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Sample records for hmpao white blood

  1. Evaluation of Bone or Soft Tissue Infection with Tc-99m Hmpao White Blood Cell Scintigraphy: Semiquantitative Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Aydın

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Aim the aim of this study was to investigate semiquantitatively the diagnostic performance of Tc-99m hexamethypropylene amine oxime labeled white blood cell (Tc-99m HMPAO-WBC scintigraphy in patients with suspected bone or soft tissue infections. Methods: Material and Method twenty one patients who applied to Nuclear Medicine Departmant (for suspected prosthesis infection, diabetic foot, bone infection, graft infection were evaluated retrospectively. Tc-99m HMPAO WBC scintigraphy imaging were performed to all patients. Planar images were taken 1., 2., and 4. hours after injecting the labeled leukocytes. Evaluation of infection with Tc-99m HMPAO WBC scintigraphy was done semiquantitatively. Relative uptake was determined by setting the region of interest (ROI of lesion area on the anterior view. Rectangular ROI was set on the against limb (nonlesion. The ratio of the average pixel count in the lesion (L to that in the non-lesion (NL (L/NL ratio was calculated at 1., 2., and 4. hours images. Final diagnosis was based on histopathology, microbiologic assays, or clinical and imaging follow-up. Results: 0.55 and 1.55±0.74, 1.42±0.55, 1.40±0.55 in positive and control groups, respectively. Positive group revealed a statistically significant increase L/NL values in the data 3 hours images (p=0.002. However, no statistically significant was found between L/NL values in 3 hours imaging data in control group (p=0.223. All the data in the positive group found a statistically increased steadily. Furthermore, statistically significant difference was found between the positive and control group at 2., and 4. hours images (p=0.015, and p=0.006 .±0.43, 2.05±0.35, 1.90±SD values were found to be 1.74±Results of the 21 patients, 11 were found to have infection (positive group, whereas 10 had normal (control group pathologies on histopathology, microbiologic assays, or clinical and imaging follow-up. First, 2., and 4. hours L/NL (mean Conclusion

  2. The application of technetium-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO) labeled white blood cells for the diagnosis of right dorsal ulcerative colitis in two horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, L M; Trumble, T N; Steyn, P F; Savage, C J; Dickinson, C E; Traub-Dargatz, J L

    2000-01-01

    The application of 99mTc-HMPAO labeled white blood cells to support the diagnosis of right dorsal ulcerative colitis was studied in two horses with a history and clinical signs consistent with phenylbutazone toxicity. These images were compared to a reference horse unaffected by right dorsal ulcerative colitis. Blood was collected aseptically in heparinized syringes from the patients for in vitro white blood cell (WBC) radiolabeling. The buffy coat was separated out and radiolabeled with 99mTc-HMPAO. The radiolabeled blood was re-injected i.v. and four images of the right and left side of the patient's abdomen were acquired at 4 hours and 20 hours post-injection. Results of the nuclear study revealed no abnormal findings in the abdomen at the four-hour post-injection images in any horse. Images obtained 20 hours post-injection revealed a linear uptake of radiolabeled WBCs in the right cranioventral abdomen in the region of the right dorsal colon in both horses with right dorsal ulcerative colitis. The reference horse had no radiopharmaceutical uptake in this region. This nuclear imaging study was a rapid, non-invasive method to identify right dorsal colon inflammation. These findings not only supported the diagnosis of right dorsal ulcerative colitis, but also facilitated appropriate medical management of each horse.

  3. The Additional Value of Tc 99m HMPAO White Blood Cell SPECT in the Evalution of Bone and Soft Tissue Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Şanlı

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the additional value of Tc 99m HMPAO white blood cell (WBC SPECT for bone and soft tissue infections. Materials and Methods: Thirty-eight patients with suspected bone and joint infection were included in the study. Patients were assigned into 2 groups according to the presence of orthopedic implants. All patients had multiphase bone scan (BS with Tc 99m methylene diphosphonate and WBC scintigraphy. The planar images of BS and WBC images were evaluated together. SPECT WBC images were evaluated separately. Results: Group 1 had 30 patients including 12 patients with diabetic foot, 17 patients with suspected relapse of chronic osteomyelitis and 1 with septic arthritis. In 19 of 30 patients, BS and planar WBC images were similar with SPECT images in terms of final diagnosis. In the remaining 11 patients, planar BS+planar WBC images and SPECT WBC images were discordant. Group 2 included 8 patients with suspected infection of orthopedic implants. There was no difference between planar BS+planar WBC images and SPECT WBC in 6 of 8 patients. SPECT WBC images changed the diagnosis of 13 (34.2% patients in the whole group. SPECT WBC images did not have any contribution in theevaluation of the 6 patients who had reactive changes. Conclusion: SPECT images made significant contribution in discriminating soft tissue infection from osteomyelitis and improved diagnosis in terms of localization and the extent of disease. (MIRT 2011; 20: 7-13

  4. Serial studies of cerebral blood flow using 99Tcm-HMPAO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A R; Friberg, H; Lassen, N A

    1987-01-01

    We have compared the regional distribution of 99Tcm-HMPAO with regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). CBF was measured by single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) using a TOMOMATIC 64 after 133Xe inhalation in 41 patients. With the same SPECT device the distribution of 99Tcm-HMPAO was......We have compared the regional distribution of 99Tcm-HMPAO with regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). CBF was measured by single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) using a TOMOMATIC 64 after 133Xe inhalation in 41 patients. With the same SPECT device the distribution of 99Tcm...

  5. Image acquisition and interpretation criteria for {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-labelled white blood cell scintigraphy: results of a multicentre study

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    Erba, Paola A. [University of Pisa Medical School (Italy). Regional Center of Nuclear Medicine; Glaudemans, Andor W.J.M.; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Veltman, Niels C. [Jeroen Bosch Hospital, ' s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Sollini, Martina [Arcisprdale S. Maria Nuova - IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (Italy). Nuclear Medicine Unit; Pacilio, Marta; Galli, Filippo [Sapienza Univ., Rome (Italy). Nuclear Medicine Unit; Signore, Alberto [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Sapienza Univ., Rome (Italy). Nuclear Medicine Unit; Sapienza Univ., Rome (Italy). Ospedale S. Andrea Medicina Nucleare

    2014-04-15

    There is no consensus yet on the best protocol for planar image acquisition and interpretation of radiolabelled white blood cell (WBC) scintigraphy. This may account for differences in reported diagnostic accuracy amongst different centres. This was a multicentre retrospective study analysing 235 WBC scans divided into two groups. The first group of scans (105 patients) were acquired with a fixed-time acquisition protocol and the second group (130 patients) were acquired with a decay time-corrected acquisition protocol. Planar images were interpreted both qualitatively and semiquantitatively. Three blinded readers analysed the images. The most accurate imaging acquisition protocol comprised image acquisition at 3 - 4 h and at 20 - 24 h in time mode with acquisition times corrected for isotope decay. Using this protocol, visual analysis had high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of infection. Semiquantitative analysis could be used in doubtful cases, with no cut-off for the percentage increase in radiolabelled WBC over time, as a criterion to define a positive scan. (orig.)

  6. Quantitative assessment of blood flow reserve using {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO in carotid stenosis

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    Garai, I.; Varga, J.; Galuska, L. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Debrecen Medical and Health Centre, Debrecen (Hungary); Szomjak, E. [3. Department of Internal Medicine, University of Debrecen Medical and Health Centre, Debrecen (Hungary); Toth, C.; Olvaszto, S. [1. Department of Surgery, University of Debrecen Medical and Health Centre, Debrecen (Hungary); Bank, J. [Department of Neurology, Kenezy Hospital (Hungary); Ficzere, A. [Department of Neurology, University of Debrecen Medical and Health Centre, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2002-02-01

    Dynamic imaging of the inflow of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) to the brain has been proved to allow estimation of the hemispherical cerebral blood flow (CBF) using the Patlak plot. In this study, we compared the hemispherical CBF (in ml/min/100 g) of different patient groups. A total of 25 patients (comprising 13 with migraine and 12 scheduled for endarterectomy owing to angiographically confirmed severe stenosis of the internal carotid artery on at least one side) underwent baseline and acetazolamide {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO brain perfusion studies. In addition, acetazolamide {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO studies were performed in 12 healthy subjects (no baseline study was performed for ethical reasons.) Dynamic studies were acquired by means of a dual-detector gamma camera with a large field of view (HELIX, Elscint). Special difference images were created to make definition of the aortic arch and hemispherical brain regions easier and more reproducible. A semi-automatic method was developed to determine the transit time from the aorta to the brain, making the generation of the Patlak plot even more robust. The baseline CBF values did not significantly depend on the disease (P>0.1), whereas the CBF values obtained after acetazolamide provocation did do so (ANOVA, P<0.001). Patients suffering from migraine showed a significant increase in global CBF values after acetazolamide provocation (paired t test, P<0.05), but we could not find any effect of the provocation in patients awaiting carotid endarterectomy, indicating a lack of cerebrovascular reserve capacity. Comparison of the results of the acetazolamide study in patients and the control group revealed the CBF values to be significantly lower in patients with carotid stenosis (two-sample t-test, P<0.001), but not in those with migraine (P>0.1). In summary, using quantitative analysis of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO brain studies we could objectively compare the CBF of patients suffering from different diseases

  7. Increased cerebral blood flow in MELAS shown by Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT

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    Peng, N.J.; Tsay, D.G. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung (Taiwan); Liu, R.S. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei (Taiwan); Li, J.Y.; Kong, K.W. [Division of Neurology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung (Taiwan); Kwok, C.G.; Strauss, H.W. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Stanford University Medical Center, CA (United States)

    2000-01-01

    We report cerebral SPECT studies on two siblings with the syndrome of mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS). Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT was performed 8, 19 and 30 days after a stroke-like episode in one case and 10 days after a stroke-like episode, 6 h after a partial seizure and as a follow-up study in the other. Increased blood flow was seen in both these patients with stroke-like episodes due to MELAS. The cause of the increased blood flow is uncertain, but it may be related to the decreased pH created by local increase in lactic acid. (orig.)

  8. White Blood Cell Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Blood Additional Content Medical News Overview of White Blood Cell Disorders By Mary Territo, MD, Emeritus ... service to the community. The legacy of this great resource continues as the Merck Manual in the ...

  9. SPECT with [99mTc]-d,l-hexamethyl-propylene amine oxime (HM-PAO) compared with regional cerebral blood flow measured by PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yonekura, Y; Nishizawa, S; Mukai, Thomas Søgaard

    1988-01-01

    In order to validate the use of technetium-99m-d,l-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HM-PAO) as a flow tracer, a total of 21 cases were studied with single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT), and compared to regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measured by position emission tomography...

  10. Evaluation of craniosynostosis surgery. Technetium-99m-HMPAO SPECT cerebral blood flow study in children with craniosynostosis

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    Uemura, Tetsuji; Noda, Kojiro; Hayashi, Takashi [St. Mary`s Hospital, Kurume, Fukuoka (Japan); Sato, Kaneshige

    1998-09-01

    Premature fusion of multiple cranial sutures has been associated with increased intracranial pressure and the potential for mental impairment. Isolated craniosynostosis, however, is considered a benign condition primarily reconstructed for aesthetic purposes. A comparative analysis, to assess the differences between pre- and post operatory cerebral perfusion of patients who underwent surgery for simple cranisynostosis, was performed using single positron emission computed tomography ``SPECT`` Images. Cerebral blood flow studies were performed using {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT in children with simple cranisynotoses. The subjects were 8 children with craniosynostosis (age, 2 months-9 years). Preoperative revealed regional hypovascularity in the cerebral hemisphere in 5 cases (62%). In 6 patients the cerebral blood flow normalized or increased after craniofacial reconstruction. We demonstrated the presence of regional hypovascularity in the cerebral hemisphere of simple craniosynostotic cases which suggests that early surgery and release is essential to achieve optimal perfusion and brain development. (author)

  11. Guidelines for the labelling of leucocytes with 99mTc-HMPAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Erik F. J.; Roca, Manel; Jamar, Francois; Israel, Ora

    2010-01-01

    We describe here a protocol for labelling autologous white blood cells with 99mTc-HMPAO based on previously published consensus papers and guidelines. This protocol includes quality control and safety procedures and is in accordance with current European Union regulations and International Atomic Energy Agency recommendations. PMID:20198473

  12. Guidelines for the labelling of leucocytes with Tc-99m-HMPAO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Erik F. J.; Roca, Manel; Jamar, Francois; Israel, Ora; Signore, Alberto

    We describe here a protocol for labelling autologous white blood cells with Tc-99m-HMPAO based on previously published consensus papers and guidelines. This protocol includes quality control and safety procedures and is in accordance with current European Union regulations and International Atomic

  13. Study of cellular retention of HMPAO and ECD in a model simulating the blood-brain barrier; Etude de la retention cellulaire de l`HMPAO et de l`ECD dans un modele simulant la barriere hematoencephalique

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    Ponce, C.; Pittet, N.; Slosman, D.O. [HUG, 1211 Geneve 14, (Switzerland)

    1997-12-31

    The HMPAO and ECD are two technetium-labelled lipophilic agents clinically used in the imagery of cerebral perfusion. These molecules cross the membranes and are retained inside the cell after being converted to a hydrophilic form. The aim of this study is to establish the distribution of this retention at the level of blood-brain barrier (BBB) and nerve cells. The incorporation of HMPAO or ECD was studied on a model of co-culture simulating the BBB by means of a T84 single-cell layer of tight junction separated from another layer of U373 astrocyte cells. The cell quality and tight junction permeability were evaluated by the cellular retention of 111-indium chloride and by para-cellular diffusion of {sup 14}C mannitol,d-1. The values reported below were obtained at 180 minutes when the radiotracers were added near the `T84 layer`. The cell quality is validated by the low cellular retention of the indium chloride(2.3{+-}0.3 {mu}g{sup -1} for the T84 cells and 8.2{+-}5.8 {mu}g{sup -1} for the U373 cells). The activity of {sup 14}C mannitol,d-1 diminishes by 23 {+-} 5 % in the added compartment. The retention of ECD by the U373 cells is significantly higher (20.7 {+-}4.5 g{sup -1}) than that of T84 cells (2.9 {+-} 0.2 {mu}g{sup -1}). For HMPAO a non-significant tendency could be observed (49 {+-} 34 {mu}g{sup -1} for the U373 cells and 38 {+-} 25 {mu}g{sup -1} for the T84 cells)> The results of cellular retention of indium by HMPAO or ECD when added near `U373 layer` are not significantly different.In conclusion, independently of the side exposed to the radiotracers, one observes an enhanced incorporation of the U373 cells. The ensemble of these results represent additional arguments in favour of a specific cellular incorporation of the radiotracers, independent of the BBB permittivity

  14. Analysis of Regional Cerebral Blood Flow Using {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO Brain SPECT in Senile Dementia of Alzheimer Type

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    Lee, Myung Hae; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon; Roh, Jae Kyu; Woo, Chong In [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-03-15

    {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT studies were performed in 11 patients with Alzheimer's disease, 7 patients with psychological depression and 12 normal controls. Changes of regional cerebral blood flow was semiquantitatively analyzed and the results were as follows. 1) In 11 patients with Alzheimer's disease, significant reduction of regional cerebral blood flow was found In both temporoparietal areas. 2) Relative perfusion between cerebral hemispheres was rather symmetrical in patient with Alzheimer's disease. 3) All patients with depression showed normal SPECT findings. As for conclusion, {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT seemed to be a valuable method for clinical assessment and management of patients with Alzheimer's disease.

  15. Quantitative changes in cerebral blood flow of Shy-Drager syndrome induced by upright position. Assessment by {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO

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    Gomi, Tatsuya; Terada, Hitoshi; Kuwajima, Akira; Hiramatsu, Yoshihiro; Hamazaki, Kazuhiro; Uehara, Hideo; Kinoshita, Masao [Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    1995-11-01

    We assessed orthostatic changes of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in 4 patients with Shy-Drager syndrome. Brain perfusion index (BPI) was measured by {sup 99m}Tc-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO). Cerebral angiography using aortic time-activity curve as an input function BPI values in supine and upright positions in Shy-Drager syndrome were compared with those in 2 cerebrovascular disease patients without orthostatic hypotension. BPI values in the upright position were significantly decreased in patients with Shy-Drager syndrome as compared with these in the supine position. No significant decrease in BPI was noted in the patients without orthostatic hypotension. These results suggest that the BPI measurement by {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO cerebral angiography is useful for the noninvasive evaluation of the orthostatic changes of the CBF. (author).

  16. New synthesis route of active substance d,l-HMPAO for preparation Technetium Tc99m Exametazime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijarowska-Kruszyna, Justyna; Karczmarczyk, Urszula; Jaroń, Antoni Włodzimierz; Laszuk, Ewa; Radzik, Marcin; Garnuszek, Piotr; Mikołajczak, Renata

    2017-01-01

    Technetium Tc99m Exametazime (99mTc-HMPAO) is currently used as a radiopharmaceutical for determining regional cerebral blood flow and for the labelling of autologous leucocytes for infection and inflammation imaging. The HMPAO ligand exists in two diastereomeric forms: d,l and meso. Usually, the substance is obtained in low chemical yield in a time consuming procedure. Furthermore, the final product still contains some amounts of the meso-form. The aim of this study was to develop the efficient, reliable and fast method for isolation of the d,l-HMPAO, which would provide the ligand with high purity and free from the meso-diastereomer. The mixture of the meso- and d,l-HMPAO was synthesized in two-steps by condensation of propanediamine with keto-oxime and the reduction of the obtained bisimine. The d- and l-enantiomers were separated individually directly from this mixture by repeated crystallizations from ethanol as their tartrate salts and pooled together in equal proportions. That substance was characterized for its identity and isomeric purity using IR, HPLC and GC methods. The meso-free d,l-HMPAO was used for the preparation of the radiopharmaceutical freeze-dried kit for technetium-99m radiolabelling. Quality assessment of obtained 99mTc-d,l-HMPAO complex was performed according to the current Ph.Eur. monograph 1925 and USP monograph - Technetium Tc99m Exametazime Injection. To verify its biological activity, the kit-prepared 99mTc-d,l-HMPAO has been used for the white blood cell (WBC) labelling. According to the proposed synthesis route the d,l-HMPAO was obtained with around 18-20% yield in the total time of 10 days. The ligand identity was confirmed and the HPLC analysis revealed more than 99% chemical purity. The undesired meso-form was not detected. Freeze dried kit formulation for 99mTc-labelling of d,l-HMPAO has been established and four batches of kits were manufactured. The radiochemical purity of 99mTc-d,l-HMPAO complex was high (> 95% of lipophilic

  17. Parametric mapping of cerebral blood flow deficits in Alzheimer's disease: a SPECT study using HMPAO and image standardization technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, M B; Kawashima, R; Awata, S; Sato, K; Kinomura, S; Ono, S; Yoshioka, S; Sato, M; Fukuda, H

    1999-02-01

    This study assessed the accuracy and reliability of Automated Image Registration (AIR) for standardization of brain SPECT images of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Standardized cerebral blood flow (CBF) images of patients with AD and control subjects were then used for group comparison and covariance analyses. Thirteen patients with AD at an early stage (age 69.8+/-7.1 y, Clinical Dementia Rating Score 0.5-1.0, Mini-Mental State Examination score 19-23) and 20 age-matched normal subjects (age 69.5+/-8.3 y) participated in this study. 99mTc-hexamethyl propylenamine oxime (HMPAO) brain SPECT and CT scans were acquired for each subject. SPECT images were transformed to a standard size and shape with the help of AIR. Accuracy of AIR for spatial normalization was evaluated by an index calculated on SPECT images. Anatomical variability of standardized target images was evaluated by measurements on corresponding CT scans, spatially normalized using transformations established by the SPECT images. Realigned brain SPECT images of patients and controls were used for group comparison with the help of statistical parameter mapping. Significant differences were displayed on the respective voxel to generate three-dimensional Z maps. CT scans of individual subjects were evaluated by a computer program for brain atrophy. Voxel-based covariance analysis was performed on standardized images with ages and atrophy indices as independent variables. Inaccuracy assessed by functional data was 2.3%. The maximum anatomical variability was 4.9 mm after standardization. Z maps showed significantly decreased regional CBF (rCBF) in the frontal, parietal and temporal regions in the patient group (P < 0.001). Covariance analysis revealed that the effects of aging on rCBF were more pronounced compared with atrophy, especially in intact cortical areas at an early stage of AD. Decrease in rCBF was partly due to senility and atrophy, however these two factors cannot explain all the deficits

  18. Cerebral blood flow measurement in patients with impaired consciousness: usefulness of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO single-photon emission tomography in clinical practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Chia-Cheng; Kuwana, Nobumasa; Noji, Masato; Tanabe, Yutaka; Koike, Y. [Department of Neurosurgery, Yokohama Minami Kyosai Hospital, Yokohama (Japan); Ikegami, Tadashi [Department of Radiology, Yokohama Minami Kyosai Hospital, Yokohama (Japan)

    1998-09-01

    The relationship between impairment of consciousness and quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF) was investigated. The mean CBF of the whole brain was measured by the Patlak-plot method using technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime single-photon emission tomography ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPET) in patients with the following diseases: cerebral infarction, intraparenchymal haemorrhage, subarachnoid haemorrhage, brain tumour and cerebral contusion. The clinical symptoms were evaluated according to the severity of impaired consciousness, aphasia and dementia. Four hundred and eighty-five CBF measurements were performed. Patients with alert consciousness showed an age-related decline in mean CBF. Patients with aphasia showed a significant reduction in mean CBF compared with those without aphasia. Impaired consciousness was proportional to reduction in mean CBF regardless of types of pathology, and the size of lesion did not influence the mean CBF. Patients with dementia showed a significant reduction in mean CBF proportional to the severity of dementia. The quantitative measurement of CBF using {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPET is reliable in clinical evaluations. (orig.) With 3 tabs., 10 refs.

  19. Low White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marx JA, et al., eds. Anemia, polycythemia, and white blood cells disorders. In: Rosen's Emergency Medicine. 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2014. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Nov. ...

  20. Added Value of Tc-99m-HMPAO Labeled Leukocyte SPECT/CT in the Characterization and Management of Patients with Infectious Endocarditis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erba, Paola A.; Conti, Umberto; Lazzeri, Elena; Sollini, Martina; Doria, Roberta; De Tommasi, Salvatore M.; Bandera, Francesco; Tascini, Carlo; Menichetti, Francesco; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Signore, Alberto; Mariani, Giuliano

    The clinical performance of the Duke Endocarditis Service criteria to establish the diagnosis of infectious endocarditis (IE) can be improved through functional imaging procedures such as radiolabeled leukocytes (Tc-99m-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime [HMPAO]-labeled white blood cells [WBC]).

  1. Low White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor about precautions to avoid catching contagious diseases. Always wash your hands regularly and thoroughly. You might also be advised to wear a face mask and avoid anyone with a cold or other illness. References Kumar V, et al. Diseases of white blood cells, lymph nodes, spleen, and ...

  2. White blood cell count - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The White Blood Cell (WBC) Count measures two components: the total number of WBC's (leukocytes), and the differential count. ... and basophils) and non-granulocytes (lymphocytes and monocytes). White blood cells are a major component of the ...

  3. Regional cerebral blood flow single-photon emission tomography with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO and the acetazolamide test in the evaluation of vascular and Alzheimer`s dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavics, L.; Csernay, L. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Albert Szent-Gyoergyi Medical University, Szeged (Hungary); Gruenwald, F.; Reichmann, K.; Menzel, C.; Schomburg, A.G.; Overbeck, B.; Biersack, H.J. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Bonn (Germany); Horn, R.; Kitschenberg, A.; Hartmann, A. [Department of Neurology, University of Bonn (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    The diagnostic potential of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) following systemic administration of the cerebral vasodilator acetazolamide (acetazolamide test) was evaluated by regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) single-photon emission tomography (SPET) in patients with Alzheimer`s disease (AD) or vascular dementia (VD). An initial, high-resolution SPET study was performed with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO, and after 2 days the patients were re-evaluated with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO following systemic administration of acetazolamide. Reconstructed SPET slices were evaluated visually and semiquantitatively by a semi-automatic rCBF map method. When {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO alone was used, bilateral hypoperfusion was found in the temporal and/or parietal regions in 33% (6/18) of the VD patients and in 70% (23/33) of the AD patients. The corresponding data obtained by quantitative evaluation were 41% (7/17) and 71% (15/21), respectively. The vascular reserve capacity, as determined with the acetazolamide test, was preserved visually in 22% (4/18) and quantitatively in 29% (5/17) of the VD patients, but in 73% (24/33) and 76% (16/21) of the AD patients. The differences in the perfusion patterns between the VD and AD patients were statistically significant (P<0.01, Fischer`s exact test). Of the VD patients with hypoperfusion (bilateral temporal and/or parietal), 4/6 (67%, visual evaluation) and 4/7 (57%, quantitative evaluation) had a decreased vascular reserve capacity as determined with the acetazolamide test. In the AD group of patients the corresponding results were 3/23 (13%) and 4/15 (27%). It is concluded that the acetazolamide test is promising in rCBF SPET to differentiate VD from AD. (orig.) With 4 figs., 3 tabs., 29 refs.

  4. Comparison of simultaneous [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO and [sup 111]In oxine labelled white cell scans in the assessment of inflammatory bowel disease

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    Allan, R.A.; Bassingham, S.; Lazarus, C.; Clarke, S.E.M.; Fogelman, I. (Guy' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Sladen, G.E. (Guy' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Gastroenterology)

    1993-03-01

    Forty-seven patients, 29 with chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and 18 with presumed irritable bowel syndrome, including one with uncomplicated diverticular disease, were studied with simultaneous technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime and indium-III oxine labelled leucocyte scans performed at 1, 3 and 24 h. Twenty-seven patients with IBD had active disease as judged by clinical and laboratory criteria and all of these had positive scans with both agents. No false positive studies were obtained. The 1-h [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO WBC scans showed the same distribution to disease as the 3-h [sup 111]-In WBC scans, with no difference in intensity (P<0.92); they showed more extensive disease (P<0.02) and more intense uptake (P<0.001) than did the 1-h [sup 111]-In scans. The 3-h [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO WBC scans showed more extensive disease (P<0.002), with greater intensity (P<0.0005), than did the 3-h [sup 111]In WBC scans. Physiological bowel activity on 3-h [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO WBC scans was present in 12 patients but was faint and did not interfere with assessment of disease extent and activity. It is concluded that in terms of isotope availability, radiation dosimetry and image quality, [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO is the agent of choice in detecting active IBD, with localization of disease possible at 1-h after re-injection and optimal resolution and definition of disease extent at 3 h. A negative scan reliably excludes active disease. (orig.).

  5. Effects of typical antipsychotic, haloperidol on regional cerebral blood flow in drug-naive schizophrenic patients-study with 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT

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    Kamoya, Masatoshi [Kanazawa Medical Univ., Ishikawa (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of examining antipsychotic action of haloperidol (HPD), effects of chronic perioral administration of HPD 4.5 mg/day on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT were investigated in 12 drug-naive schizophrenic patients with acute hallucinatory and delusional state. Further, the SPECT examinations were performed on 20 normal adult volunteers to investigate differences in rCBFs between schizophrenics and the normal subjects. Results are itemized as follows. The rCBF values were significantly increased in the bilateral superior and middle frontal, cingulate, middle temporal, pre-and post-central gyri, the left superior temporal gyrus, the bilateral inferior parietal lobule, and the bilateral hippocampal and thalamic cortices in comparison between normal subjects and before the HPD dose in schizophrenics. However, the rCBF values after the HPD dose showed significant increases only in the bilateral pre-and post-central gyri in comparison with the normal subjects. The rCBF values were significantly decreased in the bilateral superior, middle and inferior frontal, superior and middle temporal gyri, and the left insular gyrus after the HPD dose in comparison with before the HPD dose. The psychiatric assessment with PANSS showed an improvement of positive symptoms consisting of auditory hallucination and delusions after the HPD dose. Statistical analyses on relationships between the rCBF values and PANSS scores before and after the HPD dose showed positive correlations between the right inferior frontal gyrus and auditory hallucination or positive symptoms, between the right superior temporal gyrus, left thalamus and delusions, and between the left thalamus, insular gyrus and negative symptoms. These results suggest that acute drug-naive schizophrenic patients have widespread cortico-subcortical energic hypermetabolism and HPD reduces the hypermetabolism, leading to whole normalized brain metabolism, in particular with the larger region

  6. Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT scanning in Munchausen syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountz, J M; Parker, P E; Liu, H G; Bentley, T W; Lill, D W; Deutsch, G

    1996-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow was studied in a patient with Munchausen syndrome using high resolution Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT. The scan demonstrated marked hyperperfusion of the right hemithalamus. The cranial CT scan was normal. The abnormal right hemithalamic blood flow is discussed in relation to the hypothesized neuropathy of this disorder. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8580117

  7. Usefulness of hybrid SPECT/CT for the {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in a case of cranial osteomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruni, Chiara; Padovano, Federico; Travascio, Laura; Schillaci, Orazio; Simonetti, Giovanni [University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy). Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Molecular Imaging, Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy]. E-mail: chiarabruni79@hotmail.com

    2008-12-15

    Cranial osteomyelitis is a potentially fatal lesion. White blood cell scanning (WBC) with {sup 99m}Tc-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) has proven highly sensitive and specific in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with suspected osteomyelitis. In this report we show the usefulness of SPECT and transmission CT performed simultaneously using a hybrid imaging device for the functional anatomic mapping of soft tissue and cranial bone infections. {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-labeled leukocytes scintigraphy was performed on an elderly diabetic man with an intracranial mass lesion and with suspected temporal bone infection. Planar scans were acquired 30 min, 4 h, and 24 h after injection. SPECT/CT was obtained 6 h after tracer injection, using a dual-head camera coupled with a low-power X-ray tube. The scintigraphic results were matched with the results of surgery and of clinical follow-up. The planar images alone were true-positives for abscess in this patient. SPECT/CT improves the accuracy of {sup 99m}Tc- HMPAO scintigraphy especially in discriminating between soft-tissue and bone involvement. In fact, SPECT/CT also showed temporal bone osteomyelitis. This result indicates that SPECT/CT performed using a hybrid device can improve imaging with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-labeled leukocytes in patients with suspected osteomyelitis by providing accurate anatomic localization and precise definition of the extent of infection. (author)

  8. Low white blood cell count and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    White blood cells (WBCs) fight infections from bacteria, viruses, fungi, and other pathogens (organisms that cause infection). ... Abeloff's Clinical Oncology . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 36.

  9. White Blood Cell Counts and Malaria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McKenzie, F. E; Prudhomme, Wendy A; Magill, Alan J; Forney, J. R; Permpanich, Barnyen; Lucas, Carmen; Gasser, Jr., Robert A; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda

    2005-01-01

    White blood cells (WBCs) were counted in 4697 individuals who presented to outpatient malaria clinics in Maesod, Tak Province, Thailand, and Iquitos, Peru, between 28 May and 28 August 1998 and between 17 May and 9 July 1999...

  10. {sup 99m}Tc-besilesomab (Scintimun {sup registered}) in peripheral osteomyelitis: comparison with {sup 99m}Tc-labelled white blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Wolf S. [Pharmtrace Klinische Entwicklung GmbH, Berlin (Germany); University Clinics Magdeburg (Germany). Clinics for Radiology and Nuclear Medicine; Ivancevic, Velimir [Nuclear Medicini, Celle (Germany); Meller, Johannes [University Medicine, Goettingen (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Lang, Otto [UH Kralovske, Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Nclear Medicine; Le Guludec, Dominique [CHU Bichat-Claude Bernard, Paris (France). Service de Medecine Nucleaire; Szilvazi, Istvan [Orszagos Gyogyintezeti Koezpont, Budapest (Hungary). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Amthauer, Holger [University Clinics Magdeburg (Germany). Clinics for Radiology and Nuclear Medicine; Chossat, Florence; Dahmane, Amel [IBA/CIS Bio International, Gif sur Yvette (France); Schwenke, Carsten [SCOSSIS, Berlin (Germany); Signore, Alberto [University of Rome, Faculty of Medicine, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Rome (Italy)

    2011-05-15

    The diagnosis of osteomyelitis is a challenge for diagnostic imaging. Nuclear medicine procedures including white blood cell imaging have been successfully used for the identification of bone infections. This multinational, phase III clinical study in 22 European centres was undertaken to compare anti-granulocyte imaging using the murine IgG antibody besilesomab (Scintimun {sup registered}) with {sup 99m}Tc-labelled white blood cells in patients with peripheral osteomyelitis. A total of 119 patients with suspected osteomyelitis of the peripheral skeleton received {sup 99m}Tc-besilesomab and {sup 99m}Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO)-labelled white blood cells (WBCs) in random order 2-4 days apart. Planar images were acquired at 4 and 24 h after injection. All scintigraphic images were interpreted in an off-site blinded read by three experienced physicians specialized in nuclear medicine, followed by a fourth blinded reader for adjudication. In addition, clinical follow-up information was collected and a final diagnosis was provided by the investigators and an independent truth panel. Safety data including levels of human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMA) and vital signs were recorded. The agreement in diagnosis across all three readers between Scintimun {sup registered} and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-labelled WBCs was 0.83 (lower limit of the 95% confidence interval 0.8). Using the final diagnosis of the local investigator as a reference, Scintimun {sup registered} had higher sensitivity than {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-labelled WBCs (74.8 vs 59.0%) at slightly lower specificity (71.8 vs 79.5%, respectively). All parameters related to patient safety (laboratory data, vital signs) did not provide evidence of an elevated risk associated with the use of Scintimun {sup registered} except for two cases of transient hypotension. HAMA were detected in 16 of 116 patients after scan (13.8%). Scintimun {sup registered} imaging is accurate, efficacious and safe in the diagnosis of peripheral

  11. Colour measurement and white blood cell recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Gelsema, E S

    1972-01-01

    As a part of a collaboration with NEMCH aimed at the automation of the differential white blood cell count, studies have been made of the different possibilities for using colour to help in the recognition process. Results are presented comparing data obtained with a microspectrophotometer and with a simulated three-colour scanner.

  12. Added value of 99mTc-HMPAO-labeled leukocyte SPECT/CT in the characterization and management of patients with infectious endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erba, Paola A; Conti, Umberto; Lazzeri, Elena; Sollini, Martina; Doria, Roberta; De Tommasi, Salvatore M; Bandera, Francesco; Tascini, Carlo; Menichetti, Francesco; Dierckx, Rudi A J O; Signore, Alberto; Mariani, Giuliano

    2012-08-01

    The clinical performance of the Duke Endocarditis Service criteria to establish the diagnosis of infectious endocarditis (IE) can be improved through functional imaging procedures such as radiolabeled leukocytes ((99m)Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime [HMPAO]-labeled white blood cells [WBC]). We assessed the value of (99m)Tc-HMPAO-WBC scintigraphy including SPECT/CT acquisitions in a series of 131 consecutive patients with suspected IE. Patients with permanent cardiac devices were excluded. (99m)Tc-HMPAO-WBC scintigraphy results were correlated with transthoracic or transesophageal echocardiography, blood cultures, and the Duke criteria. Scintigraphy was true-positive in 46 of 51 and false-negative in 5 of 51 cases (90% sensitivity, 94% negative predictive value, and 100% specificity and positive predictive value). No false-positive results were found, even in patients with early IE evaluated within the first 2 mo from the surgical procedure. In 24 of 51 patients with IE, we also found extracardiac uptake, indicating septic embolism in 21 of 24. Despite the fact that septic embolism was found in 11 of 18 cases of Duke-definite IE, most of the added value from the (99m)Tc-HMPAO-WBC scan for decision making was seen in patients in whom the Duke criteria yielded possible IE. The scan was particularly valuable in patients with negative or difficult-to-interpret echocardiographic findings because it correctly classified 11 of 88 of these patients as having IE. Furthermore, 3 patients were falsely positive at echocardiography but correctly negative at (99m)Tc-HMPAO-WBC scintigraphy: these patients had marantic vegetations. Our results demonstrate the ability of (99m)Tc-HMPAO-WBC scintigraphy to reduce the rate of misdiagnosed cases of IE when combined with standard diagnostic tests in several situations: when clinical suspicion is high but echocardiographic findings are inconclusive; when there is a need for differential diagnosis between septic and sterile vegetations

  13. The use of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime labelled white blood cells to detect subclinical inflammation of the heart after cardiopulmonary bypass in children with congenital heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao Chiahung; Wang Yenliang; Wang Shyhjen (Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Hsieh Kaisheng (Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan). Dept. of Pediatrics)

    1992-11-01

    Ten children (6 boys and 4 girls, aged 1-9 years old) underwent operations with a cardiopulmonary bypass, and the technetium-99m hexamehtylpropylene amine oxine ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) labelled white blood cell (WBC) heart scans were used to detect postoperative leukocyte infiltration in the hearts. The results showed that 80% (8/10) of the cases had subclinical inflammation in the hearts (grading of WBC scans {>=}score 2), and a positive correlation (R=0.77) was noted between the severity of the inflammation (grading of the WBC scans) and the duration of the cardiopulmonary bypass in the operations. Another control group (9 boys and 2 girls, aged 2-13 years old) underwent operations without a cardiopulmonary bypass, and subclinical inflammation of hearts was demonstrated in only 1 case (9%) by the {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO labelled WBC scans (grading of WBC scans HMPAO labelled WBC heart scans may provide non-invasive and directly discernible evidence of subclinical inflammation in the heart due to a transient ischaemic state during a cardiopulmonary bypass, even if the clinical symptoms and signs of carditis are not apparent. (orig.).

  14. A new type of discrepancy between cerebral blood flow measured with {sup 133}Xe and HmPAO-{sup 99}Tc perfusion; Discordances entre la mesure du debit sanguin cerebral au xenon 133 et de la perfusion cerebrale au HmPAO {sup 99m}Tc: un nouveau cas de figure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinling, M.; Amegassi, F.; Mazingue, A.; Rousseaux, M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 59 - Lille (France)

    2000-09-01

    We report a clinical case of a new type of discrepancy between two tracers usable for brain functional imaging: the Xenon 133 and the HmPAO-{sup 99m}Tc. A 66 year old men had presented a brutal left hemiplegia with transient troubles of consciousness in relation with a right protuberant infarct without hemispheric lesions. The functional studies were performed 4 months after the onset, successively by the Xe inhalation method and immediately after the HmPAO study. On a patient kept still on the camera bed when cerebral blood flow (CBF) study depicted both a right cerebellar low flow and a slightly decreased CBF in the controlateral hemisphere ('hemispheric diaschisis'), the HmPAO SPECT was normal. This observation illustrates both the crossed hemispheric diaschisis and a new type of discrepancy: indeed, the known cases were until now in relation with alterations of the blood: brain barrier, which doses not exist in our report. The explanation of this type of discrepancy remains unclear but is probably linked with the HMPAO retention mechanisms. (author)

  15. Trapping cells in paper for white blood cell count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Bai, Jianhao; Wu, Hong; Ying, Jackie Y

    2015-07-15

    White blood cell count is an important indicator of each individual's health condition. An abnormal white blood cell count usually results from an infection, cancer, or other conditions that trigger systemic inflammation responses. White blood cell count also provides predictive information on the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and Type 2 diabetes. Therefore, monitoring white blood cell count on a regular basis can potentially help individuals to take preventive measures and improve healthcare outcomes. Currently, white blood cell count is primarily conducted in centralized laboratories, and it requires specialized equipment and dedicated personnel to perform the test and interpret the results. So far there has been no rapid test that allows white blood cell count in low-resource settings. In this study, we have demonstrated a vertical flow platform that quantifies white blood cells by trapping them in the paper. White blood cells were tagged with gold nanoparticles, and flowed through the paper via a small orifice. The white blood cell count was determined by measuring the colorimetric intensity of gold nanoparticles on the surface of white blood cells that were trapped in the paper mesh. Using this platform, we were able to quantify white blood cells in 15 μL of blood, and visually differentiate the abnormal count of white blood cells from the normal count. The proposed platform enabled rapid white blood cell count in low resource settings with a small sample volume requirement. Its low-cost, instrument-free operations would be attractive for point-of-care applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The effects of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-labelled leucocyte scan on human karyotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liberatore, Mauro; Prosperi, Daniela; Iurilli, Anna Paola [Section of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Experimental Medicine and Pathology, University of Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Policlinico Umberto I, Viale Regina Elena 324, 00161, Rome (Italy); Poscente, Monica; Mancini, Barbara; Grammatico, Paola [Medical Genetics, Department of Experimental Medicine and Pathology Department, University of Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Rome (Italy); Donnetti, Massimo [Section of Medical Physics, Department of Experimental Medicine and Pathology, University of Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Rome (Italy)

    2003-10-01

    Technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) white blood cell scan (WBCS) requires separation and labelling of mixed leucocytes, which include particularly radiosensitive cells, lymphocytes. Lymphocytes labelled during the mixed leucocyte labelling procedure could represent a problem for patients owing to the possible induction of chromosomal aberrations. Lymphocytes labelled in mixed leucocyte preparations are probably killed by the high-dose radiation. Nevertheless, it has been reported that some of these lymphocytes can proliferate after in vitro stimulation. If these cells were to reproduce themselves in vivo, onset of, or increase over time in, chromosomal aberrations could occur on peripheral blood lymphocytes. The present study was performed on 21 patients who underwent WBCS for suspected infection/inflammation. Blood samples of these patients were submitted to cytogenetic study, comprising karyotype determination, evaluation of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and evaluation of induced chromosomal breakages or rearrangement rate (B/R). This study was performed 2 h before and 7 days and 6 months after the WBCS. The results demonstrated no statistically significant differences between SCE and B/R values before and after WBCS. No cause-effect relationship appeared to exist between WBCS and the onset of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes, at least during the first 6 months post WBCS and within the limits of this study's approach. The high-dose radiation administered to lymphocytes was almost certainly sufficient to kill these cells. (orig.)

  17. Quantitative {sup 123}I IMP and {sup 99m}Tc HMPAO imaging in the dog following cocaine administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susskind, Herbert; Weber, David A.; Ivanovic, Marija; Wong, Christopher T.C.; Haan, Constance E. de; Gavin, Patrick R

    1996-04-01

    SPECT and associated imaging procedures were used in beagle dogs to evaluate the uptake, distribution, and clearance properties of i.v.-injected {sup 123}I IMP (IMP) and {sup 99m}Tc HMPAO (HMPAO) in the brain, lungs, liver, and kidneys; (2) quantify the acute effects (after 15 sec) of very low doses (0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg) cocaine on the kinetics and localization properties of IMP and HMPAO; and (3) evaluate comparative imaging properties of IMP and HMPAO for measuring regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). Regional and global uptake and localization of IMP or HMPAO were evaluated in control studies using dynamic planar (0-30 min) and SPECT imaging (at 35 min). The regional distribution properties of IMP and HMPAO in the brain were estimated from regions of interest (ROIs) drawn around anatomic structures on MR slices and manually registered with corresponding SPECT slices. Cocaine significantly reduced the 30-min IMP uptake in the brain and lungs by {approx}15%, but only slightly changed HMPAO uptake in the brain and other organs. In the control studies, the respective uptakes of IMP in the brain and lungs were 9 and 39% greater (p < 0.01) than those of HMPAO. In control SPECT studies, the highest uptake of IMP was observed in the thalamus and progressively less activity was observed in the parietal lobe, frontal lobe, cerebellum, occipital lobe, and entire brain; activity in the olfactory bulb was lower than in all other regions. Cocaine reduced IMP uptake in the cerebellum (p < 0.01), occipital lobe (p < 0.01), and entire brain (p < 0.05). IMP uptake (cpm/pixel-mCi) in the different brain regions was 1.3 to 2.1 times greater than that of HMPAO (p < 0.001). HMPAO uptake was more homogeneous throughout the gray matter of the brain; no significant uptake differences were observed among flagged regions. Results indicate that single, acute doses of cocaine, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg, significantly altered the uptake and localization properties of IMP in the dog's brain, lungs

  18. Assessment of changes in regional cerebral blood flow in patients with major depression using the [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO single photon emission tomography method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazici, K.; Kapucu, Oe.; Erbas, B.; Varoglu, E.; Guelec, C.; Bekdik, C.F. (Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Psychiatry)

    1992-12-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow was investigated in 14 patients with major depression diagnosed according to the DSM-III-R criteria (six patients with single and eight patients with recurrent episodes) and in ten healthy volunteers. The mean ages of the patients and the controls were 33.5[+-]2.7 and 31.6[+-]2.6 years, respectively. The severity of the depression was assessed using the 17-item Hamiltonian Depression Scale (mean: 23.2[+-]1.5). None of the patients was under medication. After administration of 500 MBq technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime, a single photon emission tomography study was performed and then transaxial, sagittal and coronal slices were obtained. For the semiquantitative analysis of the data, the ratios of the mean counts/pixel to the whole slice were calculated for 24 regions on three consecutive transaxial slices in the orbitomeatal plane. Additionally, left/right and frontal/occipital ratios were calculated. Both sides of the temporal region had a significantly decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF) when compared to the controls. The left/right ratio of the prefrontal region was also significantly lower in the patients than in the controls. The Hamilton score had a negative correlation with blood flow in the anterofrontal and left prefrontal regions. According to our results, regional CBF seems to be decreased in the left prefrontal and in both temporal regions in major depression. The severity of depression is correlated with the reduction in CBF in the regions of the anterofrontal and left prefrontal cortex. (orig.).

  19. Analysis of allelic differential expression in human white blood cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pant, P V Krishna; Tao, Heng; Beilharz, Erica J; Ballinger, Dennis G; Cox, David R; Frazer, Kelly A

    2006-01-01

    .... To identify human genes with allelic expression differences, we genotype DNA and examine mRNA isolated from the white blood cells of 12 unrelated individuals using oligonucleotide arrays containing 8406 exonic SNPs...

  20. Semi-quantitative assessment of cerebral blood flow with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPET in type I diabetic patients with no clinical history of cerebrovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirce, R.; Carril, J.M.; Jimenez-Bonilla, J.F.; Amado, J.A.; Gutierrez-Mendiguchia, C.; Banzo, I.; Blanco, I.; Uriarte, I.; Montero, A. [Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital Universitario Marques de Valdecilla, Santander (Spain)

    1997-12-01

    In 65 type I diabetic patients we prospectively evaluated brain perfusion by means of single-photon emission tomography after the injection of 740- 1110 MBq of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime. Thirty-five of the patients presented complications secondary to their diabetes. None showed CNS symptoms. A semiquantitative analysis was performed drawing 50 symmetrical regions of interest (ROIs) per patient. The relative contribution of each ROI to the total blood flow in each slice was compared with the relative contribution of the same ROI in a control group of ten healthy volunteers. Relative values of any ROI in the study group higher or lower than the mean {+-}2 SD in respect of the same ROI in the control group were considered abnormal. The results revealed hypoperfusion in 207 ROIs in the 65 patients with diabetes mellitus: of these ROIs, 113 were frontal, 10 frontotemporal, 20 temporal, 18 parietal, 11 occipital and 35 cerebellar. A total of 137 ROIs showed hyperperfusion: 17 frontal, 3 frontotemporal, 19 temporal, 18 parietal, 19 parieto-occipital, 29 occipital and 32 cerebellar. Out of 65 type I diabetic patients, 61 showed at least one hypoperfused ROI (P = 0.0064 vs. controls) and 25 showed more than three hypoperfused ROIs. None of the control subjects showed more than three hypoperfused regions (P<0.001). The results obtained demonstrate the existence of subclinical abnormalities of brain blood perfusion in patients with type I diabetes mellitus and no history of cerebrovascular disease, thereby allowing the initiation of intensive preventive measures. (orig.) With 3 figs., 5 tabs., 33 refs.

  1. WBC (White Blood Cell) Differential Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tuberculosis, fungal infection ) Infection within the heart (bacterial endocarditis) Collagen vascular diseases (e.g., lupus, scleroderma , rheumatoid ... On The Web National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Immune System American Society of Hematology: Blood ...

  2. White-Coat Hypertension: When Blood Pressure Rises at the Doctor's Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    White coat hypertension: When blood pressure rises at the doctor's office My blood pressure is always higher ... D. You could have a condition known as white coat hypertension. White coat hypertension occurs when the ...

  3. Human white blood cells contain cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimer photolyase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, B.M.; Bennett, P.V. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-10-10

    Although enzymatic photoreactivation of cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers in DNA is present in almost all organisms, its presence in placental mammals is controversial. We tested human white blood cells for photolyase by using three defined DNAs (suprecoiled pET-2, nonsupercoiled bacteriphage {lambda}, and a defined-sequence 287-bp oligonucleotide), two dimer-specific endonucleases (T4 endonuclease V and UV endonuclease from Micrococcus luteus), and three assay methods. We show that human white blood cells contain photolyase that can photorepair pyrimidine dimers in defined supercoiled and linear DNAs and in a 287-bp oligonucleotide and that human photolyase is active on genomic DNA in intact human cells. 44 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Rapid white blood cell detection for peritonitis diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tsung-Feng; Mei, Zhe; Chiu, Yu-Jui; Cho, Sung Hwan; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2013-03-01

    A point-of-care and home-care lab-on-a-chip (LoC) system that integrates a microfluidic spiral device as a concentrator with an optical-coding device as a cell enumerator is demonstrated. The LoC system enumerates white blood cells from dialysis effluent of patients receiving peritoneal dialysis. The preliminary results show that the white blood cell counts from our system agree well with the results from commercial flow cytometers. The LoC system can potentially bring significant benefits to end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients that are on peritoneal dialysis (PD).

  5. Delayed reflow of an ischemic infarct after spontaneous thrombolysis studied by CBF tomography using SPECT and Tc-99m HMPAO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Companioni, J M; Lassen, N A; Tfelt-Hansen, P

    1991-01-01

    A patient with a large ischemic infarct in the left middle cerebral artery territory was studied six times in the acute/subacute phase by cerebral blood flow (CBF) tomography using Tc-99m-HMPAO. The SPECT instrument used was a brain dedicated highly sensitive four-camera system (TOMOMATIC 232) th...

  6. Multiple Loci Are Associated with White Blood Cell Phenotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Nalls, Michael A.; Couper, David J.; Tanaka, Toshiko; van Rooij, Frank J. A.; Chen, Ming-Huei; Smith, Albert V.; Toniolo, Daniela; Zakai, Neil A.; Yang, Qiong; Greinacher, Andreas; Wood, Andrew R.; Garcia, Melissa; Gasparini, Paolo; Liu, Yongmei; Lumley, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWhite blood cell (WBC) count is a common clinical measure from complete blood count assays, and it varies widely among healthy individuals. Total WBC count and its constituent subtypes have been shown to be moderately heritable, with the heritability estimates varying across cell types. We studied 19,509 subjects from seven cohorts in a discovery analysis, and 11,823 subjects from ten cohorts for replication analyses, to determine genetic factors influencing variability within the...

  7. Sex Comparison of White Fulani Cattle Blood Profile in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data obtained were subjected to one-way analysis of variance (AOVA). The results show that white blood cell count (WBC) was significantly (P<0.05) higher in females (17.23±1.08) than in males (12.25±0.77). Mean Corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) also showed sex differences with females having higher ...

  8. White Blood Cell Monitoring During Long-Term Clozapine Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, Dan; Monden, Marcel

    Late-onset agranulocytosis is rare during treatment with clozapine, especially in monotherapy. The authors describe a case of agranulocytosis that emerged after 19 years of continuous clozapine monotherapy. The discovery of the agranulocytosis was due to the lifelong white blood cell counts that are

  9. Procalcitonin and white blood cell count (WBC), erythrocyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present prospective observational study aimed to determine the correlation between procalcitonin (PCT) and white blood cell count (WBC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in toddlers before and after treatment. Moreover, 50 patients aged 1 to 36 months who were hospitalized at the ...

  10. Automated counting of white blood cells in synovial fluid.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. de Jonge (Robert); R.W. Brouwer (Reinoud); M. Smit (Marij); M. de Frankrijker-Merkestijn; R.J. Dolhain; J.M.W. Hazes (Mieke); A.W. van Toorenenbergen (Albert); J. Lindemans (Jan)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: To evaluate the performance of automated leucocyte (white blood cell; WBC) counting by comparison with manual counting. METHODS: The number of WBC was determined in heparinized synovial fluid samples by the use of (i) a standard urine cytometer (Kova) and a

  11. A new method for brain functional study using Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, Toshimitsu; Kosaka, Noboru; Nishikawa, Junichi; Ohtake, Tohru; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Iio, Masahiro (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1989-04-01

    The distribution of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO in brain is in proportion to regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and can be interpreted as functional mapping. To evaluate local changes in CBF during neuropsychological testing, we developed a new subtraction method using HMPAO and SPECT. With patients resting, 15 mCi of HMPAO was injected and the first acquisition was performed, lasting a total of 10 minutes. Soon after the end of the first scan, patients were requested to undergo Buschke's memory test or to repeat words or numbers (repetition test). During the task, an additional 15 mCi of HMPAO was injected using the same position as in the first scan, and a second acquisition was started. A functional image was made by subtracting the image in the first scan from that in the second. In two patients with transient global amnesia and two normal controls, Buschke's memory test was performed in combination with SPECT. A relative increase in activity was seen in the thalamus, subthalamic area, hippocampus, and some cortial areas, apparently reflecting local functional change induced by the memory task. In two patients with moderate Alzheimer's disease with severe memory loss, no increase was detected in these areas. In one patient with aphasia, the repetition test with SPECT was correlated with the WADA test and dichotic listening test, and good agreement was obtained. In conclusion, our new SPECT technique is useful in detecting alterations in rCBF during mental activity and can be applied to neurophysiological studies. (author).

  12. [Nutritional status, metabolic changes and white blood cells in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Thatianne Moreira Silva; de Faria, Franciane Rocha; de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano; Franceschini, Sylvia C C; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2014-12-01

    To analyze the relationship between the peripheral blood white cells, metabolic changes, and nutritional status of adolescents with and without excess weight and body fat. This cross-sectional study evaluated the body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat (%BF) in 362 adolescents from 15 to 19 years of age, of both sexes. White blood cell count, platelet count, uric acid, fasting glucose, insulin, and lipid profile were measured. The inclusion criteria were agreement to participate in the study and signature of the informed consent. Exclusion criteria were: presence of chronic or infectious disease; use of medications that could cause changes in biochemical tests; pregnancy; participation in weight reduction and weight control programs; use of diuretics and laxatives; or the presence of a pacemaker. The following statistical tests were applied: Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Student's t or Mann-Whitney test, Pearson or Spearman correlation tests, and chi-squared test, considering p<0.05. Overweight was observed in 20.7% of adolescents. The total cholesterol (TC) had a higher percentage of inadequacy (52.2%), followed by high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (38.4%). There was a positive correlation between white cells and serum lipids, insulin, body fat, and BMI. Monocytes were negatively correlated with BMI, and rods with BMI, body fat, and insulin. Nutritional status is related to an inflammatory process, and adolescents with excess weight or body fat presented higher amounts of white blood cells. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Association Between Obesity, White Blood Cell and Platelet Count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Jamshidi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Cardiovascular disease is resulted from malfunctioning’s of heart as well as blood vessels. More than two decades ago it was noted that the number of white blood cells can be an indicated of the existence of such disease. Platelet activation and aggregation are among the include processes. That are considered in pathophysiology of a coronary heart disease. However there seems to be a paucity of research on platelet count in patients suffering from obesity. Moreover although previous studies have indicated a positive correlation between platelet and white blood cells. Counts and mortality from coronary heath disease, how this might correlate with obesity is an issue still in need of more attention. Objectives The present study was designed to evaluate platelet count and white blood cell count in those patients who suffer from obesity as compared with control subjects who were not obese. Methods In this cross-sectional study, there were a total of 1024 Iranian subjects living in Hamedan include, staff of Islamic Azad University of Hamedan and subjects who referred to Ekbatan hospital in Hamedan during the period of 6 months randomly and staff of Islamic Azad University of Hamedan. The absence of infectious disease was confirmed by a general practitioner. Finally, the samples included 486 subjects, 254 male, and 232were females. Body mass index was calculated. Waist circumference in the Iranian subjects, at least in men 89 (cm and women 91 (cm was considered. White blood cell and platelet count was measured. T-test and Pearson’s correlation were run to analyze the collected data through SPSS software version 16. Results The average age of the subjects was 34.75 ± 8.1 years. The body mass indexes in 7.6 percent of men and 15.7 of women were greater than 30 (kg/m2. The averages of waist circumference in men and women was 1.04 ± 0.5 and 89.3 ± 10.2 (cm, respectively. Also there seemed to be a significant correlation between waist

  14. Different uptake of 99mTc-ECD adn 99mTc-HMPAO in the same brains: analysis by statistical parametric mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Y; Lee, J S; Rha, J H; Lee, I K; Ha, C K; Lee, D S

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer (99mTc-ECD) and technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO) uptake in the same brains by means of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis. We examined 20 patients (9 male, 11 female, mean age 62+/-12 years) using 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-HMPAO single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain less than 7 days after onset of stroke. MRI showed no cortical infarctions. Infarctions in the pons (6 patients) and medulla (1), ischaemic periventricular white matter lesions (13) and lacunar infarction (7) were found on MRI. Split-dose and sequential SPET techniques were used for 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPET, without repositioning of the patient. All of the SPET images were spatially transformed to standard space, smoothed and globally normalized. The differences between the 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-HMPAO SPET images were statistically analysed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) 96 software. The difference between two groups was considered significant at a threshold of uncorrected P values less than 0.01. Visual analysis showed no hypoperfused areas on either 99mTc-ECD or 99mTc-HMPAO SPET images. SPM analysis revealed significantly different uptake of 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-HMPAO in the same brains. On the 99mTc-ECD SPET images, relatively higher uptake was observed in the frontal, parietal and occipital lobes, in the left superior temporal lobe and in the superior region of the cerebellum. On the 99mTc-HMPAO SPET images, relatively higher uptake was observed in the medial temporal lobes, thalami, periventricular white matter and brain stem. These differences in uptake of the two tracers in the same brains on SPM analysis suggest that interpretation of cerebral perfusion is possible using SPET with 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-HMPAO.

  15. A microfluidic chip for direct and rapid trapping of white blood cells from whole blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingdong; Chen, Di; Yuan, Tao; Xie, Yao; Chen, Xiang

    2013-01-01

    Blood analysis plays a major role in medical and science applications and white blood cells (WBCs) are an important target of analysis. We proposed an integrated microfluidic chip for direct and rapid trapping WBCs from whole blood. The microfluidic chip consists of two basic functional units: a winding channel to mix and arrays of two-layer trapping structures to trap WBCs. Red blood cells (RBCs) were eliminated through moving the winding channel and then WBCs were trapped by the arrays of trapping structures. We fabricated the PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) chip using soft lithography and determined the critical flow velocities of tartrazine and brilliant blue water mixing and whole blood and red blood cell lysis buffer mixing in the winding channel. They are 0.25 μl/min and 0.05 μl/min, respectively. The critical flow velocity of the whole blood and red blood cell lysis buffer is lower due to larger volume of the RBCs and higher kinematic viscosity of the whole blood. The time taken for complete lysis of whole blood was about 85 s under the flow velocity 0.05 μl/min. The RBCs were lysed completely by mixing and the WBCs were trapped by the trapping structures. The chip trapped about 2.0 × 103 from 3.3 × 103 WBCs. PMID:24404026

  16. Development and testing of a new disposable sterile device for labelling white blood cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Signore, A.; Glaudemans, A. W. J. M.; Malviya, G.; Lazzeri, E.; Prandini, N.; Viglietti, A. L.; De Vries, E. F. J.; Dierckx, R. A. J. O.

    Aim. White blood cell (WBC) labelling requires isolation of cells from patient's blood under sterile conditions using sterile materials, buffers and disposables under good manufacturing practice (GMP) conditions. Till now, this limited the use of white blood cell scintigraphy (WBC-S) only to well

  17. High-Throughput Separation of White Blood Cells From Whole Blood Using Inertial Microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Yuan, Dan; Sluyter, Ronald; Yan, Sheng; Zhao, Qianbin; Xia, Huanming; Tan, Say Hwa; Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Li, Weihua

    2017-08-29

    White blood cells (WBCs) constitute only about 0.1% of human blood cells, yet contain rich information about the immune status of the body; thus, separation of WBCs from the whole blood is an indispensable and critical sample preparation step in many scientific, clinical, and diagnostic applications. In this paper, we developed a continuous and high-throughput microfluidic WBC separation platform utilizing the differential inertial focusing of particles in serpentine microchannels. First, separation performance of the proposed method is characterized and evaluated using polystyrene beads in the serpentine channel. The purity of 10-μm polystyrene beads is increased from 0.1% to 80.3% after two cascaded processes, with an average enrichment ratio of 28 times. Next, we investigated focusing and separation properties of Jurkat cells spiked in the blood to mimic the presence of WBCs in whole blood. Finally, separation of WBCs from human whole blood was conducted and separation purity of WBCs was measured by the flow cytometry. The results show that the purity of WBCs can be increased to 48% after two consecutive processes, with an average enrichment ratio of ten times. Meanwhile, a parallelized inertial microfluidic device was designed to provide a high processing flow rate of 288 ml/h for the diluted (×1/20) whole blood. The proposed microfluidic device can potentially work as an upstream component for blood sample preparation and analysis in the integrated microfluidic systems.

  18. A color and shape based algorithm for segmentation of white blood cells in peripheral blood and bone marrow images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Salim; Ozyurek, Emel; Gunduz-Demir, Cigdem

    2014-06-01

    Computer-based imaging systems are becoming important tools for quantitative assessment of peripheral blood and bone marrow samples to help experts diagnose blood disorders such as acute leukemia. These systems generally initiate a segmentation stage where white blood cells are separated from the background and other nonsalient objects. As the success of such imaging systems mainly depends on the accuracy of this stage, studies attach great importance for developing accurate segmentation algorithms. Although previous studies give promising results for segmentation of sparsely distributed normal white blood cells, only a few of them focus on segmenting touching and overlapping cell clusters, which is usually the case when leukemic cells are present. In this article, we present a new algorithm for segmentation of both normal and leukemic cells in peripheral blood and bone marrow images. In this algorithm, we propose to model color and shape characteristics of white blood cells by defining two transformations and introduce an efficient use of these transformations in a marker-controlled watershed algorithm. Particularly, these domain specific characteristics are used to identify markers and define the marking function of the watershed algorithm as well as to eliminate false white blood cells in a postprocessing step. Working on 650 white blood cells in peripheral blood and bone marrow images, our experiments reveal that the proposed algorithm improves the segmentation performance compared with its counterparts, leading to high accuracies for both sparsely distributed normal white blood cells and dense leukemic cell clusters. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  19. White blood cell counting on smartphone paper electrochemical sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinhao; Lin, Guohong; Cui, Guangzhe; Zhou, Xiangfei; Liu, Gang Logan

    2017-04-15

    White blood cell (WBC) analysis provides rich information in rapid diagnosis of acute bacterial and viral infections as well as chronic disease management. For patients with immune deficiency or leukemia WBC should be persistently monitored. Current WBC counting method relies on bulky instrument and trained personnel and is time consuming. Rapid, low-cost and portable solution is in highly demand for point of care test. Here we demonstrate a label-free smartphone based electrochemical WBC counting device on microporous paper with patterned gold microelectrodes. WBC separated from whole blood was trapped by the paper with microelectrodes. WBC trapped on the paper leads to the ion diffusion blockage on microelectrodes, therefore cell concentration is determined by peak current on the microelectrodes measured by a differential pulse voltammeter and the quantitative results are collected by a smartphone wirelessly within 1min. We are able to rapidly quantify WBC concentrations covering the common physiological and pathological range (200-20000μL-1) with only 10μL sample and high repeatability as low as 10% in CoV (Coefficient of Variation). The unique smartphone paper electrochemical sensor ensures fast cell quantification to achieve rapid and low-cost WBC analysis at the point-of-care under resource limited conditions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. White blood cell counting analysis of blood smear images using various segmentation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safuan, Syadia Nabilah Mohd; Tomari, Razali; Zakaria, Wan Nurshazwani Wan; Othman, Nurmiza

    2017-09-01

    In white blood cell (WBC) diagnosis, the most crucial measurement parameter is the WBC counting. Such information is widely used to evaluate the effectiveness of cancer therapy and to diagnose several hidden infection within human body. The current practice of manual WBC counting is laborious and a very subjective assessment which leads to the invention of computer aided system (CAS) with rigorous image processing solution. In the CAS counting work, segmentation is the crucial step to ensure the accuracy of the counted cell. The optimal segmentation strategy that can work under various blood smeared image acquisition conditions is remain a great challenge. In this paper, a comparison between different segmentation methods based on color space analysis to get the best counting outcome is elaborated. Initially, color space correction is applied to the original blood smeared image to standardize the image color intensity level. Next, white blood cell segmentation is performed by using combination of several color analysis subtraction which are RGB, CMYK and HSV, and Otsu thresholding. Noises and unwanted regions that present after the segmentation process is eliminated by applying a combination of morphological and Connected Component Labelling (CCL) filter. Eventually, Circle Hough Transform (CHT) method is applied to the segmented image to estimate the number of WBC including the one under the clump region. From the experiment, it is found that G-S yields the best performance.

  1. WHITE BLOOD CELLS IN POLISH ATHLETES OF VARIOUS SPORTS DISCIPLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Orysiak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the diversity of white blood cell (WBC counts and their subsets (neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes among competitive athletes of different sports disciplines. The blood samples were collected from 608 healthy, medically examined athletes (181 females and 427 males aged 20.1 ± 5.1 years, who represented five sport disciplines: canoeing, judo, rowing, swimming and volleyball. All blood samples were taken from the antecubital vein in the morning, after overnight fasting, in a seated position. Haematological analyses were conducted using a haematology analyser (ADVIA 120, Siemens. Neutropenia (defined as neutrophil count <2.0 · 10[sup]9[/sup]·L[sup]-1[/sup] was found in athletes of both sexes in each discipline. There was no incident of lymphopenia (defined as a lymphocyte count <1.0 · 10[sup]9[/sup]·L[sup]-1[/sup]. Monocytopenia (defined as a monocyte count <0.2 · 10[sup]9[/sup]·L[sup]-1[/sup] was seen only in male athletes, except judo athletes. Differences in WBC and their subset counts were related to sport disciplines: in volleyball players WBC counts were significantly higher than in athletes of canoeing and rowing (in females; neutrophil counts were the lowest in swimming athletes; lymphocyte counts were lower in athletes of canoeing than in volleyball and swimming, but only in females; monocyte counts were lower in athletes of canoeing than swimming (in females and judo (in males. In women, counts of neutrophils were greater and counts of monocytes were smaller than in men. It seems that prevalence of neutropenia and monocytopenia and differences in WBC counts and their subsets among disciplines could be related to the adaptive response to physical exercise.

  2. Overlapping White Blood Cells Detection Based on Watershed Transform and Circle Fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. Sukhia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available White blood cell (WBC count and segmentation is considered to be important step to diagnose diseases like leukemia, malaria etc. Automatic analysis of blood smear images will help hematologists to detect WBCs efficiently and effectively as compared to manual analysis which is quite time consuming. Therefore, an automatic white blood cells detection technique for complex blood smear images is proposed. The proposed scheme uses segmentation and edge map extraction for the separation of overlapped WBCs and further parametric circle approximation is used which is capable of detecting both separated and overlapped white blood cells. Simulation results compared with the existing techniques verify the accuracy and robustness of the proposed scheme.

  3. Statistical parametric mapping of Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT cerebral perfusion in the normal elderly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turlakow, A.; Scott, A.M.; Berlangieri, S.U.; Sonkila, C.; Wardill, T.D.; Crowley, K.; Abbott, D.; Egan, G.F.; McKay, W.J.; Hughes, A. [Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre, Heidelberg, VIC (Australia). Departments of Nuclear Medicine and Centre for PET Neurology and Clinical Neuropsychology

    1998-06-01

    Full text: The clinical value of Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT cerebral blood flow studies in cognitive and neuropsychiatric disorders has been well described. Currently, interpretation of these studies relies on qualitative or semi- quantitative techniques. The aim of our study is to generate statistical measures of regional cerebral perfusion in the normal elderly using statistical parametric mapping (Friston et al, Wellcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, London, UK) in order to facilitate the objective analysis of cerebral blood flow studies in patient groups. A cohort of 20 healthy, elderly volunteers, aged 68 to 81 years, was prospectively selected on the basis of normal physical examination and neuropsychological testing. Subjects with risk factors, or a history of cognitive impairment were excluded from our study group. All volunteers underwent SPECT cerebral blood flow imaging, 30 minutes following the administration of 370 MBq Tc-99m HMPAO, on a Trionix Triad XLT triple-headed scanner (Trionix Research Laboratory Twinsburg, OH) using high resolution, fan-beam collimators resulting in a system resolution of 10 mm full width at half-maximum (FWHM). The SPECT cerebral blood flow studies were analysed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) software specifically developed for the routine statistical analysis of functional neuroimaging data. The SPECT images were coregistered with each individual`s T1-weighted MR volume brain scan and spatially normalized to standardised Talairach space. Using SPM, these data were analyzed for differences in interhemispheric regional cerebral blood flow. Significant asymmetry of cerebral perfusion was detected in the pre-central gyrus at the 95th percentile. In conclusion, the interpretation of cerebral blood flow studies in the elderly should take into account the statistically significant asymmetry in interhemispheric pre-central cortical blood flow. In the future, clinical studies will be compared to statistical data sets in age

  4. Multiple Loci Are Associated with White Blood Cell Phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiong; Greinacher, Andreas; Wood, Andrew R.; Garcia, Melissa; Gasparini, Paolo; Liu, Yongmei; Lumley, Thomas; Folsom, Aaron R.; Reiner, Alex P.; Gieger, Christian; Lagou, Vasiliki; Felix, Janine F.; Völzke, Henry; Gouskova, Natalia A.; Biffi, Alessandro; Döring, Angela; Völker, Uwe; Chong, Sean; Wiggins, Kerri L.; Rendon, Augusto; Dehghan, Abbas; Moore, Matt; Taylor, Kent; Wilson, James G.; Lettre, Guillaume; Hofman, Albert; Bis, Joshua C.; Pirastu, Nicola; Fox, Caroline S.; Meisinger, Christa; Sambrook, Jennifer; Arepalli, Sampath; Nauck, Matthias; Prokisch, Holger; Stephens, Jonathan; Glazer, Nicole L.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Okada, Yukinori; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Matsuda, Koichi; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Kubo, Michiaki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Stumvoll, Michael; Tönjes, Anke; Prokopenko, Inga; Illig, Thomas; Patel, Kushang V.; Garner, Stephen F.; Kuhnel, Brigitte; Mangino, Massimo; Oostra, Ben A.; Thein, Swee Lay; Coresh, Josef; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Menzel, Stephan; Lin, JingPing; Pistis, Giorgio; Uitterlinden, André G.; Spector, Tim D.; Teumer, Alexander; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Bandinelli, Stefania; Frayling, Timothy M.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Melzer, David; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Levy, Daniel; Boerwinkle, Eric; Singleton, Andrew B.; Hernandez, Dena G.; Longo, Dan L.; Soranzo, Nicole; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Harris, Tamara B.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Ganesh, Santhi K.

    2011-01-01

    White blood cell (WBC) count is a common clinical measure from complete blood count assays, and it varies widely among healthy individuals. Total WBC count and its constituent subtypes have been shown to be moderately heritable, with the heritability estimates varying across cell types. We studied 19,509 subjects from seven cohorts in a discovery analysis, and 11,823 subjects from ten cohorts for replication analyses, to determine genetic factors influencing variability within the normal hematological range for total WBC count and five WBC subtype measures. Cohort specific data was supplied by the CHARGE, HeamGen, and INGI consortia, as well as independent collaborative studies. We identified and replicated ten associations with total WBC count and five WBC subtypes at seven different genomic loci (total WBC count—6p21 in the HLA region, 17q21 near ORMDL3, and CSF3; neutrophil count—17q21; basophil count- 3p21 near RPN1 and C3orf27; lymphocyte count—6p21, 19p13 at EPS15L1; monocyte count—2q31 at ITGA4, 3q21, 8q24 an intergenic region, 9q31 near EDG2), including three previously reported associations and seven novel associations. To investigate functional relationships among variants contributing to variability in the six WBC traits, we utilized gene expression- and pathways-based analyses. We implemented gene-clustering algorithms to evaluate functional connectivity among implicated loci and showed functional relationships across cell types. Gene expression data from whole blood was utilized to show that significant biological consequences can be extracted from our genome-wide analyses, with effect estimates for significant loci from the meta-analyses being highly corellated with the proximal gene expression. In addition, collaborative efforts between the groups contributing to this study and related studies conducted by the COGENT and RIKEN groups allowed for the examination of effect homogeneity for genome-wide significant associations across populations

  5. Multiple loci are associated with white blood cell phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Nalls

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available White blood cell (WBC count is a common clinical measure from complete blood count assays, and it varies widely among healthy individuals. Total WBC count and its constituent subtypes have been shown to be moderately heritable, with the heritability estimates varying across cell types. We studied 19,509 subjects from seven cohorts in a discovery analysis, and 11,823 subjects from ten cohorts for replication analyses, to determine genetic factors influencing variability within the normal hematological range for total WBC count and five WBC subtype measures. Cohort specific data was supplied by the CHARGE, HeamGen, and INGI consortia, as well as independent collaborative studies. We identified and replicated ten associations with total WBC count and five WBC subtypes at seven different genomic loci (total WBC count-6p21 in the HLA region, 17q21 near ORMDL3, and CSF3; neutrophil count-17q21; basophil count- 3p21 near RPN1 and C3orf27; lymphocyte count-6p21, 19p13 at EPS15L1; monocyte count-2q31 at ITGA4, 3q21, 8q24 an intergenic region, 9q31 near EDG2, including three previously reported associations and seven novel associations. To investigate functional relationships among variants contributing to variability in the six WBC traits, we utilized gene expression- and pathways-based analyses. We implemented gene-clustering algorithms to evaluate functional connectivity among implicated loci and showed functional relationships across cell types. Gene expression data from whole blood was utilized to show that significant biological consequences can be extracted from our genome-wide analyses, with effect estimates for significant loci from the meta-analyses being highly corellated with the proximal gene expression. In addition, collaborative efforts between the groups contributing to this study and related studies conducted by the COGENT and RIKEN groups allowed for the examination of effect homogeneity for genome-wide significant associations across

  6. Regional cerebral hemodynamics during re-build up phenomenon. Analysis by using {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazumata, Ken; Kuroda, Satoshi; Houkin, Kiyohiro; Abe, Hiroshi [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine; Mitsumori, Kenji

    1994-12-01

    The re-build up phenomenon is the characteristic EEG finding following hyperventilation in childhood moyamoya disease. This study evaluated the role of cerebral blood flow (CBF) associated with this phenomenon using single photon emission CT (SPECT) with Tc-99m hexamethyl propylene amine oxime (Tc-99m HMPAO). The subjects were each two adult and pediatric patients. Tc-99m HMPAO (10 mCi) was injected immediately after 4-min hyperventilation. After the initial scanning, an additional 20 mCi of Tc-99m HMPAO was iv injected for the second scanning. Xe-133 SPECT was also performed for the evaluation of resting CBF. The re-build up phenomenon was observed preoperatively in one patient, which originated from the bilateral parieto-occipital area one min after hyperventilation and extended to the entire hemisphere 30 sec later. SPECT did not reveal severe ischemia in the entire hemisphere after hyperventilation, but revealed a marked CBF decrease in the bilateral parieto-occipital lobe. The patient underwent bilateral STA-MCA anastomosis combined with encephalo-duro-arterio-myo-synangiosis. Postoperative examination revealed no evidence of build-up phenomenon on EEG or abnormal perfusion reserve on Xe-133 SPECT. Nor was marked CBF decrease observed after hyperventilation on Tc-99m SPECT. These findings suggest that regional CBF decrease may play a critical role in the appearance of the re-build up phenomenon on EEG, as well as hypoxic hypoxia after hyperventilation. (N.K.).

  7. Additive value of three-phase of Tc-99m HMPAO WBC scintigraphy in patients with suspected knee prosthesis infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Suk; Lim, Seok Tae; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Sohn, Myung Hee [Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    We investigated if three-phase Tc-99m HMPAO WBC scintigraphy (TP-WBC) to detect infection in patients with knee protheses has more additive values than conventional Tc-99m HMPAO WBC scintigraphy (C-WBC). Thirty patients (M: F=8: 22, Age; 69.26.2 yrs) with suspected knee prothesis infection were enrolled in our study. We performed Tc-99m HMPAO WBC scintigraphies at 4 different time points after the injection of the labeled leukocytes; Immediately after the bolus injection (perfusion phase image), 1 min (blood-pool phase image), and 1 and 3 hours (delayed static images, C-WBC). The final diagnosis of infection was based on surgical, histologic, and bacteriologic data and other follow-up studies. We compared with diagnostic performance between TP-WBC and C-WBC. Twenty patients (66.7%) finally had infected prothesis, the other ten (33.3%) didn't have it. C-WBC showed 85.0% of sensitivity, 30.0% of specificity, 70.8% of PPV, 50.0% of PNV, and 66.7% of accuracy. TP-WBC also showed 95.0% of sensitivity, 30.0% of specificity, 73.1 % of PPV, 75.0% of PNV, and 73.3% of accuracy. TP-WBC demonstrated higher sensitivity and accuracy than C-WBC. Three-phase images of Tc-99m HMPAO WBC scintigraphy may have more additive value to detect infection in patients with suspected knee prosthesis infection.

  8. Usefulness of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-SPECT in evaluation of bacterial meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Kentaro; Ando, Hiroshi; Sueyoshi, Keiko; Matsuyuki, Makado; Hashimoto, Nobuo; Ono, Eiichiro; Katsuragi, Makoto [St. Maria Hospital, Kurume, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT was performed to detect the periodical changes of blood flow distribution in 6 infants (average age 5.5 months) with bacterial meningitis and was compared with findings by CT and MRI imaging, by DQ (developmental quotient) and by neurological examinations. SPECT was done with Shimadzu HEADTOME SET 70 for 20 min at 5 min after intravenous administration of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO (111 MBq) at the stage of 16-26 days (SPECT I) after hospitalization, of 39-105 days (II) and/or of 138-197 days (III). The region of interest was set in both cerebellar hemispheres to calculate the mean pixel count c1 and in other 16 areas for the count c2. SPECT image was evaluated together with c2/c1 ratios. Head CT was performed at hospitalization or at the period around the SPECT I, and head MRI, at 39-183 days. At 3-5 months after crisis, evaluation was done for DQ and neurological signs. Periodical brain SPECT was found useful for the precise evaluation of bacterial meningitis and for prediction of its prognosis. (K.H.)

  9. Mimicking the Interfacial Dynamics of Flowing White Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santore, Maria

    2015-03-01

    The rolling of particles on surfaces, facilitated by hydrodynamic forces combined with localized surface interactions of the appropriate strengths, spatial arrangements, and ranges, is a technologically useful means of transporting and manipulating particles. One's intuition for the rolling of a marble or a car tire cannot be extrapolated down to microparticle length scales because the microparticle interactions are dominated by electrostatic, van der Waals, and hydrogen bonding interactions rather than a friction that depends on an imposed normal force. Indeed, our microparticle rolling systems are inspired by the rolling of white blood cells on the inner walls of venules as part of the innate immune response: Selectin molecules engage with their counterparts on the opposing surfaces to slow cell motion relative to that for freely flowing cells. In the resulting rolling signature, ligand-receptor binding and crack closing on the front of the cell are balanced with molecular dis-bonding and crack opening at the rear. The contact region is relatively static, allowing other interactions (for instance signaling) to occur for a finite duration. Thus, achieving particle rolling in synthetic systems is important because it facilitates particle-surface interactions in a continuous nonfouling fashion where the contact surface is continually renewed. In developing a synthetic model for this system, we employ polymers to modify flowing particles and /or planar collectors, producing heterogeneous interfaces which can support rolling or produce other motion signatures such as skipping, arrest, or free flow. We identify, in the synthetic system, combinations of variables that produce rolling and demonstrate how the distinction between rolling and arrest is not a simple matter of the adhesion strength between the particles and the collector. Rolling is a cooperative process and the coordination of binding in one location with dis-bonding in another requires appropriate length

  10. Incidental detection of a pseudoaneurysm at an amputation stump in a Tc-99m HMPAO labeled leukocyte scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Myung Hee; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Lim, Seok Tae [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-08-15

    A 20-year-old man underwent a Tc-99m HMPAO labeled leukocyte scan for the evaluation of an infection at the stump of an AK amputation, which was conducted due to an open communicated fracture of the left lower leg. Blood-flow and blood-pool images demonstrated a pseudoaneurysm with a focus of intense activity medial to the stump, and centered within a large photopenic defect by surrounding hematoma. Delayed image obtained at 3 hours post-injection showed persistent intense and slight increased activity. Contrast angiography confirmed the presence of a pseudoaneurysm arising from a branch of the left superficial femoral artery.

  11. White blood cell scintigraphy for differentiation of infection and aseptic loosening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Lene; Buhl, Anna; Oersnes, Thue

    2007-01-01

    Diagnosis of an infected arthroplasty is often difficult. Fever, abnormal physical findings, radiographic changes, findings at bone scintigraphy, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, CRP, and leucocytosis are not specific enough. We evaluated the diagnostic value of white blood cell...

  12. The role of FDG-PET, HMPAO-SPET and MRI in the detection of brain involvement in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao Chiahung [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China); Lan Jungliang [Division of Rheumatology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China); ChangLai Shengping [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chung-Shan Medical and Dental College, Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China); Liao Kokaung [Electron Microscopic Laboratory, Chung-Shan Medical and Dental College, Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China); Yen Rouhfang; Chieng Poonung [Department of Nuclear Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1999-02-01

    Involvement of the brain is one of the most important complications of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE); however, its diagnosis is difficult due to the lack of effective imaging methods. We combined three brain imaging modalities - positron emission tomography with fluorine-18 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG-PET), single-photon emission computed tomography with technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO-SPET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) - in order to detect brain involvement in SLE. Thirty-seven SLE patients, aged 22-45 years, were divided into three groups. Group 1 (G1) consisted of ten patients with major neuropsychiatric manifestations; group 2 (G2) consisted of 15 patients with minor manifestations; and group 3 (G3) consisted of 12 patients without manifestations. FDG-PET findings were abnormal in 51% of patients: 90% of G1, 67% of G2 and 0% of G3 patients respectively. HMPAO-SPET findings were abnormal in 62% of patients: 100% of G1, 73% of G2 and 17% of G3 patients respectively. MRI findings were abnormal in 35% of patients: 70% of G1, 40% of G2 and 0% of G3 patients respectively. Grey matter was more commonly involved than white matter; 62% of patients presented with lesions in the cerebral cortex, 27% with lesions in the basal ganglion, 5% with lesions in the cerebellum, and 19% with lesions in white matter. No white matter lesions were found on FDG-PET or HMPAO-SPET. However, in 19% of patients, MRI demonstrated abnormally high signal lesions in white matter. Forty-three percent of cases had positive serum anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA). However, ACA was not related to FDG-PET, HMPAO-SPET or MRI findings. It may be concluding that HMPAO-SPET is a more sensitive tool for detecting brain involvement in SLE patients when compared with FDG-PET or MRI. However, MRI is necessary for detecting lesions in white matter. (orig.) With 3 figs., 2 tabs., 46 refs.

  13. Measuring density and compressibility of white blood cells and prostate cancer cells by microchannel acoustophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnkob, Rune; Augustsson, Per; Magnusson, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    to determine the density and compressibility of individual cells enables the prediction and alteration of the separation outcome for a given cell mixture. We apply the method on white blood cells (WBCs) and DU145 prostate cancer cells (DUCs) aiming to improve isolation of circulating tumor cells from blood......, an emerging tool in the monitoring and characterizing of metastatic cancer....

  14. Image resizing using saliency strength map and seam carving for white blood cell analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam JaeYeal

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A new image-resizing method using seam carving and a Saliency Strength Map (SSM is proposed to preserve important contents, such as white blood cells included in blood cell images. Methods To apply seam carving to cell images, a SSM is initially generated using a visual attention model and the structural properties of white blood cells are then used to create an energy map for seam carving. As a result, the energy map maximizes the energies of the white blood cells, while minimizing the energies of the red blood cells and background. Thus, the use of a SSM allows the proposed method to reduce the image size efficiently, while preserving the important white blood cells. Results Experimental results using the PSNR (Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio and ROD (Ratio of Distortion of blood cell images confirm that the proposed method is able to produce better resizing results than conventional methods, as the seam carving is performed based on an SSM and energy map. Conclusions For further improvement, a faster medical image resizing method is currently being investigated to reduce the computation time, while maintaining the same image quality.

  15. Image resizing using saliency strength map and seam carving for white blood cell analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, ByoungChul; Kim, SeongHoon; Nam, JaeYeal

    2010-09-20

    A new image-resizing method using seam carving and a Saliency Strength Map (SSM) is proposed to preserve important contents, such as white blood cells included in blood cell images. To apply seam carving to cell images, a SSM is initially generated using a visual attention model and the structural properties of white blood cells are then used to create an energy map for seam carving. As a result, the energy map maximizes the energies of the white blood cells, while minimizing the energies of the red blood cells and background. Thus, the use of a SSM allows the proposed method to reduce the image size efficiently, while preserving the important white blood cells. Experimental results using the PSNR (Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio) and ROD (Ratio of Distortion) of blood cell images confirm that the proposed method is able to produce better resizing results than conventional methods, as the seam carving is performed based on an SSM and energy map. For further improvement, a faster medical image resizing method is currently being investigated to reduce the computation time, while maintaining the same image quality.

  16. Tomographic cerebral blood flow measurement during carotid surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathenborg, Lisbet Knudsen; Vorstrup, Sidsel; Olsen, K S

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to depict regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during carotid cross clamping using 99mTechnetium-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (TcHMPAO). This tracer rapidly passes the blood-brain barrier and is retained for hours in the brain tissue. Injecting TcHMPAO during......, Copenhagen, Denmark. MATERIAL: 15 patients who during a period of 4 months underwent carotid endarterectomy. CHIEF OUTCOME MEASURES: Prior to surgery rCBF was determined using 133Xe and SPECT. Intraoperatively stump pressure was measured and a bolus of TcHMPAO was injected for later SPECT measurement. MAIN...

  17. Could Blood Pressure Phobia Go Beyond the White Coat Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Kathleen M; Seacat, Jason D; Saucier, Cory D; Doyle-Campbell, Courtney J

    2015-11-01

    While it is known that excessive anxiety surrounding the measuring of blood pressure may preclude an accurate measurement, it is not known whether it could also lead to phobic avoidance behavior. Self-reported information was collected on 125 individuals who made postings on 5 internet-based medical forums. Qualitative thematic analysis revealed that these individuals reported experiencing intense fear associated with the measuring of blood pressure, that was excessive or irrational and which contributed to avoidance of medical treatment and interference with life decisions. Based on these preliminary observations, we are speculating that these symptoms could be considered consistent with a diagnosis of a Specific Phobia. Investigations using quantitative methods, representative samples, and standardized clinical instruments need to be conducted before definitive conclusions can be reached. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Relationship between white blood cells and hypertension in Chinese adults: the Cardiometabolic Risk in Chinese (CRC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-Ting; Gong, Ying; Zhu, Ruihua; Liu, Xuekui; Zhu, Yan; Wang, Yu; Qiu, Qinqin; Qi, Lu; Liang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Increased blood pressure was associated with increased white blood cell count (adjusted p hypertension across white blood cell count quintiles were 1.00, 0.99 (0.89-1.09), 1.11 (1.01-1.22), 1.09 (0.99-1.20), and 1.19 (1.08-1.31) (p for trend blood cell count had an additive effect on systolic blood pressure (p for interaction = 0.047). Therefore, white blood cell count could independently predict hypertension in Chinese adults.

  19. Cerebral white matter blood flow and arterial blood pressure in preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børch, Klaus; Lou, Hans; Greisen, Gorm

    2010-01-01

    It is generally assumed that one reason why white matter injury is common in preterm infants is the relatively poor vascular supply.......It is generally assumed that one reason why white matter injury is common in preterm infants is the relatively poor vascular supply....

  20. Differential associations between white blood cell counts and fatigue in young and older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Hokland, Marianne; Mehlsen, Mimi Yung

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this exploratory study were to study whether fatigue might be related to the cellular immune system by 1) analysing if the number of white blood cell subsets are related to fatigue and 2) if possible relationships vary in younger and older community-dwelling individuals.......The aims of this exploratory study were to study whether fatigue might be related to the cellular immune system by 1) analysing if the number of white blood cell subsets are related to fatigue and 2) if possible relationships vary in younger and older community-dwelling individuals....

  1. Heterogeneity in white blood cells has potential to confound DNA methylation measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjorn T Adalsteinsson

    Full Text Available Epigenetic studies are commonly conducted on DNA from tissue samples. However, tissues are ensembles of cells that may each have their own epigenetic profile, and therefore inter-individual cellular heterogeneity may compromise these studies. Here, we explore the potential for such confounding on DNA methylation measurement outcomes when using DNA from whole blood. DNA methylation was measured using pyrosequencing-based methodology in whole blood (n = 50-179 and in two white blood cell fractions (n = 20, isolated using density gradient centrifugation, in four CGIs (CpG Islands located in genes HHEX (10 CpG sites assayed, KCNJ11 (8 CpGs, KCNQ1 (4 CpGs and PM20D1 (7 CpGs. Cellular heterogeneity (variation in proportional white blood cell counts of neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils, counted by an automated cell counter explained up to 40% (p<0.0001 of the inter-individual variation in whole blood DNA methylation levels in the HHEX CGI, but not a significant proportion of the variation in the other three CGIs tested. DNA methylation levels in the two cell fractions, polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cells, differed significantly in the HHEX CGI; specifically the average absolute difference ranged between 3.4-15.7 percentage points per CpG site. In the other three CGIs tested, methylation levels in the two fractions did not differ significantly, and/or the difference was more moderate. In the examined CGIs, methylation levels were highly correlated between cell fractions. In summary, our analysis detects region-specific differential DNA methylation between white blood cell subtypes, which can confound the outcome of whole blood DNA methylation measurements. Finally, by demonstrating the high correlation between methylation levels in cell fractions, our results suggest a possibility to use a proportional number of a single white blood cell type to correct for this confounding effect in analyses.

  2. Polycystic ovary syndrome and the peripheral blood white cell count.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Herlihy, A C

    2012-02-01

    This retrospective cross-sectional study examined if the white cell count (WCC) is increased in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and if so, is it due to PCOS or to the associated obesity? Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Of the 113 women studied, 36 had PCOS and 77 did not. The mean WCC was higher in the PCOS group compared with the non-PCOS group (8.9 x 10(9)\\/l vs 7.4 x 10(9)\\/l p = 0.002). This increase was due to a higher neutrophil count (5.6 x 10(9)\\/l vs 4.3 x 10(9)\\/l; p = 0.003). There was a leucocytosis (WCC >11 x 10(9)\\/l) present in 19% of the PCOS group compared with 1% in the non-PCOS group (p < 0.001). The neutrophil count was abnormally high (>7.7 x 10(9)\\/l) in 14% of the PCOS group compared with 4% in the non-PCOS group (p < 0.001). On regression analysis, however, the only independent variable which explained both the increased WCC and the increased neutrophil count was PCOS. We found that PCOS is associated with an increased WCC due to increased neutrophils, which supports the evidence that PCOS is associated with low-grade inflammation. The increase appears to be due to the underlying PCOS, and not to the increased adiposity associated with PCOS.

  3. The Effects of (99mTc Hm-Pao Labeling on Lymphocyte Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özden Ülker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: (99mTc HM-PAO labeled leucocytes have been used as a standard diagnostic procedure for the detection of infection and inflammation. Although, some investigators have already pointed out that labeling of leucocytes with (99mTc HM-PAO has detrimental effects on the cells, still very little is known regarding the effects of ionizing radiation on lymphocyte functions. Methods: In this study, we evaluated the effects of (99mTc HM-PAO labeling on lymphocyte adhesion, proliferation, migration and apoptosis. We used NC-NC lymphoblastoid cell line as the lymphocyte population. (99mTc HM-PAO labeling decreased cell adhesion, proliferation and motility whereas induced apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest. Proliferation assays were performed both using MTT and ELISA tests with 24 hours intervals following labeling. Results: It was recorded that the rate of decrease in proliferation was up to 70% by the 4th day after labeling. (99mTc HMPAO labeling led a 35% decrease on adhesion ability of the cells on fibronectin. By using Boyden chamber motility assay, we showed that both spontaneous and MCP-1 induced lymphocyte motility were potently blocked by (99mTc HM-PAO labeling. The rate of decrease in motility was approximately five times. In addition, we observed a 12 times increase in the apoptosis rate within the (99mTc HM-PAO treated cells compared to the control cells. Besides it was observed that cell cycle arrest was induced starting from 3rd day after (99mTc HM-PAO treatment. Conclusion: Based on our data (99mTc HM-PAO labeling has damaging effects on lymphocyte functions including cell adhesion, proliferation, motility and viability in in vitro

  4. Four-Parameter white blood cell differential counting based on light scattering measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terstappen, Leonardus Wendelinus Mathias Marie; de Grooth, B.G.; Visscher, K.; Kouterik, F.A.; Greve, Jan

    1988-01-01

    Measurement of the depolarized orthogonal light scattering in flow cytometry enables one to discriminate human eosinephilic granulocytes from neutrophilic granulocytes. We use this method to perform a four-parameter differential white blood cell analysis. A simple flow cytometer was built equipped

  5. Beyond White Blood Cell Monitoring : Screening in the Initial Phase of Clozapine Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, Dan; Bogers, Jan P. A. M.; van Dijk, Daniel; Bakker, Bert; Schulte, Peter F. J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Clozapine is the preferred option for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. However, since 1975, clozapine has been known to cause agranulocytosis. In the clozapine screening guidelines, white blood cell count is mandatory. In the past 20 years, after its reintroduction, 3 other serious side

  6. Effect of interval training program on white blood cell count in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Elevated white blood cell (WBC) count is considered to be prospectively and positively associated with cardiovascular diseases, particularly hypertension. Also, the positive role of exercise in the management of hypertension has been well and long established. However the relationship between WBC count and ...

  7. Blood lead levels in White-Backed Vultures ( Gyps africanus ) from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood lead levels in White-Backed Vultures (Gyps africanus) from Botswana, Africa. David Kenny, Richard Reading, Glyn Maude, Peter Hancock, Beckie Garbett. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  8. Use of indium-111-labeled white blood cells in the diagnosis of diabetic foot infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiger, L.S.; Fox, I.M.

    1990-01-01

    The diagnosis of bone infection in the patient with nonvirgin bone is a diagnostic dilemma. This is especially true in the diabetic patient with a soft tissue infection and an underlying osteoarthropathy. The authors present a retrospective study using the new scintigraphic technique of indium-111-labeled white blood cells as a method of attempting to solve this diagnostic dilemma.

  9. White Matter Hyperintensity Associations with Cerebral Blood Flow in Elderly Subjects Stratified by Cerebrovascular Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Ahmed A; Powell, David K; Yu, Guoquiang; Johnson, Eleanor S; Jicha, Gregory A; Smith, Charles D

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to add clarity to the relationship between deep and periventricular brain white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and cerebrovascular risk in older persons. Deep white matter hyperintensity (dWMH) and periventricular white matter hyperintensity (pWMH) and regional gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) blood flow from arterial spin labeling were quantified from magnetic resonance imaging scans of 26 cognitively normal elderly subjects stratified by cerebrovascular disease (CVD) risk. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images were acquired using a high-resolution 3-dimensional (3-D) sequence that reduced partial volume effects seen with slice-based techniques. dWMHs but not pWMHs were increased in patients at high risk of CVD; pWMHs but not dWMHs were associated with decreased regional cortical (GM) blood flow. We also found that blood flow in WM is decreased in regions of both pWMH and dWMH, with a greater degree of decrease in pWMH areas. WMHs are usefully divided into dWMH and pWMH regions because they demonstrate differential effects. 3-D regional WMH volume is a potentially valuable marker for CVD based on associations with cortical CBF and WM CBF. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. HMPAO-SPECT during epileptic seizures: Early and late images. Fruehe und spaete HMPAO-SPECT waehrend eines epileptischen Anfalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overbeck, B.; Gruenwald, F.; Bockisch, A.; Biersack, H.J. (Bonn Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin); Reinke, U. (Bonn Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Nervenklinik/Epileptologie); Gratz, K.F. (Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Nuklearmedizin und Spezielle Biophysik)

    1990-11-01

    For presurgical evaluation of epilepsy a 44-year old patient with complex-partial seizures underwent HMPAO-SPECT. The morphology of the seizures, the MRI-scan, psychometry and ictal as well as interictal EEGs showed a left temporal origin of the seizures. Early images were obtained 20 min and late images 24 h following injection. On both scans a marked hyperperfusion was observed in the left temporal area. A crossed cerebellar diaschisis was also seen on both SPECTs. It could be shown that during ictal examinations there is no bloodflow-dependent wash-out from brain tissue. (orig.).

  11. Neuropathology of White Matter Lesions, Blood-Brain Barrier Dysfunction, and Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainsworth, Atticus H; Minett, Thais; Andoh, Joycelyn; Forster, Gillian; Bhide, Ishaan; Barrick, Thomas R; Elderfield, Kay; Jeevahan, Jamuna; Markus, Hugh S; Bridges, Leslie R

    2017-10-01

    We tested whether blood-brain barrier dysfunction in subcortical white matter is associated with white matter abnormalities or risk of clinical dementia in older people (n=126; mean age 86.4, SD: 7.7 years) in the MRC CFAS (Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study). Using digital pathology, we quantified blood-brain barrier dysfunction (defined by immunohistochemical labeling for the plasma marker fibrinogen). This was assessed within subcortical white matter tissue samples harvested from postmortem T2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-detected white matter hyperintensities, from normal-appearing white matter (distant from coexistent MRI-defined hyperintensities), and from equivalent areas in MRI normal brains. Histopathologic lesions were defined using a marker for phagocytic microglia (CD68, clone PGM1). Extent of fibrinogen labeling was not significantly associated with white matter abnormalities defined either by MRI (odds ratio, 0.90; 95% confidence interval, 0.79-1.03; P=0.130) or by histopathology (odds ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.77-1.12; P=0.452). Among participants with normal MRI (no detectable white matter hyperintensities), increased fibrinogen was significantly related to decreased risk of clinical dementia (odds ratio, 0.74; 95% confidence interval, 0.58-0.94; P=0.013). Among participants with histological lesions, increased fibrinogen was related to increased risk of dementia (odds ratio, 2.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.25-4.08; P=0.007). Our data suggest that some degree of blood-brain barrier dysfunction is common in older people and that this may be related to clinical dementia risk, additional to standard MRI biomarkers. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Association of selenium status and blood glutathione concentrations in blacks and whites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richie, John P.; Muscat, Joshua E.; Ellison, Irina; Calcagnotto, Ana; Kleinman, Wayne; El-Bayoumy, Karam

    2011-01-01

    Selenium deficiency has been linked with increased cancer risk and, in some studies, selenium supplementation was protective against certain cancers. Previous studies suggest that selenium chemoprevention may involve reduced oxidative stress through enhanced glutathione (GSH). Our objectives were to examine the relationships between selenium and GSH in blood and modifying effects of race and sex in free living adults and individuals supplemented with selenium. Plasma selenium concentrations and free and bound GSH concentrations and γ-glutamyl cysteine ligase (GCL) activity in blood were measured in 336 healthy adults, (161 blacks, 175 whites). Plasma selenium and blood GSH were also measured in 36 healthy men from our previously conducted placebo-controlled trial of selenium-enriched yeast (247 μg/day for 9 months). In free-living adults, selenium concentrations were associated with increased blood GSH concentration and GCL activity (Pselenium was significantly higher in whites than in blacks (Psupplementation, plasma selenium was increased 114% in whites and 50% in blacks (Pselenium and GSH in blood of both free-living and selenium-supplemented individuals, with race being an important modifying factor. PMID:21462082

  13. Leukogram and white blood cells count in native people of Chukotka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyrgolkay, L A; Nikitin, Y P

    2001-11-01

    A representative sample of male and female Chukotka natives aged 25-6 years (362 persons) has been surveyed using the cross-sectional epidemiological method. The results have been compared with the data obtained when surveying a representative sample of the non-organised population of the same age in Novosibirsk (n = 2071 persons). The mean age was 43 years. The total count of white blood cells (WBC) in peripheral blood of Chukotka natives was lower than the corresponding values of that index in the inhabitants of Novosibirsk, the 10-90% range of white blood counts being 3.0-7.0 10(9)/l in natives and 4.0-9.0 10(9)/l in residents of Novosibirsk. A significant incidence of leukopenias (leukogram) has been found in native Chukotka people, particularly relative and absolute lymphocytopenia.

  14. White blood cell count correlates with mood symptom severity and specific mood symptoms in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Ole; Sylvia, Louisa G; Bowden, Charles L; Calabrese, Joseph R; Thase, Michael; Shelton, Richard C; McInnis, Melvin; Tohen, Mauricio; Kocsis, James H; Ketter, Terence A; Friedman, Edward S; Deckersbach, Thilo; Ostacher, Michael J; Iosifescu, Dan V; McElroy, Susan; Nierenberg, Andrew A

    2017-04-01

    Immune alterations may play a role in bipolar disorder etiology; however, the relationship between overall immune system functioning and mood symptom severity is unknown. The two comparative effectiveness trials, the Clinical and Health Outcomes Initiatives in Comparative Effectiveness for Bipolar Disorder Study (Bipolar CHOICE) and the Lithium Treatment Moderate-Dose Use Study (LiTMUS), were similar trials among patients with bipolar disorder. At study entry, white blood cell count and bipolar mood symptom severity (via Montgomery-Aasberg Depression Rating Scale and Bipolar Inventory of Symptoms Scale) were assessed. We performed analysis of variance and linear regression analyses to investigate relationships between deviations from median white blood cell and multinomial regression analysis between higher and lower white blood cell levels. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, smoking, diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Among 482 Bipolar CHOICE participants, for each 1.0 × 10(9)/L white blood cell deviation, the overall Bipolar Inventory of Symptoms Scale severity increased significantly among men (coefficient = 2.13; 95% confidence interval = [0.46, -3.79]; p = 0.013), but not among women (coefficient = 0.87; 95% confidence interval = [-0.87, -2.61]; p = 0.33). Interaction analyses showed a trend toward greater Bipolar Inventory of Symptoms Scale symptom severity among men (coefficient = 1.51; 95% confidence interval = [-0.81, -3.82]; p = 0.2). Among 283 LiTMUS participants, higher deviation from the median white blood cell showed a trend toward higher Montgomery-Aasberg Depression Rating Scale scores among men (coefficient = 1.33; 95% confidence interval = [-0.22, -2.89]; p = 0.09), but not among women (coefficient = 0.34; 95% confidence interval = [-0.64, -1.32]; p = 0.50). When combining LiTMUS and Bipolar CHOICE, Montgomery-Aasberg Depression Rating Scale scores

  15. Blood Pressure Control in Aging Predicts Cerebral Atrophy Related to Small-Vessel White Matter Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle C. Kern

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral small-vessel damage manifests as white matter hyperintensities and cerebral atrophy on brain MRI and is associated with aging, cognitive decline and dementia. We sought to examine the interrelationship of these imaging biomarkers and the influence of hypertension in older individuals. We used a multivariate spatial covariance neuroimaging technique to localize the effects of white matter lesion load on regional gray matter volume and assessed the role of blood pressure control, age and education on this relationship. Using a case-control design matching for age, gender, and educational attainment we selected 64 participants with normal blood pressure, controlled hypertension or uncontrolled hypertension from the Northern Manhattan Study cohort. We applied gray matter voxel-based morphometry with the scaled subprofile model to (1 identify regional covariance patterns of gray matter volume differences associated with white matter lesion load, (2 compare this relationship across blood pressure groups, and (3 relate it to cognitive performance. In this group of participants aged 60–86 years, we identified a pattern of reduced gray matter volume associated with white matter lesion load in bilateral temporal-parietal regions with relative preservation of volume in the basal forebrain, thalami and cingulate cortex. This pattern was expressed most in the uncontrolled hypertension group and least in the normotensives, but was also more evident in older and more educated individuals. Expression of this pattern was associated with worse performance in executive function and memory. In summary, white matter lesions from small-vessel disease are associated with a regional pattern of gray matter atrophy that is mitigated by blood pressure control, exacerbated by aging, and associated with cognitive performance.

  16. Blood Pressure Control in Aging Predicts Cerebral Atrophy Related to Small-Vessel White Matter Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Kyle C; Wright, Clinton B; Bergfield, Kaitlin L; Fitzhugh, Megan C; Chen, Kewei; Moeller, James R; Nabizadeh, Nooshin; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Sacco, Ralph L; Stern, Yaakov; DeCarli, Charles S; Alexander, Gene E

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral small-vessel damage manifests as white matter hyperintensities and cerebral atrophy on brain MRI and is associated with aging, cognitive decline and dementia. We sought to examine the interrelationship of these imaging biomarkers and the influence of hypertension in older individuals. We used a multivariate spatial covariance neuroimaging technique to localize the effects of white matter lesion load on regional gray matter volume and assessed the role of blood pressure control, age and education on this relationship. Using a case-control design matching for age, gender, and educational attainment we selected 64 participants with normal blood pressure, controlled hypertension or uncontrolled hypertension from the Northern Manhattan Study cohort. We applied gray matter voxel-based morphometry with the scaled subprofile model to (1) identify regional covariance patterns of gray matter volume differences associated with white matter lesion load, (2) compare this relationship across blood pressure groups, and (3) relate it to cognitive performance. In this group of participants aged 60-86 years, we identified a pattern of reduced gray matter volume associated with white matter lesion load in bilateral temporal-parietal regions with relative preservation of volume in the basal forebrain, thalami and cingulate cortex. This pattern was expressed most in the uncontrolled hypertension group and least in the normotensives, but was also more evident in older and more educated individuals. Expression of this pattern was associated with worse performance in executive function and memory. In summary, white matter lesions from small-vessel disease are associated with a regional pattern of gray matter atrophy that is mitigated by blood pressure control, exacerbated by aging, and associated with cognitive performance.

  17. The responses of white blood cells to weight loss among young male judoists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardalan Shariat

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was the assessment of white blood cells in response to acute and gradual weight loss among young male judoists. Material and Methods—Twenty four healthy young judoists aged 17.0±1.2 years (mean ± SD, with one year of experience in judo training, selected and they were randomly classified in two groups of acute weight loss and gradual weight loss. Blood sampling was conducted in three stages: 1 before weight loss, 2 18 hours after weight loss, and 3 after the last phase of physical exercise performance tests. Results— The average amount of white blood cells in the phase 2 for both groups didn’t increase meaningfully (Acute: P=0. 53, Gradual: P=0.48 but the increase in the phase 3 for both groups was significant (P<0.01. Conclusion— This study concludes that acute weight loss can result in changing the level of white blood cells which are determined in immunity system and related disease.

  18. EFFECT OF SAPPAN WOOD (Caesalpinnia sappan L EXTRACT ON BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL IN WHITE RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saefudin Saefudin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sappan wood or kayu secang (Caesalpinia sappan L. was reported of having medicinal properties, such as natural antioxidant, relieve vomiting of blood, and mix of ingredients for malaria drugs. The research was conducted to study the influence of ethanol extract from sappan wood on blood glucose level of white rats. The study of the blood glucose level in rats was carried out by using glucose tolerance method. It was measured by Refloluxs (Accutrend GC with Chloropropamide 50 mg/200 g BW (Body weight as positive control. The ethanol extracts were used in various concentrations 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/200 g BW per-oral and was observed every hour, beginning one hour before to 7 hours after the extract being administered. The results showed that treatment of ethanol extract of sappan wood by administer doses gave remarkable effect on the blood glucose level in white rat. It reduced the glucose level in the blood compared to the negative and positive control. Treatment of dose 30 mg/200 g BW gave similar effect to positive controls, while a dose of 50 mg/200 g BW gave lower blood glucose level (93 mg/dl than the positive controls.

  19. White Blood Cell-Based Detection of Asymptomatic Scrapie Infection by Ex Vivo Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliez, Sophie; Jaumain, Emilie; Huor, Alvina; Douet, Jean-Yves; Lugan, Séverine; Cassard, Hervé; Lacroux, Caroline; Béringue, Vincent; Andréoletti, Olivier; Vilette, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Prion transmission can occur by blood transfusion in human variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and in experimental animal models, including sheep. Screening of blood and its derivatives for the presence of prions became therefore a major public health issue. As infectious titer in blood is reportedly low, highly sensitive and robust methods are required to detect prions in blood and blood derived products. The objectives of this study were to compare different methods - in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo assays - to detect prion infectivity in cells prepared from blood samples obtained from scrapie infected sheep at different time points of the disease. Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) and bioassays in transgenic mice expressing the ovine prion protein were the most efficient methods to identify infected animals at any time of the disease (asymptomatic to terminally-ill stages). However scrapie cell and cerebellar organotypic slice culture assays designed to replicate ovine prions in culture also allowed detection of prion infectivity in blood cells from asymptomatic sheep. These findings confirm that white blood cells are appropriate targets for preclinical detection and introduce ex vivo tools to detect blood infectivity during the asymptomatic stage of the disease. PMID:25122456

  20. Effect of clinical improvement of schizophrenic symptoms on {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Chul Jin; Koong, Sung Soo; Chung, In Won [College of Medicine, Chungbuk National Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    This study investigated regional blood flow changes of frontal, temporal, and basal ganglia in eleven schizophrenic patients on DSM-IV criteria to examine the relationship between rCBF and clinical improvement of symptoms. Single-photon emission computed tomography imaging with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO was performed in baseline and sixth weeks after the treatment, and concurrently psychopathology was assessed by PANSS. Antipsychotics wash-out period was more than 2 weeks, and three patient were drug naive. All patients were finally divided into two groups, the improved or not improved. We examined the difference of the amount of rCBF changes between two groups. Finally, frontal activity shows no significant difference between two groups but both groups show decreased frontal blood flow after antipsychotic treatment. However, the change of right temporal rCBF had positive correlation with the change of the total PANSS score, and the change of left temporal lobe activity was greater in the improved group than in the not improved group. Our results suggest that the temporal lobe activity has relation to the underlying schizophrenic symptoms.

  1. Pathology of porcine peripheral white blood cells during infection with African swine fever virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karalyan Zaven

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African swine fever virus (ASFV is the causative agent of African swine fever (ASF that is the significant disease of domestic pigs. Several studies showed that ASFV can influence on porcine blood cells in vitro. Thus, we asked ourselves whether ASFV infection results in changes in porcine blood cells in vivo. A series of experiments were performed in order to investigate the effects of ASFV infection on porcine peripheral white blood cells. Nine pigs were inoculated by intramuscular injection with 104 50% hemadsorbing doses of virus (genotype II distributed in Armenia and Georgia. The total number of fifteen cell types was calculated during experimental infection. Results Although band-to-segmented neutrophils ratio became much higher (3.5 in infected pigs than in control group (0.3, marked neutropenia and lymphopenia were detected from 2 to 3 days post-infection. In addition to band neutrophils, the high number of other immature white blood cells, such as metamyelocytes, was observed during the course of infection. From the beginning of infection, atypical lymphocytes, with altered nuclear shape, arose and became 15% of total cells in the final phase of infection. Image scanning cytometry revealed hyperdiploid DNA content in atypical lymphocytes only from 5 days post-infection, indicating that DNA synthesis in pathological lymphocytes occurred in the later stages of infection. Conclusion From this study, it can be concluded that ASFV infection leads to serious changes in composition of white blood cells. Particularly, acute ASFV infection in vivo is accompanied with the emergence of immature cells and atypical lymphocytes in the host blood. The mechanisms underlying atypical cell formation remain to be elucidated.

  2. Separation of cancer cells from white blood cells by pinched flow fractionation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Pødenphant; Ashley, Neil; Koprowska, Kamila

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the microfluidic size-separation technique pinched flow fractionation (PFF) is used to separate cancer cells from white blood cells (WBCs). The cells are separated at efficiencies above 90% for both cell types. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are found in the blood of cancer patients...... and can form new tumors. CTCs are rare cells in blood, but they are important for the understanding of metastasis. There is therefore a high interest in developing a method for the enrichment of CTCs from blood samples, which also enables further analysis of the separated cells. The separation...... is challenged by the size overlap between cancer cells and the 106 times more abundant WBCs. The size overlap prevents high efficiency separation, however we demonstrate that cell deformability can be exploited in PFF devices to gain higher efficiencies than expected from the size distribution of the cells....

  3. Distribution of dearomatised white spirit in brain, blood, and fat tissue after repeated exposure of rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lof, A.; Lam, Henrik Rye; Gullstrand, E.

    1999-01-01

    spirit was 1.5 and 5.6 mg/kg in blood; 7.1 and 17.1 mg/kg in brain; 432 and 1452 mg/kg in fat tissue at the exposure levels of 400 and 800 p.p.m., respectively. The concentrations of n-nonane, n-decane, n-undecane, and total white spirit in blood and brain were not affected by the duration of exposure......Petroleum products with low content of aromatics have been increasingly used during the past years. This study investigates tissue disposition of dearomatised white spirit. In addition, brain neurotransmitter concentrations were measured. Male rats were exposed by inhalation to 0, 400 (2.29 mg....../l), or 800 p.p.m. (4.58 mg/l) of dearomatised white spirit, 6 hr/day, 5 days/week up to 3 weeks. Five rats from each group were sacrificed immediately after the exposure for 1, 2, or 3 weeks and 2, 4, 6, or 24 hr after the end of 3 weeks' exposure. After 3 weeks of exposure the concentration of total white...

  4. Children's white blood cell counts in relation to developmental exposures to methylmercury and persistent organic pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oulhote, Youssef; Shamim, Z; Kielsen, Katrine

    2017-01-01

    Background To explore possible markers of developmental immunotoxicity, we prospectively examined 56 children to determine associations between exposures to methylmercury and persistent organic pollutants since birth and the comprehensive differential counts of white blood cells (WBC) at age 5...... years. Materials and methods Extended differential count included: neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes (includingT cells, NK cells, and B cells), and monocytes. Organochlorine compounds (OCs) including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticides, five perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs...

  5. PYGM expression analysis in white blood cells: a complementary tool for diagnosing McArdle disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luna, Noemí; Brull, Astrid; Lucia, Alejandro; Santalla, Alfredo; Garatachea, Nuria; Martí, Ramon; Andreu, Antoni L; Pinós, Tomàs

    2014-12-01

    McArdle disease is caused by an inherited deficiency of the enzyme myophosphorylase, resulting in exercise intolerance from childhood and acute crises of early fatigue and contractures. In severe cases, these manifestations can be accompanied by rhabdomyolysis, myoglobinuria, and fatal renal failure. Diagnosis of McArdle disease is based on clinical diagnostic tests, together with an absence of myophosphorylase activity in skeletal muscle biopsies and genetic analysis of the myophosphorylase-encoding gene, PYGM. The recently reported association between myophosphorylase and Rac1 GTPase in a T lymphocyte cell line prompted us to study myophosphorylase expression in white blood cells (WBCs) from 20 healthy donors and 30 McArdle patients by flow cytometry using a fluorescent-labeled PYGM antibody. We found that T lymphocytes expressed myophosphorylase in healthy donors, but expression was significantly lower in McArdle patients (pblood cells from McArdle patients. Nevertheless, in 13% of patients (who were either heterozygotes or homozygotes for the most common PYGM pathogenic mutation among Caucasians (p.R50X)), the percentage of myophosphorylase-positive white blood cells was not different compared with the control group. Our findings suggest that analysis of myophosphorylase expression in white blood cells might be a useful, less-invasive, complementary test for diagnosing McArdle disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinical utility of18F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan vs.99mTc-HMPAO white blood cell single-photon emission computed tomography in extra-cardiac work-up of infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauridsen, Trine K; Iversen, Kasper K; Ihlemann, Nikolaj; Hasbak, Philip; Loft, Annika; Berthelsen, Anne K; Dahl, Anders; Dejanovic, Danijela; Albrecht-Beste, Elisabeth; Mortensen, Jann; Kjær, Andreas; Bundgaard, Henning; Bruun, Niels Eske

    2017-05-01

    The extra-cardiac work-up in infective endocarditis (IE) comprises a search for primary and secondary infective foci. Whether 18 FDG-PET/CT or WBC-SPECT/CT is superior in detection of clinically relevant extra-cardiac manifestations in IE is unexplored. The objectives of this study were to identify the numbers of positive findings detected by each imaging modality, to evaluate the clinical relevance of these findings and to define the reproducibility for extra-cardiac foci in patients with definite IE. Each modality was evaluated for numbers and location of positive extra-cardiac foci in patients with definite IE. A team of 2 × 2 cardiologists evaluated each finding to determine clinical relevance. Clinical utility was determined by 4 criteria converted into an ordinal scale. Using the manifestation with highest clinical utility rating in each patient, the clinical impact of the two imaging modalities was expressed in a clinical utility score. To evaluate reproducibility for each modality, an imaging core laboratory reviewed all findings. In 55 IE patients, 91 pathological foci were found by FDG-PET/CT and 37 foci were identified by WBC-SPECT/CT (p < 0.001). The clinical utility of FDG-PET/CT was significantly higher than that of WBC-SPECT/CT when comparing clinical utility score (2.06 vs. 1.17; p = 0.01). In assessment of extra-cardiac diagnostics in IE, inter-observer reproducibility was substantial for WBC-SPECT/CT (k 0.69, 95% CI 0.49-0.89) and substantial to excellent for FDG-PET/CT (k 0.79, 95% CI 0.61-0.98). FDG-PET/CT has a significantly higher clinical utility score than WBC SPECT/CT and is potentially superior to WBC-SPECT/CT in detection of extra-cardiac pathology in patients with IE.

  7. Clinical utility of (18)F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan vs. (99m)Tc-HMPAO white blood cell single-photon emission computed tomography in extra-cardiac work-up of infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Trine K; Iversen, Kasper K; Ihlemann, Nikolaj

    2017-01-01

    in patients with definite IE. A team of 2 × 2 cardiologists evaluated each finding to determine clinical relevance. Clinical utility was determined by 4 criteria converted into an ordinal scale. Using the manifestation with highest clinical utility rating in each patient, the clinical impact of the two...... to identify the numbers of positive findings detected by each imaging modality, to evaluate the clinical relevance of these findings and to define the reproducibility for extra-cardiac foci in patients with definite IE. Each modality was evaluated for numbers and location of positive extra-cardiac foci...

  8. Genetic Variation through Polymorphism of Blood and Egg White Protein in Three Kinds of Kedu Chickens at Laying Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LD Mahfudz

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Genetic variation of five blood protein loci and three egg white protein loci in three kinds of Kedu chicken, namely the black skin and black feather (BB, black skin and white feather (BW and white skin and white feather (WW were investigated using polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis. The result showed that five blood loci (pre-albumin, albumin, post-transferin, transferin and hemoglobin and three egg white loci (lysozim, ovalbumin and conalbumin were found to be polymorphic in three kinds of Kedu chicken. BW has average higher heterozygosity than BB and WW. The result was shown in blood and egg white protein polymorphism. There was no difference on blood and egg white protein in the genetic variation. The average of heterozygosity of Kedu chicken of high production and low production was not different. Genetic distance among three populations of Kedu chicken showed that Kedu chicken BW was closer to WW than to BB. Key Words: Kedu chicken, protein polymorphism, blood, egg white, genetic variation

  9. White blood cell segmentation by circle detection using electromagnetism-like optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Erik; Oliva, Diego; Díaz, Margarita; Zaldivar, Daniel; Pérez-Cisneros, Marco; Pajares, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    Medical imaging is a relevant field of application of image processing algorithms. In particular, the analysis of white blood cell (WBC) images has engaged researchers from fields of medicine and computer vision alike. Since WBCs can be approximated by a quasicircular form, a circular detector algorithm may be successfully applied. This paper presents an algorithm for the automatic detection of white blood cells embedded into complicated and cluttered smear images that considers the complete process as a circle detection problem. The approach is based on a nature-inspired technique called the electromagnetism-like optimization (EMO) algorithm which is a heuristic method that follows electromagnetism principles for solving complex optimization problems. The proposed approach uses an objective function which measures the resemblance of a candidate circle to an actual WBC. Guided by the values of such objective function, the set of encoded candidate circles are evolved by using EMO, so that they can fit into the actual blood cells contained in the edge map of the image. Experimental results from blood cell images with a varying range of complexity are included to validate the efficiency of the proposed technique regarding detection, robustness, and stability.

  10. White Blood Cell Segmentation by Circle Detection Using Electromagnetism-Like Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Cuevas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical imaging is a relevant field of application of image processing algorithms. In particular, the analysis of white blood cell (WBC images has engaged researchers from fields of medicine and computer vision alike. Since WBCs can be approximated by a quasicircular form, a circular detector algorithm may be successfully applied. This paper presents an algorithm for the automatic detection of white blood cells embedded into complicated and cluttered smear images that considers the complete process as a circle detection problem. The approach is based on a nature-inspired technique called the electromagnetism-like optimization (EMO algorithm which is a heuristic method that follows electromagnetism principles for solving complex optimization problems. The proposed approach uses an objective function which measures the resemblance of a candidate circle to an actual WBC. Guided by the values of such objective function, the set of encoded candidate circles are evolved by using EMO, so that they can fit into the actual blood cells contained in the edge map of the image. Experimental results from blood cell images with a varying range of complexity are included to validate the efficiency of the proposed technique regarding detection, robustness, and stability.

  11. White Blood Cell Segmentation by Circle Detection Using Electromagnetism-Like Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Diego; Díaz, Margarita; Zaldivar, Daniel; Pérez-Cisneros, Marco; Pajares, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    Medical imaging is a relevant field of application of image processing algorithms. In particular, the analysis of white blood cell (WBC) images has engaged researchers from fields of medicine and computer vision alike. Since WBCs can be approximated by a quasicircular form, a circular detector algorithm may be successfully applied. This paper presents an algorithm for the automatic detection of white blood cells embedded into complicated and cluttered smear images that considers the complete process as a circle detection problem. The approach is based on a nature-inspired technique called the electromagnetism-like optimization (EMO) algorithm which is a heuristic method that follows electromagnetism principles for solving complex optimization problems. The proposed approach uses an objective function which measures the resemblance of a candidate circle to an actual WBC. Guided by the values of such objective function, the set of encoded candidate circles are evolved by using EMO, so that they can fit into the actual blood cells contained in the edge map of the image. Experimental results from blood cell images with a varying range of complexity are included to validate the efficiency of the proposed technique regarding detection, robustness, and stability. PMID:23476713

  12. Diagnosis of leg osseous infection in diabetics: place of scintigraphy of the polynuclear hydrocarbons labelled by HMPAO-{sup 99m}Tc (HMPAO-LS); Diagnostic de l`infection osseuse du pied chez le diabetique: place de la scintigraphie aux polynucleaires marques a l`HMPAO-Tc 99m (HMPAO-LS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devillers, A.; Moisan, A.; Hennion, F.; Poirier, J.Y.; Bourguet, P. [CRLCC Eugene Marquis, Medecine Nucleaire, CHRU Endocrinologie, Rennes (France)

    1997-12-31

    In case of leg infection in diabetics it is difficult to differentiate between a chronic osteopathy, an infection of the soft tissues and an osteomyelitis (OM). We considered of interest to evaluate by a HMPAO-LS prospective study the diagnosis of osteitis in diabetic legs. Twenty seven diabetic (DID type 1 = 11, DNID type 2 = 16) patients (19 M and 8 F, average age 64 years), clinically suspected with a leg osteo-articular infection (malum perforans or cellulitis, uni- or bi-lateral, unique or multiple lesions) were included in the study. For all of them a standard radiographic examination centered on the legs, a (3 phases) osseous scintigraphy and a HMPAO-LS were achieved over 3 days. The HMPAO-LS was considered as in favour of a OM when there was an abnormal accumulation of granulocytes concordant with a hyper-fixation by osseous scintigraphy. In case of 37 retained lesions 20 OM were proved: - 8 sites, on radiological arguments and histological and/or microbiological criteria after osseous biopsy; - 8, by the radiological examination only; - 4, on biopsy arguments, only. Seventeen lesions were not OM, of which 7 were cellulitis. The sensitivity of the HMPAO-LS was 90% with a specificity of 94%. 8/20 OM had initial normal radiographs confirming the precocity of OM diagnosis by HMPAO-LS. Twelve HMPAO-LS were effected in OM evolutive surveillance. All of them became negative on the control initial site of the healing of OM. In conclusion, the HMPAO-LS appears to be an alternative to choose in the diagnosis and in the evolution surveillance of leg OM in diabetics, particularly when the healing of the perforans softs is incomplete and the question of the osteitis healing or sequel of an anti-biotherapy is posed

  13. Changes in circulatory white blood cells of mice and rats due to acute trichothecene intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergers, W W; van Dura, E A; van der Stap, J G

    1987-04-01

    In mice, administration of pure T-2 toxin caused a rapid decrease of lymphocyte counts, which was linear with respect to dose, whereas granulocyte counts showed a delayed decrease. The blood cell counts of both cell types attained normal values after 4-7 days. Similar results were obtained for crude A-, B- and macrocyclic type trichothecene. Intoxication of rats with T-2 toxin or crude A-type trichothecene caused changes in white blood cells, which differed quantitatively from those in the mouse: lymphocyte counts decreased less and a rapid transient increase of granulocytes was more obvious. Results of this study show that lymphocyte and granulocyte blood cell counts of small rodents respond sensitively to acute intoxication with various trichothecenes.

  14. All-plastic, miniature, digital fluorescence microscope for three part white blood cell differential measurements at the point of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcucci, Alessandra; Pawlowski, Michal E; Majors, Catherine; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S

    2015-11-01

    Three-part differential white blood cell counts are used for disease diagnosis and monitoring at the point-of-care. A low-cost, miniature achromatic microscope was fabricated for identification of lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes in samples of whole blood stained with acridine orange. The microscope was manufactured using rapid prototyping techniques of diamond turning and 3D printing and is intended for use at the point-of-care in low-resource settings. The custom-designed microscope requires no manual adjustment between samples and was successfully able to classify three white blood cell types (lymphocytes, granulocytes, and monocytes) using samples of peripheral whole blood stained with acridine orange.

  15. Abnormal blood-brain barrier permeability in normal appearing white matter in multiple sclerosis investigated by MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Stig Præstekær; Simonsen, Helle Juhl; Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup Battistini

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability is disrupted in normal appearing white matter in MS patients, when compared to healthy controls and whether it is correlated with MS clinical characteristics.......To investigate whether blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability is disrupted in normal appearing white matter in MS patients, when compared to healthy controls and whether it is correlated with MS clinical characteristics....

  16. Peripheral white blood cells profile of biodegradable metal implant in mice animal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramitha, Devi; Noviana, Deni; Estuningsih, Sri; Ulum, Mokhamad Fakhrul; Nasution, Ahmad Kafrawi; Hermawan, Hendra

    2015-09-01

    Biocompatibility or safety of the medical device is considered important. It can be determined by blood profile examination. The aim of this study was to assess the biocompatibility of biodegradable metal implant through peripheral white blood cells (WBCs) profile approach. Forty eight male ddy mice were divided into four groups according to the materials implanted: iron wire (Fe), magnesium rod (Mg), stainless steel surgical wire (SS316L) and control with sham (K). Implants were inserted and attached onto the right femoral bone on latero-medial region. In this study, peripheral white blood cells and leukocyte differentiation were the parameters examined. The result showed that the WBCs value of all groups were decreased at the first day after implantation, increased at the 10th day and continued increasing at the 30th day of observation, except Mg group which has decreased. Neutrophil, as an inflammatory cells, was increased at the early weeks and decreased at the day-30 after surgery in all groups. Despite, these values during the observation were still within the normal range. As a conclus ion, biodegradable metal implants lead to an inflammatory reaction, with no adverse effect on WBC value found.

  17. Peripheral white blood cells profile of biodegradable metal implant in mice animal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramitha, Devi; Noviana, Deni, E-mail: deni@ipb.ac.id; Estuningsih, Sri [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), Bogor (Indonesia); Ulum, Mokhamad Fakhrul [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), Bogor (Indonesia); Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Nasution, Ahmad Kafrawi [Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Faculty of Engineering, Muhammadiyah University of Riau (UMRI), Pekanbaru (Indonesia); Hermawan, Hendra [Department of Mining, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering & CHU de Québec Research Center, Laval University (ULaval) (Canada)

    2015-09-30

    Biocompatibility or safety of the medical device is considered important. It can be determined by blood profile examination. The aim of this study was to assess the biocompatibility of biodegradable metal implant through peripheral white blood cells (WBCs) profile approach. Forty eight male ddy mice were divided into four groups according to the materials implanted: iron wire (Fe), magnesium rod (Mg), stainless steel surgical wire (SS316L) and control with sham (K). Implants were inserted and attached onto the right femoral bone on latero-medial region. In this study, peripheral white blood cells and leukocyte differentiation were the parameters examined. The result showed that the WBCs value of all groups were decreased at the first day after implantation, increased at the 10th day and continued increasing at the 30th day of observation, except Mg group which has decreased. Neutrophil, as an inflammatory cells, was increased at the early weeks and decreased at the day-30 after surgery in all groups. Despite, these values during the observation were still within the normal range. As a conclus ion, biodegradable metal implants lead to an inflammatory reaction, with no adverse effect on WBC value found.

  18. High blood pressure and cerebral white matter lesion progression in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaaren, Benjamin F J; Vernooij, Meike W; de Boer, Renske; Hofman, Albert; Niessen, Wiro J; van der Lugt, Aad; Ikram, M Arfan

    2013-06-01

    High blood pressure is considered an important risk factor for cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs) in the aging population. In a longitudinal population-based study of 665 nondemented persons, we investigated the longitudinal relationship of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and pulse pressure with annual progression of WMLs. Means of blood pressure were calculated over a 5-year period before longitudinal MRI scanning. WML progression was subsequently measured on 2 scans 3.5 years apart. We performed analyses with linear regression models and evaluated adjustments for age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors, and baseline WML volume. In addition, we evaluated whether treatment of hypertension is related to less WML progression. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly associated with annual WML progression (regression coefficient [95% confidence interval], 0.08 [0.03; 0.14] mL/y and 0.09 [0.03; 0.15] mL/y per SD increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively). Pulse pressure was also significantly associated with WML progression, but not independent from hypertension. After adjustment for baseline WML volume, only systolic blood pressure remained significantly associated: 0.05 (0.00; 0.09) mL/y per SD increase. People with uncontrolled untreated hypertension had significantly more WML progression than people with uncontrolled treated hypertension (difference [95% confidence interval], 0.12 [0.00; 0.23] mL/y). The present study further establishes high blood pressure to precede WMLs and implies that hypertension treatment could reduce WML progression in the general population.

  19. Effect of Active and Passive Recovery on Athletes' White Blood Cell Count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Piraki, MA

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and ObjectivesExercise affects the immune system. The aim of this study is comparison of the effect of active and passive recovery (AR and RR, respectively on differential white blood cell (WBC count after an exhaustive exercise session in athlete males.Methods Twenty male athletes who signed an informed consent form were randomly divided in to two equal groups. Their blood samples were drawn at rest, immediately after an exhaustive exercise session, immediately after 15 minutes active and passive recovery from an exhaustive exercise session. A WBC’s (lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, basohils, and eosinophils count was done on all of these samples.This exercise protocol was based on the Bruce Protocol Treadmill Stress Test until feeling excessive fatigue followed by AR (first group, and RR (second group.Wilcoxon signed-rank and Mann-Whitney test were used for descriptive and statistical analysis on collected raw data. Statistical significance in this analysis was set at P ≤ 0.05.ResultsA session of exhaustive exercise increased the number of WBCs (except for eosinophils with a statistical significant differences of (P0.05.ConclusionThe results show a session of exhaustive exercise increases the blood leukocytes, except for eosinophils. Also, taking 15 minutes recovery (AR or RR has no effect on athlete's WBC count. It means the type of recovery has no special and different effect on athlete's WBC count. In fact, if there are any changes in WBC count during or after exhaustive exercise, they are not due to the type of 15 minutes recovery. Furthermore, under the conditions of this study after completing the AR and RR, number of the blood leukocytes was over their basal level.Keywords: Active Recovery, Passive Recovery, White Blood Cell Count, Athletes.

  20. Diet and blood pressure: differences among whites, blacks and Hispanics in New York City 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, Katherine; Jung, Molly; Yi, Stella

    2014-01-01

    Our study examined: 1) racial/ethnic differences in sodium and potassium intake; and 2) racial/ethnic differences in the relationship between dietary intake and blood pressure. Data were collected in New York City in 2010, and included a telephone health survey, a 24-hour urine collection and an in-home clinical exam. Linear regression was used to examine the association of sodium and potassium intakes with blood pressure separately by race/ethnicity, age and sex among 1568 participants. The results indicate large differences by population subgroup in: 1) nutrient intake, and 2) the relationship between sodium and potassium intake and blood pressure. Black and Hispanic males aged White counterparts. The regression results indicate a strong association between diet and blood pressure among Blacks and Hispanics only. Based on our assessment of the association of sodium and potassium intakes and blood pressure measurements, we find that young Black and Hispanic males aged diet quality and may be the most at risk for developing diet-related hypertension.

  1. AN IMPROVED WHITE CELL DILUENT FOR USE WITH THE EEL ELECTRONIC BLOOD CELL COUNTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, F.; Rickards, A. G.

    1960-01-01

    An improved white cell diluent for use with the Eel electronic counter is described. It possesses advantages over previously described diluents in the rapidity of its action as a red cell stromalysin and in its ability to conserve surviving leucocytes for long periods of time. These properties enable counts to be made either immediately after preparation of the suspension or several hours later. The diluent is equally suitable for use with capillary or venous blood samples. When used for counting leucocytes it has been found necessary to effect a minor modification to the machine whereby the light intensity is reduced by approximately one-half. PMID:13837137

  2. DNA Damages and White Blood Cell Death Processes in Victims with Severe Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Moroz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study the mechanisms of posttraumatic changes in the blood cells, by investigating DNA damages associat ed with hypoxia caused by massive blood loss (BL in severe injury.Subjects and methods. Ninetyfive patients aged 40.6±16.5 years (from 20 to 79 years who had sustained severe mechanical injury with different BL volumes (BLV (from 100 to 4000 ml and hemodynamic disorders were examined to study DNA damages and white blood cell necrotic and apop totic processes. In terms of the victims' weight, the mean BL was 21.5±16.5 ml/kg (from 1.4 to 61.5 ml/kg. The victimswere divided into 4 groups according to BLV: 1 26 victims whose BLV was less than 750 ml (5.93±2.41 ml/kg (grade I BL; 2 23 victims whose BLV was 750—1500 ml (11.5±1.5 ml/kg (grade 2 BL; 3 23 victims whose BLV was 1500—2000 ml (23.8±4.0 ml/kg (grade 3 BL; 4 23 victims whose BLV was over 2000 ml (45.6±10.1 ml/kg (grade 4 BL, according to the type of injury: 1 severe skeletal injury (SSI (n=17; 2 brain injury (BI (n=43; 3 a concurrence of SSI and BI (SSI+BI (n=35; according to the development of infectious complications: 1 69 victims who developed infectious com plications on days 5—7 postinjury; 2 26 victims who did not. To evaluate the impact of hypoxia on DNA damages, white blood cell apoptotic and necrotic processes, the victims were divided into 2 groups: 1 hypoxia (18 of the 95 victims who had 4 altered indicators, such as capillary blood pO2, plasma lactate levels, pH, and BE; 2 no hypoxia (10 of the 95 victims whose indicators were within the normal range. DNA damages and necrotic and apoptotic changes in the white blood cells were assessed by the DNA comet assay. The plasma concentration of extracellular DNA was fluorometrically determined using a QuantiTTM HS DNA Assay Kit (Invitrogen, USA. That of 8hydroxy2deoxyguanosine was estimated by enzyme immunoassay employing an 8hydroxy2deoxyGuanosine EIA Kit (Cayman Chemical, USA. The levels of cas

  3. White Toenails

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page. Please enable Javascript in your browser. White Toenails White toenails can develop for several reasons. Trauma, such ... trauma does not cause broken blood vessels, a white spot may appear under the nail. The spot ...

  4. Comprehensive proteomic analysis of white blood cells from chikungunya fever patients of different severities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikan, Nitwara; Khongwichit, Sarawut; Phuklia, Weerawat; Ubol, Sukathida; Thonsakulprasert, Tipparat; Thannagith, Montri; Tanramluk, Duangrudee; Paemanee, Atchara; Kittisenachai, Suthathip; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Smith, Duncan R

    2014-04-11

    Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) is a recently re-emerged mosquito transmitted viral disease caused by the chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an Alphavirus belonging to the family Togaviridae. Infection of humans with CHIKV can result in CHIKF of variable severity, although the factors mediating disease severity remain poorly defined. White blood cells were isolated from blood samples collected during the 2009-2010 CHIKF outbreak in Thailand. Clinical presentation and viral load data were used to classify samples into three groups, namely non chikungunya fever (non-CHIKF), mild CHIKF, and severe CHIKF. Five samples from each group were analyzed for protein expression by GeLC-MS/MS. CHIKV proteins (structural and non-structural) were found only in CHIKF samples. A total of 3505 human proteins were identified, with 68 proteins only present in non-CHIKF samples. A total of 240 proteins were found only in CHIKF samples, of which 65 and 46 were found only in mild and severe CHIKF samples respectively. Proteins with altered expression mapped predominantly to cellular signaling pathways (including toll-like receptor and PI3K-Akt signaling) although many other processes showed altered expression as a result of CHIKV infection. Expression of proteins consistent with the activation of the inflammasome was detected, and quantitation of (pro)-caspase 1 at the protein and RNA levels showed an association with disease severity. This study confirms the infection of at least a component of white blood cells by CHIKV, and shows that CHIKV infection results in activation of the inflammasome in a manner that is associated with disease severity.

  5. Tc-99m HMPAO scintigraphy in amiodarone-induced acute lung toxicity: comparison with Tc-99m DTPA inhalation scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Gamze Kapa; Ozdogan, O; Guneri, S; Tamc, B; Durak, H

    2006-11-01

    This case demonstrates the use of Tc-99m HMPAO scintigraphy in amiodarone (AD)-induced lung toxicity. The aim of this presentation is also to discuss different scintigraphic modalities in the diagnosis and follow up in AD-induced lung toxicity. A 77-year-old man, with a suspicious AD-induced acute lung toxicity, underwent Tc-99m DTPA aerosol inhalation scintigraphy and Tc-99m HMPAO scintigraphy. Rapid alveolar clearance of Tc-99m DTPA was found during AD therapy and increased lung uptake of Tc-99m HMPAO was also demonstrated. These findings supported the diagnosis AD lung toxicity. After cessation of therapy, Tc-99m DTPA alveolar clearance was decreased. Although there was some decrease in L/H and L/B ratios of Tc-99m HMPAO after 3 weeks of stopping therapy, Tc-99m HMPAO uptake in the lungs was still continued. This finding may be the result of ongoing pulmonary inflammation as a result of the long half-life of AD. Compared with Tc-99m DTPA aerosol inhalation scintigraphy, Tc-99m HMPAO scintigraphy may have a role in the diagnosis of AD lung toxicity. Nevertheless, there is a need for longitudinal studies investigating patients under AD therapy using follow-up Tc-9m HMPAO scintigraphy.

  6. Relationships between Global DNA Methylation in Circulating White Blood Cells and Breast Cancer Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayha Chopra-Tandon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is not yet clear whether white blood cell DNA global methylation is associated with breast cancer risk. In this review we examine the relationships between multiple breast cancer risk factors and three markers of global DNA methylation: LINE-1, 5-mdC, and Alu. A literature search was conducted using Pubmed up to April 1, 2016, using combinations of relevant outcomes such as “WBC methylation,” “blood methylation,” “blood LINE-1 methylation,” and a comprehensive list of known and suspected breast cancer risk factors. Overall, the vast majority of reports in the literature have focused on LINE-1. There was reasonably consistent evidence across the studies examined that males have higher levels of LINE-1 methylation in WBC DNA than females. None of the other demographic, lifestyle, dietary, or health condition risk factors were consistently associated with LINE-1 DNA methylation across studies. With the possible exception of sex, there was also little evidence that the wide range of breast cancer risk factors we examined were associated with either of the other two global DNA methylation markers: 5-mdC and Alu. One possible implication of the observed lack of association between global WBC DNA methylation and known breast cancer risk factors is that the association between global WBC DNA methylation and breast cancer, if it exists, is due to a disease effect.

  7. Prognosis of white-coat and masked hypertension: International Database of HOme blood pressure in relation to Cardiovascular Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiou, George S; Asayama, Kei; Thijs, Lutgarde; Kollias, Anastasios; Niiranen, Teemu J; Hozawa, Atsushi; Boggia, José; Johansson, Jouni K; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Tsuji, Ichiro; Jula, Antti M; Imai, Yutaka; Staessen, Jan A

    2014-04-01

    Home blood pressure monitoring is useful in detecting white-coat and masked hypertension and is recommended for patients with suspected or treated hypertension. The prognostic significance of white-coat and masked hypertension detected by home measurement was investigated in 6458 participants from 5 populations enrolled in the International Database of HOme blood pressure in relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes. During a median follow-up of 8.3 years, 714 fatal plus nonfatal cardiovascular events occurred. Among untreated subjects (n=5007), cardiovascular risk was higher in those with white-coat hypertension (adjusted hazard ratio 1.42; 95% CI [1.06-1.91]; P=0.02), masked hypertension (1.55; 95% CI [1.12-2.14]; Phypertension (2.13; 95% CI [1.66-2.73]; Phigh office and low home blood pressure (white-coat) and treated controlled subjects (low office and home blood pressure; 1.16; 95% CI [0.79-1.72]; P=0.45). However, treated subjects with masked hypertension (low office and high home blood pressure; 1.76; 95% CI [1.23-2.53]; P=0.002) and uncontrolled hypertension (high office and home blood pressure; 1.40; 95% CI [1.02-1.94]; P=0.04) had higher cardiovascular risk than treated controlled patients. In conclusion, white-coat hypertension assessed by home measurements is a cardiovascular risk factor in untreated but not in treated subjects probably because the latter receive effective treatment on the basis of their elevated office blood pressure. In contrast, masked uncontrolled hypertension is associated with increased cardiovascular risk in both untreated and treated patients, who are probably undertreated because of their low office blood pressure.

  8. Diagnosis of SDAT by HMPAO SPECT and vitamin B{sub 12} serum concentration; Diagnostik der SDAT mittels HMPAO-SPECT und Serumvitamin-B{sub 12}-Spiegel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikosch, P. [Landeskrankenhaus Klagenfurt (Austria). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin; Gallowitsch, H.J. [Landeskrankenhaus Klagenfurt (Austria). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin; Gomez, I. [Landeskrankenhaus Klagenfurt (Austria). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin; Kresnik, E. [Landeskrankenhaus Klagenfurt (Austria). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin; Ploeb, H. [Landeskrankenhaus Klagenfurt (Austria). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin; Lind, P. [Landeskrankenhaus Klagenfurt (Austria). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin

    1995-06-01

    It is quite difficult to confirm the diagnosis of demential disorders, including senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (SDAT) by clinical means only. Through the combination of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT and serum vitamin B{sub 12} determination it was hoped to speed up and improve the diagnosis of SDAT. 116 patients who had been divided into four groups according to their defect pattern in the {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT 17 very probably had SDAT; of these 15 showed a defect pattern with brain SPECT which could be associated to SDAT. The majority of SDAT patients had serum vitamin B{sub 12} levels in the lower normal range or pathologically below that range. Both investigations contributed to establishing the SDAT diagnosis without replacing other investigations. The determination of serum vitamin B{sub 12} does not require any major additional effort. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die alleinige klinische Abklaerung dementieller Zustandsbilder, so auch der senilen Demenz vom Alzheimertyp (SDAT), ist schwierig. Durch die Kombination von {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-Gehirn-SPECT und Serumvitamin-B{sub 12}-Bestimmung erwarteten wir eine Beschleunigung und Verbesserung der Diagnostik der SDAT. Von 116 Patienten, die in 4 Gruppen, entsprechend ihrem {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-Verteilungsmuster eingeteilt worden waren, konnten bei 17 klinisch sehr wahrscheinlichen SDAT-Patienten bei 15 Auffaelligkeiten mit Hinweis auf SDAT im Gehirn SPECT gefunden werden. Ein Teil der Patienten wies einen niedrig-normalen bzw. pathologisch niedrigen Vitamin-B{sub 12}-Spiegel auf. Andere Untersuchungen wuerden durch die Kombination von Gehirn-SPECT und Serumvitamin-B{sub 12}-Bestimmung nicht ueberfluessig werden, obwohl beide Untersuchungen Informationen lieferten, die die Zuordnung zur Diagnose SDAT erleichterten. Die zusaetzliche Serumvitamin-B{sub 12}-Bestimmung stellt keinen wesentlichen Mehraufwand dar. (orig.)

  9. GENETIC VARIATION IN THREE BREEDS OF INDONESIAN LOCAL DUCKS BASED ON BLOOD AND EGG WHITE PROTEIN POLYMORPHISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Johari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A study of genetic variation of four blood protein loci and three egg white loci in three breeds of Indonesian local ducks (Magelang duck = MAD, Tegal duck = TED and Mojosari duck= MOD was investigated by using polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE. The result showed that four blood protein loci (Pre-albumin, Albumin, Transferrin and Post-transferrin and three egg white loci (Ovalbumin, Ovoglobulin and Conalbumin were found to be polymorphic in three breeds of local ducks. There was no difference on blood and egg white protein polyimorphism. The average value of heterozygosity on three breeds of local ducks had a genetic potential to determine the controlled mating system and selection to obtain pure line. The closest phylogenetic relationship among the three breeds of local ducks occurred between MAD and TED.

  10. Sleep restriction increases white blood cells, mainly neutrophil count, in young healthy men: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Zouaoui Boudjeltia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Karim Zouaoui Boudjeltia2, Brice Faraut1,2, Patricia Stenuit1, Maria José Esposito1,2, Michal Dyzma1,2, Dany Brohée2, Jean Ducobu2, Michel Vanhaeverbeek2, Myriam Kerkhofs1,21Sleep Laboratory; 2Laboratory of Experimental Medicine (ULB 222 Unit, CHU de Charleroi Vésale Hospital, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Montigny-le-Tilleul, BelgiumObjectives: This study examines the effects of sleep restricted to four hours for three consecutive nights on blood parameters, known to be associated with cardiovascular risk, in young healthy men.Material and methods: Eight young healthy men (age 24.5 ± 3.3 years were studied in the sleep restricted group. Nine young healthy men (age 24 ± 2 years were included in the control group and spent the days and nights in the sleep lab, while sleeping eight hours/night. One baseline night was followed by three nights of sleep restriction to four hours and by one recovery night of eight hours. Blood samplings were performed after the baseline night and after the third night of sleep restriction or without restriction for the control group.Results: A significant increase in white blood cells (WBC (5.79 ± 1.05 vs. 6.89 ± 1.31 103 cell/µl, p = 0.03, and neutrophils (3.17 ± 0.69 vs 4.24 ± 0.97 103 cell/µl, p = 0.01 was observed after the third night of sleep restriction. Other blood parameters were not affected. No significant variation was observed in the control group.Conclusion: Sleep restriction affected WBC count, mainly neutrophils, considered as risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Stress induced by the short term sleep restriction could be involved in this observation.Keywords: sleep restriction, men, cardiovascular risk, cholesterol, neutrophils

  11. Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT of the brain in a patient with striopallidodentate calcifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierckx, R; Jorens, P G; Appel, B; Hilte, F; Vandevivere, J; De Deyn, P P; Parizel, G A

    1991-06-01

    CT scan in a 52-year-old woman, admitted because of grand mal seizure, showed striopallidodentate calcifications due to postoperative hypoparathyroidism. This patient report stresses the possibility of cortical metabolic involvement in this disorder, as shown on Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT, despite the absence of cognitive defects.

  12. The manifestation of optical centers in UV-Vis absorption and luminescence spectra of white blood human cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terent'yeva, Yu G.; Yashchuk, V. M.; Zaika, L. A.; Snitserova, O. M.; Losytsky, M. Yu

    2016-12-01

    A white blood human cells spectral investigation is presented. The aim of this series of experiments was to obtain and analyze the absorption and luminescence (fluorescence and phosphorescence) spectra at room temperature and at 78 K of newly isolated white blood human cells and their organelles. As a result the optical centers and possible biochemical components that form the studied spectra where identified. Also the differences between the spectra of abnormal cells (B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia BCLL) and normal ones were studied for the whole cells and individual organelles.

  13. On-Orbit, Immuno-Based, Label-Free White Blood Cell Counting System with Microelectromechanical Sensor Technology (OILWBCS-MEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Aurora Flight Sciences, in partnership with Draper Laboratory, has developed a miniaturized system to count white blood cells in microgravity environments. The system uses MEMS technology to simultaneously count total white blood cells, the five white blood cell differential subgroups, and various lymphocyte subtypes. The OILWBCS-MEMS detection technology works by immobilizing an array of white blood cell-specific antibodies on small, gold-coated membranes. When blood flows across the membranes, specific cells' surface protein antigens bind to their corresponding antibodies. This binding can be measured and correlated to cell counts. In Phase I, the partners demonstrated surface chemistry sensitivity and specificity for total white blood cells and two lymphocyte subtypes. In Phase II, a functional prototype demonstrated end-to-end operation. This rugged, miniaturized device requires minimal blood sample preparation and will be useful for both space flight and terrestrial applications.

  14. A novel white blood cells segmentation algorithm based on adaptive neutrosophic similarity score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahin, A I; Guo, Yanhui; Amin, K M; Sharawi, Amr A

    2018-12-01

    White blood cells (WBCs) play a crucial role in the diagnosis of many diseases according to their numbers or morphology. The recent digital pathology equipments investigate and analyze the blood smear images automatically. The previous automated segmentation algorithms worked on healthy and non-healthy WBCs separately. Also, such algorithms had employed certain color components which leak adaptively with different datasets. In this paper, a novel segmentation algorithm for WBCs in the blood smear images is proposed using multi-scale similarity measure based on the neutrosophic domain. We employ neutrosophic similarity score to measure the similarity between different color components of the blood smear image. Since we utilize different color components from different color spaces, we modify the neutrosphic score algorithm to be adaptive. Two different segmentation frameworks are proposed: one for the segmentation of nucleus, and the other for the cytoplasm of WBCs. Moreover, our proposed algorithm is applied to both healthy and non-healthy WBCs. in some cases, the single blood smear image gather between healthy and non-healthy WBCs which is considered in our proposed algorithm. Also, our segmentation algorithm is performed without any external morphological binary enhancement methods which may effect on the original shape of the WBC. Different public datasets with different resolutions were used in our experiments. We evaluate the system performance based on both qualitative and quantitative measurements. The quantitative results indicates high precision rates of the segmentation performance measurement A1 = 96.5% and A2 = 97.2% of the proposed method. The average segmentation performance results for different WBCs types reach to 97.6%. In this paper, a method based on adaptive neutrosphic sets similarity score is proposed in order to detect WBCs from a blood smear microscopic image and segment its components (nucleus and the cytoplasm). The proposed

  15. The nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test and white blood cell count in acute throat infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkstén, B; Ekstrand, T; Gothefors, L; Ostberg, Y

    1975-01-01

    The clinical value of the NBT test and of leucocyte counts in the aetiological differentiation of acute throat infections was investigated. In our hands a frequency of less than 13% NBT positive neutrophils is considered as normal and a test value above 19% as "positive", i.e. indicating a bacterial infection. More than 19% or more than 1 800 NBT positive neutrophils per mm-3 blood were found in 10 of 18 patients with an infection caused by beta-haemolytic streptococci, in 1 of 2 patients with a Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection and in 1 patient with both a streptococcal and mycoplasmal infection, but in none of 19 patients with a viral infection. Since 8 of 18 patients with streptococcal throat infection had normal NBT test results, the NBT test apparently is of limited value in the early recognition of these infections. A high NBT test value would however support the diagnosis. The white blood cell and neutrophil counts were of little value in the differentiation between streptococcal and viral throat infection.

  16. Impulsivity-related Traits Are Associated with Higher White Blood Cell Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Milaneschi, Yuri; Cannas, Alessandra; Ferrucci, Luigi; Uda, Manuela; Schlessinger, David; Zonderman, Alan B.; Terracciano, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    A chronically elevated white blood cell (WBC) count is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality. The present research tests whether facets of impulsivity – impulsiveness, excitement-seeking, self-discipline, and deliberation – are associated with chronically elevated WBC counts. Community-dwelling participants (N=5,652) from Sardinia, Italy, completed a standard personality questionnaire and provided blood samples concurrently and again three years later. Higher scores on impulsivity, in particular impulsiveness and excitement-seeking, were related to higher total WBC counts and higher lymphocyte counts at both time points. Impulsiveness was a predictor of chronic inflammation: For every standard deviation difference in this trait, there was an almost 25% higher risk of elevated WBC counts at both time points (OR=1.23, 95% CI=1.10–1.38). These associations were mediated, in part, by smoking and body mass index. The findings demonstrate that links between psychological processes and immunity are not limited to acute stressors; stable personality dispositions are associated with a chronic inflammatory state. PMID:22190235

  17. White blood cell scintigraphy with monoclonal antibodies in the study of the infected endoprosthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sciuk, J.; Puskas, C.; Schober, O. (Muenster Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin); Greitemann, B. (Muenster Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Allgemeine Orthopaedie)

    1992-07-01

    Forty-three patients with suspected infection of a hip or a knee prosthesis were studied with white blood cell scintigraphy (WBC), using technetium-99m (n=37) or iodine-123 (n=6) labelled monoclonal mouse antibody (MOA). Previously, all patients had undergone skeletal scintigraphy, which was performed as a three-phase study in 33 cases. The final diagnosis was established by open surgery, histology and culture in 37 cases, by puncture and cultere in 3 cases, and by clinical follow-up of at least 6 months in 3 cases. Eighteen prostheses were infected, 25 uninfected. The delayed phase of skeletal scintigraphy had a sensitivity of 92%, a specificity of 24% and an accuracy of 48% in the detection of infection. The perfusion and blood pool activity of the three-phase bone scan had a sensitivity of 67%, a specificity of 71% and an accuracy of 70%. The diagnostic value of WBC was sensitivty 89%, specificity 84% and accuracy 86%. WBC with {sup 99m}-Tc-MOA is easy to perform and always available. Its diagnostic accuracy is similar to conventional WBC scintigraphy with either indium-111 or {sup 99m}-Tc. (orig.).

  18. Association between hypermethylation of DNA repetitive elements in white blood cell DNA and pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Rachel E; Clark, Paul J; Fawcett, Jonathan; Fritschi, Lin; Nagler, Belinda N; Risch, Harvey A; Walters, Rhiannon J; Crawford, William J; Webb, Penelope M; Whiteman, David C; Buchanan, Daniel D

    2014-10-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Methylation of DNA may influence risk or be a marker of early disease. The aim of this study was to measure the association between methylation of three DNA repetitive elements in white blood cell (WBC) DNA and pancreatic cancer. DNA from WBCs of pancreatic cancer cases (n=559) and healthy unrelated controls (n=603) were tested for methylation of the LINE-1, Alu and Sat2 DNA repetitive elements using MethyLight quantitative PCR assays. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) between both continuous measures of percent of methylated sample compared to a reference (PMR) or quintiles of PMR and pancreatic cancer, adjusted for age, sex, smoking, BMI, alcohol and higher education, were estimated. The PMR for each of the three markers was higher in cases than in controls, although only LINE-1 was significantly associated with pancreatic cancer (OR per log unit=1.37, 95%CI=1.16-1.63). The marker methylation score for all three markers combined was significantly associated with pancreatic cancer (p-trend=0.0006). There were no associations between measures of PMR and either presence of metastases, or timing of blood collection in relation to diagnosis, surgery, chemotherapy or death (all p>0.1). We observed an association between methylation of LINE-1 in WBC DNA and risk of pancreatic cancer. Further studies are needed to confirm this association. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Tissue augmentation by white blood cell-containing platelet-rich plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawazoe, Takeshi; Kim, Hak Hee

    2012-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a matrix of fibrin and platelets that releases cytokines that are important in wound healing. PRP is produced from the patient's blood and therefore has less risk of allergic reaction and infection. We have obtained PRP with an enhanced white blood cell component (W-PRP) by optimizing the centrifugal separation of PRP from plasma. Here we show that injection of W-PRP into the auricle of nude mice gave greater tissue augmentation compared to PRP. Further augmentation occurred when bFGF was added to W-PRP, and there was a significant increase in the number of α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells in mice treated with W-PRP+bFGF. Our results suggest that W-PRP may have value in cosmetic surgery aimed at rejuvenation of wrinkled and sagging skin. W-PRP injection constitutes a new concept in cell transplantation, in which cells required for tissue regeneration are induced by cytokines released from the transplanted cells.

  20. Relationship among morning blood pressure surge, 24-hour blood pressure variability, and cardiovascular outcomes in a white population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombelli, Michele; Fodri, Danilo; Toso, Elena; Macchiarulo, Mario; Cairo, Matteo; Facchetti, Rita; Dell'Oro, Raffaella; Grassi, Guido; Mancia, Giuseppe

    2014-11-01

    Cardiovascular events have their greatest prevalence in the early morning period. Whether this is attributable to an arousal-dependent blood pressure (BP) increase is far from being clear. It is also not clear to what extent this phenomenon reflects overall 24-hour BP variability. In 2051 subjects (aged 25-74 years) representative of the population of Monza (Italy), we measured 24-hour ambulatory systolic BP (SBP) and calculated the difference between the 2-hour average values after morning arousal and the lowest 3 or average 2-hour values before arousal (morning BP surge 1 and 2, respectively). For either measure, we sought the relationship with a variety of indices of 24-hour SBP variability and collected information on (1) the occurrence of cardiovascular and all cause deaths during a follow-up of ≈16 years and (2) the appearance of echocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy after 10 years from the baseline visit. Morning SBP surge 1 was directly related to indices of 24-hour SBP variability, including those made independent on the magnitude of the day-night SBP difference. There was a weak positive relationship between morning SBP surge 1 and the risk of cardiovascular and all-cause death, which disappeared after adjustment for confounders. This was the case also for development of left ventricular hypertrophy. Morning SBP surge 2 was smaller, inconsistently related to 24-hour SBP variability and not at all related to fatal events or new-onset left ventricular hypertrophy. In a white population, morning BP surge was not found to be an independent predictor of cardiovascular death, all-cause death, or development of high cardiovascular risk (as documented by new-onset cardiac damage) even when appropriately assessed by measures that reflect its association with 24-hour BP variability. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. GENETIC VARIATION IN THREE BREEDS OF INDONESIAN LOCAL DUCKS BASED ON BLOOD AND EGG WHITE PROTEIN POLYMORPHISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Johari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A study of genetic variation of four blood protein loci and three egg white loci in three breeds ofIndonesian local ducks (Magelang duck = MAD, Tegal duck = TED and Mojosari duck= MOD wasinvestigated by using polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE. The result showed that four bloodprotein loci (Pre-albumin, Albumin, Transferrin and Post-transferrin and three egg white loci(Ovalbumin, Ovoglobulin and Conalbumin were found to be polymorphic in three breeds of localducks. There was no difference on blood and egg white protein polyimorphism. The average value ofheterozygosity on three breeds of local ducks had a genetic potential to determine the controlled matingsystem and selection to obtain pure line. The closest phylogenetic relationship among the three breeds oflocal ducks occurred between MAD and TED.

  2. The white blood cell count : its relationship to plasma insulin and other cardiovascular risk factors in healthy male individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Targher, G; Seidell, J C; Tonoli, M; Muggeo, M; de Sandre, G; Cigolini, M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationships of total and differential white blood cell (WBC) count to the components of the so-called insulin resistance syndrome. SUBJECTS AND DESIGN: The study population consisted of a random sample of 90 38-year-old healthy men with normal glucose tolerance.

  3. Association of white blood cell counts with left ventricular mass index in hypertensive patients undergoing anti-hypertensive drug therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hongtao; Chu, Hongxia; Lv, Zhiyang; Qi, Guanming; Guo, Junjie; Fu, Wei; Wang, Xiaojing; Guo, Xiangyu; Ge, Junbo; Yin, Chengqian

    2017-04-01

    Although studies using animal models have demonstrated that nonhemodynamic factors, including inflammatory cells and cytokines, contribute to left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), there is little clinical data to confirm this association. Therefore in the present study, levels of circulating specific types of leukocyte were measured to determine the association between white blood cells and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) in hypertensive patients undergoing anti-hypertensive drug therapy. A total of 144 consecutive hypertensive patients taking anti-hypertensive drug therapy were enrolled in the current study. Subjects were divided into two groups: Those with normal geometry and those with left LVH. Total white blood cells and differentiated subtypes (neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes) were counted, and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, left ventricular posterior wall thickness in diastole and inter-ventricular septal wall thickness in diastole were all measured. Analysis revealed a significant correlation between LVMI and total white blood cell levels (P=0.013). The percentage of LVH in the highest tertile of WBC was increased compared with the middle tertile (P=0.008). Furthermore, a significant correlation between the highest tertile of neutrophil counts and LVH was observed (P=0.039). However, no significant associations between LVMI and monocyte or lymphocyte counts were detected. Therefore, the current study determined that increased total white blood cell and neutrophil subtype counts were associated with LVMI in hypertensive patients undergoing anti-hypertensive drug therapy. They may provide convenient and useful markers for further risk appraisal of LVH caused by nonhemodynamic factors of hypertension.

  4. White blood cell fragments in platelet concentrates prepared by the platelet-rich plasma or buffy-coat methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra-Tiekstra, M. J.; van der Schoot, C. E.; Pietersz, R. N. I.; Reesink, H. W.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: White blood cell (WBC) fragments in platelet concentrates (PCs) may induce allo-immunization in the recipient. MATERIALS AND METHODS: As the level of WBC fragments can differ between PCs produced using different methods, we compared PCs prepared by using the buffy-coat

  5. Impact of Ambient Air Pollution on the Differential White Blood Cell Count in Patients with Chronic Pulmonary Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Brüske, Irene; Hampel, Regina; Socher, Martin M.; Rückerl, Regina; Schneider, Alexandra; Heinrich, Joachim; Oberdörster, Günter; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Peters, Annette

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies report associations between particulate air pollution and increased mortality from pulmonary diseases.To examine whether the exposure to ambient gaseous and particulate air pollution leads to an alteration of the differential white blood cell count in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases like chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma.

  6. White-coat, masked and sustained hypertension detected by home blood pressure monitoring in adolescents: prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardim, Thiago Veiga; Carneiro, Carolina de Souza; Morais, Polyana; Roriz, Vanessa; Mendonça, Karla Lorena; Nascente, Flávia Miquetichuc; Póvoa, Thaís Inácio Rolim; Barroso, Weimar Kunz Sebba; Sousa, Ana Luiza Lima; Jardim, Paulo César Veiga

    2018-01-05

    Population-based studies estimating prevalence's of white-coat, masked and sustained hypertension in non-European adolescents are needed, particularly in developing countries. Aiming to determine these estimates and, additionally identify factors associated to these conditions this study was conducted. Cross-sectional study with a representative sample of secondary school students from a Brazilian state capital. Office measurements were performed with validated semi-automatic devices. Home BP (blood pressure) monitoring protocol included two day-time and two evening-time measurements over 6 days. Adolescents' were classified as: normotensives (office and home BP office and home BP ≥95th percentile); white-coat hypertensives (office BP ≥95th percentile and home BP office BP home BP ≥95th percentile). Logistic regression models were built to identify if sex, age, BMI and family history of HTN were independently associated with white-coat, masked and sustained hypertension. In a sample of 1024 adolescents, prevalence of white-coat, masked and sustained hypertension was 7.5%, 2.2% and 1.7%, respectively. Male sex was positively associated with white-coat hypertension (OR 2.68; 95%CI 1.58-4.54; p home BP monitoring was 7.5%, 2.2% and 1.7% respectively. Male sex was positively associated with white-coat hypertension in these adolescents while BMI was positively associated with both white-coat and sustained hypertension.

  7. White blood cell differential count of maturation stages in bone marrow smear using dual-stage convolutional neural networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Woo Choi

    Full Text Available The white blood cell differential count of the bone marrow provides information concerning the distribution of immature and mature cells within maturation stages. The results of such examinations are important for the diagnosis of various diseases and for follow-up care after chemotherapy. However, manual, labor-intensive methods to determine the differential count lead to inter- and intra-variations among the results obtained by hematologists. Therefore, an automated system to conduct the white blood cell differential count is highly desirable, but several difficulties hinder progress. There are variations in the white blood cells of each maturation stage, small inter-class differences within each stage, and variations in images because of the different acquisition and staining processes. Moreover, a large number of classes need to be classified for bone marrow smear analysis, and the high density of touching cells in bone marrow smears renders difficult the segmentation of single cells, which is crucial to traditional image processing and machine learning. Few studies have attempted to discriminate bone marrow cells, and even these have either discriminated only a few classes or yielded insufficient performance. In this study, we propose an automated white blood cell differential counting system from bone marrow smear images using a dual-stage convolutional neural network (CNN. A total of 2,174 patch images were collected for training and testing. The dual-stage CNN classified images into 10 classes of the myeloid and erythroid maturation series, and achieved an accuracy of 97.06%, a precision of 97.13%, a recall of 97.06%, and an F-1 score of 97.1%. The proposed method not only showed high classification performance, but also successfully classified raw images without single cell segmentation and manual feature extraction by implementing CNN. Moreover, it demonstrated rotation and location invariance. These results highlight the promise of

  8. White blood cell differential count of maturation stages in bone marrow smear using dual-stage convolutional neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Ku, Yunseo; Yoo, Byeong Wook; Kim, Jung-Ah; Lee, Dong Soon; Chai, Young Jun; Kong, Hyoun-Joong; Kim, Hee Chan

    2017-01-01

    The white blood cell differential count of the bone marrow provides information concerning the distribution of immature and mature cells within maturation stages. The results of such examinations are important for the diagnosis of various diseases and for follow-up care after chemotherapy. However, manual, labor-intensive methods to determine the differential count lead to inter- and intra-variations among the results obtained by hematologists. Therefore, an automated system to conduct the white blood cell differential count is highly desirable, but several difficulties hinder progress. There are variations in the white blood cells of each maturation stage, small inter-class differences within each stage, and variations in images because of the different acquisition and staining processes. Moreover, a large number of classes need to be classified for bone marrow smear analysis, and the high density of touching cells in bone marrow smears renders difficult the segmentation of single cells, which is crucial to traditional image processing and machine learning. Few studies have attempted to discriminate bone marrow cells, and even these have either discriminated only a few classes or yielded insufficient performance. In this study, we propose an automated white blood cell differential counting system from bone marrow smear images using a dual-stage convolutional neural network (CNN). A total of 2,174 patch images were collected for training and testing. The dual-stage CNN classified images into 10 classes of the myeloid and erythroid maturation series, and achieved an accuracy of 97.06%, a precision of 97.13%, a recall of 97.06%, and an F-1 score of 97.1%. The proposed method not only showed high classification performance, but also successfully classified raw images without single cell segmentation and manual feature extraction by implementing CNN. Moreover, it demonstrated rotation and location invariance. These results highlight the promise of the proposed method

  9. Ultrasensitive UPLC-MS/MS method for analysis of etheno-DNA adducts in human white blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H; Cui, S; Wang, S; Jiang, X; Zhang, S; Zhang, R; Fu, P P; Sun, X

    2015-01-01

    Etheno-DNA adducts are generated by interaction of cellular DNA with exogenous environmental carcinogens and end products of lipid peroxidation. It has been determined that 1,N(6)-etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine (εdA) and 3,N(4)-etheno-2'-deoxycytidine (εdC) adducts formed in human white blood cells can be used to serve as biomarkers of genetic damage mediated by oxidative stress. In this study, we developed an ultrasensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method used to detect and quantify εdA and dC adducts in human white blood cells. The percent recoveries of εdA and dC adducts were found to be 88.9% ± 2.8 and 95.7% ± 3.7, respectively. The detection limits were ∼ 1.45 fmol for εdA and ∼ 1.27 fmol for εdC in 20 μg of human white blood cell DNA samples, both εdA and εdC adducts could be detected using only ∼ 5 μg of DNA per sample. For validation of the method, 34 human blood cell DNA samples were assayed and the results revealed a significant difference (P blood cell DNA samples; background levels of εdA and εdC could be reproducibly detected. The ultrasensitive and simple detection method is thus suitable for applications in human biomonitoring and molecular epidemiology studies.

  10. The Effect of Hemodialysis on Hemoglobin Concentration, Platelets count and White Blood Cells Count in End Stage Renal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir A.H. Hakim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of hemodialysis machine in complete blood count with focus on hemoglobin, platelets and total white blood cells count for patients of end stage renal disease, to evaluate the effect of dialysis on hemoglobin, platelets and white blood count, to estimate the values of change session of dialysis, to clarify the major cause of End Stage Renal Failure among the study group. 3 ml of blood were collected from 199 patients, aseptically by standard phlebotomy technique by trained phlebotomist from each patient and dispensed in to tri-potassium Ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid(K3 EDTA anticoagulant containers about 10-15 minutes after the hemodialysis. The study revealed that (83,9% of patients with higher decrease range reach to 4.3g, about.(14.1% have stable concentration, and only( 2% their Hb increased after dialysis, 83.9% of patients have noticeable increase in , 14.1% of patients show decrease in TWBCs and 2% have stable count, there is decrease in platelets count in (99.5% of patients almost in and only one patient showed stable count after dialysis (0.5%, The study revealed that a significant number of low hemoglobin concentration , low platelets count and high white blood count.

  11. Inter-arm blood pressure differences compared with ambulatory monitoring: a manifestation of the ‘white-coat’ effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Una; Holder, Roger; Hodgkinson, James; McManus, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Background Inter-arm difference in blood pressure of >10 mmHg is associated with peripheral vascular disease, but it is unclear how much of the difference in sequential right and left arm blood pressure measurements might be due to a ‘white-coat’ effect. Aim To use ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) to better understand the clinical significance of inter-arm differences in blood pressure. Design and setting Retrospective study in a teaching hospital in Birmingham. Method Anonymised clinical data collected from 784 patients attending a single hospital-based hypertension clinic were retrospectively analysed. Each participant had blood pressure measured sequentially in both arms, followed by ABPM over the subsequent 24 hours. Result Data were available for 710 (91%) patients, of whom 39.3% (279) had a blood pressure difference of 10 mmHg or more between each arm. Compared to daytime systolic ABPM, the difference was 25.1 mmHg using the arm with the highest reading, but only 15.5 mmHg if the lower reading was taken (mean difference 9.6 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI] = 9.0 mmHg to 10.3 mmHg)). However, differences between mean right (20.7 mmHg) or left (19.9 mmHg) arm blood pressure and daytime systolic ABPM were very similar. Conclusion Compared with ABPM, use of the higher of the left and right arm readings measured sequentially appears to overestimate true mean blood pressure. As there is no significant difference in the extent of disparity with ABPM by left or right arm, this is unlikely to be due to arm dominance and may be due to the ‘white-coat’ effect reducing blood pressure on repeated measurement. Where a large inter-arm blood pressure difference is detected with sequential measurement, healthcare professionals should re-measure the blood pressure in the original arm. PMID:23561681

  12. White blood cells identification system based on convolutional deep neural learning networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahin, A I; Guo, Yanhui; Amin, K M; Sharawi, Amr A

    2017-11-16

    White blood cells (WBCs) differential counting yields valued information about human health and disease. The current developed automated cell morphology equipments perform differential count which is based on blood smear image analysis. Previous identification systems for WBCs consist of successive dependent stages; pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction, feature selection, and classification. There is a real need to employ deep learning methodologies so that the performance of previous WBCs identification systems can be increased. Classifying small limited datasets through deep learning systems is a major challenge and should be investigated. In this paper, we propose a novel identification system for WBCs based on deep convolutional neural networks. Two methodologies based on transfer learning are followed: transfer learning based on deep activation features and fine-tuning of existed deep networks. Deep acrivation featues are extracted from several pre-trained networks and employed in a traditional identification system. Moreover, a novel end-to-end convolutional deep architecture called "WBCsNet" is proposed and built from scratch. Finally, a limited balanced WBCs dataset classification is performed through the WBCsNet as a pre-trained network. During our experiments, three different public WBCs datasets (2551 images) have been used which contain 5 healthy WBCs types. The overall system accuracy achieved by the proposed WBCsNet is (96.1%) which is more than different transfer learning approaches or even the previous traditional identification system. We also present features visualization for the WBCsNet activation which reflects higher response than the pre-trained activated one. a novel WBCs identification system based on deep learning theory is proposed and a high performance WBCsNet can be employed as a pre-trained network. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Disparity in regional cerebral blood flow during electrically induced seizure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sestoft, D; Meden, P; Hemmingsen, R

    1993-01-01

    This is a presentation of 2 cases in which the intraictal regional cerebral blood flow distribution was measured with the 99mTc-HMPAO single photon emission computerized tomography technique during an electrically induced seizure. Although the seizure was verified as generalized on electroencepha......This is a presentation of 2 cases in which the intraictal regional cerebral blood flow distribution was measured with the 99mTc-HMPAO single photon emission computerized tomography technique during an electrically induced seizure. Although the seizure was verified as generalized...

  14. Mismatched uptake of Tc-99m-ECD and Tc-99m-HMPAO in subacute cerebral infarction: Tc-99m-ECD for viability and Tc-99m-HMPAO for flow restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D. S.; Hyun, I. Y.; Kim, S. K. [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1997-07-01

    Tc-99m-HMPAO reflects tissue perfusion but Tc-99m-ECD uptake is affected by tissue viability in addition to tissue perfusion which the varied state of cellular retention of Tc-99m-ECD reflects. Luxuriously perfused area on Tc-99m-HMPAO SPECT implies that this cortex was already reperfused either spontaneously or after thrombolysis and that accompanied paralysis of vascular reactivity in those zones warms progressive deterioration. We tried to find out if we can use sequential Tc-99m-ECD/Tc-99m-HMPAO SPECT to reveal cortical perfusion and severity and range of risky areas of cerbral cortex despite reperfusion in sub-acute infarction. In 13 patients (M ; F =7 : 6, mean age 57 (range: 26-84)) with cortical (n=12) and basal ganglia infarction (1), we performed sequential Tc-99m-ECD/Tc-99m-HMPAO SPECT at the same position. At first, 555 MBq of Tc-99m-ECD was injected and imaged and then 1110 MBq of Tc-99m-HMPAO was injected again and imaged with the patients in situ, and the first image (Tc-99m-ECD) and the subtracted image (2nd- 1st : Tc-99m-HMPAO) were compared slice by slice. Study was done from 3 days to 31 days (16{+-}9) after ictus. Tc-99m-ECD uptake was always less than or equal to Tc-99m-HMPAO uptake at the lesion in all cases. Luxury perfusion was prominent in four patients. Mismatched uptake was found in 10 patients. Severity of mismatch showed diverse spectrum and was ranged from total middle cerebral artery territory (1 case) to peripheral thin zones around infarction (2 cases). The other 7 showed intermediate amount of tissues with mismatch , i.e., Tc-99m-ECD defects where Tc-99m-HMPAO uptake is in part increased, normal or decreased. Upon discharge, patients having more uptake with Tc-99m-ECD predicted improvement. Patients having mismatched uptake went dichotomous way. In conclusion, Tc-99m-ECD/Tc-99m-HMPAO sequential SPECT is feasible and reveal both tissue perfusion (Tc-99m-HMPAO ) and discrepant Tc-99m-ECD uptake probably reflecting viability in acute

  15. Segmentation of white blood cells and comparison of cell morphology by linear and naïve Bayes classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinyakupt, Jaroonrut; Pluempitiwiriyawej, Charnchai

    2015-06-30

    Blood smear microscopic images are routinely investigated by haematologists to diagnose most blood diseases. However, the task is quite tedious and time consuming. An automatic detection and classification of white blood cells within such images can accelerate the process tremendously. In this paper we propose a system to locate white blood cells within microscopic blood smear images, segment them into nucleus and cytoplasm regions, extract suitable features and finally, classify them into five types: basophil, eosinophil, neutrophil, lymphocyte and monocyte. Two sets of blood smear images were used in this study's experiments. Dataset 1, collected from Rangsit University, were normal peripheral blood slides under light microscope with 100× magnification; 555 images with 601 white blood cells were captured by a Nikon DS-Fi2 high-definition color camera and saved in JPG format of size 960 × 1,280 pixels at 15 pixels per 1 μm resolution. In dataset 2, 477 cropped white blood cell images were downloaded from CellaVision.com. They are in JPG format of size 360 × 363 pixels. The resolution is estimated to be 10 pixels per 1 μm. The proposed system comprises a pre-processing step, nucleus segmentation, cell segmentation, feature extraction, feature selection and classification. The main concept of the segmentation algorithm employed uses white blood cell's morphological properties and the calibrated size of a real cell relative to image resolution. The segmentation process combined thresholding, morphological operation and ellipse curve fitting. Consequently, several features were extracted from the segmented nucleus and cytoplasm regions. Prominent features were then chosen by a greedy search algorithm called sequential forward selection. Finally, with a set of selected prominent features, both linear and naïve Bayes classifiers were applied for performance comparison. This system was tested on normal peripheral blood smear slide images from two datasets. Two sets

  16. White blood cell counts, insulin resistance, vitamin D levels and sarcopenia in Korean elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Hwan; Kwon, Hyun Seok; Hwang, Hee-Jin

    2017-05-01

    Sarcopenia is a major determinant of frailty, disability and mortality in the elderly. Whether low-grade inflammation, insulin resistance and vitamin D are independently associated with sarcopenia remains unclear. In our study, sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by height squared (ASM/Ht 2 ) that was sarcopenia in Korean elderly men aged more than 65 years was 11.2%. ASM/Ht 2 were positively associated with vitamin D levels, but negatively associated with white blood cell counts and HOMA-IR by multiple regression analysis. After adjustment for covariables, sarcopenia was associated with the highest quartile of WBC counts (OR = 2.93, 95% CI = 1.21-7.14) and the highest quartile of serum vitamin D levels (OR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.15-0.95). In conclusion, the study findings suggest that higher WBC counts and lower vitamin D levels are independently associated with the presence of sarcopenia in community-dwelling elderly men. They also provide a basis for further studies of the complex immune-endocrine network in sarcopenia.

  17. Expression of candidate genes associated with obesity in peripheral white blood cells of Mexican children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa-Martínez, Marcela; Burguete-García, Ana I; Murugesan, Selvasankar; Hoyo-Vadillo, Carlos; Cruz-Lopez, Miguel; García-Mena, Jaime

    2016-10-01

    Obesity is a chronic, complex, and multifactorial disease, characterized by excess body fat. Diverse studies of the human genome have led to the identification of susceptibility genes that contribute to obesity. However, relatively few studies have addressed specifically the association between the level of expression of these genes and obesity. We studied 160 healthy and obese unrelated Mexican children aged 6 to 14 years. We measured the transcriptional expression of 20 genes associated with obesity, in addition to the biochemical parameters, in peripheral white blood cells. The detection of mRNA levels was performed using the OpenArray Real-Time PCR System (Applied Biosystems). Obese children exhibited higher values of fasting glucose (p = 0.034), fasting insulin (p = 0.004), low-density lipoprotein (p = 0.006), triglycerides (p Analysis of transcriptional expression data showed a difference for ADRB1 (p = 0.0297), ADIPOR1 (p = 0.0317), GHRL (p = 0.0060) and FTO (p = 0.0348) genes. Our results suggest that changes in the expression level of the studied genes are involved in biological processes implicated in the development of childhood obesity. Our study contributes new perspectives for a better understanding of biological processes involved in obesity. The protocol was approved by the National Committee and Ethical Committee Board from the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS) (IMSS FIS/IMSS/PRIO/10/011).

  18. Antigenotoxic Effect of Trametes spp. Extracts against DNA Damage on Human Peripheral White Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Knežević

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trametes species have been used for thousands of years in traditional and conventional medicine for the treatment of various types of diseases. The goal was to evaluate possible antigenotoxic effects of mycelium and basidiocarp extracts of selected Trametes species and to assess dependence on their antioxidant potential. Trametes versicolor, T. hirsuta, and T. gibbosa were the species studied. Antigenotoxic potentials of extracts were assessed on human peripheral white blood cells with basidiocarp and mycelium extracts of the species. The alkaline comet test was used for detection of DNA strand breaks and alkali-labile sites, as well as the extent of DNA migration. DPPH assay was used to estimate antioxidative properties of extracts. Fruiting body extracts of T. versicolor and T. gibbosa as well as T. hirsuta extracts, except that at 20.0 mg/mL, were not genotoxic agents. T. versicolor extract had at 5.0 mg/mL the greatest antigenotoxic effect in both pre- and posttreatment of leukocytes. The mycelium extracts of the three species had no genotoxic activity and significant antigenotoxic effect against H2O2-induced DNA damage, both in pre- and posttreatment. The results suggest that extracts of these three species could be considered as strong antigenotoxic agents able to stimulate genoprotective response of cells.

  19. White Blood Cell Count and Total and Cause-Specific Mortality in the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Geoffrey C; Kim, Mimi Y; Manson, JoAnn E; Lessin, Lawrence; Lin, Juan; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Rohan, Thomas E

    2017-07-01

    White blood cell (WBC) count appears to predict total mortality and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality, but it is unclear to what extent the association reflects confounding by smoking, underlying illness, or comorbid conditions. We used data from the Women's Health Initiative to examine the associations of WBC count with total mortality, CHD mortality, and cancer mortality. WBC count was measured at baseline in 160,117 postmenopausal women and again in year 3 in 74,375 participants. Participants were followed for a mean of 16 years. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the relative mortality hazards associated with deciles of baseline WBC count and of the mean of baseline + year 3 WBC count. High deciles of both baseline and mean WBC count were positively associated with total mortality and CHD mortality, whereas the association with cancer mortality was weaker. The association of WBC count with mortality was independent of smoking and did not appear to be influenced by previous disease history. The potential clinical utility of this common laboratory test in predicting mortality risk warrants further study. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Effects of white rice containing enriched gamma-aminobutyric acid on blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Nishimura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter with beneficial effects including antihypertension and antistress properties. In this study, we examined the effects of GABA-enriched white rice (GABA rice on blood pressure (BP in 39 mildly hypertensive adults in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The participants were divided into a test group (n = 22 who consumed rice with 11.2 mg GABA/100 g of rice and a placebo group (n = 17 who consumed rice with 2.7 mg GABA/100 g of rice. For 8 weeks, the participants took 150 g of either the GABA rice or the placebo rice. Hematological examinations were performed on both groups at 0, 4, and 8 weeks after the start of rice consumption. Home BP was self-measured two times daily, morning and evening, from 1 weeks before to 2 weeks after the intervention. Although the hospital BP and evening BP measurements of the participants showed no significant change, consumption of the GABA rice improved the morning BP compared with the placebo rice after the 1st week and during the 6th and 8th weeks. These results showed the possibility that the GABA rice improves morning hypertension.

  1. Extracting, Recognizing, and Counting White Blood Cells from Microscopic Images by Using Complex-valued Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akramifard, Hamid; Firouzmand, Mohammad; Moghadam, Reza Askari

    2012-07-01

    In this paper a method related to extracting white blood cells (WBCs) from blood microscopic images and recognizing them and counting each kind of WBCs is presented. In medical science diagnosis by check the number of WBCs and compared with normal number of them is a new challenge and in this context has been discussed it. After reviewing the methods of extracting WBCs from hematology images, because of high applicability of artificial neural networks (ANNs) in classification we decided to use this effective method to classify WBCs, and because of high speed and stable convergence of complex-valued neural networks (CVNNs) compare to the real one, we used them to classification purpose. In the method that will be introduced, first the white blood cells are extracted by RGB color system's help. In continuance, by using the features of each kind of globules and their color scheme, a normalized feature vector is extracted, and for classifying, it is sent to a complex-valued back-propagation neural network. And at last, the results are sent to the output in the shape of the quantity of each of white blood cells. Despite the low quality of the used images, our method has high accuracy in extracting and recognizing WBCs by CVNNs, and because of this, certainly its result on high quality images will be acceptable. Learning time of complex-valued neural networks, that are used here, was significantly less than real-valued neural networks.

  2. Impact of ambient air pollution on the differential white blood cell count in patients with chronic pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüske, Irene; Hampel, Regina; Socher, Martin M; Rückerl, Regina; Schneider, Alexandra; Heinrich, Joachim; Oberdörster, Günter; Wichmann, H-Erich; Peters, Annette

    2010-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies report associations between particulate air pollution and increased mortality from pulmonary diseases. This study was performed to examine whether the exposure to ambient gaseous and particulate air pollution leads to an alteration of the differential white blood cell count in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases like chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma. A prospective panel study was conducted in Erfurt, Eastern Germany, with 12 repeated differential white blood cell counts in 38 males with chronic pulmonary diseases. Hourly particulate and gaseous air pollutants and meteorological data were acquired. Mixed models with a random intercept adjusting for trend, meteorology, weekday, and other risk variables were used. In this explorative analysis, we found an immediate decrease of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in response to an increase of most gaseous and particulate pollutants. Lymphocytes increased within 24 h in association with all gaseous pollutants but showed only minor effects in regard to particulate air pollution. Monocytes showed an increase associated with ultrafine particles, and nitrogen monoxide. The effect had two peaks in time, one 0-23 h before blood withdrawal and a second one with a time lag of 48-71 h. The increase of particulate and gaseous air pollution was associated with multiple changes in the differential white blood cell count in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases.

  3. A clinical role for 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT in the investigation of dementia?

    OpenAIRE

    Talbot, P; Lloyd, J.; Snowden, J.; Neary, D.; Testa, H.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To provide the clinician with a guide to the clinical utility of 99mTc-HMPAO single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and to the interpretation of specific test results in the differential diagnosis of dementia.
METHODS—Three hundred and sixty three patients with dementia were studied prospectively for a median three (range 1-6) years and classified into disease groups on the basis of established clinical criteria. The degree to which different patterns ...

  4. Diagnosis of pyogenic pelvic inflammatory diseases by {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO leucocyte scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachinsky, I.; Boguslavsky, L.; Golan, H.; Lantsberg, S. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev (Israel); Goldstein, D.; Pak, I.; Katz, M. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    2000-12-01

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is one of the major health problems of women of child-bearing age. Among the most serious complications of PID is the formation of a tubo-ovarian abscess (TOA). Early diagnosis of this condition may prevent serious surgical complications such as peritonitis and sepsis, which may be fatal. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) leucocyte scintigraphy in the diagnosis of TOA. Twenty women with high clinical suspicion of TOA underwent {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO leucocyte scintigraphy. The labelling of leucocytes with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO was performed according to a standard protocol. Scans were obtained at 1, 3 and 24 h following the injection of the labelled leucocytes. In eight cases the early and/or late scan was positive, in 11 cases it was negative, and in one case of ovarian cyst torsion, confirmed by laparoscopy, it showed slight uptake in the capsule of the cyst (false-positive). The sensitivity of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO leucocyte scintigraphy was 100%, specificity 91.6%, positive predictive value 89%, negative predictive value 100% and overall accuracy 95%. It is concluded that leucocyte scintigraphy is a non-invasive, safe, physiological and accurate procedure for the diagnosis of TOA. The 24-h scan is crucial, since in some cases the abscess was not clearly visualized on the early scan. Leucocyte scintigraphy may reduce the need for CT, diagnostic laparoscopy and unnecessary invasive surgical procedures. (orig.)

  5. The first week after concussion: Blood flow, brain function and white matter microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Nathan W; Hutchison, Michael G; Richards, Doug; Leung, General; Graham, Simon J; Schweizer, Tom A

    2017-01-01

    Concussion is a major health concern, associated with short-term deficits in physical function, emotion and cognition, along with negative long-term health outcomes. However, we remain in the early stages of characterizing MRI markers of concussion, particularly during the first week post-injury when symptoms are most severe. In this study, 52 varsity athletes were scanned using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), including 26 athletes with acute concussion (scanned 1-7 days post-injury) and 26 matched control athletes. A comprehensive set of functional and structural MRI measures were analyzed, including cerebral blood flow (CBF) and global functional connectivity (Gconn) of grey matter, along with fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) of white matter. An analysis comparing acutely concussed athletes and controls showed limited evidence for reliable mean effects of acute concussion, with only MD showing spatially extensive differences between groups. We subsequently demonstrated that the number of days post-injury explained a significant proportion of inter-subject variability in MRI markers of acutely concussed athletes. Athletes scanned at early acute injury (1-3 days) had elevated CBF and Gconn and reduced FA, but those scanned at late acute injury (5-7 days) had the opposite response. In contrast, MD showed a more complex, spatially-dependent relationship with days post-injury. These novel findings highlight the variability of MRI markers during the acute phase of concussion and the critical importance of considering the acute injury time interval, which has significant implications for studies relating acute MRI data to concussion outcomes.

  6. How sensitive is the synovial fluid white blood cell count in diagnosing septic arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillicuddy, Daniel C; Shah, Kaushal H; Friedberg, Ryan P; Nathanson, Larry A; Edlow, Jonathan A

    2007-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine the sensitivity of the current standard for synovial fluid leukocytosis analysis in diagnosing infectious arthritis or a septic joint. How accurate is the standard synovial fluid white blood cell (WBC) cutoff of 50,000 WBC/mm3 to rule out septic arthritis? We conducted a retrospective study at an urban tertiary care medical center with 50,000 adult emergency department visits per year. The study population consisted of patients with infectious arthritis confirmed by synovial fluid culture growth of a pathogenic organism. The study period lasted from January 1996 to December 2002. Extracted data included synovial fluid leukocyte count, Gram's stain, culture, past medical history, and discharge diagnosis. Fisher exact test was used to compare proportions. Sensitivity and means were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CI). There were 49 culture-positive synovial fluid aspirates in the 6-year study period. Nineteen (39%) of 49 patients (95% CI, 25%-52%) had a synovial WBC of less than 50,000/mm3 and 30 (61%) of 49 patients (95% CI, 48%-75%) had a synovial WBC of more than 50,000/mm3. The sensitivity of the 50,000 synovial WBC/mm3 cutoff was 61% (95% CI, 48%-75%). Twenty-seven (55%) of 49 patients had a negative Gram's stain (95% CI, 41%-69%) and 15 (56%) of 27 patients (95% CI, 37%-74%) with negative Gram's stain had a synovial WBC of less than 50,000/mm3. A synovial fluid WBC cutoff of 50,000/mm3 lacks the sensitivity required to be clinically useful in ruling out infectious arthritis.

  7. The first week after concussion: Blood flow, brain function and white matter microstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan W. Churchill

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Concussion is a major health concern, associated with short-term deficits in physical function, emotion and cognition, along with negative long-term health outcomes. However, we remain in the early stages of characterizing MRI markers of concussion, particularly during the first week post-injury when symptoms are most severe. In this study, 52 varsity athletes were scanned using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI, including 26 athletes with acute concussion (scanned 1–7 days post-injury and 26 matched control athletes. A comprehensive set of functional and structural MRI measures were analyzed, including cerebral blood flow (CBF and global functional connectivity (Gconn of grey matter, along with fractional anisotropy (FA and mean diffusivity (MD of white matter. An analysis comparing acutely concussed athletes and controls showed limited evidence for reliable mean effects of acute concussion, with only MD showing spatially extensive differences between groups. We subsequently demonstrated that the number of days post-injury explained a significant proportion of inter-subject variability in MRI markers of acutely concussed athletes. Athletes scanned at early acute injury (1–3 days had elevated CBF and Gconn and reduced FA, but those scanned at late acute injury (5–7 days had the opposite response. In contrast, MD showed a more complex, spatially-dependent relationship with days post-injury. These novel findings highlight the variability of MRI markers during the acute phase of concussion and the critical importance of considering the acute injury time interval, which has significant implications for studies relating acute MRI data to concussion outcomes.

  8. Effects of dexamethasone on cytokine plasma levels and white blood cell counts in depressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuld, A; Kraus, T; Haack, M; Hinze-Selch, D; Zobel, A W; Holsboer, F; Pollmächer, T

    2001-01-01

    In major depression, alterations of some aspects of the host defense system and the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system have been reported. Both systems are closely related, but their interaction in major depression has not yet been explored. Moreover, little is known about the effects of glucocorticoids on the circulating amounts of cytokines in humans in the absence of immunological challenges. Therefore, we investigated the effects of dexamethasone (DEX) in 17 depressed patients who underwent a combined DEX-suppression and corticotropine-releasing-hormone (CRH)-stimulation test on white blood cell counts, and on the plasma levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and soluble TNF-receptors (sTNF-R) p55 and p75. DEX induced an increase in granulocyte counts, which was positively correlated with increases in the circulating amounts of G-CSF and paralleled by decreased lymphocyte and monocyte counts. Moreover, DEX reduced the plasma levels of IL-6, TNF-alpha and sTNF-R p75. The levels of sTNF-R p55 and IL-10 were not affected. DEX-induced changes in immunological parameters did not differ between patients who had different amounts of HPA-system alteration, and were neither related to the severity of depressive symptomatology or to other clinical features. We conclude that a single oral dose of DEX, even in the absence of infection and inflammation, affects the circulating amounts of cytokines and soluble cytokine receptors, further supporting the pivotal role of these immune-mediators in glucocorticoid-induced immunomodulation. Neuroendocrinological alterations associated with major depression seem to be independent from these processes.

  9. Combining white blood cell count and thrombosis for predicting in-hospital outcomes after acute myocardial infraction

    OpenAIRE

    Rohani, Atooshe; Akbari, Vahid; Moradian, Karim; Malekzade, Janmohammad

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Admission white blood cell (WBC) count and thrombosis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) risk score have been associated with adverse outcomes after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This study investigated the joint effect of WBC count and TIMI risk score on predicting in-hospital outcomes in patients with AMI. Materials and Methods: WBC count and TIMI risk score were measured at the time of hospital admission in 70 patients with AMI. Echocardiogram was done on prior to discharge...

  10. White blood cell differential count of maturation stages in bone marrow smear using dual-stage convolutional neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jin Woo; Ku, Yunseo; Yoo, Byeong Wook; Kim, Jung-Ah; Lee, Dong Soon; Chai, Young Jun; Kong, Hyoun-Joong; Kim, Hee Chan

    2017-01-01

    The white blood cell differential count of the bone marrow provides information concerning the distribution of immature and mature cells within maturation stages. The results of such examinations are important for the diagnosis of various diseases and for follow-up care after chemotherapy. However, manual, labor-intensive methods to determine the differential count lead to inter- and intra-variations among the results obtained by hematologists. Therefore, an automated system to conduct the wh...

  11. Radiolabelling of sperm cells with /sup 99m/Tc-HMPAO. In vivo visualization of sperm cell migration in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockisch, A.; Al-Hasani, S.; Ven, H.V.D.; Diedrich, K.; Krebs, D.; Posch, C.; Hotze, A.; Biersack, H.J.

    1989-04-01

    The present paper is the first descriptive radiolabeling of sperm cells in order to visualize their in vivo migration and imaging by scintigraphic technique, /sup 99m/Tc-HMPAO was used which combines favourable characteristics of both imaging modalities and radiation exposure. The radiolabeling yield was optimised for human sperm cells, and was increasing with the number of sperm cells, the amount of HMPAO, the /sup 99m/Tc-HMPAO concentration and the duration of the incubation. Incubation periods greater than 20 min, however, resulted only in a minor increase of labeling yield. A delay of more than 5 min between the labeling of the HMPAO with /sup 99m/Tc and initiation of the incubation of the sperm cells with the /sup 99m/Tc-HMPAO also decreased the maximum labeling yield. The radiolabeled cells were found to be stable and after 18 h > 93% of the activity was still bound to the sperm cells. After insemination of labeled sperm cells in ovulating rabbits the accumulation of the cells in the Fallopian tubes and their subsequent migration could be clearly visualized by scintigraphic techniques in vivo. (orig.).

  12. High DNA stability in white blood cells and buffy coat lysates stored at ambient temperature under anoxic and anhydrous atmosphere.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Lise Fabre

    Full Text Available Conventional storage of blood-derived fractions relies on cold. However, lately, ambient temperature preservation has been evaluated by several independent institutions that see economic and logistic advantages in getting rid of the cold chain. Here we validated a novel procedure for ambient temperature preservation of DNA in white blood cell and buffy coat lysates based on the confinement of the desiccated biospecimens under anoxic and anhydrous atmosphere in original hermetic minicapsules. For this validation we stored encapsulated samples either at ambient temperature or at several elevated temperatures to accelerate aging. We found that DNA extracted from stored samples was of good quality with a yield of extraction as expected. Degradation rates were estimated from the average fragment size of denatured DNA run on agarose gels and from qPCR reactions. At ambient temperature, these rates were too low to be measured but the degradation rate dependence on temperature followed Arrhenius' law, making it possible to extrapolate degradation rates at 25°C. According to these values, the DNA stored in the encapsulated blood products would remain larger than 20 kb after one century at ambient temperature. At last, qPCR experiments demonstrated the compatibility of extracted DNA with routine DNA downstream analyses. Altogether, these results showed that this novel storage method provides an adequate environment for ambient temperature long term storage of high molecular weight DNA in dehydrated lysates of white blood cells and buffy coats.

  13. Aromatic DNA adducts in human white blood cells and skin after dermal application of coal tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godschalk, R.W.L.; Ostertag, J.U.; Moonen, E.J.C.; Neumann, H.A.M.; Kleinjans, J.C.S.; Schooten, F.J. van [University of Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands). Dept. of Health Risk Analysis and Toxicology

    1998-09-01

    A group of eczema patients topically treated with coal tar (CT) ointments was used as a model population to examine the applicability of DNA adducts in white blood cell (WBC) subpopulations as a measure of dermal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Aromatic DNA adducts were examined by {sup 32}P-postlabeling in exposed skin and WBC subsets, and urinary excretion of PAH metabolites was determined to assess the whole-body burden. The median urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene and 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene was 0.39 and 0.01 {mu}mol/mol creatinine respectively, before the dermal application of CT ointments. After treatment for 1 week, these levels increased to 139.7 and 1.18 {mu}mol/mol creatinine respectively, indicating that considerable amounts of PAHs were absorbed. Median aromatic DNA adduct levels were significantly increased in skin from 2.9 adduct/10{sup 8} nucleotides before treatment to 63.3 adducts/10{sup 8} nt after treatment with CT, in monocytes from 0.28 to 0.86 adducts/10{sup 8} nt, in lymphocytes from 0.33 to 0.89 adducts/10{sup 8} nt and in granulocytes from 0.28 to 0.54 adducts/10{sup 8} nt. A week after stopping the CT treatment, the DNA adduct levels in monocytes and granulocytes were reduced to 0.38 and 0.38 adducts/10{sup 8} nt respectively, whereas the adduct levels in lymphocytes remained enhanced. Total DNA adduct levels in skin correlated with the adduct levels in monocytes and lymphocytes. Excretion of urinary metabolites during the first week of treatment was correlated with the percentage of the skin surface treated with CT ointment and decreased within a week after the cessation of treatment. 3-Hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene excretion, correlated with the levels of DNA adducts in skin that comigrated with benzo(a)pyrene-diol-epoxide-DNA. This study indicates that the DNA adduct levels in mononuclear WBCs can possibly be used as a surrogate for skin DNA after dermal exposure to PAHs. 34 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. The distribution of white blood cell fat oxidation in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergast, D R; Fisher, N M; Meksawan, K; Doubrava, M; Vladutiu, G D

    2004-01-01

    Fat oxidation is important for maintaining health and for supplying energy for exercise. We have proposed that the predisposition for individual rates of fat oxidation is determined genetically but may be modulated by acute exercise or exercise training. The purpose of this study was to examine cellular fat oxidation in white blood cells (WBC) using [9,10-3H]palmitic acid. Sedentary controls free of symptoms (SED-C, n=32), were compared with known carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) II-deficient patients (n =2), patients with fatiguing diseases (chronic fatigue syndrome, CFS, n=6; multiple sclerosis, MS, n=31), obesity (OB, n=5), eating disorders (ED, n=16), sedentary individuals prior to and after exercise (SED-Ex, n=12), exercise-trained sedentary individuals (SED-Tr, n=12), and elite runners (ER, n=5). Fat oxidation in WBC for all subjects was normally distributed (mean=0.270 +/- 0.090 nmol/h per 10(9) WBC) and ranged from 0.09 nmol/h per 10(9) WBC in CPT II-deficient patients to 0.59 nmol/h per 10(9) WBC in ER. There were no significant sex or acute exercise effects on WBC fat oxidation. Patients with MS, OB or ED were not different from SED-C; however, in CPT II-deficient patients, fat oxidation was low, while that of CFS patients was high. Exercise training in SED-C resulted in a 16% increase in fat oxidation but in ER it was still 97% higher than in SED-C. We propose that while WBC fat oxidation is not significantly affected by sex or acute exercise, and only by 15-20% with training, genetic factors play a role in determining both high and low fat oxidation in certain groups of individuals. The genetic predisposition for individual rates of fat oxidation may be easily measured using WBC fat oxidation, as has been shown for CPT II-deficient patients and for elite runners. Ranges of WBC fat oxidation that are abnormally low (35 nmol/h per 10(9) WBC) are proposed based on genetic factors evaluated in this study.

  15. Office and Home Blood Pressures as Determinants of Electrocardiographic Left Ventricular Hypertrophy Among Black Nigerians Compared With White Flemish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odili, Augustine N; Thijs, Lutgarde; Yang, Wen-Yi; Ogedengbe, John O; Nwegbu, Maxwell M; Jacobs, Lotte; Wei, Fang-Fei; Feng, Ying-Mei; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Nawrot, Tim S; Staessen, Jan A

    2017-11-01

    The association of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy (ECG-LVH) with blood pressure (BP) in Blacks living in sub-Saharan Africa remains poorly documented. In 225 Black Nigerians and 729 White Flemish, we analyzed QRS voltages and voltage-duration products and 12 criteria diagnostic of ECG-LVH in relation to office BP (mean of 5 consecutive readings) and home BP (duplicate morning and evening readings averaged over 1 week). In multivariable analyses, QRS voltage and voltage-duration indexes were generally higher in Blacks than Whites. By using any of 12 criteria, ECG-LVH was more prevalent among Black than White men (54.4% vs. 36.0%) with no ethnic difference among women (17.1%). Precordial voltages and voltage-duration products increased with office and home systolic BP (SBP), and increases were up to 3-fold steeper in Blacks. In Blacks vs. Whites, increases in the Sokolow-Lyon voltage associated with a 10-mm Hg higher SBP were 0.18 mV (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09-0.26) vs. 0.06 mV (0.02-0.09) and 0.17 mV (0.07-0.28) vs. 0.11 mV (CI, 0.07-0.15) for office and home BP, respectively, with a significant ethnic gradient (P office and home BP in Blacks than Whites. Associations of ECG voltages and voltage-duration products and risk of ECG-LVH with BP are steeper in Black Nigerians compared with a White reference population. In resource-poor settings of sub-Saharan Africa, the ECG in combination with office and home BP is an essential instrument in risk stratification across the entire BP range.

  16. Memory functions and rCBF {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPET: developing diagnostics in Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgh, Eva; Naesman, Birgitta [Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine, Umeaa University, 901 85 Umeaa (Sweden); Sundstroem, Torbjoern; Aahlstroem, Katrine Riklund [Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology, Umeaa University, Umeaa (Sweden); Nyberg, Lars [Department of Psychology, Umeaa University, Umeaa (Sweden)

    2002-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a primary degenerative disease of the brain. The prevalence increases with age, with devastating consequences for the individual and society. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether patients with early AD show an altered regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) compared with control persons. Furthermore, we aimed to investigate the correlation between rCBF in sublobar volumes of the brain and performance on memory tests. Memory tests were chosen to evaluate episodic and semantic memory. Fourteen patients (aged 75.2{+-}8.8 years) with early AD and 15 control persons (aged 71.4{+-}3.2 years) were included. rCBF measurements with single-photon emission tomography (SPET) using technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) were performed. The rCBF {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPET images were spatially transformed to fit a brain atlas and normalised for differences in rCBF (Computerised Brain Atlas software). Cortical and subcortical volumes of interest (VOIs) were analysed and compared. Compared with the controls, AD patients showed a significantly lower rCBF ratio in temporoparietal regions, including the left hippocampus. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for AD were high in temporoparietal regions. AD patients had significantly reduced performance on semantic and, in particular, episodic memory tests compared with age-matched normative data, and their performance on several episodic tests correlated with rCBF ratios in parietal and temporal regions, including the left hippocampus. The correlation between rCBF ratio and level of episodic memory performance suggests that abnormalities in rCBF pattern underlie impaired episodic memory functioning in AD. (orig.)

  17. Differences of Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT imaging in the early stage of subcortical vascular dementia compared with Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Won; Kang, Do Young; Park, Min Jeong; Cheon, Sang Myung; Cha, Jae Kwan; Kim, Sang Ho; Kim, Jae Woo [College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    The aim of this study is to assess the specific patterns of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with the early stage of subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) using Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT, and to compare the differences between the two conditions. Sixteen SVaD, 46 AD and 12 control subjects participated in this study. We included the patients with SVaD and AD according to NINCDS-ADRDA and NINDS-AIREN criteria. They were all matched for age, education and clinical dementia rating scores. Three groups were evaluated by Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) for measuring rCBF. The SPECT data of patients with SVaD and AD were compared with those of normal control subjects and then compared with each other. SPM analysis of the SPECT image showed significant perfusion deficits on the right temporal region and thalamus, left insula and superior temporal gyrus, both cingulate gyri and frontal subgyri in patients with SVaD and on the left supramarginal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, postcentral gyrus and inferior parietal lobule, right fugiform gyrus and both cingulate gyri in AD compared with control subjects (uncorrected {rho} < 0.01). SVaD patients revealed significant hypoperfusion in the right parahippocampal gyrus with cingulated gyrus, left insula and both frontal subgyral regions compared with AD (uncorrected {rho} < 0.01). Our study shows characteristic and different pattern of perfusion deficits in patients with SVaD and AD, and these results may be helpful to discriminate the two conditions in the early stage of illness.

  18. Detection of Osteomyelitis in the Diabetic Foot by Imaging Techniques : A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Comparing MRI, White Blood Cell Scintigraphy, and FDG-PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauri, Chiara; Tamminga, Menno; Glaudemans, Andor W J M; Juárez Orozco, Luis Eduardo; Erba, Paola A; Jutte, Paul C; Lipsky, Benjamin A.; IJzerman, Maarten J; Signore, Alberto; Slart, Riemer H J A

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Diagnosing bone infection in the diabetic foot is challenging and often requires several diagnostic procedures, including advanced imaging. We compared the diagnostic performances of MRI, radiolabeled white blood cell (WBC) scintigraphy (either with (99m)Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamineoxime

  19. On Orbit Immuno-Based, Label-Free, White Blood Cell Counting System with MicroElectroMechanical Sensor (MEMS) Technology (OILWBCS-MEMS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and our partner, Draper Laboratory, propose to develop an on orbit immuno-based, label-free, white blood cell counting system for...

  20. On Orbit Immuno-Based, Label-Free, White Blood Cell Counting System with MicroElectroMechanical Sensor (MEMS) Technology (OILWBCS-MEMS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and partner, Draper Laboratory, propose to develop an on-orbit immuno-based label-free white blood cell counting system using MEMS...

  1. A Case of Habitual Neck Compression Induced Electroencephalogram Abnormalities: Differentiating from Epileptic Seizures Using a Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hongyoon; Seo, Minseok; Lee, Hoyoung; Kim, Youngsoo; Yun, Changho; Kim, Sangeun; Park, Sungho [Seoul National Univ. Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Self-induced hypoxia has been reported particularly in adolescents, and it can result in neurological injury. Here, we present a case of electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities induced by habitual neck compression differentiated from epileptic seizures by Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT. A 19-year-old male was admitted for evaluation of recurrent generalized tonic-clonic seizures. No interictal EEG abnormality was detected; however, abnormal slow delta waves were found immediately after habitual right neck compression. To differentiate EEG abnormalities due to a hemodynamic deficit induced by habitual neck compression from an epileptic seizure, Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT was performed immediately after right carotid artery compression. Abnormal delta waves were triggered, and cerebral hypoperfusion in the right internal carotid artery territory was detected on Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT. The slow delta wave detected on the EEG resulted from the cerebral hypoperfusion because of the habitual neck compression.

  2. Disparity in regional cerebral blood flow during electrically induced seizure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sestoft, D; Meden, P; Hemmingsen, R

    1993-01-01

    This is a presentation of 2 cases in which the intraictal regional cerebral blood flow distribution was measured with the 99mTc-HMPAO single photon emission computerized tomography technique during an electrically induced seizure. Although the seizure was verified as generalized on electroencepha...

  3. Serotonin (5-HT) released by activated white blood cells in a biological fuel cell provide a potential energy source for electricity generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin, Gusphyl A; Sun, Mingui; Zhang, Yingze; Cui, X Tracy; Sclabassi, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies by our group have demonstrated the ability of white blood cells to generate small electrical currents, on the order of 1-3 microA/cm(2), when placed at the anode compartment of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) biological fuel cell. In this research study, an electrochemical technique is used to further investigate the electron transfer ability of activated white blood cells at interfacing electrodes in an attempt to elucidate the mechanism of electron transfer in the original biological fuel cell experiments. Cyclic voltammograms were obtained for human white blood cells using a three-electrode system. The working and counter electrodes were made from carbon felt and platinum, respectively, while the reference was a saturated calomel electrode (SCE). Oxidation peaks were observed at an average potential of 363 mV vs. SCE for the PMA/ionomycin activated white blood cells in glucose solution. However a corresponding reduction peak was not observed, suggesting irreversibility of the redox reaction. The cyclic voltammograms recorded for the white blood cells bear very close similarities to those of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT). Serotonin released by white blood cells into the extracellular environment may be irreversibly oxidized at the working electrode in the cyclic voltammetry experiments and at the PEM biological fuel cell anode in our earlier electrochemical cell studies.

  4. Blood serum retinol levels in Asinara white donkeys reflect albinism-induced metabolic adaptation to photoperiod at Mediterranean latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappai, Maria Grazia; Lunesu, Maria Grazia Antonietta; Accioni, Francesca; Liscia, Massimo; Pusceddu, Mauro; Burrai, Lucia; Nieddu, Maria; Dimauro, Corrado; Boatto, Gianpiero; Pinna, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Previous works on albinism form of Asinara white donkeys ( Equus asinus ) identified the mutation leading to the peculiar phenotype spread to all specimens of the breed. Inbreeding naturally occurred under geographic isolation, on Asinara Island, in the Mediterranean Sea. Albino individuals can be more susceptible to develop health problems when exposed to natural sun radiation. Alternative metabolic pathways involved in photoprotection were explored in this trial. Nutrition-related metabolites are believed to contribute to the conservation of Asinara donkeys, in which melanin, guaranteeing photoprotection, is lacking. Biochemical profiles with particular focus on blood serum β-carotene and retinol levels were monitored. Identical natural grazing conditions for both Asinara (albino) and Sardo (pigmented) donkey breeds were assured on same natural pastures throughout the experimental period. A comparative metabolic screening, with emphasis on circulating retinol and nutrient-related metabolites between the two breeds, was carried out over one year. Potential intra- and interspecimen fluctuations of metabolites involved in photoprotection were monitored, both during negative and positive photoperiods. Differences ( p  =   .064) between blood serum concentrations of retinol from Asinara versus Sardo breed donkeys (0.630 vs . 0.490 μg/ml, respectively) were found. Retinol levels of blood serum turned out to be similar in the two groups (0.523 vs . 0.493 μg/ml, respectively, p  =   .051) during the negative photoperiod, but markedly differed during the positive one (0.738 vs. 0.486, respectively, p  =   .016). Blood serum β-carotene levels displayed to be constantly around the limit of sensitivity in all animals of both breeds. Variations in blood serum concentrations of retinol in Asinara white donkeys can reflect the need to cope with seasonal exposure to daylight at Mediterranean latitudes, as an alternative to the lack of melanin. These results may

  5. Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability of Normal Appearing White Matter in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Krakauer, Martin; Skimminge, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    and after the intravenous injection of a paramagnetic contrast agent to assess BBB permeability in the normal appearing white matter (NAWM) in patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RR-MS). Methodology/Principal Findings: Fifty-nine patients (38 females) with RR-MS undergoing immunomodulatory treatment...... and nine healthy controls (4 females) underwent quantitative T1 measurements at 3 tesla before and after injection of a paramagnetic contrast agent (0.2 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA). Mean T1 values were calculated for NAWM in patients and total cerebral white matter in healthy subjects for the T1 measurements before...

  6. An on-chip instrument for white blood cells classification based on a lens-less shadow imaging technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Fang

    Full Text Available Routine blood tests provide important basic information for disease diagnoses. The proportions of three subtypes of white blood cells (WBCs, which are neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, is key information for disease diagnosis. However, current instruments for routine blood tests, such as blood cell analyzers, flow cytometers, and optical microscopes, are cumbersome, time consuming and expensive. To make a smaller, automatic low-cost blood cell analyzer, much research has focused on a technique called lens-less shadow imaging, which can obtain microscopic images of cells in a lens-less system. Nevertheless, the efficiency of this imaging system is not satisfactory because of two problems: low resolution and imaging diffraction phenomena. In this paper, a novel method of classifying cells with the shadow imaging technique was proposed. It could be used for the classification of the three subtypes of WBCs, and the correlation of the results of classification between the proposed system and the reference system (BC-5180, Mindray was 0.93. However, the instrument was only 10 × 10 × 10 cm, and the cost was less than $100. Depending on the lens-free shadow imaging technology, the main hardware could be integrated on a chip scale and could be called an on-chip instrument.

  7. Edwardsiella tarda Endocarditis Confirmed by Indium-111 White Blood Cell Scan: An Unusual Pathogen and Diagnostic Modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayleigh M. Litton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Edwardsiella tarda is a freshwater marine member of the family Enterobacteriaceae which often colonizes fish, lizards, snakes, and turtles but is an infrequent human pathogen. Indium-111- (111In- labeled white blood cell (WBC scintigraphy is an imaging modality which has a wide range of reported sensitivity and specificity (from 60 to 100% and from 68 to 92%, resp. for diagnosing acute and chronic infection. We describe a case of suspected E. tarda prosthetic aortic valve and mitral valve endocarditis with probable vegetations and new mitral regurgitation on transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiograms which was supported with the use of 111In-labeled WBC scintigraphy.

  8. Saponin, an inhibitory agent of carbon dioxide production by white cells : its use in the microbiologic examination of blood components in an automated bacterial culture system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorne, Hans; van der Tuuk Adriani, W.P A; van der Ven, L.I; Bosch, E.H; de Natris, T; Smit Sibinga, C.Th.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood components with a white cell count >100 x 10(9) per L may cause false-positive results when the BacT/Alert system is used for the microbiologic examination. The effects of different concentrations of saponin on bacterial growth and on carbon dioxide production by blood fractions

  9. Blood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Blood disorders affect one or more parts of the blood ... They can be acute or chronic. Many blood disorders are inherited. Other causes include other diseases, side ...

  10. Salmon blood plasma: effective inhibitor of protease-laden Pacific whiting surimi and salmon mince.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Matthew R; Park, Jae W

    2015-06-01

    The effect of salmon plasma (SP) from Chinook salmon on proteolytic inhibition was investigated. SP was found to inhibit both cysteine and serine proteases as well as protease extracted from Pacific whiting muscle. SP was found to contain a 55kDa cysteine protease inhibitor through SDS-PAGE inhibitor staining. Freeze dried salmon plasma (FSP) and salmon plasma concentrated by ultrafiltration (CSP) were tested for their ability to inhibit autolysis in Pacific whiting surimi and salmon mince at concentrations of 0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2%. Pacific whiting surimi autolysis was inhibited by an average of 89% regardless of concentration while inhibition of salmon mince autolysis increased with concentration (psalmon mince autolysis (p<0.05). Serine protease inhibition decreased when SP heated above 40°C but was stable across a broad NaCl and pH range. Cysteine protease inhibitors exhibited good temperature, NaCl, and pH stability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Effect of Ethanol Intoxication on the Spectral Characteristics for Blood Components of White Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Korobova O.; Dudok T.; Trach I.; Moroz O.; Vlokh I.; Vlokh R.

    2003-01-01

    The present paper is devoted to studying, with the aid of different organic dyes, the transmittance spectra of hemoglobin and immunoglobulin G extracted from the blood of laboratory rats, which have been chronically intoxicated with ethanol. The differences in the spectra are detected, when compare with those for the control group. It is shown that the presence of ethanol in blood probably leads to uncoiling partially the hemoglobin molecules. The essential difference is also found in the tra...

  12. Nitrogen distribution in the milk and blood of Bunaji (White Fulani ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    based concentrate diet (ABL) at 20, 40 and 60 per cent level of inclusion on the distribution of milk nitrogen and blood nitrogen fractions of Bunaji cattle fed guinea grass hay ad libitum. Nine lactating Bunaji cows (238.2 1 7.88 kg initial BW) in a 3 ...

  13. Correlation between White Blood Cell Count and insulin resistance in type 2 Diabetes Running title: WBC and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdiani, Armin; Kheirandish, Masoume; Bonakdaran, Shokoufeh

    2018-01-19

    The role of chronic inflammation in insulin resistance states and the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and diabetes have been reported earlier. White blood cell (WBC) count is an easy marker for estimation of systemic inflammation. This study is to clarify whether WBC count associate with insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients. This cross sectional study was conducted in 283 patients with type 2 diabetes and in 283 healthy non diabetic subjects as control group. Data including: age, gender, blood pressure, height and weight, history of smoking were collected for each patient. Fasting blood sugar, HbA1C, insulin, lipid profiles, creatinine, Urine albumin to creatinine ratio, high sensitive C- reactive protein (HCRP) and WBC was measured for all patients. WBC count was measured in control group. Two groups were compared in WBC count. Insulin resistance was calculated with HOMA-IR formula. Association of WBC count with insulin resistance and metabolic parameters was assessed in diabetic patients. WBC count was significantly associated with body mass index, hypertension, and triglyceride level. There was not significant association between WBC count and glycemic index and insulin resistance. An elevated WBC count (even in the normal range) is closely related to various components of metabolic syndrome but not related to insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Innate immunity in free-ranging African buffalo (Syncerus caffer): associations with parasite infection and white blood cell counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beechler, Brianna R; Broughton, Heather; Bell, Austin; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Jolles, Anna E

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian immunology has been studied in great detail in laboratory animals, but few of the tools and less of the insight derived from these studies have been placed in the context of natural, outbred wildlife populations subject to variable environments. We investigated patterns of innate immunity in free-ranging African buffalo in relation to host traits (age, reproductive status, body condition, white blood cell counts) and disease status (bovine tuberculosis [BTB], gastrointestinal nematodes, coccidia, ticks). We evaluated and used an in vitro assay measuring bactericidal competence of blood to assess a component of innate immunity in 200 female buffalo captured at Kruger National Park, South Africa, in June/July and October 2008. Animals with BTB had higher bactericidal competence of blood. Animals with higher neutrophil counts had higher bactericidal competence, whereas animals with lower lymphocyte counts had higher bactericidal competence. This pattern was driven by animals captured at the end of the dry season (October) and may be evidence of immune polarization, whereby individuals are unable to upregulate multiple components of immunity simultaneously. Bactericidal competence did not vary with host pregnancy status, body condition, age, lactation, tick infestation, nematode egg count, or coccidia oocyst count. Overall, we demonstrate that the bactericidal competence assay is practical and informative for field-based studies in wild bovids. Our results also show a correlation between bactericidal competence and bovine tuberculosis infection and reveal possible functional polarizations between different types of immune response in a free-ranging mammal.

  15. Model Averaging for Predicting the Exposure to Aflatoxin B1 Using DNA Methylation in White Blood Cells of Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahardiantoro, S.; Sartono, B.; Kurnia, A.

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, DNA methylation has been the special issue to reveal the pattern of a lot of human diseases. Huge amount of data would be the inescapable phenomenon in this case. In addition, some researchers interesting to take some predictions based on these huge data, especially using regression analysis. The classical approach would be failed to take the task. Model averaging by Ando and Li [1] could be an alternative approach to face this problem. This research applied the model averaging to get the best prediction in high dimension of data. In the practice, the case study by Vargas et al [3], data of exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and DNA methylation in white blood cells of infants in The Gambia, take the implementation of model averaging. The best ensemble model selected based on the minimum of MAPE, MAE, and MSE of predictions. The result is ensemble model by model averaging with number of predictors in model candidate is 15.

  16. Effect of Nanosilver Particles on Alanin Amino Transferase (ALT Activity and White Blood Cells (WBC Level in Male Wistar Rats, In Vivo Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Naghsh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nanosilver is extensively used in medical equipment. Given the importance of white blood cells (WBC in the immune system and liver cells in the body detoxification, this study has examined the effects of nanosilver particles on the white cell count and ALT liver enzyme in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted on 40 adult male Wistar rats, provided from Pasteur Institute of Tehran. Nanosilver particles with concentrations of 50, 100, 200 and 400ppm were intraperitoneally injected to the treatment groups. Then, the mean of ALT enzyme concentration and white blood cell count of rats were compared in case and control groups at day 12 after treatment through ANOVA test.Results: The greatest effect of nanosilver particles on the ALT liver enzyme of rats was at concentration 50ppm after 3 days of injection (p=0.002. Also the greatest effect of nanosilver particles on white blood cells of rats was at concentration 400ppm after 12 days of injection (p=0.0001.Conclusion: The oxidative stress induced by intraperitoneally injection of nanosilver particles in rats causes severe irritation and immune system and increases the creation of white blood cells and liver damage in rats treated with nanosilver particles.

  17. A single-item global job satisfaction measure is associated with quantitative blood immune indices in white-collar employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Akinori; Irie, Masahiro; Takahashi, Masaya

    2013-01-01

    Although a single-item job satisfaction measure has been shown to be reliable and inclusive as multiple-item scales in relation to health, studies including immunological data are few. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of single-item job and family life satisfaction based on its association with immune indices. A total of 189 white-collar employees (70% men) underwent a blood draw for the measurement of natural killer (NK), total T, and B cell counts as well as plasma immunoglobulin (Ig) G concentrations and completed single-item job and family life satisfaction measures, respectively. The response options for satisfaction measures were 'dissatisfied' (coded 1) to 'satisfied' (coded 4). Spearman's partial correlations controlling for cofactors revealed that increased job satisfaction was positively associated with NK cells (rsp=0.201, p=0.007) and IgG (rsp=0.178, p=0.018), while family life satisfaction was unrelated to immune indices. Those who reported a combination of low job/low family life satisfaction had significantly lower NK and higher B cell counts than those with a high job/high family life satisfaction. Our study suggests that the single-item summary measure of job satisfaction, but not family life satisfaction, may be a valid tool to evaluate immune status in healthy white-collar employees.

  18. Expression of CD56 is an unfavorable prognostic factor for acute promyelocytic leukemia with higher initial white blood cell counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Takaaki; Takeshita, Akihiro; Kishimoto, Yuji; Kiyoi, Hitoshi; Okada, Masaya; Yamauchi, Takahiro; Emi, Nobuhiko; Horikawa, Kentaro; Matsuda, Mitsuhiro; Shinagawa, Katsuji; Monma, Fumihiko; Ohtake, Shigeki; Nakaseko, Chiaki; Takahashi, Masatomo; Kimura, Yukihiko; Iwanaga, Masako; Asou, Norio; Naoe, Tomoki

    2014-01-01

    Expression of CD56 has recently been introduced as one of the adverse prognostic factors in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). However, the clinical significance of CD56 antigen in APL has not been well elucidated. We assessed the clinical significance of CD56 antigen in 239 APL patients prospectively treated with all-trans retinoic acid and chemotherapy according to the Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group APL97 protocol. All patients were prospectively treated by the Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group APL97 protocol. The median follow-up period was 8.5 years. Positive CD56 expression was found in 23 APL patients (9.6%). Expression of CD56 was significantly associated with lower platelet count (P = 0.04), severe disseminated intravascular coagulation (P = 0.04), and coexpression of CD2 (P = 0.03), CD7 (P = 0.04), CD34 (P < 0.01) and/or human leukocyte antigen-DR (P < 0.01). Complete remission rate and overall survival were not different between the two groups. However, cumulative incidence of relapse and event-free survival (EFS) showed an inferior trend in CD56(+) APL (P = 0.08 and P = 0.08, respectively). Among patients with initial white blood cell counts of 3.0 × 10(9)/L or more, EFS and cumulative incidence of relapse in CD56(+) APL were significantly worse (30.8% vs 63.6%, P = 0.008, and 53.8% vs 28.9%, P = 0.03, respectively), and in multivariate analysis, CD56 expression was an unfavorable prognostic factor for EFS (P = 0.04). In conclusion, for APL with higher initial white blood cell counts, CD56 expression should be regarded as an unfavorable prognostic factor. © 2013 The Authors. Cancer Science published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  19. White Coat Hypertension and Masked Hypertension Among Omani Patients Attending a Tertiary Hospital for Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khamis Al-Hashmi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Our study aimed to estimate the rate of white coat hypertension (WCH and effect, and masked hypertension in patients attending a tertiary care hospital for 24 hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (24-h ABPM. Methods: A total of 231 adult patients were referred to the Department of Clinical Physiology at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, for ABPM, between January 2010 and June 2012. The following data were gathered and analyzed: demographic data, clinic blood pressure (BP measurements, and 24-h BP profile from ABPM. Thirty-two patients were excluded and the final analysis included 199 patients. Results: There were 105 (52.8% women and 94 (47.2% men studied. The mean age of patients was 46±15 years and most patients were overweight with a mean BMI of 29.6±5kg/m2. Around half of patients (53.8% were on one or more antihypertensive medications. WCH was found in 10.6% and white coat effect was found in 16% of patients. The majority of patients (57% with WCH were aged 40 years or above. Masked hypertension was present in 6% of patients and masked uncontrolled hypertension in 8.5% of patients. Conclusions: Our study showed that WCH and effect, and masked hypertension are common in hypertensive patients. Identifying these patients will have an impact on their management. However, the results of the study should be interpreted within the context of its limitations. Prospective randomized community and hospital-based studies should be conducted to estimate the true prevalence in the general population as well as in hypertensive patients.

  20. Transcriptomic profiles of peripheral white blood cells in type II diabetes and racial differences in expression profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Jinghe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Along with obesity, physical inactivity, and family history of metabolic disorders, African American ethnicity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D in the United States. However, little is known about the differences in gene expression and transcriptomic profiles of blood in T2D between African Americans (AA and Caucasians (CAU, and microarray analysis of peripheral white blood cells (WBCs from these two ethnic groups will facilitate our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanism in T2D and identify genetic biomarkers responsible for the disparities. Results A whole human genome oligomicroarray of peripheral WBCs was performed on 144 samples obtained from 84 patients with T2D (44 AA and 40 CAU and 60 healthy controls (28 AA and 32 CAU. The results showed that 30 genes had significant difference in expression between patients and controls (a fold change of 1.4 with a P value Conclusions These newly identified genetic markers in WBCs provide valuable information about the pathophysiology of T2D and can be used for diagnosis and pharmaceutical drug design. Our results also found that AA and CAU patients with T2D express genes and pathways differently.

  1. Alteration of histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation in peripheral white blood cells of septic patients with trauma and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Linghui; Wang, Yiqin; Zhu, Duming; Xue, Zhanggang; Mao, Hailei

    2016-12-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the clinical significance of histone methylation in sepsis. A total of 43 blood samples from trauma and esophageal cancer patients with or without sepsis were collected. Immunofluorescence staining of isolated peripheral white blood cells (WBCs) was conducted. Co‑stained 293T cells served as a reference, to allow the levels of histone methylation in different types of WBCs from patients to be determined. Immunostaining analyses revealed different levels of histone 3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) in neutrophils (Neu), lymphocytes (Lym), and monocytes (Mon) from trauma patients. Compared with trauma patients, the levels of H3K9me2 were elevated in the three types of WBCs from cancer patients. When combined with sepsis, trauma patients demonstrated increased H3K9me2 levels in Neu (P=0.0005) and Mon (P=0.0002), whereas cancer patients had a significant decrease of H3K9me2 levels in the three types of WBCs (Neu, P=0.0003; Lym, P=0.007; Mon, P=0.007). The H3K9me2 alterations in patients with trauma and cancer were different with the occurrence of sepsis. A larger cohort study is warranted to explore the diagnostic significance and prognostic implications of altered histone methylation in septic patients.

  2. Image segmentation and classification of white blood cells with the extreme learning machine and the fast relevance vector machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, S

    2016-05-01

    White blood cells (WBCs) or leukocytes are an important part of the body's defense against infectious organisms and foreign substances. WBC segmentation is a challenging issue because of the morphological diversity of WBCs and the complex and uncertain background of blood smear images. The standard ELM classification techniques are used for WBC segmentation. The generalization performance of the ELM classifier has not achieved the maximum nearest accuracy of image segmentation. This paper gives a novel technique for WBC detection based on the fast relevance vector machine (Fast-RVM). Firstly, astonishingly sparse relevance vectors (RVs) are obtained while fitting the histogram by RVM. Next, the relevant required threshold value is directly sifted from these limited RVs. Finally, the entire connective WBC regions are segmented from the original image. The proposed method successfully works for WBC detection, and effectively reduces the effects brought about by illumination and staining. To achieve the maximum accuracy of the RVM classifier, we design a search for the best value of the parameters that tune its discriminant function, and upstream by looking for the best subset of features that feed the classifier. Therefore, this proposed RVM method effectively works for WBC detection, and effectively reduces the computational time and preserves the images.

  3. Comparison of Insulin Expression Levels in White Blood Cells of infants with and without Family History of Type II Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Mazhari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type II diabetes is known as one of the most important, prevalent, and expensive diseases of mankind. Late diagnosis and subsequent delayed initiation of treatment or surveillance of patients create a variety of problems for affected individuals. This has raised increasing concerns for public health authorities throughout the world. In the current study, we aimed to find a new approach for early identification of high-risk individuals at initial months of their life. This allows us to take preventive measures as early as possible.Materials and Methods: In our study, 102 infants - from one to six months - were selected and placed in two case and control groups. The case group contained 52 babies with at least one of their parents identified as a type II diabetic patient. The control group comprised 50 babies with no family history of type II diabetes in paternal and maternal first-degree relatives. Afterwards, the expression level of insulin gene was analyzed in white blood cells of both groups. Information related to infants - referred to outpatient and inpatient wards of three main pediatric hospitals placed in Tehran - and their parents were collected through questionnaires within a two-year period. The study inclusion criteria for infants were confirmed type II diabetes in at least one of their parents, the absence of any metabolic disorder, and the absence of any disturbing vital signs. After drawing 2 ml of babies’ peripheral blood, total RNA of white blood cells (WBC was extracted, and used for cDNA synthesis. Real-Time PCR was then applied to quantitatively evaluate the expression levels of insulin gene. The results of Real-Time PCR were statistically analyzed by non-parametric tests of Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis.Results: The expression of insulin gene was observed in white blood cells of all samples. However, there was a significant difference in expression levels between case and control groups (p<0.05. There was a

  4. The utility of erythrocyte sedimentation rate values and white blood cell counts after spinal deformity surgery in the early (≤3 months) post-operative period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Margaret G; Lenke, Lawrence G; Bridwell, Keith H; O'Donnell, June C; Luhmann, Scott J

    2012-03-01

    The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and white blood cell (WBC) count are frequently obtained in the work-up of post-operative fever. However, their diagnostic utility depends upon comparison with normative peri-operative trends which have not yet been described. The purpose of this study is to define a range of erythrocyte sedimentation rates and white blood cell counts following spinal instrumentation and fusion in non-infected patients. Seventy-five patients underwent spinal instrumentation and fusion. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate and white blood cell count were recorded pre-operatively, at 3 and 7 days post-operatively, and at 1 and 3 months post-operatively. Both erythrocyte sedimentation rate and white blood cell count trends demonstrated an early peak, followed by a gradual return to normal. Peak erythrocyte sedimentation rates occurred within the first week post-operatively in 98% of patients. Peak white blood cell counts occurred with the first week in 85% of patients. In the absence of infection, the erythrocyte sedimentation rate was abnormally elevated in 78% of patients at 1 month and in 53% of patients at 3 months post-operatively. The white blood cell count was abnormally elevated in only 6% of patients at 1 month post-operatively. Longer surgical time was associated with elevated white cell count at 1 week post-operatively. The fusion of more vertebral levels had a negative relationship with elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate at 1 week post-operatively. The anterior surgical approach was associated with significantly lower erythrocyte sedimentation rate at 1 month post-operatively and with lower white cell count at 1 week post-operatively. In non-infected spinal fusion surgeries, erythrocyte sedimentation rates are in the abnormal range in 78% of patients at 1 month and in 53% of patients at 3 months post-operatively, suggesting that the erythrocyte sedimentation rate is of limited diagnostic value in the early post

  5. Identification of inflammatory processes in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) by {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO in animal model; Identificacao de processos inflamatorios na articulacao temporomandibular por {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO em modelo animal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasileiro, Claudia Borges; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; Lima, Carla Flavia de; Campos, Tarcisio Passos Ribeiro de [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares]. E-mail: campos@nuclear.ufmg.br

    2005-07-01

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a synovial joint that represents the junction of mandible with skull. TMJ and mastication muscles are affected by temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). During the last two decades the advances in imaging diagnostic of TMJ have greatly contributed to the assessment of the TMJ disorders. Labelled leukocytes with technetium- 99m hexamethyl propylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) represent an efficient method that generates images based in physiological and/or biochemical changes related to inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential usefulness of technetium-99m labelled leukocytes scintigraphy in the diagnosis of TMJ inflammatory process applying a rabbit TMJ arthritis model. Arthritis was induced unilaterally with an intra-articular injection of ovalbumin in left ATM. On the contra-lateral side, the same dose of saline was injected. After five days, leukocytes were labeled with HMPAO and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO TMJ scintigraphic images were made. After twelve days a computed tomography was realized. Scintigraphic images obtained five days after induction of TMJ inflammation showed the localization of inflammatory process. The results were expressed as cpm of activity found in left ATM and contra-lateral side. Significant differences of activity were found between inflamed articulation and contra-lateral side (P = 0,0073). In conclusion, the method of leukocytes labeled with {sup 99m}Tc showed to be sensitive in detection of inflammatory disorders of TMJ and can be of great value in early diagnostic of these disorders. (author)

  6. Setting thresholds to varying blood pressure monitoring intervals differentially affects risk estimates associated with white-coat and masked hypertension in the population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asayama, Kei; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Outcome-driven recommendations about time intervals during which ambulatory blood pressure should be measured to diagnose white-coat or masked hypertension are lacking. We cross-classified 8237 untreated participants (mean age, 50.7 years; 48.4% women) enrolled in 12 population studies, using ≥14...

  7. Air pollution exposure affects circulating white blood cell counts in healthy subjects : the role of particle composition, oxidative potential and gaseous pollutants - the RAPTES project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhof, Maaike; Janssen, Nicole A. H.; Strak, Maciej; Hoek, Gerard; Gosens, Ilse; Mudway, Ian S.; Kelly, Frank J.; Harrison, Roy M.; Pieters, Raymond H. H.; Cassee, Flemming R.; Brunekreef, Bert

    Studies have linked air pollution exposure to cardiovascular health effects, but it is not clear which components drive these effects. We examined the associations between air pollution exposure and circulating white blood cell (WBC) counts in humans. To investigate independent contributions of

  8. The blood pressure sensitivity to changes in sodium intake is similar in Asians, Blacks and Whites. An analysis of 92 randomized controlled trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels; Jürgens, Gesche

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the meta-analysis of randomized trials was to analyze the significance of ethnicity on the effect of sodium reduction (SR) on blood pressure (BP) by estimating the effect of SR on BP in Asians, Blacks and Whites under conditions, which were adjusted with respect to baseline BP...

  9. High white blood cell count is associated with a worsening of insulin sensitivity and predicts the development of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vozarova, Barbora; Weyer, Christian; Lindsay, Robert S

    2002-01-01

    Chronic low-grade inflammation may be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. We examined whether a high white blood cell count (WBC), a marker of inflammation, predicts a worsening of insulin action, insulin secretory function, and the development of type 2 diabet...

  10. Usefulness of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT in Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage due to Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, C. W.; Lee, K. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kwark, C. E.; Lee, D. S.; Chung, J. K.; Lee, M. C.; Han, D. H.; Koh, C. S. [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-07-15

    We evaluated the usefulness of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT in 21 Patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ruptured intracranial aneurysm and in 3 patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysm. SPECT study could detect the bilaterally hypoperfused cases in 10 patients(48%), but CT/MRI showed the bilateral abnormalities in only 3 patients(14%). The number of abnormal lesions were 56 in SPECT and 25 in CT/MRI. The lesions found in SPECT were well correlated with the neurological signs of the patients such as aphasia or hemiplegia. SPECT study during Matas test was helpful in evaluating the risk for carotid artery occlusion therapy. We thought that {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT is helpful in evaluating the functional changes in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  11. White blood cells and cortisol after sleep deprivation and recovery sleep in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiser, P; Dickhaus, B; Schreiber, W; Clement, H W; Hasse, C; Hennig, J; Remschmidt, H; Krieg, J C; Wesemann, W; Opper, C

    2000-01-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) has enriched our treatment programme for major depression. SD has been demonstrated to modify different host defence activities. There is some evidence that there are reciprocal relationships between immune function and increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity in depression. We therefore investigated the number of leukocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, lymphocytes, B cells, T cells, helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells, NK cells and salivary cortisol in 10 healthy men before and after total SD (TSD) as well as after recovery sleep. Blood samples were drawn on 3 consecutive days at 7 am, 1 pm and 7 pm, respectively. Comparison of the 7 am values by contrast analysis yielded significant differences for granulocytes (p = 0.044) and NK cells (p = 0.001) after SD and recovery sleep. NK cells decreased and granulocytes increased after SD and after recovery sleep. Significant differences between single points in time across the day were found for granulocytes (p = 0.022), monocytes (p = 0.031), T cells (p = 0.005), helper T cells (p = 0.004), cytotoxic T cells (p = 0.005) and NK cells (p = 0.017). No significant difference could be detected for leukocytes, lymphocytes and B cells counts. These results favour the thesis that SD and recovery sleep lead to changes in the distribution of peripheral leukocytes, especially in a reduction of NK cells after SD and recovery sleep. The cortisol rhythm was affected neither by SD nor recovery sleep.

  12. White blood cell and platelet count as adjuncts to standard clinical evaluation for risk assessment in patients at low probability of acute aortic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Fulvio; Cavalot, Giulia; Giachino, Francesca; Tizzani, Maria; Nazerian, Peiman; Carbone, Federica; Pivetta, Emanuele; Mengozzi, Giulio; Moiraghi, Corrado; Lupia, Enrico

    2017-08-01

    Pre-test probability assessment is key in the approach to suspected acute aortic syndromes (AASs). However, most patients with AAS-compatible symptoms are classified at low probability, warranting further evaluation for decision on aortic imaging. White blood cell count, platelet count and fibrinogen explore pathophysiological pathways mobilized in AASs and are routinely assayed in the workup of AASs. However, the diagnostic performance of these variables for AASs, alone and as a bundle, is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that white blood cell count, platelet count and/or fibrinogen at presentation may be applied as additional tools to standard clinical evaluation for pre-test risk assessment in patients at low probability of AAS. This was a retrospective observational study conducted on consecutive patients managed in our Emergency Department from 2009 to 2014 for suspected AAS. White blood cell count, platelet count and fibrinogen were assayed during evaluation in the Emergency Department. The final diagnosis was obtained by computed tomography angiography. The pre-test probability of AAS was defined according to guidelines. Of 1210 patients with suspected AAS, 1006 (83.1%) were classified at low probability, and 271 (22.4%) were diagnosed with AAS. Within patients at low probability, presence of at least one alteration among white blood cell count >9*10 3 /µl, platelet count 9*10 3 /µl and platelet count 9*10 3 /µl and platelet count evaluation, white blood cell count and platelet count may be used in patients at low pre-test probability to fine-tune risk assessment of AAS.

  13. Maintenance therapy of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia revisited—Should drug doses be adjusted by white blood cell, neutrophil, or lymphocyte counts?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Nersting, Jacob; Nielsen, Stine Nygaard

    2016-01-01

    adjustment guidelines. PROCEDURE: To identify relapse predictors, we collected 28,255 data sets on drug doses and blood counts (median: 47/patient) and analyzed erythrocyte (Ery) levels of cytotoxic 6MP/MTX metabolites in 9,182 blood samples (median: 14 samples/patient) from 532 children on MTX/6MP...... maintenance therapy targeted to a white blood cell count (WBC) of 1.5-3.5 × 10(9) /l. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 13.8 years for patients in remission, stepwise Cox regression analysis did not find age, average doses of 6MP and MTX, hemoglobin, absolute lymphocyte counts, thrombocyte counts, or Ery...

  14. Clinical Utility of '9{sup 9m}Tc-HMPAO Brain SPECT Findings in Chronic Head Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Jin ll; Chung, Tae Sub; Suh, Jung Ho; Kim, Dong Ik; Lee, Jong Doo; Park, Chang Yoon; Kim, Young Soo [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-03-15

    Minima deterioration of cerebral perfusion or microanatomical changes were undetectable on conventional Brain CT or MRI. So evaluation of focal functional changes of the brain parenchyme is essential in chronic head injury patients, who did not show focal anatomical changes on these radiological studies. However, the patients who had longstanding neurologic sequelae following head injury, there had been no available imaging modalities for evaluating these patients precisely. Therefore we tried to detect the focal functional changes on the brain parenchyme using {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO Brain SPECT on the patients of chronic head injuries. Twenty three patients who had suffered from headache, memory dysfunction, personality change and insomnia lasting more than six months following head injury were included in our cases, which showed no anatomical abnormalities on Brain CT or MRI. At first they underwent psychological test whether the symptoms were organic or not. Also we were able to evaluate the cerebral perfusion changes with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO Brain SPECT in 22 patients among the 23, which five patients were focal and 17 patients were nonfocally diffuse perfusion changes. Thus we can predict the perfusion changes such as local vascular deterioration or functional defects using {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO Brain SPECT in the patients who had suffered from post-traumatic sequelae, which changes were undetectable on Brain CT or MRI.

  15. Parametric Cerebrovascular Reserve Images Using Acetazolamide (99m)Tc-HMPAO SPECT: A Feasibility Study of Quantitative Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hongyoon; Yoo, Min Young; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kang, Keon Wook; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Dong Soo

    2013-09-01

    Basal/acetazolamide stress (99m)Tc-HMPAO single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has been widely used for evaluation of hemodynamics; however, qualitative and subjective visual assessment of cerebrovascular reserve (CVR) has been performed in clinical settings. The aim of this study was to generate parametric CVR images and evaluate its feasibility of quantification. Basal/acetazolamide stress (99m)Tc-HMPAO SPECT data from 17 patients who underwent bypass surgery or percutaneous transluminal angioplasty were used. Spatial normalization was performed and parametric CVR images were generated using relative CVR (rCVR) of each voxel proportional to CVR of the whole brain. Binary parametric maps to show area of relatively reduced CVR were generated also using threshold of rCVR parametric CVR images and probabilistic maps for ICA territory. Pre- and postprocedural parametric CVR images were obtained and quantitative rCVRs were compared. The rCVRs were evaluated according to visual grades for regional decreased CVR. Postprocedural rCVR obtained from parametric CVR images increased significantly from preprocedural rCVR. The rCVR was significantly correlated with visual grades of reduced CVR for each side of ICA territories. We generated parametric CVR images for basal/acetazolamide stress (99m)Tc-HMPAO SPECT. As a quantitative measurement, rCVR obtained from the parametric image was feasibly assessed hemodynamic abnormalities with preserved anatomical information.

  16. White blood cell counts as risk markers of developing metabolic syndrome and its components in the PREDIMED study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babio, Nancy; Ibarrola-Jurado, Núria; Bulló, Mònica; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Wärnberg, Julia; Salaverría, Itziar; Ortega-Calvo, Manuel; Estruch, Ramón; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Covas, Maria Isabel; Sorli, José Vicente; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    The Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that includes hyperglucemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia and central obesity, conferring an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The white blood cell (WBC) count has been proposed as a marker for predicting cardiovascular risk. However, few prospective studies have evaluated the relationship between WBC subtypes and risk of MetS. Participants were recruited from seven PREDIMED study centers. Both a baseline cross-sectional (n = 4,377) and a prospective assessment (n = 1,637) were performed. Participants with MetS at baseline were excluded from the longitudinal analysis. The median follow-up was 3.9 years. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, fasting glucose, lipid profile and WBC counts were assessed at baseline and yearly during the follow-up. Participants were categorized by baseline WBC and its subtype count quartiles. Adjusted logistic regression models were fitted to assess the risk of MetS and its components. Of the 4,377 participants, 62.6% had MetS at baseline. Compared to the participants in the lowest baseline sex-adjusted quartile of WBC counts, those in the upper quartile showed an increased risk of having MetS (OR, 2.47; 95%CI, 2.03-2.99; P-trendcomponents hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterol. Likewise, lymphocyte counts were found to be associated with the incidence of the MetS components low HDL-cholesterol and high fasting glucose. An increase in the total WBC during the follow-up was also associated with an increased risk of MetS. Total WBC counts, and some subtypes, were positively associated with MetS as well as hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-cholesterol and high fasting glucose, all components of MetS. Controlled-Trials.comISRCTN35739639.

  17. Comparison of Doppler, oscillometric, auricular and carotid arterial blood pressure measurements in isoflurane anesthetized New Zealand white rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barter, Linda S; Epstein, Steven E

    2014-07-01

    To assess agreement between carotid arterial pressure and auricular arterial, thoracic limb Doppler or thoracic limb oscillometric blood pressure measurements. Prospective experimental study. Six adult New Zealand white rabbits. Rabbits were anesthetized with isoflurane in oxygen at 1, 1.5 and 2 MAC on two separate occasions. Catheters in the auricular and the contralateral external carotid artery were connected to calibrated pressure transducers via non-compliant tubing. Inflatable cuffs of width equal to approximately 40% of the limb circumference were placed above the carpus on both thoracic limbs with a Doppler transducer placed distal to the cuff on one. Systolic (SAP) and mean (MAP) arterial blood pressure measurements were obtained at each dose, on each occasion. Agreement between measurement techniques was evaluated by repeated measures Bland Altman analysis with carotid pressure as the reference. Variation in bias over the measurement range was evaluated by regression analysis. Carotid MAP and SAP ranged from 20 to 65 mmHg and 37 to 103 mmHg respectively. Bias and 95% limits of agreement for auricular and oscillometric MAP were 7 (0-14) and -5 (-21-11) mmHg, respectively, and for auricular, oscillometric and Doppler SAP were 23 (8-37), -2 (-24-20) and 13 (-14-39) mmHg, respectively. Bias varied significantly over the measurement range (p < 0.001) for all three SAP techniques but not for MAP measurements. Limits of agreement for all measurements were large but less so for MAP than SAP. Variation in bias with SAP should be considered when using these measurements clinically. © 2014 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  18. Total and differential white blood cell counts in Caiman latirostris after in ovo and in vivo exposure to insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, María A; Romito, María L; Larriera, Alejandro; Poletta, Gisela L; Siroski, Pablo A

    2016-11-01

    Agricultural activities associated mainly with soybean crops affect the natural environment and wildlife by habitat destruction and the extensive use of agrochemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate immunotoxic effects of the insecticides cypermethrin (CYP) and endosulfan (END) in Caiman latirostris analyzing total blood cell count (TWBC) and differential white blood cell count (DWBC) after in ovo and in vivo exposure. Eggs (in ovo) and hatchlings (in vivo) from nests harvested in natural habitats were artificially incubated and reared under controlled conditions in the Proyecto Yacaré (Gob.Santa Fe/MUPCN) facilities. Exposure of embryos was performed by topication on the eggshell during the first stage of development. The treatments were distilled water (negative control; NC), ethanol (vehicle control; VC), four groups treated with different concentrations of CYP and four groups with END. In vivo exposure was performed by immersion; treatments were NC, VC, two groups exposed to CYP and two to END. After embryonic exposure to the insecticides, no differences were found in TWBC or DWBC among the neonates exposed to pesticides versus controls. In the in vivo scenario, similar results were obtained for TWBC, but DWBC data showed differences between NC hatchlings and CYP-1 hosts for heterophil, lymphocyte and monocyte levels, and between NC and END-1 hosts for lymphocyte and monocyte levels. Research on the effects of pesticide exposure on this species is of special interest not only to assess the impact on caiman populations, but also to further characterize the species as a potential sentinel of ecosystem health.

  19. Transcriptomic profiles of peripheral white blood cells in type II diabetes and racial differences in expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jinghe; Ai, Junmei; Zhou, Xinchun; Shenwu, Ming; Ong, Manuel; Blue, Marketta; Washington, Jasmine T; Wang, Xiaonan; Deng, Youping

    2011-12-23

    Along with obesity, physical inactivity, and family history of metabolic disorders, African American ethnicity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the United States. However, little is known about the differences in gene expression and transcriptomic profiles of blood in T2D between African Americans (AA) and Caucasians (CAU), and microarray analysis of peripheral white blood cells (WBCs) from these two ethnic groups will facilitate our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanism in T2D and identify genetic biomarkers responsible for the disparities. A whole human genome oligomicroarray of peripheral WBCs was performed on 144 samples obtained from 84 patients with T2D (44 AA and 40 CAU) and 60 healthy controls (28 AA and 32 CAU). The results showed that 30 genes had significant difference in expression between patients and controls (a fold change of 1.4 with a P value <0.05). These known genes were mainly clustered in three functional categories: immune responses, lipid metabolism, and organismal injury/abnormaly. Transcriptomic analysis also showed that 574 genes were differentially expressed in AA diseased versus AA control, compared to 200 genes in CAU subjects. Pathway study revealed that "Communication between innate and adaptive immune cells"/"Primary immunodeficiency signaling" are significantly down-regulated in AA patients and "Interferon signaling"/"Complement System" are significantly down-regulated in CAU patients. These newly identified genetic markers in WBCs provide valuable information about the pathophysiology of T2D and can be used for diagnosis and pharmaceutical drug design. Our results also found that AA and CAU patients with T2D express genes and pathways differently.

  20. Effect of long-term sleep restriction and subsequent recovery sleep on the diurnal rhythms of white blood cell subpopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasselin, Julie; Rehman, Javaid-Ur; Åkerstedt, Torbjorn; Lekander, Mats; Axelsson, John

    2015-07-01

    While acute modifications of sleep duration induces a wide array of immune function alterations, less is known of how longer periods with insufficient sleep affect immune functions and how they return to normal once recovery sleep is obtained. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of five days of restricted sleep and a subsequent 7-day period of sleep recovery on white blood cell (WBC) subpopulation count and diurnal rhythms. Nine healthy males participated in a sleep protocol consisting of two baseline days (8h of sleep/night), five nights with restricted sleep (4h of sleep/night) and seven days of recovery sleep (8h of sleep/night). During nine of these days, blood was drawn hourly during night-time end every third hour during daytime, and differential WBC count was analyzed. Gradual increase across the days of sleep restriction was observed for total WBC (psleep resulted in a gradual decrease in monocytes (psleep being associated with higher levels during the night and at awakening, resulting in a flattening of the rhythm. The diurnal alterations were reversed when recovery sleep was allowed, although the amplitude of total WBC, neutrophils and monocytes was increased at the end of the recovery period in comparison to baseline. Altogether, these data show that long-term sleep restriction leads to a gradual increase of circulating WBC subpopulations and alterations of the respective diurnal rhythms. Although some of the effects caused by five days of restricted sleep were restored within the first days of recovery, some parameters were not back to baseline even after a period of seven recovery days. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Office blood pressure is a predictor of aortic elastic properties and urinary protein excretion in subjects with white coat hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznaouridis, Konstantinos; Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Masoura, Konstantina; Pietri, Panagiota; Vyssoulis, Gregory; Ioakeimidis, Nikolaos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Tousoulis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-15

    White coat hypertension (WCH) is related to target organ damage and increased cardiovascular risk. Arterial elastic properties and urinary protein excretion are determinants of cardiovascular performance and predictors of outcomes. We investigated whether office blood pressure (BP) is a better determinant of arterial and renal function than the ambulatory BP in WCH patients. We studied 440 consecutive untreated non-diabetic patients with WCH (office BP >140/90 mmHg, mean daytime ambulatory BP 0.5). Hierarchical multilevel linear regression analysis showed that office systolic BP is an independent determinant of cfPWV (P=0.050), AIx (P=0.029), albumin (P=0.002) and ACR (P=0.001) and has a borderline association with α1-microglobulin (P=0.088). In non-diabetic WCH individuals, office systolic BP is an independent predictor of aortic elastic properties and urinary protein excretion, whereas ambulatory BP is not. This finding suggests that office BP may be a marker of cardiovascular risk in subjects with WCH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of platelet and white blood cell counts on major thrombosis - analysis from a patient registry in essential thrombocythemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxhofer-Ausch, Veronika; Steurer, Michael; Sormann, Siegfried; Schloegl, Ernst; Schimetta, Wolfgang; Gisslinger, Bettina; Ruckser, Reinhard; Gastl, Günther; Gisslinger, Heinz

    2016-12-01

    Although guidelines recommend normalization of platelet counts as an appropriate endpoint for treatment in high-risk essential thrombocythemia (ET), retrospective studies could not prove a correlation of diagnostic platelet counts with an increased thrombotic rate. There is, however, an increasing evidence that leukocytosis is an important risk factor for arterial thrombosis in myeloproliferative neoplasms. This study considers the Austrian cohort of a European registry regarding the platelet-lowering therapeutic anagrelide. Influence of platelet and white blood cell (WBC) counts on thrombotic risk was assessed. Using the calculated cutoffs of 574.5 G/L for platelets and 8.48 G/L for WBC counts, respectively, the Cox regression analysis revealed a clear influence of elevated platelets (P = 0.008) and WBC counts (P = 0.011) on the occurrence of major thrombotic events. The time to a major thrombotic event was shortest (P < 0.001) and the frequency related to 100 patient-years was highest (P = <0.001) when both platelet and WBC counts ranged above the calculated cutoffs. Our data add evidence to the impact of platelet and WBC counts on thrombosis in ET. We suspect a particular interaction between platelets and WBC which might be based on a biological interplay depending on particular cell counts. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Haematology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Changes in white blood pictures and some biochemical parameters of dairy cows in peripartum period and early lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Joksimović Todorović

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the changes in the number of cells of white blood line and some biochemical parameters: concentration of glucose, concentration of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, activity of enzymes of aspartat aminotransferase (AST, alanin aminotransferase (ALT and gamma glutamyltranferase (GGT, in 17 Holstein-Friesian breed dairy cows in peripartum period and early lactation (on d 15 prepartum, on the day of parturition and on d 15, 30, and 45 postpartum. The highest values of total leukocytes count, neutrophiles, monocytes and basophiles count were recorded on the day of parturition, and then decreased, so that the minimum value established on d 45 of lactation. The lymphocytes count was the lowest on the day of parturation, while the eosinophils and basophiles counts were significantly different in observed time intervals. The concentration of glucose ranged from 3.07 mmol/L on d 15 prepartum to 2.71 mmol/L on d 15 postpartum. A high concentration of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA in the postpartum period is a consequence of changes in energy balance and more intensive process of lypolisis in fat tissue, due to energy disbalance at the beginning of lactation. Established activity of enzymes AST, ALT and GGT was approximately the same in studied time intervals and was within physiological limits. The results of hematological and biochemical analysis in this paper do not indicate the development of postpartum ailments, because the investigated parameters were within physiological limits.

  4. Serum monocyte fraction of white blood cells is increased in patients with high Gleason score prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Takuji; Fujita, Kazutoshi; Tanigawa, Go; Kawashima, Atsunari; Nagahara, Akira; Ujike, Takeshi; Uemura, Motohide; Takao, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Nonomura, Norio

    2017-05-23

    Systemic inflammation and immune responses are reported to be associated with progressive prostate cancer. In this study, we explored which among the fractions of white blood cell (WBC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) level were associated with high Gleason score prostate cancer. Prostate needle biopsy was performed in 966 men with suspicion of prostate cancer. We assessed age, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostate volume, WBC count, fractions of WBCs (neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, basophils, and eosinophils), and CRP level before biopsy for associations with biopsy findings. Among all men, 553 (57.2%) were positive for prostate cancer including 421 with high Gleason score cancer (Gleason score ≥7). Age, PSA, PSA density (PSAD), serum monocyte fraction of WBC, monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR), and CRP were significantly associated with high Gleason score cancer (pGleason score prostate cancer (p Gleason score prostate cancer (pGleason score prostate cancer (pGleason score prostate cancer, suggesting an interaction of monocytes with the progression of prostate cancer.

  5. Low Maternal Vitamin B12 Status Is Associated with Lower Cord Blood HDL Cholesterol in White Caucasians Living in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonysunil Adaikalakoteswari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Studies in South Asian population show that low maternal vitamin B12 associates with insulin resistance and small for gestational age in the offspring. Low vitamin B12 status is attributed to vegetarianism in these populations. It is not known whether low B12 status is associated with metabolic risk of the offspring in whites, where the childhood metabolic disorders are increasing rapidly. Here, we studied whether maternal B12 levels associate with metabolic risk of the offspring at birth. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 91 mother-infant pairs (n = 182, of white Caucasian origin living in the UK. Blood samples were collected from white pregnant women at delivery and their newborns (cord blood. Serum vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine as well as the relevant metabolic risk factors were measured. Results: The prevalence of low serum vitamin B12 (<191 ng/L and folate (<4.6 μg/L were 40% and 11%, respectively. Maternal B12 was inversely associated with offspring’s Homeostasis Model Assessment 2-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR, triglycerides, homocysteine and positively with HDL-cholesterol after adjusting for age and BMI. In regression analysis, after adjusting for likely confounders, maternal B12 is independently associated with neonatal HDL-cholesterol and homocysteine but not triglycerides or HOMA-IR. Conclusions: Our study shows that low B12 status is common in white women and is independently associated with adverse cord blood cholesterol.

  6. Quantitative Distinction of Morphological Characteristics of White Blood Cells in Peripheral Blood Through Texture Analysis Using Gray Level Co-Occurrence Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Mai; Kono, Keigo; Kuroki, Maiko; Murakami, Satoru; Hayata, Ruka; Nanato, Kana; Shao, Minrong; Miwa, Keiko; Tsutsumi, Yutaka; Okada, Kazunori; Kaga, Sanae; Masauzi, Nobuo

    2017-11-01

    Texture features are valuable clues for skilled technicians to differentiate peripheral blood (PB) white blood cells (WBCs). Some studies have tried to distinguish WBCs automatically by using texture analysis. However, no study so far has applied a gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) to images of PB WBCs. Here, we developed a new GLCM method, called the CM-Tx method, for automatically distinguishing PB WBCs. We used a total of 199 images of six different types of PB WBCs, taken from PB smears of 12 healthy volunteers, as objective standard images for the analysis. The six types were band form neutrophil, segmented form neutrophil, eosinophil, basophil, lymphocyte, and monocyte. Using in-house FORTRAN programs, three types of GLCM (R: distance (d) = 1, direction (θ) = 0°), (U: d = 1, θ = 270°) and (AE: d = 1, θ = 15° x q: q = 0, ..., 23), the mean intensity (MI) of each image and nine different texture distinction indexes (TDIs) for each GLCM were calculated. Then, a threshold value (TV) for distinguishing the type of PB WBC was selected from the dot plots of all TDIs and the MI. In total, we made 1,194 GLCMs. Using the selected TVs of the TDI, four sequential binary divisions could distinguish five types of PB WBCs. First, monocytes were distinguished (sensitivity 100%, specificity 100%, p < 0.0001) with the TV of the inverse difference moment of the GLCM (U). Then, segmented and band form neutrophils were distinguished from the remaining (100%, 99%, p < 0.0001) with the TV of the contrast of the GLCM (AE). Next, lymphocytes were distinguished (100%, 98%, p < 0.0001) with the TV of the entropy of the GLCM (AE). Finally, basophils were distinguished (82.4%, 100%, p < 0.0001) from eosinophils with the TV of the summed entropy of the GLCM (R). Band form neutrophils could not be distinguished from segmented form neutrophils. The average sensitivity of the CM-Tx method for the five types was 95.6%, and its average specificity was 99.3%. The CM-Tx method can

  7. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... organs and show how well treatments are working. Problems with your blood may include bleeding disorders, excessive clotting and platelet disorders. If you lose too much blood, you may need a transfusion. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

  8. White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA) ... Ratio Valproic Acid Vancomycin Vanillylmandelic Acid (VMA) VAP Vitamin A Vitamin B12 and Folate Vitamin D Tests ...

  9. White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Acidosis and Alkalosis Adrenal Insufficiency and Addison Disease Alcoholism Allergies Alzheimer Disease Anemia Angina Ankylosing Spondylitis Anthrax ... smoking status. It is not uncommon for the elderly to fail to develop high WBC count ( leukocytosis ) ...

  10. Cerebral perfusion (HMPAO-SPECT) in patients with depression with cognitive impairment versus those with mild cognitive impairment and dementia of Alzheimer's type: a semiquantitative and automated evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staffen, W.; Bergmann, J.; Schoenauer, U.; Kronbichler, M.; Golaszewski, S.; Ladurner, G. [Paracelsus Medical University, Christian-Doppler-Clinic, Department of Neurology, and Center of Cognitive Research Salzburg, Salzburg (Austria); Zauner, H. [Rehabilitation Center of the Pensionsversicherungsanstalt, Grossgmain (Austria)

    2009-05-15

    Comparative evaluation of regional brain perfusion measured by HMPAO-SPECT of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia of Alzheimer's type (DAT) and depression with cognitive impairment (DCI). A total of 736 patients were investigated because of suspected cognitive dysfunction. After exclusion of patients with other forms of dementia than DAT or relevant accompanying disorders, SPECT data from 149 MCI, 131 DAT and 127 DCI patients, and 123 controls without any cognitive impairment, were analysed. Relative cerebral blood flow of 34 anatomical regions was assessed with automated analysis software (BRASS). Calculation of global forebrain perfusion discriminated demented from nondemented patients. Compared to controls DCI patients showed hypoperfusion of the thalamus, lentiform nucleus and medial temporal cortex. MCI patients differed significantly from controls concerning perfusion in both hemispheric temporal and parietal areas, and in the (right hemispheric) posterior part of the cingulate gyrus. MCI and DCI patients differed in the parietal, temporal superior and right hemispheric cingulate gyrus posterior cortices. Global forebrain and regional perfusion was more extensively reduced in DAT patients and discriminated them from controls, and MCI and DCI patients. Frontal perfusion disturbance was only present in DAT patients. Automated analysis of HMPAO-SPECT data from MCI patients showed significant perfusion deficits in regions also involved in DAT patients, but ROC analysis demonstrated only moderate sensitivity and specificity for differentiating DAT patients from controls and DCI patients. Frontal hypoperfusion seems to correspond with conversion from MCI to DAT. Finally, the results in DCI patients again raise the question of depression as an early symptom of neurodegeneration. (orig.)

  11. Effects of Palm Kernel Expellers on Productive Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and White Blood Cells of Lactating Sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of palm kernel expellers on productive performance, nutrient digestibility, and changes in white blood cells (WBC of lactating sows. A total of 14 sows (200±12 kg of average body weight [BW]; 2.5 of average parity were used and moved from gestation room to farrowing room on d 109 of gestation. Sows were randomly assigned to 2 dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. The treatments were a diet based on corn and soybean meal (CON and CON added with 20% of palm kernel expellers (PKE. Sows were fed the treatments for 28 days (weaning after farrowing. Blood was collected from each sow and 4 randomly selected piglets from each sow before farrowing or on d 3, 7, or 14 of lactation. Sows were fed respective treatments containing 0.2% chromic oxide from d 15 to 21 of lactation. Fecal samples were collected daily for the last 3 days after the 4-d adjustment period. Measurements were performances and WBC changes of sows and litter, nutrient digestibility of sows, and daily diarrhea of litter. Sows fed PKE had greater average daily feed intake (7.38 vs 7.10 kg/d; p<0.05 and lost less BW (−6.85 vs −8.54 kg; p<0.05 and backfat depth (−0.42 vs −0.71 mm; p<0.05 than those fed CON. However, there were no differences on digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen, and energy and weaning to estrus interval of sows fed either CON or PKE. Piglets from sows fed PKE gained more BW (203 vs 181 g/d; p = 0.08 and had less frequency of diarrhea (6.80 vs 8.56%; p = 0.07 than those from sows fed CON. On the other hand, no difference was found on preweaning mortality of piglets from sows fed either CON or PKE. Sows fed PKE had lower number of WBC (9.57 vs 11.82 ×103/μL; p = 0.09 before farrowing than those fed CON, but no difference on d 3 and 7. Similarly, piglets from sows fed PKE had also lower number of WBC (7.86 vs 9.80 ×103/μL; p<0.05 on d 14 of lactation than those from sows fed CON, but no

  12. Simultaneous dual-isotope solid-state detector SPECT for improved tracking of white blood cells in suspected endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caobelli, Federico; Wollenweber, Tim; Bavendiek, Udo; Kühn, Christian; Schütze, Christian; Geworski, Lilli; Thackeray, James T; Bauersachs, Johann; Haverich, Axel; Bengel, Frank M

    2017-02-07

    High-energy resolution and sensitivity of novel cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) detector equipped SPECT systems facilitate simultaneous imaging of multiple isotopes and may enhance the detection of molecular/cellular signals. This may refine the detection of endocarditis. This study was designed to determine the feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of simultaneous imaging of inflammation with 111In-labeled white blood cells (WBCs) and myocardial perfusion with 99mTc-sestamibi, for localization of WBCs relative to the valve plane in suspected endocarditis. A dedicated cardiac CZT camera (Discovery 530c, GE Healthcare) was employed. Anthropomorphic thorax phantom studies were followed by clinical studies in 34 patients with suspected infection of native valves (n = 12) or implants (n = 22). Simultaneous 111In-WBC/99mTc perfusion imaging was performed, and compared with standard 111In-WBC planar scintigraphy and SPECT-CT. Phantom studies ruled out significant radioisotope crosstalk. Downscatter on 99mTc images was not observed for 111In activity as high as 2.5*99mTc activity. In patients, image quality was superior for CZT imaging vs. conventional SPECT-CT and planar scintigraphy (P < 0.01). Cadmium-zinc-telluride dual isotope imaging improved reader confidence for detection of inflammatory foci. Diagnostic accuracy based on surgery or Duke Criteria during follow-up was highest for CZT imaging (P < 0.001). Novel CZT SPECT technology improves the accuracy of molecular/cellular cardiac imaging. Simultaneous multi-isotope imaging with 111In and 99mTc is feasible and aids in the workup of suspected endocarditis.

  13. Vegetarian diets and blood pressure among white subjects: results from the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersen, Betty J; Anousheh, Ramtin; Fan, Jing; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Fraser, Gary E

    2012-10-01

    Previous work studying vegetarians has often found that they have lower blood pressure (BP). Reasons may include their lower BMI and higher intake levels of fruit and vegetables. Here we seek to extend this evidence in a geographically diverse population containing vegans, lacto-ovo vegetarians and omnivores. Data are analysed from a calibration sub-study of the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) cohort who attended clinics and provided validated FFQ. Criteria were established for vegan, lacto-ovo vegetarian, partial vegetarian and omnivorous dietary patterns. Clinics were conducted at churches across the USA and Canada. Dietary data were gathered by mailed questionnaire. Five hundred white subjects representing the AHS-2 cohort. Covariate-adjusted regression analyses demonstrated that the vegan vegetarians had lower systolic and diastolic BP (mmHg) than omnivorous Adventists (β = -6.8, P vegetarians (β = -9.1, P vegetarians (mainly the vegans) were also less likely to be using antihypertensive medications. Defining hypertension as systolic BP > 139 mmHg or diastolic BP > 89 mmHg or use of antihypertensive medications, the odds ratio of hypertension compared with omnivores was 0.37 (95 % CI 0.19, 0.74), 0.57 (95 % CI 0.36, 0.92) and 0.92 (95 % CI 0.50, 1.70), respectively, for vegans, lacto-ovo vegetarians and partial vegetarians. Effects were reduced after adjustment for BMI. We conclude from this relatively large study that vegetarians, especially vegans, with otherwise diverse characteristics but stable diets, do have lower systolic and diastolic BP and less hypertension than omnivores. This is only partly due to their lower body mass.

  14. Serum procalcitonin, C-reactive protein and white blood cell levels following hypothermia after cardiac arrest: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, Philipp; Affolter, Barbara; Hunziker, Sabina; Winterhalder, Clemens; Fischer, Michael; Balestra, Gianmarco M; Hunziker, Patrick; Marsch, Stephan

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate time course of procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) levels in patients with therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest. We retrospectively assessed laboratory and clinical data in a consecutive cohort of patients admitted to the medical intensive-care-unit of the University Hospital in Basel, Switzerland, in whom therapeutic hypothermia was induced because of cardiac arrest between December 2007 and January 2009. Infection was considered based on microbiological evidence (restricted definition) and/or clinical evidence of infection with prescription of antibiotics (extended definition). From 34 included patients, 25 had respiratory tract infection based on the clinical judgment and in 18 microbiological cultures turned positive (restricted definition). PCT concentrations were highest on the first day after hypothermia and showed a steady decrease until day 7 without differences in patients with and without presumed infection. CRP concentrations increased to a peak level at days 3-4 followed by a steady decrease; CRP concentrations were higher in patients with clinical diagnosis of infection on day 4 (P = 0.02); and in patients with evidence of bacterial growth in cultures on days 4 and 5 (P = 0.01 and P = 0.006). WBC remained unchanged after hypothermia without differences between patients with and without infection. High initial values of PCT and high peak levels after 3-4 days of CRP were found in patients with induction of hypothermia after cardiac arrest. This increase was unspecific and mirrors rather an inflammatory reaction than true underlying infection, limiting the diagnostic potential for early antibiotic stewardship in these patients.

  15. Vegetarian diets and blood pressure among white subjects: results from the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersen, Betty J; Anousheh, Ramtin; Fan, Jing; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Fraser, Gary E

    2012-01-01

    Objective Previous work studying vegetarians has often found that they have lower blood pressure (BP). Reasons may include their lower BMI and higher intake levels of fruit and vegetables. Here we seek to extend this evidence in a geographically diverse population containing vegans, lacto-ovo vegetarians and omnivores. Design Data are analysed from a calibration sub-study of the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) cohort who attended clinics and provided validated FFQ. Criteria were established for vegan, lacto-ovo vegetarian, partial vegetarian and omnivorous dietary patterns. Setting Clinics were conducted at churches across the USA and Canada. Dietary data were gathered by mailed questionnaire. Subjects Five hundred white subjects representing the AHS-2 cohort. Results Covariate-adjusted regression analyses demonstrated that the vegan vegetarians had lower systolic and diastolic BP (mmHg) than omnivorous Adventists (β =−6·8, Pvegans) were also less likely to be using antihypertensive medications. Defining hypertension as systolic BP > 139 mmHg or diastolic BP > 89 mmHg or use of antihypertensive medications, the odds ratio of hypertension compared with omnivores was 0·37 (95 % CI 0·19, 0·74), 0·57 (95 % CI 0·36, 0·92) and 0·92 (95 % CI 0·50, 1·70), respectively, for vegans, lacto-ovo vegetarians and partial vegetarians. Effects were reduced after adjustment for BMI. Conclusions We conclude from this relatively large study that vegetarians, especially vegans, with otherwise diverse characteristics but stable diets, do have lower systolic and diastolic BP and less hypertension than omnivores. This is only partly due to their lower body mass. PMID:22230619

  16. Technetium-99m HMPAO brain SPECT in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, G.C.; Pekcanlar, A.; Bekis, R.; Ada, E.; Miral, S.; Emiroglu, N.; Durak, H. [Dokuz Eylul Univ., Izmir (Turkey). School of Medicine

    2002-12-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental, neurobehavioral syndrome with an onset in childhood. The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of regional perfusion changes in ADHD by means of Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT. Thirteen children with a diagnosis of ADHD and 7 healthy, age-matched controls were included in this study. Hypoperfusion was observed on the right temporal cortex in 9, and on the left temporal cortex in 3 children. The distribution of the lesions showed right lateral temporal cortex involvement in 3, right medial temporal cortex in 9 and left medial temporal cortex in 8 children. Asymmetric perfusion was seen on the caudate nucleus in 4, on the thalamus in 3 and on the frontal cortex in 6 children. There was a significant difference between children with ADHD and controls in right medial temporal cortex: cerebellum and right lateral temporal cortex: cerebellum ratios. Hypoperfusion in the right medial temporal cortex was significantly and inversely correlated with Du Paul teachers' questionnaire rating scale (r=-0.71, p=0.006). It has been postulated that difficulty in self regulating response to stimuli in ADHD is mediated by underfunctioning of the orbital frontal cortex and subsequent connection to the limbic system. Decreased temporal cortex perfusion may dysfunction of the limbic system or the orbito-frontal-limbic axis. (author)

  17. [Prognostic utility of scintigraphy with 99mTc-HMPAO labelled leukocytes in inflammatory bowel disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, D; Domenech, A; Mora, J; Ballester, R; Roca, M; Jiménez, R I; Verdura, B; Baliellas, C; Guardiola, J; Martín-Comín, J

    2006-01-01

    The inflammatory bowel disease (EII) has a chronic evolution with a frequent relapses. There is no specific diagnosis method to detect the patients with a high risk to relapse. The aim of the work was to analyse the prognostic value of 99mTc-HMPAO leukocyte scintigraphy (LS) performed during an acute attack of EII. 18 patients (mean age 32 +/- 10 years) admitted for an acute attack of EII has been prospectively studied (5 ulcerative colitis [UC] and 13 Cronh's disease [CD]), excluding patient with prior steroids or immunosuppressive therapy during the last year. LS were obtained in basal conditions and following 3 weeks of steroid treatment and the scintigraphic activity index (SAI) has been calculated. Colonoscopy has been done in all patients, and CDAI in CD and Truelove index in UC have been calculated. Patients were followed up for 1 year. In the evolution the therapy requirements as well as the good response to initial treatment have been evaluated. All patients with UC and 4 patients with CD showed a SAI decrease > 50 % and all had a good clinical evolution. Only 2 out of the 9 patients with CD showing a IAG decrease 50 % at 3 weeks of steroid treatment indicates a good clinical evolution.

  18. A comparison of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPET changes in dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease using statistical parametric mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colloby, Sean J.; Paling, Sean M.; Lobotesis, Kyriakos; Ballard, Clive; McKeith, Ian; O' Brien, John T. [Wolfson Research Centre, Institute for Ageing and Health, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Fenwick, John D. [Regional Medical Physics Department, Newcastle General Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Williams, David E. [Regional Medical Physics Department, Sunderland Royal Hospital (United Kingdom)

    2002-05-01

    Differences in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) between subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and healthy volunteers were investigated using statistical parametric mapping (SPM99). Forty-eight AD, 23 DLB and 20 age-matched control subjects participated. Technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) brain single-photon emission tomography (SPET) scans were acquired for each subject using a single-headed rotating gamma camera (IGE CamStar XR/T). The SPET images were spatially normalised and group comparison was performed by SPM99. In addition, covariate analysis was undertaken on the standardised images taking the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores as a variable. Applying a height threshold of P{<=}0.001 uncorrected, significant perfusion deficits in the parietal and frontal regions of the brain were observed in both AD and DLB groups compared with the control subjects. In addition, significant temporoparietal perfusion deficits were identified in the AD subjects, whereas the DLB patients had deficits in the occipital region. Comparison of dementia groups (height threshold of P{<=}0.01 uncorrected) yielded hypoperfusion in both the parietal [Brodmann area (BA) 7] and occipital (BA 17, 18) regions of the brain in DLB compared with AD. Abnormalities in these areas, which included visual cortex and several areas involved in higher visual processing and visuospatial function, may be important in understanding the visual hallucinations and visuospatial deficits which are characteristic of DLB. Covariate analysis indicated group differences between AD and DLB in terms of a positive correlation between cognitive test score and temporoparietal blood flow. In conclusion, we found evidence of frontal and parietal hypoperfusion in both AD and DLB, while temporal perfusion deficits were observed exclusively in AD and parieto-occipital deficits in DLB. (orig.)

  19. Association between Resting Heart Rate and Inflammatory Markers (White Blood Cell Count and High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein) in Healthy Korean People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Woo-Chul; Seo, Inho; Kim, Shin-Hye; Lee, Yong-Jae; Ahn, Song Vogue

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation is an important underlying mechanism in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, and an elevated resting heart rate underlies the process of atherosclerotic plaque formation. We hypothesized an association between resting heart rate and subclinical inflammation. Resting heart rate was recorded at baseline in the KoGES-ARIRANG (Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study on Atherosclerosis Risk of Rural Areas in the Korean General Population) cohort study, and was then divided into quartiles. Subclinical inflammation was measured by white blood cell count and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. We used progressively adjusted regression models with terms for muscle mass, body fat proportion, and adiponectin in the fully adjusted models. We examined inflammatory markers as both continuous and categorical variables, using the clinical cut point of the highest quartile of white blood cell count (≥7,900/mm(3)) and ≥3 mg/dL for high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Participants had a mean age of 56.3±8.1 years and a mean resting heart rate of 71.4±10.7 beats/min; 39.1% were men. In a fully adjusted model, an increased resting heart rate was significantly associated with a higher white blood cell count and higher levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in both continuous (P for trend heart rate is associated with a higher level of subclinical inflammation among healthy Korean people.

  20. Required time delay from 99mTc-HMPAO injection to SPECT data acquisition: healthy subjects and patients with rCBF pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Gerda; de Nijs, Robin; Hogh-Rasmussen, Esben

    2008-01-01

    Procedure Guidelines for Brain Perfusion SPET using (99m)Tc-labeled Radiopharmaceuticals recommend a time delay of 90 min between injection of (99m)Tc-HMPAO and data acquisition. This time delay is difficult to comply within the daily routine and present a problem, particularly with the elderly or demented...... patients. This study investigates in patients with perfusion deficits and in healthy subjects if the quality of the SPECT image is affected by lowering the time delay between (99m)Tc-HMPAO injection and data acquisition to 30 or 60 min....

  1. Clinical significance of abdominal scintigraphy using {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-labelled leucocytes in patients with seronegative spondyloarthropathies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso Farto, J.C.; Almoguera Arias, I.; Ortega Valle, A.; Perez Vazquez, J.M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Complutense, Madrid (Spain); Lopez Longo, F.J.; Gonzalez Fernandez, C.M.; Monteagudo Saez, I.; Bascones, M.; Carreno Perez, L. [Department of Rheumatology, ' ' Hospital Universitario Gregorio Maranon' ' , Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain)

    2000-12-01

    Abdominal scintigraphy shows silent gut inflammation in patients with spondyloarthropathies (Sp) without clinical evidence of gut inflammation. Abdominal scintigraphy images are different than those obtained in patients with ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease and are not related to the anti-inflammatory drugs administered. The aim of this study was to examine the clinical associations of findings on abdominal scintigraphy in patients with Sp. A total of 204 Sp patients (European Spondylarthropathy Study Group 1991 criteria) and 54 non-Sp controls receiving non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were studied. Abdominal scintigraphy images were obtained at 30 and 120 min after injection of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO)-labelled leucocytes. {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-labelled leucocyte scans were positive in 104 Sp patients (50.9%) and in six non-Sp controls (2.9%) (P<0.001; OR=8.32; 95% CI=3.23-22.67). Silent gut inflammation was not associated with any of the following: age of onset, duration of evolution, sex, family history of Sp or psoriasis, articular manifestations, extra-articular manifestations, radiological findings or HLA-B27 positivity. Positive abdominal scintigraphy was associated with active disease (P<0.0001; OR=52.7; 95% CI=19-145.6) and an increase in the C-reactive protein (P<0.005; OR=3.4; 95% CI=1.5-7.4). It is concluded that (a) abdominal scintigraphy using {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-labelled leucocytes is of value in detecting the silent gut inflammation in Sp patients, and (b) silent gut inflammation is related to the clinical activity, but is not associated with any particular type of illness or with HLA-B27. (orig.)

  2. Cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in senile dementia of Alzheimer`s type and vascular dementia with deep white matter changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tohgi, H.; Yonezawa, H.; Takahashi, S.; Sato, N.; Kato, E.; Kudo, M. [Department of Neurology, Iwate Medical University (Japan); Hatano, K.; Sasaki, T. [Nishina Memorial Cyclotron Centre (Japan Radioisotope Association) and Cyclotron Research Centre, Iwate Medical University, Morioka (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (rCMRO{sub 2}), oxygen extraction fraction (rOEF), and cerebral blood volume (rCBV) were investigated using positron emission tomography (PET) in 16 patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer`s type (SDAT), and compared with those of 6 nondemented and 3 demented patients with deep white matter high signal (DWMH) on T2-weighted MRI and 6 controls. rCBF, rCMRO{sub 2} and rCBV were determined using C{sup 15}O{sub 2}, {sup 15}O{sub 2} and C{sup 15}O, respectively. rCBF and CMRO{sub 2} were significantly decreased in the frontal, parietal and temporal cortex (P < 0.05) in patients with SDAT, and showed a significant correlation with the severity of dementia (P < 0.05). In patients with DWMH rCBF was significantly decreased in the parietal cortex and in the frontal white matter in nondemented patients, and in the cerebral cortex and white matter of most regions studied in demented patients (P < 0.05), whereas rCMRO{sub 2} was significantly reduced in only the frontal and temporal cortex of demented patients (P < 0.05). rOEF was significantly increased in the parietal cortex of patients with SDAT and in the white matter of patients with SDAT or DWMH (P < 0.05), and the increase in the frontal white matter significantly paralleled the progression of dementia in patients with SDAT (P < 0.05). rCBV was significantly decreased in the parietal and temporal cortex of patients with SDAT (P < 0.05), but not in any areas of those with DWMH. (orig.) With 3 figs., 2 tabs., 32 refs.

  3. Setting thresholds to varying blood pressure monitoring intervals differentially affects risk estimates associated with white-coat and masked hypertension in the population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asayama, Kei; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan; Gu, Yu-Mei; Hara, Azusa; Liu, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Zhenyu; Wei, Fang-Fei; Lujambio, Inés; Mena, Luis J; Boggia, José; Hansen, Tine W; Björklund-Bodegård, Kristina; Nomura, Kyoko; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Dolan, Eamon; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Malyutina, Sofia; Casiglia, Edoardo; Nikitin, Yuri; Lind, Lars; Luzardo, Leonella; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Sandoya, Edgardo; Filipovský, Jan; Maestre, Gladys E; Wang, Jiguang; Imai, Yutaka; Franklin, Stanley S; O'Brien, Eoin; Staessen, Jan A

    2014-11-01

    Outcome-driven recommendations about time intervals during which ambulatory blood pressure should be measured to diagnose white-coat or masked hypertension are lacking. We cross-classified 8237 untreated participants (mean age, 50.7 years; 48.4% women) enrolled in 12 population studies, using ≥140/≥90, ≥130/≥80, ≥135/≥85, and ≥120/≥70 mm Hg as hypertension thresholds for conventional, 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime blood pressure. White-coat hypertension was hypertension on conventional measurement with ambulatory normotension, the opposite condition being masked hypertension. Intervals used for classification of participants were daytime, nighttime, and 24 hours, first considered separately, and next combined as 24 hours plus daytime or plus nighttime, or plus both. Depending on time intervals chosen, white-coat and masked hypertension frequencies ranged from 6.3% to 12.5% and from 9.7% to 19.6%, respectively. During 91 046 person-years, 729 participants experienced a cardiovascular event. In multivariable analyses with normotension during all intervals of the day as reference, hazard ratios associated with white-coat hypertension progressively weakened considering daytime only (1.38; P=0.033), nighttime only (1.43; P=0.0074), 24 hours only (1.21; P=0.20), 24 hours plus daytime (1.24; P=0.18), 24 hours plus nighttime (1.15; P=0.39), and 24 hours plus daytime and nighttime (1.16; P=0.41). The hazard ratios comparing masked hypertension with normotension were all significant (Phypertension requires setting thresholds simultaneously to 24 hours, daytime, and nighttime blood pressure. Although any time interval suffices to diagnose masked hypertension, as proposed in current guidelines, full 24-hour recordings remain standard in clinical practice. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Setting Thresholds to Varying Blood Pressure Monitoring Intervals Differentially Affects Risk Estimates Associated With White-Coat and Masked Hypertension in the Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asayama, Kei; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan; Gu, Yu-Mei; Hara, Azusa; Liu, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Zhenyu; Wei, Fang-Fei; Lujambio, Inés; Mena, Luis J.; Boggia, José; Hansen, Tine W.; Björklund-Bodegård, Kristina; Nomura, Kyoko; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Dolan, Eamon; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Malyutina, Sofia; Casiglia, Edoardo; Nikitin, Yuri; Lind, Lars; Luzardo, Leonella; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Sandoya, Edgardo; Filipovský, Jan; Maestre, Gladys E.; Wang, Jiguang; Imai, Yutaka; Franklin, Stanley S.; O’Brien, Eoin; Staessen, Jan A.

    2015-01-01

    Outcome-driven recommendations about time intervals during which ambulatory blood pressure should be measured to diagnose white-coat or masked hypertension are lacking. We cross-classified 8237 untreated participants (mean age, 50.7 years; 48.4% women) enrolled in 12 population studies, using ≥140/≥90, ≥130/≥80, ≥135/≥85, and ≥120/≥70 mm Hg as hypertension thresholds for conventional, 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime blood pressure. White-coat hypertension was hypertension on conventional measurement with ambulatory normotension, the opposite condition being masked hypertension. Intervals used for classification of participants were daytime, nighttime, and 24 hours, first considered separately, and next combined as 24 hours plus daytime or plus nighttime, or plus both. Depending on time intervals chosen, white-coat and masked hypertension frequencies ranged from 6.3% to 12.5% and from 9.7% to 19.6%, respectively. During 91 046 person-years, 729 participants experienced a cardiovascular event. In multivariable analyses with normotension during all intervals of the day as reference, hazard ratios associated with white-coat hypertension progressively weakened considering daytime only (1.38; P=0.033), nighttime only (1.43; P=0.0074), 24 hours only (1.21; P=0.20), 24 hours plus daytime (1.24; P=0.18), 24 hours plus nighttime (1.15; P=0.39), and 24 hours plus daytime and nighttime (1.16; P=0.41). The hazard ratios comparing masked hypertension with normotension were all significant (Phypertension requires setting thresholds simultaneously to 24 hours, daytime, and nighttime blood pressure. Although any time interval suffices to diagnose masked hypertension, as proposed in current guidelines, full 24-hour recordings remain standard in clinical practice. PMID:25135185

  5. LINE-1 hypermethylation in white blood cell DNA is associated with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchitta, Martina; Quattrocchi, Annalisa; Maugeri, Andrea; Canto, Carolina; La Rosa, Nadia; Cantarella, Maria Antonietta; Spampinato, Giuseppa; Scalisi, Aurora; Agodi, Antonella

    2017-08-30

    Long Interspersed Nuclear Elements-1 (LINEs-1) methylation from white blood cells (WBCs) DNA has been proposed as biomarker associated with different types of cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the degree of WBCs LINE-1 methylation, according to high-risk Human Papilloma Virus (hrHPV) status in a healthy population, and the association with high-grade Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN2+) in hrHPV positive women. Women with abnormal cervical cells were enrolled and classified by histological diagnosis and hrHPV infection. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-demographic variables and lifestyle factors. LINE-1 methylation level in WBCs was measured by pyrosequencing-based methylation analysis after bisulfite conversion. Among 252 women diagnosed with normal cervical epithelium, with regard to LINE-1 methylation level no significant difference was observed between hrHPV positive and hrHPV negative women, also adjusting for known risk factors of infection. The association between WBCs LINE-1 methylation and CIN2+ status was analyzed in hrHPV positive women. The median value of LINE-1 methylation levels was higher in cases (CIN2+) than in controls (75.00% versus 73.17%; p = 0.002). For a one-unit increase in LINE-1 methylation level, the odds of being diagnosed with CIN2+ increased by 10%, adjusting for known factors related to LINE-1 methylation (adjOR: 1.10; 95% CI:1.01-1.20; p = 0.032). The Receiver-Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis identified the cut-off value of 73.8% as the best threshold to separate cases from controls (sensitivity: 63.4% and specificity: 61.8%). LINE-1 methylation status in WBCs DNA may represent a cost-effective and tissue-accessible biomarker for high-grade CIN in hrHPV positive women. However, LINE-1 hypermethylation cannot be considered specific for cervical cancer (CC) and a model based solely on LINE-1 methylation levels has limited performance. Further investigations

  6. Comparison of white and red blood cell estimates in urine sediment with hemocytometer and automated counts in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Elizabeth; Burton, Shelley; Horney, Barbara; MacKenzie, Allan

    2013-03-01

    Therapeutic decisions regarding urinalysis are commonly based on the presence of white and red blood cells. Traditionally, numbers per high-power field are estimated using wet-mount microscopic examination. This technique is not standardized and counts are likely prone to inaccuracy. In addition, differentiation of leukocyte types is not possible. The aims of this study were to (1) compare WBC and RBC estimates using wet-mount examination with counts obtained using a hemocytometer, (2) assess if a hematology automated analyzer (Sysmex ST-2000iV/XT) provides reliable WBC and RBC counts in urine comparable to hemocytometer counts, and (3) evaluate air-dried Wright-Giemsa-stained urine drop sediment preparations for the determination of differential leukocyte counts. WBC and RBC counts were obtained by performing wet-mount estimates, manual hemocytometer counts, and Sysmex automated counts on 219 canine and feline urine samples. Results were correlated using Spearman rank correlation. Air-dried Wright-Giemsa stained sediment drop preparations (n = 215) were examined for differential counts of leukocytes. A low but significant association was found between WBC estimates on wet-mount examination and hemocytometer counts (rho = 0.37, P < .01). There was a high and significant association when RBC counts were compared between wet-mount and hemocytometer evaluation (rho = 0.7, P < .01). There was very high and significant interassay correlation between Sysmex data from duplicate samples for what the analyzer classified as WBC (rho = 0.97, P < .01) and RBC (rho = 0.94, P < .01). Low correlations were found between the Sysmex RBC counts and both wet-mount estimates and hemocytometer RBC counts (rho = 0.43, P < .01 and rho = 0.39, P < .01, respectively). Cell preservation in the air-dried sediment preparations was so poor that differential counts could not be performed. WBC and RBC estimates on wet-mount examination agreed with hemocytometer counts and are therefore

  7. Correlation of serum C-reactive protein, white blood count and neutrophil percentage with histopathology findings in acute appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xharra Shefki

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute appendicitis is one of the most common surgical emergencies. Accurate diagnosis of acute appendicitis is based on careful history, physical examination, laboratory and imaging investigation. The aim of the study is to analyze the role of C-reactive protein (CRP, white blood count (WBC and Neutrophil percentage (NP in improving the accuracy of diagnosis of acute appendicitis and to compare it with the intraoperative assessment and histopathology findings. Materials and methods This investigation was a prospective double blinded clinical study. The study was done on 173 patients surgically treated for acute appendicitis. The WBC, NP, and measurement of CRP were randomly collected pre-operatively from all involved patients. Macroscopic assessment was made from the operation. Appendectomy and a histopathology examination were performed on all patients. Gross description was compared with histopathology results and then correlated with CRP, WBC, and NP. Results The observational accuracy was 87,3%, as compared to histopathological accuracy which was 85.5% with a total of 173 patients that were operated on. The histopathology showed 25 (14.5% patients had normal appendices, and 148 (85.5% patients had acutely inflamed, gangrenous, or perforated appendicitis. 52% were male and 48% were female, with the age ranging from 5 to 59 with a median of 19.7. The gangrenous type was the most frequent (52.6%. The WBC was altered in 77.5% of the cases, NP in 72.3%, and C-reactive protein in 76.9% cases. In those with positive appendicitis, the CRP and WBC values were elevated in 126 patients (72.8%, whereas NP was higher than 75% in 117 patients (67.6%. Out of 106 patients with triple positive tests, 101 (95.2% had appendicitis. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive values of the 3 tests in combination were 95.3%, 72.2%, and 95.3%, respectively. Conclusion The raised value of the CRP was directly related to the severity of

  8. Preoperative White Blood Cell Count in Patients with Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms and Its Relation to Survival following Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Camilla; Hagen, Anne I; Myhre, Hans O; Dahl, Torbjørn

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore whether preoperative white blood cell (WBC) count may predict 30-day mortality and long-term survival following surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Secondarily, we wanted to assess the potential sex differences in WBC in these patients. The study was carried out as a retrospective cohort study. Patients undergoing surgery for intact and ruptured AAA (rAAA) at our institution consecutively in the time period 1994-2007 were included. Patients were either treated with open aneurysm repair or with endovascular aneurysm repair. Data were collected from the patients' medical records, including laboratory reports for WBC count prior to surgery. Mortality and long-term survival were extracted from The Patient Administrative System. A total of 988 patients were included, 712 (72%) patients were treated for intact AAA and 276 (28%) underwent surgery for rAAA. Patients with WBC ≥11 ×109/L had a 8.7-fold higher risk of 30-day mortality undergoing surgery for intact AAA compared to patients with WBC <11 ×109/L (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.2-23.3, P < 0.001). Patients with a high WBC tended to have inferior long-term survival. However, when excluding 30-day mortality, no statistically significant difference was found (hazard ratio, 1.4; 95% CI: 0.9-2.0, P = 0.121). No association between WBC count and 30-day mortality or long-term survival was observed among patients treated for rAAA. We could not identify any sex differences in WBC, neither in intact AAA nor in rAAA. We were not able identify any association between WBC and specific causes of death. This study suggests that patients with WBC count ≥11 ×109/L prior to surgery for intact AAA have a higher 30-day mortality compared to patients with WBC <11 ×109/L. We could not identify any substantial difference in long-term survival when excluding 30-day mortality. We did not observe any association between preoperative WBC count and case fatality or long

  9. Smoking, white blood cell counts, and TNF system activity in Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe Naoya

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smokers have increased white blood cell (WBC counts and the activation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF. The effect of smoking on WBC counts and TNF system activity, however, has not been separately investigated yet. Subjects and Methods One hundred and forty-two Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance were recruited. They were stratified into two groups based on the questionnaire for smoking: one with current smokers (n = 48 and the other with current non-smokers (n = 94. Whereas no significant differences were observed in age, BMI, high molecular weight (HMW adiponectin, and TNF-α between the two groups, current smokers had significantly higher soluble TNF receptor 1 (sTNF-R1 (1203 ± 30 vs. 1116 ± 21 pg/ml, p = 0.010 and increased WBC counts (7165 ± 242 vs. 5590 ± 163/μl, p p = 0.031 as compared to current non-smokers. Next, we classified 48 current smokers into two subpopulations: one with heavy smoking (Brinkman index ≥ 600 and the other with light smoking (Brinkman index Results Whereas no significant difference was observed in age, BMI, HMW adiponectin, WBC counts and TNF-α, sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 were significantly higher in heavy smoking group (1307 ± 44 vs. 1099 ± 30 pg/ml, p p = 0.005 than in light smoking group, whose sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 were similar to non-smokers (sTNF-R1: 1116 ± 15 pg/ml, p = 0.718, sTNF-R2; 1901 ± 32 pg/ml, p = 0.437. In contrast, WBC counts were significantly increased in heavy (7500 ± 324/μl, p p = 0.001 smoking group as compared to non-smokers (5590 ± 178/μl. There was no significant difference in WBC counts between heavy and light smoking group (p = 0.158. Conclusion We can hypothesize that light smoking is associated with an increase in WBC counts, while heavy smoking is responsible for TNF activation in Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance.

  10. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia and can affect people who have a diet ... 2015 More on this topic for: Teens Blood Types Donating Blood Blood Transfusions Anemia Sickle Cell Disease Hemophilia When Cancer Keeps You ...

  11. Limbic system perfusion in Alzheimer's disease measured by MRI-coregistered HMPAO SPET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callen, David J.A. [Institute of Medical Science, Research Program in Aging, Imaging, Sunnybrook and Women' s University of Toronto, ON (Canada); Black, Sandra E. [Cognitive Neurology Unit and Research Program in Aging, Sunnybrook and Women' s College Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON (Canada); Institute of Medical Science, Research Program in Aging, Imaging, Sunnybrook and Women' s University of Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Medicine (Neurology), University of Toronto, ON (Canada); Caldwell, Curtis B. [Department of Medical Imaging, Sunnybrook and Women' s College Health Sciences Centre and University of Toronto, CN (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The goal of this study was to perform a systematic, semi-quantitative analysis of limbic perfusion in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) using coregistered single-photon emission tomography (SPET) images aligned to magnetic resonance (MR) images. Limbic perfusion in 40 patients with mild to moderate AD was compared with that of 17 age-, sex-, and education-matched normal controls (NC). HMPAO SPET scans and 3D T1-weighted MR images were acquired for each subject. Structures of the limbic system (i.e. hippocampus, amygdala, anterior thalamus, hypothalamus, mamillary bodies, basal forebrain, septal area and cingulate, orbitofrontal and parahippocampal cortices) were traced on the MR images and transferred to the coregistered SPET scans. Perfusion ratios for all limbic regions were calculated relative to cerebellar perfusion. General linear model multivariate analysis revealed that, overall, limbic structures showed significant hypoperfusion (F=7.802, P<0.00001, {eta}{sup 2}=0.695) in AD patients compared with NC. Greatest differences (d{>=}0.8) were found in the hippocampus, as well as all areas of the cingulate cortex. Significant relative hypoperfusion was also apparent in the parahippocampal cortex, amygdala/entorhinal cortex, septal area and anterior thalamus, all of which showed medium to large effect sizes (d=0.6-0.8). No significant relative perfusion differences were detected in the basal forebrain, hypothalamus, mamillary bodies or orbitofrontal cortex. Logistic regression indicated that posterior cingulate cortex perfusion was able to discriminate AD patients from NC with 93% accuracy (95% sensitivity, 88% specificity). The current results suggest that most, but not all, limbic structures show significant relative hypoperfusion in AD. These findings validate previous post-mortem studies and could be useful in improving diagnostic accuracy, monitoring disease progression and evaluating potential treatment strategies in AD. (orig.)

  12. The ameliorative effects of exercise on cognitive impairment and white matter injury from blood-brain barrier disruption induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Min; Park, Jong-Min; Song, Min Kyung; Oh, Yoo Joung; Kim, Chang-Ju; Kim, Youn-Jung

    2017-01-18

    Vascular dementia is the progressive change in blood vessels that leads to neuronal injuries in vulnerable areas induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH). CCH induces disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB), and this BBB disruption can initiate the cognitive impairment and white matter injury. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of treadmill exercise on the cognitive impairment, white matter injury, and BBB disruption induced by CCH. Vascular dementia was induced by permanent bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (BCCAO) in rats. The rats in the exercise group were made to run on a treadmill for 30min once a day for 14 weeks, starting 4 weeks after birth. Our results revealed that treadmill exercise group was alleviated the cognitive impairment and myelin degradation induced by CCH. The disruption of BBB after CCH indicates degradation of occludin, zonula occluden-1 (ZO-1), and up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Treadmill exercise may provide protective effects on BBB disruption from degradation of occludin, ZO-1, and overexpression of MMP-9 after CCH. These findings suggest that treadmill exercise ameliorates cognitive impairment and white matter injury from BBB disruption induced by CCH in rats. The present study will be valuable for means of prophylactic and therapeutic intervention for patients with CCH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. CXCL5 signaling is a shared pathway of neuroinflammation and blood-brain barrier injury contributing to white matter injury in the immature brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Yu; Tu, Yi-Fang; Lin, Yung-Chieh; Huang, Chao-Ching

    2016-01-06

    In very preterm infants, white matter injury is a prominent brain injury, and hypoxic ischemia (HI) and infection are the two primary pathogenic factors of this injury. Microglia and microvascular endothelial cells closely interact; therefore, a common signaling pathway may cause neuroinflammation and blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage after injury to the immature brain. CXC chemokine ligand 5 (CXCL5) is produced in inflammatory and endothelial cells by various organs in response to insults. CXCL5 levels markedly increased in the amniotic cavity in response to intrauterine infection and preterm birth in clinical studies. The objective of this study is to determine whether CXCL5 signaling is a shared pathway of neuroinflammation and BBB injury that contributes to white matter injury in the immature brain. Postpartum day 2 (P2) rat pups received lipopolysaccharide (LPS) followed by 90-min HI. Immunohistochemical analyses were performed to determine microglial activation, neutrophil infiltration, BBB damage, and myelin basic protein and glial fibrillary acidic protein expression. Immunofluorescence experiments were performed to determine the cellular distribution of CXCL5. Pharmacological tests were performed to inhibit or enhance CXCL5 activity. On P2, predominant increases in microglial activation and BBB damage were observed 24 h after LPS-sensitized HI induction, and white matter injury (decreased myelination and increased astrogliosis) was observed on P12 compared with controls. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed increased CXCL5 expression in the white matter 6 and 24 h after insult. Immunofluorescence experiments revealed upregulated CXCL5 expression in the activated microglia and endothelial cells 24 h after insult. CXCL5 inhibition by SB225002, a selective nonpeptide inhibitor of CXCR2, significantly attenuated microglial activation and BBB damage, increased myelination, and reduced astrogliosis in the white matter after LPS-sensitized HI. In addition, CXCL5

  14. A rapid, highly sensitive and culture-free detection of pathogens from whole blood by removal of white blood cells using immuno-magnetic beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vutukuru, Manjula Ramya; Sharma, Divya Khandige; Ms, Ragavendar; Mitra, Nivedita

    2016-08-01

    Using anti-human CD45 antibody coated beads, we show a 98% reduction of WBCs from spiked blood samples in 1h, thereby enriching it for pathogens. This enrichment allowed the detection of blood using quantitative PCR; something not observed in unenriched samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of the effects of methylprednisolone pulse therapy in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus with brain involvement by Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, S.S.; Kao, C.H. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung (Taiwan); Huang, W.S. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, National Defense Medical Center, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan); Chen, J.J.H. [Section of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, China Medicine University Hospital, Taichung (Taiwan); Chang, C.P. [Division of Allergy, Immunology and Rheumatology, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua (Taiwan); Wang, J.J. [Department of Medical Research, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan (Taiwan)

    2004-07-01

    Methylprednisolone pulse therapy (MPT) was introduced to avoid life-threatening complications in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with brain manifestations; however, the efficacy of MPT in SLE patients with brain involvement is still uncertain and needs to be objectively evaluated. We enrolled 15 female SLE patients with neuropsychiatric manifestations in this study. All patients had normal brain MRI and abnormal brain HMPAO-SPECT findings. Follow-up HMPAO-SPECT studies were conducted 2 weeks after MPT. Serum levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA) and anti-ribosomal P antibodies (anti-P) were measured before and after MPT. Before MPT, 7 patients were positive for ACA and 7 patients were positive for anti-P. After MPT, none of the 15 patients demonstrated positive serologic findings or neuropsychiatric manifestations. Based on the follow up brain HMPAO-SPECT images following MPT, 13 patients showed disappearance of the perfusion defects and 2 patients showed partial recovery of rCBF. Brain HMPAO-SPECT imaging is a logical and objective tool for measuring the effects of MPT in SLE patients with brain involvement by determining of changes in rCBF. (orig.)

  16. Functional imaging studies of cognition using {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT: empirical validation using the n-back working memory paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Catherine; Ribaupierre, Anik de [University of Geneva, Center for Interdisciplinary Gerontology, Geneva (Switzerland); Chicherio, Christian [Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Center for Lifespan Psychology, Berlin (Germany); Terraneo, Luc [Geneva University Hospitals, Service of Nuclear Medicine, Geneva (Switzerland); Magistretti, Pierre [EPFL, Brain Mind Institute, Lausanne (Switzerland); Slosman, Daniel [Clinique Generale-Beaulieu, Nuclear Medicine Institute, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2008-04-15

    Functional activation protocols are widely applied for the study of brain-cognition relations. Only few take advantage of the intrinsic characteristics of SPECT, particularly those allowing cognitive assessment outside of the camera, in settings close to the standard clinical or laboratory ones. The purpose of the study was to assess the feasibility of a split-dose activation protocol with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO using low irradiation dose. A two-scans protocol was applied to 12 healthy young volunteers using 270 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO per scan, with each image associated to a particular experimental condition of the verbal n-back working memory task (0-back, 2-back). Subtraction method was used to identify regional brain activity related to the task. Voxel-wise statistical analysis showed left lateralized activity associated with the 2-back task, compared to the 0-back task. Activated regions, mainly prefrontal and parietal, were similar to those observed in previous fMRI and {sup 15}O-PET studies. The results support the use of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT for the investigation of brain-cognition relations and demonstrate the feasibility of optimal quality images despite low radiopharmaceutical doses. The findings also acknowledge the use of HMPAO as a radioligand to capture neuro-energetic modulations linked to cognitive activity. They encourage extending the application of the described activation protocol to clinical populations. (orig.)

  17. Immune-related health-relevant changes in natural populations of Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout, 1769: White blood cell counts, leukocyte activity, and peripheral organ infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kataranovski Milena V.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic immune-related health-relevant changes (total and differential white blood cell counts and activity, leukocyte tissue infiltration, and related pathohistology were assessed in wild Norway rats from urban habitats. Comparative measurements were conducted in individuals of several laboratory strains of Norway rat in order to gain insight into environmental effects on the health of wild rats. Changes in leukocyte counts and activity along with tissue infiltration were noted only in wild rats, indicating systemic as well as tissue inflammation in these animals. Coincidence of these changes with chronic inflammatory pulmonary and kidney disease was observed in the majority of affected rats.

  18. {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO and {sup 99m}Tc-ECD perform differently in typically hypoperfused areas in Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koulibaly, Pierre Malick [Nuclear Medicine Department, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis (France); Laboratoire de Biophysique, Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, UFR de Medecine, 28 Avenue de Valombrose, 06107, Nice Cedex 2 (France); Nobili, Flavio; Vitali, Paolo; Girtler, Nicola; Rodriguez, Guido [Clinical Neurophysiology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genoa (Italy); Migneco, Octave; Darcourt, Jacques [Nuclear Medicine Department, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis (France); Robert, Philippe H. [Memory Center, Federation of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis (France)

    2003-07-01

    Technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) and {sup 99m}Tc-N,N''-1,2-ethylene diylbis-l-cysteine diethyl ester dihydrochloride (ECD) yield significantly different images of cerebral perfusion owing to their particular pharmacokinetics. The aim of this study was to assess the topography, extension and statistical significance of these differences in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Sixty-four patients with mild to moderate AD were retrospectively selected by two European centres. Two series of patients, including 32 studied with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and 32 studied with {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPET, were matched for sex, age ({+-}3 years) and severity of cognitive impairment as assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) ({+-}2 points), following a case-control procedure. SPET data were processed using SPM99 software (uncorrected height threshold: P=0.001). {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPET gave significantly higher uptake ratio values than {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPET in several symmetrical clusters, including the right and left occipital cuneus, the left occipital and parietal precuneus, and the left superior and middle temporal gyri. {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPET gave significantly higher uptake ratio values than ECD in two smaller clusters, including the hippocampus in both hemispheres. In AD, relative brain uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO and {sup 99m}Tc-ECD is different in several brain regions, some of which are typically involved in AD, such as the precuneus and the hippocampus. These differences confirm the need for specific normal databases, but their impact on routine SPET reports in AD is not known and deserves an ad hoc investigation. (orig.)

  19. BLOOD

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    benefit (altruism). '35 An individual who gives blood in replacement for that which has been given to his relation is referred to as family replacement donor. '2 But when a person donates blood for the purpose of transfusing a. defined patient, such a person is referred to as. AHMED S. G. AND HASSAN A. W. a directed donor.

  20. Salivary Gland Thrombostasin Isoforms Differentially Regulate Blood Uptake of Horn Flies Fed on New Zealand White Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrombostasin (TS) is a previously characterized anticlotting protein with multiple isoforms found in the saliva of horn flies. In this report the effects of TS isoforms on blood feeding was assessed with individual flies that carried corresponding ts alleles. Laboratory studies of horn fly blood fe...

  1. Salivary gland thrombostasin isoforms differentilally regulate blood uptake of horn flies fed on New Zealand white rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrombostasin (TS) is a previously characterized anticlotting protein with multiple isoforms found in the saliva of horn flies. In this report the effects of TS isoforms on blood feeding was assessed with individual flies that carried corresponding ts alleles. Laboratory studies of horn fly blood fe...

  2. Labeling cellular elements of blood with Technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewanjee, M.K.

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of this proposal is to develop new technique of labeling platelets and white cells with Tc-99m radionuclide. The conditions of labeling canine platelets and white cells with the lipid-soluble Tc-99m HMPAO have been optimized. The function of labeled platelets were evaluated by the determination of platelet survival time and recovery and these values were compared with that of In-111 tropolone labeled platelets. We developed the bilateral femoral catheterization model for the evaluation of platelet-thrombosis on control and heparin-bonded catheters in dogs. We are evaluating platelet thrombosis in the hollow-fiber hemodialyzer with Tc-99m and In-111 labeled platelets. We have developed the flow-loop for in vitro studies and are using a pig model for quantitation of platelet-consumption during hemodialysis. We are currently evaluating the new technique of platelet and white cell-labeling with Tc-99m and testing them in animal models of thrombosis and infection (osteo-myelitis). We are also using the Tc-99m HMPAO labeled mixed white cells in the early diagnosis (3-hour post-injection) of acute and chronic infection in patients and comparing the results with that of IN-111 oxine labeled white cells.

  3. Chronic mild hypoxia promotes profound vascular remodeling in spinal cord blood vessels, preferentially in white matter, via an α5β1 integrin-mediated mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Sebok K; Kant, Ravi; Milner, Richard

    2018-01-03

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to rapid destruction of neuronal tissue, resulting in devastating motor and sensory deficits. This is exacerbated by damage to spinal cord blood vessels and loss of vascular integrity. Thus, approaches that protect existing blood vessels or stimulate the growth of new blood vessels might present a novel approach to minimize loss or promote regeneration of spinal cord tissue following SCI. In light of the remarkable power of chronic mild hypoxia (CMH) to stimulate vascular remodeling in the brain, the goal of this study was to examine how CMH (8% O2 for up to 7 days) affects blood vessel remodeling in the spinal cord. We found that CMH promoted the following: (1) endothelial proliferation and increased vascularity as a result of angiogenesis and arteriogenesis, (2) increased vascular expression of the angiogenic extracellular matrix protein fibronectin as well as concomitant increases in endothelial expression of the fibronectin receptor α5β1 integrin, (3) strongly upregulated endothelial expression of the tight junction proteins claudin-5, ZO-1 and occludin and (4) astrocyte activation. Of note, the vascular remodeling changes induced by CMH were more extensive in white matter. Interestingly, hypoxic-induced vascular remodeling in spinal cord blood vessels was markedly attenuated in mice lacking endothelial α5 integrin expression (α5-EC-KO mice). Taken together, these studies demonstrate the considerable remodeling potential of spinal cord blood vessels and highlight an important angiogenic role for the α5β1 integrin in promoting endothelial proliferation. They also imply that stimulation of the α5β1 integrin or controlled use of mild hypoxia might provide new approaches for promoting angiogenesis and improving vascular integrity in spinal cord blood vessels.

  4. Typical signature of DNA damage in white blood cells: a pilot study on etheno adducts in Danish mother-newborn child pairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arab, K; Pedersen, Marie; Nair, J

    2009-01-01

    The impact of DNA damage commonly thought to be involved in chronic degenerative disease causation is particularly detrimental during fetal development. Within a multicenter study, we analyzed 77 white blood cell (WBC) samples from mother-newborn child pairs to see if imprinting of DNA damage...... reliably detectable and about two times lower in child cord blood, the difference being significant at P ... arising from endogenous reactive aldehydes in WBC of both mother and newborn can be reliably assessed by epsilondA and epsilondC as biomarkers. The high correlation of etheno adduct levels in mother and child WBC suggests that a typical signature of DNA damage is induced similarly in fetus and mother...

  5. Sodium-potassium pump activity in white blood cells from children with an increased risk of developing hypertension--The Odense Schoolchild Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H S; Nielsen, J R; Pedersen, K E

    1993-01-01

    a hypertensive subgroup comprising the upper 5% of the blood pressure distribution and children from a randomly selected normotensive subgroup were eligible for the study. In the cross-sectional study 40 children from the hypertensive subgroup and 40 children from the normotensive subgroup were evaluated......We have measured the capacity of the sodium-potassium pump, as assessed by 86rubidium uptake and the number of [3H]-ouabain binding sites on white blood cells, in children aged 9-11 years, partly cross-sectionally and partly longitudinally after a physical training programme. Children from...... the hypertensive subgroup and 10 boys from the normotensive subgroup were also evaluated after eight months of physical training. A significant fall in 86rubidium uptake was observed. No control group was examined and probably the changes reflect some effects of sexual maturation on cation handling of cells...

  6. Effect of modest salt reduction on blood pressure, urinary albumin, and pulse wave velocity in white, black, and Asian mild hypertensives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Feng J; Marciniak, Maciej; Visagie, Elisabeth; Markandu, Nirmala D; Anand, Vidya; Dalton, R Neil; MacGregor, Graham A

    2009-09-01

    A reduction in salt intake lowers blood pressure. However, most previous trials were in whites with few in blacks and Asians. Salt reduction may also reduce other cardiovascular risk factors (eg, urinary albumin excretion, arterial stiffness). However, few well-controlled trials have studied these effects. We carried out a randomized double-blind crossover trial of salt restriction with slow sodium or placebo, each for 6 weeks, in 71 whites, 69 blacks, and 29 Asians with untreated mildly raised blood pressure. From slow sodium to placebo, urinary sodium was reduced from 165+/-58 (+/-SD) to 110+/-49 mmol/24 hours (9.7 to 6.5 g/d salt). With this reduction in salt intake, there was a significant decrease in blood pressure from 146+/-13/91+/-8 to 141+/-12/88+/-9 mm Hg (P<0.001), urinary albumin from 10.2 (IQR: 6.8 to 18.9) to 9.1 (6.6 to 14.0) mg/24 hours (P<0.001), albumin/creatinine ratio from 0.81 (0.47 to 1.43) to 0.66 (0.44 to 1.22) mg/mmol (P<0.001), and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity from 11.5+/-2.3 to 11.1+/-1.9 m/s (P<0.01). Subgroup analysis showed that the reductions in blood pressure and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio were significant in all groups, and the decrease in pulse wave velocity was significant in blacks only. These results demonstrate that a modest reduction in salt intake, approximately the amount of the current public health recommendations, causes significant falls in blood pressure in all 3 ethnic groups. Furthermore, it reduces urinary albumin and improves large artery compliance. Although both could be attributable to the falls in blood pressure, they may carry additional benefits on reducing cardiovascular disease above that obtained from the blood pressure falls alone.

  7. C-reactive protein and white blood cell count do not improve clinical decision-making in acute appendicitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tind, Sofie; Lassen, Annmarie Touborg; Zimmermann-Nielsen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Acute appendicitis (AA) remains a diagnostic challenge as indicated by the high rate of unnecessary surgery. Blood samples, primarily C-reactive protein (CRP) and leucocyte counts, are used as a diagnostic supplement despite their relatively low sensitivities and specificities...... the blood results and re-evaluate their diagnosis. The surgeon's diagnosis before and after was compared with the final diagnosis defined by surgical findings or follow-up. The gold standard was any degree of appendicitis on histology. RESULTS: A total of 226 patients were included of whom 91 (40.3%) had...... appendicitis on histology. The surgeons changed their diagnosis in nine cases after assessing blood samples. The changes in the proportion of correct diagnoses, sensitivity, specificity and predictive values after assessing blood samples were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: The results of CRP and leucocyte...

  8. Red blood cell and white blood cell counts in sandpipers (Philomachus pugnax, Calidris canutus) : effects of captivity, season, nutritional status, and frequent bleedings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, T; Koolhaas, A; Dekinga, A; Gwinner, E

    Captive ruffs (Philomachus pugnax) and red knots (Calidris canutus) kept in small flocks in outdoor aviaries maintained body mass and plumage cycles resembling those of free-living conspecifics. The persistence of identifiable annual cycles enabled us to study variability in two blood parameters,

  9. Melatonin Restores White Blood Cell Count, Diminishes Glycated Haemoglobin Level and Prevents Liver, Kidney and Muscle Oxidative Stress in Mice Exposed to Acute Ethanol Intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurhaluk, Natalia; Sliuta, Alina; Kyriienko, Svitlana; Winklewski, Pawel J

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of melatonin impact on changes in haematological profile, biomarkers of oxidative stress (dienes conjugates, malondialdehyde (MDA), oxidatively modified protein levels, total antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzyme activity) in liver, muscle, kidney and erythrocytes, and glycated haemoglobin (HBA1c) in mice during acute ethanol stress. Assays were carried out in quadruplicate: control, melatonin (10 mg/kg, 10 days), acute ethanol stress (0.75 g/kg/day, 10 days) and acute ethanol stress plus melatonin groups. Acute ethanol stress caused a significant increase in the total number of white blood cells (WBC), especially neutrophils in the blood, and HBA1c levels vs. control mice. The correlation between lipid peroxidation and the glycated haemoglobin level was shown (r = 0.93, P = 0.007). Ethanol reduced the antioxidant capacity by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the level of oxidatively modified protein content, diene conjugates and MDA. Melatonin administration in animals during acute ethanol stress reduced antioxidant stress biomarkers, WBC, HBA1c levels and ROS production. Melatonin had protective effects on liver, kidney and muscle tissues by preventing the intensive lipid peroxidation processes in initial (diene conjugation production) and late stages (MDA level), and significantly reduced the level of aldehyde and ketone protein derivatives. Furthermore, melatonin restored elevated WBC count and HBA1c level and diminished ROS production. Ethanol reduces antioxidant capacity and leads to exaggerated reactive oxygen species production and consequent increases in oxidatively modified proteins. Melatonin exerts protective effects by preventing the intensive lipid peroxidation processes. Melatonin significantly reduces the level of aldehyde and ketone protein derivatives, restores glycated haemoglobin level and white blood cell count.

  10. Evolution of technetium-99m-HMPAO SPECT and brain mapping in a patient presenting with echolalia and palilalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierckx, R A; Saerens, J; De Deyn, P P; Verslegers, W; Marien, P; Vandevivere, J

    1991-08-01

    A 78-yr-old woman presented with transient echolalia and palilalia. She had suffered from Parkinson's disease for 2 yr. Routine laboratory examination showed hypotonic hyponatremia, but was otherwise unremarkable. Brain mapping revealed a bifrontal delta focus, more pronounced on the right. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the brain with technetium-99m labeled d,l hexamethylpropylene-amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO), performed during the acute episode showed relative frontoparietal hypoactivity. Brain mapping performed after disappearance of the echolalia and palilalia, which persisted only for 1 day, was normal. By contrast, SPECT findings persisted for more than 3 wk. Features of particular interest in the presented patient are the extensive defects seen on brain SPECT despite the absence of morphologic lesions, the congruent electrophysiologic changes and their temporal relationship with the clinical evolution.

  11. Single photon emission computed tomography using sup 99 Tc sup m -HMPAO in Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H.-C.; Liu, R.-S.; Lin, K.-N.; Wang, S.-J.; Fuh, J.-L.; Yeh, S.-H.; Chiang, B.N. (Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China))

    1992-07-01

    Brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPET) using {sup 99m}Tc{sup m}-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) was performed in 37 patients satisfying standard clinical criteria of Alzheimer's disease (AD), correlating results with patient's age of onset, duration of illness, severity of dementia, neuropsychological impairment, computed tomography (CT) and EEG findings. All had abnormal SPET: 23 were bilaterally symmetric, 10 bilaterally asymmetric and four showed unilateral low regional cerebral perfusion. Low perfusion in bilateral parietal regions was the most consistent finding and was present alone or with other abnormal regions in 31 patients (84%). The only significant clinical correlation was found between asymmetric SPECT changes and onset of disease before the age of 65 years. 50% of patients with presenile onset, but only 19% with senile onset had asymmetric low regional cerebral perfusion. Fifteen of the 36 patients had normal brain CT scans, and 9 of 31 patients receiving EEG examination had normal results. (author).

  12. H-deficient blood groups of Reunion island. II. Differences between Indians (Bombay Phenotype) and whites (Reunion phenotype).

    OpenAIRE

    Le Pendu, J; Gerard, G; Vitrac, D; Juszczak, G; Liberge, G; Rouger, P; Salmon, C; Lambert, F; Dalix, A M; Oriol, R

    1983-01-01

    Two variants of recessive, H-deficient nonsecretor individuals (h/h, se/se) were identified on Reunion Island: (1) H-negative individuals corresponding to the classical Bombay phenotypes (OhO, OhA, OhB, OhAB) who lack completely the H antigen on their red cells; all of them were Indian and had strong anti-H antibodies reacting with normal O and Oh red cells from whites; and (2) H-weak individuals (Oh, Ah, Bh, ABh). This phenotype represented the majority (85%) of the H-deficient phenotypes on...

  13. Serial {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO Brain SPECT for Assessing Perfusion Improvement after DEAS in Moyamoya Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Han; Lee, Sang Hyung; Yeo, Jeong Seok; Kwark, Chul Eun; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myoung Chul; Cho, Byoung Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-03-15

    Encephalo-duro-arterio-synangiosis (EDAS) is a relatively new surgical procedure for treatment of childhood moyamoya disease. We assessed regional cerebral perfusion in moyamoya patients before (1.3 mo) and after (6.8 mo) EDAS with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT. A total of 21 EDAS operations in 17 moyamoya patients was included. Preoperative CT or MRI showed cerebral infarction in 14 patients and carotid angiography showed Suzuki grade 1 to V stenosis in 6%, 9%, 62%, 12% and 12% of the hemispheres respectively. Preoperative SPECT showed regional hypoperfusion in all patients, bilateral frontal and temporal loves being the most frequently involved site. 4 X 4 pixel sized ROIs were applied on the frontotemmporal cortex in 3 slice averaged transverse tomographic images. An index of regional perfusion was measured as; PI (%)=average FT activity/average cerebellar activity X 100 Pre-EDAS ipsilateral PI ranged from 23.7 to 98.4% (mean:74.3 +- 17%) and increased significantly after operation (81.4 +- 17%, p<0.001). Individual post-EDAS PI improved in 15/21 cases, showed no significant change in 5 and was slightly aggravated in 1. The amount of clinical improvement XCI) was graded with a scale of 0 to 4 based on frequency and severity of TIA attacks. When patients were grouped according to pre-EDAS PI, group II (PI 70approx89) showed a significantly higher CI (3.3) compared to group I (PI<70, 1.57) of group III (PI>90, 0.5) (p<0.001). The amount of perfusion improvement (PI) showed significant correlation with CI (r-0.42, p=0.04). PI did not, however, correlate with the amount of neovascularization assessed angiographically in 8 patients. Serial HMPAO SPECT is an useful noninvasive study for assessing perfusion improvement after EDAS in childhood moyamoya patients.

  14. Simultaneous administration of 111In-human immunoglobulin and 99mTc-HMPAO labelled leucocytes in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairal, L; de Lima, P A; Martin-Comin, J; Baliellas, C; Xiol, X; Roca, M; Ricart, Y; Ramos, M

    1995-07-01

    Technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) labelled leucocytes and indium-111 polyclonal immunoglobulin (IgG) were simultaneously injected into a group of 27 patients routinely referred for the investigation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Ten-minute anterior abdomen and tail on detector views were obtained at 30 min, 4 h and 24 h p.i. of both tracers. The diagnosis of IBD was obtained in all cases by endoscopy with biopsy and/or surgery. Images were blindly evaluated by two experienced observers who only knew of the clinical suspicion of IBD. IBD was confirmed in 20 patients (12 with Crohn's disease and eight with ulcerative colitis). Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 100%, 85% and 96% respectively for labelled leucocytes and 70%, 85% and 74% for IgG. Both IgG and leucocyte scans were normal in six out of seven patients in whom a diagnosis of IBD was excluded; the remaining patient, with ischaemic colitis, was falsely positive with both agents. As far as disease extension is concerned, the IgG study localized 27 diseased segments, whereas 49 were seen with the leucocyte study. Eighty-four segments were normal and 25 showed tracer uptake with both agents. Twenty-four were positive only with the leucocyte study and two were positive only with the IgG study. Agreement between the agents was 80.7%. These results confirm that 111In-human polyclonal scintigraphy is less sensitive than 99mTc-HMPAO scintigraphy both for the diagnosis of IBD and in the evaluation of disease extension. Nevertheless, if leucocyte labelling is not available, labelled IgG can be used only for diagnostic purposes.

  15. A Mixed-Methods Study on Acceptability, Tolerability, and Substitution of Brown Rice for White Rice to Lower Blood Glucose Levels among Nigerian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally N. Adebamowo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWhole-grain products such as brown rice have been associated with lower risk of metabolic disorders including diabetes. We examined the acceptability and tolerability of substituting brown rice for white rice and the feasibility of introducing brown rice into the diet through a long-term trial to lower the risk of type 2 diabetes.MethodsFifty-one adults residing in Abuja, Nigeria, participated in this study. Using purposeful sampling for focus group discussions (FGDs, participants were enrolled based on their age (19–25 vs. 40–60 years and body mass index (BMI (normal weight vs. overweight/obese. Participants tasted four meals with different constitution of brown and white rice (25:75%, 50:50%, 75:25%, and 100% brown rice. Twelve FGDs were conducted, six before and six after the food tasting. Two-hour postprandial blood glucose was measured after consumption of each rice meal.ResultsThe mean age of the participants was 39 (±14 years, their mean BMI was 25.6 (±5.2 and about half of them were male. Most of the participants (61% reported that rice was their main source of carbohydrate and 67% consumed rice at least five times/week. Before the food tasting, participants considered white polished rice superior to brown rice with regard to quality, taste, and nutritional value. After the food tasting, most of the participants (49% indicated a preference for the 100% brown rice, 19% preferred the 25% brown rice, 18% preferred the 50% brown rice, and 7% preferred the 75% brown rice meals. Factors that may affect the acceptability of brown rice include its appearance, longer cooking time, cost, limited availability, and poor appreciation of its nutritional value. In general, 2-h postprandial glucose levels were lower, after consumption of meals with higher proportion of brown rice.ConclusionThis study provides valuable insight into the acceptability of brown rice as a substitute for white rice in Nigeria. If confirmed in larger studies

  16. Blood pressure, white matter lesions and medial temporal lobe atrophy: closing the gap between vascular pathology and Alzheimer's disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korf, E.; Scheltens, P.; Barkhof, F.; Leeuw, H.F. de

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vascular factors are recognized as important risk factors for Alzheimer's disease, although it is unknown whether these factors directly lead to the typical degenerative pathology such as medial temporal lobe atrophy. We set out to investigate the relation between blood pressure and

  17. Monozygotic twins are discordant for chronic periodontitis: white blood cells counts and cytokine production after ex vivo stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres de Heens, G.L.; Loos, B.G.; van der Velden, U.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the extent of concordance in the number of leucocytes and their cytokine secretion after ex vivo stimulation in a twin population discordant for the amount of periodontal breakdown. Material and Methods: Venous blood was collected from 18 adult

  18. Are polymorphisms in metabolism protective or a risk for reduced white blood cell counts in a Chinese population with low occupational benzene exposures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ling-li; Zhang, Guang-hui; Huang, Jing-wen; Li, Yong; Zheng, Guo-qiao; Zhang, De-ting; Zhou, Li-fang; Tao, Xi-dan; Zhang, Jing; Ye, Yun-jie; Sun, Pin; Frank, Arthur; Xia, Zhao-lin

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variations in metabolic enzyme genes may enhance hematotoxicity in benzene-exposed populations. To investigate the association between polymorphisms of metabolism genes and white blood cells (WBCs). Three hundred and eighty-five benzene-exposed workers and 220 unexposed indoor workers were recruited in China. We explored the relationship between metabolic enzymes polymorphisms [glutathione S-transferase T1/M1 (GSTT1/M1) null, glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1)rs1695, Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) rs3813867, rs2031920, rs6413432, microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) rs1051740, rs2234922] by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and WBC. The exposed group had lower WBC counts (Pbenzene-exposed workers in China, and we can make use of it to select susceptible population.

  19. C-reactive protein and white blood cell levels in schizophrenia, bipolar disorders and depression - associations with mortality and psychiatric outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsdal, H T; Köhler-Forsberg, O; Benros, Michael E

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mental disorders have been associated with increased levels of inflammatory markers, which can affect disease trajectories. We aimed to assess levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cells (WBC) across individuals with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression......, and to investigate associations with subsequent psychiatric admission and mortality. METHODS: We identified all adults in the Central Denmark Region during 2000-2012 with a first diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or depression and a baseline measurement of CRP and/or WBC count. We followed...... these individuals until outcome of interest (psychiatric admission or death), emigration or December 31, 2012, using Cox regression analysis to estimate hazard ratios (HRs). RESULTS: Baseline median CRP differed significantly between mental disorders (P=0.01) being highest in individuals with bipolar disorder (3...

  20. Effects of Aluminum Chloride on the some ‎Blood Parameters and Histological Spleen in ‎White Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaymaa Abdul Hadi Kadhum

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum exists in numerous produced foods, medicines and likewise added to drinking water for refining purpose. Its existence has so heavily contaminated with the surroundings that exposed to, it is almost inescapable. This survey was aimed at evaluating the possible effects that Aluminum chloride could exposure have in the blood parameters and histopathology of spleen twenty four rats were used and  divided into four groups; “first group  was the control injected with normal saline, group II injected into subcutaneous with (240 ppm from Aluminum chloride (AlCl3,  group III injected with (320 ppm from (AlCl3, group IV injected with (400 ppm from (AlCl3 for 45 days. This study  showed a significant decrease (P<0.05 in red blood cell count, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin when compared to control group, while there was a significant increase (P<0.05 in total leucocyte count (TLC and Differential leucocytes count (DLC especially in lymphocyte. The results showed a significant elevated (P<0.05 in ESR value. Changes increased with increase in concentration of Aluminum chloride injected. Observation of blood parameters allows the most rapid detection of changes in wistar rats after the exposure of poisonous(AlCl3”

  1. PLA-PEG nanocapsules radiolabeled with 99mTechnetium-HMPAO: release properties and physicochemical characterization by atomic force microscopy and photon correlation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Maira Alves; Mosqueira, Vanessa Carla Furtado; Vilela, José Mário Carneiro; Andrade, Margareth Spangler; Ramaldes, Gilson Andrade; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento

    2008-01-01

    The present work describes the preparation, characterization and labelling of conventional and surface-modified nanocapsules (NC) with 99m Tc-HMPAO. The size, size distribution and homogeneity were determined by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) and zeta potential by laser doppler anemometry. The morphology and the structural organization were evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The stability and release profile of the NC were determined in vitro in plasma. The results showed that the use of methylene blue induces significant increase in the encapsulation efficiency of 99m Tc-HMPAO, from 24.4 to 49.8% in PLA NC and 22.37 to 52.93% in the case of PLA-PEG NC (P<0.05) by improving the complex stabilization. The average diameter of NC calculated by PCS varied from 216 to 323 nm, while the average diameter determined by AFM varied from 238 to 426 nm. The AFM analysis of diameter/height ratios suggested a greater homogeneity of the surface-modified PLA-PEG nanocapsules compared to PLA NC concerning their flattening properties. The in vitro release of the 99m Tc-HMPAO in plasma medium was faster for the conventional PLA NC than for the surface-modified NC. For the latter, 60% of the radioactivity remained associated with NC, even after 12h of incubation. The results suggest that the surface-modified 99m Tc-HMPAO-PLA-PEG NC was more stable against label leakage in the presence of proteins and could present better performance as radiotracer in vivo.

  2. Abdominal scintigraphy using {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-labelled leucocytes in patients with seronegative spondylarthropathies without clinical evidence of inflammatory bowel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, J.C. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital Virgen de Alarcos, Ciudad Real (Spain); Lopez-Longo, F.J. [Department of Rheumatology, Hospital Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain); Lampreave, J.L. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez, C.M. [Department of Rheumatology, Hospital Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain); Vegazo, O. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain); Carreno, L. [Department of Rheumatology, Hospital Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain); Almoguera, I. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain)

    1996-03-01

    Abdominal scintigraphy with technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO)-labelled leucocytes is an excellent tool for evaluating disease extent and activity of intestinal lesions in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In some cases of seronegative spondylarthropathies (SSp), IBD may remain subclinical. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of positive abdominal scintigraphy in patients with SSp and without clinical symptoms or signs of IBD. To this end we studied 32 patients with active SSp (European Spondylarthropathy Study Group 1991 criteria) without clinical evidence of IBD (eight had ankylosing spondylitis, four psoriatic arthritis, three reactive arthritis an 17 undifferentiated SSp) and 11 controls without SSp. All SSp and control patients received similar doses of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Abdominal scintigraphic images were obtained at 30 and 120 min after re-injection of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-labelled leucocytes. The {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-labelled leucocyte scan was positive in 17 patients with SSp (53.1%) (six with ankylosing spondylitis, three with psoriatic arthritis, two with reactive arthritis and six with undifferentiated SSp). Fourteen patients scored from 2 to 4 on the intensity of uptake scale. The colon and terminal ileum were predominantly involved. Axial involvement was more frequent in patients with a positive scan than in patients with negative results (P<0.05) (64.7% vs 26.6%; odds ratio: 5). No control patient showed a positive scan. It is concluded that {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-labelled leucocyte scan shows increased uptake among patients with SSp without evidence of IBD. These findings provide new evidence linking SSp with intestinal inflammation and suggest that in some cases a bowel-related process could contribute to the development of SSp. Long-term follow-up studies with more patients are necessary to evaluate the diagnostic and therapeutic implications of these results.

  3. Release of eicosanoids from white blood cells, platelets, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells in response to endotoxin and A23187.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottoms, G D; Johnson, M; Ward, D; Fessler, J; Lamar, C; Turek, J

    1986-01-01

    Endotoxin produces numerous pathophysiologic changes in animals, including vascular endothelial cell damage and hematologic changes. Direct effects of endotoxin on arachidonic acid metabolism and the release of eicosanoids from endothelial cells and neutrophils have been reported. A rapid release of these autocoids occurs when cells are incubated with endotoxin, and this appears to be one of the earliest endotoxin-induced changes. Some of these eicosanoids may result in beneficial effects, and others may result in detrimental effects. This study was to determine the release of eicosanoids from white blood cells, platelets, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells in response to varying amounts of endotoxin and the calcium ionophore A23187. The results indicate that endotoxin has a major direct effect on vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells as indicated by its ability to increase the synthesis of predominately i6-keto-PGF1 alpha by these cells. These effects were seen within a dose range of endotoxin that is lethal in horses. Very high concentrations of endotoxin (100 micrograms/ml) were required to stimulate a small increase in the production of i6-keto-PGF1 alpha and iLTC4 by freshly isolated neutrophils. Stimulation of cells with A23187 revealed that, of the eicosanoids measured, the one produced predominately by endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells was 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, by platelets was TxB2, and by neutrophils was LTC4 (LTB4 was not measured). A mixture of all white blood cells including platelets when incubated with A23187 produced large amounts of TxB2, LTB4, and LTC4 with smaller amounts of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha. The results indicate that endotoxin directly affects cells and stimulates them to produce thromboxane and prostacyclin, but very high concentrations of endotoxin were required to stimulate neutrophils to produce rather small increases in iLTC4.

  4. Pollution-induced oxidative stress and biochemical parameter alterations in the blood of white stork nestlings Ciconia ciconia from regions with different degrees of contamination in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, Halyna; Kurhaluk, Natalia

    2012-12-01

    This paper aimed to illustrate the most reliable biomarkers to detect pollution-related oxidative stress in white stork nestlings in polluted (from copper manufacture), suburban and Odra meadows (as a control area) areas . Lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances content, TBARS) and oxidative modified protein levels (stable 2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine derivates of the carbonyl groups) were used as indicators of the oxidative stress, as well as other selected biochemical parameters, which are used as diagnostic tools in avian medicine (alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, lactate dehydrogenase activities, lactate and pyruvate concentrations). It was found that the blood of chicks from the polluted area was more susceptible to oxidative stress due to lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, manifested as protein carbonyls, the elevation of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases activities, and lactate and pyruvate concentrations than those of chicks from suburban and Odra meadows areas. Direct connections between lactate and pyruvate concentrations and lipid peroxidation (TBARS level), as well as between derivates of carbonyl oxidation levels in the blood of chicks from the polluted area were detected. Lactate dehydrogenase activity was slightly inhibited in the blood of chicks from the polluted environment, perhaps because of increased lactate concentration in the blood of chicks from polluted areas. It can be suggested that alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, lactate dehydrogenase activities, lactate and pyruvate concentrations can be used as indicators of oxidative stress. The activities of these enzymes were perhaps not directly related to environmental pollution, but more likely to some secondary pollution-related changes in the nestlings' conditions.

  5. The reduction of regional cerebral blood flow in normal-appearing white matter is associated with the severity of white matter lesions in elderly: a Xeon-CT study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhui Fu

    Full Text Available White matter lesions (WMLs in normal elderly are related to chronic ischemia, and progression of WML occurs mostly in moderate to severe disease. However, the mechanism is uncertain. Thus, we enrolled fifty-six normal elderly patients without large artery disease. The severity of WML on MRI was graded as grade 0, I, II and III using the modified Fazekas scale. Cerebral blood flow (CBF was measured by Xenon-CT. We found that CBF (mL/100 g/min within periventricular lesions and in the right and left centrum semiovales were 20.33, 21.27 and 21.03, respectively, in group I; 16.33, 15.55 and 15.91, respectively, in group II; and 14.05, 14.46 and 14.23, respectively, in group III. CBF of normal-appearing white matter (NAWM around periventricular areas and in the right and left centrum semiovales were 20.79, 22.26 and 22.15, respectively, in group 0; 21.12, 22.17 and 22.25, respectively, in group I; 18.02, 19.45 and 19.62, respectively, in group II; and 16.38, 18.18 and 16.74, respectively, in group III. Significant reductions in CBF were observed not only within lesions but also in NAWM surrounding the lesions. In addition, CBF was reduced significantly within lesions compared to NAWM of the same grade. Furthermore, CBF was reduced significantly in NAWM in grades II and III when compared to grades 0 and I. Our finding indicates that ischemia may play a role in the pathogenesis of WML. Additionally, our finding provides an alternative explanation for finding that the progression of WML occurred more commonly in patients with moderate to severe WML.

  6. Required time delay from (99m)Tc-HMPAO injection to SPECT data acquisition: healthy subjects and patients with rCBF pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, G.; de, Nijs R.; Hogh-Rasmussen, E.

    2008-01-01

    Procedure Guidelines for Brain Perfusion SPET using (99m)Tc-labeled Radiopharmaceuticals recommend a time delay of 90 min between injection of (99m)Tc-HMPAO and data acquisition. This time delay is difficult to comply within the daily routine and present a problem, particularly with the elderly or demented...... patients. This study investigates in patients with perfusion deficits and in healthy subjects if the quality of the SPECT image is affected by lowering the time delay between (99m)Tc-HMPAO injection and data acquisition to 30 or 60 min. METHODS: Thirty-seven healthy subjects (17 females; mean age 65; range...... proportion of the total variance explained by the first principal component was 99.5% (range 98.9-99.6) for the healthy subjects and 99.4% (range 98.5-99.8) for the patients. CONCLUSION: The time delay from injection of (99m)Tc-HMPAO to the start of the SPECT data acquisition can be reduced from 90 to 30 min...

  7. Sex based levels of C-reactive protein and white blood cell count in subjects with metabolic syndrome: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Gharipour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: C-reactive protein (CRP and white blood cell (WBC are proinflammatory markers. They are major pathophysiological for the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS. This study aimed to address the independent associations between MetS and WBC counts and serum CRP levels and evaluation of their magnitude in relation to the MetS, based on the sex in the Iranian adults. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, subjects who met the MetS criteria, based on the Adult Treatment Panel III were selected from the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program database. A questionnaire containing the demographic data, weight, height, waist, and hip circumference of the respondents was completed for each person. Blood pressure was measured and the anthropometric measurements were done, and fasting blood samples were taken for 2 h postload plasma glucose (2 hpp. Serum [total, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, and low-density lipoprotein] levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, and CRP as well as WBC counts were determined. The univariate analyses were carried out to assess the relation between the CRP levels, WBC counts with the MetS in both sexes the. Results: In men with the abdominal obesity, the higher levels of WBC count, high serum triglyceride and blood glucose levels, a low serum HDL level, and raised systolic and diastolic blood pressure were observed. However, the higher serum CRP levels were only observed in those with the low serum HDL-cholesterol levels. The mean values of the WBC counts were statistically different between the men with and without MetS, but the mean values of the CRP levels were similar between the two groups. In women, the mean values of WBC count and CRP levels were statistically different in the subjects with and without a MetS components (except for the low serum HDL levels and high diastolic blood pressure for the WBC measures and abdominal obesity for the CRP measures and for those with and without MetS. The age and

  8. Childhood growth, IQ and education as predictors of white blood cell telomere length at age 49-51 years: the Newcastle Thousand Families Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S Pearce

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Telomere length is emerging as a potential factor in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. We investigated whether birth weight, infant growth, childhood cognition and adult height, as well as a range of lifestyle, socio-economic and educational factors, were associated with white blood cell telomere length at age 49-51 years. METHODS: The study included 318 members of the Newcastle Thousand Families Study, a prospectively followed birth cohort which includes all individuals born in Newcastle, England in May and June 1947, who attended for clinical examination at age 49-51 years, and had telomere length successfully measured using real-time PCR analyses of DNA extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. RESULTS: No association was found between birth weight and later telomere length. However, associations were seen with other factors from early life. Education level was the only predictor in males, while telomere length in females was associated with gestational age at birth, childhood growth and childhood IQ. CONCLUSIONS: While these findings may be due to chance, in particular where differing associations were seen between males and females, they do provide evidence of early life associations with telomere length much later in life. Our findings of sex differences in the education association may reflect the sex differences in achieved education levels in this generation where few women went to university regardless of their intelligence. Our findings do not support the concept of telomere length being on the pathway between very early growth and later disease risk.

  9. Childhood growth, IQ and education as predictors of white blood cell telomere length at age 49-51 years: the Newcastle Thousand Families Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Mark S; Mann, Kay D; Martin-Ruiz, Carmen; Parker, Louise; White, Martin; von Zglinicki, Thomas; Adams, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Telomere length is emerging as a potential factor in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. We investigated whether birth weight, infant growth, childhood cognition and adult height, as well as a range of lifestyle, socio-economic and educational factors, were associated with white blood cell telomere length at age 49-51 years. The study included 318 members of the Newcastle Thousand Families Study, a prospectively followed birth cohort which includes all individuals born in Newcastle, England in May and June 1947, who attended for clinical examination at age 49-51 years, and had telomere length successfully measured using real-time PCR analyses of DNA extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. No association was found between birth weight and later telomere length. However, associations were seen with other factors from early life. Education level was the only predictor in males, while telomere length in females was associated with gestational age at birth, childhood growth and childhood IQ. While these findings may be due to chance, in particular where differing associations were seen between males and females, they do provide evidence of early life associations with telomere length much later in life. Our findings of sex differences in the education association may reflect the sex differences in achieved education levels in this generation where few women went to university regardless of their intelligence. Our findings do not support the concept of telomere length being on the pathway between very early growth and later disease risk.

  10. The effect of intensive endurance exercise and probiotic yogurt consumption, on aerobic, anaerobic, white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and neutrophils in young Football players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Jahani ghaeh ghashlagh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Aim of this study was to investigate the effect of intensive endurance exercise and probiotic supplementation on aerobic, anaerobic power, white blood cell (WBC, lymphocytes (LYM, monocytes (MON and neutrophils (NUT in young Football players. This study was semi-experimental, 36 young Football players with height 172± 0.77 cm, weight 66.76±5.87 kg and BMI 21.27±2.09 kg/m2, randomly assigned into control (n=18 and experimental (n=18 groups. Medical examinations and physical fitness tests were performed before and after training done. They performed a training program for 8 weeks, three times a week, every session 90 to 120 min. Experiment group consumed 400 ml probiotic yoghurt one hour before every session of training. Both groups trained aerobic exercise with 60-75% and anaerobic with 80-100% (MHR. To determine the variables blood samples were taken four times. Initially, before the training program, there were not significantly different amounts of variables. After 8 weeks in the experiment group, the levels of lymphocytes and neutrophils significantly increased. Any report about URTI infection was not observed. Eight weeks training improved the aerobic and anaerobic power, meanwhile reduce the incidence of URTI after ingestion of probiotic yoghurt. As a conclusion, it is recommended to the athletes to consume probiotic supplement before intensive endurance exercises.

  11. Comparison between white blood cell count, procalcitonin and C reactive protein as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of infection or sepsis in patients presenting to emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrini, Laura; Gagliano, Giulia; Travaglino, Francesco; Vetrone, Francesco; Marino, Rossella; Cardelli, Patrizia; Salerno, Gerardo; Di Somma, Salvatore

    2014-10-01

    Procalcitonin (PCT) is currently the most studied infection biomarker and its blood levels seem to mirror the severity of illness and outcome. PCT is widely used together with other biomarkers, such as white blood cells (WBC) count and C reactive protein (CRP), in order to guide antibiotic therapy. This study aimed to verify the diagnostic and prognostic power of WBC, CRP and PCT in patients with suspected infection in emergency department (ED). A total of 513 patients presenting to the ED with signs/symptoms of local infections or sepsis were enrolled. APACHEII score and in-hospital death were recorded. Patients were subdivided into quartiles by age, and the biomarkers were measured at baseline. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves for evaluating diagnostic and prognostic role of PCT, CRP and WBC were calculated for each variable alone and combined. When compared each other for PCT, CRP, and WBC there was no significant difference between the four subgroups. A direct correlation between PCT and WBC was found in the II, III, and IV quartiles (the highest correlation, r=0.34, pdiagnostic and prognostic power at ROC analysis. Our data demonstrate that WBC, but more CRP and PCT are reliable diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, when considered in combination and with severity clinical score. PCT confirms its stronger usefulness as a diagnostic marker of sepsis. A multi-diagnostic tools approach is fundamental to perform a correct and rapid diagnosis of infection and sepsis in ED.

  12. Benzo(a)pyrene Metabolism and EROD and GST Biotransformation Activity in the Liver of Red- and White-Blooded Antarctic Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Anneli; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia; Schmid, Peter; Segner, Helmut

    2015-07-07

    Climate change and anthropogenic pollution are of increasing concern in remote areas such as Antarctica. The evolutionary adaptation of Antarctic notothenioid fish to the cold and stable Southern Ocean led to a low plasticity of their physiological functions, what may limit their capacity to deal with altered temperature regimes and pollution in the Antarctic environment. Using a biochemical approach, we aimed to assess the hepatic biotransformation capacities of Antarctic fish species by determining (i) the activities of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and (ii) the metabolic clearance of benzo(a)pyrene by hepatic S9 supernatants. In addition, we determined the thermal sensitivity of the xenobiotic biotransformation enzymes. We investigated the xenobiotic metabolism of the red-blooded Gobionotothen gibberifrons and Notothenia rossii, the hemoglobin-less Chaenocephalus aceratus and Champsocephalus gunnari, and the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss as a reference. Our results revealed similar metabolic enzyme activities and metabolic clearance rates between red- and white-blooded Antarctic fish, but significantly lower rates in comparison to rainbow trout. Therefore, bioaccumulation factors for metabolizable lipophilic contaminants may be higher in Antarctic than in temperate fish. Likewise, the thermal adaptive capacities and flexibilities of the EROD and GST activities in Antarctic fish were significantly lower than in rainbow trout. As a consequence, increasing water temperatures in the Southern Ocean will additionally compromise the already low detoxification capacities of Antarctic fish.

  13. Depression and anxiety symptoms are associated with white blood cell count and red cell distribution width: A sex-stratified analysis in a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Mojtaba; Tayefi, Maryam; Hassanian, Seyed Mahdi; Ghaneifar, Zahra; Parizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Avan, Amir; Rahmani, Farzad; Khorasanchi, Zahra; Azarpajouh, Mahmoud Reza; Safarian, Hamideh; Moohebati, Mohsen; Heidari-Bakavoli, Alireza; Esmaeili, Habibolah; Nematy, Mohsen; Safarian, Mohammad; Ebrahimi, Mahmoud; Ferns, Gordon A; Mokhber, Naghmeh; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid

    2017-10-01

    Depression and anxiety are two common mood disorders that are both linked to systemic inflammation. Increased white blood cell (WBC) count and red cell distribution width (RDW) are associated with negative clinical outcomes in a wide variety of pathological conditions. WBC is a non-specific inflammatory marker and RDW is also strongly related to other inflammatory markers. Therefore, we proposed that there might be an association between these hematological inflammatory markers and depression/anxiety symptoms. The primary objective of this study was to examine the association between depression/anxiety symptoms and hematological inflammatory markers including WBC and RDW in a large population-based study. Symptoms of depression and anxiety and a complete blood count (CBC) were measured in 9274 participants (40% males and 60% females) aged 35-65 years, enrolled in a population-based cohort (MASHAD) study in north-eastern Iran. Symptoms of depression and anxiety were evaluated using the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories. The mean WBC count increased with increasing severity of symptoms of depression and anxiety among men. Male participants with severe depression had significantly higher values of RDW (p<0.001); however, this relationship was less marked among women (p=0.004). In addition, men (but not women) with severe anxiety symptoms had significantly higher values of RDW (p<0.001). Moreover, there was a negative association between red blood cell (RBC) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and symptoms of depression/anxiety. Our results suggest that higher depression and anxiety scores are associated with an enhanced inflammatory state, as assessed by higher hematological inflammatory markers including WBC and RDW, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Air pollution exposure affects circulating white blood cell counts in healthy subjects: the role of particle composition, oxidative potential and gaseous pollutants - the RAPTES project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhof, Maaike; Janssen, Nicole A H; Strak, Maciej; Hoek, Gerard; Gosens, Ilse; Mudway, Ian S; Kelly, Frank J; Harrison, Roy M; Pieters, Raymond H H; Cassee, Flemming R; Brunekreef, Bert

    2014-02-01

    Studies have linked air pollution exposure to cardiovascular health effects, but it is not clear which components drive these effects. We examined the associations between air pollution exposure and circulating white blood cell (WBC) counts in humans. To investigate independent contributions of particulate matter (PM) characteristics, we exposed 31 healthy volunteers at five locations with high contrast and reduced correlations amongst pollutant components: two traffic sites, an underground train station, a farm and an urban background site. Each volunteer visited at least three sites and was exposed for 5 h with intermittent exercise. Exposure measurements on-site included PM mass and number concentration, oxidative potential (OP), elemental- and organic carbon, metals, O3 and NO2. Total and differential WBC counts were performed on blood collected before and 2 and 18 h post-exposure (PE). Changes in total WBC counts (2 and 18 h PE), number of neutrophils (2 h PE) and monocytes (18 h PE) were positively associated with PM characteristics that were high at the underground site. These time-dependent changes reflect an inflammatory response, but the characteristic driving this effect could not be isolated. Negative associations were observed for NO2 with lymphocytes and eosinophils. These associations were robust and did not change after adjustment for a large suite of PM characteristics, suggesting an independent effect of NO2. We conclude that short-term air pollution exposure at real-world locations can induce changes in WBC counts in healthy subjects. Future studies should indicate if air pollution exposure-induced changes in blood cell counts results in adverse cardiovascular effects in susceptible individuals.

  15. Long-Term Stroke Risk Due to Partial White-Coat or Masked Hypertension Based on Home and Ambulatory Blood Pressure Measurements: The Ohasama Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Michihiro; Asayama, Kei; Kikuya, Masahiro; Inoue, Ryusuke; Metoki, Hirohito; Hosaka, Miki; Tsubota-Utsugi, Megumi; Obara, Taku; Ishiguro, Aya; Murakami, Keiko; Matsuda, Ayako; Yasui, Daisaku; Murakami, Takahisa; Mano, Nariyasu; Imai, Yutaka; Ohkubo, Takayoshi

    2016-01-01

    The prognostic significance of white-coat hypertension (WCHT) is controversial, and different findings on self-measured home measurements and 24-h ambulatory monitoring make identifying WCHT difficult. We examined whether individuals with partially or completely defined WCHT, as well as masked hypertension, as determined by different out-of-office blood pressure measurements, have a distinct long-term stroke risk. We followed 1464 participants (31.8% men; mean age, 60.6±10.8 years) in the general population of Ohasama, Japan, for a median of 17.1 years. A first stroke occurred in 212 subjects. Using sustained normal blood pressure (events/n=61/776) as a reference, adjusted hazard ratios for stroke (95% confidence intervals; events/n) were 1.38 (0.82-2.32; 19/137) for complete WCHT (isolated office hypertension), 2.16 (1.36-3.43; 29/117) for partial WCHT (either home or ambulatory normotension with office hypertension), 2.05 (1.24-3.41; 23/100) for complete masked hypertension (both home and ambulatory hypertension with office normotension), 2.08 (1.37-3.16; 38/180) for partial masked hypertension (either home or ambulatory hypertension with office normotension), and 2.46 (1.61-3.77; 42/154) for sustained hypertension. When partial WCHT and partial masked hypertension groups were further divided into participants only with home hypertension and those only with ambulatory hypertension, all subgroups had a significantly higher stroke risk (adjusted hazard ratio ≥1.84, P≤0.04). In conclusion, impacts of partial WCHT as well as partial masked hypertension for long-term stroke risk were comparable to those of complete masked hypertension or sustained hypertension. We need both home and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure measurements to evaluate stroke risk accurately. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Influence of nutrient intake on antioxidant capacity, muscle damage and white blood cell count in female soccer players

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Soccer is a form of exercise that induces inflammatory response, as well as an increase in free radicals potentially leading to muscle injury. Balanced nutritional intake provides important antioxidant vitamins, including vitamins A, C and E, which may assist in preventing exercise-related muscle damage. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of macro/micronutrient intake on markers of oxidative stress, muscle damage, inflammatory and immune response in female soccer players. Methods Twenty-eight female players belonging to two soccer teams of the same professional soccer club participated in this study after being informed about the aims and procedures and after delivering written consent. Each team completed an 8-day dietary record and played one competition match the same week. Participants were divided into two groups: the REC group (who complied with recommended intakes) and the NO-REC group (who were not compliant). Laboratory blood tests were carried out to determine hematological, electrolytic and hormonal variables, as well as to monitor markers of cell damage and oxidative stress. Blood samples were obtained 24 h before, immediately after and 18 h after official soccer matches. Student t-test or Mann–Whitney U-test was used to compare both groups throughout the match. Results At rest, we observed that the REC group had higher levels of total antioxidant status (TAS), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and lower levels of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in comparison to the NO-REC group. Immediately after the match, levels of TAS, GPx, superoxide dismutase (SOD), LDH and % lymphocytes were higher and the % of neutrophils were lower in the REC group compared to the NO-REC group. These differences were also maintained 18 h post-match, only for TAS and GPx. Conclusions Our data reveal an association between nutritional intake and muscle damage, oxidative stress, immunity and inflammation markers. The benefit

  17. Influence of nutrient intake on antioxidant capacity, muscle damage and white blood cell count in female soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gravina Leyre

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soccer is a form of exercise that induces inflammatory response, as well as an increase in free radicals potentially leading to muscle injury. Balanced nutritional intake provides important antioxidant vitamins, including vitamins A, C and E, which may assist in preventing exercise-related muscle damage. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of macro/micronutrient intake on markers of oxidative stress, muscle damage, inflammatory and immune response in female soccer players. Methods Twenty-eight female players belonging to two soccer teams of the same professional soccer club participated in this study after being informed about the aims and procedures and after delivering written consent. Each team completed an 8-day dietary record and played one competition match the same week. Participants were divided into two groups: the REC group (who complied with recommended intakes and the NO-REC group (who were not compliant. Laboratory blood tests were carried out to determine hematological, electrolytic and hormonal variables, as well as to monitor markers of cell damage and oxidative stress. Blood samples were obtained 24 h before, immediately after and 18 h after official soccer matches. Student t-test or Mann–Whitney U-test was used to compare both groups throughout the match. Results At rest, we observed that the REC group had higher levels of total antioxidant status (TAS, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and lower levels of creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in comparison to the NO-REC group. Immediately after the match, levels of TAS, GPx, superoxide dismutase (SOD, LDH and % lymphocytes were higher and the % of neutrophils were lower in the REC group compared to the NO-REC group. These differences were also maintained 18 h post-match, only for TAS and GPx. Conclusions Our data reveal an association between nutritional intake and muscle damage, oxidative stress, immunity and inflammation

  18. INDEXES OF OBESITY AND COMPARISONS WITH PREVIOUS NATIONAL SURVEY DATA IN 9-YEAR-OLD AND 10-YEAR-OLD BLACK-AND-WHITE GIRLS - THE NATIONAL HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GROWTH AND HEALTH STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CAMPAIGNE, BN; MORRISON, JA; SCHUMANN, BC; FALKNER, F; LAKATOS, E; SPRECHER, D; SCHREIBER, GB

    Objective: To (I) describe anthropometric and body-size measurements in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study (NGHS) population at baseline and (2) examine potential secular trends in the prevalence of obesity in young black and white girls by comparing NGHS baseline

  19. Racial differences in the sums of skinfolds and percentage of body fat estimated from impedance in black and white girls, 9 to 19 years of age : The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrison, JA; Barton, BA; Obarzanek, E; Crawford, PB; Guo, SS; Schreiber, GB

    Objectives: This National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study report assesses racial differences in fat patterning in black and white girls ages 9 to 19 years, comparing the sum of triceps and subscapular skinfolds (SSFs) and percentage of body fat (%BF) from impedance as two

  20. Effect of administered radioactive dose level on image quality of brain perfusion imaging with 99mTc-HMPAO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Armeniakos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain perfusion imaging by means of 99mTc-labeled hexamethyl propylene amine oxime (HMPAO is a well-established Nuclear Medicine diagnostic procedure. The administered dose range recommended by the supplying company and reported in bibliography is rather wide (approximately 9.5-27 mCi. This fact necessitates further quantitative analysis of the technique, so as to minimise patient absorbed dose without compromising the examination diagnostic value. In this study, a quantitative evaluation of the radiopharmaceutical performance for different values of administered dose (10, 15, 20 mCi was carried out. Subsequently, a generic image quality index was correlated with the administered dose, to produce an overall performance indicator. Through this cost-to-benefit type analysis, the necessity of administration of higher radioactive dose levels in order to perform the specific diagnostic procedure was examined.Materials & methods: The study was based on a sample of 78 patients (56 administered with 10 mCi, 10 with 15 mCi and 12 with 20 mCi. Some patients were classified as normal, while others presented various forms of pathology. Evaluation of image quality was based on contrast, noise and contrast-to-noise ratio indicators, denoted CI, NI and CNR respectively. Calculation of all indicators was based on wavelet transform. An overall performance indicator (denoted PI, produced by the ratio of CNR by administered dose, was also calculated.Results: Calculation of skewness parameter revealed the normality of CI, NI and non-normality of CNR, PI populations. Application of appropriate statistical tests (analysis of variance for normal and Kruskal-Wallis test for non-normal populations showed that there is a statistically significant difference in CI (p0.05 values. Application of Tukey test for normal populations CI, NI led to the conclusion that CI(10 mCi = CI(20 mCiNI(20 mCi, while NI(15 mCi can not be characterised. Finally, application of non

  1. The oldest old: red blood cell and plasma folate in African American and white octogenarians and centenarians in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausman, D B; Johnson, M A; Davey, A; Woodard, J L; Poon, L W; Allen, R H; Stabler, S P

    2011-11-01

    To determine the overall folate status of a population-based multi-ethnic sample of octogenarians and centenarians and the specific dietary, demographic and physiological factors associated with observed abnormalities. Population-based multiethnic sample of adults aged 80 to 89 and 98 and above. Northern Georgia, USA. Men and women aged 80 to 89 (octogenarians, n = 77) and 98 and older (centenarians, n = 199). Wilcoxon rank sum tests, and Chi square and logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations of low and high folate status with hematological indicators and other variables of interest. The prevalence of low red blood cell (RBC) folate was low overall, but tended to be higher in centenarians than in octogenarians (6.5% vs. 1.3%, p = 0.058; defined as RBC folate 25th percentile for RBC folate for 60yr+ in NHANES 1999-2000) was greater in association with vitamin B12 deficiency (OR = 5.36; 95%CI: 2.87-10.01), African American race (OR = 4.29; 95%CI: 2.08-8.83), and residence in a skilled nursing facility (OR = 3.25; 95%CI: 1.56-6.78) but was not influenced by age, gender, B-vitamin supplement use, high/low food score or presence of atrophic gastritis. Combined high plasma folate and low vitamin B12 status was present in some individuals (n=11), but was not associated with increased prevalence of anemia or cognitive impairment in this study. Low RBC folate status (< 317 nmol/L) was rare in this post folic acid fortification sample of octogenarians and centenarians. RBC folate status (< 25th percentile) was strongly associated with 1) vitamin B12 deficiency, which has strong implications for vitamin treatment, and 2) with being African American, suggesting racial disparities exist even in the oldest old.

  2. Tetrahydroxylated-benzo[a]pyrene isomer analysis after hydrolysis of DNA-adducts isolated from rat and human white blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grova, Nathalie; Salquèbre, Guillaume; Hardy, Emilie M; Schroeder, Henri; Appenzeller, Brice M R

    2014-10-17

    Since exposure to benzo[a]pyrene is suspected to be associated with several health issues, significant efforts have been made to develop efficient strategies for the assessment of human exposure to this ubiquitous compound. In this context, a method was developed for the analysis of four tetrahydroxylated-benzo[a]pyrene isomers resulting from the hydrolysis of their respective diol-epoxide precursors which are involved in DNA-adduct formation. The analytical sensitivity necessary to reach environmental levels of concentration was obtained by using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The recovery determined at the four concentration levels were estimated in average at 83% for benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8,t-9,c-10-tetrahydrotetrol(±), 29% for benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8,t-9,t-10-tetrahydrotetrol(±), and 82% for benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8,C-9,c-10-tetrahydrotetrol(±). The coefficient of determination of the calibration curve was above 0.997 for all the analytes investigated and the limit of quantification ranged from 0.5 to 2 adduct/10(8) nucleotides. The precision was between 5.3% and 22.3%. The suitability of the method was firstly evaluated by the analysis of DNA isolated from white blood cells of rats submitted after controlled exposure to benzo[a]pyrene. The four targeted tetra-OH-benzo[a]pyrenes as well as two unknown isomers were detected in all the treated animals. Benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8,c-9,c-10-tetrahydrotetrol(±) appeared as the most abundant isomer in both treated and control animals followed by benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8,t-9,c-10-tetrahydrotetrol(±). The method was afterwards applied to the analysis of DNA isolated from white blood cells of human volunteers. The results confirmed that this method was sufficiently sensitive to monitor environmental levels of exposure since all the specimens analyzed were above the limit of quantification for benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8,t-9,c-10-tetrahydrotetrol(±) and two of them were positive for benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8,c-9,c-10

  3. Skinheads White Power na América do Sul: a internacionalização do discurso nacional-socialista da Blood & Honour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samoel Ramos de Alcantara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho trata-se de uma investigação sobre manifestações políticas de extremismo de direita na América do Sul contemporânea, em específico, a atuação da organização skinhead internacional denominada Blood and Honour. Privilegiasse, nessa analise, o debate da categoria nacional-socialismo através de fundamentos da Ciência Política a das Relações Internacionais.No entanto nem todo skinhead é uma apoiador do nazismo, assim como nem todo entusiasta da suástica é um skinhead; existem grupos que se autodenominam enquanto skinheads que apoiam e militam em prol de uma organização social racialista baseada em uma suposta supremacia branca, esses ficaram conhecidos como skinheads White Power.Através dessa pesquisa buscou-se estudar o pensamento e atuação política disseminada e empreendida pela Blood and Honour, apontando, mais especificamente, para sua articulação na América do Sul. Foram analisadas as características constitutivas do pensamento nacional socialista difundido pela organização principalmente através de sites na internet, buscando-se compreender como o nacional socialismo foi, enquanto categoria analítica, modificado para melhor servir os objetivos da Blood and Honour, com enfoque maior nas concepções de internacionalização do movimento.Observou-se que a internacionalização presente no pensamento nacional socialista da Blood and Honour, está pautada em uma organização racial supra estatal baseada na união de indivíduos ou grupo de indivíduos supostamente herdeiros de uma ancestralidade ariana; diferentemente da concepção nacional socialista alemã das décadas de 1920 e 1930 que buscava uma internacionalização através da expansão do domínio nazista, sendo essa altamente pautada na ação estatal e em uma concepção de nacionalidade cívica.

  4. Technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ( sup 99m -Tc-HMPAO) single photon emission tomography (SPET) in febrile convulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierckx, R.A.; Vandevivere, J. (Middelheim General Hospital, Antwerp (Belgium). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Melis, K.; Janssens, G. (Children' s Hospital Antwerp (Belgium)); Dom, L. (Children' s Hospital Antwerp (Belgium) Middelheim General Hospital, Antwerp (Belgium). Dept. of Neurology); Luysterborgh, E. (Middelheim General Hospital, Antwerp (Belgium). Dept. of Neurology); Deyn, P.P. de (Middelheim General Hospital, Antwerp (Belgium). Dept. of Neurology Antwerp Univ. (Belgium). Lab. of Neurochemistry)

    1992-04-01

    We report our initial experience with technetium-99m hexamethyl propylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) brain single photon emission tomography (SPET) in the investigation of 19 children presenting with febrile convulsions. Two patients with complex febrile convulsions showed focal SPET lesions contralateral to the neurological deficit. However, in 9 out of 17 patients with simple febrile convulsions, focally disturbed perfusion was shown. in 4 out of 6 patients with electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities on admittance, SPET revealed at least 2 focal lesions. The temporofrontal region was the one most commonly involved. The SPET findings presented here also suggest a temporal relationship with the febrile convulsions, with markedly fewer lesions if examined after 12 days. In our initial experience, perfusion SPET did not show any particular pattern helpful in the differential diagnosis of the child presenting with febrile convulsions. Physiopathologically, our findings may support the hypothesis that brain tissue is regionally more vulnerable to fever, in patients presenting with febrile convulsions. (orig.).

  5. An evaluation of the cerebral hemodynamics in moyamoya disease with acetazolamide (Diamox) [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin-Yi, Gao; Kuwabara, Yasuo; Ichiya, Yuichi (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine) (and others)

    1994-08-01

    We studied the cerebral hemodynamics using Diamox [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO SPECT in 9 patients with moyamoya disease, consisting of 4 children and 5 adults. Diamox [sup 99m]Tc-HMPO SPECT studies were performed by the double injection method. Hypoperfusion areas were scored by a visual inspection as follows: ++, definite positive; +, probable positive; -, negative. Diamox test was interpreted as positive when the score increased over one degree. In the resting state, 6 out of 9 patients showed definite or probable positive hypoperfusion, while all of 9 patients showed a similar finding after Diamox injection. The Diamox test was positive in 6 out of 9 patients. It was positive in all 3 patients who showed a negative hypoperfusion in the resting state. The regional cerebrovascular response to Diamox was most severely impaired in the frontal region. However, it was relatively well preserved in the cerebellum and thalamus according to the semiquantiative analysis. Thus, the Diamox HOPAO SPECT was considered to be useful in evaluating the hemodynamics in patients with moyamoya disease. (author).

  6. Blood Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Education Annual Meeting International Cord Blood Symposium eLearning AABB Education Website CareerLink Specialist in Blood Bank Technology AABB-Fenwal Scholarships Calendar of Events Research AABB Hemovigilance National Blood Foundation Transfusion Journal White ...

  7. Blood Donation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Education Annual Meeting International Cord Blood Symposium eLearning AABB Education Website CareerLink Specialist in Blood Bank Technology AABB-Fenwal Scholarships Calendar of Events Research AABB Hemovigilance National Blood Foundation Transfusion Journal White ...

  8. Pyruvate kinase blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003357.htm Pyruvate kinase blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... energy when oxygen levels are low. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed. In the laboratory, white blood ...

  9. Prevalence of masked uncontrolled and treated white-coat hypertension defined according to the average of morning and evening home blood pressure value: from the Japan Home versus Office Measurement Evaluation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Takua; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Kikuya, Masahiro; Asayama, Keia; Metoki, Hirohito; Inoue, Ryusuke; Oikawa, Takuya; Komai, Rie; Murai, Kayo; Horikawa, Tsuyoshi; Hashimoto, Junichiro; Totsune, Kazuhito; Imai, Yutaka

    2005-12-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of masked uncontrolled and treated white-coat hypertension defined according to the average of morning and evening home blood pressure values. The study population consisted of 3303 essential hypertensive outpatients receiving antihypertensive treatment in Japan. Information on the characteristics of the patients was collected by a physician's self-administrated questionnaire. The office blood pressure value was calculated as the average of the four readings in two visits. All patients were asked to measure their blood pressure once every morning and once every evening. In the study, we included patients with at least three measurements in the morning and in the evening, respectively. The average of all home blood pressure values was taken as the home blood pressure value. The mean value of home systolic/diastolic blood pressure was 136.8/79.3 mmHg, and the mean value of office systolic/diastolic blood pressure was 142.8/80.6 mmHg. Of the 3303 patients, 758 (23.0%) had controlled hypertension (home office home > or =135/85 mmHg and office home office > or =140/90 mmHg), and 1277 (38.7%) had uncontrolled hypertension (home > or =135/85 mmHg and office > or =140/90 mmHg). Treated white-coat hypertension and masked uncontrolled hypertension were often observed in clinical settings. Physicians need to understand the prevalence of such patients to prevent inadequate diagnosis and treatment in them.

  10. The transcription of MGAT4A glycosyl transferase is increased in white cells of peripheral blood of Type 2 Diabetes patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Miguel

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human glycosylase IV is involved in GLUT2 transporter regulation in pancreatic β cells. A KO of this gene along with a high fat diet in a mice model has been associated with the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D. The aims of this study were to measure and compare the MGAT4A mRNA levels in white blood cells (WBC from T2D subjects and healthy subjects (T2NB, and to measure the half-life of the MGAT4A mRNA. Results We studied a sample of 73 individuals, 40 T2D subjects and 33 T2NB subjects. Anthropometrical and biochemical profiles were registered. The MGAT4A mRNA levels in WBC and the transcript half-life in Jurkat T cells were determined by Real-Time PCR. A blood differential cell counting was made for each individual. Cell counting showed T2D subjects exhibited an increased number of WBC compared to T2NB subjects (P = 0.0001. Biochemical parameters such as fasting glucose (P = 0.0001, and triglycerides (P = 0.002 were statistically significant. T2D subjects had 4.2-fold more MGAT4A transcript compared to T2NB subjects (P = 0.002. The MGAT4A mRNA had a half-life of 2.04 h in Jurkat T cells. Conclusion The results of this work suggest that in T2D subjects, high levels of glucose and triglycerides are accompanied by an increase on MGAT4A mRNA levels and WBC count; condition that suggests a pro-inflammatory state due to a chronic metabolic stress.

  11. The association between systolic blood pressure variability with depression, cognitive decline and white matter hyperintensities: the 3C Dijon MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, P J; Debette, S; Tzourio, C

    2017-09-27

    Accumulating evidence links blood pressure variability (BPV) with white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and stroke. The longitudinal association between BPV with late onset depression (LOD) and cognitive decline remains unexplored. Prospective cohort study of 2812 participant's age ⩾65 years (median age 72 years, 63.6% female) without dementia or stroke. Serial clinic visits assessed blood pressure, cognitive function, depression disorder, and depressive symptoms. A brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) substudy was performed in 1275 persons to examine possible associations with WMH. The interaction between symptomatic LOD and systolic BPV was associated with cognitive decline on the Isaac Set Test [slope -4.45; 95% confidence interval (CI) -8.92 to -0.16, p = 0.04], Benton Visual Retention Test (slope -0.89; 95% CI -1.77 to -0.01, p = 0.049), Mini Mental State Examination (slope -1.08; 95% CI -1.86 to -0.30, p = 0.007) and Finger Tapping Test (slope -7.53; 95% CI -13.71 to -1.34, p = 0.017) but not Trail Making Test-A or -B/A. The MRI substudy demonstrated that systolic BPV was associated with cognitive decline via interactions with depression and total WMH volume, but this was not dependent on either deep or periventricular WMH volumes. The findings show that the interaction between systolic BPV with symptomatic depression and WMH increases cognitive decline in persons ⩾65 years of age. Future work could extend these findings by examining systolic BPV in relation to cognitive decline and WMH in older populations with depression.

  12. Relationship between high white blood cell count and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in Korean children and adolescents: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J-M; Lee, D-C; Lee, Y-J

    2017-05-01

    Increasing evidence has indicated that insulin resistance is associated with inflammation. However, few studies have investigated the association between white blood cell (WBC) count and insulin resistance, as measured by a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in a general pediatric population. This study aimed to examine the association between WBC count and insulin resistance as measured by HOMA-IR in a nationally representative sample of children and adolescents. In total, 2761 participants (1479 boys and 1282 girls) aged 10-18 years were selected from the 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Insulin resistance was defined as a HOMA-IR value greater than the 90th percentile. The odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for insulin resistance were determined using multiple logistic regression analysis. The mean values of most cardiometabolic variables tended to increase proportionally with WBC count quartiles. The prevalence of insulin resistance significantly increased in accordance with WBC count quartiles in both boys and girls. Compared to individuals in the lowest WBC count quartile, the odds ratio for insulin resistance for individuals in the highest quartile was 2.84 in boys and 3.20 in girls, after adjusting for age, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, and waist circumference. A higher WBC count was positively associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance in Korean children and adolescents. This study suggests that WBC count could facilitate the identification of children and adolescents with insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Low white blood cell count is independently associated with chronic kidney disease progression in the elderly: the CKD-ROUTE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Yohei; Kanda, Eiichiro; Iimori, Soichiro; Naito, Shotaro; Noda, Yumi; Sasaki, Sei; Sohara, Eisei; Okado, Tomokazu; Rai, Tatemitsu; Uchida, Shinichi

    2017-07-11

    Elevated white blood cell (WBC) count is a well-known predictor of chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression. However, elderly patients commonly fail to develop a high WBC count in response to several diseased states and may instead present a low WBC count. Therefore, we hypothesized that low WBC count, in addition to high WBC count, is associated with CKD progression in the elderly. We conducted a prospective cohort study using 3-year follow-up data from the CKD Research of Outcomes in Treatment and Epidemiology study. In the present study, participants aged over 60 years with pre-dialysis CKD stages G2-G5 were eligible. Patients were stratified into three groups according to WBC count using tertiles (T). The primary outcome was a composite of end-stage renal disease and a 50% reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate. Data were analyzed using Cox proportional hazard models with adjustments for covariates. We enrolled 697 patients (males, 69%). The median WBC count was 6100 cells/µl (T1, elderly.

  14. CD20 positivity and white blood cell count predict treatment outcomes in Philadelphia chromosome-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients ineligible for pediatric-inspired chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isshiki, Yusuke; Ohwada, Chikako; Sakaida, Emiko; Onoda, Masahiro; Aotsuka, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Fukazawa, Motoharu; Cho, Ryuko; Sugawara, Takeaki; Kawaguchi, Takeharu; Hara, Satoru; Yokota, Akira

    2017-11-01

    The efficacy of conventional chemotherapy and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) has been controversial as post-remission therapies for adult Philadelphia chromosome-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. We retrospectively analyzed 96 adolescent and adult cases of Philadelphia chromosome-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia to evaluate whether allo-HSCT should be performed after first complete remission (1CR). In total, 34 patients received chemotherapy followed by allo-HSCT (HSCT group) and 62 received chemotherapy alone (chemotherapy group). No significant differences in the event-free survival (EFS) or overall survival were observed between the two groups. In the chemotherapy group, use of pediatric regimens was significantly associated with favorable EFS, while high white blood cell (WBC) count and CD20 positivity were associated with poor outcome. In patients who received pediatric regimens, subsequent allo-HSCT did not influence EFS. In patients who received conventional chemotherapy (adult regimen), subsequent allo-HSCT did not improve EFS. High WBC count and CD20 positivity were also significantly associated with poor EFS in patients who received adult regimens. Patients with low WBC count and absence of CD20 who received adult regimens did not benefit from allo-HSCT. Allo-HSCT may not be required in the pediatric regimen-eligible patients; however, pediatric regimen-ineligible patients with either CD20 positivity or high WBC count should receive allo-HSCT after achieving 1CR. This study was registered at http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/ as #C000016287.

  15. The Spatial Associations of Cerebral Blood Flow and Spontaneous Brain Activities with White Matter Hyperintensities—An Exploratory Study Using Multimodal Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Shi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available White matter hyperintensities (WMHs have been reported to be correlated with functional brain changes, but the association of the specific WMHs distribution pattern with regional functional changes remains uncertain. The aim of this study is to explore the possible spatial correlation of WMH with changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF and spontaneous brain activities in elderly using a novel approach. The WMHs, CBF, and spontaneous brain activities measured by intrinsic connectivity contrast (ICC, were quantified using multimodal magnetic resonance imaging for 69 elderly subjects. Such approach enables us to expand our search for newly identified correlated areas by drawing strengths of different modes and provides a means for triangulation as well as complementary insights. The results showed significant positive correlations between WMH volumes in the right superior corona radiata and CBF in the left supplementary motor area, as well as between WMH volumes in left anterior limb internal capsule and CBF in the right putamen. Significant correlations of regional WMH volumes and ICC were also detected between the right anterior corona radiata and the left cuneus, and the right superior occipital cortex, as well as between the right superior corona radiata and the left superior occipital cortex. These findings may suggest a regional compensatory functional enhancement accounting for the maintenance of cognitively normal status, which can be supported by the widely observed phenomenon that mild to moderate WMH load could have little effect on global cognitive performance.

  16. The Spatial Associations of Cerebral Blood Flow and Spontaneous Brain Activities with White Matter Hyperintensities-An Exploratory Study Using Multimodal Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lin; Miao, Xinyuan; Lou, Wutao; Liu, Kai; Abrigo, Jill; Wong, Adrian; Chu, Winnie C W; Wang, Defeng; Mok, Vincent C T

    2017-01-01

    White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) have been reported to be correlated with functional brain changes, but the association of the specific WMHs distribution pattern with regional functional changes remains uncertain. The aim of this study is to explore the possible spatial correlation of WMH with changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and spontaneous brain activities in elderly using a novel approach. The WMHs, CBF, and spontaneous brain activities measured by intrinsic connectivity contrast (ICC), were quantified using multimodal magnetic resonance imaging for 69 elderly subjects. Such approach enables us to expand our search for newly identified correlated areas by drawing strengths of different modes and provides a means for triangulation as well as complementary insights. The results showed significant positive correlations between WMH volumes in the right superior corona radiata and CBF in the left supplementary motor area, as well as between WMH volumes in left anterior limb internal capsule and CBF in the right putamen. Significant correlations of regional WMH volumes and ICC were also detected between the right anterior corona radiata and the left cuneus, and the right superior occipital cortex, as well as between the right superior corona radiata and the left superior occipital cortex. These findings may suggest a regional compensatory functional enhancement accounting for the maintenance of cognitively normal status, which can be supported by the widely observed phenomenon that mild to moderate WMH load could have little effect on global cognitive performance.

  17. De Novo Assembly of the Donkey White Blood Cell Transcriptome and a Comparative Analysis of Phenotype-Associated Genes between Donkeys and Horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Yun Xie

    Full Text Available Prior to the mechanization of agriculture and labor-intensive tasks, humans used donkeys (Equus africanus asinus for farm work and packing. However, as mechanization increased, donkeys have been increasingly raised for meat, milk, and fur in China. To maintain the development of the donkey industry, breeding programs should focus on traits related to these new uses. Compared to conventional marker-assisted breeding plans, genome- and transcriptome-based selection methods are more efficient and effective. To analyze the coding genes of the donkey genome, we assembled the transcriptome of donkey white blood cells de novo. Using transcriptomic deep-sequencing data, we identified 264,714 distinct donkey unigenes and predicted 38,949 protein fragments. We annotated the donkey unigenes by BLAST searches against the non-redundant (NR protein database. We also compared the donkey protein sequences with those of the horse (E. caballus and wild horse (E. przewalskii, and linked the donkey protein fragments with mammalian phenotypes. As the outer ear size of donkeys and horses are obviously different, we compared the outer ear size-associated proteins in donkeys and horses. We identified three ear size-associated proteins, HIC1, PRKRA, and KMT2A, with sequence differences among the donkey, horse, and wild horse loci. Since the donkey genome sequence has not been released, the de novo assembled donkey transcriptome is helpful for preliminary investigations of donkey cultivars and for genetic improvement.

  18. De Novo Assembly of the Donkey White Blood Cell Transcriptome and a Comparative Analysis of Phenotype-Associated Genes between Donkeys and Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Feng-Yun; Feng, Yu-Long; Wang, Hong-Hui; Ma, Yun-Feng; Yang, Yang; Wang, Yin-Chao; Shen, Wei; Pan, Qing-Jie; Yin, Shen; Sun, Yu-Jiang; Ma, Jun-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Prior to the mechanization of agriculture and labor-intensive tasks, humans used donkeys (Equus africanus asinus) for farm work and packing. However, as mechanization increased, donkeys have been increasingly raised for meat, milk, and fur in China. To maintain the development of the donkey industry, breeding programs should focus on traits related to these new uses. Compared to conventional marker-assisted breeding plans, genome- and transcriptome-based selection methods are more efficient and effective. To analyze the coding genes of the donkey genome, we assembled the transcriptome of donkey white blood cells de novo. Using transcriptomic deep-sequencing data, we identified 264,714 distinct donkey unigenes and predicted 38,949 protein fragments. We annotated the donkey unigenes by BLAST searches against the non-redundant (NR) protein database. We also compared the donkey protein sequences with those of the horse (E. caballus) and wild horse (E. przewalskii), and linked the donkey protein fragments with mammalian phenotypes. As the outer ear size of donkeys and horses are obviously different, we compared the outer ear size-associated proteins in donkeys and horses. We identified three ear size-associated proteins, HIC1, PRKRA, and KMT2A, with sequence differences among the donkey, horse, and wild horse loci. Since the donkey genome sequence has not been released, the de novo assembled donkey transcriptome is helpful for preliminary investigations of donkey cultivars and for genetic improvement. PMID:26208029

  19. The role of {sup 99m}Tc-labelled stannous colloid white blood cells scanning in the evaluation of and differentiation between cellulitis and osteomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, V.; Chu, J.M.G. [Liverpool Health Services, Liverpool, NSW (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine

    1998-03-01

    Full text: Sequential {sup 99m}Tc-MDP and {sup 67}Ga-citrate scanning have been extensively used in the evaluation of infection. {sup 99m}Tc-labelled stannous colloid white blood cell (Tc-WBC) is not widely reported. A prospective study was undertaken in 92 patients to assess Tc-WBC and Tc-MDP scanning in this clinical application. Labelling efficiency (LE) was calculated with a mean {+-} SD of 94 {+-} 4.8 %. Patients (6) who were treated with gentamycin had an LE {+-} SD of 70 {+-} 9%. Twenty six patients treated as osteomyelitis had congruent abnormalities on Tc-WBC and Tc-MDP scans. Twenty one patients treated as cellulitis had abnormalities demonstrated on Tc-WBC but not on Tc-MDP scans. Tc-WBC appeared to define areas of inflammation of bone and soft-tissue in the hands or feet more distinctly than Tc-MDP. Fourteen patients had progress Tc-WBC scans 4-6 weeks following antibiotic treatment. Changes in scan appearances seemed to mirror the clinical course of the patients. Tc-WBC and Tc-MDP scans were useful complementary studies in the diagnosis, evaluation and assessment of treatment in patients with cellulitis and osteomyelitis.

  20. Use of HMPAO-{sup 99m}Tc in radio-labelling endothelial cells: application to the study of the behaviour of endothelialized vascular prostheses under shearing constraint; Utilisation de HMPAO-{sup 99m}Tc pour le radio-marquage de cellules endotheliales: application pour etudier le comportement de protheses vasculaires endothelialisees sous contraintes de cisaillement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Ph.; Bareille, R.; Brouillaud, B.; Barthe, N.; Rouais, F.; Bordenave, L. [Laboratoire de Biophisique, CHU-Bordeaux, 33076 Bordeaux (France)

    1997-12-31

    Insemination of the low-caliber vascular prostheses at the level of their endo-luminal surfaces by a monolayer of endothelial cells (EC) prior to their implantation diminishes their thrombogen character and increases their long-term expectation of permeability in humans. The aptitude of EC of remaining adherent to their support when exposed to the constraints of circulatory flux must be studied in vitro and all the authors quantify these adherence by the measurement of the loss of gamma activity of the vascular prosthesis after radiolabelling of EC by {sup 111}In oxinate. In this work EC of human origin, adherent to the culture surfaces were radiolabelled by HMPAO-{sup 99m}Tc and optimal conditions of the labelling were determined: the effect of increasing concentrations of HMPAO and increasing activities of HMPAO-{sup 99m}Tc on the viability and metabolic activity of EC; the influence of the temperature and of the time of touching on the labelling yield. Subsequently, this conditions were applied to EC having cultivated a innovative vascular prosthesis. Surface micro-auto-radiographies were realized. The best compromise was obtained with 10 MBq/10{sup 6} EC (40 {mu}g of HMPAO/10{sup 6} EC) corresponding to a labelling yield of 13.7 {+-} 0.7 after 3 hours of contact at 37 deg. C. The micro-auto-radiographies allow visualization of the intracellular radioactivity distribution. The study of adherence of EC to the vascular prosthesis, under shearing constraints, by means of a radiotracer provides numerous advantages vs current utilisation of {sup 111}In oxinate

  1. Significance of cold defects in central skeleton on {sup 99}mTc-HMPAO labelled granulocyte scintigraphy; Scintigraphie aux polynucleaires marques par le {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO: signification des hypofixations du squelette central

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couret, I.; Bertrand-Caix, J.; Cosculluela, S. [Hopital Pellegrin, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Auvert-Colin, L.; Fajon, O.; Rossi, M. [Hopital Lapeyronie, 34 - Montpellier (France)

    1994-12-31

    Couret et al address osteoarticular infections of the central skeleton which is a difficult condition to diagnose clinically. {sup 99m}Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) labelled granulocytes scintigraphy is of value for the detection of peripheral bone sepsis, but a cold defect is often encountered in central skeleton scans. The significance of a cold defect in 18 scintigraphic studies from patients referred with suspected infections of central skeleton is discussed. Of these 18 studies, only 4 cold defect corresponded to an acute or chronic sepsis and 6 to a healed sepsis. Of the remaining 8 studies, 4 corresponded to osteoarthritis, 1 to aggressive granulomatous lesions, 1 to chemical discitis, 1 to Paget`s disease, and 1 to bone metastase. All the cold defects on the labelled granulocytes scans corresponded to an increased uptake on the {sup 99m}Tc-diphosphonate ({sup 99m}Tc-MDP) scans. Among the cases studied, no increased uptake was found on the labelled granulocytes images; increased uptake of activity being required to classify the scintigraphy as positive in the appendicular skeleton. In fact, in central bone sepsis, the mechanism(s) inducing the destruction of the granulopoietic bone marrow or an obstacle to the granulocyte migration is not yet well established. We concluded that increased uptake of activity being very rare and cold defect having no specificity, labelled granulocytes scintigraphy is of lower interest in central skeleton bone sepsis detection than in peripheral bone sepsis detection. (authors). 51 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. 3C.06: EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND PSYCHOLOGICAL STATUS WERE RELATED WITH WHITE COAT EFFECT AND MEAN AMBULATORY BLOOD PRESSURE LEVELS IN PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, G; Gorbunov, V; Lyusin, D

    2015-06-01

    The aim of our study was to determine relationship between emotional intelligence (EI), psychological status (PS) and mean ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) level, white coat effect (WCE) in untreated patients with arterial hypertension (AH). We analyzed 150 ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) data of AH patients without serious concomitant diseases. ABPM monitor (Spacelabs 90207) was applied after the washout period. We defined daytime period as 8.00-22.00 (BPd), nighttime - 0.00-6.00 (BPn). After ABPM session patients completed the PS and EI questionnaire: "Minnesota Multiphase Personality Inventory" (MMPI) and "EmIn Questionnaire" (by Lyusin D.). We assessed following EmIn scale scores: I - emotion self-awareness; II- management of one's own emotions; III - control of emotional expression; IV - understanding others' emotions; V - management of others' emotions. We used Spearman Partial Coefficient for correlation (r) analysis adjusted for age, sex and duration of AH. The mean daytime systolic BP (SBP) was 139.1 ± 12.7, diastolic (DBP) - 83.1 ± 9.9 mm Hg (M ± SD). We found the following correlations (p > 0.05): 1) 9 MMPI scale scores (energy, optimism, good mood) with WCE for SBP (r = -0.28) and mean clinical SBP (r = -0.25); 2) III scale scores (control of emotional expression) with WCE for DBP (r = -0.24); 3) I scale scores (emotion self-awareness) with mean clinical SBP (r = 0.27); 4) IV scale scores (understanding others' emotions) with mean clinical DBP and SBP (r = 0.34, r = 0.31) and with mean ambulatory DBP and SBP. For mean 24 hours SBP, SBPd r = 0.25 and r = 0.25, for 24 hours DBP, DBPd, DBPn r = 0.30, r = 0.29, r = 0.24 respectively.Energy, optimism, good mood (9 MMPI scale scores) and good emotion self-control levels (I scale scores) had a negative correlation with WCE levels and mean clinical SBP. Perception of own or other people's emotions (II and IV scale scores

  3. Evaluation of lactate, white blood cell count, neutrophil count, procalcitonin and immature granulocyte count as biomarkers for sepsis in emergency department patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karon, Brad S; Tolan, Nicole V; Wockenfus, Amy M; Block, Darci R; Baumann, Nikola A; Bryant, Sandra C; Clements, Casey M

    2017-11-01

    Lactate, white blood cell (WBC) and neutrophil count, procalcitonin and immature granulocyte (IG) count were compared for the prediction of sepsis, and severe sepsis or septic shock, in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED). We prospectively enrolled 501 ED patients with a sepsis panel ordered for suspicion of sepsis. WBC, neutrophil, and IG counts were measured on a Sysmex XT-2000i analyzer. Lactate was measured by i-STAT, and procalcitonin by Brahms Kryptor. We classified patients as having sepsis using a simplification of the 1992 consensus conference sepsis definitions. Patients with sepsis were further classified as having severe sepsis or septic shock using established criteria. Univariate receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to determine odds ratio (OR), area under the ROC curve (AUC), and sensitivity/specificity at optimal cut-off for prediction of sepsis (vs. no sepsis), and prediction of severe sepsis or septic shock (vs. no sepsis). There were 267 patients without sepsis; and 234 with sepsis, including 35 patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. Lactate had the highest OR (1.44, 95th% CI 1.20-1.73) for the prediction of sepsis; while WBC, neutrophil count and percent (neutrophil/WBC) had OR>1.00 (psepsis or septic shock, with an odds ratio (95th% CI) of 2.70 (2.02-3.61) and AUC 0.89 (0.82-0.96). Traditional biomarkers (lactate, WBC, neutrophil count, procalcitonin, IG) have limited utility in the prediction of sepsis. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dynamics of C-reactive protein and white blood cell count in critically ill patients with nosocomial Gram positive vs. Gram negative bacteremia: a historical cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Depuydt Pieter O

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nosocomial bacteremia is associated with a poor prognosis. Early adequate therapy has been shown to improve outcome. Consequently, rapid detection of a beginning sepsis is therefore of the utmost importance. This historical cohort study was designed to evaluate if different patterns can be observed in either C-reactive protein (CRP and white blood cell count (WCC between Gram positive bacteremia (GPB vs. Gram negative bacteremia (GNB, and to assess the potential benefit of serial measurements of both biomarkers in terms of early antimicrobial therapy initiation. Methods A historical study (2003–2004 was conducted, including all adult intensive care unit patients with a nosocomial bacteremia. CRP and WCC count measurements were recorded daily from two days prior (d-2 until one day after onset of bacteremia (d+1. Delta (Δ CRP and Δ WCC levels from the level at d-2 onward were calculated. Results CRP levels and WCC counts were substantially higher in patients with GNB. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that GNB and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II score were independently associated with a CRP increase of 5 mg/dL from d-2 to d+1, and both were also independently associated with an increase of WCC levels from d-2 to d+1 of 5,000 × 103 cells/mm3. Conclusion Increased levels of CRP and WCC are suggestive for GNB, while almost unchanged CRP and WCC levels are observed in patients with GPB. However, despite the different patterns observed, antimicrobial treatment as such cannot be guided based on both biomarkers.

  5. Characteristics of Febrile Patients with Normal White Blood Cell Counts and High C-Reactive Protein Levels in an Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Ting Liu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Fever is one of the more common chief complaints of patients who visit emergency departments (ED. Many febrile patients have markedly elevated C-reactive protein (CRP levels and normal white blood cell (WBC counts. Most of these patients have bacterial infection and no previous underlying disease of impaired WBC functioning. We reviewed patients who visited our ED between November 2003 and July 2004. The WBC count and CRP level of patients over 18 years of age who visited the ED because of or with fever were recorded. Patients who had normal WBC count (4,000–10,000/mL and high CRP level (> 100 mg/L were included. The data, including gender, age and length of hospital stay, were reviewed. Underlying diseases, diagnosis of the febrile disease and final condition were recorded according to the chart. Within the study period, 54,078 patients visited our ED. Of 5,628 febrile adults, 214 (3.8% had elevated CRP level and normal WBC count. The major cause of febrility was infection (82.24%. Most of these patients were admitted (92.99%. There were 32 patients with malignant neoplasm, nine with liver cirrhosis, 66 with diabetes mellitus and 11 with uremia. There were no significant differences in age and gender between patients with and those without neoplasm. However, a higher inhospital mortality rate and other causes of febrility were noted in patients with neoplasm. It was not rare in febrile patients who visited the ED to have a high CRP level but normal WBC count. These patients did not necessarily have an underlying malignant neoplasm or hematologic illness. Factors other than malignant neoplasm or hematologic illness may be associated with the WBC response, and CRP may be a better indicator of infection under such conditions.

  6. Formaldehyde-Associated Changes in microRNAs: Tissue and Temporal Specificity in the Rat Nose, White Blood Cells, and Bone Marrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Rebecca C.

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are critical regulators of gene expression, yet much remains unknown regarding their changes resulting from environmental exposures as they influence cellular signaling across various tissues. We set out to investigate miRNA responses to formaldehyde, a critical air pollutant and known carcinogen that disrupts miRNA expression profiles. Rats were exposed by inhalation to either 0 or 2 ppm formaldehyde for 7, 28, or 28 days followed by a 7-day recovery. Genome-wide miRNA expression profiles were assessed within the nasal respiratory epithelium, circulating white blood cells (WBC), and bone marrow (BM). miRNAs showed altered expression in the nose and WBC but not in the BM. Notably in the nose, miR-10b and members of the let-7 family, known nasopharyngeal carcinoma players, showed decreased expression. To integrate miRNA responses with transcriptional changes, genome-wide messenger RNA profiles were assessed in the nose and WBC. Although formaldehyde-induced changes in miRNA and transcript expression were largely tissue specific, pathway analyses revealed an enrichment of immune system/inflammation signaling in the nose and WBC. Specific to the nose was enrichment for apoptosis/proliferation signaling, involving let-7a, let-7c, and let-7f. Across all tissues and time points assessed, miRNAs were predicted to regulate between 7% and 35% of the transcriptional responses and were suggested to play a role in signaling processes including immune/inflammation-related pathways. These data inform our current hypothesis that formaldehyde-induced inflammatory signals originating in the nose may drive WBC effects. PMID:24304932

  7. Influence of vitamin D status and vitamin D3 supplementation on genome wide expression of white blood cells: a randomized double-blind clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein-nezhad, Arash; Spira, Avrum; Holick, Michael F

    2013-01-01

    Although there have been numerous observations of vitamin D deficiency and its links to chronic diseases, no studies have reported on how vitamin D status and vitamin D3 supplementation affects broad gene expression in humans. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of vitamin D status and subsequent vitamin D supplementation on broad gene expression in healthy adults. (Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01696409). A randomized, double-blind, single center pilot trial was conducted for comparing vitamin D supplementation with either 400 IUs (n = 3) or 2000 IUs (n = 5) vitamin D3 daily for 2 months on broad gene expression in the white blood cells collected from 8 healthy adults in the winter. Microarrays of the 16 buffy coats from eight subjects passed the quality control filters and normalized with the RMA method. Vitamin D3 supplementation that improved serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations was associated with at least a 1.5 fold alteration in the expression of 291 genes. There was a significant difference in the expression of 66 genes between subjects at baseline with vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D20 ng/ml. After vitamin D3 supplementation gene expression of these 66 genes was similar for both groups. Seventeen vitamin D-regulated genes with new candidate vitamin D response elements including TRIM27, CD83, COPB2, YRNA and CETN3 which have been shown to be important for transcriptional regulation, immune function, response to stress and DNA repair were identified. Our data suggest that any improvement in vitamin D status will significantly affect expression of genes that have a wide variety of biologic functions of more than 160 pathways linked to cancer, autoimmune disorders and cardiovascular disease with have been associated with vitamin D deficiency. This study reveals for the first time molecular finger prints that help explain the nonskeletal health benefits of vitamin D. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01696409.

  8. What Is the Relationship Between Dairy Intake and Blood Pressure in Black and White Children and Adolescents Enrolled in a Weight Management Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaValle, Diane M; Carter, Janet; Jones, Molly; Henshaw, Melissa Howard

    2017-08-14

    The DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) clinical trials and other studies have demonstrated a relationship between diet and cardiovascular outcomes in adults, yet little is known of this relationship in children. Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the United States, with similar increases in hypertension among this population. The purpose of our study was to examine the association between dairy intake and blood pressure (BP) in a cohort of children and adolescents (aged 4-17 years) enrolled in a weight management program. Dietary intake was assessed using the Block Kids 2004 food frequency questionnaire in a cross-sectional sample of participants enrolled in the Pediatric Metabolic Syndrome Study at the Children's Hospital (Charleston, SC). BP and other anthropometrics were obtained at baseline. Only children with complete baseline data and food frequency questionnaires were included in this analysis (n=117). Associations between food group/nutrient intake and BP were examined across race and sex using ANOVA and Pearson correlations. Linear regression models were controlled for body mass index and age. In the total sample, a significant inverse relationship was found between the intake of dairy and systolic BP (r=-0.24, P=0.009). The effect of dairy on systolic BP, however, differed by race. We observed a decrease of 11.2 mm Hg for each serving of dairy consumed by white children, and no decrease in systolic BP in black children (P=0.001 for the race-dairy serving interaction). Nutrition professionals must consider nonnutrition factors contributing to childhood hypertension, as current dietary recommendations appear to have differential outcomes across races. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  9. Influence of vitamin D status and vitamin D3 supplementation on genome wide expression of white blood cells: a randomized double-blind clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Hossein-nezhad

    Full Text Available Although there have been numerous observations of vitamin D deficiency and its links to chronic diseases, no studies have reported on how vitamin D status and vitamin D3 supplementation affects broad gene expression in humans. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of vitamin D status and subsequent vitamin D supplementation on broad gene expression in healthy adults. (Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01696409.A randomized, double-blind, single center pilot trial was conducted for comparing vitamin D supplementation with either 400 IUs (n = 3 or 2000 IUs (n = 5 vitamin D3 daily for 2 months on broad gene expression in the white blood cells collected from 8 healthy adults in the winter. Microarrays of the 16 buffy coats from eight subjects passed the quality control filters and normalized with the RMA method. Vitamin D3 supplementation that improved serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations was associated with at least a 1.5 fold alteration in the expression of 291 genes. There was a significant difference in the expression of 66 genes between subjects at baseline with vitamin D deficiency (25(OHD20 ng/ml. After vitamin D3 supplementation gene expression of these 66 genes was similar for both groups. Seventeen vitamin D-regulated genes with new candidate vitamin D response elements including TRIM27, CD83, COPB2, YRNA and CETN3 which have been shown to be important for transcriptional regulation, immune function, response to stress and DNA repair were identified.Our data suggest that any improvement in vitamin D status will significantly affect expression of genes that have a wide variety of biologic functions of more than 160 pathways linked to cancer, autoimmune disorders and cardiovascular disease with have been associated with vitamin D deficiency. This study reveals for the first time molecular finger prints that help explain the nonskeletal health benefits of vitamin D.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01696409.

  10. Biomarkers in white-coat hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Catherine Ann

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in the 1960s provided new insights into the nature of high blood pressure disorders. Blood pressure is now categorised into four quadrants:normotension, masked hypertension, hypertension and white-coat hypertension. In white-coat hypertension blood pressure is elevated when taken at the doctor’s office but normal if taken outside the doctor’s office. Several controversies are associated with white-coat hypertension, which are discuss...

  11. Technetium-99m HMPAO SPET in acute supratentorial ischaemic infraction, expressing deficits as millilitre of zero perfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierckx, R.A. [Univ. Hospital of Ghent (Belgium). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy]|[Antwerp Univ. (Belgium). Lab. of Neurochemistry and Behavior, Born-Bunge Foundation UIA; Dobbeleir, A. [Middelheim Hospital, Antwerp (Belgium). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Pickut, B.A. [Middelheim Hospital, Antwerp (Belgium). Dept. of Neurology; Timmermans, L. [Middelheim Hospital, Antwerp (Belgium). Dept. of Neurology; Dierckx, I. [Middelheim Hospital, Antwerp (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology; Vervaet, A. [Middelheim Hospital, Antwerp (Belgium). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Vandevivere, J. [Middelheim Hospital, Antwerp (Belgium). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Deberdt, W. [UCB Pharma NV (Belgium); Deyn, P.P. de [Middelheim Hospital, Antwerp (Belgium). Dept. of Neurology]|[Antwerp Univ. (Belgium). Lab. of Neurochemistry and Behavior, Born-Bunge Foundation UIA

    1995-05-01

    A comparative interim analysis was performed of clinical parameters, computed tomographic (CT) scan results and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO (SPET)-findings obtained within 12 h of acute supratentorial ischaemic infarction. First, the applicability for SPET semiquantification in this study of the ``method of Mountz``, simultaneously accounting for extent and degrees of hypoperfusion, was considered. Next, the relative contributions of perfusion SPET and CT scan in the acute stage of ischaemic infarction were compared in 27 patients (mean age 68.8 years). Finally, the correlation of SPET lesions with clinical parameters at onset was evaluated. The method of Mountz represents a workable, accurate virtual parameter, with the assumption that the contralateral brain region remains uninvolved. Because of inconstant distribution of activities in the brain, the method can only be applied slice by sclice and not on the total global volume. While the mean delay since the onset of symptomatology was approximately 7 h for both SPET and CT scan, SPET showed lesions concordant with the clinical neurological findings in 100% and CT scan in only 48%. One could hypothesize that SPET examinations performed later would show larger functional defects, because of the development of additional functional changes secondary to biochemical alterations. However, in this regard no statistically significant differences were found between two subproups, taking the median of delay before SPET examination as cut-off. Finally, when comparing the volumes of SPET lesions during the acute stage with clinical parameters, a statistically significant correlation (P<0.01) was found with the Orgogozo Scale scores describing the neurological deficit, but not with the Glasgow Coma Scale or Frenchay Aphasia Screening Test scores obtained on admittance. (orig./MG)

  12. White Ring; White ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, H.; Yuzawa, H. [Nikken Sekkei Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-01-05

    White Ring is a citizen`s gymnasium used for figure skating and short track speed skating games of 18th Winter Olympic Games in 1998. White Ring is composed of a main-arena and a sub-arena. For the main-arena with an area 41mtimes66m, an ice link can be made by disengaging the potable floor and by flowing brine in the bridged polystyrene pipes embedded in the concrete floor. Due to the fortunate groundwater in this site, well water is used for the outside air treatment energy in 63% during heating and in 35% during cooling. Ammonia is used as a cooling medium for refrigerating facility. For the heating of audience area in the large space, heat load from the outside is reduced by enhancing the heat insulation performance of the roof of arena. The audience seats are locally heated using heaters. For the White Ring, high quality environment is realized for games through various functions of the large-scale roof of the large space. Success of the big event was expected. 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. A fundamental study for {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO double injection method and clinical application to stress scintigraphy for orthostatic hypotension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, Takeshi; Odano, Ikuo; Takahashi, Naoya; Sakai, Kunio [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-03-01

    Double injection method using brain perfusion {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT is popular one for evaluating stress scintigraphy. For appropriate evaluation of this method 555 MBq (15 mCi) of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO was injected twice in sequence at the resting state. The first and second SPECT images were obtained 5 min after each injection. Twenty-five ROIs of 8 x 8 pixels were placed on in various regions of the first images, and calculate each counts (C{sub 1}). Then the counts of the same region of the second scan were calculated (C{sub 2}). One hundred and fifty ROIs/6 patients were examined. We derived the linear relationship as C{sub 2}=1.66 x C{sub 1}+106 (r=0.97), where C{sub 1} and C{sub 2} represents counts of the first scan, and second scan, respectively. This result suggests that the counts of the second scan is derived from the counts of the first scan without second scanning if they are obtained in the same condition. When we applied this method to stress scintigraphy, it may be useful for evaluating the regional brain perfusion changes before and after loading instead of using subtraction technique. (author).

  14. Technetium-99m HM-PAO SPECT in patients with delayed neurologic sequelae after carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, I. S.; Lee, M. S.; Lee, Y. J.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, S. S.; Kim, W. T.

    1992-01-01

    We used single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (99mTc-HM-PAO) in 14 studies on 6 patients with delayed neurologic sequelae from carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning to determine whether any changes in cerebral blood flow could be correlated with clinical or computed tomographic evidence of delayed deficits. Among the six initial CT brain scans, two showed low density of both basal ganglia and two showed decreased density of the cerebral white matter. There was no correlation between the clinical outcome and the findings of the follow-up CT brain scans. Of the two SPECTS with 99mTc-HM-PAO performed during acute anoxic insult, one showed focal hypoperfusion which appeared 20 days prior to the onset of delayed neurologic sequelae after CO poisoning. Seven SPECTs in the six patients performing the delayed phase showed diffuse patched patterns of hypoperfusion which improved on follow-up images. There was good correlation between the clinical outcome and the findings of the 99mTc-HM-PAO SPECT. In preliminary conclusion, 9Tc-HM-PAO brain SPECT can be used for predicting or evaluating the outcome of delayed neurologic sequelae after CO poisoning. Cerebral vascular changes may be the possible cause of hypoperfusion in patients with CO poisoning. PMID:1418757

  15. The Impact of the Progressive Efficiency Test on a Rowing Ergometer on White Blood Cells Distribution and Clinical Chemistry Changes in Paralympic Rowers During the Preparatory Stage Before the Paralympic Games in Rio, 2016 – A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Robert; Buryta, Rafał; Krupecki, Krzysztof; Zając, Tomasz; Zawartka, Marek; Proia, Patrizia

    2017-01-01

    Abstract There is a large gap in knowledge regarding research on post-exercise blood changes in disabled athletes. There are relatively few data on adaptive mechanisms to exercise in disabled athletes, including disabled rowers. Two rowers from a Polish adaptive rowing settle TAMix2x that qualified for the Paralympic Games in Rio, 2016 took part in this study. They performed a progressive test on a rowing ergometer until exhaustion. The cardiorespiratory fitness measures, complete blood count, white blood cells’ distribution and 30 clinical chemistry variables describing laboratory diagnostic profiles and general health were determined. The extreme effort induced changes in all studied metabolites (glucose, creatinine, urea, uric acid, total and direct bilirubin), albumin, total protein levels in both participants. Furthermore, a post-exercise increase in aspartate transaminase activity, yet a 2-fold decrease during the recovery time in both rowers were found. White blood cell count increased 2-fold after the test. The percentages of natural killer cells were higher and total T lymphocytes were lower after the exercise protocol. There were higher percentages of suppressor/cytotoxic and lower percentages of helper/inducer T lymphocyte subsets in both studied rowers. No changes in B lymphocytes distribution were observed. Lack of inflammatory symptoms during the experiment suggests a high level of rowers’ biological adaptation to the physical effort. The different changes in physiological, biochemical and immunological variables are related to the adaptive mechanism to physical exercise allowing for improvement of performance. PMID:29340006

  16. The Impact of the Progressive Efficiency Test on a Rowing Ergometer on White Blood Cells Distribution and Clinical Chemistry Changes in Paralympic Rowers During the Preparatory Stage Before the Paralympic Games in Rio, 2016 - A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Robert; Buryta, Rafał; Krupecki, Krzysztof; Zając, Tomasz; Zawartka, Marek; Proia, Patrizia; Kostrzewa-Nowak, Dorota

    2017-12-01

    There is a large gap in knowledge regarding research on post-exercise blood changes in disabled athletes. There are relatively few data on adaptive mechanisms to exercise in disabled athletes, including disabled rowers. Two rowers from a Polish adaptive rowing settle TAMix2x that qualified for the Paralympic Games in Rio, 2016 took part in this study. They performed a progressive test on a rowing ergometer until exhaustion. The cardiorespiratory fitness measures, complete blood count, white blood cells' distribution and 30 clinical chemistry variables describing laboratory diagnostic profiles and general health were determined. The extreme effort induced changes in all studied metabolites (glucose, creatinine, urea, uric acid, total and direct bilirubin), albumin, total protein levels in both participants. Furthermore, a post-exercise increase in aspartate transaminase activity, yet a 2-fold decrease during the recovery time in both rowers were found. White blood cell count increased 2-fold after the test. The percentages of natural killer cells were higher and total T lymphocytes were lower after the exercise protocol. There were higher percentages of suppressor/cytotoxic and lower percentages of helper/inducer T lymphocyte subsets in both studied rowers. No changes in B lymphocytes distribution were observed. Lack of inflammatory symptoms during the experiment suggests a high level of rowers' biological adaptation to the physical effort. The different changes in physiological, biochemical and immunological variables are related to the adaptive mechanism to physical exercise allowing for improvement of performance.

  17. The Impact of the Progressive Efficiency Test on a Rowing Ergometer on White Blood Cells Distribution and Clinical Chemistry Changes in Paralympic Rowers During the Preparatory Stage Before the Paralympic Games in Rio, 2016 – A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak Robert

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a large gap in knowledge regarding research on post-exercise blood changes in disabled athletes. There are relatively few data on adaptive mechanisms to exercise in disabled athletes, including disabled rowers. Two rowers from a Polish adaptive rowing settle TAMix2x that qualified for the Paralympic Games in Rio, 2016 took part in this study. They performed a progressive test on a rowing ergometer until exhaustion. The cardiorespiratory fitness measures, complete blood count, white blood cells’ distribution and 30 clinical chemistry variables describing laboratory diagnostic profiles and general health were determined. The extreme effort induced changes in all studied metabolites (glucose, creatinine, urea, uric acid, total and direct bilirubin, albumin, total protein levels in both participants. Furthermore, a post-exercise increase in aspartate transaminase activity, yet a 2-fold decrease during the recovery time in both rowers were found. White blood cell count increased 2-fold after the test. The percentages of natural killer cells were higher and total T lymphocytes were lower after the exercise protocol. There were higher percentages of suppressor/cytotoxic and lower percentages of helper/inducer T lymphocyte subsets in both studied rowers. No changes in B lymphocytes distribution were observed. Lack of inflammatory symptoms during the experiment suggests a high level of rowers’ biological adaptation to the physical effort. The different changes in physiological, biochemical and immunological variables are related to the adaptive mechanism to physical exercise allowing for improvement of performance.

  18. Effect of different doses of aerobic exercise on total white blood cell (WBC and WBC subfraction number in postmenopausal women: results from DREW.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil M Johannsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elevated total white blood cell (WBC count is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and death. Aerobic exercise is associated with lower total WBC, neutrophil, and monocyte counts. However, no studies have evaluated the effect of the amount of aerobic exercise (dose on total WBC and WBC subfraction counts. PURPOSE: To examine the effects of 3 different doses of aerobic exercise on changes in total WBC and WBC subfraction counts and independent effects of changes in fitness, adiposity, markers of inflammation (IL-6, TNF-α, C-reactive protein, fasting glucose metabolism, and adiponectin. METHODS: Data from 390 sedentary, overweight/obese postmenopausal women from the DREW study were used in these analyses. Women were randomized to a non-exercise control group or one of 3 exercise groups: energy expenditure of 4, 8, or 12 kcal kg(-1⋅week(-1 (KKW for 6 months at an intensity of 50% VO2peak. RESULTS: A dose-dependent decrease in total WBC counts (trend P = 0.002 was observed with a significant decrease in the 12KKW group (-163.1±140.0 cells/µL; mean±95%CI compared with the control (138.6±144.7 cells/µL. A similar response was seen in the neutrophil subfraction (trend P = 0.001 with a significant decrease in the 12KKW group (-152.6±115.1 cells/µL compared with both the control and 4KKW groups (96.4±119.0 and 21.9±95.3 cells/µL, respectively and in the 8KKW group (-102.4±125.0 cells/µL compared with the control. When divided into high/low baseline WBC categories (median split, a dose-dependent decrease in both total WBCs (P = 0.003 and neutrophils (P<0.001 was observed in women with high baseline WBC counts. The effects of exercise dose on total WBC and neutrophil counts persisted after accounting for significant independent effects of change in waist circumference and IL-6. CONCLUSION: Aerobic exercise training reduces total WBC and neutrophil counts, in a dose-dependent manner, in

  19. Differential white blood cell count and type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-sectional and prospective studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effrossyni Gkrania-Klotsas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological evidence suggests that inflammation might induce type 2 diabetes (T2D, and epidemiological studies have shown an association between higher white blood cell count (WBC and T2D. However, the association has not been systematically investigated.Studies were identified through computer-based and manual searches. Previously unreported studies were sought through correspondence. 20 studies were identified (8,647 T2D cases and 85,040 non-cases. Estimates of the association of WBC with T2D were combined using random effects meta-analysis; sources of heterogeneity as well as presence of publication bias were explored.The combined relative risk (RR comparing the top to bottom tertile of the WBC count was 1.61 (95% CI: 1.45; 1.79, p = 1.5*10(-18. Substantial heterogeneity was present (I(2 = 83%. For granulocytes the RR was 1.38 (95% CI: 1.17; 1.64, p = 1.5*10(-4, for lymphocytes 1.26 (95% CI: 1.02; 1.56, p = 0.029, and for monocytes 0.93 (95% CI: 0.68; 1.28, p = 0.67 comparing top to bottom tertile. In cross-sectional studies, RR was 1.74 (95% CI: 1.49; 2.02, p = 7.7*10(-13, while in cohort studies it was 1.48 (95% CI: 1.22; 1.79, p = 7.7*10(-5. We assessed the impact of confounding in EPIC-Norfolk study and found that the age and sex adjusted HR of 2.19 (95% CI: 1.74; 2.75 was attenuated to 1.82 (95% CI: 1.45; 2.29 after further accounting for smoking, T2D family history, physical activity, education, BMI and waist circumference.A raised WBC is associated with higher risk of T2D. The presence of publication bias and failure to control for all potential confounders in all studies means the observed association is likely an overestimate.

  20. White blood cell count measured prior to cancer development is associated with future risk of venous thromboembolism--the Tromsø study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Blix

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elevated white blood cell (WBC count is associated with risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE in cancer patients initiating chemotherapy. It is not known whether the risk of VTE by WBC count in cancer patients is causal or merely a consequence of the malignant disease. To address this question, we studied the association between WBC count, measured prior to cancer development, and risk of VTE in subjects who did and did not develop cancer during follow-up in a prospective population-based study. METHODS: Baseline characteristics, including WBC and neutrophil counts, were measured in 24304 initially cancer-free subjects who participated in the Tromsø Study in 1994-1995. Incident cancer diagnosis and VTE events were registered up to September 1, 2007. In the cancer cohort, WBC and neutrophil counts were measured in average 7.1 years before cancer development. Cox-regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs for VTE by WBC and neutrophil counts as categorized variables (80(th percentile with 95% confidence intervals (CIs. RESULTS: During follow-up, 1720 subjects developed cancer and there were 388 VTE events, of which 116 occurred in the cancer-group (6.9 per 1000 person-years and 272 in the cancer-free group (1.1 per 1000 person-years. In those who developed cancer, WBC count above the 80(th percentile (≥ 8.6 x 10(9 cells/L was associated with a 2.4-fold higher risk (HR 2.36, 95% CI: 1.44-3.87 of VTE compared to WBC count below the 40(th percentile (<6.4 x 10(9 cells/L. No association was found between WBC count and VTE in those who stayed cancer-free (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.65-1.36. Similar findings were observed for neutrophils. COMMENT: Pre-cancer WBC count was associated with risk of VTE in cancer patients, but not in cancer-free subjects. Our findings suggest that leukocytes may play a causal role in cancer-related VTE rather than only reflecting the low-grade inflammation associated with cancer.

  1. Genome-wide association study of white blood cell count in 16,388 African Americans: the continental origins and genetic epidemiology network (COGENT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander P Reiner

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Total white blood cell (WBC and neutrophil counts are lower among individuals of African descent due to the common African-derived "null" variant of the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC gene. Additional common genetic polymorphisms were recently associated with total WBC and WBC sub-type levels in European and Japanese populations. No additional loci that account for WBC variability have been identified in African Americans. In order to address this, we performed a large genome-wide association study (GWAS of total WBC and cell subtype counts in 16,388 African-American participants from 7 population-based cohorts available in the Continental Origins and Genetic Epidemiology Network. In addition to the DARC locus on chromosome 1q23, we identified two other regions (chromosomes 4q13 and 16q22 associated with WBC in African Americans (P<2.5×10(-8. The lead SNP (rs9131 on chromosome 4q13 is located in the CXCL2 gene, which encodes a chemotactic cytokine for polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Independent evidence of the novel CXCL2 association with WBC was present in 3,551 Hispanic Americans, 14,767 Japanese, and 19,509 European Americans. The index SNP (rs12149261 on chromosome 16q22 associated with WBC count is located in a large inter-chromosomal segmental duplication encompassing part of the hydrocephalus inducing homolog (HYDIN gene. We demonstrate that the chromosome 16q22 association finding is most likely due to a genotyping artifact as a consequence of sequence similarity between duplicated regions on chromosomes 16q22 and 1q21. Among the WBC loci recently identified in European or Japanese populations, replication was observed in our African-American meta-analysis for rs445 of CDK6 on chromosome 7q21 and rs4065321 of PSMD3-CSF3 region on chromosome 17q21. In summary, the CXCL2, CDK6, and PSMD3-CSF3 regions are associated with WBC count in African American and other populations. We also demonstrate that large inter

  2. White lies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erat, S.; Gneezy, U.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we distinguish between two types of white lies: those that help others at the expense of the person telling the lie, which we term altruistic white lies, and those that help both others and the liar, which we term Pareto white lies. We find that a large fraction of participants are

  3. Ethnic differences in blood lipids and dietary intake between UK children of black African, black Caribbean, South Asian, and white European origin: the Child Heart and Health Study in England (CHASE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donin, Angela S; Nightingale, Claire M; Owen, Christopher G; Rudnicka, Alicja R; McNamara, Mary C; Prynne, Celia J; Stephen, Alison M; Cook, Derek G; Whincup, Peter H

    2010-10-01

    Ischemic heart disease (IHD) rates are lower in UK black Africans and black Caribbeans and higher in South Asians when compared with white Europeans. Ethnic differences in lipid concentrations may play a part in these differences. The objective was to investigate blood lipid and dietary patterns in UK children from different ethnic groups. This was a cross-sectional study in 2026 UK children (including 285 black Africans, 188 black Caribbeans, 534 South Asians, and 512 white Europeans) attending primary schools in London, Birmingham, and Leicester. We measured fasting blood lipid concentrations and collected 24-h dietary recalls. In comparison with white Europeans, black African children had lower total cholesterol (-0.14 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.25, -0.04 mmol/L), LDL-cholesterol (-0.10 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.20, -0.01 mmol/L), and triglyceride concentrations (proportional difference: -0.11 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.16, -0.06 mmol/L); HDL-cholesterol concentrations were similar. Lower saturated fat intakes (-1.4%; 95% CI: -1.9%, -0.9%) explained the differences between total and LDL cholesterol. Black Caribbean children had total, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations similar to those for white Europeans, with slightly lower saturated fat intakes. South Asian children had total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations similar to those for white Europeans, lower HDL-cholesterol concentrations (-0.7 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.11, -0.03 mmol/L), and elevated triglyceride concentrations (proportional difference: 0.14 mmol/L; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.20 mmol/L); higher polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fat intakes did not explain these lipid differences. Only black African children had a blood lipid profile and associated dietary pattern likely to protect against future IHD. The loss of historically lower LDL-cholesterol concentrations among UK black Caribbeans and South Asians may have important adverse consequences for future IHD risk in these groups.

  4. Longitudinal assessment of micronutrient intake among African-American and white girls : The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Affenito, Sandra G.; Thompson, Douglas R.; Franko, Debra L.; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Daniels, Stephen R.; Barton, Bruce A.; Schreiber, George B.; Schmidt, Marcia; Crawford, Patricia B.

    Objective Low intakes of micronutrients among adolescents may be linked to long-term health risks, especially in African-American girls. This report describes intake of key micronutrients relative to the Dietary Reference Intakes in a sample of African-American and white girls. Design Longitudinal

  5. Contributions of the maternal uterine environment and piglet genotype on weaning survivability potential: II. Piglet growth, lactation performance, milk composition, and piglet blood profiles during lactation following reciprocal embryo transfers between Meishan and White crossbred gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, J R; Vallet, J L; Ford, J J; Freking, B A; Oliver, W T; Rempel, L A

    2015-04-01

    Crossbreeding studies between Meishan (MS) and Large White (LW) pigs have illustrated that increased piglet growth before weaning is attributed to the maternal genotype of LW dams. The objective of this study was to determine the contributions of the maternal uterine environment (MUE), piglet genotype (PigG), piglet age (PA), and their interactions on piglet growth, lactation performance, milk composition, and piglet blood profiles during lactation following reciprocal embryo transfers between MS and White crossbred (WC) gilts. Twenty-five successful pregnancies were generated by embryo transfer in 2 farrowing years representing all MUE × PigG combinations: MS × MS (n = 4 litters), MS × WC (n = 7 litters), WC × MS (n = 7 litters), and WC × WC (n = 7 litters). At d 1 and 10 and at weaning, piglets (n = 147, n = 96, and n = 94, respectively) were weighed and blood samples were collected and measured for hematocrit, hemoglobin, glucose, nitrogen, NEFA, albumin, lactate, and cortisol. In addition, sows were manually milked from a medial mammary gland to determine milk composition. All data were analyzed by ANOVA using MIXED model procedures with the fixed effects of MUE, PigG, PA, and their interactions. Piglet weight was greater (P lactation. However, milk composition was greater (P lactation and in MS piglets from MS dams at d 10 of lactation. Blood glucose was greater (P = 0.01) at d 1 in piglets from WC dams regardless of PigG but, at weaning, glucose was greater (P = 0.01) in WC piglets regardless of MUE. Serum NEFA levels were greater (P = 0.02) in piglets from MS dams throughout the lactation period. This study demonstrated that WC dams were superior to MS dams for piglet growth during lactation, in agreement with previous crossbreeding studies. However, blood components measured displayed complex interactions between the piglet and maternal breed, which signify possible mechanisms for improved preweaning survivability but slower lactational growth of MS

  6. Sexual maturation and obesity in 9- and 10-year-old black and white girls: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, J A; Barton, B; Biro, F M; Sprecher, D L; Falkner, F; Obarzanek, E

    1994-06-01

    To assess the relationship between pubertal maturation and obesity in 9- and 10-year-old black and white girls. Cross-sectional analysis of cohort baseline data. A cohort of 2379 girls recruited from selected schools in Richmond, Calif., and greater Cincinnati, Ohio, and from the membership rolls of a prepaid group practice in greater Washington, D.C. Sixty-four percent of black girls had begun pubertal maturation compared with 33% of white girls. In prepubertal girls, racial differences in height, weight, body mass index (kilograms per square meter) and skin-fold thickness were not significant. Within each race, onset of pubertal maturation was associated with greater height, weight, body mass index, and skin-fold measurements. Within 9-year-old girls who had begun pubertal maturation but not reached menarche, black girls were taller and heavier than white girls. Among pubertal but premenarcheal 10-year-old subjects, black girls were taller and heavier and had greater body mass index and subscapular skin-fold values. After analyses were adjusted for pubertal maturation stage by means of pubic hair development, 10-year-old pubertal black girls remained taller and heavier, but racial differences in body mass index and the sum of skin-fold measurements ceased to be significant. These findings suggest that the initiation of racial differences in obesity are related, at least temporally, to pubertal maturation.

  7. Avaliação experimental de "spect" cerebral mediante utilização do d,1 - HMPAO 99mTc em cães. Considerações anátomo-fisiológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Wlademir De Martin

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available O d,1 - Hexametilpropileno oxima marcado com o tecnécio-99m(99mTc-HMPAO é um importante radiofármaco usado tanto para imagens tomográficas cerebrais quanto na marcação “in vitro" de leucócitos. A crescente utilização deste radiofármaco no estudo de doenças neurológicas no homem levou-nos à obtenção de "kits" de HMPAO para ser marcado pelo tecnécio-99m. Neste trabalho apresentamos o estudo experimental efetuado com "kits" liofilizados de d,1 – HMPAO99mTc desenvolvidos em nossos laboratórios, comparando inclusive com aqueles encontrados no comércio. As imagens cerebrais inicialmente foram feitas em coelhos, entretanto os melhores resultados foram obtidos em cães. Assim, selecionaram-se seis cães sem raça definida, considerados clinicamente normais para obtenção das imagens cintilográficas do cérebro e o “washout” das regiões de interesse (ROls. Os estudos experimentais em animais e a considerável redução do custo do radiofármaco mostrou-nos a possibilidade da utilização destes exames na clínica veterinária, especialmente de pequenos animais. Por outro lado, a perfusão do d,l – HMPAO99mTc mostra que a concentração do radiofármaco se faz ao mesmo tempo na região do cérebro e nas fossas nasais, demonstrando a existência de estruturas iguais às da barreira hemo-encefálica nesta última região.

  8. Longer telomere length in peripheral white blood cells is associated with risk of lung cancer and the rs2736100 (CLPTM1L-TERT polymorphism in a prospective cohort study among women in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Lan

    Full Text Available A recent genome-wide association study of lung cancer among never-smoking females in Asia demonstrated that the rs2736100 polymorphism in the TERT-CLPTM1L locus on chromosome 5p15.33 was strongly and significantly associated with risk of adenocarcinoma of the lung. The telomerase gene TERT is a reverse transcriptase that is critical for telomere replication and stabilization by controlling telomere length. We previously found that longer telomere length measured in peripheral white blood cell DNA was associated with increased risk of lung cancer in a prospective cohort study of smoking males in Finland. To follow up on this finding, we carried out a nested case-control study of 215 female lung cancer cases and 215 female controls, 94% of whom were never-smokers, in the prospective Shanghai Women's Health Study cohort. There was a dose-response relationship between tertiles of telomere length and risk of lung cancer (odds ratio (OR, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0, 1.4 [0.8-2.5], and 2.2 [1.2-4.0], respectively; P trend = 0.003. Further, the association was unchanged by the length of time from blood collection to case diagnosis. In addition, the rs2736100 G allele, which we previously have shown to be associated with risk of lung cancer in this cohort, was significantly associated with longer telomere length in these same study subjects (P trend = 0.030. Our findings suggest that individuals with longer telomere length in peripheral white blood cells may have an increased risk of lung cancer, but require replication in additional prospective cohorts and populations.

  9. Causal neuro-immune relationships at patients with chronic pyelonephritis and cholecystitis. Correlations between parameters EEG, HRV and white blood cell count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kul’chyns’kyi Andriy B

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We aim to analyze in bounds KJ Tracey’s immunological homunculus conception the relationships between parameters of electroencephalogram (EEG and heart rate variability (HRV, on the one hand, and the parameters of bhite blood cell count, on the other hand.

  10. Home monitoring of blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    McGrath, Barry P.

    2015-01-01

    Home blood pressure monitoring is the self-measurement of blood pressure by patients. In the diagnosis and management of high blood pressure it is complementary to 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and clinic blood pressure measurements. Home monitoring can also help to identify white-coat and masked hypertension.

  11. Evolution of cerebral blood flow between the acute stage and one month after a global transient amnesia: a study of 18 patients; Evolution des debits sanguins cerebraux entre la phase aigue et un mois apres un ictus amnesique: etude chez 18 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippon, B.; Houzard, C.; Cinotti, L. [Hopital Neuro Cardiologique, Centre de Medecine Nucleaire, 69 - Lyon (France); Croisile, B. [Hopital Neuro Cardiologique, Lab. de Neuropsychologie, Fonctions Cognitives, Langage et Memoire, 69 - Lyon (France)

    2001-03-01

    We studied 18 patients within 24 hours of an idiopathic transient global amnesia and one month later using {sup 133}Xe et {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO for CBF measurements. Absolute hemispheric CBF obtained with the {sup 133}Xe were initially: (right) = 46.9 ml/mn/100 g (s.d 6.6) and (left) = 47.9 (s.d 6.8). One month later, a significant increase of the right hemispheric CBF occurred (52.0 {+-} 6.9). Accordingly, absolute CBF increased bilaterally in the cerebellar and temporal regions. Local relative cerebral blood flow ( {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) allowed to reinforce these findings with increased resolution. They can also provide quantitative values thanks to the{sup 133}Xe calibration. (authors)

  12. Where to Donate Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cord Blood Symposium Annual Meeting Highlights Conference & Expo eLearning Live Learning Center/Learning Management System CareerLink Specialist in Blood Bank Technology AABB-Fenwal Scholarships Calendar of Events Research AABB Hemovigilance National Blood Foundation Transfusion Journal White ...

  13. Scintigraphic findings on {sup 99m}Tc-MDP, {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO images in Gaucher`s disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariani, G. [Nuclear Medicine Service, DIMI, University of Genoa (Italy); Molea, N. [Regional Center of Nuclear Medicine, University of Pisa (Italy); La Civita, L. [Rheumatology Unit, University of Pisa (Italy); Porciello, G. [Rheumatology Unit, University of Pisa (Italy); Lazzeri, E. [Regional Center of Nuclear Medicine, University of Pisa (Italy); Ferri, C. [Rheumatology Unit, University of Pisa (Italy)

    1996-04-01

    We report here on the use of the lipophilic cationic complex technetium-99m sestamibi ({sup 99m}Tc-MIBI), employed as an indicator of increased cellular density and metabolic activity, to evaluate Gaucher cell infiltrates in the bone marrow; {sup 99m}Tc-hexametazime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) was also employed, as a pure indicator of lipidic infiltration in the bone marrow. A 67-year-old patient with known type 1 Gaucher`s disease presented with a painful left hip and knee and difficulty in gait subsequent to traumatic fracture of the left femoral neck that had required implant of a fixation screw-plaque. Bone scan with {sup 99m}Tc-methylene diphosphonate revealed reduced uptake at the distal metaphyseal-epiphyseal femoral region. In addition, whole-body maps and spot-view acquisitions of the thighs and legs were recorded at both 30 min and 2.5 h after the injection of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI: the scintigraphic pattern clearly showed increased uptake at several sites involved by Gaucher deposits in the bone marrow (both knees, with variable intensity in different areas), matching the bone changes detected by conventional x-ray. The target to non-target ratios slowly decreased with time, from an average value of 2.25 in the early scan to an average value of 2 in the delayed scan. The lipid-soluble agent {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO exhibited a superimposable scintigraphic pattern of accumulation at the involved sites, though with lower target to non-target ratios (1.27-1.48). The results obtained in this patient suggest a potential role of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI in the scintigraphic evaluation of Gaucher`s lipid deposits in the bone marrow. If the results are confirmed in other patients, this radiopharmaceutical would offer clear advantages over {sup 133}Xe because of its wider availability and greater practicality (i.v. administration of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI versus inhalation of {sup 133}Xe, and use of a single gamma camera instead of two as with {sup 133}Xe). (orig.). With 3 figs.

  14. [The influence of cardiopulmonary bypass operation on the biodistribution of 99mTc-HMPAO-labelled granulocytes - Evaluation in pigs by planar scintigraphy and section-analyses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happel, C; Margraf, S; Diener, J; Kranert, W T; Francischetti, I; Bitu-Moreno, J; Ackermann, H; Middendorp, M; Theisen, A; Moritz, A; Scholz, M; Grünwald, F

    2012-01-01

    of the study was to evaluate the influence of an extra corporal perfusion (cardiopulmonary bypass operation - cpb) on activation and biodistribution of (99m)Tc labelled granulocytes in pigs with and without inhibition of the granulocytes by a leukocyte inhibition module (LIM). The cpb is often related to an activation of granulocytes resulting in an inflammatory answer. The biological mechanisms are unsolved yet. First trials of our group showed that LIM may inhibit the activation of neutrophils and therefore antagonize a cpb-caused impairment of cardiac function. This study is the continuation of these experiments with a higher number of animals and the focus on scintigraphic imaging. ANIMALS, MATERIAL, METHODS: 39 German landrace pigs were subdivided into three groups: group A (control) median sternotomy without cpb, group B with cpb, group C with LIM in addition to cpb. After labelling with (99m)Tc-HMPAO autologues granulocytes were reinjected. Subsequently to cpb, the animals underwent scintigraphic imaging. Quantification was performed with ROI evaluation and with tissue samples (section analysis) examined in a well counter. A high uptake of (99m)Tc-HMPAO was found in the liver. The count rates in brain, heart, lung, spleen and kidneys were far below. The amount of 99mTc-activity in the organ related to the half life corrected administered activity [%] was for the tissue samples (group A/B/C): brain 0.01/0.02/0.03; lung 12.1/8.3/11.5; heart 0.35/0.54/0.42; kidney 1.24/0.87/1.02; spleen 4.0/4.0/4.5, liver 16.8/20.9/19.6. The count rates determined by ROI-evaluation of the scintigraphic images related to the total count rate in the image [%] were (group A/B/C): brain 1.1/0.9/1.0; lung 15.6/10.4/12.2; heart 4.0/3.5/3.4; kidney 4.0/2.9/3.2; spleen 7.6/7.7/9.5, liver 23.1/36.7/31.4. A significant difference in the tracer uptake between the groups could neither be detected by scintigraphic imaging nor evaluation of tissue samples. Scintigraphic imaging as well as

  15. Cerebral tomo-scintigraphy with HmPAO Tc: Differential diagnosis between Parkinson`s disease, Alzheimer`s disease and the disease of diffuse Lewy`s bodies; Tomoscintigraphie cerebrale au HmPAO Tc: diagnostic differenntiel entre Parkinson, Alzheimer et maladie a corps de Lewy diffus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leduc, V. [Departament de Neurologie, CHR and U 59037 Lille (France); Lecouffe, P. [Service Central de Medecine Nucleaire, CHR and U Lille (France); Defebvre, L.; Pasquier, F. [Departament de Neurologie, CHR and U 59037 Lille (France); Pham, T.; Lamy, C. [Service Central de Medecine Nucleaire, CHR and U Lille (France); Destee, A. [Departament de Neurologie, CHR and U 59037 Lille (France); Steinling, M. [Service Central de Medecine Nucleaire, CHR and U 59037 Lille (France)

    1997-12-31

    The Lewy bodies disease (LBD) brings together a Parkinson syndrome and a cortical dementia. The clinical diagnosis is sometimes difficult, since there are numerous common points with Idiopathic Parkinson`s Disease (IPD) and the Alzheimer`s Disease (AD). The goal of this work is to determine the place of SPECT with HmPAO-Tc in the differential diagnosis of these three entities. We have studied 19 patients with an IPD (Hughes` criterion), 19 patients with an AD (NINCDS-ADRDA), 14 patients with a LBD (criteria of Byrne and Mc Keith). The three groups do not differ either as age, duration of disease or MMS. The SPECT was achieved by using the Tomomatic 564 (555 MBq of HmPAO Tc). The fixation of HmPAO was measured in 10 pairs of regions of predetermined interest (OM + 5 cm), and the results were expressed by the fixation indices (reference: the mean cerebellar values). The statistical analysis was based on the Mann and Withney Test and a posteriori ad-hoc comparisons. A significant difference in the value of fixation indices was found between IPD and LBD: lower values for LBD at the level of occipital and temporo-parietal regions and at the level of left T.P.O. cortex. There exists a significant difference for the posterior cortical regions: AD < IPD. The differences between AD and LBD occur in the fronto-lateral and fronto-posterior regions in a bilateral way: LBD < AD. The aspect observed by SPECT may therefore contribute to diagnosis due to the loco-regional differences evidenced in this study

  16. [Changes in the oxygen-binding properties of the blood in white rats under the influence of hypoxia and its pharmacological correction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudariev, V P; Lanovenko, I I

    1999-01-01

    It was shown that acute (7% of oxygen in nitrogen, 30-60 min) and chronic hypoxic hypoxia (adaptation to the conditions of the middle mountains 2100 m above sea level) increased hemoglobin contents and organic phosphates--2,3-DPG and ATP in Wistar rats. Preliminary administration of taurine, taurile, ionole in normal and hypoxic conditions had no essential effect on the oxygen blood capacity where as the content of 2,3-DPG and glucoso-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity increased. Taurin was more effective, than tauril.

  17. A five-year longitudinal study of the regional cerebral metabolic changes of a schizophrenic patient from the first episode using Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R Y; Chen, E; Ho, W Y

    2000-01-01

    This is a naturalistic study of the relationship between cerebral metabolic activity, clinical symptoms and treatment response in a schizophrenic patient for 5 years from the onset of her illness. Serial technetium-99m-HMPAO brain SPECT was used to measure regional cerebral metabolism. The Cambridge Neurological Inventory and neuropsychological tests (WAIS-R verbal subscales, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, semantic verbal fluency, logical memory in Weschler Memory Scale) were used for neurocognitive assessment. Under-activity of the left temporal area was observed in the course of patient illness despite remission of the psychotic symptoms. Bilateral prefrontal metabolic under-activity was noted at the emergence of negative symptoms, executive neurocognitive dysfunction and the treatment-resistant state. After response to clozapine, the right prefrontal activity returned to a normal level. Our findings suggested that persistent left temporal underactivity detected by SPECT despite clinical remission may indicate a vulnerability for further relapses and development of a treatment-resistant state. Treatment-resistant state, negative symptoms and executive neurocognitive deficit may involve abnormal prefrontal metabolic activity and can be alleviated in clozapine-responsive patients.

  18. Differences in {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO brain SPET perfusion imaging between Tourette's syndrome and chronic tic disorder in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, N.-T.; Lee, B.-F. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (Taiwan); Chang, Y.-C. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Kaohsiung Chang Kang Children' s Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (Taiwan); Huang, C.-C. [Dept. of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (Taiwan); Wang, S.-T. [Dept. of Public Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (Taiwan)

    2001-02-01

    Early differential diagnosis between Tourette's syndrome and chronic tic disorder is difficult but important because both the outcome and the treatment of these two childhood-onset diseases are distinct. We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of brain single-photon emission tomography (SPET) perfusion imaging in distinguishing the two diseases, and characterized their different cerebral perfusion patterns. Twenty-seven children with Tourette's syndrome and 11 with chronic tic disorder (mean age 9.5 and 8.6 years, respectively) underwent brain SPET with technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO). Visual interpretation and semi-quantitative analysis of SPET images were performed. On visual interpretation, 22 of 27 (82%) of the Tourette's syndrome group had lesions characterized by decreased perfusion. The left hemisphere was more frequently involved. None of the children with chronic tic disorder had a visible abnormality. Semi-quantitative analysis showed that, compared with children with chronic tic disorder, children with Tourette's syndrome had significantly lower perfusion in the left lateral temporal area and asymmetric perfusion in the dorsolateral frontal, lateral and medial temporal areas. In conclusion, using the visual approach, brain SPET perfusion imaging is sensitive and specific in differentiating Tourette's syndrome and chronic tic disorder. The perfusion difference between the two groups, demonstrated by semi-quantitative analysis, may be related more to the co-morbidity in Tourette's syndrome than to tics per se. (orig.)

  19. Imaging infection and inflammation in an African environment: comparison of 99Tcm-HMPAO-labelled leukocytes and 67Ga-citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bester, M J; Van Heerden, P D; Klopper, J F; Wasserman, H J; Rubow, S; de Klerk, F

    1995-07-01

    A considerable segment of the population of South Africa has a disease spectrum similar to those of the industrialized countries. However, a much larger proportion of its inhabitants comes from historically disadvantaged communities and is plagued by diseases typical of the developing world. Infectious diseases head the list as a cause of mortality in certain age groups. We have studied 108 patients presenting with a wide array of infections. Fifty-eight patients were examined with 67Ga-citrate and with 99Tcm-HMPAO-labelled leukocytes, 40 with leukocytes alone and 10 who had a high pre-test probability of tuberculosis with 67Ga only. The sensitivity and specificity of 99Tcm-labelled leukocyte scintigraphy in the 58 patients who had both studies were 89 and 84%, respectively, while the corresponding values for 67Ga scintigraphy were 81 and 74%, respectively. The overall sensitivity and specificity for 99Tcm-labelled leukocytes for detecting inflammatory sites in all 98 cases were 92 and 89%, respectively. Although labelled leukocytes were the better of the two agents for the early diagnosis of infections with a high probability of neutrophil infiltration, 67Ga remains an excellent alternative. It is the first choice in patients in whom tuberculosis or a neoplastic process is suspected as a cause of fever. It is also safer to use in areas where labelling of leukocytes is inadvisable because of inadequate sterility or where the risk is high of infecting other patients or staff with HIV.

  20. Evaluation of surgical outcome with pre-and post-operative rest/acetazolamide Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT in children with moyamoya disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D. S.; Wang, K. C.; Cho, B. K.; Chung, J. K.; Lee, M. C. [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hyun, I. Y. [College of Medicine, Inha Univ., Inchon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-08-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the outcome of encephalo-duro-arterio-synangiosis(EDAS) surgery with rest/acetazolamide Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT in moyamoya disease. Rest/acetazolamide subtraction SPECT with consecutive acquisition were done before and 2 months after 21 EDAS surgeries in 18 patients. Perfusion decrease was graded visually for 14 areas of each hemisphere as 0 (normal) to 3 (defect) using 4 point scoring system. Postopertive rest perfusion or perfusion reserve was compared with preoperative ones. Among 294 areas of 21 hemispheres, rest perfusion abnormality was found in 97 areas of 15 hemispheres. Decrease of perfusion reserve was found in 146 areas of 18 hemispheres. Six hemispheres having normal rest perfusion and 12 of 15 hemispheres having rest perfusion abnormality showed reserve decrease. Three having rest perfusion defect did not change after acetazolamide in preoperative SPECT. After operation, 16 patients (89%) demonstrated clinical improvement. Fifteen among 18 hemispheres (83%) with decreased reserve improved. Rest perfusion abnormality improved in 6 among the 15 hemispheres (40%). The areas having rest perfusion and/or reserve decrease improved in 87 among 146 areas (60%). Decrease of reserve improved in 85% (68/80). However, areas without reserve decrease also improved in 29% (19/66). The better was preoperative rest perfusion in involved areas or the more decreased vascular reserve, the more improved perfusion and reserve after operation. We conclude that assessment of perfusion and perfusion reserve using rest/acetazolamide brain perfusion SPECT predict the surgical outcome in patients with moyamoya disease.

  1. The Use of Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM96 as a Decision Aid in the Differential Diagnosis of Dementia Using 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Barnes

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study standard patterns of cerebral perfusion based on classifications described in the literature have been chosen and the ability of experienced imaging specialists to categorise the 99mTc HMPAO SPECT scans of patients referred to the department for investigation of dementia has been compared before and after the calculation of Statistical Parametric Maps (SPM—Wellcome Dept of Cognitive Neurology. The primary aim was to investigate whether SPM is an effective decision aid and whether it impacts on the confidence of image reporting. The secondary aim was to examine the influence of SPM on the agreement between image reporting and clinical diagnosis. The results showed that there was a slight decrease in agreement between the imaging specialists after the introduction of additional information from SPM (K = 0.57 to K = 0.5 and that agreement between imaging reporting (including information from SPM and clinical diagnosis was moderate (K = 0.28. This study was able to confirm that SPM is capable of producing meaningful significance maps of individual patients in a routine clinical environment. However, there was no overwhelming evidence that SPM was able to resolve many of the dilemmas associated with the use of SPECT for the differential diagnosis of dementia. In particular, interpretation of SPECT perfusion patterns in dementia is a bigger problem than the initial identification of abnormalities.

  2. Simultaneous administration of {sup 111}In-human immunoglobulin and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO labelled leucocytes in inflammatory bowel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mairal, L. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, CSUB, Hospital Princeps d`Espanya, Barcelona (Spain); Lima, P.A. de [Bolsista do Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (Brazil); Martin-Comin, J. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, CSUB, Hospital Princeps d`Espanya, Barcelona (Spain); Baliellas, C. [Dept. of Gastroenterology, CSUB, Hospital Princeps d`Espanya, Barcelona (Spain); Xiol, X. [Dept. of Gastroenterology, CSUB, Hospital Princeps d`Espanya, Barcelona (Spain); Roca, M. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, CSUB, Hospital Princeps d`Espanya, Barcelona (Spain); Ricart, Y. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, CSUB, Hospital Princeps d`Espanya, Barcelona (Spain); Ramos, M. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, CSUB, Hospital Princeps d`Espanya, Barcelona (Spain)

    1995-07-01

    Technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) labelled leucocytes and indium-111 polyclonal immunoglobulin (IgG) were simultaneously injected into a group of 27 patients routinely referred for the investigation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Ten-minute anterior abdomen and tail on detector views were obtained at 30 min, 4 h and 24 h p.i. of both tracers. The diagnosis of IBD was obtained in all cases by endoscopy with biopsy and/or surgery. Images were blindly evaluated by two experienced observers who only knew of the clinical suspicion of IBD. IBS was confirmed in 20 patients (12 with Crohn`s disease and eight with ulcerative colitis). Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 100%, 85% and 96% respectively for labelled leucocytes and 70%, 85% and 74% for IgG. Both IgG and leucocyte scans were normal in six out of seven patients in whom a diagnosis of IBD was excluded; the remaining patient, with ischaemic colitis, was falsely positive with both agents. As far as disease extension is concerned, the IgG study localized 27 diseased segments, whereas 49 were seen with the leucocyte study. Eighty-four segments were normal and 25 showed tracer uptake with both agents. Twenty-four were positive only with the leucocyte study and two were positive only with the IgG study. Agreement between the agents was 80.7%. (orig./UG)

  3. White Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can

  4. Tc-99m-HMPAO-Labeled leukocyte SPECT/CT in pediatrics: detecting Candida albicans tricuspid endocarditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calais, Jeremie; Edet-Sanson, Agathe; Gaucher, Stephane; Vera, Pierre; Cloirec, Joseph Le [Henri Becquerel Cancer Center and Rouen Univ. Hospital, Rouen (France)

    2015-12-15

    These results led to performing TEE, which showed tricuspid vegetation. Blood cultures were then positive to Candida albicans. Control blood cultures and TEE performed 6 weeks later after adapted antifungal therapy remained negative. In accordance with the results of Erba and al., this case illustrates the usefulness of late thoracic SPECT-CT acquisition of a WBC scan in a patient with high clinical suspicion of endocarditis and identified risk factors but inconclusive echocardiographic findings.

  5. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...... critical whiteness studies to emerge, its relation to the U.S. theoretical framework, as well as the particularities of the European context need to be taken into account.. The article makes a call for a multi-layered approach to take over from the identity politics so often employed in the fields of U...

  6. Role of plasma bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein, group IIA phospholipase A(2), C-reactive protein, and white blood cell count in the early detection of severe sepsis in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusitalo-Seppälä, Raija; Peuravuori, Heikki; Koskinen, Pertti; Vahlberg, Tero; Rintala, Esa M

    2012-09-01

    To study the diagnostic values of bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI), group IIA phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)GIIA), white blood cell count (WBC), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in identifying severe sepsis upon admission in an emergency room. This was a single-centre prospective cohort study involving 525 adult patients admitted to the emergency room with suspected infection. Plasma samples were taken concurrently with the blood cultures. Forty-nine patients with severe sepsis and 476 other patients (58 with no systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and no bacterial infection, 63 with bacterial infection but no SIRS, 53 with SIRS but no bacterial infection, and 302 with sepsis but no organ dysfunction) were evaluated. BPI and PLA(2)GIIA were measured by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay, and CRP with an immunoturbidimetric assay. WBC was measured using an automatic cell counter. There was a positive correlation between the plasma levels of PLA(2)GIIA and CRP (Pearson's correlation coefficient 0.60, p sepsis from others (OR 1.37, 95% Cl 1.05-1.78, p = 0.019). After adjusting for confounders PLA(2)GIIA remained a significant independent predictor of severe sepsis. PLA(2)GIIA seemed to be superior to CRP, BPI, and WBC in differentiating patients with severe sepsis. BPI gave no additional information in this respect.

  7. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... maternity. Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells Platelets Plasma ... About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Types Blood Components What Happens to Donated Blood Blood and Diversity ...

  8. Disparity of perfusion and glucose metabolism of epileptogenic zones in temporal lobe epilepsy demonstrated by SPM/SPAM analysis on 15O water PET, [18F]FDG-PET, and [99mTc]-HMPAO SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D S; Lee, J S; Kang, K W; Jang, M J; Lee, S K; Chung, J K; Lee, M C

    2001-12-01

    To elucidate uncoupling of perfusion and metabolism and its significance in epilepsy, 15O water and 18F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and Tc-99m hexamethyl-propyleneamine-oxime (HMPAO) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were examined by SPM (statistical parametric mapping) and quantitation by using SPAM (statistical probabilistic anatomic map). [15O]water and [18F]FDG-PET, and [99mTc]-HMPAO SPECT were performed in 25 patients (SPECT in 17 of 25) with medial temporal lobe epilepsy. For volume of interest (VOI) count analysis, the normalized counts using VOI based on SPAM templates of PET and SPECT were compared with those of the normal controls. Perfusion or metabolism was found abnormal if the Z score was >2 for each VOI. For SPM analysis, the differences between each patient's image and a group of normal control images (t statistic for p SPAM VOI count analysis, areas of hypoperfusion were found in 13 patients in the epileptogenic temporal lobes by [15O]water PET and areas of hypometabolism in 21 patients by [18F]FDG-PET. With voxel-based SPM analysis, the epileptogenic zones were localized in 15 by [15O]water PET and in 23 patients by [18F]FDG-PET. The localization by [15O]water PET was concordant with that of [18F]FDG-PET. The areas of hypoperfusion on [15O]water PET were absent or smaller than the areas of hypometabolism on [18F]FDG-PET. Interictal [99mTc]-HMPAO SPECT revealed the hypoperfused zones in seven of 17 patients on visual assessment. SPAM VOI count and SPM analysis of [15O]water and [18F]FDG-PET and [99mTc]-HMPAO SPECT revealed that in the same patients, the areas of hypoperfusion were concordant with but smaller than the areas of hypometabolism. Discordance of perfusion and metabolic abnormalities represents an uncoupling of perfusion and metabolism in the epileptogenic zones, and this might explain the lower diagnostic accuracy of perfusion imaging in temporal lobe epilepsy.

  9. [A case of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy presenting white matter MRI lesions extending over the cerebral cortex and a marked decrease in cerebral blood flow on SPECT, and associated with HTLV-I infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Kei-ichiro; Ohyagi, Yasumasa; Furuya, Hirokazu; Nagashima, Kazuo; Taniwaki, Takayuki; Kira, Jun-ichi

    2005-06-01

    We report a 47-year-old woman with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). She was a carrier of HTLV-I virus, and developed subacute right hemiparesis and marked motor aphasia. She had a malignant lymphoma in the left neck and basal cell carcinoma in the right inguinal region. Three months after the onset, she became unable to walk because of the right leg weakness or to speak because of motor aphasia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multifocal T2-high lesions in the white matter of the left frontal lobe, and a brain biopsy revealed demyelinating pathology. A biopsy of the left parotid gland revealed a diffuse pleomorphic type large B cell lymphoma. Although anti-HTLV-I antibody was positive in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), no adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cells were found in the blood or CSF. The patient was then admitted to our hospital. Neurological examinations revealed severe motor aphasia, mild sensory aphasia/cognitive impairment, right hemiplegia, mild right hemihypesthesia, limb-kinetic apraxia in the left hand, idiomotor apraxia, agraphia, perseveration, marked spasticity and brisk tendon reflex in four extremities, and positive bilateral pathological reflexes. MRI showed multifocal T2-high lesions mainly in the cerebral white matter, predominantly in the left hemisphere, and partly in the cerebral cortex. No gadolinium enhancement was found. In addition, 99mTcECD-SPECT showed a broad decrease in cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the cortex. Anti-HTLV-I antibody was positive but anti-HIV antibody was negative in serum. ATL cells were found in 1-3% of the peripheral white blood cells after admission. CSF examination revealed that the cell count (1/microl), protein level (24 mg/dl), and IgG index (0.4) were all normal. However, the myelin basic protein level (321 pg/ml; normal HTLV-I antibody (x 8) was detected in CSF. The regulatory region of the JC virus DNA in the CSF was partly deleted; immunostaining with anti-JC virus protein

  10. Correlation between changes in regional cerebral blood flow and pain relief in complex regional pain syndrome type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching-Tang; Fan, Yu-Ming; Sun, Chen-Ming; Borel, Cecil O; Yeh, Chun-Chang; Yang, Chih-Ping; Wong, Chih-Shung

    2006-06-01

    Analyzing changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with SPECT in complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS 1), formerly known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy, is an optimal method for evaluating effective pain relief. We attempted to investigate the correlation of changes in rCBF with pain relief during treatments of sympathetic blockade and multimodal epidural pain control. We describe a patient with severe CRPS 1 in whom conventional treatment failed to relieve the pain. Combined repeated lumbar sympathetic blocks and long-term epidural morphine, bupivacaine, and ketamine administration provided satisfactory pain relief and functional activity recovery. Six normal control subjects having one Tc-99m HMPAO scan each and the patient with CRPS having 3 Tc-99m HMPAO scans (once before treatment and twice at 4 months and 6 months after treatment, respectively). The patient with CRPS showed lower rCBF than normal controls in the left thalamus and higher rCBF than normal controls in the right parietal lobe and left frontal lobe. After subsequent treatment, the subtraction images showed increased rCBF in the left thalamus and decreased rCBF in the right parietal and left frontal lobes. Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT showed a relationship of rCBF in the thalamus, parietal lobe, and frontal lobe with pain relief. rCBF alterations may provide an indicator for the quality of pain management for neuropathic pains. Subtraction analysis between pre- and posttreatment, by using statistical parametric mapping (version 2), can be used as an objective indicator for the effectiveness of therapy.

  11. Investigation into the mechanisms of vagus nerve stimulation for the treatment of intractable epilepsy, using {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPET brain images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Anna; Chisholm, Jennifer A.; Patterson, James; Wyper, David [Department of Clinical Physics, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Southern General Hospital, 1345 Govan Road, Glasgow G51 4TF (United Kingdom); Duncan, Roderick [Department of Neurology, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Southern General Hospital, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Lindsay, Kenneth [Department of Neurosurgery, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Southern General Hospital, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2003-02-01

    Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has gained recognition as a treatment for refractory epilepsies where surgical treatment is not possible. While it appears that this treatment is effective in some patients, the mechanism of action is not clearly understood. The purpose of this study was to clarify findings of other positron emission tomography and single-photon emission tomography (SPET) investigations by measuring the acute effect of VNS on patients who have normal cerebral anatomy on magnetic resonance imaging and who have not previously been exposed to VNS. We investigated six subjects (two males and four females, mean age 29.5 years, range 21-39 years) with intractable epilepsy. One patient had primary generalised epilepsy causing generalised tonic-clonic seizures; the remaining five patients had localisation-related epilepsy causing complex partial seizures. SPET imaging was performed using 250 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO and a four-scan paradigm - two with and two without stimulation. The stimulation began at VNS current levels of 0.25 mA and was increased according to the limit of patients' tolerance, usually defined by coughing or discomfort. The stimulating waveform was of continuous square wave pulses of 500 {mu}s duration at 30 Hz. Image analysis was by SPM99. Reduced perfusion during stimulation was observed in the ipsilateral brain stem, cingulate, amygdala and hippocampus and contralateral thalamus and cingulate. The study provides further evidence of the involvement of the limbic system in the action of vagal nerve stimulation. (orig.)

  12. Evaluation of SPECT with N-isopropyl (I-123)-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) or technetium-99m ( sup 99m Tc)-d,1-hexamethyl-propyleneamine oxime (d,1-HM-PAO) in cerebral concussion patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torigoe, Ryuichiro; Hayashi, Takashi; Anegawa, Shigetaka (Saint Mary' s Hospital, Kurume, Fukuoka (Japan)); Harada, Katsuhiko; Matsuo, Hiromasa; Yoshikawa, Ichiro

    1991-06-01

    {sup 123}I-IMP and Tc-PAO SPECT were performed in 20 cases of cerebral concussion ranging in age from 4 to 20 years old, including six cases of the juvenile head trauma syndrome (JHTS). The SPECT findings were divided into two main types: six cases in the normal group with no blood flow abnormalities, and 14 cases in abnormal group showing reduced blood flow, mainly in cerebellum and occipital lobe except in one case. In 10 cases of reduced blood flow which could be analyzed, calculation of the blood flow ratio in the temporal and occipital lobes and the cerebellum with the frontal lobe taken as 100 showed values of 93.5% for the temporal lobe, 82.7% for the occipital lobe and 76.8% for the cerebellum. A statistically significant reduction in blood flow occurred in the occipital lobe and cerebellum. In blood examination, abnormally high values of white blood cell counts were observed transiently in 94% of cerebral concussion cases. Abnormalities in brain stem and hypothalamus appeared to cause these abnormal WBC values. From these findings, it was suggested that the blood flow regions of the basilar and posterior cerebral arteries, i.e., the brain stem and hypothalamus are closely connected with the lesions responsible for cerebral concussion. It also appeared that the JHTS occurs in cerebral concussion cases where recovery of the abnormal blood flow in these regions in poor. (author).

  13. Cerebral scintigraphy by {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO in sleep apnea syndromes (SAS) during the wakeful state; Scintigraphie cerebrale au Tc99m-HMPAO dans les syndromes d`apnees du sommeil (SAS) pendant l`etat de veille

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tainturier, C.; Benamor, M.; Hausser-Hauw, C.; Rakotonanahary, D.; Fleury, B. [CMC FOCH 92150 SURESNES (France)

    1997-12-31

    The SAS is associated to cerebral hemodynamic modifications and to a high frequency of cerebro-vascular accidents. The aim of this study was to verify, during wakeful state, the cerebral hemodynamic in 14 patients afflicted with SAS of various intensity (Apnea Index = 5-120/h). 555 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO were injected in patients maintained awake. The images were obtained 20 minutes after injection by mean of a double-head chamber equipped with fan-beam collimators. They were interpreted visually by two independent readers. Anomalies of cerebral fixation were observed in 12/14 patients. They were small sores of diffuse hypo-fixations, with a `riddly` aspect (4 cases), sores of bi-temporal hypo-fixation with a right- or left- hemispheric predominance (6 cases), or right fronto-temporal hypo-fixations (2 cases). The cerebral fixation anomalies were reported in the SASs. Ficker et al (1997) have shown in-sleep frontal hypo-perfusions in 5/14 apneic patients, reversible under continuous positive airing pressure (CPAP). In conclusion, anomalies of cerebral fixation exist in SAS-carrying patients, even in the wakeful state. Questions about hypoperfusion, pre-lacunar syndrome, atrophy still remain. A check of this study is planned after the CPAP treatment to determine the hemodynamic or anatomic origin and the anomaly reversibility

  14. WBC (White Blood Cell) Differential Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... condition resolves. Other types of T cells directly attack and neutralize virus-infected or cancerous cells. Natural killer cells (NK cells) directly attack and kill abnormal cells such as cancer cells ...

  15. White Blood Cell Counts and Malaria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McKenzie, F. E; Prudhomme, Wendy A; Magill, Alan J; Forney, J. R; Permpanich, Barnyen; Lucas, Carmen; Gasser, Jr., Robert A; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda

    2005-01-01

    .... At each site and in each year, WBC counts in the Plasmodium falciparum infected patients were lower than those in the Plasmodium vivax infected patients, which, in turn, were lower than those in the uninfected patients...

  16. Computer identification of white blood cells

    CERN Document Server

    Neurath, P W; Selles, W D; Gelsema, E S; Powell, B W; Gallus, G; Vastola, E

    1973-01-01

    The hardware and software problems for an effective image processing system are described, with a real time high speed system solution as the goal. The discriminating power of the algorithms has been tested in a simulation made on the PIQUANT film scanner and is between 67 and 92% depending on the definition of accuracy. The results are expected to be of value to firms designing and building commercial equipment and to prospective purchasers of it.

  17. Differential white cell count by centrifugal microfluidics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Gregory Jon; Tentori, Augusto M.; Schaff, Ulrich Y.

    2010-07-01

    We present a method for counting white blood cells that is uniquely compatible with centrifugation based microfluidics. Blood is deposited on top of one or more layers of density media within a microfluidic disk. Spinning the disk causes the cell populations within whole blood to settle through the media, reaching an equilibrium based on the density of each cell type. Separation and fluorescence measurement of cell types stained with a DNA dye is demonstrated using this technique. The integrated signal from bands of fluorescent microspheres is shown to be proportional to their initial concentration in suspension. Among the current generation of medical diagnostics are devices based on the principle of centrifuging a CD sized disk functionalized with microfluidics. These portable 'lab on a disk' devices are capable of conducting multiple assays directly from a blood sample, embodied by platforms developed by Gyros, Samsung, and Abaxis. [1,2] However, no centrifugal platform to date includes a differential white blood cell count, which is an important metric complimentary to diagnostic assays. Measuring the differential white blood cell count (the relative fraction of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes) is a standard medical diagnostic technique useful for identifying sepsis, leukemia, AIDS, radiation exposure, and a host of other conditions that affect the immune system. Several methods exist for measuring the relative white blood cell count including flow cytometry, electrical impedance, and visual identification from a stained drop of blood under a microscope. However, none of these methods is easily incorporated into a centrifugal microfluidic diagnostic platform.

  18. Pediatric central nervous system tumors in the first 3 years of life: pre-operative mean platelet volume, neutrophil/lymphocyte count ratio, and white blood cell count correlate with the presence of a central nervous system tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumturk, Abdulfettah; Ozdemir, Mehmet Akif; Per, Huseyin; Unal, Ekrem; Kucuk, Ahmet; Ulutabanca, Halil; Karakukcu, Musa; Canoz, Ozlem; Gumus, Hakan; Coskun, Abdulhakim; Kurtsoy, Ali

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the relationship of pre-operative complete blood count parameters [mean platelet volume (MPV), neutrophil/lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR), and white blood cell count (WBC)], with the clinical, radiological, and histopathological features and the management options for patients under 3 years of age with a newly diagnosed central nervous system tumors. Children with central nervous system (CNS) tumors in the first 3 years of life admitted in the Erciyes University Hospital between April 2004 and April 2014 were enrolled in this study. The CBC parameters were compared with those of an age- and sex-matched normal control group. In the study group, the means of MPV and WBC were 8.00 ± 1.24 fl, and 10,855 ± 3642/mm(3) respectively; the median (25-75%) of NLCR was 0.98 (0.66-1.46). For the control group, the means of MPV and WBC were 6.8 ± 0.73 fl and 8565 ± 2522/mm(3); the median (25-75%) of NLCR was 0.52 (0.36-0.70). The MPV, WBC, and NLCR were higher in the study group. The median overall survival (OS) of the patients was 60 months (range 0-81.6 months); and median event free survival (EFS) was 24 months (range 0-70.1 months). The formulation of MPV, NLCR, and WBC was found to be predictive for the diagnosis of CNS tumor in children with nonspecific symptoms. The univariate and multiple binary regression analyses showed a positive association of MPV, NLCR, and WBC and the risk of a diagnosis of CNS tumor. There was no relationship between MPV, WBC, NLCR, and histological subgroups. However, there were no associations between CBC parameters and OS or EFS of the patients. By causing suspicion, MPV, NLCR, and WBC may provide both an earlier radiological investigation decision and thereby an early diagnosis of CNS tumor in children with nonspecific symptoms in the first 3 years of life.

  19. The extent of P2Y12 inhibition by clopidogrel in diabetes mellitus patients with acute coronary syndrome is not related to glycaemic control: roles of white blood cell count and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Olivier; El Ghannudi, Soraya; Hess, Sebastien; Reydel, Antje; Crimizade, Ulun; Jesel, Laurence; Radulescu, Bogdan; Wiesel, Marie L; Gachet, Christian; Ohlmann, Patrick

    2012-08-01

    It was the study objective to determine whether glycaemic control affects the extent of platelet inhibition by thienopyridines as assessed by vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein flow cytometry (VASP-FCT) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) during acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Although the proportion of high on-treatment residual platelet reactivity is higher in DM, the contributions of glycaemic control and other factors associated with DM, such as excess body weight and inflammation, to this impaired platelet inhibition by thienopyridines have not yet been fully characterised. In this study, the extent of P2Y12 ADP receptor pathway inhibition was evaluated by the VASP-FCT. Platelet activation was expressed as the platelet reactivity index (PRI). Low response to clopidogrel (LR) was defined as a PRI of >61%. Four hundred forty-five consecutive ACS patients (DM = 160, NDM = 285) were enrolled. The proportion of LR was higher in DM patients (50 vs. 37.5%). In DM, PRI was not correlated with glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) or glycaemia. In a univariate analysis, LR was associated with age, male sex, overweight, and white blood cell count (WBC). In a multivariate analysis, WBC >10,000 and body weight >80 kg were the sole independent predictors of LR to clopidogrel (hazard ratio (HR) 3.02 [1.36-6.68], p=0.006 and HR 2.47 [1.14-5.35], p = 0.021, respectively). Conversely, in non-DM patients, ST-elevation myocardial infarction was the sole independent predictor of LR. In conclusion, in ACS DM patients undergoing PCI, the extent of P2Y12 inhibition by clopidogrel is not related to glycaemic control but is related to body weight and inflammatory status as assessed by the WBC.

  20. Optimization of the freezing process for hematopoietic progenitor cells: effect of precooling, initial dimethyl sulfoxide concentration, freezing program, and storage in vapor-phase or liquid nitrogen on in vitro white blood cell quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra-Tiekstra, Margriet J; Setroikromo, Airies C; Kraan, Marcha; Gkoumassi, Effimia; de Wildt-Eggen, Janny

    2014-12-01

    Adding dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) causes an exothermic reaction, potentially affecting their viability. The freezing method might also influence this. The aim was to investigate the effect of 1) precooling of DMSO and plasma (D/P) and white blood cell (WBC)-enriched product, 2) DMSO concentration of D/P, 3) freezing program, and 4) storage method on WBC quality. WBC-enriched product without CD34+ cells was used instead of HPCs. This was divided into six or eight portions. D/P (20 or 50%; precooled or room temperature [RT]) was added to the WBC-enriched product (precooled or RT), resulting in 10% DMSO, while monitoring temperature. The product was frozen using controlled-rate freezing ("fast-rate" or "slow-rate") and placed in vapor-phase or liquid nitrogen. After thawing, WBC recovery and viability were determined. Temperature increased most for precooled D/P to precooled WBC-enriched product, without influence of 20 or 50% D/P, but remained for all variations below 30°C. WBC recovery for both freezing programs was more than 95%. Recovery of WBC viability was higher for slow-rate freezing compared to fast-rate freezing (74% vs. 61%; p Effect of precooling D/P or WBC-enriched product and of storage in vapor-phase or liquid nitrogen was marginal. Based on these results, precooling is not necessary. Fifty percent D/P is preferred over 20% D/P. Slow-rate freezing is preferred over fast-rate freezing. For safety reasons storage in vapor-phase nitrogen is preferred over storage in liquid nitrogen. Additional testing using real HPCs might be necessary. © 2014 AABB.

  1. Determinants and consequences of adherence to the dietary approaches to stop hypertension diet in African-American and white adults with high blood pressure: results from the ENCORE trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Dawn E; Sherwood, Andrew; Smith, Patrick J; Craighead, Linda; Caccia, Carla; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Babyak, Michael A; Johnson, Julie J; Hinderliter, Alan; Blumenthal, James A

    2012-11-01

    Although the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet is an accepted nonpharmacologic treatment for hypertension, little is known about what patient characteristics affect dietary adherence and what level of adherence is needed to reduce blood pressure (BP). Our aim was to determine what factors predict dietary adherence and the extent to which dietary adherence is necessary to produce clinically meaningful BP reductions. Ancillary study of the ENCORE (Exercise and Nutrition Interventions for Cardiovascular Health) trial--a 16-week randomized clinical trial of diet and exercise. Participants included 144 sedentary, overweight, or obese adults (body mass index 25 to 39.9) with high BP (systolic 130 to 159 mm Hg and/or diastolic 85 to 99 mm Hg). Patients were randomized to one of three groups: DASH diet alone, DASH diet plus weight management, and Usual Diet Controls. Our primary outcomes were a composite index of adherence to the DASH diet and clinic BP. General linear models were used to compare treatment groups on post-treatment adherence to the DASH diet. Linear regression was used to examine potential predictors of post-treatment DASH adherence. Analysis of covariance was used to examine the relation of adherence to the DASH diet and BP. Participants in the DASH diet plus weight management (16.1 systolic BP [SBP]; 95% CI 13.0 to 19.2 mm Hg and 9.9 diastolic BP [DBP]; 95% CI 8.1 to 11.6 mm Hg) and DASH diet alone (11.2 SBP; 95% CI 8.1 to 14.3 mm Hg and 7.5 DBP; 95% CI 5.8 to 9.3 mm Hg) groups showed significant reductions in BP in comparison with Usual Diet Controls participants (3.4 SBP; 95% CI 0.4 to 6.4 mm Hg and DBP 3.8; 95% CI 2.2 to 5.5 mm Hg). Greater post-treatment consumption of DASH foods was noted in both the DASH diet alone (mean = 6.20; 95% CI 5.83 to 6.57) and DASH diet plus weight management groups (mean = 6.23; 95% CI 5.88 to 6.59) compared with Usual Diet Controls (mean = 3.66; 95% CI 3.30 to 4.01; Pdiet was associated with larger

  2. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Explore High Blood Pressure What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments ... stress, which can occur during the medical appointment, causes white coat hypertension. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Updated: ...

  3. High Red Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marx JA, et al., eds. Anemia, polycythemia, and white blood cells disorders. In: Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2014. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Dec. ...

  4. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... provider usually takes 2–3 readings at several medical appointments to diagnose high blood pressure. Using the ... Researchers believe stress, which can occur during the medical appointment, causes white coat hypertension. Rate This Content: ...

  5. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to develop your treatment plan. Some people have “white coat hypertension.” This happens when blood pressure readings ... which can occur during the medical appointment, causes white coat hypertension. Treatment Based on your diagnosis, health ...

  6. Blood-brain barrier permeability of normal-appearing white matter in patients with vestibular schwannoma: A new hybrid approach for analysis of T1 -W DCE-MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ka-Loh; Zhu, Xiaoping; Zhao, Sha; Jackson, Alan

    2017-07-01

    To develop and assess a "hybrid" method that combines a first-pass analytical approach and the Patlak plot (PP) to improve assessment of low blood-brain barrier permeability from dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. Seven patients with vestibular schwannoma were enrolled. T1 -W DCE imaging was acquired on a 1.5T scanner. Normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) was divided into four regions of interest (ROIs) based on the magnitude of changes in longitudinal relaxation rate (ΔR1) after gadolinium administration. Kinetic analysis of ROI-averaged contrast agent concentration curves was performed using both the conventional PP and the hybrid method. Computer simulated uptake curves that resemble those from NAWM were analyzed with both methods. Percent deviations (PD) of the "measured" values from the "true" values were calculated to evaluate accuracy and precision of the two methods. The simulation showed that, at a noise level of 4% (a noise level similar to the in vivo data) and using a signal intensity (SI) averaging scheme, the new hybrid method achieved a PD of 0.9 ± 2.7% for vp , and a PD of -5.4 ± 5.9% for Ktrans . In comparison, the PP method obtained a PD of 3.6 ± 11.3% for vp , and -8.3 ± 12.8% for Ktrans . One-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs) showed significant variations from the four WM regions (P < 10-15 for ΔR1; P < 10-6 for Ktrans ; P < 10-4 for vp ). Both computer simulation and in vivo studies demonstrate improved reliability in vp and Ktrans estimates with the hybrid method. 3 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;46:79-93. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  7. Expression of inflammation-related miRNAs in white blood cells from subjects with metabolic syndrome after 8 wk of following a Mediterranean diet-based weight loss program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Rocha, José Luiz; Milagro, Fermin I; Mansego, Maria Luisa; Zulet, Maria Angeles; Bressan, Josefina; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a dietary strategy for weight loss (the RESMENA [reduction of metabolic syndrome in Navarra, Spain] diet) on the expression of inflammation-related microRNAS (miRNAs) and genes in white blood cells (WBC) from individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS). The clinical, anthropometric, and biochemical characteristics of 40 individuals with MetS (20 men and 20 women; age: 48.84 ± 10.02 y; body mass index: 35.41 ± 4.42 kg/m(2)) were evaluated before and after an 8-wk hypocaloric diet based on the Mediterranean dietary pattern. Nutrient intake was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire and 48-h weighed food records. Total RNA was isolated from WBC and the expression of some inflammation-related miRNAs and mRNAs (IL-6, TNF-α, ICAM-1, IL-18, SERPINE1, VCAM-1, GAPDH) was assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The RESMENA nutritional intervention improved most anthropometric and biochemical features. The expression of miR-155-3p was decreased in WBC, whereas Let-7b was strongly upregulated as a consequence of the dietary treatment. However, they were not correlated with the expression of the proinflammatory genes in the same cells. The changes in the expression of let-7b, miR-125b, miR-130a, miR-132-3p, and miR-422b were significantly associated with changes in diet quality when assessed by the Healthy Eating Index. Moreover, low consumption of lipids and saturated fat (g/d) were associated with higher expression of let-7b after the nutritional intervention. The Mediterranean-based nutritional intervention was able to induce changes in the expression of let-7b and miR-155-3p in WBC from patients with MetS after 8 wk. Moreover, the quality of the diet has an important effect on the miRNAs expression changes. These results should be highlighted because these miRNAs have been associated with inflammatory gene regulation and important human diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. White-light Quantitative Phase Imaging Unit

    CERN Document Server

    Baek, YoonSeok; Yoon, Jonghee; Kim, Kyoohyun; Park, YongKeun

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the white light quantitative phase imaging unit (WQPIU) as a practical realization of quantitative phase imaging (QPI) on standard microscope platforms. The WQPIU is a compact stand-alone unit which measures sample induced phase delay under white-light illumination. It does not require any modification of the microscope or additional accessories for its use. The principle of the WQPIU based on lateral shearing interferometry and phase shifting interferometry provides a cost-effective and user-friendly use of QPI. The validity and capacity of the presented method are demonstrated by measuring quantitative phase images of polystyrene beads, human red blood cells, HeLa cells and mouse white blood cells. With speckle-free imaging capability due to the use of white-light illumination, the WQPIU is expected to expand the scope of QPI in biological sciences as a powerful but simple imaging tool.

  9. {sup 99m}Tc-interleukin-2 and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO granulocyte scintigraphy in patients with inactive Crohn's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annovazzi, Alessio; Chianelli, Marco; Capriotti, Gabriela; Signore, Alberto [Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Policlinico Umberto I, University ' ' La Sapienza' ' , 00161, Rome (Italy); Biancone, Livia; Pallone, Francesco [Gastroenterology Unit, University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy); Caviglia, Renato [Gastroenterology Unit, University ' ' Campus Biomedico' ' , Rome (Italy); Mather, Stephen J. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, Cancer Research UK, London (United Kingdom); Caprilli, Renzo [Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, University ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Rome (Italy); Scopinaro, Francesco [Department of Radiological Sciences, University ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Rome (Italy)

    2003-03-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that may involve the whole gut. Marked intestinal T cell and macrophage activation is a key feature of the disease. Polymorphonuclear cell infiltration is also observed in the diseased gut, mainly during active inflammation. Scintigraphic detection of granulocytes and activated lymphocytes infiltrating the gut wall may be useful in identifying a subgroup of patients with clinically inactive CD who are undergoing early clinical relapse. The aims of the present study were (a) to compare the effectiveness of scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc-labelled interleukin-2 ({sup 99m}Tc-IL2) and with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO labelled granulocytes ({sup 99m}Tc-WBC) in detecting the presence and extent of bowel inflammation in patients with long-term inactive CD (>12 months) and (b) to assess the accuracy of these techniques in predicting future disease relapse. We studied 29 patients with ileal and/or colonic CD in stable clinical remission (Crohn's Disease Activity Index <150 for at least 12 months) using both {sup 99m}Tc-IL2 and {sup 99m}Tc-WBC scintigraphy in order to evaluate the extent of acute and chronic inflammation in the bowel. Planar and single-photon emission tomography images were acquired in each patient at 1 h p.i. For quantitative analysis of {sup 99m}Tc-IL2 uptake, the abdomen was divided into 32 regions of interest. Despite the absence of symptoms, 18 patients (62%) showed a positive {sup 99m}Tc-IL2 and 18 (62%) a positive {sup 99m}Tc-WBC scan. Only 12 patients (41.4% of the total group) were positive on both scans, and the sites of IL2 and granulocyte bowel uptake were usually located in different segments, indicating that in CD, acute and chronic inflammation can be present in different sites. As far as the prognostic role of the two scans in predicting future disease relapse is concerned, both {sup 99m}Tc-IL2 and {sup 99m}Tc-WBC scintigraphy showed a high negative predictive value (1.00 and 0

  10. Prognostic importance of white coat and masked hypertention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsen, Pia; Hansen, Tine

    2009-01-01

    The growing use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring has led to an increased awareness of the two types of discrepancy between office blood pressure and ambulatory blood pressure, called white coat hypertension (WCH) and masked hypertension (MH). Based on several longitudinal studies, WCH...

  11. Prognostisk betydning af "white coat" og maskeret hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsen, Pia; Hansen, Tine Willum

    2009-01-01

    The growing use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring has led to an increased awareness of the two types of discrepancy between office blood pressure and ambulatory blood pressure, called white coat hypertension (WCH) and masked hypertension (MH). Based on several longitudinal studies, WCH...

  12. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other conditions or medicines or if you have primary high blood pressure. Health care providers can use this information to develop your treatment plan. Some people have “white coat hypertension.” This happens when blood pressure readings are only high when taken in a health ...

  13. Raman Spectroscopy of Blood and Blood Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Chad G; Buckley, Kevin; Blades, Michael W; Turner, Robin F B

    2017-05-01

    Blood is a bodily fluid that is vital for a number of life functions in animals. To a first approximation, blood is a mildly alkaline aqueous fluid (plasma) in which a large number of free-floating red cells (erythrocytes), white cells (leucocytes), and platelets are suspended. The primary function of blood is to transport oxygen from the lungs to all the cells of the body and move carbon dioxide in the return direction after it is produced by the cells' metabolism. Blood also carries nutrients to the cells and brings waste products to the liver and kidneys. Measured levels of oxygen, nutrients, waste, and electrolytes in blood are often used for clinical assessment of human health. Raman spectroscopy is a non-destructive analytical technique that uses the inelastic scattering of light to provide information on chemical composition, and hence has a potential role in this clinical assessment process. Raman spectroscopic probing of blood components and of whole blood has been on-going for more than four decades and has proven useful in applications ranging from the understanding of hemoglobin oxygenation, to the discrimination of cancerous cells from healthy lymphocytes, and the forensic investigation of crime scenes. In this paper, we review the literature in the field, collate the published Raman spectroscopy studies of erythrocytes, leucocytes, platelets, plasma, and whole blood, and attempt to draw general conclusions on the state of the field.

  14. Large-Scale Candidate Gene Analysis in Whites and African Americans Identifies IL6R Polymorphism in Relation to Atrial Fibrillation The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe) Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnabel, Renate B.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Lubitz, Steven A.; Alkylbekova, Ermeg L.; Marcus, Gregory M.; Sinner, Moritz F.; Magnani, Jared W.; Wolf, Philip A.; Deo, Rajat; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Mehra, Reena; Levy, Daniel; Fox, Ervin R.; Arking, Dan E.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Mueller-Nurasyid, Martina; Young, Taylor R.; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Seshadri, Sudha; Farlow, Deborah N.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Glazer, Nicole L.; Wilson, James G.; Breteler, Monique M. B.; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Kaeaeb, Stefan; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Alonso, Alvaro; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Heckbert, Susan R.

    2011-01-01

    Background-The genetic background of atrial fibrillation (AF) in whites and African Americans is largely unknown. Genes in cardiovascular pathways have not been systematically investigated. Methods and Results-We examined a panel of approximately 50 000 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)

  15. Vanishing White Matter Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In Memory Of Obituaries Contact Us Donate Vanishing White Matter Disease What is Vanishing White Matter Disease? ... of the genetic basis of VWM was a great step forward. First of all, it allows genetic ...

  16. Relationships between blood cell counts and the density of malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings depicted a negative correlation between parasite load and haemoglobin concentration [Hb], mean cell volume (MCV), and mean cell haemoglobin (MCH); a positive correlation of parasite density with white blood cell counts (WBC), red blood cell counts (RBC), and the differential white blood cell counts ...

  17. Interictal "patchy" regional cerebral blood flow patterns in migraine patients. A single photon emission computerized tomographic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, L; Olesen, J; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg

    1994-01-01

    In 92 migraine patients and 44 healthy control subjects we recorded regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with single photon emission computerized tomography and (133) Xe inhalation or with i.v. (99m) Tc-HMPAO. Migraine patients were studied interictally. A quantitated analysis of right.......28). There was no correlation between visual or quantitated abnormalities and age, duration of migraine, frequency of attacks or prophylactic medication. No correlation could be established between asymmetries and the usual side of headache or aura symptoms. Two conclusions emerged: (1) visual evaluation of interictal migraine...... rCBF images is insufficient to pick up abnormalities; (2) almost 50% of the migraine sufferers had abnormal rCBF/asymmetries. However, these are discrete compared with those typically seen during the aura phase of a migraine attack. One explanation to the patchy rCBF patterns might...

  18. Correlates of persistent thinness in black and white young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franko, DL; Thompson, D; Russell, R; Schreiber, GB; Crawford, PB; Daniels, [No Value; Striegel-Moore, RH

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine health and psychosocial correlates of persistent thinness in black and white young adult women. Research Methods and Procedures: 1830 females (n = 988 black, n = 842 white) who participated in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study were asked to

  19. Genetic diversity between large white and nigerian indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty-two pigs (32 large white pigs and 32 Nigerian indigenous pigs were used in this study. Biochemical techniques were used in analyzing the blood serum samples obtained from the pigs using Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis. A total of 14 loci were scored for the Nigerian Indigenous pigs and 10 for the Large White ...

  20. Effects of extracts of lupine seed on blood glucose levels in glucose resistant mice: antihyperglycemic effects of Lupinus albus (white lupine, Egypt) and Lupinus caudatus (tailcup lupine, Mesa Verde National Park).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, Kathryn T; Nguyen, Hoa; Auker, Adrienne D; Kinder, David H

    2006-01-01

    Lupine is a medicinal food plant with potential value in the management of diabetes. In white mice, extracts of seeds of the white lupine [Lupinus albus (L. termis L.)] were associated with increased tolerance to an oral glucose bolus. Antihyperglycemic activity was present in extracts of the whole seed but not extracts of the seed coat, and was not detected when glucose was administered intraperitoneally rather than orally. However, in contrast to results seen with the prescription drug, acarbose, lupine extract did not appear to increase the bulk or carbohydrate content of the feces. Antihyperglycemic activity was also seen in extracts of the tailcup lupine (L. caudatus) found in the Four Corners Region of the United States.

  1. Donating Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Is It Possible to Donate Blood After Having Hepatitis B? Hepatitis Natural Disasters: How to Help Blood Blood Transfusions Blood Types Contact Us Print Resources Send to ...

  2. Blood Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Group Links Advocacy Toolkit Home For Patients Blood Basics Blood is a specialized body fluid. It ... about nine pints. Jump To: The Components of Blood and Their Importance Many people have undergone blood ...

  3. Blood culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  4. Blood and Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BLOOD Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells Platelets Plasma ... About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Types Blood Components What Happens to Donated Blood Blood and Diversity ...

  5. Hematological and serum biochemical parameters of blood in adolescent rats and histomorphological changes in the jejunal epithelium and liver after chronic exposure to cadmium and lead in the case of supplementation with green tea vs black, red or white tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, Ewa; Winiarska-Mieczan, Anna; Dobrowolski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Rats were used to check whether regular consumption of black, red, or white tea would have a protective effect similar to the action of green tea on the intestine and liver in the case of exposure to Cd and Pb within the limits of human environmental exposure to these elements. Rats at the age of 6 weeks were divided into the control and four groups supplemented with green (GT), black (BT), red (RT), or white (WT) tea extracts. Their diet (except the control) was mixed with 7 mg Cd/kg and 50mg Pb/kg. The experiment lasted 12 weeks. The effects of administration of tea in Cd- and Pb-poisoned rats on plasma biochemical parameters and the jejunal epithelium and liver were determined. The highest body mass was found in the GT group. The highest hemoglobin and Fe concentrations were in the control and GT groups. The highest activity of AST was in groups poisoned with Cd and Pb independently on supplementation. The highest ALT activity was in BT and RT groups with lower content of polifenoles. Pb and Cd disturbed the liver leading to necrosis and fatty degenerative changes, and a loss of normal architecture of the hepatocytes. Rats from the GT group had the highest cell proliferation rate in intestinal glands and the largest absorptive surface. Black, red, and white tea exerted a varied impact on the histological structure and innervation of the small intestine wall as well as on the absorptive function of small intestine mucosa in rats poisoned with Pb and Cd than green tea. On the other hand, taking into account the number of apoptotic cells, the effect of the teas was the same. Moreover, it is clear that long term exposure to Cd and Pb contamination causes toxic effect in the liver. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Binding Characteristics Of Ivermectin To Blood Cells | Nweke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The binding characteristics of Ivermectin were determined using scatchard plots. The percentage binding to platelet rich plasma, white blood cells and red blood cells were 90.00 + 1.00, 96-90 + 1.05 and 46.20 + 1.10 S.D respectively. It was found to bind the highest to white blood cells and the least to red blood cells.

  7. Sailing to White Boat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This is a composite red-green-blue image of the rock called White Boat. It is the first rock target that Spirit drove to after finishing a series of investigations on the rock Adirondack. White Boat stood out to scientists due to its light color and more tabular shape compared to the dark, rounded rocks that surround it.

  8. Creating White Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLisky, Claire Louise; Carey, Jane

    Vedtagelsen af White Australien som regeringens politik i 1901 viser, at hvidheden var afgørende for den måde, hvorpå den nye nation i Australien blev konstitueret. Og alligevel har historikere i vid udstrækning overset hvidhed i deres studier af Australiens race fortid. 'Creating White Australia...

  9. White Teachers Talking Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segall, Avner; Garrett, James

    2013-01-01

    In light of the increasing racial diversity in American schools and the consistently homogenous teacher workforce in the United States, understanding the ways white teachers consider and attend to racial issues is of crucial importance to the educational landscape. This paper, based on a qualitative study, explores five white American teachers'…

  10. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Blood clots By Mayo Clinic Staff Blood clots are gel-like clumps of blood. They are beneficial when they form in response to an injury or a cut, plugging the injured blood vessel, which stops bleeding. Some blood clots form inside your veins without a good reason and don't ...

  11. Brain perfusion scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO or {sup 99m}Tc-ECD and {sup 123}I-{beta}-CIT single-photon emission tomography in dementia of the Alzheimer-type and diffuse Lewy body disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnemiller, E. [Univ. Hospital, Innsbruck (Austria). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Heilmann, J. [Univ. Hospital, Innsbruck (Austria). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Wenning, G.K. [Univ. Hospital, Innsbruck (Austria). Dept. of Neurology; Berger, W. [Univ. Hospital, Innsbruck (Austria). Dept. of Neurology; Decristoforo, C. [Univ. Hospital, Innsbruck (Austria). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Moncayo, R. [Univ. Hospital, Innsbruck (Austria). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Poewe, W. [Univ. Hospital, Innsbruck (Austria). Dept. of Neurology; Ransmayr, G. [Univ. Hospital, Innsbruck (Austria). Dept. of Neurology

    1997-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate regional cerebral perfusion [with either technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) or {sup 99m}Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer ({sup 99m}Tc-ECD) SPET] and striatal dopamine transporter density [using iodine-123 2{beta}-carboxymethoxy-3{beta}-[4-iodophenyl]tropane ({sup 123}I-{beta}-CIT) SPET] in patients with dementia of the Alzheimer-type (DAT) and diffuse Lewy body disease (DLBD). Six patients with probable DAT and seven patients with probable DLBD were studied. Blinded qualitative assessment by four independent raters of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO or {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPET studies revealed bilateral temporal and/or parietal hypoperfusion in all DAT patients. There was additional frontal hypoperfusion in two patients and occipital hypoperfusion in one patient. In the DLBD group, regional cerebral perfusion had a different pattern. In addition to temporoparietal hypoperfusion there was occipital hypoperfusion resembling a horseshoe defect in six of seven patients. In the DAT group, the mean 3-h striatal/cerebellar ratio of {sup 123}I-{beta} CIT binding was 2.5{+-}0.4, with an increase to 5.5{+-}1.1 18 h after tracer injection. In comparison, the the DLBD patients the mean 3-h striatal/cerebellar ratio of {sup 123}I-{beta}-CIT binding was significantly reduced to 1.7{+-}0.3, with a modest increase to 2.1{+-}0.4 18 h after tracer injection (P<0.05, Scheffe test, ANOVA). These results suggest that {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO or {sup 99m}Tc-ECD and {sup 123}I-{beta}-CIT SPET may contribute to the differential diagnosis between DAT and DLBD, showing different perfusion patterns and more severe impairment of dopamine transporter function in DLBD than in DAT. (orig./ vhe)

  12. ELECTRON-MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF WHITE CELL REDUCTION BY 4 WHITE CELL-REDUCTION FILTERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STENEKER, [No Value; VANLUYN, MJA; VANWACHEM, PB; BIEWENGA, J

    The mechanisms of white cell (WBC) reduction in 16-hour-old CPDA-1 red cell (RBC) concentrates by filtration on a column filter and on three different flatbed filters were studied by electron microscopy, with special emphasis on cell-to-cell interaction, cell damage, and interaction of blood cells

  13. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Is It Possible to Donate Blood After Having Hepatitis B? Health Care: What Do You Know? Donating Blood Blood Transfusions Stem Cell Transplants Contact Us Print Resources Send ...

  14. Longitudinal correlates of change in blood pressure in adolescent girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniels, [No Value; McMahon, RP; Obarzanek, E; Waclawiw, MA; Similo, SL; Biro, FM; Schreiber, GB; Kimm, SYS; Morrison, JA; Barton, BA

    The objective of this study was to assess the longitudinal changes in blood pressure in black and white adolescent girls and evaluate potential determinants of changes in blood pressure, including sexual maturation and body size. A total of 1213 black and 1166 white girls, ages 9 or 10 years at

  15. Astrometric Binaries: White Dwarfs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliversen, Nancy A.

    We propose to observe a selection of astrometric or spectroscopicastrometric binaries nearer than about 20 pc with unseen low mass companions. Systems of this type are important for determining the luminosity function of low mass stars (white dwarfs and very late main sequence M stars), and their contribution to the total mass of the galaxy. Systems of this type are also important because the low mass, invisible companions are potential candidates in the search for planets. Our target list is selected primarily from the list of 31 astrometric binaries near the sun by Lippincott (1978, Space Sci. Rev., 22, 153), with additional candidates from recent observations by Kamper. The elimination of stars with previous IUE observations, red companions resolved by infrared speckle interferometry, or primaries later than M1 (because if white dwarf companions are present they should have been detected in the visible region) reduces the list to 5 targets which need further information. IUE SWP low dispersion observations of these targets will show clearly whether the remaining unseen companions are white dwarfs, thus eliminating very cool main sequence stars or planets. This is also important in providing complete statistical information about the nearest stars. The discovery of a white dwarf in such a nearby system would provide important additional information about the masses of white dwarfs. Recent results by Greenstein (1986, A. J., 92, 859) from binary systems containing white dwarfs imply that 80% of such systems are as yet undetected. The preference of binaries for companions of approximately equal mass makes the Lippincott-Kamper list of A through K primaries with unseen companions a good one to use to search for white dwarfs. The mass and light dominance of the current primary over the white dwarf in the visible makes ultraviolet observations essential to obtain an accurate census of white dwarf binaries.

  16. MRI versus scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-labelled granulocytes in the diagnosis of bone infection; Confronto RM e scintigrafia con granulociti tecneziati nella diagnosi di infezione ossea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vittolini, Enrico; Del Giudice, Eleonora; Caudana, Roberto [Azienda Ospedaliera Carlo Poma, Mantova (Italy). Dipartimento di diagnostica per immagini; Pizzoli, Andrea [Azienda Ospedaliera Carlo Poma, Mantova (Italy). Divisione di ortopedia e traumatologia

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: To assess the reliability of MRI and scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-labelled granulocytes in the diagnosis of bone infection. Materials and methods: Between November 2001 and November 2003, 25 patients (16 men and 9 women; age range 22-72 years; mean age 48 years) with suspected bone infection were evaluated. The lower limbs were more frequently involved (20/25 cases). MRI (TI and T2-w sequences, both with and without fat suppression; TI-w fat-suppressed sequence after Gadolinium administration) and scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-labelled granulocytes were performed in all patients; the study was performed 30 min, 150 min and 24 h after the injection of {sup 99m}Tc labelled autologous granulocytes. The maximum interval between MRI and scintigraphy was 15 days. The diagnosis was confirmed surgically (18/25 cases) or by clinical follow-up (7/25 cases). Results: In 10/25 cases the clinical suspicion of bone infection was confirmed by MRI, scintigraphy and surgery. In 12/25 cases the clinical suspicion of bone infection was not confirmed either by imaging, surgery (5/12 cases) or follow-up (7/12 cases). In 3/25 cases the results were discordant: in 1/3 cases with conic osteomyelitis confirmed by MRI and surgery, a false-negative diagnosis was made by scintigraphy. In 2/3 cases with negative diagnoses confirmed by surgery, a false-positive diagnosis was made by scintigraphy owing to the infection of adjacent soft tissues. Conclusions: MRI is more reliable for the detection and evaluation of the local spread of bone infection. Conversely, when metallic devices causing artefacts on MR images are present, scintigraphy is the preferred alternative modality. [Italian] Scopo: Valutare l'affidabilita della Risonanza Magnetica (RM) e della Scintigrafia (Scgrm) con granulociti autologhi marcati con 99mTc, nella diagnosi di infezione ossea (IO). Materiale e metodi: Nel periodo compreso tra nov. '01 e nov. '03, sono stati valutati 25 pazienti (16

  17. Factors involved in inflammation-induced developmental white matter damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolp, Helen B; Ek, C Joakim; Johansson, Pia A; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M; Bethge, Nicole; Wheaton, Benjamin J; Potter, Ann M; Saunders, Norman R

    2009-02-27

    Developmental white matter damage is a brain pathology associated with several long-term neurological disorders. An inflammatory insult has been suggested as the major instigating event. This study investigated the relative influence of inflammation, blood-brain barrier permeability and glial ontogeny in white matter damage. Systemic inflammation was induced in Monodelphis domestica (opossum) by serial intraperitoneal injections of lipopolysaccharide at different stages of brain development. Volume of white matter was estimated for the external capsule. Blood-brain barrier permeability was assessed immunocytochemically. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to measure relative levels of mRNA for IL-1beta, IL-6 and COX-2. Developmental changes in numbers and appearance of microglia and astrocytes were estimated. Results showed that in response to systemic inflammation, white matter was reduced in the external capsule during a circumscribed period only. At the same developmental stage blood-brain barrier permeability was altered, cerebral inflammatory response was present and numbers of microglia increased. However, the periods of altered blood-brain barrier permeability and the cerebral inflammatory response were longer than the period of the external capsule's susceptibility to white matter damage, which coincided with the developmental increase in the number of astrocytes in this tract. Thus, the mechanism of white matter damage following systemic inflammation is multifactorial, including cerebral inflammation and breakdown of brain barriers occurring simultaneously at specific stages of glial cell development.

  18. Blood Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood > Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Facts and Statistics Facts about blood needs Facts about the blood ... to Top Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells ...

  19. Distribution System White Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA worked with stakeholders and developed a series of white papers on distribution system issues ranked of potentially significant public health concern (see list below) to serve as background material for EPA, expert and stakeholder discussions.

  20. White Lake AOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    White Lake is in Muskegon County along the eastern shore of Lake Michigan. It was named an Area of Concern on the Great Lakes under the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement of 1987 and delisted in 2014.

  1. Why ambulatory blood pressure monitoring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punzi, H A

    1998-11-15

    Factors that affect the reliability and accuracy of blood pressure measurements are reviewed, and new technologies for measuring blood pressure are discussed. Blood pressure measurements obtained in an office, hospital, or clinic are subject to variation and error. Reasons for variations include the wrong cuff size, improper inflation or deflation technique, and patient apprehension ("white-coat syndrome"). Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) involves the use of a fully automated standard arm cuff that is inflated at predetermined intervals by a small battery-powered pump unit. The most reliable ABPM method is the oscillometric method, which detects subtle changes in air pressure within the cuff system caused by fluctuations of the brachial artery. The process for interpreting 24-hour ABPM data is still evolving. Twenty-four-hour ABPM has been shown to eliminate white-coat hypertension and is also useful for assessing patients whose blood pressure is inappropriately high in the absence of end organ damage, monitoring persons at risk of developing hypertension because of their race or family history, determining a medication's 24-hour effect on blood pressure, and assessing the early-morning rapid rise in blood pressure, which has been linked to an increased risk of nonembolic stroke and myocardial infarction. ABPM enables identification of patients whose blood pressure is elevated in the office but normal at home, allows more appropriate screening of patients for clinical trials, gives reproducible values, and enables evaluation of drug duration and action.

  2. Epidemiology of hypertension from childhood to young adulthood in black, white, and Hispanic population samples.

    OpenAIRE

    Berenson, G. S.; Wattigney, W A; Webber, L. S.

    1996-01-01

    RESEARCHERS RECORDED BLOOD PRESSURE LEVELS of children and adolescents in the Bogalusa Heart Study (black and white populations) and in the Brooks Country Study (Hispanic population). Hispanic children had smaller stature, while whites and Hispanics tended to be fatter than blacks in childhood. In Bogalusa, black boys showed higher blood pressure levels. Hispanic girls showed lower systolic blood pressure than the other ethnic groups. In cultures with a high prevalence of hypertension, such a...

  3. White Rose Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, W. [Husky Oil Operations Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The status of Husky's White Rose Project in the Jeanne d'Arc Basin of the Grand Banks of Newfoundland was presented with particular focus on the province of Newfoundland, resource development applications and project challenges. Husky Energy merged with Renaissance Energy in August 2000. It is publicly traded on the Toronto Stock Exchange. Its Q1 2000 production was 270 mboe/d with a clear strategy to deliver an additional 200 mboe/d by 2005. The 5 major projects which represent 80 per cent of Husky's growth are the White Rose, Tucker Lake, Wenchang, Terra Nova and Lloyd Project. This presentation included a map showing the land holdings related to Husky's White Rose Project. The development plans include the drilling of 15-20 wells in the basin which holds an estimated 230 mm/bbls of oil reserves. The presentation also described the Canada-Newfoundland benefits that White Rose will bring in terms of direct person-hours and spin off employment. No gas export infrastructure is currently in place. It is believed that between 7 and 10 tcf of discovered gas reserves is required and there is not enough White Rose gas on which to base an economic gas development. The White Rose challenge will be to deliver a technically and commercially viable project that meets the needs of the owners, governments, unions and supply community. The successful completion of the White Rose Project will demonstrate that the Grand Banks can be developed effectively and efficiently and will contribute to Newfoundland's offshore petroleum industry. tabs., figs.

  4. SOME BLOOD PARAMETERS OF THE YELLOWFISH (BARBUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    white blood cell counts and plasma haemoglobin concentrations were performed on the yellowfish. (&rbus holubi) and the barbel (Clarias garieplnus). Wide variations were observed in haematocrit values and ... As part of an extensive programme concerning the physiology of local fish, various blood parameters ofthe ...

  5. How Does Lupus Affect the Blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affects white blood cells Blood test may indicate lupus nephritis activity U.S. English español Medically reviewed on June 20, 2013 you might also be interested in I Have Lupus How Lupus Affects the Body Site Footer Need ...

  6. Automated measurement of local white matter lesion volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Lijn, Fedde; Verhaaren, Benjamin F. J.; Ikram, M. Arfan

    2012-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that white matter lesions at different locations may have different etiology and clinical consequences. Several approaches for the quantification of local white matter lesion load have been proposed in the literature, most of which rely on a distinction between lesions...... in a periventricular region close to the ventricles and a subcortical zone further away. In this work we present a novel automated method for local white matter lesion volume quantification in magnetic resonance images. The method segments and measures the white matter lesion volume in 43 regions defined...... by orientation and distance to the ventricles, which allows a more spatially detailed study of lesion load. The potential of the method was demonstrated by analyzing the effect of blood pressure on the regional white matter lesion volume in 490 elderly subjects taken from a longitudinal population study...

  7. Technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime single-photon emission tomography of regional cerebral blood flow in insulin-dependent diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keymeulen, B. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Academic Hospital VUB, Brussels (Belgium); Metz, K. de [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Hospital VUB, Brussels (Belgium); Cluydts, R. [Dept. of Psychology, Academic Hospital VUB, Brussels (Belgium); Bossuyt, A. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Hospital VUB, Brussels (Belgium); Somers, G.

    1996-02-01

    The study was performed to investigate subclinical abnormalities in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and to correlate them with patients` characteristics. After intravenous injection of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO), tracer uptake of the prefrontal, frontal and parieto-occipital zones was measured with a triple-head single-photon emission tomography (SPET) camera system in 35 IDDM patients outside an episode of hypolycaemia. Tracer uptake values in 16 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers served as reference values. Compared with healthy subjects, increased tracer uptake of both prefrontal regions and the left frontal region could be shown in diabetes. Tracer uptake was negatively correlated with the duration of diabetes in all investigated regions. In diabetic patients with a disease duration of more than 5 years (n=26), stepwise regression analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between their HbA1c levels and tracer uptake. Long-term diabetic patients with reduced (pre)frontal tracer uptake (n=8) had lower HbA1c levels than those without (8.4%{+-}0.2% vs 9.3%{+-}0.3%, P<0.05) and tended to have more frequently a history of hypoglycaemic coma (6/8 v 6/18, P=0.06). It can be concluded that duration of diabetes contributes to subclinical changes in basal rCBF in IDDM as detected with HMPAO SPET of the brain. The positive correlation between the presence of regional hypoperfusion and lower HbA1c levels in long-term diabetic patients may be interpreted in the light of presumed higher incidence of hypoglycaemia as metabolic control improves. (orig.)

  8. Double Exposure to Adverse Psychosocial Work Factors and High Family Responsibilities as Related to Ambulatory Blood Pressure at Work: A 5-Year Prospective Study in Women With White-Collar Jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert-Ouimet, Mahée; Brisson, Chantal; Milot, Alain; Vézina, Michel

    2017-06-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that psychosocial work factors of the demand-control and effort-reward imbalance models may contribute to increase blood pressure (BP). Women are more likely to be exposed to these psychosocial factors than men. Moreover, women spend twice as much time per week performing family responsibilities than men. This study aimed to evaluate the longitudinal association of the double exposure to psychosocial work factors and high family responsibilities in women with BP for a 5-year follow-up. At baseline, the study sample was composed of 1215 working women. Psychosocial work factors were measured using validated scales. Family responsibilities were measured using items related to "the number of children and their age" and "housework and children care." Ambulatory BP measures were taken every 15 minutes during a working day. Associations between psychosocial measures and BP were examined using analyses of covariance. Women with a double exposure to effort-reward imbalance and high family responsibilities had significantly higher BP means than women not exposed to these factors at baseline (diastolic: +2.75 mm Hg), at 3-year follow-up (systolic: +2.22 mm Hg and diastolic: +2.55 mm Hg), and at 5-year follow-up (systolic: +2.94 mm Hg and diastolic: + 3.10 mm Hg). No adverse effect on BP was observed for the double exposure to the psychosocial work factors of the demand-control model and high family responsibilities. A double exposure to effort-reward imbalance at work and high family responsibilities might contribute to elevated ambulatory BP at work among women. BP elevations related to this double exposure may persist for several years.

  9. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... much or prevent blood clots from dissolving properly. Risk factors for excessive blood clotting include Certain genetic disorders Atherosclerosis Diabetes Atrial fibrillation Overweight, obesity, and metabolic syndrome Some medicines Smoking Staying in ...

  10. Blood transfusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000431.htm Blood transfusions To use the sharing features on this page, ... There are many reasons you may need a blood transfusion: After knee or hip replacement surgery, or other ...

  11. Blood Thinners

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you have Certain heart or blood vessel diseases An abnormal heart rhythm called atrial fibrillation A heart valve replacement A risk of blood clots after surgery Congenital heart defects There are two main types of blood thinners. Anticoagulants such as heparin or ...

  12. Influence of intravenously administered lidocaine on cerebral blood flow in a baboon model standardized under controlled general anaesthesia using single-photon emission tomography and technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dormehl, I.C. (AEC Inst. for Life Sciences, Pretoria Univ. (South Africa)); Lipp, M.D.W. (Klinik fuer Anaesthesiologie, Johannes Gutenberg Univ., Mainz (Germany)); Hugo, N. (AEC Inst. for Life Sciences, Pretoria Univ. (South Africa)); Daublaender, M. (Stadtkrankenhaus Landau, Abt. fuer Mund-, Kiefer- und Gesichtschirurgie (Germany)); Picard, J.A. (H.A. Grove Research Centre, Pretoria (South Africa))

    1993-11-01

    The baboon under general anaesthesia as a model to assess druginduced cerebral blood flow changes ([Delta] CBF) using single-photon emission tomography (SPET) offers great in vivo possibilities but has to comply with demands on control of anaestesia-related influencing factors, such as P[sub a]CO[sub 2] changes. The model sought in this study and described here allows control of P[sub a]CO[sub 2], in the baboon under thiopentone anaesthesia by ventilation, and was evaluated for the functioal dependence of [Delta] CBF vs [Delta] P[sub a]CO[sub 2], using SPET technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) and the split-dose method together with controlled ventilation. During the experiment the model was validated for normal reactivity to P[sub a]CO[sub 2] changes, and subsequently applied to investigate the mechanisms (still uncertain) of CBF increase known to follow administration of the local anaesthetic lidocaine. Six baboons received 6 mg/kg lidocaine intravenously. CBF was measured between two consecutive SPET acquisitions (split-dose method) respectively relating to HMPAO distributions in the brain before and after the injection of lidocaine. Meanwhile the animals were maintained at constant respiratory rate and volume. The results indicate that the correlation between D CBF and the ensuing fall in P[sub a]CO[sub 2] deviated from the baseline pattern from the model and confirmed a cerebrovascular contribution to the lidocaine-induced CBF increase. This agreed well with mean and systolic blood pressure changes and heart rate. (orig.)

  13. White collar crime

    OpenAIRE

    Burgos, Álvaro

    2016-01-01

    The White Collar Crime has particular characteristics that range from the profile of its author to the difficulties of the criminal process where it is investigated. El delito de Cuello Blanco cuenta con características particulares desde el perfil de su autor, hasta las dificultades del proceso penal en que se investiga.

  14. white's friction factor formulae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    Environmental Engineering, Elizade University, Ilara Monkin, Ondo State. NIGERIA. ACCURATE SOLUTIONS OF COLEBROOK- WHITE'S FRICTION FACTOR FORMULAE. S. Lukman1 and I. A. Oke2,*. 1 CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, UNIVERSITY OF HAFR AL-BATIN, HAFR AL-BATIN, SAUDI ARABIA. 2 CIVIL ...

  15. White matter lesion progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofer, Edith; Cavalieri, Margherita; Bis, Joshua C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression on magnetic resonance imaging is related to cognitive decline and stroke, but its determinants besides baseline WML burden are largely unknown. Here, we estimated heritability of WML progression, and sought common genetic variants asso...

  16. White Sea - Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    At bottom center of this true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from April 13, 2001, the White Sea in western Russia is becoming free of ice in its southern extent. Meanwhile, the blue-green waters along the coast of the peninsula jutting out into the Barents Sea to the northeast could be due to a phytoplankton bloom.

  17. White-tailed deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul E. Johns; John C. Kilgo

    2005-01-01

    from a public relations standpoint, the white-tailed deer (Odocileus virginiamus) is probably the most important wildlife species occurring on the Savannah River Site (SRS). The SRS deer herd has been the subject of more scientific investigations than any comparable deer population in the world, resulting in more than 125 published papers. Each year...

  18. probably mostly white

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Willem Scholtz

    internet – the (probably mostly white) public's interest in the so-called Border War is ostensibly at an all-time high. By far most of the publications are written by ex- ... understanding of this very important episode in the history of Southern Africa. It was, therefore, with some anticipation that one waited for this book, which.

  19. White dots do matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soeken, Mathias; Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal

    2013-01-01

    Toffoli circuits. We also show how to use these rules to derive more complex formulas. The major difference compared to existing approaches is the use of negative controls (white dots), which significantly increases the algebraic strength. We show how existing optimisation approaches can be adapted...

  20. Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abroun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Stem cells are naïve or master cells. This means they can transform into special 200 cell types as needed by body, and each of these cells has just one function. Stem cells are found in many parts of the human body, although some sources have richer concentrations than others. Some excellent sources of stem cells, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, cord blood, other tissue stem cells and human embryos, which last one are controversial and their use can be illegal in some countries. Cord blood is a sample of blood taken from a newborn baby's umbilical cord. It is a rich source of stem cells, umbilical cord blood and tissue are collected from material that normally has no use following a child’s birth. Umbilical cord blood and tissue cells are rich sources of stem cells, which have been used in the treatment of over 80 diseases including leukemia, lymphoma and anemia as bone marrow stem cell potency.  The most common disease category has been leukemia. The next largest group is inherited diseases. Patients with lymphoma, myelodysplasia and severe aplastic anemia have also been successfully transplanted with cord blood. Cord blood is obtained by syringing out the placenta through the umbilical cord at the time of childbirth, after the cord has been detached from the newborn. Collecting stem cells from umbilical blood and tissue is ethical, pain-free, safe and simple. When they are needed to treat your child later in life, there will be no rejection or incompatibility issues, as the procedure will be using their own cells. In contrast, stem cells from donors do have these potential problems. By consider about cord blood potency, cord blood banks (familial or public were established. In IRAN, four cord blood banks has activity, Shariati BMT center cord blood bank, Royan familial cord blood banks, Royan public cord blood banks and Iranian Blood Transfusion Organ cord blood banks. Despite 50,000 sample which storage in these banks, but the

  1. Blood Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donor Community Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Types Blood Components What Happens to Donated Blood Blood and Diversity History of Blood Transfusion Iron and Blood Donation Hosting ...

  2. Characterization of white OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenbin; Lu, Lili

    2007-11-01

    White OLEDs (WOLEDs) have attracted much attention for several applications, such as backlights in LCD, full-color OLED display using on-chip color filters, and low cost illumination sources. OLEDs have typically very broad emissions, which makes them uniquely suitable for light source applications. In this paper, some fundamentals of the CIE colorimetry system including the color-rendering index are described. Given the spectral power distribution of WOLED, the parameters of a light source (chromaticity coordinate, CCT, CRI, and the luminous efficacy) can be calculated. A MATLAB program for this purpose is developed in this paper. WOLEDs utilizing two primary-color emitters are fabricated. NPB doped with 2% Rubrene is used as the red-emitting layer and anthracene derivative as the blue-emitting layer. With a structure of ITO/2TNATA(20nm)/NPB(20 nm)/ NPB:rubrene(2%)(10nm)/ anthracene (30 nm)/Alq 3(20nm)LiF(1nm)/Al(100nm), a white light with CIE coordinates of (0.34, 0.37) is generated. The color properties are presented in this paper. The results show that the white color can be created from numerous combinations of different spectra. Based upon this, the characterization of the WOLED is simulated and the design of WOLED for illumination is discussed. In contrary to light source applications where illumination quality white is the most important, all colors are equally important for display applications. The white spectrum of the two-emitter WOLED is transmitted through the typical red, blue and green color filters. The performance of this color display is simulated and the WOLED design for display application is discussed.

  3. Value of black blood T2* cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carpenter John Paul

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To assess whether black blood T2* cardiovascular magnetic resonance is superior to conventional white blood imaging of cardiac iron in patients with thalassaemia major (TM. Materials and methods We performed both conventional white blood and black blood T2* CMR sequences in 100 TM patients to determine intra and inter-observer variability and presence of artefacts. In 23 patients, 2 separate studies of both techniques were performed to assess interstudy reproducibility. Results Cardiac T2* values ranged from 4.5 to 43.8 ms. The mean T2* values were not different between black blood and white blood acquisitions (20.5 vs 21.6 ms, p = 0.26. Compared with the conventional white blood diastolic acquisition, the coefficient of variance of the black blood CMR technique was superior for intra-observer reproducibility (1.47% vs 4.23%, p Conclusions Black blood T2* CMR has superior reproducibility and reduced imaging artefacts for the assessment of cardiac iron, in comparison with the conventional white blood technique, which make it the preferred technique for clinical practice.

  4. Plato: White and Non-white Love

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amo Sulaiman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Plato’s dialogues, the Symposium, and Phaedrus, provide a reasonableexplanation of love. G. Vlastos and M. Nussbaum do not share such anopinion. The former contends that Plato’s view of love is about lovingonly a person’s beauty, but not the entire person; thus, it falls short of anappropriate explanation of love. The latter holds that a theory of love should be complete, and that Plato’s one is incomplete on the grounds that it does not account for personal love. These criticisms will be re-evaluated in light of the duality of love (the white and non-white horses—in Phaedrus as well as participants’ views in the Symposium; a re-assessment will weaken the mentioned objections. This paper contends that from the Symposium and Phaedrus, one can have a fruitful understanding of being in love, being out of love, falling inlove, loving for its own sake and being erotically in love. In order to account for these related issues of love it is important to consider Plato’s works in terms of his “official” and “unofficial” views. The former is construed as the doctrine of the lover or loving for its own sake: this is associates with Diotima’s views which are repeated by Socrates. With reference to the latter, it is possible to explain what personal love or being in love, being out of love, falling in love, and being erotically in love involve. Erotic love will be interpreted as an extension of our philosophical conception of love, related to views of love that are mentioned in the Symposium other than Socrates’ report of Diotima’s conceptions. This paper is divided into two parts: the first one will show views of love in the Symposium. That is, being in love, being out of love, falling in love and loving for its own sake will be discussed. In addition, the forementioned criticisms will be re-evaluated. In the second section, we will show that Aristophanes’ speech expresses erotic love, and then Kant’s objections will be

  5. Principal component and volume of interest analyses in depressed patients imaged by {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPET: a methodological comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagani, Marco [Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, CNR, Rome (Italy); Section of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Hospital Physics, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Gardner, Ann; Haellstroem, Tore [NEUROTEC, Division of Psychiatry, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Salmaso, Dario [Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, CNR, Rome (Italy); Sanchez Crespo, Alejandro; Jonsson, Cathrine; Larsson, Stig A. [Section of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Hospital Physics, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Jacobsson, Hans [Department of Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Lindberg, Greger [Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Waegner, Anna [Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Neurology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-07-01

    Previous regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) studies on patients with unipolar major depressive disorder (MDD) have analysed clusters of voxels or single regions and yielded conflicting results, showing either higher or lower rCBF in MDD as compared to normal controls (CTR). The aim of this study was to assess rCBF distribution changes in 68 MDD patients, investigating the data set with both volume of interest (VOI) analysis and principal component analysis (PCA). The rCBF distribution in 68 MDD and 66 CTR, at rest, was compared. Technetium-99m d,l-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime single-photon emission tomography was performed and the uptake in 27 VOIs, bilaterally, was assessed using a standardising brain atlas. Data were then grouped into factors by means of PCA performed on rCBF of all 134 subjects and based on all 54 VOIs. VOI analysis showed a significant group x VOI x hemisphere interaction (P<0.001). rCBF in eight VOIs (in the prefrontal, temporal, occipital and central structures) differed significantly between groups at the P<0.05 level. PCA identified 11 anatomo-functional regions that interacted with groups (P<0.001). As compared to CTR, MDD rCBF was relatively higher in right associative temporo-parietal-occipital cortex (P<0.01) and bilaterally in prefrontal (P<0.005) and frontal cortex (P<0.025), anterior temporal cortex and central structures (P<0.05 and P<0.001 respectively). Higher rCBF in a selected group of MDD as compared to CTR at rest was found using PCA in five clusters of regions sharing close anatomical and functional relationships. At the single VOI level, all eight regions showing group differences were included in such clusters. PCA is a data-driven method for recasting VOIs to be used for group evaluation and comparison. The appearance of significant differences absent at the VOI level emphasises the value of analysing the relationships among brain regions for the investigation of psychiatric disease. (orig.)

  6. Characteristic patterns of cerebral blood perfusion and cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinsons disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Y. J.; Park, M. J.; Cha, J. G.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, J. W.; Kang, D. Y. [Dong-A University College of medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Parkinsons disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that represents cognitive impairment as well as motor symptoms. Even in the early stages of PD, cognitive alterations can be demonstrated by careful neuropsychological test. The purposes of this study are to investigate the pattern of cognitive impairment and the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT in patients with PD. One hundred and twenty two patients with PD and 35 control subjects participated in this study. Patients with PD who had dementia clinically or K-MMSE score below 25 points or with severe motor dysfunction to interfere with the tests were also excluded. They were all matched for age (61{+-}10 vs 61{+-}8), education periods (8.8{+-}4.9 vs 8.8{+-}4.5), and K-MMSE score (27{+-}1.6 vs 27{+-}1.5). All subjects were evaluated using the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery (SNSB) and Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT with SPM software to measure rCBF. Patients with PD performed worse in digit span backward, Rey Complex Figure Test, visual memory, semantic fluency, stroop test, and alternating hand movement test(p<0.05) compared with control group. On SNSB test, 100 patients (82.0%) showed some abnormalities. Eighty-six patients (70.5%) showed frontal dysfunction, 47 (38.5%) memory impairment, 33 (27.0%) language dysfunction, 25 (20.5%) attention deficit and 22 (18.3%) visuospatial dysfunction in the order of frequency. Eight patients with PD showed single memory domain MCI and 28 single non-memory domain MCI (20 frontal dysfunction). Multiple domain MCI was found in 64 patients with PD. SPM analysis of the SPECT image revealed multiple perfusion deficit in the both frontal, temporal, both limbic lobes, Lt. parietal and Lt. Putamen. It is concluded that abnormalities of cognitive function be detected very commonly in patients with PD. MCI in PD patients is most frequently involved in the item of frontal lobe function. SPECT image might be helpful to explain cognitive impairment in some

  7. The Jung-White Letters

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Kirsten; Nielsen, Sine Birkedal

    2012-01-01

    This report is based on the correspondence The Jung-White Letters, between psychotherapist C. G. Jung and theologian Victor White. Their correspondence deals mainly with the relationship between religion and science. The report analyses Jung and White's conflict on the subject of evil as understood in the Christian doctrine privatio boni, investigating the underlying epistemological reasoning behind their disagreement. Theologian White is influenced by the Catholic Dominican order, whose phil...

  8. Perceived Whiteness under Different Lighting Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oota, Akiko; Kanaya, Sueko; Ayama, Miyoshi; Mukai, Kenji

    Many white and nearly white objects are in our living and working areas, such as documents written on white paper, white curtains, white clothes, white walls, and white furniture. The perceived whiteness of these objects is important to the impression of the lighting in these areas. To investigate the perceived whiteness in living areas, a series of experiments were conducted using four different fluorescent lamps in three different environments. It was found that the areas of perceived whiteness in the living area environments were larger than the areas of perceived whiteness under achromatic conditions. Based on these results, a perceived whiteness index is proposed for these experimental conditions.

  9. Temperature-dependent physical properties of egg white for HIFU applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunbo; Maruvada, Subha; Herman, Bruce A.; Harris, Gerald R.

    2012-10-01

    Because egg white denatures at elevated temperature due to its protein content, it has the potential for use as a blood coagulation surrogate in pre-clinical evaluations of thermal therapy procedures such as high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) surgery. We therefore have measured the relevant physical properties of egg white, including coagulation temperature, frequency-dependent attenuation, sound speed, viscosity, and thermal properties, as a function of temperature (20 - 95°C). Thermal coagulation and attenuation (5-12 MHz) of cow blood, pig blood, and human blood also were assessed and compared with egg white. For a 30 s thermal exposure, both egg white and blood samples started to denature at 65°C and coagulate into an elastic gel at 85°C. The temperature-dependent parameters were found to be similar to that of the blood samples. For example, the attenuation of egg white ranged from 0.23f1.09 to 2.7f0.5 dB/cm over the 20°C - 95°C range. These results suggest that egg white would make a useful blood mimic for bench testing of therapeutic ultrasound devices.

  10. Amylase - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased blood amylase levels may occur due to: Acute pancreatitis Cancer of the pancreas , ovaries, or lungs Cholecystitis Gallbladder attack caused by disease Gastroenteritis (severe) Infection ...

  11. Immunoelectrophoresis - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    IEP - serum; Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - blood; Gamma globulin electrophoresis; Serum immunoglobulin electrophoresis; Amyloidosis - electrophoresis serum; Multiple myeloma - serum electrophoresis; Waldenström - serum electrophoresis

  12. Investigation of nanodiamonds interactions in canine blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    WÄ sowicz, Michał; Marek, Kulka; Cićkiewicz, Maciej; Cymerman, Magdalena

    2017-02-01

    The whole blood contains red cells, white cells, and platelets suspended in plasma. In the following study we investigated an impact of nanodiamond particles on blood elements over various periods of time.The material used in the study consisted of samples taken from ten healthy canines (Canis lupus f. domestica) of various age, different blood types and both sexes. The markings were conducted by adding to the blood unmodified diamonds (SND), modified O2 (SO2) suspended in 0,9% NaCl. The blood was put under an impact of two diamond concentrations: 20μl and 100μl. The amount of abnormal cells increased with time. The percentage of echinocytes as a result of interaction with nanodiamonds in various time periods for individual specimens was scarce. In the examined microscopic image a summary was made for 100 white blood cells. Following cells were included in said group: band neutrophils, segmented neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, lymphocytes with granulates, stimulated lymphocytes, lymphocytes with vacuoles, metamielocytes and smudge cells. The impact of the three diamond types had no clinical importance on red blood cells. After the diamonds mixed with white blood cells, atypical cells came into being, in the range of agranulocytes in stimulated form or with granulates and/or vacuoles. It is supposed that as a result of longlasting exposure a stimulation and vacuolisation takes place, because of the function of the cells.

  13. White noise on bialgebras

    CERN Document Server

    Schürmann, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Stochastic processes with independent increments on a group are generalized to the concept of "white noise" on a Hopf algebra or bialgebra. The main purpose of the book is the characterization of these processes as solutions of quantum stochastic differential equations in the sense of R.L. Hudsonand K.R. Parthasarathy. The notes are a contribution to quantum probability but they are also related to classical probability, quantum groups, and operator algebras. The Az ma martingales appear as examples of white noise on a Hopf algebra which is a deformation of the Heisenberg group. The book will be of interest to probabilists and quantum probabilists. Specialists in algebraic structures who are curious about the role of their concepts in probablility theory as well as quantum theory may find the book interesting. The reader should havesome knowledge of functional analysis, operator algebras, and probability theory.

  14. WHITE CELLS AS LIGHT GATHERERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of White cells (J. V. White . ’Long optical paths at large aperture’, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32:285 (1942)) as light gatherers is analyzed in this...unobservable. It is evident, therefore, that White cells and the sources used with them must be properly designed and applied to be effective. (Author)

  15. White-coat hypertension and normotension in the League of Hypertension of the Hospital das Clínicas, FMUSP: prevalence, clinical and demographic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Segre

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of white-coat normortension, white-coat hypertension, and white-coat effect. METHODS: We assessed 670 medical records of patients from the League of Hypertension of the Hospital das Clínicas of the Medical School of the University of São Paulo. White-coat hypertension (blood pressure at the medical office: mean of 3 measurements with the oscillometric device ³140 or ³90 mmHg, or both, and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring mean during wakefulness ³ 135/85 were analyzed in 183 patients taking no medication. The white-coat effect (difference between office and ambulatory blood pressure > 20 mmHg for systolic and 10 mmHg for diastolic was analyzed in 487 patients on treatment, 374 of whom underwent multivariate analysis to identify the variables that better explain the white-coat effect. RESULTS: Prevalence of white-coat normotension was 12%, prevalence of white-coat hypertension was 20%, and prevalence of the white-coat effect was 27%. A significant correlation (p<0.05 was observed between white-coat hypertension and familial history of hypertension, and between the white-coat effect and sex, severity of the office diastolic blood pressure, and thickness of left ventricular posterior wall. CONCLUSION: White-coat hypertension, white-coat normotension, and white-coat effect should be considered in the diagnosis of hypertension.

  16. Evidence for Functional Networks within the Human Brain's White Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, Michael; Nitzan, Mor; Bick, Atira S; Levin, Netta; Arzy, Shahar

    2017-07-05

    Investigation of the functional macro-scale organization of the human cortex is fundamental in modern neuroscience. Although numerous studies have identified networks of interacting functional modules in the gray-matter, limited research was directed to the functional organization of the white-matter. Recent studies have demonstrated that the white-matter exhibits blood oxygen level-dependent signal fluctuations similar to those of the gray-matter. Here we used these signal fluctuations to investigate whether the white-matter is organized as functional networks by applying a clustering analysis on resting-state functional MRI (RSfMRI) data from white-matter voxels, in 176 subjects (of both sexes). This analysis indicated the existence of 12 symmetrical white-matter functional networks, corresponding to combinations of white-matter tracts identified by diffusion tensor imaging. Six of the networks included interhemispheric commissural bridges traversing the corpus callosum. Signals in white-matter networks correlated with signals from functional gray-matter networks, providing missing knowledge on how these distributed networks communicate across large distances. These findings were replicated in an independent subject group and were corroborated by seed-based analysis in small groups and individual subjects. The identified white-matter functional atlases and analysis codes are available at http://mind.huji.ac.il/white-matter.aspx Our results demonstrate that the white-matter manifests an intrinsic functional organization as interacting networks of functional modules, similarly to the gray-matter, which can be investigated using RSfMRI. The discovery of functional networks within the white-matter may open new avenues of research in cognitive neuroscience and clinical neuropsychiatry.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In recent years, functional MRI (fMRI) has revolutionized all fields of neuroscience, enabling identifications of functional modules and networks in the human

  17. White dwarf planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonsor Amy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The recognition that planets may survive the late stages of stellar evolution, and the prospects for finding them around White Dwarfs, are growing. We discuss two aspects governing planetary survival through stellar evolution to the White Dwarf stage. First we discuss the case of a single planet, and its survival under the effects of stellar mass loss, radius expansion, and tidal orbital decay as the star evolves along the Asymptotic Giant Branch. We show that, for stars initially of 1 − 5 M⊙, any planets within about 1 − 5 AU will be engulfed, this distance depending on the stellar and planet masses and the planet's eccentricity. Planets engulfed by the star's envelope are unlikely to survive. Hence, planets surviving the Asymptotic Giant Branch phase will probably be found beyond ∼ 2 AU for a 1  M⊙ progenitor and ∼ 10 AU for a 5 M⊙ progenitor. We then discuss the evolution of two-planet systems around evolving stars. As stars lose mass, planet–planet interactions become stronger, and many systems stable on the Main Sequence become destabilised following evolution of the primary. The outcome of such instabilities is typically the ejection of one planet, with the survivor being left on an eccentric orbit. These eccentric planets could in turn be responsible for feeding planetesimals into the neighbourhood of White Dwarfs, causing observed pollution and circumstellar discs.

  18. White Rose project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, W. [Husky Oil Operations Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The status of Husky's White Rose Project off the Grand Banks of Newfoundland was presented with particular focus on project achievements from October 2000 to March 2002, execution strategy and the challenge of delivering the project safely, in an environmentally sensitive manner, both on schedule and within budget. The project is the third oil development offshore Newfoundland and Labrador where recoverable reserves are estimated at 884 MMbbls for Hibernia, 40 MMbbls for Terra Nova, and 200 to 250 MMbbls for the White Rose project. Cost competitive methods can be used to develop White Rose, which will then stimulate more exploration activity and expand the base of experienced individuals. This presentation included computer generated images of the field layout depicting 3 glory holes or drill centres. The well count is currently at 21 wells of which 10 are at the stage of first oil. Production capacity is 100 bbls per day. Graphs depicting drilling performance were also included, along with the FPSO execution strategy, turret schematics, and the project schedule. tabs., figs.

  19. Regional cerebral blood flow abnormalities in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cermik, Tevfik F. [Hospital of the University of Trakya, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Edirne (Turkey); Trakya Universitesi Hastanesi, Nukleer Tip Anabilim Dali, Gullapoglu Yerleskesi, Edirne (Turkey); Kaya, Meryem; Bedel, Deniz; Berkarda, Sakir; Yigitbasi, Oemer N. [Hospital of the University of Trakya, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Edirne (Turkey); Ugur-Altun, Betuel [Hospital of the University of Trakya, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Edirne (Turkey)

    2007-04-15

    We assessed the alterations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP) before parathyroidectomy by semiquantitative analysis of brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. Included in this prospective study were 14 patients (mean age 47.6 {+-} 10.4 years; 3 male, 11 female) and 10 control subjects (mean age 36.0 {+-} 8.5 years, 6 male, 4 female) were SPECT imaging was performed using a dual-headed gamma camera 60-90 min after intravenous administration of 925 MBq Tc-99m HMPAO. The corticocerebellar rCBF ratios were calculated from 52 brain areas and reference lower values (RLVs) were calculated from the rCBF ratios of control subjects. The regional ratios that were below the corresponding RLV were considered abnormal (hypoperfused). Hypoperfusion was shown in 171 out of 728 regions (23%) and there was a significant correlation between serum calcium, PTH levels and the sum of hypoperfused regions in the patient group (R = 0.75 and P = 0.001, and R = 0.75, P = 0.001, respectively). Significantly reduced rCBF were found in the following cortical regions: bilateral cingulate cortex, superior and inferior frontal cortex, anterior temporal cortex, precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus and parietal cortex, and right posterior temporal cortex. Our results indicate that alterations in rCBF in patients with PHP can be demonstrated with brain SPECT. The correlation between serum calcium, PTH levels and the sum of hypoperfused regions indicates that there may be a strong relationship between rCBF abnormalities and increased levels of serum calcium and PTH. In addition, the degree of rCBF abnormalities could be determined by brain SPECT in PHP patients with or without psychiatric symptoms. (orig.)

  20. Biochemical polymorphism in New Zealand white x Chinchilla rabbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated diversity within New Zealand white and Chinchilla rabbit crosses using four structural protein loci: Hemoglobin (Hb), Albumin (Alb), Transferin (Tf) and Carbonic anhydrase (CA). Blood (4mls) was sampled from a total of 49 rabbits through ocular venipuncture. The samples collected were analysed using ...

  1. Changes in total and differential white cell counts, total lymphocyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Published reports on the possible changes in the various immune cell populations, especially the total lymphocyte and CD4 cell counts, during the menstrual cycle in Nigerian female subjects are relatively scarce. Aim: To determine possible changes in the total and differential white blood cell [WBC] counts, ...

  2. BLOOD DONATION

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    A blood donation, organized by EFS (Etablissement Français du Sang) of Annemasse will take place On Wednesday 12 November 2008, from 8:30 to 16:00, at CERN Restaurant 2 If possible, please, bring your blood group Card.

  3. Blood donation

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    A blood donation is organised by the Cantonal Hospital of Geneva On Thursday 19 March 2009 from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. CERN RESTAURANT 2 Number of donations during the last blood donations :135 donors in July 2008 122 donors in November 2008 Let’s do better in 2009 !!! Give 30 minutes of your time to save lives...

  4. Artificial Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit Yasar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The problems and additional cost factor involved in collecting and storing human blood, as well as the pending worldwide shortages are the main driving forces in the development of blood substitutes. Studies on artificial blood basically aim to develop oxygen carrying compounds, produce stem cell-based erythrocyte cells in vitro and, implement the functions and movements of natural hemoglobin molecules found in erythrocyte cells through artificial erythrocyte cells. Consequently, major areas of research in artificial blood studies are haemoglobin-based oxygen carriers, perfluorochemicals, respirocytes and stem cells. Even though these artificial erythrocyte cells do not qualify as perfect red blood cell substitutes yet, they have many potential clinical and non clinical uses. Studies are being carried out on the elimination of side effects of blood substitutes and extensive clinical trials are being conducted to test their safety and efficacy. Artificial blood substitutes could only be used clinically for patient management following clinical trials and approvals, and will be the ultimate global solution to the problems associated with donor scarcity, blood collection and transfusion-mediated diseases. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(2.000: 95-108

  5. Blood Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your body's cells to use for energy. Diabetes is a disease in which your blood sugar levels are too high. Over time, having too ... serious problems. Even if you don't have diabetes, sometimes you may have problems with blood sugar that is too low or too high. Keeping ...

  6. [Differences in cerebral blood flow following risperidone treatment in children with autistic disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Dilşad Foto; Karabacak, Neşe Ilgin; Akkaş, Burcu; Akdemir, Ozgür; Unal, Fatih; Senol, Selahattin

    2009-01-01

    Functional changes in the brains of autistic children due to risperidone treatment and theirs relationship to the symptom clusters are yet unknown. In this autistic disorder case series we aimed to comparatively evaluate the clinical findings before and after risperidone treatment, and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) findings with 99mTc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) brain SPECT. Eleven autistic patients (age range: 6-7 years; 4 girls, 7 boys) received risperidone therapy (1.5-2.5 mg d(-1)) and were followed-up for 3 months. All the patients underwent neurologic examinations, psychometric examinations, and SPECT imaging, both at the start of risperidone treatment and 3 months after the treatment started. Clinical observations, and the observations of parents and teachers were recorded. These results were compared with cerebral perfusion indices obtained from SPECT data. After 3 months of treatment changes in rCBF were observed in various regions and to varying degrees. We observed relationships between clinical symptoms and pre-therapy rCBF findings, and between clinical improvement and rCBF changes. Findings in the present case series are the first to demonstrate a relationship between clinical improvement and regional perfusion patterns after risperidone treatment. We think that these findings may contribute to the understanding of the neurofunctional mechanisms and hypothetical models of autism.

  7. Regional cerebral blood flow abnormalities in late-life depression. Relation to refractoriness and chronification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awata, Shuichi; Konno, Michiko; Sato, Mitsumoto [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine; Ito, Hiroshi; Ono, Shuichi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    1998-02-01

    We examined patterns of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) abnormalities in 18 patients with major depressive disorder in late life using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and {sup 99m}Tc-hexamethyl-propylenamine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO). Compared with 13 age-matched controls, relative rCBF was significantly decreased bilaterally in the anterior cingulate gyrus, the prefrontal cortex, the temporal cortex, the parietal cortex, the hippocampus and the caudate nucleus. However, it was not correlated with the severity of depression or global cognitive dysfunction. In 10 patients with a prolonged depressive episode or prolonged residual symptoms (the refractory subgroup), robust and extensive decreases in rCBF were found compared with controls and the rCBF decreased significantly in the anterior cingulate gyrus and the prefrontal cortex compared with that in the non-refractory subgroup. In the non-reflactory subgroup, rCBF decreased significantly in the caudate nucleus and tended to decrease in the anterior cingulate gyrus compared with controls. These findings indicate that dysfunction of the limbic system, the cerebral association cortex and the caudate nucleus may be implicated in late-life depression and that robust and extensive hypoperfusion, especially in the anterior cingulate and the prefrontal regions, may relate to refractoriness or chronification of depression. (author). 60 refs.

  8. Tainted blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Ida; Sheikh, Zainab Afshan; Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    study of the historical rise and current workings of safety practices in the Danish blood system. Here, we identify a strong focus on contamination in order to avoid 'tainted blood', at the expense of working with risks that could be avoided through enhanced blood monitoring practices. Of further...... significance to this focus are the social dynamics found at the heart of safety practices aimed at avoiding contamination. We argue that such dynamics need more attention, in order to achieve good health outcomes in transfusion medicine. Thus, we conclude that, to ensure continuously safe blood systems, we...... need to move beyond the bifurcation of the social and medical aspects of blood supply as two separate issues and approach social dynamics as key medical safety questions....

  9. [Influence of Sympathetic Denervation of the Renal Artery on the Level of Arterial Blood Pressure, Cerebral Blood Flow and Cognitive Function In Patients With Resistant Arterial Hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimova, Y N; Lichikaki, A V; Lishmanov, B Y

    2017-07-01

    To study the effect of radiofrequency ablation of renal arteries on regional cerebral blood flow and cognitive function in patients with resistant arterial hypertension (AH). Transcatheter renal denervation (TRD) was performed in 17 patients with resistant AH. Examination before and after TRD included SPECT with mTc-HMPAO, 24-hours blood pressure (BP) monitoring, and comprehensive neuropsychological testing. Fifteen patients without angiographic signs of carotid atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease and AH, neurological and psychiatric disorders were investigated as control group. Compared with control group patients with AH had decreases of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in right (by 13.5%, p=0.00002) and left (by 15.5%, p=0.0006) inferior frontal lobes, in right temporal brain region (by 11.5%, p=0.008); in right and left occipital lobes (by 8.2%, p=0.04). In 6 months after TRD we observed significant improvement of cognitive function, parameters of 24-hour BP monitoring, and rCBF. We also noted definite close interdependence between changes of rCBF, indices of 24-hours BP monitoring, and dynamics of cognitive function. Improvement of long-term verbal memory correlated with increases of rCBF in left superior frontal and right occipital regions while dynamics of mentation and attention correlated positively with augmentation of rCBF in right posterior parietal region. Changes of perfusion in inferior parts of left frontal lobe and in right occipital region correlated with dynamics of index of diurnal diastolic hypertension time (R2=0.64, p=0.001, and R2=0.60, p=0.03, respectively). Our results suggest, that in patients with resistant AH positive effect of TRD on levels of 24-hour mean BP as well as on indices of BP load leads to in augmentation of rCBF and improvement of cognitive function.

  10. Effect Of Food Supplementation On The White Blood Cells Count ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trypanosomiasis is an important livestock disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Improvement on host\\'s nutrition is mportant in moderating the severity of pathophysiological efect of trypanosomiasis and it also influences the rate of recovery. Earlier researchers demonstrated that dietary supplement of selenium and vitamin E ...

  11. White Blood Cell Differentiation Using a Solid State Flow Cytometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornbos, R.M.P.; Doornbos, R.M.P.; Hennink, E.J.; Putman, C.A.J.; Putman, C.A.J.; de Grooth, B.G.; Greve, Jan

    1993-01-01

    A flow cytometer using a solid state light source and detector was designed and built. For illumination of the sample stream two types of diode lasers (670 nm and 780 nm) were tested in a set-up designed to differentiate human leukocytes by means of light scattering. The detector is an avalanche

  12. Platelets and white blood cells in acute coronary syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jaap Jan Johannes

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, we have studied the role of leukocytes and platelets as methods to measure platelets aggregation, in the clinical management of presenting with acute coronary syndromes. We have tried to incidence and to identify predictors of adverse cardiac events with function tests or

  13. Haematological and blood biochemical indices of West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    <0.05) influence on post-vaccination neutrophil (NEU2), while sex and ... Males presented an overall lower number of lymphocyte, higher neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and white blood cells (WBC) than females. Post-vaccination albumin (ALB2)

  14. Blood profile of West African dwarf goats fed Panicum maximum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PM, 75 %PM: 25 %NL, 50 %PM: 50 %NL and 25 %PM: 75 %NL in a completely randomized design. White blood cell count, haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, total protein, albumin, ...

  15. Computer Analysis of Eye Blood-Vessel Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, R. J.; White, B. S.

    1984-01-01

    Technique rapidly diagnoses diabetes mellitus. Photographs of "whites" of patients' eyes scanned by computerized image analyzer programmed to quantify density of small blood vessels in conjuctiva. Comparison with data base of known normal and diabetic patients facilitates rapid diagnosis.

  16. 10 Ways to Control High Blood Pressure without Medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 10th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2015. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed May 11, 2015. Kaplan NM. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and white coat hypertension in adults. http://www.uptodate.com/ ...

  17. Get the Most Out of Home Blood Pressure Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 10th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2015. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed April 3, 2015. Kaplan NM. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and white coat hypertension in adults. http://www.uptodate.com/ ...

  18. The White Rabbit project

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; Gousiou, E; van der Bij, E; Wlostowski, T; Daniluk, G; Lipinski, M

    2013-01-01

    White Rabbit (WR) is a multi-laboratory, multi- company collaboration for the development of a new Ethernet-based technology which ensures sub-nanosecond synchronisation and deterministic data transfer. The project uses an open source paradigm for the development of its hardware, gateware and software components. This article provides an introduction to the technical choices and an explanation of the basic principles underlying WR. It then describes some possible applications and the current status of the project. Finally, it provides insight on current developments and future plans.

  19. 'Snow White' in Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This color image taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows the trench dubbed 'Snow White,' after further digging on the 25th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (June 19, 2008). The lander's solar panel is casting a shadow over a portion of the trench. The trench is about 5 centimeters (2 inches) deep and 30 centimeters (12 inches) long. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. White dwarf dynamical interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Aznar Siguan, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Premi Extraordinari de Doctorat, promoció 2014-2015. Àmbit de Ciències Merging white dwarfs is a promising channel to trigger Type Ia supernovae, known as the double degenerate scenario. Supernovae are stellar explosions that radiate as much energy as any ordinary star is expected to emit over its entire life span, outshining briefly the whole hosting galaxy. They enrich the interstellar medium with higher mass elements and trigger the formation of new stars by the produced expanding shock...

  1. The Cardiovascular Risk of White-Coat Hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franklin, Stanley; Thijs, Lutgarde; Asayama, Kei

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of white-coat hypertension (WCH) and the white-coat-effect (WCE) in development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk remains poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: Using data from the population-based, 11-cohort IDACO (International Database on Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring...... in Relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes), this study compared daytime ambulatory blood pressure monitoring with conventional blood pressure measurements in 653 untreated subjects with WCH and 653 normotensive control subjects. METHODS: European Society Hypertension guidelines were used as a 5-stage risk score....... Low risk was defined as 0 to 2 risk factors, and high risk was defined as ≥3 to 5 risk factors, diabetes, and/or history of prior CVD events. Age- and cohort-matching was done between 653 untreated subjects with WCH and 653 normotensive control subjects. RESULTS: In a stepwise linear regression model...

  2. Epigenetic Age Acceleration Assessed with Human White-Matter Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Karen; Carless, Melanie A; Kulkarni, Hemant; Curran, Joanne E; Sprooten, Emma; Knowles, Emma E; Mathias, Samuel; Göring, Harald H H; Yao, Nailin; Olvera, Rene L; Fox, Peter T; Almasy, Laura; Duggirala, Ravi; Blangero, John; Glahn, David C

    2017-05-03

    The accurate estimation of age using methylation data has proved a useful and heritable biomarker, with acceleration in epigenetic age predicting a number of age-related phenotypes. Measures of white matter integrity in the brain are also heritable and highly sensitive to both normal and pathological aging processes across adulthood. We consider the phenotypic and genetic interrelationships between epigenetic age acceleration and white matter integrity in humans. Our goal was to investigate processes that underlie interindividual variability in age-related changes in the brain. Using blood taken from a Mexican-American extended pedigree sample (n = 628; age = 23.28-93.11 years), epigenetic age was estimated using the method developed by Horvath (2013). For n = 376 individuals, diffusion tensor imaging scans were also available. The interrelationship between epigenetic age acceleration and global white matter integrity was investigated with variance decomposition methods. To test for neuroanatomical specificity, 16 specific tracts were additionally considered. We observed negative phenotypic correlations between epigenetic age acceleration and global white matter tract integrity (ρpheno = -0.119, p = 0.028), with evidence of shared genetic (ρgene = -0.463, p = 0.013) but not environmental influences. Negative phenotypic and genetic correlations with age acceleration were also seen for a number of specific white matter tracts, along with additional negative phenotypic correlations between granulocyte abundance and white matter integrity. These findings (i.e., increased acceleration in epigenetic age in peripheral blood correlates with reduced white matter integrity in the brain and shares common genetic influences) provide a window into the neurobiology of aging processes within the brain and a potential biomarker of normal and pathological brain aging.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Epigenetic measures can be used to predict age with a high degree of accuracy and so

  3. Blood Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be a sign of anemia or thalassemia. Blood Chemistry Tests/Basic Metabolic Panel The basic metabolic panel ( ... parents, and children talk about their experiences with clinical research. More Information Related Health Topics Anemia Coronary Heart ...

  4. Blood smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disorder in which there is excessive breakdown of hemoglobin ( thalassemia ) The presence of cells called burr cells may indicate: Abnormally high level of nitrogen waste products in the blood ( ...

  5. [Blood examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Masahiko

    2009-11-01

    Allergic blood examination such as radioallergosorbent test (RAST) is an important and sensitive method for detecting the allergen against allergic diseases including bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and food allergy. In this review, blood examination such as RAST and histamine release test (HRT) will be discussed. In 1967, Wide et al developed allergen detecting system such as RAST that measures the allergen specific IgE antibody. Now, several systems including capsulated hydrophilic carrier polymer (CAP)-RAST or multiple antigen simultaneous test (MAST) by using the fluoroenzyme immunoassay (FEIA) or other methods by using the ELISA are available. Another method for blood test is HRT that measures histamine release from the peripheral blood basophils after antigen addition in vitro. In general, HRT is thought to be more sensitive than RAST but available for only ten allergens. Also, 10-20% of patients are non-responder for this test.

  6. Blood Typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Total Protein and Albumin/Globulin (A/G) Ratio Toxoplasmosis Testing Trace Minerals Transferrin and Iron-binding Capacity ( ... Blood in Urine (Hematuria) Bone Marrow Disorders Breast Cancer Cancer Cardiovascular Disease Celiac Disease Cervical Cancer Chronic ...

  7. The White House saga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daković Nevena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Frank Capra expressed his gratitude to the immigrant dream come true by creating a brilliant cinematic myth about the American political system, presenting it as an 'inherently good' when in the hands of honest and good people. His 'morality fairytales', 'fantasies of good will' imbued with belief in restoration of old-new principles, offer complex reflections on an idealised Americanism of the 1930s which have become the foundation of representations of the American political system. The Capraesque narrative - 'a blend of optimism, humor, patriotism, and, to those who really understand his work, (and darkness, despair, and the need to fight for things you care about...' (Bassinger 1982: 48 - as a combination of all-American values, ordinary people and historical figures, a democracy myth - has been extended by an endless network of intertextual echoes in film and TV production. Following the developmental lines - through political melodrama, melodramatic politics and political soap opera - one will be led from Capra to the series The West Wing (1996 - 2006, House of Cards (2013 - 2015 and Madame Secretary (2014 - ; from the comprehensive Washington Postcard (Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, 1939 to the focal points at the White House; from Capra's comedy to the saga of the fight against terrorism led by the president and both ordinary and trained American citizens (White House Down, 2013, Roland Emmerich.

  8. White wines countering the metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir I. Mizin

    2017-12-01

    Material and Methods — Analysis of effectiveness of table dry white wine “Rkatsitely Alma” (RA and liquor white wine “Madera Alma” (MA as parts of the spa resort treatment, was carried out in group of 163 patients with AH. The comparison of wine effects was provided in groups of 60 patients with MS and 103 patients without MS. All patients received standard treatment and 60 patients additionally received white wine RA or MA. Methods of investigation included an assessment of functional state of the leading physiological systems by 20 domains of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF. Results — In patients with MS in main group (with wine consumption the domain dynamics demonstrate more beneficial changes in comparison with control group. In particular, with respect to ICF domains b2401 “Dizziness”, b410 “Heart functions”, b4100 “Heart rate”, b4301 “Oxygen-carrying functions of the blood”, b455 “Exercise tolerance functions” and b4551 “Aerobic capacity”. Although ethanol and polyphenolic compounds of wine activity are comparable, their effects vary. We can see synergistic positive activity of ethanol and polyphenols in regard to 3 ICF domains (b2401 “Dizziness”, b4301 “Oxygen-carrying functions of the blood” and b455 “Exercise tolerance functions”. Synergistic negative activity of ethanol and polyphenols we can see in regard to 1 ICF domain (b4303 “Clotting functions”. There is independent negative activity of polyphenols in MS patients in regards to 2 ICF domains (b420 “Blood pressure functions” and b5408 “General metabolic functions, other specified –MS”. In patients without MS independent negative activity of ethanol was observed in regard to ICF domain b420 “Blood pressure functions”. In patients with MS consumption of MA induced some more beneficial effects (including ICF domains b420 “Blood pressure functions”, b5408 “General metabolic functions, other

  9. Are personality traits associated with white coat and masked hypertension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Antonio; Scuteri, Angelo; Strait, James; Sutin, Angelina R.; Meirelles, Osorio; Marongiu, Michele; Orru, Marco; Pilia, Maria Grazia; Ferrucci, Luigi; Cucca, Francesco; Schlessinger, David; Lakatta, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Anxiety and other psychological dispositions are thought to be associated with blood pressure. This study tests whether personality traits have long-term associations with masked and white coat effects. Methods A community-based sample of 2,838 adults from Sardinia (Italy) completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and seven years later blood pressure was assessed in the clinic and with ambulatory monitoring. Logistic regressions were used to test whether anxiety, neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness predicted the white coat and masked hypertension phenomena. Age, sex, and antihypertensive medication use were tested as moderators. Results Significant interactions were found between personality traits and antihypertensive medications in predicting masked and white coat effects. Only among those taking antihypertensive medication, higher anxiety was associated with a higher risk of pseudo-resistant hypertension due to white coat effect (OR = 1.39, 95%CI = 1.01–1.91) and higher conscientiousness was associated with a lower risk of masked uncontrolled hypertension (OR = 0.70, 95%CI = 0.49–0.99). There were no significant interactions with age or sex. Conclusions Among those on antihypertensive medications, anxious individuals were more likely to have pseudo-resistant hypertension due to white coat effect and less conscientious individuals were at increased risk of masked uncontrolled hypertension. Particularly among anxious and less conscientious individuals, ambulatory monitoring may improve the tailoring of pharmacological treatments. PMID:25186529

  10. Finger prick blood plasma separation using a standard lab equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasny, Dorota; Andersen, Karsten Brandt; Pfreundt, Andrea

    Blood is a complex biological matrix that has a huge potential for diagnostics as it contains various analytes and biomarkers. Traditionally the analysis is performed on plasma and white blood cells separated from venous blood. However, the collection of venous blood samples is painful and requires...... present a device for analysis of minute blood volumes using a standard laboratory tabletop spinner. The microfabricated polymer device fits in a 1.5 mL eppendorf tube and takes between 10-20 μl of whole blood. The blood is layered over a pre-loaded Ficoll paque® that is used to separate the plasma...... a few milliliters of blood. It has been demonstrated that the blood taken from finger prick contains the same analytes as venous blood in sufficient abundance and could therefore be used for diagnosis as an alternative in many cases. Various approaches towards analysis of finger prick blood with plasma...

  11. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  12. Blood pressure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reading; Measuring blood pressure; Hypertension - blood pressure measurement; High blood pressure - blood pressure measurement ... High blood pressure has no symptoms so you may not know if you have this problem. High blood pressure ...

  13. Biology of Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... switch to the Professional version Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Resources In This ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  14. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Clots and Travel Blood Clotting and ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  15. Catecholamine blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norepinephrine - blood; Epinephrine - blood; Adrenalin - blood; Dopamine - blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... the test. This is especially true if both blood and urine catecholamines are to be measured. You ...

  16. ESTUDO DO LEUCOGRAMA COMO MONITOR DO 2-1 FOSFATO DISSÓDICO DE BETAMETASONA DO FOSFATO DISSÓDICO/ACETATO DE DEXAMETASONA, EM CÃES QUE RECEBERAM TRANSPLANTES COM CÓRNEAS DE SUÍNOS WHITE BLOOD COUNT AS A 2-1 BETAMETHASONE DISSODIC FOSFHATE AND DEXAMETHASONE DISSODIC FOSPHATE/ACETATE MONITOR IN SWINE CORNEA TRANSPLANTED DOGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Franco de Araújo

    2007-09-01

    . Each animal had swine cornea implanted into the left eye. The swine cornea was obtained at Casa de Banha Caçula, a slaughterhouse, and conserved in a humid chamber during a maximum 6 hour period. Each animal received 4 mg dissodic fosphate/acetate dexamethasone IM and was instilled one drop of gentamycin sulphate/betametbasone dissodic fosphate, maintaining ocular medication 4 times/day and intramuscular medication once a week until euthanasia. Each animal had blood samples collected on day 0, before surgery, and on day 14 and 28 to analyse white blood count as a monitor of corticosteroids, imunocellular supressor drugs. From ten blood samples collected on day 0, 80% didn’t present any alterations, 10% presented leukocytosis with neutrophilia and 10% weren’t submitted to analysis. Due to the fact that three animals had been euthanized between days 14 and 21, these samples (40%, were analyzed and compared with these collected on day 0. Five animals (50% had their samples examined on day 28. On both days 14 and 28, there were 100% neutrophilia, 100% eosinophilia and 44.4% lymphocytopenia, indicating imunocellular supression.

    KEY-WORDS: Corticosteroids; xenotransplants; cornea; canine; swine.

  17. ILC Higgs White Paper

    CERN Document Server

    Asner, D.M.; Calancha, C.; Fujii, K.; Graf, N.; Haber, H.E.; Ishikawa, A.; Kanemura, S.; Kawada, S.; Kurata, M.; Miyamoto, A.; Neal, H.; Ono, H.; Potter, C.; Strube, J.; Suehara, T.; Tanabe, T.; Tian, J.; Tsumura, J.; Watanuki, S.; Weiglein, G.; Yagyu, K.; Yokoya, H.

    2013-01-01

    The ILC Higgs White Paper is a review of Higgs Boson theory and experiment at the International Linear Collider (ILC). Theory topics include the Standard Model Higgs, the two-Higgs doublet model, alternative a