helps to prevent the 131 I-associated increase in serum free thyroid hormone concentrations and allows a more prompt control of thyrotoxicosis. This is of particular importance in high risk patients, such as the elderly

  18. Production and radioiodination of monoclonal antibodies and its applications in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo e Souza, I.T. de; Okada, H.

    1988-12-01

    The basis of the monoclonal antibody production methodology, some immunological concepts which are important for the understanding of what is a Monoclonal Antibody, its radioiodination and acceptance as receptor-specific radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine are reviewed. (author) [pt

  19. Radioiodine treatment of recurrent hyperthyroidism in patients previously treated for Graves' disease by subtotal thyroidectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, H; Laurberg, P

    1992-01-01

    showed a higher sensitivity to radioiodine, with more cases of early hypothyroidism, than non-operated patients. However, after 50 months of follow-up the outcome was identical. The results indicate that frequent assessment is necessary after radioiodine treatment of previously operated patients, since......Radioiodine therapy is often employed for treatment of patients with relapse of hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease, after previous thyroid surgery. Little is known about the outcome of this treatment compared to patients with no previous surgery. A total of 20 patients who had received surgical...... treatment for Graves' hyperthyroidism 1-46 years previously and with relapse of the hyperthyroidism, and 25 patients with hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease and no previous thyroid surgery were treated with radioiodine, following the same protocol. Early after treatment the previously operated patients...

  20. Bilateral breast uptake of radioiodine in a male patient with gynecomastia: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uslu, Lebriz; Ozbayrak, Mustafa; Vatankulu, Betul; Sonmezoglu, Kerim

    2015-01-01

    A 56-year-old male patient with papillary thyroid carcinoma was given radioiodine for the treatment of persistent disease. Post radioiodine whole body scan revealed uptake at the thyroidal region and bilateral uptake at the upper thoracic region. Single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) confirmed uptake at the left thyroid lobe, and additional symmetrical mammary gland uptake was observed at both breasts. The patient had obesity-related gynecomastia, but he did not have any history of breast cancer, mastitis, hyperprolactinemia, or galactorrhea. Although breast uptake of radioiodine is a common finding in postpartum or lactating women, it is uncommon in male patients. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a male patient with breast uptake of radioiodine documented with SPECT/CT. SPECT/CT is useful in male patients in the differentiation of benign breast uptake with lung metastases or axillary metastases of thyroid cancer

  1. The catabolism of radioiodinated anti-lung-cancer monoclonal antibodies in tumor-bearing nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Xubao

    1991-01-01

    Nude mice bearing humor lung cancer xenografts were injected intravenously or intraperitoneally with a mixture of radioiodinated anti-lung-cancer monoclonal antibodies, 2E3 and 6D1. The blood radioactivity versus time curve was fitted to a two-compartment open model with a 3.4 day blood radioactivity clearance half-life and a 636 ml/kg apparent distribution volume. Radioiodinated 2E3 and 6D1 given intraperitoneally were rapidly absorbed, with a 2.08 absorption half-life and 89% bioavailability. The highest radioactivity levels were found in the tumor, blood, liver and spleen 1-3 days after injection; next came the lung, kidney, stomach and intestine. The relative radioactivity increased in the tumor as levels in blood and normal tissues decreased. The in vivo deiodination of radioiodinated 2E3 and 6D1 was about 18.6% and free radioiodine was excreted in the urine

  2. Acute effects of radioiodine therapy on the voice and larynx of basedow-Graves patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isolan-Cury, Roberta Werlang; Cury, Adriano Namo; Monte, Osmar; Silva, Marta Assumpcao de Andrada e; Duprat, Andre; Marone, Marilia; Almeida, Renata de; Iglesias, Alexandre

    2008-01-01

    Graves's disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. There are three current therapeutic options: anti-thyroid medication, surgery, and radioactive iodine (I 131). There are few data in the literature regarding the effects of radioiodine therapy on the larynx and voice. The aim of this study was: to assess the effect of radioiodine therapy on the voice of Basedow-Graves patients. Material and method: A prospective study was done. Following the diagnosis of Grave's disease, patients underwent investigation of their voice, measurement of maximum phonatory time (/a/) and the s/z ratio, fundamental frequency analysis (Praat software), laryngoscopy and (perceptive-auditory) analysis in three different conditions: pre-treatment, 4 days, and 20 days post-radioiodine therapy. Conditions are based on the inflammatory pattern of thyroid tissue (Jones et al. 1999). Results: No statistically significant differences were found in voice characteristics in these three conditions. Conclusion: Radioiodine therapy does not affect voice quality. (author)

  3. Characterization and restoration of performance of {open_quotes}aged{close_quotes} radioiodine removing activated carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, W.P. [NUCON International, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The degradation of radioiodine removal performance for impregnated activated carbons because of ageing is well established. However, the causes for this degradation remain unclear. One theory is that this reduction in performance from the ageing process results from an oxidation of the surface of the carbon. Radioiodine removing activated carbons that failed radioiodine removal tests showed an oxidized surface that had become hydrophilic compared with new carbons. We attempted to restore the performance of these {open_quotes}failed{close_quotes} carbons with a combination of thermal and chemical treatment. The results of these investigations are presented and discussed with the view of extending the life of radioiodine removing activated carbons. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  4. Exhalation of I-131 after radioiodine therapy: time dependence and chemical form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schomaecker, K.; Fischer, T.; Eschner, W.; Gaidouk, M.I.; Schicha, H.

    2001-01-01

    Aim: The change of both amount and chemical forms of radioiodine exhaled in the air of rooms with patients on the therapy ward should be investigated depending on radioactivity applied, time after application, and kind of thyroid disease. Methods: The air of ward-rooms of 62 patients with thyroid carcinoma, Graves' Disease, and autonomy which received different therapy doses, was investigated with an portable constant air flow sampler. Different chemical iodine species (organic, elemental, aerosol bound) were collected during 8 hr in various filters until 3 days after application of the radioiodine capsule, according to their chemical form. The radioactivity in the filters was measured with a well counter on defined time points after application. Results: The radioactivity exhaled was between 0,008 and 0,03% related to activity of radioiodine applied. The percentage of radioiodine exhaled related to the activity applied, differed significantly depending on disease and changed as follows: Grave's disease > autonomy > carcinoma. The exhalation of radioiodine became stronger with increasing applied activities and showed an exponential decrease with time. The most part of radioiodine was present in organic bound form. This organic portion decreased with time in favour of the other iodine species. Conclusion: The degree of accumulation of radioiodine orally applied within thyroid seems to be in direct proportion to the extend of its exhalation. Further measurements directly in the breathing air of RIT-patients are necessary, in order to clarify the relationship between degree of thyroid uptake and quantity as well as chemical form of radioiodine exhaled. (orig.) [de

  5. Radioiodine therapy in patients with Graves' disease and the effects of prior carbimazole therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karyampudi, Arun; Hamide, Abdoul; Halanaik, Dhanapathi; Sahoo, Jaya Prakash; Kamalanathan, Sadishkumar

    2014-09-01

    The use of radioiodine as the first line of treatment in Graves' disease is restricted in India because of its limited availability and an unrealistic risk perception associated with it. Additionally, the effectiveness of radioiodine ablation in Graves' disease is influenced by many factors. Prior medical antithyroid therapy is one such important factor. To analyze the efficacy of low dose radioiodine therapy (5 mCi) in treatment of naive patients of Graves' disease in comparison to that in which it was already primed with an antithyroid drug, carbimazole. A non-randomized, interventional study conducted in the Department of Medicine and Endocrinology of a tertiary care institute in South India. The study had two groups; Group A (36 treatment naive, uncomplicated Graves' disease patients) and B (34 Graves' disease patients on carbimazole prior to radioiodine therapy). Both groups had baseline clinical, biochemical evaluation and were reassessed at 3 and 6 months for evaluating the clinical status for possible documentation of cure. The cure rate was 61.1% in drug naive group and 58.8% in pretreated group at 6 months following radioiodine (P = 0.845). Higher baseline 999m technicium (99m Tc) uptake, male gender, BMI and higher baseline free thyroxine (fT4) level predicted treatment failure following radioiodine therapy. Administration of carbimazole prior to low dose radioiodine therapy does not alter the efficacy of radioiodine. Low fixed dose (5 mCi) of radioactive iodine may be a safe and effective primary therapeutic option in Graves' disease patients pretreated with antithyroid drugs.

  6. Unfavourable effect of prolonged treatment with antithyroid drugs on radioiodine therapy outcome in Graves' hyperthyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Rajić, Milena; Vlajković, Marina; Ilić, Slobodan; Stević, Miloš; Sekulić, Vladan; Zečević, Mila

    2014-01-01

    Radioiodine therapy (RIT) of Graves' hyperthyroidism (GH) is usually recommended after failure of primary therapy with antithyroid drugs (ATDs), which are commonly prescribed for up to 18-24 months. However, in our region, the prolonged ATDs treatment of the disease is very common. Thus, we assessed the efficacy of RIT after prolonged continual pretreatment with ATDs in Graves' hyperthyroidism. Therapy outcome using a single dose of radioiodine was evaluated after one year in 91 patients (f/m...

  7. The risk for cancer and genetic abnormalities after radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiners, C.

    1997-01-01

    According to recent studies, the risk for thyroid cancer is not increased after radioiodine treatment in patients with hyperthyroidism. Only the risk of cancer of the stomach seems to be increased slightly in patents treated with I-131 because of functional autonomy. However, the risk for gastric cancer is not increased after higher activities of I-131 because of thyroid cancer. There is no increased risk for genetic abnormalities after radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroidism. (orig.) [de

  8. Guideline for radioiodine therapy for benign thyroid diseases (version 4); Leitlinie zur Radioiodtherapie (RIT) bei benignen Schilddruesenerkrankungen (Version 4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietlein, M.; Schicha, H. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Dressler, J. [Nuklearmedizinische Klinik der Henriettenstiftung, Hannover (Germany). Abteilung fuer Nuklearmedizin; Gruenwald, F. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Leisner, B. [Nuklearmedizinische Klinik der Henriettenstiftung des allgemeinen Krankenhauses St. Georg, Hamburg (Germany); Moser, E. [Nuklearmedizinische Klinik der Henriettenstiftung der Radiologischen Universitaetsklinik Freiburg (Germany); Reiners, C.; Schneider, P. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Schober, O. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2007-07-01

    Version 4 of the guideline for radioiodine therapy for benign thyroid diseases includes an interdisciplinary consensus ondecision making for antithyroid drugs, surgical treatment and radioiodine therapy. The quantitative description of a specific goiter volume for radioiodine therapy or operation was cancelled. For patients with nodular goiter with or without autonomy, manifold circumstances are in favor of surgery (suspicion on malignancy, large cystic nodules, mediastinal goiter, severe compression of the trachea) or in favor of radioiodine therapy (treatment of autonomy, age of patient, co-morbidity, history of prior subtotal thyroidectomy, profession like teacher, speaker or singer). For patients with Graves' disease, radioiodine therapy or surgery are recommended in the constellation of high risk of relapse (first-line therapy), persistence of hyperthyroidism or relapse of hyperthyroidism. After counseling, the patient gives informed consent to the preferred therapy. The period after radioiodine therapy of benign disorders until conception of at least four months was adapted to the European recommendation. (orig.)

  9. A condition variation study for radioiodination via triazene intermediates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, N.I.; Heindel, N.D.; Dannals, R.; Burns, H.D.

    1981-01-01

    Pyrrolidyl triazenes prepared by interception of the diazonium transient in the Sandmeyer reaction of amines can serve as useful intermediates in the iodination and radioiodination of aryl rings. Decomposition of such triazenes in the presence of iodide is acid-catalyzed and is sensitive to choice of solvent, acid, and triazene structure. A condition variation study by HPLC of four different solvent systems and two non-nucleophilic acids was carried out on the 123 I iodination of the triazenes of p-nitroaniline, p-anisidine and p-toluidine. This method has proven .useful in radiolabelling of two pharmaceutical analogs which were not amenable to labelling through the classic Sandmeyer method. (author)

  10. Radio-iodinated surface proteins of electrophoretically separated rat lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jilg, W.; Hannig, K.; Zeiller, K.

    1980-01-01

    Rat thymocytes and lymph node cells were separated into three T and one B subpopulation by means of free flow electrophoresis. The surface proteins of the separated cells were labelled by lactoperoxidase catalysed radioiodination. Most of the label was demonstrated to be at the cell surface. Although the surface protein patterns of the four lamphocyte subpopulations were rather similar, distinctive differences could be found. B cells had six labelled proteins which seemed to be absent in the other cells. In the T cell group three protein bands were identified, each with specificity for peripheral T cells, thymocytes and all T cells respectively. Four other proteins were found which showed quantitative differences between the four cell groups. (orig.) [de

  11. Soil adsorption of various chemical forms of radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabova, T.; Palagyi, S.

    1976-01-01

    The adsorption was studied of radioiodate and radioiodide by the soil in an experiment aimed at testing the behaviour of these two chemical forms of radioiodine. 131 IO 3 - was used in the experiment, prepared by the oxidation of carrier-free Na 131 I with NaClO in an acid medium. Thin-layer chromatography showed that the stability of radioiodate depended on the solution pH value. The highest stability was found at pH 7 to 11. When pH=7 was maintained, only a slow reduction was found of radioiodate to radioiodide. A significant difference was found in the adsorption of radioiodate and radioiodide. The iodide was sorbed faster and to a higher degree, especially by chernozem (due to the high content of organic mass in the soil) as against retzina. It is believed that soil contamination is primarily due to radioiodide. (L.O.)

  12. Current opinions on the radioiodine treatment of Graves' hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Woo; Lee, Jae Tae

    2003-01-01

    Radioactive iodine therapy using I-131 for hyperthyroidism has been used for more than 50 years, and generally considered safe and devoid of major side effects. Appropriate patient selection criteria and clinical judgement concerning patient preparation should be employed for its optimal use. It has not been possible to resolve the trade-off between efficient definite cure of hyperthyroidism and the high incidence of post-therapy hypothyroidism. The dose of the I-131 needed to maintain euthyroid state remains an area of uncertainty and debate. Early side effects are uncommon and readily manageable. Other than the need for long-term monitoring and, in most cases, lifelong thyroid hormone treatment for late adverse consequences of this treatment remains only conjectural. We have reviewed general principles and recent advances in radioiodine treatment for Graves' hyperthyroidism, specially regarding to several controversies

  13. Transfer of radionuclides to crop plants through roots. Radioiodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, Shigeo; Sumiya, Misako; Ohmomo, Yoichiro

    1987-07-01

    In an atmospheric discharge of radioiodines, direct deposition of the nuclides onto leaf surface must be the most significant pathway. However, root uptake is also of importance specifically for /sup 129/I because of its long half life of 1.57 x 10/sup 7/ years. In order to estimate the amount of the nuclide transferred to the crop plants from contaminated field, the experiments were carried out using solution culture. Rice plant, Oryza sativa cv. koshihikari, spinach, Spinacea oleracea L., radish, Raphanus sativus L., and the other four kinds of crop plants were exposed to culture solution in which Na/sup 131/I were contained. The transfer rates, defined as the ratio of activity of plant sample per day to the mean activity of culture solution, were calculated. And the differences by the organs of each crop plant and by plant species were discussed in this paper. Temporal critical crop plants for /sup 129/I were selected.

  14. Radioiodine therapy versus antithyroid drugs in Graves' disease: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This meta-analysis was performed to compare radioiodine therapy with antithyroid drugs in terms of clinical outcomes, including development or worsening of ophthalmopathy, hyperthyroid cure rate, hypothyroidism, relapse rate and adverse events. Methods: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, SinoMed and National Knowledge Infrastructure, China, were systematically reviewed to compare the effects of radioiodine therapy with antithyroid drugs in patients with Graves' disease. Results were expressed as risk ratio with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and weighted mean differences with 95% CIs. Pooled estimates were performed using a fixed-effects model or random-effects model, depending on the heterogeneity among studies. Results: 17 RCTs involving 4024 patients met the inclusion criteria and were included. Results showed that radioiodine treatment has increased risk in new ophthalmopathy, development or worsening of ophthalmopathy and hypothyroidism. Whereas, compared with antithyroid drugs, radioiodine treatment seems to have a higher hyperthyroid cure rate, lower recurrence rate and lower incidence of adverse events. Conclusion: Radioiodine therapy is associated with a higher hyperthyroid cure rate and lower relapse rate compared with antithyroid drugs. However, it also increases the risk of ophthalmopathy and hypothyroidism. Advances in knowledge: Considering that antithyroid drug treatment can be associated with unsatisfactory control of hyperthyroidism, we would recommend radioiodine therapy as the treatment of choice for patients with Graves' disease. PMID:27266544

  15. Selective mono-radioiodination and characterization of a cell-penetrating peptide. L-Tyr-maurocalcine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadi, Mitra; Bacot, Sandrine; Perret, Pascale; Riou, Laurent; Ghezzi, Catherine [Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); INSERM U1039, Grenoble (France). Radiopharmaceutiques Biocliniques; Poillot, Cathy; Cestele, Sandrine [INSERM U836, Grenoble (France). Grenoble Inst. of Neuroscience; Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); Desruet, Marie-Dominique [INSERM U1039, Grenoble (France). Radiopharmaceutiques Biocliniques; Couvet, Morgane; Bourgoin, Sandrine; Seve, Michel [CRI-INSERM U823, Grenoble (France). Inst. of Albert Bonniot; Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); Waard, Michel de [INSERM U836, Grenoble (France). Grenoble Inst. of Neuroscience; Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); Smartox Biotechnologies, Grenoble (France)

    2014-07-01

    Mono-and poly-iodinated peptides form frequently during radioiodination procedures. However, the formation of a single species in its mono-iodinated form is essential for quantitative studies such as determination of tissue concentration or image quantification. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to define the optimal experimental conditions in order to exclusively obtain the mono-iodinated form of L-maurocalcine (L-MCa). L-MCa is an animal venom toxin which was shown to act as a cell-penetrating peptide. In order to apply the current direct radioiodination technique using oxidative agents including chloramine T, Iodo-Gen {sup registered} or lactoperoxidase, an analogue of this peptide containing a tyrosine residue (Tyr-L-MCa) was synthesized and was shown to fold/oxidize properly. The enzymatic approach using lactoperoxidase/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was found to be the best method for radioiodination of Tyr-L-MCa. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analyses were then used for identification of the chromatographic eluting components of the reaction mixtures. We observed that the production of different radioiodinated species depended upon the reaction conditions. Our results successfully described the experimental conditions of peptide radioiodination allowing the exclusive production of the mono-iodinated form with high radiochemical purity and without the need for a purification step. Mono-radioiodination of L-Tyr-MCa will be crucial for future quantitative studies, investigating the mechanism of cell penetration and in vivo biodistribution.

  16. Amifostine is a potent radioprotector of salivary glands in radioiodine therapy. Structural and ultrastructural findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutta, H.; Kampen, U.; Sagowski, C.; Brenner, W.; Bohuslavizki, K.H.; Paulsen, F.

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: salivary gland impairment following high-dose radioiodine treatment is well recognized. Since differentiated thyroid cancer has a good prognosis, reduction of long-term side effects is important. This study investigates the radioprotective effects of amifostine in salivary glands of rabbits receiving high-dose radioiodine therapy so as to obtain deeper insight in changes on the cellular and ultrastructural level. Material and methods: a total of 20 rabbits were investigated. High-dose radioiodine therapy applying 1 GBq 131 I was performed in 16 animals. Eight of these 16 animals received 200 mg/m 2 body surface amifostine prior to high-dose radioiodine therapy. Four additional rabbits served as controls, two receiving amifostine, the other two no treatment at all. Subsequently, salivary glands (submandibular and parotid glands, respectively) of all animals were examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. Results: parenchymal damage of both parotid and submandibular glands, specially acinar structures comprising cell organelles and nuclei, of animals pretreated with amifostine was much less pronounced than in animals without amifostine pretreatment. Conclusion: the results indicate that parenchymal damage in salivary glands induced by high-dose radioiodine therapy can significantly be reduced by amifostine. Therefore, amifostine therapy may increase quality of life in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer after radioiodine treatment. (orig.)

  17. Benign thyroid disorders, radioiodine therapy and diagnosis related groups (DRGs): aspects of cost/benefit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietlein, M.; Schicha, H.

    2005-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of goiter and thyroid nodules in older patients is accompanied by an increasing frequency of treatment and cost. Cost-effectiveness is given for programs of prophylaxis (primary prevention, e.g. alimentary iodine supplementation), for programs of screening (secondary prevention. e.g. TSH-screening), and for therapeutic strategies to avoid complications of thyroid dysfunction (atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction, death for cardiac reasons) and to minimize iatrogenic complications (tertiary prevention). Examples of tertiary prevention are radioiodine-therapy of Graves' disease in patients who have an increased risk of relapse after antithyroid drugs (ATD), radioiodine therapy of ouvert or subclinical hyperthyroidism, and radioiodine therapy of large goiters in older patients or in patients suffering from a relevant co-morbidity. A cost-effectiveness-analysis for different therapeutic strategies of Graves' disease has been published using a lifelong time-horizon. The ablative radioiodine dose-regime is cost-effective as a first line therapy if the risk of relapse after ATD exceeds 60%. Cost-minimization-analysis, comparing resection of goiter and radioiodine, has shown lower cost of radioiodine therapy for toxic multinodular goiter up to 100 ml and for Graves' disease up to 60 ml goiter volume. Medical aspects (volume of goiter, uptake of nodules, regressive goiter, suspicion on malignancy, patients' age, co-morbidity, patients' decision) remain decisive for the choice of treatment. (orig.)

  18. Does multifocal papillary micro-carcinoma require radioiodine ablation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punda, A.; Markovic, V.; Eterovic, D.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Background: the thyroid carcinomas smaller than 1 cm (micro-carcinomas) comprise a significant fraction of papillary carcinomas. Excluding clinical micro-carcinomas, which present as metastatic disease, the micro-carcinomas diagnosed by ultrasound/FNAC or incidentally have very good prognosis. However, whether or not these papillary micro-carcinomas require post-surgical radioiodine ablation remains a matter of debate. Hypothesis: multi-focality is present in majority of clinical papillary micro-carcinomas and this characteristic can be used to identify the subset of non-clinical micro-carcinomas with greater malignant potential. Methods: the data on types of differentiated thyroid carcinomas diagnosed in the period 2008-2011 in the University Hospital Split were collected. Results: there were 359 patients with thyroid carcinoma, 329 (92%) of which had papillary carcinoma. About 61% (202/329) of papillary carcinomas were micro-carcinomas; most of them were diagnosed by ultrasound/FNAC (134/202= 66%), the rest were incidentalomas (48/202=24%) and clinical micro carcinomas (20/202=10%). Sixty percent (12/20) of patients with clinical micro-carcinoma and 23 patients with non-clinical micro-carcinoma (23/182=13%) had multifocal disease. Conclusion: multifocal disease is a frequent characteristic of clinical papillary thyroid micro-carcinomas, suggesting that multi-focality presents an early stage of non-clinical micro-carcinomas with more aggressive behaviour. Thus multifocal, but not uni-focal papillary micro-carcinomas may require radioiodine ablation. (authors)

  19. Radioiodinated cholesteryl ester analogs as residualizing tracers of lipoproteins disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeForge, L.E.

    1989-01-01

    Due to the importance of low density lipoprotein (LDL) in lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis, efforts were made to incorporate 125 I-cholesteryl iopanoate ( 125 I-CI), a residualizing cholesteryl ester (CE) analog, into the lipid core of LDL. This preparation is potentially useful as a scintigraphically detectable tracer of LDL uptake into atheroma and tissues such as the adrenal and liver. Initial studies using a cholesterol-fed rabbit model of atherosclerosis validated the use of 125 I-CI as a tracer of CE deposition. However, scintigraphy revealed considerable nonspecific 125 I-CI uptake due to tissue cholesterol loading. An alternative animal model was the guinea pig, which responds moderately to cholesterol feeding and carries the plasma cholesterol predominantly as LDL. Dietary fat and cholesterol, coupled with chronic aortic injury caused by an indwelling catheter, resulted in lipid containing, smooth muscle cell proliferative lesions in many animals. However, further studies are necessary to fully characterize this model. In additional studies, in vitro methods for incorporating 125 I-CI into LDL were examined. These included a reconstitution procedure described by Krieger et al. and a procedure involving incubation of detergent (Tween 20)-solubilized 125 I-CI with plasma. Although both LDL preparations were taken up normally by cultured fibroblasts, the plasma clearance rate of reconstituted LDL was markedly abnormal in guinea pigs. In contrast, LDL labeled by the detergent method cleared from the plasma identically to a radioiodinated LDL control. Therefore, this latter procedure was also used to incorporate two novel radioiodinated cholesteryl ether analogs 125 I-CI cholesteryl m-iodobenzyl ether [ 125 I-CIDE] and 125 I-cholesteryl 12-(miodophenyl)dodecyl ether [ 125 I-CIDE] into LDL

  20. A novel route to radioiodinated [{sup 123}I]-N-succinimidyl-3-iodobenzoate, a reagent for radioiodination of bioactive peptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jammaz, I.; Al-Otaibi, B.; Amartey, J.K. E-mail: amarty@kfshrc.edu.sa

    2002-11-01

    Radiolabeled peptides continue to emerge as potential radiopharmaceuticals for targeting several diseases such as cancer, infection and inflammation and even tissue and organ rejection. The classical method for labeling these molecules has been the electrophilic route. Evidence suggests that most molecules labeled via this route perturb their biological activity. Moreover, this method is not applicable to peptides lacking a tyrosine moiety in their structure. Hence, there is the need to develop alternate methods such as the prosthetic approach. We have optimized a solid-state radioiodination by exchange to produce [{sup 123}I]-metaiodobenzylguanidine ([{sup 123}I]-mIBG). The mIBG served as a precursor to obtain an activated N-succinimidyl ester for efficient coupling to amine functions in peptides, preferably the lysine group(s). The method was used to label a model chemotactic peptide and evaluated in vivo.

  1. Is it worth to calculate the dose of radioiodine?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikalauskas, V.; Kuprionis, G.; Vajauskas, D.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Administration of empirical doses of radioiodine (RAI) has been preferred to calculated doses in many hospitals, because the need to measure the size and the iodine uptake in the thyroid involves considerable inconvenience to the patient and additional costs. The preparation of RAI of varying activities also means extra work. Today there is no general consensus on whether radioiodine should be given as a fixed dose or should be calculated. There is also no consensus regarding the question of which radiation burden should be administered to a given volume of thyroid if the activity is calculated. However, while it is possible to deliver a relatively precise dose of radiation to the thyroid gland, maybe it is worth doing this?The aim of this study was to investigate the results of different uptake and volume dependent target doses on clinical outcome of patients with hyperthyroidism in Graves' disease, multi-nodular toxic goiter or toxic adenoma after radioiodine therapy. We reviewed the records of 428 patients (389 women and 39 men, mean age 56.8±12.9 years) who had received radioiodine treatment for Graves' disease and multinodular toxic goiter (n=312) or toxic adenoma (n=116) during the period of 2000-2004 in Kaunas Medical University Hospital. Most patients were given antithyroid drug therapy in order to achieve euthyroidism before treatment with RAI. Radioiodine uptake test with repeated measurements at 2, 6, 24, 48 and/or 72 and/or 96 hr to define the effective half-life was performed. In addition, all the patients underwent thyroid ultrasonography and scintigraphy to define the volume of the thyroid. The 131I activities were calculated according to the formula of Marinelli. In addition to the normal calculation individual target doses were adjusted to the thyroid volumes of each patient before therapy. For statistical evaluation, the patients were divided into four groups: group I included those with a thyroid volume 51 ml. Statistical analysis was

  2. Variants and pitfalls on radioiodine scans in pediatric patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostafa, Mohamed; Vali, Reza; Chan, Jeffrey; Omarkhail, Yusuaf; Shammas, Amer [University of Toronto, Nuclear Medicine Division, Department of Medical Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-10-15

    Potentially false-positive findings on radioiodine scans in children with differentiated thyroid carcinoma can mimic functioning thyroid tissue and functioning thyroid carcinomatous tissue. Such false-positive findings comprise variants and pitfalls that can vary slightly in children as compared with adults. To determine the patterns and frequency of these potential false-positive findings on radioiodine scans in children with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. We reviewed a total of 223 radioiodine scans from 53 pediatric patients (mean age 13.3 years, 37 girls) with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Focal or regional activity that likely did not represent functioning thyroid tissue or functioning thyroid carcinomatous tissue were categorized as variants or pitfalls. The final diagnosis was confirmed by reviewing the concurrent and follow-up clinical data, correlative ultrasonography, CT scanning, serum thyroglobulin and antithyroglobulin antibody levels. We calculated the frequency of these variants and pitfalls from diagnostic and post-therapy radioiodine scans. The most common variant on the radioiodine scans was the thymic activity (24/223, 10.8%) followed by the cardiac activity (8/223, 3.6%). Salivary contamination and star artifact, caused by prominent thyroid remnant, were the most important observed pitfalls. Variants and pitfalls that mimic functioning thyroid tissue or functioning thyroid carcinomatous tissue on radioiodine scan in children with differentiated thyroid carcinoma are not infrequent, but they decrease in frequency on successive radioiodine scans. Potential false-positive findings can be minimized with proper knowledge of the common variants and pitfalls in children and correlation with clinical, laboratory and imaging data. (orig.)

  3. Reinvestigation of the radiopharmaceutical production of radioiodinated long-chain fatty acids. Vol. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Shaboury, G; El-Kolaly, M T; Raieh, M [Labelled Compounds Department, Hot Laboratories Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    An improved and simple radiopharmaceutical production technique for radioiodination of {omega} - (Br) or (I) fatty acids ({omega}) - Br or I-(C H{sub 2}){sub n} Co{sub 2} H, where n = 16 to 17 with Na{sup 13I} for myocardial imaging study is described. The technique of production is reported here based on an isotope or non - isotopic exchange reaction between the inactive halogenated fatty acids and lyophilized ethanolic solution of Na{sup 131} I (previously dispensed in 0.02 M NaOH solution) at 80 Degree C within 30 min in absolute ethanol (dehydrated and redistill at 78.5 to 80 degree C over nitrobenzene b.p. 208 to 212 degree C). Although considerable radiochemical yields have been obtained using a wide variety of organic solvents as an isotropic or non-isotropic exchange media such as acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, benzene as well as di-n-propyl ketone; certain problems due to the evaporation of these solvents during the process of purification have been observed. These problems were completely avoided by the initial dissolution of the reactants in dehydrated ethyl alcohol which facilitate direct dispensing of the final radioiodinated acids in diluted human serum albumen without any decomposition. Basically, following the radioiodination process the radioiodinated fatty acids ethanolic solution is passed through out an AgCl-impregnated filter to remove the untreated inorganic radioiodine (2 to 5%). The final pure solution (containing over 99.o% radioiodinated pure fatty acids) is dispensed in human serum albumen (4%), and then sterilized by passing it through 0.22 mum milli pore bacterial filter. The technique is being applied for the radiopharmaceutical production of radioiodinated-phenyl long-chain fatty acids such as iodo phenoxy-, and iodobenzamido-heptadecanoic acids. 3 figs.

  4. [Radioiodine 131I therapy of hyperthyroidism on an outpatient basis - safe, effective and economic option].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiskra, J; Kubinyi, J; Telička, Z

    2012-02-01

    Radioiodine 131I therapy of hyperthyroidism on an outpatient basis is widely accepted over the world. In Czech Republic, however, radioiodine therapy is still not enough used, and has been realized on an inpatient basis to date. Our work is the first analysis of the experiences with radioiodine therapy of hyperthyroidism on an outpatient basis in Czech Republic. Capsule with 550 MBq of 131I was administered orally in 39 hyperthyroid patients (32 women and 8 men, 21 with autoimmune Graves hyperthyroidism and 18 with toxic thyroid nodules, mean age 66.8 years). In 32 of them we evaluated effectiveness and complications of therapy after 12-42 months. We also compared financial costs of the radioiodine treatment on an outpatient basis with the treatment in hospitalization and with surgery. After the treatment, 9/32 (28 %) patients were euthyroid without thyrostatic/thyroxine treatment, 18/32 (60 %) patients were hypothyroid with thyroxine therapy, 2/32 (6 %) patients significantly decreased doses of thyrostatic drugs. In 2/32 (6 %) patients the treatment was ineffective. The effect of the treatment did not depend on the etiology and severity of hyperthyroidism, but decreased with thyroid volume. Patients with ineffective or only partially effective treatment had median of thyroid volume more than 40 ml. In 1 patient thyroid associated ophthalmopathy was moderately worsened. Other complications were not observed. If we compared financial costs in model with 1 patient, we found that the costs of radioiodine therapy on an outpatient basis (118.7 €) comprise only 16 % of the costs of radioiodine therapy in hospitalization (728 €) and only 25 % of the costs of surgery (475.6 €). Radioiodine 131I is effective and safe in the treatment of hyperthyroidism and the therapy on an outpatient basis is much cheaper choice. The therapy with 131I on an outpatient basis is not suitable in patients with thyroid volume more than 40 ml.

  5. Reinvestigation of the radiopharmaceutical production of radioiodinated long-chain fatty acids. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shaboury, G.; El-Kolaly, M.T.; Raieh, M.

    1996-01-01

    An improved and simple radiopharmaceutical production technique for radioiodination of ω - (Br) or (I) fatty acids (ω) - Br or I-(C H 2 ) n Co 2 H, where n = 16 to 17 with Na 13I for myocardial imaging study is described. The technique of production is reported here based on an isotope or non - isotopic exchange reaction between the inactive halogenated fatty acids and lyophilized ethanolic solution of Na 131 I (previously dispensed in 0.02 M NaOH solution) at 80 Degree C within 30 min in absolute ethanol (dehydrated and redistill at 78.5 to 80 degree C over nitrobenzene b.p. 208 to 212 degree C). Although considerable radiochemical yields have been obtained using a wide variety of organic solvents as an isotropic or non-isotropic exchange media such as acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, benzene as well as di-n-propyl ketone; certain problems due to the evaporation of these solvents during the process of purification have been observed. These problems were completely avoided by the initial dissolution of the reactants in dehydrated ethyl alcohol which facilitate direct dispensing of the final radioiodinated acids in diluted human serum albumen without any decomposition. Basically, following the radioiodination process the radioiodinated fatty acids ethanolic solution is passed through out an AgCl-impregnated filter to remove the untreated inorganic radioiodine (2 to 5%). The final pure solution (containing over 99.o% radioiodinated pure fatty acids) is dispensed in human serum albumen (4%), and then sterilized by passing it through 0.22 mum milli pore bacterial filter. The technique is being applied for the radiopharmaceutical production of radioiodinated-phenyl long-chain fatty acids such as iodo phenoxy-, and iodobenzamido-heptadecanoic acids. 3 figs

  6. Human reporter genes: potential use in clinical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serganova, Inna [Department of Neurology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Ponomarev, Vladimir [Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Blasberg, Ronald [Department of Neurology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021 (United States)], E-mail: blasberg@neuro1.mskcc.org

    2007-10-15

    The clinical application of positron-emission-tomography-based reporter gene imaging will expand over the next several years. The translation of reporter gene imaging technology into clinical applications is the focus of this review, with emphasis on the development and use of human reporter genes. Human reporter genes will play an increasingly more important role in this development, and it is likely that one or more reporter systems (human gene and complimentary radiopharmaceutical) will take leading roles. Three classes of human reporter genes are discussed and compared: receptors, transporters and enzymes. Examples of highly expressed cell membrane receptors include specific membrane somatostatin receptors (hSSTrs). The transporter group includes the sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) and the norepinephrine transporter (hNET). The endogenous enzyme classification includes human mitochondrial thymidine kinase 2 (hTK2). In addition, we also discuss the nonhuman dopamine 2 receptor and two viral reporter genes, the wild-type herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) gene and the HSV1-tk mutant (HSV1-sr39tk). Initial applications of reporter gene imaging in patients will be developed within two different clinical disciplines: (a) gene therapy and (b) adoptive cell-based therapies. These studies will benefit from the availability of efficient human reporter systems that can provide critical monitoring information for adenoviral-based, retroviral-based and lenteviral-based gene therapies, oncolytic bacterial and viral therapies, and adoptive cell-based therapies. Translational applications of noninvasive in vivo reporter gene imaging are likely to include: (a) quantitative monitoring of gene therapy vectors for targeting and transduction efficacy in clinical protocols by imaging the location, extent and duration of transgene expression; (b) monitoring of cell trafficking, targeting, replication and activation in adoptive T-cell and stem/progenitor cell therapies

  7. Human reporter genes: potential use in clinical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serganova, Inna; Ponomarev, Vladimir; Blasberg, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    The clinical application of positron-emission-tomography-based reporter gene imaging will expand over the next several years. The translation of reporter gene imaging technology into clinical applications is the focus of this review, with emphasis on the development and use of human reporter genes. Human reporter genes will play an increasingly more important role in this development, and it is likely that one or more reporter systems (human gene and complimentary radiopharmaceutical) will take leading roles. Three classes of human reporter genes are discussed and compared: receptors, transporters and enzymes. Examples of highly expressed cell membrane receptors include specific membrane somatostatin receptors (hSSTrs). The transporter group includes the sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) and the norepinephrine transporter (hNET). The endogenous enzyme classification includes human mitochondrial thymidine kinase 2 (hTK2). In addition, we also discuss the nonhuman dopamine 2 receptor and two viral reporter genes, the wild-type herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) gene and the HSV1-tk mutant (HSV1-sr39tk). Initial applications of reporter gene imaging in patients will be developed within two different clinical disciplines: (a) gene therapy and (b) adoptive cell-based therapies. These studies will benefit from the availability of efficient human reporter systems that can provide critical monitoring information for adenoviral-based, retroviral-based and lenteviral-based gene therapies, oncolytic bacterial and viral therapies, and adoptive cell-based therapies. Translational applications of noninvasive in vivo reporter gene imaging are likely to include: (a) quantitative monitoring of gene therapy vectors for targeting and transduction efficacy in clinical protocols by imaging the location, extent and duration of transgene expression; (b) monitoring of cell trafficking, targeting, replication and activation in adoptive T-cell and stem/progenitor cell therapies

  8. Targeting breast carcinoma with radioiodinated anti-HER2 Nanobody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruszynski, Marek; Koumarianou, Eftychia; Vaidyanathan, Ganesan; Revets, Hilde; Devoogdt, Nick; Lahoutte, Tony; Zalutsky, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: With a molecular weight an order of magnitude lower than antibodies but possessing comparable affinities, Nanobodies (Nbs) are attractive as targeting agents for cancer diagnosis and therapy. An anti-HER2 Nb could be utilized to determine HER2 status in breast cancer patients prior to trastuzumab treatment. This provided motivation for the generation of HER2-specific 5F7GGC Nb, its radioiodination and evaluation for targeting HER2 expressing tumors. Methods: 5F7GGC Nb was radioiodinated with 125 I using Iodogen and with 131 I using the residualizing agent N ε -(3-[ 131 I]iodobenzoyl)-Lys 5 -N α -maleimido-Gly 1 -GEEEK ([ 131 I]IB-Mal-D-GEEEK) used previously successfully with intact antibodies. Paired-label internalization assays using BT474M1 cells and tissue distribution experiments in athymic mice bearing BT474M1 xenografts were performed to compare the two labeled Nb preparations. Results: The radiochemical yields for Iodogen and [ 131 I]IB-Mal-D-GEEEK labeling were 83.6 ± 5.0% (n = 10) and 59.6 ± 9.4% (n = 15), respectively. The immunoreactivity of labeled proteins was preserved as confirmed by in vitro and in vivo binding to tumor cells. Biodistribution studies showed that Nb radiolabeled using [ 131 I]IB-Mal-D-GEEEK, compared with the directly labeled Nb, had a higher tumor uptake (4.65 ± 0.61% ID/g vs. 2.92 ± 0.24% ID/g at 8 h), faster blood clearance, lower accumulation in non-target organs except kidneys, and as a result, higher concomitant tumor-to-blood and tumor-to-tissue ratios. Conclusions: Taken together, these results demonstrate that 5F7GGC anti-HER2 Nb labeled with residualizing [ 131 I]IB-Mal-D-GEEEK had better tumor targeting properties compared to the directly labeled Nb suggesting the potential utility of this Nb conjugate for SPECT ( 129 I) and PET imaging ( 124 I) of patients with HER2-expressing tumors.

  9. Radioiodine treatment for complicated hyperthyroidism using a fixed dose regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, A.K.; Rahman, S.H.; Ansari, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Hyperthyroidism in the elderly and all those with cardiovascular and psychiatric problem has increased mortality and morbidity rate. These patients need special care to cure the disease promptly and permanently for avoidance of complications. Radioactive I-131 is one of the accepted forms of treatment for hyperthyroidism and increasingly being considered for the patients in whom rapid and permanent control of disease is desirable. To evaluate the success of I-131 to cure disease in-patients with complicated hyperthyroidism, we prospectively studied the outcome of radioiodine therapy using a fixed dose regime. Ninety-three patients with toxic diffuse goitre (65 female, 28 male) age ranging from 29-67 years (mean ? SD 41.35 ? 11.02 years) were evaluated. The subjects included 71 cases with cardiovascular problem, 13 elderly patients, 5 with poor drug compliance and 4 with associated psychiatric disease. The individual was excluded from the study who had autonomous toxic nodule. Every patient was pre-treated with antithyroid drugs for 4 weeks and the drug was discontinued for 3 days before administering I-131. No patients had post-treatment antithyroid drugs. All the patients were treated with a fixed oral dose of 15 mCi I-131 sodium iodide. Post-treatment follow-up examinations were done at 6 weeks without biochemical tests, at 3 months, 6 months, 9 months and 1 year and then annually with biochemical tests. Patients were classified as cured if the biochemical status was either euthyroid or hypothyroid at one year without further treatment by antithyroid drugs or radioiodine. Of the 93 cases, 82 patients became euthyroid or hypothyroid requiring no further treatment for hyperthyroidism with an overall cure of 88.17%. Hypothyroidism was developed in 49 (52.69%) patients at one year of whom 39 became hypothyroid within 6 months and another 10 patients within 1 year. 4 patients were subclinical hyperthyroid at 6 months and still hyperthyroid at 9 months. 7

  10. Effectiveness of radioiodine therapy in treatment of hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M N; Chakrabarty, R K; Akhter, M; Nahar, N; Swapan, M K; Alam, M M; Nahar, R; Sultana, N; Hallaz, M M; Alam, M M; Uddin, M M; Hossain, M A; Yasmin, S; Islam, M R

    2013-10-01

    The present non randomized clinical trial was conducted in the Center for Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound, Mymensingh, Bangladesh for duration of one year. Total 30 patients with hyperthyroidism diagnosed by clinical and biochemical profile were included in the study. All patients received radioiodine treatment and regular follow up at 1st month, 3rd month, 6th month & 9th month were done to evaluate clinical and biochemical status and complications. Data were analyzed by computer with SPSS programme using 't' test and chi-square test. In the present study, out of 30 respondents more than three fourth of the respondents (76.6%) were in the age group of 31-50 years followed by less than 30 years are group (16.7%) and rest of respondents were in the age group of more than 50 years (06.7%). Mean±SD and range of age of the respondents were 39.80±10.02 years and 17-65 years respectively. Among the 30 respondents 11(36.7%) were male and 19(63.3%) were female. Male to female ratio was 1:1.73. Out of 30 patients 26(86.7%) presented with goiter and among them 21(80.8%) has diffused goiter and five (19.2%) had nodular goiter. Baseline mean±SD, median, range of serum T₃ level were 5.24±3.62, 4.34, 1.48-14.65nmol/L respectively. Base line mean±SD, median range of serum T₄ level were 192.25±99.17, 201.77, 1.75-336.25nmol/L respectively. Baseline mean±SD, median range of serum TSH level were 6.33±23.93, 0.15-0.07, 130.46nmol/L respectively. In the present study serum T₃, T₄ level among the respondents sharply decrease from baseline to 2nd follow up then gradually decrease from 2nd to 4th follow up. Serum TSH level gradually increases from baseline to 3rd follow up and then gradually decreases from 3rd to 4th follow up. The result showed radioiodine is an effective option for the treatment of thyrotoxicosis.

  11. Radioiodine therapy in non toxic multi nodular goitre, preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiti, A.; Travaini, L.L.; Tadayyon, S.; Vannucchi, G.; Fugazzola, L.; Beck-Peccoz, P.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Aim of our study was to assess the efficacy of 131 I therapy in patients (pts) affected by non toxic multinodular goitre (NTMG). NTMG is a thyroid disease with a high prevalence, especially in low-iodine intake regions. Treatment of NTMG often requires surgery. However, thyroidectomy may be risky in some patients and radioiodine therapy could be an alternative treatment to reduce thyroid volume. We also evaluated if lithium administration can improve the efficacy of radioiodine treatment in this pts. Material and Methods: We enrolled 39 pts (8 males, 31 females; mean age 59 y, range 40-79 y) affected by NTMG. Mean thyroid volume (TV) at ultrasound was of 46.8 ml (range 18.5-87.3). Pts were randomised in 2 groups. Group 1: iodine therapy + lithium therapy 900 mg/die for 6 days; Group 2: iodine therapy alone. We also define 3 clusters of pts by TV. A:15-30 ml; B:31-40 ml; C: > 40 ml. The 131 I activity (MBq) was calculated as follows: [4.44 (MBq) x 100/24 hours uptake (%)] x TV. All patients are evaluated for thyroid function and TV at 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months after treatment, since we postulate that major reduction in thyroid volume will occur 1 year after 131 I therapy. Results: Up to now 16 pts were treated with 131 I (mean activity: 512 MBq) and no side effects from 131 I and lithium therapy were reported. Four out of 5 pts evaluated at 3 months (2 of group 1 and 3 of group 2) had a reduction in TV (mean value: 8.8 ml). Five out of 10 pts had sub-clinical hyperthyroidism at 1 week, likely as a consequence of thyroid tissue destruction. Conclusion: Our preliminary results suggest the safety and effectiveness of 131 I treatment in NTMG. We expect to clarify the role of lithium administration in improving 131 I efficacy. This therapy could have a future role in patients with NTMG that can't be submitted to surgery

  12. Positive radionuclide imaging of miRNA expression using RILES and the human sodium iodide symporter as reporter gene is feasible and supports a protective role of miRNA-23a in response to muscular atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Simion

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are key players in many biological processes and are considered as an emerging class of pharmacology drugs for diagnosis and therapy. However to fully exploit the therapeutic potential of miRNAs, it is becoming crucial to monitor their expression pattern using medical imaging modalities. Recently, we developed a method called RILES, for RNAi-Inducible Luciferase Expression System that relies on an engineered regulatable expression system to switch-ON the expression of the luciferase gene when a miRNA of interest is expressed in cells. Here we investigated whether replacing the luciferase reporter gene with the human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS reporter gene will be also suited to monitor the expression of miRNAs in a clinical setting context. We provide evidence that radionuclide imaging of miRNA expression using hNIS is feasible although it is not as robust as when the luciferase reporter gene is used. However, under appropriate conditions, we monitored the expression of several miRNAs in cells, in the liver and in the tibialis anterior muscle of mice undergoing muscular atrophy. We demonstrated that radiotracer accumulation in transfected cells correlated with the induction of hNIS and with the expression of miRNAs detected by real time PCR. We established the kinetic of miRNA-23a expression in mice and demonstrated that this miRNA follows a biphasic expression pattern characterized by a loss of expression at a late time point of muscular atrophy. At autopsy, we found an opposite expression pattern between miRNA-23a and one of the main transcriptional target of this miRNA, APAF-1, and as downstream target, Caspase 9. Our results report the first positive monitoring of endogenously expressed miRNAs in a nuclear medicine imaging context and support the development of additional work to establish the potential therapeutic value of miRNA-23 to prevent the damaging effects of muscular atrophy.

  13. Positive radionuclide imaging of miRNA expression using RILES and the human sodium iodide symporter as reporter gene is feasible and supports a protective role of miRNA-23a in response to muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simion, Viorel; Sobilo, Julien; Clemoncon, Rudy; Natkunarajah, Sharuja; Ezzine, Safia; Abdallah, Florence; Lerondel, Stephanie; Pichon, Chantal; Baril, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key players in many biological processes and are considered as an emerging class of pharmacology drugs for diagnosis and therapy. However to fully exploit the therapeutic potential of miRNAs, it is becoming crucial to monitor their expression pattern using medical imaging modalities. Recently, we developed a method called RILES, for RNAi-Inducible Luciferase Expression System that relies on an engineered regulatable expression system to switch-ON the expression of the luciferase gene when a miRNA of interest is expressed in cells. Here we investigated whether replacing the luciferase reporter gene with the human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) reporter gene will be also suited to monitor the expression of miRNAs in a clinical setting context. We provide evidence that radionuclide imaging of miRNA expression using hNIS is feasible although it is not as robust as when the luciferase reporter gene is used. However, under appropriate conditions, we monitored the expression of several miRNAs in cells, in the liver and in the tibialis anterior muscle of mice undergoing muscular atrophy. We demonstrated that radiotracer accumulation in transfected cells correlated with the induction of hNIS and with the expression of miRNAs detected by real time PCR. We established the kinetic of miRNA-23a expression in mice and demonstrated that this miRNA follows a biphasic expression pattern characterized by a loss of expression at a late time point of muscular atrophy. At autopsy, we found an opposite expression pattern between miRNA-23a and one of the main transcriptional target of this miRNA, APAF-1, and as downstream target, Caspase 9. Our results report the first positive monitoring of endogenously expressed miRNAs in a nuclear medicine imaging context and support the development of additional work to establish the potential therapeutic value of miRNA-23 to prevent the damaging effects of muscular atrophy.

  14. hNIS-IRES-eGFP Dual Reporter Gene Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiantu Che

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The human and rodent sodium iodide symporters (NIS have recently been cloned and are being investigated as potential therapeutic and reporter genes. We have extended this effort by constructing an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES-linked human NIS (hNIS-enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP hybrid reporter gene for both nuclear and optical imaging. A self-inactivating retroviral vector, termed pQCNIG, containing hNIS-IRES-eGFP dual reporter gene, driven by a constitutive CMV promoter, was constructed and used to generate RG2-pQCNIG cells and RG2-pQCNIG tumors. 131I-iodide and 99mTcO4-pertechnetate accumulation studies plus fluorescence microscopy and intensity assays were performed in vitro, and gamma camera imaging studies in RG2-pQCNIG and RG2 tumor-bearing athymic rats were performed. RG2-pQCNIG cells expressed high levels of hNIS protein and showed high intensity of eGFP fluorescence compared with RG2 wild-type cells. RG2-pQCNIG cells accumulated Na131I and 99mTcO4– to a 50:1 and a 170:1 tissue/medium ratio at 10 min, compared with 0.8:1.2 tissue/medium ratio in wild-type RG2 cells. A significant correlation between radiotracer accumulation and eGFP fluorescence intensity was demonstrated. RG2-pQCNIG and RG2 tumors were readily differentiated by in vivo gamma camera imaging; radiotracer uptake increased in RG2-pQCNIG but declined in RG2 tumors over the 50-min imaging period. Stomach and thyroid were the major organs of radionuclide accumulation. The IRES-linked hNIS-eGFP dual reporter gene is functional and stable in transduced RG2-pQCNIG cells. Optical and nuclear imaging of tumors produced from these cell lines provides the opportunity to monitor tumor growth and response to therapy. These studies indicate the potential for a wider application of hNIS reporter imaging and translation into patient studies using radioisotopes that are currently available for human use for both SPECT and PET imaging.

  15. Variations in the chemical speciation behaviour of radioiodines in the Tarapur Boiling Water Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateswaran, G.; Gokhale, A.S.; Moorthy, P.N.

    1998-01-01

    The chemical behaviour of radioiodines in the primary coolant of the Tarapur Boiling Water Reactor has been studied under different operating conditions. During normal operation, radioiodines speciated mainly as I - (≅60%) and IO 3 - (≅35%) with 2 . At 1-5 h into reactor shutdown conditions, radioiodines existed predominantly as IO 3 - species (>80%). Beyond 5 h after shutdown, quantitative conversion of IO 3 - to I - was observed to occur in about 20 h duration. Long time after reactor shutdown, radioiodines were present in the coolant as I - species only. A quantitative conversion of near carrier-free IO 3 - to I - was observed in laboratory low dose rate (0.95 kGy/h), low and high dose gamma irradiation experiments in near neutral solutions both in absence and presence of externally added H 2 O 2 . However, near carrier-free I - solutions irradiated under the same conditions yielded ≅15% IO 3 - species only which is in agreement with the literature data. The radioiodine speciation behaviour in reactor water has been explained by a qualitative model coupling iodine release from defective fuel elements and the associated gamma irradiation effects. (author)

  16. Therapeutic outcome after radioiodine and surgery treatment of toxic thyroid adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovski, Zlatko P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate late follow-up results in surgery and radioiodine treatment of toxic thyroid adenoma and compare incidence of hypothyroidism and recurrence hyperthyroidism in treated patients. Material and Methods: We observed 93 treated patients (77 female, 26 male, age range 18-76 years) with adenoma toxicum. 29 (32.2 %) patients underwent surgery (adenectomia), while 64 (67.8 %) patients received 131 I therapy (555-1100 MBq).The long term results of the treatment were followed 1-15 years after therapy (median 9,2 years). Results: Recurrent hyperthyroidism occurred in 4/29 (13.8%) patients after surgery adenectomia in comparison to 5/64 (7.8 %) patients after radioiodine therapy. The patients after enucleation of autonomous nodule of the thyroid show increase incidence of late recurrent hyperthyroidism. These results are likely to be due to persistent functional autonomy in the parenchyma surrounding the autonomous adenoma. Apparently this persistent autonomy could be successfully removed by radioiodine. Appear of hypothyroidism was observed in 6/64 (9.3 %) patients treated with 131 I, while after surgery had in 3/29 (10.3 %) patients. Incidence of hypothyroidism between operated patients and radioiodine treated patients was approximately the same. Conclusion: Radioiodine therapy is useful, economical and effective treatment of toxic thyroid adenoma that provides a safe protection in preventing late recurrent hyperthyroidism and is more successful therapy that surgery treatment. (author)

  17. Detection of radioiodine-induced cytogenetic alterations in circulating lymphocytes of thyroid patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasuba, V [Inst. for Medical Recearch and Occupational Health, Zagreb (Croatia). Laboratory for Mutagenesis; Konrady, A; Koeteles, G J [Frederic Joliot-Curie National Research Institute for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene, Budapest (Hungary); Kusic, Z [Clinical Hospital Sestre Milosrdnice, Zagreb (Croatia). Dept. of Oncology and Nuclear Medicine

    1994-10-01

    Radioiodines are often used for experimental purposes and for diagnosis and therapy in clinical practice. Human population might also be exposed to radioiodines in nuclear accidents. The ionizing energy of radioiodine affects not only the thyroid where it concentrates but also other tissues, especially the lymphocytes during their circulation through and around the gland containing the radioisotopes. Therefore, it seemed to be of interest to carry out investigations concerning the cytogenetic alterations in blood lymphocytes of patients treated with iodine-131. The method of choice was the relatively easily performable micronucleus assay in cytokinesis-blocked cultures of human peripheral lymphocytes. The test was performed on blood samples of 30 patients before the radioisotope treatment and one, two and four days after, one as well as 6 and - in a few cases - 12 weeks later. The amounts of iodine-131 injected were dependent on the clinical practices to reach the therapeutic radiation doses for hyperthyroidism and adenomas and were in the range of 220 and 5180 MBq. it was observed that the micronucleus frequency increased in the treated hyperthyroid patients while in patients with toxic adenomas the radioiodine did not result in an increase or even as compared to the pretreatment values in a few cases decreased values were seen. The results suggest individual differences in radiosensitivity as well as that the frequency of cytogenetic alterations depend on the physiological or pathological conditions of the thyroid. The significance of this observation will be discussed for dose assessments by cytogenetic techniques due to internal radioiodine. (author).

  18. Personalized Medicine Based on Theranostic Radioiodine Molecular Imaging for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Byeong-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Molecular imaging based personalized therapy has been a fascinating concept for individualized therapeutic strategy, which is able to attain the highest efficacy and reduce adverse effects in certain patients. Theranostics, which integrates diagnostic testing to detect molecular targets for particular therapeutic modalities, is one of the key technologies that contribute to the success of personalized medicine. Although the term "theranostics" was used after the second millennium, its basic principle was applied more than 70 years ago in the field of thyroidology with radioiodine molecular imaging. Differentiated thyroid cancer, which arises from follicular cells in the thyroid, is the most common endocrine malignancy, and theranostic radioiodine has been successfully applied to diagnose and treat differentiated thyroid cancer, the applications of which were included in the guidelines published by various thyroid or nuclear medicine societies. Through better pathophysiologic understanding of thyroid cancer and advancements in nuclear technologies, theranostic radioiodine contributes more to modern tailored personalized management by providing high therapeutic effect and by avoiding significant adverse effects in differentiated thyroid cancer. This review details the inception of theranostic radioiodine and recent radioiodine applications for differentiated thyroid cancer management as a prototype of personalized medicine based on molecular imaging.

  19. Outcome of radioiodine therapy without, on or 3 days off carbimazole: a prospective interventional three-group comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, Martin A.; Christ-Crain, Mirjam; Mueller, Beat; Schindler, Christian; Mueller-Brand, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Carbimazole ameliorates hyperthyroidism but reduces radioiodine uptake and adversely affects the outcome of simultaneous radioiodine therapy. We explored whether withdrawal of carbimazole for 3 days can restore the outcome of radioiodine treatment without concurrent exacerbation of hyperthyroidism. By generating three groups with comparable radioiodine uptake, we also investigated whether the effect of carbimazole depends on the radioiodine uptake. Stratified by a radioiodine uptake >30%, 227 consecutive adult patients were prospectively assigned to radioiodine therapy (target dose 200 Gy) without, on or 3 days off carbimazole. Patients were clinically (Crooks-Wayne score) and biochemically (T 3 , fT 4 , TSH) followed up after 3, 6 and 12 months. Primary endpoint was outcome 12 months after radioiodine therapy. A total of 207 patients completed follow-up (toxic nodular goitre, n=117; Graves' disease, n=90). The overall success rate was 71.5%. Patients without and 3 days off carbimazole had similar biochemical (81.4% and 83.3%, respectively; p=0.82) and clinical outcomes [median (range) Crooks-Wayne score 0 (0-16) and 1 (0-10), respectively; p=0.73], which were both higher than in patients on carbimazole [42.6%, p 4 , T 3 and TSH. (orig.)

  20. Radioiodinated carnitine and acylcarnitine analogs as potential myocardial imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    R-carnitine is extremely important in mammalian energy metabolism. Gamma-butyrobetaine, the immediate biosynthetic precursor to R-carnitine, is synthesized in many organs. However, only liver can hydroxylate gamma-butyrobetaine to carnitine. Thus the transport of carnitine from its site of synthesis to the site of utilization is of utmost importance. Carnitine is found in highest concentration in cardiac and skeletal muscle, where it is required for the transport of fatty acids into the mitochondria. Before fatty acids are utilized as fuel for the myocyte by beta-oxidation, they are bound to carnitine as an acylcarnitine ester at the 3-hydroxyl, and transported across the micochondrial membranes. R,S-Carnitine has been shown to be taken up by myocytes. The author has begun a study on the use of carnitine derivatives as potential carriers for the site-specific delivery of radioiodine to bidning sites in the myocardium. Such agents labeled with a gamma-emitting nuclide such as iodine-123 would be useful for the noninvasive imaging of these tissues. The aim was to synthesize a variety of radiolabeled analogs of carnitine and acylcarnitine to address questions of transport, binding and availability for myocardial metabolism. These analogs consist of N-alkylated derivatives of carnitine, acylcarnitine esters as well as carnitine amides and ethers. One C-alkylated derivative showed interesting biodistribution, elevated myocardial uptake and competition with carnitine for binding in the myocardium

  1. Thyroid fractional deposition and half life of radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Minoru

    1974-01-01

    In order to measure the absorbed dose of radioiodine in the thyroid gland, which was incorporated by halation or ingestion, iodine intake (fa), 131 I thyroid uptake rate(fw), 131 I thyroid uptake rate compared to the rate in the whole body (f 2 ) and the half life of iodine in the thyroid gland(Teff) were examined. Thyroid fractional deposition of 131 I was compared between Japanese and European. The rate of 131 I which moved from the blood into the thyroid gland in children (f 2 ') and the effect of the iodine in meals on 131 I thyroid uptake (fw) were also studied. In Japanese, f 2 was 0.28 and the mean Teff was 6.9 +- 0.7 days in 11 Japanese adults. There was an individual difference in these biological parameter and the values in adults were different from those in children. A little difference in value between Japanese and European suggested to be caused by the greater amount of stable iodine in meals in Japanese. (Serizawa, K.)

  2. Development of radioiodinated fatty acids for applications in nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Goodman, M.M.; Elmaleh, D.R.; Okada, R.; Strauss, H.W.

    1985-01-01

    The use of radioiodinated fatty acids for the evaluation of myocardial perfusion and the assessment of regional fatty acid metabolism in relation to myocardial disease have seen rapid growth in the last few years. In this paper the development and use of these agents are reviewed. In addition to a discussion of the design of structurally modified fatty acids, the development of new radiolabeling methods for preparation of the iodine-123-labeled agents is presented. The development of these new agents is discussed, and their potential use in conjunction with single-photon tomography is an exciting new area. A summary of the clinical studies involving measurement of regional washout rate which have been performed with agents such as 17-([ 123 I]iodo)heptadecanoic acid and 15-(p-[ 123 I]iodo phenyl)pentadecanoic acid is also presented. The combined interest and expertise of chemists and clinicians have worked effectively together to make many recent contributions to this area of radiopharmaceutical development

  3. Radioiodinated BMIPP for myocardial imaging - current status and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Kropp, J.; Franken, P.R.

    1998-01-01

    Since the 1970's both basic research applications and clinical use of radioiodinated free fatty acids has continued to be of interest in nuclear cardiology. Clinical use of iodine-123-labeled fatty acids offers a unique opportunity for direct or indirect evaluation of alterations in myocardial metabolism by single photon computed tomography (SPECT). The relationship between the negative 'mismatches' often observed between regional fatty acid uptake and perfusion tracer distribution (i.e. BMIPP defect larger than flow tracer defect) has been an important observation which can often provide information on myocardial viability. Although the widespread use of the iodine-123-labeled 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(R, S)-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) analogue in Japan continues to provide extensive clinical data defining indications for the use of this agent, it remains to be seen, however, if iodine-123-labeled fatty acids such as BMIPP will enter routine clinical use in other countries, since their commercial availability as approved radiopharmaceuticals will be required. In this paper further studies describing the resolution and evaluation of the metabolism and myocardial uptake and release kinetics of the 3R- and 3S-BMIPP isomers are described. Although it is beyond the scope of this brief paper to review and discuss the voluminous data which have been published concerning both clincial applications and research studies with BMIPP over the last several years, the issues associated with the broader clinical use of BMIPP and other iodine-123-labeled fatty acid agents are discussed. (orig.) [de

  4. Status of radioiodine control for nuclear fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, L.L.; Scheele, R.D.

    1983-07-01

    This report summarizes the status of radioiodine control in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant with respect to capture, fixation, and disposal. Where possible, we refer the reader to a number of survey documents which have been published in the last four years. We provide updates where necessary. Also discussed are factors which must be considered in developing criteria for iodine control. For capture from gas streams, silver mordenite and a silver nitrate impregnated silica (AC-6120) are considered state-of-the-art and are recommended. Three aqueous scrubbing processes have been demonstrated: Caustic scrubbing is simple but probably will not give an adequate iodine retention by itself. Mercurex (mercuric nitrate-nitric acid scrubbing) has a number of disadvantages including the use of toxic mercury. Iodox (hyperazeotropic nitric acid scrubbing) is effective but employs a very corrosive and hazardous material. Other technologies have been tested but require extensive development. The waste forms recommended for long-term storage or disposal are silver iodide, the iodates of barium, strontium, or calcium, and silver loaded sorbents, all fixed in cement. Copper iodide in bitumen (asphalt) is a possibility but requires testing. The selection of a specific form will be influenced by the capture process used

  5. Radio-iodination of plasma membranes of toad bladder epithelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, H J; Edelman, I S [California Univ., San Francisco (USA). Cardiovascular Research Inst.; California Univ., San Francisco (USA). Dept. of Medicine; California Univ., San Francisco (USA). Dept. of Biochemistry and Biophysics)

    1979-01-01

    The present report describes high yield enzymatic radio-iodination of the apical and basal-lateral plasma membranes of toad bladder epithelium with /sup 125/I-Na, by a procedure that does not breach the functional integrity of the epithelium, as assessed by the basal and vasopressin-sensitive short-circuit current (SCC). Iodination of basal-lateral plasma membranes, at a yield comparable to that obtained with apical labelling, was attained after about 30 min of exposure of the intact bladder to the labelling solutions. Approximately 25% of the basal-lateral labeling was lost when the epithelial cells were harvested after collagenase treatment, implying that some iodination of the basement membrane had taken place. Less than 10% of iodination of the apical or basal-lateral surfaces was accounted for by lipid-labeling. Analysis of the labeled apical and basal-lateral species by enzymatic digestion and thin layer chromatography disclosed that virtually all the radioactivity was present as mono-iodotyrosine (MIT). (orig./AJ).

  6. Thyroid-hormone concentrations after radioiodine therapy for hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamagna, E.I.; Levine, G.A.; Hershman, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    Fourteen hyperthyroid patients (11 men, three women), ages 28 to 66, were followed with serial measurements of serum thyroid hormone levels for 1 mo after therapy with I-131. Twelve patients had diffuse toxic goiters (25 to 70 g in size); two patients had multinodular glands (40 to 100 g). The patients were taking no antithyroid medications; ten patients were treated with propranolol. All patients received the equivalent of 5000 rad, except the two with multinodular glands, who received larger doses. There was no consistent pattern of serum T 4 and T 3 levels after the I-131 therapy. For the entire group, there was no significant increase of the mean serum hormone concentration. One group (three patients) had a mean T 4 increase of 28% and a T 3 increase of 91% above baseline at Days 10--11. Seven patients had minimal increases of hormone levels at Days 2--3, and a third group (four paients) had no increase of thyroid hormones after I-131 therapy. The patients with no rise in hormone concentrations had smaller goiters than the other groups. There was no correlation of the dose of radioactive iodine, or of the initial hormone concentration, with the rises or declines of T 4 and T 3 levels after I-131 therapy. Radioiodine therapy caused no significant increase of serum T 4 and T 3 concentrations in the majority of patients

  7. Improved radioiodination of biomolecules using exhaustive Chloramine-T oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles, Ana M.; Balter, Henia S.; Oliver, Patricia; Welling, Mick M.; Pauwels, Ernest K.J.

    2001-01-01

    To improve standardization in analytical reagents we investigated Chloramine-T radioiodination ( 125 I) of several biomolecules based on the use of a single amount of the oxidizing agent Chloramine-T as the limiting reagent being exhausted during the course of the reaction. Whenever the labeling yield resulted in less than one atom 125 I/molecule, a second amount of the oxidizing agent was added. Thereafter, the integrity of the various biomolecules was assessed using radioimmunoassays, radioreceptor binding assays, or radioimmunometric assays. Purification yields were done by gel permeation (56%±19%, n=230) or by precipitation with trichloroacetic acid (59%±19%, n=230). Specific activity (117±61 MBq/nmol) and the degree of iodine incorporation (1.4±0.8 atoms of 125 I/molecule) were achieved after 300 sec of incubation. A second addition of Chloramine-T resulted in an increased labeling yield of all biomolecules tested by a mean factor of 1.8±0.9. After the second addition of Chloramine-T, we observed for some biomolecules a significant (p<0.001) decreased effect in biological performance. In conclusion, the use of Chloramine-T as a limiting reagent resulted in molecules with appropriate immunological and biological performance. In general, tracers were minimally damaged and assessment of the shelf life as well as storing conditions showed the usefulness of the standardization of biomolecule labeling

  8. Novel radioiodinated sibutramine and fluoxetine as models for brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motaleb, M.A.; El-Kolaly, M.T.; Rashed, H.M.; Abd El-Bary, A.

    2011-01-01

    Brain imaging is a process which allows scientists and physicians to view and monitor the areas of the brain which allow diagnosis and following up different abnormalities in the brain. The aim of this study was to develop potential radiopharmaceuticals for the non-invasive brain imaging. Sibutramine and fluoxetine (two drugs that have the ability to cross blood-brain barrier) were successfully labeled with 125 I via direct electrophilic substitution reaction at ambient temperature. The reaction parameters studied were substrate concentration, oxidizing agent concentration, pH of the reaction mixture, reaction temperature, reaction time and in vitro stability of the iodocompounds. The iodocompounds gave maximum labeling yield of 92 ± 2.77 and 93 ± 2.1%, respectively, and maintained stability throughout working period (24 h). Biodistribution studies showed that maximum in vivo uptake of the iodocompounds in the brain was 5.7 ± 0.19 and 6.14 ± 0.26% injected activity/g tissue organ, respectively, at 15 and 5 min post-injection, whereas the clearance from the mice appeared to proceed via the hepatobiliary pathway. Brain uptake of 125 I-sibutramine and 125 I-fluoxetine is higher than that of 99m Tc-ECD and 99m Tc-HMPAO (currently used radiopharmaceuticals for brain imaging) and so radioiodinated sibutramine and fluoxetine could be used instead of 99m Tc-ECD and 99m Tc-HMPAO for brain SPECT. (author)

  9. Body weight gain after radioiodine therapy of hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheidhauer, K.; Odatzidu, L.; Schicha, H.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Analysis and follow up of body weight after radioiodine therapy (RITh) of hyperthyroidism, since excessive weight gain is a common complaint among these patients. Methods: Therapy and body weight related data of 100 consecutive RITh-patients were retrospectively analysed from the time before up to three years after RITh. All patients suffered from hyperthyroidism (Graves' disease or autonomy), but were adjusted to euthyroid levels after RITh. Patients' data were compared to a control group of 48 euthyroid patients out of the same ambulance and during the same time scale. Results: All patients (RITh and controls) gained weight over the time. There was no statistically significant difference in BMI development over three years between RITh-patients and controls (5.5% resp. 4.9% increase). In the first year after RITh, weight gain of the RITh patients was higher indeed, but lower in the follow up, resulting in the same range of weight gain after three years as the controls. Besides that women showed a slightly higher increase of BMI than men, and so did younger patients compared to elder as well as patients with overweight already before RITh. Conclusions: An initially distinct increase of body weight after RITh of hyperthyroidism is mainly a compensation of pretherapeutic weight loss due to hyperthyroidism. Presupposing adequate euthyroid adjustment of thyroid metabolism after therapy, RITh is not responsible for later weight gain and adipositas. (orig.) [de

  10. [Body weight gain after radioiodine therapy in hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidhauer, K; Odatzidu, L; Kiencke, P; Schicha, H

    2002-02-01

    Analysis and follow up of body weight after radioiodine therapy (RITh) of hyperthyroidism, since excessive weight gain is a common complaint among these patients. Therapy and body weight related data of 100 consecutive RITh-patients were retrospectively analysed from the time before up to three years after RITh. All patients suffered from hyperthyroidism (Graves' disease or autonomy), but were adjusted to euthyroid levels after RITh. Patients' data were compared to a control group of 48 euthyroid patients out of the same ambulance and during the same time scale. All patients (RITh and controls) gained weight over the time. There was no statistically significant difference in BMI development over three years between RITh-patients and controls (5.5% resp. 4.9% increase). In the first year after RITh, weight gain of the RITh patients was higher indeed, but lower in the follow up, resulting in the same range of weight gain after three years as the controls. Besides that women showed a slightly higher increase of BMI than men, and so did younger patients compared to elder as well as patients with overweight already before RITh. An initially distinct increase of body weight after RITh of hyperthyroidism is mainly a compensation of pretherapeutic weight loss due to hyperthyroidism. Presupposing adequate euthyroid adjustment of thyroid metabolism after therapy, RITh is not responsible for later weight gain and adipositas.

  11. Development of a radioiodinated ligand for characterising α1-adrenoceptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, A.; Jarrott, B.

    1982-01-01

    Two α-adrenoceptor antagonists, phentolamine and 2-(β-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-ethylaminomethyl)-tetralone (BE 2254) which are phenolic derivatives were radioiodinated after chloramine-T oxidation of Na 125 I and the labelled material isolated by chromatography. 125 I-Phentolamine does not bind selectively to α-adrenoceptors in guinea pig brain whereas the 125 I-BE 2254 derivative binds rapidly, reversibly and with high affinity to these receptors with a K/sub d/ of 230 pM. At low concentrations of 125 I-BE 2254 ( 1 subclass of adrenoceptors. Binding measurements to kidney and smooth muscle membrane preparations indicate that 125 I-BE 2254 may also be a useful tool in the study of α-adrenoceptors in peripheral tissues. The high specific activity of 125 I-BE 2254 permits the use of minimal quantities of membrane material for receptor assay and ligand displacement measurements, e.g. 250 μg per assay tube, and this provides a significant advantage over the use of existing radioligands such as 3 H-prazosin which requires approx. 40 times as much tissue

  12. Graves' disease: cost-effectiveness of clinical and radioiodine treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz junior, Antonio F.; Takahashi, Miriam H.; Albino, Claudio C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In this study, we set out to evaluate the costs and effectiveness of the two most used therapies in Graves' disease: antithyroid drugs (ATD) and radioiodine (RAI). Twenty-tree patients, 7 men and 16 women, with a mean age of 35.4 years, treated with ATD and 35 patients, 5 men and 30 women, mean age of 39.4 years, treated with RAI were studied. After 2 years receiving ATD, 21 patients achieved euthyroidism and 2 remained hyperthyroid. In the RAI group, 21 patients presented hypothyroidism and 13 became euthyroid. To calculate the costs of each therapy, we analysed the number of visits during this period, the laboratory data and the drugs needed, such as tiamazol and/or thyroxine. The group treated only with ATD needed a higher number of visits and laboratory measurements, with the mean total cost of U$ 791.65, while the RAI group spent a mean amount of U$ 366.44. Therefore, the costs of the RAI treatment were 53,7 % lower than clinical therapy with ATD. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that RAI treatment has a lower cost than ATD, being very effective in controlling the hyperthyroidism of Graves' disease. (author)

  13. Radioiodinated fenetylline (captagon) - a new radiopharmaceutical for brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biersack, H.J.; Zschachlitz, L.; Breuel, H.P.; Reske, S.N.; Oehr, P.; Winkler, C.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate radioiodinated fenetylline as a potential brain imaging agent. Thirty Wistar rats were injected with 125 I-N-isopropylamphetamine (IMP) and 131 I-fenetylline each simultaneously. The animals were sacrificed 5, 10, 15, 30, 60, and 120 min. p. i. The radioactivity content of tissue specimens of different organs was measured in a well counter (% dose/g tissue). After 5/10 min. p. i. fenetylline-uptake in the brain of rats was 1.0/1.3% compared to 1.3/1.9% (IMP). A fast decrease of cerebral fenetylline concentration was established after 30(0.2%) and 60 (0.5%) min. In 2 dogs sequential scintigraphy was performed following the injection of 131 I-fenetylline. Three patients underwent brain SPECT after injection of 123 I-fenetylline. The canine and human sequential scintigraphy revealed a rapid cerebral uptake suggesting that fenetylline is concentrated in the brain as a function of cerebral blood flow. From our first clinical findings it appears to be likely that the combined use of 123 I labeled IMP and fenetylline for SPECT may lead to a more differentiated evaluation of cerebral blood flow and metabolism. (orig.) [de

  14. Radioiodinated fenetylline (captagon) - a new radiopharmaceutical for brain imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biersack, H.J.; Zschachlitz, L.; Breuel, H.P.; Reske, S.N.; Oehr, P.; Winkler, C.; Kluenenberg, H.

    1984-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate radioiodinated fenetylline as a potential brain imaging agent. Thirty Wistar rats were injected with /sup 125/I-N-isopropylamphetamine (IMP) and /sup 131/I-fenetylline each simultaneously. The animals were sacrificed 5, 10, 15, 30, 60, and 120 min. p. i. The radioactivity content of tissue specimens of different organs was measured in a well counter (% dose/g tissue). After 5/10 min. p. i. fenetylline-uptake in the brain of rats was 1.0/1.3% compared to 1.3/1.9% (IMP). A fast decrease of cerebral fenetylline concentration was established after 30(0.2%) and 60 (0.5%) min. In 2 dogs sequential scintigraphy was performed following the injection of /sup 131/I-fenetylline. Three patients underwent brain SPECT after injection of /sup 123/I-fenetylline. The canine and human sequential scintigraphy revealed a rapid cerebral uptake suggesting that fenetylline is concentrated in the brain as a function of cerebral blood flow. From our first clinical findings it appears to be likely that the combined use of /sup 123/I labeled IMP and fenetylline for SPECT may lead to a more differentiated evaluation of cerebral blood flow and metabolism.

  15. Radioiodine concentration by the thymus in differentiated thyroid carcinoma: report of five cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Maria Eduarda; Flamini, Rodrigo C.; Corbo, Rossana; Mamede, Marcelo [Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Medicina Nuclear], e-mail: mamede@inca.gov.br

    2009-10-15

    The radioactive iodine has been used with great value as a diagnostic and therapeutic method in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma previously submitted to total thyroidectomy. False-positive whole-body scans may occur due to misinterpretation of the physiologic distribution of the radioisotope or lack of knowledge on the existence of other pathologies that could eventually present radioiodine uptake. Thymic uptake is an uncommon cause of false-positive whole-body scan, and the mechanism through which it occurs is not completely understood. The present paper reports five cases of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer who presented a mediastinum uptake of radioiodine in a whole-body scan during follow-up. The patients had either histological or radiological confirmation of the presence of residual thymus gland. It is very important to know about the possibility of iodine uptake by the thymus in order to avoid unnecessary treatment, such as surgery or radioiodine therapy. (author)

  16. Effect of pH value of applied solution on radioiodine sorption by soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabova, T.

    1976-01-01

    Sorption of radioiodine by soils was followed under static conditions at different pH values of the initial solution in five soil types. Sorption of radioiodine by soils is affected by the amount of the organic mass and by the pH of solutions. With the same pH, soils containing a higher amount of the organic mass absorb more radioiodine. The highest sorption percentage of 131 I - for all pH values was found in meadow chernozem soil and the lowest in the rendzina and in carboniferous meadow soils. The highest sorption of 131 I - for degraded chernozem, meadow chernozem soils and brown soil was recorded at pH 5 and for carboniferous meadow soil and rendzina at pH 7. (author)

  17. Development of a stable radioiodinating reagent to label monoclonal antibodies for radiotherapy of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilbur, D.S.; Hadley, S.W.; Hylarides, M.D.; Abrams, P.G.; Beaumier, P.A.; Morgan, A.C.; Reno, J.M.; Fritzberg, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    A method of radioiodinating monoclonal antibodies such that the labeled antibodies do not undergo in vivo deiodination has been studied. The method utilizes conjugation of succinimidyl para-iodobenzoate to the antibody. The iodobenzoate was radiolabeled by using an organometallic intermediate to facilitate the reaction. Thus, succinimidyl para-tri-n-butylstannylbenzoate was radiolabeled in 60-90% radiochemical yield and subsequently conjugated to the antibody in 80-90% yield. Animal biodistribution studies were carried out with two separate anti-melanoma antibodies (9.2.27 and NR-M1-05) labeled by this method, and examined in nude mice bearing human melanoma tumor xenografts. Very large differences in the localization of radioactivity were observed in the thyroids and stomachs of mice when the iodobenzoyl-labeled antibodies were compared with the same antibodies labeled using the chloramine-T method of radioiodination. Few other significant differences in the tissue distribution of the radioiodinated antibodies were seen

  18. The role of multikinase inhibitors target therapy in radioiodine-resistant differentiated thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P O Rumyantsev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available About 5-15% of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC primary or within follow-up have had distant metastases or inoperable tumor mass that are resistant to radioiodine therapy as well as dramatically deteriorate survival prognosis. Other treatment modalities (radiotherapy, chemotherapy etc. also ineffective. Certain expectances are associated with target therapy with multikinase inhibitors with are selectively blocking onco-kinase molecular pathways. This review is devoted to analysis of those multikinase inhibitors which have been implemented in patients with radioiodine DTC. Comparative analysis of two most perspective multikinase inhibitors (sorafenib and lenvatinib with evaluation of efficacy and adverse effects was conducted. Both of them successfully underwent 3 rd phase of clinical trial and were recommended as treatment of choice in progressive radioiodine-resistant DTC patients.

  19. Treatment with radioiodine of Graves' disease. Calculated activity; fixed activity or ablation. Were are we going?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degrossi, O.

    2006-01-01

    The new tendencies of radioiodine ( 131 I) treatment of Graves'disease are presented . One group have the objective of administrate an activity of radioiodine to bring back the patient to euthyroidism , using individual activities to each patient. Others propose a fixed dose, with high activity to cure the disease and anticipating the hypothyroidism of the patient. The third group propose directly the ablation of the thyroids with a calculated activity to deliver 300 Gy .This calculi demand the investigation of the maximum uptake of radioiodine, the biological half life, and the thyroid weight with adequate method (US, TC, MR) Finally, the dose to not thyroid tissues are discussed and the risk of these procedures are presented. (author)

  20. Procedure guideline for radioiodine test (version 3); Verfahrensanweisung zum Radioiodtest (Version 3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietlein, M.; Schicha, H. [Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Nuklearmedizin (DGN) (Germany); Koeln Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Dressler, J. [Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Nuklearmedizin (DGN) (Germany); Nuklearmedizinische Klinik der Henriettenstiftung, Hannover (Germany); Eschner, W. [Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Nuklearmedizin (DGN) (Germany); Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Medizinische Physik (DGMP) (Germany); Koeln Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Lassmann, M. [Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Nuklearmedizin (DGN) (Germany); Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Medizinische Physik (DGMP) (Germany); Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Leisner, B. [Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Nuklearmedizin (DGN) (Germany); Allgemeines Krankenhaus St. Georg, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin; Reiners, C. [Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Nuklearmedizin (DGN) (Germany); Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2007-07-01

    The version 3 of the procedure guideline for radioiodine test is an update of the guideline previously published in 2003. The procedure guideline discusses the pros and cons of a single measurement or of repeated measurements of the iodine-131 uptake and their optimal timing. Different formulas are described when one, two or three values of the radioiodine kinetic are available. The probe with a sodium-iodine crystal, alternatively or additionally the gamma camera using the ROI-technique are instrumentations for the measurement of iodine-131 uptake. A possible source of error is an inappropriate measurement (sonography) of the target volume. The patients' preparation includes the withdrawal of antithyroid drugs 2-3 days before radioiodine administration. The patient has to avoid iodine-containing medication and the possibility of additives of iodine in vitamin- and electrolyte-supplementation has to be considered. (orig.)

  1. The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis in Infants and Children: Protection from Radioiodines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Fisher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium iodide (KI is recommended as an emergency treatment for exposure to radioiodines, most commonly associated with nuclear detonation or mishaps at nuclear power plants. Protecting the thyroid gland of infants and children remains a priority because of increased incidence of thyroid cancer in the young exposed to radioiodines (such as 131I and 133I. There is a lack of clinical studies for KI and radioiodines in children or infants to draw definitive conclusions about the effectiveness and safety of KI administration in the young. In this paper, we compare functional aspects of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT axis in the young and adults and review the limited studies of KI in children. The HPT axis in the infant and child is hyperactive and therefore will respond less effectively to KI treatment compared to adults. Research on the safety and efficacy of KI in infants and children is needed.

  2. Outcome of radioiodine therapy without, on or 3 days off carbimazole: a prospective interventional three-group comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Martin A. [University Hospital, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Basel (Switzerland); University Hospital Basel, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Clinical Nutrition, Basel (Switzerland); Christ-Crain, Mirjam; Mueller, Beat [University Hospital Basel, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Clinical Nutrition, Basel (Switzerland); Schindler, Christian [University Hospital Basel, Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, Basel (Switzerland); Mueller-Brand, Jan [University Hospital, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Basel (Switzerland)

    2006-06-15

    Carbimazole ameliorates hyperthyroidism but reduces radioiodine uptake and adversely affects the outcome of simultaneous radioiodine therapy. We explored whether withdrawal of carbimazole for 3 days can restore the outcome of radioiodine treatment without concurrent exacerbation of hyperthyroidism. By generating three groups with comparable radioiodine uptake, we also investigated whether the effect of carbimazole depends on the radioiodine uptake. Stratified by a radioiodine uptake >30%, 227 consecutive adult patients were prospectively assigned to radioiodine therapy (target dose 200 Gy) without, on or 3 days off carbimazole. Patients were clinically (Crooks-Wayne score) and biochemically (T{sub 3}, fT{sub 4}, TSH) followed up after 3, 6 and 12 months. Primary endpoint was outcome 12 months after radioiodine therapy. A total of 207 patients completed follow-up (toxic nodular goitre, n=117; Graves' disease, n=90). The overall success rate was 71.5%. Patients without and 3 days off carbimazole had similar biochemical (81.4% and 83.3%, respectively; p=0.82) and clinical outcomes [median (range) Crooks-Wayne score 0 (0-16) and 1 (0-10), respectively; p=0.73], which were both higher than in patients on carbimazole [42.6%, p<0.001; Crooks-Wayne score 3 (0-30), p<0.03]. Time to achieve cure was delayed on carbimazole. No changes in thyroid hormone levels occurred after 3 days' discontinuation of carbimazole. Logistic regression revealed that all observed cure rates were independent of entity, sex, age, thyroid volume, radioiodine uptake, radioiodine half-life, fT{sub 4}, T{sub 3} and TSH. (orig.)

  3. Influence of preceding diagnostic and therapeutic procedures on the radioiodine therapy of benign thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rendl, J.; Boerner, W.

    1991-01-01

    Before and until 3 weeks after application of nonionic CA iodine and the 20-min-technetium-thyroid-uptake was measured in serum and urine in 23 euthyroid patients, which were given intravenously nonionic CA during heart catheterization. Concerning the possible influence of iodine contamination on a subsequent radioiodine therapy the following aspects result from the study: the time interval between application of CA and therapy has to be at least 4-6 weeks to avoid dilution of the radioiodine by iodine being released from the contrast agents. The thyroid-uptake of Technetium or Iodine after administration of CA is not constant over time but reaches its original value only in a gradual way (60% of the initial value 3 weeks after the CA were given); that means, the iodine-uptake during, radioiodine therapy can be higher than it was at the time the dose was calculated. Concerning the possible influence of preceding therapeutic procedures on the therapy with radioiodine the pretreatment with antithyroid drugs plays the most important role. Antithyroid drugs of the thiourylene group have been shown by many study groups to have a radioprotective effect. Other large studies however could not demonstrate any effect of antithyroid medication on the results of radioiodine therapy. All studies so far existing have in common that they are not strongly randomized with regard to the patient groups, because generally only in severe cases of hyperthyroidism additional antithyroid drug treatment has been employed, therefore it might be the case that the radioprotective effect of antithyroid drugs may be caused only by selection artifacts. The contradictory results of the different studies justify the practical way in so far as there are no reasonable objections against the pretreatment with antithyroid drugs to restore euthyroidism before starting the therapy with radioiodine. (orig./MG) [de

  4. An engagement factor for caregiver radiation dose assessment with radioiodine treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun Kuk; Hong, Seong Jong; Jeong, Kyu Hwan; Jung, Jae Won; Kim, Seong Min; Kang, Yun-Hee; Han, Man Seok

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to suggest ways to better manage thyroid cancer patients treated with high- and low-activity radioiodine ( 131 I) by assessing external radiation doses to family members and caregivers and the level of radiation in the surrounding environment. The radiation doses to caregivers of 33 inpatients (who were quarantined in the hospital for 2-3 d after treatment) and 31 outpatients who received radioiodine treatment after thyroidectomy were measured using passive thermoluminescence dosemeters. In this study, 33 inpatients were administered high-activity (100-200 mCi) 131 I, and 31 outpatients were administered low-activity (30 mCi) 131 I. The average doses to caregivers were measured at 0.61 mSv for outpatients and 0.16 mSv for inpatients. The total integrated dose of the recovery (recuperation) rooms where the patients stayed after release from hospital was measured to be 0.83 mSv for outpatients and 0.23 mSv for inpatients. To reflect the degree of engagement between the caregiver and the patient, considering the duration and distance between two during exposure, the authors used the engagement factor introduced by Jeong et al. (Estimation of external radiation dose to caregivers of patients treated with radioiodine after thyroidectomy. Health Phys 2014;106:466-474.). This study presents a new engagement factor (K-value) of 0.82 obtained from the radiation doses to caregivers of both in- and out-patients treated with high- and low-activity radioiodine, and based on this new value, this study presented a new predicted dose for caregivers. A patient treated with high-activity radioiodine can be released after 24 h of isolation, whereas outpatients treated with low-activity radioiodine should be isolated for at least 12 h. (authors)

  5. Critical analysis of radioiodination techniques for micro and macro organic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajid Mushtaq; Jongho Jeon; Beom Su Jang; Sang Hyun Park; Korea University of Science and Technology, Daejeon; Aqeela Shaheen

    2016-01-01

    A variety of radioiodination methods is available in the literature depending upon the nature of organic compound to be labeled, however only few can completely fulfill manufacturing requirements.Ideally a selected method should be one which offers maximum benefits like regioselectivity, minimum reaction steps, minimum reaction time, high radiochemical yield and high specific activity. In this review radioiodination techniques were critically analyzed. Advantages, drawbacks, possible mode of action and special reaction conditions required to get high radiochemical yield were taken into account. The influence of iodine introduction on physicochemical properties, in vivo or in vitro pharmacological properties of pharmaceutical due to increase of lipophilicity were discussed along with examples. (author)

  6. Radioiodine therapy increases the risk of cerebrovascular events in hyperthyroid and euthyroid patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Jeppe Lerche; Jensen, Lars Thorbjoern; Vej-Hansen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    to radiation and is capable of inducing atherosclerosis. The objective of the study was to elucidate whether ionizing radiation from radioiodine might contribute to cerebrovascular morbidity. METHODS: In a retrospective register cohort study, 4000 hyperthyroid and 1022 euthyroid goitre patients treated...... with radioiodine between 1975 and 2008 were matched 1:4 on age and sex with random controls. The cohort was followed from the date of treatment until hospitalization due to cerebrovascular event, death, 20 years of follow-up or March 2013. Data were analyzed in competing risk models adjusting for age, sex...

  7. Acute changes of peripheral thyroid hormone concentrations and serum thyroglobulin during radio-iodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, K.R.; Steinbaecher, M.; Heilig, B.

    1986-01-01

    TT3, FT3 and FT4 concentrations were measured in 28 patients with hyperthyroidism before and during therapy with radioiodine. In addition, in some patients serum thyroglobulin was evaluated, too. Only in the patients with immunogenic hyperthyroidism FT3, FT4 and serum TG were elevated significantly within the first two days after radioiodine application. In the residual patients with diffuse autonomy, autonomous adenoma, and multifocal autonomy during the whole time of investigation there was no significant increase of the respective values. From these data it can be deducted that hyperthyroid storm is more likely to be provoked in patients with immunogenic hyperthyroidism compared to thyroidal autonomy. (orig.) [de

  8. Radioiodine treatment of Graves' disease. An assessment of its potential risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, G.D.; Burman, K.D.

    1986-01-01

    Concern about the side effects of radiation exposure has deterred physicians from using radioiodine treatment for Graves' disease, although the efficacy and safety of this treatment have been established in the 35 years since its introduction. In that time, no significant side effects have been discovered. We believe iodine-131 should be considered the treatment of choice in most patients with Graves' disease. This article reviews the current understanding of the risks in radioiodine treatment of Graves' disease, including the risks for teratogenicity, genetic damage, carcinogenesis, and cellular dysfunction

  9. Radioiodine Accumulation in a Giant Ovarian Cystadenofibroma Detected Incidentally by 131-I Whole Body Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebarki, Mohammed; Menemani, Abdelghani; Medjahedi, Abdelkader; Boualou, Fouad; Slama, Abdelhak; Ouguirti, Sarah; Kherbouche, Fatima Zahra; Berber, Nécib

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian cystadenofibroma is a relatively rare tumor; it is usually asymptomatic and is found incidentally. We present the case of a 24-year-old female patient, who had undergone total thyroidectomy for thyroid papillary carcinoma, with an asymptomatic giant cystadenofibroma, incidentally discovered by diagnostic 131I-SPECT/CT WBSs. We summarize the clinical history, imaging data, and histopathological study on a rare case of radioiodine accumulation in cystadenofibroma, and we discuss the mechanism of uptake of radioiodine in this case. PMID:23119215

  10. Synthesis, radioiodination, and biodistribution of some nido- and closo-monocarbon carborane derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilbur, D. Scott; Hamlin, Donald K.; Srivastava, Rajiv R.; Chyan, Ming-Kuan

    2004-01-01

    Iodination and radioiodination reactions of several anionic nido- and closo-monocarbon carboranes were conducted. Iodinations occurred more rapidly with nido-carboranes than with closo-carboranes. The most rapid iodination and radioiodination reactions occurred with unsubstituted carboranes. C-amino and C-ammonium derivatives did not iodinate under the conditions studied. Both nido- and closo-carboranes with C-NH-acetyl and C-NH-succinyl substituents iodinated, but the nido-carboranes iodinated under milder reaction conditions. Biodistributions of nido-1-succinylamido-[ 131 I]carborane and closo-1-succinylamido-[ 125 I]carborane were similar in mice, but blood clearance of the nido- compound was slower

  11. Determination of the radioiodine species in the exhaust air of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deuber, H.

    1977-01-01

    Using the selective I 2 sorption materials DSM 10 and DSM 11 measurements were performed with radioiodine species samplers in the exhaust air of a research reactor and of several nuclear power stations (BWR, PWR). The radioiodine species samplers were used upstream and downstream of iodine filters (containment exhaust air stand-by filter, shutoff room exhaust air filter) as well as in the exhaust air of the stack. The results obtained by use of DSM 10 and DSM 11 generally agreed. The percentage of aerosol iodine was low in all cases ( [de

  12. Isolation, lactoperoxidase catalyzed radioiodination, and recovery of proteins bound to insoluble immunoadsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cort, S.; McDougall, J.S.

    1977-01-01

    A method for the direct radioiodination and recovery of proteins specifically adsorbed to an insoluble immunoadsorbent is described. The optimal conditions for adsorption, washing, radiolabelling by lactoperoxidase-catalyzed iodination, and elution of radio-labelled proteins from the immunoadsorbent have been determined. The technique is a rapid and efficient means of isolating and radioiodinating specific proteins present in biological fluids and has been applied to the detection of immunoglobulin and histocompatibility antigens in mouse cell culture supernates. This method should be particularly applicable in research situations in which the specific antisera are available but the antigen concentration is low or the volume of material to be analyzed is limited

  13. Critical assessment of the test of 131I radioiodine uptake in the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemec, J.; Roehling, S.; Vana, S.; Zamrazil, V.

    1979-01-01

    The value of radioiodine 131 I uptake by the thyroid gland was studied to differentiate the functional disorders of the thyroid gland by analysing a smaller group of patients using the classical method and the computer method for the evaluation of 2500 determinations. The conclusion may be drawn that the uptake of radioiodine was caused by a disturbance of the thyroid gland function only in a minority of cases whereas in the others it is dependent on the intake of iodine or of goitrogens. It is therefore not suitable as a screening method for the diagnosis of thyroid gland diseases. It is, however, useful for the differentation of various types of hyperthyroidism. (author)

  14. Can dosimetry help to predict euthyroidism after 131I radioiodine treatment of solitary thyroid nodule?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skanjeti, A.; Pia, A.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Introduction: recent SNM guidelines suggest to administer 3-8 MBq for each gram of thyroid tissue in order to reach a non hyperthyroid status, while EANM guidelines suggest to reach a dose of 100-400 Gy depending on type of disease. This second point of view is based on the principle that dosimetry, i.e. the metabolism of radioiodine within the thyroid can determine the outcome of radiation in the gland. However, although reasonable, it has not been shown unequivocally that dosimetry allows better outcome. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate whether dosimetry and parameters that consent a dose evaluation can be useful in order to predict outcome in hyperthyroid patients with solitary nodule and successfully treated with radioiodine. Material and methods. Thirty-one consecutive patients with solitary nodule and successfully treated with 131 I radioiodine were included. In 27 patients euthyroidism was durably reached during the follow up, while in 4 hypothyroid state was the final outcome. All of them underwent Radioiodine Uptake Test (RUT) with 5 measurements (6 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 96 h), thyroid scintigraphy to estimate gland mass and radioiodine administration. Bi-compartmental model was used to estimate residence time and dose was estimated according to EANM guidelines based on administered activities of radioiodine. Uptake at 6 h, uptake at 24 h, mass gland, dose, age, residence time, activity and activity/mass were compared in patients with stable euthyroidism versus patients with hypothyroidism in the follow up. Results: only uptake at 6 h was different in these groups of patients (p=0.05 at Welch t-test), the logistic regression seemed to confirm the significant correlation (p=0.08) between uptake at 6 h and outcome of the treatment. The other parameters were not significantly correlated with the treatment effect. Conclusion: this pilot study, performed in a very small population, did not show any significant

  15. Radioiodine labeling of resveratrol and its biodistribution in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bo; Yu Huixin; Tan Cheng; Lin Xiufeng; Zhang Li; Cao Guoxian; Luo Shineng

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the preparation of radioiodinated resveratrol and its biodistribution in mice, resveratrol was labeled with 131 I using lactoperoxidase methods and purified by ethyl acetate. The radiolabeled compound was characterized by polyamide TLC, in which the substratum of V trichoromethane : V acetone : V ethanol : V Adam's ale =4 : 4 : 0.5 : 0.4 was used as the developing agent. Biodistribution studies were accomplished on KM mice. At different time after radiopharmaceutical i.v. administration (0.185 MBq 131 I- tetrahydropalmatine/mouse), the animals were sacrificed (n=5 animals for each time). Blood and the interested tissues were collected, washed, weighted and counted. The percent injected dose per gram (%ID·g -1 ) was calculated for each sample. The labeling yield of 131 I-resveratrol is 69.3% and its RCPs are 95.9%, 92.0%, 90.4%, and 90.1% after 1, 3, 7 and 15 d, respectively. Biodistribution in mice demonstrates that 131 I-resveratrol is distributed into broad organs and tissues. However, it reveals higher levels in liver, kidney and intestine than in other tissues. In liver and kidney, the %ID· g -1 are 16.35% and 13.05% at 5 min, respectively. 131 I-resveratrol is metabolized mainly through liver and kidney. Simultaneously, its high distribution is also found in intestine. The %ID·g -1 of 131 I-resveratrol is 11.70% at 10 min; the activity in thyroid increases with time. Therefore, the 131 I-resveratrol is worthy of further investigation to trace the compound in vivo and ex vivo. (authors)

  16. Radioiodine-labeling of tetrahydropalmatine and its biodistribution in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Cheng; Lin Xiufeng; Zhang Li; Chen Bo; Cao Guoxian; Yu Huixin; Song Cuicui

    2008-01-01

    The work was to investigate radioiodinated tetrahydropalmatine and its biodistribution in mice. Tetrahydropalmatine was labeled with 131 I using the chloramine-T method and the labeled compound were characterized by polyamide TLC. The animals were sacrificed at different times after radiopharmaceutical i.v. administration. The interested tissues samples were collected, and percent injected dose per gram (%ID·g -1 ) was calculated for each sample. The labeling yield of 131 I-tetrahydropalmatine was 76% and its RCPs were 97.3%, 95.4%, and 96.8% after 1, 7 and 20 days, respectively. Biodistribution in mice demonstrated that 131 I-tetrahydropalmatine was extensive, and it was metabolized mainly in liver and kidney, which contained of 14.35% and 6.55% ID·g -1 at 5 min, respectively, with 3.26% and 1.20% ID·g -1 at 4h, respectively. Comparatively high 131 I-tetrahydropalmatine was found in intestine and fat, but clearance was slow, 3.91% and 3.05% at 5 min and decreased to 0.79% and 0.37% at 4 h. The results also showed that 131 I-tetrahydropalmatine could well penetrate the blood-brain barrier to attain a maximal level in brain tissue within 5-10 min, but it mostly was cleaned out after 2 h. There was no significant difference in brain regions despite of highest biodistribution in parietal lobe. In conclusion, 131 I-tetrahydropalmatine was stable and it was metabolized mainly in liver and kidney, but there was no significant difference in brain regions. (authors)

  17. Radioiodine-Labeling of Chlorpyrifos and Its Biodistribution in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIAO Yao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the preparation of radioiodinated Chlorpyrifos and its biodistribution in mice, Chlorpyrifos was labeled with 131I using the Iodogen method. Biodistribution studies were carried out in KM mice. At different times after radiopharmaceutical i.v. administration (185 kBq 131I-Chlorpyrifos/mouse, n=5, the animals were sacrificed. Blood samples and the tissues of interested were collected, weighted and counted. The percentage of injected does per gram (%ID/g was calculated for each sample. The labeling yield of 131I-Chlorpyrifos was 93.5%, The radiochemical purity (RCP was 96.9%. Biodistribution in mice demonstrated that 131I-Chlorpyrifos was extensive, and the uptakes mainly occur in lung, stomach, small-intestine, colon, musle, and submaxillay gland, as indicated by their amount of 37.12%ID/g, 6.18%ID/g, 8.12%ID/g, 8.15%ID/g, 7.04%ID/g, and 7.02%ID/g at 10 min, respectively. And it was metabolized in liver and kidney, as indicated by their uptake of 4.34%ID/g and 8.50%ID/g at 5 min, and 0.22%ID/g and 0.69%ID/g at 4 h, respectively. In addition, 131I-Chlorpyrifos was cleared out from blood quickly, and the uptake of 131I-Chlorpyrifos in blood was 37.27%ID/g at 5 min, and decreased to 1.35%ID/g at 4 h post injection. In conclusion, 131I-Chlorpyrifos was stable in vitro and it was absorbed in lung and digestive tract, and it was metabolized mainly in liver and kidney, worthy of further investigation to trace the compound in vivo and in vitro.

  18. Radioiodinated fenetylline (captagon): A new potential brain imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biersack, H.J.; Klunenberg, H.; Breuel, H.P.; Reske, S.N.; Reichmann, K.; Winkler, C.

    1984-01-01

    Since about 2 years /sup 123/I-labeled iodamphetamines (IMP) and diamines (HIPDM) have been used for scintigraphic brain investigations. As another possibly useful brain imaging agent we studied radioiodine labeled Fenetylline which is metabolized into amphetamine. Thirty wistar rats were injected 5 μCi /sup 125/I-IMP and 2 μCi /sup 131/I-Fenetylline each simultaneously. The animals were sacrificed 5,10,15,30,60, and 120 min. p.i. The radioactivity content of tissue specimens (brain, cerebellum, liver, kidney, lung, myocardium, muscle) was measured in a well-counter (% dose/g tissue). In 2 dogs sequential cerebral scintigraphy was performed following the injection of 0.5 mCi /sup 131/I-Fenetylline. Three patients underwent brain SPECT after injection of 6.5 mCi /sup 123/I-Fenetylline. The results can be summarized as follows: after 5/10 min. p.i. Fenetylline-uptake in the brain of rats was 1.0/1.3% compared to 1.3/1.9% (IMP). A fast decrease of cerebral Fenetylline concentration was established after 30 (0.2%) and 60 (0.5%) min. The canine and human sequential scintigraphy revealed a rapid cerebral uptake (maximum after 2-10 min.) suggesting that Fenetylline is concentrated in the brain as a function of cerebral blood flow. From the first clinical findings it appears to be likely that the combined use of /sup 123/I labelled IMP and Fenetylline for SPECT may lead to a more differentiated evaluation of cerebral blood flow and metabolism

  19. Direct and indirect radioiodination of protein: comparative study of chemotactic peptide labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavinas, Tatiana

    2004-01-01

    The development of simple methods for protein radioiodination have stimulated the use of radioiodinated peptides in vivo. There are two basic methods for labeling proteins with radioiodine: direct labeling, reaction of an electrophilic radioiodine with functional activated groups on protein, like the phenol ring in the tyrosine residue, and the conjugation of a previously radioiodinated molecule to the protein, referred as indirect method. The great problem related to the direct radioiodination of proteins is the in vivo dehalogenation. This problem can be minimized if a non-phenolic prosthetic group is used in the indirect radioiodination of the peptide. The ATE prosthetic group, N-succinimidyl 3-(tri-n-butylstannyl) benzoate, when radioiodinated by electrophilic iododestannilation produces N-succinimidyl 3-[ 123 l/ 131 l] iodine benzoate (SIB) that is subsequently conjugated to the protein by the acylation of the lysine group. There are many radiopharmaceuticals employed in scintigraphic images of infection and inflammation used with some limitations. These limitations stimulated the improvement of a new class of radiopharmaceuticals, the receptor-specific related labeled peptides, as the mediators of the inflammatory response, that presents high affinity by receptors expressed in the inflammation process, and fast clearance from blood and non-target tissues. One of these molecules is the synthetic chemotactic peptide fNleLFNIeYK that presents potent chemotaxis for leukocytes, with high affinity by the receptors presented in polymorphonuclear leukocytes and mononuclear phagocytes. The objective of this work included the synthesis of ATE prosthetic group and comparative radioiodination of the chemotactic peptide fNleLFNIeYK by direct and indirect methods, with radiochemical purity determination and evaluation of in vivo and in vitro stability of the compounds. This work presented an original contribution in the comparative biological distribution studies of the

  20. Gene

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes,...

  1. Changing trends in the treatment of Graves' disease with radioiodine: a 12-year experience in a university hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Marcus Vinicius Leitao de; Souza, Honomar Ferreira de; Buescu, Alexandru; Vaisman, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the changes in clinical parameters and in the approach to patients submitted to radioiodine therapy for Graves' disease. Materials and methods: Dossiers of 226 patients submitted to radioiodine therapy for Graves' disease in the period between January 1990 and December 2001 were retrospectively evaluated. For the purposes of statistical analysis, the 12-year period was subdivided into three periods of 4 years, with a comparison of clinical and laboratory variables in these periods. Results: The authors have observed that the total number of patients referred for radioiodine therapy as well as the percentage of female patients presented a significant increase (from 62% to 86%; p = 0.005). The percentage of patients pretreated with methimazole before radioiodine therapy increased significantly (from 9.1% to 35.6%; p = 0.03). The mean radioiodine dose delivered has also presented a significant increase (from 7.6 mCi to 12.7 mCi; p = 0.000003) with a direct reflection on a higher percentage of patients cured one year after the radioiodine therapy (from 55.6% to 83.7%; p = 0.004). Conclusion: Radioiodine therapy has increasingly been accepted for treatment of patients with Graves' disease and the doses delivered have increased to achieve a permanent cure as well as a reduction of the chances of recurrence. (author)

  2. Synthesis of substrates for gene therapy monitoring of HSV1-TK system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Tae Hyun; Ahn, Soon Hyuk; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo; Awh, Ok Doo [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-04-01

    In gene therapy, tumor cells expressing the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase are sensitive to prodrugs. Potential prodrugs IVDU and IVFRU were synthesized and radiolabeled with radioiodine for noninvasive imaging of herpes simplex virus type 1 gene expression. 5-(2-trimethysilyl) vinyl-2'-deoxyuridine and 5-t(2-trimethylsilyl)vinyl-2'-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine, precursors of 5-(2-iodo)viny 1-2'-deoxy uridine(IVDU) and 5-(2-iodo)-2'-vinyl-2'-deoxy-2'-fluorotibofuranosyl uracil(IVFRU), were synthesized from reaction of trans-1-trimethylsillyl-2-tri-n-butylstannylethylene with 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine and 5-iodo-2'-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine, respectively, on the condition of Pd catalyst. These precursors were separated from reaction mixture by silica gel column chromatography method. Each precursor was radioiodinated with radioiodine by mixing with ICI oxidizing agent. These radioiodinated compounds were purified with HPLC. Radiohalogen exchange has been shown to be effective for the synthesis of products with lower specific activity. Similarly, carrier-added and high specific activity products have been isolated in respectable radiochemical yields using ICI method. Synthetic yield of precursors, IVDU and IVFRU were 43% and 18%, respectively. Radiochemical purity of both compunds was over 98%. We synthesized precursors of IVDU and IVFRU for monitoring of HSV1-tk gene expression. Radiotracers were radioiodinated with high radiolabeling yield by ICI method.

  3. Nationwide trends in surgery and radioiodine treatment for benign thyroid disease during iodization of salt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerqueira, C.; Knudsen, N.; Ovesen, L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Iodization of salt was introduced in Denmark in 1998 because of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency (ID). The aim of this study was to analyze the utilization rate of surgery and radioiodine therapy for benign thyroid disorders before and after the introduction of iodization, and to stu...

  4. THE MANAGEMENT OF THYROID CARCINOMA--THE ROLE OF RADIO-IODINE (I-131)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Workman, James B.

    1963-06-15

    Experience from the management of 156 patients with proven thyroid cancer, followed from 1 to 11 years, is reported. Although no sweeping conclusions can be drawn, it appears that radioiodine continues to have a place in the overall management of most cases of this malignant disease. (auth)

  5. Sorption studies of radioiodine on soils with special references to soil microbial biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bors, J. (Niedersaechsisches Inst. fuer Radiooekologie, Hannover (Germany, F.R.)); Erten, H. (Bilkent Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry); Martens, R. (Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft, Braunschweig (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Bodenbiologie)

    1991-01-01

    In batch experiments with two types of soils, chernozem and podzol, radioiodine ({sup 125}I) showed an initial rapid sorption, followed by a long and slow further increase. Very little sorption (R{sub d} < 1) was detected in clay minerals. Generally, higher R{sub d}-values were observed for the chernozem soil, characterized by a higher amount of organic substance and of soil biomass. The sorption process was predominantly irreversible, the isotherms were linear at low ion concentrations and deviated from linearity starting at 10{sup -5} mmol.ml{sup -1}. Sorption ratio was found to increase with increasing volume to mass ratio. The composition of liquid phases (bidistilled water, synthetic soil water, rain water) highly affected iodine sorption. In experiments with KBr solution, the sorption of I{sup -} was found to be strongly preferred to Br{sup -}. Incubation of soil samples under varied conditions (decreased or increased soil biomass, O{sub 2}-concentration, incubation temperature, soil water content and storage conditions) delivered indications for the participation of soil microflora in iodine immobilization. Test with isolated soil bacteria and fungi showed that radioiodine can be incorporated by soil microorganisms under certain conditions only: Considerable uptake of radioiodine was found in washed (NaCl, CaCl{sub 2}) cells with both bacteria and fungi, but no incorporation was detected into cells incubated with radioiodine in the culture medium. (orig.).

  6. Sorption studies of radioiodine on soils with special references to soil microbial biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bors, J.; Erten, H.; Martens, R.

    1991-01-01

    In batch experiments with two types of soils, chernozem and podzol, radioiodine ( 125 I) showed an initial rapid sorption, followed by a long and slow further increase. Very little sorption (R d d -values were observed for the chernozem soil, characterized by a higher amount of organic substance and of soil biomass. The sorption process was predominantly irreversible, the isotherms were linear at low ion concentrations and deviated from linearity starting at 10 -5 mmol.ml -1 . Sorption ratio was found to increase with increasing volume to mass ratio. The composition of liquid phases (bidistilled water, synthetic soil water, rain water) highly affected iodine sorption. In experiments with KBr solution, the sorption of I - was found to be strongly preferred to Br - . Incubation of soil samples under varied conditions (decreased or increased soil biomass, O 2 -concentration, incubation temperature, soil water content and storage conditions) delivered indications for the participation of soil microflora in iodine immobilization. Test with isolated soil bacteria and fungi showed that radioiodine can be incorporated by soil microorganisms under certain conditions only: Considerable uptake of radioiodine was found in washed (NaCl, CaCl 2 ) cells with both bacteria and fungi, but no incorporation was detected into cells incubated with radioiodine in the culture medium. (orig.)

  7. Improved radioiodination of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-IPPA via a tributyltin intermediate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPherson, D.W.; Luo, H.; Kropp, J.; Knapp, F.F.

    1999-01-01

    1,2-Palmitoyl-3-[15-(4-iodophenyl)pentadecan-3-oyl]-rac-glyceroI (MIPAG) is a new agent for the clinical evaluation of pancreatic lipase activity and has demonstrated promise in preliminary clinical studies with patients affected with pancreatic insufficiency. Iodine-131-MIPAG was initially prepared via thallium-iodide displacement. Because of the need for a simple method which is amendable for the routine clinical use of MIPAG we have investigated the preparation and radioiodination of MIPAG utilizing the tributyltin precursor, 1,2-palmitoyl-3-[15-(-4-tributylstannylphenyl)pentadecan-3-oyl] -rac-glyceroI (TBT-MIPAG, 2). Compound 2 was prepared via the condensation of 1,2-palmitoyl-rac-glycerol with 15-(4-tributylstannylphenyl)pentadecanoic acid (TBT-PPA) prepared from 4-bromophenylacetylene. Electrophilic radioiodination using peracetic acid with sodium iodide-125 in ethanol at 80 deg. C for 60 min afforded I-125-MIPAG in 65.9% (±11.5%) yield and radiochemical purity of 94% (±3.0%) after C-18 Sep-Pak purification (n=6). This improved method for radioiodination utilizing TBT-MIPAG now provides radioiodinated MIPAG for routine clinical evaluation

  8. Effect of radioiodine therapy on pulmonary metastases from well-differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yongli; Jin Changqing; Chen Libo; Lu Hankui; Zhu Ruisen

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate effect of radioiodine therapy on pulmonary metastases from well-differentiated thyroid cancer. Methods: Fifty-eight cases of pulmonary metastases were studied utilizing chest X-ray, pulmonary function test and 99 Tc m -DTPA aerosol clearance examination. Results: The data of pulmonary function test were of no difference between groups of various radiation doses cumulation (P > 0.05). The differences of vital capacity (VC), fast vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1 ) were not remarkable between the two groups of male or female patients (P > 0.05), but the difference of maximal volume ventilation (MVV) was P 99 Tc m -DTPA aerosol clearance rates between various groups were of no difference (P > 0.05). Only for one female, 43 years old who had received an accumulative dose of 51.8 GBq radioiodine over an 8-yr period, her pulmonary function test showed evidence of restrictive lung disease, chest X-ray showed haziness and DTPA half-time clearance was 26.4 min, which is suggestive of interstitial fibrosis. Conclusion: The cumulative dose of radioiodine and gender of the patients had not statistically significant effects on the pulmonary function. Interstitial fibrosis must be carefully watched when the cumulative radioiodine dose is over 37 GBq

  9. The Chernobyl accident: Thyroid exposure among the population due to radioiodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavrilin, Yu I; Shinkarev, S M [Biophysics Inst., Russian Federation State Science Centre, Moscow (Russian Federation); Stepanenko, V F [Medical Radiological Research Centre, Academy of Medical Sciences, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Domaratskij, V P; Moroz, G L [Scientific Research Inst. for Industrial and Marine Medicine, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Hrushtch, V T [State Scientific Centre, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-09-01

    Different aspects of internal and external exposure to thyroid of inhabitants from the contaminated areas of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine are discussed in the paper. In the case of consumption of contaminated foods contribution to total absorbed dose from internal radioiodine exposure was more than 90%, otherwise (in the case of only inhalation radioiodine intake), not lesser than 85%. {sup 131}I exposure to thyroid was the main contribution to internal exposure, and exposure to thyroid from short-lived radioiodines was significant only for the inhabitants who did not consume contaminated foods. Peculiarities of formation of ``measured`` doses are considered. Semiempirical model of relationships between the average internal thyroid dose received by people in the rural settlements and the ground-deposition density of radionuclides in these settlements is presented. It has been indicated the necessity of intensification of {sup 129}I measurements in soil. Practical efficiency of used countermeasures for majority people to reduce radioiodine intake is estimated as high as approximately 2 times and caused mainly by removing people from contaminated areas. 11 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  10. Improved radioiodination of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-IPPA via a tributyltin intermediate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPherson, D.W. E-mail: phm@oml.gov; Luo, H.; Kropp, J.; Knapp, F.F

    1999-10-01

    1,2-Palmitoyl-3-[15-(4-iodophenyl)pentadecan-3-oyl]-rac-glyceroI (MIPAG) is a new agent for the clinical evaluation of pancreatic lipase activity and has demonstrated promise in preliminary clinical studies with patients affected with pancreatic insufficiency. Iodine-131-MIPAG was initially prepared via thallium-iodide displacement. Because of the need for a simple method which is amendable for the routine clinical use of MIPAG we have investigated the preparation and radioiodination of MIPAG utilizing the tributyltin precursor, 1,2-palmitoyl-3-[15-(-4-tributylstannylphenyl)pentadecan-3-oyl] -rac-glyceroI (TBT-MIPAG, 2). Compound 2 was prepared via the condensation of 1,2-palmitoyl-rac-glycerol with 15-(4-tributylstannylphenyl)pentadecanoic acid (TBT-PPA) prepared from 4-bromophenylacetylene. Electrophilic radioiodination using peracetic acid with sodium iodide-125 in ethanol at 80 deg. C for 60 min afforded I-125-MIPAG in 65.9% ({+-}11.5%) yield and radiochemical purity of 94% ({+-}3.0%) after C-18 Sep-Pak purification (n=6). This improved method for radioiodination utilizing TBT-MIPAG now provides radioiodinated MIPAG for routine clinical evaluation.

  11. Sertraline can be useful pre radioiodine in patients with thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geber de Almeida, Mariana; Netto Campos Silva, Marcia

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Thyroid hormone withdrawal is a standard approach for increased TSH before radioiodine, in patients with thyroid cancer. However, some patients with hypothyroidism present clinical depression for long time, in spite of the euthyroid state. Sertraline is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, which increases the neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine, and enhances the serum TSH level. Objectives: To analyze the efficacy of sertraline to increase TSH and improved symptoms of depression in these patients. Methods: In 12 patients with thyroid cancer without previous depression, we used 50 mg of sertraline one month before and after radioiodine and compare with group control. The serum TSH levels were performed ten days before radioiodine and the patients were evaluated 20, 40 and 60 days after started levothyroxine (The Montgomery -Asberg depression rating scale). Results: TSH levels were 85 ± 10 mU/L in the group that used sertraline vs 69 ± 8 mU/L in group control (p < 0,01). The patients who used sertraline reversed depression in (30 ± 5 days - median ± SD), significantly more rapidly if compared with the control group (50 ± 10 days - median ± SD). Three patients that received sertraline and five patients of the control group, severe depression persists, in spite of euthyroid state. Conclusion: This study suggests that sertraline can be useful pre radioiodine to increase TSH, and helps to restore the quality of life and mood, in a short period of time. (author)

  12. Risk factors for persistent atrial fibrillation following successful hyperthyroidism treatment with radioiodine therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhen-Hu; Ma, Long-Le; Wang, Le-Xin

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the predicting factors for persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) following radioiodine therapy for hyperthyroidism. Standard 12-lead ECG and 24-h Holter monitoring were performed in 94 patients (38 males, mean age 46.1±8.2 years) with persistent AF following radioiodine therapy for hyperthyroidism. Left ventricular (LV) function was assessed with two-dimensional echocardiography. Euthyroidism or hypothyroidism was achieved in 81% and 19% of the patients, respectively, after radioiodine therapy. At the end of follow-up (1.6±1.3 years), LV ejection fraction in the 52 patients with LV dysfunction was increased from 39.3±3.3% to 59.0±5.5% (ptreatment paroxysmal AF, no AF was documented during the follow-up. In the 45 patients with pre-treatment persistent AF, AF was found in 27 (60%) during the follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that more than 55 years old in age (RR 2.76, 95% CI: 1.16-8.79, phyperthyroidism (RR 3.08, 95% CI: 1.22-11.41, ptreatment atrial fibrillation (RR 2.96, 95% CI: 1.31-7.68, phyperthyroidism and pre-treatment duration of AF are risk factors for persistent AF following radioiodine therapy.

  13. Functional results of radioiodine therapy with a 300-GY absorbed dose in Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willemsen, U.F.; Knesewitsch, P.; Kreisig, T.; Pickardt, C.R.; Kirsch, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the results of high-dose radioiodine therapy given to 43 patients with recurrent hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease between 1986 and 1992. We chose an intrathyroidal absorbed dose of 300 Gy and determined the applied activity individually, which ranged from 240 to 3120 MBq with a median of 752 MBq. Hperthyroidism was eliminated in 86% of cases after 3 months and in 100% after 12 months. No patient required a second radioiodine treatment. The incidnece of hyperthyroidism was 63% after 3 months and 93% after 18 months. Neither the pretherapeutic thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin level nor the degree of co-existing endocrine ophthalmopathy was correlated with the time at which hypothyroidism developed. Patients with previous radioiodine therapy developed hypothyroidism earlier than patients with previous thyroid surgery. The results show that ablative radioiodine therapy with a 300-Gy absorbed dose is a very effective treatment of hyperthyroidism in Graves' disease, but it should be restricted to patients with recurrent hyperthyroidism combined with severe co-existing disorders or episodes of unfavourable reactions to antithyroid drugs. (orig.)

  14. Mammary radioiodine accumulation due to functional sodium iodide symporter expression in a benign fibroadenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, F.; Unterholzner, S.; Diebold, J.; Knesewitsch, P.; Hahn, K.; Spitzweg, C.

    2006-01-01

    The sodium iodide symporter (NIS) has been characterized to mediate the active transport of iodide not only in the thyroid gland but also in various non-thyroidal tissues, including lactating mammary gland and the majority of breast cancers, thereby offering the possibility of diagnostic and therapeutic radioiodine application in breast cancer. In this report, we present a 57-year-old patient with multifocal papillary thyroid carcinoma, who showed focal radioiodine accumulation in a lesion in the right breast on a posttherapy 131 I scan following radioiodine therapy. CT and MR-mammography showed a focal solid lesion in the right breast suggestive of a fibroadenoma, which was confirmed by histological examination. Immunostaining of paraffin-embedded tumor tissue sections using a human NIS antibody demonstrated NIS-specific immunoreactivity confined to epithelial cells of mammary ducts. In conclusion, in a thyroid cancer patient we identified a benign fibroadenoma of the breast expressing high levels of functionally active NIS protein as underlying cause of focal mammary radioiodine accumulation on a posttherapy 131 I scan. These data show for the first time that functional NIS expression is not restricted to lactating mammary gland and malignant breast tissue, but can also be detected in benign breast lesions, such as fibroadenomata of the breast

  15. Results of 52 cases with struma maligna treated with radio-iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grebe, S.F.; Huth, K.D.

    1982-01-01

    Results of 52 cases with struma maligna treated with radio-iodine. Between 1966 and 1977, 52 thyroid carcinoma patients received radio-iodine therapy. Their age ranged from 18 to 82 years. Out of 52 patients, 46 underwent surgery with 26 thyrodectomized subtotally and 20 totally so. No surgery was performed in 6 cases since this was refused in 2 cases and inoperable for clinical reasons in 4 cases. Radio-iodine treatment was performed 6 to 10 weeks after operation or 2 to 4 weeks after diagnosis. In 9 cases, additional irradiation therapy was performed on metastases (predominantly in skeleton) at total doses ranging between 2500-7500 R focal dose for palliative reasons. In terms of summary, the authors draw the conclusion that surgical ablation of thyroid tissue as total as possible combined with subsequent radio-iodine treatments till complete destruction of the iodine-storing tissue imposes as the optimum treatment of follicular and papillary thyroid carcinoma. (orig./MG) [de

  16. A review of countermeasures to reduce radioiodine in milk of dairy animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B.J.; Voigt, G.; Segal, M.G.

    1996-01-01

    The most effective countermeasure for radioiodine contamination of milk is to provide dairy animals with uncontaminated feed, with the added advantage that it will be effective for other radionuclides in the fallout. Another effective response is to process the milk into storable dairy products for an appropriate length of time to allow for physical decay. The use of additives given to ruminants to reduce radioiodine in milk is an alternative countermeasure which could be effective. Stable iodine administration is a practically feasible option which has the potential to reduce radioiodine levels in milk by at most a factor of three. Stable iodine supplementation should be at sufficiently high rates to be effective (and at least 1 g d -1 for dairy cows), particularly for ruminants already receiving high amounts of iodine in the diet. Currently available data are inadequate to recommend a suitable stable iodine administration rate for different species of ruminants. Other compounds, such as perchlorate and thiocyanate, also reduce the transfer to radioiodine to milk (and thyroid). Some of these compounds seem to be potentially equally as effective as stable iodine. However, currently there is inadequate information on their effectiveness and possible toxicity to both ruminants and humans for these compounds to be considered as suitable countermeasure additives. 85 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  17. The results of the radioiodine-therapy of benign thyroid diseases respecting the applied radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, C.

    1994-09-01

    452 patients with benign thyroid diseases had been explored after 6 weeks, 6 months, 1 year, 5 years and 10 years after undergone radioiodine treatment retrospectively with regard to the applied radiation dose. A relevant relation between the radiation dose and the rate of hypothyroidism could only be proved as a tendency. Treating hyperthyroidism with radioiodine, the rates of hypothyroidism after therapy were not caused by significantly higher radiation doses. Therefore suggestions to change the used radiation-doses basically cannot be made. The applied doses of radiation are sufficient to achieve a rather satisfactory effect in healing hyperthyroidism. Cases of malignancy after radioiodine therapy could not be found in this population. The effective half-life determination before therapy can be neglected, because there was found a significant difference between the pre-therapeutically estimated half-life and the post-therapeutically measured effective half-life of radioiodine. Instead, fixed values of effective half-life should be used for each group of benign thyroid diseases. The radiation therapy still seems to be an efficient treatment to cure benign thyroid diseases with rare side effects. It also can be applied to patients below the age of 40. Generally it is an alternative to drug-therapy or surgery, always considering the individual relation between gain and risk. In this respect good results can be obtained and a relapse of hyperthyroidism is hardly to expect. (author)

  18. Chinese hamster ovary cell lysosomes retain pinocytized horseradish peroxidase and in situ-radioiodinated proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storrie, B.; Sachdeva, M.; Viers, V.S.

    1984-01-01

    We used Chinese hamster ovary cells, a cell line of fibroblastic origin, to investigate whether lysosomes are an exocytic compartment. To label lysosomal contents, Chinese hamster ovary cells were incubated with the solute marker horseradish peroxidase. After an 18-h uptake period, horseradish peroxidase was found in lysosomes by cell fractionation in Percoll gradients and by electron microscope cytochemistry. Over a 24-h period, lysosomal horseradish peroxidase was quantitatively retained by Chinese hamster ovary cells and inactivated with a t 1/2 of 6 to 8 h. Lysosomes were radioiodinated in situ by soluble lactoperoxidase internalized over an 18-h uptake period. About 70% of the radioiodine incorporation was pelleted at 100,000 X g under conditions in which greater than 80% of the lysosomal marker enzyme beta-hexosaminidase was released into the supernatant. By one-dimensional electrophoresis, about 18 protein species were present in the lysosomal membrane fraction, with radioiodine incorporation being most pronounced into species of 70,000 to 75,000 daltons. After a 30-min or 2-h chase at 37 degrees C, radioiodine that was incorporated into lysosomal membranes and contents was retained in lysosomes. These observations indicate that lysosomes labeled by fluid-phase pinocytosis are a terminal component of endocytic pathways in fibroblasts

  19. Functional results of radioiodine therapy with a 300-GY absorbed dose in Graves' disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willemsen, U.F. (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Dept. of Radiology, Muenchen (Germany)); Knesewitsch, P. (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Dept. of Radiology, Muenchen (Germany)); Kreisig, T. (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Dept. of Radiology, Muenchen (Germany)); Pickardt, C.R. (Dept. of Internal Medicine, Muenchen Univ. (Germany)); Kirsch, C.M. (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Dept. of Radiology, Muenchen (Germany))

    1993-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the results of high-dose radioiodine therapy given to 43 patients with recurrent hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease between 1986 and 1992. We chose an intrathyroidal absorbed dose of 300 Gy and determined the applied activity individually, which ranged from 240 to 3120 MBq with a median of 752 MBq. Hperthyroidism was eliminated in 86% of cases after 3 months and in 100% after 12 months. No patient required a second radioiodine treatment. The incidnece of hyperthyroidism was 63% after 3 months and 93% after 18 months. Neither the pretherapeutic thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin level nor the degree of co-existing endocrine ophthalmopathy was correlated with the time at which hypothyroidism developed. Patients with previous radioiodine therapy developed hypothyroidism earlier than patients with previous thyroid surgery. The results show that ablative radioiodine therapy with a 300-Gy absorbed dose is a very effective treatment of hyperthyroidism in Graves' disease, but it should be restricted to patients with recurrent hyperthyroidism combined with severe co-existing disorders or episodes of unfavourable reactions to antithyroid drugs. (orig.)

  20. Peripheral blood T cell activation after radioiodine treatment for Graves' disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei-Ping Teng; Stark, R.; Borysiewicz, L.K.; Weetman, A.P. (Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge Clinical School, Level 5, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (UK)); Munro, A.J. (Department of Clinical Oncology, Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK)); McHardy Young, S. (Department of Medicine, Central Middlesex Hospital, London (UK))

    1990-01-01

    Radioiodine therapy for Graves' thyrotoxicosis produces a rise in thyroid autoantibodies in the first three months after treatment, but little is known of its effects on T cells. We have therefore followed the changes in T cell subsets in sequential samples from 23 patients with Graves' disease treated with radioiodine, using dualcolour flow cytometry. In the first month after treatment there was a significant rise in activated T cells, identified by the markers HLA-DR(la) and CDw26/Tal (p<0.025 in both cases). CD45RO-positive T cells, which are the primed population containing memory cells, also increased (p<0.025), but there was no change in CD45R-positive, resting T cells or in the CD4 to CD8 (helper to cytotoxic/suppressor) ratio. Vicia villosa-binding T cells, containing the contrasuppressor population, showed a more variable response, but the trend was to an overall increase from pre-treatment values (p<0.025). The changes did not appear to be related to antithyroid drug treatment, since they were seen irrespective of whether patients continued such therapy. These results suggest that T cell activation and enhanced contrasuppressor activity may in part be responsible for the rise in autoantibodies after radioiodine. The T cell changes could also contribute to the worsening of ophthalmopathy seen in some radioiodine-treated patients. (author).

  1. A randomized trial evaluating a block-replacement regimen during radioiodine therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnema, Steen J; Grupe, Peter; Boel-Jørgensen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Eur J Clin Invest 2010 ABSTRACT: Background  Lack of consensus regarding the antithyroid drug regimen in relation to radioiodine ((131) I) therapy of hyperthyroidism prompted this randomized trial comparing two strategies. Design  Patients with Graves' disease (GD, n = 51) or toxic nodular goitre...

  2. Grave's Eye disease developing following radioiodine treatment for toxic nodular goitre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahrani, A A; Rangan, S; Moulik, P

    2007-07-01

    The development of Grave's ophthalmopathy (GO) following radioiodine (RI) treatment for Grave's thyrotoxicosis, though controversial, is well described. The development of ophthalmopathy following RI treatment for toxic nodular goitre is much less recognised. We report a 49 year-old female patient who developed thyrotoxicosis and GO after receiving RI treatment for toxic nodular goitre and we also review the relevant literature.

  3. Acute effects of radioiodine therapy on the voice and larynx of basedow-Graves patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isolan-Cury, Roberta Werlang; Cury, Adriano Namo [Sao Paulo Santa Casa de Misericordia, SP (Brazil). Medical Science School (FCMSCSP); Monte, Osmar [Sao Paulo Santa Casa de Misericordia, SP (Brazil). Physiology Department; Silva, Marta Assumpcao de Andrada e [Sao Paulo Santa Casa de Misericordia, SP (Brazil). Medical Science School (FCMSCSP). Speech Therapy School; Duprat, Andre [Sao Paulo Santa Casa de Misericordia, SP (Brazil). Medical Science School (FCMSCSP). Otorhinolaryngology Department; Marone, Marilia [Nuclimagem - Irmanity of the Sao Paulo Santa Casa de Misericordia, SP (Brazil). Nuclear Medicine Unit; Almeida, Renata de; Iglesias, Alexandre [Sao Paulo Santa Casa de Misericordia, SP (Brazil). Medical Science School (FCMSCSP). Otorhinolaryngology Department. Endocrinology and Metabology Unit

    2008-07-01

    Graves's disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. There are three current therapeutic options: anti-thyroid medication, surgery, and radioactive iodine (I 131). There are few data in the literature regarding the effects of radioiodine therapy on the larynx and voice. The aim of this study was: to assess the effect of radioiodine therapy on the voice of Basedow-Graves patients. Material and method: A prospective study was done. Following the diagnosis of Grave's disease, patients underwent investigation of their voice, measurement of maximum phonatory time (/a/) and the s/z ratio, fundamental frequency analysis (Praat software), laryngoscopy and (perceptive-auditory) analysis in three different conditions: pre-treatment, 4 days, and 20 days post-radioiodine therapy. Conditions are based on the inflammatory pattern of thyroid tissue (Jones et al. 1999). Results: No statistically significant differences were found in voice characteristics in these three conditions. Conclusion: Radioiodine therapy does not affect voice quality. (author)

  4. Design and development of a lead jar for oral administration of radioiodine In hyperthyroid patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.S.; Paul, A.K.; Rahman, H.A.; Begum, F.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear Medicine practices involve use of radioisotopes for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Radioiodine is one of such radioisotopes, being used in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases since 1942. Handling of radioiodine involves radiation hazards both for the patients as well as for the technologists. Though radioiodine is supplied in a lead container, for treatment purpose, it is administered after dispensing into a glass jar that does not adequately protect radiation hazards. For this reason, we designed and developed a lead jar and radioiodine is dispensed into that lead jar to minimize radiation hazards. For oral administration of radioiodine to hyperthyroid patients, a lead jar was designed and developed with lead in Centre for Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound, Khulna in December 2004 by own expertise and technologies in such a way that a glass jar could be introduced into that lead jar. The thickness of lead was 4.04 mm and the thickness of glass jar was 0.7 mm and thus the whole thickness of lead jar became 4.74 mm. The desired dose of radioiodine (8 mCi) that should be given to the patients were dispensed into that lead jar and administered orally to the patients. Radiation levels in 10 such cases were measured by Mini-Rad Series-1000 survey meter at 0.5 meter, 1 meter and 3 meters distances both lead jar and glass jar. The mean radiation level of lead jar and glass jar during oral administration of 8 mCi of Na 131 I solution in 10 cases at 0.5 meter, 1 meter and 3 meters distances were 62.4 ± 1.96 microSv/h, 17.7 ±1.95 microSv/h, 3.39 ± .12 microSv/h and 20.3± 2.16 microSv/h, 79.8 ± 0.79 microSv/h, 1.97 ± 0.23 microSv/h respectively. We have found that radiation level reduced by 67.47%, 61.58%, and 41.89% with lead jar at 0.5 meter, 1 meter and 3 meters distances. In conclusion, the locally designed and developed lead jar is safe, easy to handle and reduces radiation burden significantly in oral administration of radioiodine to

  5. Sodium Iodide Symporter Gene Transfer for Imaging and Ablation of Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jhiang, Sissy M

    2005-01-01

    .... The specific aims of this project are to: (1) confirm metastatic progression to distant lymph nodes and lungs following subcutaneous inoculation of rats with MATLyLu prostatic adenocarcinoma cells expressing hNIS; (2...

  6. Nucleophilic radioiodination of 6-bromocholesterol via non-isotopic exchange reaction in molten state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shaboury, G.; Farah, K.; El-Tawoosy, M.

    2001-01-01

    A synthetic method for preparing radioiodinated 6-[ 125 I]iodocholesterol [CL-6- 125 I] for adrenal evaluation is described. The radioiodine atom was incorporated onto the cholesterol molecule via non-isotopic exchange between 6-bromocholesterol [CL-6-Br] and radioiodine as iodide ion [ 125 I - ] in a molten state. The different parameters affecting the yield of exchange were investigated using 125 I (T 1/2 ≅ 60 d) to centralize the different physical and chemical reaction conditions and purification of the final product as pure as 6-[ 125 I]iodocholesterol. The method was suitable to either 131 I (T 1/2 ≅ 8 d) nucleophilic radioiodination which facilitates the scanning of the adrenal for a few days after administration or the use of 124 I (T 1/2 ≅ 4.16 d) nucleophilic radioiodination for PET evaluation of the adrenal. TLC as well as HPLC chromatographic analysis is used to determine the efficiency of the exchange reactions under different chemical reaction conditions and to monitor the stability of the final product as pure as CL-6- 125 I with radiochemical purity of ≅99%. This no-carrier-added method improved the speed of the reaction and affords high radiochemical yield of 90% and suitable specific activity due to the use of CL-6-Br rather than CL-6-I as substrate. Kinetic studies revealed second order iodine-bromine exchange reaction. The activation energy for the exchange reaction in ammonium acetate (m.p. 114 deg C) was calculated to be 4.576 kcal/mole. (author)

  7. Use of corticosteroids to prevent progression of Graves' ophthalmopathy after radioiodine therapy for hyperthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartalena, L.; Marcocci, C.; Bogazzi, F.; Panicucci, M.; Lepri, A.; Pinchera, A. (Univ. of Pisa (Italy))

    1989-11-16

    We studied the effects of radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease on Graves' ophthalmopathy and the possible protective role of corticosteroids. Between June 1985 and June 1988, 26 patients were randomly assigned to treatment with radioiodine alone (group 1) and 26 to treatment with this agent and concomitant administration of systemic prednisone for four months (group 2). The initial dose of prednisone was 0.4 to 0.5 mg per kilogram of body weight for one month; the drug was gradually withdrawn over the next three months. All patients were evaluated at 3-month intervals for 18 months after they underwent radioiodine therapy. Ocular changes were assessed with the ophthalmopathy index; patients with moderate-to-severe changes (scores greater than or equal to 4) were excluded from the study. Before treatment, 10 patients in group 1 and 5 in group 2 had no evidence of ophthalmopathy: in none of them did ocular symptoms appear after radioiodine therapy. Among the patients in group 1 with an initial ophthalmopathy index greater than or equal to 1, ocular disease worsened in 56 percent (mostly involving soft-tissue changes and extraocular-muscle function) and did not change in 44 percent. In contrast, ophthalmopathy improved in 52 percent and did not change in 48 percent of group 2. The mean ophthalmopathy index increased from 1.5 to 3.0 in group 1 (P less than 0.005) and decreased from 2.2 to 1.3 in group 2 (P less than 0.05). We conclude that systemic corticosteroid treatment prevents the exacerbations of Graves' ophthalmopathy that occur after radioiodine therapy in a substantial proportion of patients with hyperthyroidism who have some degree of ocular involvement before treatment.

  8. Use of corticosteroids to prevent progression of Graves' ophthalmopathy after radioiodine therapy for hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartalena, L.; Marcocci, C.; Bogazzi, F.; Panicucci, M.; Lepri, A.; Pinchera, A.

    1989-01-01

    We studied the effects of radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease on Graves' ophthalmopathy and the possible protective role of corticosteroids. Between June 1985 and June 1988, 26 patients were randomly assigned to treatment with radioiodine alone (group 1) and 26 to treatment with this agent and concomitant administration of systemic prednisone for four months (group 2). The initial dose of prednisone was 0.4 to 0.5 mg per kilogram of body weight for one month; the drug was gradually withdrawn over the next three months. All patients were evaluated at 3-month intervals for 18 months after they underwent radioiodine therapy. Ocular changes were assessed with the ophthalmopathy index; patients with moderate-to-severe changes (scores greater than or equal to 4) were excluded from the study. Before treatment, 10 patients in group 1 and 5 in group 2 had no evidence of ophthalmopathy: in none of them did ocular symptoms appear after radioiodine therapy. Among the patients in group 1 with an initial ophthalmopathy index greater than or equal to 1, ocular disease worsened in 56 percent (mostly involving soft-tissue changes and extraocular-muscle function) and did not change in 44 percent. In contrast, ophthalmopathy improved in 52 percent and did not change in 48 percent of group 2. The mean ophthalmopathy index increased from 1.5 to 3.0 in group 1 (P less than 0.005) and decreased from 2.2 to 1.3 in group 2 (P less than 0.05). We conclude that systemic corticosteroid treatment prevents the exacerbations of Graves' ophthalmopathy that occur after radioiodine therapy in a substantial proportion of patients with hyperthyroidism who have some degree of ocular involvement before treatment

  9. Direct application of radioiodinated aminoacyl tRNA for radiolabeling nascent proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherberg, N.H.; Barokas, K.; Murata, Y.; Refetoff, S.

    1985-01-01

    A two-step procedure to incorporate 125 I-iodotyrosine into protein synthesized in a reticulocyte lysate is described. In the first step, the iodination of tyrosyl tRNA was catalyzed by a solid-state glycouril compound. More than one-third of 200 microCi of radioiodine became bound to 70 micrograms of aminoacyl tRNA after 15 min at 0 degrees C. The isotope was distributed in a three-to-one ratio of monoiodotyrosine to di-iodotyrosine. In the second step, the soluble product of the radioiodination was transferred directly into a nuclease-treated reticulocyte lysate coded with RNA isolated from the human hepatoma cell line Hep G2. Fractional recovery of radioiodine in nascent protein was maximally 7.6%. Reaction of the product of translation with antibody against alpha-antitrypsin separated an 125 I-containing protein having a molecular weight estimated as 47,000. The synthesis of unprocessed alpha-antitrypsin was confirmed by cleavage of the labeled protein with leader peptidase and by its displacement from immunocomplex formation with purified alpha-antitrypsin. The amount of 125 I incorporated into alpha-antitrypsin was proportionate to iodinated tRNA additions up to a concentration of 70 micrograms/ml. The synthesis of alpha-antitrypsin as detected in radioautograms after gel electrophoresis was more than twice as sensitive using radioiodinated aminoacyl tRNA as compared with [ 35 S]methionine. Iodine labeling of thyroxine-binding globulin was also demonstrated in the translation product of Hep G2 RNA. Since the specific activity of the radioiodine is high and the means for detection of the isotope efficient, the method described can facilitate the demonstration of quantitatively minor translation products

  10. Graves' disease and toxic nodular goiter - radioiodine therapy; Morbus Basedow und Autonomie - Radioiodtherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schicha, H.; Dietlein, M. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2002-04-01

    At the 15th conference on the human thyroid in Heidelberg in 2001 the following aspects of the radioiodine therapy of benign thyroid disorders were presented: General strategies for therapy of benign thyroid diseases, criterions for conservative or definitive treatment of hyperthyroidism as first line therapy and finally preparation, procedural details, results, side effects, costs and follow-up care of radioiodine therapy as well as legal guidelines for hospitalization in Germany. The diagnosis Graves' hyperthyroidism needs the decision, if rather a conservative treatment or if primary radioiodine therapy is the best therapeutic approach. In the USA 70-90% of these patients are treated with radioiodine as first line therapy, whereas in Germany the conservative therapy for 1-1.5 years is recommended for 90%. This review describes subgroups of patients with Graves' disease showing a higher probability to relapse after conservative treatment. Comparing benefits, adverse effects, costs, and conveniences of both treatment strategies the authors conclude that radioiodine therapy should be preferred as first line therapy in 60-70% of the patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism. (orig.) [German] In dem vorliegenden Beitrag wird ueber die Radioiodtherapie gutartiger Schilddruesenerkrankungen referiert. Dies betrifft gesetzliche Regelungen in Deutschland, grundlegende Ueberlegungen zur Therapie benigner Schilddruesenerkrankungen, die Diskussion konservative versus definitive Therapieindikation der Hyperthyreose und schliesslich die Themenkomplexe Vorbereitung, Durchfuehrung, Ergebnisse, Nebenwirkungen und Komplikationen, Kosten sowie Nachsorge der Radioiodtherapie. Im Vordergrund steht die Abgrenzung der konservativen Therapieindikation gegenueber der primaeren Radioiodtherapie des Morbus Basedow in Deutschland. Waehrend in den USA 70-90% der Morbus-Basedow-Faelle primaer mit Radioiodtherapie behandelt werden, wird in Deutschland bei 90% zunaechst ein

  11. Strategies of radioiodine therapy for Graves' disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, P. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, PET Center Klagenfurt, LKH Klagenfurt (Austria)

    2002-08-01

    Several therapeutic options are available for the treatment of Graves' disease (GD), including long-term antithyroid drug medication (ATD), near-total resection (NTR) and radioiodine therapy (RIT). These treatments are used with different frequencies depending on geographical location, size of the goitre, age of the patient and experience of the physician. It should be noted that RIT is still being applied more frequently in the United States than in Europe. Despite the fact that RIT was introduced as long ago as 1941, several questions are still the subject of debate: Should a fixed dose or a calculated dose be used. If the dose is calculated, how many Grays (Gy) should be delivered to the thyroid? What is the goal of RIT in GD? Which factors, including ATD, influence the outcome of RIT? Is RIT appropriate in GD with Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO)? Although not all these questions have been answered yet, conclusions can be derived regarding a general strategy for use of RIT in GD. As with surgery, the goal of RIT in GD is euthyroidism with or without L-thyroxine medication. There is a clear advantage of dose calculation over use of a fixed dose because the only factor influencing the outcome is the dose delivered to a certain thyroid volume. To minimise recurrent hyperthyroidism, an ablative approach using a delivered dose of 250 Gy is widely accepted. Beside pretherapeutic T{sub 3} levels, thyroid volume and 24-h thyroid uptake, ATD may influence the outcome of RIT. Today it is accepted by most thyroidologists that, if ATD medication is necessary in overt hyperthyroidism, it should be withdrawn at least 2 days before RIT. In patients with GD and GO, RIT may worsen GO. If RIT is performed in GO it should be done under a 3-month steroid medication regimen. In conclusion, RIT can be considered an appropriate and cost-effective therapy in GD, although the decision regarding treatment should be taken on an individual basis, paying due respect to the course and

  12. Glucocorticoid administration for Graves' hyperthyroidism treated by radioiodine. A questionnaire survey among members of the European Thyroid Association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazarus, J. H.; Bartalena, L.; Marcocci, C.; Kahaly, G. J.; Krassas, G.; Wiersinga, W. M.; Baldeschi, L.; Boboridis, K.; Boschi, A.; Currò, N.; Daumerie, C.; Dickinson, A. J.; Eckstein, A.; Kendall-Taylor, P.; Lane, C. M.; Ludgate, M. E.; Mann, K.; Marinò, M.; Mourits, M. P.; Nardi, M.; Neoh, C.; Orgiazzi, J.; Pearce, S.; Perros, P.; Pinchera, A.; Pitz, S.; Salvi, M.; Sivelli, P.; Stahl, M.; von Arx, G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Glucocorticoid prophylaxis is required in some instances after radioiodine (RAI) treatment for Graves' hyperthyroidism to prevent progression of Graves' orbitopathy (GO). However, no randomized clinical trial has been performed to ascertain the optimum glucocorticoid therapy. Aim and

  13. Synthesis of radioiodinated fatty acids for use in diagnostic nuclear medicine. Progress report, March 1, 1984-February 28, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabalka, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    Methods were developed to synthesize radioiodinated fatty acids and an iodovinyl derivative of 1-aminocyclobutane carboxylic acid. New methods were developed for introducing nitrogen and oxygen isotopes, bromine 77, fluorine 18, and carbon 11 into physiologically active materials. 22 references

  14. Dosimetry in radioiodine therapy of benign thyroid diseases. Background and practice; Dosimetrie bei Radioiodtherapie benigner Schilddruesenerkrankungen. Hintergrund und Durchfuehrung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockisch, A.; Sonnenschein, W.; Jentzen, W.; Hartung, V.; Goerges, R. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2008-09-15

    Radioiodine therapy of benign thyroid diseases (focal = [toxic adenoma], multifocal, disseminated autonomy, Grave's disease or clinical relevant goitre) needs to be and can be performed individually for each patient. Most frequently a radioiodine test is performed applying a small activity of iodine-131 ({sup 131}I). The paper discusses some protocols for pre- or posttherapeutic dosimetry and discusses their advantages and disadvantages. All are based on the volumetry of the target tissue as well as the radioiodine kinetics in the target volume what may be represented by maximum uptake and half life of iodine retention in the thyroid. Possible disturbances and measuring uncertainties of these parameters are presented and discussed. In spite of the discussed uncertainties in dosimetry, due to its high therapeutic width radioiodine therapy is a very successful procedure to cure hyperthyroidism or to reduce goitre volume with only little side effects. (orig.)

  15. Focal Bronchiectasis Causing Abnormal Pulmonary Radioiodine Uptake in a Patient with Well-Differentiated Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ash Gargya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. False-positive pulmonary radioactive iodine uptake in the followup of differentiated thyroid carcinoma has been reported in patients with certain respiratory conditions. Patient Findings. We describe a case of well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma treated by total thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablation therapy. Postablation radioiodine whole body scan and subsequent diagnostic radioiodine whole body scans have shown persistent uptake in the left hemithorax despite an undetectable stimulated serum thyroglobulin in the absence of interfering thyroglobulin antibodies. Contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography has confirmed that the abnormal pulmonary radioiodine uptake correlates with focal bronchiectasis. Summary. Bronchiectasis can cause abnormal chest radioactive iodine uptake in the followup of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Conclusions. Recognition of potential false-positive chest radioactive iodine uptake, simulating pulmonary metastases, is needed to avoid unnecessary exposure to further radiation from repeated therapeutic doses of radioactive iodine.

  16. A review of available countermeasures to reduce radioiodine transfer to milk. With special regard to the use of stable iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B.

    1993-03-01

    Contamination of milk by 131 I constitutes an important potential component of the collective dose to the population after a nuclear accident, and a relatively large dose saving can be gained by applying suitable countermeasures. Stable iodine prophylaxis is recommended for humans to prevent or reduce by the thyroid of inhaled radioiodine but controls on food are more appropriate to reduce radioiodine intakes from ingestion. Therefore it is important to have effective, practical countermeasures available to prevent radioiodine contamination of milk. This review evaluates currently available countermeasures which can be used to reduce radioiodine contamination of milk. In particular, it critically assesses available data on the effectiveness of stable iodine administration. The simplest and most effective countermeasure is to provide dairy animals with uncontaminated feed, this countermeasure has the added advantage that it will be effective for other radionuclides which may be present in the fallout. Alternatively, another effective response is to process the milk into storable dairy products for an appropriate length of time to allow for physical decay. The use of additives given to ruminants to reduce radioiodine in milk should be viewed as an alternative countermeasure which could be effective, but would not be the preferred option. However, it should be considered, particularly if difficulties are anticipated with the first two options. Stable iodine administration is a practical, and feasible option which has the potential to reduce radioiodine levels in milk, by at most a factor of three and the radiation dose to the animals thyroid. However, the stable iodine supplementation at low doses, and after the ingestion of radioiodine, may lead to increases in radioiodine levels in milk. Similarly, if ruminants are already receiving high iodine intakes, stable iodine is unlikely to be effective. Currently available data is inadequate to recommend a suitable dose

  17. Air Monitoring to Control the Intake of Airborne Radioiodine-131 Contaminants by Nuclear Medicine Workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiemwutthisak, P.; Sritongkul, N.; Chaudakshetrin, P.; Kanchanaphiboon, P.; Tuntawiroon, M.

    2012-01-01

    Inhalation of radioiodine-131 is the largest cause of internal dose to nuclear medicine workers. The concentration of radioiodine-131 in air is limited by the Derived Air Concentration (DAC) of 416.67 Bq/m3. In this study air monitoring shall be performed to measure the radioiodine-131 contaminant in air by sample collection and analysis. Air samples were drawn from areas where there is a potential for I-131 airborne radioactivity e.g. in the hot laboratory, radioiodine treatment rooms, radioactive waste collection areas and waste water treatment plant. A portable battery-operated air sampler, Gilian BDX II with carbon- impregnated cellulose filters was used for air sampling. The flow rate was adjusted to 3 liters per minute and the sampler run for 180 minutes. Iodine-131 radioactivity on filter was measured for 10 minutes by 2 NaI(Tl) gamma counters, Perkin Elmer Wallac Wizard 1480 (3''x3'') and Atomlab 950 PC (2''x2'') with and objective for inter comparison. Counting efficiency of the counters are 57 and 39 percent respectively. Agreeable results of I-131 radioactivity were obtained from both gamma counters. The mean I-131 concentrations measured by Wallac(Atomlab) were 31.59±16.31 (29.84±14.74) Bq/m 3 in radioiodine fume hood for treatment dose dispensing, 8.98±4.33 (7.58±5.10) Bq/m 3 in fume hood accommodated with a dose calibrator, 7.80±5.39 (7.54±5.04) Bq/m 3 in radioactive waste storage area, 0.03±0.54 (0.03±0.57) Bq/m 3 in patient waiting area, 2.94±3.60 (2.55±2.98) Bq/m 3 in hospital ward waste collection area and 0.03±0.01 (0.03±0.01) Bq/m 3 in the water treatment plant area. Radioiodine concentrations in patient's room increases linearly as the administered dose was increasing. Mean±SD of the measured concentrations were 11.63±9.30 (9.86±8.98) Bq/m 3 , 18.57±13.24 (17.35±12.33) Bq/m 3 and 31.90±22.32 (30.90±22.49) Bq/m 3 for the administered doses of 3.7, 5.55 and 7.4 Bq respectively. Radioiodine concentrations in all specified areas

  18. Cost-effectiveness-analysis: radioiodine or antithyroid drugs as first-line therapy of hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietlein, M.; Moka, D.; Dederichs, B.; Schicha, H.; Hunsche, E.; Lauterbach, K.W.

    1999-01-01

    Aim: As first-line therapy of hyperthyroidism caused by Graves' disease antithyroid drugs are favoured in Europe, while radioiodine therapy is favoured in the USA. Radioiodine therapy has become more economic in Germany since the new recommendations by the Federal German Radiation Protection Committee (SSK) for patient discharge guidelines. Method: Sensitivity analyses took into account the long-term relapse rate of conservative or radioiodine therapy, use of diagnostic tests, level of health insurance, drops in productivity and a discount factor. Costing models included the costs of follow-up care over 30 years. The costs of the hospitalisation for radioiodine therapy were calculated for 300 patients, discharged with 250 MBq I-131 residual activity. Result: Antithyroid drugs were considered cost-effective when they achieved relapse rate of 50% or less, a cut in the number of tests needed and reduced working hours. Failure to meet any one of these conditions makes primary radioiodine therapy more cost-effective in 1593 of 1944 calculated costing models. Repeated conservative therapies will increase clearly the overall costs. Conclusion: Radioiodine is a cost-effective, first-line therapy in patients with a special risk of relapse after primary conservative therapy (goitre, younger patient, persistent elevated TSH-receptor-antibodies or Tc-uptake). (orig.) [de

  19. Recommendation for KIT-formulation of radioiodinated [{sup *}I] meta-iodo benzyl guanidine (M*IBG). Vol. 3.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-shaboury, G; El-Kolaly, M T; Raieh, M; El-Bayoumy, S [Radioisotope Production and Labelled Compounds Department, Cairo (Egypt); Zakareia, N [Chemistry of Nuclear Fuel Department, Hot laboratories Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    A recommended simple technique for preparation of radioiodinated [{sup *}I{sup -}] meta - iodobenzylguanidine (M{sup *} IBG) is presented. The technique is based on a schematic procedure for the synthesis of inactive M IBG using meta -iodo benzoic as substrate, results into a chemical yield of 80% as pure as M IBG 0.5 substrate, then recrystallized from water - ethyl alcohol as crystalline powder of M.P. 165 Degree C - 167 degree C. The radioiodination process is performed through an isotropic exchange reaction between the inactive M IBG and radioiodine as iodine ion ({sup *}I{sup -}) in 0.2 M acetate buffer pH 4.2 - 4.25 at 100 degree C within 30 min in the presence of metal as exchange catalyst. Following these processes, the reaction solution is allowed for purification by passing it through an AgCl - impregnated filter to remove the unreacted radioiodine as Ag{sup *}I (5%). According of these results and reaction conditions it was possible to develop a technology for the radiopharmaceutical production of radioiodinated M{sup *} IBG using the currently used short - lived radioiodine nuclides by a simple kit like - type technique, where the radiochemical yield % is 95 - 99% as pure as M{sup *} IBG. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Recommendation for KIT-formulation of radioiodinated [*I] meta-iodo benzyl guanidine (M*IBG). Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-shaboury, G.; El-Kolaly, M.T.; Raieh, M.; El-Bayoumy, S.; Zakareia, N.

    1996-01-01

    A recommended simple technique for preparation of radioiodinated [ * I - ] meta - iodobenzylguanidine (M * IBG) is presented. The technique is based on a schematic procedure for the synthesis of inactive M IBG using meta -iodo benzoic as substrate, results into a chemical yield of 80% as pure as M IBG 0.5 substrate, then recrystallized from water - ethyl alcohol as crystalline powder of M.P. 165 Degree C - 167 degree C. The radioiodination process is performed through an isotropic exchange reaction between the inactive M IBG and radioiodine as iodine ion ( * I - ) in 0.2 M acetate buffer pH 4.2 - 4.25 at 100 degree C within 30 min in the presence of metal as exchange catalyst. Following these processes, the reaction solution is allowed for purification by passing it through an AgCl - impregnated filter to remove the unreacted radioiodine as Ag * I (5%). According of these results and reaction conditions it was possible to develop a technology for the radiopharmaceutical production of radioiodinated M * IBG using the currently used short - lived radioiodine nuclides by a simple kit like - type technique, where the radiochemical yield % is 95 - 99% as pure as M * IBG. 5 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Effects of treatment with radioiodine (131 I) on the gonadal function of the hyperthyroid patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eftekhari, M.; Takavar, A.; Nnsari-Gilani, K.; Akhzari, F.; Fard-Esfahani, A.; Beiki, D.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: hyperthyroidism is a relatively common disorder caused by different etiologies, Graves' disease and toxic-nodular goiter(Plummer's disease) are among the most common causes. Treatment with radioiodine is considered to be the treatment of choices in many of the patients. Higher biological half-life of 13I in hyperthyroid patients as compared with patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma who have undergone thyroidectomy, may lead to a higher frequency of complications with radioiodine at similar dosage. Therefore gonadal dysfunction in hyperthyroid patients treated with radioactive iodine is not likely. Materials and methods: hyperthyroid patients with the clinical diagnosis of Graves' disease , toxic multi nodular goiter and toxic adenoma were entered the study. Their age distribution was 16-40 years in women and 17-70 years in men (reproductive years). Patients were euthyroid at the time of radioiodine treatment. FSH, LH, testosterone and semen analysis in men; and FSH, LH, estrogen and progesterone in women were measured before and 3 months after radioiodine therapy. All patients with previous history of radioiodine treatment, those with known sexual hormone abnormalities, women with a history of tube ligation and men with a history of vasectomy, as well as those women who were receiving OCP contraception were excluded from the study. results: From 104 enrolled patients, 40(38.5%) were men and 64(61.5%) were women. The case of hyperthyroidism was Graves' disease in 66 cases(63.5%), toxic multi nodular goiter in 28 cases (26.9%), and toxic adenoma in 10 others (9.6%). Hormonal status was normal in all patients before therapy while this became abnormal in 20(19.2%) of patients after treatment. Semen analysis became abnormal in 8/20(40%) of the patients after treatment. Conclusion: among different variables which were analyzed during study, meaningful correlation was found in the following situations: FSH values in men and women were found to be

  2. Influence of low- and high-dose radioiodine therapy on oxidative modification of fibrinogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweeger-Exeli, I.J.

    2001-10-01

    Fibrinogen plays a central role in the course of thrombosis and hemostasis. It is soluble in blood and tissue extracts and transformed into the insoluble fibrin network structure in the presence of thrombin. Fibrinogen in circulating blood consists of a population of slightly different molecules with a half-life of 3.5-4.5 days. Various environmental conditions may cause different types of modifications of the molecule leading to a different functional behavior. Introduction of carbonyl groups in amino acid side chains is known as a marker for protein oxidation. Radioiodine therapy, applied in patients suffering from hyperthyroidism or differentiated thyroid carcinoma, may cause an oxidative modification of fibrinogen by formation of free radicals in blood exposed to the radioactive agent 131I. The topic of my thesis was i. to develop a simple and not time consuming method for isolation of fibrinogen from small volumes of human plasma (∼ 6ml), ii. to assess, whether radioiodine therapy causes detectable introduction of carbonyl groups into the fibrinogen molecule, and iii. to analyze an association between thyroid hormone function, fibrinogen levels and protein oxidation by means of carbonyl content. Purification of fibrinogen from human plasma was possible by three different methods (ammonium sulphate/ethanol; glycine/ethanol; glycine). Plasma levels of fibrinogen (Clauss method) and protein carbonyl group content (2,4-DNPH - assay) were determined before and after radioiodine therapy. The results demonstrate a significant increase (p = 0.05) in carbonyl content of human fibrinogen in cancer patients treated with 131I. However, in patients with diagnosed hyperthyroidism values were not significantly altered. In carcinoma patients, baseline fT4 levels and the relative increase in carbonyl content of fibrinogen after radioiodine therapy were correlated (r = 0.83; p 0.005), whereas no such correlation was found in patients with hyperthyroidism. Plasma fibrinogen

  3. Radioiodinated PHIPA`s; metabolically trapped fatty acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenhut, M. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry Lab.

    1998-12-31

    Radioiodinated PHIPA 3-10 [13-(4`-iodophenyl)-3-(p-phenylene)tridecanoic acid] has been developed for nuclear-cardiological investigation of coronary artery disease or cardiomyopathies of various origin. The compound features a phenylene group located within the backbone of a long-chain fatty acid. In spite of its bulky structure [{sup 123}I]PHIPA 3-10 is extracted by the myocardium in a manner similar to that for the unmodified fatty acid analogue, [{sup 123}I]IPPA. The retention of PHIPA 3-10 in heart muscle results from the presence of the p-phenylene group which prevents more than one {beta}-oxidation cycle. Only one single, rapidly formed metabolite was found in rat-heart extracts. According to comparative HPLC with synthetic metabolites and mass spectrometric analysis this metabolite was identified as [{sup 123}I]PHIPA 1-10, a by two methylene groups shortened PHIPA derivative. Formation of this metabolite could be suppressed by Etomoxir, a carnitine palmitoyl fransferase I inhibitor, indicating {beta}-oxidation of [{sup 123}I]PHIPA 3-10 in mitochondria. Final evidence for the involvement of mitochondria in the degradation of [{sup 123}I]PHIPA 3-10 was obtained performing density-gradient centrifugation with homogenized rat heart tissue. Labeled free PHIPA 3-10 and free metabolite peaked with the fraction containing mitochondria. With respect to its biochemical characteristics, [{sup 123}I]PHIPA 3-10 may be considered as a useful tool for nuclear cardiological investigations. (orig.) [Deutsch] Radioiodierte PHIPA 3-10 [13-(4`-Iodophenyl)-3-(p-phenylene)tridecanoic acid] wurde fuer Untersuchungen von koronaren Herzerkrankungen und Kardiomyopathien unterschiedlicher Genese entwickelt. Die Verbindung enthaelt eine in der Fettsaeurekette lokalisierte Phenylengruppe. Obwohl dieses Strukturelement raumfordernd ist, wird [{sup 123}I]PHIPA 3-10 aehnlich gut vom Herzmuskel aufgenommen, wie die unmodifizierte Fettsaeure [{sup 123}I]IPPA. Die auffallende

  4. 1,25-(OH)2-vitamin D3 enhances the cytotoxic effect of radioiodine therapy in prostate cancer cells expressing the sodium iodide symporter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitzweg, Christine; Hirschmann, Martin; Unterholzner, Stefanie; Cengic, Neziha; Eckel, Petra; Sharif-Samani, Bibi-Rana; Willhauck, Michael J.; Goeke, Burkhard; Morris, John C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: We reported recently the induction of androgen-dependent iodide uptake activity in human prostate cancer cells (LNCaP) utilizing a prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-promoter directed expression of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene. This offers the potential to treat prostate cancer with radioiodine. In the current study we examined the regulation of PSA-promoter directed NIS expression and therapeutic effectiveness of 131 I in LNCaP cells by 1,25-(OH)2-Vitamin D3 (Vit D3). For this purpose, NIS mRNA and protein expression levels in the NIS-transfected LNCaP cell line NP-1 were examined by Northern and Western blot analysis following incubation with Vit D3 (10 -9 M - 10 -5 M) in the presence of mibolerone (10 -9 M). In addition, NIS functional activity was measured by iodide uptake assay, and in vitro cytotoxicity of 131 I was examined by in vitro clonogenic assay. Following incubation with Vit D3, NIS mRNA levels in NP-1 cells were stimulated 1.2-fold, whereas NIS protein levels increased 1.65-fold and iodide accumulation was stimulated 1.4-fold in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, the selective killing effect of 131 I in NP-1 cells was significantly increased from 55% in NP-1 cells incubated with mibolerone alone to 86 % in NP-1 cells treated with Vit D3 (10 -5 M) in the presence of mibolerone. In the absence of androgen, with or without Vit D3 no functional NIS expression was detected. Conclusion: Treatment with Vit D3 increases androgen-induced NIS expression levels and selective killing effect of 131 I in prostate cancer cells stably expressing NIS under the control of the PSA promoter. Vit D3 may therefore be used to enhance the therapeutic response to radioiodine in prostate cancer cells following PSA-promoter directed NIS gene delivery. (author)

  5. An eighteen year experience of differentiated thyroid carcinoma treatment with 131 radioiodine at the Military Hospital Nuclear Medicine Department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jofre, M J; Sierralta, M P [Military Hospital Nuclear Medicine Department, Santiago (Chile); Del Campo, G; Ide, A; Wiener, R [Department of Endocrinology of the Military Hospital, Santiago (Chile)

    2002-09-01

    An eighteen year experience of differentiated thyroid carcinoma treatment with 131 radioiodine at the Military Hospital Nuclear Medicine Department. Since the beginning of Nuclear Medicine, the thyroid gland has been an important subject for study. In the fifties, the complimentary use of 131 radioiodine after differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) surgery was postulated. The aim of the study was to analyze our experience of the management of patients with DTC. Material and methods: An 18-year retrospective analysis was made including 109 patients with previous diagnosis of DTC, 90 % females, mean age 47 +/- 17 y.o. (range: 19-85 y.o). Tumoral histology was 67 % papillary, 28 % follicular and 5% non-determined in the medical record. First doses of 131 radioiodine were between 50 and 200 mCi. In all, 156 radioiodine doses were given and 6 patients received 4 doses or more, with total doses between 300 and 570 mCi. Results: The distribution of first and total radioiodine doses is presented in the table below. Of the group of patients who received a first radioiodine dose of less than 100 mCi post surgery, 79% were treated before 1990. Those who received 150mCi or more had cervical ganglionar compromise, trachea invasion or subtotal thyroidectomy. In 50% of the patients who received 4 or more doses, the first two doses were 50 mCi. It is important to mention that there was one patient who received 8 radioiodine doses in 4 years , seven of them were 50 mCi ( total dose 438 mCi). This patient presented trachea and larynx invasion in the early stages, with a persistent focus in the left supraclavicular region. She later developed pulmonary fibrosis, for which she was treated with complimentary radiotherapy (30 Gy), before dying. Distribution of radioiodine doses is presented. Conclusion: It is important to emphasize the validity of a first 131 radioiodine dose after surgery of DTC patients of 100 mCi or more, to obtain the ablation of the remaining thyroid tissue. This

  6. An eighteen year experience of differentiated thyroid carcinoma treatment with 131 radioiodine at the Military Hospital Nuclear Medicine Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jofre, M.J.; Sierralta, M.P.; Del Campo, G.; Ide, A.; Wiener, R.

    2002-01-01

    An eighteen year experience of differentiated thyroid carcinoma treatment with 131 radioiodine at the Military Hospital Nuclear Medicine Department. Since the beginning of Nuclear Medicine, the thyroid gland has been an important subject for study. In the fifties, the complimentary use of 131 radioiodine after differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) surgery was postulated. The aim of the study was to analyze our experience of the management of patients with DTC. Material and methods: An 18-year retrospective analysis was made including 109 patients with previous diagnosis of DTC, 90 % females, mean age 47 +/- 17 y.o. (range: 19-85 y.o). Tumoral histology was 67 % papillary, 28 % follicular and 5% non-determined in the medical record. First doses of 131 radioiodine were between 50 and 200 mCi. In all, 156 radioiodine doses were given and 6 patients received 4 doses or more, with total doses between 300 and 570 mCi. Results: The distribution of first and total radioiodine doses is presented in the table below. Of the group of patients who received a first radioiodine dose of less than 100 mCi post surgery, 79% were treated before 1990. Those who received 150mCi or more had cervical ganglionar compromise, trachea invasion or subtotal thyroidectomy. In 50% of the patients who received 4 or more doses, the first two doses were 50 mCi. It is important to mention that there was one patient who received 8 radioiodine doses in 4 years , seven of them were 50 mCi ( total dose 438 mCi). This patient presented trachea and larynx invasion in the early stages, with a persistent focus in the left supraclavicular region. She later developed pulmonary fibrosis, for which she was treated with complimentary radiotherapy (30 Gy), before dying. Distribution of radioiodine doses is presented. Conclusion: It is important to emphasize the validity of a first 131 radioiodine dose after surgery of DTC patients of 100 mCi or more, to obtain the ablation of the remaining thyroid tissue. This

  7. Radioiodine therapy in toxic multinodular goiter- the influence of carbimazole therapy and dietary iodine on relapse rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, S.; Muthu, G.S.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The relapse rate of radioiodine therapy in toxic multinodular goiter (TMNG) is reported to be around 34% at one year. The effect of antithyroid drugs on the response rate is controversial with studies reporting a higher relapse rate in patients pretreated with antithyroid drugs. Other studies report no influence of pretreatment with antithyroid drugs. The thyroid clinic at Tata Main Hospital is a referral center for thyroid disorders in Jamshedpur. 63 patients of TMNG (Group A) were treated with Radioiodine between 1995-2003. The demographic profile of these patients was as follows: M/F- 38%: 62%, 76% of patients were above 40 years, 85% had been on anti-thyroid drugs for more than 18 months. Fixed dose radioiodine in an oral dose varying from 5-10 mCi was given in all patients of Group A. 32.4 % of patients continued to be toxic or relapsed after a period of euthyroid status within 1 year of Radioiodine therapy. A change in protocol for radioiodine therapy was introduced in 2003. This included withdrawal of antithyroid drugs for one month before radioiodine therapy and the use of noniodized salt and abstinence from seafood in diet during this period. 33 TMN Goiter patients (Group B) followed this protocol before receiving Radioiodine. The dose of Radioiodine remained 5-10 mCi. The age and sex profile of Group A and B were comparable. However, Group B patients had been on antithyroid drugs for a shorter period (p< 0.001). The dose of Radioiodine in 94% of Group B patients was between 7-10mCi, whereas this was 63.4% in Group A. The rest of the patients had received a dose between 5-7 mCi. The relapse rate in Group B was 9.1% compared to 32.4% in Group A. Improvement in response rates with increase in Radioiodine dose remains controversial.P PThe better response rate in Group B patients may be attributed to the withdrawal of antithyroid drugs for one month before therapy and the reduction in dietary intake of Iodine for a month before therapy. However, a

  8. Sorption of radioiodine at different soil biomass content and carrier iodine concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bors, J.

    1990-01-01

    In previous experiments a good correlation between K d -values for I-125 and artificially decreased and increased biomass between 4% and 136% of its original content was found. Further increase of biomass was ineffective, indicating the exhaustion of the radioiodine as substrate, applied at very low concentrations (≅ 10 -11 mol I - .l -1 ). To test this assumption K d -values in soil samples of a chernozem with different biomass-levels and with carrier iodine (KI) at concentrations between 10 -8 and 10 -3 mol I - .l -1 were determined. The sorption behaviour of radioiodine at carrier concentrations between 10 -8 and 10 -5 mol I - .l -1 applied in bidistilled water in this experiment was similar. (orig./DG) [de

  9. Detection system qualification for direct measurement of thyroid internal contamination by radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiberi, V.; Battisti, P.; Gualdrini, G.

    1999-01-01

    The work deals with a detection system qualification for direct measurements of thyroid internal contamination by radioiodine. The isotopes 131 I and 125 I are the most frequently used in nuclear medicine. Because of their volatility they are very dangerous for thyroid contamination by inhalation. The system has been projected to be easily and fast used and above all transportable where the control is necessary. These characteristic make it able to realise supervision programs of internal contamination by radioiodine. In fact due the very high control frequencies (each 15 days for 131 I), these programs are usually very expensive and demanding when they are executed in external measurement laboratories. The following steps are described: devices presentation, calculation of energy and efficiency parameters, minimum detectable activity, time system reliability, best operative conditions in the measurements. At the end an application example of the system is reported [it

  10. Continuous analysis of radioiodine isotopes in the primary coolant of NPP Paks, Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdoes, E.; Soos, J.; Vincze, A.; Zsille, O.; Gujgiczer, A.; Solymosi, J.; Pinter, T.

    1998-01-01

    The radioiodine analyser has been installed at the Paks-3 reactor unit. The analyser is based on an efficient and simple method of radioiodine separation: the iodine compound is converted to elementary iodine quantitatively by oxidation with potassium iodate in acid medium. Owing to its volatility, iodine is evaporated quantitatively from the primary coolant (desorption) using air flow. The air is bubbled through a solution of a reducer, and iodine is absorbed in a form which is ready for measurement. A simple NaI(Tl) detector is used for the measurement of gamma spectra. The system is controlled and data are processed by a computer. The analyser displays activity concentration data of the five iodine isotopes periodically every 15 minutes. (M.D.)

  11. 15-(para-[123I]iodophenyl) pentadecanoic acid obtained using mercuration and subsequent [123I] radioiodination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougan, H.; Vincent, J.S.; Lyster, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    The present work explores the basic reactions necessary for the preparation of [ 123 I] 15-(paraiodophenyl)-pentadecanoic acid (IPPA) from organo mercury compounds. It was found that the essential reactions occur readily and with good yield. The steps were as follows: phenyl pentadecanoic acid or its ethyl ester may be mercurated using Hg(TFA) 2 in TFA solvent, and the para-chloromercury compounds may be recovered. [ 123 I] radioiodination may be carried out in a variety of solvents in the presence of chloramine T. When radioiodination was conducted at room temperature the isomeric purity of the ester or fatty acid was found to be 99.9% para. The results indicate that poor solubility of certain mercurated pentadecanoic acid compounds will limit the development of a kit for [ 123 I]IPPA. (author) 16 refs.; 2 tabs

  12. Labelling of some organic compounds with radioiodine and technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayoumy, A A M

    1994-07-01

    Amino acids have received significant attention in the evaluation of serotonergic and dopaminergic functions in the central nervous system. the wide distribution of {gamma}-cameras and SPECT create an increasing need for appropriated labelled radiopharmaceuticals . {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 123}I are the most important radionuclides for this purpose. In order to avoid pharmacological and toxicological effects, the radiolabelled compounds must be often produced with high specific activity. In the first part of this thesis, the work is therefore focused on labelling methods with no carrier added radioiodine. The radioiodinated analogues of two amino acids were chosen as model compounds of research. L-m-tyrosine is potentially useful for the evaluation of dopamine metabolism in Parkinson's disease, while L -{alpha} -methyl tyrosine is a well known indicator of amino acid transport useful for tumor studies.

  13. The use of 131I-radioiodine in diagnostic and treatment: estimated risk in Guanabara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calegaro, J.U.M.

    1974-01-01

    The 131 -radioiodine use in Guanabara area, during 1972-1973, is analysed. References are made to the radiation levels delivered to thyroid, bone marrow and gonads in a population of 27000 people examined by tracer techniques, 190 submitted to hyperthyroidism treatment and 50 treated for thyroid cancer. The pertinent literature gives some data concerning radiation induced cancer (leukaemia and thyroid cancer). By this, it was possible to estimate the probability of tumour occurrence in that population, assuming a linear relationship between dose and effect. The conclusions are the followings: 1 - there are many duties in this field at the present; 2 - the leukaemia incidence related to the 131-radioiodine use is negligible, either in diagnostic or therapeutic modalities; 3 - the possibility of thyroid tumors induced by radiation is real, specially in hyperthyroidism treatment; 4 - the use of tracer techniques that cause lower irradiation to the pacient is advisable, because it isn't possible to exclude thyroid carcinogenesis at this level [pt

  14. Extremes of environmental temperature and the transfer of radioiodine into milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengemann, F.W.; Wentworth, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    Two goats were kept at 33 0 C and 5 0 C to determine the amount of radioiodine transferred to milk after an oral dose. At 33 0 C, 16.8% of the oral 125 I was in the milk as opposed to 2.6% at 5 0 C. This is a 6.5-fold difference and suggests difficulties for prediction equations based upon actual amounts of radioiodine secreted into milk. Using F values it was judged that the shape of the milk secretion curve was relatively the same between goats and temperatures. This suggests that prediction procedures based on the shape of the milk transfer curve could be more precise. (author)

  15. Radioiodination of ibuprofen with 125I and its biological behavior in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, A. M.; Abd El-bary, A.; Shoukry, M. and other

    2012-12-01

    A procedure for radioiodination of Ibuprofen with iodine-125 is carried out via an electrophilic substitution reaction. The reaction parameters were studied Ibuprofen concentration, pH of the reaction mixture, reaction time temperature, and different oxidizing agents to optimize the conditions for the labeling of Ibuprofen to abstain a high radiochemical yield of 1 25I -Ibuprofen (1 25I -Ib up). Using 3.7 MBq of of Na 1 25I , 100μg of ibuprofen as substrate and 100μg of iodogen as oxidizing agent in ethanol at 60 O C for 10 min, a maximum radiochemical yield of 1 25I -Ib up (78%) was obtained. The labeled compound was separated and purified from inactive Ibuprofen by means of high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The biological distribution in normal and inflamed mice indicates the suitability of radioiodinated Ibuprofen for imaging of inflammation only induced with turpentine oil. (Author)

  16. Radioiodine therapy within the German DRG-system 2005; Die Radioiodtherapie im DRG-System 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, R. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany); Dressler, J. [Nuklearmedizinische Klinik Henriettenstiftung, Hannover (Germany)

    2005-06-01

    With introduction of a diagnosis-related groups system (DRG-system) in Germany the previous duration of stay based refunding is also replaced for the radioiodine therapies by a performance oriented reimbursement system. Since the at first optional start of the DRG-system in 2003 the adaptations which take place every year should lead, up to the planned end of the convergence phase in 2009, to a transparent, fair and economical financing system of the stationary hospital service. The physician is responsible for the right and complete coding of the diagnoses and procedures, which serve as essential parameters for the determination of the diagnosis related group (DRG) of a hospital case. In the actual version of the year 2005 the DRG-system still supplies for radioiodine therapy of thyroid carcinoma some unclarity in the coding of the diagnosis, as well as clear inadequacy with the fair mapping of the therapy costs. (orig.)

  17. Side effects and risks of radioiodine treatment of benign thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, W.; Hohenberger, W.; Wolf, F.; Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen

    1990-01-01

    Radioiodine treatment is considered to be the treatment of choice in benign thyroid diseases because of its very low side effects. Real and hypothetic risks and side effects have to be differentiated. Both may occur early and late after the treatment. Radioiodinethyroiditis in small volumes at high doses is very rare. Exacerbation of a thyroid storm (0.34%) as well as local compressions accompanied with reactive edema of the thyroid are early real side effects of radioiodine treatment. Late real side effects are failure of treatment (7-30% of thyrotoxicosis) and induction of hypothyroidism (4-20% of functional autonomy and increasing frequency in Graves' diseases with time). Late hypothetic risks are somatic (1-9/10000 bis 1-9/100000) or genetic (1-9/100000). An early risk might be the misdiagnosis of an additional thyroid carcinoma. (orig.) [de

  18. Potential of radioiodinated anti cancer compounds of natural origin for cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, U.; Bapat, K.; Samuel, G.; Venkatesh, M.; Sarma, H.D.

    2007-01-01

    Plumbagin and Quercetin are naturally occurring compounds which exhibit anti-cancerous activity. To evaluate the effect of radioiodination on cytotoxicity, both Plumbagin and Quercetin were radioiodinated with 125 I. 125 I-Plumbagin and 125 I-Quercetin could be prepared in moderate yields and good radiochemical purity and were characterized using reverse phase HPLC. In Swiss mice bearing fibrosarcoma, 125 I-Plumbagin showed a tumor uptake of ∼2.5%ID/g at 3 h p.i. and ∼0.5%ID/g at 24 h p.i on i.v. injection. When injected intratumorally, greater tumor uptake and retention was observed (∼20%ID/g at 3 h p.i. and ∼14%ID/g at 24 h p.i. respectively). (author)

  19. Radioiodinated methyl-branched fatty acids: Evaluation of catabolites formed in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Reske, S.N.; Kirsch, G.; Ambrose, K.R.; Blystone, S.L.; Goodman, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    Radioiodinated terminal iodophenyl-substituted long-chain fatty acids containing either racemic mono-methyl or geminal dimethyl-branching in the alkyl chain have been shown to exhibit delayed myocardial clearance properties which make these agents useful for the SPECT evaluation of myocardial fatty acid uptake patterns. Although the myocardial clearance rate of 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-R,S- methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) is considerably delayed, in comparison with the IPPA straight-chain analogue, analysis of the radioiodinated lipids present in the outflow tract of isolated rat hearts administered BMIPP have clearly demonstrated the presence of a polar metabolite. The synthesis of β-hydroxy fatty acids has been developed to allow investigation of the possible formation of β-hydroxy catabolites in vivo. The preparation of β-hydroxy BMIPP and β-hydroxy IPPA are described, and the possible significance of their formation in vivo discussed. 4 figs

  20. Radioiodine Therapy Does Not Change the Atherosclerotic Burden of the Carotid Arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Cour, Jeppe Lerche; Andersen, Ulrik Bjørn; Sørensen, Christian Hjort

    2016-01-01

    of cerebrovascular events has been reported after radioiodine therapy. This study aimed to examine whether atherosclerosis develops early or late after radioiodine therapy of benign thyroid disease. METHOD: Patients treated for benign thyroid disorders (nontoxic goiter, adenoma, and hyperthyroidism) were examined...... effects, there was no difference in CIMT (p = 0.25) or presence of plaques (p = 0.70) between those treated with radioactive iodine and those treated with surgery (9.8 and 5.6 years since treatment, respectively). Furthermore, the level of thyrotropin (TSH) did not influence these atherosclerosis markers....... CONCLUSION: No early changes in CIMT were detected in patients treated with radioactive iodine for benign thyroid disease. No signs of late effects of radioactive iodine on CIMT or plaque presence were found after 10 years of follow-up. The radiation to the carotid arteries by radioactive iodine therapy...

  1. Radioiodine therapy in veterinary medicine: treatment of hyperthyroidism in a cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinartz, P.; Sabri, O.; Zimny, M.; Buell, U.

    1999-01-01

    A nine-year-old cat with symptoms of a distinct hyperthyroidism was presented at the University Hospital of the RWTH Aachen. The clinical symptoms as well as the diagnostic procedures performed at the hospital confirmed the diagnosis. After five weeks of thyreostatic medication a regular metabolism of the thyroid gland was established, followed by a radioiodine therapy with 70.3 MBq 131-iodine. Subsequently, the cat was hospitalized for two days before it could be released in good condition. Six weeks after treatment the former drastically reduced weight of the cat recovered to near normal. Even though the chemical analysis detected a discrete hyperthyroidism, clinical symptoms were no longer prominent. Three months after treatment, the final examination showed a regular metabolism of the thyroid gland without a specific thyroidal medication. The presented case illustrates that radioiodine therapy is a safe and efficient treatment of thyroidal dysfunctions in veterinary medicine. (orig.) [de

  2. Radioiodine treatment of non-toxic multinodular goitre: effects of combination with lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vannucchi, Guia; Mannavola, Deborah; Dazzi, Davide; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Fugazzola, Laura [Ospedale Maggiore IRCCS (Pad. Granelli), Institute of Endocrine Sciences, Milan (Italy); Chiti, Arturo; Rodari, Marcello; Tadayyon, Sara [Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Milan (Italy)

    2005-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of radioiodine ({sup 131}I), alone or in combination with lithium, on thyroid volume and the prevention of radioiodine-induced thyrotoxicosis. This is the first clinical trial including only patients with multinodular goitre, normal TSH values and negative anti-thyroid auto-antibodies at baseline. Eighty consecutive patients were randomised to receive {sup 131}I plus lithium (group I+L) or {sup 131}I alone (group I). Thyroid ultrasonography and biochemical analyses were performed at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after treatment. At 1-4 weeks after treatment, {sup 131}I-induced hyperthyroidism was observed in 58.8% of patients and was prevented by lithium administration. A low incidence of hypothyroidism (19%) was recorded at 24 months, whereas up to 44% of patients developed anti-thyroid antibodies. A significant reduction in thyroid volume was observed after {sup 131}I, with a mean decrease of 47.2% (median 48.2%) at 24 months, without differences between the groups. Moreover, it was shown that the decrease in thyroid volume after {sup 131}I was also due to the significant shrinkage of thyroid nodules. This demonstrates that adjunctive lithium is able to reduce radioiodine-induced hyperthyroidism. Therefore, such treatment appears to be safe in older patients and those with underlying cardiovascular disease. In the present large series, {sup 131}I therapy was demonstrated to be highly effective in reducing thyroid and nodular volume even in patients treated with low {sup 131}I doses (2.5 MBq/ml of thyroid tissue), further supporting the view that radioiodine therapy represents a real alternative to surgery. (orig.)

  3. Synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of new radioiodinated MMP inhibitors for imaging MMP activity in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopka, Klaus E-mail: kopka@uni-muenster.de; Breyholz, Hans-Joerg; Wagner, Stefan; Law, Marilyn P.; Riemann, Burkhard; Schroeer, Sandra; Trub, Monika; Guilbert, Benedicte; Levkau, Bodo; Schober, Otmar; Schaefers, Michael

    2004-02-01

    Non-invasive measurement of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in vivo is a clinical challenge in many disease processes such as inflammation, tumor metastasis and atherosclerosis. Therefore, radioiodinated analogues of the non-peptidyl broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor (MMPI) CGS 27023A 1a were synthesized for non-invasive detection of MMP activity in vivo using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The compounds Br-CGS 27023A 1b and HO-CGS 27023A 1d were synthesized from the amino acid D-valine and used as precursors for radioiodinated derivatives of CGS 27023A and their non-radioactive references I-CGS 27023A 1c and HO-I-CGS 27023A 1e. Radioiodination of the precursors with [{sup 123}I]NaI or [{sup 125}I]NaI produced the no-carrier-added MMP inhibitors [{sup 123}I]I-CGS 27023A 1f, [{sup 125}I]I-CGS 27023A 1g, HO-[{sup 123}I]I-CGS27023A 1h, and HO-[{sup 125}I]I-CGS 27023A 1i. In vitro studies showed that the non-radioactive analogues of the MMP inhibitors exhibited affinities against gelatinase A (MMP-2) and gelatinase B (MMP-9) in the nanomolar range, comparable to the parent compound CGS 27023A. In vivo biodistribution using HO-[{sup 125}I]I-CGS 27023A 1i in CL57 Bl6 mice showed rapid blood and plasma clearance and low retention in normal tissues. The preliminary biological evaluation warrant further studies of these radioiodinated MMP inhibitors as potential new radiotracers for imaging MMP activity in vivo.

  4. Synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of new radioiodinated MMP inhibitors for imaging MMP activity in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopka, Klaus; Breyholz, Hans-Joerg; Wagner, Stefan; Law, Marilyn P.; Riemann, Burkhard; Schroeer, Sandra; Trub, Monika; Guilbert, Benedicte; Levkau, Bodo; Schober, Otmar; Schaefers, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Non-invasive measurement of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in vivo is a clinical challenge in many disease processes such as inflammation, tumor metastasis and atherosclerosis. Therefore, radioiodinated analogues of the non-peptidyl broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor (MMPI) CGS 27023A 1a were synthesized for non-invasive detection of MMP activity in vivo using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The compounds Br-CGS 27023A 1b and HO-CGS 27023A 1d were synthesized from the amino acid D-valine and used as precursors for radioiodinated derivatives of CGS 27023A and their non-radioactive references I-CGS 27023A 1c and HO-I-CGS 27023A 1e. Radioiodination of the precursors with [ 123 I]NaI or [ 125 I]NaI produced the no-carrier-added MMP inhibitors [ 123 I]I-CGS 27023A 1f, [ 125 I]I-CGS 27023A 1g, HO-[ 123 I]I-CGS27023A 1h, and HO-[ 125 I]I-CGS 27023A 1i. In vitro studies showed that the non-radioactive analogues of the MMP inhibitors exhibited affinities against gelatinase A (MMP-2) and gelatinase B (MMP-9) in the nanomolar range, comparable to the parent compound CGS 27023A. In vivo biodistribution using HO-[ 125 I]I-CGS 27023A 1i in CL57 Bl6 mice showed rapid blood and plasma clearance and low retention in normal tissues. The preliminary biological evaluation warrant further studies of these radioiodinated MMP inhibitors as potential new radiotracers for imaging MMP activity in vivo

  5. Synthesis and evaluation of a radioiodinated lumiracoxib derivative for the imaging of cyclooxygenase-2 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuge, Yuji; Obokata, Naoyuki; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Katada, Yumiko; Temma, Takashi; Sugimoto, Yukihiko; Aita, Kazuki; Seki, Koh-ichi; Tamaki, Nagara; Saji, Hideo

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Despite extensive attempts to develop cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 imaging radiotracers, no suitable positron emission tomography (PET)/single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) tracers are currently available for in vivo imaging of COX-2 expression. The aims of this study were to synthesize and evaluate a radioiodinated derivative of lumiracoxib, 2-[(2-fluoro-6-iodophenyl)-amino]-5-methylphenylacetic acid (FIMA), which is structurally distinct from other drugs in the class and has weakly acidic properties, as a SPECT tracer for imaging COX-2 expression. Methods: The COX inhibitory potency was assessed by measuring COX-catalyzed oxidation with hydrogen peroxide. Cell uptake characteristics of 125 I-FIMA were assessed in control and linterfero/interferon-γ-stimulated macrophages. The biodistribution of 125 I-FIMA was determined by the ex vivo tissue counting method in rats. Results: The COX-2 inhibitory potency of FIMA (IC 50 =2.46 μM) was higher than that of indomethacin (IC 50 =20.9 μM) and was comparable to lumiracoxib (IC 50 =0.77 μM) and diclofenac (IC 50 =0.98 μM). The IC 50 ratio (COX-1/COX-2=182) indicated FIMA has a high isoform selectivity for COX-2. 125 I-FIMA showed a significantly higher accumulation in COX-2 induced macrophages than in control macrophages, which decreased with nonradioactive FIMA in a concentration dependent manner. The biodistribution study showed rapid clearance of 125 I-FIMA from the blood and most organs including the liver and kidneys. No significant in vivo deiodination was observed with radioiodinated FIMA. Conclusions: FIMA showed high inhibitory potency and selectivity for COX-2. Radioiodinated FIMA showed specific accumulation into COX-2 induced macrophages, no significant in vivo deiodination and rapid blood clearance. Radioiodinated FIMA deserves further investigation as a SPECT radiopharmaceutical for imaging COX-2 expression.

  6. Synthesis and evaluation of a radioiodinated lumiracoxib derivative for the imaging of cyclooxygenase-2 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuge, Yuji [Department of Patho-Functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Department of Tracer Kinetics and Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan)], E-mail: kuge@med.hokudai.ac.jp; Obokata, Naoyuki; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Katada, Yumiko; Temma, Takashi [Department of Patho-Functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Sugimoto, Yukihiko [Department of Physiological Chemistry, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Aita, Kazuki [Department of Patho-Functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Central Institute of Isotope Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan); Seki, Koh-ichi [Central Institute of Isotope Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan); Tamaki, Nagara [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan); Saji, Hideo [Department of Patho-Functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    Introduction: Despite extensive attempts to develop cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 imaging radiotracers, no suitable positron emission tomography (PET)/single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) tracers are currently available for in vivo imaging of COX-2 expression. The aims of this study were to synthesize and evaluate a radioiodinated derivative of lumiracoxib, 2-[(2-fluoro-6-iodophenyl)-amino]-5-methylphenylacetic acid (FIMA), which is structurally distinct from other drugs in the class and has weakly acidic properties, as a SPECT tracer for imaging COX-2 expression. Methods: The COX inhibitory potency was assessed by measuring COX-catalyzed oxidation with hydrogen peroxide. Cell uptake characteristics of {sup 125}I-FIMA were assessed in control and linterfero/interferon-{gamma}-stimulated macrophages. The biodistribution of {sup 125}I-FIMA was determined by the ex vivo tissue counting method in rats. Results: The COX-2 inhibitory potency of FIMA (IC{sub 50}=2.46 {mu}M) was higher than that of indomethacin (IC{sub 50}=20.9 {mu}M) and was comparable to lumiracoxib (IC{sub 50}=0.77 {mu}M) and diclofenac (IC{sub 50}=0.98 {mu}M). The IC{sub 50} ratio (COX-1/COX-2=182) indicated FIMA has a high isoform selectivity for COX-2. {sup 125}I-FIMA showed a significantly higher accumulation in COX-2 induced macrophages than in control macrophages, which decreased with nonradioactive FIMA in a concentration dependent manner. The biodistribution study showed rapid clearance of {sup 125}I-FIMA from the blood and most organs including the liver and kidneys. No significant in vivo deiodination was observed with radioiodinated FIMA. Conclusions: FIMA showed high inhibitory potency and selectivity for COX-2. Radioiodinated FIMA showed specific accumulation into COX-2 induced macrophages, no significant in vivo deiodination and rapid blood clearance. Radioiodinated FIMA deserves further investigation as a SPECT radiopharmaceutical for imaging COX-2 expression.

  7. Estimation of the specific activity of radioiodinated gonadotrophins: comparison of three methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englebienne, P [Centre for Research and Diagnosis in Endocrinology, Kain (Belgium); Slegers, G [Akademisch Ziekenhuis, Ghent (Belgium). Lab. voor Analytische Chemie

    1983-01-14

    The authors compared 3 methods for estimating the specific activity of radioiodinated gonadotrophins. Two of the methods (column recovery and isotopic dilution) gave similar results, while the third (autodisplacement) gave significantly higher estimations. In the autodisplacement method, B/T ratios, obtained when either labelled hormone alone, or labelled and unlabelled hormone, are added to the antibody, were compared as estimates of the mass of hormone iodinated. It is likely that immunologically unreactive impurities present in the labelled hormone solution invalidate such comparison.

  8. Radioiodine treatment of non-toxic multinodular goitre: effects of combination with lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vannucchi, Guia; Mannavola, Deborah; Dazzi, Davide; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Fugazzola, Laura; Chiti, Arturo; Rodari, Marcello; Tadayyon, Sara

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of radioiodine ( 131 I), alone or in combination with lithium, on thyroid volume and the prevention of radioiodine-induced thyrotoxicosis. This is the first clinical trial including only patients with multinodular goitre, normal TSH values and negative anti-thyroid auto-antibodies at baseline. Eighty consecutive patients were randomised to receive 131 I plus lithium (group I+L) or 131 I alone (group I). Thyroid ultrasonography and biochemical analyses were performed at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after treatment. At 1-4 weeks after treatment, 131 I-induced hyperthyroidism was observed in 58.8% of patients and was prevented by lithium administration. A low incidence of hypothyroidism (19%) was recorded at 24 months, whereas up to 44% of patients developed anti-thyroid antibodies. A significant reduction in thyroid volume was observed after 131 I, with a mean decrease of 47.2% (median 48.2%) at 24 months, without differences between the groups. Moreover, it was shown that the decrease in thyroid volume after 131 I was also due to the significant shrinkage of thyroid nodules. This demonstrates that adjunctive lithium is able to reduce radioiodine-induced hyperthyroidism. Therefore, such treatment appears to be safe in older patients and those with underlying cardiovascular disease. In the present large series, 131 I therapy was demonstrated to be highly effective in reducing thyroid and nodular volume even in patients treated with low 131 I doses (2.5 MBq/ml of thyroid tissue), further supporting the view that radioiodine therapy represents a real alternative to surgery. (orig.)

  9. Thyroid volume reduction following radioiodine therapy in patients with autonomous goitre and Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dederichs, B.; Otte, R.; Klink, J.E.; Schicha, H.

    1996-01-01

    Aim: It is well known that radioiodine therapy (RITh) leads to a significant thyroid volume reduction (TVR). But until now only little data has been presented due to the course of time and the extent of TVR. Method: Therefore the data of 33 patients with Graves' disease (GD), 36 patients with multifocal (MAG) and 31 with solitary (SAG) autonomous goitre were analyzed retrospectively. Results: All the patients showed a highly significant (p [de

  10. Rapid radiochemical ion-exchange separation of iodine from tellurium: a novel radioiodine-132 generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrao, A

    1975-01-01

    Tellurium ions form a soluble cationic complex with thiourea in acid medium. The cationic tellurium-thiourea species is strongly absorbed on a cationic ion exchanger. The retention of tellurium on the resin enables many interesting separation schemes for tellurium from various ions. With special interest, the separation of iodine from tellurium was studied. An efficient and convenient iodine-132 generator is described, in which the radio-iodine is eluted with water or 9 g/1 NaCl, when desired.

  11. Does radioiodine cause the ophthalmopathy of Graves' disease; Editorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, I.R. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Medical Center)

    1993-02-01

    This editorial briefly reviews studies which might answer the question as to whether radioiodine treatment causes the ophthalmopathy of Graves' disease. However, the data do not allow any conclusion one way or the other. Other possible causal factors are discussed. Further studies are required to define whether treatment of hyperthyroidism aggravates the ophthalmopathy and whether one thereby is worse than the others and by how much. (UK).

  12. Calculation Of Aerosol Transport Efficiency For The Airborne Radioiodine Monitoring System - ''RIS125''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravchik, T.; Levinson, L.; Mazor, Y.; Dolev, E.; German, U.

    1999-01-01

    Radioactive iodine is a typical fission product in nuclear power reactors. Of the many iodine isotopes that can be generated in nuclear reactors only four are considered as radiobiological significant. These are: 125 1 (T 1/2 =60 days), '1 31 I (T 1/2 =8d), 133 I (T 1/2 =21h) and I35 I (T 1/2 7h). The chemical forms that have been identified in heavy water reactors are I 2 (elemental), organic iodides (CH 3 I), Inorganic iodides (HOI, HI) and LiI. Radioiodine is, generally, released as a gas but can be adsorbed on air particulates to form radioiodine contained aerosols. Therefore. its monitoring has to include both gas and aerosol sampling. A new monitoring system, RIS (Radioactive iodine Sampler), has been developed at the NRCN to monitor radioactive iodine (gas and aerosol) on-line in workplaces. This system samples radioiodine at a 60 L/min rate through a transport line connected to a filter holder. The filter consists of a cartridge containing activated charcoal with TEDA for iodine gas adsorption with a membrane for aerosols' retention in from of it. The radioiodine filter cartridge (F and J product code: TE2C) has a diameter of 2 1/4 inch and height of 1 inch . The gas adsorbent is coconut shell carbon type activated charcoal with 5% (by weight) TEDA impregnation and has 30x50 mesh size. This paper presents the aerosols' sampling characteristics of the RIS system including their transport in the sampling line and filter holder. The adsorption of iodine gas on the transport system components is negligible

  13. A rapid radiochemical ion-exchange separation of iodine from tellurium: a novel radioiodine-132 generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrao, A.

    1975-01-01

    Tellurium ions form a soluble cationic complex with thiourea in acid medium. The cationic tellurium-thiourea species is strongly absorbed on a cationic ion exchanger. The retention of tellurium on the resin enables many interesting separation schemes for tellurium from various ions. With special interest, the separation of iodine from tellurium was studied. An efficient and convenient iodine-132 generator is described, in which the radio-iodine is eluted with water or 9 g/1 NaCL, when desired

  14. Comparison of Fixed versus Calculated Activity of Radioiodine for the Treatment of Graves Disease in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail U. Canto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundRadioactive iodine as a treatment modality has been shown in several studies to be a safe and effective therapy for Graves disease. However, there is still no uniformity regarding optimal dosing method. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of calculated and fixed dosing of radioiodine for the treatment of Graves disease.MethodsA hundred twenty-two patients diagnosed with Graves disease were randomized to receive either fixed or calculated dose of radioiodine. Those randomized to fixed activity received either low fixed activity at 9.9 mCi for thyroid gland size <40 g or high fixed activity at 14.9 mCi for thyroid gland size 40 to 80 g, and those grouped to calculated activity received 160 µCi/g of thyroid tissue adjusted for 24 hours radioiodine uptake. Thyroid function tests (free thyroxine [T4] and thyroid stimulating hormone [TSH] were monitored at 10, 16, and 24 weeks after radioactive iodine therapy. The primary outcome, treatment failure was defined as persistently elevated free T4 and low TSH.ResultsOf the 122 patients randomized, 56 in the fixed dose group and 56 in the calculated dose group completed the follow-up. At the end of 6 months, the percentage of treatment failure was 37.50% in the calculated dose group versus 19.64% in the fixed dose group with a relative risk of 0.53 (95% confidence interval, 0.28 to 0.98 favoring the fixed dose group.ConclusionFixed dose radioiodine has a significantly lower incidence of persistent hyperthyroidism at 6 months post-radioactive therapy.

  15. Changes in the thyroid hormone level and blood profile after radioiodine therapy in Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogbac, R.V.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Exacerbation of hyperthyroidism has been reported to occur as early as 3 days after administration of radioiodine (I-131) therapy. The hematological effects of radioiodine also have been reported but mainly confined in thyroid cancer cases wherein high doses are administered. This study was undertaken to determine the possible acute changes in the thyroid hormone concentration and blood picture of patients one week after therapy. Twelve hyperthyroid patients (8 females, 4 males), with ages ranging from 27-56 years, were followed with measurements of serum thyroid hormone levels and blood profile a week after I-131 therapy. All patients were pretreated with antithyroid medications. Radioiodine doses given ranged from 8 mCi up to 16 mCi, all based from the computed dose of 160 uCi/g. Only two out of twelve (2/12) exhibited an increase in FT3 level. Two patients showed a decrease while the remaining 8 patients showed no significant difference. Six out of 12 (50%) exhibited an increase in FT4 level. Five patients showed a decrease while only one had no significant difference. Hematologically, there were 5/12, 1/12, 3/12, 5/12 and 1/12 patients who showed a decrease in hemoglobin, hematocrit, RBC, WBC and platelet counts, respectively. Four out of 12, 2/12, and 1/12 patients, however, showed an increase in hemoglobin, RBC and platelet, respectively. The rest exhibited no significant change. FT4 level was observed to be more affected than FT3 levels but there was no consistent pattern established. A significant decrease in WBC count was observed. Although a high percentage of decreased hemoglobin was noted, no pattern was established. Radioiodine therapy caused no significant increase of serum FT3 and FT4 concentrations in the majority of patients after one week of therapy. In the followup of patients, determination of complete blood count of patients is also important. (author)

  16. A NTCP approach for estimating the outcome in radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strigari, L.; Sciuto, R.; Benassi, M.; Bergomi, S.; Nocentini, S.; Maini, C. L.

    2008-01-01

    Radioiodine has been in use for over 60 years as a treatment for hyperthyroidism. Major changes in clinical practice have led to accurate dosimetry capable of avoiding the risks of adverse effects and the optimization of the treatment. The aim of this study was to test the capability of a radiobiological model, based on normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), to predict the outcome after oral therapeutic 131 I administration. Following dosimetric study, 79 patients underwent treatment for hyperthyroidism using radioiodine and then 67 had at least a one-year follow up. The delivered dose was calculated using the MIRD formula, taking into account the measured maximum uptake of administered iodine transferred to the thyroid, U0, and the effective clearance rate, T eff and target mass. The dose was converted to normalized total dose delivered at 2 Gy per fraction (NTD 2 ). Furthermore, the method to take into account the reduction of the mass of the gland during radioiodine therapy was also applied. The clinical outcome and dosimetric parameters were analyzed in order to study the dose-response relationship for hypothyroidism. The TD 50 and m parameters of the NTCP model approach were then estimated using the likelihood method. The TD 50 , expressed as NTD 2 , resulted in 60 Gy (95% C.I.: 45-75 Gy) and 96 Gy (95% C.I.: 86-109 Gy) for patients affected by Graves or autonomous/multinodular disease, respectively. This supports the clinical evidence that Graves' disease should be characterized by more radiosensitive cells compared to autonomous nodules. The m parameter for all patients was 0.27 (95% C.I.: 0.22-0.36). These parameters were compared with those reported in the literature for hypothyroidism induced after external beam radiotherapy. The NTCP model correctly predicted the clinical outcome after the therapeutic administration of radioiodine in our series

  17. Radioiodine (I-131) treatment for uncomplicated hyperthyroidism: An assessment of optimal dose and cost-effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, A.K.; Rahman, H.A.; Jahan, N.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Radioiodine (I-131) is increasingly being considered for the treatment of hyperthyroidism but there is no general agreement for the initial dose. To determine the cost-effectiveness and optimal dose of I-131 to cure disease, we prospectively studied the outcome of radioiodine therapy of 423 patients. Material and Methods: Any of the fixed doses of 6, 8, 10, 12 or 15 mCi of I-131 was administered to the patients relating to thyroid gland size. The individual was excluded from this study who had multinodular goitre and autonomous toxic nodule. Patients were classified as cured if the clinical and biochemical status was either euthyroid or hypothyroid at one year without further treatment by antithyroid drugs or radioiodine. The costs were assessed by analyzing the total cost of care including office visit, laboratory testing, radioiodine treatment, average conveyance and income loss of patient and attendant and thyroxine replacement for a period of 2 years from the day of I-131 administration. Results: The results showed a progressive increase of cure rate from the doses of 6, 8 and 10 mCi by 67%, 76.5% and 85.7% respectively but the cure rate for the doses of 12 and 15 mCi was 87.9% and 88.8% respectively. Cure was directly related to the dose between 6 and 10 mCi but at higher doses the cure rate was increased marginally at the expense of increased total body radiation. There was little variation in total costs, but was higher for low dose-therapy and the cost proportion between the 6 mCi regimen and 10 mCi regimen was 1.04:1. Conclusion: We could conclude that an initial 10 mCi of I-131 may be the optimal dose for curing hyperthyroidism and will also limit the total costs

  18. Accumulation of radioiodine from aqueous solution by hydroponically cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soudek, Petr; Tykva, Richard; Vaňková, Radomíra; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2006), s. 220-225 ISSN 0098-8472 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1P05OC042 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : radiophytoremediation * Helianthus annuus * radioiodine Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides Impact factor: 1.820, year: 2006

  19. The Effect of High Dose Radioiodine Therapy on Formation of Radiation Retinopathy During Thyroid Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Kaçar Güvel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Non-thyroidal complication of high-dose radioiodine therapy for thyroid carcinoma might cause salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction, which may be transient or permanent in a dose-dependent manner. However, radiation retinopathy complicating 131I therapy, has not been previously well characterized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of retinal damage among patients who had received high doses of radioiodine treatment. Methods: Forty eyes of 20 patients (3 male, 17 female who received 250-1000 mCi during 131I therapy and on ophthalmological follow up for a year after the last treatment were included in the study. Mean age of the study group was 50 years (range 25-70 years. In ophthalmologic examination, visual acuity was measured in order to determine visual loss. Intraocular pressure was measured in all the patients. Then lens examination was carried out with slit lamp biomicroscopy in order to investigate cataract or partial lens opacities. Fundus observation was carried out through the dilated pupil with slit lamp biomicroscopy using 90 D noncontact lens. Result: The best corrected visual aquity with Snellen chart was found as 1.0 in 36 eyes (90% and between 0.6 and 0.9 (10% in 4 eyes (10%. At the biomicroscopic fundus examination, retinal hemorrhage consistent with radiation retinopathy, microaneurysm, microinfarction, edema or exudation, vitreus hemorrhage, partial or total optical disc pallor indicating papillopathy in the optic disc were not observed in any of the eyes. Conclusion: This result indicates that there is not any significant correlation between repeated high-dose radioiodine therapy and radiation retinopathy in differentiated thyroid carcinomas. Even though there is not a significant restriction in use of higher doses of radioiodine therapy in differentiated thyroid carcinoma, more extensive studies are needed in order to obtain more accurate data on possible occurrence of retinopathy.

  20. High versus low radioiodine activity in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer - A meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valachis, Antonis; Nearchou, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the meta-analysis was to estimate the effectiveness and toxicity of low activity radioiodine ablation versus high activity in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Design: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed by including all randomized trials of low activity versus high activity radioiodine ablation after thyroidectomy. Standard meta-analytic procedures were used to analyze the study outcomes. Results: Ten trials were considered eligible and were further analyzed. The pooled risk ratio (RR) of having a successful ablation for an activity of 1100 MBq versus 3700 MBq (seven trials, 1772 patients) was 0.94 (95% CI 0.85 - 1.04, p-value 0.21). The RR for successful ablation when only thyroid hormone withdrawal was used (five trials, 1116 patients) was 0.87 (95% CI 0.72 - 1.06, p-value 0.17) and it was comparable to RR when only recombinant-human TSH (rec-hTSH) (two trials, 812 patients) was used (1.00, 95% CI 0.93 - 1.07, p-value 0.92). Salivary dysfunction, nausea, and neck pain were significantly more frequent among patients with higher dose for ablation. Conclusion: Our meta-analysis provides some evidence from randomized trials that a lower activity of radioiodine ablation is as effective as higher dose after surgery in patients with DTC with lower toxicity

  1. New insights into the chemical behaviour of radioiodine in aquatic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, H.

    1982-04-01

    It was found that in surface fresh water and in soil water iodine is to a large extent chemically converted by processes which are instigated by microbial action. The reactions involve extracellular oxidation of iodide with subsequent incorporation of the iodine into organic compounds, probably proteins. Furthermore it was found that iodate is reduced, probably also by a biochemical reaction. This reduction is more pronounced in soil than in surface water. In surface fresh water the formed organic radioiodine compounds are mainly in solution. In soils the radioiodine becomes to a larger extent bound to insoluble organic substances by these processes. The dissolved form of organic iodine is not precipitable as silver halide. Some other chemical and physico-chemical properties are described. Details on how the iodine conversion influences its fixation processes in soil are given. Possible consequences of these reactions on the migration behaviour of radioiodine and on the performance as well as on the interpretation of experiments in this context are discussed. (orig.)

  2. Peripheral blood T cell activation after radioiodine treatment for graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng Weiping; Weetman, A.P.

    1992-01-01

    Radioiodine therapy for Graves' thyrotoxicosis produces a rise in thyroid autoantibodies in the first three months after treatment, but little is known of its effects on T cells. We have therefore followed the changes in T cells subsets in sequential samples from 23 patients with Graves' disease treated with radioiodine, using dual-colour flow cytometry. In the first month after treatment there was a significant rise in activated T cells, identified by the markers HLA-DR (Ia) and CDW 26/Ta 1 (P<0.025 in both case). CD45RO-positive T cells, which are the prime population containing memory cells, also increased (P<0.025), but there was no change in CD45R-positive, resting cells or in the CD4/CD8 (helper to cytotoxic/suppressor) ratio. Vicia villosa-binding T cells, containing the contra-suppressor population, showed a more variable response, but the trend was to an overall increase from pre-treatment values (P<0.025). The change did not appear to be related to antithyroid drugs treatment, since they were seen irrespective of whether patients convinced such therapy. These results suggest that T cell activation and enhanced contra-suppressor activity may in part be responsible for the rise in autoantibodies after radioiodine therapy

  3. Stereoselective synthesis of an iodinated resveratrol analog: Preliminary bioevaluation studies of the radioiodinated species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhyani, Manish V.; Kameswaran, Mythili; Korde, Aruna G.; Pandey, Usha [Radiopharmaceuticals Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Chattopadhyay, Subrata [Bio-Organic Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Banerjee, Sharmila, E-mail: sharmila@barc.gov.i [Radiopharmaceuticals Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2011-07-15

    Stereoselective synthesis of an E-hydroxystilbene has been carried out using the McMurry reaction. Synthesis of a monoiodinated hydroxystilbene has been carried out by a McMurry cross-coupling reaction. For the purpose of biological evaluation, the facile electrophilic substitution route has been attempted to radioiodinate it with {sup 125}I. The HPLC pattern of the radioiodinated hydroxystilbene, which could be obtained in >90% radiochemical purity, was found to be identical to that of its non-radioactive analog that has been independently prepared using the McMurry cross-coupling route. In vitro cell uptake studies were carried out in breast cancer cells MCF7, overexpressing estrogen receptors. In vivo biodistribution studies in female Swiss mice show a uterine uptake of 0.85{+-}0.4% ID/g at 3 h.p.i. with a uterus to muscle ratio of 2.83. Uptake in the thyroid was insignificant indicating good in vivo stability of the radioiodinated hydroxystilbene.

  4. Transfer factors of radioiodine from volcanic-ash soil (Andosol) to crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban-Nai, Tadaaki; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki

    2003-01-01

    In order to obtain soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs) of radioiodine from volcanic-ash soil to agricultural crops, we carried out radiotracer experiments. The mean values of TFs (on a wet weight basis) of radioiodine from Andosol to edible parts of crops were as follows: water dropwort, 0.24; lettuce, 0.00098; onion, 0.0011; radish, 0.0044; turnip, 0.0013 and eggplant, 0.00010. The mean value of the TFs of radioiodine for edible parts of wheat (on a dry weight basis) was 0.00015. We also studied the distributions of iodine in crops. There was a tendency for the TFs of leaves to be higher than those of tubers, fruits and grains. A very high TF was found for water dropwort, because this plant was cultivated under a waterlogged condition, in which iodine desorbed from soil into soil solution with a drop in the Eh value. The data obtained in this study should be helpful to assess the long-lived 129 I (half life: 1.57 x l0 7 yr) pathway related to the fuel cycle. (author)

  5. Anxiety and depression related to the hospitalization experience of patients receiving radioiodine ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koc, Z.; Karaboc, A.; Balci, T.; Kepenek, F.; Atmaca, M.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Objective: the hospital rooms for radioiodine ablation of differentiated thyroid carcinoma are designed according to radiation safety lows where patients have to remain isolated. The aim of the present study is to investigate depression and anxiety levels of the patients associated with hospitalization experience for radioiodine ablation. Methods: 30 patients (8 M, 22 F; mean: 45±13 years old) with differentiated thyroid carcinoma were included into study. After withdrawal of thyroid hormone replacement at least for 3 weeks, the patients were subject of the ablation treatment. After routine psychiatric examination Hamilton Anxiety and Depression scales were administered to the patients before and after complement of hospitalization for 1-3 days. Results: according to the statistical analysis there was not any significant difference between Hamilton depression and anxiety scores and state and trait anxiety scores of the patients before and after treatment (P>0.05). However, 18 patients had depression, with major depression of six, and 21 had high anxiety levels, according to Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Scales. Conclusion: Although the patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma do not experience anxiety or depression related to the hospitalization itself for radioiodine ablation they might frequently have depression or anxiety just before the treatment. (authors)

  6. [Results of radioiodine therapy in different forms of hyperthyroidism in relation to the planned dosage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, E

    1992-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of radioiodine therapy (131J) in a large group (n = 925) of hyperthyroid patients treated at two major departments of nuclear medicine (Freiburg, abbr. FR, and Munich, abbr. M). 761 patients suffered from non-immunogenic hyperthyroidism (Plummer's disease) and the remaining 164 patients from immunogenic hyperthyroidism (Graves' disease). In these cases, radioiodine therapy using doses between 60 and 80 Gy proved ineffective, FR (80 Gy) recording 28% success and M (60 Gy) 54%. A dose of 150 Gy, however, is successful in more than 80% of the cases: FR 81%, M86%. However, the incidence rate of hypothyroidism increases consecutively with 150 Gy: FR 49%, M 62%. In patients suffering from Plummer's disease, the solitary autonomous nodule can be eliminated by radioiodine therapy (400 Gy) with a high rate of success (95%); the same applies to multinodular autonomous adenomas. The therapeutic concept applying a dose of 400 Gy to the total functional autonomous tissue (delineated by ultrasound) yields slightly better results (95%) than 150 Gy applied to thyroid gland (M88%, FR82%). This dosimetric compromise is a practicable alternative which is tolerably successful. In patients suffering from disseminated non-immunogenic hyperthyroidism, a dose of 150 Gy applied to the entire organ succeeds in 85% of the cases. The rate of hypothyroidism resulting from these dose recommendations is the lesser evil compared to residual or recurrent hyperthyroidism, since hypothyroid patients can be treated without any problem with thyroid hormones.

  7. Functional impairment of the salivary gland after high dose radioiodine therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiegel, W.; Reiners, C.; Boerner, W.

    1986-06-01

    Radiation induced impairements of salivation, which are rather related to the more radio-sensitive parotides than to the submandibular glands according to our experience, occur in about 1/3 of the patients treated with 7,4-11,1 GBq (200-300 mCi) of I-131. Based on our results and experiences after percutaneous radiation therapy of the head and neck region, a total xerostomy (Sicca's syndrome) must already be expected at a focal dose of 40 Gy to the salivary gland parenchyma. Experience has shown that this cumulative radiation dose is reached at about 18,5 GBq (500 mCi) of I-131. The acute sialadenitis occuring a few days after therapeutic administration of radioiodine is mostly associated with minor complaints and therefore often escapes the patient's notice. During the onset of xerostomy, which is associated with a moderate reduction of salivation, the patients are surprisingly indolent. However, specific examinations including patient's history, palpation and functional scintigraphy enable early detection of radiation induced functional depression of the salivary glands, which should be accounted for in the assessment of indication for further radioiodine therapy. To prevent the severe consequences of xerostomy such as ageusia, dysphagia, epithelial lesion of the oral mucosa and loss of teeth, the patients under radioiodine therapy should be urged to see to sufficient fluid supply and to steadily stimulate salivation e.g. by sour drops, chewing gum or Emser pastilles.

  8. Analysis on the childhood and adolescent differentiated thyroid cancer: clinical features and radioiodine treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zequan; Luo Quanyong; Chen Libo; Ding Yin; Yu Yongli; Lu Hankui; Zhu Ruisen

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Children with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) frequently present with more extensive disease than adults. The aim of this study was to characterize the clinical features of child-hood and adolescent DTC and evaluate the outcome and safety of radioiodine treatment. Methods: The records of 38 childhood and adolescent DTC cases, with 28 females and 10 males (mean age: 16.4 years) were reviewed. At diagnosis, all had metastatic lesions with 38 at regional lymph nodes, 15 at lung, 2 at brain and bone. Twenty-three had a total thyroidectomy, 7 had subtotal thyroidectomy, 5 had lobectomy, and 3 had other treatment. All received post-operative radioiodine therapy. All had follow-up for at least one year. Results: At the time of follow-up, all were survive (with a median follow-up of 5.13 years). Four-teen patients had no evidence of disease, 16 had partial remission, and 8 were stable disease. Conclusions: DTC of the thyroid in childhood and adolescent has high risks of residual/recurrence and metastasis. Post-thyroidectomy oral administration of radioiodine was an effective and safety adjuvant therapy for outcomes. (authors)

  9. Design of Radioiodinated Pharmaceuticals: Structural Features Affecting Metabolic Stability towards in Vivo Deiodination

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Born, Dion; Klaren, Peter H. M.; Boerman, Otto C.; Rutjes, Floris P. J. T.

    2017-01-01

    Radioiodinated pharmaceuticals are convenient tracers for clinical and research investigations because of the relatively long half‐lives of radioactive iodine isotopes (i.e., 123I, 124I, and 131I) and the ease of their chemical insertion. Their application in radionuclide imaging and therapy may, however, be hampered by poor in vivo stability of the C–I bond. After an overview of the use of iodine in biology and nuclear medicine, we present here a survey of the catabolic pathways for iodinated xenobiotics, including their biodistribution, accumulation, and biostability. We summarize successful rational improvements in the biostability and conclude with general guidelines for the design of stable radioiodinated pharmaceuticals. It appears to be necessary to consider the whole molecule, rather than the radioiodinated fragment alone. Iodine radionuclides are generally retained in vivo on sp2 carbon atoms in iodoarenes and iodovinyl moieties, but not in iodinated heterocycles or on sp3 carbon atoms. Iodoarene substituents also have an influence, with increased in vivo deiodination in the cases of iodophenols and iodoanilines, whereas methoxylation and difluorination improve biostability. PMID:28736501

  10. Reducing the transfer of radioiodine to milk in cows by adding stable iodine to the forage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefer, P.; Voigt, G.

    1999-05-01

    The publication reports the activities for the study and explains the measured results achieved. The usefulness of stable iodine administration to cows for reducing radioiodine transfer to the milk is explained. It was found that enhanced stable radioiodine doses have an effect on the iodine metabolism of dairy cows that has to be taken into account. Initially, a literature study was carried out, which then served as a basis for defining subsequent study objectives and experiments. The evaluation of the results yields information about the effects of stable iodine on the radioiodine transfer, as well as the metabolic pathways of iodine in dairy cows. In order to achieve a clear transfer reducing effect (by a factor of 2), doses of 1g/d have to be fed to a cow. This dose will lead to a stable iodine concentration in the milk of about 10 mg/kg. The WHO recommends a daily maximum dose of 0.5 mg of stable iodine in order to safely prevent adverse health effects in man. Ingestion of more than 2 mg/d may induce in man thyroid disorders and other metabolic disorders. In some countries, the reference level for dairy milk accepted is 0.5 mg of iodine/kg of milk. (orig./CB) [de

  11. High versus low radioiodine activity in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer - A meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valachis, Antonis [Dept. of Oncology, Maelarsjukhuset., Eskilstuna (Sweden); Univ. of Uppsala,, (Sweden)], e-mail: Valachis@hotmail.com, Antonis.Valachis@akademiska.uu.se; Nearchou, Andreas [Dept, of Oncology, Maelarsjukhuset., Eskilstuna (Sweden); Univ. of Uppsala., Uppsala (Sweden)

    2013-08-15

    Background: The purpose of the meta-analysis was to estimate the effectiveness and toxicity of low activity radioiodine ablation versus high activity in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Design: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed by including all randomized trials of low activity versus high activity radioiodine ablation after thyroidectomy. Standard meta-analytic procedures were used to analyze the study outcomes. Results: Ten trials were considered eligible and were further analyzed. The pooled risk ratio (RR) of having a successful ablation for an activity of 1100 MBq versus 3700 MBq (seven trials, 1772 patients) was 0.94 (95% CI 0.85 - 1.04, p-value 0.21). The RR for successful ablation when only thyroid hormone withdrawal was used (five trials, 1116 patients) was 0.87 (95% CI 0.72 - 1.06, p-value 0.17) and it was comparable to RR when only recombinant-human TSH (rec-hTSH) (two trials, 812 patients) was used (1.00, 95% CI 0.93 - 1.07, p-value 0.92). Salivary dysfunction, nausea, and neck pain were significantly more frequent among patients with higher dose for ablation. Conclusion: Our meta-analysis provides some evidence from randomized trials that a lower activity of radioiodine ablation is as effective as higher dose after surgery in patients with DTC with lower toxicity.

  12. Internal contamination in nurses attending patients, that received therapeutic amounts of radioiodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Termorshuizen, W.; Gerritsen, A.J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The most frequent and often very successful used unsealed source in Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy is the radioiodine-131 for the treatment of thyroid carcinoma and hyperthyroidism. Always there is a great concern about the health physics of radioiodine and possible internal contamination involved in high level 131-I thyroid therapy cases, in particular to the thyroid as target and limiting organ. This report deals with 131-I air concentrations and internal contamination in nurses attending these patients under two different conditions. During the past three years a change took place from the old building, where we had an unventilated two-bed nursing room, to a new building were we have rooms with forced ventilation and air-conditioning (refreshment five times per hour). From both external exposure caused by radioiodine treated patients and internal contamination due to ingestion and inhalation of 131-I, we calculated the dose-equivalent to the thyroid and the effective dose-equivalent to our health care personnel

  13. Investigation of public exposure resulted from the radioiodine delay tank facility of nuclear medicine department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusof, Mohd Fahmi Mohd, E-mail: mfahmi@usm.my; Ali, Abdul Muhaimin Mat; Abdullah, Reduan; Idris, Abdullah Waidi [School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kota Bharu, Kelantan (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    The study is carried out to assess the exposure rate that could contribute to public exposure in a radioiodine ward delay tank facility of Radiotherapy, Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, Department, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM). The exposure rate at several locations including the delay tank room, doorway and at the public walking route was measured using Victoreen 415P-RYR survey meter. The radioactive level of the {sup 131}I waste was measured using Captus 3000 well counting system. The results showed that exposure rate and total count of the delay tank sample increased when the radioiodine ward was fully occupied with patient and reduced when the ward was vacant. Occupancy of radioiodine ward for two consecutive weeks had dramatically increased the exposure rate around the delay tank and radioactive level of {sup 131}I waste. The highest exposure rate and radioactive level was recorded when the ward was occupied for two consecutive weeks with 177.00 µR/h and 58.36 kcpm respectively. The exposure rate decreased 15.76 % when the door of the delay tank room was closed. The exposure rate at public walking route decreased between 15.58 % and 36.92 % as the distance increased between 1 and 3 m.

  14. Transfer of radioiodine from the environment to animals and plants, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Nagao

    1979-01-01

    The chemical form of radioiodine and the physicochemical behavior of each individual form of radioiodine in the marine environment is still not so well known, owing partly to the lack of the appropriate analytical method. To study on these problems, the authors have first developed the radiochemical method of analysis for the individual forms of radioiodine. The method is based on the solubility of I 2 and CH 3 I in carbon tetrachloride or toluene and on the difference of isotopic exchange behavior between I - and IO 3- . By shaking the sample sea water with carbon tetrachloride, I* 2 and CH 3 I* can be extracted, if present. Among these, only I* 2 can be back-extracted with sodium sulfite solution. I* - and I*O 3- can be determined by using the following isotopic exchange system: I* - (aq.) + I 2 (org.) reversible I - (aq.) + I* 2 (org.). When the pH of the aqueous layer is adjusted to 4, only I* - exchanges with I 2 , while I*O 3- does not. Therefore, the activity of the organic layer at the exchange equilibrium corresponds to that of I* - . At pH 1, I*O 3- reacts with I - carrier to be converted to form, and the activity of the organic layer corresponds to the total activity of I* - + I*O 3- . For organic solvent, the equi-volume mixture of carbon tetrachloride and toluene is found to be the most convenient among those tested. (author)

  15. Indirect radioiodination of human IgG with N-succinimidyl-3-iodo[125I] benzoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhenfeng; Wang Yongxian; Dong Mo; Zhou Wei; Xia Jiaoyun; Yin Duanzhi; Li Linfa

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an acylation method for the radioiodination of monoclonal antibodies that could decrease the loss of radioiodine in vivo. Preparation of N- succinimidyl-3-iodobenzoate(S 125 IB) from the organoth precursor, N-succinimidyl-3-(tri-n-bu- tylstannyl)benzoate(ATE) proceeds in more than 95% labelling yield, when the mass of ATE and NCS are respectively 25-100 μg and 10-20 μg, and the volume of PBS is 10-20 μL, and reaction time is 5 min. IgG is labeled using S 125 IB in up to 75% conjugation efficiency and with well retained immunoreactivity to sheep anti-human IgG. Hepama-1 is also labeled using S 125 IB in more than 75% conjugation efficiency. Paired-label biodistribution studies in normal mice demonstrate that thyroid uptake(a monitor of dehalogenation) of Hepama-1 labeled by S 125 IB method is up to 87.9 times lower than that of Hepama-1 labeled with Iodogen. This result suggests that S 125 IB offers significant advantages for labeling proteins, antibodies over other conventional methods for protein radioiodination. (authors)

  16. A dose-effect correlation for radioiodine ablation in differentiated thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flux, Glenn D; Chittenden, Sarah J; Buckley, Susan; Hindorf, Cecilia [Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Physics, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Haq, Masud; Newbold, Kate; Harmer, Clive L [Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Thyroid Unit, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the range of absorbed doses delivered to thyroid remnants, blood, and red marrow from fixed administrations of radioiodine and to ascertain whether the success of ablation is more dependent on these absorbed doses than on the administered activity. Twenty-three patients received 3,000 MBq radioiodine following near-total thyroidectomy. The maximum absorbed dose to remnants was calculated from subsequent single photon emission tomography scans. Absorbed doses delivered to blood and red marrow were calculated from blood samples and from whole-body retention measurements. The protein bound iodine (PBI) was also calculated. Maximum absorbed doses to thyroid remnants ranged from 7 to 570 Gy. Eighteen of the 23 patients had a successful ablation. A significant difference was seen between the absorbed doses delivered to thyroid remnants, blood, and red marrow for those patients that had a successful ablation compared to those with a failed ablation (p = 0.030, p = 0.043 and p = 0.048, respectively). The difference between the PBI values acquired at day 1 and day 6 were also indicative of response (p = 0.074). A successful ablation is strongly dependent on the absorbed dose to the thyroid remnant. Dosimetry-based personalized treatment can prevent both sub-optimal administrations, which entails further radioiodine therapy, and excessive administration of radioactivity, which increases the potential for radiation toxicity. (orig.)

  17. Clinical applications of radioiodine 131 (I131) in the thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Rivero, Levi; Turcios Trista, Silvia Elena; Velasco Mirabal, Milagros

    2012-01-01

    Radioiodine 131 is a radioactive isotope that is successfully used for the diagnosis and the treatment of benign and malignant thyroid diseases. Its quality of selectively integrating to the thyroid metabolism and emitting a signal allows it to describe the gland functioning through capture studies, and to delimit the morphology and location of the tissues that capture iodine by means of scintigraphy. It is also a simple, safe and cost-effective radiotherapy used as first-line therapeutics in the control of hyperthyroidism. The dose and right time of application should be individualized according to the etiology and the clinic of each patient. Radioiodine 131 offers an efficient alternative to reduce the size of non-toxic goiter in addition to supporting the surgical treatment of the differentiated thyroid carcinoma and destroying with ablative doses the tissular remains and the metastatic lesions that can be detected during the gammagraphic follow-up. Radioiodine 131 depends on the fulfillment of safety regulations against radioactivity

  18. Clinical applications of radioiodine 131 (I131) in the thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Rivero Levi; Turcios Trista, Silvia Elena; Velasco Mirabal, Milagros

    2012-01-01

    Radioiodine 131 is a radioactive isotope that is successfully used for the diagnosis and the treatment of benign and malignant thyroid diseases. Its quality of selectively integrating to the thyroid metabolism and emitting a signal allows it to describe the gland functioning through capture studies, and to delimit the morphology and location of the tissues that capture iodine by means of gammagraphy. It is also a simple, safe and cost-effective radiotherapy used as first-line therapeutics in the control of hyperthyroidism. The dose and right time of application should be individualized according to the etiology and the clinic of each patient. Radioiodine 131 offers an efficient alternative to reduce the size of non-toxic goiter in addition to supporting the surgical treatment of the differentiated thyroid carcinoma and destroying with ablative doses the tissular remains and the metastatic lesions that can be detected during the gammagraphic follow-up. Radioiodine 131 depends on the fulfillment of safety regulations against radioactivity

  19. Evaluation of protein acylation agents for the radioiodination of peptides: Application to labelling octreotide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalutsky, M.; Vaidyanathan, G.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of two acylation agents originally developed for protein labelling - N-succinimidyl 3-[ 131 I]iodobenzoate and N-succinimidyl 5-[ 131 I]iodopyridine-3- carboxylate - for the radioiodination of peptides. Because of the widespread interest in imaging and treating malignancies that overexpress somatostatin receptors, octreotide was selected as the model peptide. Using these reagents, octreotide was coupled to 3-iodobenzoyl and 3-iodonicotinoyl templates, yielding [N-(3-iodobenzoyl)- D-Phe 1 ]octreotide (IBO) and [N-(3-iodonicotinoyl)-D-Phe 1 ]octreotide (INO), respectively. The IC 50 values for the binding of IBO and INO to somatostatin receptor expressing CA20948 rat pancreatic tumour membranes were 0.90 nM and 0.13 nM, respectively, compared with 0.35 nM for octreotide itself. Yields for the preparation of [ 131 I]IBO and [ 131 I]INO from N-succinimidyl 3-[ 131 I]iodobenzoate and N-succinimidyl 5-[ 131 I]iodopyridine-3- carboxylate, were 35-50%. In vitro assays with AR42J rat pancreatic tumour cells demonstrated considerably higher receptor-specific retention of cell-internalized radioiodine activity for [ 131 I]INO compared with [ 125 I]IBO. A tissue distribution study with both conjugates revealed low levels of activity in the thyroid, consistent with a low degree of deiodination of these radioiodinated peptide conjugates. (author)

  20. Transfer factors of radioiodine from volcanic-ash soil (Andosol) to crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban-Nai, Tadaaki; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan). Environmental and Toxicological Sciences Research Group

    2003-03-01

    In order to obtain soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs) of radioiodine from volcanic-ash soil to agricultural crops, we carried out radiotracer experiments. The mean values of TFs (on a wet weight basis) of radioiodine from Andosol to edible parts of crops were as follows: water dropwort, 0.24; lettuce, 0.00098; onion, 0.0011; radish, 0.0044; turnip, 0.0013 and eggplant, 0.00010. The mean value of the TFs of radioiodine for edible parts of wheat (on a dry weight basis) was 0.00015. We also studied the distributions of iodine in crops. There was a tendency for the TFs of leaves to be higher than those of tubers, fruits and grains. A very high TF was found for water dropwort, because this plant was cultivated under a waterlogged condition, in which iodine desorbed from soil into soil solution with a drop in the Eh value. The data obtained in this study should be helpful to assess the long-lived {sup 129}I (half life: 1.57 x l0{sup 7} yr) pathway related to the fuel cycle. (author)

  1. Determination of very small activities of radioiodine and plutonium in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irlweck, K.; Karg, V.; Schoenfeld, T.; Sorantin, H.; Steger, F.

    1982-01-01

    A mobile high volume sampler with the following characteristics was developed: air flow rate 5000 m 3 .h - 1 , total cross section of the seven activated charcoal filter units 0.6 m 2 , diameter of each filter unit 33 cm, thickness of charcoal layer 4 - 7 cm. The sorbed radioiodine is eluted from the charcoal in a circulation unit by a circulating solution (sodium hydroxide/hydrazine) and is transfered into a sorbent containing silver (ion exchange resin with colloidal silver), thereby bringing about a reduction in volume by a factor of approximately 1000. The radioiodine activity is then determined by gamma spectrometric measurement of the silver containing sorbent. The overall radioiodine yield measured with 123 I spike (sorption on charcoal and transfer to the silver containing sorbent) is 75 (+- 7)%. A detection limit of 0.02 mBq.m - 3 is achieved for 131 I. If the sampler is operated with the standard throughput of 5000 m 3 .h - 1 , this limit applies to one hour average concentration values. Results of environmental monitorings for the period 1979 - 1982 at the Research Center Seibersdorf for 131 I (up to 2,6 mBq/m 3 ) and for plutonium (up to 4 μBq/m 3 ) are given. (Author)

  2. Graves' disease and radioiodine therapy. Is success of ablation dependent on the choice of thyreostatic medication?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobe, C.; Weber, I.; Eschner, W.; Sudbrock, F.; Schmidt, M.; Dietlein, M.; Schicha, H.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: this study was performed to analyse the impact of the choice of antithyroid drugs (ATD) on the outcome of ablative radioiodine therapy (RIT) in patients with Graves' disease. Patients, material, methods: a total of 571 consecutive patients were observed for 12 months after RIT between July 2001 and June 2004. Inclusion criteria were the confirmed diagnosis of Graves' disease, compensation of hyperthyroidism and withdrawal of ATD two days before preliminary radioiodine-testing and RIT. The intended dose of 250 Gy was calculated from the results of the radioiodine test and the therapeutically achieved dose was measured by serial uptake measurements. The end-point measure was thyroid function 12 months offer RIT; success was defined as elimination of hyperthyroidism. The pretreatment ATD was retrospectively correlated with the results achieved. Results: relief from hyperthyroidism was achieved in 96% of patients. 472 patients were treated with carbimazole or methimazole (CMI) and 61 with propylthiouracil (PTU). 38 patients had no thyrostatic drugs (ND) prior to RIT. The success rate was equal in all groups (CMI 451/472; PTU 61/61; ND 37/38; p = 0.22). Conclusion: thyrostatic treatment with PTU achieves excellent results in ablative RIT, using an accurate dosimetric approach with an achieved post-therapeutic dose of more than 200 Gy. (orig.)

  3. Development of radioiodinated ligands for exploration of brain monoamine oxidase by tomo-scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafii, H.

    1996-01-01

    Monoamine oxidases, MAO, are important in the regulation of monoaminergic neuro-transmissions. The fluctuations in MAO activities has been observed in some psychiatric and neuro-degenerative diseases. Thus, quantification of cerebral MAO activity would be useful for diagnosis and the therapeutic follow-up of these disorders. With the object of doing an in vivo scintigraphic exploration of cerebral MAO by SPECT, we have undertaken to synthesize some radioiodinated MAO inhibitors. In the first part of this work, we have discussed the general properties of the monoamine oxidases and their inhibitors. In the second part we have described the scintigraphic methods. the ligands to be used for MAO exploration, and the radioiodination methods. At last in the third part, the development of three radioiodinated ligands has been presented: - [ 125 I]3-iodopargyline. In vivo results showed that, this radioligand blocked the cerebral MAO-B with moderate selectivity. However, complementary in vivo studies would be needed to define precisely its activity.- [ 125 I]Ro 16-6491. The cerebral fixation of this radioligand was in accordance with the MAO-B sites in the rat brains, but its fixation was too low for scintigraphic exploration in vivo with iodine-123. - [ 125 I]Ro 11-9900. In vivo studies of rat brains showed that the MAO-A sites were bound preferentially by this radioligand. The cerebral biodistribution of this ligand labelled with iodine-123 is considered for use in a model animal nearest to human pathology. (author)

  4. Effective doses to family members of patients treated with radioiodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocovska, M Zdraveska; Vaskova, O; Majstorov, V; Kuzmanovska, S; Gjorceva, D Pop; Jokic, V Spasic

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effective dose to family members of thyroid cancer and hyperthyroid patients treated with radioiodine-131, and also to compare the results with dose constraints proposed by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the Basic Safety Standards (BSS) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). For the estimation of the effective doses, sixty family members of sixty patients, treated with radioiodine-131, and thermoluminiscent dosimeters (Model TLD 100) were used. Thyroid cancer patients were hospitalized for three days, while hyperthyroid patients were treated on out-patient basis. The family members wore TLD in front of the torso for seven days. The radiation doses to family members of thyroid cancer patients were well below the recommended dose constraint of 1 mSv. The mean value of effective dose was 0.21 mSv (min 0.02 - max 0.51 mSv). Effective doses, higher than 1 mSv, were detected for 11 family members of hyperthyroid patients. The mean value of effective dose of family members of hyperthyroid patients was 0.87 mSv (min 0.12 - max 6.79). The estimated effective doses to family members of hyperthyroid patients were higher than the effective doses to family members of thyroid carcinoma patients. These findings may be considered when establishing new national guidelines concerning radiation protection and release of patients after a treatment with radioiodine therapy.

  5. The relationship between 24 h/4 h radioiodine-131 uptake ratio and outcome after radioiodine therapy in 1402 patients with solitary autonomously functioning thyroid nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filesi, M.; Travascio, L.; Montesano, T.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of 24 h/4 h uptake ratio (UR) in response to radioiodine-131 ( 131 I) therapy in patients with autonomously functioning thyroid nodules (AFTN). A total of 1402 consecutive hyperthyroid patients were treated with 131 I, between 1958 and 2005. Therapeutic doses (D) were calculated according to the formula: D=weight of nodule x dose per gram of nodular tissue (q)/24 h 131 I uptake. The ratios of the 24 and 4 h uptake were retrospectively calculated and the patients were grouped according to outcome and q into three groups of UR (≤1.25; 1.26-1.68; ≥1.69) by means of terziles. Of the 1402 patients, 95 did not respond to 131 I treatment while 93/1307 developed hypothyroidism. Most non-responders (55.8%) had UR ≤1.25, while many hypothyroid patients (66.7%) had UR ≥1.69 (χ 2 : P 131 I treatment, increasing to 13.9% at 5 years and 26.2% at 10 years. The 131 I UR can predict the outcome of 131 I treatment in AFTN and may have utility in modifying treatment in some patients to limit post-radioiodine induced hypothyroidism and treatment failures in order to achieve euthyroidism. (author)

  6. Synthesis and Cellular Uptake of Radioiodine labeled 2{sup '}-deoxyuridine derivatives with HSV1-TK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Ah; Lee, Kyo Chul; Hong, Su Hee; Kim, Eun Jung; Lee, Jong Chan; An, Gwang Il; Choi, Tae Hyun; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Chun, Kwon Soo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Several different radiolabeled probes have been developed to image Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 thyrimidine kinase gene (HSV1-TK) expression. The nucleoside prodrugs under investigation for HSV1-TK imaging generally fall into two main chemical and radioisotope categories: the pyrimidine nucleosides, primarily radioiodinated, and the purin nucleosides, primarily radiofluorinated, and their respective analogues. In non-invasive imaging of the HSV1-TK system, many nucleoside derivatives have been recommended as HSV1-TK substrates. Most of these nucleoside derivatives have been developed as prodrugs for tumor proliferation imaging or as anti-viral drugs. For example, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and IUdR have been used as tumor agents and acyclovir (ACV), ganciclovir (GCV) and (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2{sup '}- deoxyuridine (BVDU) as an anti-viral agents for virus infection several 5-substituted uracil nucleoside derivatives have been identified to have high sensitivity and selective accumulation in HSV1-TK expressing cells. Of those, IVDU was shown to be rapidly accumulated in HSV1- TK expressing cells in vitro. Imaging of the HSV1-TK reporter gene along with various reporter probes is of current interest. In contrast to the mammalian kinase, which phosphorylates thymidine preferentially, HSV1-TK is less discriminative and phosphorylates a wide range of nucleoside analogues such as acycloguanosines and 2{sup '}-fluoro-2{sup '}-deoxyuridine derivatives that are not phosphorylated efficiently by the native enzyme. More specifically, 5-substituted 2{sup '}-fluoro-2{sup '}-deoxyarabinofuranosyluracil nucleosides are efficiently phosphorylated by HSV- TK. This property, together with the presence of fluorine in the 2{sup '}-arabino-position, endows the 2{sup '}-fluoro-2{sup '}-deoxyuridines with antiviral activity against HSV.

  7. Reduced radioiodine uptake at increased iodine intake and {sup 131}I-induced release of ''cold'' iodine stored in the thyroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meller, B.; Haase, A.; Richter, E.; Baehre, M. [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Luebeck (Germany); Seyfarth, M. [Inst. of Clinical Chemistry, Univ. of Luebeck (Germany); Wenzel, B.E. [Clinic of Internal Medicine I, Univ. of Luebeck (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Aim: the extent of urinary iodine excretion (UIE) provides information about iodine supply and release. In the present study we investigated correlations between UIE and radioiodine uptake (RIU) as well as effects of radioiodine therapy on UIE in patients with autonomous goitre. Patients, methods: In 197 consecutive patients with thyroid autonomy, UIE was measured twice during radioiodine test (RITe) and correlated with RIU. In 98 of these patients, thyroglobulin and thyroid volume (V) were determined prior to therapy. Individual changes in urinary iodine excretion ({delta}UIE) and TG ({delta}TG) could be investigated four weeks (4W) and six months (6M) after radioiodine therapy. Additionally, {delta}V was determined 6M after therapy. {delta}UIE, {delta}TG and {delta}V were correlated with target dose and target volume. Results: patients with higher iodine excretion exhibited significantly lower thyroidal radioiodine uptake values. Twofold increased UIE prior to therapy decreased radioiodine uptake by 25%. Compared with pretherapeutic values, UIE and TG were significantly increased four weeks after radioiodine therapy (p < 0.001). Median values of both parameters were found to be doubled. The product of target dose and target volume was not only correlated with a decrease of thyroid volume 6M after therapy, but also with an increase of UIE and TG in the early phase after therapy. Conclusions: it was confirmed that UIE during RITe is a measure for iodine intake and can be used to investigate the competition between stable iodine and radioiodine. The increase of UIE and TG four weeks after therapeutic administration of radioiodine can be explained by disintegrated thyroid follicles. The therapy-induced iodine release may be one important cause for the development of hyperthyroidism in some patients during the first weeks after radioiodine therapy. It may contribute to the known decrease of radioiodine uptake after preapplications of {sup 131}I in various thyroid

  8. Evaluation of cell cytotoxicity after ganciclovir treatment by radioiodinated IVDU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M. J.; Choi, T. H.; Woo, K. S. [Korean Institute of Radiological And Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2005-07-01

    The herpes simplex virus type1 thymidine kinase(HSV1-tk) converts nontoxic nucleoside analogs such as ganciclovir into phosphorylated compounds that act as chain terminators and specially kill dividing cells. Unlike mammalian TK, HSV1-TK which is a nonspecific nucleoside kinase, is encoded by a viral gene that is not present in normal mammalian cells. Various radiolabelled nucleoside analogues are used as specific probes for HSV1-tk and can be freely transported across cell membranes. When phosphorylated by the tranduced HSV1-tk gene, the metabolites of probes subsequently accumulate within the transduced cells.

  9. Long-term impairment of the lacrimal glands after radioiodine therapy: a cross-sectional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zettinig, Georg; Fueger, Barbara J.; Pirich, Christian; Dudczak, Robert; Hanselmayer, Georg; Nepp, Johannes; Hofmann, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    Impairment of the lacrimal glands after external radiation has been well documented, but there are only a few reports on the effects of radioiodine therapy on the lacrimal glands. Long-term effects of high-dose radioiodine therapy on tear secretion have not previously been studied. We investigated 175 eyes of 88 patients with a history of radioiodine therapy for thyroid carcinoma (68 females, 20 males; mean age 55±16 years, range 17-81 years) and compared them with a sex- and age-matched control group (n=39). All patients had been given at least 2.96 GBq iodine-131 (maximal administered activity 22.3 GBq 131 I). An ophthalmological investigation was performed 64±71 months (range 3-317 months) after initial radioiodine therapy by a single ophthalmologist. Lacrimal gland function was evaluated with three different function tests. External eye morphology was considered, and detailed ophthalmological history-taking was performed. Patients with factors known to affect lacrimal gland function (contact lenses, autoimmune disorders, history of additional radiation exposure) were excluded from the study. A total of 81 patients (92%) had at least one abnormal function test indicating impaired lacrimal gland function. Schirmer's tear test was decreased (<10 mm/5 min) in 47 of the 88 patients and definitely abnormal (<5 mm/5 min) in 35 patients. A tear film break-up time of <10 s was found in 78 patients, and 62 patients had a definitely abnormal break-up time of <5 s. The lacrimal lipid layer was impaired in 43 patients. The function tests were all significantly altered in the study group as compared with the controls (P<0.005, P<0.001, P<0.001, respectively). Both subjective symptoms of dry eye (P<0.01) and changes in the external eye morphology (P<0.001) were significantly more prevalent in the study group. Our findings suggest that in the majority of patients, lacrimal gland function may be permanently impaired after high-dose radioiodine therapy. All three layers of the

  10. Radioiodine treatment effects of lacrimal glands function in patients with thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fard Esfahani, A.; Akhzari, F.; Mirshekarpour, H.; Saghari, M.; Izadyar, S.; Esmaili, J.; Fallahi, B.; Beiki, D.; Takavar, A.

    2005-01-01

    There is a limited number of case reports published in the past decade confirming the radio-iodine presence in the tear. These observations as well as reported cases of salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction after radioiodine therapy stimulated investigators to clarify whether lacrimal gland function can be affected post-radioiodine therapy. Hence we planned a historical cohort study to evaluate this effect. Methods: we studied 100 eyes of 50 patients who were referred to the nuclear medicine department of Dr. Shariati hospital from 01.1383 to 02.1384 and had received high doses (accumulative dose: 100-450mCi) of 1-131 treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma with their latest admission at least 3 months previously. Dry eye symptoms (obtained via a standard questionnaire) and Schirmer I test results (mm/5min) of this group were compared with those of an unexposed group (1 00 eyes of 50 individuals) matched by sex and age. Cases with another known cause(s) of dry eye were not included in either group. Results: 51% of the exposed eyes and 50% of the unexposed ones revealed at least one of the dry eye symptoms in the questionnaire. Data analysis showed no significant difference between the number of symptoms of two groups, but 2 symptoms (burning, unrelated to light and rythema) were significantly higher in the exposed eyes. From 9 exposed eyes complaining of erythema, Schirmer test result was abnormal only in 2 (one patient). Also among the 10 eyes with burning symptom (unrelated to light) one patient (2 eyes) revealed abnormal Schirmer test result. The study also demonstrated a significantly lower wetting amount of the Schirmer paper in exposed group compared to others. In the patients undergone radio-iodine therapy, results were 0-4 mm in 21%, 5-9 mm in 20% and 10 mm or more in 59%. These results were seen in the unexposed group in 6%, 17% and 77%, respectively. File review of the 21 exposed eyes with 0-4 mm Schirmer test results revealed presence of the

  11. The disease related deaths due to differentiated thyroid carcinomas treated multidisciplinary, including radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanovic, Lj.; Kermeci, K.; Malesevic, M.; Mihailovic, J.; Srbovan, D.; Popadic, S.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To analyse the disease related deaths of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) patients treated multidisciplinary, including radioiodine. Patients and Methods: 364 DTC patients were treated from 1977 to the end of 2000. All patients were operated, treated by radioiodine and by hormonal therapy, external radiotherapy was applied in 22 and chemotherapy in 6 of them. 54 treated patients were lost from the follow-up. The course of disease and outcomes are known in 310 patients, among them 53 patients died. The disease related deaths occurred in 33 (10.6%) patients. Results: Between 33 patients whose deaths were in relation with DTC the disease progression was the cause of deaths in 30 (9.7% of treated) patients (the locoregional disease in 10, distant metastases /M1/ in 17, locoregional disease + M1 in 3 patients). From the late complications of treatment died 3 (1%) patients (all of them were in complete remission to the deaths). The mean survival of these 33 patients from the diagnosis to the end of the life was 6.9 years, median 5.1 years, range 2 months to 23.9 years. The five years survived 54.6% of them, 10 years 21.2% and more than 20 years 3%. M1 had 72.7% of patients (lung and/or bone M1 were present in 91.7% of them), N1 had 69.7% and in 30.3% local tumor was T4. In relation to all treated patients died 14.6% men compared to 9% women (p<0.05), 15.7% of patients 45 years old or older compared to 4.4% of younger then 45 years (p<0.001) and 21.3% of patients with follicular type of DTC compared to 7.3% with papillary type (p<0.001). From all patients without radioiodine accumulation in tumor tissue died 60%. Conclusion: The DTC related deaths were the consequence of M1 and less frequently the result of locoregional disease (T4 and/or N1) in about 1/10 of all treated patients. The deaths as result of the late complications of treatment were exceptional. The deaths were significantly more frequent between males, patients 45 years old or older and patients

  12. Radiochemical studies on the separation of iodine-131 and radioiodination of some organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, M.A.I.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is constituted of three chapters:Chapter I: It deals with the theoretical consideration of the subject. The chapter deals with the importance of radioisotopes in medical applications, and the physical and biological properties of these isotopes. Also, this part deals with the chemical and physical properties of both tellurium and iodine and the methods of the production of radioiodine from tellurium targets especially dry distillation method and ion exchange method. It deals with general methods of labeling, chemistry of iodine especially the most frequently used in nuclear medicine, their methods of production and applications. It includes also the techniques used for the preparation of the radioiodinated compounds, especially the electrophilic technique or the oxidative radioiodination technique. In this technique, oxidizing agents are used to oxidize iodide ions to iodonium ions capable of electrophilic attack on the aryl group of the organic compound. This chapter deals also with the receptor tracers, their types and the effects that can occur due to the binding of these receptors to the cell membrane. Since these radiopharmaceuticals are used for diagnosis and therapeutic treatment of human diseases, quality control tests such as chemical purity, radionuclidic purity, radiochemical purity, sterility, apyrogenicity and biodistribution are performed to ensure the purity, the safety and efficiency of these products for the intended nuclear medicine application.Chapter II:It contains detailed information concerning the chemicals, reagents, the radionuclides, the equipment and the counting systems used in the study. It describes production technique of iodine-131 using dry distillation method. It describes also the electrophilic radioiodination for each of Y-indole and epidepride. Analysis of the labeled products was performed using two chromatographic techniques. The first technique is thin layer chromatography in which the compound was identified by

  13. Three-year follow-up of 500 patients with Graves' disease after radioiodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yonghui; Jin Xiaona; Luo Yaping; Li Fang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the incidence of early hypothyroidism and factors affecting the treatment effect of radioiodine therapy for Graves' disease (GD) at 3 years after treatment. Methods: Five hundred cases of GD were retrospectively studied. The mean age was (39.3±12.6) y, with a female to male ratio of 5 : 1. Data including symptoms, signs, blood tests, radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU), effective half-life, radioiodine doses, remission rates and hypothyroidism incidences were collected. Early hypothyroidism was also recorded. Student's t-test, χ 2 test and logistic regression were performed. Results: Three months after radioiodine therapy, the remission rate of GD was 63.8% (319/500). The hypothyroidism incidence was 36.6% (183/500). Six months after radioiodine therapy, the remission rate was 67.8% (339/500). The hypothyroidism incidence was 43.4% (217/500). Nine months after radioiodine therapy, the remission rate was 70.0% (350/500). The hypothyroidism incidence was 39.4% (197/500). One year after radioiodine therapy, the remission rate was 72.6% (363/500). The hypothyroidism incidence was 38.2% (191/500). Two years after radioiodine therapy, the remission rate was 79.6% (398/500). The hypothyroidism incidence was 40.8% (204/500). Three years after radioiodine therapy, the remission rate was 90.8% (454/500). The hypothyroidism incidence was 46.0% (230/500). Eighty-four cases were retreated (16.8%) due to treatment failure. Early hypothyroidism occurred in 260 cases. Among them, seventy cases were rendered euthyroid (26.9%). One hundred and seventy-eight cases still persisted in hypothyroidism while twelve cases relapsed during the second and third year. One hundred and ninety-two cases achieved euthyroidism and two hundred cases became hypothyroid three years after treatment. They were classified as a success group. The retreated eighty-four cases were classified as a failure group. ATD therapy (χ 2 =16.758, P<0.01), TRAb (t=-2.074, P=0

  14. Correlation of consecutive serum thyroglobulin levels during hormone withdrawal and failure of initial radioiodine ablation in thyroid cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hyuk Jin; Kim, Sung Hoon; O, Joo Hyun; Lee, Yeong Joo; Kim, Hyoung Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Ye Young [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, College of Medicine, The Inje University Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Ji Young [Dept. of Radiology, Incheon St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of thyroglobulin (Tg) kinetics during preparation of radioiodine ablation for prediction of initial radioiodine ablation failure in thyroid cancer patients. Thyroid cancer patients after total thyroidectomy who underwent radioiodine ablation with 3–4 weeks of hormone withdrawal between May 2011 and January 2012 were included. Consecutive serum Tg levels 5–10 days before ablation (Tg1) and on the day of ablation (Tg2) were obtained. The difference between Tg1 and Tg2 (ΔTg), daily change rate of Tg (ΔTg/day) and Tg doubling time (Tg-DT) were calculated. Success of initial ablation was determined by the results of the follow-up ultrasonography, diagnostic radioiodine scan and stimulated Tg level after 6 to 20 months. A total of 143 patients were included. Failed ablation was reported in 52 patients. Tg2 higher than 5.6 ng/ml and Tg-DT shorter than 4.2 days were significantly related to a high risk of ablation failure. ΔTg and ΔTg/day did not show significant correlation with ablation failure. Thyroglobulin kinetics on consecutive blood sampling during hormone withdrawal may be helpful in predicting patients with higher risk of treatment failure of initial radioiodine ablation therapy in thyroid cancer patients.

  15. Hepatic uptake of radioiodine in patients with thyroid cancer: the good, the bad and the aesthetically impaired

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, M.; Larcos, G.; Gruenewald, S.; Devadas, M.; Boyages, S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: There is debate over the prognostic significance of diffuse hepatic uptake (DHU) of radioiodine in patients with thyroid cancer (DTC). Accordingly we compared outcome in DTC patients with and without DHU and no abnormality on their radioiodine scan. We reviewed 408 studies in 198 patients who underwent radioiodine scanning (treatment or surveillance) for DTC over a five-year period. Of these 234 (57%) showed DHU; 100/408 showed no evidence of functioning thyroid tissue. These were 22 high dose I 131 treatments, 48 I 131 and 30 I 123 surveillance scans in 72 patients (54 women, 18 men, age: 43( 14 years; tumour type: 88% papillary, 10% follicular, 2% other; mean follow-up 12.2 (11.1 months). Outcome was assessed by clinical, pathological (thyroglobulin or histopathology) and/or radioiodine scanning. Of the 100 scans there were 17 (17%) that had DHU (group A) and 83 (83%) that were negative (group B). In group A, eight of 17 (47%) had or developed residual functioning thyroid tissue or DTC versus 29 of 83 (35%) in group B (p=ns). The only factor associated with DHU was high dose I 131 (p<0.001) but not the gender, age or type of cancer. We conclude that (a) DHU is common in patients with DTC; (b) if there is otherwise physiological distribution of radioiodine, DHU does not indicate an adverse short term outcome in DTC patients. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  16. A prospective study of the effects of radioiodine therapy for hyperthyroidism in patients with minimally active graves' ophthalmopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perros, Petros; Kendall-Taylor, Pat; Neoh, Chris; Frewin, Sarah; Dickinson, Jane

    2005-09-01

    Radioiodine is an effective and safe treatment for hyperthyroidism but has been implicated as a risk factor for deterioration or new presentation of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). Prophylactic glucocorticoids appear to prevent this effect. The objective of this study was to document the course of GO after radioiodine therapy. This was a prospective observational study. Patients were assessed at baseline and 2, 4, 6, and 12 months after radioiodine therapy. The study was conducted at a tertiary referral center. Seventy-two GO patients with minimally active eye disease participated in the study. A fixed dose of radioiodine was administered. T(4) was commenced 2 wk later to prevent hypothyroidism. Change in activity and severity of GO were analyzed. Exophthalmometer readings, the width of the palpebral aperture, diplopia scores, and the clinical activity score improved significantly. By clinically significant criteria, the eye disease improved in four patients (transiently in three of the four cases), most likely attributable to the natural course of the disease. No patient's eyes deteriorated. Radioiodine is not associated with deterioration of GO in patients with minimally active eye disease when postradioiodine hypothyroidism is prevented.

  17. Persistent high TRAb values during pregnancy predict increased risk of neonatal hyperthyroidism following radioiodine therapy for refractory hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Noboru; Momotani, Naoko; Ishikawa, Naofumi; Yoshimura Noh, Jaeduk; Okamoto, Yasuyuki; Konishi, Toshiaki; Ito, Koichi; Ito, Kunihiko

    2011-01-01

    Serum levels of TSH receptor antibody (TRAb) often increase after radioiodine treatment for Graves' disease, and high-serum levels of maternal TRAb in late pregnancy indicate a risk of neonatal hyperthyroidism. The aim of this retrospective study is to investigate the characteristics of Graves' women who had a history of radioiodine treatment for intractable Graves' disease, and whose neonates suffered from hyperthyroidism. The subjects of this study were 45 patients with Graves' disease who became pregnant during the period from 1988 to 1998 after receiving radioiodine treatment at Ito Hospital. 25 of the 45 subjects had had a relapse of hyperthyroidism after surgical treatment for Graves' disease. 19 pregnancies were excluded because of artificial or spontaneous abortion. In the remaining 44 pregnancies of 35 patients, neonatal hyperthyroidism developed in 5 (11.3%) pregnancies of 4 patients. Serum levels of TRAb at delivery were higher in patients whose neonates suffered from hyperthyroidism (NH mother) than those of patients who delivered normal infants (N mother). Furthermore, serum levels of TRAb in NH mother did not change during pregnancy, although those of 4 patients of N mother, in which serum levels of TRAb before radioiodine treatment were as high as in NH mother, decreased significantly during pregnancy. In conclusion, women who delivered neonates with hyperthyroidism following radioiodine treatment seem to have very severe and intractable Graves' disease. Persistent high TRAb values during pregnancy observed in those patients may be a cause of neonatal hyperthyroidism.

  18. Persistent high TRAb values during pregnancy predict increased risk of neonatal hyperthyroidism following radioiodine therapy for refractory hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Noboru; Konishi, Toshiaki; Momotani, Naoko; Ishikawa, Naofumi; Yoshimura Noh, Jaeduk; Ito, Koichi; Ito, Kunihiko; Okamoto, Yasuyuki

    2011-01-01

    Serum levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibody (TRAb) often increase after radioiodine treatment for Graves' disease, and high-serum levels of maternal TRAb in late pregnancy indicate a risk of neonatal hyperthyroidism. The aim of this retrospective study is to investigate the characteristics of Graves' women who had a history of radioiodine treatment for intractable Graves' disease, and whose neonates suffered from hyperthyroidism. The subjects of this study were 45 patients with Graves' disease who became pregnant during the period from 1988 to 1998 after receiving radioiodine treatment at Ito Hospital. 25 of the 45 subjects had a relapse of hyperthyroidism after surgical treatment for Graves' disease. 19 pregnancies were excluded because of artificial or spontaneous abortion. In the remaining 44 pregnancies of 35 patients, neonatal hyperthyroidism developed in 5 (11.3%) pregnancies of 4 patients. Serum levels of TRAb at delivery were higher in patients whose neonates suffered from hyperthyroidism (NH mother) than those of patients who delivered normal infants (N mother). Furthermore, serum levels of TRAb in NH mother did not change during pregnancy, although those of 4 patients of N mother, in which serum levels of TRAb before radioiodine treatment were as high as in NH mother, decreased significantly during pregnancy. In conclusion, women who delivered neonates with hyperthyroidism following radioiodine treatment seem to have very severe and intractable Graves' disease. Persistent high TRAb values during pregnancy observed in those patients may be a cause of neonatal hyperthyroidism. (author)

  19. Correlation of consecutive serum thyroglobulin levels during hormone withdrawal and failure of initial radioiodine ablation in thyroid cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Hyuk Jin; Kim, Sung Hoon; O, Joo Hyun; Lee, Yeong Joo; Kim, Hyoung Woo; Seo, Ye Young; Ryu, Ji Young

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of thyroglobulin (Tg) kinetics during preparation of radioiodine ablation for prediction of initial radioiodine ablation failure in thyroid cancer patients. Thyroid cancer patients after total thyroidectomy who underwent radioiodine ablation with 3–4 weeks of hormone withdrawal between May 2011 and January 2012 were included. Consecutive serum Tg levels 5–10 days before ablation (Tg1) and on the day of ablation (Tg2) were obtained. The difference between Tg1 and Tg2 (ΔTg), daily change rate of Tg (ΔTg/day) and Tg doubling time (Tg-DT) were calculated. Success of initial ablation was determined by the results of the follow-up ultrasonography, diagnostic radioiodine scan and stimulated Tg level after 6 to 20 months. A total of 143 patients were included. Failed ablation was reported in 52 patients. Tg2 higher than 5.6 ng/ml and Tg-DT shorter than 4.2 days were significantly related to a high risk of ablation failure. ΔTg and ΔTg/day did not show significant correlation with ablation failure. Thyroglobulin kinetics on consecutive blood sampling during hormone withdrawal may be helpful in predicting patients with higher risk of treatment failure of initial radioiodine ablation therapy in thyroid cancer patients

  20. Antithyroid drugs as a factor influencing the outcome of radioiodine therapy in Graves' disease and toxic nodular goitre?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koerber, C.; Schneider, P.; Koerber-Hafner, N.; Haenscheid, H.; Reiners, C.

    2001-01-01

    There is controversy over the factors that may influence the outcome of radioiodine therapy for benign thyroid diseases. Antithyroid medication has been claimed to negatively influence the effectiveness of radioiodine therapy in Graves' disease. In a longitudinal study, we assessed the influence of sex, age, antithyroid drugs, target radiation dose, target mass, applied activity, delivered dose, interval between last meal and application, and TSH, FT 3 and FT 4 levels on the outcome of radioiodine therapy. One hundred and forty-four patients (111 female, 33 male) suffering from Graves' disease (GD) and 563 patients (434 female, 129 male) with toxic nodular goitre (TNG) were entered in the study and followed up until 8 months after therapy. Treatment was defined as successful when the TSH level was found to be normal or elevated. Ninety-eight GD patients and 418 TNG patients were successfully treated. Forward stepwise multiple regression analysis models retained only the target mass in GD and the applied activity in TNG as significantly associated with the outcome of therapy. The predictive value of all variables involved was extremely low in both disease groups. Whereas concomitant antithyroid medication had no influence in GD, it adversely influenced radioiodine therapy of TNG. This effect may be attributed to a radioiodine ''steal phenomenon'' induced by TSH-stimulated normal thyroid tissue, which causes overestimation of the uptake in toxic nodules. (orig.)

  1. Antithyroid drugs as a factor influencing the outcome of radioiodine therapy in Graves' disease and toxic nodular goitre?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerber, C.; Schneider, P.; Koerber-Hafner, N.; Haenscheid, H.; Reiners, C. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2001-09-01

    There is controversy over the factors that may influence the outcome of radioiodine therapy for benign thyroid diseases. Antithyroid medication has been claimed to negatively influence the effectiveness of radioiodine therapy in Graves' disease. In a longitudinal study, we assessed the influence of sex, age, antithyroid drugs, target radiation dose, target mass, applied activity, delivered dose, interval between last meal and application, and TSH, FT{sub 3} and FT{sub 4} levels on the outcome of radioiodine therapy. One hundred and forty-four patients (111 female, 33 male) suffering from Graves' disease (GD) and 563 patients (434 female, 129 male) with toxic nodular goitre (TNG) were entered in the study and followed up until 8 months after therapy. Treatment was defined as successful when the TSH level was found to be normal or elevated. Ninety-eight GD patients and 418 TNG patients were successfully treated. Forward stepwise multiple regression analysis models retained only the target mass in GD and the applied activity in TNG as significantly associated with the outcome of therapy. The predictive value of all variables involved was extremely low in both disease groups. Whereas concomitant antithyroid medication had no influence in GD, it adversely influenced radioiodine therapy of TNG. This effect may be attributed to a radioiodine ''steal phenomenon'' induced by TSH-stimulated normal thyroid tissue, which causes overestimation of the uptake in toxic nodules. (orig.)

  2. Sodium iodide symporter: Its role in nuclear oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, June-Key

    2004-01-01

    advantages as an imaging reporter gene due to the wide availability of its substrate, radioiodine and free Tc-99m, and the well-understood metabolism and clearance of radioiodine in the body. We could monitor not only exogenous gene expression, but also endogenous gene expression such as p53 and, nuclear receptor activity such as retinoic acid receptor using cis-reporter imaging gene system. This reporter gene imaging can also be used for monitoring cancer cells, stem cells and immune cells. For example, the hNIS gene was transfected to hepatoma cells. The effect of anticancer regimen can be monitored easily by a gamma camera system using Tc-99m or radioiodines. In conclusion, the NIS has the potential to expand the molecular medicine in the future. (author)

  3. Separation of Radioiodine Fraction in the Processing Line of 235U Fission Produced 99Mo and Its Utilization For Preparation of Hippuran131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soenarjo Sunarhadijoso; HG Adang; W Kadarismanto; Purwadi B; Sukmana A; Sriyono; Rukman

    1998-01-01

    Production process of 99Mo from fission of 235U in RPC- BATAN produces non-moly radioactive fractions, which are classifiable into 3 fraction, i.e.; radioiodine fraction, radioxenon (noble gas) fraction and post-irradiated uranium fraction. The radioiodine fraction is expectable to be used as a source for providing radioisotope of 131I, and, therefore, an effort for separation of the radioiodine fraction was carried out. The separation was performed by trapping the radioiodine in a copper-wool column followed by purification using charcoal column. The bulk solution of Na131I bulk solution was relatively low, presumable due to the escape of the radioiodine from the copper-wool column into the cold finger originally used for trapping the noble gas fraction

  4. Radioiodine labelling of tyramin derivatives of some digitalis glycosides and their aglyka for the scintiscanning of the adrenal glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focken, P.H.

    1978-01-01

    The first part of the present work deals with the synthesis and radio-iodination of tyramine derivatives of digitoxigenin, digoxigenin, gitoxigenin and their glycosides. In the second part, animal experiments on rats and dogs for organ-specific enrichment of the synthesized compounds are described. The regioselective reductive amination of cardenolide ketones and glycoside dialdehydes with tyramin is successful with sodium cyano-boron hydride as reducing agent. Monotyraminyl genins are produced from the aglyka whilst glycosides convert to mono- and dityraminyl glycosides. A known radio-iodination method is modified to meet the requirements of the present problem. The radio-iodination is carried out with the nuclides 123 I, 125 I and 131 I. Scintiscanning of the adrenal glands of rats and dogs is possible within a few hours with 131 I-3-tyraminyl-3-desoxi-digitoxigenin. (orig./AJ) [de

  5. Dynamic changes and clinical significance of thyroid auto-antibodies before and after radioiodine treatment for Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Zhiying; Zhu Li; Wang Zhenghua

    2005-01-01

    To study the changes and their clinical effect of serum levels of thyroid globulin auto-antibodies (TGAb), thyroid peroxidase auto-antibodies (TPOAb) during radioiodine treatment of Graves' disease, and to investigate early therapeutic effect of radioiodine and influence factors for early hypothyroidism, 334 patients were divided into a positive group (TGAb>115IU/mL, TPOAb>34IU/mL) and a negative group (TGAb 131 I treatment. The levels of FT 3 , FT 4 , TSH, TGAb and TPOAb in serum were measured before 131 I therapy and at the 3rd, 6th, 9th, 12th month after the treatment respectively. Within one year after radioiodine treatment, 23.8% patients (48 out of 202) in the positive group and 11.4% (15 out of 132) in the negative group suffered from early hypothyroidism (P 131 I could reduce the level of thyroid auto-antibodies and promote the improvement and recovery of autoimmunity status. (authors)

  6. Prosthetic radioiodination of interleukin-8 ([{sup 123/131}I]-IL-8): biological behavior in a mouse infection model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amartey, J.K. [Cyclotron and Radiopharmaceuticals Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, MBC-03, P.O. Box 3354, Riyadh 11211 (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: amarty@kfshrc.edu.sa; Esguerra, C. [Cyclotron and Radiopharmaceuticals Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, MBC-03, P.O. Box 3354, Riyadh 11211 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Otaibi, B. [Cyclotron and Radiopharmaceuticals Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, MBC-03, P.O. Box 3354, Riyadh 11211 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Jammaz, I. [Cyclotron and Radiopharmaceuticals Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, MBC-03, P.O. Box 3354, Riyadh 11211 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Qahtani, M. [Cyclotron and Radiopharmaceuticals Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, MBC-03, P.O. Box 3354, Riyadh 11211 (Saudi Arabia); Parhar, R.S. [Cyclotron and Radiopharmaceuticals Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, MBC-03, P.O. Box 3354, Riyadh 11211 (Saudi Arabia)

    2005-01-01

    Numerous molecular entities with diverse structures have been radiolabeled and investigated as potential infection and inflammation detection agents. However, none of these molecules have gained the acceptance of gallium citrate or radiolabeled autologous white blood cells. We have radioiodinated interleukin-8 using two different methods and tested the biological behavior of the products in mice. As expected, the direct radioiodinated material displayed extensive in vivo deiodination. The use of pyridine-based prosthetic label yielded a product with better kinetics than the direct radioiodination method and showed a better target to non-target ratio. Nonetheless, this method is not suited for labeling of bioactive peptides such as the title peptide because of the very high specific activity required to prevent cytotoxic effects in a human application.

  7. Prosthetic radioiodination of interleukin-8 ([123/131I]-IL-8): biological behavior in a mouse infection model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amartey, J.K.; Esguerra, C.; Al-Otaibi, B.; Al-Jammaz, I.; Al-Qahtani, M.; Parhar, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    Numerous molecular entities with diverse structures have been radiolabeled and investigated as potential infection and inflammation detection agents. However, none of these molecules have gained the acceptance of gallium citrate or radiolabeled autologous white blood cells. We have radioiodinated interleukin-8 using two different methods and tested the biological behavior of the products in mice. As expected, the direct radioiodinated material displayed extensive in vivo deiodination. The use of pyridine-based prosthetic label yielded a product with better kinetics than the direct radioiodination method and showed a better target to non-target ratio. Nonetheless, this method is not suited for labeling of bioactive peptides such as the title peptide because of the very high specific activity required to prevent cytotoxic effects in a human application

  8. Influence of thyroid metabolism on radioiodine therapy in Graves` disease; Einfluss der Stoffwechsellage auf die Radioiodtherapie beim Morbus Basedow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerner, A.R. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizin; Weckesser, M.; Boy, C.; Schmidt, D.; Langen, K.J.; Mueller-Gaertner, H.W. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik]|[Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizin

    1997-12-01

    Radioiodine therapy is one of two definitive methods of treatment in Graves` disease beside near-total thyreoidectomy. Simple strategies like optimization of thyroid metabolism help to improve efficacy in radioiodine therapy thus lowering applied radioiodine doses, radiation exposure to the patient and to the environment and avoiding multiple vain therapeutic efforts. These strategies are likely to reduce costs at the same time. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Radioiodtherapie ist eine der beiden definitiven Therapiemethoden bei Morbus Basedow neben der nahezu totalen Thyreoidektomie. Ziel ist es, mit einfachen Methoden wie der optimalen Einstellung der Stoffwechsellage die Effizienz der Radioiodtherapie zu optimieren im Hinblick auf eine Reduktion der einzusetzenden Aktivitaet, der Gesamtstrahlenexposition fuer Patient und Umwelt und durch Vermeidung mehrfacher, vergeblicher therapeutischer Ansaetze. Diese Optimierung traegt auch zur Reduktion der Gesamtkrankheitskosten bei. (orig.)

  9. Radioiodine treatment in McCune-Albright syndrome with hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhritiman Chakraborty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS is a sporadic disease characterized by polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, "café-au-lait" spots and hyperfunctional endocrinopathies. Pathophysiological basis is activating mutation of the gene that encodes the alpha subunit of Gs membrane protein that stimulates the intracellular production of cAMP, conferring autonomous secretion of the gland in particular. One of the uncommon endocrine manifestations is hyperthyroidism. We present a patient who had café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia and hyperthyroidism. She was treated with radioactive iodine for the symptoms of hyperthyroidism and subsequently relieved from hyperthyroid features.

  10. Investigation of a potential scintigraphic marker of apoptosis: radioiodinated Z-Val-Ala-DL-Asp(O-methyl)-fluoromethyl ketone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haberkorn, Uwe E-mail: uwe_haberkorn@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Kinscherf, Ralf; Krammer, Peter H.; Mier, Walter; Eisenhut, Michael

    2001-10-01

    The imaging of apoptosis represents an attractive diagnostic goal in the area of tumor therapy, degenerative diseases and organ transplantation. Since caspases play a key role during the early period of the intracellular signal cascade of cells undergoing apoptosis we considered benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-DL-Asp(O-methyl)-fluoromethyl ketone [Z-VAD-fmk], a pan-caspase inhibitor, as a potential apoptosis imaging agent. Applying the Tl(TFA){sub 3}/[{sup 131}I]iodide method Z-VAD-fmk was successfully labeled at the benzyloxycarbonyl protecting group. The success of radioiodination, however, depended on the presence of carrier iodide resulting in specific radioactivities of 2.6 GBq/{mu}mol and the formation of a mixture of the 2- and 4-iodophenyl derivative (61%) which could not be separated by HPLC. Uptake measurements were performed with Morris hepatoma cells (MH3924Atk8) which showed expression of the Herpes Simplex Virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) gene. Apoptosis was induced by treatment of the cells with 25 {mu}M ganciclovir. The TUNEL assay revealed 1.3{+-}0.3 and 23{+-}1.1% apoptotic cells immediately and 24 h after therapy, respectively. A two-fold increase of [{sup 131}I]IZ-VAD-fmk uptake was found at the end of treatment with the HSVtk/suicide system which constantly remained elevated for the following 4 hours. The slow cellular influx and lack of uptake saturation of [{sup 131}I]IZ-VAD-fmk are evidence for simple diffusion as transport mechanism. In addition, the absolute cellular uptake of [{sup 131}I]IZ-VAD-fmk was found to be low. This quality was related to the rather high lipophilicity of [{sup 131}I]IZ-VAD-fmk causing unspecific binding to macromolecules in the medium. Instead of using an inhibitor, synthetic caspase substrates are currently investigated which may accumulate in the apoptotic cell by metabolic trapping thereby enhancing the imaging signal.

  11. Gastrointestinal Side Effects of the Radioiodine Therapy for the Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma Two Days after Prescription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashnehsaz, Mehran; Takavar, Abbas; Izadyar, Sina; Zakariaee, Seyed Salman; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Paydar, Reza; Geramifar, Parham

    2016-01-01

    Iodine-131 (I-131) therapy is one of the conventional approaches in the treatment of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). The radioiodine agents also accumulate in the other organs that cause pain and damage to the patients. Radioiodine therapy is associated with various gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities. In this study, GI side effects of the radioiodine therapy were investigated. GI toxicities of the radioiodine therapy were studied in 137 patients with histologically proven DTC in Jun-Nov 2014. All the patients were treated by radioiodine agents in the research institute of Shariati Hospital, Tehran, Iran. The patients were examined 48 h after prescription (before discharge) and their GI side effects were registered. Correlation of the age, gender, administered dose, administered dose per body weight as the independent factors, and GI side effects were analyzed using the Pearson correlation test with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Regression coefficients and linearity of the variable were investigated by MATLAB software. Line fitting was performed using MATLAB curve-fitting toolbox. From the subjects, 38 patients had GI complaints (30.4%). Significant factors influencing GI side effects were dose per body weight and administered doses. There was no significant correlation between age and gender as the independent parameters and GI complaints. The most prevalent GI side effect was nausea that occurs in 26.4% of the patients. From the results, it could be concluded that the GI side effects could be prevented by administering a safe radioiodine dose value less than 5,550 MBq

  12. Change in the intrathyroidal kinetics of radioiodine under continued and discontinued antithyroid medication in Graves' disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunkelmann, Simone; Kuenstner, Hubertus; Nabavi, Elham; Rohde, Bettina; Groth, Peter; Schuemichen, Carl [University of Rostock, Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, Rostock (Germany)

    2007-02-15

    This study evaluated the thyroidal kinetics of radioiodine in Graves' disease under continued thiamazole medication and after discontinuation of thiamazole for 1-2 days, with a view to keeping the period of discontinuation as short as possible and to exploring the underlying mechanism of a postulated radioprotective effect of antithyroid drugs. In 316 patients, diagnostic and therapeutic radioiodine kinetics were followed up for 2 days by ten uptake measurements each and were defined mathematically by a two-compartment model. Without thiamazole or when thiamazole was discontinued for at least 2 days, all uptake curves could be fitted perfectly by a simple in- and output function; the mean square error (mse) was 0.38 (test) and 0.28 (therapy). Under continued thiamazole medication (11.0{+-}7.0 mg/day), the energy dose delivered to the thyroid was lowered by factor of 2.5. Uptake curves were deformed (mse: 1.06, test and 0.86, therapy) and appeared two peaked, suggesting coexistence of follicles with blocked and follicles with intact hormone synthesis and hence heterogeneous radioiodine uptake in the thyroid. In patients with maximally altered uptake curves, the success rate was as low as 31%. One day after discontinuation of thiamazole, mse was still increased (0.78, test), while 2 days afterwards it had normalised (0.36, test) and 3 days afterwards (mse: 0.24, therapy) the success rate was 87%. Efficacy of radioiodine therapy under continued thiamazole medication is reduced not only by a lower uptake and shorter half-life of radioiodine, but also by a heterogeneous energy dose distribution in the thyroid. Discontinuation of thiamazole (but probably not of propylthiouracil) for at least 2 days is required to restore the efficacy of radioiodine. (orig.)

  13. Evaluation of iodovinyl antibody conjugates: Comparison with a p-iodobenzoyl conjugate and direct radioiodination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadley, S.W.; Wilbur, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    The preparations and conjugations of 2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl 5-[125I/131I]iodo-4-pentenoate (7a) and 2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl 3,3-dimethyl-5-[125I/131I]iodo-4-pentenoate (7b) to monoclonal antibodies are reported. Reagents 7a and 7b were prepared in high radiochemical yield by iododestannylation of their corresponding 5-tri-n-butylstannyl precursors. Radioiodinated antibody conjugates were prepared by reaction of 7a or 7b with the protein at basic pH. Evaluation of these conjugates by several in vitro procedures demonstrated that the radiolabel was attached to the antibody in a stable manner and that the conjugates maintained immunoreactivity. Comparative dual-isotope biodistribution studies of a monoclonal antibody Fab fragment conjugate of 7a and 7b with the same Fab fragment labeled with N-succinimidyl p-[131I]iodobenzoate (PIB, p-iodobenzoate, 2) or directly radioiodinated have been carried out in tumor-bearing nude mice. Coinjection of the Fab conjugate of 7a with the Fab conjugate of 2 demonstrated that the biodistributions were similar in most organs, except the neck tissue (thyroid-containing) and the stomach, which contained substantially increased levels of the 7a label. Coinjection of the Fab conjugate of 7a with the Fab fragment radioiodinated by using the chloramine-T method demonstrated that the biodistributions were remarkably similar, suggesting roughly equivalent in vivo deiodination of these labeled antibody fragments. Coinjection of the Fab conjugate of 7a with the Fab conjugate of 7b indicated that there was ∼ a 2-fold reduction in the amount of in vivo deiodination of the 7b conjugate as compared to the 7a conjugate

  14. Efficiency of radioiodine therapy in Graves disease and adenoma toxicum and incidence of hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovski, Z.P.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the this study was to evaluate different states in hyperthyroid patients and incidence of hypothyroidism after I-131 therapy.We observed a total of 184 hyperthyroid pts, from which 108(58,7%)pts with Graves' disease,65(35,3%)pts with single toxicum nodule and 11(6%)pts with toxicum multinodular goitre,treated with radioiodine therapy during the period 1986-2001.Dose of I-131 orally administered ranged 150-1100MBq and was calculated according to the 'MBq/gram' method.The radioiodine-131 therapy was performed once in 69,5%(128/184)pts,twice in 21,2%(39/184)pts and in 9,3%(17/184)pts more than two doses. Completely cured of hyperthyroidism occurred in 61%(66/108)pts with Graves' disease,81,8%(9/11)pts with toxic multinodular goiter and 90,7%(59/65)pts with single toxic nodule. The patients in our study were evaluated 6 months to 15 years after received J-131 therapy. Incidence of early hypothyroidism within one year was 23,1%(25/108) in Graves' disease,9%(1/11) in toxic multinodular goiter and 4,6%(3/65) with single toxicum nodule.Overall incidence of hypothyroidism within one year was 17,6% and had cumulative increase of Graves' disease every following year approximately for 3%,while for adenoma toxicum there was no any significant changes. We concluded that radioiodine therapy is simple,comfortable radical method for medical treatment of hyperthyroidism and indicate higher incidence of hypothyroidism in patients treated with I-131 for Graves' disease than that of patients treated for toxicum multinodular goiters and single toxic nodule

  15. Distribution and pharmacokinetic analysis of angiostatin radioiodine labeled with high stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Sung Hee; Jung, Kyung-Ho; Paik, Jin-Young; Koh, Bong-Ho; Bae, Joon-Sang; Choe, Yearn Seong; Lee, Kyung-Han; Kim, Byung-Tae

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Radiotracers of anticancer agents provide important information on its in vivo handling. Angiostatin (AST) is a promising anticancer drug with potent antiangiogenic effects, but reported AST radiotracers suffer from poor in vivo stability. In this study, we synthesized an AST probe radioiodinated via the Bolton-Hunter reagent ( 125 I-BH-AST) and investigated its stability and biokinetics in mice. Methods: 125 I-BH-AST and conventional direct radioiodinated 125 I-AST were evaluated for human endothelial cell binding characteristics. In vivo stability of the radiotracers was compared by biodistribution studies in normal ICR mice. Angiostatin pharmacokinetics was analyzed by serial blood sampling after intravenous injection of 125 I-BH-AST with varying AST concentrations in mice. Results: Both 125 I-AST and 125 I-BH-AST retained selective endothelial binding as demonstrated by dose-dependent inhibition by nonradiolabeled AST. 125 I-BH-AST was substantially more stable in mice than 125 I-AST, with 28- and 7-fold lower 24-h thyroid and blood activities, respectively (15.5±1.5 vs. 430.9±32.2 and 0.1±0.0 vs. 0.8±0.0 %ID/g; both P 125 I-BH-AST, we found that 24-h AST accumulation was highest in the kidneys, followed by the liver and lungs. Kinetic analysis of 125 I-BH-AST revealed AST to have linear pharmacokinetics with a T 1/2 of 5.8±2.6 h, volume of distribution (V d ) of 6.8±1.3 ml and clearance of 0.8±0.1 ml/h. Conclusion: Radioiodine-labeled AST prepared by the BH method provides a radioprobe with superior stability and improved in vivo biokinetics that is useful for distribution and pharmacokinetic studies

  16. Heath-related quality of life in thyroid cancer patients following radioiodine ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Jean-françois

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited information about the medium to long-term health-related quality of life (QOL in thyroid cancer patients after initial therapy and the existing studies suffer from limitations. The aim of the study was to assess the determinants of medium-term QOL after the initial therapy. Methods Following a total thyroidectomy, 88 thyroid cancer patients received either rhTSH or hypothyroid-assisted radioiodine ablation (RRA using 3.7 GBq (100 mCi of radioiodine. QOL evaluation of the patients using the validated Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness & Therapy (FACIT was performed at the time of inclusion (t0 and later at the 9-month post-RRA (t1. Results 83 patients were eligible for the final evaluation. Medium-term FACIT scores were not statistically different between t0 and t1 patients. All but one domain of the QOL score was similar between t0 and t1. Using a multivariate analysis, only age and immediate postoperative QOL scores were found to be determinants of the overall medium term 9-month QOL scores. Analysis showed that 'high QOL levels' (baseline and 9-month and 'no depression', 'low anxiety levels', were associated with ' Conclusions The use of radioiodine ablation does not seem to affect the medium term QOL scores of patients. Medium-term QOL is mainly determined by pre-ablation QOL. The assessment of baseline QOL might be interesting to evaluate in order to adapt the treatment protocols, the preventive strategies, and medical information to patients for potentially improving their outcomes.

  17. Radioiodine-labeled disulfide: a novel radiotracer for evaluation of tumor uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, E. K.; Choi, Y. S.; Byun, S. S.; Baek, J. Y.; Lee, K. H.; Kim, S. E.; Choi, Y.; Kim, B. T. [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    Diallyl disulfide found in garlic has been known to inhibit the growth of various cancer cells. In this study, iodine-substituted disulfides were synthesized and their growth inhibitory effects on cancer cells (SUN C5 and MCF-7) were investigated. Dibenzyl disulfide was labeled with {sup 123}I/{sup 125}I for evaluation of tumor uptake. Halogen-substituted disulfides were synthesized using 2,2'-dithiobis(benzothiazole) and one equivalent each of the corresponding thiols. Growth inhibition studies were performed on cancer cells that were grown at 37 .deg. C for 48 hr prior to exposure to the disulfides. Radioiodine-labeled disulfide was prepared by halogen exchange reaction on the 4-bromodibenzyl disulfide in the presence of Na{sup 123}I/{sup 125}I and CuCl at 150 .deg. C for 60 min, followed by HPLC purification. Uptake of the radioactivity to SUN C5 cells was measured as a function of time, and inhibition studies were performed in the presence of either S-methyl methanethiosulfonate (MMTS) or diallyl disulfide. Disulfides were synthesized in the high yields (90%). Tumor growth inhibition studies by the 3 iododisulfides showed the inhibition (>95%) comparable to diallyl disulfide (100%). Cu(I)-assisted radioiodination gave 4-{sup 123}I/{sup 125}I-iododibenzyl disulfide in overall 30-40% radiochemical yield and with high specific activity. Cell uptake studies of the radiolabeled disulfide showed a time-dependent increase of the uptake (4-fold increase from 15 min to 2 hr). Both MMTS, a glutathione depleting agent, and diallyl disulfide reduced the uptake of the radioactivity in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition studies suggest that uptake of disulfide to the tumor cells could be mediated by thiol-disulfide exchange. This study demonstrates that radioiodine-labeled dibenzyl disulfide may be useful for evaluation of tumor uptake.

  18. Radioiodine therapy in management of thyroid carcinoma - A review of 138 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, A.S.; Hossain, S.; Hafiz, N.; Taslima, D.A.; Rashid, H.

    2001-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinomas are being treated by using a widely accepted protocol of surgery and radioiodine therapy followed by supplementation of thyroid hormones in the Nuclear Medicine Centre (NMC), Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH) since 1990. In the present study 138 patients(Male-54, Female-84) with differentiated thyroid cancers received radioiodine therapy for ablation of residual thyroid tissue with a dose of 2.77-3.7 GBq (75-100 mCi), for lymph node metastases 5.55-6.5 GBq(150-175mCi), for lung metastases 5.55 GBq(150 mCi) and for bony metastases 7.4 GBq (200 mCi). Among 138 patients papillary carcinoma was observed in 94 cases (68%; Male-42, Female-52), follicular type was found in 30 cases (22%; Male-8, Female-22) and mixed type in 14 patients (10%, Male-4, Female-10). Single dose of 2.77-3.7 GBq(75-100 mCi) of radioiodine was received by all 138 patients. Among the unablated patients 62 received double doses totalling 9.25 GBq (250 mCi), 44 received three doses 12.95 GBq (350 mCi) and one patient received 8 doses 33.3 GBq (900 mCi). Out of 138 patients single dose ablated 76 cases and 62 remain unablated. Multiple doses ablated 28 patients and 34 still remain unablated and is under follow up. The success and failure in management of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer over 8 years period have been discussed here revealing a satisfactory outcome. (author)

  19. Treatment of hyperthyroidism with radioiodine targeted activity: A comparison between two dosimetric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Ernesto; Campennì, Alfredo; Leotta, Salvatore; Ruggeri, Rosaria M; Baldari, Sergio

    2016-06-01

    Radioiodine therapy is an effective and safe treatment of hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease, toxic adenoma, toxic multinodular goiter. We compared the outcomes of a traditional calculation method based on an analytical fit of the uptake curve and subsequent dose calculation with the MIRD approach, and an alternative computation approach based on a formulation implemented in a public-access website, searching for the best timing of radioiodine uptake measurements in pre-therapeutic dosimetry. We report about sixty-nine hyperthyroid patients that were treated after performing a pre-therapeutic dosimetry calculated by fitting a six-point uptake curve (3-168h). In order to evaluate the results of the radioiodine treatment, patients were followed up to sixty-four months after treatment (mean 47.4±16.9). Patient dosimetry was then retrospectively recalculated with the two above-mentioned methods. Several time schedules for uptake measurements were considered, with different timings and total number of points. Early time schedules, sampling uptake up to 48h, do not allow to set-up an accurate treatment plan, while schedules including the measurement at one week give significantly better results. The analytical fit procedure applied to the three-point time schedule 3(6)-24-168h gave results significantly more accurate than the website approach exploiting either the same schedule, or the single measurement at 168h. Consequently, the best strategy among the ones considered is to sample the uptake at 3(6)-24-168h, and carry out an analytical fit of the curve, while extra measurements at 48 and 72h lead only marginal improvements in the accuracy of therapeutic activity determination. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. On the genetic risk after high dose radioiodine therapy with regard to the gonadal dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrenheim, C.; Hauswirth, C.; Fitschen, J.; Martin, E.; Oetting, G.; Hundeshagen, H.

    1997-01-01

    Aim: The genetic risk for the offspring of patients treated with high doses of radioiodine was to be assessed with special regard to the gonadal dose caused by diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Methods: 41 young females (aged between 19 and 39 years) and four young males (aged 26 to 36 years) treated with radioiodine because of a thyroid carcinoma were interviewed by use of a questionnaire. The course of pregnancy and birth history could be documented as well as the congenital and developmental conditions of 56 children. Results: The amount of radioactivity applied for therapy and whole body scans ranged over 4,144 and 35,15 GBq I-131; the individual gonadal dose was calculated based on the MIRD model and ranged over 0,2 and 2,2 Sv (0,51 Sv at a mean). The period of time between the last radioiodine application and confinement was at least 9 months, not exceeding 14 years. As to the course of pregnancy and birth two early abortions, one extrauterine gravidity and one premature birth due to an insufficiency of the placenta were stated. In one case a chromosomal translocation 7/14 occured as a genetic defect which lead to an interruption. The children's development was unconspicuous except of two cases of neurodermatitis as well as multiple allergies and an early closure of the anterior fontanelle in one child each. Conclusion: Although the genetic risk is supposed to increase with the gonadal dose achieved (doubling dose 1 Sv) and the increased risk of any congenital anomaly was calculated as about 13% at a mean in our patients, the rate of genetic determined diseases was not elevated (1,8% or 1/57). Thus, no increase of genetic defects or congenital malformations was reported in a total of 408 children described in the literature and in our group. (orig.) [de

  1. Effective doses to family members of patients treated with radioiodine 131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocovska, Marina Zdravevska; Ristevska, Svetlana Micevska; Nikolovski, Sasho; Jokic, Vesna Spasic

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effective dose to family members of thyroid cancer and hyperthyroid patients treated with radioiodine 131; also to compare the results with dose constraints proposed by International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) and Basic Safety Standards (BSS) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Material and methods: for estimation of effective doses at sixty family members of thirty thyroid cancer and thirty hyperthyroid patients treated with radioiodine 131, the thermoluminescent dosimeters, Model TLD 100, were used. Thyroid cancer patients were hospitalized for three days, while hyperthyroid patients were treated on out-patient basis. The family members wore thermoluminescent dosimeter in front of the torso for seven days. Results: The radiation doses to family members of thyroid cancer patients were well below recommended dose constraint of 1 mSv. The mean value of effective dose was 0.21 mSv (min 0.02 - max 0.51 mSv). Effective doses, higher than 1 mSv, were detected at 11 family members of hyperthyroid patients.. The mean value of effective dose at family members of hyperthyroid patients was 0.87 mSv (min 0.12 - max 6.79) Conclusion: After three days of hospitalization and detailed given oral and written instruction, thyroid carcinoma patients maintain not to exceed the proposed dose limits. Hyperthyroid patients present a greater radiation hazard than thyroid carcinoma patients. The estimated effective doses were higher than the effective doses at family members of thyroid carcinoma patients. These findings may be considered when establishing new national guidelines concerning radiation protection and release of patients after a treatment with radioiodine therapy.(Author)

  2. Usefulness of recombinant human TSH aided radioiodine doses administered in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitoia, Fabian; El Tamer, Elias; Schere, Daniel B.; Passerieu, Mariano; Bruno, Oscar D.; Niepominiszcze, Hugo

    2006-01-01

    The published studies confirming the safety and efficacy of rh TSH for diagnostic purposes have led to an increased interest in its use for preparation for radioiodine (RI) dose administration in patients with recurrent or persistent differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). In order to establish the efficacy of RI therapy after rh TSH, we have reviewed 39 rh TSH-aided radioiodine treatments in a series of 28 DTC patients. Patients were divided into two groups: GI (n=17), with previous thyroid bed uptake and undetectable thyroglobulin (Tg) levels under levothyroxine treatment and GII (n=11), with proven metastatic local or distant disease. Median follow-up after the first rh TSH-aided radioiodine treatment was 32 ± 13 months (range 8 to 54 months). Sixteen patients (94%) in GI were rendered disease free and one patient was shown to have persistent disease. In GII, the post therapy whole body scan showed pathological uptakes in all cases: in four patients in lungs, in four in mediastinum and in three in lateral neck. In two patients with mediastinum uptake, Tg levels were undetectable after rh TSH. In the follow-up, two patients with lateral neck uptake were rendered disease free, four patients died (three due to thyroid cancer) and five out of the remaining patients have persistent disease. In conclusion, rh TSH aided therapy was helpful to eliminate normal thyroid bed remnants in 16/17 (94%) patients (GI). rh TSH stimulated Tg was undetectable in two patients with mediastinal metastasis. We believe that rh TSH is a good alternative to levothyroxine withdrawal for the treatment of DTC with radioactive iodine, increasing the quality of life in these patients. Caution should be recommended in the follow-up of unselected DTC patients only with stimulated Tg levels. (author) [es

  3. In-vivo isotope diagnosis and radioiodine therapy of benign thyroid diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spesshardt, K. (Sankt-Vincentius-Krankenhaeuser, Karlsruhe (Germany, F.R.). Radiologische Abt. mit Strahlentherapie und Nuklearmedizin)

    1980-10-15

    In-vivo diagnoses of thyroid diseases can be carried out using /sup 123/I, /sup 131/I, and /sup 99/sup(m)Tc-pertechnetate. For the thyroid scintiscan, /sup 99/sup(m)Tc-pertechnetate or /sup 123/I are used. Some functional parameters can be determined using /sup 99/sup(m)Tc-pertechnetate, but iodine is more accurate, so that thyroid clearance examinations with /sup 123/I are rapidly gaining importance. However, the iodine turnover in the thyroid can only be determined by a several-days' test using /sup 131/I. The available techniques of diagnosis are employed in several steps. Most thyroid diseases can already be diagnosed on the basis of the hormone parameters and a thyroid scan; otherwise, a TRH test and suppression and functional studies will be necessary. Treatment of enthyroid struma is limited to inoperable cases with functional blockage or compression of the trachea. In the treatment of diffuse hyperthyroidism, doses should be exact enough to counteract the hyperthyroid metabolism without inducing hypothyroidism. With exact doses, a second radioiodine therapy will only be necessary in about 40% of all cases. High doses should not be applied in the treatment of hyperthyroidism unless it is a case of excessive clinical hyperthyroid somatics as the risk of hypothyroidism is high. The diagnostic problem of autonomous adenoma is the highly varying hormone activity. The intention of radioiodine therapy here is a functional elimination of the autonomous adenoma. Radioiodine resection is indicated in cases where there are several small autonomous adenomas or where the operability of the patient is limited.

  4. In-vivo isotope diagnosis and radioiodine therapy of benign thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spesshardt, K.

    1980-01-01

    In-vivo diagnoses of thyroid diseases can be carried out using 123 I, 131 I, and 99 sup(m)Tc-pertechnetate. For the thyroid scintiscan, 99 sup(m)Tc-pertechnetate or 123 I are used. Some functional parameters can be determined using 99 sup(m)Tc-pertechnetate, but iodine is more accurate, so that thyroid clearance examinations with 123 I are rapidly gaining importance. However, the iodine turnover in the thyroid can only be determined by a several-days' test using 131 I. The available techniques of diagnosis are employed in several steps. Most thyroid diseases can already be diagnosed on the basis of the hormone parameters and a thyroid scan; otherwise, a TRH test and suppression and functional studies will be necessary. Treatment of enthyroid struma is limited to inoperable cases with functional blockage or compression of the trachea. In the treatment of diffuse hyperthyroidism, doses should be exact enough to counteract the hyperthyroid metabolism without inducing hypothyroidism. With exact doses, a second radioiodine therapy will only be necessary in about 40% of all cases. High doses should not be applied in the treatment of hyperthyroidism unless it is a case of excessive clinical hyperthyroid somatics as the risk of hypothyroidism is high. The diagnostic problem of autonomous adenoma is the highly varying hormone activity. The intention of radioiodine therapy here is a functional elimination of the autonomous adenoma. Radioiodine resection is indicated in cases where there are several small autonomous adenomas or where the operability of the patient is limited. (orig./MG) [de

  5. Procedure guideline for radioiodine test. Version; Verfahrensanweisung zum Radioiodtest. Version 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietlein, M.; Dressler, J.; Leisner, B.; Reiners, C.; Schicha, H. [Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Nuklearmedizin (DGN) (Germany); Eschner, W.; Lassmann, M. [Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Nuklearmedizin (DGN) (Germany); Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Medizinische Physik (DGMP) (Germany)

    2003-06-01

    The version 2 of the procedure guideline for radioiodine test is an update of the guideline published in 1999. The following statements were added or modified: The procedure guideline discusses the pros and cons of a single measurement or of repeated measurements of the iodine-131 uptake and their optimal timing. Different formulas are described when one, two or three values of the radioiodine kinetic are available. The probe with a sodium iodide crystal, alternative or additionally the gamma-camera using the ROI-technique are instrumentations for the measurement of iodine-131 uptake. A possible source of error is an inappropriate measurement (sonography) of the target volume. The patients' preparation includes the withdrawal of antithyroid drugs 2-3 days before radioiodine administration. The patient has to avoid iodine-containing medication and the possibility of additives of iodide in vitamin- or electrolyte-supplementation has to be considered. (orig.) [German] Mit der Version 2 der Verfahrensanweisung zum Radioiodtest wird die in 1999 publizierte Verfahrensanweisung aktualisiert. Ergaenzungen und Modifikationen betreffen die notwendige Anzahl und die Zeitintervalle der Iod-131-Uptake-Messungen. Diskutiert werden die Argumente fuer die ein- oder mehrmalige Uptake-Messung. Berechnungsformeln fuer ein, zwei und drei Messpunkte werden angegeben. Als Messgeraete koennen die Uptake-Messsonde, alternativ oder zusaetzlich die Gammakamera mit ROI-Technik zum Einsatz kommen. Fehler bei der Volumetrie (Sonographie) des Zielvolumens gehen unmittelbar in die Berechnung der Therapieaktivitaet ein. Zur Vorbereitung der Patienten wird ein Absetzen der thyreostatischen Medikation 2 bis 3 Tage vor dem Radioiodtest empfohlen. Moeglich Iod(id) zusaetze in Multivitamin- und Spurenelementkombinationen sollten bedacht werden. (orig.)

  6. Pulmonary fibrosis in youth treated with radioiodine for juvenile thyroid cancer and lung metastases after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebestreit, Helge; Burkhardt, Antje; Biko, Johannes; Reiners, Christoph; Drozd, Valentina; Demidchik, Yuri; Trusen, Andreas; Beer, Meinrad

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this project was to systematically determine the prevalence and consequences of pulmonary fibrosis in youth with thyroid carcinoma and lung metastases from Belarus who were treated with radioiodine ( 131 I). A total of 69 patients treated for juvenile thyroid carcinoma and lung metastasis with 131 I were assessed. A group of 29 patients without lung metastases and prior 131 I treatment served as controls. The assessments included a CT scan of the lungs, extensive pulmonary function testing and an incremental cycle test to volitional fatigue with measurements of oxygen uptake (V. O 2 ), oxygen saturation and alveolar-arterial difference in oxygen partial pressure (ΔaaO 2 ). Five patients with lung metastases showed advanced pulmonary fibrosis on CT scans and also had poorer lung functions compared with the 62 patients with none or minor signs of fibrosis and the 29 controls. Furthermore, these five patients showed lower peak V.O 2 , lower oxygen saturation at peak exercise and higher exercise ΔaaO 2 . They were younger at the time of cancer diagnosis and had received chemotherapy more frequently than youth with pulmonary metastases who did not develop fibrosis. One of the five patients subsequently died from pulmonary fibrosis. Following the Chernobyl catastrophe, about 7% of children treated with radioiodine for thyroid carcinoma and lung metastases displayed pulmonary fibrosis which was associated with functional impairments. Based on the characteristics of affected individuals, the number of radioiodine courses may have to be limited, especially in young children, and chemotherapy should be avoided. (orig.)

  7. Radioiodinated 2-nitrobenzyl carbamates as bioreductive alkylating agents for tissue hypoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuthbert, P.A.; Wearring, A.V.; Chamberlain, M.J.; Hunter, D.H.

    1993-01-01

    Three N-methylcarbamates of iodonitrobenzyl alcohols (4-iodo-2-nitrobenzyl alcohol 2, 5-iodo-2-nitrobenzyl alcohol 3 and 4-iodo-2,6-dinitrobenzyl alcohol 4) bearing [ 125 I] have been prepared and characterized for their lipophilicity, their reduction potentials and the in vivo lability of the radioiodine in healthy mice. Based upon these results, 2 and 4 were tested in tumor-bearing mice showing limited uptake of radioactivity in tumours and a tumor-to-blood ratio of less than 1. Consequently these particular carbamates are not satisfactory as hypoxia imaging agents. (author)

  8. Radioiodine therapy induces dose-dependent in-vivo oxidation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinzinger, H.; Resch, U.; Tatzber, F.; Weiss, K.

    2002-01-01

    Until now, radiation hazards as a consequence of radioiodine therapy are not examined in detail. Oxidation of lipoproteins may favour vasculopathy. We studied the influence of a single radioiodine therapy with 5 (n=8; 46-71a), 10 (n=6; 54-75a), 20 (n=11; 45-73a), 80 (n=6; 37-75a) or 200 (n=6; 43-67a) mCi on in-vivo oxidation injury in blood (plasma [P], serum [Se]), urine (U) and saliva (Sa) in patients suffering from hyperthyroidism opr thyroid cancer, respectively. The isoprostane 8-epi-prostaglandin (PG) F 2α as a marker of in-vivo oxidation injury (Sa, Se, P, U), oxidation of lipoproteins (LDL, HDL), thromboxane B2 (Sa, Se, P, U), PGE 2 , PGF 2α and circulating endothelial cells (CEC) were examined before therapy, daily for 7 days and weekly thereafter for 6 weeks. Blood was also analyzed for thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), relative electrophoretic mobility (REM), baseline dienes (BD), endogenous peroxides (POX) and formation of conjugated dienes in copper-mediated oxidation (CD) expressed in lag-time and rate of propagation. There is a dose-dependent increase in 8-epi-PGF 2α being most pronounced in saliva (p 2 and HDL 3 subfractions 24 h after application, but 48 h and 72 h after application there was a significant increase in TBARS, REM, BD, POX and rate of propagation and a decrease in lag-time in HDL-subfractions independently from applied dose. Also HDL 2 showed more TBARS, REM, BD, POX and shorter lag-time than HDL 3 48 h after application, but this effect was reversed 72 h after application. HDL is the lipoprotein most prone to oxidation by radioiodine treatment. Apparently, when LDL becomes oxidized, it shifts metabolically its oxidation products to HDL. These findings show a significant temporary and dose-dependent endothelial desquamation, oxidation of lipoproteins and long-lasting in-vivo oxidation injury (saliva > urine > blood) as side effect of radioiodine therapy, altogether being potentially proatherogenic

  9. comparative study between different oxidizing agents to prepare radioiodinated alpha fetoprotein (AFP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kolaly, M.T.; Ragab, M.T.; El-Mohty, A.A.; Sallam, K.M.; Arief, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    the aim of the present study was designed to prepare four different preparation of radioiodinated alpha fetoprotein ( 125 I-Afp) using different oxidizing agents. the oxidizing agents were chloramine-T (Ch-T), lodogen (1,3,4 , 6-tetrachloro 3 α ,6α diphenyl glycoluril ), N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) and lactoperoxidase (LPS). the product was purified by gel filtration using sephadex G-25. then the tracers obtained were tested by radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique. different affecting factors were extensively studied including reaction time, reaction volume, oxidizing agent content and Ph of reaction. it was found that the Ch-T method is the best one

  10. Radioiodine therapy effect on lacrimal gland function in patients with thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fard-Esfahani, A.; Mirshekarpour, H.; Fallahi, B.; Eftekhari, M.; Takavar, A.; Beiki, D.; Ansari-Gilani, K.; Saghari, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Objectives: There is a limited number of case reports published in the past decade confirming the radioiodine presence in the tear. These observations as well as reported cases of salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction after radioiodine therapy stimulated investigators to clarify whether lacrimal gland function can be affected postradioiodine therapy. Hence we planned a historical cohort study. Methods: We studied 100 eyes of 50 patients who had received high doses (accumulative dose: 100-450mCi) of I-131 (exposed group) for treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma with their latest admission at least 3 months ago. Dry eye symptoms (obtained via a standard questionnaire) and Schirmer I test results (mm/5 min) of this exposed group were compared with those of an unexposed group (100 eyes of 50 individuals) matched by sex and age. Cases with any other known cause(s) of dry eye were not included in either group. Results: The study demonstrated a significantly lower wetting amount of the Schirmer paper in exposed group compared to unexposed one. In the group of patients who have undergone radio-iodine therapy, results were 0-4 mm in 21%, 5-9 mm in 20% and 10 mm or more in 59%. These results were seen in the unexposed group in 6%, 17% and 77% respectively. In evaluating the symptoms, 51% of the exposed eyes and 50% of the unexposed ones revealed at least one of the mentioned dry eye symptoms in the questionnaire. Data analysis showed no significant difference between the number of symptoms of the two groups, but 2 symptoms (burning, unrelated to light and erythema) were significantly higher in the exposed eyes. From 9 exposed eyes complaining of erythema, Schirmer test result was abnormal only in 2 (one patient). Also among the 10 eyes with burning symptom (unrelated to light) one patient (2 eyes) revealed abnormal Schirmer test result. Conclusion: Long-term reduction in the tear secretion from major and/or minor lacrimal glands is seen after high

  11. Radioiodine treatment of Grave's disease; Radiojodtherapie des Morbus Basedow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidenreich, P.; Vogt, H.; Dorn, R.; Graf, G.; Kopp, J. [Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Zentralklinikum Augsburg (Germany)

    2001-09-01

    In Germany radioiodine therapy of Grave's disease is performed in patients older than 20 years, after at least one year of unsuccessful antithyroid therapy, intolerance against antithyroid medication, recurrences after surgical interventions and small goiters. Hyperthyroidism is eliminated with an ablative dose concept (300 Gy) in more than 90% associated with rate of hypothyroidism in the outcome of also more than 90%. Adverse prognostic factors are an insufficient dose to the thyroid and/or concomitant antithyreoid medication. Radioiodine therapy in Germany must be an inpatient single time approach due to quality assurance and radiation protection reasons. The mean hospitalization is only 3-4 days with the patient being discharged at an annual dose of less than 1 mSv at 2 m distance (dose rate at discharge < 3,5 {mu}Sv/h at 2 m). An adjuvant treatment with cortisone is recommended in a simultaneous endocrine ophthalmopathy to prevent from deterioration. Radioiodine therapy of Grave's disease is cost effective with a low probability of side-effects and is not associated with an increased genetic or somatic risk. Therapy control and life span follow up has to be carried out by the expert physician legally responsible for the radioiodine therapy. (orig.) [German] Die Radiojodtherapie des Morbus Basedow wird in Deutschland, bei Patienten aelter als 20 Jahre, erst nach mindestens einjaehriger, erfolgloser thyreostatischer Therapie, bei Thyreostatikaunvertraeglichkeit, Rezidiven nach Operation und kleinen Strumen durchgefuehrt. Die Beseitigung der Hyperthyreose wird mit einem ablativen Dosiskonzept (300 Gy) in > 90%, verbunden mit einer Hypothyreoserate von ebenfalls > 90% erreicht. Prognostisch unguenstige Einflussfaktoren sind eine zu niedrig gewaehlte Herddosis und/oder eine begleitende Thyreostase. Aus Gruenden der Qualitaetssicherung und des Strahlenschutzes muss in Deutschland die Radiojodtherapie stationaer als Einzeittherapie durchgefuehrt werden. Die

  12. Production of non-stimulatory immunoglobulins that inhibit TSH binding in Graves' disease after radioiodine administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bech, K.; Bliddal, H.; Siersbaek-Nielsen, K.; Friis, T.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of single dose of 131 I upon thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins has been studied in twenty-two patients with Graves' disease. The thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins were assessed by parallel measurements of thyrotrophin receptor binding inhibitory immunoglobulins (TBII) and of thyroid adenylate cyclase stimulating immunoglobulins (TACSI) in serum by radioreceptor assay and stimulation of adenylate cyclase respectively. The present study thus confirms that radioiodine therapy is followed by an increase of TBII and TACSI in most patients with Graves' disease. The level of TBII can probably provide a marker for development of hypothyroidism following 131 I therapy and might be involved in its pathogenesis. (author)

  13. Radioiodinated methylene blue for melanoma targeting: Chemical characterisation and tumour selectivity of labelled components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blower, Philip J.; Clark, Katherine; Link, Eva M.

    1997-01-01

    Radioiodinated methylene blue contains a mixture of components showing selective uptake in human pigmented melanoma, and it has potential for imaging and therapy. Nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopic studies show that the majority of the radioactivity (85%) is in the form of monoiodinated methylene blue, 4-iodo-3-methylamino-7-dimethylaminophenaza thionium chloride. The amino group ortho-to iodine has become demethylated to a mono-methylamino group. The remainder (15%) of the mixture is the doubly labelled 4,5-diiodo-3,7-bis(methylamino) phenazathionium chloride. The separated components show similar tumour selectivity in athymic mice bearing human pigmented melanomas

  14. Synthesis of radioiodinated N-succinimidyl 3-[125I] iodobenzoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Junling; Wang Lihua; Zhang Lan; Tian Haibin; Wang Yongxian

    2003-01-01

    N-Succinimidyl 3-(tri-n-butylstannyl) benzoate (ATE) was radioiodinated using Iodogen as oxidant and useful conjugate S 125 IB of labeling proteins was obtained. ATE and Iodogen affecting labeling proteins were successfully isolated from S 125 IB by Sep-Pak silica. The labeling efficiency was more than 93%. Several factors affecting labeling such as labeling time, the amount of Iodogen and the mole ratio of ATE to Na 125 I, were studied. The better labeling conditions were obtained as follows: mole ratio of ATE to Na 125 I=6:1, Iodogen=7 μg, labeling time=5 min in room temperature

  15. Recent advances in radioiodine use for the management of thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: It has been well accepted that radioiodine is useful in the management of patients with recurrent or metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer. Although radioiodine has been used for more than 60 years in diagnosis and treatment, some improvements still appear continuously. Serum Thyroglobulin (Tg) and radioiodine whole body scans (WBS) are used to detect recurrent thyroid caner. Tg has been known to be more sensitive than WBS, and false negative WBS with elevated Tg are frequently found. However, the clinical importance of Tg negative cases with positive WBS has not been clarified. We found that 34 among 960 patients who showed negative Tg with positive post-therapy I-131 WBS had functioning metastases to extrathyroidal organs. Complementary use of radioiodine WBS is recommended to exclude Tg false negative cases. The retinoic acid (RA) is well known to induce the cellular re-differentiation and increase the expression of sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) in de-differentiated tumor cell. We performed RA treatment with I-131 in 40 patients with elevated serum Tg level but no focal iodine uptake in WBS. In 14 patients (35%), improved I-131 uptake was seen. Focal iodine uptakes were seen in 4 patients, and diffuse hepatic visualization without localized lesions were found in 10 patients. Maximal safe dose (MSD) administration based on bone marrow radiation allows the delivery of a large amount of I-131 to thyroid cancer tissue within the safety margin. We performed MSD therapy in 46 patients with differentiated thyroid cancers, which had persisted even after conventional fixed dose therapy. MSD was calculated according to the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center protocol using blood samples. Mean calculated MSD was 12.5±2.1 GBq (337.3±37.5 mCi). Of the 46 patients, 6 (13.0%) showed complete remission, 15 (32.6%) partial response, 19 stable disease, and 6 disease progression. Twenty-nine patients (63%) had a transient cytopenia after therapy. MSD therapy of

  16. Synthesis and evaluation of radioiodinated NPC 22009, a putative CRF receptor antagonist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, V.; Hiner, R.N.; Mavunkel, B.J.; Elliott, R.L.; Abreu, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) plays a role in stress-related disorders such as anxiety, depression, anorexia nervosa and stress-induced immune suppression. Hence CRF antagonists have potential therapeutic utility. Recently the authors discovered that pyrazolones such as NPC 22009 and the corresponding disulfide behave as CRF antagonists in vitro with micromolar potency. To probe the nature of this CRF antagonism they developed a convenient synthesis of radioiodinated NPC 22009. Details of the synthesis and preliminary pharmacological studies are presented

  17. Comparison of mortality in hyperthyroidism during periods of treatment with thionamides and after radioiodine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelaert, Kristien; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Torlinska, Barbara; Franklyn, Jayne A

    2013-05-01

    Hyperthyroidism is common, but opinions regarding optimal therapy with antithyroid drugs or radioiodine (131-I) differ. There are no randomized trials comparing these options in terms of mortality. The aim of the study was to determine whether mortality associated with hyperthyroidism varies with treatment administered or other factors. We conducted a prospective observational population-based study of 1036 subjects aged ≥ 40 years presenting to a single specialist clinic from 1989-2003 with a first episode of hyperthyroidism who were followed until June 2012. Antithyroid drugs or radioiodine (131-I) were administered. We compared causes of death with age-, sex-, and period-specific mortality in England and Wales and used within-cohort analysis of influence of treatment modality, outcome, disease etiology, severity and control, and comorbidities. In 12 868 person-years of follow-up, 334 died vs 290.6 expected (standardized mortality ratio [SMR], 1.15 [95% confidence interval (CI),1.03-1.28]; P = .01). Increased all-cause mortality largely reflected increased circulatory deaths (SMR, 1.20 [95% CI, 1.01-1.43]; P = .04). All-cause mortality was increased for the person-years accumulated during thionamide treatment (SMR, 1.30 [95% CI, 1.05-1.61]; P = .02) and after 131-I not associated with hypothyroidism (SMR, 1.24 [95% CI, 1.04-1.46]; P = .01) but not during T₄ replacement for 131-I-induced hypothyroidism (SMR, 0.98 [95% CI, 0.82-1.18]; P = .85). Within-cohort analysis comparing mortality during thionamide treatment showed a similar hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality when 131-I did not result in hypothyroidism (HR, 0.95 [95% CI, 0.70-1.29]), but reduced mortality with 131-I-induced hypothyroidism (HR, 0.70 [95% CI, 0.51-0.96]). Reduced mortality associated with hypothyroidism was seen only in those without significant comorbidities and not in those with other serious diseases. Atrial fibrillation at presentation (P = .02) and an increment of 10 pmol/L in

  18. Radioiodine-fibrinogen test in the early diagnosis of venous thrombosis in the leg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlgruen, H [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (F.R. Germany). Dept. Radiologie

    1976-04-01

    As long as there is no satisfactory prophylaxis for thrombosis, the radioiodine-fibrinogen test is a good supplement for the supervision of patients with a 'high thrombosis risk' since the clinical symptomatology is not specific enough and phlebography cannot be used so extensively. The risk of hepatitis can be reduced when the selection of spenders is large enough. As a radionuclide, /sup 125/iodine does not appear to be any less effective than /sup 131/iodine. The postoperative injection is preferred to the preoperative injection.

  19. Radio-iodination of a rabbit fibrinogen by the chloramine-T method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moza, A K; Kumar, M; Belavalgidad, M I; Sapru, R P [Post-Graduate Inst. of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India). Dept. of Experimental Medicine

    1974-01-01

    A method for radio-iodination of fibrinogen using chloramine-T has been described. Samples of greater than 90% clottable counts were obtained. Electrophoretic mobility and immunodiffusion showed that the entire radioactivity was present in the fibrinogen band. In vivo studies on the turnover of this labelled product in rabbits showed a half-life of 52.8 to 61.7 hrs in two batches of animals. The results compare very well with the reported results obtained from fibrinogen labelled with radioactive iodine by the iodine-monochloride method. The advantages of the new method have been pointed out.

  20. Adsorption chromatographic separation of radioiodine-labelled compounds using binary eluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, G.

    1980-01-01

    An adsorption chromatographic method using Sephadex LH-20 dextran gel as adsorbent and water-organic solvent binary eluents was developed for the systematic separation of low molecular weight radioiodine-labelled substances like iodothyronines, iodobenzoic acids and iodotyrosine methyl ester derivatives of prostaglandins, steroids etc. The adsorbed iodine compounds were separated by water-organic solvent mixture, and the order of the compounds is in accordance with the increasing number of iodine substituents per molecule. A method is reported which enables the calculation of the eluent strength of the water-organic solvent eluents. (author)

  1. Administration of additional inactive iodide during radioiodine therapy for Graves' disease. Who might benefit?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietlein, M.; Moka, D.; Reinholz, U.; Schmidt, M.; Schomaecker, K.; Schicha, H.; Wellner, U.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: Graves' hyperthyroidism and antithyroid drugs empty the intrathyroid stores of hormones and iodine. The consequence is rapid 131 I turnover and impending failure of radioiodine therapy. Can administration of additional inactive iodide improve 131I kinetics? Patients, methods: Fifteen consecutive patients, in whom the 48 h post-therapeutically calculated thyroid dose was between 150 and 249 Gy due to an unexpectedly short half-life, received 3 x 200 μg inactive potassium-iodide ( 127 I) daily for 3 days (Group A), while 17 consecutive patients with a thyroid dose of = 250 Gy (Group B) served as the non-iodide group. 48 hours after 131 I administration (M1) and 4 or 5 days later (M2) the following parameters were compared: effective 131 I half-life, thyroid dose, total T3, total T4, 131 I-activity in the T3- and T4-RIAs. Results: In Group A, the effective 131 I half-life M1 before iodine (3.81 ± 0.93 days) was significantly (p 131 I half-life M2 (4.65 ± 0.79 days). Effective 131 I half-life M1 correlated with the benefit from inactive 127 I (r = -0.79): Administration of 127 I was beneficial in patients with an effective 131 I half-life M1 of 131 I activity of T3 and T4 showed lower specific 131 I activity after addition of inactive iodine compared with patients from the same group with a lower initial specific 131 I activity of T3 and T4 and compared with the patient group B who was given no additional inactive iodide. This correlation was mathematically described and reflected in the flatter gradient in Group A (y = 0.5195x + 0.8727 for 131 I T3 and y = 1.0827x - 0.4444 for 131 I T4) and steeper gradient for Group B (y = 0.6998x + 0.5417 for 131 I T3 and y = 1.3191x - 0.2901 for 131 I T4). Radioiodine therapy was successful in all 15 patients from Group A. Conclusion: The administration of 600 μg inactive iodide for three days during radioiodine therapy in patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism and an unexpectedly short half-life of <3 or 4 days was a safe

  2. Radioiodinated 2-nitrobenzyl carbamates as bioreductive alkylating agents for tissue hypoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culbert, P.A.; Hunter, D.H.; Wearring, A.V.; Chamberlain, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Three N-methylcarbamates of iodonitrobenzyl alcohols (4-iodo-2-nitrobenzyl alcohol 2, 5-iodo-2-nitrobenzyl alcohol 3 and 4-iodo-2,6-dinitrobenzyl alcohol 4) bearing [ 125 I] have been prepared and characterized for their lipophilicity, their reduction potentials and the in vivo lability of the radioiodine in healthy mice. Based upon these results, 2 and 4 were tested in tumour-bearing mice showing limited uptake of radioactivity in tumours and a tumour-to-blood ratio of less than 1. Consequently these particular carbamates are not satisfactory as hypoxia imaging agents. (Author)

  3. In contrast to matrix metalloproteinases, serum adiponectin concentrations increase after radioiodine treatment of thyrotoxicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewiński A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, together with their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs, remodel extracellular matrix under physiological and pathological conditions and are implicated in pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, cancer and in chronic inflammation. We have endeavoured to assess whether concentrations of MMPs, TIMPs, and anti-inflammatory adiponectin are altered by pharmacological treatment of acute thyrotoxicosis or by radioiodine therapy (RIT. Material and methods We measured serum concentrations of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, and adiponectin, TSH, free T4 (FT4 and free T3 (FT3 in 15 patients (4 males, age (years 51.8±15.3 (mean±SD with hyperthyroidism treated with thiamazole (Group 1 and in 20 subjects (2 males, treated for thyrotoxicosis with radioiodine, age 52.3±12.4 (Group 2, where blood samples were taken before RIT, visit 1 (V1, seven days post RIT, visit 2 (V2, and two to three months post RIT, visit 3 (V3. Results In Group 1 there was no significant change in concentrations of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, TIMP-2 or adiponectin, despite a fall in FT4 and FT3 (8.74±4.79 pg/ml vs 3.54±2.40 pg/ml, for FT3, and 4.48 ±2.21 ng/ml vs 1.02±1.07 ng/ml, for FT4, p4 and FT3 from 24.4±15.4 pmol/l (V1 to 14.7±10.6 pmol/l (V3, and from 10.0±5.65 (V1 to 6.1±4.8 pmol/l (V2, p4 and FT3, respectively. Conclusions Radioiodine therapy of thyrotoxicosis does not alter serum MMP-2, MMP-9 or TIMP-1 concentrations either acutely or after about three months of observation. An increase in serum adiponectin might reflect favourable effects of radioiodine administration on cardiovascular risk factors, while an increase in TIMP-2 (principal MMP-2 inhibitor might lead to a decrease in free MMP-2 concentrations.

  4. Radiation exposure of the families of outpatients treated with radioiodine (iodine-131) for hyperthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrington, S.F.; O`Doherty, M.J.; Seed, P. [Guy`s, King`s and St. Thomas` Schools of Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Kettle, A.G. [Kent and Canterbury NHS Trust, Canterbury (United Kingdom); Thomson, W.H.; Harding, L.K. [City Hospitals NHS Trust, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Mountford, P.J.; Farrell, R.J. [North Staffordshire Hospital NHS Trust, Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom); Burrell, D.N. [University Hospital, Birmingham NHS Trust, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Batchelor, S. [Guy`s and St. Thomas` Hospitals NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    Patients who receive radioiodine (iodine-131) treatment for hyperthyroidism (195-800 MBq) emit radiation and represent a potential hazard to other individuals. Critical groups amongst the public are fellow travellers on the patient`s journey home from hospital and members of the patient`s family, particularly young children. The dose which members of the public are allowed to receive as a result of a patient`s treatment has been reduced in Europe following recently revised recommendations from ICRP. The annual public dose limit is 1 mSv, though adult members of the patient`s family are allowed to receive higher doses, with the proviso that a limit of 5 mSv should not be exceeded over 5 years. Unless the doses received during out-patient administration of radioiodine can be demonstrated to comply with these new limits, hospitalisation of patients will be necessary. The radiation doses received by family members (35 adults and 87 children) of patients treated with radioiodine at five UK hospitals were measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters mounted in wrist bands. Families were given advice (according to current practice) from their treatment centre about limiting close contact with the patient for a period of time after treatment. Doses measured over 3-6 weeks were adjusted to give an estimate of values which might have been expected if the dosimeters had been worn indefinitely. Thirty-five passengers accompanying patients home after treatment also recorded the dose received during the journey using electronic (digital) personal dosimeters. For the ``adjusted`` doses to infinity, 97% of adults complied with a 5-mSv dose limit (range:0.2-5.8 mSv) and 89% of children with a 1-mSv limit (range: 0.2-7.2 mSv). However 6 of 17 children aged 3 years or less had an adjusted dose which exceeded this 1 mSv limit. The dose received by adults during travel was small in comparison with the total dose received. The median travel dose was 0.03 mSv for 1 h travel (range: 2 {mu

  5. Radiation exposure of the families of outpatients treated with radioiodine (iodine-131) for hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrington, S.F.; O'Doherty, M.J.; Seed, P.; Kettle, A.G.; Thomson, W.H.; Harding, L.K.; Mountford, P.J.; Farrell, R.J.; Burrell, D.N.; Batchelor, S.

    1999-01-01

    Patients who receive radioiodine (iodine-131) treatment for hyperthyroidism (195-800 MBq) emit radiation and represent a potential hazard to other individuals. Critical groups amongst the public are fellow travellers on the patient's journey home from hospital and members of the patient's family, particularly young children. The dose which members of the public are allowed to receive as a result of a patient's treatment has been reduced in Europe following recently revised recommendations from ICRP. The annual public dose limit is 1 mSv, though adult members of the patient's family are allowed to receive higher doses, with the proviso that a limit of 5 mSv should not be exceeded over 5 years. Unless the doses received during out-patient administration of radioiodine can be demonstrated to comply with these new limits, hospitalisation of patients will be necessary. The radiation doses received by family members (35 adults and 87 children) of patients treated with radioiodine at five UK hospitals were measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters mounted in wrist bands. Families were given advice (according to current practice) from their treatment centre about limiting close contact with the patient for a period of time after treatment. Doses measured over 3-6 weeks were adjusted to give an estimate of values which might have been expected if the dosimeters had been worn indefinitely. Thirty-five passengers accompanying patients home after treatment also recorded the dose received during the journey using electronic (digital) personal dosimeters. For the ''adjusted'' doses to infinity, 97% of adults complied with a 5-mSv dose limit (range:0.2-5.8 mSv) and 89% of children with a 1-mSv limit (range: 0.2-7.2 mSv). However 6 of 17 children aged 3 years or less had an adjusted dose which exceeded this 1 mSv limit. The dose received by adults during travel was small in comparison with the total dose received. The median travel dose was 0.03 mSv for 1 h travel (range: 2

  6. Subjective perception of radioactivity. No change post successful treatment with radioiodine; Strahlen bleiben boese. Keine Aenderung der subjektiven Konzepte von Radioaktivitaet nach erfolgreicher Radioiodtherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freudenberg, L.S.; Mueller, S.P.; Beyer, T.; Bockisch, A. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2009-07-01

    We assess the attitude of patients with thyroid disease towards radiation and radioactivity before and after radioiodine therapy by means of a cultural-anthropological approach. We evaluate in patient interviews how their subjective attitude towards radioactivity as an abstract term and towards radioactivity in the medical context on the basis of their personal experiences with radionuclide therapy. 29 patients with autonomously functioning thyroid lesions (17 women, 12 men, 35-79 years) were included in this study. All patients were interviewed prior to and 22-27 month post radioiodine therapy in an open dialogue with the principal investigator. Patients were asked to describe their attitude towards radioactivity in general and towards radioiodine therapy in particular. Patients were asked to use a scoring system (1: positive, 5: negative) to quantify their perception of radioactivity. The personal perception of radioactivity as an abstract term does not change significantly (p = 0.15) before and after radioiodine therapy. This perception is linked to mostly negative impressions of radiactivity. However, patients become more positive when assessing the value of radioactivity as part of their therapy regimen. Thus, we observe a significant increase in percepted value of radioactivity post radioiodine therapy (p = 0.03). Patients continue to view radioactivity as something negative despite treatment success following radioiodine therapy. Our results provide useful information for patient information by the nuclear medicine physician prior to a radioiodine therapy. (orig.)

  7. Two-day thionamide withdrawal prior to radioiodine uptake sufficiently increases uptake and does not exacerbate hyperthyroidism compared to 7-day withdrawal in Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Sumihisa; Ohye, Hidemi; Yano, Genichiro; Nishihara, Eijun; Kudo, Takumi; Ito, Mitsuru; Fukata, Shuji; Amino, Nobuyuki; Kuma, Kanji; Miyauchi, Akira

    2006-01-01

    The appropriate period of antithyroid drug (ATD) discontinuation before radioiodine therapy is the most critical problem in Graves' disease patients under going treatment with ATD. To determine the optimal period that does not alter the outcome of radioiodine therapy or exacerbate hyperthyroidism, we compared serum FT4 levels at radioiodine uptake (RAIU) and therapy outcomes between a 2-day withdrawal group and 7-day withdrawal group. We prospectively recruited 43 patients for the 2-day withdrawal protocol and retrospectively reviewed 49 patients treated with radioiodine following the protocol of 7-day withdrawal. There was no significant difference in RAIU between the 2 groups. The mean serum FT4 level measured on the first day of 24-h RAIU of the 7-day group was significantly higher than that in the 2-day group. There were no significant differences in the outcomes at each point (6 months, 1 year, and 2 years after therapy) between the 2 groups. Our results indicated that withdrawal of ATD for 2 days is superior to 7 days in that 2 days discontinuation did not exacerbate hyperthyroidism. In order to prevent serum thyroid hormone increase after ATD withdrawal and radioiodine therapy, a 2-day ATD withdrawal period before radioiodine therapy may be useful for high-risk patients such as the elderly and patients with cardiac complications. We believe that the 2-day ATD withdrawal method may be useful for patients undergoing treatment with ATD who are to undergo radioiodine therapy. (author)

  8. Reversion of thyrotoxic atrial fibrillation in hypothyroid state after radioiodine treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Makiko; Saito, Shintaro; Sakurada, Toshiro; Yoshida, Katsumi; Kaise, Kazuro; Kaise, Nobuko; Fukazawa, Hiroshi; Itagaki, Yoichi; Yoshinaga, Kaoru [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine

    1992-06-01

    Twenty patients with thyrotoxic Basedow's disease complicated by atrial fibrillation lasting more than one month despite treatment with antithyroidal drugs were treated with radioiodine supplemented with an antithyroidal drug or inorganic iodine. We classified the 20 patients on the basis of strial fibrillation reversion into two groups, one with reversion (group I) and the other without reversion (group II). In all 12 patients in group I, T{sub 4} and T{sub 3} decreased to hypothyroid levels in 3.2{+-}1.3 months, and one month later all patients had their sinus rhythm restored while T{sub 4} and T{sub 3} also remained below normal (2.6{+-}1.1 {mu}g/dl and 77.9{+-}34.4 ng/dl, respectively). Although T{sub 4} and T{sub 3} also decreased within 3.5{+-}1.8 months in all 8 patients in group II, one month later, atrial fibrillation persisted while T{sub 4} and T{sub 3} (10.4{+-}5.3 {mu}g/dl and 157.7{+-}67.5 ng/dl, respectively) rose significantly compared to those in group I (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively). For reversion of atrial fibrillation it is important that the onset of hypothyroidism is rapidly induced by radioiodine and that hypothyroidism continues for at least one month. (author).

  9. Thyroid cell irradiation by radioiodines: a new Monte Carlo electron track-structure code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, Christophe; Elbast, Mouhamad; Colas-Linhart, Nicole; Ting-Di Wu

    2007-01-01

    The most significant impact of the Chernobyl accident is the increased incidence of thyroid cancer among children who were exposed to short-lived radioiodines and 131-iodine. In order to accurately estimate the radiation dose provided by these radioiodines, it is necessary to know where iodine is incorporated. To do that, the distribution at the cellular level of newly organified iodine in the immature rat thyroid was performed using secondary ion mass microscopy (NanoSIMS 50 ). Actual dosimetric models take only into account the averaged energy and range of beta particles of the radio-elements and may, therefore, imperfectly describe the real distribution of dose deposit at the microscopic level around the point sources. Our approach is radically different since based on a track-structure Monte Carlo code allowing following-up of electrons down to low energies (∼= 10 eV) what permits a nanometric description of the irradiation physics. The numerical simulations were then performed by modelling the complete disintegrations of the short-lived iodine isotopes as well as of 131 I in new born rat thyroids in order to take into account accurate histological and biological data for the thyroid gland. (author)

  10. New radioiodinated carboxylic and hydroxamic matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor tracers as potential tumor imaging agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oltenfreiter, Ruth E-mail: ruth.oltenfreiter@rug.ac.be; Staelens, Ludovicus; Lejeune, Annabelle; Dumont, Filip; Frankenne, Francis; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Slegers, Guido

    2004-05-01

    Several studies have demonstrated a positive correlation between tumor progression and expression of extracellular proteinases such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). MMP-2 and MMP-9 have become attractive targets for cancer research because of their increased expression in human malignant tumor tissues of various organs, providing a target for medical imaging techniques. Radioiodinated carboxylic and hydroxamic MMP inhibitors 2-(4'-[{sup 123}I]iodo-biphenyl-4-sulfonylamino)-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-propionic acid (9) and 2-(4'-[{sup 123}I]iodo-biphenyl-4-sulfonylamino)-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-propionamide (11) were synthesized by electrophilic aromatic substitution of the tributylstannyl derivatives and resulted in radiochemical yields of 60% {+-} 5% (n = 3) and 70% {+-} 5% (n = 6), respectively. In vitro zymography and enzyme assays showed high inhibition capacities of the inhibitors on gelatinases. In vivo biodistribution showed no long-term accumulation in organs and the possibility to accumulate in the tumor. These results warrant further studies of radioiodinated carboxylic and hydroxamic MMP inhibitor tracers as potential SPECT tumor imaging agents.

  11. New radioiodinated carboxylic and hydroxamic matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor tracers as potential tumor imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oltenfreiter, Ruth; Staelens, Ludovicus; Lejeune, Annabelle; Dumont, Filip; Frankenne, Francis; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Slegers, Guido

    2004-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated a positive correlation between tumor progression and expression of extracellular proteinases such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). MMP-2 and MMP-9 have become attractive targets for cancer research because of their increased expression in human malignant tumor tissues of various organs, providing a target for medical imaging techniques. Radioiodinated carboxylic and hydroxamic MMP inhibitors 2-(4'-[ 123 I]iodo-biphenyl-4-sulfonylamino)-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-propionic acid (9) and 2-(4'-[ 123 I]iodo-biphenyl-4-sulfonylamino)-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-propionamide (11) were synthesized by electrophilic aromatic substitution of the tributylstannyl derivatives and resulted in radiochemical yields of 60% ± 5% (n = 3) and 70% ± 5% (n = 6), respectively. In vitro zymography and enzyme assays showed high inhibition capacities of the inhibitors on gelatinases. In vivo biodistribution showed no long-term accumulation in organs and the possibility to accumulate in the tumor. These results warrant further studies of radioiodinated carboxylic and hydroxamic MMP inhibitor tracers as potential SPECT tumor imaging agents

  12. Reversion of thyrotoxic atrial fibrillation in hypothyroid state after radioiodine treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Makiko; Saito, Shintaro; Sakurada, Toshiro; Yoshida, Katsumi; Kaise, Kazuro; Kaise, Nobuko; Fukazawa, Hiroshi; Itagaki, Yoichi; Yoshinaga, Kaoru

    1992-01-01

    Twenty patients with thyrotoxic Basedow's disease complicated by atrial fibrillation lasting more than one month despite treatment with antithyroidal drugs were treated with radioiodine supplemented with an antithyroidal drug or inorganic iodine. We classified the 20 patients on the basis of strial fibrillation reversion into two groups, one with reversion (group I) and the other without reversion (group II). In all 12 patients in group I, T 4 and T 3 decreased to hypothyroid levels in 3.2±1.3 months, and one month later all patients had their sinus rhythm restored while T 4 and T 3 also remained below normal (2.6±1.1 μg/dl and 77.9±34.4 ng/dl, respectively). Although T 4 and T 3 also decreased within 3.5±1.8 months in all 8 patients in group II, one month later, atrial fibrillation persisted while T 4 and T 3 (10.4±5.3 μg/dl and 157.7±67.5 ng/dl, respectively) rose significantly compared to those in group I (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively). For reversion of atrial fibrillation it is important that the onset of hypothyroidism is rapidly induced by radioiodine and that hypothyroidism continues for at least one month. (author)

  13. RADIOIODINATION OF OCHRATOXIN TO STUDY THE ROLE OF YEAST IN COUNTERACTING ITS EFFECT ON JAPANESE QUAIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABU TALEB, A.M.; EL-BARKOUKY, E.E.; AYYOUB, S.M.; EL-KOLALY, M.T.

    2007-01-01

    The radioiodination of ochratoxin using iodogen as an oxidizing agent was studied. The factors affecting the radioiodination yield, such as reaction time, concentration of substrate and oxidizing agent, pH, stability of iodogen coated tubes have been investigated. Separation and purification of the labelled product using thin layer chromatography and gel chromatography on sephadex G-25 column were described.A total number of 80 quail chicks at eight weeks age were divided into two groups 40 birds each. The first group (control) feed basal diet and the second group was supplemented with 0.5% active dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in basal diet. All groups were given orally labelled ochratoxin. After 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours from oral feeding, the quails (5 birds from every group) were slaughtered and blood samples were collected when slaughtering. The organs; liver, heart, spleen lung, proventriculus, gizzard, intestine content, kidney, testis, ovary, oviduct, breast and thigh, were removed and weighed individually and their weights related to body weight have been calculated. Also, manure and eggs were collected. The radioactivity levels in the second group that supplemented yeast in diet was lower than the first group (control) except manure

  14. Low-dose radioiodine given six-monthly in Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoskin, P.J.; McCready, V.R.; Harmer, C.L.; Spathis, G.S.; Cosgrove, D.O.

    1985-01-01

    Experience using low-dose radioiodine given six-monthly instead of yearly in hyperthyroid patients with Graves' disease is reported. One hundred and thirty-five patients have been treated over a three-year period with 74 MBq (2 mCi) doses of 131 I. |Thirty-eight|percent| were controlled with a single dose. Those patients requiring more than one dose were treated with a further 74 MBq (2 mCi) 131 I at six-monthly intervals until euthyroid. Using this approach, 46% were euthyroid one year after starting treatment, and 75% were euthyroid at two years. The incidence of hypothyroidism following treatment was 2.2% at one year, with a yearly incidence thereafter of 4-6%. Six-monthly scheduling of low-dose radioiodine in Graves' disease can reduce the time taken to become euthyroid, compared with conventional yearly low-dose treatments. Further follow up is required to confirm the present low incidence of hypothyroidism following treatment. (author)

  15. A mathematical model of optimized radioiodine-131 therapy of Graves' hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Suhail AR; Loutfi, Issa; Al-Shoumer, Kamal AS

    2001-01-01

    The current status of radioiodine-131 (RaI) dosimetry for Graves' hyperthyroidism is not clear. Recurrent hyperthyroidism and iatrogenic hypothyroidism are two problems which interact such that trying to solve one leads to exacerbation of the other. Optimized RaI therapy has therefore begun to be defined just in terms of early hypothyroidism (ablative therapy) as physicians have given up on reducing hypothyroidism. Optimized therapy is evaluated both in terms of the greatest separation of cure rate from hypothyroidism rate (non-ablative therapy) or in terms of early hypothyroidism (ablative therapy) by mathematical modeling of outcome after radioiodine and critically discussing the three common methods of RaI dosing for Graves' disease. Cure follows a logarithmic relationship to activity administered or absorbed dose, while hypothyroidism follows a linear relationship. The effect of including or omitting factors in the calculation of the administered I–131 activity such as the measured thyroid uptake and effective half-life of RaI or giving extra compensation for gland size is discussed. Very little benefit can be gained by employing complicated methods of RaI dose selection for non-ablative therapy since the standard activity model shows the best potential for cure and prolonged euthyroidism. For ablative therapy, a standard MBq/g dosing provides the best outcome in terms of cure and early hypothyroidism

  16. Experimental peptide receptor radionuclide therapy in radioiodine negative somatostatin receptor positive thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilica, B.; Kroiss, A.; Putzer, D.; Uprimmy, C.; Warwitz, B.; Kendler, D.; Waitz, D.; Virgolini, I.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Purpose: This retrospective analysis evaluated the time to progression (TTP), progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with radioiodine negative thyroid cancer who had undergone peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE, 177 Lu-DOTA-LAN, 90 Y-DOTA-TOC or 90 Y-DOTA-LAN after tumor progression. Methods: Data derived from twenty patients with either differentiated (n=15), anaplastic (n=1) or medullary (n=4) somatostatin receptor positive thyroid cancer who had received treatment with PRRT after tumor progression. TTP, PFS and OS were defined according to the clinical trial endpoints suggested by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration). Progressive disease was defined by sonography, FDG-PET, Ga-DOTA-TOC-PET, or CT (RECIST Criteria). Results: In 17 patients the median overall survival time after the first PRRT was 17.3 (range: 0.1 - 109.7) months. Three patients still alive are actually showing stable disease. The median of PFS in 20 Patients (6 with more than one PRRT-cycle or PRRT-substance) has been 10.9 (range: 0.1 - 44.0) months. The median TTP was 15.6 (range 4.4 to 29.2) months. Conclusion: PRRT appears to be useful in patients with somatostatin receptor positive but radioiodine negative thyroid cancer as a complementary palliative cytotoxic therapy. (authors)

  17. Monolayer freeze-fracture autoradiography: quantitative analysis of the transmembrane distribution of radioiodinated concanavalin A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, K.A.

    1982-01-01

    The technique of monolayer freeze-fracture autoradiography (MONOFARG) has been developed and the principles, quantitation, and application of the method are described. Cell monolayers attached to polylysine-treated glass were freeze-fractured, shadowed, and coated with dry, Parlodion-supported Ilford L4 photographic emulsion at room temperature. Quantitative aspects of MONOFARG were examined using radioiodinated test systems. Background was routinely -4 grains/μm 2 /day, the highest overall efficiency was between 25% and 45%, and grain density and efficiency were dependent on radiation dose for iodine-125 and D-19 development. Corrected grain densities were linearly proportional to iodine-125 concentration. The method was applied to an examination of the transmembrane distribution of radioiodinated and fluoresceinated concanavalin A ( 125 I-FITC-Con-A). Human erythrocytes were labeled, column-purified, freeze-dried or freeze-fractured, autoradiographed, and examined by electron microscopy. The number of silver grains per square micrometer of unsplit single membrane was essentially identical to that of split extracellular membrane halves. These data demonstrate that 125 I-FITC-Con-A partitions exclusively with the extracellular half of the membrane upon freeze-fracturing and can be used as a quantitative marker for the fraction of extracellular split membrane halves. This method should be able to provide new information about certain transmembrane properties of biological membrane molecules and probes, as well as about the process of freeze-fracture per se

  18. Influence of treatment with radioiodine and propylthiouracil on thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins in Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bech, K.; Nistrup Madsen, S.

    1980-01-01

    Thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins (TSAb) were measured in fifty-four patients with Graves' disease before treatment with either radioiodine (seventeen patients) or propylthiouracil (PTU) (thirty-seven patients) and followed during treatment. After radioiodine TSAb increased to levels exceeding pretreatment values, and became detectable in three of six originally TSAb negative patients. In most patients TSAb decreased during treatment with PTU, and became undetectable after a mean of 12 months in patients above 40 years, and after a mean of 6 months in patients below 40 years. In order to eliminate the presumed causative agent in Graves' disease, antithyroid treatment should be at least 18 months in patients above 40 years, and at least 12 months in patients below 40 years of age. In twenty-nine patients TSAb were measured at cessation of 2 years antithyroid drug therapy. Ten patients were TSAb positive and all except one relapsed. Five of nineteen TSAb negative patients relapsed. Although TSAb positivity predicts relapse, it is not an ideal index of prognosis after antithyroid therapy. (author)

  19. Synthesis, evaluation and application of radioiodine labeled compounds in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M. O. M.

    2006-01-01

    This study reviews synthesis, evaluation,diagnostic and therapeutic applications of iodine radiopharmaceutical especially with 13I I and 123 I in contemporary nuclear medicine. It is well Known that iodine is used in thyroid diagnostic and therapy with sodium iodide and played an important role in diagnostic procedures using single photon emission tomography (SPECT). The study covers the general chemistry of iodine, physical properties, biological role of iodine, general uses of iodine compounds , production and decay schemes of 131 I, 125 I and 123 I in the first chapter. Preparation of radioiodine labeled compounds, quality control of radiopharmaceuticals and safety of radioiodination are dealt with in detail in two chapters. These were followed by chapters dealing in length with the chemistry, preparation, quality control, pharmacokinetics and radiation dosimetry of some iodine radiopharmaceuticals, and then current trends in diagnostic and therapeutic applications of iodine radiopharmaceuticals particularly 131 / 123 I-MIBG and 123 I-IMP. We found that the iodine radiopharmaceuticals are considered amongst principal indicators in single photon emission tomography (SPECT), and 131 / 123 I-MIBG and 123 I-IMP appear to be appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic agents for variety of diseases.(Author)

  20. Experimental basis of metabolic imaging of the myocardium with radioiodinated aromatic free fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reske, S.N.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Winkler, C.

    1986-01-01

    For the investigation of myocardial perfusion and left ventricular pump function, advanced radioisotopic techniques have been established. New developments in radiopharmacology and single-photon emission computed tomography have recently enabled the investigation of parameters of regional energy metabolism in well defined areas of the heart muscle. For this purpose, various iodine ( 123 I)-labeled free fatty acids (FFA) have been synthesized. The diagnostic application of labeled FFA in heart disease may be important, since FFA are the preferred substrates for cardiac energy production at rest in the fasting state. In addition, regional myocardial FFA uptake and regional myocardial blood flow are tightly coupled in normal myocardium with beta-oxidation which is extremely sensitive to oxygen deprivation. This article outlines the basic physiologic pathways of FFA in normal and ischemic myocardium and reviews the results of animal experiments validating the application of these principles for metabolic imaging of the heart by means of the aromatic radioiodinated FFA, 15-(p-iodophenyl)pentadecanoic acid. In addition, the development, physiologic properties, and potential applications of a new generation of 3-methyl-substituted radioiodinated fatty acids that show high myocardial uptake but prolonged retention are discussed. 64 references

  1. Detection of HCV-RNA by Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Using Biotinylated and Radioiodinated Primers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jin Sook; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Cheon, Jun Hong; Chung, Yoon Young; Park, Hung Dong; Chung, Young Hwa; Lee, Young Sang

    1994-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the clinical applicability of the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) kit of HCV-RNA using biotinylated and radioiodinated primers. Study subjects were 118 patients with positive anti-HCV. HCV-RNA in patients serum was extracted by guanidium thiocyanate method. After first amplification, the product was reamplified by primers labelled with biotin and I-125. The final amplification product was detected by counting the radioactivity after incubation in avidin coated tubes. In 51 samples, the test was repeated for evaluation of reproducibility. This new method was also compared with conventional RT-PCR methods in 34 samples from patients with chronic liver disease. The results were as follows, 1) HCV-RNA was positive in 85(97%)of 88 patients with chronic liver disease, and in 23 (73%) of 30 patients with normal liver function. 2) In comparison with conventional method, HCV-RNA was detected in 32(94%) of 34 patients with new method, whereas in 27(79% ) of the same group with conventional method 3) Repeated test with new method in 52 samples demonstrated 82% of concordant result. In conclusion, new method with biotinylated and radioiodinated primers was more sensitive than conventional method. However, great care must be taken for quality control because there were considerable interassay variation and possibility of false positivity and false negativity.

  2. Identification of frog photoreceptor plasma and disk membrane proteins by radioiodination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, P.L.; Bownds, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    Several functions have been identified for the plasma membrane of the rod outer segment, including control of light-dependent changes in sodium conductance and a sodium-calcium exchange mechanism. However, little is known about its constituent proteins. Intact rod outer segments substantially free of contaminants were prepared in the dark and purified on a density gradient of Percoll. Surface proteins were then labeled by lactoperoxidase-catalyzed radioiodination, and intact rod outer segments were reisolated. Membrane proteins were identified by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. The surface proteins labeled included rhodopsin, the major membrane protein, and 12 other proteins. To compare the protein composition of plasma membrane with that of the internal disk membrane, purified rod outer segments were lysed by hypotonic disruption or freeze-thawing, and plasma plus disk membranes were radioiodinated. In these membrane preparations, rhodopsin was the major iodinated constituent, with 12 other proteins also labeled. Autoradiographic evidence indicated some differences in protein composition between disk and plasma membranes. A quantitative comparison of the two samples showed that labeling of two proteins, 24 kilodaltons (kDa) and 13 kDa, was enriched in the plasma membrane, while labeling of a 220-kDa protein was enriched in the disk membrane. These plasma membrane proteins may be associated with important functions such as the light-sensitive conductance and the sodium-calcium exchanger

  3. Reciprocal changes in parathyroid hormone and thyroid function after radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, D.S.; Nussbaum, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism is associated with negative calcium balance, normal to increased serum calcium concentrations, and decreased cortical bone mass. There is no agreement concerning serum PTH levels in such patients. In this study, we measured serum PTH concentrations using a newly developed sensitive 2-site immunoradiometric assay in 17 hyperthyroid patients before and after radioiodine therapy. The mean serum PTH and calcium concentrations were 28 +/- 15 (+/- SD) ng/L (normal range, 12-65 ng/L) and 2.4 +/- 0.5 mmol/L (normal range, 2.1-2.6 mmol/L) before therapy. After therapy serum PTH concentrations increased in 16 of the 17 patients. The increase in serum PTH was greater in the 9 patients who became hypothyroid rapidly (29 +/- 15 to 75 +/- 29 ng/L) compared with that in the 8 patients who became euthyroid gradually (26 +/- 16 to 45 +/- 24 ng/L). Serum PTH rose along with TSH as the patients became hypothyroid after radioiodine, and both serum PTH and TSH fell when L-T4 therapy was given. The reciprocal changes in serum PTH concentrations and thyroid function over time suggest a strong association of bone mineral metabolism and thyroid status

  4. Reciprocal changes in parathyroid hormone and thyroid function after radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, D.S.; Nussbaum, S.R.

    1989-06-01

    Hyperthyroidism is associated with negative calcium balance, normal to increased serum calcium concentrations, and decreased cortical bone mass. There is no agreement concerning serum PTH levels in such patients. In this study, we measured serum PTH concentrations using a newly developed sensitive 2-site immunoradiometric assay in 17 hyperthyroid patients before and after radioiodine therapy. The mean serum PTH and calcium concentrations were 28 +/- 15 (+/- SD) ng/L (normal range, 12-65 ng/L) and 2.4 +/- 0.5 mmol/L (normal range, 2.1-2.6 mmol/L) before therapy. After therapy serum PTH concentrations increased in 16 of the 17 patients. The increase in serum PTH was greater in the 9 patients who became hypothyroid rapidly (29 +/- 15 to 75 +/- 29 ng/L) compared with that in the 8 patients who became euthyroid gradually (26 +/- 16 to 45 +/- 24 ng/L). Serum PTH rose along with TSH as the patients became hypothyroid after radioiodine, and both serum PTH and TSH fell when L-T4 therapy was given. The reciprocal changes in serum PTH concentrations and thyroid function over time suggest a strong association of bone mineral metabolism and thyroid status.

  5. Radioiodine uptake and thyroid hormone levels on or off simultaneous carbimazole medication. A prospective paired comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, M.A.; Mueller-Brand, J.; Christ-Crain, M.; Mueller, B.

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To allow radioiodine (RAI) treatment in patients with need for anti-thyroid drug medication and low RAI uptakes we investigated the feasibility of discontinuing carbimazole for 3 days to enhance the RAI uptake without concurrent exacerbation of hyperthyroidism. Methods: We prospectively investigated RAI dynamics and thyroid hormone concentration in 12 patients with low RAI uptake ( 4 , T 3 and TSH were monitored. Results: Discontinuation of carbimazole for 3 days led to a significant increase of RAI uptake in all patients. We found an enhancement up to 4.9-fold compared to the measurement on carbimazole. The mean RAI uptake increased from 15.2±4.4% to 50.1±15.5% (p<0.001). The intrapersonal radioiodine half-life increased from 4.2±1.6 days to 5.4±0.7 days (p=0.13). Mean thyroid hormone concentration was not affected by the three day withdrawal of anti-thyroid drugs and no patient suffered from an aggravation of biochemical hyperthyroidism. Conclusion: A withdrawal of carbimazole for 3 days is long enough to provide sufficiently high RAI uptakes for RAI treatment in patients with low RAI uptakes and short enough to avoid the risk of exacerbation of hyperthyroidism. (orig.)

  6. Radioiodine uptake and thyroid hormone levels on or off simultaneous carbimazole medication. A prospective paired comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, M.A.; Mueller-Brand, J. [Inst. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital Basel (Switzerland); Christ-Crain, M.; Mueller, B. [Div. of Endocrinology, Univ. Hospital Basel (Switzerland)

    2005-02-01

    Aim: To allow radioiodine (RAI) treatment in patients with need for anti-thyroid drug medication and low RAI uptakes we investigated the feasibility of discontinuing carbimazole for 3 days to enhance the RAI uptake without concurrent exacerbation of hyperthyroidism. Methods: We prospectively investigated RAI dynamics and thyroid hormone concentration in 12 patients with low RAI uptake (<30%) under simultaneous carbimazole medication and 3 days after discontinuation. At both time points fT{sub 4}, T{sub 3} and TSH were monitored. Results: Discontinuation of carbimazole for 3 days led to a significant increase of RAI uptake in all patients. We found an enhancement up to 4.9-fold compared to the measurement on carbimazole. The mean RAI uptake increased from 15.2{+-}4.4% to 50.1{+-}15.5% (p<0.001). The intrapersonal radioiodine half-life increased from 4.2{+-}1.6 days to 5.4{+-}0.7 days (p=0.13). Mean thyroid hormone concentration was not affected by the three day withdrawal of anti-thyroid drugs and no patient suffered from an aggravation of biochemical hyperthyroidism. Conclusion: A withdrawal of carbimazole for 3 days is long enough to provide sufficiently high RAI uptakes for RAI treatment in patients with low RAI uptakes and short enough to avoid the risk of exacerbation of hyperthyroidism. (orig.)

  7. Treatment with antithyroid drugs or iodine following radioiodine therapy for Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazeto, Glaucia; Leal, B.M.B.; Souza, L.S.; Griva, B.L.; Moriguchi, S.M.; Moreira, C.C.; Lemos, A.C.; Kiy, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The effect of radioiodine ( 131 I) therapy in Graves' disease is gradual and the patients continue to be hyperthyroid for much time after this therapy. In a retrospective study, we compared the evolution of 196 patients in this situation treated with some therapeutic regimens. They received propylthiouracil or methimazole (ATD), one of them and potassium iodide (KI), KI only, or no drugs after 131 I therapy. ATD was started usually one day and KI two months after the radioiodine. The groups had similar age, pretreatment serum T 4 concentrations and 131 I treatment dose. Cure of the hyperthyroidism occurred in 83,9%, 75,5%, 75,0% and 70,6% in no-drugs, KI, ATD and KI-ATD groups, respectively. Hyperthyroidism was longer in KI and KI-ATD groups. Definitive hypothyroidism occurred in 39,2%, 47,2%, 52,9% and 66,1% in KI-ATD, KI, ATD and no-drugs groups, respectively. This condition appeared more quickly in no-drugs and ATD groups. Conclusion: We conclude that KI and ATD groups had similar evolutions as to cure of hyperthyroidism and occurrence of hypothyroidism. (author)

  8. Detection of HCV-RNA by Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Using Biotinylated and Radioiodinated Primers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jin Sook; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Cheon, Jun Hong; Chung, Yoon Young; Park, Hung Dong; Chung, Young Hwa; Lee, Young Sang [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-15

    This study was performed to evaluate the clinical applicability of the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) kit of HCV-RNA using biotinylated and radioiodinated primers. Study subjects were 118 patients with positive anti-HCV. HCV-RNA in patients serum was extracted by guanidium thiocyanate method. After first amplification, the product was reamplified by primers labelled with biotin and I-125. The final amplification product was detected by counting the radioactivity after incubation in avidin coated tubes. In 51 samples, the test was repeated for evaluation of reproducibility. This new method was also compared with conventional RT-PCR methods in 34 samples from patients with chronic liver disease. The results were as follows, 1) HCV-RNA was positive in 85(97%)of 88 patients with chronic liver disease, and in 23 (73%) of 30 patients with normal liver function. 2) In comparison with conventional method, HCV-RNA was detected in 32(94%) of 34 patients with new method, whereas in 27(79% ) of the same group with conventional method 3) Repeated test with new method in 52 samples demonstrated 82% of concordant result. In conclusion, new method with biotinylated and radioiodinated primers was more sensitive than conventional method. However, great care must be taken for quality control because there were considerable interassay variation and possibility of false positivity and false negativity.

  9. Reversion of thyrotoxic atrial fibrillation in hypothyroid state after radioiodine treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Makiko; Saito, Shintaro; Sakurada, Toshiro; Yoshida, Katsumi; Kaise, Kazuro; Kaise, Nobuko; Fukazawa, Hiroshi; Itagaki, Yoichi; Yoshinaga, Kaoru (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-06-01

    Twenty patients with thyrotoxic Basedow's disease complicated by atrial fibrillation lasting more than one month despite treatment with antithyroidal drugs were treated with radioiodine supplemented with an antithyroidal drug or inorganic iodine. We classified the 20 patients on the basis of strial fibrillation reversion into two groups, one with reversion (group I) and the other without reversion (group II). In all 12 patients in group I, T{sub 4} and T{sub 3} decreased to hypothyroid levels in 3.2{+-}1.3 months, and one month later all patients had their sinus rhythm restored while T{sub 4} and T{sub 3} also remained below normal (2.6{+-}1.1 {mu}g/dl and 77.9{+-}34.4 ng/dl, respectively). Although T{sub 4} and T{sub 3} also decreased within 3.5{+-}1.8 months in all 8 patients in group II, one month later, atrial fibrillation persisted while T{sub 4} and T{sub 3} (10.4{+-}5.3 {mu}g/dl and 157.7{+-}67.5 ng/dl, respectively) rose significantly compared to those in group I (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively). For reversion of atrial fibrillation it is important that the onset of hypothyroidism is rapidly induced by radioiodine and that hypothyroidism continues for at least one month. (author).

  10. Iodine kinetics and effectiveness of stable iodine prophylaxis after intake of radioiodine: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geoffroy, B.; Verger, P.; Le Guen, B.

    2000-01-01

    Ingestion of stable iodine (potassium iodide) offers an efficient protection against the irradiation of the thyroid when an accidental exposure to radioiodine occurs. This prophylaxis aims at obtaining a rapid and maximum thyroid protection without antithyroid effects. This article reviews studies on iodine kinetics in the human and on stable iodine effectiveness to protect the thyroid. In adults with a normal thyroid function, ingestion of 100 mg of iodide just before exposure to radioiodine allows a percentage of thyroid averted dose equal or greater than 95%. If the exposure persists after iodide ingestion (100 mg), the percentage of averted dose may decrease significantly. Repeated ingestion of daily amounts of 15 mg of stable iodine would then allow to maintain a 90% effectiveness. Iodide effectiveness and antithyroid effects also depend on external and individual factors such as iodine amounts in the diet, thyroid function and age. It is recommended to adapt the amount of ingested stable iodine according to age at the time of exposure. (author)

  11. Preparation, purification and primary bioevaluation of radioiodinated ofloxacin. An imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandil, Shaban; Seddik, Usama; Hussien, Hiba; Shaltot, Mohamed; El-Tabl, Abdou

    2015-01-01

    The broad-spectrum antibiotic agents have been demonstrated as promising diagnostic tools for early detection of infectious lesions. We set out ofloxacin (Oflo), a second-generation fluoroquinolone, for the radioiodination process. In particular, this was carried out with 125 I via an electrophilic substitution reaction. The radiochemical yield was influenced by different factors; drug concentration, different oxidizing agents, e.g. chloramine-T, iodogen and n-bromosuccinimide, pH of medium, reaction time, temperature and different organic media. These parameters were studied to optimize the best conditions for labeling with ofloxacin. We found that radiolabeling in ethanol medium showed a 70% radiochemical yield of 125 I-ofloxacin. The radioiodination was determined by means of TLC and HPLC. The cold labeled Oflo ( 127 I-Oflo) was prepared and controlled by HPLC. The cold labeled Oflo was also confirmed by NMR and MS techniques. Furthermore, biodistribution studies for labeled 125 I-Oflo were examined in two independent groups (3 mice in each one); control and E. Coli-injected (inflamed). The radiotracer showed a good localization in muscle of thigh for inflamed group as compared to control. In conclusion, ofloxacine might be a promising target as an anti-inflammatory imaging agent.

  12. Preparation, purification and primary bioevaluation of radioiodinated ofloxacin. An imaging agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandil, Shaban; Seddik, Usama; Hussien, Hiba; Shaltot, Mohamed [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Cyclotron Project; El-Tabl, Abdou [Monofia Univ. (Egypt). Faculty of Science

    2015-07-01

    The broad-spectrum antibiotic agents have been demonstrated as promising diagnostic tools for early detection of infectious lesions. We set out ofloxacin (Oflo), a second-generation fluoroquinolone, for the radioiodination process. In particular, this was carried out with {sup 125}I via an electrophilic substitution reaction. The radiochemical yield was influenced by different factors; drug concentration, different oxidizing agents, e.g. chloramine-T, iodogen and n-bromosuccinimide, pH of medium, reaction time, temperature and different organic media. These parameters were studied to optimize the best conditions for labeling with ofloxacin. We found that radiolabeling in ethanol medium showed a 70% radiochemical yield of {sup 125}I-ofloxacin. The radioiodination was determined by means of TLC and HPLC. The cold labeled Oflo ({sup 127}I-Oflo) was prepared and controlled by HPLC. The cold labeled Oflo was also confirmed by NMR and MS techniques. Furthermore, biodistribution studies for labeled {sup 125}I-Oflo were examined in two independent groups (3 mice in each one); control and E. Coli-injected (inflamed). The radiotracer showed a good localization in muscle of thigh for inflamed group as compared to control. In conclusion, ofloxacine might be a promising target as an anti-inflammatory imaging agent.

  13. Radioiodine therapy of Graves' disease - a dosimetric comparison of different strategies concerning antithyroid drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbannek, V.; Voth, E.; Moka, D.; Schicha, H.

    2001-01-01

    Aim: Premedication with antithyroid drugs (ATD) compared to patients not pretreated with ATD causes a higher failure rate of radioiodine therapy (RITh) or demands higher therapeutical dosage of radioiodine (RI). For clinical reasons and because of accelerated iodine metabolism in hyperthyreosis a compensated thyroid metabolism is desirable. Aim of this study was to investigate the influence of ATD on the biokinetics of RI in case of Graves' disease in order to improve RITh of patients pre-treated with ATD. Methods: 385 consecutive patients who underwent RITh because of Graves' disease for the first time were included: Group A (n = 74): RITh under continuous medication with ATD; Group B (n = 111): Application of RI under continuous medication with ATD, in case of insufficient RI-uptake or shortened effective RI-half-life ATD were stopped 1-5 days after RITh; Group C (n = 200): ATD were stopped 2 days prior to RITh in all patients. We examined the influence of ATD on RI-uptake and effective RI-half-life as well as the absorbed dose achieved on the thyroid in dependence of thyroid volume and applied RI-dosage [TEQ - therapy efficiency quotient, (2)]. Results: In the RI-pretest (all patients under ATD) the RI-uptake was comparable in all three groups. During RITh-RI-uptake, effective RI-half-life and therefore the TEQ were significantly higher in Group C as compared to Groups A and B (p [de

  14. Evaluation of radioiodinated curcumin for its potential as a tumor-targeting radiopharmaceutical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Chandan; Subramanian, Suresh; Samuel, Grace

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin, a component of the spice turmeric has widely reported anticancer properties in several types of cancer. The differential accumulation and mechanism of its action in normal and cancer cells have proven its potential in targeting tumor. Therefore, it was of interest to label curcumin with a suitable radionuclide and explore its potential for use in nuclear medicine. Curcumin was labeled with "1"2"5I by iodogen method. The radiochemical purity was analyzed by paper electrophoresis and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Cell binding was carried out in murine lymphoma and melanoma cell lines. Bioevaluation and pharmacokinetics of radioiodinated curcumin was carried out in lymphoma-bearing mice for various time points (1, 3, 24, and 48 h). The efficiency of labeling was >75% and the radiochemical purity postpurification was >95%. The maximum uptake (∼7% at 2 h, 37°C using 5 X 10"5 cells) was observed in EL4 cells. Significant tumor uptake in lymphoma-bearing mice was observed at 180 min (3.3 ± 0.76% ID/g). In addition, pharmacokinetics of radioiodinated curcumin is fast, with the majority of the preparation out of the bloodstream in 3 h. The results of these studies suggest that curcumin has the potential for targeting lymphomas, which may be used as diagnostic/therapeutic agent by labeling with other radionuclides. (author)

  15. Radioiodine therapy for hyperthyroidism - changing pattern of management over three decades at INMAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravi Shankar, L.; Prakash, R.; Sharma, S.K.; Khanna, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    Iodine-131 therapy is a relatively simple effective and economical method of treating hyperthyroidism. Even fifty years after the introduction of radioactive iodine, there is no concensus on the approach for selection of the dose for treatment of hyperthyroidism. Since the last three decades, the approach for radioiodine therapy at this Institute has been to treat with low, fractionated doses to produce partial destruction of the thyroid gland leaving the patient sufficient functioning gland for normal hormone production. New in vitro diagnostic techniques including free T 3 , T 4 and sensitive TSH assay have been introduced over the past decade for the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism. Changes in the thyroid radioactive iodine uptake in the population due to introduction of iodized salt, and the high incidence of persistent hyperthyroidism after low dose radioiodine therapy have prompted to go for a proportionate increase in the 131 I original dose schedules based on goitre grades. This has led to a nominal increase in the incidence of post therapy hypothyroidism. However the basic principle of low, fractionated dose therapy is still being followed at this Institute, which appears suitable for social and economic conditions in India. (author). 19 refs., 2 tabs

  16. Influence of oral rinsing on the exposure of salivary glands during radioiodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luetzen, U.; Silvia, P.; Zhao, Y.; Marx, M.; Winkler, C.; Zuhayra, M.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Aim: the salivary glands (SG) constitute a risk organ during a radioiodine therapy of thyroid. A possible side effect is xerostomia. This study investigates whether repeated rinsing of the mouth with water during radioiodine therapy significantly extracts I-131 from the circuit between saliva and the gastrointestinal tract, and thus whether radiation exposure of the patient's SG is reduced. Methods: the control group consisted of 45 patients, ages 32 to 81 years, (mean 62 years, 8 male, 37 female), and received radioiodine therapy without rinsing their mouths. An intervention group of 42 patients, ages 36 to 88 years, (mean 61 years, 8 male, 34 female), with a benign or malignant thyroid disease, were asked 15-17 hours after capsule administration to rinse their mouths hourly with water for the next two days. The intervention group (n = 42) was divided into three groups. A low-risk group (n = 22) received between 0.4 and 1.0 GBq I-131 (mean 0.746), a medium risk group (n = 15) between 1.2 and 2.0 GBq (mean 1.783), and the high-risk group (n = 5) between 3.0 and 6.0 GBq (mean 3.600) respectively. To assess the function of the SG, scintigrams were performed prior to and 3 months after the radioiodine therapy. The estimation of the activity in the gastrointestinal tract was performed using whole-body scintigraphy on the day of release. Both, the SG and the whole body (WB) scintigraphies were evaluated using the region-of-interest technique. Furthermore, the activity of the collected saliva was quantified using a calibrated well-type detector. Results: the mean values of the activity extracted into the water-saliva mixture were 0.72% ± 0.3% and 0.14% ± 0.05% of the applied dose on the first and second day after capsule administration respectively. The analysis of the SG scintigrams of the low and medium risk groups showed no significant decrease in salivary gland function. Only in the high-risk group a significant loss of

  17. Radioiodinated iodobenzoyl conjugates of a monoclonal antibody Fab fragment. In vivo comparisons with chloramine-T-labeled Fab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilbur, D.S.; Hadley, S.W.; Grant, L.M.; Hylarides, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    A comparative investigation of the biodistributions of radioiodinated p- and m-iodobenzoyl conjugates of a monoclonal antibody Fab fragment, NR-LU-10 Fab, and the same antibody Fab fragment radioiodinated by the chloramine-T (ChT) method has been carried out in mice. Coinjected, dual-isotope studies in athymic mice with tumor xenografts have demonstrated that there are only minor differences in the in vivo distributions of the iodobenzoyl-labeled Fabs, except in the excretory organs, kidneys, and intestines, where major differences were observed. Similarly, coinjection of either the p-iodobenzoyl or m-iodobenzoyl conjugate of NR-LU-10 Fab with the Fab radioiodinated with ChT/radioiodide into BALB/c mice provided additional data that indicated that the two iodobenzoyl conjugates distributed similar in a number of selected tissues. The tissue-distribution differences of the regioisomeric iodobenzoyl conjugates in relation to the ChT-radioiodinated Fab were large for the stomach and neck, consistent with previous studies. The most notable difference between the two iodobenzoyl conjugates was the kidney activity, where the m-iodobenzoyl conjugate was similar to the directly labeled Fab, but the p-iodobenzoyl-conjugated Fab was higher by nearly a factor of 2

  18. Guide-line of the radio-iodine (131I) therapy in Graves' disease and thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Yutaka; Ikekubo, Katsuji

    2005-01-01

    Radio-iodine ( 131 I) therapy has been using in Graves' disease and well differentiated thyroid cancer. The rules of control in the discharge from radio-isotope hospital were notified in 1999 in Japan. Guideline of the 131 I therapy in Graves' disease and thyroid cancer were prepared by sub-group of Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine. (author)

  19. Study into the effects of stable iodine diets for reducing the transfer of radioiodine to cow milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefer, P.; Voigt, G.

    1999-01-01

    The results of a literature study were taken as a basis for the experimental planning approach. The experimental results and their evaluation yielded new insight into the usefulness of stable iodine diets with respect to the iodine metabolism and the radioiodine transfer in dairy cows. (orig./CB) [de

  20. New Molecular Targeted Therapy and Redifferentiation Therapy for Radioiodine-Refractory Advanced Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Pun Wong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the majority of papillary thyroid carcinoma could be successfully managed by complete surgical resection alone or resection followed by radioiodine ablation, a small proportion of patients may develop radioiodine-refractory progressive disease which is not amenable to surgery, local ablative treatment or other treatment modalities. The use of FDG-PET/CT scan for persistent/recurrent disease has improved the accuracy of restaging as well as cancer prognostication. Given that patients with RAI-refractory disease tend to do significantly worse than those with radioiodine-avid or non-progressive disease, an increasing number of phase I and II studies have been conducted to evaluate the efficacy of new molecular targeted drugs such as the tyrosine kinase inhibitors and redifferentiation drugs. The overall response rate of these drugs ranged between 0–53%, depending on whether the patients had been previously treated with these drugs, performance status and extent of disease. However, drug toxicity remains a major concern in administration of target therapies. Nevertheless, there are also ongoing phase III studies evaluating the efficacy of these new drugs. The aim of the review was to summarize and discuss the results of these targeted drugs and redifferentiation agents for patients with progressive, radioiodine-refractory papillary thyroid carcinoma.

  1. Radioiodine therapy of benign thyroid diseases: Graves' disease - current aspects; Radioiodtherapie gutartiger Schilddruesenerkrankungen: Morbus Basedow - aktuelle Aspekte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, M.J. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Univ. Bonn (Germany)

    2005-06-01

    Radioiodine therapy is a reliable and cost-effective alternative to medical treatment of Graves' hyperthyroidism. Current recommendations favour a risk-adapted therapeutic procedure. Medical treatment is preferred in patients with a low risk of relapse which are characterised by the combination of female gender, age of onset above 40 years, thyroid volume below 40 ml and TSH-receptor antibodies below 10 U/l. Because of the poor remission rate with medical treatment in patients at less than 40 years of age, male gender, thyroid volume above 40 ml and TSH receptor antibodies above 10 U/l, it is suggested that definitive treatment with radioiodine or surgery should be considered soon after disease presentation. Analysis of cost-effectiveness clearly favour ablative radioiodine treatment. Ablative treatment is even more favourable in terms of early resumption of a normal life style of the hyperthyroid patient. Recent publications suggest further an adaptation of the tissue-absorbed dose to the pre-treatment thyroid volume using Marinelli's formula to achieve thyroid ablation with a single radioiodine treatment. (orig.)

  2. The Change of the Salivary Function after the High Dose Radioiodine Treatment in the patients with Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, S. M.; Hong, S. W.; Lee, J. O.; Kang, T. W.

    1989-01-01

    The pain, swelling of salivary glands and dry mouth are not infrequent complication of the high dose radioiodine treatment in the patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. The purpose of this study was, by the dynamic salivary scintigraphy, to observe the change of the salivary function after the high dose (150-200 mCi) radioiodine treatment. From May 1987 to April 1988, the dynamic salivary scintigraphy with 5 mCi of 99m Tc-pertechnetate and gamma camera was performed before and 7 days after the radioiodine treatment in 7 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. Just after the dynamic scintigraphy, the stimulation test with vitamin C solution of pH 3.0 and poststimulation scintigraphy were done, and the radioactivity uptake index, excretion fraction and salivary clearance after the stimulation were calculated for each gland. There was positive correlation between the radioactivity uptake index and excretion fraction after the stimulation. The salivary clearance after the stimulation was 18.96 ± 8.95 ml/min in the pretreatment state, and 14.37 ± 7.7 ml/min after the radioiodine treatment. After the radioiodine treatment, the radioactivity uptake index, excretion fraction and salivary clearance after the stimulation were significantly reduced in the parotid glands, but only the excretion fraction was reduced in the submandibular glands. The more the pretreatment salivary clearance after the stimulation was, the % change after the treatment was smaller. Further studies on the relation between the radiation dose in the salivary glands and the change of their function, and the long-term observation for the recovery of function are expected.

  3. Clinical outcomes after estimated versus calculated activity of radioiodine for the treatment of hyperthyroidism: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rooij, A; Vandenbroucke, J P; Smit, J W A; Stokkel, M P M; Dekkers, O M

    2009-11-01

    Despite the long experience with radioiodine for hyperthyroidism, controversy remains regarding the optimal method to determine the activity that is required to achieve long-term euthyroidism. To compare the effect of estimated versus calculated activity of radioiodine in hyperthyroidism. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched the databases Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library for randomized and nonrandomized studies, comparing the effect of activity estimation methods with dosimetry for hyperthyroidism. The main outcome measure was the frequency of treatment success, defined as persistent euthyroidism after radioiodine treatment at the end of follow-up in the dose estimated and calculated dosimetry group. Furthermore, we assessed the cure rates of hyperthyroidism. Three randomized and five nonrandomized studies, comparing the effect of estimated versus calculated activity of radioiodine on clinical outcomes for the treatment of hyperthyroidism, were included. The weighted mean relative frequency of successful treatment outcome (euthyroidism) was 1.03 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91-1.16) for estimated versus calculated activity; the weighted mean relative frequency of cure of hyperthyroidism (eu- or hypothyroidism) was 1.03 (95% CI 0.96-1.10). Subgroup analysis showed a relative frequency of euthyroidism of 1.03 (95% CI 0.84-1.26) for Graves' disease and of 1.05 (95% CI 0.91-1.19) for toxic multinodular goiter. The two main methods used to determine the activity in the treatment of hyperthyroidism with radioiodine, estimated and calculated, resulted in an equally successful treatment outcome. However, the heterogeneity of the included studies is a strong limitation that prevents a definitive conclusion from this meta-analysis.

  4. Radioiodine (I-131) application in the management of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) audit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanayakkara, D.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) remains one of the curable of all cancers. All literature reviews and clinical experiences regarding I 131 use in DTC conclude the beneficial effects, better prognosis, longer survival time and an assurance for cure. The Overall prognosis of patients with DTC is excellent if treat scientifically, adequately and timely. The management of thyroid cancer depends on the resources available in different institutions. Nuclear Medicine unit (NMU), Faculty of Medicine Peradeniya, Sri Lanka is in the process of uplifting the services for thyroid cancer management. Clinical audit was carried out in NMU on patients who utilized the Nuclear Medicine facilities in the management of DTC. It is important to identify deficiencies in current practice to improve our services. During January 2004 to March 2005, 126 DTC patients were referred for radioiodine Whole body scan (WBS) and therapy. Their age, sex, histology, extent of surgery, adequacy of thyroxine suppression treatment, monitoring with serum thyroglobulin levels (Tg), WBS results and radioiodine therapy were analyzed. There were 104(82.5%) females and 22(17.5%) males giving sex ratio of 4.7: 1. The Mean age was 35.5 years (range 9-58 years). The commonest histological types were papillary carcinoma 55.5% (n=70), follicular carcinoma 35% (n=44) and follicular variant of papillary carcinoma 9.5% (n=12). Seventy five percent (n=95) had total thyroidectomy (TT), 17 %(n=21) had near total thyroidectomy (NTT) and 8%(n=10) had subtotal thyroidectomy (STT). Sixty-nine patients (54.8%) were on thyroid suppression therapy. Thirty-six patients (28.6%) were referred to the WBS soon after surgery without initiation of thyroxine treatment. Another twenty-one patients (16.6%) were not on thyroxine therapy since surgery. Serum thyroglobulin was assessed on 20.6% (n=26). WBS done using 3-4 mCi liquid radioiodine showed residual functioning thyroid tissues in 41% (n=52). Lymph nodes or bone

  5. Whether antithyroid drugs influence on the outcome of radioiodine therapy of thyroid functional autonomy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valuyevich, Viktar V.; Danilova, Larisa I.; Kaiser, Klaus P.; Ostwald-Lenz, Elisabeth; Wieler, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The purpose of research was an estimation of the influence of antithyroid medication on efficiency of radioiodine therapy (RIT) in patients with thyroid functional autonomy (FA). 100 patients with various clinical variants of FA were included in research and received treatment with radioiodine. From them uni-focal autonomy (UFA) was diagnosed in 65 person, multifocal (MFA) in 14 and disseminated (DA) in 21. Among the patients included in research 8 had relapse of hyperthyroidism after initial operative treatment and 1 after RIT. The data in work are submitted as a median (1-st and 3-rd quartiles). The age of surveyed was 65.5 (54; 72.5), from them 63 persons were a female, 37 were a male. From surveyed 2 groups of patients were formed. The first group consisted from 50 person, initially accepting during 4 months (2.5; 6) antithyroid drugs (ATD) which cancellation had been made as a rule 2 day prior to RIT, and the second one included 50 person, not accepting ATD neither up to nor after RIT. 9 elderly and multi morbid patients from the first group continued to accept ATD within several months after RIT. Carbimazole (n=45) or methimazole (n=5) in a dose of 10 mg (5; 10) were used as ATD. Therapeutic activity of 131 I was calculated by means of Marinelli's formula. The target dose for UFA has made 400 Gy, for MFA and DA - 150 Gy. For calculation of thyroid uptake 24-hour radioiodine test was carried 2-3 day prior to RIT. Used activity of I-131 have made from 4.08 up to 58.89 mCi. Duration of inpatient stay has made 3 days (2; 5). In 4 months (4; 5) after RIT the successful result (euthyroidism or hypothyroidism) has been achieved in 48 (96 %) patients accepting ATD, and in 47 (94 %) patients who were not accepting last. Conclusion: The conclusion that antithyroid medication does not influence on the efficiency of RIT of FA was made. It was revealed that frequency of hypothyroidism after RIT in patients of the first group was higher (36 %) than in patients

  6. The influence of radioiodine therapy in 1470 patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelrazek, S.; Szumowski, P.; Mysliwiec, J.; Mojsak, M.; Kraszynska, A.; Amelian-Filonowicz, A.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. The aim of our study was to assess the influence of radioiodine ( 131 I) therapy on the achievement of euthyroidism, prevention of adverse effects on the cardiovascular and prevent evolvement to overt hyperthyroidism. Material and methods: we treated 1470 patients sent to our department during the last 7 years, aged 24-76 years; 88% of them were female and 12% male; 490 patients with multi-nodular goitre (MNG), and 980 patients with autonomous nodule (ATN). Some of the patients were treated with antithyroid drugs for 1 to 3 months before 131 I therapy (140 patients). Malignant changes were excluded in all nodules by fine needle aspiration biopsy. All the patients had serum TSH levels <0.1 mU/l and effective T-half was more than 3 days at the time of treatment. The activity dose was calculated by the use of Marinelli's formula and ranged between 200 and 800 MBq. The absorbed dose (Gy) ranged between 180 and 300, and was proportional to thyroid volume. Follow up control was done every 6 weeks. Results: euthyroidism achieved in 99% of patient with ATN and 94% of MNG; 1% of patients with ATN and 5% of patients with MNG develop hypothyroidism. 1% of patients with MNG were in subclinical hyperthyroidism and received second dose of radioiodine therapy. In all of the patients, the symptoms and signs of subclinical hyperthyroidism disappeared (palpitation, tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, exercise tolerance improved, the blood pressure normalised and the quality of life improved). Conclusions: our result is good and is in the range of the existing literature. The achievement of euthyroidism and the remission of the symptoms and signs of subclinical hyperthyroidism, were due to good diagnosis, well preparation of the patients; accurate measurement of administered activity, effective half-life, and well-organised follow up. We recommend early treatment of subclinical hyperthyroidism, and long period of follow up visits in our department

  7. Effect of radioiodine therapy on thyroid nodule size in patients with toxic adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajkovaca, Z.; Mijatovic, J.; Skrobis, M.; Kovacevic, P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Autonomously functioning toxic adenomas are a common cause of hyperthyroidism. Surgery, radioiodine and percutaneous ethanol injection into the nodule are effective therapies. Radioiodine therapy is increasingly used as first line therapy especially in elderly patients. Radioactive iodine I-131 seems to be a good therapeutic option with low incidence of post-therapy hypothyroidism. The important therapeutic effect has also been the regression in nodule size. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of radioiodine therapy on the size of toxic adenomas. Forty-six patients with age range of 37-76 years (Mean age=60.9 years) were followed up for a period of 12 months after I-131 therapy for toxic adenomas. Thyroid hormone levels (T3, T4 and TSH) were determined. Each patient was subjected to ultrasound and radionuclide scanning of thyroid gland at 3,6 and 12 months following I-131 therapy. Successful treatment was defined as control of hyperthyroidism and reappearance of extra-glandular thyroid tissue on Thyroid scan, which were suppressed by the hyperactive nodule prior to therapy. The volumes of the thyroid pre and post-therapy were estimated by US using the formula of ellipsoid model (δ/2π6 x length x width x depth). The therapeutic dose of I-131 was calculated for each patient by the following formula: 12 mCi x 100/24 hrs RAIU. Patients received a single dose of I-131 and the range of administered I-131 dose was 825 1221 MBq. Results revealed that 42 patients (91%) became euthyroid in three months after I-131. All patients became euthyroid in 6 months. The adenomas were reduced in size from a mean of 18.23+11.21 ml to 7.38+3.48 ml during the 12 months follow up. This was highly significant (p<0.05, t=3.408). The extra-nodular thyroid volume did not change following therapy (12.2+7.4 ml pre-therapy vs. 11.8+7.1 ml post therapy at 12 months). The results of our study showed that I-131 can successfully treat not only the functional state of

  8. Sensitive TSH assay in the assessment of thyroid function and its value in the follow-up of hyperthyroidism treated with radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masjhur, J.S.; Ilyas, R.A.M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper confirms the value of ''sensitive'' TSH assay in thyroid function assessment of untreated subjects and those who have undergone radioiodine treatment for hyperthyroidism from 120 patients. (ELC). 3 tabs.; 1 fig.; 7 refs

  9. The superiority and benefits of whole body imaging after radioiodine -131 therapy over radioiodine 131 diagnostic imaging in management of thyroid carcinomas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleid, M A [Al-Mostansyria university, college of medicine P.O.Box 14132, Baghdad, (Iraq)

    1995-10-01

    A comparison between diagnostic and post therapeutic radioiodine imaging methods utilized in detection of thyroid metastases in 34 patients with well differentiated thyroid cancer was performed. The study revealed that the differences in detection on neck activity only between the two methods for papillary and follicular thyroid cancer were 35% and 27% respectively. While the overall detection percentages in both papillary and follicular thyroid cancers cases were 23% in diagnostic and 76% in post therapy scintigrams and the detection difference between the methods was 53% when all lesions throughout the body were seen on scintigram for only follicular thyroid cancer cases were counted, the detection percentage was increased up to 109%. It is clear that post therapeutic scans visualize an additional site activity not shown in diagnostic scans. There fore, post therapeutic imaging method is far superior to diagnostic imaging method and highly sensitive in visualization of thyroid metastases. On the other hand, this research also achieves many scientific and financial benefits. Therefore. This method should be adopted in management and follow up of well differentiated malignancies. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. The superiority and benefits of whole body imaging after radioiodine -131 therapy over radioiodine 131 diagnostic imaging in management of thyroid carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleid, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    A comparison between diagnostic and post therapeutic radioiodine imaging methods utilized in detection of thyroid metastases in 34 patients with well differentiated thyroid cancer was performed. The study revealed that the differences in detection on neck activity only between the two methods for papillary and follicular thyroid cancer were 35% and 27% respectively. While the overall detection percentages in both papillary and follicular thyroid cancers cases were 23% in diagnostic and 76% in post therapy scintigrams and the detection difference between the methods was 53% when all lesions throughout the body were seen on scintigram for only follicular thyroid cancer cases were counted, the detection percentage was increased up to 109%. It is clear that post therapeutic scans visualize an additional site activity not shown in diagnostic scans. There fore, post therapeutic imaging method is far superior to diagnostic imaging method and highly sensitive in visualization of thyroid metastases. On the other hand, this research also achieves many scientific and financial benefits. Therefore. This method should be adopted in management and follow up of well differentiated malignancies. 2 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Small-scale extraction and radioiodination of human hormones for the substitution of imported radioimmunoassay reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimbo, E.K.; Ribela, M.T.C.P.; Borghi, V.C.; Schwarz, I.; Morganti, L.; Araujo, E.A.; Bartolini, P.

    1988-01-01

    The methods for national production of radioimmunoassay reagents to substitute imported kits of: highly purified unlabelled hormones for radioiodination; 125 I-labelled hormones; and specific high titre antisera are presented. The extraction and purification of human growth hormone (hGH) and human luteinizing hormone (hGH) were done from human pituitaries. The 125 I-labelled hormones are obtained by stoichiometric methods. The 125 I-hGH, 125 I-hLH, I-hTSH and 125 I- h calcitonin were prepared and tested in internal and external quality control, in comparison with imported products. The parameters such as: maximum binding to specific antiserum (Bo), nonspecific binding (NSB), mean effective dose (ED 50), sensitivity and accuracy were evaluated. (M.C.K.) [pt

  12. Current opinions on the radioiodine treatment of Graves' hyperthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Woo; Lee, Jae Tae [School of Medicine, Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-01

    Radioactive iodine therapy using I-131 for hyperthyroidism has been used for more than 50 years, and generally considered safe and devoid of major side effects. Appropriate patient selection criteria and clinical judgement concerning patient preparation should be employed for its optimal use. It has not been possible to resolve the trade-off between efficient definite cure of hyperthyroidism and the high incidence of post-therapy hypothyroidism. The dose of the I-131 needed to maintain euthyroid state remains an area of uncertainty and debate. Early side effects are uncommon and readily manageable. Other than the need for long-term monitoring and, in most cases, lifelong thyroid hormone treatment for late adverse consequences of this treatment remains only conjectural. We have reviewed general principles and recent advances in radioiodine treatment for Graves' hyperthyroidism, specially regarding to several controversies.

  13. A 30-year perspective on radioiodine therapy of benign nontoxic multinodular goiter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnema, Steen J; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2009-01-01

    rate of permanent hypothyroidism, whereas other side-effects are very modest when using a rhTSH dose of 0.1 mg or below. SUMMARY: RhTSH-stimulated radioiodine therapy of benign nontoxic multinodular goiter is still an off-label use but several trials have shown that this treatment is significantly more......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is no consensus on the ideal treatment of patients with a benign nontoxic multinodular goiter. In some European countries, (131)I therapy has replaced surgery as the treatment of choice in these patients. Recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) is a very potent stimulator...... of the thyroid gland and this review focuses on rhTSH-stimulated (131)I therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: The concept of rhTSH-stimulated (131)I therapy has been tested in several trials during the last 8 years. With this treatment, the goiter reduction is improved by 35-55%, compared with (131)I therapy without rh...

  14. Radioiodine therapy of autonomously functioning thyroid nodules and of Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guhlmann, C.A.; Rendl, J.; Boerner, W.

    1995-01-01

    We studied the effects of radioiodine therapy (RIT) for autonomously functioning thyroid nodules (AFTNs) and Graves' disease on thyroid function and size up to one year after RIT. In 230 patients with AFTNs, a dose of 300 Gy was effective in about 90% of the cases 6 months after RIT. Out of 65 patients suffering from Graves' disease, 5 patients (8%) had persisting hyperthyroidism 6 months after RIT with a dose of 150 Gy. This group consisted exclusively of patients with manifest hyperthyroidism at the time of RIT. As determined by ultrasonography 6 months after RIT, a reduction of thyroid size by about 40% and 60% was observed in patients with AFTNs and Graves' disease, respectively. (orig.) [de

  15. Dose concepts and dosimetry for radioiodine therapy of benign thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockisch, A.; Brandt-Mainz, K.; Goerges, R.

    1997-01-01

    Dose planning prior to radioiodine therapy of benign thyroidal disease is usually based on macrodosimetry. The paper shows that this assumption is acceptable. The common concepts for dose planning are given. The following target doses are nowadays widely accepted: 150 Gy for euthyroid goiter, 400 Gy for toxic adenoma, 150 Gy for disserminated autonomy, 200 Gy for hyperthyroid Grave's disease if posttherapeutic euthyroidism is intended, and 250 (to 300) Gy if the risk of recurrency is to be minimized ('ablative' concept). Finally, a surveyfis given concerning the precision in which the parameters relevant for the dose calcultion can be determined. For realistic favourable conditions, the dose can be determined with an accuracy of better than ±25%. (orig.) [de

  16. Cu(I) assisted radioiodination of hippuran with no carrier added [sup 131]I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Kolaly, M T; El-Bayoumy, S; Raieh, M; El-Mothy, A [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Dept. of Radioisotope Production and Labelled Compounds

    1993-11-01

    A study on the labeling of hippuran with no-carrier-added [sup 131]I assisted by Cu(I) and excess of ascorbic acids is described. The role of ascorbic acid is to prevent the oxidation of Cu(I) to Cu(II) which activates the hydrolysis of o-iodohippuric acid to o-iodobenzoic acid. The use of Cu(I) allows an almost quantitative (97-99%) labeling yield to be obtained within 10-15 minutes at 100 deg C. The reaction is assumed to take place via the formation of an organocopper complex favoring the exchange reaction between radioiodine and inactive iodine in the hippuran molecule. The activation energy of the reaction was calculated to be E = 12.2 kcal/mol. (author) 21 refs.; 8 figs.

  17. Cu(I) assisted radioiodination of hippuran with no carrier added 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kolaly, M.T.; El-Bayoumy, S.; Raieh, M.; El-Mothy, A.

    1993-01-01

    A study on the labeling of hippuran with no-carrier-added 131 I assisted by Cu(I) and excess of ascorbic acids is described. The role of ascorbic acid is to prevent the oxidation of Cu(I) to Cu(II) which activates the hydrolysis of o-iodohippuric acid to o-iodobenzoic acid. The use of Cu(I) allows an almost quantitative (97-99%) labeling yield to be obtained within 10-15 minutes at 100 deg C. The reaction is assumed to take place via the formation of an organocopper complex favoring the exchange reaction between radioiodine and inactive iodine i