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Sample records for hmo radiologie unter

  1. HMO partnering: the provider dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, J; Benson, L; Bonhag, R

    1996-10-01

    While the growth of HMOs has slowed patient visits to doctors, it also has created a deluge of press clippings. On July 16, 1996, three articles on the subject appeared in the Wall Street Journal, front section. The headlines painted a vivid picture of the forces acting on HMOs and providers alike (Figure 1). The articles portended more change for healthcare. The "shake-out," a term applied to industries in serious transformation, brings shedding of excess capacity and loss of jobs and income. Providers, in particular, find themselves in a difficult dilemma. They must not only cut costs as reimbursement drops, but also retain patients with good outcomes and high quality service. Patient retention means keeping the individual patient from switching to another provider and keeping the insurer's group of patients as an authorized provider for that insurer. The relationship between provider and HMO lies at the heart of the provider dilemma. The HMO structure, which shifts financial risk for care, is quickly setting the standard, for healthcare pricing, medical standards, and management practices. Understanding and responding to HMO needs are vital to competitive advantage and survival. The article discusses the inherent dilemma of HMO and provider partnering and suggests provider responses.

  2. Methods of process management in radiology; Methoden des Prozessmanagements in der Radiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teichgraeber, U.K.M.; Gillessen, C.; Neumann, F. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde im Virchow Klinikum

    2003-12-01

    , entsprechendes Fachwissen muss er sich in der Regel in Eigenregie aus Fachliteratur oder Kursen aneignen. Trotzdem wird vom Arzt ueber die medizinische Versorgung hinaus zunehmend verlangt, dass er seine Arbeitsablaeufe auch unter wirtschaftlichen Gesichtspunkten optimiert. Es werden verschiedene Methoden des Prozessmanagements fuer ihre Anwendung in der Radiologie vorgestellt. Unter Zuhilfenahme von einfachen papierbasierten Methoden laesst sich bereits ein Grossteil von Arbeitsprozessanalysen durchfuehren. Bei komplexeren Ablaeufen wird man eine Methode waehlen, die eine moeglichst genaue qualitative und quantitative Aussage ueber zu erwartende Effekte liefert. Vorgestellt werden diesbezueglich die Netzplantechnik und die Prozesssimulation. (orig.)

  3. Differential diagnosis in pediatric radiology. Vol. 1. Skull, spine, skeleton; Differentialdiagnostik in der paediatrischen Radiologie. Bd. 1. Schaedel, Wirbelsaeule, Skelett

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebel, K.D. [ed.; Willich, E. [ed.; Richter, E. [ed.; Benz-Bohm, G.; Bliesener-Harzheim, J.A.; Ebel, K.D.; Oestreich, A.E.; Reinwein, H.; Schaper, J.; Schumacher, R.; Stoever, B.

    1995-06-01

    The book presents in-depth material covering the full scope of tasks and problems of differential diagnostic radiology in children. The particular approach chosen by the authors provides information that will solve even the most difficult cases, guiding the reader on his way from radiographic findings to appropriate diagnosis. All radiographic findings have been characterized and classified and put into a tabulated system relating them to the relevant differential diagnosis. The system of reference adopted specifies a given lesion or disease by reference to the most significant diagnostic keywords obtained from anamnesis, clinical data, and further diagnostic evaluation. The tentative diagnosis is taken as the basis for further specification illustrated by the characteristic X-ray pictures and full-text descriptions. Almost all diagnoses are accompanied by a comprehensive image documentation obtained by all currently available imaging methods. (MG) [Deutsch] Das vorliegende Buch gibt einen kompletten Ueberblick ueeber die gesamte Bandbreite der Differentialdiagnostik in der Paediatrischen Radiologie und soll so auch in schwierigen Faeellen den Weg vom Roentgensymptom zur Diagnose ermoeglichen. Alle relevanten Roentgensymptome werden systematisch charakterisiert und die entsprechenden Differentialdiagnosen tabellarisch zusammengestellt. Jede Erkrankung wird durch Verweise auf die wichtigsten differentialdiagnostischen Stichworte aus Anamnese, Klinik und weiterfuehrende Diagnostik naeher eingegrenzt. Ausgehend von der Verdachtsdiagnose werden wegweisende Roentgenbefunde in Wort und Bild dargestellt. Fast alle erwaehnten Befunde werden durch Abbildungen unter Beruecksichtigung aller moderner bildgebenden Verfahren dokumentiert. (MG)

  4. Impact of HMO mergers and acquisitions on financial performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weech-Maldonado, Robert

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the effect of health maintenance organization (HMO) mergers and acquisitions on financial performance, as indicated by cash flow returns, profitability ratios, and efficiency indicators. Pooled, cross-sectional files of financial performance data were created for HMO mergers occurring in the period of 1988 to 1994. The study uses a time-series design involving the analysis of pre- and post-acquisition financial performance measured over a period of four years. Change scores for the industry-adjusted financial performance measures were calculated and then evaluated using t-tests. The study showed that HMO mergers had a positive effect on financial performance and efficiency. This effect disappeared, however, after adjusting for HMO industry returns. Potential synergies arising from HMO mergers have been largely illusory. Mergers may have been a result of non-value enhancing motives or management overconfidence.

  5. Segmentation of hospital markets: where do HMO enrollees get care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escarce, J J; Shea, J A; Chen, W

    1997-01-01

    Commercially insured and Medicare patients who are not in health maintenance organizations (HMOs) tend to use different hospitals than HMO patients use. This phenomenon, called market segmentation, raises important questions about how hospitals that treat many HMO patients differ from those that treat few HMO patients, especially with regard to quality of care. This study of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery found no evidence that HMOs in southeast Florida systematically channel their patients to high-volume or low-mortality hospitals. These findings are consistent with other evidence that in many areas of the country, incentives for managed care plans to reduce costs may outweigh incentives to improve quality.

  6. Epinephrine autoinjector refill history in an HMO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Michael S; Jung, Sandy Y; Chiang, Matthew L

    2011-02-01

    Epinephrine can be lifesaving in episodes of anaphylaxis, yet it is underprescribed and underused. Tracking of epinephrine refills over time for patients with a diagnosis of anaphylaxis has not been reported. This study reports on the refill history of 14,677 patients in a large HMO who received an initial dispensing of EpiPen (Dey Pharma, Basking Ridge, NJ) or EpiPen Jr between 2000 and 2006. A total of 6,776 (46%) refilled at least once. Twenty-five percent of the patients who were in the cohort for 5 years or more refilled multiple times, and 11% refilled consistently at all expected refill times. Infants through children 12 years of age were more likely to receive a refill dispensing (63%) compared with teenagers and adults (40%). The most common ICD-9 codes that were linked to the initial epinephrine dispensing were allergic disorder (37%), miscellaneous anaphylaxis/angioedema (23%), hymenoptera/insect bite or sting (14%), and specific or nonspecific food allergy (11%). A total of 79% of patients with a food-related ICD-9 code and 59% of patients with an insect sting-related ICD-9 code refilled epinephrine at least once. An opportunity exists to identify system-based as well as personal barriers in an ongoing effort to provide patients at risk with the tools and empowerment that could reduce their risk during life-threatening anaphylactic reactions.

  7. 32 CFR 199.18 - Uniform HMO Benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... per family of dependents of active duty members under the Uniform HMO Benefit may not exceed $1,000 during the one-year enrollment period. Total out-of-pocket costs per family of retired members... pressure screening; (vii) Hearing exams; (viii) Sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy; (ix) Serologic screening; and...

  8. Both HMG boxes in Hmo1 are essential for DNA binding in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashino, Ayako; Shiwa, Yuh; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Kokubo, Tetsuro; Kasahara, Koji

    2015-01-01

    Hmo1, a member of the high mobility group B family proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, associates with the promoters of ribosomal protein genes (RPGs) to direct accurate transcriptional initiation. Here, to identify factors involved in the binding of Hmo1 to its targets and the mechanism of Hmo1-dependent transcriptional initiation, we developed a novel reporter system using the promoter of the RPG RPS5. A genetic screen did not identify any factors that influence Hmo1 binding, but did identify a number of mutations in Hmo1 that impair its DNA binding activity in vivo and in vitro. These results suggest that Hmo1 binds to its target promoters autonomously without any aid of additional factors. Furthermore, characterization of Hmo1 mutants showed that the box A domain plays a pivotal role in DNA binding and may be required for the recognition of structural properties of target promoters that occur in native chromatin.

  9. Veränderungen kognitiver Funktionen unter LH-RH-Therapie bzw. unter Bicalutamid-Monotherapie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brössner C

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Einleitung: Androgendeprivationstherapie mit LH-RH-Agonisten bzw. Androgenrezeptorblockade mit Bicalutamid wurde zur Standardtherapie beim fortgeschrittenen Prostatakarzinom. Der Großteil der existierenden Literatur beschreibt unter LH-RH-Gabe und damit verbundener Senkung des Testosteronspiegels eine Verschlechterung bestimmter kognitiver Gedächtnisleistungen. Ziel unserer prospektiven, konsekutiven Studie ist es, kognitive und emotionale Funktionen sowie die Lebensqualität bei Männern unter LH-RH bzw. unter Bicalutamid-Monotherapie zu untersuchen. Methoden: In Gruppe A wurden 15 Männer (mean 70,5 a; 57–81 inkludiert, die ein LH-RHAnalogon für 1 Jahr erhielten. In Gruppe B wurden 12 Männer (mean 69,3 a; 56–80 unter Bicalutamid-Monotherapie (150 mg/d für 1 Jahr inkludiert. Zum Zeitpunkt der kognitiven Testung waren alle Patienten frei von klinischer Metastasierung und die PSA-Werte waren 0,5 ng/ml. Für die Untersuchung der kognitiven Leistungen wurde eine umfangreiche neuropsychologische alters-, geschlechts- und bildungskorrigierte Testbatterie eingesetzt: Tests für Aufmerksamkeit (ZVT, Stroop-Test, Gedächtnis (NAI, WMS-R, Demenz (MMSE, Lebensqualität (WHOQOL-BREF, Wahrnehmung (Mosaik-Test, Sprache (LPS 50 Depression (BDI sowie für Angst (STAI wurden durchgeführt. Ergebnisse: In Gruppe A (unter LH-RH fanden wir signifikante Defizite im topografischen (T = 39,3 und visuellen Langzeitgedächtnis (T = 35,6. Das visuelle und verbale Arbeitsgedächtnis zeigte in dieser Gruppe grenzwertige Defizite (T = 40,67 und T = 41,67. In Gruppe B (Bicalutamid konnten wir dagegen bei keinem der Patienten ein kognitives Defizit feststellen. Schlussfolgerung: Unsere Daten suggerieren einen signifikanten negativen Einfluss der LH-RHLangzeittherapie auf bestimmte kognitive Funktionen. Im Gegensatz dazu fanden wir keine Veränderungen unter Bicalutamid-Monotherapie.

  10. Strategic marketing applications of conjoint analysis: an HMO perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosko, M D; DeVita, M; McKenna, W F; Walker, L R

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how data from a conjoint analysis study can be used to help determine the most appropriate marketing mix for an operational HMO which is entering a new market--the geriatric population. Included are two features which are absent in previous articles on health care applications of conjoint analysis: external validation of results, and a demonstration of how conjoint analysis can be used to simulate market responses to changes in the provider's marketing mix.

  11. Radiation protection in interventional radiology; Strahlenschutz in der interventionellen Radiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamus, R.; Loose, R.; Galster, M. [Klinikum Nuernberg Nord, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Nuernberg (Germany); Wucherer, M. [Klinikum Nuernberg Nord, Institut fuer Medizinische Physik, Nuernberg (Germany); Uder, M. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Institut fuer Radiologie, Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    The application of ionizing radiation in medicine seems to be a safe procedure for patients as well as for occupational exposition to personnel. The developments in interventional radiology with fluoroscopy and dose-intensive interventions require intensified radiation protection. It is recommended that all available tools should be used for this purpose. Besides the options for instruments, x-ray protection at the intervention table must be intensively practiced with lead aprons and mounted lead glass. A special focus on eye protection to prevent cataracts is also recommended. The development of cataracts might no longer be deterministic, as confirmed by new data; therefore, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has lowered the threshold dose value for eyes from 150 mSv/year to 20 mSv/year. Measurements show that the new values can be achieved by applying all X-ray protection measures plus lead-containing eyeglasses. (orig.) [German] Die Anwendung ionisierender Strahlung in der Medizin scheint sowohl fuer Patienten als auch fuer beruflich exponierte Personen sicher zu sein. Die interventionellen Entwicklungen der letzten Jahre mit sehr durchleuchtungs- und dosisintensiven Eingriffen erfordern allerdings eine Intensivierung des Strahlenschutzes. Es empfiehlt sich, die zur Verfuegung stehenden Moeglichkeiten auszuschoepfen. Neben den Geraeteoptionen muss der Strahlenschutz am Eingriffstisch durch Bleilamellenaufstecker und montiertes Bleiglas intensiv betrieben werden. Besonderen Fokus muss auf den Schutz der Augen zur Kataraktvermeidung gelegt werden. Da dessen Ausbildung nach neuen Erkenntnissen moeglicherweise nicht mehr deterministisch zu sehen ist, hat die Internationale Strahlenschutzkommission (IRCP) den Grenzwert von 150 auf 20 Mikrosievert (mSv)/Jahr erniedrigt. Messungen belegen, dass unter Einhaltung aller Strahlenschutzmassnahmen plus Bleiglasbrille dieser einzuhalten ist. (orig.)

  12. 42 CFR 417.460 - Disenrollment of beneficiaries by an HMO or CMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... An HMO or CMP may disenroll a Medicare enrollee for cause if the enrollee's behavior is disruptive... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL... behavior is not related to the use of medical services or to mental illness. (4) Documentation. The HMO...

  13. The impact of HMO penetration on the rate of hospital cost inflation, 1985-1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, D J; Hadley, J

    1997-01-01

    This paper provides evidence that growth in health maintenance organization (HMO) enrollment slows hospital cost inflation. During the period 1985-1993, hospitals in areas with high rates of HMO penetration and growth had a slower rate of growth in expenses (8.3%) than hospitals in low penetration areas (11.2%). From 1992-1993, HMO growth lowered the rate of hospital cost inflation by .34 to 3.40 percentage points, depending on the base-year level and the annual change in HMO penetration. Declines in Medicare Prospective Payment System (PPS) margins also lowered hospital cost inflation; over the time period, annual hospital cost inflation was reduced by .38 percentage points. The estimates imply that the cumulative effect of HMO growth on hospital costs has been a $56.2 billion reduction (in 1993 dollars).

  14. Process management and controlling in diagnostic radiology; Prozessmanagement und Controlling in der Diagnostischen Radiologie im Krankenhaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gocke, P.; Debatin, J.F. [Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany); Duerselen, L.F.J. [DxD Consulting, Dogern (Germany)

    2002-05-01

    Systematic process management and efficient quality control is rapidly gaining importance in our healthcare system. What does this mean for diagnostic radiology departments?To improve efficiency, quality and productivity the workflow within the department of diagnostic and interventional radiology at the University Hospital of Essen were restructured over the last two years. Furthermore, a controlling system was established. One of the pursued aims was to create a quality management system as a basis for the subsequent certification according to the ISO EN 9001:2000 norm.Central to the success of the workflow reorganisation was the training of selected members of the department's staff in process and quality management theory. Thereafter, a dedicated working group was created to prepare the reorganisation and the subsequent ISO certification with the support of a consulting partner. To assure a smooth implementation of the restructured workflow and create acceptance for the required ISO-9001 documentation, the entire staff was familiarized with the basic ideas of process- and quality-management in several training sessions.This manuscript summarizes the basic concepts of process and quality management as they were taught to our staff. A direct relationship towards diagnostic radiology is maintained throughout the text. (orig.) [German] Systematisches Prozessmanagement und effizientes Qualitaetsmanagement erlangen im Gesundheitswesen zunehmend an Bedeutung. Was bedeutet dies fuer die diagnostische Radiologie im Krankenhaus?Zur Steigerung von Effizienz, Qualitaet und Produktivitaet wurden im Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie des Universitaetsklinikums Essen in den vergangenen beiden Jahren nahezu saemtliche Arbeitsablaeufe reorganisiert. Darueber hinaus wurde ein Controllingsystem etabliert. Eines der damit verbundenen Ziele war es, ein Qualitaetsmanagementsystem zu erstellen, welches Grundlage fuer die angestrebte ISO-EN-9001

  15. Weighing the views of a university hospital and medical school regarding an HMO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, T J; Matthews, C W; Segadelli, L J

    1983-09-01

    After 14 years of study, the University of Michigan decided to terminate development of a health maintenance organization (HMO). The process was long and difficult because of the university's need to consider the HMO from the university's perspective of both an employer and a provider. As an employer, the university's early view was favorable and then declined when employee interest was found to be weak and the HMO's impact on the rapidly rising cost of the university's health insurance benefit was determined to be modest. As a provider, the university's view was mixed. In regard to its hospitals, the university's judgment was positive largely because it hoped that HMO incentives might help the hospitals remain viable in the health care delivery environment that was becoming increasingly competitive. From the Medical School's point of view, an HMO was felt not to be desirable because it could put in jeopardy the professional fee revenue used by the school to help underwrite its academic programs, which are the primary source of faculty pride and recognition.

  16. Limited English proficient HMO enrollees remain vulnerable to communication barriers despite language assistance regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadler, Max W; Chen, Xiao; Gonzalez, Erik; Roby, Dylan H

    2013-02-01

    HMO enrollees with limited English proficiency, and particularly those in poorer health, face communication barriers despite language assistance regulations. More than 1.3 million California HMO enrollees ages 18 to 64 do not speak English well enough to communicate with medical providers and may experience reduced access to high-quality health care if they do not receive appropriate language assistance services. Based on analysis of the 2007 and 2009 California Health Interview Surveys (CHIS), commercial HMO enrollees with limited English proficiency (LEP) in poorer health are more likely to have difficulty understanding their doctors, placing this already vulnerable population at even greater risk. The analysis also uses CHIS to examine the potential impact of health plan monitoring starting in 2009 (due to a 2003 amendment to the Knox-Keene Health Care Services Act) requiring health plans to provide free qualified interpretation and translation services to HMO enrollees. The authors recommend that California's health plans continue to incorporate trained interpreters into their contracted networks and delivery systems, paying special attention to enrollees in poorer health. The results may serve as a planning tool for health plans, providing a detailed snapshot of enrollee characteristics that will help design effective programs now and prepare for a likely increase in insured LEP populations in the future, as full implementation of the Affordable Care Act takes place over the next decade.

  17. Radiology of the primary systemic vasculitides; Radiologie der primaeren systemischen Vaskulitiden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuter, M.; Biederer, J.; Both, M.; Heller, M.L. [Universitaetsklinikum Kiel (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische Radiologie; Schnabel, A. [Universitaetsklinik Luebeck (Germany). Poliklinik fuer Rheumatologie; Medizinische Krankenhausabteilung Rheumaklinik Bad Bramstedt GmbH (Germany); Sana Rheumazentrum Baden-Wuerttemberg (Germany). Klinik fuer Internistische Rheumatologie und Klinische Immunologie; Reinhold-Keller, E.; Gross,W. [Universitaetsklinik Luebeck (Germany). Poliklinik fuer Rheumatologie; Medizinische Krankenhausabteilung Rheumaklinik Bad Bramstedt GmbH (Germany)

    2003-09-01

    Determination of disease extension and disease activity are in the foreground of diagnostic imaging in vasculitides. There are several radiologic modalities available each having specific indications. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) readily depicts granulomas and mucosal inflammations in the paranasal sinuses, nasal cavity and orbits. Computed tomography detects osseous lesions of the skull. Due to its superb sensitivity MRI is an established screening modality for CNS vasculitides, although there are limitations with regard to specificity. In spite of its limited accuracy in most institutions angiography is still required for radiological confirmation of CNS vasculitis. Perfusion and diffusion MR-imaging may combine the advantages of ''conventional'' MRI and angiography. By now the method is not fully validated for vasculitides, however. Vascular disease in Takayasu's arteritis and in giant cell arteritis involving predominantly large and medium sized vessels is readily diagnosed by non invasive magnetic resonance angiography. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty has proven to be an effective and save therapeutic modality for the cure of vascular stenoses and occlusions. Plain film radiography in two planes is the established modality for pulmonary imaging. In pulmonary vasculitides a more thorough analysis of lung disease is provided by high resolution computed tomography. Diagnostic imaging does substantially assist in the interdisciplinary management of patients suffering from vasculitides. (orig.) [German] Die Bestimmung der Krankheitsausdehnung und die Festlegung der Krankheitsaktivitaet stehen im Vordergrund der bildgebenden Diagnostik von Vaskulitiden. Fuer die eigentliche Diagnosefindung ist die Radiologie von untergeordneter Bedeutung. Die verschiedenen radiologischen Methoden weisen jeweils spezifische Indikationen auf. Die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) hat sich als hilfreich fuer die Diagnostik von Granulomen und

  18. Financing long term care under Medicaid: competitive bidding, vouchers and expenditure matching in an HMO framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, A J

    1983-01-01

    Within the framework of a Long Term Care--HMO, a series of innovative financing mechanisms are proposed to encourage efficiency, reduce cost increases and promote the quality of long term care. Competitive bidding is used to set prices for long term care. Based upon these competitively set prices, HMO enrollees are given long term care vouchers with which to purchase care. Cost savings, arising from choices of care less expensive than the value of the voucher, are shared with the enrollee and the case management team. Incentive payments to this team are made only after a quality of care review. A portion of the payment to the long term care provider is set aside as a quality assurance withhold. If quality of care is inadequate, the withhold is forfeit.

  19. Integrating a consumer orientation into the planning of HMO programs: an application of conjoint segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaah, I P; Becherer, R C

    1983-01-01

    Despite legislative support and considerable publicity, the predicted boom in health maintenance organizations (HMOs) has not materialized. This has been due, in part, to an absence of marketing-oriented planning in designing such programs. This paper presents a consumer-oriented approach utilizing conjoint segmentation methodology which can be used to develop HMO plans that stand a better chance of consumer acceptance and marketing success.

  20. A longitudinal study of adult-onset asthma incidence among HMO members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiello Richard A

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HMO databases offer an opportunity for community based epidemiologic studies of asthma incidence, etiology and treatment. The incidence of asthma in HMO populations and the utility of HMO data, including use of computerized algorithms and manual review of medical charts for determining etiologic factors has not been fully explored. Methods We identified adult-onset asthma, using computerized record searches in a New England HMO. Monthly, our software applied exclusion and inclusion criteria to identify an "at-risk" population and "potential cases". Electronic and paper medical records from the past year were then reviewed for each potential case. Persons with other respiratory diseases or insignificant treatment for asthma were excluded. Confirmed adult-onset asthma (AOA cases were defined as those potential cases with either new-onset asthma or reactivated mild intermittent asthma that had been quiescent for at least one year. We validated the methods by reviewing charts of selected subjects rejected by the algorithm. Results The algorithm was 93 to 99.3% sensitive and 99.6% specific. Sixty-three percent (n = 469 of potential cases were confirmed as AOA. Two thirds of confirmed cases were women with an average age of 34.8 (SD 11.8, and 45% had no evidence of previous asthma diagnosis. The annualized monthly rate of AOA ranged from 4.1 to 11.4 per 1000 at-risk members. Physicians most commonly attribute asthma to infection (59% and allergy (14%. New-onset cases were more likely attributed to infection, while reactivated cases were more associated with allergies. Medical charts included a discussion of work exposures in relation to asthma in only 32 (7% cases. Twenty-three of these (72% indicated there was an association between asthma and workplace exposures for an overall rate of work-related asthma of 4.9%. Conclusion Computerized HMO records can be successfully used to identify AOA. Manual review of these records is

  1. Interdisciplinary shock-room care: tasks for the radiologist from the viewpoint of the trauma surgeon; Interdisziplinaere Schockraumversorgung: Die Aufgaben der Radiologie aus unfallchirurgischer Sicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutschler, W.; Kanz, K.G. [Chirurgische Klinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum Innenstadt der Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Efficient resuscitation of major trauma requests an interdisciplinary communication between trauma surgeons, anaesthesiologists and radiologists. Trauma outcome is significantly influenced by horizontal trauma team organisation and coherence to clinical algorithms, which allow fast diagnosis and intervention. A radiologist present on patients arrival in the trauma room provides a major impact on trauma care. Nevertheless optimal integration in the trauma team implies profound knowledge of the priorities of advanced trauma life support and trauma algorithms. His or her involvement is not limited to patient care only, also active participation in trauma room design, interdisciplinary algorithm development and trauma research are essential tasks for radiologists devoted to emergency radiology. Based on the pathophysiology of polytrauma and the structure of German trauma system, current concepts and proven clinical algorithms with special regard to the radiologist and his duties and tasks will are presented. (orig.) [German] Modernes Schockraummanagement mit dem Auftrag der zeitoptimierten Vernetzung diagnostischer und therapeutischer Handlungsablaeufe erfordert eine direkte Einbindung der Radiologie in das Schockraumteam im Sinne einer horizontalen Kommunikation zwischen Unfallchirurgie, Radiologie und Anaesthesie. Direkte Einbindung bedeutet dabei Einflussnahme auf Struktur- und Prozessqualitaet, Qualitaetsmanagement und interdisziplinaere Weiterentwicklung von Schockraumalgorithmen. Ausgehend von der Pathophysiologie des Polytraumas und der an Zeitgewinn orientierten Versorgungskette werden aktuelle diagnostische und therapeutische Algorithmen dargestellt und daraus die Aufgaben und Bedeutung der Radiologie im Schockraum abgeleitet. (orig.)

  2. Radiology and pregnancy. Pt. 2. Clinical recommendations; Radiologie und Schwangerschaft. T. 2. Klinische Empfehlungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisser, G.; Neff, K.W.; Buesing, K.A. [Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Medizinische Fakultaet Mannheim der Universitaet Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); Steil, V. [Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Mannheim (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    In spite of a growing number of radiological scans in pregnant women there is still a high level of uncertainty concerning radiation exposure to the fetus. At the same time, the risk of fetal radiation injury is frequently overestimated. This entails an avoidable fear in the pregnant patient and may delay urgently required imaging and thus lead to an increased risk for maternal and fetal health. As a consequence, radiological scans in pregnant patients do not only require a thorough medical check but also a careful estimate of the specific radiation exposure to the fetus. The previous first part of the article described the legal requirements in Germany, the technical exposure and pharmacological risks for the pregnant woman and the fetus. The current second article focuses on the risk analysis for examinations with ionizing radiation and will provide recommendations for typical indications for maternal and fetal imaging. (orig.) [German] Trotz einer wachsenden Zahl radiologischer Untersuchungen von Schwangeren bestehen oft Unsicherheiten ueber die Gefaehrdung des Feten durch eine begleitende Strahlenexposition. Dabei wird das Risiko fetaler Schaeden haeufig ueberschaetzt. Neben einer unnoetigen Verunsicherung der Schwangeren kann die Verzoegerung einer erforderlichen Bildgebung zu einer Gefaehrdung des muetterlichen und fetalen Gesundheitszustands fuehren. Vor jeder radiologischen Untersuchung einer schwangeren Patientin ist daher nicht nur die Indikation kritisch zu ueberpruefen, sondern auch eine Nutzen-Risiko-Abwaegung unter Beruecksichtigung des tatsaechlich zu erwartenden Risikos fuer den Feten durchzufuehren. Im ersten Teil des Artikels wurden die gesetzlichen Rahmenbedingungen sowie die technischen und pharmakologischen Belastungen fuer die Schwangere und den Fetus bei radiologischen Methoden behandelt. Im vorliegenden zweiten Teil wird auf die individuelle Risikoanalyse fuer Untersuchungen mit ionisierenden Strahlen eingegangen, und es werden klinische

  3. Disenrollment from an HMO and its relationship with the characteristics of Medicare beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Y Y; Gocka, I T; Leung, K M; Elashoff, R M; Legorreta, A P

    1999-01-01

    To examine the relationship between Medicare beneficiaries' characteristics and disenrollment, a longitudinal study was conducted in an HMO in California. Approximately 10 percent of the Medicare beneficiaries disenrolled within the first year of enrollment. There was no difference between those who continuously enrolled and those who disenrolled in terms of age, gender, mental and physical health status, previous utilization, and anticipated utilization in the coming year. However, people with limited social activities and people not living in a single-family house were more likely to disenroll. The authors also examined the disenrollment rates among physicians groups. The rates were significantly different.

  4. Die Cerebrale Toxoplasmose bei AIDS : Untersuchungen zur Pharmakokinetik von Sulfadiazin unter Urinalkalisierung

    OpenAIRE

    Väth, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Die cerebrale Toxoplasmose stellt eine wichtige opportunistische Infektion im Verlauf einer HIV-Infektion dar. Unter der Standardtherapie mit Sulfadiazin kommt es häufig zu nephrotoxischen Nebenwirkungen aufgrund einer Kristallisation des Sulfadiazin und seines Metaboliten N4-Acetylsulfadiazin im Harntrakt. Die Therapie dieser Nebenwirkung erfordert unter Anderem die Alkalisierung des Harns. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde der Einfluss einer Urinalkalisierung auf die Pharmakokinetik beider S...

  5. 42 CFR 417.558 - Emergency, urgently needed, and out-of-area services for which the HMO or CMP accepts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Basis § 417.558 Emergency, urgently needed, and out-of-area services for which the HMO or CMP accepts... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency, urgently needed, and out-of-area services for which the HMO or CMP accepts responsibility. 417.558 Section 417.558 Public Health CENTERS...

  6. Medical liability and patient law in Germany. Main features with particular focus on treatments in the field of interventional radiology; Arzthaftung und Patientenrechtegesetz in Deutschland. Die Grundzuege unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung von Behandlungen auf dem Gebiet der Interventionellen Radiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, S.A.; Geissler, R. [Kapp and Geissler Lawyers, Stuttgart (Germany); Stampfl, U.; Radeleff, B.A.; Kauczor, H.U.; Sommer, Christof M. [Univ. Hospital Heidelberg (Germany). Clinic for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Wolf, M.B. [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany). Radiology (E010); Richter, G.M. [Klinikum Stuttgart (Germany). Clinic for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Pereira, P.L. [SLK Kliniken, Heilbronn (Germany). Radiology, Minimally-invasive Therapies and Nuclearmedicine

    2016-04-15

    On February 26th, 2013 the patient law became effective in Germany. Goal of the lawmakers was a most authoritative case law for liability of malpractice and to improve enforcement of the rights of the patients. The following article contains several examples detailing legal situation. By no means should these discourage those persons who treat patients. Rather should they be sensitized to to various aspects of this increasingly important field of law. To identify relevant sources according to judicial standard research was conducted including first- and second selection. Goal was the identification of jurisdiction, literature and other various analyses that all deal with liability of malpractice and patient law within the field of Interventional Radiology - with particular focus on transarterial chemoembolization of the liver and related procedures. In summary, 89 different sources were included and analyzed. The individual who treats a patient is liable for an error in treatment if it causes injury to life, the body or the patient's health. Independent of the error in treatment the individual providing medical care is liable for mistakes made in the context of obtaining informed consent. Prerequisite is the presence of an error made when obtaining informed consent and its causality for the patient's consent for the treatment. Without an effective consent the treatment is considered illegal whether it was free of treatment error or not. The new patient law does not cause material change of the German liability of malpractice law.

  7. Nächtliche diastolische Hypotonie unter antihypertensiver Therapie im Alter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzien A

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Der positive Einfluß der Behandlung der arteriellen Hypertonie zur Senkung des kardiovaskulären Risikos ist bekannt, insbesondere bei älteren Patienten über 65 Jahre erlebten die anzustrebenden Zielwerte eine ständige Herabsetzung. Zuletzt wurden auch kritische Stimmen laut, die bei zu schneller und tiefgehender Senkung - vor allem des diastolischen Blutdruckes - eine Erhöhung des Risikos für kardiovaskuläre Erkrankungen erkennen lassen. Der Grund unserer Untersuchung war, die Sicherheit der Praxismessung als Kontrollmethode bei Patienten über 65 Jahre unter antihypertensiver Therapie zu überprüfen. Zu diesem Zwecke wurden bei 117 Patienten mit einer gesicherten kombinierten arteriellen Hypertonie sowohl eine Praxisblutdruckmessung als auch eine 24 h-Blutdruckmessung durchgeführt. Aus unserer Untersuchung geht hervor, daß vor allem bei über 65 Jahre alten Patienten die routinemäßig durchgeführte Praxismessung keine ausreichende Sicherheit über die tatsächliche medikamentöse Blutdruckbeeinflussung gibt.

  8. [Methods of exclusive irradiation of cancers of the breast. Société de Radiologie, 18 March 1974].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-01

    It was the object of this round table to discuss the different techniques for treatment of breast cancer by radiation only, in order to seek out their common points. Six French Centres participated: the Foundation Curie (Paris), the Centre Anti-Cancéreux de l'Hôpital Sainte-Marguerite (Marseille), the Service de Radiologie de l'Hôpital Civil (Strasbourg), the Centre René-Huguenin (Saint-Cloud)k, the Service de Carcinologie Radiothérapique de l'Hôpital Henri-Mondor (Créteil) and the Institut Gustave-Roussy (Villejuif). Our readers can see the details of the treatments practiced by each of the six schools in their own particular techniques, in the following pages. We will confine ourselves here to a brief summary only. It should be recalled that these techniques for treatment of breast cancer by radiotherapy alone vere developed almost simultaneously in several different Centres around 1960, as a result of the revolution in radiotherapy which began in 1975 with the installation of tele-Cobalt...

  9. Medical cost-offset following treatment referral for alcohol and other drug use disorders in a group model HMO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polen, Michael R; Freeborn, Donald K; Lynch, Frances L; Mullooly, John P; Dickinson, Daniel M

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether specialty alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment is associated with reduced subsequent medical care costs. AOD treatment costs and medical costs in a group model health maintenance organization (HMO) were collected for up to 6 years on 1,472 HMO members who were recommended for specialty AOD treatment, and on 738 members without AOD diagnoses or treatment. Addiction Severity Index measures were also obtained from a sample of 293 of those recommended for treatment. Changes in medical costs did not differ between treatment and comparison groups. Nor did individuals with improved treatment outcomes have greater reductions in medical costs. AOD treatment costs were not inversely related to subsequent medical costs, except for a subgroup with recent AOD treatment. In the interviewed sample, better treatment outcomes did not predict lower subsequent medical costs. Multiple treatment episodes may hold promise for producing cost-offsets.

  10. Neurologisches Outcome nach CPR bei schockresistentem Kammerflimmern unter Gabe von Sedacoron(R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Bei einer protrahierten CPR mit schockresistentem Kammerflimmern kann unter Gabe von Sedacoron(R ein zufriedenstellender internistischer Zustand erreicht werden. Neurologisch bleiben nach 6 Wochen geringe Defizite des Kurzzeitgedächtnisses. Der Autor regt mit dieser Kasuistik eine Fortsetzung der ARREST- und der ALIVE-Studie an, wobei das neurologische Outcome Beachtung finden sollte.

  11. Cost benefit analysis in diagnostic radiology: glossary and definitions; Nutzen, Kosten und Analytik in der diagnostischen Radiologie: Definitionen und Glossar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golder, W. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Abt. Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin

    1999-01-01

    Cost efficiency analyses in clinical radiology require the application of methods and techniques that are not yet part of the academic qualifications of the specialists. The procedures used are borrowed from economics, decision theory, applied social sciences, epidemiology and statistics. Many expressions hail from the angloamerican literature and are presently not yet germanized unequivocally. This survey is intended to present main terms of cost efficiency analysis in the English version as well as a German translation, to give a clear definition and, if necessary, explanatory notes, and to illustrate their application by means of concrete radiologic examples. The selection of the terms is based on the hierarchical models of health technology assessment resp. clinical outcome research by Fryback and Thronbury resp. Maisey and Hutton. In concrete terms, both the differences between benefit, outcomes, and utility and the differences between effectiveness, efficacy and efficiency and the differences between direct, indirect, intangible, and marginal costs are explained. True cost efficiency analysis is compared with cost effectiveness analysis, cost identification analysis, cost minimization analysis, and cost utility analysis. Applied social sciences are represented by the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 and the QALY conception. From decision theory both the analysis of hypothetical alternatives and the Markov model are taken. Finally, sensitivity analysis and the procedures of combined statistical evaluation of comparable results (meta-analysis) are quoted. (orig.) [Deutsch] Kosten-Nutzen-Analysen in der klinischen Radiologie erfordern den Einsatz von Methoden und Techniken, die nicht zum akademischen Ruestzeug der Fachvertreter gehoeren. Die verschiedenen Verfahren sind der Volkswirtschaftslehre, der Entscheidungstheorie, den angewandten Sozialwissenschaften, der Epidemiologie und der Statistik entlehnt. Viele Termini kommen aus dem angloamerikanischen

  12. The HMO Research Network Virtual Data Warehouse: A Public Data Model to Support Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Tyler R; Ng, Daniel; Brown, Jeffrey S; Pardee, Roy; Hornbrook, Mark C; Hart, Gene; Steiner, John F

    2014-01-01

    The HMO Research Network (HMORN) Virtual Data Warehouse (VDW) is a public, non-proprietary, research-focused data model implemented at 17 health care systems across the United States. The HMORN has created a governance structure and specified policies concerning the VDW's content, development, implementation, and quality assurance. Data extracted from the VDW have been used by thousands of studies published in peer-reviewed journal articles. Advances in software supporting care delivery and claims processing and the availability of new data sources have greatly expanded the data available for research, but substantially increased the complexity of data management. The VDW data model incorporates software and data advances to ensure that comprehensive, up-to-date data of known quality are available for research. VDW governance works to accommodate new data and system complexities. This article highlights the HMORN VDW data model, its governance principles, data content, and quality assurance procedures. Our goal is to share the VDW data model and its operations to those wishing to implement a distributed interoperable health care data system.

  13. Incidence and prevalence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in an HMO of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettini, Mariela; Vicens, Jimena; Giunta, Diego Hernán; Rugiero, Marcelo; Cristiano, Edgardo

    2013-12-01

    The incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) ranges from 1.7 to 2.3 per 100,000 persons worldwide. Few epidemiological studies have been published in Latin America. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and prevalence of ALS in an HMO (Health Maintenance Organization) of Buenos Aires, capital city of Argentina. The population studied was affiliates of the Italian Hospital Medical Care Program, whose distribution across age and gender strata is similar to the population of Buenos Aires. Cases were detected from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2010. Incidence density (ID) and prevalence for ALS were estimated for the whole period and at 31 December 2010, respectively. During the seven-year study period, the crude ID estimated was 3.17 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 2.24-4.48) and the age-adjusted ID for the Buenos Aires population was 2.23 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 1.45-3.01). Point prevalence at 31 December 2010 was 8.86 per 100,000 persons (95% CI 4.05-13.68). Mean age at diagnosis was 72.29 years (SD 8.5). In conclusion, estimated age-adjusted ID and prevalence of ALS were similar to the incidence and prevalence rates found in other geographical areas.

  14. Adverse childhood experiences and prescription drug use in a cohort study of adult HMO patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dube Shanta R

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prescription drugs account for approximately 11% of national health expenditures. Prior research on adverse childhood experiences (ACEs, which include common forms of child maltreatment and related traumatic stressors, has linked them to numerous health problems. However, data about the relationship of these experiences to prescription drug use are scarce. Method We used the ACE Score (an integer count of 8 different categories of ACEs as a measure of cumulative exposure to traumatic stress during childhood. We prospectively assessed the relationship of the Score to prescription drug use in a cohort of 15,033 adult HMO patients (mean follow-up: 6.1 years and assessed mediation of this relationship by documented ACE-related health and social problems. Results Nearly 1.2 million prescriptions were recorded; prescriptions rates increased in a graded fashion as the ACE Score increased (p for trend Conclusion ACEs substantially increase the number of prescriptions and classes of drugs used for as long as 7 or 8 decades after their occurrence. The increases in prescription drug use were largely mediated by documented ACE-related health and social problems.

  15. Laktoseintoleranz bei Morbus Crohn und Colitis ulcerosa unter Berücksichtigung der ethnischen Herkunft

    OpenAIRE

    Demirci, Ilknur

    2007-01-01

    Die Frage der Inzidenz einer Laktosemalabsorption bei Morbus Crohn und Colitis ulcerosa wurde retrospektiv unter Berücksichtigung der ethnischen Herkunft untersucht. Bei 243 Patienten wurden zur Diagnose einer Laktosemalabsorption der Laktosetoleranztest und der H2-Atemtest durchgeführt. Dabei fand sich bei 23 (14,3%) von 161 Morbus Crohn Patienten eine Laktosemalabsorption. Nach ethnischer Differenzierung, zeigte sich in der mitteleuropäischen Population eine Häufigkeit von 13,2%...

  16. Klinische Indikation für kardiovaskuläre Magnetresonanztomographie - Konsensusbericht der interdisziplinären Arbeitsgruppe der Österreichischen Gesellschaft für Kardiologie und Radiologie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Globits S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Die kardiale MRT hat sich in der letzten Dekade als ergänzendes diagnostisches Verfahren in der Kardiologie etabliert, wobei die Methode zumeist als Entscheidungshilfe im oberen Bereich des diagnostischen Stufenplans Verwendung findet. Mittels MRT können bei vielen kardialen Erkrankungen relevante Zusatzinformationen gewonnen werden, bei selektiven Indikationen werden etablierte Verfahren nicht nur ergänzt sondern teilweise ersetzt. Um dieses diagnostische Potential zu nutzen, sollten folgende Voraussetzungen erfüllt werden: (1 Standardisierung der Untersuchungsprotokolle, (2 fixe Integration der kardialen MRT in das Curriculum Kardiologie/Radiologie, (3 Kooperation Kardiologie/Radiologie. Im folgenden Richtlinienpapier wird der sinnvolle Einsatz der Methode bei allen relevanten Indikationsgebieten übersichtlich dargestellt.

  17. Dose management in radiology. Review of the technological status; Dosismanagement in der Radiologie. Ein Ueberblick zum Stand der Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verius, M. [LKH Innsbruck, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2015-08-15

    vollstaendige Erfassung der applizierten Dosen aller Modalitaeten und Optimierung der radiologischen Untersuchungen, was eine Senkung der applizierten Dosis zur Folge haben soll. Erreicht werden kann dies durch automatisierte Systeme, welche nicht nur die Erfassung der Dosisparameter uebernehmen, sondern auch die Bewertung und Analyse dieser Daten. Mit Warnlevels versehen, sollte ein solches System den Anwender (und weitere Personen) ueber moegliche bereits erfolgte und im besten Fall auch ueber zukuenftige Ueberschreitungen informieren und warnen koennen. Abhaengig von der bereitgestellten Information der Modalitaet koennen Dosismanagementsysteme auf verschieden tiefen Ebenen im Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS), Radiologie-/Krankenhausinformationssystem (RIS/KIS) oder auf die Headerinformation der Digital-Imaging-and-Communications-in-Medicine(DICOM)-Bilddaten zugreifen und auswerten. Ein praxistauglicher Einsatz solcher Systeme ist nur in enger Zusammenarbeit von medizinischem Personal, Medizinphysikern und IT-Administratoren moeglich. Es sind verschiedene Systeme kommerziell oder frei erhaeltlich, jedoch abhaengig von den Anforderungen der radiologischen Praxis bzw. Klinik ist eine individuelle Adaptierung sinnvoll und noetig. (orig.)

  18. Implementing evidence-based practices for youth in an HMO: the roles of external ratings and market share.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, John; Daleiden, Eric; Dopson, Sue

    2011-05-01

    A qualitative study of child clinicians in a non-profit HMO examined implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs) for anxiety and oppositional defiant disorders using interviews and focus groups with 33 clinicians (97% of participants), and ethnography of emails and meetings. Analysis showed statistical measures of access and service-key elements of rating organizations' "report cards"- were central in creating "pressure" making transition to EBPs difficult. EBPs were secondary to access and service targets. "Research" and "statistics" were perceived as unrealistic, "literature" as lacking authority. Rating organizations should include outcome and fidelity metrics to align market share pressures with children's health.

  19. Stomatologická radiologie

    OpenAIRE

    JIRKOVÁ, Kateřina

    2012-01-01

    The topic of this bachelor thesis is ?Dental Radiology.? The aim of this thesis is to create a summary about dental diagnoses and evaluate the benefits of modern imaging methods in dentistry. The work is to familiarize students with conventional as well as modern methods and technologies in dentistry. Furthermore, to introduce different types of examinations and indications to given examinations which are done in the field. Radiation protection in dental radiological examinations is also desc...

  20. The MR trainer. Lower limbs; Der MR-Trainer. Untere Extremitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitenseher, M. [Allgemeines Krankenhaus, Vienna (Austria)

    2003-07-01

    The book is intended as a guide to MRI of the lower limbs for newcomers from other fields, such as radiology, orthopaedics, sports medicine, rheumatology, and (trauma) surgery. The MR trainer imparts the practical knowledge and insights of a specialist, taking the MRI morphology as a starting point. Special features of the didactic concept: the split-page concept, displaying pictures and schematic illustrations on the right page, and explanatory text on the left page. (orig./CB) [German] Dieses Buch wendet sich an alle Einsteiger in der MRT der unteren Extremitaet aus Radiologie, Orthopaedie, Sportmedizin, Rheumatologie und (Unfall-)Chirurgie. Der MR-Trainer vermittelt das praxisbezogene Anwenderwissen ausgehend von der MRT-Morphologie. Besonderheiten des didaktischen Konzepts: Doppelseitenkonzept, rechts Schemata und Abbildungen, links erklaerender Text; MR-Morphologie als Ausgangsbasis, (nachgeschaltet Indikation, Diagnose/DD,Technik); mit Uebungsfaellen zur Ueberpruefung des Gelernten. Wenn Sie dieses Buch durchgearbeitet haben, haben Sie verstanden - warum bestimmte Untersuchungen so gemacht werden, - wann welche Protokolle gefahren werden, - was Sie tatsaechlich sehen, - was noch normal oder schon pathologisch ist, - welcher klinische Bezug dahinter steht und - wie Sie reagieren muessen. (orig./AJ)

  1. Investigation of LPP combustors under elevated pressure conditions; Untersuchungen zu LPP-Flugtriebwerksbrennkammern unter erhoehtem Druck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, R.

    2001-05-01

    The development of new combustor concepts for aero engines to meet future emissions regulations in based on a detailed knowledge of the combustion process and the velocity field. In the presented thesis, non intrusive measurements were performed in a model combustion chamber under almost realistic pressure and temperature conditions. The species OH, NO, unburned hydrocarbons and fuel droplets were detected in 2 dimensions with the Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF). The velocity field was measured with the Particle Image Velocimetry technique (PIV). [German] Die Weiterentwicklung neuer Brennkammerkonzepte zur Erfuellung zukuenftiger Schadstoffemissionsrichtlinien erfordert genaue Kenntnisse der ablaufenden Verbrennungs- und Stroemungsvorgaenge in der Brennkammer. Bei den in der Arbeit vorgestellten Untersuchungen wurden in einer LPP-Modellbrennkammer unter annaehernd realistischen Eintrittsbedingungen die Spezies OH, NO, unverbrannte Kohlenwasserstoffe sowie noch fluessiger Brennstoff zweidimensional anhand der Laserinduzierten Fluoreszenz (LIF) nachgewiesen. Das Stroemungsfeld wurde mit Hilfe der Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) gemessen.

  2. Collaborations in population-based health research: the 17th annual HMO Research Network Conference, March 23-25, 2011, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieu, Tracy A; Hinrichsen, Virginia L; Moreira, Andrea; Platt, Richard

    2011-11-01

    The HMO Research Network (HMORN) is a consortium of 16 health care systems with integrated research centers. Approximately 475 people participated in its 17(th) annual conference, hosted by the Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute and Harvard Medical School. The theme, "Collaborations in Population-Based Health Research," reflected the network's emphasis on collaborative studies both among its members and with external investigators. Plenary talks highlighted the initial phase of the HMORN's work to establish the NIH-HMO Collaboratory, opportunities for public health collaborations, the work of early career investigators, and the state of the network. Platform and poster presentations showcased a broad spectrum of innovative public domain research in areas including disease epidemiology and treatment, health economics, and information technology. Special interest group sessions and ancillary meetings provided venues for informal conversation and structured work among ongoing groups, including networks in cancer, cardiovascular diseases, lung diseases, medical product safety, and mental health.

  3. Adherence to weight loss medications; post-marketing study from HMO pharmacy data of one million individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemo, Beatriz; Endevelt, Ronit; Porath, Avi; Stampfer, Meir J; Shai, Iris

    2011-11-01

    Post-marketing data on weight-loss medications in free living population are a necessary adjunct to data from clinical trials. We conducted a population-based analysis of first-time medication users based on HMO pharmacy purchasing data serving > one million adults. During 5 years, usage of orlistat and sibutramine more than doubled and rates were higher during the months May-Aug. As compared to non-users (n = 1,038,828), annual weight-loss drug users (n = 7175) had higher women proportion, body-mass-index (BMI), bariatric surgery history, and usage of diabetes, depression, and cardiovascular medications (p analysis) reduced from 33.02 kg/m(2) to 32.04 kg/m(2) (p multivariate model, long-term adherence (≥ 4 months) to weight-loss medications was associated with use of sibutramine vs. orlistat (OR = 2.08; 95%CI: 1.76-2.45), and prevalence of diabetes (OR = 1.20; 95%CI: 1.01-1.25). Age, gender, and baseline BMI were not associated with long-term adherence. Usage of weight-loss drugs is higher among diabetes patients. However, the poor adherence to therapy is substantially below levels reported in clinical trials. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Metabolische Veränderungen bei antiretroviraler Therapie unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der mitochondrialen Toxizität

    OpenAIRE

    Froese, Kirstin Antje

    2011-01-01

    Die symptomatische Hyperlaktatämie oder Laktatazidose ist eine seltene lebensbedrohliche Nebenwirkung, die unter Einnahme von Nukleosidanaloga, insbesondere Thymidinanaloga, im Rahmen der antiretroviralen Therapie (ART) bei HIV-Infektion auftreten kann. Circa 15–35% der mit Nukleosidanaloga behandelten Patienten zeigen zudem regelmäßig einen leicht erhöhten Serum-Laktatspiegel, ohne dabei klinische Symptome einer Hyperlaktatämie zu entwickeln. Der dafür zumindest teilweis...

  5. Johannes Sobotta (1869-1945) - Leben und Wirken unter besonderer Berücksichtigung seiner Würzburger Zeit

    OpenAIRE

    Kayßer, Katharina

    2004-01-01

    Professor Johannes Sobotta (1869 - 1945) forschte und lehrte als Anatom in Berlin, Würzburg, Königsberg und Bonn. Sein 1904 erstmalig erschienener "Atlas der deskriptiven Anatomie des Menschen" wurde in 14 Sprachen übersetzt und gehört auch in der 21.Auflage noch immer zur Standard-Literatur der medizinischen Ausbildung. Die vorliegende Dissertation gibt einen umfassenden Einblick in Sobottas Lebenswerk unter besonderer Berücksichtigung seiner Würzburger Zeit.

  6. Johannes Sobotta (1869-1945) - Leben und Wirken unter besonderer Berücksichtigung seiner Würzburger Zeit

    OpenAIRE

    Kayßer, Katharina

    2004-01-01

    Professor Johannes Sobotta (1869 - 1945) forschte und lehrte als Anatom in Berlin, Würzburg, Königsberg und Bonn. Sein 1904 erstmalig erschienener "Atlas der deskriptiven Anatomie des Menschen" wurde in 14 Sprachen übersetzt und gehört auch in der 21.Auflage noch immer zur Standard-Literatur der medizinischen Ausbildung. Die vorliegende Dissertation gibt einen umfassenden Einblick in Sobottas Lebenswerk unter besonderer Berücksichtigung seiner Würzburger Zeit.

  7. Die Business Community als CRM-Instrument unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von Business Intelligence Technologien

    OpenAIRE

    Schober, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    Das Management von Kundenbeziehungen hat sich in der klassischen Ökonomie unter dem Begriff »Customer Relationship Management« (kurz: CRM) etabliert und sich in den letzten Jahren als erfolgreicher Ansatz erwiesen. In der grundlegenden Zielsetzung, wertvolle, d.h. profitable und kreditwürdige Kunden an ein Unternehmen zu binden, kommen Business-Intelligence Technologien zur Generierung von Kundenwissen aus kundenbezogenen Daten zum Einsatz. Als technologische Plattform der Kommunikatio...

  8. Machbarkeit und Akzeptanz eines Notfall-Management-Systems unter Etablierung der "First Responder Defibrillation" : Ergebnisse eines 2 Jahres Zeitraums

    OpenAIRE

    Robert, Nils

    2010-01-01

    Problem: Die Letalität nach innerklinischen Reanimationen ist hoch. Daher wurde nach Einführung eines Notfall- Managementsystems unter Etablierung der "First Responder" Defibrillation das Überleben retrospektiv untersucht und die Meinung der Mitarbeiter erfragt. Methode: Aus 2 Jahren wurden 41 Reanimationen untersucht. Eine Mitarbeiterumfrage zum Wissen und der Meinung zum Notfall-Management wurde durchgeführt. Ergebnis: Das Outcome nach Reanimation betrug 30%. 89-100% der Mita...

  9. Asymptomatische zerebrale Mikroembolien nach Lungenvenenablation unter therapeutischer Antikoagulation bei Patienten mit Vorhofflimmern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigmund E

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Einleitung: Patienten nach Pulmonalvenenisolation (PVI bei Vorhofflimmern (VHF zeigen eine erhöhte Inzidenz für asymptomatische zerebrale Mikroembolien. Ziel unserer Untersuchung war es, erstmals unter laufender therapeutischer oraler Antikoagulation die Häufigkeit dieser Läsionen aufzuzeigen. Zur Veranschaulichung dieser Ereignisse wurde jeweils vor und nach linksatrialer Ablationsbehandlung eine diffusionsgewichtete zerebrale Magnetresonanztomographie (DW-MRT durchgeführt und zudem relevante klinische und prozedurale Parameter dokumentiert. Methodik: Insgesamt wurden 80 konsekutive Patienten mit paroxysmalem (n = 52; 65,0 % oder persistierendem VHF (n = 28; 35,0 % im Rahmen dieser Pilotstudie einer linksatrialen Radiofrequenzablation unterzogen. Bei Patienten mit persistierendem VHF erfolgten zusätzlich zur PVI lineare Ablationen (Dachlinie, mitrale Isthmuslinie und/oder CFAE-Ablation („complex fractionated atrial electrograms“ mit einem 3,5 mm offen gekühlten Ablationskatheter. Präund postinterventionell wurde bei allen Patienten ein zerebrales MRT durchgeführt. Ergebnisse: Nach PVI konnten bei 13 von 80 Patienten (16,3 % neu aufgetretene mikroembolische zerebrale Läsionen nachgewiesen werden. Alle Patienten waren neurologisch völlig asymptomatisch. Einziger signifikanter klinischer Parameter in der univarianten Analyse, welcher eine Korrelation dieser Läsionen zeigte, war die Art des VHF (5/52 paroxysmal – 9,6 % vs. 8/28 persistierend – 28,6 %; p = 0,033. Signifikante periprozedurale Parameter waren die Durchführung einer elektrischen Kardioversion im Rahmen der Ablationsbehandlung (p = 0,009 sowie die CFAE-Ablation (p = 0,05. In der multivarianten Analyse zeigte lediglich die Elektrokardioversion einen Trend zur Signifikanz mit 3,98-fachem Risiko (95 %-CI: 0,83–19; p = 0,08. Schlussfolgerung: Auch unter kontinuierlicher therapeutischer Antikoagulation konnte die Inzidenz zerebraler Mikroembolien nach Lungenvenenablation im

  10. Barriers to self-monitoring of blood glucose among adults with diabetes in an HMO: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barton Mary B

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies suggest that patients at greatest risk for diabetes complications are least likely to self-monitor blood glucose. However, these studies rely on self-reports of monitoring, an unreliable measure of actual behavior. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between patient characteristics and self-monitoring in a large health maintenance organization (HMO using test strips as objective measures of self-monitoring practice. Methods This cross-sectional study included 4,565 continuously enrolled adult managed care patients in eastern Massachusetts with diabetes. Any self-monitoring was defined as filling at least one prescription for self-monitoring test strips during the study period (10/1/92–9/30/93. Regular SMBG among test strip users was defined as testing an average of once per day for those using insulin and every other day for those using oral sulfonylureas only. Measures of health status, demographic data, and neighborhood socioeconomic status were obtained from automated medical records and 1990 census tract data. Results In multivariate analyses, lower neighborhood socioeconomic status, older age, fewer HbA1c tests, and fewer physician visits were associated with lower rates of self-monitoring. Obesity and fewer comorbidities were also associated with lower rates of self-monitoring among insulin-managed patients, while black race and high glycemic level (HbA1c>10 were associated with less frequent monitoring. For patients taking oral sulfonylureas, higher dose of diabetes medications was associated with initiation of self-monitoring and HbA1c lab testing was associated with more frequent testing. Conclusions Managed care organizations may face the greatest challenges in changing the self-monitoring behavior of patients at greatest risk for poor health outcomes (i.e., the elderly, minorities, and people living in low socioeconomic status neighborhoods.

  11. Tierexperimentelle Untersuchung zur Effektivitat dertransarteriellen Chemoembolisation unter Einsatz von Poly-Laktide-co-Glykolide -Mikrospharen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Zusammenfassung: Evaluierung der Effektivitat von Poly-Laktide-co-Glykolide ( PLCG )-Mikrospharen als Embolisationsmaterial in der transarteriellen Chemoembolisation (TACE) imtierexperimentellen Modell. Bei mannlichen ACI-Ratten (n = 11) erfolgte die Implantation einessoliden Morris Hepatomas (1 mm3) subkapsular in den linken Leberlappen. 13 Tage nach Implan-tation wurden die Tumorvolumina kernspintomographisch bestimmt. Die Tiere wurden in Thera-piegruppe (n= 4) und Kontrollgruppe (n = 7) geteilt. Nach Laparotomie und retrograder Ka-theterisierung der Arteria gastroduodenalis wurden 40 mg PLCG-Mikrospharen und 0,05 mg Mit-omyein in Therapiegruppe, 1, 5 mi 0, 9 % Kochsalzlosung in Kontrollgruppe zum Vergleichangewendet. Zur Effektivitatsbeurteilung der beiden Methoden erfolgte 14 Tage nach Katheter-isierung eine erneute kernspintomographische Volumenbestimmung der Tumoren. Eine deutlicheTumorvolumenzunahme von 27,12fache in Kontrollgruppe wurde im Beobachtungszeitraum gese-hen. Im Vergleich zur Kontrollgruppe zeigte die Therapiegruppe eine sehr geringere Tumorvolu-menzunahme von 2,87fache im Beobachtungszeitraum. Die Tumorvolumenzunahme zwischen derbeiden Gruppen zeigten beim T-Test einen signifikanten Unterschied (P<0,05). Das Wachstumdes Lebertumors wurde unter Einsatz von PLCG-Mikrospharen in der TACE im tierexperi-mentellen Modell deutlich gehemmt.

  12. Tierexperimentelle Untersuchungen zur Effektivit(a)t der transarteriellen Chemoembolisation (TACE) unter Einsatz von Bletilla striata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Jun; Vossoughi Daryusch; Maataoui Adel; Oppermann Elsiez; Bechstein Wolf; Vogl Thomas Josef

    2005-01-01

    Evaluierung der Effektivit(a)t von Bletilla striata bei transerteriellenChemoembo lisation (TACE) im Kleintiermodell. Nach subkapsul(a)rer Implantation (Tag 0) eines soliden Morris Hepatoms (2 mm3) bei ACI-Ratten (n = 30) wurden am 13. Tag die Tumorvolumina (V1) magnettomographisch bestimmt. Im Anschlu erfolgten nach Laparatomie die retrograde Katheterisierung der Arteria gastroduodenalis und die Anwendung folgender Therapieprotokolle: (A) TACE (0,1 mg MitomycinC + 0,1 mL Lipiodol) + Bletilla striata (1,0 mg) (n=10); (B) TACE (Bletilla striata (1,0 mg) + Ligatur (n=10); (C) TACE allein (Kontrollgruppe, n=10). Zur Effektivit(a)tsbeurteilung der unterschiedlichen Therapieprotokolle erfolgte am 28. Tag eine erneute magnettomographische Bestimmung der Tumorvolumina (V2). Das durchschnittliche Tumorvolumen der Gruppen A, Bund C vor und nach interventioneller Therapie betrug 0,0355 cm3 und 0,2248 cm3 , 0,0374 cm3 und 0,0573 cm3 sowie 0,0380 cm3 und 0,3674 cm3. Das errechnete durchschnittliche Verh(a)ltnis (V2/V1) betrug 6,28, 1,53 sowie 9,14. Im Vergleich zur Kontrollgruppe C Beobachtungszeitraum ermittelt werden, wahrend zwischen Gruppe A und Gruppe C keine statistisch signifikanten (P>0,05) Unterschiede im Tumorwachstum festgestellt werden konnten. Das Wachstum der induzierten Lebertumoren konnte unter Behandlung mittels TACE + Bletilla striata + Ligatur im Tiermodell statistisch signifikant im Vergleich zur Kontrollgruppe gehemmt werden.

  13. Theaterpädagogische Prozesse in Biographieverläufen unter dem Aspekt der ästhetischen Bildung

    OpenAIRE

    Reinwand, Vanessa-Isabelle

    2008-01-01

    Im Zentrum der vorliegenden Arbeit steht die Frage, wie ästhetische Prozesse im Theaterspiel von den Akteuren wahrgenommen werden und sich diese ästhetischen Erfahrungen in Biographien niederschlagen. Unter einem primär pädagogischen Blickwinkel soll darauf aufbauend untersucht werden, wie ästhetische Bildungsprozesse verlaufen. Wie und in welchem Ausmaß künstlerische Tätigkeiten, z.B. das Theaterspiel, bildend wirken, stellt in der Pädagogik empirisch ein noch weitgehend unerforschtes Feld d...

  14. Wirkungen eines Krafttrainings unter verminderter Blutzufuhr bei Männern im Alter von 40 bis 60 Jahren

    OpenAIRE

    Hasler, Kathrin Doris

    2014-01-01

    Verschiedene Studien konnten bereits einen positiven Effekt eines Krafttrainings unter verminderter Blutzufuhr feststellen. Dabei konnte oft eine Verbesserung der Maximalkraft nachgewiesen werden. Die Probanden waren zumeist junge Männer. In dieser Studie wurden dagegen Männer im mittleren Lebensalter getestet. Neben Maximalkraftwerten wurden auch Kraftausdauerwerte erhoben. Das Probandenkollektiv bestand aus 17 Männern im Alter von 50,7 ± 6,8 Jahren mit einer Körpergröße von 177,5 ± 6,2 c...

  15. Walking the HMO balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, S M

    2001-03-01

    Fidelity is the ethical obligation to act in good faith to keep promises, fulfill agreements, and maintain relationships and fiduciary responsibilities. Consumers are increasingly interested in the balance between the fiscal viability of our current healthcare delivery system and the system's reason for existence--that is, to serve the health needs of clients. Escalating healthcare costs have driven many institutions and third party payors to examine service and payment practices. Some consumers and consumer rights groups contend that these evolving practices threaten the very essence of health and healthcare. The ethical obligation of fidelity, especially as it relates to the business model of healthcare, is examined. Threats to fidelity are reviewed, and the response to these threats by one consumer rights group is presented. A case study is included.

  16. Schattenwirtschaft unter Palmen: Der touristisch informelle Sektor im Urlaubsparadies Patong, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Gantner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Seit den 1960er-Jahren spielt der Tourismussektor innerhalb der thailändischen Wirtschaft eine wichtige Rolle und ist durch ein stetiges Wachstum gekennzeichnet. Für über 50 Prozent der Personen, die in Thailand ihren Lebensunterhalt durch informelle Beschäftigung (Schattenwirtschaft sichern, stellt dieser boomende Sektor eine bedeutende Verdienstquelle dar. Unter Verwendung qualitativer Methoden (Interviews und teilnehmende Beobachtung untersucht dieser Artikel den touristisch informellen Sektor des Ortes Patong auf der Insel Phuket und stellt sowohl die Entstehung und den Verlauf als auch die Akteurs- und Angebotsstruktur dieses Sektors dar. Die aktuelle Entwicklung wird dabei verglichen mit dem Modell Vorlaufers, das die Entwicklung einer staatlich geförderten Tourismusdestination beschreibt. Entgegen der Annahme dieses Modells, mit einem Wachstum des Tourismussektors würde der Anteil an formeller gegenüber der informellen Beschäftigung steigen, zeigt sich, dass kein Rückgang des touristisch informellen Sektors zu erkennen ist, dieser weiterhin ein integraler Bestandteil der Tourismuswirtschaft Patongs geblieben ist und eine wichtige Verdienstquelle für MigrantInnen und die lokale Bevölkerung darstellt. --- Since the 1960s, tourism has become a vital part of the Thai economy and has been characterised by a steady growth. For more than 50 percent of all Thais working in the informal sector (shadow economy, the booming tourism industry represents an important source of income. In this article Patong on Phuket serves as a case study for examining the network of actors, the touristic supply structure as well as its evolution and developments over the years by using qualitative methods (interviews and participant observation. The empirical data will then be compared to Vorlaufer’s scheme on the development of a state-sponsored tourist destination. In contrast to the scheme’s assumption of a decline of the informal and a rise of the

  17. Erwachsenenbildung unter genderkritischer Perspektive Adult Education from a Gender-Critical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Budde

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Im Bereich der Erwachsenen- und Ausbildungsforschung werden Genderdimensionen bislang nur wenig in den Blick genommen. 2006 sind jedoch gleich zwei Arbeiten erschienen, die sich mit der Erwachsenenbildung unter Genderperspektive beschäftigen. Sabine Liedtkes Studie analysiert das bislang wenig bearbeitete Feld des beruflichen Ausbildungssystems. Anhand der Rekonstruktion der Kategorien „Beruf“ und „Arbeit“ dokumentiert sie ein dichotomes Geschlechtermodell im dualen System, welches an tradierte Geschlechterbilder angelehnt ist. Ihr Fazit ist, dass die Berufspädagogik die dichotome Struktur von Geschlecht fördert, da sie sich auf den gewerblich-technischen und industriellen Bereich konzentriert und so zu einer Reproduktion von hierarchischen Geschlechtermodellen beiträgt. Angela Venth richtet dagegen mit der allgemeinen Erwachsenenbildung den Fokus auf den zweiten großen Sektor und ergänzt so die Genderanalyse. Sie arbeitet anhand von Programmanalysen, Tagungsauswertungen und Fortbildungsdokumentationen heraus, dass auch in der allgemeinen Erwachsenenbildung ein geschlechterdichotomes Bild mit einem normativen männlichen Maßstab zugrunde gelegt wird. Die dichotome Struktur von allgemeiner und beruflicher Bildung sowie die Missachtung alltagsbezogener Bildung versperren, so Venth, die Möglichkeit der Veränderung von Geschlechterverhältnissen.Until now, gender dimensions have rarely been at the center of research on adult education and training. In 2006, however, two works appeared simultaneously that dealt with adult education from the perspective of gender. Sabine Liedtkes study analyses a field that research rarely attends to, the occupational training system. Utilizing the reconstruction of the categories “profession” and “work,” she documents the dichotomous gender model in the German dual system of traineeship, which is founded on traditional gendered images. She concludes that occupational pedagogy promotes the

  18. Rigiscan®-Monitoring der Erektion unter audiovisueller sexueller Stimulation ohne/mit Viagra™ bei Patienten mit erektiler Dysfunktion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perabo FGE

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Die orale Medikation mit Sildenafil (Viagra™ hat sich zur Therapie der erektilen Dysfunktion etabliert und relativiert die Differentialdiagnose zwischen psychogener und organischer Dysfunktion mit den entsprechenden therapeutischen Konsequenzen. Diesem Problem widmet sich diese Studie zur Prüfung der erektilen Antwort unter RigiScan®-Monitoring ohne/mit 50 mg Viagra™. 64 Patienten (mittleres Alter 48 Jahre mit einer erektilen Dysfunktion arteriogener (n = 10, venöser (n = 7, gemischt neurogen/vaskulärer (n = 15 und psychogener (n = 32 Genese von mehr als 6 Monaten Dauer wurden in die Studie aufgenommen. Alle Patienten wurden eingehend diagnostisch abgeklärt, inklusive Hormonlabor, dynamischer Pharmako-Duplexsonographie und, falls indiziert, mit einer Cavernosometrie/ -graphie. Zur Testung der penilen Rigidität und zur Objektivierung der Erektion wurde das "real-time" RigiScan® verwendet. In zwei konsekutiven Messungen wurden sowohl die direkte erektile Antwort auf visuelle Stimulation als auch die nächtlichen Erektionen abgeleitet und die Meßergebnisse mit den Begleiterkrankungen, "lifestyle"-Faktoren und dem Ergebnis der Pharmako-Duplexsonographie korreliert. Es fand sich keine Korrelation zwischen der Ätiologie der erektilen Dysfunktion in bezug auf organische oder psychogene Genese und dem Alter der Patienten, der Dauer der Erektionsstörung, dem Nikotinabusus, den Blutfetten, den Testosteronwerten, dem klinischen Ergebnis der Pharmakotestung (Erektionsgrad und dem duplexsonographisch gemessenen Fluß der penilen Arterien. Hingegen zeigte sich eine positive Korrelation zwischen Genese der erektilen Dysfunktion (organisch bzw. psychogen und dem RigiScan®-Meßergebnis (r = 0,29. Patienten mit psychogen bedingter Erektionsstörung profitierten am meisten von Viagra™, während Patienten mit vaskulärer Genese oder gemischt neurogener/vaskulärer Genese deutlich schlechter auf Viagra™ ansprachen. Es bestand keine Korrelation

  19. Multiquadratic methods, collocation and kriging - comparison with geostatistical model assumptions; Multiquadratische Methode, Kollokation und Kriging - Vergleich unter geostatistischen Modellannahmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menz, J. [Technische Univ. Freiburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Markscheidewesen und Geodaesie; Bian Shaofeng [Technical Univ. of Surveying and Mapping, Wuhan (China)

    1998-10-01

    The contribution shows that Hardy`s multisquare method leads to results that are similar in their structure to the predictions by collocation. On the basis of geostatistical model assumptions, equations for calculating the prediction error are presented, and the multisquare method is compared with the collocation method on this basis. Equivalences between collocation and kriging are gone into, and information is presented on how predictions can be improved in the Bayesian sense. [Deutsch] In der folgenden Arbeit soll zuerst gezeigt werden, dass die Multiquadratische Methode nach HARDY zu Vorhersagen fuehrt, die in ihrer Struktur den Vorhersagen durch Kollokation entsprechen. Unter geostatistischen Modellannahmen werden nach dem Fehlerfortpflanzungsgesetz Formeln fuer die Berechnung der Vorhersagefehler angegeben. Auf der Grundlage dieser Formeln wird die Multiquadratische Methode mit der Kollokation verglichen. Es wird auf die Aequivalenzen zwischen Kollokation und Kriging verwiesen und angegeben, wie sich die Vorhersagen im BAYESschen Sinne verbessern lassen. (orig./MSK)

  20. Part-body hyperthermia with a radiofrequency multiantenna applicator under online control in 1,5 T MR-tomograph; Teilkoerperhyperthermie mit einem Radiofrequenz-Multiantennen-Applikator unter on-line Kontrolle in einem 1,5 T MR-Tomographen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wust, P.; Gellermann, J.; Faehling, H.; Wlodarczyk, W.; Felix, R. [Charite, Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde, Berlin (Germany); Seebass, M. [Konrad-Zuse-Zentrum fuer Informationstechnologie, Berlin (Germany); Turner, P. [BSD Medical Corp., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Nadobny, J. [Charite, Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde, Berlin (Germany); Konrad-Zuse-Zentrum fuer Informationstechnologie, Berlin (Germany); Rau, B. [Charite, Medizinische Klinik m.S. Haematologie und Onkologie, Berlin (Germany); Hildebrandt, B.; Schlag, P.M. [Charite, Klinik fuer Chirurgie und Chirurgische Onkologie, Berlin (Germany); Oppelt, A. [Siemens Medical Solutions, Interventional MR, Erlangen (Germany)

    2004-03-01

    MR-Gantry mechanisch angekoppelt und die Koerperschule zum Monitoring eingesetzt. Dazu mussten Hyperthermie-Antennensystem (100 MHz, 1550 W) und MR-Empfaenger (63,9 MHz) hochfrequenzmaessig (Filter) und elektromagnetisch entkoppelt werden. Die Weiterverarbeitung der MR-Datensaetze erfolgt in einem eigens entwickelten Hyperthermieplanungssystem. Ein Simultanbetrieb von Radiofrequenz-Hyperthermie und MR-System ist bei klinisch relevanten Leistungen moeglich. MR-Datensaetze werden zur diagnostischen Tumordarstellung (Spin-Echo-Standardsequenzen), zur Planung der Hyperthermie (T{sub 1}-gewichtete Gradienten-Echo-Sequenzen in Gegen- und Gleichphasentechnik) und zur Temperaturdarstellung nach der Protonen-Resonanzfrequenz-Methode (PRF-Methode, Phasenauswertung einer Gradienten-Echo-Sequenz mit langer Echozeit) eingesetzt. Bei 33 Patienten mit fortgeschrittenen pelvinen und abdominellen Tumoren wurden ueber 150 Hyperthermiebehandlungen unter MR-Monitoring durchgefuehrt. Bei 70% der Patienten gelang eine Visualisierung temperatursensitiver Daten waehrend der Therapiezeit. Die ausgewerteten Differenzbilder stellen eine Ueberlagerung der tatsaechlichen Temperaturerhoehung und einer (temperaturinduzierten) Perfusionserhoehung dar. Dieser Hybridansatz ermoeglicht es, die Teilkoerperhyperthermie als MR-gesteuerte Intervention fuer die Radiologie zu entwickeln. (orig.)

  1. Nährig, Dietrich & Karl Hermann Harms, unter Mitarbeit von Josef Kiechle, Hanspeter Rausch, Wolfgang Schawaller & Jörg Spelda (2003: Rote Listen und Checklisten der Spinnentiere (Arachnida Baden-Württembergs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blick, Theo

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available book review: Nährig Dietrich & Karl Hermann Harms, unter Mitarbeit von Josef Kiechle, Hanspeter Rausch, Wolfgang Schawaller & Jörg Spelda (2003: Rote Listen und Checklisten der Spinnentiere (Arachnida Baden-Württembergs.

  2. Messung der Vorwärts-Rückwärts-Ladungsassymetrie von b-Quarks bei Energien nahe der Z0-Resonanz. Untersuchung von Ereignissen mit initialem b-Quark unter Verwendung der Jetladungstechnik mit dem DELPHI Detektor

    CERN Document Server

    Schwering, Britta

    Messung der Vorwärts-Rückwärts-Ladungsassymetrie von b-Quarks bei Energien nahe der Z0-Resonanz. Untersuchung von Ereignissen mit initialem b-Quark unter Verwendung der Jetladungstechnik mit dem DELPHI Detektor

  3. Entwurf, Entwicklung und Inbetriebnahme eines verteilten Rechnerkontrollsystems für die Elektronen-Stretcher-Anlage ELSA, unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Extraktion im Nachbeschleunigungsbetrieb bis 3.5 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Picard, M

    1995-01-01

    Entwurf, Entwicklung und Inbetriebnahme eines verteilten Rechnerkontrollsystems für die Elektronen-Stretcher-Anlage ELSA, unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Extraktion im Nachbeschleunigungsbetrieb bis 3.5 GeV

  4. Entwicklung und Inbetriebnahme eines verteilten Rechnerkontrollsystems zur Steuerung der Elektronen-Stretcher-Anlage ELSA, unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Anforderungen des Nachbeschleunigungsbetriebs bis 3.5 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Götz, T

    1995-01-01

    Entwicklung und Inbetriebnahme eines verteilten Rechnerkontrollsystems zur Steuerung der Elektronen-Stretcher-Anlage ELSA, unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Anforderungen des Nachbeschleunigungsbetriebs bis 3.5 GeV

  5. PS2-08: “I Didn’t Know They Did That!” Discovering and Maximizing the Capacity of the HMO Research Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ella; Greene, Sarah; Johnson, Karin; Larson, Eric; Steiner, John

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims The HMO Research Network (HMORN) is a national consortium of research centers working within or in close partnership with integrated health systems. HMORN sites conduct public domain health research on a wide range of diseases and cross-cutting topics. While the HMORN has established large topical research networks, the HMORN’s collective capacity remains relatively untapped for the majority of topics. We illustrate the variation and concentration of topical and methodological expertise across the Network, and suggest ways the HMORN could leverage existing capacities more fully. Methods Written surveys indicating ongoing local research capacity were completed by 14 HMORN sites in the 2nd quarter of 2011. Sites classified 45 research topics as “Powerhouse area” (multiple studies per year, particular depth or breadth exists), “Some Expertise” or “Not an emphasis.” These survey data were collected, synthesized and tabulated by the HMO Collaboratory team. We will survey the remaining 5 HMORN sites prior to HMORN 2012 and report capacity information for the entire Network. Results Eleven of the 14 delivery systems (78.6%) directly owns or partners closely with an insurance entity; HMOs were a major component of these systems. Special research capacities of HMORN centers include facilities to fill prescriptions, facilities to perform research lab tests, survey departments, and dedicated research clinics. While significant capacity exists across the Network in topics with well established consortia (e.g., cancer, cardiovascular disease, infectious disease), capacity existed in multiple centers for every topic surveyed. Multiple HMORN centers reported “powerhouse areas” on topics around which the HMORN has not significantly mobilized. These included alcohol and drug abuse, arthritis, neurological disorders, oral health, aging, health disparities, pain management, pediatrics, and reproductive health among others. Discussion Many

  6. Online-Dienstleistung als Herausforderung für AnbieterInnen unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Situation in Österreich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Kollek

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Online-Beratung findet zunehmend auch im Dienstleistungssektor statt und damit nicht mehr nur im psychosozialen Beratungskontext. Gerade die Interaktivität des Mediums Internet macht dabei den Reiz für AnbieterInnen aus, die Dienstleistungsangebote auch im virtuellen Raum den KundInnen anzubieten. Der Artikel beleuchtet die notwendigen Schritte und Sichtweisen für eine professionelle Projektplanung solcher Angebote im Internet unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Situation in Österreich.

  7. Mechanical-biological waste treatment with thermal processing of partial fractions; Mechanisch-biologische Restabfallbehandlung unter Einbindung thermischer Verfahren fuer Teilfraktionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    Technologies for mechanical-biological treatment of waste in the Land of Hessen were compared including thermal processes like combustion and gasification. The new and more rigid limiting values specified in the Technical Guide for Municipal Waste Treatment (Technische Anleitung Siedlungsabfall - TASI) get a special mention. [Deutsch] Verschiedene Technologien der mechanisch-biologischen Restabfallbehandlung im Raum Hessen wurden unter Einbezug thermischer Verfahren (Verbrennung, Vergasung) miteinander verglichen. Dabei wurden besonders auf die verschaerften Grenzwerte der Technischen Anleitung Siedlungsabfall (TASI) eingegangen. (ABI)

  8. Hazard assessment investigations in connection with the formation of a lake on the tongue of Unterer Grindelwaldgletscher, Bernese Alps, Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Werder

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The surface of Unterer Grindelwaldgletscher glacier tongue has subsided by more than 200 m over the last 150 years. The surface lowering is not uniform over the glacier tongue but depends on the thickness of the uneven debris cover, which led to the formation of a depression on the tongue. A lake can form in this basin, which occurred for the first time in 2005. Such a glacier lake can drain rapidly leading to a so-called outburst flood. The lake basin has been increasing in size at an alarming rate and in 2008, it reached a volume which poses a significant flooding threat to the communities downstream, as was exemplified by an outburst of the lake in May 2008. The future evolution of the lake basin was extrapolated based on surface lowering rates between 2004–2008. An outburst flood model was tuned with the measured hydrograph from 2008 and then was run with the extrapolated lake bathymetries to simulate future lake outbursts and estimate their flood hydrographs. We discuss the rapidly increasing risk for Grindelwald and other communities, as well as the installation of an early warning system and possible prevention measures.

  9. Medienpädagogik unter der differenztheoretischen Lupe. Eine Identitätssuche zwischen Disziplin und Profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Linke

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Der Beitrag diskutiert die dem Themenheft zugrundeliegende Fragestellung nach der Konstitution der Medienpädagogik aus einer systemtheoretischen Perspektive. Dabei wird im Anschluss an Stichweh (2013 Ansatz der funktionalen Differenzierung ein Untersuchungsrahmen aufgezeigt, der es ermöglicht, die Medienpädagogik sowohl aus wissenschaftssoziologischer als auch professionssoziologischer Perspektive zu betrachten. Gerade die zentrale Rolle der (digitalen Medien für Lern- und Bildungsprozesse sowie für den Arbeitsmarkt (u. a. KMK 2016 verlangt eine stetige Reflexion professioneller Handlungssysteme der Medienpädagogik, die nicht losgelöst von der Frage nach dem Selbstverständnis der Medienpädagogik als Wissenschaftsdisziplin gelingen kann (u. a. Hugger 2001. Divergierende theoretische Positionierungen der Akteurinnen und Akteure sowie verschiedene Zielvorstellungen zur Medienpädagogik selbst und zu dem, was sie praktisch leisten kann, erschweren ein solches Vorhaben. Die Autorinnen des Beitrags begeben sich daher, unter Berücksichtigung der Differenzierung zwischen Disziplin und Profession, auf die Suche nach möglichen Antworten. Vorgeschlagen wird eine erweiterte Betrachtungsweise, welche die Medienpädagogik als wissenschaftliche Produktionsgemeinschaft beschreibt und dadurch Potenziale eröffnet theoretische und empirische Erkenntnisse von Akteurinnen und Akteuren unterschiedlicher wissenschaftlicher Disziplinen mit Medienzusammenhang zu berücksichtigen. Ferner wird dargelegt, dass ein solcher Beschreibungsansatz neue Forschungsperspektiven auf die professionstheoretische Einordnung praktischer Handlungssysteme der Medienpädagogik eröffnen kann.

  10. Kontrastmittelverstärkte Magnet-Resonanz-Urographie unter forcierter Diurese - Stellenwert in der Differentialdiagnostik bei Obstruktionen des oberen Harntraktes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung P

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Die Magnet-Resonanz-Urographie (MRU ist ein relativ neues Verfahren in der Diagnostik des oberen Harntraktes. Das Ziel dieser Studie war der Vergleich der Aussagefähigkeit der MRU unter Gabe von Gadolinium und Furosemid und dem konventionellen Urogramm (IVU in der Diagnostik der Ursache von Obstruktionen im Bereich des Harnleiters. 82 Patienten mit im IVU nachgewiesener Obstruktion des oberen Harntraktes oder urographisch stummer Niere bei sonographisch nachgewiesener Dilatation wurden der MRU zugeführt. Die Bilder beider Untersuchungsmethoden wurden von voneinander unabhängigen Untersuchern befundet. Zwei Urologen befundeten die IVU-Bilder, zwei Radiologen die MRU-Bilder, die Radiologen kannten die IVU-Diagnose nicht. Bei unklarer Diagnose wurden weitere Untersuchungen wie Computertomographie, retrograde Pyelographie oder Ureteroskopie durchgeführt. Die Diagnosen waren: Harnleitersteine bei 72 Patienten, Harnleitertumore bei 8 Patienten und extraureterale Tumore bei 2 Patienten. Eine richtige Diagnose bei den Steinpatienten wurde durch IVU bei 49 von 72 Patienten und durch MRU bei 64 von 72 Patienten gestellt. In dieser Patientengruppe wurden durch die MRU zwei falsche Diagnosen gestellt. Fehlende Kontrastmittelausscheidung war der Hauptgrund für Versagen der IVU. 3 der 8 Patienten mit Harnleitertumoren wurden durch die IVU richtig dignostiziert, bei dreien wurde eine falsche Diagnose gestellt. Durch die MRU konnten in dieser Gruppe 7 von 8 Patienten korrekt diagnostiziert werden, es wurde keine falsche Diagnose erhoben. IVU wird zunächst die Standarduntersuchungstechnik zur Darstellung des oberen Harntraktes bleiben, aber durch diese Studie konnte die Möglichkeit gezeigt werden, die in der MRU in Kombination mit Gadolinium und Furosemid liegt. Die größte Bedeutung dieser Untersuchung liegt in der urographisch stummen Niere, bei Untersuchungen in der Schwangerschaft, bei Kindern und bei Patienten mit Kontrastmittelunverträglichkeit.

  11. Sustained energy supply under globalisation and liberalisation conditions; Nachhaltige Energieversorgung unter den Bedingungen der Globalisierung und Liberalisierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempelmann, Rolf [Enquete-Kommission des Deutschen Bundestags, Berlin (Germany)

    2002-06-06

    The major challenge at the threshold of this century is to structure the energy supply in the sense of sustained development. The Committee of Enquiry of the Federal German Parliament 'Sustained energy supply under globalisation and liberalisation conditions' is developing medium to long-term concepts in this respect. Analysis of the boundary conditions of future energy policy shows that the consequences of future enrichment of climatic gases in the atmosphere and no longer the availability and productiveness of the energy deposits could become the limiting factor. Following the analysis of the technological and non-technological future potentials for sustained energy supply the Committee of Enquiry is currently working on the formulation of strategies for the energy industry transformation process. (orig.) [German] An der Schwelle dieses Jahrhunderts stellt sich die grosse Herausforderung, die Energieversorgung im Sinne einer nachhaltigen Entwicklung zu strukturieren. Die Enquete-Kommission des Deutschen Bundestags 'Nachhaltige Energieversorgung unter den Bedingungen der Globalisierung und Liberalisierung' entwickelt hierzu mittel- bis laengerfristige Konzepte. Die Analyse der Rahmenbedingungen kuenftiger Energiepolitik zeigt, dass die Folgen einer weiteren Anreicherung von Klimagasen in der Atmosphaere und nicht mehr die Verfuegbarkeit und Ergiebigkeit der Energielagerstaetten zum limitierenden Faktor werden koennten. Nach der Analyse der technologischen und nicht-technologischen Zukunftspotentiale fuer eine nachhaltige Energieversorgung arbeitet die Enquete-Kommission derzeit an der Formulierung von Strategien fuer den energiewirtschaftlichen Transformationsprozess. Vortrag gehalten auf der GVSt-Konferenz 'Kohle - Energie fuer die Zukunft' anlaesslich der E-World of Energy am 14. Februar 2002. (orig.)

  12. Rectal cancer - local staging and imaging under neoadjuvant therapy; Rektumkarzinom - Lokales Staging und Bildgebung unter neoadjuvanter Therapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpitschka, M. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Campus Grosshadern, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    Rectal cancer restaging after neoadjuvant therapy is based on two principles: an anatomic definition of the tumor allowing surgical planning and prognostic stage grouping. Emerging data suggest that reassessment using a combination of different imaging modalities may help to provide valuable prognostic information before definitive surgery. Perfusion computed tomography (CT) may provide special information regarding tumor vascularity. Evaluation of therapy response, especially of the circumferential resection margin (CRM) is necessary for surgical planning. For local staging high-resolution and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging has proven to be of high diagnostic accuracy. The M status should be assessed using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) according to response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST) while lymph node evaluation requires either magnetic resonance imaging or positron emission tomography/computed tomography scanning. (orig.) [German] Beim Rektumkarzinom ist das Restaging nach neoadjuvanter Therapie von zentraler Bedeutung. Einerseits kann anhand der aktuellen Tumorausdehnung das weitere chirurgische Vorgehen geplant, andererseits durch die radiologische Evaluation des Therapieansprechens eine prognostische Einschaetzung getroffen werden. Als bildgebende Modalitaeten stehen die Endosonographie, die CT bzw. PET/CT und die MRT zur Verfuegung. Die Perfusions-CT koennte in Zukunft wertvolle Informationen bzgl. des Therapieansprechens liefern, da hierdurch die Tumorvaskularitaet und ihre Veraenderungen unter Therapie dargestellt werden koennen. Die Evaluation des Therapieansprechens, insbesondere die Beurteilung des zirkumferenziellen Resektionsrandes (CRM) ist zur operativen Planung erforderlich. Die Bildgebung nach neoadjuvanter Therapie ist praeoperativer Standard in der Rektumchirurgie. Fuer die Beurteilung des lokalen Therapieansprechens (T-Status) hat sich die hochaufloesende Duennschicht-MRT bewaehrt, wohingegen der M

  13. Investigations of coal ignition in a short-range flame burner using optical measuring systems; Untersuchungen zur Kohlezuendung am Flachflammenbrenner unter Verwendung optischer Messtechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackert, G.; Kremer, H.; Wirtz, S. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Energieanlagentechnik

    1999-09-01

    The short-range flame burner and the KOALA reactor of DMT are experimental facilities for realistic simulation of coal conversion processes at high temperatures and pressures in atmospheric conditions. The TOSCA system enable measurements of temperatures, sizes, shapes and velocities of the fuel particles, which serve as a basis for a three-dimensional simulation model of coal combustion. In the future, further parameter studies will deepen the present knowledge of coal dust combustion under pressure and enable optimisation of the numerical models for simulation of industrial-scale systems for coal dust combustion under pressure. [Deutsch] Mit dem Flachflammenbrenner und dem KOALA-Reaktor der DMT stehen Versuchsapparaturen zur Verfuegung, mit deren Hilfe die Kohleumwandlungsprozesse bei hohen Temperaturen unter Druck und unter atmosphaerischen Bedingungen realistisch wiedergegeben werden. Das TOSCA-System erlaubt dabei die Bestimmung von Temperaturen, Groessen, Formen und Geschwindigkeiten der Brennstoffpartikel. Diese Daten liefern die Grundlage fuer die Erstellung eines dreidimensionalen Simulationsmodells zur Modellierung der Kohleverbrennung. In Zukunft werden weitere Parameterstudien das Verstaendnis der Kohlenstaubdruckverbrennung vertiefen und ein Optimierung der numerischen Modelle ermoeglichen, so dass die Simulation grosstechnischer Kohlenstaubdruckverbrennungsanlagen realisiert werden kann. (orig.)

  14. Damage characterisation of silicon carbides for applications in gas turbines in complex load conditions; Charakterisierung des Schaedigungsverhaltens von Siliciumcarbiden fuer den Einsatz in Gasturbinen unter komplexen Beanspruchungsbedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nestle, E.

    2000-06-01

    A tensile test facility for simultaneous thermal, mechanical and corrosive loading was developed and constructed for the purpose of characterizing the damage characteristics of ceramic high-temperature materials. Apart from tensile tests for up to 830 h, tests were also carried out on four-point bending test pieces and disk-shaped oxidation test pieces. The experiments were made at 1450 - 1550 C in dry or moist air. The materials investigated were one hot-pressed silicon carbide and two sintered silicon carbides. [German] Um keramische Hochtemperaturwerkstoffe bezueglich ihres Schaedigungsverhaltens charakterisieren zu koennen, wurde im Rahmen der vorliegenden Arbeit eine Zugpruefanlage zur gleichzeitigen Beanspruchung unter thermischen, mechanischen und korrosiven Bedingungen entwickelt und aufgebaut. Neben den in dieser Anlage durchgefuehrten Zugpruefungen mit Versuchszeiten bis zu 830 h wurden begleitende Untersuchungen an Vierpunkt-Biegeproben und scheibenfoermigen Oxidationsproben durchgefuehrt. Die Versuche konzentrierten sich auf den Temperaturbereich 1450-1550 unter trockenen und feuchten Luftatmosphaeren. Bei den untersuchten Werkstoffen handelte es sich um eine heissgepresste und zwei gesinterte Siliciumcarbid-Qualitaeten. (orig.)

  15. Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... get about Medicare Lost/incorrect Medicare card Report fraud & abuse File a complaint Identity theft: protect yourself ... Medicare Covers Drug Coverage (Part D) Supplements & Other Insurance Claims & Appeals Manage Your Health Forms, Help & Resources ...

  16. Degradation and Removal of Suifadiazine from Waters by a Novel Polymer-supported Hydrous Manganese Dioxide(HMO)%新型树脂基水合锰氧化物对水体中磺胺嘧啶的降解去除

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高俊; 盛光遥; 邱宇平

    2012-01-01

    以大孔强碱阴离子交换树脂D201为载体,采用离子交换和氧化还原方法制备了一种新型树脂基水合锰氧化物材料HMO-201.考察了不同pH、离子强度和溶解性有机质(DOM)含量条件下,该材料对水体中磺胺嘧啶(SD)的去除能力.HPLC-MS分析表明,SD的高效去除是通过HMO-201的降解而非吸附方式实现的.实验结果表明,pH为1.0时HMO-201在120 min内对0.01 mmol/L SD的去除效率为99.9%,反应符合表观一级动力学模型;体系的离子强度和DOM含量变化对SD的去除效率均无显著影响.模拟环境离子强度和DOM浓度,连续10批次实验中SD废水的去除效率在240 min内均大于99%;HMO-201的柱动态降解装置连续处理SD溶液2000床体积,依然未检出SD.表明HMO-201材料具有较稳定的重复利用性,对环境中普遍存在的磺胺类抗生素药物具有着高效的降解去除效果,具有广泛的应用前景.%A new polymer-supported hydrous manganese dioxide (HMO-201) was prepared by impregnating HMO onto a porous polystyrene anion exchange resin(D201) through ion exchange, oxidation and reduction. The removal of sulfadiazine(SD) by HMO-201 was evaluated as a function of solution pH, background electrolyte NaCl and dissolved organic matter( DOM). HPLC-MS results showed that the removal of SD by HMO-201 was due to degradation rather than adsorption. The results indicated that the removal of 0. 01 mmol/L SD reached 99. 9% at pH = 1.0 within 120 min. The SD degradation followed the pseudo-first-order kinetics. SD removal efficiency was little affected by ionic strength and DOM. With simulated SD wastewater containing NaCl and DOM, SD removal efficiency remained above 99% within 240 min for up to ten batches of continuous operation. Fixed-bed column experiment results of HMO-201 showed that SD remained undetected after 2000 bed volume simulated SD wastewater was passed through the column. HMO-201 was effective for the removal of sulfonamide

  17. Visusminderung unter Silikon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dornonville de la Cour, Morten; Lux, Anja; Heegaard, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    Silicone oil is used as intravitreal tamponading agent in surgery for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) cases complicated with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Recently, a number of case series have appeared where profound central visual loss has been found in eyes after uncomplicated...

  18. Multislice spiral CT of the paranasal sinuses; Mehrschicht-Spiral-CT der Nasennebenhoehlen: Erste Erfahrungen unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der Strahlenexposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dammann, F.; Bode, A.; Heuschmid, M.; Kopp, A.; Georg, C.; Pereira, P.L.; Claussen, C.D. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Radiologische Universitaetsklinik

    2000-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the potential of multislice CT in the diagnosis of the paranasal sinuses. Methods: Dose measurements were performed exposing an Alderson Rando phantom in a four-slice spiral CT (MS-CT) while applying a variety of scan parameters. Additionally, 30 consecutive patients underwent a transversal examination by the MS-CT using 1/1/3.5/0.5 mm spiral parameters and an additional transversal or coronal scan on a conventional single slice spiral CT (SS-CT) with 2/3/1 mm. Coronal reformations of the MS-CT were compared with the primary coronal SS-CT, or coronal reformations of the transversal SS-CT, respectively, with regard to image quality and depiction of relevant anatomical details of the region. Results: Superficial exposure values at the level of the eye lenses as well as for the thyroid gland were superior for MS-CT (3.62 mGy, and 0.12 mGy, resp.) as compared to SS-CT (2.96 mGy, and 0.07 mGy). Image quality was equal or superior for MS-CT as compared to SS-CT in all but one case. Drawbacks of SS-CT, such as dental amalgam artifacts, stair step artifacts or partial volume artifacts did not notably affect the coronal reformations of MS-CT. Conclusions: MS-CT seems to have the potential to replace primary coronal CT of the paranasal sinuses without any loss of image quality, but may even improve the overall diagnostic value. Radiation doses may still have to be reduced. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Erprobung eines Multislice-CT (MS-CT) zur Diagnostik der Nasennebenhoehlen (NNH). Methode: An einem Alderson Rando Phantom wurden Dosismessungen bei der Spiral-CT der NNH mit einem Mehrschicht-CT (MS-CT) unter Verwendung unterschiedlicher Scanparameter durchgefuehrt. Anschliessend wurden 30 konsekutive Patienten an dem MS-CT mit den Spiralparametern 1/1/3,5/0,5 mm und einem konventionellen Einzeilen Spiral-CT (SS-CT; 2/3/1 mm) untersucht. Die koronaren Rekonstruktionen der transversalen MS-CT wurden mit den koronaren Rekonstruktionen bzw. den primaeren koronaren

  19. Utilization and costs of home-based and community-based care within a social HMO: trends over an 18-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Leutz

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Our objective was to describe the utilization and costs of services from 1985 to 2002 of a Social Health Maintenance Organization (SHMO demonstration project providing a benefit for home-based and community-based as well as short-term institutional (HCB care at Kaiser Permanente Northwest (KPNW, serving the Portland, Oregon area. The HCB care benefit was offered by KPNW as a supplement to Medicare's acute care medical benefits, which KPNW provides in an HMO model. KPNW receives a monthly per capita payment from Medicare to provide medical benefits, and Medicare beneficiaries who choose to join pay a supplemental premium that covers prescription drugs, HCB care benefits, and other services. A HCB care benefit of up to $12,000 per year in services was available to SHMO members meeting requirement for nursing home certification (NHC. Methods: We used aggregate data to track temporal changes in the period 1985 to 2002 on member eligibility, enrollment in HCB care plans, age, service utilization and co-payments. Trends in the overall costs and financing of the HCB care benefit were extracted from quarterly reports, management data, and finance data. Results: During the time period, 14,815 members enrolled in the SHMO and membership averaged 4,531. The proportion of SHMO members aged 85 or older grew from 12 to 25%; proportion meeting requirements for NHC rose from 4 to 27%; and proportion with HCB care plans rose from 4 to 18%. Costs for the HCB care benefit rose from $21 per SHMO member per month in 1985 to $95 in 2002. The HCB care costs were equivalent to 12% to 16% of Medicare reimbursement. The HCB program costs were covered by member premiums (which rose from $49 to $180 and co-payments from members with care plans. Over the 18-year period, spending shifted from nursing homes to a range of community services, e.g. personal care, homemaking, member reimbursement, lifeline, equipment, transportation, shift care, home nursing, adult day

  20. Imaging of thoracic trauma; Radiologie des Thoraxtraumas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uffmann, M.; Herold, C.J. [Universitaetsklinik Vienna (Austria). Inst. fuer Radiodiagnostik; Fuchs, M. [Universitaetsklinik Vienna (Austria). Inst. fuer Unfallchirurgie

    1998-08-01

    Blunt trauma to the chest results from transfer of kinetic energy to the human body. It may cause a wide range of mostly life-threatening injuries, including fractures of the thoracic skeleton, disintegration of the pleural space, contusion or laceration of pulmonary parenchyma and damage to the mediastinal structures. For a systematic approach it may be helpful to follow an organ-based evaluation of thoracic trauma. However, it should be borne in mind that subtle injuries may be associated with serious complications. Trauma to the chest may affect different anatomic compartments at the same time, requiring and extending diagnostic approach. Conventional radiography plays a major role in diagnosting thoracic trauma, complemented by ultrasound examination of the pleura and abdomen. It is well documented that CT scanning represents a major technological improvement for assessment of thoracic trauma. With the advent of fast helical CT scanning this method becomes more applicable for severly traumatized patients and potentially replaces other time-consuming procedures. State-of-the-art imaging of both projection and cross-sectional techniques provides useful information for immediate and appropriate treatment mandatory in patients with thoracic trauma. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Trauma des Thorax ist Folge einer erheblichen, meist stumpfen Gewalteinwirkung auf den Brustkorb und geht mit einem weiten Spektrum an groesstenteils lebendsbedrohlichen Organverletzungen einher. Aus Gruenden der Uebersichtlichkeit koennen die thorakalen Verletzungen in solche des Skeletts, der Pleura, der Lungen und der mediastinalen Strukturen eingeteilt werden. Haeufig besteht jedoch eine enge Verzahnung der Pathologien, und einzelne Symptome koennen Indikatoren fuer weitere, schwerwiegende Verletzungen sein. Darueber hinaus sind extrathorakale Koerperpartien und Organsysteme oftmals mitbetroffen, so dass eine umfassende diagnostische Strategie angewendet werden muss. Die schnelle Erstversorgung und der zuegige Transport in eine Notfallaufnahme mit adaequater Behandlung sind entscheidend fuer die Prognose des Traumapatienten. Die Projektionsradiographie des Thorax ist das Basisverfahren, ergaenzt durch die Ultraschalluntersuchung. Ein zuverlaessiges und genaues Verfahren ist die Spiralcomputertomographie, welcher sich aufgrund ihrer Schnelligkeit neue Anwendungsmoeglichkeiten eroeffnen. Die radiologische Diagnostik erbringt mit modernen Projektions- und Schnittbildverfahren unverzichtbare Informationen. Sie ist ein wichtiges Glied in der interdisziplinaerenen Zusammenarbeit mit dem Ziel eines rationalen, moeglichst schnell durchfuehrbaren Diagnose- und Therapiekonzeptes. (orig.)

  1. Methoden des Prozessmanagements in der Radiologie

    OpenAIRE

    Teichgräber, Ulf

    2003-01-01

    Innerhalb eines Krankenhauses beeinflusst der Radiologe in einem Verbund von Fachabteilungen wesentlich die Liegezeiten von Patienten durch die diagnostische Information und die Verfügbarkeit seiner Dienstleistungen. Die Organisation und zeitliche Bemessung von radiologischen Untersuchungsabläufen werden dadurch um so wichtiger. Der Arzt wird im Rahmen seines Studiums und seiner Facharztweiterbildung nicht im Organisationsmanagement ausgebildet, entsprechendes Fachwissen muss er sich in der R...

  2. Corrosion behaviour of gas turbine alloys under high velocity burnt fuels; Korrosionsverhalten von Gasturbinenwerkstoffen unter stroemenden Heissgasbedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haubold, T.I.; Brill, U. [Krupp VDM GmbH, Altena (Germany); Abel, H.J. [Fachhochschule Dortmund (Germany). Fachbereich 5/Maschinenbau, Laborgruppe Werkstofftechnik; Klauke, P. [Fachhochschule Gelsenkirchen (Germany). Fachbereich Chemie und Materialtechnik

    2001-04-01

    1200 C with a corrosion rate of less than 0.1 mm/a. The aluminium content of app. 3 wt.-% which is remarkably high for a wrought alloy leads to the formation of a thin dense and adherent alumina scale. Alloy C-263 is a chromia former which is not suitable for temperatures higher than 1000 C. (orig.) [German] Die Neuentwicklung von Nickelbasissuperlegierungen fuer die fliegende und stationaere Gasturbine verfolgt das Ziel einer deutlichen Verbesserung der mechanischen Eigenschaften bei hohen Temperaturen, um die Metalltemperature erhoehen zu koennen und damit den Wirkungsgrad anzuheben, die Emissionen zu vermindern und den Treibstoffverbrauch zu reduzieren. Bei einer solchen Werkstoffentwicklung darf jedoch die Weiterentwicklung der Hochtemperaturkorrosionsbestaendigkeit nicht vernachlaessigt werden. Zusaetzlich zu den heute bereits ueblichen zyklischen und isothermen Korrosionsversuchen, die in Laboroefen durchgefuehrt wurden, sind die zwei Gasturbinenwerkstoffe Nicrotan trademark 6325 hAlC (alloy 2100 GT) und Nicrofer 5120 CoTi (alloy C-263) auf einem burner-rig-Pruefstand unter stroemenden Heissgasbedingungen untersucht worden. Bei diesem Pruefstand trifft ein Heissgasstrom aus verbranntem Erdgas mit Gasgeschwindigkeiten zwischen 60 m/s and 150 m/s auf die Probe. Die hierdurch erreichten Materialtemperaturen liegen zwischen 900 C und 1200 C. Die Proben wurden in den hier vorgestellten Versuchen bei einer Temperatur von 1000 C dem Heissgasstrom fuer 1 h bzw. 10 h ausgesetzt. Die Gasgeschwindigkeiten betrugen 60 m/s, 100 m/s bzw. 140 m/s. Bei einer Stunde Versuchsdauer nahmen beide Werkstoffe noch an Masse zu, wobei Nicrofer 5120 CoTi bei allen Gasgeschwindigkeiten einen deutlich hoeheren Massenzuwachs zeigte. Bei 10 h Versuchsdauer stiegen die Masserverluste bei Nicrofer 5120 CoTi mit steigender Gasgeschwindigkeit an. Bei Nicrotan trademark 6325 hAlC laesst sich ein Massenverlust erst bei der hoechsten Gasgeschwindigkeit verzeichnen. In der metallographischen und

  3. [Dimitri Steinke: Die Zivilrechtsordnungen des Baltikums unter dem Einfluss ausländischer, insbesondere deutscher Rechtsquellen. (Osnabrücker Schriften zur Rechtsgeschichte, Bd. 16.) V&R unipress. Göttingen 2009. 243 S. ISBN 978-3-89971-573-6] / M

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Luts-Sootak, Marju, 1966-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Dimitri Steinke. Die Zivilrechtsordnungen des Baltikums unter dem Einfluss ausländischer, insbesondere deutscher Rechtsquellen. (Osnabrücker Schriften zur Rechtsgeschichte ; 16). Göttingen, 2009

  4. [Dimitri Steinke: Die Zivilrechtsordnungen des Baltikums unter dem Einfluss ausländischer, insbesondere deutscher Rechtsquellen. (Osnabrücker Schriften zur Rechtsgeschichte, Bd. 16.) V&R unipress. Göttingen 2009. 243 S. ISBN 978-3-89971-573-6] / M

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Luts-Sootak, Marju, 1966-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Dimitri Steinke. Die Zivilrechtsordnungen des Baltikums unter dem Einfluss ausländischer, insbesondere deutscher Rechtsquellen. (Osnabrücker Schriften zur Rechtsgeschichte ; 16). Göttingen, 2009

  5. Hydrogen diffusion into fatigue cracks of aluminium alloy 6013 in a corrosive environment; Wasserstoffeinlagerung an Ermuedungsrissen der Aluminiumlegierung 6013 unter korrosiver Umgebung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenk, Christian Alexander

    2009-08-13

    The author attempted a time-resolved detection of raised hydrogen concentrations in the plastic deformation region of fatigue cracks in an aluminium test piece deformed by cyclic stress in a corrosive environment. Mechanical material parameters like the crack propagation velocity under cyclic stress change dramatically in a corrosive environment. This is assumed to be caused by hydrogen diffusion, but so far there is no method that reliably measures additional hydrogen from the corrosive environment. For this reason, a special analytical configuration was set up which makes use of the thermal desorption method. First, chips with a thickness of about 20 micrometers are sawed out of the test specimen in high-vacuum conditions. The chips fall into a hot melting vessel in a UHV chamber, where the hydrogen contained in the chips is released. The resulting pressure increase is recorded by a mass spectrometer. A hydrogen profile of the test specimen is obtained by assigning the chip position to the signal. For the corrosive medium in which the test specimen is immersed during crack initiation, i.e. NaCl solution, heavy water was used. This makes it possible to distinguish between the hydrogen contained in a piece of technical aluminium alloy (AA6013) and the deuterium diffusing in from the corrosive fluid. The deuterium is found exclusively in the test piece volume in the strongly plastically deformed region surrounding the fatigue crack. (orig.) [German] Das Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit besteht im ortsaufgeloesten Nachweis einer erhoehten Wasserstoffkonzentration im plastisch deformierten Bereich von Ermuedungsrissen einer unter korrosiver Umgebung zyklisch verformten Aluminiumprobe. Mechanische Materialparameter wie z.B. die Rissausbreitungsgeschwindigkeit unter zyklischer Belastung aendern sich drastisch in korrosiver Umgebung. Als Ursache fuer dieses Verhalten wird eine Eindiffusion von Wasserstoff vermutet, jedoch gibt es bisher keine Messung die den zusaetzlichen

  6. Einfluss der Kaliumdüngung auf das Wachstum und die Wassernutzungseffizienz von Ackerbohne (Vicia faba), Sommerweizen (Triticum aestivum) und Tomate (Solanum lycopersicum) unter Kontroll-, Trockenstress- bzw. Salinitätsbedingungen

    OpenAIRE

    Reeb, verh. Gerwers, Dominik

    2011-01-01

    Ziel dieser Arbeit war es, den speziellen Einfluss einer Kalium-(K)-Düngung auf das Pflanzenwachstum herauszustellen. Es wurde untersucht, ob der Wasserhaushalt der Pflanzen durch Kalium verbessert und inwiefern die Wassernutzungseffizienz (WUE) verändert wird. Dabei wurde auch nach speziellen Wirkungen von K auf die Verbesserung der WUE unter Trockenstress- und Salinitätsbedingungen geforscht. Die Verbesserung der WUE könnte auf eine Verringerung des Wasserverbrauches und /...

  7. Presentation of the Well Tractor Concept and practical experience in extreme conditions; Vorstellung des Well Tractor Konzepts mit Erfahrungen bei Einsaetzen unter Extrembedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kater, H.; Preiss, F. [Preussag Wireline- und Messservice, Edemissen (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    So-called extended reach boreholes with horizontal sections of more than 2000 m, short radius drilling, multilaterals and other variations are common enough. Problems occur when this type of borehole needs to be surveyed or modified. The contribution describes the newly developed ``Well Tracotor{sup circledR}`` technology and outlines its potential. (orig.) [Deutsch] Sogenannte Extended Reach Bohrungen mit Horizontalsektionen von mehr als 2.000 Meter Laenge, Short Radius Drilling, Multilaterals und andere Variationen sind bohrtechnisch einwandfrei durchfuehrbar und gehoeren zum gaengigen Repertoire der Bohrfirmen. Grosse Probleme entstehen jedoch wenn dieser Bohrungstyp vermessen, komplettiert oder aufgewaeltigt werden soll. Insbesondere Bohrlochmessfirmen haben es in den letzten ca. 20 Jahren versaeumt Innovationen zwecks oekonomischen Einsatzes ihrer Technologie in diesen Bohrungen bereitzustellen. Die Durchfuehrung von Perforationen und Bohrlochmessungen, das Setzen von Stopfen, Schneiden von Rohren und auch einfachste Slickline-Operationen sind bei einer Bohrlochneigung beginnend bei ca. 60 bis 80 nur unter Anwendung von kosten- und zeitintensiven Verfahren moeglich. Eine guenstige Alternative zu diesen Verfahren bietet der Well Tractor. Diese Technologie ermoeglicht das Einfahren von Geraeten, die ueblicherweise am Kabel oder Draht eingesetzt werden, in Horizontalbohrungen. Im Folgenden werden das technische Konzept, ein Vergleich mit alternativen Verfahren, und verschiedene Referenzen des Well Tracotors {sup trademark} dargestellt. Weiterhin wird auf die Modifikationen eingegangen, die noetig waren, um dieses Geraet den Gegebenheiten in tiefen, heissen Gasbohrungen anzupassen. Abschliessend soll durch einen Ausblick auf zum Teil schon im Feldtest befindliche Weiterentwicklungen das weitere Potential dieser Technologie aufgezeichnet werden. (orig.)

  8. MR-imaging of finger osteoarthritis: Morphology and cartrilage signal intensity before and after treatment with ademetionin; Magnetresonanztomographie der Fingerpolyarthrose: Morphologie und Knorpelsignalverhalten unter Ademetonintherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, H. [Radiologische Klinik, Abt. fuer Roentgendiagnostik und Nuklearmedizin, Univ.-Klinikum Steglitz, FU Berlin (Germany); Stahl, H. [Radiologische Klinik, Univ.-Klinikum Rudolf-Virchow, FU Berlin (Germany); Sieper, J. [Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, Univ.-Klinikum Steglitz, FU Berlin (Germany); Wolf, K.J. [Radiologische Klinik, Abt. fuer Roentgendiagnostik und Nuklearmedizin, Univ.-Klinikum Steglitz, FU Berlin (Germany)

    1995-01-01

    This report deals with a prospective study of 21 patients with finger osteoarthritis treated over a period of three months with either Ademetionin (therapy group: 14/21) or without (control group: 7/21). MR-Imaging was carried out before and after treatment using spin-echo and 3D-Flash sequences. Morphological parameters and signal intensity changes of the hyaline cartilage were evaluated. The increase of the cartilage signal intensity was significant in the therapy group, this can be interpreted as an structural improvement. Also a decrease of the cartilage signal intensity with age was found. The morphological parameters showed no significant changes in the therapy and control groups. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen einer prospektiven Studie wurden magnetresonanztomographische Untersuchungen bei Patientinnen mit Fingerpolyarthrose vor und nach Ademetionintherapie durchgefuehrt. Es erfolgten zwei Messungen an einer Kontrollgruppe (n=7, keine Ademetionintherapie) und an der Therapiegruppe (n=14) im Abstand von drei Monaten. Zur Anwendung kamen eine Doppel-Spin-Echo-Sequenz sowie eine 3D-Flash-Sequenz. Ausgewertet wurden neben morphologischen Parametern auch der Signalintensitaetsverlauf im Bereich des hyalinen Gelenkknorpels der Interphalangealgelenke. Signifikant war der Knorpelsignalzuwachs unter Ademetionintherapie, dies kann als Zeichen einer strukturellen Befundbesserung interpretiert werden. Ebenfalls signifikant zeigte sich die Abnahme der Knorpelsignalintensitaet mit zunehmendem Lebensalter der Patientinnen. Bei den morphologischen Befundaenderungen konnte kein signifikanter Therapieeffekt festgestellt werden. (orig.)

  9. Materials used for thermal insulation under special consideration of the use of ceramic fibres; Werkstoffe zur Waermedaemmung unter Beruecksichtigung des Einsatzes von Keramikfasern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnenschein, G. [Verwaltungsgemeinschaft Maschinenbau- und Metall-Berufsgenossenschaft und Huetten- und Walzwerks-Berufsgenossenschaft, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2003-05-01

    In the field of industrial thermal insulation, a range of construction materials is available. Aside from the classic refractory blocks and castables, fibre products are also often used for high-temperature applications today. Builders and planners must also assess whether the insulating materials can be used that pose the least possible risk to people and the environment alongside the considerations that have to be made about the technical, economic, and ecological conditions. TRGS (the technical rules for hazardous substances) 619 ''Substitute materials for ceramic fibres in the construction of kilns and furnaces'' (Ersatzstoffe fuer Keramikfasern im Ofen- und Feuerfestbau) helps planners make the appropriate choices for high-temperature thermal insulation under consideration of all conditions. (orig.) [German] Im Bereich der industriellen Waermedaemmung stehen den Anwendern eine Reihe von Baustoffen zur Verfuegung. Neben den klassischen Feuerfeststeinen und Stampfmassen werden heute auch Faserprodukte fuer die Hochtemperaturanwendung eingesetzt. Der Anwender hat neben den technischen, oekonomischen und oekologischen Bedingungen auch zu pruefen, ob Isolierstoffe mit einem moeglichst geringen Risiko fuer Mensch und Umwelt eingesetzt werden koennen. Die TRGS 619 ''Ersatzstoffe fuer Keramikfasern im Ofen- und Feuerfestbau'' ermoeglicht eine Entscheidungsfindung zur Hochtemperatur-Waermedaemmung unter Beachtung aller Bedingungen. (orig.)

  10. Mixture formation and pre-reaction in an injection jet in Diesel engine boundary conditions; Gemischbildung und Vorreaktionen in einem Einspritzstrahl unter dieselmotorischen Randbedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisele, G.; Koss, H.J.; Knoche, K.F.

    1993-12-31

    To examine the mixture formation and combustion, fuel is injected in Diesel engine boundary conditions in a pressure chamber. Spectroscopic methods permit the noncontact investigation with high spatial and temporal resolution of the physical and chemical processes. The jet of an excimer laser is focussed in the injection jet for this purpose. The local mixture compostion is determined from the Raman spectra, and fluorescence spectra permit one to obtain qualitative information on the appearance and distribution of the OH and NH radicals in the injection jet. For example, it was found that with a chamber temperature of 500 C, the first clear OH fluorescence occurs about 1.8 ms after the start of injection at the edge of the jet in the area of lean mixture. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zur Untersuchung der Gemischbildung und Verbrennung wird Kraftstoff unter dieselmotorischen Randbedingungen in einer Druckkammer eingespritzt. Spektroskopische Methoden erlauben die beruehrungslose und zudem oertlich und zeitlich hochaufgeloeste Untersuchung der physikalischen und chemischen Vorgaenge. Dazu wird der Strahl eines Excimerlasers in den Einspritzstrahl fokussiert. Aus Ramanspektren laesst sich die lokale Gemischzusammensetzung bestimmen, Fluoreszenzspektren erlauben qualitative Aussagen ueber Auftreten und Verteilung der OH- und NH-Radikale im Einspritzstrahl. So zeigt sich zum Beispiel, dass bei einer Kammertemperatur von 500 C die ersten deutlichen OH-Fluoreszenzen ca. 1,8 ms nach Einspritzbeginn am Strahlrand im Bereich mageren Gemisches auftreten (orig.)

  11. Clinical relevance of computed tomography under emergency conditions. Diagnostic accuracy, therapeutical consequences; Klinische Relevanz der Computertomographie unter Notdienstbedingungen. Diagnostische Treffsicherheit, therapeutische Konsequenzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, C.; Jensen, F.; Wedegaertner, U.; Adam, G. [Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Radiologisches Zentrum, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and therapeutic consequences of computed tomography performed on an emergency basis in a primary care hospital. Material and Methods: In 418 patients, 463 computed tomographies (thorax, abdomen, pelvis, spine, aorta, neck and extremities) were performed within 12 months, providing 999 diagnoses. The computed tomography diagnoses were retrospectively evaluated and correlated to surgery and discharge diagnoses. Therapeutical consequence were analyzed and allocated to a time period < 36 h (urgent) and {>=} 36-72 h (elective). Average age was 49 (1-94) years (41% female and 59% male). Discharge diagnosis was defined as gold standard, provided that it was supported by clinical, blood chemical, diagnostic and possible surgical data. Results: In 176 of 999 diagnoses (18%), the diagnoses were classified as ''noncorrelatable''. Of the 823 correlated diagnoses, 431 were true positive, 14 false positive, 66 false negative and 312 true negative. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography was 87,96 and 90%. Computed tomography had therapeutic consequences (surgery, drainage, puncture, reposition, thrombolytic therapy, chemotherapy, bronchoscopy, endoscopy, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, coiling etc.) in 57% and no direct therapeutic interventions in 43%. Computed tomography excluded the suspected diagnosis in 36% and resulted in a conservative therapeutic regiment in 7%. Surgery was performed on 134 of the 418 patients (32%) who underwent computed tomography, with the surgery urgent in 71 (17%) and elective in 63 (15%) of the 418 patient. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Bewertung der diagnostischen Treffsicherheit und therapeutischen Konsequenzen der Computertomographie unter Notdienstbedingungen in einem Krankenhaus der Maximalversorgung. Material und Methoden: Innerhalb des definierten Studienzeitraums (12 Monate) wurden bei 418 Patienten 463 Computertomographien (Thorax, Abdomen

  12. The thermo-valve: a device for expanding compressed liquids and simultaneously gaining heat; Die Thermodrossel: Eine Anlage zur Entspannung komprimierter Fluessigkeiten unter Waermeabgabe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, J.U. [Siegen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Inst. fuer Fluid- und Thermodynamik; Goebel, M.U. [Siegen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Inst. fuer Fluid- und Thermodynamik

    1997-02-01

    The coefficient of performance (COP) of compression refrigeration cycles and heat pumps can be increased by substituting the expansion valve (throttle) by a so-called thermo-valve of heating vortex tube. This is a device in which compressed liquid working fluid coming in at ambient temperature is partly expanded. The saturated steam generated is superheated by liquid working fluid coming in subsequently. Then the steam is sent to a Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube to be expanded to evaporator`s pressure level. The hot end flow of gas leaving the vortex tube is cooled down in another heat exchanger and after this either recombined with the cold end flow leaving the tube and the fully expanded liquid stream or directly sent back to the compressor of the cycle. Due to the cooling of the hot end flow, the liquid portion in the liquid-gas mixture of the working fluid entering the evaporator of the cycle is increased, and so is the cooling capacity of the fluid and hence the cycle`s COP. For refrigeration cycles and heat pumps using R 22 or R 134a this increase can be about 5% and 10% respectively. However, if CO{sub 2} is used as working fluid the increase may be about 15% for refrigerators and 25% for room heating only heat pumps. In this paper the basic principles of the thermo-valve will be presented. Also several of its modifications will be discussed. A simple thermodynamic model to calculate the heat released is given. The design of and experiments with a prototype, using R 22 as working fluid will be discussed, the measurements performed so far verifying the figures given above. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Entspannung komprimierter fluessiger Arbeitsstoffe der Energie- und Verfahrenstechnik erfolgt normalerweise in einer sog. Drossel isenthalp und stark irreversible, d.h. mit Exergieverlusten. Zur Nutzung der Exergie stehen grundsaetzlich zwei Wege offen, naemlich der Einsatz von Entspannungsmaschinen oder Thermodrosseln. Erstere koennen unter besonderen Umstaenden

  13. Die psychosomatische Dimension der funktionellen gastrointestinalen Störungen - Erfolg der Psychotherapie unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Hypnotherapie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moser G

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Funktionelle gastrointestinale Störungen (FGIS stellen die häufigsten Erkrankungen in den ärztlichen Ordinationen dar. Die FGIS sind mit häufiger Arbeitsunfähigkeit, Verminderung der Lebensqualität und hohen medizinischen Kosten verbunden. Die meisten Patienten leiden unter psychosozialen Problemen. Deshalb ist es wichtig, die Beschwerden der Betroffenen in bezug auf ihre bio-psycho-soziale Situation zu beurteilen und ihr Zustandsbild nicht allein als biomedizinische Krankheit zu definieren. Betreuende Ärzte und Ärztinnen sollten die Relevanz der psychosozialen Aspekte erkennen, damit sie die Betroffenen für eine Überweisung zu Spezialisten (Psychosomatiker/innen, Psychotherapeut/inn/en vorbereiten und dafür interessieren bzw. motivieren können, beteiligte psychologische Faktoren weiter explorieren zu lassen. Die meisten Forschungsergebnisse zu Psychotherapie bei FGIS fokussieren auf das Reizdarmsyndrom, wobei verschiedenen Therapiemethoden (z. B. Verhaltenstherapie, Psychodynamische Therapie, Hypnotherapie oder Entspannungstechniken untersucht wurden. Randomisierte kontrollierte Psychotherapie-Studien mit Nachuntersuchung zeigen eine deutliche Überlegenheit der Psychotherapien gegenüber den konventionell medikamentösen Therapien. Enorm erfolgreich scheint die "gut-directed" Hypnose zu sein. Positives Ansprechen auf Psychotherapie allgemein ist wahrscheinlich, wenn (1 Stress die Symptome verstärkt oder auslöst, (2 milde Angst und Depression vorhanden ist, (3 das vorherrschende Symptom Schmerz und Durchfall und nicht Verstopfung ist, (4 der Schmerz sich mit Nahrungsaufnahme, Defäkation oder Stress verändert und nicht konstant vorhanden ist, und (5 das Beschwerdebild noch relativ kurz andauert. Psychotherapie ist zu Beginn relativ teuer, denn sie bedarf mehrerer längerer Sitzungen. Ihr Erfolg bleibt aber bestehen oder verstärkt sich langfristig sogar, da die Arztbesuche und medizinischen Kosten auf Dauer reduziert und dadurch

  14. Deformation behavior and load limits of asphaltic concrete under the conditions of cores in embankment dams; Deformationsverhalten und Belastungsgrenzen des Asphaltbetons unter den Bedingungen von Staudammkerndichtungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, U.

    1998-12-31

    Based on the analysis of existing dams with asphaltic diaphragm and investigations in the three-phase-system of asphaltic concrete a recipe for the composition of asphaltic cores is recommended. For the construction, rest and operating period of an embankment dam the load and the reaction of the asphaltic concrete cores as well as the appearing stress and deformations are described. Extensive material testings have been performed and at 41 asphaltic concrete specimens triaxial stress controlled pressure and creeping tests have been carried out. The evaluation of the triaxial tests led to proportions of the main stress and deformation limits as criteria of breaking. Under application of the standard equation for nonlinear viscoelastic element-laws a rheonom element formulation was developed from the experiment data and transformed into its differential form. With this approach the stress and deformation behavior of watertight asphaltic diaphragm can be precalculated for a period up to 10 years. The applicability of this approach, which can be also used within FE-calculations as well, is illustrated in four examples. (orig.) [Deutsch] Nach der Analyse bestehender Staudaemme mit Asphaltbetonkerndichtung und Untersuchungen zum Dreiphasensystem Asphaltbeton wird eine Rezepturempfehlung fuer den Asphaltkerndichtungsbau aufgestellt. Fuer die Bau-, Ruhe- und Betriebsphase eines Staudammes werden die Beanspruchungen und Reaktionen der Asphaltbetonkerndichtung sowie die auftretenden Spannungen und Verformungen beschrieben. Nach umfangreichen Materialpruefungen sind an 41 Asphaltbetonpruefkoerpern triaxiale spannungsgesteuerte Druck-Kriechversuche durchgefuehrt worden. Die Auswertung der Triaxialversuche ergab ein Grenzhauptspannungsverhaeltnis und Deformationsgrenzen als Bruchkriterien. Unter Verwendung der Standarformulierung fuer nichtlineare viskoelastische Stoffgesetze wurde aus den Versuchsdaten ein rheonomer Stoffansatz entwickelt und in seine differentielle Form

  15. Erfolgreiches Lernen in einem Blended Learning-Szenario im Vergleich mit der Präsenzausbildung - am Beispiel einer MTA-Ausbildung der Fachrichtung Radiologie [Successful learning in a blended learning scenario in comparison with face-to-face instruction - illustrated by the example of the training of medical technical assistants specialising in radiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hohenberg, Gregor

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] Purpose: This article presents partial results of an evaluation study which compared a three-year blended learning scenario with traditional face-to-face training for medical technical assistants specialising in radiology. Methods: The blended learning approach investigated here is based on an individual tutoring approach, i.e. students work on the necessary training units during self-learning periods, while a tutor is available at all times via the Internet. Following the theory of constructivism, the tutor should see him- or herself as a coach supporting the learner working on the individual training units. As the Saarland University Hospital offers both face-to-face training and the blended learning course, it was possible to perform direct comparative tests. Results: On the basis of the final state examination results, it could be shown that the participants of the blended learning course achieved equivalent or slightly better exam results. Conclusion: The positive results of the blended learning participants gain increased significance against the backdrop of the demographic data of both groups of participants: with an average age of 43 (median: 43, the blended learning participants show a significantly higher life experience compared to the face-to-face training participants, who had an average age of 28 (median: 25. That shows that the blended learning method is a good method to be used by people working in radiology. [german] Zielsetzung: Dieser Artikel stellt Teilergebnisse einer Evaluationsstudie dar, deren Zielsetzung es ist, ein dreijähriges Blended learning-Szenario mit einer klassischen Präsenzausbildung für medizinisch-technische Assistenten der Fachrichtung Radiologie zu vergleichen. Methodik: Der hier untersuchte Blended Learning-Ansatz beruht auf einem individuellen Betreuungsansatz, d. h. während die Teilnehmenden in den Selbstlernphasen die Unterrichtseinheiten bearbeiten, steht jederzeit via Internet ein

  16. Municipal climate protection as a measure for sustainable energy supply under the conditions of globalization and liberalization? An empirical investigation considering the municipal actors and public utility companies; Kommunaler Klimaschutz als Instrument einer nachhaltigen Energieversorgung unter den Bedingungen von Globalisierung und Liberalisierung? Eine empirische Untersuchung unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der Akteure Kommune und Stadtwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bielitza-Mimjaehner, Ralf

    2007-03-01

    With the background of the threatening global warming that requires a reduction of greenhouse gas emission by 20 % until 2010 und by 80% until 2050 in Germany, t is reasonable to consider local or municipal climate protection activities. A climate protection politics ''from the bottom'' is not only contributing to a real greenhouse gas reduction, but also triggering the stagnant international climate politics and enhances the sustainable development on a local level. Due to this fact amongst others the Enquete commission of the German Bundestag ''sustainable energy supply under the conditions of globalization and liberalization'' identifies the municipal climate protection activities as important part within the mix of measures that will allow the initiation of an alteration of the actual energy system toward a sustainable energy supply in the long-run. The consequences of globalization and liberalization on the municipal level have not yet been discussed or considered by the Enquete commission. This thesis analyses the conditions induced by the globalization and liberalization on the municipal climate protection activities as constituent of a sustainable energy supply. The project is focusing on the municipal actors and the public utility companies as central point of the considerations. [German] Vor dem Hintergrund einer drohenden globalen Erwaermung, die eine Reduktion der klimawirksamen Treibhausgase bundesweit um 20 % bis 2010 und um 80 % bis 2050 noetig macht, sind Klimaschutzaktivitaeten auf einer lokalen oder kommunalen Ebene in mehreren Dimensionen sinnvoll. Den tatsaechlichen, bezifferbaren Reduktionen von CO2, die hier geleistet werden, gesellt sich ein ''vorbildhafter'' Druck auf eine stockende internationale Klimapolitik hinzu, ebenso leistet die ''Klimaschutzpolitik von unten'' einer nachhaltigen Entwicklung der lokalen Ebene durch Lerneffekte Vorschub. Unter anderem aus

  17. Sustainable power supply in conditions of globalisation and deregulation. Selected bibliography (as of 4 June 2000); Nachhaltige Energieversorgung unter den Bedingungen der Globalisierung und der Liberalisierung. Auswahlbibliographie (Redaktionsschluss: 04. Juni 2000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-01

    The bibliography was produced on behalf of the Enquiry Commission for Sustainable Power Supply in Conditions of Globalisation and Deregulation. It comprises publications on the following subjects: Air pollution abatement, energy markets, power industry, sustainable power supply, renewable energy sources, new energy engineering, environment-friendly mobility. [German] Die vorliegende Bibliographie wurde auf Anregung der Enquete-Kommission Nachhaltige Energieversorgung unter den Bedingungen der Globalisierung und der Liberalisierung erstellt. Die Gliederung der Bibliographie orientiert sich an den im Einsetzungsbeschlu paragraph aufgefuehrten thematischen Schwerpunkten: Klimaschutz, Energiemaerkte, Energiewirtschaft, nachhaltige Energieversorgung, erneuerbare Energie, neue Energietechnik, umweltfreundliche Mobilitaet. (orig.)

  18. Alkali release and sorption during combustion and gasification of coal under pressure; Freisetzung und Einbindung von Alkalien bei der Verbrennung und Vergasung von Kohle unter Druck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffin, C.R.; Wanzl, W.; Heek, K.H. van [DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany). Geschaeftsbereich FuelTec - Kokerei- und Brennstofftechnik

    1999-09-01

    Investigations and model calculations have shown that water-soluble alkaline substances (in German coal, mostly NaCl) are released by a desorption process rather than a purely physical evaporation process. Sorption takes place in the presence of reactive oxygen species (H{sub 2}O or O{sub 2}), but only the reaction with water vapour is applicable to technical processes. Soorption is preferred to desorption at low temperatures both kinetically and thermodynamically. Metakaolin has a high alkali sorption capacity and potential depending significantly on the chemical properties of the clay mineral. With increasing basicity, the sorption potential decreases drastically, which has a significant effect in terms of fuel selection and mode of operation of the process of coal dust combustion under pressure. A fuel with low alkali emissions would be a coal grade with a small fraction of water-soluble alkalis and a high fraction of acid clay minerals. Intensive scrubbing in a wet chemical treatment stage may serve to reduce the water-soluble alkalis. [Deutsch] Die Untersuchungen und Modellrechnungen haben gezeigt, dass die Freisetzung der wasserloeslichen Alkalien, was in deutschen Steinkohlen hauptsaechlich NaCl ist, ein Desorptionsmechanismus zugrunde liegt und die Vorstellung eines rein physikalischen Verdampfungsprozesses verworfen werden muss. Die Einbindung der Alkalien findet unter Teilnahme reaktiver Sauerstoffspezies (H{sub 2}O oder O{sub 2}) statt, wobei aber nur die Reaktion mit Wasserdampf auch auf technische Prozesse uebertragbar ist. Die Einbindung ist gegenueber der Desorption bei niedrigen Temperaturen kinetisch und thermodynamisch bevorzugt. Metakaolin besitzt eine hohe Kapazitaet und ein hohes Potential zur Einbindung von Alkalien, wobei die Faehigkeit zur Einbindung ganz entscheidend von den chemischen Eigenschaften des Tonminerals abhaengig ist. Mit steigender Basizitaet nimmt das Einbindungspotential der Mineralsubstanz drastisch ab. Das hat auch

  19. Blasting in gravity dams with full stowage drivage method, approval and supervision of construction; Sprengen in Gewichtsstaumauern unter Vollstau - Vortriebsverfahren, Genehmigung und Bauueberwachung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aberle, B. [DMT GmbH, Essen/Dortmund (Germany). Abt. Fels- und Tunnelbau; Hellmann, J. [DMT GmbH, Essen/Dortmund (Germany). Abt. Explosionsschutz

    2001-04-12

    Sanierungsmassnahmen an Talsperren realisiert. Dazu mussten viele Mauern nachtraeglich mit einem Kontrollgang in Laengsrichtung ausgeruestet werden. Diese Gaenge dienen als Erkundungsstollen fuer den Zustand der Gruendungsfuge, als Draenagefassung fuer den erhoehten Sohlwasserdruck und fuer die Aufnahme von Messeinrichtungen in der Talsperre. Fuer die Auffahrung dieser Kontrollgaenge wurden verschiedene Verfahren angewendet. Der haendische Vortrieb einer Tunnelbohrmaschine und der Sprengvortrieb kamen dabei zum Einsatz. Das Sprengen in einer Staumauer, insbesondere unter Staubedingungen, erfordert besondere Massnahmen zum Schutz des Bauwerks. In diesem Beitrag werden die Ursachen fuer eine Sanierung, das Genehmigungsverfahren und die Ueberwachung eines Sprengvortriebs in einer Staumauer beschrieben. (orig.)

  20. New approaches for the reliability-oriented structural optimization considering time-variant aspects; Neue Ansaetze fuer die zuverlaessigkeitsorientierte Strukturoptimierung unter Beachtung zeitvarianter Aspekte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuschel, N.

    2000-07-01

    The optimization of structures with respect to cost, weight or performance is a well-known application of the nonlinear optimization. However reliability-based structural optimization has been subject of only very few studies. The approaches suggested up to now have been unsatisfactory regarding general possibility of application or easy handling by user. The objective of this thesis is the development of general approaches to solve both optimization problems, the minimization of cost with respect to constraint reliabilty and the maximization of reliability under cost constraint. The extented approach of an one-level-method will be introduced in detail for the time-invariant problems. Here, the reliability of the sturcture will be analysed in the framework of the First-Order-Reliability-Method (FORM). The use of time-variant reliability analysis is necessary for a realistic modelling of many practical problems. Therefore several generalizations of the new approaches will be derived for the time-variant reliability-based structural optimization. Some important properties of the optimization problems are proved. In addition some interesting extensions of the one-level-method, for example the cost optimization of structural series systems and the cost optimization in the frame of the Second-Order-Reliabiity-Method (SORM), are presented in the thesis. (orig.) [German] Die Optimierung von Tragwerken im Hinblick auf die Kosten, das Gewicht oder die Gestalt ist eine sehr bekannte Anwendung der nichtlinearen Optimierung. Die zuverlaessigkeitsorientierte Strukturoptimierung wurde dagegen weit seltener untersucht. Die bisher vorgeschlagenen Ansaetze koennen bezueglich ihrer allgemeinen Verwendbarkeit oder ihrer nutzerfreundlichen Handhabung nicht befriedigen. Das Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit ist nun die Entwicklung allgemeiner Ansaetze zur Loesung der beiden Optimierungsprobleme, einer Kostenminimierung unter Zuverlaessigkeitsrestriktionen und einer

  1. Investigations on practical risk assessment of pit fires, taking into account the time course of fires. Final report; Risikobeurteilung von Grubenbraenden. Untersuchungen zur praxisnahen Risikobeurteilung von Grubenbraenden unter Beruecksichtigung des zeitlichen Brandablaufs. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foit, W.; Michelis, J.

    1996-12-31

    The data and knowledge of pit fires in the initial or early stage and their further development in experimental conditions are only available to a small extent so far. The aim of this investigation project to which the Land North Rhine-Westphalia made a financial contribution, was practical experiments on the semi-technical or natural scale on the question of how pit fires can occur and with what time dependence a small, locally limited fire develops into a large open pit fire. In addition, it should determine whether early recognition of fires occurring can be improved by new commercially available fire alarm systems. (orig./MSK) [Deutsch] Daten und Kenntnisse von Grubenbraenden im Entstehungs- oder Fruehstadium und deren weitere Entwicklung unter versuchstechnischen Bedingungen liegen bisher nur in geringem Umfang vor. Ziel des vorliegenden Untersuchungsvorhabens, das vom Land NRW bezuschusst wurde, waren praxisgerechte Versuche im halbtechnischen oder im natuerlichen Massstab zu der Fragestellung, wie Grubenbraende entstehen koennen und unter welcher zeitlichen Abhaengigkeit sich ein kleiner, oertlich begrenzter Entstehungsbrand zu einem grossen, offenen Grubenbrand ausbildet. Zusaetzlich sollte ermittelt werden, ob die Brandfrueherkennung von Entstehungsbraenden durch neue kommerziell erhaeltliche Brandmeldesysteme verbessert werden kann. (orig./MSK)

  2. Characterisation of different vegetable motor fuels with regard to their suitability as diesel substitutes and with special consideration to their chemical and physical properties; Charakterisierung verschiedener Pflanzenoelkraftstoffe hinsichtlich ihrer Eignung als Dieselkraftstoffsubstitute unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung ihrer chemischen und physikalischen Eigenschaften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klee, P.H.

    1999-10-01

    The author presents a characterisation of vegetable motor fuels on the basis of their chemical and physical properties. Apart from commercial diesel fuel, he investigated a rapeseed oil mixed fuel and four vegetable oil methyl esters. Exhaust emissions of aldehydes, ketones and PAH, both with and without legal limit values, were measured and compared with emissions using an oxidation catalytic converter. Different types of modifications were made in the fuel injection system of the engine in order to reduce nitric oxide emissions. The investigations show that vegetable fuels have an advantage in terms of emissions. Vegetable fuel structure and emission characteristics were shown to correlate. [Deutsch] In der vorliegenden Arbeit erfolgt eine umfassende Charakterisierung der motorischen Verwendung von verschiedenen Pflanzenkraftstoffen auf der Basis ihrer chemischen und physikalischen Eigenschaften. Neben handelsueblichem Dieselkraftstoff werden ein Rapsoelmischkraftstoff und vier Pflanzenoelmethylester untersucht. Es werden sowohl die gesetzlich limitierten, als auch die gesetzlich nicht limitierten Abgasemissionen an Aldehyden, Ketonen und polyzyklischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen untersucht. Die Rohemissionen werden mit den Emissionen unter Verwendung eines Oxidationskatalysators verglichen. Zur Absenkung der Stickoxidemissionen unter Verwendung von Pflanzenkraftstoffen werden verschiedene Modifikationen am Einspritzsystem des Motors vorgenommen. Die durchgefuehrten Untersuchungen zeigen weitreichende Emissionsvorteile von Pflanzenkraftstoffen auf. Der systematische Zusammenhang zwischen Pflanzenkraftstoffstruktur und Emissionsverhalten wird nachgewiesen. (orig.)

  3. Receptor imaging of schizophrenic patients under treatment with typical and atypical neuroleptics; Nuklearmedizinische Rezeptordiagnostik bei schizophrenen Patienten unter Therapie mit typischen und atypischen Neuroleptika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, S.; Tatsch, K. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin der Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Meisenzahl, E. [Psychiatrische Klinik der Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Scherer, J. [Bezirkskrankenhaus Haar (Germany)

    2002-09-01

    -motorische Nebenwirkungen hervorzurufen. Die Besetzung postsynaptischer Dopamin-D2-Rezeptoren wird als ein wesentlicher Aspekt der antipsychotischen Wirksamkeit der Neuroleptika angesehen. Diese koennen nuklearmedizinisch durch [I-123]IBZM-SPECT dargestellt werden. Fuer das typische Neuroleptikum Haloperidol wurde eine dosisabhaengige, exponentielle Besetzung der Dopamin-D2-Rezeptoren nachgewiesen. Ab einem Schwellenwert des spezifischen Bindungsindex von 0,4 (Norm: >0,95) zeigten mit einer Ausnahme alle untersuchten Patienten extrapyramidal-motorische Nebenwirkungen. Auch unter Therapie mit dem atypischen Neuroleptikum Clozapin ergab sich eine exponentielle Dosis-Wirkungsbeziehung mit jedoch einem deutlich flacheren Kurvenverlauf im Vergleich zu Haloperidol. Extrapyramidalmotorische Nebenwirkungen traten bei diesen Patienten nicht auf. Neuere, als atypisch eingestufte Neuroleptika wie Risperidon und Olanzapin zeigten ebenfalls eine exponenzielle Dosis-Wirkungsbeziehung, wobei deren Kurvenverlaeufe zwischen denen von Haloperidol und Clozapin lagen. Extrapyramidal-motorische Nebenwirkungen traten bei den letzteren Neuroleptika seltener als bei Haloperidol, bei Olanzapin nur bei einem Patienten in unserem eigenen Patientengut auf. Das pharmakologische Profil atypischer Neuroleptika zeichnet sich neben der Bindung an die postsynaptischen Dopamin-D2-Rezeptoren auch durch Bindung an Rezeptoren diverser anderer Neurotransmittersysteme, insbesondere des serotonergen Systems, aus. Somit ist wahrscheinlich, dass die niedrigere Inzidenz fuer extrapyramidal-motorische Nebenwirkungen bei atypischen Neuroleptika durch (orig.)

  4. MRI-based N-staging in esophageal cancer; N-Staging des Oesophaguskarzinoms mittels MRT unter Verwendung von artefaktreduzierenden LOTA-Sequenzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupski, G.; Lorenzen, J.; Nicolas, V.; Adam, G. [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Gawad, K.; Izbicki, J.R. [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. fuer Allgemeinchirurgie

    2002-10-01

    artefaktreduzierenden Sequenzen in LOTA (Long Term Averaging)-Technik gestattet eine deutlich artefaktgeminderte, praezise Untersuchung insbesondere des hinteren Mediastinums. In einer prospektiven Untersuchung soll die Wertigkeit der MRT unter Verwendung der LOTA-Technik (Siemens AG, Erlangen) fuer das N-Staging des Oesophagus-Karzinoms untersucht werden. Material und Methoden: Bei 15 Patienten (10 Plattenepithel-Karzinome und 5 distale Adeno-Karzinome) wurde maximal 4 Wochen vor Oesophagektomie eine standardisierte MRT des Oesophagus an einem 1,5 T Kernspintomographen (Magnetom Symphony, Siemens AG, Erlangen) durchgefuehrt. Die Qualitaet der erzeugten Bilder wurde anhand der Abgrenzbarkeit des Oesophagus zur Umgebung sowie der mehrschichtigen Darstellung der Aortenwand, respektive Pars membranacea der Trachea, beurteilt. Als Kriterien fuer eine metastatische Infiltration eines Lymphknotens wurde ein Groesse von mehr als 15 mm oder eine rundliche Darstellung verbunden mit einer Gd-DTPA-Aufnahme gewertet. Die Auswertung erfolgte unabhaengig durch zwei erfahrene Radiologen. Die erhobenen Daten wruden mit denen der histopathologischen Aufarbeitung des Operationspraeparates verglichen. Ergebnisse: Es zeigt sich bei 14 von 15 Patienten eine gute bis sehr gute Bildqualitaet. Hinsichtlich des N-Stagings ergab sich eine Sensitivitaet von 100% bei einer Spezifitaet von 78% fuer einen metastatischen Lymphknotenbefall. Bei fehlender Darstellbarkeit des Truncus coeliacus wurde eine Lymphknotenmetastase in einem nicht vergroesserten Lymphknoten am Truncus coeliacus (M1) nicht beschrieben. Schlussfolgerung: Mit der MRT gelingt es beim Oesophagus-Karzinom durch Verwendung von EKG-Gating und LOTA-Sequenzen, das N-Stadium in annaehernd gleicher Qualitaet wie mit dem Goldstandard Endosonographie zu beurteilen. Die Kernspintomographie sollte daher in verstaerktem Masse insbesondere bei Patienten eingesetzt werden, bei denen die Endosonographie nicht moeglich ist. (orig.)

  5. HMO strategies for managing workers' compensation claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, P A

    1996-03-01

    Health maintenance organizations (HMOs) have become very active in managing workers' compensation medical expense benefits. A survey of 316 HMOs shows that this activity takes the form of various network models and a range of services--such as utilization review and case management--that may not be linked to a provider network. Of the HMOs surveyed, 78 reported that, by using managed care services and provider discounts, they were able to save from 20 percent to 30 percent on occupational health claim costs.

  6. Psychological Consultation in an HMO Hospice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Warren

    Hospice care differs from traditional medical care in that it aims to optimize the quality of the patient's remaining life rather than to maximize its duration. The Hayward Hospice project, begun in November of 1977 as a pilot project to evaluate whether hospice quality care could be provided within manageable costs and thus be included as a…

  7. Percolation experiments to determine fluid-matrix interaction (with particular regard to pretreatment of the drill core); Kerndurchstroemungsversuche zur Ermittlung von Fluid-Matrix-Wechselwirkungen (unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der Kernvorbehandlung)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, M.; Seibt, A. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bohrtechnik und Fluidbergbau; Hoth, P. [GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    The injection of fluids into sandstone reservoirs leads to interactions between these waters, the reservoir rocks, and the formation fluids. Estimations about possible permeability reducing processes caused by these interactions are therefore of great importance for the exploitation of sandstone aquifers as geothermal reservoirs. Percolation experiments under in situ conditions with core samples from North German geothermal boreholes were done in order to investigate these fluid-rock interactions. (orig./AKF) [Deutsch] Die Injektion von Fluiden in Aquiferspeicher fuehrt zu Wechselwirkungen zwischen dem Speichergestein, den Formationsfluiden und den injizierten Loesungen. Fuer die Bewirtschaftung der Speicher sind insbesondere Kenntnisse ueber moegliche Permeabilitaetsreduzierungen durch diese Wechselwirkungen von Bedeutung. Mit Hilfe von Kern-Durchstroemungsexperimenten, durchgefuehrt unter lagerstaettenaehnlichen Bedingungen mit Original- bzw. modifizierten Fluiden, wurde daher das Durchstroemungsverhalten von unterschiedlich ausgebildeten Reservoirsandsteinen aus norddeutschen Geothermiebohrungen untersucht. (orig./AKF)

  8. Alternative natural gas supply agreements under TPA?. A concept for short-term contracts in a competitive market; Alternative Vertragsformen der Erdgasbranche unter TPA?. Ansatz zur Gestaltung kurzfristiger Vertraege in einem wettbewerblich organisierten Markt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruegge, P.

    1993-04-01

    The most recent version of EC Commission proposals are looking towards unbundling and the introduction of third party access to liberalise the monopolistic transportation area of the natural gas market. The main problems facing the natural gas industry, according to the transit directive, are in contracting (i.e. investment security, risk allocation) and price-fixing for supply as well as an alleged full-capacity problem. Competition in their area signifies a stark contrast to the present `Take or pay`` system. This study examines the prospects of altering the existing contrast systems from the TPA point of view. In this system, that would indicate short-term delivery contracts to increase flexibility of the long-distance cuble system and so release extra capacity. Concentration is given in this study on how to implement such short-term contracts and also on how investment can be seewed. (UA) [Deutsch] Die Vorschlaege der EG-Kommission sehen in ihrer letzten Version das sogenannte ``Unbundling`` und die Einfuehrung von Third Party Access vor, um den auf der Transportstufe monopolistisch organisierten Erdgasmarkt zu liberalisieren. Die Hauptprobleme, vor die sich die europaeische Erdgasindustrie hinsichtlich der Transitrichtlinie gestellt sieht, sind in den Bereichen der Vertragsgestaltung (sprich Investitionsabsicherung bzw. Risikoallokation) sowie der Preisbildung fuer Durchleitungen und in einem angeblich ausgelastetem Kapazitaetsproblem zu sehen. Wettbewerb auf dieser Marktstufe bedeutet einen krassen Gegensatz gegenueber dem derzeitigen System von Take or Pay-Verpflichtungen. Diese Arbeit befasst sich mit der grundsaetzlichen Moeglichkeit einer Veraenderung des bestehenden Vertragssystems unter TPA-Gesichtspunkten. Das bedeutet, dass in diesem System kurzfristige Liefervertraege abgeschlossen werden muessen, damit die notwendige Flexibilitaet des Fernleitungssystems hergestellt werden kann, um freie Kapazitaeten zu schaffen. Es wird sich jedoch auf das Problem

  9. MR-imaging of the breast at 0.5 Tesla: menstrual-cycle dependency of parenchymal contrast enhancement in healthy volunteers with oral contraceptive use?; MR-Mammographie bei 0,5 Tesla: Menstruationszyklusabhaengigkeit der Kontrastmittelanreicherung unter hormoneller Kontrazeption?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzen, J.; Welger, J.; Krupski, G.; Adam, G. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany); Lisboa, B.W. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Frauenheilkunde und Geburtshilfe, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany)

    2003-04-01

    Introduction: To evaluate changes of contrast medium enhancement of the breast parenchyma due to menstrual cycle in healthy volunteers with oral contraceptive use in MR-imaging of the breast. Material and Methods: 15 healthy volunteers (age: 22 - 36, mean 28,2) without breast disease were examined two times during one menstrual cycle (days 7 - 14 and days 21 - 2). Two volunteers were examined only in the second part of the cycle (days 21 - 2). All volunteers used oral contraceptives for more than 6 month continuously. Examinations were performed with a 0,5 T magnet (dynamic 3D-gradient echo protocol with subtraction postprocessing). We evaluated the number of enhancing foci and the parenchymal contrast medium enhancement during the different phases of the cycle by region of interest. Results: Only a total of two enhancing foci were found in 2 of 17 volunteers. Time/signal intensity diagrams in these both cases were not suspicious (< 80% initial signal increase after of contrast medium injection, no wash-out phenomenon) and sonography of the breast in these two cases was inconspicuous. Contrast medium enhancement of breast parenchyma in cycle days 7 - 14 (mean enhancement: 0.12 - 0.26, minutes 1 - 9 p.i.) was not significantly different (p = 0.2209; Wilcoxon signed rank test) from cycle days 21 - 2 (mean: 0.13 - 0.32). Conclusion: Menstrual cycle dependency of parenchymal contrast medium enhancement seems to be of minor relevance for premenopausal women with use of oral contraceptives. (orig.) [German] Fragestellung: Untersuchung der Kontrastmittelaufnahme des Brustparenchyms in Abhaengigkeit vom Menstruationszyklus bei gesunden Probandinnen unter oraler Kontrazeption. Material und Methode: Bei 15 gesunden Probandinnen ohne Brusterkrankung in der Anamnese wurde eine MR-Mammographie zweimal waehrend eines Menstruationszyklus durchgefuehrt (Zyklustag: 7 - 14 und 21 - 2). Bei zwei weiteren Probandinnen erfolgte die MR-Mammographie nur in der zweiten Zyklushaelfte

  10. The value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the treatment planning of vertebral metastasis considering economic aspects. A cost benefit-analysis; Die Wertigkeit der Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) unter oekonomischen Aspekten bei der Bestrahlungsplanung von Wirbelkoerpermetastasen. Eine Kosten-Nutzen-Analyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prott, F.J.; Schlehuber, E.; Scharding, B.J.; Rinast, E. [Strahlentherapie Wiesbaden, St.-Josefs-Hospital (Germany); Micke, O. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie - Radioonkologie, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany)

    2002-05-01

    Is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based target volume definition for treatment planning of vertebral metastasis effective under economic considerations.From 1994 to 1999, a total of 137 patients with bone metastases affecting the vertebral column underwent MRI of the cercival, thoracic, or lumbar spine for the treatment planning of palliative radiation therapy. The following radiation treatment consisted in a irradiation of the affected vertebral region up to a total dose of 30-40 Gy.The cost calculation for radiotherapy and magnetic resonance tomography was done using the common tariff model (EBM) of the German Health Insurances.In 73% of patients (101 patients), magnetic resonance imaging resulted in marked corrections of the irradiation fields which would have resulted in the necessity of treatment for recurrence in the case of treatment planning without MRI.Consequently, the higher cost of MRI of 345.00 DEM (176,40 EUR) lead to a saving of 497.00 DEM (254,11 EUR) compared to a recurrence treatment of 10 fractions and of 1,428.00 DEM (730,12 EUR) compared to 20 fractions. The transport expenses for the second treatment could be saved as well.Even under economic considerations MRI is effective. (orig.) [German] Ist eine MRT-gestuetzte Zielvolumendefinition bei der Strahlentherapie von Knochenmetastasen ein sinnvolles Vorgehen unter oekonomischen Gesichtspunkten?1994-1999 wurde bei 137 Patienten mit einem ossaer metastasierenden Tumor und Befall der Wirbelsaeule eine Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) zur Planung einer palliativen Radiatio durchgefuehrt. Die nachfolgende Strahlentherapie bestand aus einer Radiatio des betroffenen Wirbelkoerperabschnitts bis zu einer Gesamtherddosis von 30-40 Gy. Fuer die Berechnung der Kosten wurde der einheitliche Bewertungsmassstab der Deutschen Krankenkassen zugrunde gelegt.Aufgrund der MRT-Untersuchungen wurde bei 73% der Patienten eine Veraenderung des Bestrahlungsfeldes vorgenommen, die im Falle einer nicht MRT

  11. Description of a disposition line on the stress corrosion cracking behaviour of ferritic reactor pressure vessel steels under BWR-conditions; Beschreibung einer einhuellenden Risswachstumskurve zum Spannungsrisskorrosionsverhalten von ferritischen Reaktordruckbehaelter (RDB)-Staehlen unter Siedewasserreaktor (SWR)-Bedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruemmer, G. [HEW, Hamburg (Germany); Hoffmann, H. [VGB-GS, Essen (Germany); Ilg, U. [EnBW Kraftwerke AG, Philippsburg (Germany); Wachter, O. [E.ON-Kernkraft, Hannover (Germany); Widera, M. [RWE Power, Essen (Germany); Roth, A. [Framatome ANP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    The inner surface of the reactor pressure vessel of BWR reactors is lined with a welded, corrosion-resistant steel liner. In an assumed case of liner rupture down to the low-alloy ferritic base material, an integrity assessment of the pressure vesssel in consideration of the effects of reactor coolant is of utmost importance, and research in this field has been going on for more than ten years now. An analysis of the available data shows that it is now possible to describe a disposition line on the stress corrosion cracking behaviour of ferritic reactor pressure vessel steels in BWR conditions. Crack growth rates of a stress intensity factor corresponding to a T/4 wall defect (i.e. 25 percent of the wall thickness) are technically not relevant. This scientific finding is supported by measurements of about 450 reactor operation years of all German LWR reactor plants, none of which showed crack initiation in the reactor pressure vessel. [German] Die mediumberuehrte Innenoberflaeche des Reaktordruckbehaelters (RDB) von Siedewasserreaktoren (SWR) ist mit einer korrosionsbestaendigen austenitischen Schweissplattierung versehen. Fuer den unterstellten Fall einer bis auf den niedriglegierten, ferritischen Grundwerkstoff durchgerissenen Pattierung ist fuer die Beurteilung der Integritaet des RDB unter Beruecksichtigung der Einwirkung des Reaktorkuehlmittels die Klaerung der Frage eines korrosionsgestuetzten Risswachstums von grosser Bedeutung. Dieses Thema ist daher bereits seit mehr als 10 Jahren Gegenstand umfangreicher Forschungsaktivitaeten. Ende der 80er- und Anfang der 90er-Jahre wurden fuer ferritische RDB-Staehle von SWR-Anlagen Risswachstumsgeschwindigkeiten veroeffentlicht, die binnen weniger als einem Jahr zum Durchriss der drucktragenden Wand eines RDB gefuehrt haetten. Daraufhin wurden internationale Forschungsaktivitaeten zur Ermittlung zuverlaessiger und reproduzierbarer Risswachstumsdaten initiiert, deren Ergebnisse zusammenfassend dargestellt werden. Die

  12. Head-neck-radiology; Kopf-Hals-Radiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohnen, Mathias (ed.) [Staedtische Kliniken Neuss Lukaskrankenhaus GmbH (Germany). Institut fuer klinische Radiologie

    2012-11-01

    The book on head-neck-radiology covers the following issues: (1) Methodic fundamentals: conventional radiography, angiography, sonography, computerized tomography, digital volume tomography, NMR imaging, nuclear medicine. (2) Base of the skull. (3) Petrous bone. (4) Pharynx. (5) Paranasal sinuses. (6) Eye socket. (7) Temporomandibular joint. (8) Salivary gland. (9) Oral cavity. (19) Parynx. (11) Neck soft tissue and lymph nodes. (12) Thyroid and parathyroid. (13) Teeth and jaw. (14) Interventions.

  13. The colon. Clinical radiology and endoscopy. Kolon: Klinische Radiologie - Endoskopie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenbusch, G.; Reeders, J.W.A.J.

    1993-01-01

    This comprehensive reference work presents in-depth information on the diagnostic radiology and endoscopy of the colon. After a brief review of the history of colon examinations, two chapters explain the anatomy, physiology and pharmacology of the large intestine as well as the methods and techniques applied for radiological examination of the colon. The pathology and characteristical findings and the diagnostic evaluation of the various types of disease are the main subject, with the chapters discussing inflammations and tumors consuming by far most of the space, but there is also valuable information on vascular lesions, traumata, latrogenous or post-surgery lesions, among others, and on the characteristical findings in children. Numerous tables, radiographs and endoscopic images together with drawings illustrate and accompany the textbook information. (orig.). 492 figs., 95 tabs.

  14. Incidental findings in musculoskeletal radiology; Zufallsbefunde in der muskuloskeletalen Radiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuennemann, F.; Rehnitz, C.; Weber, M.A. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    Increasing numbers of conventional X-rays, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the inpatient, outpatient and scientific routine leads to an increasing number of incidental findings. The correct interpretation of these incidental findings with respect to the relevance and the evaluation concerning further work-up is an important task of radiologists. Description of common incidental findings in musculoskeletal imaging and their clinical classification. A PubMed literature search was performed using the following terms: incidental findings, population-based imaging, musculoskeletal imaging, non-ossifying fibroma, enchondroma, osteodystrophia deformans, chondrosarcoma, fibrous dysplasia, simple bone cyst, unicameral bone cyst, solitary bone cyst, aneurysmal bone cyst, vertebral hemangioma, bone island, osteopoikilosis, Tarlov cyst and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH). Incidental findings are observed in up to 40% of imaging procedures. In up to 6% these incidental findings involve the skeletal system. Common incidental findings are discussed and their clinical relevance is explained. (orig.) [German] Mit steigender Menge an konventionellen Roentgen- sowie CT- und MRT-Bildern im stationaeren, ambulanten und wissenschaftlichen Alltag steigt unweigerlich auch die Zahl der Zufallsbefunde. Die korrekte Einordnung bzgl. deren Relevanz, ob eine weitere Abklaerung notwendig ist oder nicht, stellt eine wichtige Aufgabe des Radiologen dar. Vorstellung haeufiger Zufallsbefunde des muskuloskeletalen Systems und deren klinische Einordnung. Pubmed-Literaturrecherche zu den Stichworten ''incidental findings'', ''population-based imaging'', ''musculoskeletal imaging'', ''non-ossifying fibroma'', ''enchondroma'', ''osteodysthrophia deformans'', ''chondrosarcoma'', ''fibrous dysplasia'', ''simple bone cyst'', ''unicameral bone cyst'', ''solitary bone cyst'', ''aneurysmal bone cyst'', ''vertebral hemangioma'', ''bone island'', ''osteopoikilosis'', ''Tarlov cyst'', ''diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis'' (DISH). Bei bis zu 40 % der Schnittbildgebungen finden sich Zufallsbefunde. Etwa 6 % der Zufallsbefunde entfallen dabei auf das Skelett. Haeufige Zufallsbefunde und deren klinische Relevanz werden dargestellt. (orig.)

  15. Cone beam CT in radiology; DVT in der Radiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dammann, Florian [ALB FILS KLINIKEN GmbH, Klinik am Eichert, Goeppingen (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie

    2013-06-15

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a cross-sectional X-ray modality using an imaging system with cone-beam geometry. Unlike CT, the data set is acquired in a single circulation of a C-arm shaped tube-detector unit. Image characteristics vs. exposure dose ratio is similar to conventional CT, but varies widely depending on the CBVT device and the selected settings, and is limited to low dose/high noise applications. Up to now, only few data is available to estimate the clinical value of CBCT. Nevertheless, the use of CBCT is increasing drastically in the recent years, especially in the dental and ENT diagnostic field. For this reason the European Commission recently published guidelines concerning the clinical application of CBCT. These guidelines, as well as clinically relevant technical features of CBCT and examples of the most frequent dental applications are presented in the following article. (orig.)

  16. Sedoanalgesia in interventional radiology; Analgosedierung in der interventionellen Radiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linsenmaier, U.; Pfeifer, K.J.; Reiser, M. [Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie; Wagner, P. [Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Anaesthesiologie und Intensivmedizin; Ambulantes Operationszentrum, Muenchen Pasing (Germany)

    2002-02-01

    Purpose: Development of a save and effective protocol for analgosedation of patients undergoing painful interventional procedures. Material and Methods: In a prospective trial a consecutive series of 72 adult patients underwent analgosedation during painful interventions. A radiologist performed the analgosedation, the patients received a combination of a shortly effective piperidine derivative (Alfentanil [Rapifen {sup trademark} ]; 7.5-15 {mu}g/kg body weight) and Benzodiazepine (midazolam [Dormicum {sup trademark} ]; 20 {mu}g/kg body weight). After pre-procedure oxygenation patients were continuously monitored. Pain and discomfort were scored using an established visual-analog pain score (0-10). A control group (n=24) had received midazolam, pentazocine or fentanyl according to the study protocol. Results: All procedures could be carried out by an interventional radiologist and a nurse and/or technologist only. In 69/72 cases adequate analgosedation could be achieved. Injection of alfentanil was titrated, with a rapid onset and short acting effect of the analgesia. Patients reported an average pain score of 2.6 vs. 4.5 in the control group. Over 55% experienced no or mild pain (score 0-3), in the control group only 8% reached this level. Conclusion: A combination of shortly effective alfentanil and midazolam allows interventional radiologists to perform major procedures alone under effective analgosedation. This medication scheme is superior to the medication upon demand. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Die Entwicklung eines einfach zu handhabenden Protokolls fuer Radiologen zur Analgosedierung bei schmerzhaften interventionellen Eingriffen. Methoden: Prospektiv wurden 72 konsekutive Patienten zusammengefasst, bei denen schmerzhafte interventionelle Eingriffe geplant waren. Die Anlagosedierung erfolgte mit einer Kombinationsmedikation aus kurzwirksamem Piperidinderivat (Alfentanil [Rapifen {sup trademark} ]; 7,5-15 {mu}g/kg KG) und Benzodiazepin (Midazolam [Dormicum {sup trademark} ]; 20 {mu}g/kg KG). Nach praeinterventioneller Oxygenierung wurde ein kontinuierliches Monitoring durchgefuehrt. Das subjektive Schmerzempfinden der Patienten wurde mit einem visuellen Analogscore (0-10) erfasst. Die Kontrollgruppe (n=24) hatte nach Bedarf Midazolam, Pentazocin (Fortral {sup trademark}) oder Fentanylcitrat (Fentanyl {sup trademark}) erhalten. Ergebnisse: Analgosedierung war in allen Faellen jeweils von einem Radiologen und einer Assistenzperson durchfuehrbar gewesen, in 69/72 Faellen wurde eine ausreichende Analgesie erreicht. Die Gabe von Alfentanil (Rapifen {sup trademark}) wurde titriert (0,4-2,5 mg). Das maximale Schmerzempfinden (0-10) der Patienten betrug durchschnittlich 2,6, in der Kontrollgruppe 4.5. Ueber 55% der Patienten gaben keine oder nur geringe Schmerzen (score 0-3) an, in der Kontrollgruppe waren dies lediglich 8%. Schlussfolgerungen: Der kombinierte Einsatz von kurzwirksamem Alfentanil und Midazolam ermoeglicht interventionellen Radiologen eine effektive Analgosedierung von Patienten bei schmerzhaften interventionellen Eingriffen. Diese Form der Analgosedierung ist der Medikation bei Bedarf deutlich ueberlegen. (orig.)

  17. Radiology trainer. Muskuloskeletal system. 2. ed.; Radiologie-Trainer. Bewegungsapparat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staebler, Axel [Orthopaedische Klinik Harlaching, Muenchen (Germany). Radiologische Praxis; Erlt-Wagner, Birgit (eds.) [Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie

    2013-11-01

    The radiology training textbook is based on case studies of the clinical experience, including radiological imaging and differential diagnostic discussion. The scope of this volume is the musculoskeletal system; the following issues are covered: shoulder, upper arms: elbows, lower arms; wrist; spinal cord; pelvis; knee; feet.

  18. Permeability to brine of crushed salt rock for waste isolation, considering long-term pressure variation of overlying strata and dissolution processes. Final report; Durchlaessigkeitsverhalten von Steinsalzversatz gegenueber Laugen unter Beruecksichtigung von zeitlich veraenderlichen Ueberlagerungsdruecken und Loesungsvorgaengen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froehlich, H. [Battelle Ingenieurtechnik GmbH, Eschborn (Germany); Conen, O. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); Haefner, F.; Bruck, J. v. der [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    It cannot be excluded that there will be ingress of brines to underground isolation plants for nuclear and chemical toxic wastes. The transport mechanisms in the waste repository are much determined by the perviousness of the backfilling and the sealing material used after waste emplacement in salt rock mine shafts. The critical quantity is the permeability, both for inflow of brine into the bedded waste areas, and for contaminated brine squeeze-out mechanisms. The project research work was to establish the mass transfer parameters for calculating the transport mechanisms in backfilled and sealed shafts. Using near-reality simulation of conditions, the time-dependent influence of pressure variations of overlying strata, humidity and salt/brine interactions on the permeability was examined and quantified. (orig./CB) [German] In Endlagern fuer nukleare und chemotoxische Abfaelle im Salinar kann der Zutritt von Laugen nicht prinzipiell ausgeschlossen werden. Die Transportvorgaenge innerhalb des Endlagers werden wesentlich von der Durchlaessigkeit der Versatzmaterialien und der Verschluesse bestimmt. Die bestimmende Groesse, sowohl fuer den Laugenzufluss in die Einlagerungsbereiche als auch fuer das Auspressen kontaminierter Lauge aus dem Endlager, ist dabei die Permeabilitaet. Ziel der hier vorgestellten Arbeiten war es, Stofftransportparameter fuer die Berechnung von Ausbreitungsvorgaengen in den verfuellten Bereichen eines salinaren Endlagers bereitzustellen. Unter Simulation realitaetsnaher Bedingungen wurde der Einfluss von zeitabhaengigem Ueberlagerungsdruck (Gebirgsdruck), Feuchte und die Wechselwirkung von Salz/Lauge auf das Durchlaessigkeitsverhalten untersucht und quantifiziert. (orig.)

  19. Comparison calculation/experiment on the load case ``shutdown of TH high pressure pumps under consideration of fluid structure interaction``; Vergleich Rechnung/Messung zum Lastfall ``Abschaltung der TH-Hochdruckpumpen unter Beruecksichtigung der Fluid-Struktur-Wechselwirkung``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erath, W.; Nowotny, B.; Maetz, J. [KED, Rodenbach (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    Measurements of an experiment in a pipe system with pump shutdown and valve closing have been performed in the nuclear power plant KRB II. Comparative calculations of fluid and structure including interaction show an excellent agreement with the measured results. Theory and implementation of the fluid/structure interaction and the results of the comparison are described. It turns out that the consideration of the fluid/structure interaction is mostly a significant increase of the effective structural damping. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wurden Messungen am nuklearen Nachkuehlsystem des Kernkraftwerks Gundremmingen (KRB II) bei einem Versuche mit Pumpenabschalten und Ventilschliessen durchgefuehrt. Vergleichsrechnungen der Fluid-Strukturdynamik unter echter Beruecksichtigung der Wechselwirkung ergaben eine ausgezeichnete Uebereinstimmung der Rechnung mit den Messungen. Es werden Theorie und Implementierung der Koppelung der Fluid- und Struktur-Berechnungen sowie die Vergleiche von Messung und Rechnung beschrieben. Es ergibt sich, dass die Beruecksichtigung der Wechselwirkung notwendig ist zur genaueren Berechnung von `weichen` Rohrleitungsystemen. Eine wichtige Folge der Wechselwirkung ist meist eine deutliche Erhoehung der effektiven Strukturdaempfung. (orig.)

  20. Case report: massive lower intestinal bleeding from ileal varices. Treatment with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPSS); Fallbericht: Massive untere gastrointestinale Blutung aus ilealen Varizen. Behandlung mittels transjugulaerem intrahepatischem portosystemischem Shunt (TIPSS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Benitez, R. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg (Germany). Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Iinterventionelle Radiologie; Universitaetsklinikum, Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Seidensticker, P.; Richter, G.M.; Stampfl, U.; Hallscheidt, P. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg (Germany). Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Iinterventionelle Radiologie

    2007-05-15

    Acute gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with liver cirrhosis is associated with a high mortality. Ileal varices and collaterals from ectopic vessels are extremely rare, encountered in less than 5% of the cirrhotic patients. The diagnosis is frequently delayed because the regular diagnostic methods such as gastroscopy or colonoscopy are unsuccessful in accurate the source of bleeding in the majority of the cases. We report an unusual case of massive and uncontrollable lower intestinal bleeding from ileal varices with right ovarian vein anastomosis in a 56 year-old female patient with liver cirrhosis and previous history of abdominal and pelvic surgery. The accurate angiographic and computed tomography diagnosis allowed fast decompression of the portal venous system using a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt. (orig.) [German] Akute gastrointestinale Blutungen sind bei Leberzirrhosepatienten mit einer hohen Mortalitaet verbunden. Ileale Varizen und Kollateralen aus anderen ektopen Gefaessen des Darms sind extrem selten und treten bei weniger als 5% aller Zirrhosepatienten auf. Die Diagnosestellung erfolgt oft verspaetet, da die ueblichen diagnostischen Untersuchungsmethoden wie Gastroskopie oder Koloskopie in den meisten Faellen die Blutungsquelle nicht ausreichend darstellen. Wir berichten ueber einen ungewoehnlichen Fall von massiver und unkontrollierbarer unterer gastroinstestinaler (GI-)Blutung aus ilealen Varizen mit Verbindung zur rechten V. ovarica einer 56-jaehrigen Frau, bei der anamnestisch eine Leberzirrhose und abdominelle Operationen sowie Operationen im Bereich des Beckens bekannt waren. Die genaue angiographische und computertomographische Diagnose erlaubte eine rasche Dekompression des Portalvenensystems mittels eines transjugulaeren portosystemischen Shunts. (orig.)

  1. Materials model for describing the austenite-martensite phase transformation considering transformation-induced plasticity; Ein Materialmodell zur Beschreibung der Austenit-Martensit Phasentransformation unter Beruecksichtigung der transformationsinduzierten Plastizitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberste-Brandenburg, C.

    1999-06-01

    In this thesis, a model to describe the austenite martensite transformation was developed. The transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) was taken into consideration. The model can be used to design complex structures. A local examination of the energy and entropy balance at the phase boundary serves as the starting point for the identification of the thermodynamical driving force and the thermodynamic flow. For both, a tensorial description is necessary for a general nonhydrostatically stressed solid. In the second part, a material law for the description of TRIP-Steels was developed based on the values derived in the first part. The different mechanical behavior of the phases, especially the differing yield stresses, was taken into account. The model developed was implemented into the finite element program MARC. Simulations of the material and the structural behavior were performed. The experimentally observed strong dependence of the transformation kinetics on the yield stress of the austenite and the dependence of the orientation of the martensite inclusion on the stress state could be verified. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurde ein Materialmodell zur Beschreibung der Austenit-Martensit Phasenumwandlung unter Beruecksichtigung der transformationsinduzierten Plastizitaet (TRIP) entwickelt. Das Modell ist zur Berechnung ausgedehnter Strukturen einsetzbar. Eine lokale Betrachtung der Energie- und Entropiebilanz an der Phasengrenze bildet den Ausgangspunkt zur Identifikation der thermodynamischen Kraft und des thermodynamischen Flusses bei Beschreibung der Transformationskinetik. Fuer beide Groessen muss fuer den allgemein nichthydrostatischen Spannungszustand eine tensorielle Beschreibung verwendet werden. Im zweiten Teil der Arbeit bilden diese Groessen die Basis zur Entwicklung eines Stoffgesetzes zur Beschreibung des TRIP-Phaenomens. Es wird das unterschiedliche mechanische Verhalten der Phasen, insbesondere die stark unterschiedlichen

  2. Pressurized fluidized-bed power stations. Combined cycle power plants with fluidized-bed combustion, with particular regard to emissions; Druckwirbelschicht-Kraftwerke. Kombikraftwerke mit Druckwirbelschichtfeuerung - Entwicklung fuer Braunkohle unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung des Emissionsverhaltens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalupnik, R.W.

    1999-07-01

    Investigations were carried out to find whether this technology is suited for lignite. The state of the art of the pressurized fluidized bed technology for coal is presented. The planning of the experimental programme is explained, including unresolved problems of thermal calculation, raw lignite transport characteristics, and emissions. Emissions of atmospheric and pressurized fluidized bed combustion of coal and lignite are compared, and the results of a theoretical investigation of the potential performance are presented. Recommendations are made for further studies, and an outlook is given to future 'second generation' concepts with higher efficiencies resulting from higher gas turbine inlet temperatures. [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit berichtet ueber die Entwicklung der Kombikraftwerkstechnik mit Druckwirbelschichttechnik. Nachdem die bisherigen Aktivitaeten weltweit fast ausschliesslich fuer den Einsatz von Steinkohle betrieben wurden, bestand die Aufgabenstellung in der Erarbeitung von ersten grundlegenden Ergebnissen, aufgrund derer zu beurteilen war, ob die Druckwirbelschichttechnik fuer den Einsatz von Braunkohle geeignet ist. Kapitel 2 stellt den Stand der Technik der Druckwirbelschichtverbrennung fuer Steinkohle dar. In Kapitel 3 wird die Planung des Versuchsprogramms erlaeutert, die sich an den offenen Fragestellungen zu den waermetechnischen Rechnungen, zum Foerderverhalten von Rohbraunkohle und zum Emissionsverhalten orientierte. In der Diskussion der Ergebnisse in Kapitel 4 erfolgt eine Einordnung und Bewertung der ermittelten Emissionswerte im Vergleich zur Wirbelschichtverbrennung unter atmosphaerischen und druckaufgeladenen Bedingungen von Stein- und Braunkohle. In Kapitel 5 schliesslich werden die Ergebnisse einer durchgefuehrten theoretischen Untersuchung zur Ermittlung des Wirkungsgradpotentials dargestellt. Ferner werden Empfehlungen fuer ergaenzende, weiterfuehrende Untersuchungen gegeben. Fuer die langfristige potentielle

  3. Micro- and macromechanical simulation of the deformation of steels under consideration of transformation and diffusion processes; Mikro- und makromechanische Simulation des Deformationsverhaltens von Staehlen unter Beruecksichtigung von Umwandlungs- und Diffusionsvorgaengen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daves, W.

    1994-12-31

    The goal of the present work was to develop a continuum mechanical description of the deformation behaviour of steels and cast iron, which makes it possible to calculate the residual stresses during and after heat treatment. The formation of microresidual stresses at transformation processes is discussed. In a survey, analytical and numerical models existing and developed by the author are presented for the transformation and the dispersion plasticity. The further calculation of the residual stresses in composite rollers is done using the preset transformation plasticity models. For the simulation of nitriding, a continuum mechanical concept is developed, which considers the diffusion of nitrogen into the material, the kinetics of nitride formation, the volume change in the nitride layer in consequence of the interstitial nitrogen and of the nitrides, the plastifying, the creep and a hardness increase of the material during nitriding. The results agree very well in their quality with the measurements. The material model used for the calculations is described in detail. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit ist es, eine kontinuumsmechanische Beschreibung des Deformationsverhaltens von Staehlen und Gusseisen zu entwickeln, welche es ermoeglicht, die Eigenspannungen waehrend und nach einer Waermebehandlung zu berechnen. Zu Beginn wird die Entstehung von Mikroeigenspannungen bei Umwandlungsvorgaengen behandelt. In einer Uebersicht werden bestehende und vom Verfasser entwickelte analytische und numerische und numerische Modelle fuer die Umwandlungs- und Ausscheidungsplastizitaet vorgestellt. Weiteres erfolgt die Berechnung der Eigenspannungen in Verbundwalzen unter Anwendung der vorgestellten Umwandlungsplastizitaetsmodelle. Fuer die Simulation des Nitrierens wird ein kontinuumsmechanisches Konzept entwickelt, welches die Diffuson des Stickstoffes in das Material, die Kinetik der Nitridbildung, die Volumsaenderung in der Nitridschicht zufolge des

  4. A laser-based study of kerosine evaporation and -mixing for lean prevaporized combustion at elevated pressure; Lasermesstechnische Untersuchung der Kerosinverdampfung und -mischung fuer die magere Vormischverbrennung unter erhoehtem Druck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, M.

    1999-05-01

    The evaporation and mixing of a kerosine spray in the turbulent airstream of a prevaporizer is investigated at conditions prevailing in the combustion chamber of gas turbines. An experiment is described that allows to study an evaporating fuel spray downstream a prefilming airblast atomizer with Phase-Doppler anemometry, laser-induced fluorescence and an infrared light absorption technique. At an air pressure of 9 bars, an air temperature of 750 K, a mean air velocity of 120 m/s and a fuel flow rate of 1 g/s the kerosine spray evaporates completely without autoignition. At this operating condition the parameters air pressure, air temperature and air turbulence are varied. The influence of these parametric variations on the dropsize distribution, the evaporation rate and the concentration profiles of liquid and evaporated fuel is presented and discussed. (orig.) [German] Die Verdampfung und Vermischung eines Kerosinsprays in der turbulenten Luftstroemung eines Vorverdampfers wird unter Bedingungen untersucht, die in Brennkammern fuer Gasturbinen vorherrschen. Ein Experiment wird vorgestellt, welches es erlaubt, ein verdampfendes Kraftstoffspray stromab eines ebenen Luftstromzerstaeubers mit Filmleger mittels der Phasen-Doppler-Anemometrie, Laser-induzierter Fluoreszenz und einer Infrarotabsorptionsmesstechnik zu untersuchen. Bei einem Luftdruck von 9 bar, einer Vorwaermetemperatur der Luft von 750 K, einer mittleren Luftgeschwindigkeit von 120 m/s und einem Kraftstoffmassenstrom von 1 g/s verdampft das Kerosinspray vollstaendig, ohne die Selbstzuendungszeit zu erreichen. Bei dieser Betriebsbedingung werden die Parameter Luftdruck, Lufttemperatur und Turbulenzgrad variiert. Der Einfluss dieser Parameter auf das Tropfengroessenspektrum, den Verdampfungsgrad und die Konzentrationsprofile des fluessigen sowie des verdampften Kraftstoffs wird dargestellt und diskutiert. (orig.)

  5. A survey of anticoagulation practice among German speaking microsurgeons – Perioperative management of anticoagulant therapy in free flap surgery [Erhebung über die antikoagulatorische Praxis unter deutschsprachigen Mikrochirurgen – Perioperatives Management der antikoagulatorischen Therapie bei freien Lappentransplantaten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokuszies, Andreas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: Anticoagulation is a crucial element in microsurgery. Although various clinical studies and international surveys have revealed that anticoagulation strategies can vary and result in similar outcomes, anticoagulative regimen are far away from standardization. In Germany and german speaking countries standardized anticoagulation protocols concerning free flap surgery do not exist so far. Methods: To evaluate the current practice of clinics in Germany, Austria and Switzerland with specialization in microsurgery we performed a questionnaire surveying the perioperative regimen of anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy in free flap surgery. The microsurgeons were interrogated on several anticoagulant, rheologic and antiplatelet medications, their dosage and perioperative frequency of application pre-, intra- and postoperative.Results: The questionnaire revealed that the used antithrombotic and perioperative regimens varied from department to department presumably based on the personal experience of the surgeon. Multiple approaches are used with a wide range of anticoagulants used either alone or in combination, with different intervals of application and different dosages. Conclusion: Therefore consensus meetings should be held in future leading to conduct prospective multicenter studies with formulation of standardized anticoagulative and perioperative protocols in microsurgery reducing flap failure to other than pharmacologic reasons.[german] Hintergrund: Die Antikoagulation stellt ein zentrales Element in der Mikrochirurgie dar. Zahlreiche klinische Studien und internationale Erhebungen zu antikoagulatorischen Strategien weisen eine grosse Varianz bei vergleichbaren Resultaten nach, entbehren jedoch einer Standardisierung. Auch in Deutschland und deutschsprachigen Ländern fehlen bislang standardisierte Regime zur Antikoagulation in der Mikrochirurgie.Methodik: Zur Erhebung der antikoagulatorischen Praxis unter

  6. Dynamic MRI of the lumbar spine for the evaluation of microcirculation during anti-angiogenetic therapy in patients with myelodysplastics syndromes; Dynamische MRT der Lendenwirbelsaeule zur Beurteilung der Mikrozirkulation unter anti-angiogenetischer Therapie bei Patienten mit myelodysplastischen Syndromen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, A.; Wittsack [Institut fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Duesseldorf (Germany); Strupp, C. [Klinik fuer Haematologie, Onkologie und klinische Immunologie, Duesseldorf (Germany); Engelbrecht, V. [Institut fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Duesseldorf (DE)] (and others)

    2002-02-01

    (Normalpersonen: 0,124{+-}0,042, MDS: 0,136{+-}0,036) gemessen. Bei 7 der 9 MDS-Patienten konnte unter Thalidomidtherapie eine Reduktion der Amplitude und Austauschratenkonstante in den d-MRT-Verlaufsuntersuchungen nachgewiesen werden. Klinisch zeigten diese Patienten ein Therapieansprechen mit kompletter oder partieller Krankheitsremission. (orig.)

  7. The implementation of cogeneration plants in new and older buildings for power generation under technical and economic aspects; Der Einsatz von Blockheizkraftwerken im Neubau und Gebaeudebestand zur Waerme-, Kaelte- sowie Elektrizitaetserzeugung unter techni-schen und betriebswirtschaftlichen Gesichtspunkten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauersberger, Frank; Lipski, Thomas [heima-welte Haustechnik GmbH und Co.KG, Balingen (Germany); Cibis, Dominik [Europaeische Studienakademie Kaelte-Klima-Lueftung, Maintal (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Cogeneration plants have become a key element of modern space HVAC systems. Serial production resulted in higher quality and lower production cost, which made them interesting also for private buildings. However, cogeneration plants must compete with other systems, e.g. high-efficiency boilers and heat pumps. An accurate economic assessment requires not only acquisition and processing of building-specific data but also adherence to the restrictive specifications of the Energy Conservation Ordinance (EnEV) and Renewables Act (EEWaermeG) discussed in more detail. The EEWaermeG 2011 specifies not just heating systems but also refrigeration systems. Here, a cogeneration plant combined with a sorption refrigerator will have higher economic efficiency and will fully meet the specifications of the EEWaermeG. Of course, this is a challenge for planners, architects and constructors. The contribution outlines the various options of combined heat, cold, and power generation and presents efficiency calculations for an economic assessment. [German] Blockheizkraftwerke zur Waerme- und Elektrizitaetserzeugung nehmen heute einen immer groesseren Stellenwert in der modernen Gebaeudetechnik ein. Die industrielle Serienproduktion verhalf dem BHWK zu einer deutlich gesteigerten Qualitaet und ermoeglichte durch gesunkene Produktionskosten den Einsatz im privaten Wohnraum. Im Neubau sowie im Gebaeudebestand steht das BHKW jedoch in direkter Konkurrenz mit anderen Waermeerzeugern wie Brennwertgeraeten und Waermepumpen. Um eine exakte Wirtschaftlichkeitsbetrachtung der jeweiligen Waermeerzeuger erstellen zu koennen, muessen nicht nur gebaeudespezifische Daten erfasst und berechnet werden, sondern es muss auch auf die restriktiven Vorgaben der Energieeinsparverordnung (EnEV) und des Erneuerbare-Energien-Waerme-Gesetzes (EEWaermeG) genauer eingegangen werden. Im EEWaermeG 2011 wird unter anderem erstmalig neben der Waerme- auch auf die erneuerbare Kaelteerzeugung eingegangen. Hier kann

  8. Inelastic analysis of the deformation behaviour of internally cooled IN 738 LC turbine blades using the microstructural dependent constitutive equations; Inelastische Analyse des Verformungsverhaltens einer innengekuehlten Gasturbinenschaufel aus dem Werkstoff IN 738 LC unter Verwendung des strukturabhaengigen Werkstoffmodells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmoeller, S.; Schubert, F.; Penkalla, H.J.; Nickel, H.; Breitbach, G.

    1994-06-01

    Werkstoffmodells, das im IWE der KFA entwickelt wurde, fuer strukturmechanische Untersuchungen von innengekuehlten, stationaeren Gasturbinenschaufel diskutiert. Die mehraxiale Ueberpruefung des Modells geschah zum einen mit Hilfe von Torsionshohlproben aus dem Werkstoff IN 738 LC und zum anderen mit Experimenten an feingegossenen Modellturbinenschaufeln derselben Legierung. Die Belastung der Modellschaufel bestand aus einer Zuglast zur Simulation der Fliehkraefte, sowie aus Temperaturzyklen. Die rechnerische Analyse der Schaufel fand mit Hilfe des Finiten Elemente Programms ABAQUS, in dem das Werkstoffmodell implementiert wurde, statt. Verwendet wurde eine zweidimensionale Netzstruktur. Basierend auf den im Experiment gemessenen Oberflaechentemperaturen wurde in einem ersten Schritt die Temperaturverteilung in der Modellschaufel berechnet. Erst danach war eine Spannungs- und inelastische Dehnungsanalyse moeglich. Ein Vergleich der Experimente mit den Rechnungen unter Verwendung des strukturabhaengigen Werkstoffmodells nach Penkalla zeigte eine gute Uebereinstimmung bei der Lebensdauerprognose. Waehrend bei den Versuchen mit der kurzen Haltezeit das Versagen an der Abstroemkante elastisch abgeschaetzt werden konnte, ist dies fuer die laengere Haltezeit nicht exakt moeglich, da hier den Kriecheffekten eine staerkere Bedeutung zukam. (orig.)

  9. Implementation of new concepts for space HVAC systems in domestic buildings in consideration of cost, consumption and user comfort. Final report; Umsetzung neuer Konzepte der technischen Gebaeudeausruestung im Wohnungsbau unter Beruecksichtigung von Kosten, Verbraeuchen und Nutzerkomfort. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, F.; Sucic, D.; Wendler, M.

    1998-03-01

    The goal of this project was the development of a set of tools for the selection of optimal concepts for HVAC-systems in housing buildings. Several factors are considered. They include technical feasibility, costs for investment, maintenance and operation, energy concumption, environmental impacts and user comfort. It is intended with the help of these tools to identify the most important factors which influence energy consumption and to suggest simple and cost effective measures to reduce energy consumption. Measures include improvements of the envelope, changes in the HVAC-system and its operation according to the needs to the inhabitants of the building. This report describes these components of this tool set which were developed in the frame of the project WohnKomfort. It lists data and rules chosen. In addition we report experiences which we gained with an prototypical implementation. This implementation allows load calculations for more than 60.000 different buildings applying EN 802 (only one zone model) as calculation method. It also supports selection of heating systems for such buildings by offering an evaluation according to user specified criteria including cost, environment and comfort. (orig./MM) [Deutsch] Ziel des Vorhabens war die Entwicklung eines Instrumentariums zur Auswahl optimaler Konzepte fuer technische Anlagen in Wohngebaeuden unter Beruecksichtigung der Faktoren technische Machbarkeit, Erstellungs-, Betriebskosten, Energieverbrauch, Umweltbelastung und Nutzerkomfort. Mit Hilfe dieses Instrumentariums soll es moeglich werden, die Haupteinflussfaktoren fuer den Energieverbrauch anzugeben und Vorschlaege fuer einfache und kostenguenstige Massnahmen zu seiner Reduzierung auf der Seite des Gebaeudes (bauliche Massnahmen) und der Anlage (technische Massnahmen, Nutzerverhalten) anzugeben. In diesem Bericht beschreiben wir die im Vorhaben entwickelten Komponenten des Instrumentariums, die zugrundeliegenden Daten und Regeln sowie Erfahrungen, die

  10. Calculations of an unsteady flow through a hydraulic axial turbine with reference to interaction between stator and rotor; Instationaere Berechnung einer hydraulischen Axialturbine unter Beruecksichtigung der Interaktion zwischen Leit- und Laufrad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, C.

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this study is the development of an algorithm enabling coupling of nonmatching computational grids to carry out calculations of an unsteady flow through a hydraulic axial turbine with reference to interaction between stator and rotor. The algorithm should offer the possibility to operate the computational grids in a fixed position relative to each other as well as in relative movement. Furthermore, the calculation should be feasible with separate grids in parallel and different frames of reference. Employing selected examples this method is investigated in detail the results are compared with performed measurements. The unsteady numerical examination of the coupling process is carried out with different examples; especially the interaction effects between stator, rotor and draft tube of a hydraulic axial turbine are observed. In addition, the effect of tip clearance of the mean flow is described. Extensive model tests using the axial turbine have been performed at the Institute for Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machinery, IHS. Flow time dependent velocities have been measured with a Laser Doppler Velocimeter placed at midspan of the blading. Periodical changes in static pressure have been recorded at different locations near the wall of the turbine casing. These measurements serve as reference for the comparison with results derived from the unsteady calculations. The confrontation of the time-dependent fluctuations of the flow quantities and the calculation of the efficiency of the turbine resulting from the simulation results allow a comparison in absolute terms. (orig.) [German] Fuer die instationaere Berechnung einer hydraulischen Axialturbine unter Beruecksichtigung der Interaktion zwischen Leit- und Laufrad wird ein Algorithmus zum Koppeln von nichtpassenden Berechnungsnetzen entwickelt. Diese Berechnungsnetze sollen zueinander ortsfest sein oder auch eine Relativbewegung zueinander haben koennen. Sie sollen ausserdem und in unterschiedlichen

  11. Fatigue life prediction for integrally cast turbine wheels while taking into account short cracks using the nickel base alloy IN 713 C as an example; Lebensdauervorhersage fuer integralgegossene Turbinenraeder unter Beruecksichtigung kurzer Risse am Beispiel der Nickelbasis-Legierung IN 713 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, U.; Sonsino, C.M.

    1994-12-31

    The cast alloy IN 713 C (cast condition) frequently used in turbine wheels was used to determine fatigue strength results under quasi-operational conditions within the range of low cycle fatigue with the objective of transferring the initial crack and crack propagation behavior to notched specimens and later to turbine wheels, while taking into account an inhomogeneous stress and strain distribution, respectively. This transferability relates only to results below 600 C, because this temperature occurs in the critical region of the turbine wheel, the hub. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wurden mit der fuer Turbinenraeder haeufig eingesetzten Gusslegierung IN 713 C (Gusszustand) Schwingfestigkeitsergebnisse und betriebsnahen Bedingungen im Bereich der Niedrigschwingspielzahl-Ermuedung ermittelt, mit dem Ziel das an ungekerbten Proben bestimmte Anriss- und Rissfortschrittsverhalten auf gekerbte Proben und spaeter auf Turbinenraeder unter Beruecksichtigung einer inhomogenen Spannungs-bzw. Dehnungsverteilung uebertragen zu koennen. Die Uebertragbarkeit bezieht sich dabei nur auf die Ergebnisse unter 600 C, weil diese Temperatur im kritischen Bereich des Turbinenrades, der Nabe, auftritt. (orig.)

  12. Wissenstransfer unter dem Gesichtspunkt der Textoptimierung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Fachtexte `gleichen´ Themas aber verschiedener Textsortenzugehörigkeit führte zur Entwicklung eines Analyserasters, das eingesetzt werden kann, um den Prozeß des Transfers von Wissen zwischen Fachtexte verschiedener Fachtextsortenzugehörigkeit aus linguistischer Sicht näher zu beschreiben. Wenn ich ferner...

  13. Charakterisierung der proteasomalen Genregulation unter Biogeneseaspekten

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Das 26S Proteasom ist ein großer Proteinase-Komplex, der aus 32 unterschiedlichen Untereinheiten aufgebaut ist. Das 26S Proteasom ist involviert in die ATP-abhängige De-gradation von ubiquitinierten Proteinen, die eine Vielfalt an zellulären Prozessen wie Signaltransduktion, Stressantwort, transkriptionelle Regulation, Chromosomen-Segregation, DNA-Reparatur, Zellzyklus-Steuerung und die Prozessierung von Peptiden für die MHC I Antigen Präsentation regulieren. Die Prozessierung von Peptiden wi...

  14. Ungarn seit der Wahl: Demokratie unter Druck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Freyberg-Inan; M. Varga

    2011-01-01

    Die Verfasser zeigen, dass die Orban-Regierung legitime Probleme benennt, wie etwa Ungarns extrem niedrige Beschäftigungsrate, die mit zu den großen wirtschaftliche Schwierigkeiten des Landes beiträgt. Doch packt sie die identifizierten Probleme zu oft auf eine Weise an, die ganz nebenbei dem nation

  15. Being subject to quarantine; Unter Quarantaene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullrich, Sven

    2013-07-01

    The registration of imports of modules from the People's Republic of China has caused an uncertainty in Europe. The installers now adhere to the wholesalers in order to protect oneself from unpleasant surprises.

  16. Structure and properties of galvanized zinc coatings. According to DIN EN ISO 1461 on untreated structural steels and structural steels with different Si concentrations, with special consideration of the Sandelin and Sebisty effects; Struktur und Eigenschaften von Feuerzinkueberzuegen. Nach DIN EN ISO 1461 auf unberuhigten und verschieden Si-haltigen Baustaehlen unter besonderer Bercksichtigung des Sandelin- und des Sebisty-Effektes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, P.; Schulz, W.D. [Institut fuer Korrosionsschutz Dresden (Germany); Katzung, W.; Rittig, R. [Institut fuer Stahlbau Leipzig (Germany)

    1999-05-01

    The authors investigated the interdependence between the Si content of structural steels and their galvanisation characteristics. Special interest was taken in galvanisation reactivity, the structure of coatings in consideration of the Sandelin effect (>0.035..0.12% of Si) and the Sebisty effect (>0.12.. 0.28% Si) at medium Si concentrations, and the changes in microhardness as a function of phase structure. [Deutsch] Das Ziel unserer Untersuchungen war es, genaue Zusammenhaenge zwischen dem Si-Gehalt von Baustaehlen und deren Verzinkungsverhalten aufzuzeigen. Insbesondere sollte deren Verzinkungsreaktivitaet ermittelt werden, der Aufbau der Ueberzuege unter Beruecksichtigung des Sandelineffektes (>0,035... 0,12% Si) und des Sebisty-Effektes (>0,12... 0,28% Si) bei mittlerem Si-Gehalt sowie der Verlauf der Mikrohaerte in Abhaengigkeit vom Phasenaufbau. (orig.)

  17. Development and application of a NaNiCl{sub 2}-battery for industrial trucks regarding the requirements cycle life, safety and reliability. Final report; Entwicklung und Erprobung einer NaNiCl{sub 2}-Batterie fuer Flurfoerderzeuge unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der Aspekte Lebensdauer, Sicherheit und Zuverlaessigkeit. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, H.; Beyermann, G.; Bulling, M.

    1996-07-01

    Two NaNiCl{sub 2}-battery types including the battery controller and peripheral equipment have been developed for the application in fork lift trucks and driverless transportation. The batteries have been tested and evaluated on bench testing as well as in fork lift trucks and driverless trucks in practical application. The field tests have been performed by the subcontractors Still, Mercedes-Benz and Indumat. All test results have shown that the NaNiCl{sub 2}-battery (ZEBRA-battery) is well suited for the application in industrial traction. A series development together with a cost reduction programme have to be performed ahead of the introduction of the ZEBRA-battery into the market for industrial traction batteries. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen des Vorhabens wurden zwei NaNiCl{sub 2}-Batterietypen, eine fuer die Anwendung in Gabelstaplern, die andere fuer den Einsatz in fahrerlosen Transportsystemen (FTS), einschliesslich des Batteriesteuergeraetes und der Batterieperipherie entwickelt. Die Batterien wurden auf Teststaenden im Labor sowie in Gabelstaplern und FTS unter Praxisbedingungen erprobt. Der praktische Einsatz erfolgte bei den Unterauftragnehmern Still, Mercedes-Benz und Indumat. Die Ergebnisse haben gezeigt, dass die NaNiCl{sub 2}-Batterie (ZEBRA-Batterie) fuer die Anwendung in Gabelstaplern und FTS geeignet ist. Insbesondere wurde nachgewiesen, dass die NaNiCl{sub 2}-Batterie im Gegensatz zu anderen Batteriesystemen einen Zweischichtbetrieb von Gabelstaplern ohne Batteriewechsel ermoeglicht. Vor Einfuehrung der ZEBRA-Batterie in den Flurfoerdermarkt muss die Serienentwicklung bei gleichzeitiger Senkung der Herstellkosten durchgefuehrt werden. (orig.)

  18. Solar reactors for freshwater treatment in developing countries with high radiation intensity, with particular regard to part-project No. 1: Microbiology, process conception. Final report; Solarreaktoren fuer die Trinkwasseraufbereitung in Entwicklungslaendern mit hoher Sonnenstrahlungsintensitaet unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung von Teilprojekt 1: Mikrobiologie, Verfahrenskonzeption. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watzke, E.; Roth, M.; Hoffmeier, C.

    2000-07-01

    Erhoehung der Bakterienabtoetungsraten wird die erhoehte Temperatur des behandelten Wassers in einem isolierten Sammelbehaelter ueber mehrere Stunden gehalten. Ausserdem wurden Trinkwasserentkeimungsgefaesse (TWEG) aus hoch UV-durchlaessigem Glas entwickelt, die ebenfalls zur Trinkwasserdesinfektion verwendet werden koennen. In einem Folgeprojekt werden mit den TWEA Langzeittests unter praxisrelevanten Anwendungsbedingungen in Entwicklungslaendern durchgefuehrt. (orig.)

  19. La radiologie est entree avant l'electricite dans les hopitaux de Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallardy, G

    1999-01-01

    The paper looks at the period from 1896 to the beginning of the 20th century and uses as example the installation of radiological equipment by Antoine Beclere, at his own cost, in his department of medicine at the Hopital Tenon, and later at the Hopital Saint-Antoine. The important role of Antoine Beclere in French radiology is recalled as well as his visionary concept of the medical applications of X-rays. The solutions found to ensure the running of the indispensable high tension generators in the two hospitals without electricity are evoked: first, a hand operated electrostatic machine, then an induction coil energized by an accumulator battery that had to be recharched outside. At the end of 1899 at Saint-Antoine, the situation is improved by the decision of the "Conseil de Surveillance" (the Safety Committee) to hook up the radiological equipment to the dynamos which produces electricity for the maternity ward. The problem is definitively solved in 1904, eight years after the first radiological examinations, by the construction of an electric power plant in the hospital. An overview of the electricity available in the Paris region at that time, with the multiplicity of electric power plants, and the great variety of currents provided, largely explains why the hospitals hesitated to use those services. Finally, diverse solutions adopted by other hospitals using radiology are examined, which include the uniting of radiology and photography departments run by "radiographers" who were not physicians, such as A. Londe at the Hopital La Salpetriere, G. Contremoulins at Necker, and Ch. Vaillant at Beaudelocque. In conclusion, the author explains why Antoine Beclere is chosen to illustrate this presentation. His name has been left to posterity because of his considerable accomplishments, which led to French diagnostic and therapeutic radiology being recognized as a medical speciality. His teaching of French and foreign physicians and his seminal work in the field earned him an international reputation and numerous honors. A hospital of the "Assistance Publique a Paris" now bears his name.

  20. French days of radiology (J.F.R.) 2005; Journees francaises de radiologie (JFR) 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Five parts are presented, the nuclear safety authority informs the radiologists on the evolution of the regulation in radiation protection and its practical application; statements of medical and dental radiodiagnosis equipments; licensing for use of radiodiagnosis installation; to use the diagnosis reference levels in radiology to optimize the practices; radiation protection in interventional radiology. (N.C.)

  1. Radiation protection of patients in interventional radiology; Radioprotection du patient en radiologie interventionnelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, A. [Departement d' imagerie, Institut Gustave Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France)

    2010-11-15

    The purpose of this article is to provide radiologists with key elements of radiation protection for interventional radiology patients. The following points will be discussed: standards of the fluoroscopy units, dedicated dosimetry, risks (especially cutaneous) and means to reduce them, optimization of interventional radiology dose protocols, and national and international regulations. Appropriateness criteria in interventional radiology are national guidelines that should be implemented. (author)

  2. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) - implications for radiology; Nephrogene systemische Fibrose (NSF) - Implikationen fuer die Radiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaely, H.J.; Schoenberg, S.O. [Klinikum Mannheim der Universitaet Heidelberg, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Mannheim (Germany); Klinikum Grosshadern der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany); Thomsen, H.S. [Copenhagen University, Hospital at Herlev, Kopenhagen (Denmark); Reiser, M.F. [Klinikum Grosshadern der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany)

    2007-09-15

    Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a systemic disease with a 5% mortality which was first described in 1997 and which only occurs in patients with severely impaired renal function (GFR <30 ml/min per 1.73 m{sup 2}) and for which an association with previous administration of several Gd-chelates has been observed. According to retrospective case control studies the odds ratio for a patient with severely impaired renal function to develop NSF was increased by a factor of 22-32 when gadodiamide was administered. At this time there are approximately 250 confirmed cases of NSF of which 177 are associated with the administration of gadodiamide and 78 are associated with gadopentetate dimeglumine. This review article elucidates the postulated pathogenesis of NSF and provides an overview of the published statements and recommendations from international regulatory authorities and from international advisory boards. Even though the pathogenesis is not completely understood at this time, the European Pharmacovigilance Working Party has decided that gadodiamide and gadopentetate dimeglumine must not be used in high-risk patients. Other Gd-containing contrast agents should only be administered after thorough assessment of the indication and with minimized Gd dose. In the USA, the FDA has issued a black box warning for Gd-containing contrast agents. (orig.) [German] Die nephrogene systemische Fibrose (NSF) ist eine 1997 erstmals beschriebene systemische Erkrankung mit einer 5%igen Mortalitaet, die bislang ausschliesslich bei Patienten mit terminaler Niereninsuffizienz (glomerulaere Filtrationsrate [GFR] <30 ml/min/1,73 m{sup 2}) aufgetreten ist und fuer die eine Assoziation mit der vorherigen Verabreichung verschiedener Gadolinium- (Gd-)haltiger MR-Kontrastmittel beobachtet wurde. Laut retrospektiver Fall-Kontroll-Studien war die Odds Ratio fuer die Entwicklung einer NSF bei Patienten mit stark eingeschraenkter Nierenfunktion 22- bis 32-fach hoeher, wenn Gadodiamid verabreicht wurde. Weltweit sind zum aktuellen Zeitpunkt ca. 250 gesicherte Faelle einer NSF bekannt, von denen 177 mit der Gabe von Gadodiamid assoziiert sind, 78 mit der Gabe von Gadopentetat-Dimeglumine. Dieser Beitrag beleuchtet die Zusammenhaenge von NSF und Gd-Chelaten und gibt eine Uebersicht ueber die veroeffentlichten Richtlinien internationaler Zulassungsbehoerden und Fachgremien. Wenngleich der genaue Pathomechanismus der NSF-Entstehung bisher noch nicht bekannt ist, hat die europaeische Pharmakovigilanz-Arbeitsgruppe dennoch entschieden, dass Gadodiamid und Gadopentetat-Dimeglumine bei bestimmten Risikopatienten nicht mehr eingesetzt werden duerfen. Fuer alle anderen Gd-haltigen Kontrastmittel ist eine strenge Indikationsstellung mit Minimierung der Gd-Dosis notwendig. In den USA hat die FDA fuer alle Gd-haltigen Kontrastmittel eine Anwendungswarnung (''black box warning'') erlassen. (orig.)

  3. Diagnostic radiology of osteo-articular lesions; Radiologie der Knochen- und Gelenkerkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuck, A. [ed.

    1997-07-01

    The textbook teaches the fundamentals as well as the ins and outs of diagnostic image analysis and hence may also serve as a reference book, e.g. for information on lesions of rare occurrence. It offers easy and rapid access to the systematically arranged material covering all relevant methods and findings. (orig./CB) [German] Gerade Anfaenger werden gerne an den 'Knochenplatz' gesetzt - und stellen dann fest, wie schwierig die exakte Analyse der konventionellen Bilder und wie gross die Zahl der Differentialdiagnosen ist. Dieses Buch lehrt die Grundlagen und Feinheiten der Bildanalyse und kann auch als konzentriertes Nachschlagewerk, z.B. zu seltenen Erkrankungen, genutzt werden. Durch CT und MRT ist die radiologische Beurteilung der Knochen- und Gelenkerkrankungen in vieler Hinsicht verbessert, fuer den einzelnen aber auch noch unueberschaubarer geworden. Dieses Buch bringt Uebersicht und Systematik in die Vielfalt der Methoden und Befunde. (orig.)

  4. Radiation induced DNA double-strand breaks in radiology; Strahleninduzierte DNA-Doppelstrangbrueche in der Radiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuefner, M.A. [Dornbirn Hospital (Austria). Dept. of Radiology; Brand, M.; Engert, C.; Uder, M. [Erlangen University Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Schwab, S.A. [Radiologis, Oberasbach (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Shortly after the discovery of X-rays, their damaging effect on biological tissues was observed. The determination of radiation exposure in diagnostic and interventional radiology is usually based on physical measurements or mathematical algorithms with standardized dose simulations. γ-H2AX immunofluorescence microscopy is a reliable and sensitive method for the quantification of radiation induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) in blood lymphocytes. The detectable amount of these DNA damages correlates well with the dose received. However, the biological radiation damage depends not only on dose but also on other individual factors like radiation sensitivity and DNA repair capacity. Iodinated contrast agents can enhance the x-ray induced DNA damage level. After their induction DSB are quickly repaired. A protective effect of antioxidants has been postulated in experimental studies. This review explains the principle of the γ-H2AX technique and provides an overview on studies evaluating DSB in radiologic examinations.

  5. Evaluation of radiation protection in interventional radiology; Evaluation de la radioprotection en radiologie interventionnelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Pape, I.; Aget, H. [Centre Hospitalie Universitaire de Tours, 37 (France); Rondeau du Royer, C. [Inspection Regional du Travail de la region Centre (France)

    1998-07-01

    The interventional radiology, relatively to the conventional radiology exposes particularly to ionizing radiations, because of the time of utilisation of the radioscopy. It is important to optimize the risk according to the ALARA principle. The efforts must be made on the following fields: the radiation protection means, the periodic and systematic monitoring of material, a regular evaluation of operators irradiation, the training of non radiologist operators, the respect of the legislation on the maximum permissible dose equivalents. (N.C.)

  6. French days of radiology (J.F.R.) 2005; Journees francaises de radiologie (JFR) 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Five parts are presented, the nuclear safety authority informs the radiologists on the evolution of the regulation in radiation protection and its practical application; statements of medical and dental radiodiagnosis equipments; licensing for use of radiodiagnosis installation; to use the diagnosis reference levels in radiology to optimize the practices; radiation protection in interventional radiology. (N.C.)

  7. Modern imaging techniques in the pediatric radiology; Moderne Bildgebungstechniken in der paediatrischen Radiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staatz, Gundula [Universitaetsmedizin Mainz (Germany). Sektion Kinderradiologie; Stenzel, Martin [Universitaetsklinikum Jena (Germany). Sektion Paediatrische Radiologie; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim [Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg (Germany). Abt. Kinderradiologie

    2014-12-15

    The contribution on modern imaging techniques in the pediatric radiology covers the following topics: new sequencing techniques in pediatric skull MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): analysis of brain volume changes, diffusion weighted MRI, fractional anisotropy and fiber tracking, susceptibility weighted MRI; fetal MRI and whole-body MRI.

  8. De wetenschappelijke ontwikkelingen in de radiologie en radiotherapie binnen de geneeskunde in Nederland 1896-1922

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, Kees

    2015-01-01

    Met de ontdekking van de röntgenstralen in 1895 werd niet simpelweg een nieuw gereedschap toegevoegd aan het arsenaal van de medicus. Zoiets gebeurt pas, aldus Thomas Kuhn, als de professionele gemeenschap haar traditionele onderzoeksmethode heeft gerevalueerd. Dit historisch onderzoek besteedt aand

  9. Pharmaceuticals applied in the radiology department. Practitioners guide; Pharmaka in der Radiologie. Ein klinischer Leitfaden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofer, U. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Radiologische Klinik

    2001-07-01

    Recommendations for the use of drugs in radiological practice, such as sedatives, analgesics, narcotics, anticoagulants, chemotherapeutic agents, contrast media, antibiotics etc.; pharmacologic effects; side effects; first aid. (MG)

  10. Integrative teaching in Radiology. A survey; Integrative Lehre in der Radiologie. Eine Bestandsaufnahme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dettmer, S.; Weidemann, J.; Wacker, F. [Hannover Medical School, Hannover (Germany). Inst. for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Fischer, V. [Hannover Medical School, Hannover (Germany). Office for Medical Education

    2015-04-15

    To survey integrative teaching in radiology at German universities. A questionnaire about radiological education was sent electronically to all 37 chairpersons of university radiology departments in Germany. The questions included the course type, teaching methods, concept, perception, and advantages and disadvantages of integrative teaching. Statistical analysis was performed with nonparametric statistics and chi-square test. The survey was considered representative with a return rate of 68%. Integrative teaching is established at 4/5 of all departments. Integrative teaching is well accepted with an acceptance rate that is significantly higher in so-called 'Modellstudiengaengen' (model courses of study) (100%) compared to conventional courses of study (72%). The advantages of integrative teaching include linking of content (92%) and preparation for interdisciplinary work (76%). The disadvantages include high effort (75%) and time (67%) for organization. Furthermore, there is a risk that basic radiological facts and knowledge cannot be conveyed and that the visibility of radiology as an independent discipline is lost. Conventional radiological teaching has a similarly high acceptance (84%) compared to integrative courses (76%). Integrative teaching has a high acceptance among chairpersons in radiology in Germany despite the greater effort. A good interdisciplinary collaboration is essential for integrative teaching and at the same time this can be conveyed to the students. However, the visibility of radiology as a discipline and the possibility to cover basic radiological content must be ensured. Therefore, both conventional courses and integrative teaching seems reasonable, especially in cross-disciplinary subjects such as radiology.

  11. Measuring methods and classification in the muscoskeletal radiology; Messverfahren und Klassifikationen in der muskuloskelettalen Radiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldt, Simone; Eiber, Matthias; Woertler, Klaus [Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Univ. Muenchen (TUM), Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie

    2011-07-01

    The book on measuring methods and classification in the musculoskeletal radiology covers the following topics: legs; hip joint; knee joint; foot; shoulder joint; elbow joint; wrist joint; spinal column; craniocervical transition region and cervical spine; muscular-skeletal carcinomas; osteoporosis; arthrosis; articular cartilage; hemophilia; rheumatic arthritis; muscular injuries; skeleton age.

  12. Diagnostic imaging in pregraduate integrated curricula; Radiologie in einem praegraduellen problembasiert-integrierten Medizincurriculum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kainberger, F.; Kletter, K. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Medizinische Univ. Wien (Austria)

    2007-11-15

    Pregraduate medical curricula are currently undergoing a reform process that is moving away from a traditional discipline-related structure and towards problem-based integrated forms of teaching. Imaging sciences, with their inherently technical advances, are specifically influenced by the effects of paradigm shifts in medical education. The teaching of diagnostic radiology should be based on the definition of three core competencies: in vivo visualization of normal and abnormal morphology and function, diagnostic reasoning, and interventional treatment. On the basis of these goals, adequate teaching methods and e-learning tools should be implemented by focusing on case-based teaching. Teaching materials used in the fields of normal anatomy, pathology, and clinical diagnosis may help diagnostic radiology to play a central role in modern pregraduate curricula. (orig.)

  13. Pediatric radiology for medical-technical radiology assistants/radiologists; Paediatrische Radiologie fuer MTRA/RT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oppelt, Birgit

    2010-07-01

    The book on pediatric radiology includes the following chapter: differences between adults and children; psycho-social aspects concerning the patient child in radiology; relevant radiation doses in radiology; help for self-help: simple phantoms for image quality estimation in pediatric radiology; general information; immobilization of the patient; pediatric features for radiological settings; traumatology; contrast agents; biomedical radiography; computerized tomography; NMR imaging; diagnostic ultrasonography; handling of stress practical recommendations; medical displays.

  14. Examinations for radiologists. 1250 examination questions, with comments; Facharztpruefung Radiologie. 1250 kommentierte Pruefungsfragen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albes, G. [Alfried Krupp Krankenhaus, Essen-Ruettenscheid (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologie und Neuroradiologie

    2007-07-01

    The first section presents self-tests and learning tips for a realistic assessment and optimisation of students' learning styles. Rhetoric and communicative competences are looked into, and hints are given on how to organize ones's documents. The second section contains more than 1250 examination questions from all fields of radiology, with which examination situations can be simulated for self-studies. The student is shown how to provide structured answers to complex questions, how to solve clinical problems step by step, how to assess facts, to develop key statements, etc. (orig.)

  15. Functional phlebology. Phlebography, function studies, interventional radiology. Funktionelle Phlebologie. Phlebographie, Funktionstests, interventionelle Radiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, J.; May, R.; Biland, L.; Endert, G.; Gottlob, R.; Justich, E.; Luebcke, P.; Mignon, G.; Moltz, L.; Partsch, H.; Petter, A.; Ritter, H.; Soerensen, R.; Widmer, L.K.; Widmer, M.T.; Zemp, E.

    1990-01-01

    The book presents a complete survey of the problems occurring in the venous system of the legs, pelvis, and abdomen. The material is arranged in the following main chapters: (1) Introduction to the phlebology of the low-pressure system in the lower part of the body; (2) Phlebographic methods; (3) Instrumented function studies and methods; (4) Pathologic findings; (5) Diagnostic methods and vein therapy; (6) Interventional radiology; (7) Expert opinions on venous lesions including insurance aspects. The first chapter encompasses a section briefly discussing the available instrumented diagnostic imaging methods. In view of the novel imaging methods, namely digital subtraction phlebology, sonography, CT and MRI, the classical phlebography remains the gold standard, so to speak: all currently available phlebographic methods for imaging the venes in the legs, pelvis and abdomen are explained and comparatively evaluated. Instrumented function tests such as Doppler effect ultrasound testing, plethysmography, peripheral and central phlebodynamometry (venous pressure measurement) are analysed for their diagnostic value and as alternative or supplementing techniques in comparison to phlebology. (orig./MG) With 843 figs., 101 tabs.

  16. Handbook of the diagnostic radiology. The cardiovascular system; Handbuch der diagnostishen Radiologie. Kardiovaskulaeres System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, D. (ed.) [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik

    2007-07-01

    Cardiovascular system diseases are the most common causes for death besides the progress in medical sciences. The book contains the following contributions within two main chapters: The heart, normal anatomy and important variants, cardiac diseases, thoracic aorta and pulmonal vascular system, abdominal vascular system, peripheric vascular system, veins, supraaortal vascular system, thoracic and abdominal aorta, abdomial vascular system, kidney arteries, mesenterial vascular system, abdominopelvic vascular system, peripheric arteries, hemodialysis shunt, transjugular portosystemic shunt.

  17. Patient dosimetry in classical radiology;Dosimetrie patient en radiologie classique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valero, M. [Autorite de Surete Nucleaire, 75 Paris (France); Sirinelli, D. [Tours Univ., 37 (France); Chateil, J.F. [CHU Bordeaux, 33 (France)

    2009-10-15

    The objective is to give to the participants the means to determine, by simple methods, the dose delivered to skin during a radiological examination (conventional or numerical). The message to remember is: the use of a numerical detector does not lead systematically to reduce the dose at the patient. The dose.length product is a risk indicator. It is important to compare our practices to the procedures written in the guide of procedures and to note and to send to I.R.S.N. the dosimetry data relative to the dosimetry reference levels. (N.C.)

  18. Imaging of the late sequelae of spinal cord injuries; Radiologie von Spaetschaeden nach Rueckenmarkverletzungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodley, R. [Dept. of Radiology, National Spinal Injuries Centre, Stoke Mandeville Hospital, Aylesbury (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-01

    With an increasing ability to diagnose and treat the neurological complications, surveillance of the state of the spinal cord has now assumed great importance. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or computerized tomography (CT) with myelography if MRI is contra-indicated is the method of choice and can demonstrate the pathology with great clarity. In most patients, midline sagittal T1W images are sufficient for screening purposes and for monitoring the success of treatment. Operative, imaging and postmortem studies have shown that the two main changes that occur are: (a) atrophic and (b) cystic - the microcystic and myxoid gel changes of myelomalacia, focal cysts and the larger, more expansive, syringomyelia. As yet, there is no standardization of terminology to describe the various pathological and radiological states. This is critical as only one condition, syringomyelia, is currently amenable to definitive surgery and without conformity, comparisons of incidence in different populations and assessment of the results of surgery are impossible. The published small studies of predominantly symptomatic patients at varying stages of chronicity give differing incidences of changes. Preliminary results of a surveillance MRI study of the spinal cord changes in 153 patients who had had a spinal cord injury over 20 years previously are presented. Altrophy was present in 62%, myelomalacia in 54%, syringomyelia in 22%, focal cysts in 9% and disruption in 7%. (orig./VHE) [Deutsch] Zunehmenden Verbesserungen in Diagnose und Behandlung von neurologischen Komplikationen haben die Bedeutung von Rueckenmarkkontrollen stark erhoeht. Als Methode der Wahl steht die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) zur Verfuegung. Als Screeningverfahren genuegt bei den meisten Patienten die Anfertigung einer mediansagittalen T1-gewichteten MR-Aufnahme. Dies ist auch bei Kontrollaufnahmen in der Nachbehandlung in vielen Faellen ausreichend. Operative, bildgebende und Postmortemstudien haben gezeigt, dass nach Rueckenmarktraumen 2 Hauptveraenderungen entstehen: 1. atrophische und 2. zystische. Die zystischen unterteilen sich in mikrozystische oder myxoidgelaehnliche Myelomalazien, fokale Zysten und groessere meist expansive Syringomyelien. MR-Kontrollen bei insgesamt 153 Patienten, deren Rueckenmarkveletzung mehr als 20 Jahre zurueckliegt, ergaben atrophische Veraenderungen in 62%, Myelomalazien in 54%, Syringomyelien in 22%, fokale Zysten in 9% und Rueckenmarkunterbrechungen in 7%. (orig./VHE)

  19. Differential diagnosis in the pediatric radiology; Differenzialdiagnosen in der paediatrischen Radiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rijn, Rick R. van [Academic Medical Center Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiology; Blickmann, Johan G. (eds.) [Univ. of Rocherster Medical Center, NY (United States). Dept. of Imaging Sciences URMC

    2012-11-01

    The book on differential diagnosis in the pediatric radiology covers the following issues: (1) Thorax, mediastinum, heart ad large blood vessels. (2) Abdomen and gastrointestinal tract. (3) Urogenital tract. (4) Skull, intracranial space and spinal cord. (5) Skeleton, bone joints and soft tissue. (6) Normative values.

  20. Radiology trainer. Head and neck. 2. ed.; Radiologie-Trainer. Kopf und Hals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staebler, Axel [Radiologie Muenchen-Harlaching (Germany); Erlt-Wagner, Birgit [Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie; Hartmann, Marius (eds.) [HELIOS Klinikum Berlin-Buch (Germany). Inst. fuer Neuroradiologie

    2013-11-01

    The radiology training textbook is based on case studies of the clinical experience, including radiological imaging and differential diagnostic discussion. The scope of this volume is head - neck. The following issues are covered: tumor diseases, vascular diseases, infectious and inflammatory diseases and white matter diseases, congenital malformations, traumatic diseases, cranium and basis of the skull, eye socket, facial bones, neck, spinal canal.

  1. In situ measurement of flow characteristics of natural saline rock in loose zones for gas and saline solutions in given rock stress conditions. Final report; In-situ-Ermittlung von Stroemungskennwerten natuerlicher Salzgesteine in Auflockerungszonen gegenueber Gas und Salzloesungen unter den gegebenen Spannungsbedingungen im Gebirge. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haefner, F.; Belohlavek, K.U.; Behr, A.; Foerster, S.; Pohl, A.

    2001-04-01

    A method and equipment were developed for measuring the extension of loose zones around worked areas in saline rock and for in situ measurement of very small permeabilities and porosities in these zones. The experiments are based on unsteady borehole logs with flowing gases or liquids with special multiple pack systems that enable measurements from 4 cm to 15 m from the cavern contour. The measurements were evaluated by a specially developed software with automatic parameter identification. Permeabilities were identified between 10{sup 14} m{sup 2} and the detection limit of 10{sup 24} m{sup 2} and effective porosities of less than 0.1% at experimental times of several minutes up to several days. The logs were made in 3 mines in Stassfurt rock salt at depths of 700 and 500 m with different geological and geomechanical boundary conditions, worked in different ways and for different periods of time (between a few days and 37 years). Some of the findings were validated by ultrasonic measurements. [German] Fuer die Ermittlung der Ausdehnung von Auflockerungszonen um bergmaennisch aufgefahrene Strecken/Hohlraeume im Salzgestein und zur In-situ-Bestimmung kleinster Permeabilitaeten und Porositaeten in diesen Bereichen wurde ein Verfahren und eine praktikable Versuchsausruestung entwickelt. Diese eignet sich auch fuer Frac-Untersuchungen. Basis der Versuchsdurchfuehrungen sind instationaere Bohrlochuntersuchungen mit Gasen oder Fluessigkeiten als Stroemungsfluid unter Einsatz spezieller Mehrfachpackersysteme. Damit sind Messungen ab 4 cm Abstand zur Hohlraumkontur bis zu 15 m moeglich. Die Versuchsauswertung erfolgt mittels einer speziell entwickelten Software mit automatischer Parameteridentifikation, die die instationaere Stroemung um die Versuchsbohrung raeumlich vollstaendig beschreibt. Permeabilitaeten wurden je nach Abstand zur Hohlraumkontur zwischen 10{sup -14} m{sup 2} und der Nachweisgrenze 10{sup -24} m{sup 2} und effektive Porositaeten bis <0,1% ermittelt, bei

  2. Clinical application of leucocyte scintigraphy with the monoclonal antibody MAK BW 250/183 with special regard to the induction of antimurine antibodies (HAMA); Leukozytenszintigraphie mit dem monoklonalen Antikoerper MAK BW 250/183 in der klinischen Anwendung unter Beruecksichtigung der Induktion von antimurinen Antikoerpern (HAMA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eising, E.G. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin der Universitaet-GH, Essen (Germany); Reiners, C. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin der Universitaet-GH, Essen (Germany); Farahati, J. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin der Universitaet-GH, Essen (Germany); Jacob, M. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin der Universitaet-GH, Essen (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    Scintigraphy with the murine antibody MAK BW 250/183 (Scintimun Granulozyt{sup R}) has proven to be a good imaging method to clear up clinical questions concerning acute inflammatory processes. 30 patients with clinical signs of acute inflammation were included in this prospective study to test the clinical usefulness of this tracer and possible negative influences by anti-murine antibodies (HAMA). Side effects or induction of HAMA antibodies couldn`t be observed in any patients. The quality of the obtained images was good in all cases. However, false negative results were obtained in cases on antiphlogistic medication (e.g. cortisone) or with chronic inflammatory diseases. Application of MAK BW 250/183 (Scintimum Granulozyt{sup R}) should be avoided in children due to its relative high radiation dose to bone marrow. False negative results can be found in inflammatory lesions of axial sceleton. On the other hand, the good contrast of bone marrow can be used in patients to diagnose pathologic alterations of bone marrow distribution. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bei erwachsenen Patienten mit dem gezielten Verdacht auf akute entzuendliche Veraenderungen stellt die Anti-Granulozyten-Szintigraphie eine Methode mit relativ guter Bildgebung und Aussagefaehigkeit dar. Zur Ueberpruefung der klinischen Wertigkeit der Anti-Granulozyten-Szintrigraphie mit dem monoklonalen, murinen Antikoerper MAK BW 250/183 (Scintimun Granulozyt{sup R}) wurden 30 Patienten in einer prospektiv angelegten Studie untersucht. Insbesondere wurde hierbei auch die Ausbildung von signifikanten Antikoerpertitern gegen den MAK ueberprueft und deren Einfluss auf die szintigraphische Bildgebung evaluiert. Nebenwirkungen oder die Ausbildung von Antikoerpern (HAMA) wurden bei Patienten innerhalb der Studie nicht beobachtet. Auch die erhaltenen szintigraphischen Aufnahmen waren durchweg gut beurteilbar. Entzuendungen unter Antiphlogistika (insbesondere Cortisonpraeparate) sowie laengerfristig bestehende Entzuendungen

  3. Percutaneous transfemoral placement of a new flexible stent-graft into the thoracic aorta followed by a percutaneous suture-mediated closure of the access site - initial experience; Perkutane transfemorale implantation einer neuen, flexiblen thorakalen Aortenendoprothese unter Verwendung eines perkutanen Nahtsystems zum Gefaessverschluss - erste Erfahrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manke, C.; Lenhart, M.; Strotzer, M.; Feuerbach, S.; Link, J. [Klinikum der Univ. Regensburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik; Kobuch, R.; Merk, J.; Birnbaum, F. [Klinikum der Univ. Regensburg (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Herz-, Thorax- und herznahe Gefaesschirurgie

    2001-05-01

    To evaluate the transfemoral placement of a new, flexible stent-graft into the thoracic aorta and the suture-mediated closure of the femoral access. Patients and Methods: five patients were treated endovascularly with a stent-graft for an aneurysm (n = 3) or acute dissection (n = 2) of the thoracic aorta via a femoral 24 F sheath. The femoral access site was closed with two suture-mediated closure devices after placement of the stent-graft. Results: the aneurysm or the false lumen was excluded from perfusion by the placement of the stent-graft in all patients. Hemostasis at the femoral access site was successful in all patients with the percutaneous suture device. A minor stenosis of the femoral artery was found angiographically in four patients after suture-mediated closure. Besides a reversible renal failure due to the medically induced hypotension for the treatment of an acutely ruptured aneurysm, no complications resulted from the stent-graft placement or the percutaneous suture. Conclusion: the percutaneous transfemoral placement of stent-grafts in the thoracic aorta using a suture-mediated closure of the access site is technically feasible. Long-term results of the technique have to be awaited. (orig.) [German] Evaluation der transfemoralen Implantation einer neuen, flexiblen thorakalen Aortenprothese unter Verwendung eines perkutanen Nahtsystems zum Verschluss des femoralen Zugangs. Patienten und Methoden: fuenf Patienten wurden wegen Aneurysma (n = 3) oder akuter Dissektion (n = 2) der thorakalen Aorta endovaskulaer ueber eine perkutan eingebrachte 24F-Schleuse mit einem Stentgraft versogt. Der femorale Zugang wurde nach Plazierung der Endoprothese mit zwei perkutanen Nahtgeraeten verschlossen. Ergebnisse: bei allen Patienten fuehrte die Platzierung der Prothese zur Ausschaltung des Aneurysmas oder des falschen Lumens von der Perfusion. Mit der perkutanen Gefae paragraph naht konnte in allen Faellen ein Verschluss des femoralen Zugangs erreicht werden. In

  4. Development of an analysis method for determining chlorinated hydrocarbons in marine sediments and suspended matter giving particular consideration to supercritical fluid extraction; Entwicklung eines Analysenverfahrens zur Bestimmung von chlorierten Kohlenwasserstoffen in marinen Sedimenten und Schwebstoffen unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der ueberkritischen Fluidextraktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterzenbach, D.

    1997-11-01

    diesem Grund soll das gesamte Verfahren und dessen Einzelschritte unter diesem Gesichtspunkt ueberprueft und gegebenenfalls verbessert werden. Fuer die Probennahme von marinen Schwebstoffen soll ein Verfahren erarbeitet werden, das eine effiziente Abtrennung moeglichst kleiner suspendierter Partikel aus Seewasser ermoeglicht. Mit dem entwickelten Analysenverfahren sollen aktuelle Aspekte der Meereschemie zu Quellen, Transport, Verteilung und Verbleib von chlorierten Kohlenwasserstoffen in der marinen Umwelt behandelt werden. (orig.)

  5. Untersuchungen zur Oberflächenspannung von Kohleschlacken unter Vergasungsbedingungen

    OpenAIRE

    Melchior, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    In the context of CO2-emission-induced global warming, greenhouse gases resulting from the production of electricity in coal-fired power plants gain increasing attention. One possible way to reduce such emissions is to gasify coal instead of burning it. The corresponding process is referred to as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle and allows for the separation of CO2 before converting a synthesis gas into electrical energy. However, further improvements in efficiency and availability of t...

  6. Experimentelle und numerische Untersuchung magerer Methan-Hochdruckverbrennung unter Mikrogravitation

    OpenAIRE

    Hyvönen, Jari Johannes

    2000-01-01

    The experimental and numerical examination of laminar lean premixed combustion of methane air mixtures at high pressures under normal and microgravity is the aim of this thesis. The elimination of buoyancy under microgravity is essential for the exact determination of the flammability limit and the burning velocity and furthermore allows the analysis of flame instabilities. First the lean flammability limit for upward combustion of methane was determined by the pressure increase inside the co...

  7. Eine untere Massenschranke fuer Neutralinos aus Supernova-Kuehlung

    CERN Document Server

    Langenfeld, U

    2004-01-01

    In my diploma thesis I calculate a lower mass bound of the lightest nutralino assuming an additional supernova cooling mechanism. I consider elektron-positron annihilation and nucleon-nucleon bremsstrahlung as cooling processes. These cooling processes must not be too effective because they would destroy the neutrino signal (SN 1987a). From this requirement I derive an upper bound for the emitted energy and as a consequence I get a lower bound for the mass of the lightest neutralino.

  8. Successful upgrading under pressure of time; Unter Zeitdruck erfolgreich modernisiert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, M. [Sulzer Hydro AG, Zurich (Switzerland); Gislason, G. [Landsvirkjun (Iceland)

    1998-07-01

    Burfell power station in Iceland is an excellent example of comprehensive upgrading thanks to partnerly relations between customer and supplier. This project has proved that runner replacement should not be treated individually in hydroelectric power plant modernizations, but as part of an overall refurbishing concept. To shorten delivery times, some innovative development and manufacturing methods were introduced. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Kraftwerk Burfell in Island ist ein Beispiel fuer einen Umbau mit gesamtheitlicher Betrachtung und einer partnerschaftlichen Beziehung zwischen Kunde und Lieferant. Das Projekt hat bewiesen, dass beim Umbau von Wasserkraftwerken ein Laufradersatz nicht isoliert betrachtet werden darf, sondern in ein Gesamtkonzept innerhalb der bestehenden Anlage einzubinden ist. Zur Verkuerzung der Lieferzeiten wurden neue Wege in der Entwicklung und Fertigung der Komponenten beschritten. (orig.)

  9. Dimethylcarbonat als Methylierungsmittel unter phasen-transfer-katalytischen Bedingungen

    OpenAIRE

    Lissel, Manfred; Schmidt, Stefan; Neumann, Beate

    1986-01-01

    Use of Dimethyl Carbonate as a Methylating Agent under Phase Transfer-Catalysed Conditions Dimethyl carbonate (as well as diethyl, diallyl, dibenzyl carbonate and ethane-1, 2-diyl carbonate) in the presence of potassium carbonate and 18-crown-6 (or Aliqual 336) is a versatile, cheap, and safer reagent for the methylation of a variety of organic substrates.

  10. Vehicles under electricity. Result booklet; Autos unter Strom. Ergebnisbroschuere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    The booklet under consideration reports on the environmental relief of electric-driven vehicles by means of the research project OPTUM 'Potentials of environmental relief of electric driven vehicles - Integrated analysis of vehicle usage and energy economy'. Experts from the Institute for Applied Ecology (Freiburg, Federal Republic of Germany) and the Institute for Social-Ecological Research (Frankfurt (Main), Federal Republic of Germany) are devoted to the following issues: (1) What is the acceptance for electric-driven vehicles?; (2) What is their future market potential?; (3) What are the advantages of electromobility with respect to the climate?; (4) Are their supply shortages concerning major raw materials?.

  11. Veränderung der psychischen Belastung - unter Einbeziehung der Lebensqualität - bei Krebspatienten unter Sport

    OpenAIRE

    Hörtig, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Dank neuer Diagnoseverfahren zeigt die Inzidenz der Krebserkrankungen einen zunehmenden Verlauf. Durch verbesserte Methoden in der chirurgischen und medikamentösen Therapie wird aus einer ehemals tödlichen, häufig eine chronische Krankheit. Immer mehr Patienten leben jahrelang mit ihrer Erkrankung. Die Erhaltung der Lebensqualität bei diesem steigenden Patientenkollektiv rückt immer mehr in den Fokus der Wissenschaft. Ziele der Forschung auf diesem Gebiet bestehen darin, die Nebenwirkungen de...

  12. Investigation and modelling of the alkaline release and transport during coal combustion at elevated pressures. Final report; Untersuchung und Modellierung der Freisetzungs- und Transportvorgaenge von Alkalien bei der Kohleverbrennung unter hohen Druecken. Untersuchungen mit der Hochdruck-Hochtemperatur-Thermowaage, Alkalienanalysen in Rohkohlen und Feuerungsversuche in der Druckwirbelschichtanlage FRED (DMT). Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonn, B.; Steffin, C.; Busch, U.; Mayer, M.

    2000-07-01

    Verbrennung unter Druck. Variiert wurden hierzu die Einflussparameter umgebende Gasatmosphaere und Aschezusammensetzung sowie Druck und Aufheizrate. Die Versuche wurden in der DMT Hochdruck-Hochtemperatur-Thermowaage (TGA) und der DMT Druckwirbelschichtfeuerung (DWSF) durchgefuehrt. TGA-Versuche: Als Modelsubstanz fuer Alkalien wurde Natriumchlorid und fuer die Mineralsubstanz der Kohle Metakaolin eingesetzt. Die chemische Eigenschaft (Basizitaet) von Metakaolin wurde durch Zugabe von CaO veraendert. Die allgemein akzeptierte Annahme eines physikalischen Verdampfungsprozesses der Alkalien aus den Kohleaschen konnte in den TGA-Versuchen nicht bestaetigt werden. Vielmehr muss von einer Desorptionsreaktion des Natriumchlorids von der Metakaolin-Oberflaeche ausgegangen werden. Die Desorption von Alkalien wird nicht durch die chemische Zusammensetzung der Mineralsubstanz beeinflusst, dagegen besitzen die Sauerstoffverbindungen in der Gasphase und der Druck einen starken Einfluss. DWSF-Versuche: Die Versuchsanlage wurde betrieben bei einer Wirbelschichttemperatur von 920 C und einem Druck von 7 bar. Die online/in-situ Alkali-Messung beruht auf der Excimer Laser Induced Fragmentation Fluorescence ELIF. Die Alkali-Konzentration wurde variiert durch die Zugabe von Natriumacetat und Natriumchlorid. Als Adsorber von Alkaliemissionen wurde Kaolin eingesetzt. Darueber hinaus wurde der Einfluss der Kalksteinzugabe auf die Alkali-Emissionen untersucht. Die Versuche zeigten u.a., dass die Alkali-Emissionen von Braunkohlen um einen Faktor 50-100 ueber den Alkali-Emissionen von Steinkohlen liegen, und dass die Zugabe von Kalkstein (der zur SO{sub 2}-Minderung eingesetzt wird) zu stark ansteigenden Alkalichlorid-Emissionen fuehrt. (orig.)

  13. Comparison of high resolution whole-body MRI using parallel imaging and PET-CT. First experiences with a 32-channel MRI system; Hochaufloesendes Ganzkoerpertumorstaging unter Verwendung paralleler Bildgebung im Vergleich zur PET-CT. Erste Erfahrungen auf einem 32-Kanal-MRT-System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, G.P.; Baur-Melnyk, A.; Reiser, M.F.; Schoenberg, S.O. [Klinikum Grosshadern der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie (Germany); Tiling, R.; Hahn, K. [Klinikum Grosshadern der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin (Germany)

    2004-09-01

    technique in the detection of primary tumor and metastatic disease. Sensitivity in the assessment of lymph node metastases seems to be limited. With the use of parallel imaging (iPAT), dedicated high-resolution whole-body MRI is possible within acceptable scanning times. (orig.) [German] Vergleich der Genauigkeit eines hochaufloesenden Ganzkoerper-MRT-Tumorstagings unter Verwendung paralleler Bildgebung mit den Ergebnissen der PET-CT. Es werden erste Ergebnisse einer Interimsanalyse aus einer prospektiven, geblindeten Studie vorgestellt, in der an 20 Patienten (Durchschnittsalter 59 Jahre, Range 27-77 Jahre) mit unterschiedlichen onkologischen Erkrankungen im Rahmen der klinischen Diagnostik eine Tumor- oder Metastasensuche mit der Ganzkoerper-FDG-PET-CT durchgefuehrt wurde. Bei allen Patienten erfolgte zusaetzlich eine Ganzkoerper-MRT-Bildgebung mit Einsatz der parallelen Bildgebungstechnik (iPAT). Angewendet wurden hochaufloesende koronare T1-gewichtete- und STIR-Sequenzen von 5 Koerperregionen mit einer Matrix von 512 x 512 mm, axiale T2-gewichtete Turbospinechosequenzen (HASTE) der Lunge und des Abdomens sowie kontrastverstaerkte dynamische und statische T1-gewichtete Sequenzen von Leber, Gehirn, Abdomen und Becken. Bei Verwendung eines 32-Kanal-Systems (Magnetom Avanto, Siemens Medical Solutions) mit einem gesamten field of view von 205 cm und freier Tischbewegung konnten alle Patienten in einem Untersuchungsgang vollstaendig von Kopf bis zu den Fuessen gescannt werden. Dabei wurde eine hohe raeumliche Aufloesung erzielt. Die Messzeit betrug ca. 55 min. Zwei erfahrene Radiologen werteten die MRT-Untersuchung, ein Radiologe und ein Nuklearmediziner die PET-CT-Untersuchung, jeweils im Konsensus, aus. Es wurden der Nachweis und das Stadium des Primaertumors oder des Tumorrezidivs sowie von Lymphknoten- und Fernmetastasen bewertet. Als Referenzmethode wurde das durch die PET-CT identifizierte TNM-Stadium herangezogen. Es wurden Metastasen von gastrointestinalen Tumoren (25

  14. Stakeholder supportiveness and strategic vulnerability: implications for competitive strategy in the HMO industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, C J; Blair, J D; Smith, R R; Nix, T W; Savage, G T

    1989-01-01

    A conceptual and empirical analysis of the strategic vulnerability of HMOs shows that they are strategically vulnerable on the social dimension of stakeholder supportiveness. One of the major implications of this finding is that HMOs' cost leadership strategy cannot be sustained, given the competition from such substitutes as PPAs.

  15. Effect of cement kiln dust and gamma irradiation on the ultrasonic parameters of HMO borate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd elfadeel, G.; Saddeek, Yasser B.; Mohamed, Gehan Y.; Mostafa, A. M. A.; Shokry Hassan, H.

    2017-03-01

    Glass samples with the chemical formula x CKD-(100 - x) (5Na2O-65 B2O3-9 Bi2O3-21PbO), (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 32 mol%) were prepared. The density and the ultrasonic estimations of the investigated glasses were analyzed at room temperature before and after the impact of two dosages of gamma irradiation to study the effect of both CKD and gamma radiation. It was found that the density, and the ultrasonic parameters are sensitive to the variety of the content of CKD and the effect of γ-radiation. Replacement of oxides with higher atomic weights such as Bi2O3 and PbO by CKD decreases the density. Analysis of the behavior of the ultrasonic parameters demonstrates that creation of CaO6 and SiO4 on one hand and an alternate transformation between BO4 and BO3 structural units, on the other hand, affect the increase of the ultrasonic velocities and the elastic moduli. Moreover, the density and the ultrasonic parameters decrease somewhat with the increase of the doses of γ-irradiation. The variations of the previous physical parameters can be referred to the creation of radiation imperfections, which occupied the voids inside the glass structure.

  16. At-risk drinking in an HMO primary care sample: prevalence and health policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, M F; Manwell, L B; Barry, K L; Johnson, K

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to determine the prevalence of at-risk drinking using varying alcohol use criteria. METHODS: A period prevalence survey was conducted in 22 primary care practices (n = 19372 adults). RESULTS: The frequency of at-risk alcohol use varied from 7.5% (World Health Organization criteria) to 19.7% (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism criteria). A stepwise logistic model using National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism criteria found male gender, current tobacco use, never married status, retirement, and unemployment to be significant predictors of at-risk alcohol use. CONCLUSIONS: Public health policy needs to move to a primary care paradigm focusing on identification and treatment of at-risk drinkers. PMID:9584040

  17. Competitive bidding for health insurance contracts: lessons from the online HMO auctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Alok; Parente, Stephen T; Sanyal, Pallab

    2012-12-01

    Healthcare is an important social and economic component of modern society, and the effective use of information technology in this industry is critical to its success. As health insurance premiums continue to rise, competitive bidding may be useful in generating stronger price competition and lower premium costs for employers and possibly, government agencies. In this paper, we assess an endeavor by several Fortune 500 companies to reduce healthcare procurement costs for their employees by having HMOs compete in open electronic auctions. Although the auctions were successful in generating significant cost savings for the companies in the first year, i.e., 1999, they failed to replicate the success and were eventually discontinued after two more years. Over the past decade since the failed auction experiment, effective utilization of information technologies have led to significant advances in the design of complex electronic markets. Using this knowledge, and data from the auctions, we point out several shortcomings of the auction design that, we believe, led to the discontinuation of the market after three years. Based on our analysis, we propose several actionable recommendations that policy makers can use to design a sustainable electronic market for procuring health insurance.

  18. Développement d'un système robotique pour la radiologie interventionnelle sous IRM

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelaziz, Salih

    2012-01-01

    Performing medical gestures under MRI is a promising medical approach. Todate, using MRI for interventions is still limited, despite the quality of the provided images. This limitation is mainly due to the confined physical space inside the tunnel and the complexity of the gestures. To make accessible such practices, a robotic assistance seems very relevant. However, it's a challenge for the designer, given the limited space and the strong magnetic field inside the bore. In this context, we h...

  19. Angioplasty, embolization, biopsy, drainage. Interventional methods in medical radiology. Angioplastie, Embolisation, Punktion, Drainagen. Interventionelle Methoden der Radiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedmann, G.; Steinbrich, W.; Gross-Fengels, W. (eds.)

    1989-01-01

    In the field of diagnostic radiology, interventional radiology has been emerging as a significant tool allowing treatments such as catherization, embolization, and vascular stenting, assisted by the rapid development of digital imaging methods. For this reason, interventional radiology has been chosen as a main topic of the '6th Cologne Symposium on Biomedical Imaging Methods', where interventional methods have been given large space for presentation by experienced specialists, and for a comprehensive survey ranging from basic principles and tools for the variety of applications, the relevant pre- and after-treatment, to specialized techniques for complex tasks. The proceedings give the full texts and illustrations of all papers presented to the symposium. The topcis discussed are as follows: Accompanying drug therapy (1 paper), vascular recanalization (7 papers), local fibrinolytic therapy (1 paper), vascular stenting (4 papers), biopsy and drainage (5 papers), embolization (3 papers), and present status and future direction of interventional radiology in the U.S.A. (1 paper).

  20. Cross-disciplinary management of polytrauma patients: radiological screening and comparison; Interdisziplinaeres Management von polytraumatisierten Patienten: Beitrag der Radiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messmer, P. [Universitaetskliniken Basel, Dept. Chirurgie, Allgemeinchirurgische Klinik, Abt. Traumatologie (Switzerland); Loew, R.; Jacob, A.L. [Universitaetskliniken Basel, Dept. Medizinische Radiologie, Abt. Diagnostische Radiologie (Switzerland)

    2001-09-01

    The comprehensive survey addresses the various modalities available today for trauma screening and presents a comparative assessment of their value in respect of type of trauma and evidence provided. (orig./CB) [German] Die Versorgung polytraumatischer Patienten stellt hoechste Anforderungen an das Koennen des Radiologen. Neben einer schnellen und schonenden Durchfuehrung der notwendigen Diagnostik darf keine potenziell lebensbedrohende Verletzung uebersehen werden. Die Kriterien fuer eine rationelle Diagnostik wurden im ATLS-Kurs (Advanced Trauma Life Support) zusammengefasst. Es gilt, die sog. 'golden hour' moeglichst effektiv fuer die Primaerdiagnostik und -therapie zu nutzen. Haeufige Verletzungsformen beim Polytrauma sind das Schaedel-Hirn-Trauma, Thoraxverletzungen, Milzverletzungen, Leberverletzungen und Frakturen von Becken, Wirbelsaeule und Extremitaeten. Die Primaere und Sekundaere Radiologische Diagnostik ist abhaengig von der Ausstattung der Klinik und besteht aus einer abdominellen Sonographie, Thorax ap, Beckenuebersicht ap, Halswirbelsaeule seitlich sowie falls vorhanden aus CT und Angiographie. Ein definitiver Schritt zur Verkuerzung der Zeit bis zur Behandlung waeren sterile OP-Einheiten mit integrierter Roentgendiagnostik (moeglichst nativ und CT), die ein staendiges Umlagern und Transportieren des Patienten verhindern koennten. (orig.)

  1. Plan gauge in pediatric radiology: dosimetry (experience of ten months); Capteur plan en radiologie pediatrique: dosimetrie (experience de 10 mois)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraysse, V.; Lacaze, M.T.; Ferran, J.L.; Couture, A.; Gardien, E

    2006-10-15

    The objectives were to optimize the radiological constants in the use of the sensors plans(shots) in general radiology. Definition of doses, calculation and communication to the parents of the received dose. (N.C.)

  2. Dose monitoring in radiology departments. Status quo and future perspectives; Dosismonitoring in der Radiologie. Status quo und Zukunftsperspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boos, J. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Meineke, A. [Cerner Healthcare Services, Idstein (Germany); Bethge, O.T.; Antoch, G.; Kroepil, P. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2016-05-15

    The number of computed tomography examinations has continuously increased over the last decades and accounts for a major part of the collective radiation dose from medical investigations. For purposes of quality assurance in modern radiology a systematic monitoring and analysis of dose related data from radiological examinations is mandatory. Various ways of collecting dose data are available today, for example the Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine - Structured Report (DICOM-SR), optical character recognition and DICOM-modality performed procedure steps (MPPS). The DICOM-SR is part of the DICOM-standard and provides the DICOM-Radiation Dose Structured Report, which is an easily applicable and comprehensive solution to collect radiation dose parameters. This standard simplifies the process of data collection and enables comprehensive dose monitoring. Various commercial dose monitoring software devices with varying characteristics are available today. In this article, we discuss legal obligations, various ways to monitor dose data, current dose monitoring software solutions and future perspectives in regard to the EU Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM.

  3. McCune-Albright syndrome: role of radiology; Syndrome de McCune-Albright, place de la radiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iffenecker, C.; Coevoet, V.; Higa, E.R.; Petit, M.C.; Fuerxer, F.; Doyon, D. [Hopital de Bicetre, 94 - le Kremlin-Bicetre (France)

    1997-09-01

    McCune-Albright syndrome is a genetical disease with a mosaic distribution. It is characterized by skin pigmentations, fibrous dysplasia and sexual precocity but can also include others endocrinopathies. Two cases are reported illustrating the interest of radiological investigations in diagnosis, follow up and complications of this affection. (authors). 21 refs.

  4. Examinations for radiology. 1450 examination questions, with comments. 3. rev. and enl. ed.; Facharztpruefung Radiologie. 1450 kommentierte Pruefungsfragen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albes, Guido [Klinikum Stuttgart (Germany). Neurozentrum

    2013-07-01

    The book on examinations for radiology contains 1450 examination questions, with comments. The chapter on technical fundamentals and radiation protection covers the topics X-ray technologies, ultrasound and magnetic resonance tomography. The chapter on specific diagnostic radiology covers the topics brain, spinal cord, head and neck, thorax, abdomen and pelvis organs and the muscoskeletal system.

  5. Radiology trainer. Torso, internal organs and vessels. 2. ed.; Radiologie-Trainer. Koerperstamm, innere Organe und Gefaesse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staebler, Axel [Orthopaedische Klinik Harlaching, Muenchen (Germany). Radiologische Praxis; Erlt-Wagner, Birgit (eds.) [Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie

    2013-11-01

    The radiology training textbook is based on case studies of the clinical experience, including radiological imaging and differential diagnostic discussion. The scope of this volume covers the torso, internal organs and vessels. The following issues are discussed: lungs, pleura, mediastinum; heart and vascular system; upper abdomen organs; gastrointestinal tract; urogenital system.

  6. Compression of digital images in radiology. Results of a consensus conference; Kompression digitaler Bilddaten in der Radiologie. Ergebnisse einer Konsensuskonferenz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loose, R. [Klinikum Nuernberg-Nord (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Braunschweig, R. [BG Kliniken Bergmannstrost, Halle/Saale (Germany). Klinik fuer Bildgebende Diagnostik und Interventionsradiologie; Kotter, E. [Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg (Germany). Abt. Roentgendiagnostik; Mildenberger, P. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Simmler, R.; Wucherer, M. [Klinikum Nuernberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik

    2009-01-15

    Purpose: Recommendations for lossy compression of digital radiological DICOM images in Germany by means of a consensus conference. The compression of digital radiological images was evaluated in many studies. Even though the results demonstrate full diagnostic image quality of modality-dependent compression between 1:5 and 1:200, there are only a few clinical applications. Materials and Methods: A consensus conference with approx. 80 interested participants (radiology, industry, physics, and agencies) without individual invitation was organized by the working groups AGIT and APT of the German Roentgen Society DRG to determine compression factors without loss of diagnostic image quality for different anatomical regions for CT, CR/DR, MR, RF/XA examinations. The consent level was specified as at least 66 %. Results: For individual modalities the following compression factors were recommended: CT (brain) 1:5, CT (all other applications) 1:8, CR/DR (all applications except mammography) 1:10, CR/DR (mammography) 1:15, MR (all applications) 1:7, RF/XA (fluoroscopy, DSA, cardiac angio) 1:6. The recommended compression ratios are valid for JPEG and JPEG 2000 /Wavelet compressions. Conclusion: The results may be understood as recommendations and indicate limits of compression factors with no expected reduction of diagnostic image quality. They are similar to the current national recommendations for Canada and England. (orig.)

  7. Wireless energy transmission through the abdominal wall for operating implanted actuators and recharging implanted energy storages with due consideration to the simultaneous undisturbed transcutaneous transmission of encoded signals for controlling various functions of the implant; Drahtloser Energietransfer durch die Bauchdecke zum Betrieb von implantierten Aktoren und zur Wiederaufladung von implantierten Energiespeichern unter Beruecksichtigung der gleichzeitigen ungestoerten transkutanen Uebertragung von codierten Signalen zur Steuerung verschiedener Funktionen eines Implantats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, S.

    2007-07-01

    integrierten Energiespeicher damit geladen werden koennen, ohne Energieleitungen durch die Bauchdecke hindurch fuehren zu muessen. Dieses ziel wurde durch die Entwicklung und Anwendung eines auf die Anforderungen im urologischen Bereich eingesetzten medicinischen Implantats abgestimmten induktiven und damit transkutanen Energietransfer realisiert. Dazu wurde unter anderem ein umfangreiches Simulationsmodell zur Berechnung mit der Finiten-Element-Methode erstellt. Als Resultat ergeben sich eine Reihe von Vorteilen fuer die betroffenen Patienten: vollstaendige Vermeidung von Infektionen die sonst durch eine staendig offene ''Wunde'' in der Bauchdecke, bedingt durch die hindurch tretende Energieleitung, vorhanden waere; hierdurch ergibt sich wiederum der Vorteil, dass die Patienten weniger Medikamente zu sich nehmen muessen und die Kosten fuer eine staendige Wundbehandlung entfallen; weitestgehende Unabhaengigkeit von der stationaeren Energieversorgung im Betrieb des Systems (ueber mehrere Tage keine Notwendigkeit staendig eine Netzsteckdose in der Naehe haben zu muessen), damit geht eine wesentlich gesteigerte Mobilitaet der Patienten einher. Die Entwicklung einer transkutanen Signaluebertragung mit Hilfe von Infrarot bzw. RF Technologie hat die Rueckgewinnung einer willentlichen Steuerung der Miktion erst entscheidend ermoeglicht und beseitigt damit eine der Hauptaengste von betroffenen Patienten, ein fremdbestimmtes und durch ein von kurzen festgelegten Intervallen wiederkehrender Entleerungstaetigkeit (rund um die Uhr) gepraegtes Leben fuehren zu muessen. Die zusaetzliche Abfragemoeglichkeit des Reservoirfuellstandes ermoeglicht dabei eine Kontrolle zu beliebigen Zeitpunkten und fuehrt deshalb zu einer entscheidend verbesserten Planbarkeit der Toilettengaenge. Dies stellte das zweite Ziel dar. Die Kombination des transkutanen Energie- und Signaltransfers fuehrte u.a. zu einem Gesamtsystem, das die Lebensqualitaet der von einer Totaloperation betroffenen

  8. Investigations on the sleep quality of electrosensitive residents near base stations unter homely conditions; Untersuchung der Schlafqualitaet bei elektrosensiblen Anwohnern von Basisstationen unter haeuslichen Bedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitgeb, Norbert

    2007-07-01

    In this study during a total of 214 nights sleep of 200 volunteers was analyzed. The investigated persons suffered from permanent and severe sleep disturbances and were deeply convinced that the environmental radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMF) caused their problems. The studies used mobile shields to compare the sleep quality with and without shield including a sham shield. For a predominant number the subjective conviction of volunteers that RF EMF pollution was the cause of their sleep disturbance could be falsified. The pooled analysis resulted in statistically significant placebo-effects for subjective sleep parameters. For 18% of volunteers it could be demonstrated that their belief in shielding improved sleep (placebo-effect). The sleep onset behavior of 9% of the volunteers was statistical significantly affected by RF EMF shielding. The investigations did not indicate adverse health effects of RF EMF emissions in general and from mobile telecommunication fields in particular.

  9. Does levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system increase breast cancer risk in peri-menopausal women? An HMO perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegelmann-Danieli, Nava; Katzir, Itzhak; Landes, Janet Vesterman; Segal, Yaakov; Bachar, Rachel; Rabinovich, Hadas Rotem; Bialik, Martin; Azuri, Joseph; Porath, Avi; Lomnicky, Yossef

    2017-09-14

    To evaluate the association between levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) use and breast cancer (BC) risk. A cohort of all Maccabi Healthcare Services (MHS) female members aged 40-50 years between 1/2003 and 12/2013 was used to identify LNG-IUS users as "cases," and 2 age-matched non-users as "controls." Exclusion criteria included: prior BC diagnosis, prior (5 years pre-study) and subsequent treatment with other female hormones or prophylactic tamoxifen. Invasive tumors were characterized by treatments received (chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, trastuzumab, or combination thereof). The analysis included 13,354 LNG-IUS users and 27,324 controls (mean age: 44.1 ± 2.6 vs. 44.9 ± 2.8 years; p < 0.0001). No significant differences in 5-year Kaplan-Meier (KM) estimates for overall BC risk or ductal carcinoma in situ occurrence were observed between groups. There was a trend towards higher risk for invasive BC in LNG-IUS users (5-year KM-estimate: 1.06% vs. 0.93%; p = 0.051). This difference stemmed primarily from the younger women (40-45 years; 0.88% vs. 0.69%, p = 0.014), whereas in older women (46-50 years), it was non-significant (1.44% vs. 1.21%; p = 0.26). Characterization of invasive BC by treatment demonstrated that LNG-IUS users had similar proportions of tumors treated with hormonal therapy, less tumors treated with trastuzumab, (7.5% vs. 14.5%) and more tumors treated with chemotherapy alone (25.8% vs. 14.9%; p = 0.041). In peri-menopausal women, LNG-IUS was not associated with an increased total risk of BC, although in the subgroup of women in their early 40's, it was associated with a slightly increased risk for invasive tumors.

  10. The direct medical cost of cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, diabetes, cancer, pregnancy and female infertility in a large HMO in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodick, Gabriel; Porath, Avi; Alapi, Hillel; Sella, Tal; Flash, Shira; Wood, Francis; Shalev, Varda

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the direct medical cost of treating major chronic illnesses in Maccabi Healthcare Services, a 1.8 million member health maintenance organization in Israel. Direct medical costs were calculated for each member in 2006. We used multiple linear regression models to evaluate the overall costs of chronic conditions (cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, female infertility treatments, and cancer), pregnancy and treatments for female infertility. According to the study model, hypertension was associated with the largest direct medical costs in both sexes. Cardiovascular diseases accounted for 9.5% of the total direct medical costs in men, but only 5.9% in women. Diabetes mellitus accounted for 3.5% of the total medical costs both in men and women and is comparable to the total pregnancy-related costs in women. The findings indicate that hypertension, diabetes mellitus and female infertility treatments impose a considerable economic burden on public healthcare services in Israel which is comparable with the costs of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Complementary and alternative medicine use and cost in functional bowel disorders: A six month prospective study in a large HMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drossman Douglas A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional Bowel Disorders (FBD are chronic disorders that are difficult to treat and manage. Many patients and doctors are dissatisfied with the level of improvement in symptoms that can be achieved with standard medical care which may lead them to seek alternatives for care. There are currently no data on the types of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM used for FBDs other than Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS, or on the economic costs of CAM treatments. The aim of this study is to determine prevalence, types and costs of CAM in IBS, functional diarrhea, functional constipation, and functional abdominal pain. Methods 1012 Patients with FBD were recruited through a health care maintenance organization and followed for 6 months. Questionnaires were used to ascertain: Utilization and expenditures on CAM, symptom severity (IBS-SS, quality of life (IBS-QoL, psychological distress (BSI and perceived treatment effectiveness. Costs for conventional medical care were extracted from administrative claims. Results CAM was used by 35% of patients, at a median yearly cost of $200. The most common CAM types were ginger, massage therapy and yoga. CAM use was associated with female gender, higher education, and anxiety. Satisfaction with physician care and perceived effectiveness of prescription medication were not associated with CAM use. Physician referral to a CAM provider was uncommon but the majority of patients receiving this recommendation followed their physician's advice. Conclusion CAM is used by one-third of FBD patients. CAM use does not seem to be driven by dissatisfaction with conventional care. Physicians should discuss CAM use and effectiveness with their patients and refer patients if appropriate.

  12. Implementation of Nursing Process: An Evaluation of an Inservice Educational Program in an HMO Acute Care Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. Frances; Hales, Loyde W.

    A study examined the effectiveness of the current inservice training process used to teach newly employed nurses at Bess Kaiser Medical Center to transfer nursing process theory to practice. Eighty-two of 102 recently hired registered nurses were included in the audit sample. The newly hired nurses, whose previous experience varied from less than…

  13. Die Wiedergabe deutscher Abtönungspartikeln im Polnischen unter Satzarten- und Intentionsaspekt

    OpenAIRE

    DUCH, JUSTYNA

    2008-01-01

    Modal particles can be strategically used by the speaker to specify the illocutionary content, which can have different consequences on the pragmatic and communicative level. This paper is an attempt to present German and Polish modal particles according to the intention of the speaker and sentence types. This paper gives also an insight into problem of the translation of modal particles.

  14. Sprachstandsdiagnostik im Vorschulalter unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von kognitiven Basiskompetenzen

    OpenAIRE

    Melzer, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Background: Language is important for the psychosocial and educational development of a child and is interrelated with cognitive abilities. Language deficits in childhood are associated with many subsequent problems and affect the person concerned through adulthood. The review of language skills in preschool plays a special role. Aim: This dissertation will investigate how language skills can be estimated during the diagnostic process and which cognitive basic competences affect language skil...

  15. Mythologie mal anders – Götter unter Menschen in aktueller Jugendliteratur

    OpenAIRE

    Schrackmann, Petra; von Holzen, Aleta-Amirée

    2011-01-01

    Die Vermittlung mythischer Geschichten ist englischsprachigen Jugendbüchern aus dem Zeitraum von 2005 bis 2010, in denen jugendliche ProtagonistInnen Göttern und Göttinnen begegnen, ein wichtiges Anliegen. Umgesetzt wird dies einerseits mit in den Text eingeschalteten Nacherzählungen, die in unterschiedlichem Mass Variationen und Umwertungen unterliegen. Andererseits übernehmen die ProtagonistInnen Aufgaben, die klar Variationen mythischer Heldentaten darstellen. In den untersuchten Werken...

  16. Vergleichende Untersuchung zum Einsatz verschiedener Erstbehandlungsmaßnahmen beim neonatalen Kalb unter Praxisbedingungen

    OpenAIRE

    Homberg, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Ziel dieser Untersuchung war es, den Einsatz von Fruchtwasserabsaugpumpen und das Aufhängen im Rahmen der Erstbehandlung von neugeborenen Kälbern zu vergleichen. Zu diesem Zweck wurde die Vitalität der Kälber post natum beurteilt. Außerdem wurde die Erkrankungshäufigkeit der Kälber in den ersten Lebenswochen ermittelt. Zusätzlich wurde untersucht, ob Störvariablen wie das Geschlecht des Kalbes, die Parität des Muttertieres, die geburtshilfliche Maßnahme und die Jahreszeit einen Einfluss au...

  17. Converter-controlled belt conveyor systems under the difficult conditions; Umrichtergesteuerte Bandanlagen unter schwierigen Bedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horz, Michael-Josef [RAG Deutsche Steinkohle, Herne (Germany). Abt. Elektrotechnik unter Tage; Mueller, Uwe [RAG Deutsche Steinkohle, Herne (Germany). Servicebereich Technik- und Logistikdienste

    2010-05-15

    Panel 572 is located at a depth of 1,200 m in the Girondelle seam at the West mine. The panel has a mean thickness of 2.5 m and is designed as a shearer loader face with a length of 460 m. Coal is conveyed to the shaft by six belts with a total length of about 6 km and a total lifting height of 396 m. The main conveyor belt 1 with an installed power of 3 MW links the panel to a bunker. Conveyor belts 2 to 4 each with 500 kW drive power have operated in a stable manner since the start of working of the panel. Due to in-seam drivage with a selective-cut machine of type AM 85 an area with a marked trough was produced in the coal conveyor road. This area is traversed by belt 5. The planning and control of the conveyor belt in this difficult geological environment impose high demands on drive and control technology. To ensure stable operation under different loads a raft of measures was resolved and implemented. The contribution examines the problem and describes the implemented measures in detail. (orig.)

  18. Geothermal energy - Energy potential under our feet; Geothermie - Energiepotenzial unter unseren Fuessen. Neue Ansaetze zur Nutzungsoptimierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzelmann, E. [CST Communication, Science and Technology GmbH, Bern (Switzerland)

    2010-07-01

    This article reviews new approaches to optimising the use of geothermal energy resources. Switzerland is quoted as being world leader in research into the use of geothermal resources. Work being done at the Swiss Federal Institutes of Technology in Zurich and Lausanne is reviewed. This includes research into the better use of energy-relevant geological structures. This work includes the simulation of thermo-mechanical behaviour and work done on reducing the costs involved in the construction of boreholes for geothermal installations. Uncertainties encountered are discussed and a pilot installation in Lausanne is described which used heat-exchanger piles for foundations. The results obtained are discussed. Also, various tests carried out in the rest of Europe are discussed. A method for the splintering of bedrock is described.

  19. Material properties by continuous elastic straining; Werkstoffverhalten unter zuegiger elastischer Beanspruchung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evertz, T. [Salzgitter Flachstahl GmbH, Salzgitter (Germany); Sonne, H.M. [ThyssenKrupp Stahl AG, Duisburg (Germany); Steinbeck, G. [Stahlinstitut VDEh, Duesseldorf (Germany); Engl, B. [MgF Magnesium Flachprodukte GmbH, Freiberg (Germany)

    2004-08-01

    Within the scope of a common research project of the steel and automotive industry, 20 sheet steels have been investigated to obtain input data for FE-analysis. In detail, characteristical elastic, plastic and fatique values were determined by several testing institutes for a period of 3 years. Knowledge of dependency of Young's modulus from temperature and orientation is important for spring back at the press shop and stiffness of parts for automotive. Young's modulus was determined by tensile tests in delivered state, after prestraining, heat treatment at room temperature and -40 C and 100 C. Young's modulus is dependent from the orientation to rolling direction and can be classified in groups. Young's modulus of ferritic steels is decreased about 10 % by prestraining of 2 % but recovered after annealing at 170 C. Temperature dependency well known from non destructive tests are confirmed. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Im Rahmen eines gemeinschaftlichen Projektes der Stahl- und Automobilindustrie wurden an insgesamt 20 Staehlen fuer Feinblech Kennwerte fuer die FE-Simulation ermittelt. Im Einzelnen handelte es sich um elastische, plastische und zyklische Kennwerte, die ueber einen Zeitraum von 3 Jahren von unterschiedlichen Pruefstellen erarbeitet wurden. Die Bedeutung des temperatur- und richtungsabhaengigen E-Moduls fuer den Automobilbau ist in der Rueckfederung beim Pressen von Blechen und der Steifigkeit von Automobilteilen begruendet. Der E-Modul wurde mit dem Zugversuch fuer den Anlieferungszustand, nach Vorverformung und teilweise nach Waermebehandlung bei Raumtemperatur sowie bei -40 C und 100 C ermittelt. Der E-Modul ist aufgrund der Walzbedingungen richtungsabhaengig und kann in Gruppen zusammengefasst werden. Bereits eine Vorverformung von 2 % verursacht fuer ferritische Staehle eine Verringerung des E-Moduls um ca. 10 %. Nach einer Waermebehandlung bei 170 C erholt sich der E-Modul weitgehend. Die aus zerstoerungsfreien Verfahren bekannte Temperaturabhaengigkeit konnte bestaetigt werden. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. "Ich kam unter die Schweizer": Teaching Switzerland as a Multi-Ethnic Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Karin

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a five-week module on "Switzerland as a multi-ethnic society" intended to counteract the popular image of Switzerland as a homogenous country concerned mostly with tourism, chocolate, and watches. Instead, the module treats Switzerland through topics such as the definition of identity in a multi-ethnic society, the…

  1. Purchasing motors in the light of full-cost calculation; Beschaffung von Motoren unter der Vollkostenbetrachtung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauchle, P.; Schnyder, G.

    2006-07-01

    This final report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on how full-cost calculation can help define the optimal purchasing strategy for electrical drives. According to the authors, taking total life-cycle costs into consideration also guarantees economical operation and helps avoid unexpected service costs. The report describes the goals of the project and co-operation with industry and users. Factors influencing life-cycle costs are looked at in detail, including investments, installation and operator-training, operation and monitoring as well as maintenance and repair. Also, energy costs are looked at, as are environmental aspects and the disposal of drives taken out of service. The calculation of the economic feasibility of two types of motor is looked at. Sample Calls for Tender are presented and software for the evaluation of offers is briefly discussed.

  2. Untersuchung zur Offenlaufstallhaltung von Pferden unter dem Aspekt des Zusammenhangs zwischen Haltung und Gesundheit

    OpenAIRE

    Szivacz, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Investigations of open barn systems of horses regarding the correlation of health and housing system The aim of this thesis was investigating if improved husbandry has a positive influence on the recovery of special health issues. Therefor 600 horse owners were asked to answer an on-line questionnaire about their horses’ behavior and health status. All horses were kept in housing systems, which had been rated positively by the Laufstall-Arbeits-Gemeinschaft (LAG), and had permanent access...

  3. Das ritual der unterwerfung Stefan Nemanjas unter Maunel I. Komnenos (1172

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučetić Martin Marko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the ceremonial of the subjection of the Serbian župan Stefan Nemanja to the Byzantine emperor Manuel I Komnenos (1172 and compares it with similar events of the period in question. It argues for a strong influence of western forms of conflict resolution (“deditio” in the ceremonial.

  4. Structure dynamics with regard to non-linear support behavior; Dynamische Strukturberechnung unter Beruecksichtigung nichtlinearen Lagerverhaltens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driessen, W. [Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Nord e.V., Hamburg (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Because of modifications to a feed-water line of a power plant structural calculations of the pipework were performed. As a result of a linear (modal) analysis very high restraint forces on the supports were calculated. In order to reduce conservatisms in the calculation the model was optimized with regard to the support stiffnesses and nonlinear behavior of slide bearings, guides and shock absorbers were taken into account. The main result of the non-linear analysis, which was performed by methods of direct-integration, was that nonlinearity yields evident differences in structural frequencies and in energy dissipation (damping) in comparison to the linear analysis. The high restraint forces on the supports became smaller for most of the supports but at some points the forces of the non-linear analysis were even higher. So the conservatism of the linear analysis is not fully valid for the whole structure. The relevance of the non-linear effects in dynamic piping calculations is shown by comparing the calculation result with measurements which were performed on structures in the plant. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen der Aenderung der Speisewasserleitung einer Kraftwerksanlage wurde die Struktur neu berechnet. Die Analysen mit einem linearen Modell (modal), das ueblicherweise verwendet wird, ergaben hohe Lasten an Halterungen. Zum Abbau von Konservativitaeten wurde eine realistischere Modellierung durch die Beruecksichtigung des nichtlinearen Verhaltens der in der Anlage befindlichen Gleitlager, Fuehrungen und Stossbremsen in der Berechnung vorgenommen. Die Untersuchungen haben ergeben, dass durch die Nichtlinearitaet das Frequenzverhalten der Struktur und die Dissipation von Energie durch Reibvorgaenge wesentlich beeinflusst werden. Des Weiteren ist festzustellen, dass aus linearen Analysen nicht uneingeschraenkt konservative Ergebnisse gewonnen werden. Die Relevanz der Beruecksichtigung des nichtlinearen Lagerverhaltens bei einer dynamischen Strukturberechnung wird hier anhand eines Vergleiches mit einer der im Rahmen der In-Betrieb-Setzung des Kraftwerks gemessenen Verschiebungen aufgezeigt. (orig.)

  5. Orientierung und Navigation in zoombaren Benutzerschnittstellen unter besonderer Berücksichtigung kognitions-psychologischer Erkenntnisse

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Zoomable User Interfaces (ZUIs) allow access to information-objects in a natural and visual-spatial way. Instead of navigating in abstract hierarchies and structures, the user can navigate in an infinite information landscape by zooming and panning. Informationobjects are therefore organized in space and scale, which allows the user to navigate analogue to the real world. If someone would like to access more information about an object in the real world they simply step closer to it. In a sim...

  6. Heat requirement of greenhouses including latent heat flux; Waermebedarf von Gewaechshaeusern unter Beruecksichtigung des latenten Waermetransportes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tantau, Hans-Juergen [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Fachgebiet Biosystem- und Gartenbautechnik

    2013-03-01

    Unlike buildings, the heat demand of greenhouses is affected also by the evaporation of the respective crop. Due to condensation of water vapour inside the covering material, latent heat is converted into sensible heat and transported outwards through the covering material. The portion of latent heat can increase to more than 50 % of the internal heat transfer and is therefore a significant heat flux, which must be considered in calculations of heat demand. The heat transfer coefficients (U-values), as they are given in literature, are only valid for dry conditions without condensation. In this work, a simplified methodological approach was chosen using heat transfer resistances to consider the latent heat flux and thus, to calculate U-values for greenhouse conditions including condensation. (orig.)

  7. Herstellung, In-line-Einschluss und Charakterisierung lipophiler und hydrophiler Kamillenextrakte unter Einsatz von verdichtetem Kohlendioxid

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiser, Claudia Susanne

    2003-01-01

    In dieser Arbeit werden die Möglichkeiten der Anwendung von überkritischem CO2 im Bereich der Naturstoffextraktion anhand der Kamille als Modellpflanze untersucht. Kamillenblüten enthalten eine Vielzahl von pharmakologisch wirksamen Inhaltsstoffen mit unterschiedlichsten Eigenschaften im Hinblick auf Polarität und Stabilität und stellen damit eine ideale Matrix dar, um ein breites Spektrum an Einflussgrößen zu untersuchen. Die Optimierung der Extraktionsparameter ergibt hohe Selektivität ...

  8. Hormonprofilveränderungen unter DHEA-Substitution bei Patienten mit erektiler Dysfunktion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiter WJ

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Dehydroepiandrosteron (DHEA ist das verbreitetste Hormon im menschlichen Körper und wird der Gruppe der Steroidhormone zugeordnet. Nach Bildung in der Zona reticularis der Nebennierenrinde wird es mit Hilfe des Leberenzyms Dehydroepiandrosteronsulfotransferase in das Sulfat Dehydroepiandrosteronsulfat (DHEAS umgewandelt, zirkuliert so relativ stabil im Blut und wird in die Sexualhormone Testosteron und Östrogen im Gewebe transformiert. Eine bisher wissenschaftlich nicht abgeklärte Frage ist die Wirkung einer DHEA-Substitution auf die Serumspiegel der Sexualhormone beim Mann. Zu diesem Zweck wurden an allen Patienten mit ED, die an unserer Klinik und in zwei urologischen Kassenpraxen dieser Hormonsubstitution unterzogen wurden, im Rahmen einer prospektiven Studie ein Monitoring der wichtigsten Sexualhormone durchgeführt. Zwischen Oktober 1997 und Februar 2000 wurden 187 Patienten mit einem mittleren Alter von 52,4 Jahren, welche primär unsere Ambulanz oder zwei urologische Kassenpraxen wegen einer ED aufsuchten, nach urologischer und endokrinologischer Abklärung in diese prospektive, offene Studie aufgenommen. Alle Patienten wurden sorgfältig auf medizinische Faktoren untersucht, die einen Einfluß auf endokrinologische Abläufe haben könnten. Jeder Patient wurde mit einer Kapsel DHEA 50 mg 1 x 1 tgl. therapiert und für einen geplanten Studienzeitraum von 6 Monaten in die Studie aufgenommen. Eine statistisch signifikante Veränderung zeigten nur die Östradiolwerte. Dieser Anstieg schon begann 3 Monaten und diese Tendenz wurde bis zum Studienende beibehalten. Es konnte in dieser prospektiven Studie erstmalig in einem großen Patientenkollektiv gezeigt werden, daß sich bei männlichen Patienten mit erektiler Dysfunktion nach Substitutionstherapie mit 50 mg DHEA einmal tgl. eine statistisch signifikante Steigerung der Östradiolwerte, jedoch keine Veränderung der Testosteronwerte nachweisen läßt. Ob nun die DHEA-Wirkung beim ED-Patienten durch zentralnervöse Wirkungsmechanismen oder durch eine periphere Östrogenwirkung zu erfolgt, ist derzeit leider nur hypothetisch und durch weitere Forschungsarbeit abzuklären.

  9. Waste management in underground mining. Colloquium; Abfallentsorgung im Bergbau unter Tage. Tagung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenz, W.; Martens, P.N.; Pretz, T. (eds.)

    2001-07-01

    The problem of underground waste management is reviewed from various aspects. Technical, legal and ecological problems are outlined with particular emphasis on the aspect of long-term safety. [German] Ziel unserer Veranstaltung ist, die Problematik der untertaegigen Abfallentsorgung aus den unterschiedlichsten Perspektiven zu beleuchten. Sowohl die technische als auch die rechtliche wie auch die oekologische Sichtweise werden aufgezeigt. In technischer Hinsicht werden der aktuelle Stand der Methoden und Fortentwicklungsmoeglichkeiten dargestellt und anhand konkreter Beispiele erlaeutert. Besondere Bedeutung hat dabei die Frage der Langzeitsicherheit. (orig.)

  10. Zertifizierung eines Endometriosezentrums unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von Qualitätsmanagement und Datenerhebung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noe GK

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Die Zertifizierung von organ- oder krankheitsspezifischen Zentren ist heute gefordert. Die Prozessnormen unterliegen einer großen Bandbreite und die Anforderungsprofile reichen von Fallzahl bis zum dezidierten Prozessmanagement. Die Motivation zur Zertifizierung liegt zwischen Verbesserung der Marktposition und dem Streben nach optimierter Ablaufstrategie. Häufig treten beim Durchlauf durch den Zertifizierungsprozess unerwartete, in der Regel positive, Effekte auf. Der vorliegende Artikel zeigt diesen Prozess und seine positiven Effekte anhand des Zertifizierungsprozesses eines Endometriosezentrums mit Ausrichtung auf Qualitätsmanagementprozesse und EDV-gestützte Dokumentation in der Versorgung und Nachsorge der Patientinnen.

  11. Unter Krankheitsbedrohung. Vorbemerkungen zu einer Historischen Erforschung der Grossen Epidemien in der Österreichischen Bukowina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harieta Mareci-Sabol

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Under Threat of Disease. Introduction to a Historical Study of the Great Epidemics in Austrian Bukovina Like natural disasters, wars and famine, epidemics recorded in Austrian Bukovina, affected people from all layers of society, leaving deep traces in memory and mentality. Considered as divine punishment or attributed to poverty, ignorance and lack of hygiene, they modeled different behaviors, reactions and attitudes, causing panic, tension, isolation, economic decline and, in some cases, depopulation. Information drawn from a variety of sources (from parish and civil registers to newspapers or memories provides an overview of morbid events recorded in Bucovina, from the late XVIIIth century to the early XXth century. Consecutive or recurrent episodes of plague, cholera, diphtheria, typhoid fever and typhus, measles, scarlet, smallpox and influenza have disrupted both rural and urban communities, imposing the imperial authorities, local officials, doctors, priests, teachers, and journalists to initiate some mechanisms for prevention, limitation or eradication of the disease.

  12. Modification of fuel properties under thermal load; Veraenderung von Kraftstoffeigenschaften unter thermischer Belastung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Kornelia; Richter, Beate; Schuemann, Ulrike; Crusius, Svetlana; Streibel, Thorsten W.; Harndorf, Horst [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Abt. Analytische und Technische Chemie

    2013-10-01

    Diesel fuel without FAME and additives as well as rapeseed methyl ester were thermally stressed (150 C) at laboratory conditions. In the course of the performed study, the chemical composition of the fuels and possibly generated residues were analyzed with regards to the influence of oxygen availability and test duration. Therefore, chromatographic methods as GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry) and HP-SEC (High Performance-Size Exclusion Chromatography) have successfully been applied. In the formed solid B 0-residues mainly oxygen-containing aromatic compounds were identified, while the biodiesel samples show mostly decomposition products of the biofuel like carbonic acids and aldehydes. In both fuels an increasing amount of compounds with high molecular weights was observed versus test duration. It is assumed that these components consist of oligo- and polymers with high oxygen content. However, this needs to be proved by further analytical methods. On the basis of these results prospective tailor-made additive packages for the stabilisation of fuels and the prevention of deposits in fuel injection systems, can be developed and applied. (orig.)

  13. Unternehmen unter der Dominanz der Finanzmärkte? Orientierungen aus sozialethischer Perspektive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf-Gero Reichert

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a crucial change in the German financial system and listed corporations: The influence of the financial markets has grown in both fields. Subsequently, shareholders can enforce their interests more efficiently than other stakeholders (e.g. affiliates, NGOs, political communities, and employees. In the paper, diverse explanations for this development are presented and evaluated: disintermediation, financial market capitalism and ‘financialization’. Afterward, the topic is discussed in the perspective of theological ethics. Catholic Social Teaching features no financial ethics, but it includes some thoughts that offer an orientation for economic policy, the concept of an economy in service of the common good, the idea of a cooperation between state, market and civil society and socially anchored entrepreneurship as well as the conception of a serving financial economy. In conclusion, action perspectives are described.

  14. Systematische Entwicklung amorpher Kohlenstoffschichten unter Berücksichtigung der Anforderungen der Blechmassivumformung

    OpenAIRE

    Hetzner, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Bei der Blechmassivumformung handelt es sich um eine neue Klasse von Umformverfahren, für die im Sonderforschungsbereich/Transregio 73 die ingenieurwissenschaftlichen Grundlagen geschaffen werden. Das Ziel ist es, durch eine Kombination von Verfahren der Blech- und Massivumformung funktionsintegrierte Bauteile ausgehend von flächigen Halbzeugen, vorzugsweise Stahlblechen, kosten- und ressourceneffizient fertigen zu können. Um komplexe Nebenformelemente in der Größe der Blechdicke, z. B. Verz...

  15. Metabolische Veränderungen bei cerebralen Erkrankungen unter Einfluss therapeutischer Maßnahmen.

    OpenAIRE

    Mißler, Jane

    2014-01-01

    The liver synthesizes a lot of essential substances and works as a detoxification organ by biotransforming toxic compounds, like ammonia. Ammonia is mainly produced by the metabolism of proteins and amino acids. Considering the numerous hepatic functions, chronic and acute liver failure can lead to metabolic disorders. The toxic Ammonia cannot be degraded any longer by the urea cycle and causes high concentrations in blood. This is called hyperammonaemia (HA) and leads to hepatic encephalopat...

  16. A close look at air-conditioner air-filters; Klimaanlagen-Luftfilter unter der Lupe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichert, F.

    2006-07-01

    This article presents the findings of a long-term study made on air-filters. Results of measurements made according to EN 779 under ideal conditions are discussed and their use as a basis for the assessment of performance in practice is looked at critically. The two-year, long-term study follows up earlier studies on the hygiene of air-conditioning systems. Real-life installations with F7 and F9 filters were tested. Measurement methods used are discussed and the characteristics of the filters with respect to micro-organisms looked at. Various factors considered are examined and alternative filter combinations are briefly discussed. The results are presented in graphical form. EN 779-specific tests made and the results obtained are discussed.

  17. Zur Struktur des deutschen Satzes. Systematische Betrachtung der einzelnen Satzpositionen unter didaktischen Gesichtspunkten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Schmid

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Die Struktur, d.h. die Syntax des deutschen Satzes ist möglicherweise das komplexeste Thema der deutschen Grammatik. Es scheint, dass die meisten Fehler in diesem Bereich gemacht werden, und selbst Muttersprachler und Muttersprachlerinnen sind oft unsicher bzgl. der richtigen Wortstellung, insbesondere im Mittelfeld des Satzes. Dieser Aufsatz versucht, Deutschlehrern und -lehrerinnen eine Hilfestellung zu geben, indem er − aufbauend auf das topologische oder Stellungsfeldermodell von Erich Drach (vgl. Musan 2009: 10 − die wichtigsten Stellungsregeln für die verschiedenen Satzelemente angibt. Dies geschieht dadurch, dass alle möglichen „Positionen“ des deutschen Satzes systematisch untersucht werden, eine nach der anderen. The structure, i.e., the syntax of the German sentence is perhaps the most complex topic of German grammar. It seems that most mistakes are made in this area, and even native speakers are often not sure about the correct word order, especially in the middle-field of the sentence. This paper tries to help German teachers by giving them − based on the topological field model of Erich Drach − the most important rules about the correct positioning of the different elements of the sentence. It does so by examining systematically all the possible “positions” of the German sentence, one after the other.

  18. Methane synthesis under mild conditions for decentralized applications; Methansynthese unter milden Bedingungen fuer dezentrale Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlueter, Michael [DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gGmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Roensch, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    It is a central aim of the German government to significantly reduce the emission of greenhouse gases in the next years. One possibility to reach this aim is the substitution of fossil fuels, especially natural gas, by fuels from biogenic sources (Bio-SNG). However, it is a drawback of Bio-SNG that the production costs are considerably higher than those of fossil natural gas. This work provides an approach to reduce the production costs of Bio-SNG. It is the aim to reduce the process parameters of the methane synthesis. At the same time, it has to be ensured that high methane yields are achieved even at those mild conditions. A procedure for the optimization of the methanation catalyst activity will be presented. If the catalyst is as active as possible even at mild conditions, it will be possible to produce Bio-SNG cost efficient even in small, decentralized scale.

  19. Production of liquid hydrocarbons using nuclear energy; Erzeugung von fluessigen Kohlenwasserstoffen unter Einsatz von Kernenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeppe, N.; Tragsdorf, I.M. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Reaktorsicherheit und -technik; Kugeler, K. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Reaktorsicherheit und -technik]|[Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Sicherheitsforschung und Reaktortechnik; Kugeler, E.

    2006-10-15

    In the future, the global demand on liquid hydrocarbons especially for the traffic sector will still increase. To supply the world market with adequate volumes will necessitate the application of alternatively generated fuels in a few decades already. Besides conventional generation processes, where the necessary process heat comes from the combustion of part of the products, the use of nuclear heat is possible to cover the process energy demand. This heat is required in form of steam, electricity and high-temperature heat. Using these techniques the following processes can be attractive: steam flooding of oil deposits, the oil recovery from oil sands and oil shales, the methanol production from natural gas, the coal hydrogenation as well as the production of methanol from biomass. Normally, the volume of recoverable light hydrocarbons can be doubled by applying nuclear energy. The CO{sub 2} emissions during the production process can be avoided and the production costs can be decreased compared to current oil prices. The necessary conversion technologies are well-known and proven in industrial use, some of them for a long-time. The modular high-temperature reactor can be used as a nuclear heat source. This kind of heat source will be sized around 200 MW{sub th}, if a cylindrical core is used. Under these conditions even for a complete loss of the core cooling neither improper overheating of the fuel elements nor a core melt-down can occur. Therefore the retention of radioactive material in the reactor system is assured even for severe accidents. Using an annular core the power can be increased up to 400 MW{sub th} while the system maintains the mentioned safety properties. The nuclear heat is integrated into the process by steam generator, helium heated steam reformer for the steam reforming reaction and by helium-helium heat exchangers. The high-temperature heat exchangers are tested in permanent operation for helium temperatures of 950 C and for powers of 10 MW{sub th}. An extrapolation to commercially necessary sizes of 100 MW{sub th} is considered to be reliable. The mentioned processes can be seen as technically feasible on the basis of previous projects, especially of extensive programs for high-temperature materials. (orig.)

  20. Möglichkeiten der endoskopischen Herzchirurgie unter Verwendung des da VinciTM-Operationsroboters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogan S

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Mit der Einführung des da VinciTM-Operationsroboters steht ein neues Werkzeug zur Verfügung, welches das Spektrum der minimalinvasiven Operationstechniken erweitert und totalendoskopische Operationen am Herzen ermöglicht. Seit Juni 1999 wurden an unserer Klinik 30 roboterunterstützte Eingriffe am Herzen durchgeführt. Das Spektrum der durchgeführten Operationen umfaßt totalendoskopische Bypassoperationen (TECAB mit links- oder rechtsseitigem A. mammaria-Bypass (LIMA oder RIMA zum R. interventricularis anterior (RIVA oder zur rechten Kranzarterie (RCA, aber auch Zweifachbypasseingriffe als sequentieller Mammariabypass zum RIVA und zum R. diagonalis. Sogar bilaterale A. mammaria-Versorgung des RIVA und der RCA ist mit computerunterstützter Telemanipulation erfolgreich realisiert worden. Des weiteren ist bei drei Patienten ein Atrium-Septum-Defekt in totalendoskopischer Technik sowohl mit Direktnaht als auch mit Patchverschluß korrigiert worden. Die durchschnittliche Operationszeit der 13 "closed chest"-Bypasspatienten betrug 354 ± 10 Minuten, die extrakorporale Zirkulationszeit 167 ± 11 Minuten und die Aortenklemmzeit 65 ± 7 Minuten. Außer drei Patienten hatten alle einen unkomplizierten postoperativen Verlauf und wurden in gutem Allgemeinzustand nach Hause entlassen. Bei zwei Patienten nach TECAB war eine Rethorakotomie wegen Blutung bzw. Perikardtamponade erforderlich. Eine Patientin wurde reanimationspflichtig als Folge einer vasoplegiebedingten Hypovolämie. Alle TECAB-Patienten wurden vor Entlassung aus dem Krankenhaus nachangiographiert und zeigten exzellente angiographische Ergebnisse. Wir haben gezeigt, daß computerunterstützte totalendoskopische Einfach- und Zweifachbypassoperationen sowie ASD-Verschlüsse mit dem da VinciTM-Telemanipulationssystem durchführbar sind. Obwohl eine gewisse Lernphase erforderlich ist, sind die initialen klinischen und funktionellen Ergebnisse gut. Die computerunterstützte endoskopische Operationstechnik sowie die Port Access-Kanülierung sind jedoch sehr komplex. Dadurch und durch das schwierigere anästhesiologische Management sind die Eingriffe anspruchsvoll und die Eingriffszeiten gegenüber konventionellen Methoden deutlich verlängert. Alle postulierten Vorteile der roboterunterstützten Technik müssen abgesehen von dem offensichtlichen kosmetischen Aspekt durch weitere Studien näher untersucht werden.

  1. Untersuchungen zum Krankheitsverlauf der Akuten Caninen Polyradikuloneuritis unter Intravenöser Immunglobulintherapie

    OpenAIRE

    Hirschvogel, Katrin

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of dogs with acute canine polyradiculoneuritis (ACP) is restricted to physical rehabilitation and supportive care. In humans with Guillain-Barré syndrome, the counterpart of ACP, randomized trials show that intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) speeds recovery. We hypothesized that dogs would tolerate IVIg well and recover faster from ACP than dogs with supportive treatment only. Sixteen client-owned dogs with ACP were treated with IVIg. Five dogs were identified by a medical record ...

  2. Auswirkungen der Feldenkraismethode - Bewusstheit durch Bewegung - unter besonderer Berücksichtigung psychosomatischer Aspekte

    OpenAIRE

    Busch, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit den Auswirkungen von Feldenkrais-Bewegungsübungen auf ein Klientel, dass aus freien Stücken an Feldenkraiskursen eines niedergelassenen Feldenkraislehrers teilnimmt, wobei insbesondere gesundheitliche und psychosomatische Aspekte betrachtet werden. Feldenkrais formulierte die theoretischen Grundlagen der Methodik auf einem breiten wissenschaftlichen Fundament verschiedener Fachrichtungen, wie Medizin, Neurobiologie, Psychologie, Physik, Systemtheori...

  3. Abschätzung der Nierenfunktion unter isolierter Hämoperfusion

    OpenAIRE

    Unger, Volker

    2010-01-01

    Background: Models of isolated and perfused kidneys are used to study physiological and pathophysiological aspects of renal homeostasis in experimental and clinical research, so in transplantation medicine, toxicology. Since physiological and morphological parameters of small laboratory animal kidneys are difficult to compare to human renal parameters, porcine kidney perfusion models have been developed to simulate closer conditions to the human situation. If the organs could be used out of r...

  4. Orale Kontrazeptiva: Hohe Sicherheit unter Berücksichtigung diverser Wechselwirkungen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruber ChJ

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Die Anfänge der Kontrazeption und Familienplanung reichen fast bis an die Anfänge der Menschheitsgeschichte zurück. Viele altertümliche, medizinische Dokumente geben uns über die Entwicklung der Kontrazeption Auskunft. Von einem gewissen Zeitpunkt an hatte man herausgefunden, daß die Ejakulation des Mannes in unmittelbarem Zusammenhang mit dem Zeugen von Kindern stand. Daher beschränkte sich die Kontrazeption auf Maßnahmen, die verhinderten, daß das Ejakulat weiter in die Vagina vordringen konnte. Die allerersten Aufzeichnungen über Pessare findet man im alten Ägypten im Jahre 1850 a.C. Sie wurden aus dem Kot von Elefanten oder Krokodilen hergestellt, vermischt mit Honig, Teebaumöl und Schwefel. Es ist erstaunlich, wieviele dieser Methoden doch einen biologischen Sinn gemacht haben. Ein solches Beispiel wäre die Einführung einer halben Zitrone in die obere Vagina, um die Zervix zu bedecken. Es handelt sich dabei nicht nur um eine Barriere, sondern heute ist bekannt, daß die Zitronensäure spermizid wirkt. Auch die Geschichte der Kondome reicht schon sehr weit zurück. Man verwendete Harnblasen von verschiedensten Tieren oder auch das Caecum von Schafen. Viele kontrazeptive Versuche endeten jedoch tragisch, wie das Schlucken von Arsen, Blei oder Strychnin oder die Anwendung von Gewalt auf das Abdomen der Frauen, um das Kind und alle Organe, die für die Schwangerschaft nötig sind, zu zerstören. In der modernen Zeit hat das ständig akkumulierende Wissen über die Funktion des männlichen und weiblichen Genitaltraktes, sowie das zunehmende Verständnis der molekularen und physiologischen Mechanismen des weiblichen Zyklus dazu geführt, sehr verträgliche und effiziente Formen der Kontrazeption zu entwickeln. Den größten Beitrag hierbei leistete wohl Carl Djerassi, der "Erfinder" der Antibabypille.

  5. Biosorption of heavy metals under anaerobic conditions. Final report; Biosorption von Schwermetallen unter anaeroben Bedingungen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreikenbohm, R.

    1996-12-31

    The precipitation of heavy metals as hydroxides is the standard technique for the decontamination of waste water streams polluted by these elements. On the other side, progress in research has been made concerning the biosorption onto dead biomass and bioprecipitation supported by physiologically active bacteria. As the aim of this study, a flexible strategy has been envisaged cleaning a waste water with definite heavy metal load underlying the process mentioned above. Suitable bacteria were enriched and the process was tested in a technical plant. As result, a very high efficiency of heavy metal elimination has been found. The field of application covered by the acquired process is identical with the whole range of the waste water streams polluted by heavy metals. In addition, a second stage may be necessary if there are any further contaminants to be removed. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bei der Reinigung von schwermetallhaltigen Abwaessern ist der derzeitige Stand der Technik gegeben durch die Neutralisationsfaellung als Hydroxide, waehrend in der Forschung damit begonnen wurde, Biosorption an devitaler Biomasse oder Biopraezipitation durch physiologisch aktive Bakterien zu untersuchen. Ziel des Vorhabens war die Ermittlung einer flexiblen Strategie fuer die Prozessfuehrung zur Abwasserreinigung bei vorgegebener Schadstoffbelastung auf der Basis des zuletzt genannten Prozesses. Dazu wurden geeignete Bakterien angereichert und das Verfahren in einer Technikumsanlage erprobt. Als Ergebnis wurde bei Zufuhr verschiedener Industrieabwaesser eine sehr hohe Effizienz in der Schwermetallelimination gefunden. Das Anwendungsgebiet des erarbeiteten Verfahrens erstreckt sich auf eine Vielzahl schwermetallbelasteter Abwaesser, wobei - je nach Art der weiteren Inhaltsstoffe - eine zusaetzliche Reinigungsstufe vor- oder nachgeschaltet werden muss. (orig.)

  6. Investigation of hydrogen recombination under natural convection conditions; Untersuchungen zur Wasserstoffrekombination unter Naturkonvektionsbedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Berno

    2015-09-04

    Passive Autocatalytic Recombiners (PAR) are installed inside the containment of nuclear power plants in order to prevent the build-up of flammable mixtures and to mitigate the effects of hydrogen deflagrations, which can occur in the event of a severe accident combined with the release of hydrogen. In order to simulate the operating behaviour of PARs, the computer program REKO-DIREKT is being developed at the Forschungszentrum Juelich in collaboration with the Institute for Reactor Safety and Reactor Technology at the RWTH Aachen. For the validation of the code, data from experimental facilities operated at Juelich are used. This work focusses on the analysis of the chimney effect through the PAR housing as well as the optimization of the chimney model of REKO-DIREKT. Therefore experimental investigations are carried out in the REKO-4 facility under natural convection conditions. This facility is equipped with numerous measuring devices, e.g. katharometers for in-situ measuring of the hydrogen concentration and the optical flow measurement technique Particle-Image-Velocimetry. In preliminary assessments the equipment is being qualified in order to determine the measurement accuracy. In the following experimental investigations, a small-scale PAR is used, that is built in a modular way allowing it to be equipped with different chimney geometries. The experimental results produce a database that shows the central correlation between the hydrogen concentration, the catalyst temperature and the inlet velocity. The results include the variation of the recombiner's chimney height and experiments at different operating pressures. After optimization of the chimney model, the simulation program is validated against experiments in the large-scale facility THAI in Eschborn, which have been performed subsequent to this thesis in the context of the OECD/NEA-THAI project. Finally, the influence of a downward-directed, near-wall flow on the operational behaviour of the small-scale PAR is investigated. The goal is to analyse, whether or not externally induced flow regimes are able to influence the start-up and operational behaviour of PARs. The results show that downward directed flow conditions may influence the operational behaviour and reduce the efficiency of a recombiner, if the flow through the chimney is not prevented by the outlet design.

  7. Ertrag und Qualität von Winterweizengenotypen unter integrierten und ökologischen Anbaubedingungen

    OpenAIRE

    Leithold, Dr. B.; Weber, Prof. Dr. W.E.; Schulz, F.; Leithold, Prof. Dr. G.

    2009-01-01

    An annually identical assortment of each of 32 winter wheat varieties and lines bred under conventional conditions was tested between 2004 and 2007 both in a conventionally and in an organically managed environment. Previously the assortment had been evaluated with respect to yield and indirect parameters of baking quality. The objective was to obtain evidence for a targeted selection of lines for their later use as bread varieties in organic farming. It was discovered that for...

  8. Status quo der Haltung von Pferden in einer Region Westdeutschlands unter Aspekten des Tierwohlbefindens

    OpenAIRE

    Nover, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    In this study the circumstances of horse husbandry in a region of Western Germany were gathered under aspects of animal welfare. For this reason a questionnaire based on recommendations and guidelines was created. Within the study 83 horse-keeping farms and 1580 horses were recorded. Results: Farms: The size of the farms differed between 2 and 220 horses. The farms’ plant utilization was 91.7 % on average (median). The recorded farms had often several focuses and were well equipped. ...

  9. Electromobility for everyone? An industry electrified; Elektromobilitaet fuer alle? Eine Branche steht unter Strom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winterkorn, Martin [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The electric car is one of the keys to achieving sustainable mobility - along with more efficient internal combustion engines, intelligent light-weight design and alternative sources of energy such as natural gas and next generation biogenic fuels. The Volkswagen Group is fully committed to electric mobility and is driv-ing the development of the electric car forward using its modular assem-bly strategy, the results of which can already be seen in the XL1 and the Golf blue-e-emotion. Before we are able to produce a practical, afforda-ble ''electric car for everyone,'' however, we face four major challenges: (1) developing the technology (especially the battery), (2) setting up an extensive standardized infrastructure, (3) ensuring an environmentally friendly source of electricity, and (4) driving down costs to a competitive level. All this makes electric mobility the challenge of the century - for the automotive industry and the European industrial community as a whole. It is an issue that concerns us all: manufacturers, suppliers, energy provid-ers, scientists and politicians alike. (orig.)

  10. Ein Lehrbuch über Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie – Geschlechtsunterschiede unter der Lupe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Heuser

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Anke Rohde und Andreas Marneros haben sich ein hohes Ziel gesetzt: ein übersichtliches Lehrbuch für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, das erstmals eine systematische Zusammenstellung des Wissens über geschlechtsspezifische Aspekte von Symptomatologie, Epidemiologie, Diagnostik, Pharmakotherapie und Psychotherapie psychischer Störungen enthält. Bemerkenswert ist dabei zweierlei: Erstens werden bei der Betrachtung geschlechtsspezifischer Unterschiede im Sinne der Genderforschung Frauen und Männer berücksichtigt, zweitens wird ein vollständiger Überblick sowohl über die häufigen und bekannten psychischen Störungen als auch die äußerst seltenen psychiatrischen Erkrankungen der gesamten Altersspanne gegeben. Wenngleich die Qualität der einzelnen Beiträge deutlich zwischen sehr differenzierter und leider auch für ein Handbuch eindeutig zu oberflächlicher Betrachtung variiert, liegt in dem Band ein weitgehend informatives Nachschlagewerk vor, das einen ersten Überblick über die geschlechtsspezifische Psychiatrie gibt.

  11. Mythologie mal anders – Götter unter Menschen in aktueller Jugendliteratur

    OpenAIRE

    Schrackmann, Petra; von Holzen, Aleta-Amirée

    2011-01-01

    Die Vermittlung mythischer Geschichten ist englischsprachigen Jugendbüchern aus dem Zeitraum von 2005 bis 2010, in denen jugendliche ProtagonistInnen Göttern und Göttinnen begegnen, ein wichtiges Anliegen. Umgesetzt wird dies einerseits mit in den Text eingeschalteten Nacherzählungen, die in unterschiedlichem Mass Variationen und Umwertungen unterliegen. Andererseits übernehmen die ProtagonistInnen Aufgaben, die klar Variationen mythischer Heldentaten darstellen. In den untersuchten Werken...

  12. Untersuchung der Nährstoffauswaschung unter Schotterrasenflächen an einem inneralpinen Standort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slawitsch, Veronika; Birk, Steffen; Pötsch, Erich M.

    2016-09-01

    Surface stabilisation by planted gravel turf is a reliable alternative to conventionally-paved parking lots. At the HBLFA Raumberg-Gumpenstein test site, biennial nutrient concentrations in seepage water and nutrient leachate fluxes were analysed using six gravity lysimeters. Two different materials (limestone with 10 % humus and recycled building material with 10 % compost) were investigated. Seepage water fluxes showed better infiltration for lime gravel materials in comparison to recycled building materials. The nutrient concentrations and leachate flux showed significantly higher values in the recycled building materials in both years of the experiment. Both materials showed a decrease in nutrient concentration and leaching from the first to the second year. The nitrate threshold concentration given by the drinking water directive (Trinkwasserverordnung BGBI. I Nr. 21/2001) was met for lime materials but was exceeded by a factor of three for recycled building materials within the first year. In terms of groundwater protection, the high risk of nitrate leaching in the first year has to be considered if using recycled building material.

  13. Radioprotection of patients and workers in interventional and operating block radiology; La radioprotection des patients et des travailleurs en radiologie interventionnelle et au bloc operatoire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menechal, P. [Autorite de Surete Nucleaire, Div. de Bordeaux, 33 (France); Valero, M.; Megnigbeto, C.; Marchal, C.; Godet, J.L. [Autorite de surete nucleaire, Dir. des rayonnements ionisants et de la sante, 75 - Paris (France)

    2011-03-15

    Over the last ten years or so, extensive development in radiological and implantable equipment has generated significant growth in radio-guided procedures. The real benefit of these practices to patients explains their development. These procedures can be undertaken using not only dedicated, specific fixed installations and computed tomography scanners, but also mobile installations in facilities not designed for radiography, such as operating blocks. The complexity of these procedures and the times spent implementing the required radiation can lead to major detrimental effects on personnel and patients, if they are not fully controlled. Many specialist medical disciplines now perform invasive procedures guided by images. Optimisation of patient doses mainly depends on the training level of medical teams, the intrinsic performance characteristics of the equipment used, adjustment of the technical parameters and the presence or absence of qualified personnel. Optimisation of professional personnel exposure is complex and depends on the performance conditions of procedures, which can expose workers extensively and non-uniformly. Designation of personnel competent in radioprotection, assessment of risks and definition of controlled areas, analysis of workstations and dosimetric monitoring of operators (especially of body extremities) are difficult to implement. Use of collective and personal protective equipment must be improved. The general manager of the French nuclear safety authority (ASN) has referred the matter to the permanent group of radioprotection experts (GPMED) to ensure that recommendations are drawn up in the short term. (authors)

  14. Patients and personnel radiation protection in interventional radiology and in surgery;La radioprotection des patients et des travailleurs en radiologie interventionnelle et au bloc operatoire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menechal, P. [Centre de Recherches en Psychopathologie et Psychologie Clinique - CRPPC, 69 - Lyon (France); Valero, M.; Godet, J.L. [Lyon-3 Univ. Jean Moulin, 69 (France)

    2009-10-15

    The development of the interventional radiology and acts realised under radiological guiding is a real benefit for patients. The doses delivered can however, generate important detriments (determinist effects). the patients and the personnel are exposed to important doses, heterogeneous and very different doses according the operator, the patient morphology and the treated pathology. This theme is considered by the the nuclear safety Authority as a priority in the medical medium. (N.C.)

  15. X-ray exposure in radiological procedures and CT-scanner: french reference levels; Le point sur les procedures en radiologie conventionnelle et en tomodensitometrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordoliani, Y.S. [Societe Francaise de Radiologie, HIA Val de Grace, 75 - Paris (France); Grenier, P.; Grellet, J.; Marshall-Depommier, E. [Societe Francaise de Radiologie, GH Pitier Salpetriere, 75 - Paris (France); Beauvais, H.; Bourguignon, M. [Office de Protection contre les Rayonnements Ionisants, OPRI, 78 - le Vesinet (France)

    2002-05-01

    The directive 97/43 EURATOM is partially translated into French laws. The French Society of Radiology (S.F.R.), together with the French Office of Radiation Protection (O.P.R.I.), undertook to draw up a list of radiological procedures, to standardize and optimize these procedures (article 4) and to evaluate the resulting X-ray exposure (article 6) and, finally, set French reference levels. The SFR set up a task force where each radiological sub-specialty was represented. Each group wrote the description of the most usual procedures, which was then reviewed by another group of radiologists of the same sub-specialty, including both private practice and academic practice radiologists. From technical data of each procedure, the OPRI worked out a mean dose, expressed in dose.area product regarding radiographic procedures, and expressed in dose.length product in CT-scanner. These data are on-line on the web site of the SFR, and each radiologist can compare his or her practice to the standards of the specialty. The next step will consist in measuring the X-ray exposure of each procedure in a sufficient number of centers to set up French reference levels. (author)

  16. Detection of central venous catheters when using storage phosphor radiography in intensive-care radiology. Erkennbarkeit zentralvenoeser Katheter bei Einsatz der digitalen Lumineszenzradiographie in der intensivmedizinischen Radiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galanski, M.; Prokop, M.; Thorns, E.; Oestmann, J.W.; Reichelt, S.; Haubitz, B.; Milbradt, H.; Graeser, A.; Schaefer, C. (Medizinische Hochschule, Hannover (Germany). Abt. Diagnostische Radiologie); Verner, L. (Medizinische Hochschule, Hannover (Germany). Abt. Anaesthesiologie 1)

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the following study was to assess the impact of dose alterations on the detection of catheters. We compared the performance of well-exposed conventional and digital portable chest radiographs in the detection of thin catheters and tested the influence of dose alterations. Portable chest radiographs of 20 patients were obtained with conventional film/screen (FR) and with storage phosphors at 50% (SR{sub L}), 100% (SR{sub N}), and 250% (SR{sub H}) of the conventionally required exposure dose. The region of the mediastinum was subdivided into an average of 18 fields, 50% of which were superimposed with thin catheter segments. ROC analysis of 11 600 observations by 8 readers found only SR{sub H} equivalent to FR in catheter visualisation. Performance decreased significantly with SR{sub N} and SR{sub L}. Detection of low contrast catheters was found to be significantly decreased in storage phosphor radiographs obtained with standard exposure dose. A dose reduction is not feasible with current equipment if performance equivalent to conventional radiography is to be achieved. (orig.).

  17. Ewing's sarcoma, fibrogenic tumors, giant cell tumor, hemangioma of bone. Radiology and pathology; Ewing-Sarkom, fibrogene Tumoren, Riesenzelltumor, Haemangiom des Skeletts. Radiologie und Pathologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freyschmidt, J. [Beratungsstelle und Referenzzentrum fuer Osteoradiologie, Bremen (Germany); Ostertag, H. [Klinikum Region Hannover GmbH, Pathologisches Institut, Hannover (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    Radiological imaging only reflects the anatomy and its pathological abnormalities. Therefore, the radiologist should be able to recognize the basic features of the pathological anatomy of bone tumors. This can only be learned working closely with a pathologist who is experienced in this field. On the other hand, the pathologist needs from the radiologist their diagnostic assessment with information on size, location, aggressiveness and the existence of a bone tumor's matrix, of the whole lesion, because he usually only receives a small part for examination in the form of a biopsy. In this article, the features and fundamentals (standards) of radiological-pathological cooperation as the mainstay for a precise diagnosis in bone tumors are outlined. The radiological appearance and the histopathological features behind it are presented for Ewing's sarcoma, fibrogenic tumors, giant cell tumor, and hemangioma of the bone. (orig.) [German] Radiologische Bilder spiegeln nichts anderes als die Anatomie und ihre pathologischen Abweichungen wider. Deshalb sollte der Radiologe die Grundzuege der pathologischen Anatomie auch von Knochentumoren kennen. Das kann er nur durch eine enge Zusammenarbeit mit einem auf diesem Gebiet erfahrenen Pathologen erlernen. Andererseits braucht der Pathologe vom Radiologen dessen diagnostische Einschaetzung mit Informationen ueber die Groesse, Lage, Aggressivitaet und das Vorhandensein einer Matrix eines Knochentumors und zwar von der gesamten Laesion, denn er bekommt inform einer Biopsie i. d. R. nur einen mehr oder weniger kleinen Teil zur Untersuchung. In diesem Beitrag werden die Grundzuege und Standards der radiologisch-pathologischen Zusammenarbeit aufgezeigt, auf denen eine praezise Diagnosestellung beruht. Radiologisches Erscheinungsbild und die dahintersteckenden - und erklaerenden - histopathologischen Merkmale werden fuer das Ewing-Sarkom, fuer fibrogene Tumoren, den Riesenzelltumor und das Haemangiom des Knochens praesentiert. (orig.)

  18. The thickened left ventricle: etiology, differential diagnosis and implications for cardiovascular radiology; Der dicke linke Ventrikel. Ursachen und Differenzialdiagnose der linksventrikulaeren Hypertrophie und Implikationen fuer die kardiovaskulaere Radiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischoff, P.; Barkhausen, J.; Hunold, P. [Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Luebeck (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin; Radke, P.W. [Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig Holstein, Luebeck (Germany). Medizinische Klinik II

    2012-08-15

    Hypertrophy of the left ventricular myocardium is a common finding and can be reliably detected by echocardiography, CT and MRI. Common causes include diseases associated with increased cardiac afterload as well as primary and secondary cardiomyopathy. With the opportunity to determine functional parameters and myocardial mass precisely as well as to detect structural changes of the cardiac muscle simultaneously, cardiac MRI is the most precise imaging method for quantifying left ventricular hypertrophy as well as determining the cause and the exact characterization of the myocardial changes. It is mandatory, however, to create a flexible, individually adapted examination protocol. This review presents useful diagnostic algorithms in relation to different underlying pathologies in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy. (orig.)

  19. Presentation of the main regulatory provisions applicable in medical and dental radiology; Presentation des principales dispositions reglementaires de radioprotection applicables en radiologie medicale et dentaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this document is to give an overview of the regulation framework to physicians, radiologists, dental surgeons, medical personnel employers, and persons with abilities in radioprotection. It addresses the procedures of declaration and authorization of possession and use of electric equipment generating ionizing radiation, the different persons intervening to ensure the radioprotection of patients and workers, the laying-out conditions for a radiology installation, the different aspects of population and worker radioprotection and of patient radioprotection, the maintenance and quality control of medical equipment, the declaration of incidents at the ASN, and radioprotection inspection

  20. ''Activity based costing'' in radiology; ''Activity based costing'' in der Radiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klose, K.J. [Klinik fuer Strahlendiagnostik, Medizinisches Zentrum fuer Radiologie, Philipps-Universitaet, Marburg (Germany); Boettcher, J. [pphc GmbH, Ammersbeck (Germany)

    2002-05-01

    Background: The introduction of diagnosis related groups for reimbursement of hospital services in Germany (g-drg) demands for a reconsideration of utilization of radiological products and costs related to them. Methods: Traditional cost accounting as approach to internal, department related budgets are compared with the accounting method of activity based costing (ABC). The steps, which are necessary to implement ABC in radiology are developed.Conclusions: The introduction of a process-oriented cost analysis is feasible for radiology departments. ABC plays a central role in the set-up of decentralized controlling functions within this institutions. The implementation seems to be a strategic challenge for department managers to get more appropriate data for adequate enterprise decisions. The necessary steps of process analysis can be used for other purposes (Certification, digital migration) as well. (orig.) [German] Hintergrund. Die Oekonomisierung der Medizin in Deutschland, die in der beabsichtigten Einfuehrung der kostenhomogenen Verguetungsklassen nach den ''diagnosis related groups - DRG's'' ihren vorlaeufigen Hoehepunkt finden soll, erfordert eine Neuorientierung im Einsatz und in der Beurteilung der Wirtschaftlichkeit radiologischer Verfahren.Methode. Traditionelle Kostenrechnungen bzw. Verfahren zur internen Budgetierung werden der Prozesskostenbetrachtung (''activity based costing'' - ABC) gegenuebergestellt, deren auf radiologische Belange zugeschnittene Methodik Schritt fuer Schritt entwickelt wird.Ergebnisse. Die Betrachtung radiologischer Arbeitsprozesse auf der Basis des ABC gestattet anhand der bisher publizierten Ergebnisse eine bessere Einschaetzung von Steuerungsimpulsen, die zu einer Effizienzsteigerung in radiologischen Prozessen fuehren koennen.Schlussfolgerungen. Die Einfuehrung einer prozessorientierten Kostenanalyse ist fuer vielfaeltige Belange einer Radiologieabteilung moeglich. Sie stellt einen zentralen Baustein in der Entwicklung eines abteilungsinternen und damit dezentralen Controlling dar und ist damit als strategische Unternehmensaufgabe anzusehen, da hiermit eine handlungsrelevante Beurteilung der Geschaeftsprozesse moeglich ist.Die hierfuer noetigen Arbeiten im Sinne der Prozessanalyse lassen sich synergistisch fuer andere Zwecke (Zertifizierung, Digitalisierung) nutzen. (orig.)

  1. E-learning in radiology - the practical use of the content management system ILIAS; E-Learning in der Radiologie - praktischer Einsatz des Content-Management-Systems Ilias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuetze, B. [Abt. fuer Herz- und Thoraxchirurgie, Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany); Mildenberger, P.; Kaemmerer, M. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Radiologie, Johannes-Gutenberg-Univ. Mainz (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    Purpose: Due to the possibility of using different kinds of visualization, e-learning has the advantage of allowing individualized learning. A check should be performed to determine whether the use of the web-based content management system ILIAS simplifies the writing and production of electronic learning modules in radiology. Materials and methods: Internet-based e-learning provides access to existing learning modules regardless of time and location, since fast Internet connections are readily available. Results: Web Content Management Systems (WCMS) are suitable platforms for imparting radiology-related information (visual abilities like the recognition of patterns as well as interdisciplinary specialized knowledge). The open source product ILIAS is a free WCMS. It is used by many universities and is accepted by both students and lecturers. Its modular and object-oriented software architecture makes it easy to adapt and enlarge the platform. The employment of e-learning standards such as LOM and SCORM within ILIAS makes it possible to reuse contents, even if the platform has to be changed. Conclusion: ILIAS renders it possible to provide students with texts, images, or files of any other kind within a learning context which is defined by the lecturer. Students can check their acquired knowledge via online testing and receive direct performance feedback. The significant interest that students have shown in ILIAS proves that e-learning can be a useful addition to conventional learning methods. (orig.)

  2. Radiology for veterinarians. An introduction to the second part of the veterinary examination. Radiologie fuer Veterinaermediziner. Eine Einfuehrung fuer den 2. klinischen Studienabschnitt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tempel, K.

    1983-01-01

    The author has made an attempt to comprise the extensive and heterogenic area of radiological topics in the sense of a studying support for the second part of the veterinary examination and as an introduction to the entire area. Numerous details, exact physical derivations and more extensive radiological tables and graphs had to be left out to achieve the brief and understandable form. On the other hand, in addition to the test subjects, at least a few of the particularly up-to-date problems of this branch had to be emphasized and the data necessary to assess them had to be given. This explains the extensive form of the manuscript and the frequent occurrence of numbers, especially in the chapters radioecology, radiobiology and radiotoxicology. (orig./MG) With 65 figs., 76 tabs.

  3. Measures of the French Society of Radiology in the field of radiation protection; Actions de la Societe francaise de radiologie dans le domaine de la radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducou Le Pointe, Hubert [service de radiologie, Hopital d' enfants Armand-Trousseau, 28 Avenue du Docteur Arnold Netter, 75012 Paris (France)

    2011-07-15

    The SFR (French Society of Radiology), its regional delegations, in partnership with the organ societies and federations, and its radiation protection group, are working on various radiation protection topics, especially justification and optimisation. Their work in these areas involves: - drafting and publishing guides (correct use of medical imaging examinations, radiological procedures and practical guidelines to help radiologists assess their professional practices); - organizing continuous medical training and promoting research; - informing the patients about imaging examinations and the use of ionising radiation; - remaining in close contact with official organisations and taking part in international programmes. (author)

  4. Primary mediastino pulmonary tuberculosis in infancy; Apport de la radiologie standard et du scanner thoracique dans la tuberculose mediastino-pulmonaire du nourrisson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourliere-Najean, B.; Boespflug, M.D.; Dubus, J.C.; Roybet, D.; Panuel, M.; Faure, F.; Kervella, H.; Devred, P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de la Timone, 13 - Marseille (France)

    1995-06-01

    Primary mediastino pulmonary tuberculosis in infancy is increasing in France. Bacteriological diagnosis is difficult. The aim of the study is to assess the value of chest radiograph and CTscan for diagnosis of tuberculosis. We studied 15 infants, 3 month old to 18 month old, between November 1990 and June 1992. On plain film, lymphadenopathies were present in 13 cases and parenchymal disease in 10 cases, parenchymal nodular densities in 6 cases and pleural effusion in one case, displacement of the trachea in 6 cases. We found CTscan to be useful in delineating the lymphadenopathies and parenchymal changes. In 2 cases lymphadenopathies and in 2 cases alveolar condensation were discovered on CT scan as plain film was normal. In all cases lymphadenopathies were present in CTscan, often in right side and in al cases, lymphadenopathies were hypodense with peripheral enhancement. In conclusion, the association of right paratracheal nodes with displacement of trachea and alveolar consolidation is common in tuberculosis in infants. These findings when seen on chest radiographs must lead to perform a CTscan and suggest the diagnosis. (Authors). 19 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. The radiology of tropical diseases. X-ray diagnoses in the Third World; Tropen-Radiologie. Roentgendiagnostik in der Dritten Welt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, H. [Allgemeines Krankenhaus Ochsenzoll, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. Roentgendiagnostik

    1994-12-31

    Collected, evaluated and surveyed were X-ray findings for: 1. diseases not encountered in our latitudes; 2. diseases that are encountered but seen at other places to occur to an extent only very occasionally observed in our regions; 3. changes observed subsequent to treatments uncommon here that were, however, inevitable in the circumstances and had to be performed at the scene of the incident. The first group comprises diseases prevailing in the tropics and therefore generally known as ``tropical diseases``. The appropriate X-ray findings are surveyed in the book. More recently developed methods like ultrasonic procedures, computerized tomography and nmr imaging are taken account of. The third group is that of X-ray findings revealed after treatments uncommon here that were, however, inevitable in the circumstances and had to be performed at the scene of the incident. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wurden Roentgenbefunde gesammelt, ausgewertet und zusammengestellt von: 1. Erkrankungen, die in unseren Breitengraden nicht vorkommen, 2. Erkrankungen, die hier vorkommen, anderen Orts aber einen Auspraegungsgrad haben, der hier allenfalls ausnahmsweise gesehen wird. 3. Befunde nach Behandlungen, die hier nicht ueblich sind, vor Ort aber durch die Umstaende erzwungen werden. Zu der ersten Gruppe gehoeren die Erkrankungen, deren Vorkommen in den Tropen typisch ist und fuer die die Bezeichnung ``Tropenkrankheiten`` verbreitet ist. Die durch sie verursachten Roentgenbefunde sind in dem Buch dargestellt. Neue bildgebende Verfahren wie Ultraschalldiagnostik, Computertomographie und Kernspintomographie wurden beruecksichtigt. Die dritte Gruppe bilden die Roentgenbefunde nach Behandlungen, die hier nicht ueblich sind, vor Ort aber erzwungen werden. (orig.)

  6. Optimization approach within an interventional radiology department; Demarche d'optimisation au sein d'un service de radiologie interventionnelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozziconacci, J.G.; Brot, A.M. [Centre Hospitalier de Bourges, PCR, 18 (France); Jarrige, V. [Centre Hospitalier de Bourges, PSRPM, 18 (France)

    2009-07-01

    The authors present an approach aimed at optimizing working conditions and radioprotection for the different actors in interventional radiology. This approach comprises a monitoring of personnel dosimetry, a workstation analysis with risk assessment, and the taking into account of patient dosimetry. For each of these aspects, the authors discuss procedures and available devices (dosemeters and other detection or dose measurement equipment)

  7. A feasibility inquiry on the radiodermatitis secondary to an interventional radiology act;Une enquete de faisabilite sur les radiodermites secondaires a un geste de radiologie interventionnelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roudier, C.; Pirard, Ph.; Donadieu, J. [Institut de veille sanitaire, Saint-Maurice (France)

    2006-04-15

    The radiodermatitis is a burning of skin tissue and subcutaneous tissue in relation with ionizing radiation. In the medical practice, outside radiotherapy excluded of our study, it is observed only with acts of interventional radiology. The consequences of a radiodermatitis can be aesthetic, with appearance of a scar or a definitive alopecia, functional with loss of substance needing sometimes a remedial surgical act and finally oncologic with a risk of localised skin cancer. A radiodermatitis can appear with a radiation dose of 2 grays and its intensity worsens with the dose. Since the late 1970's about 200 cases of radiodermatitis have been reported. the most of cases have been reported between 1993 and 2000 and less than ten cases have been reported since 2000, suggesting a possible reduction of incidence explainable by a concomitant improvement of technological quality of the equipment. In order to confirm this eventual trend az feasibility study has been organised and is reported in this article. Given the results, this complication is still existing. In spite of the small number of observed cases, it is to notice that every procedures of interventional radiology are concerned. The preliminary character of this study encourages the institute of Health surveillance to work on the elaboration of a program of radiodermatitis surveillance. It could be associated to actions of improvement of the prevention and follow-up of patients, of feedback, and making easy an optimization of the practices. (N.C.)

  8. Conditioning and management of radioactive waste; Behandlung und Entsorgung radioaktiver Abfaelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gliha, V. [Siemens AG, Bereich Energieerzeugung (KWU), Offenbach (Germany); Werschnik, W. [Siemens AG, Bereich Energieerzeugung (KWU), Offenbach (Germany)

    1996-10-01

    Pursuant to the directive issued by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, waste conditioning for volume reduction must be carried out at the source, if possible. The article contains an outline of waste conditioning systems for liquid and solid radioactive wastes. Points described in greater detail are the criteria established by customers and projects, and the integration of systems in existing logistics and infrastructure facilities. Even for rather clearcut processes there is a trend to move away from isolated processes in favor of a complete waste management concept. In addition to specific procedures for radioactive waste conditioning, also a complete waste treatment building is described from the basic design concept to completion. Siemens has basic modules for such specific issues as licensing, fire protection, radiology, systems. This is the basis on which customized versions are planned and built in the light of special criteria required by a customer or a project. In addition to the growing importance of complete waste management concepts, also a positive cost-benefit assessment is a basic necessity. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Abfallkonditionierung hat gemaess der BMU-Richtlinie unter dem Ziel der Volumenreduktion moeglichst am Entstehungsort zu erfolgen. Es werden realisierte Abfallbehandlungssysteme fuer fluessige und feste radioaktive Abfaelle dargestellt. Im besonderen werden dabei die projekt- und kundenspezifischen Vorgaben und die Einbindung von Systemen in die vorhandene Logistik und Infrastruktur beschrieben. Dabei zeigt sich auch bei ueberschaubaren Verfahren der Trend vom Einzelverfahren hin zu einem geschlossenen Entsorgungskonzept. Neben Einzelverfahren fuer die Behandlung von radioaktiven Abfaellen wird beispielhaft ein komplettes Abfallbehandlungsgebaeude von der Konzeption bis zur Realisation beschrieben. Bei Siemens liegen fuer Einzelfragen (z.B. Genehmigung, Brandschutz, Radiologie, Systeme) modulare Grundversionen vor. Auf dieser

  9. Hypophosphatasie - aktuelle Diagnostik und Therapie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BeckC

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Die Hypophosphatasie (HP ist eine seltene, autosomal rezessiv vererbte Erkrankung des Knochenstoffwechsels mit verminderter Aktivität der gewebeunspezifischen alkalischen Phosphatase (TNSAP und Akkumulation von nicht abgebauten Stoffwechselprodukten. Sie ist charakterisiert durch eine generelle Störung der Knochenmineralisation mit nachfolgenden Knochendeformitäten, Frakturen oder auch chronischer nicht bakterieller Osteomyelitis. Nierenbeteiligung mit Nephrokalzinose, Zahnveränderungen bzw. vorzeitiger Zahnverlust, des weiteren Kraniosynostosen sind bekannt. Kürzlich konnten wir zeigen, dass der klinische Phänotyp der infantil-juvenilen Form unter anderem durch Entzündung von Gelenken und Knochen beeinflusst wird. Der genaue Pathomechanismus, der zur Zellaktivierung mit resultierender Knochenentzündung und Gewebsdestruktion führt, ist noch nicht endgültig geklärt. Nach dem aktuellen Stand der Forschung scheinen akkumulierende Kalziumpyrophosphatkristalle, die zur Aktivierung von Rezeptoren des angeborenen Immunsystems und nachfolgend verschiedener komplexer inflammatorischer Signalkaskaden führen, hierbei eine entscheidende Rolle zu spielen. Die Diagnosesicherung erfolgt mithilfe laborchemischer Analysen, genetischer Testung und radiologischer Bildgebung. Gerade aufgrund der Vielseitigkeit der möglichen klinischen Symptome ist eine enge Anbindung an ein mit HP-Patienten erfahrenes Zentrum mit multidisziplinärer Betreuung (Pädiatrie, Radiologie, Orthopädie, Neurochirurgie, Kieferorthopädie und Parodontologie, desweiteren Physiotherapie und Ernährungsberatung von entscheidender Bedeutung. Da derzeit kurative Therapien, z. B. eine Enzymersatztherapie, noch nicht evaluiert sind, stehen aktuell symptomatische Therapieansätze im Vordergrund der Behandlung.

  10. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation - clinical indications and results; Perkutane Radiofrequenzablation - klinische Indikationen und Ergebnisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tacke, J. [Universitaetsklinikum Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik

    2003-02-01

    Percutaneous interstitial tumor ablation therapy is a relatively new and steadily growing field within interventional radiology. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) became one of the most accepted techniques among hyperthermal ablation procedures, presumably due to its superior relation between probe diameter and efficacy. The first part of this review provided an overview of the underlying principles, technical background and application techniques. This second part describes the indications, techniques and results of clinical RFA applied to primary and secondary liver tumors as well as experiences with extrahepatic RFA applied to kidney, bone and lung, together with a discussion of the current literature. (orig.) [German] Die perkutane interstitielle Tumortherapie stellt innerhalb der interventionellen Radiologie ein noch junges, sich aber stetig weiterentwickelndes Verfahren dar. Unter den Thermoablationsverfahren hat die Radiofrequenzablation (RFA) die weiteste Verbreitung gefunden, nicht zuletz aufgrund des guenstigen Verhaeltnisses von Sonderdurchmesser und Wirkungsrad. Die Grundlagen, technischen Hintergruende und Applikationstechniken wurden im ersten Teil der Uebersichtsarbeit zur perkutanen Radiofrequenzablation beschrieben. In diesem zweiten Teil werden die Indikationen, Techniken und Ergebnise der klinischen RFA primaerer und sekundaerer Lebertumoren sowie Erfahrungen der extrahepatischen RFA im Bereich der Niere, des Knochens und der Lunge vorgestellt und anhand der Literatur diskutiert. (orig.)

  11. Structured diagnostic imaging in patients with multiple trauma; Strukturierte radiologische Diagnostik beim Polytrauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linsenmaier, U.; Rieger, J.; Rock, C.; Pfeifer, K.J.; Reiser, M. [Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen, Innenstadt (Germany); Kanz, K.G. [Chirurgische Klinik, Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen, Innenstadt (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Purpose. Development of a concept for structured diagnostic imaging in patients with multiple trauma.Material and methods. Evaluation of data from a prospective trial with over 2400 documented patients with multiple trauma. All diagnostic and therapeutic steps, primary and secondary death and the 90 days lethality were documented.Structured diagnostic imaging of multiple injured patients requires the integration of an experienced radiologist in an interdisciplinary trauma team consisting of anesthesia, radiology and trauma surgery. Radiology itself deserves standardized concepts for equipment, personnel and logistics to perform diagnostic imaging for a 24-h-coverage with constant quality.Results. This paper describes criteria for initiation of a shock room or emergency room treatment, strategies for documentation and interdisciplinary algorithms for the early clinical care coordinating diagnostic imaging and therapeutic procedures following standardized guidelines. Diagnostic imaging consists of basic diagnosis, radiological ABC-rule, radiological follow-up and structured organ diagnosis using CT. Radiological trauma scoring allows improved quality control of diagnosis and therapy of multiple injured patients.Conclusion. Structured diagnostic imaging of multiple injured patients leads to a standardization of diagnosis and therapy and ensures constant process quality. (orig.) [German] Fragestellung. Entwicklung eines strukturierten Konzeptes zur radiologischen Diagnostik polytraumatisierter Patienten.Methodik. Die Datenevaluation erfolgte auf Basis einer prospektiven interdisziplinaere Polytraumastudie mit ueber 2400 Patienten. Alle diagnostischen und therapeutischen Schritte werden jeweils unter Angabe von Zeitpunkt und auftretenden Komplikationen erfasst, ein primaeres oder sekundaeres Versterben und die 90-Tage-Letalitaet werden dokumentiert.Die strukturierte radiologische Diagnostik von Mehrfachverletzen verlangt die Integration eines erfahrenen Radiologen in

  12. Endovascular interventions for multiple trauma; Endovaskulaere Interventionen beim Polytrauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinstner, C.; Funovics, M. [Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Klinische Abteilung fuer Kardiovaskulaere und Interventionelle Radiologie, Wien (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    oder mittels Stent zu schienen. Speziell beim Polytrauma wird die Planung dieser Eingriffe wann immer moeglich nach einem praeinterventionellen Multidetektor-CT durchgefuehrt. Der Einsatz der endovaskulaeren Intervention ermoeglicht neben einer Verringerung des operativen Traumas auch eine wesentliche Verkuerzung der Behandlungszeit. Beim vaskulaeren Trauma am Stamm oder an den Extremitaeten, wo ein operativer Zugang nur unter erhoehtem Risiko durchfuehrbar erscheint, aber auch beim pelvinen Trauma und bei arteriellen Verletzungen parenchymatoeser Organe, die nicht gaenzlich geopfert werden sollen, sowie in anderen schwer zugaenglichen Regionen wie der oberen Thoraxapertur, ist die interventionelle Versorgung mittlerweile Standardmethode geworden. Heute kann die interventionelle Radiologie in praktisch allen vaskulaeren Territorien in einem interdisziplinaeren Zugang neben der offenen chirurgischen Versorgung dazu beitragen, eine schnellere Stabilisierung der Situation herbeizufuehren. (orig.)

  13. The climate protection policy of the USA under president Obama; Die Klimaschutzpolitik der USA unter Praesident Obama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Wolfgang; Schenk, Olga [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. fuer Energieforschung - Systemforschung und Technologische Entwicklung; Holtrup-Mostert, Petra [Transatlantic Networks - Foreign Policy Analysis, Koenigswinter (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    Barack Obama's slogan 'Are you ready for a Change?' may become the motto fo the future climate protection policy of the USA. While the USA is slowly beginning to play a more active role in this area, there are many political and institutional obstacles to overcome before the USA can become one of the big global players here. The authors analyse the status quo of the US climate protection policy in an attempt to indicate national and international perspectives of climate protection. (orig.)

  14. Diapedese und immuntolerogene Funktion regulatorischer T Zellen in der schubförmigen Multiplen Sklerose unter Therapie mit Natalizumab

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Die schubförmige Multiple Sklerose (MS) ist eine chronisch-entzündliche, demyelinisierende, multifokale Erkrankung des Zentralnervensystems (ZNS). Autoreaktive immunologische Prozesse, insbesondere der T-Zell vermittelten Immunität, leisten einen entscheidenden Beitrag zur Pathogenese der schubförmigen MS. Ein wesentlicher Schritt in immunpathogenetischen Modellen ist die transendotheliale Migration von Immunzellen über die Blut-Hirn-Schranke. Die Interaktion des very late antigen 4 (VLA-4) m...

  15. Serum-Spiegel pro- und antiinflammatorischer Zytokine bei Multiple Sklerose-Patienten unter Interferon-beta 1b-Therapie

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Interferon-beta 1b (IFN-beta 1b) führt in der Therapie der Multiplen Sklerose (MS) zu einer signifikanten Reduktion von Frequenz und Schweregrad der Schübe. Bisher ist die Wirkweise von IFN-beta 1b nicht vollständig geklärt, Zytokinen wird eine Schlüsselrolle zugesprochen. In der vorliegenden Studie wurden die folgenden 10 (pro- und antiinflammatorischen) Zytokine mittels ELISA im Serum von 23 MS-Patienten über einen Zeitraum von drei Monaten zu sechs verschiedenen Zeitpunkten bestimmt: TNF-a...

  16. Finned tubes decide performance. A closer look at water coolers. Wasserkuehlsaetze unter der Lupe: Auf die Rippenrohre kommt es an

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menze, K.W.; Webb, R.L.; Apparao, T. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (USA))

    1989-05-01

    The performance of standard and high-efficiency finned tubes in 800 kW water coolers was compared experimentally. Details are given of the dual-flow evaporators of the two R11 water coolers with 170 tubes each, the corrugated inner surface of the finned tube, the experimental facility, and the data acquisition system. After three years (9000 hours) of trial operation, it can be stated that the heat transfer was raised by an average 60% inside the condenser and by 40% inside the evaporator. Electricity savings amounted to about 13%. The amortisation period (replacement of standard tubes by high-efficiency tubes) is about 2 years. (HWJ).

  17. Underground- and surface technologies for joint flooding of gas caves; Unter- und Uebertagetechnik als Einheit zur Flutung von Gaskavernen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raudonus, K.; Miersch, D. [UGS GmbH, Mittenwalde (Germany); Haensler, G. [Verbundnetz Gas AG, Leipzig (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    After 20 years of operation the oldes caves in the Bernburg storage VNG AG had to repair the facilities. This required flooding of the caves from the start. At the same time geomechanical reserves which were reevaluated on the basis of redimensioning could be used by deepening. Flooding and relocation of the displaced gas should not disturb gas storage and brine extraction. As one of the caves was filled with gas for the first time it was possible to use the brine. Flooding and gas filling were coupled. [Deutsch] Nach mehr als 20jaehriger Betriebszeit der aeltesten Kavernen auf dem Speicher Bernburg stand fuer die VNG AG die Aufgabe der Reparatur. Der Umfang der Arbeiten machte von Anfang an das vollstaendige Fluten der Kavernen erforderlich. Gleicheitig ergab sich dabei die Moeglichkeit, seinerzeit verbliebene geomechanische Reserven, die auf Basis einer auf aktuelle Erkenntnisse beruhenden Neudimensionierung bewertet wurden, durch Nachsolung auszuschoepfen. Die Heranfuehrung des Flutmediums und die Umlagerung des verdraengten Gases sollten ohne nachteilige Rueckwirkung auf den Gasspeicher- und Solegewinnungsbetrieb erfolgen. Da zu diesem Zeitpunkt eine Kaverne in der Phase der Gaserstbefuellung stand, konnte die ausgetragene Sole genutzt werden. Flutprozess und Gaserstbefuellung wurden somit im direkt gekoppelten Betrieb durchgefuehrt. (orig./MSK)

  18. Purchasing motors under consideration of full-cost pricing; Beschaffung von Motoren unter der Vollkostenbetrachtung (inklusive Permanentmagneterregte-Synchronmotoren) - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauchle, P. [Schnyder Ingenieure AG, Huenenberg (Switzerland); Ritz, Ch. [Schnyder Ingenieure AG, Steg (Switzerland)

    2007-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at how full-cost pricing should be considered when purchasing electric motors. The authors consider it essential that the overall life-cycle costs are carefully considered. This also guarantees economical operation and enables users to avoid unexpected costs throughout the service life of the motor. The aim of this project was to provide industrial companies with suitable tools for calculating the overall life-cycle costs of motors at the time of their acquisition. These tools take the form of a sample 'Call for Tender' for motors along with software for calculating life-cycle costs. The factors involved, such as investment, installation costs, energy and environmental costs as well as operational, maintenance and disposal costs are examined.

  19. Integration einer Stromerzeugung aus Windenergie und Speichersystemen unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von Druckluft-Speicherkraftwerken

    OpenAIRE

    Kruck, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Die Stromerzeugung aus Windenergie hat in den vergangenen Jahren, insbesondere unterstützt durch das Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz (EEG), stark zugenommen und belief sich im Jahr 2006 auf einen Anteil von rund 4,8 % an der Bruttostromerzeugung. Aufgrund des fluktuierenden Charakters der Windstromerzeugung ist die Integration und Einspeisung dieses Anteils in das Netz der öffentlichen Versorgung bereits heute mit teilweise erheblichen Problemen verbunden. Diese werden sich in Zukunft weiter v...

  20. 3D seismology Ruehlermoor: Highly dissolved seismology under difficult conditions; 3D Seismik Ruehlermoor: Hochaufloesende Seismik unter schwierigen Bedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerbe, M.; Bartz, V. [Gaz de France Produktion Exploration Deutschland GmbH, Lingen (Germany)

    2008-10-23

    The previous structural plan of the petroleum deposit Ruehlermoor in Emsland (Federal Republic of Germany) only was based on the results of a multiplicity of drillings. In order to optimize the production and the EOR measures (EOR = Enhanced Oil Recovery), a highly soluble three-dimensional seismological measurement is accomplished. The goal of this measurement is the dissolution of disturbance displacements in an order of magnitude of five meters. The substantial problem is the fact that the oil field completely lies under a moorland which is dismounted industrially. The three-dimensional seismological measurements only can be accomplished in the winter months with mobile Sonic drilling equipment.

  1. Investigations of the surface tension of coal ash slags under gasification conditions; Untersuchungen zur Oberflaechenspannung von Kohleschlacken unter Vergasungsbedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melchior, Tobias

    2011-10-26

    In the context of CO{sub 2}-emission-induced global warming, greenhouse gases resulting from the production of electricity in coal-fired power plants gain increasing attention. One possible way to reduce such emissions is to gasify coal instead of burning it. The corresponding process is referred to as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle and allows for the separation of CO{sub 2} before converting a synthesis gas into electrical energy. However, further improvements in efficiency and availability of this plant technology are needed to render the alternative generation of electricity sensible from an economic point of view. One corresponding approach introduces hot gas cleaning facilities to the gasification plant which guarantee a removal of slag particles from the synthesis gas at high temperatures. The development of such filters depends on the availability of data on the material properties of the coal ash slags to be withdrawn. In this respect, the surface tension is a relevant characteristic. Currently, the surface tension of real coal ash slags as well as of synthetic model systems was measured successfully by means of the sessile drop and the maximum bubble pressure method. With regard to the sessile drop technique, those experiments were conducted in a gasification-like atmosphere at temperatures of up to 1500 C. Furthermore, the pressure inside the experimental vessel was raised to 10 bar in order to allow for deriving the influence of this variable on the surface tension. In contrast, maximum bubble pressure trials were realised at atmospheric pressure while the gas atmosphere assured inert conditions. For performing sessile drop measurements, a corresponding apparatus was set up and is described in detail in this thesis. Three computer algorithms were employed to calculate surface tensions out of the photos of sessile drops and their individual performance was evaluated. A very good agreement between two of the codes was found while the third one produces heavily scattering output. The measurement arrangement was run in an almost fully automated fashion which resulted in an immense amount of obtained surface tension data. Maximum bubble pressure experiments were conducted at the University of Osaka, Japan, on selected real ash samples. Due to a far longer time required for determining bubble pressures in comparison to taking drop pictures, only a small number of temperatures could be studied abroad. The results show the surface tension to be in the range from 200 mN/m to 500 mN/m which is in accordance with data taken from the literature. While three discrete temperature intervals of particular slag behaviour could be identified in sessile drop experiments, results of maximum bubble pressure trials suggest the surface tension to be lower under inert conditions compared to a reducing atmosphere. The outcomes generated in Japan additionally show a better agreement to surface tensions forecasted by model calculations. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} being considered to have a pronounced influence on slag characteristics is made responsible for such observations. As soon as pressure is applied, the surface tension is found to decrease significantly. In order to visualise the data obtained by means of the sessile drop technique, regression functions were employed that can be implemented into future design calculations on hot gas cleaning facilities. (orig.)

  2. Lube-oil dilution of gasoline direct-injection engines with ethanol fuels; Schmieroelverduennung von direkteinspritzenden Ottomotoren unter Kaltstartrandbedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuepper, Carsten; Pischinger, Stefan [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Verbrennungskraftmaschinen (VKA); Artmann, Chrsitina; Rabl, Hans-Peter [Hochschule Regensburg (Germany). Labor fuer Verbrennungsmotoren und Abgasnachbehandlung

    2013-09-15

    Ethanol fuel mixtures account for the majority of biofuels used worldwide. However, their properties make these fuels more difficult to use in cold conditions and especially when starting a cold engine. As part of the FVV research project 'Lubricant Dilution with Ethanol Fuels under Cold Start Conditions', the Institute for Combustion Engines (VKA) at RWTH Aachen University and the Combustion Engines and Emission Control Laboratory at Regensburg University of Applied Sciences have investigated the influence of the ethanol content in fuels on the dilution of the lubricating oil in modern direct-injection gasoline engines. (orig.)

  3. Die Wirkung von Kombinationschemotherapien mit Taurolidin auf Pankreaskarzinomzellen unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Induktion von Apoptose

    OpenAIRE

    Rust, Johanna Elisabeth Margarete Adelheid

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The antibacterial agent taurolidine has been shown to exhibit antineoplastic effects both in vitro and in animal models. Resistance towards established cytotoxic agens is a typical feature of pancreatic cancer. Inhibition of programmed cell death was identfied as an important mechanism of drug resistance in cancer cells. Firstly in this study the effect of taurolidine in monotherapy and in combination with gemcitabine, docetaxel and suramin on viabilitiy and proliferation...

  4. Ein Mythos wird besichtigt. Le deuxième sexe von Simone de Beauvoir unter dem Mikroskop der Genderforschung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieselotte Steinbrügge

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Aus Anlass des 50jährigen Jubiläums der Erstausgabe von Das andere Geschlecht haben namhafte Wissenschaftlerinnen aus den Gebieten Philosophie, Biologie, Soziologie, Psychoanalyse, Geschichte und Literatur das fast tausendseitige Standardwerk des Feminismus einer akribischen Lektüre unterzogen und dabei versucht, jene Fragen zu rekonstruieren, auf die das Werk bei seinem Erscheinen im Jahr 1949 eine Antwort gab. Die zeitlos scheinende Formel von der Konstruiertheit weiblicher Identität sollte wieder in ihren ursprünglichen Entstehungszusammenhang gestellt, die Autorin aus der mythischen Ferne in die kritische Nähe gerückt werden. Diese kritischen Lektüren sind insgesamt gut dokumentiert und erlauben meines Wissens zum ersten Mal einen Einblick in die Beauvoirsche Werkstatt. Ein weiterer – ebenfalls von Ingrid Galster herausgegebener – Band dokumentiert die Reaktionen, die unmittelbar nach Erscheinen von Le deuxième sexe in der französischen Presse erschienen sind.

  5. Nichtlineare Analyse von LC-TANK VCOs unter Berücksichtigung parasitärer Substrateffekte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Przytarski

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In dieser Arbeit wird ein Konzept vorgestellt, die Schaltungsarchitektur des LC-Tank-VCOs im höherdimensionalen Zustandsraum zu modellieren. Dabei wurde die VCO-Schaltung auf dominante nichtlineare und asymmetrische Effekte näher untersucht. Das entwickelte Modell bildet die Grundlage für nachfolgende parameterabhängige Analysen der Oszillatorschaltung mittels der Andronov-Hopf Bifurkationsanalyse. Zu diesem Zweck wurde ein höherdimensionales Modell entwickelt, welches für die Bifurkationsanalyse auf ein System 2. Ordnung reduziert werden muss. Als mathematisches Hilfsmittel zur Ordnungsreduktion des Systems wird das Verfahren der Zentrumsmannigfaltigkeit verwendet. Das Differentialgleichungssystem wird sehr schaltungsnah aufgestellt, daraus resultiert der Vorteil einer genaueren Repräsentation des physikalischen Verhaltens der Schaltung. Ziel ist es möglichst viele Effekte die sich auf das Verhalten des VCOs auswirken können, mit zu berücksichtigen.

  6. Nichtlineare Analyse von LC-TANK VCOs unter Berücksichtigung parasitärer Substrateffekte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przytarski, J.; Bremer, J.-K.; Mathis, W.

    2009-05-01

    In dieser Arbeit wird ein Konzept vorgestellt, die Schaltungsarchitektur des LC-Tank-VCOs im höherdimensionalen Zustandsraum zu modellieren. Dabei wurde die VCO-Schaltung auf dominante nichtlineare und asymmetrische Effekte näher untersucht. Das entwickelte Modell bildet die Grundlage für nachfolgende parameterabhängige Analysen der Oszillatorschaltung mittels der Andronov-Hopf Bifurkationsanalyse. Zu diesem Zweck wurde ein höherdimensionales Modell entwickelt, welches für die Bifurkationsanalyse auf ein System 2. Ordnung reduziert werden muss. Als mathematisches Hilfsmittel zur Ordnungsreduktion des Systems wird das Verfahren der Zentrumsmannigfaltigkeit verwendet. Das Differentialgleichungssystem wird sehr schaltungsnah aufgestellt, daraus resultiert der Vorteil einer genaueren Repräsentation des physikalischen Verhaltens der Schaltung. Ziel ist es möglichst viele Effekte die sich auf das Verhalten des VCOs auswirken können, mit zu berücksichtigen.

  7. Snails under stress. Gastropods as models in ecophysiology and ecotoxicology; Schnecken unter Stress. Gastropoden als Modelle in Oekophysiologie und Oekotoxikologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triebskorn, Rita [Steinbeis-Transferzentrum fuer Oekotoxikologie und Oekophysiologie, Rottenburg (Germany); Physiologische Oekologie der Tiere, Univ. Tuebingen (Germany)

    2009-04-15

    Background: In ecophysiology and ecotoxicology, gastropods are important both as target organisms for molluscicides and non-target organisms for environmental pollutants or other environmental stressors. With respect to both aspects, biomarkers are investigated at different levels of biological organization in order to understand mechanisms which enable gastropods to cope with or even to benefit from unfavourable environmental conditions. Main topics: The paper focuses on the ecotoxicological and ecophysiological work of the author on gastropods which will be reviewed in the context of the state of knowledge in this field of research. In addition to cellular aspects in biomarker research, also biochemical responses of snails to environmental stress (stress proteins, metallothioneins, and metabolic enzymes) will be addressed. Conclusions: The paper highlights the suitability of terrestrial and aquatic gastropods as sensitive indicators of environmental stress induced by chemicals or other non-chemical factors. Biomarker studies have been shown not only to be applicable in environmental risk assessment but also to provide fundamental and background knowledge necessary to understand correlations of responses at different levels of biological organization. Recommendations and perspectives: A standardized toxicity test with the grapevine snail (ISO 15952) has been established for toxicity assessment in terrestrial habitats. However, freshwater gastropods display a high sensitivity as well, e.g. to endocrine disrupters, and should be incorporated into future standardized assays for aquatic toxicity testing on the basis of existing knowledge. (orig.)

  8. Frühkontinenz nach radikaler Prostatektomie unter Berücksichtigung des Zeitpunktes der postoperativen Entfernung des transurethralen Dauerkatheters

    OpenAIRE

    Simonis, Kathrin

    2012-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde an 139 konsekutiven Patienten, die im Jahr 2008 radikal prostatektomiert wurden, prospektiv untersucht, ob sich die verzögerte Katheterentfernung bei Anastomoseninsuffizienz nachteilig auf die Frühkontinenz auswirkt. Das mittlere Alter betrug in beiden Gruppen 65 Jahre. Routinemäßig wird in unserer Klinik am 5. postoperativen Tag ein Zystogramm durchgeführt. Bei Dichtigkeit der Anastomose wird der ...

  9. Fish populations under stress. The example of the Lower Neckar river; Fischpopulationen unter Stress. Das Beispiel des Unteren Neckars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braunbeck, Thomas; Brauns, Annika; Keiter, Steffen [Sektion Aquatische Oekologie und Toxikologie, Univ. Heidelberg (Germany); Hollert, Henner [Inst. fuer Umweltforschung (Biologie V), Lehr- und Forschungsgebiet Oekosystemanalyse, Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen, Aachen (Germany); Schwartz, Patrick [Basel Univ. (CH). Mensch-Gesellschaft-Umwelt (MGU)

    2009-04-15

    Background, aim, and scope: Reports about declines or unusual structures of fish populations in native aquatic systems in Central Europe and North America are in sharp contrast to an obvious improvement of general water quality. The Neckar River may serve as an example of a formerly severely contaminated freshwater system in Southern Germany, the ecological situation of which could be substantially improved over the last three decades. Nevertheless, there are still deficits in the composition of the fish fauna, which cannot be explained by conventional chemical-analytical, hydromorphological and limnological methodologies. Therefore, in search of explanations for ecological deficits, ecotoxicological investigations with an increasing focus on sediment contamination have been performed along the Lower Neckar River over a period of 10 years. In addition to sediment tests, fish populations were screened for genotoxic and embryotoxic effects as well as alterations in the structure of central metabolic organs such as the liver. Materials and methods: Roach (Rutilus rutilus) and gudgeon (Gobio gobio) from the Lower Neckar River were studied with respect to histo- and cytological alterations of the liver as well as the induction of genotoxicity in liver, gut, gills and blood cells by means of the comet and micronucleus assays. At the same time, both native sediments and acetonic sediment extracts were tested for toxicity to zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos and permanent fish cell cultures. Results: Massive disturbances of the liver ultrastructure indicate severe stress in the fish from the Lower Neckar River despite good supply of nutrition. Both cyto- and embryotoxicity tests document a considerable toxic potential of sediments from the Lower Neckar River, and results of both the comet assay and the micronucleus test provide evidence of the presence of genotoxic agents in the sediments and their effects in fish. There has been no decrease of genotoxicity over the last 10 years. Discussion: Cytopathology in conjunction with general cyto- and embryotoxicity in fish from the Lower Neckar River contribute to a syndrome which cannot be neglected in the interpretation of abnormal compositions of fish populations. In comparison to weight-of-evidence studies at other river systems in Southern Germany, the Neckar is characterized by an elevated embryotoxic but by a relatively moderate genotoxic potential. Conclusions: The ecotoxicological burden of sediments at the Lower Neckar River is mirrored in the condition of native fish populations. A potential contribution of chemical contamination to the phenomenon of fish declines in aquatic ecosystems cannot be ignored. Recommendations and perspectives: The improvement of the ecological status of freshwater systems may not be abused as an argument to discontinue biological monitoring programs. Rather, continuous surveillance of the environment and in-depth investigations into the consequences of chemical contamination are indispensible. For an adequate appreciation of the ecological relevance of sublethal and/or specific biological effects, their impact on population structure and function remains to be elucidated further. For the identification of the chemical basis of biological effects, methodologies such as effect-directed analysis appear to be promising approaches. (orig.)

  10. 出生时的缺氧缺血损伤%Hypoxie-Isch(a)mie unter der Geburt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seger.,H; 张炼

    2000-01-01

    @@ 几乎每天新生儿科医生都可以听到助产士这样的求救声:"请快来,我们这儿有一个窒息的新生儿."同样,当孩子得不到迅速缓解时,随之而来的不快也并不少见,通常会担心孩子因为缺氧长期接受重症监护治疗,也许出生后很快出现危险而导致缺氧损伤,也许仅出现一般的发育障碍,也许发展为癫痫,也许产生智力或行为缺陷.

  11. Etablierung und Qualifizierung eines humanen Blut-Hirn-Schranken-Modells unter Verwendung von induziert pluripotenten und multipotenten Stammzellen

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Die Blut-Hirn-Schranke (BHS) stellt eine der dichtesten und wichtigsten Barrieren zwischen Blutzirkulation und Zentralnervensystem (ZNS) dar. Sie besteht aus spezialisierten Endothelzellen, welche die zerebralen Kapillaren auskleiden und durch sehr dichte Tight Junctions (TJs) miteinander verbunden sind. Weitere Komponenten der dynamischen Blut-Hirn-Schrankenbarriere stellen Perizyten, Astrozyten, Neurone und Mikrogliazellen dar, welche zusammen mit der extrazellulären Matrix der Basalmembran...

  12. Bioethanol production. Competitive strength in Germany in consideration of international competition.; Bioethanolproduktion. Wettbewerbsfaehigkeit in Deutschland unter Beruecksichtigung der internationalen Konkurrenz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2009-07-01

    The competitive standing of bioethanol production in Germany is reviewed from a national and international scale. The production cost in the EU, Brazil, Australia, Thailand and China are compared, and the effects of imports on the German biofuels production is assessed. The surface terrain available for biocrops in Germany and the EU are estimated, the use of beetroot for biofuel production is analyzed, and relationships between crude oil prices and raw materials prices are established. The CO2 reduction cost resulting from the use of biofuels is calculated and compared with the cost of other climate protection measures. Existing bioethanol markets in Brazil and the USa are analyzed, and marketing trends of biodiesel are included for a comparison. With the aid of inquiry sheets, critical arguments of the automobile and mineral oil industries were compiled and viewed in the context of the biodiesel discussion. The results of the investigation are then discussed with a view to potentially conflicting goals. The author attempts to answer the question whether sustainable bioethanol production may be possible in Germany in the present conditions.

  13. Sound design from the aspect of musical harmony; Sound-Design unter den Aspekten der Harmonielehre der Musik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alt, N.; Jochum, S. [FEV Motorentechnik GmbH und Co KG, Aachen (Germany)

    2003-01-01

    FEV's sound design strategy is based on proprietary vehicle interior and exterior noise simulation methods with an emphasis on achieving desired sounds with hardware solutions suitable for series production. This article discusses a new aspect of sound design: the comparison of musical harmonic theory with engine noises. From this, important new insights regarding noise characteristics that are objectively melodious in musical terms can be gained and transferred to the vehicle. The results presented here were obtained within an internal research project at FEV Motorentechnik. (orig.) [German] Die FEV-Entwicklungsstrategie zum Sound-Design basiert auf der bei FEV entwickelten Fahrzeuginnen- und Aussengeraeuschsimulation mit dem Schwerpunkt der Umsetzbarkeit von Wunschgeraeuschen in serienrelevante Hardwareloesungen. In diesem Beitrag wird ein neuer Aspekt des Sound-Design diskutiert: der Vergleich der Harmonielehre der Musik mit Fahrzeuggeraeuschen. Hieraus lassen sich wichtige neue Erkenntnisse fuer Geraeuschmerkmale, die aus musikalischer Sicht objektiv wohlklingend sind, ableiten und auf das Automobil uebertragen. Die hier vorgestellten Ergebnisse sind im Rahmen eines bei FEV Motorentechnik intern durchgefuehrten Forschungsvorhabens entstanden. (orig.)

  14. Materials research in the solar furnace. Materials testing in extreme conditions; Materialforschung im Sonnenofen. Werkstoffpruefung unter extremen Bedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmuecker, M. [DLR-Institut fuer Werkstoff-Forschung, Koeln-Porz (Germany)

    2005-01-01

    Extreme temperatures can be achieved with concentrated solar radiation. High heating and cooling rates are possible, and furnace walls are not required. This makes the solar furnace a unique tool for testing of high-temperature materials as cooperations with the DLR Institute of Materials Research have shown. (orig.) [German] Mit konzentrierter Sonnenstrahlung koennen extreme Temperaturen erreicht werden. Hohe Aufheiz- und Abkuehlraten sind moeglich; im Allgemeinen kann auf begrenzende Ofenwandungen verzichtet werden. Damit stellt der Sonnenofen, in Verbindung mit einer geeigneten Mess- und Regeltechnik, ein einzigartiges Pruefwerkzeug fuer Hochtemperaturwerkstoffe dar, wie Kooperationen mit dem DLR-Institut fuer Werkstoff-Forschung gezeigt haben. (orig.)

  15. Aspekte der Lernzielbestimmung unter Beruecksichtigung der Sprechakttheorie (Aspects of Goal-Setting with Consideration of the Speech-Act Theory)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leupold, Eynar

    1975-01-01

    After analyzing the speech-act theory (Austin & Searle) with examples from French, the article attempts to state the teaching goals more precisely. Studying the findings of pragmalinguistics can help to minimize the discrepancy between the communication situation in the foreign country and the classroom situation. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  16. Zielgerechte Logistikkonzepte in Betrachtung von LNG- Umschlageplätzen unter Berücksichtigung von Industrie 4.0

    OpenAIRE

    Jenne, Christian; Noche, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Logistikkonzepte in der Spedition und Transportgewerbe spielen heutzutage eine immer wichtigere Rolle, um Lohnnebenkosten so niedrig wie möglich zu halten. Gerade in der Spedition entsteht ein Zusammenspiel aus zeitnaher Lieferung von Konsumgütern und Optimierung der Lagerhaltungskosten bei dem die modulare Integration von Logistik, Informationstechnischen Systemen und vernetzter Kommunikation eine ganz spezifische Rolle hat. Anbindung von der Industrie zum Kunden wird dadurch immer mehr vers...

  17. Waldgrenzen griechischer Hochgebirge. Unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Taygetos, Südpeloponnes (Walddynamik, Tannensterben, Dendrochronologie)

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Die Arbeit dokumentiert und analysiert die Waldgrenzen von 11 Hochgebirgsregionen der Hellenischen Halbinsel. Im besonderen Fokus steht das Taygetos-Gebirge in Südgriechenland. Dort werden neben der Waldgrenze auch die Walddynamik und das Wirkungsgefüge des Tannensterbens erläutert. Dieser durch Trockenheit und biotische Faktoren bedingte Prozess verursacht in Süd- und Zentralgriechenland ein lokales Absinken der Baumgrenze um 50-200 Höhenmeter. Zur Klärung der Frage nach der „Normalität“ von...

  18. Gebrauch von Komplementärmedizin bei Patienten mit metastasierendem Melanom unter Therapie mit Ipilimumab innerhalb einer klinischen Studie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Jutta; Mohr, Peter; Simon, Jan-Christoph; Fluck, Michael; Berking, Carola; Zimmer, Lisa; Loquai, Carmen

    2016-05-01

    In Deutschland wenden 40-90 % aller Krebspatienten Methoden der komplementären and alternativen Medizin (KAM) an. Bis dato gibt es kein Datenmaterial zum Einsatz der KAM bei Melanompatienten. Das Ziel unserer Studie war es, Daten über den Gebrauch, die Informationsquellen und Ziele von Patienten mit metastasierendem Melanom zu erfassen. Einhundertsechsundfünfzig Patienten aus 25 Studienzentren nahmen an der DecOG-MM-PAL Multibasket Studie teil. Die beteiligten Personen wurden auch gebeten, an einer Nebenstudie teilzunehmen, die ihren Gebrauch von KAM erfassen sollte. Dazu wurde während der Behandlung ein standardisierter Fragebogen zu genau festgelegten Zeitpunkten ausgeteilt. Insgesamt gingen 55 Fragebögen von 32 (21 %) Melanompatienten ein. Von diesen gaben 17 (53 %) ein Interesse an KAM an, und sieben (22 %) machten von KAM Gebrauch. Die Hauptinformationsquellen (31 %) waren Familienmitglieder und Freunde, gefolgt von Ärzten (19 %). Die Hauptgründe für die Anwendung von KAM waren die Stärkung des Immunsystems (41 %) und des Körpers (34 %). Nahrungsergänzungsmittel (Vitamine und Spurenelemente) wurden am häufigsten angewendet (28 %). Eine relativ hohe Anzahl an Patienten mit metastasierendem Melanom machte trotz Teilnahme an einer klinischen Studie von KAM Gebrauch. Wechselwirkungen könnten durch biologisch basierte KAM auftreten, und hier besonders bei immunmodulierenden KAM- Strategien. Um Risiken zu vermeiden, sollte die Kommunikation zwischen den Ärzten und den Patienten verbessert werden. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Der Einfluss von Alitretinoin auf die Lebensqualität bei Patienten mit schwerem chronischen Handekzem: FUGETTA - Beobachtungsstudie unter Praxisbedingungen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Matthias; Thaçi, Diamant; Kamps, Anja

    2016-12-01

    Alitretinoin ist die einzige zugelassene Behandlung für schweres chronisches Handekzem (CHE), das refraktär gegenüber potenten topischen Corticosteroiden ist. Bei dieser Studie (FUGETTA) wurde die Wirksamkeit von leitliniengerecht angewendetem oralem Alitretinoin sowie dessen Einfluss auf die Lebensqualität (LQ) bei Patienten mit schwerem refraktärem CHE beurteilt. Multizentrische, offene, nichtinterventionelle Beobachtungsstudie, durchgeführt in Deutschland. Die Patienten wurden nach Ermessen ihres behandelnden Arztes mit Alitretinoin 10 mg oder 30 mg einmal täglich über maximal 24 Wochen behandelt. Die Wirksamkeit wurde anhand des Physician Global Assessment (PGA) und des Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) bewertet. Zudem wurden unerwünschte Ereignisse (UE) erfasst. Die Studienpopulation bestand aus 658 Patienten (30 mg: n = 581; 10 mg: n = 77). Bei Beobachtungsbeginn litten die meisten Patienten (83 %) gemäß PGA an einem schweren CHE. Bei Beobachtungsende war das Handekzem bei 48 % der Patienten gemäß PGA vollständig oder fast vollständig abgeheilt (30 mg: 49 %; 10 mg: 43 %). Die mittlere Verbesserung des DLQI-Scores in Woche 24 betrug 58 % (30 mg: mittlere [SD] Veränderung gegenüber dem Ausgangswert -10,4 [8,04]) und 70 % (10 mg: mittlere [SD] Veränderung gegenüber dem Ausgangswert -10,8 [7,29]). Die Gesamtinzidenz von NW war niedrig und in den beiden Gruppen ähnlich. Alitretinoin führte zu einer schnellen, deutlichen Verbesserung der LQ bei Patienten mit schwerem CHE. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Ganganalyse bei Parkinson-Patienten mit Tiefer Hirnstimulation unter Verwendung des Pedar-XSystems Inaugural-Dissertation

    OpenAIRE

    Hilgert, Anika

    2008-01-01

    Eine hochfrequente bilaterale Stimulation des Nucleus subthalamicus beim Morbus Parkinson hat, wie verschiedene Studien gezeigt haben, einen positiven Effekt sowohl auf die gesamtmotorische Symptomatik [21, 47, 49, 60, 69, 76] als auch auf das Gangbild [27, 41, 56, 75]. Der motorische Teil III der UPDRS, nach dem die Gesamtmotorik beurteilt wird, lässt die dynamischen und kinematischen Größen des Gangbildes unberücksichtigt. In de...

  1. Assoziation einer HIV-Infektion mit ausgewählten Hauterkrankungen unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Immunstatus

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Ziele: I. Prävalenzermittlung spezifischer Hauterkrankungen bei HIV-Patienten. II. Zusammenhänge zwischen der Immunsuppression u. dem Auftreten einer atopischen bzw. seborrhoischen Dermatitis sowie der Psoriasis. III. Klinische Bedeutung der Xerosis cutis, eines Pruritus u. des Gesamt-IgEs. Methoden: Bei 196 HIV-Patienten kamen neben der klinischen Inspektion u. der Erfassung laborchemischer Parameter, standardisierte Diagnostik-bzw. Schweregradscores zum Einsatz. Ergebnisse: E...

  2. Die zerebralen Endothelio- und Vaskulopathien unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des posterioren reversiblen Enzephalopathie-Syndroms (PRES)

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    All papers in this habilitation treatise aimed at a deeper understanding of various clinical disease entities belonging to the group of endotheliopathies and vasculopathies, especially the posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), but also infectious vascular pathologies concerning pathophysiology, imaging and clinical issues. A special emphasize was placed on the correlation of clinical and radiological findings in order to establish imaging biomarkers concerning diagnostic and pr...

  3. Characteristics and modeling of spruce wood under dynamic compression load; Charakteristik und Modellierung von Fichtenholz unter dynamischer Druckbelastung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenacher, Germar

    2014-01-28

    Spruce wood is frequently used as an energy absorbing material in impact limiters of packages for the transportation of radioactive material. A 9m drop test onto an unyielding target is mandatory for the packages. The impact results in a dynamic compression load of the spruce wood inside the impact limiter. The lateral dilation of the wood is restrained thereby due to encasing steel sheets. This work's objective was to provide a material model for spruce wood based on experimental investigations to enable the calculation of such loading conditions. About 600 crush tests with cubical spruce wood specimens were performed to characterize the material. The compression was up to 70% and the material was assumed to be transversely isotropic. Particularly the lateral constraint showed to have an important effect: the material develops a high lateral dilation without lateral constraint. The force-displacement characteristics show a comparably low force level and no or only slight hardening. Distinctive softening occurs after the linear-elastic region when loaded parallel to the fiber. On the other hand, using a lateral constraint results in significantly higher general force levels, distinctive hardening and lateral forces. The softening effect when loaded parallel to the fiber is less distinctive. Strain rate and temperature raise or lower the strength level, which was quantified for the applicable ranges of impact limiters. The hypothesis of an uncoupled evolution of the yield surface was proposed based on the experimental findings. It postulates an independent strength evolution with deviatoric and volumetric deformation. The hypothesis could be established using the first modeling approach, the modified LS-DYNA material model MAT075. A transversely isotropic material model was developed based thereupon and implemented in LS-DYNA. The material characteristics of spruce wood were considered using a multi-surface yield criterion and a non-associated flow rule. The yield criterion uses linear interpolation of the strength of constrained and unconstrained spruce wood. Thus multiaxial stress states can be considered. The calculation of the crush tests showed the ability of the model to reproduce the basic strength characteristics of spruce wood. The effect of lateral constraint can be reproduced well due to the uncoupled evolution of the yield surface. On the contrary, the strength is overestimated for load under acute angles, which could be prevented using modified yield surfaces. The effects of strain rate and temperature are generally reproduced well but the scaling factors used should be improved. The calculation of a drop test with a test-package equipped with wood-filled impact limiters confi rmed the model's performance and produced feasible results. However, to create a verified impact limiter model further numerical and experimental investigations are necessary. This work makes an important contribution to the numerical stress analysis in the context of safety cases of transport packages.

  4. State of the art of waste utilization in underground mining; Stand der Abfallverwertung im Bergbau unter Tage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liese, F. (comp.)

    2001-07-01

    The practice of filling depleted mines to protect humans, the environment and the mining site itself has a long tradition in European mining. Its continuation in all branches of mining, using suitable wastes, therefore only appears sensible, especially in consideration of the Recycling Economy Law. In Germany activities to develop the scientific knowledge, modern technology and technical rules required for proper mine filling with wastes have been going on for fifteen years. It would be sad if this were not taken into account in the current political and legal decision making process and if premature decisions were made out of respect for past political declarations of intent. [German] Das Einbringen von Versatz zum Schutz von Menschen, Umwelt und Lagerstaette hat im Europaeischen Bergbau eine lange Tradition. Insbesondere im Sinne der Kreislaufwirtschaft ist es daher nur konsequent, geeignete Abfaelle in allen Bergbauzweigen dazu gezielt zu verwerten. Die fuer eine geordnete Versatzwirtschaft mit Abfaellen erforderlichen wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnisse, modernen Techniken und technischen Regeln wurden in Deutschland in den letzten 15 Jahren geschaffen. Es waere bedauerlich, wenn dies beim politischen und juristischen Abwaegungsprozess nicht angemessen beruecksichtigt wuerde und vor dem Hintergrund politischer Absichtserklaerungen vorschnelle Entscheidungen gefaellt wuerden. (orig.)

  5. Rating of an air-to-air heat exchanger in practice; Untersuchung eines Luft-Luft-Waermetauschers unter Praxisbedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesmann, Peter; Buescher, Wolfgang [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Abt. ' ' Verfahrenstechnik der Tierischen Erzeugung' '

    2010-07-01

    Barn ventilation is often associated with heat loss. This can be regulated by using appropriate heating technology during the cold season. Air-to-air heat exchanger can be used to recover some of the heat from outlet air. Thereby the system transfers some of the heat from the outlet air to incoming fresh air by heat exchange surfaces. For objective review the DLG has multiple tested this technology on test bed. Long term investigations in practice have taken place rarely. The Institute of Agricultural Engineering, University of Bonn, therefore has tested an recuperative heat exchanger in long term study which was installed in a piglet house. (orig.)

  6. Joule Thomson Effect, fundamentals of gas transport below 0 C; Joule Thomson Effekt, Grundlagen des Gastransportes unter 0 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, H. [ConocoPhillips Skandinavia AS, Emden (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The Norpipe gas pipeline between the Norwegian North Sea and the German town of Emden was laid between 1973 and 1975. Since 1977, natural gas is transported through this pipeline to Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and France. The pipeline has a diameter of 900 mm resp. 36 inches and is designed for a maximum pressure of 135 bar. The maximum transport capacity of the Norpipe system is 55 million Nm3/d. At the Norsea Gas Terminal at Emden, the gas is heated, pressure is regulated, the gas is desulphurized, metered and distributed to the pipeline operators Ruhrgas, Gasunie and Exxon Mobil. (orig.) [German] Die Norpipe-Gaspipeline wurde zwischen 1973 und 1975 von der norwegischen Nordsee nach Emden verlegt. Seit 1977 wird ueber diese Leitung Erdgas aus den Nordseegasfeldern nach Deutschland, den Niederlanden, Belgien und Frankreich transportiert. Die Pipeline hat einen Durchmesser von 900 mm (36'') und ist fuer einen maximalen Ueberdruck von 135 bar ausgelegt. Die maximale Transportkapazitaet des Norpipe Systems betraegt 55 Mio Nm{sup 3}/d. In der Empfangsanlage in Emden, im so genannten Norsea Gas Terminal, wird das einkommende Gas erwaermt, der Druck wird geregelt, das Gas wird entschwefelt, gemessen und an die Leitungsbetreiber Ruhrgas, Gasunie und Exxon Mobil verteilt. (orig.)

  7. Die Bedeutung von Infinitiv und Konjunktiv als Modi der Nicht-Mitteilung (unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Italienischen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichler, Claudia

    Full Text Available The infinitive (also referred to as "Nennform" is positioned both formally and functionally between noun and verb. This so-called "intermediate status" and the pragmatic-communicative characteristics/functions resulting from it are described on the basis of a selection of Old Italian language samples. The study therefore examines the correlation between morphosyntactic and informational structure and focuses in particular on the morphosyntactic codification of thematic elements of expression. An accordance can be ascertained regarding the pragmatic-communicative characteristics/functions of the infinitive ( i.e. infinitive constructions of the type: definite article + infinitive + subject and the (thematic subjunctive.

  8. Risk assessment of ozone effects with special consideration to epidemiological studies; Risikoabschaetzung der Ozonwirkung unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung epidemiologischer Studien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeppe, P. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Arbeits- und Umweltmedizin; Wagner, M.

    2000-07-01

    Ozone in environmental concentrations can irritate mucous membranes of the respiratory tract, lead to decrements of lung function and cause inflammatory processes in airways and lung. These functional changes in general are not perceived subjectively. Approximately 10-20% of the population respond more sensitively towards ozone. After repeated exposure to elevated ozone concentrations e.g. during persistent high pressure situations in summer ozone effects can still be found several days after the end of exposure. Indications of potential chronic ozone effects (cancerogenity, fibrosis of lung tissue or induction of asthma) are weak even in areas with the highest ozone concentrations and need verification. The same is valid for the potential influence of ozone on mortality. (orig.) [German] Umweltepidemiologische Studien haben gezeigt, dass Ozon in umweltrelevanten Konzentrationen zu Reizungen der Schleimhaeute der oberen Atemwege, zur Beeintraechtigung der Lungenfunktion und zu entzuendlichen Prozessen in den Atemwegen und der Lunge fuehren kann. Die funktionalen Beeintraechtigungen sind subjektiv meist nicht wahrnehmbar. Ca. 10-20% der Bevoelkerung reagieren besonders empfindlich auf Ozon. Nach wiederholten hohen Ozonexpositionen z.B. waehrend anhaltender sommerlicher Schoenwetterperioden koennen Ozonwirkungen noch bis einige Tage nach Beendigung der Belastung nachgewiesen werden. Hinweise auf potentielle chronische Ozonwirkungen (Kanzerogenitaet, Verhaertungen des Lungengewebes oder Induzierung von Asthma) sind selbst in den am staerksten ozonbelasteten Regionen wie z.B. in Kalifornien nur sehr schwach und beduerfen weiterer wissenschaftlicher Abklaerung; dasselbe gilt fuer einen moeglichen Einfluss auf die Mortalitaet. (orig.)

  9. Urknall im labor: das grösste experiment der welt entsteht bei Genf - unter der erde

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Big Bang in the laboratory has only few more energy than two colliding mosquitoes. But if we put together billions of mosquitoes, a hell bursts out. For that, near Geneva the biggest experiment in the world is being built.(1,2 page)

  10. Energy policy under power. Alternatives of power generation in the acceptance test; Energiepolitik unter Strom. Alternativen der Stromerzeugung im Akzeptanztest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheer, Dirk [Univ. Stuttgart (Germany). Zentrum fuer interdisziplinaere Risiko- und Innovationsforschung (ZIRIUS); Forschungsinstitut Dialogik, Stuttgart (Germany); Konrad, Wilfried [Forschungsinstitut Dialogik, Stuttgart (Germany); Renn, Ortwin [Univ. Stuttgart (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Umwelt- und Techniksoziologie; Forschungsinstitut Dialogik, Stuttgart (Germany); Univ. Stuttgart (Germany). Zentrum fuer interdisziplinaere Risiko- und Innovationsforschung (ZIRIUS); Scheel, Oliver [Univ. Stuttgart (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Umwelt- und Techniksoziologie; Univ. Stuttgart (Germany). Zentrum fuer interdisziplinaere Risiko- und Innovationsforschung (ZIRIUS)

    2014-07-01

    As illustrated, both the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the evaluations of the examined seven electricity mixes the image of a rejection of nuclear and coal power with or without carbon capture (CCS) with simultaneous support for a renewable energy focus in the center of the transformation of the German systems on the electricity. Energy-political strategies that the electricity produced from renewable sources less space than concede the nuclear power and/or the coal found only in very rare and exceptional cases decidedly on consent. Conversely: if the way in which renewable energy production convincingly by high levels of the electricity mix of ecological power plants are expressed, reduced amounts of nuclear and coal power are accepted as a transitional phenomenon. The finding that actually can get unpopular technologies from the focus of criticism by an appropriate context design, also applies to the CCS technology. This makes it possible to identify some evidence that in the context of nuclear energy-free RE-mixes modern coal-fired power plants with CCS are not be refused per se. However, it should also be noted that CCS will be rejected as a supposedly extra evil often still more vehement than the ''familiar'' nuclear power. [German] Wie dargestellt wird weist sowohl die quantitative als auch die qualitative Analyse der Bewertungen der untersuchten sieben Strommixe das Bild einer Ablehnung von Atom- und Kohlekraft mit oder ohne Carbon Capture (CCS) bei gleichzeitiger Unterstuetzung fuer eine die Erneuerbaren Energien in den Mittelpunkt stellenden Transformation des deutschen Systems der Stromerzeugung auf. Energiepolitische Strategien, die der Elektrizitaetsgewinnung aus regenerativen Quellen weniger Raum einraeumen als der Atomkraft und/oder der Kohleverstromung treffen nur in sehr seltenen Ausnahmefaellen dezidiert auf Zustimmung. Umgekehrt gilt: Wird der Weg in die regenerative Energieproduktion ueberzeugend durch hohe Anteile von Oekokraftwerken am Strommix zum Ausdruck gebracht, werden reduzierte Mengen an Atom- und Kohlestrom als Uebergangsphaenomen akzeptiert. Der Befund, dass durch eine geeignete Kontextgestaltung eigentlich unbeliebte Technologien aus dem Fokus der Kritik geraten koennen, gilt auch fuer die CCS-Technologie. So lassen sich einige Hinweise identifizieren, dass im Rahmen eines kernenergiefreien EE-Mixes moderne Kohlekraftwerke mit CCS nicht per se zurueckgewiesen werden. Allerdings ist ebenfalls festzuhalten, dass CCS als vermeintlich zusaetzliches Uebel oftmals noch vehementer als die ''vertraute'' Atomkraft abgelehnt wird.

  11. Untersuchungen zur Endoskopie juveniler Psittaziden unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Geschlechtsorgane und ausgewählter biometrischer Befunde

    OpenAIRE

    Rühle, Dixie Michaela

    2006-01-01

    Die einschlägige Fachliteratur zur Taxonomie und Systematik der Vögel der Ordnung Psittaciformes, zur Inhalationsnarkose und zur Methodik der Geschlechtsbestimmung wurde referiert. Im Zeitraum von September 2004 bis Januar 2005 wurden insgesamt 340 Vögel aus der Ordnung Psittaciformes untersucht. Diese Vögel gehören insgesamt 37 Genera und 4 Tribi an. Bei allen Vögeln handelt es sich um Nachzuchten aus dem Loro Parque, Teneriffa, Spanien. Im genannten Zeitraum waren die Vögel zwischen sieben ...

  12. Biotechnik versus Biotechnologie : Begriffsbestimmung und Einsatzfelder unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des ökologischen Landbaus

    OpenAIRE

    Ewers, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    Die Begriffe „Biotechnologie“ und „Biotechnik“ werden im allgemeinen sowie im wissenschaftlichen Sprachgebrauch überwiegend synonym verwendet. Auch die durch die Fachliteratur gegebenen Definitionen lassen keine klare Abgrenzung zu. Die Biotechnologie versteht sich als interdisziplinäres Forschungsgebiet, das lebende Organismen oder Teile von diesen für die Produktion von Gütern nutzt. Sie weist eine mehrere tausend Jahre alte Geschichte auf, in welcher vor allem die Gentechnik in den letz...

  13. PS1-18: A Feasibility Pilot to Determine the Practicality of Using the HMO Research Network to Research the Genetics of Drug-Induced Serious Adverse Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmes, Mia; Arterburn, David; Gerhard, Glen; McCarty, Catherine; Nakasato, Cynthia; Pawloski, Pamala; Rukstalis, Margaret; Schmelzer, John; Yale, Steven; Davis, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims The International Serious Adverse Events Consortium (iSAEC) is a pharmaceutical industry and FDA-led consortium focused on identifying DNA variants useful for predicting risk of drug-induced rare serious adverse events (SAEs). We assessed the feasibility of using electronic medical databases at six HMORN sites to identify provisional cases of three SAEs: drug-induced liver injury (DILI), serious skin rashes (SSR), including Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, and angioedema, and extreme weight gain (EWG) among adults on atypical antipsychotics. Methods Project work was divided among three teams. HealthPartners and Marshfield Clinic led the DILI team, Kaiser Permanente Hawaii and Kaiser Permanente Georgia led the SSR team and Group Health and Geisinger guided the EWG study. Teams met routinely via biweekly conference calls to coordinate their study efforts; monthly conference calls were conducted to coordinate the overall project, mark progress and discuss challenges and solutions. For each study, standardized case identification criteria were developed with input from iSAEC, expert panels, and medical literature. Potential cases were identified through electronic data searches using diagnoses, medication histories, laboratory test results, and other clinical data elements indicative of DILI and SSR during 2000–2009, or EWG from 2004–2009. Potential cases of DILI and SSR were abstracted to assess provisional case status and determine implicated drugs. Weight trajectories of suspected EWG cases were visually inspected to confirm EWG during atypical antipsychotic treatment period. Results A total of 99 provisional cases of DILI, 41 cases of SJS/TEN and 56 provisional cases of angioedema were identified from the electronic records of the participating HMOs. For EWG, 249 cases were confirmed and an additional 341 were categorized as “possible” cases, with additional chart review and patient interview required for confirmation. Confirmation rates varied from 17% for DILI to 2–79% for SSR and 23–30% for EWG. Conclusions The SAEC and HMORN study sites identified well-phenotyped cases with the targeted drug-induced SAEs of interest. The relative success of these efforts has been critical in the planning of a larger second study that will include analyses of genetic factors associated with provisional case SAEs.

  14. Evaluating Depression Care Management in a Community Setting: Main Outcomes for a Medicaid HMO Population with Multiple Medical and Psychiatric Comorbidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette A. Waxmonsky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe the implementation of a depression care management (DCM program at Colorado Access, a public sector health plan, and describe the program’s clinical and system outcomes for members with chronic medical conditions. High medical risk, high cost Medicaid health plan members were identified and systematically screened for depression. A total of 370 members enrolled in the DCM program. Longitudinal analyses revealed significantly reduced depression severity scores at 3, 6, and 12 months after intervention as compared to baseline depression scores. At 12 months, 56% of enrollees in the DCM program had either a 50% reduction in PHQ-9 scores or a PHQ-9 score < 10. Longitudinal economic analyses comparing 12 months before and after intervention revealed a significant but modest increase in ER visits, outpatient office visits, and overall medical and pharmacy costs when adjusted for months enrolled in DCM. Limitations and recommendations for the integrated depression care management are discussed.

  15. Vertebroplasty - state of the art; Vertebroplastie - ''state of the art''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, K. [Akademisches Lehrkrankenhaus der Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitaet Bonn, Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Johanniter-Krankenhaus - Johanniter GmbH, Bonn (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) using PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate) was first described in 1987 by Gallibert and Deramond for the treatment of vertebral body instability in patients with aggressive forms of vertebral hemangioma. Other types of painful osteolytic bone lesions, such as osteoporotic vertebral fractures and vertebral metastasis are in the meantime more commonly treated using this method. Within the last few years, this technique has become widely accepted and it is proposed for osteolytic bone lesions in areas that are more difficult to approach surgically, e.g., the pelvis and sacrum. Rapid pain relief and resulting stability have conferred an important role upon osteoplasty especially in palliative tumor-treatment for patients with shortened expected life spans. In addition, combined treatment of painful osteolytic metastases with image-guided thermoablation and percutaneous cement injection has been shown to be a safe palliative modality in the therapy of nonresectable tumors. (orig.) [German] Die Vertebroplastie ist ein minimal-invasives Verfahren, bei dem unter Durchleuchtung oder im CT Knochenzement mithilfe einer Hohlnadel in einen schmerzhaften Wirbelkoerper eingebracht wird. Die Technik wurde initial zur Behandlung aggressiver Wirbelkoerperhaemangiome beschrieben. Inzwischen stellen andere schmerzhafte Wirbelkoerperprozesse, vornehmlich osteolytische Metastasen sowie osteoporotische Wirbelkoerperfrakturen die haeufigsten Indikationen zur Durchfuehrung einer Vertebroplastie dar. Methode und Technik der Zementapplikation werden zwischenzeitlich erfolgreich auch bei ausserhalb der Wirbelsaeule bestehenden gutartigen Pathologien, z. B. bei Ermuedungsfrakturen des Os sacrum in Form der Sakroplastie sowie insbesondere schmerzhaften, metastatisch-osteolytischen Befunden als palliative Therapiemassnahme (Osteoplastie) eingesetzt. Im Rahmen palliativer Therapiekonzepte wird die Vertebroplastie in der Radiologie zunehmend in Kombination mit

  16. Surgery of malignant pancreatic tumors; Chirurgie maligner Pankreastumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loos, M.; Friess, H.; Kleeff, J. [Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany). Chirurgische Klinik und Poliklinik

    2009-02-15

    Ductal adenocarcinoma is the most common malignant tumor of the pancreas. Despite great efforts in basic and clinical pancreatic cancer research, the prognosis remains poor with an overall 5-year survival rate of less than 5%. Complete surgical resection represents the only curative treatment option and 5-year survival rates of 20-25% can be achieved following curative resection and adjuvant chemotherapy. Although pancreatic surgery is considered one of the most technically demanding and challenging procedures, there has been constant progress in surgical techniques and advances in perioperative care with a modern interdisciplinary approach including anesthesiology, oncology, radiology and nursing. This has reduced morbidity and especially mortality rates in high-volume centers. Among extended resection procedures multivisceral and venous resections are technically feasible and should be considered if a complete tumor resection can be achieved. Multimodal regimens have shown promising results, however, only adjuvant chemotherapy is supported by solid evidence from randomized controlled trials. (orig.) [German] Das duktale Adenokarzinom ist der haeufigste maligne Pankreastumor. Trotz intensiver Anstrengungen auf dem Gebiet der Pankreasforschung konnte die Gesamtprognose in den vergangenen Jahren nicht entscheidend verbessert werden. Die einzige potenziell kurative Therapie ist die chirurgische Resektion. In Kombination mit einer adjuvanten Chemotherapie liegen die 5-Jahres-Ueberlebensraten aktuell bei 20-25%. Dank kontinuierlicher Weiterentwicklung der chirurgischen Operationstechnik und Verbesserungen der perioperativen Versorgung der Patienten mit einer engen interdisziplinaeren Zusammenarbeit (Chirurgie, Anaesthesie, Onkologie, Radiologie und Pflege) konnten die perioperative Morbiditaets- und Mortalitaetsraten in den vergangenen Jahren deutlich gesenkt werden. Unter den erweiterten Resektionsverfahren sind Venen- oder multiviszerale Resektionen technisch sicher

  17. Photons-based medical imaging - Radiology, X-ray tomography, gamma and positrons tomography, optical imaging; Imagerie medicale a base de photons - Radiologie, tomographie X, tomographie gamma et positons, imagerie optique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanet, H.; Dinten, J.M.; Moy, J.P.; Rinkel, J. [CEA Leti, Grenoble (France); Buvat, I. [IMNC - CNRS, Orsay (France); Da Silva, A. [Institut Fresnel, Marseille (France); Douek, P.; Peyrin, F. [INSA Lyon, Lyon Univ. (France); Frija, G. [Hopital Europeen George Pompidou, Paris (France); Trebossen, R. [CEA-Service hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Orsay (France)

    2010-07-01

    This book describes the different principles used in medical imaging. The detection aspects, the processing electronics and algorithms are detailed for the different techniques. This first tome analyses the photons-based techniques (X-rays, gamma rays and visible light). Content: 1 - physical background: radiation-matter interaction, consequences on detection and medical imaging; 2 - detectors for medical imaging; 3 - processing of numerical radiography images for quantization; 4 - X-ray tomography; 5 - positrons emission tomography: principles and applications; 6 - mono-photonic imaging; 7 - optical imaging; Index. (J.S.)

  18. The radiological `second opinion` online through the Internet. Report on implementation and analysis of the diagnostic certainty of transmitted images; Die `Zweite Meinung` in der Radiologie Online ueber das Internet. Bericht ueber die Implementierung und Analyse der Befundungssicherheit von Schnittbildern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricke, J. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow-Klinikum, Medizinische Fakultaet, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany); Donk, E. van der [Het Nederlands Kanker Inst. Antoni van Leeuwenhoekhuis, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Biometrics Dept.; Wolf, M. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow-Klinikum, Medizinische Fakultaet, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany); Ostendorf, B. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Rheumazentrum; Hosten, N. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow-Klinikum, Medizinische Fakultaet, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany); Zielinski, C. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow-Klinikum, Medizinische Fakultaet, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany); Liebig, T. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow-Klinikum, Medizinische Fakultaet, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany); Stroszczinski, C. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow-Klinikum, Medizinische Fakultaet, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany); Loez-Haenninen, E. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow-Klinikum, Medizinische Fakultaet, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany); Lemke, A.J. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow-Klinikum, Medizinische Fakultaet, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany); Gillessen, C. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow-Klinikum, Medizinische Fakultaet, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany); Guervit, Oe. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow-Klinikum, Medizinische Fakultaet, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany); Amthauer, H. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow-Klinikum, Medizinische Fakultaet, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany); Kleinholz, L. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow-Klinikum, Medizinische Fakultaet, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany); Bartelink, H. [Het Nederlands Kanker Inst. Antoni van Leeuwenhoekhuis, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Felix, R. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow-Klinikum, Medizinische Fakultaet, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany)

    1997-01-01

    Numerous medical on-line services have already been established in the world-wide Internet. In connection with the Information service TELESCAN, sponsored by the EU, a pilot project has been initiated which offers a radiological `second opinion` via the transmission of radiological findings and images that have been previously rendered anonymous. In addition to a description of the basic implementation, tests of the diagnostic certainty of the transmitted over the Internet, and then evaluated on the receiver`s monitor. Both the transfer of originally generated digital image files (in ACR-NEMA or DICOM) as well as graphic files after digitization of X-ray films, for example by a document camera, is possible via e-mail. Visualization by the receiver requires the use of current proprietary software for special medical image formats, while standard graphic formats such as GIFF or JPEG can be visualized with the usual Internet software. In an ROC analysis, 56 individual images of cranial computed tomographs, half with pathological findings such as space-occupying lesions, infarcts, or brain edema, were tested with regard to the diagnostic certainty after digitization and transmission. In comparison with the original film findings, there was a slight but statistically not significant reduction in diagnostic certainty of the images evaluated on screen after transfer via the Internet. We believe that this result is due to the low local resolution, low dynamic range, the high image noise and of CT arising from the window technique. The same parameters are probably valid for MRI. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Internet hat sich bereits eine Vielzahl medizinischer Online-Dienstleistungen etabliert. In Verbindung mit dem EU-gefoerderten Informationsdienst TELESCAN wurde ein Pilotprojekt initiiert, das eine radiologische `Zweite Meinung` durch Versenden von anonymisierten radiologischen Bildern und Befunden anbietet. Neben der Beschreibung der Implementierungsgrundlagen wurde die Befundungssicherheit von kraniellen Computertomographien getestet, die mit einer Dokumentenkamera digitalisiert, ueber das Internet verschickt und auf einem Monitor befundet wurden. Der Transfer sowohl von originaer generierten digitalen Bilddateien (in ACR-NEMA oder DICOM) als auch von Grafikdateien nach Digitalisierung von Roentgenfilmen beispielsweise durch eine Dokumentenkamera ist ueber eine Verknuepfung mit e-mail moeglich. Die Visualisierung beim Empfaenger erfordert fuer die speziellen medizinischen Bildformate derzeit proprietaere Software, Standard Grafikformate wie GIFF oder JPEG werden von der ueblichen Internet-Software visualisiert. In einer ROC-Analyse wurden 56 Einzelbilder kranieller Computertomographien mit zur Haelfte pathologischen Befunden bei Raumforderungen, Infarzierungen oder Hirnoedem hinsichtlich der Befundungssicherheit nach Digitalisierung mit einer Dokumentenkamera geprueft. Gegenueber der Filmbefundung ergab sich eine geringfuegige, statistisch nicht signifikante Minderung der Befundungsqualitaet der ueber das Internet transfierierten und am Monitor befundeten Bilder. Dieses Ergebnis fuehren wir auf die geringe Ortsaufloesung und das durch die Fenstertechnik vergleichsweise hohe Bildrauschen der CT bei geringem Grauwertumfang zurueck, wobei gleiche Parameter wahrscheinlich auch fuer die MRT gelten. Das Ergebnis kann nicht auf konventionelle Radiographie einschliesslich der Mammographie uebertragen werden, da im Vergleich zu den genannten Schnittbildverfahren deren Ortsaufloesung und Grauwertumfang hoch und das Bildrauschen wesentlich niedriger liegen. (orig.)

  19. Die Integration eines computerbasierten Anatomie-Lernprogramms im Curriculum der Ausbildung Medizinisch-technischer Assistenten der Fachrichtung Radiologie [The integration of a computer-based tutorial in anatomy into an educational curriculum for student radiographers/technicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niewald, Marcus

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] Purpose: Anatomy is an important subject in the education of radiographers and radiotherapy technicians. The enormous amount of information may render efficient learning more difficult and lead to sub-optimal results. The purpose of this study was to test whether the introduction of a computer-based tutorial enhances learning success in anatomy. Methods: A commercially available tutorial in anatomy especially adapted to the requirements of the education of radiographers and which facilitated and structured the frequent repetition of the material was introduced into the conventional curriculum. The tutorial was used during normal lessons, and work with it was obligatory. The students could learn anatomical structures and landmarks repeatedly as well as test themselves. The scores obtained in the final examinations two years prior to introduction of this tutorial were compared with those obtained two years after introduction. Results: Students’ knowledge in anatomy could be markedly improved. Conclusion: An efficient and time-saving method of learning became possible. It was important to integrate the tutorial into the normal curriculum. The test results show the feasibility of this educational concept. [german] Zielsetzung: In der MTA-Ausbildung nimmt Anatomie einen wichtigen Platz ein. Die große Stofffülle erschwert jedoch ein effizientes zeitsparendes Lernen und führt auch bei motivierten Schülern oft zu mangelndem Lernerfolg. Es sollte geprüft werden, ob dieser durch Einführung computerbasierten Lernens verbessert werden kann. Methodik: Ein auf die Erfordernisse der MTRA-Ausbildung von den Autoren angepasstes kommerzielles Anatomie-Lernprogramm, das den Schülern das notwendige häufige Wiederholen des Materials erleichtert und strukturiert, wurde im Rahmen des Pflichtunterrichtes den Schülern zur Verfügung gestellt. Diese konnten damit anatomische Sachverhalte sich einprägen, beliebig oft wiederholen und ihr Wissen testen. Die Examensergebnisse jeweils zweier Jahrgänge vor und nach der Einführung des Programms wurden verglichen. Ergebnisse: Durch die Einführung des Programms konnten die Anatomiekenntnisse von MTA-Schülern bei gleichem Zeitaufwand deutlich verbessert werden. Schlussfolgerung: Durch gezieltes Üben derjenigen Elemente, die noch nicht ausreichend im Langzeitgedächtnis verankert sind, war eine effiziente und zeitsparende Art des Lernens möglich. Wichtig ist eine Einbettung des eLearning-Tools in den normalen Unterrichtsablauf. Die deutlich besseren Examensergebnisse nach Einführung unserer Anatomie-Lernplattform sprechen für die Richtigkeit des Konzeptes.

  20. Status of radiation protection in interventional radiology. Assessment of inspections in 2009 by the ASN; Etat de la radioprotection en radiologie interventionnelle. Bilan des inspections 2009 par l'ASN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This report first describes the organization of inspections performed in health institutions, indicates the inspected establishments, the types of fixed installations in interventional radiology, the use of imagery in the operating theatre, and discusses the regulatory arrangements applicable to interventional radiology (in the Public Health Code, in the Labour Code). Then, the report discusses the results of inspections regarding radiation protection in interventional radiology: application of public health code arrangements (justification, patient training in radiation protection, radiological procedures and protocols, patient dosimetry monitoring), application of Labour Code arrangements (designation of the person with expertise in radiation protection, risk assessment and delimitation of monitored and controlled areas, workstation analysis, workers' training in radiation protection, individual protection equipment, workers' dosimetric monitoring, workers' medical monitoring, radiation protection technical controls), significant events, radiation protection in operating theatre. Propositions are stated regarding the differences noticed within or between the health establishments, the methodological and organisational difficulties faced by persons with expertise in radiation protection (PCR), the need of an interdisciplinary team

  1. How to promote the optimization of radioprotection in interventional radiology: the ASN's point of view; Comment favoriser l'optimisation de la radioprotection en radiologie interventionnelle: le point de vue de l'ASN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menechal, Ph. [Autorite de Surete Nucleaire, Division de Bordeaux, 75 - Paris (France); Valero, M.; Godet, J.L [Autorite de Surete Nucleaire, Direction des rayonnements ionisants et de la sante, 75 - Paris (France)

    2009-07-01

    Within a context of development of interventional imagery practices, radioprotection in interventional radiology and in operating theatre suite where ionizing radiation are used has become a matter of concern. Before the publication of a work group created at the initiative of the ASN (the French nuclear safety authority) with a professional group (the GPMED, the permanent group of radioprotection experts for medical and forensics applications of ionizing radiations), the authors, members of the ASN, based on declared events and radioprotection inspection reports, give an overview of the faced challenges and problems and of progresses to be made in terms of radioprotection, dosimetry, procedures, and personnel qualification. They make a distinction between the patient radioprotection issue and the worker radioprotection issue

  2. An approach to patient dose optimisation in interventional radiology at the Clermont-Ferrand Hospital Centre; Demarche d'optimisation de la dosimetrie des patients en radiologie interventionnelle au CHU de Clermont-Ferrand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guersen, Joel; Chabrot, Pascal; Cassagnes, Lucie; Gabrillargues, Jean; Boyer [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire - CHU, Clermont-Ferrand (France)

    2011-07-15

    In late October 2009, a serious event occurred in the imaging unit of the Clermont- Ferrand university hospital, corresponding to localised pruritic erythematous cutaneous lesions which resemble radiation-induced damage, following a double pelvic arterial embolization, which saved the life of a young female patient. The imaging unit and the General Management of the University Hospital notified ASN of the event and an on-site dosimetric appraisal carried out by IRSN confirmed that there was a very strong probability that the cutaneous symptoms were attributable to radiation. An internal inquiry concluded that there was a problem with optimisation of the machine parameters in the angiography facility concerned. The imaging unit then initiated a Patient dosimetry optimisation process for the 3 vascular radiology and vascular neuro-radiology facilities in the establishment, divided into 3 main phases dealing with: - image acquisition rates; - the high-voltage settings of the facility concerned, following notification of the event to AFSSAPS, implicating the manufacturer; - the radioscopy and radiography image acquisition parameters, following intervention by the IRSN experts at the request of the imaging unit. On the facility concerned, the reduction in the X-ray dose delivered to the patients was initially 30%, then 35% and finally 25%, representing a total reduction by a factor of three. (authors)

  3. Medicine and ionizing rays: a help sheet in analysing risks in exo-buccal dental radiology; Medecine et rayonnements ionisants: fiche d'aide a l'analyse des risques en radiologie dentaire exobuccale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauron, C. [Institut National de Recherche et de Securite, INRS, Dept. Etudes et Assistance Medicales, 75 - Paris (France)

    2009-07-01

    This document proposes a synthesis of useful knowledge for radioprotection in the case of exo-buccal dental radiology. In the first part, several aspects are considered: the concerned personnel, the course of treatment procedures, the hazards, the identification of the risk associated with ionizing radiation, the risk assessment and the determination of exposure levels, the strategy to control the risks (reduction of risks, technical measures concerning the installation or the personnel, teaching and information, prevention and medical monitoring), and risk control assessment

  4. The interventional radiology: means of reduction and optimization of medical personnel exposure; La radiologie interventionnelle: moyens de reduction et d'optimisation de l'exposition du personnel medical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maccia, C. [Centre d' Assurance de Qualite des Applications Technologiques dans le Domaine de la Sante, CAATS, 92 - Bourg-la-Reine (France); Vano, E.; Gonzalez, L.; Guibelalde, E. [Faculdad de Medicina, Universidad de Madrid (Spain)

    1998-07-01

    The measures envisaged to make an optimization of the radiation protection are in the use of materials adapted to the situation, the use of dosemeters devoted to the doses evaluation for particularly sensitive organs , the introduction of ophthalmic examinations and finally, the information and training of every category of personnel in radiation protection. (N.C.)

  5. Radiological evaluation of the therapeutic response of malignant diseases. Status quo, innovative developments and requirements for radiology; Radiologische Beurteilung des Therapieansprechens maligner Erkrankungen. Status quo, innovative Entwicklungen und Anforderungen an die Radiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeink, A.J.; Heindel, W.; Buerke, B. [University Hospital Muenster (Germany). Dept. of Clinical Radiology

    2014-10-15

    In consequence of the rapid development of newer targeted and personalized tumor therapies, radiology as an essential component of the treatment concept of numerous malignant diseases needs to improve in order to adequately capture and evaluate the effects, but also the side effects of these novel therapeutic agents. The early recognition of therapy response or failure is crucial for the optimal planning of the further treatment and can therefore have direct impact on the chances of recovery and the survival time of oncological patients. In previous years, the goal of medical imaging was to just qualitatively assess the increase or reduction in the size of tumors and their metastases, which was often achieved by a simple subjective estimation of the tumor findings by the diagnosing radiologist. Nowadays, radiology is faced with the challenge of evaluating changes during therapy quantitatively and of visualizing therapeutic effects that are more discrete (e.g. necrosis, altered tumor perfusion). The importance of an adequate assessment of therapy response is further underlined by the fact that in these days, a good portion of oncological patients are enrolled in clinical trials, in which the quantitative radiological evaluation of malignant disorders is an important surrogate parameter. On the basis of this development, the demands for radiology to provide more sophisticated assessments of therapy response and documentation of imaging findings have been constantly growing. The following article provides an overview of the established and still widely spread but in particular also the latest imaging modalities and evaluation criteria with regard to oncological diseases as well as of the increasing demands on radiology that result from these developments. Beyond that, future advancements in tumor imaging are taken into account and the new challenges these developments will bring are discussed.

  6. Retention of contrast media in the history of radiology. Sequelae of the former use of thorotrast and new challenges; Kontrastmittelretention in der Geschichte der Radiologie. Folgen der frueheren Thorotrastanwendungen und neue Herausforderungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaick, G. van; Delorme, S. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    Detection of gadolinium deposits in patients who have repeatedly been administered intravenous gadolinium chelates have given rise to concern regarding the long-term safety of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast media. Nevertheless, negative long-term clinical effects have not yet been observed. In some publications parallels have been drawn to the sequelae of thorotrast that was formerly used for arterial angiography. In this article the history of thorotrast use is briefly described and in particular why, despite warnings, this substance was used frequently and worldwide. A brief summary of the results of the German Thorotrast Study revealed that high excess rates were only observed for primary malignant liver tumors after a 15-year or longer latency period and to a lesser degree of leukemias, as well as for severe local complications due to paravascular injections, particularly in the neck region. Based on this historical review, we will venture to take stock of the outcome from the ''success story'' of this contrast agent. (orig.) [German] Der Nachweis von Gadoliniumablagerungen im Koerper von Patienten nach mehrfacher Injektion von Gadoliniumchelaten hat Irritationen ausgeloest. Gleichwohl gibt es bislang keine Hinweise auf resultierende klinische Spaetfolgen. In verschiedenen Veroeffentlichungen wird auf moegliche Parallelen zu den Folgen der Anwendung des frueheren Roentgenkontrastmittels Thorotrast hingewiesen. In diesem Beitrag wird die Geschichte der Thorotrastanwendung dargelegt, insbesondere weshalb es trotz der Warnungen zur haeufigen, weltweiten Anwendung des Praeparats kam. Aus einer kurzen Zusammenfassung der Ergebnisse der Deutschen Thorotraststudie wird deutlich, dass erst nach einer ueber 15-jaehrigen Latenzzeit hohe Exzessraten an primaeren Lebertumoren und in geringerem Masse auch an Leukaemien auftraten und schwerwiegende Folgen paravasaler Injektionen v. a. im Halsbereich beobachtet wurden. In einem historischen Rueckblick wagen wir den Versuch einer Bilanz ueber die Auswirkungen der ''Erfolgsgeschichte'' des Kontrastmittels. (orig.)

  7. Evaluation of radiation exposure in interventional radiology (IR) using active personal dosimeters (APD); Evaluierung der Strahlenexposition in der Interventionellen Radiologie (IR) mit Hilfe von Aktiv-Personen-Dosimetern (APD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neugschwandtner, K. [KH Hietzing mit NZ Rosenhuegel, Wien (Austria). Inst. fuer Krankenhausphysik; TU Wien (Austria). Atominstitut; Freund, R. [KH Hietzing mit NZ Rosenhuegel, Wien (Austria). Inst. fuer Krankenhausphysik; Mertikian, G. [KH Hietzing mit NZ Rosenhuegel, Wien (Austria). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Poljanc, K. [TU Wien (Austria). Atominstitut; Ibi, B. [KA Rudolfstiftung, Wien (Austria). Stabstelle Medizinphysik

    2015-07-01

    Increased awareness of high personal dose exposure of medical staff in interventional radiology (IR) demands an assessment of radiation protection procedures. Mandatory dose monitoring systems do not allow to relate dose to specific actions of the staff as they just accumulate a total dose per month. Doses of head and limbs are expected to be high as those body parts which are not protected by the lead apron. We decided to use a measuring system by Unfors, RaySafe i2 which is built for real- time- dosimetry of scattered radiation in pulsed X-ray fields. An increased dose of the body side closer to the X-ray source (left body side) was detected. This is due to the position and the posture of the radiologist during intervention. Separating the phases of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) from those of fluoroscopy allowed not only to list the separate accumulated doses, but showed as well a big difference in dose rate. The measurements revealed the need of an improvement of common radiation protection, especially while DSA.

  8. Current role of MDCT in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (2011). A clinical guideline of the Austrian Societies of Cardiology and Radiology; Aktueller Stellenwert der MSCTA in der Koronargefaessdiagnostik (2011). Klinischer Leitfaden der Oesterreichischen Gesellschaften fuer Kardiologie und Radiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hergan, K. [Salzburger Landeskliniken, Paracelsus Medizinische Privatuniv. (Austria). Universitaetsinst. fuer Radiologie; Globits, S. [Landesklinikum St. Poelten (Austria). 3. Medizinische Abt./Kardiologie; Loewe, C. [Medizinische Univ. Wien (AT). Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik] (and others)

    2011-10-15

    The clinical guideline of the Austrian Societies for Cardiology and Radiology on the actual role of MDCT in the diagnosis of coronary artery diseases includes the following issues: CT calcium scoring; CT angiography (CTA) of the coronaries; actually recommended application of MDCR; generally inappropriate use of the technique for specific patients; radiation exposure; structural and organizational framework.

  9. The ORAMED European project: optimization of the use of operational dosimeters in interventional radiology; Projet europeen oramed: optimisation de l'utilisation des dosimetres operationnels en radiologie interventionnelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clairand, I.; Debroas, J.; Donadille, L.; Itie, C. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Bordy, J.M.; Daures, J.; Denoziere, M. [CEA Saclay, LIST, Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Ginjaume, M. [Institute of Energy Technology, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC) (Spain); Koukorava, C. [Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) (Greece); Krim, S.; Lebacq, A.L.; Struelens, L.; Vanhavere, F. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN) (Belgium); Martin, P. [MGP Intruments (MGPi) (France); Sans-Merce, M.; Tosic, M. [Institut Universitaire de Radiophysique Appliquee (IRA) (Switzerland)

    2009-07-01

    Within the frame of the ORAMED European project which concerns personnel radioprotection in the medical sector, the authors, members of a work group within this project, briefly report the study of the behaviour of some operational dosemeters which have been selected for their potential usability in interventional radiology. They indicate the required performance, evoke the performed tests, and discuss the results which revealed the limits of these dosimeters when used in interventional radiology

  10. Pulsed X-rays for interventional radiology: tests on active personal dosemeters (APD) (European project FP7 ORAMED WP3); Rayons X pulses pour la radiologie interventionnelle: tests sur dosimetres personnel actifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denoziere, M.; Bordy, J.M.; Daures, J.; Lecerf, N

    2009-07-01

    this report presents the results of the tests performed on Active Personal dosemeters (A.P.D.) to check their responses in pulsed X-ray beam used in interventional X-ray radiology. this work is one of the goal of O.R.A.M.E.D W.P.3. (Optimization of radiation protection for medical staff)The response of seven A.P.D.s types was measured in terms of dose equivalent Hp (10) for different pulsed X-ray width and dose rate. (author)

  11. Central online quality assurance in radiology. An IT solution exemplified by the German Breast Cancer Screening Program; Zentrale Online-Qualitaetssicherung in der Radiologie. Eine IT-Loesung am Beispiel des deutschen Mammografie-Screening-Programms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czwoydzinski, J.; Girnus, R.; Sommer, A. [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Referenzzentrum Mammographie; Heindel, W.; Lenzen, H. [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Referenzzentrum Mammographie; Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: Physical-technical quality assurance is one of the essential tasks of the National Reference Centers in the German Breast Cancer Screening Program. For this purpose the mammography units are required to transfer the measured values of the constancy tests on a daily basis and all phantom images created for this purpose on a weekly basis to the reference centers. This is a serious logistical challenge. To meet these requirements, we developed an innovative software tool. Materials and Methods: By the end of 2005, we had already developed web-based software (MammoControl) allowing the transmission of constancy test results via entry forms. For automatic analysis and transmission of the phantom images, we then introduced an extension (MammoControl DIANA). This was based on Java, Java Web Start, the NetBeans Rich Client Platform, the Pixelmed Java DICOM Toolkit and the ImageJ library. Results: MammoControl DIANA was designed to run locally in the mammography units. This allows automated on-site image analysis. Both results and compressed images can then be transmitted to the reference center. We developed analysis modules for the daily and monthly consistency tests and additionally for a homogeneity test. Conclusion: The software we developed facilitates the immediate availability of measurement results, phantom images, and DICOM header data in all reference centers. This allows both targeted guidance and short response time in the case of errors. We achieved a consistent IT-based evaluation with standardized tools for the entire screening program in Germany. (orig.)

  12. S2k guidelines for diverticular disease and diverticulitis. Diagnosis, classification, and therapy for the radiologist; S2k-Leitlinie Divertikelkrankheit und Divertikulitis. Diagnostik, Klassifikation und Therapie fuer die Radiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreyer, A.G. [University Hospital Regensburg (Germany). Inst. of Radiology; Layer, G. [Ludwigshafen Hospital (Germany). Central Inst. for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2015-08-15

    Diverticular disease and diverticulitis represent an increasingly common disease especially in patients with advanced age. The German Society of Digestive and Metabolic Diseases (DGVS) as well as the German Society of General and Visceral Surgery (DGAV) in collaboration with the German Radiology Society (DRG) created and published S2k guidelines regarding this topic. Knowledge of the diagnosis and therapy of this common disease is extremely important for the radiologist for the daily clinical routine. In this article we review and discuss the most important clinical situations and algorithms of this disease focusing on radiological topics. Additionally, we introduce the new CCD (classification of diverticular disease) system regarding radiology.

  13. Analysis of ethanol cereals in German site conditions. NIRS calibration for ethanol yield; Bewertung von Ethanolgetreide unter den Standortbedingungen in Deutschland. NIRS-Kalibration fuer Ethanolausbeute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohl, Ferdinand [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Lebensmittelwissenschaft und Biotechnologie

    2010-07-01

    Bioethanol production has been growing significantly during the past few years. In Europe, most of it is produced from cereals. The demand for cereals therefore is expected to grow but so far there are no species specially cultivated for ethanol production. The project therefore focused on a screening process in which requirements on ethanol cereals from plant operators and raw material producers were to be verified or falsified, quality criteria apart from the starch content were to be defined, and indirect cultivation-relevant parameters were to be identified. The focus was on potential yields and on the corresponding ethanol yield per unit area. The screening covered 10 species of wheat, 10 species of triticale, and 6 species of rye. Additionally, 14 species of triticale were analyzed that were among the species tested by the Federal Species Office at the beginning of the project. The species to be investigated were cultivated orthogonally in ten German sites in 2006 - 2008. This resulted in a representative cross section of all quality grades of winter cereals and all German regions relevant for cultivation of cereals.

  14. Requirement-specific use of trace element biogas additives under consideration of the bioavailability; Bedarfsgerechter Einsatz von Spurenelement-Biogasadditiven unter Beruecksichtigung der Bioverfuegbarkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feher, Adam; Fritz, Thomas; Loewen, Achim; Nelles, Michael [HAWK Hochschule fuer Angewandte Wissenschaft und Kunst Hildesheim/Holzminden/Goettingen, Goettingen (Germany). Fachgebiet Nachhaltige Energie- und Umwelttechnik (NEUTec)

    2013-10-01

    A highly efficient utilisation of substrates and operational stability at the same time is essential for the efficiency of a biogas plant. The research project SequEx of HAWK and /SF GmbH investigates the increase of efficiency of biogas plants by targeted use of trace elements taking into account bio-availability. Based on sequential extraction diagrams a method for the determination of bio-availability of macro- and micro-nutrients is developed. Within this context, different trace element compounds are analysed during the fermentation process on their share of bioavailable micro-nutrients as well as their effect on the biological activity of microorganisms. The actual knowledge gap between common practice of nutrients' supply and real impact shall be closed by the knowledge base enhancement of the bio-availability of nutrients. (orig.)

  15. Narzissmus und Subjektivität : psychoanalytische Betrachtungen eines zeitgemäßen Erscheinungsbildes unter Berücksichtigung der zugrunde liegenden Dialektik zwischen Gesellschaft und Individuum

    OpenAIRE

    Bornhauser,Niklas

    2005-01-01

    Der Narzissmus ist ein zentraler Begriff psychoanalytischer Praxis und Theoriebildung. Vorwiegend klinisch orientierte Begriffsbestimmungen des Narzissmus tendieren naturgemäß dazu, gesellschaftliche, kulturelle oder erkenntniswissenschaftliche Mutationen nicht ausreichend zu berücksichtigen. Die Beachtung des kulturellen und sozialen Kontexts der Emergenz des Narzissmus sowie die Berücksichtigung des zugrunde liegenden epochalen Wandels, die Ablösung der Moderne durch die einsetzende Postmod...

  16. POPULARITÄT DER ERASMUS-STIPENDIEN UNTER WIRTSCHAFTSSTUDENTEN. VERGLEICHENDE STUDIE GROßWARDEIN (RUMÄNIEN, DEBRECEN (UNGARN UND PREŠOV (DIE SLOWAKEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamburg Andrea

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Present study is the extension of a former study upon Erasmus programmes and students’ attitude towards opening perspectives at the University of Oradea, Romania (the author’s institution of affiliation and thus overtakes parts and results of it enriching them with findings and conclusions of an extended research. In a world of intensified cross-cultural relations it would be of great importance that young people ‒ especially those in academic environments ‒ gain some international experience, get to know during their college period other cultures and socio-economic systems than theirs. The Erasmus programmes of the European Committee could give them due to the financial support they suppose the opportunity to live the experience of studying or doing practice in a company abroad and thus to extend their personal and professional horizon. Romania takes part in Erasmus programmes since 1998 and in the last two and a half decades sent more than 38,000 students on Erasmus study or placement mobility. It is a nice number but still too little related to the overall number of Erasmus scholarships academic institutions could dispose of yearly. By conducting a comparative study upon the relation between offer and demand at corresponding faculties of three academic institutions, the above mentioned University of Oradea, University of Debrecen, Hungary and University of Prešov, Slovakia one may realize that the situation is quite similar in all the three academic environments: Erasmus programmes don’t represent in general main attraction for students. The analysed study domains are: technique, economics, medicine/pharmacy/health care, history, political and communication sciences. The most interested in an international experience, in Romania and Hungary at least according to data of some academic years, prove to be medicine students who applied 2013-2014 in Oradea for about 44% and 2011-2012 in Debrecen for 80% of the scholarships offered. Slovakian students studying health care at the University of Prešov are leading in this respect, as the number of applications exceeded in the period 2011-2014 that of the places available. Why economic students at all the three institutions show in general little or moderate interest for Erasmus programmes, we have tried to find out by means of a questionnaire pointing to the main causes for applying/not applying for an Erasmus scholarship. The answers given by the over 120 students questioned at each institution correspond partially with the author’s initial suppositions and show main directions for counterbalancing and actions to be taken to increase visibility, feasibility and popularity of Erasmus programmes among students.

  17. Planning of medium-voltage networks considering optimized power factor control of distributed generators; Planung von Mittelspannungsnetzen unter Beruecksichtigung von Blindleistungssteuerung dezentraler Erzeugungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotering, Niklas; Schroeders, Christian; Moser, Albert [RWTH Aachen (Germany). IAEW

    2011-07-01

    Distributed generation causes new challenges in medium voltage networks. Especially voltage stability is becoming an issue. Conventional planning measures, like network expansion, can be used to address these challenges but they should planned with great care due to their high costs. Power factor control of distributed generators is an alternative to such measures. Therefore it should also be considered in long term distribution network planning. It is the purpose of this paper to present a new approach for long term medium-voltage network optimization that integrates near optimal power factor control. The structural optimization is heuristic and based on a Delaunay triangulation in combination with an ant colony algorithm. Power factor control is predicated on dynamic programming. It is shown how near optimal results can easily be realized under German law with present technologies. A case study illustrates the impacts and advantages of an integrated planning approach. The integrated optimization results in network costs that are 2.5% lower than the costs of the best topology found by conventional planning. (orig.)

  18. Experimental investigation of saturated and supercooled boiling on miniature heating surfaces under microgravitation; Experimentelle Untersuchung des gesaettigten und unterkuehlten Siedens an Miniaturheizflaechen unter Mikrogravitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbichler, M.

    2000-07-01

    In many empirical and theoretical models of nucleate boiling the gravity level and the gravity induced natural convection play an important role on the heat transfer process. Usually a decrease in the heat transfer coefficients of nucleate boiling with decreasing system acceleration is predicted. The results of nucleate boiling measurements under microgravity during two space shuttle flights (IML-2, LMS) demonstrate, that no decrease of the heat transfer coefficients during saturated and subcooled nucleate boiling takes place. As a main result it can be stated, that the acceleration level itself cannot be regarded as a primary influence parameter on the heat transfer process during nucleate boiling. (orig.) [German] Bei der Formulierung von den Siedevorgang beschreibenden Modellvorstellungen, spielt in gaengigen theoretischen Ansaetzen die Systemgravitation und die damit verbundene Auftriebskonvention eine entscheidende Rolle. Bei einer Reduktion der Systemgravitation wird eine Abnahme der Waermeuebergangszahlen prognostiziert. Die Messungen, die im Rahmen von zwei Space Shuttle Missionen (IML-2, LMS) durchgefuehrt wurden, zeigen, dass weder beim gesaettigten, noch beim unterkuehlten Sieden diese prognostizierte Abnahme eintritt. Es ergibt sich, dass die Systemgravitation nicht als primaerer Einflussparameter fuer den Waermeuebergang beim Sieden aufgefasst werden kann. (orig.)

  19. Friction welding of titanium to 304L stainless steel using interlayers; Reibschweissen von Titan an nichtrostendem Stahl 304L unter Anwendung von Zwischenschichten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashfaq, Mohammad [King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). FARCAMT, Dept. of Industrial Engineering; Prasad Rao K.; Khalid Rafi H.; Murty, B.S. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras (IITM), Chennai (India). Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering; Dey, H.C.; Bhaduri, A.K. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Materials Technology Div.

    2011-04-15

    Friction welding of commercially pure titanium to austenitic stainless steel (AISI 304L SS) using intermediate layers was studied. The interlayers used were commercially pure nickel, tantalum and vanadium in the form of thin foils. The interlayers were aimed at avoiding direct contact between the base materials which may otherwise lead to formation of mainly Ti-Fe intermetallic phases at the interface which may seriously affect the weld properties. Interlayer foils were used individually and in combination (nickel-tantalum and nickelvanadium) suitably called in the present work as single and double interlayer joint systems respectively. Same interlayer behaved differently with respect to extrudability in these two systems. All the joints showed moderate strengths in tensile test. However, joints with single interlayer exhibited poor bend ductility, and double interlayers improved it to about 40 . Microhardness studies revealed a peak in nickel single interlayer system alone, confirming presence of hard phases at the interface. (orig.)

  20. Energetic and ecological aspects of the modernisation of prefabricated large-panel buildings; Ergebnisse der Sanierung von industriell errichteten Gebaeuden der Blockbauart unter energetischen und oekologischen Aspekten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenk, H. [Gebaeudewirtschaft Merseburg GmbH (Germany); Schramek, E.R.; Kaiser, M. [Gertec GmbH, Essen (Germany); Goerres, M. [Dortmund Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl Technische Gebaeudeausruestung

    1997-12-31

    In the new federal states, some four million residential units are still heated with individual stoves fired with briquetted brown coal. These stoves will be replaced by modern heating systems using natural gas or fuel oil or by district heat. Action taken within the framework of this research project is to permit making informative statements as to the amount of energy to be saved by modernization measures and the potential for cutting down carbon dioxide emissions. The data provided concern space heat energy consumption, end-use energy consumption, and primary energy consumption. Regarding the pollutant budget, information on climate-relevant and other pollutants is given. (MSK) [Deutsch] In den neuen Bundeslaendern werden noch ca. 4 Millionen Wohnungen mit Braunkolebriketteinzeloefen beheizt. Diese werden durch moderne mit Erdgas und Heizoel betriebene Heizungssysteme oder Fernwaerme ersetzt werden. Die in diesem Forschungsprojekt durchgefuehrten Massnahmen sollen aussagekraeftige Daten ueber die erreichbare Energieeinsparung durch Sanierungsmassnahmen und das Minderungspotential der Kohlendioxid-Emissionen liefern. Es sind Daten zum Heizwaermeverbrauch, zum Endenergieverbrauch, sowie zum Primaerenergieverbrauch enthalten. Fuer die Schadstoffbilanz werden Angaben zu klimarelevanten und zu sonstigen Schadstoffen gemacht. (MSK)

  1. Drainage borehole with high directional accuracy using directional drilling equipment modified for the mining industry; Wasserloesungsbohrung mit hoher Zielgenauigkeit unter Einsatz einer fuer den Bergbau modifizierten Richtbohrausruestung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkening, Matthias [MICON Drilling GmbH, Nienhagen (Germany)

    2009-01-29

    To carry out a drainage project it was necessary to divert water from an abandoned mine and direct it to an existing drainage system. To ensure that the borehole required for this purpose terminates accurately in a roadway a borehole meeting a high requirement on constant drilling and directional accuracy was necessary. Hence a combination of existing drilling equipment and directional drilling specifically adapted to these requirements was used. (orig.)

  2. Rehabilitation of the natural gas field Thoense with wet transport of natural gas; Sanierung des Erdgasfeldes Thoense unter Anwendung des Erdgasnasstransports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, W.; Gerhartz, B.; Schmitt, D.; Uphoff, T. [BEB Erdgas und Erdoel GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Natural gas has been extracted the gas field of Thoense situated at the Northern fringe of the city of Hannover for over forty years. At all 10 bore sites the gas was dried with glycol dryers. While dealing with the problem of hydrocarbon emissions from the dryers it became evident, that some of the very old plants had to be rehabilitated. BEB operates the Thoense field on behalf of Elwerath/Brigitta/Deutz. An integrated concept, based on wet transport of natural gas, was used to remove the emission of hydrocarbons and rehabilitate the surface plants in order to cut operating costs. The field at Thoense is now economically efficient enough to continue operations for a long time. [Deutsch] Aus dem am nordoestlichen Stadtrand Hannovers liegenden Gasfeld Thoense wird seit ueber vierzig Jahren Erdgas gefoerdert. Die Gastrocknung erfolgte dort in ueblicher Weise mit Glykoltrocknungsanlagen an allen zehn Bohrungen. Bei der Bearbeitung des damit verbundenen Problems der Kohlenwasserstoffemissionen aus den Trocknungsanlagen wurde der Sanierungsbedarf an den z.T. sehr alten Anlagen deutlich. Das Feld Thoense wird von BEB fuer das Konsortium Elwerath/Brigitta/Deutz betrieben. Es wird gezeigt, wie mit einem integrierten Konzept auf der Basis des Erdgasnasstransportes die KW-Emissionen beseitigt wurden und gleichzeitig eine betriebskostensenkende Sanierung der obertaegigen Anlagen durchgefuehrt werden konnte. Damit wurde die wirtschaftliche Voraussetzung geschaffen, die Gasversorgung aus Thoense noch lange aufrecht erhalten zu koennen. (orig.)

  3. Photobiological hydrogen production with the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under process engineering aspects; Photobiologische Wasserstoffproduktion mit der einzelligen Gruenalge Chlamydomonas reinhardtii unter verfahrenstechnischen Aspekten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geier, Stephanie

    2011-07-01

    Hydrogen is of high interest as a clean and environmentally friendly energy source as its combustion only emits water and energy. However, currently hydrogen is produced in energy demanding processes by the consumption of fossil fuels. An alternative way of sustainable and non-polluting hydrogen production could be provided by use of photosynthetic active microalgae. Within this work, the photobiological hydrogen production with the unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is investigated under the aspects of bioprocess-engineering and economics. Objectives are, besides the increase of the photochemical efficiency, the cultivation of the algae and subsequent hydrogen production under cost-free sunlight. It could be demonstrated that outdoor cultivation of C. reinhardtii is possible in Central Europe throughout the year by using e.g. waste heat. Similar cell numbers in the range from 1,2.10{sup 7} cells ml{sup -1} to 1,7.10{sup 7} cells ml{sup -1} could be achieved in closed photobioreactors of the type Photobioreactor Screening Module under controlled laboratory conditions and both continuous illumination (200 {mu}mol.m{sup -2}.s{sup -1}) and simulated outdoor conditions according to the light intensity of idealized summer day as well as in outdoor experiments (up to 2000 {mu}mol.m{sup -2}.s{sup -1}).The use of 10 % CO{sub 2} corresponding to the CO{sub 2} content in flue gas led to a doubling of cell numbers under continuous illumination to 4,2.10{sup 7} cells ml{sup -1}, compared to the reference culture bubbled with 3 % CO{sub 2}. A significant increase of cell numbers under the light profiles of an idealized summer day could not be achieved. The cultivation under the light profile of a winter day at 25 C reduced cell growth to 54 %, compared to the summer simulation. In open 30 L outdoor ponds, only 0,26.10{sup 7} cells ml{sup -1} could be achieved under photoheterotrophic conditions during the summer months, which corresponds to 20 % of the cell numbers produced in the closed photobioreactors. The increase of the filling height from 5 cm to 10 cm resulted in a decrease of the cell numbers by 20 % to 30 %, related to cultures with 5 cm fill height. Mixing of the ponds by pumps did not lead to an increase of cell numbers. The induction of hydrogen production as a result of sulfate deprivation was carried out through media exchange by means of centrifugation according to the state of the art. The media exchange by tangential cross-flow filtration was established successfully, but subsequent hydrogen production resulted in lower hydrogen yields. Experiments to adjust sulfate deprivation by growth related self-reduction did not lead to hydrogen evolution under the chosen parameters. Hydrogen production could be established in two photobioreactor designs and was generally higher in the simplified hydrogen photobioreactor based on a glass bottle compared to the Photobioreactor Screening Modules, which are applicable for up-scaling. The light optimum for maximum cell specific hydrogen production and hydrogen yields was determined in case of the hydrogen photobioreactor based on the Photobioreactor Screening Module to be at 100 {mu}mol.m{sup -2}.s{sup -1} with an optimal culture density of 7,5.10{sup 6} cells ml{sup -1} and in case of the bottle hydrogen photobioreactor at 200 {mu}mol.m{sup -2}.s{sup -1} with an optimal culture density of 11.10{sup 6} cells ml{sup -1}. A small variance of 12 % was observed between multiple batches of one test run with the bottle hydrogen photobioreactor, however the scattering between comparable but independent test runs was wide-ranging by 72 % despite of standardized experimental conditions. The maximum hydrogen production was achieved in the bottle hydrogen photobioreactor with 130 ml L{sup -1} H{sub 2} under continuous light from one side with 200 {mu}mol.m{sup -2}.s{sup -1} over a period of 100 hours (incl. adaption). The space-time yield amounted to 32 ml H{sub 2}.L{sup -1}.d{sup -1}. Furthermore, it could be demonstrated that cells from running hydrogen production could be re

  4. Experimental determination and numerical simulation of viscositites in slag-systems under gasification conditions; Experimentelle Bestimmung und numerische Simulation von Viskositaeten in Schlackesystemen unter Vergasungsbedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nentwig, Thomas

    2011-07-01

    Silica melts are reflected in many different industrial and natural processes such as slags in steel production and gasification of coal, glass in the glass making industry, lava in the volcanology and in lots of other fields. Rheological properties like the viscosity of this silica melts are really important in all of these processes. A general and good working viscosity model would help all scientists and engineers, who have to simulate and optimise these processes. First, it is important to have the possibility to measure viscosities of slags. As part of this PhD thesis a new high-temperature high-pressure rotational viscosimeter is developed for measurements up to {>=}1600 C and 20 bar. Particularly in relation to the coal gasification process this two parameters are really important, because coal gasification occurs under high temperatures and high pressures. With this new viscosimeter it is possible to measure slag viscosities under realistic gasification conditions. To show that the new viscosimeter works quite good viscosity measurements of four real slags have been done. The influence of pressure and atmosphere on viscosity have been examined. The measurements are also compared with different viscosity models. The Arrhenius- and Weymann-Equation have been determined and the correlation between viscosity and basicity of the slag has been evaluated. In the second part of the Phd thesis a new viscosity model is developed. The model is based on the structure inside the slag and consists in existing thermodynamic models. After a detailed literature research the model is developed for the SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}O-K{sub 2}O system. The quality of this new model is estimated by comparing calculated viscosity values with measurements found during the literature research. The new model is also compared with other existing models for viscosity calculation.

  5. Investigation of radioiodine behavior under accident conditions in LWR. Final report; Untersuchungen des Verhaltens von Radioiod unter Stoerfallbedingungen in LWR in kleintechnischen Versuchsanlagen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panovsky, W.; Alm, M.; Eckelmann, U.; Jaspers, V.; Rentsch, J.; Vinzelberg, T.; Tuerpe, W.; Stark, M.

    1993-12-31

    Starting from safety considerations for WWER-type reactors main aspects of iodine chemistry are represented. By means of the use of application-oriented measuring techniques, existing equipment systems and their adaption to the requirements, investigations of the retention capacity of wet condensation systems for radioiodine were carried out. After analytical pre-tests (AAS, gaschromatography, laserspectrometry) - experiments were realized relating to both iodine absorption and iodine revolatilization. The absorption levels determined are between 92,5 and 99,9%, the iodine entrainment with revolatilization from the wet-condensation model is in the range between 0,003 and 0,0004%. (orig./HP) [Deutsch] Ausgehend von Sicherheitsbetrachtungen fuer WWER-Reaktoren werden die Hauptaspekte der Iodchemie dargelegt. Durch Nutzung anwendungsorientierter Messtechniken, vorhandener Geraetesysteme und deren Anpassung an die Erfordernisse wurden Untersuchungen zum Rueckhaltevermoegne von Nasskondensationssystemen fuer Radioiod angestellt. Nach analytischen Vorversuchen (AAS, Gaschromatographie, Laserspektrometrie) wurden Experimente zur Iodabsorption zur Iodwiederfreisetzung durchgefuehrt. Die ermittelten Absorptionsgrade lagen zwischen 92,5 und 99,9%, der Iodaustrag bei der Wiederfreisetzung aus dem Nasskondensationsmodell bewegt sich im Bereich von 0,003 und 0,0004%. (orig./HP)

  6. Einsatz von modifizierten Rundtränken als tiergerechte Wasserversorgung für Pekingmastenten unter Praxisbedingungen und ihr Einfluss auf Tierhygiene und verschiedene Gesundheitsparameter

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    Der Ständige Ausschuss des Europäischen Übereinkommens zum Schutz von Tieren in landwirtschaftlicher Tierhaltung fordert in seinen Empfehlungen in Bezug auf Pekingenten (1999), dass Enten, sofern sie keinen Zugang zu Badewasser haben, mit solchen Wasservorrichtungen ausreichend versorgt werden müssen, die es ihnen ermöglichen, mit dem Schnabel Wasser aufzunehmen, den Kopf mit Wasser zu bedecken und sich problemlos Wasser über den Körper zu schütten. Ferner sollten sie die Möglichkeit haben, i...

  7. Frozen soil and snow cover with respect to the hydrological land-surface behaviour; Gefrorener Boden und Schneebedeckung unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung des hydrologischen Verhaltens der Landoberflaeche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warrach, K. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaerenphysik

    2000-07-01

    Investigations of the water and energy cycle in the climate system using atmospheric circulation models require a proper representation of the land surface. The land-surface model SEWAB calculates the vertical exchange of water and energy between the atmosphere and the land-surface. This includes the calculation of runoff from the land-surface into the rivers and of the vertical heat and water fluxes within the soil. The inclusion of soil freezing and thawing and the accumulation and ablation of a snow cover in SEWAB is introduced. Additionally changes in the runoff calculation such as the inclusion of the TOPMODEL-approach to consider orographic effects are made. Applications carried out for various regions of North America show good agreement between model results and measurements. (orig.)

  8. Radiological diagnostics of abdomen and thorax. Image interpretation considering anatomical landmarks and clinical symptoms; Radiologische Diagnostik Abdomen und Thorax. Bildinterpretation unter Beruecksichtigung anatomischer Landmarken und klinischer Symptome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krombach, Gabriele A. [Universitaetsklinikum Giessen (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Mahnken, Andreas H. (ed.) [Universitaetsklinikum Marburg (Germany). Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2015-07-01

    The book on radiological diagnostics of abdomen and thorax - image interpretation considering anatomical landmarks and clinical symptoms - includes three chapters: (1) imaging of different parts of the body: thorax and abdomen. (II) Thorax: head and neck; mediastinum; heard and pericardium; large vessels; lungs and pleura; mamma. (III) Abdomen: liver; gall bladder and biliary tract; pancreas; gastrointestinal tract; spleen and lymphatic system; adrenal glands; kidneys and urinary tract; female pelvis; male pelvis.

  9. Coloured metallography of Ti-6Al-4V alloys using phtalocyanine blue; Farbmetallographie an Ti-6Al-4V-Legierungen unter Verwendung von Phthalocyaninblau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Laura; Gomez de Salazar, J.M.; Martinez, Juan A.; Criado, Antonio J. [Complutense Univ. of Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Material Science and Metallurgical Engineering; Dietz, Christian [Tasmania Univ., Hobart (Australia). Central Science Lab.

    2016-06-15

    This work presents a method to improve visualisation of metallographic structures in titanium containing alloys. After conventional selective chemical etching with Kroll's reagent, the surface of the sample specimen is manually dyed with a phtalocyanine based lacquer. The results are highly detailed and sharp coloured images when investigated with Optical Microscopy, providing much more information compared to the grey shaded, etching only approach.

  10. Pyrolysis of petroleum residues while making use of the hydrogen potential of polymer waste; Pyrolyse von Erdoelrueckstaenden unter Nutzung des Wasserstoffpotentials von Polymerabfaellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klemens, I.; Butz, T.; Rahimian, I.; Linde, A. [Institut fuer Erdoel- und Erdgasforschung, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    The hydrogen potential contained in waste plastics is to be utilized optimally for cracking of petroleum residues. Homogeneous distribution of the plastic particles in the petroleum residue is to ensure short distances between the hydrogen donor and acceptor, a sufficently large reaction surface, and stable mixing for further processing. Apart from homogeneity, another factor of interest is the influence of mixed-in polymer particles on the colloidal stability of the petroleum residue and the physico-chemical properties of the mixtures. With a view to further processing, the mixtures were analyzed for high-temperature stability, flow characteristics, and reaction behaviour during pyrolysis. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel dieses Vorhabens ist es, das in den Kunststoffabfaellen vorhandene Wasserstoffpotential optimal fuer eine tiefergehende Spaltung der Erdoelrueckstaende nutzbar zu machen. Durch eine homogene Verteilung der Kunststoffpartikel im Erdoelrueckstand soll ein moeglichst kurzer Transportweg zwischen Wasserstoff-Donor und -Akkzeptor, eine ausreichend grosse Reaktionsoberflaeche und eine fuer weitere Verarbeitungsschritte notwendige stabile Mischung erreicht werden. Ebenso interessant wie die Homogenitaet solcher Gemische ist auch der Einfluss der eingemengten Polymerteilchen auf die Kolloidstabilitaet des Erdoelrueckstandes und die physikalisch-chemischen Eigenschaften der Mischungen. Im Hinblick auf eine technische Weiterverarbeitung werden die Gemische besonders auf ihre Stabilitaet bei erhoehten Temperaturen (Heisslagerstabilitaet), ihr Fliessverhalten sowie ihr Reaktionsverhalten waehrend der Pyrolyse untersucht. (orig.)

  11. A thermodynamic simulation of a hard coal block under consideration of the control engineering with Modelica; Thermodynamische Simulation eines Steinkohleblocks unter Einbezug der Regelungstechnik mit Modelica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottelt, F.; Nocke, J.; Hassel, E. [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl Technische Thermodynamik; Ziems, C.; Weber, H. [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Elektrische Energietechnik

    2008-07-01

    The conditions on the energy market significantly will change by the development of the wind power in Germany. Clearly more dynamic requirements and increased part load operation from thermal power stations are to be expected too in order to satisfy the priority regulation of the Renewable Energy Law (EEG) for wind power. In the context of the VGB research project 283 actually one examines, how the future feed of wind power into the market can be integrated economically meaningful. Moreover it is examined which additional system services are necessary and how the utilisation rate of new power stations will change.

  12. Land has power. Energy transition an opportunity for rural areas. Documentation; Land unter Strom. Die Energiewende als Chance fuer den laendlichen Raum. Dokumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredenbeck, Martin; Gotzmann, Inge (comps.)

    2015-07-01

    The energy transition affects the rural areas of Germany in particular. Which Opportunities and risks this brings there shows a new release of Bund Heimat und Umwelt in Deutschland (German heritage and Environmental Foundation (BHU)). The Federation of heritage and civic associations devoted to the question of how to the conventional expansion of renewable energies innovative options can added. Thereby a diversified positioning of energy use, the advancement of historical forms of use and the spatial differentiation are important factors. [German] Die Energiewende betrifft die laendlichen Raeume Deutschlands in besonderem Masse. Welche Chancen und Risiken sie dort bringt, zeigt eine Neuerscheinung des Bund Heimat und Umwelt in Deutschland (BHU). Der Bundesverband der Heimatverbaende, Heimat- und Buergervereine widmet sich der Frage, wie zum konventionellen Ausbau erneuerbarer Energien innovative Optionen hinzutreten koennen. Eine breite Aufstellung von Energienutzungen, die Weiterentwicklung historischer Nutzungsformen und die raeumliche Differenzierung sind dabei wichtige Faktoren.

  13. Element fluxes in the ecosystem 'spruce-stand' with special regard to invertebrate animals. Elementfluesse im Oekosystem 'Fichtenforst' unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung wirbelloser Tiere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth-Holzapfel, M.; Funke, W.

    1989-04-01

    In the most important representatives of invertebrate-fauna of a spruce-stand nearby Ulm (Swabian Alb) the concentrations of essential and toxic elements have been determined by the mean of ICP-atomic-emissionspectroscopy and flameless atomic absorption spectrometry: Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn. Estimation of 'element-fluxes' in the ecosystem, with special regard to invertebrates and the question, if animals are suited as indicators of heavy metal pollution, have been of special interest. Species of different systematic and trophic groups (Lumbricidae, Enchytraeidae, Diplopoda, Araneae, Collembola, Coleoptera and Diptera of phytophagous, saprophagous and zoophagous trophic levels) have been investigated. Invertebrates accumulate - except of Cd - predominantly physiological active elements (Cu, Zn, K, Mg, Ca). Most elements were accumulated by animals of low trophic level. Because of the high enrichment of Cd in Lumbricidae, Enchytraeidae and Nematocera, these species seem to be suited as indicators of Cd burden of the environment. (orig./KG).

  14. Petroleum - self-reliance - crisis. Libya s way of development under Qaddafi, 1969-1988. Erdoel - Self-Reliance - Krise. Der Entwicklungsweg Libyens unter Qaddafi 1969-1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergs, R.

    1989-01-01

    In the Seventies, the economic growth rates of the petroleum-exporting countries were impressive. The many thousand millions of petro-dollars seemed to be the key to rapid development. Today, however, 15 years after the first petroleum price explosion, nearly all of these countries are faced with a serious economic crisis. This is the background against which this book reviews the history of Libya, a member of the OPEC, between 1969 and 1988. The author analyzes the strategies of development planning, their ideological background, and the actual developments. He attempts to define the past and present influence of sociocultural factors and of the personal goals in power politics of Libya's revolutionary leader Qaddafi. An attempt is made to point out the remaining perspectives of the national path of development that used to be so successful. (orig.).

  15. Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the rape cultivation with special consideration of nitrogen fertilization; Minderung von Treibhausgasemissionen im Rapsanbau unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der Stickstoffduengung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heilmann, Hubert [Landesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft und Fischerei Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Guelzow-Pruezen (Germany). Inst. fuer Pflanzenproduktion und Betriebswirtschaft; Riemer, Doerte

    2017-08-01

    Involved into the research project ''Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions in oilseed rape cropping with special consideration of nitrogen fertilizing'' regional specific GHG cropping emissions according to benchmark and regional experts are calculated by using a calculation method developed in cooperation with IFEU and according to IPCC (2006). The following results are achieved for 35 German NUTS2-regions: - nitrogen fertilization is the main influence for GHG emission reduction; - the use of low-emission nitrogen fertilizers is worth for GHG emission reduction; - without increasing the nutrient efficiency of organic fertilizers, GHG emission reductions are difficult to achieve in many regions; - GHG emission reduction/climate protection and realization of the WRRL or N-Saldo reduction come up to the same aim; - economic consequences of restrictive carbon mitigation can be compensated by slight price surcharges for certified raw material.

  16. Die Pseudoskorpion-Fauna (Arachnida: Pseudoscorpiones eines Auwaldes bei Ingelheim am Rhein, unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Auswirkungen des trocken-warmen Winters 2006/2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marx, Michael T.

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available From the beginning of May 2005 to September 2007 the pseudoscorpion fauna in a hardwood floodplain forest of the Rhine valley near Ingelheim was investigated. Altogether 587 individuals representing two species from two families were captured using pitfall traps, trunk eclectors and by litter sieving. The warm, dry winter 2006/2007 exhibited a strong influence upon the activity of Neobisium carcinoides (Hermann, 1804. This winter event was followed by an extreme drought in April 2007, which affected the activity maximum of the corticolous species Chernes hahnii (C.L. Koch, 1839. In 2005 and 2006 the activity maximum of C. hahnii was observed in July, whereas in 2007 maturity was achieved earlier in May. Furthermore 31 individuals of N. carcinoides were captured in trunk eclectors. This climbing behaviour correlates with the presence of Lepidocyrtus lignorum (Collembola: Entomobryidae on the trunks.

  17. Climatic change and the effects on the marine ecosystem around the island of Sylt. Final report; Das marine Oekosystem um Sylt unter veraenderten Klimabedingungen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackschewitz, D.; Menn, I.; Reise, K.

    2000-05-01

    Climatic warming of 1.5 to 2.5 C with a higher water temperature may only slightly change the species spectrum of the intertidal zone of the island of Sylt (North Sea). This is shown by a comparison with tidal flats of the French Atlantic coast. Stronger effects are expected from a sea level rise and an increase in hydrodynamic forces. This may result in a decrease of eelgrass and mussel beds. On the high intertidal zone muddy flats will be replaced by sandy flats due to wave action. Enhanced erosion at the Wadden Sea shoreline will probably entail its continued petrification to prevent further losses. This will cause a decrease of natural habitats with their specific assemblages, and the esthetic appeal of the Wadden Sea will decrease too. It is proposed that sand replenishment on the Wadden Sea shoreline will better preserve the natural sequence of biotopes on the tidal flats. The erosive beach on the seaward side of the island of Sylt is both focal place for tourist recreation, and the site of a highly diverse interstitial fauna. This fauna will be able to re-establish itself three months after a campaign of sand replenishment. Sand replenishment was found to be an effective way to compensate beach erosion and, due to the quick re-establishment of the fauna, it may be regarded as an acceptable method of coastal defense from an ecological perspective. (orig.) [German] Bei einer Klimaerwaermung um 1,5 bis 2,5 C wird der direkte Einfluss hoeherer Wassertemperatur das biologische Artenspektrum im Sylter Gezeitenbereich nicht wesentlich veraendern. Dies ergibt ein Vergleich mit Watten der franzoesischen Atlantikkueste. Bedeutender sind voraussichtlich Auswirkungen hoeherer Wasserstaende und einer zunehmenden Hydrodynamik. Seegraswiesen und Muschelbaenke werden dadurch im Wattbereich abnehmen. In Ufernaehe werden schlickige von sandigen Watten verdraengt. Einer verstaerkten Erosion an ungeschuetzten Wattufern wird voraussichtlich mit weiteren Befestigungen begegnet. Dadurch werden natuerliche Uferbiotope mit ihren charakteristischen Lebensgemeinschaften auf der Syler Wattseite selten. Bei solchen Veraenderungen nimmt der Erlebniswert der Watten ab und es leidet die Landschaftsaesthetik. Dem koennte durch kuenstliche Sedimentversorgung auf der Wattseite von Sylt entgegengewirkt werden. Der fuer die Erholung attraktive Sylter Brandungsstrand ist durch eine aeusserst vielfaeltige Fauna des Sandlueckengefueges gekennzeichnet. Sie kann als Indikator fuer eine hohe Qualitaet des Badestrandes gelten. Nach Sandvorspuelungen zum Ausgleich von Erosionsverlusten stellt sich diese Fauna schon nach drei Monaten weitgehend unveraendert wieder ein. Die partielle Umwandlung von Erosionsstraenden in Depositionsstraende durch eventuelle Baumassnahmen des Kuestenschutzes wuerde die Biodiversitaet der Sandlueckenfauna verringern. (orig.)

  18. Nachweis und Differenzierung von Vibrio sp. in Krusten- und Schalentieren und Erzeugnissen daraus unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der routinemäßigen Diagnostik

    OpenAIRE

    Sieffert, Monika

    2003-01-01

    Detection and Differentiation of Vibrio sp. in Crustaceans, Molluscs, and Products thereof with Regard to Routine Diagnostic The purpose of this study was to reveal the contamination rate by vibrios of commercially available crustaceaens, and molluscs, and products thereof. Beside this, a simple quick routine method for the detection should be established. Between January 2001 and May 2002 the administrative „Wirtschaftskontrolldienst“ sampled in the district of Karlsruhe 100 samples...

  19. Productivity of agricultural surfaces in the eastern parts of Germany under the influence of climatic changes; Die Ertragsfaehigkeit ostdeutscher Ackerflaechen unter Klimawandel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wechsung, Frank; Gerstengarbe, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Lasch, Petra; Luettger, Andrea (eds.)

    2008-12-15

    More than most other economic sectors agriculture depends on climatic conditions. This report presents an analysis of possible climate change effects on Eastern Germany's agriculture. It suggests that the risk of Eastern Germany's acreage losing in value is low. Negative regional impacts of climate change could be countered by appropriate adaptation measures, crop yields in many areas could even be raised and yield losses might be of set by counteracting price increases on the world market. The projection is based on a regional climate scenario. Using the statistical scenario-model STAR II available large scale projections from climate change global circulation models for middle Europe were downscaled to the existing network of East-German weather stations. The available weather records for the period 1951 to 2003 were extended for the scenario period 2004-2055. For the extension, a general increase of the average annual temperature in Eastern Germany by up to 2.7 degrees Celsius (4.8 degrees Fahrenheit) was assumed until the middle of the 21st century. The increase in temperature was triggered by a rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration from 386 at present to 542 ppm in 2055. The scenario model STAR II was used to derive the associated changes of the other major climate variables. Following the results the average annual rainfall is projected to decrease only marginally. However, shift of rainfall patterns is to be expected. Summertime rainfall will probably decrease while wintertime rainfall is likely to increase. This trend can already be monitored today and will continue as a tendency into the future. According to the projections this development will be interrupted infrequently, though, by relatively humid phases with comparatively high amounts of rainfall during the summer months. Based on this scenario, the future crop yield potentials were evaluated for the summer crop maize and the winter crop wheat in Eastern Germany. The evaluation used statistical yield models relating yearly changes in major climate variables to those in crop yield at the county level. The models were calibrated for the period 1990 to 2006 and then used for simulating the climate dominated yield variability beginning in 1951 up to 2055. The results received after integration revealed that the climate-determined yield level will probably remain stable under the projected climatic conditions for the next 20 to 30 years. A significant yield loss is to be expected by the middle of the 21st century, especially at locations in the eastern sandy lowlands distant from coast and mountain regions. The losses will be greater in the cultivation of the summer crop maize than that of the winter crop wheat. However, the increase in atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) might compensate part or all of these losses. Due to the fertilizing effect of this greenhouse gas, yields of wheat can even be expected to increase above current levels and yield losses of maize due to water stress will be mostly diminished. An optimum nitrogen provision is a necessary precondition for the CO2 fertilization to come to its full effect, though. In contrast to wheat and maize, yields of fast growing aspen in short rotation coppice plantation are expected to increase under the presumed changes of climate also on sandy soils with low water holding capacity even when neglecting the beneficial effect of higher CO2. This is indicated by simulation results using the eco-physiological forest dynamics model 4C. The model was applied to those areas of East-Germany's arable land where cereal cropping is less productive than the current median level. Following these results, short rotation coppicing of aspen is a promising cultivation alternative for farmers to secure future incomes. Woody biomass generated in short rotation coppice plantations with aspen is particularly suitable for bio-energy production. Taken the simulated effects of the projected climate change on crop and aspen yields and considering the global market prospects the conclusion can be drawn t

  20. Monopoly for controlling technical installations requiring inspection. With special regard to pressure gas vessels. Das Pruefungsmonopol bei ueberwachungsbeduerftigen gewerblichen Anlagen. Unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der Druckgasbehaelter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thieme, W.

    1987-01-01

    There exist the rules governing technical inspection for the purpose of preventing accidents, as laid down by the Statutory Regulation (from section 712 on), and the rules of the Trade Regulation (from section 24 on) requiring ordinances of the Federal Government and Laender for their implementation. This organizational set-up has in practice largely entailed a supervision monopoly on the part of the technical control boards. It is a monopoly not uncontested. The Federal Court of Administration recently had occasion to study this issue. The verdict it passed (dated September 20th, 1985, file number 1 C 22.82) has been submitted to the Federal Constitutional Court for revision. In the framework of that constitutional complaint lodged, the author of the book has submitted a legal opinion in September 1986 the essential parts of which are reprinted in the work. The book provides an overview of the main points of controversy and substantive arguments in the topical discussion on the control monopoly.

  1. Room temperature fatigue behaviour of a normalized steel SAE 4140 in torsion. Ermuedungsverhalten von normalisiertem 42CrMo4 unter Torsionsbeanspruchung bei Raumtemperatur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klumpp, S.; Eifler, D.; Macherauch, E. (Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde 1)

    1990-05-01

    Cyclic deformation behaviour of a normalized steel SAE 4140 in shear strain-controlled torsion is characterized by cyclic softening and cyclic hardening. If mean shear stresses are superimposed to an alternating shear stress, cycle-dependent creep occurs, and the number of cycles to failure decreases. In shear strain-controlled torsional loading, mean stresses are observed to relax nearly to zero within a few cycles. Fatigue life is not influenced by mean shear strains. (orig.).

  2. Automation of innovative facade systems with integrated technical building equipment under consideration of comfort aspects; Automatisierung innovativer Fassadensysteme mit integrierter technischer Gebaeudeausruestung unter Beruecksichtigung von Behaglichkeitsaspekten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasert, Anita; Becker, Martin [Hochschule Biberach (Germany). Inst. fuer Gebaeude- und Energiesysteme (IGE)

    2012-07-01

    Facades are not only a shell of the protected habitats and a boundary between the indoor climate and the environment of buildings. Facades also convert from previously passive elements to active building systems which perform various functions of the room conditioning (heating, cooling, ventilation, lighting, and so on). The associated increased demands on the system integration into facades require new solutions for the planning, implementation and operation of these innovative systems. Within the intelligent handling of increasing complexity, superior automation strategies have to be developed by means of facade automation. These automation strategies have to match the individual functions with each other, and to ensure a building sector comprehensive functionality. Furthermore, another criterion for the design of integrated facade systems is the consideration of the user's feeling with respect to comfort as well as the user's control and user's acceptance. In line with the research project AUTiFAS (= Automation of innovative facade systems), different automation strategies of the facades and room automation are considered on the basis of metrological investigations and simulation analyses. For this purpose, an innovative facade element with a decentralized ventilation unit and an integrated sunshade had to be integrated into a test room initially. The functionality and the constructional tightness of the total test stand had to be verified and matched to the requirements of the tests. With the objective to develop a standardized description of the control and regulation functions of the building sector comprehensive automation strategies, an automation library was developed based on standard structures and forms of representation using a test facade as an example. The standards DIN EN 15232, IEC 61131 as well as the guidelines VDI 3813 and VDI 3814 provide the fundamentals. The developed automation strategies form the basis for the development of new control strategies of high quality. Two approaches of highly qualitative control methods were examined in this research project. The picking up of comfort criteria in the optimized control enables the consideration of user's needs. Another approach is the predictive control which is based on characteristic line models and aims a more energy-efficient operation.

  3. Der Einfluss von Faktoren der Organspendeprozedur auf Transplantat- und Patientenüberleben bei der Nierentransplantation unter besonderer Berücksichtigung immunologischer Aspekte

    OpenAIRE

    Berdel, Henrik Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Transplantation of abdominal organs in unrelated individuals was possible only after understanding the basics of transplant immunology, and introducing immunosuppressive medications for the prevention and treatment of rejection. Different immunological- and non-immunological factors are known to have an impact on graft and patient survival in renal transplantation. Of the immunological factors HLA-compatibility traditionally plays a central role. It has been shown that with im...

  4. Bioethanol production. Competitive strength in Germany in consideration of international competition. 2. ed.; Die Bioethanolproduktion. Wettbewerbsfaehigkeit in Deutschland unter Beruecksichtigung der internationalen Konkurrenz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henniges, O.

    2007-07-01

    The competitive standing of bioethanol production in Germany is reviewed from a national and international scale. The production cost in the EU, Brazil, Australia, Thailand and China are compared, and the effects of imports on the German biofuels production is assessed. The surface terrain available for biocrops in Germany and the EU are estimated, the use of beetroot for biofuel production is analyzed, and relationships between crude oil prices and raw materials prices are established. The CO2 reduction cost resulting from the use of biofuels is calculated and compared with the cost of other climate protection measures. Existing bioethanol markets in Brazil and the USa are analyzed, and marketing trends of biodiesel are included for a comparison. With the aid of inquiry sheets, critical arguments of the automobile and mineral oil industries were compiled and viewed in the context of the biodiesel discussion. The results of the investigation are then discussed with a view to potentially conflicting goals. The author attempts to answer the question whether sustainable bioethanol production may be possible in Germany in the present conditions. (orig.)

  5. Mythos Qualifikation – Berufungsverfahren unter der gleichstellungspolitischen Lupe The Legend of Qualification—Appeals Procedures under the Microscope of Political Equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Blome

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Auf der Grundlage von qualitativen Interviews und einer Vollerhebung aller Verfahrensregelungen liefert die Studie eine umfassende Analyse der Gestaltung von Berufungsverfahren aus gleichstellungspolitischer Perspektive. Aufgrund der ergänzenden konkreten Handlungsempfehlungen zum gleichstellungsorientierten Verfahrensmanagement verhilft die Untersuchung nicht nur zu einer empirisch fundierten Einsicht in die Diskriminierungsmechanismen an deutschen Hochschulen, sondern stellt zudem einen wichtigen Beitrag für die Integration von Gleichstellung in die aktuellen Reformen von Berufungsverfahren dar.The study provides a broad analysis of the structure of appeals procedures from the perspective of political equality. It does so on the grounds of qualitative interviews and a comprehensive survey of all procedural rules. Based on supplemental and concrete suggestions for implementing equity-oriented procedural management, the examination not only helps readers toward an empirically ensured insight into the mechanisms of discrimination at German institutes of higher education, but it also presents an important contribution to the integration of equal opportunities in the current reforms of the appeals procedures.

  6. Behandlungseffekte bei Rückenschmerzpatienten : Studie im Bereich der stationären orthopädischen Rehabilitation unter Berücksichtigung von Chronifizierung und Behandlungsdauer

    OpenAIRE

    Ünlü, Ali Ihsan

    2006-01-01

    Rückenschmerzen gehören zu den häufigsten Krankheitsbildern der westlichen Industriestaaten. Problematisch sind nicht die akuten sondern die chronischen Rückenschmerzen, da sie Element eines komplexen Beschwerden-Syndroms sind und daher eine besondere Bedeutung für den Betroffenen sowie für das Gesundheits- und Sozialsystem haben. Deshalb ist eine effektive und nachhaltige Therapie der Rückenerkrankungen, z. B. im Rahmen einer stationären Rehabilitation, sehr wichtig. Während der Rehabili...

  7. Transkription und Besprechung zweier Rossarzneihandschriften des 17. und 18. Jahrhunderts unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Phytopharmakologie der Handschrift aus dem 18. Jahrhundert

    OpenAIRE

    Schönfelder, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden zwei anonyme Rossarzneihandschriften des 17. und 18. Jahrhunderts transkribiert. Die ältere Handschrift von 1693 befindet sich im Besitz des Instituts für Pharmakologie, Pharmazie und Toxikologie der Veterinärmedizinischen Fakultät der Universität Leipzig und umfasst 841 Therapieanweisungen zu den häufigsten Pferdekrankheiten der damaligen Zeit. Die jüngere Handschrift enthält 485 Heilanweisungen und ist in Privatbesitz. Beide Rossarzneihandschriften wurden b...

  8. Verlauf des lokoregionären Prostatakarzinoms unter Diätveränderung und Nahrungsmittelergänzung: Longitudinale Beobachtung über mehr als 3 Jahre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlarp OM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Einleitung: Auftreten und Verlauf des lokal begrenzten Prostatakarzinoms wird durch Diätveränderungen beeinflußt. Wir haben untersucht, ob durch Veränderung der Diätgewohnheiten und Substitution von Nahrungsergänzungsmittel (Active Surveillance der klinische Verlauf des Karzinoms beeinflußt oder eine radikale Behandlung aufgeschoben oder gar vermieden werden kann. Material und Methode: Wir verfolgten den klinischen Verlauf und die PSA-Werte von 13 Patienten mit einem stanzbioptisch verifizierten organbegrenzten Prostatakarzinom. Allen Patienten mit einem T-Stadium 3 mit einem PSA 10 ng/ml und einem Gleasonscore 7 wurde eine Active Surveillance-Strategie mit zusätzlichen Diätempfehlungen und Nahrungsergänzungsmitteln anstelle einer radikalen Prostatektomie offeriert. Alle Patienten erhielten hierfür täglich als Nahrungsmittelergänzung eine Mischung an Radikalfängern (Karotinoide, Selen, Flavonoide, Vit. A, E und Phytoöstrogene. Alle Patienten wurden routinemäßig einmal pro Jahr mindestens 8-fach biopsiert. PSA-Werte und eine rektale Untersuchung wurde alle drei Monate durchgeführt. Eine radikale Prostatektomie wurde im Falle eines zweimaligen konsekutiven PSA-Anstieges und/oder eines suspekten Tastbefundes und/oder einer Ausdehnung der Anzahl positiver Stanzen bei wiederholten Biopsien durchgeführt. Resultate: Wir überschauen nun median 21 Monate (5–90 einer Active Surveillance-Strategie bei 13 Männern (medianes Alter: 65. Bei 3 Männern führte ein konsekutiver PSA-Anstieg zur Planung einer radikalen Prostatektomie (1 Patient verstarb vor der Operation an einer intrazerebralen Blutung, einer verweigerte den Eingriff. Beim verbliebenen Patienten führten wir 14 Monaten nach Diagnosestellung eine Schnittrand-negative Prostatektomie eines pT2c-Gleason-6-Tumors durch (PSA 0 ng/ml frei nach 11 Monaten Follow-up. Von allen Patienten, die initial maximal bis zu 2 positive Gewebsproben hatten, konnte bei 38 % in den Kontrollbiopsien kein Tumor mehr nachgewiesen werden, bei 46 % blieb die Anzahl der positiven Biopsien gleich. Keiner der Patienten ist bis jetzt klinisch apparent geworden. Konklusion: Eine diätetische Unterstützung (Active Surveillance kann den klinischen Verlauf des organbegrenzten Karzinoms günstig beeinflussen. Diese Therapieoption kann Patienten in Hinblick auf eine Lebensqualitätsorientierte Lebenserwartung auch von mehr als 10 Jahren angeboten werden. Voraussetzung ist ein strenger Follow-up und eine entsprechende Compliance.

  9. Characterization of polyelectrolytes and lithium salts for electrochemical energy storage devices using novel measurement systems; Charakterisierung von Polyelektrolyten und Lithiumsalzen fuer elektrochemische Energiespeicher unter Verwendung neu entwickelter Messsysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Benedikt

    2013-04-08

    In the first part of this work, three imidazolium-based ionic liquid monomers with polymerizable vinyl groups and the resulting polyelectrolytes have been synthesized and characterized. Particular attention was paid to the purity of the materials. Besides comprehensive monomer and polymer analytics, electrical impedance spectroscopy was carried out to obtain information about the ion conducting properties of the three systems under investigation: poly(3-ethyl-1-vinylimidazolium)-bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (P1), poly(3-methyl-1-(4-vinylbenzyl)imidazolium)-bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (P2) and poly(1-butyl-3-methyl-2-(4-vinylphenethyl)imidazolium)-bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (P3). The pure polymers, which are bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (N(Tf)2) anion conductors, exhibit room-temperature conductivities of the order of 10-8 S/cm in the best case. The anion conduction mechanism is strongly influenced by the length of the spacer group between the polymer backbone and the imidazolium cations attached to the side chain. In polymers P1 and P2 with short spacer groups, intra- and inter-cation hopping of the N(Tf)2 anions can be distinguished below the glass transition temperature, while this is not possible in the case of polymer P3 with longer spacer groups. Furthermore, we have studied several mixtures of the best conducting polymer P2 with LiN(Tf)2, zwitterions and monomeric ionic liquid. While the zwitterions were capable of compensating for the conductivity drop due to Li salt addition, the addition of monomeric IL as plasticizer leads to a considerable conductivity enhancement without a significant loss of mechanical stability. In the second part of this work, three lithium salts, lithium bis(pentafluorophenyl)amide LiN(Pfp)2, lithium pentafluorophenyl-trifluoromethyl-sulfonylimide LiN(Pfp)(Tf) and lithium pentafluorophenyl-nonafluorobutyl-sulfonylimide LiN(Pfp)(Nf) were characterized with respect to their thermal and electrochemical properties. LiN(Pfp)2 decomposes around 100 C, whereas LiN(Pfp)(Tf) and LiN(Pfp)(Nf) show a much higher thermal stability up to temperatures above 300 C. The ionic conductivity at 100 C, measured by means of impedance spectroscopy, decreases in the order LiN(Pfp)(Tf) > LiN(Tf)2 > LiN(Pfp)(Nf). Both, the activation energy and entropy for ion conduction in the new salts are lower than in LiN(Tf)2, most likely due to the lower symmetry of the new anions. The electrochemical stability and ionic conductivity of LiN(Pfp)(Tf) and LiN(Pfp)(Nf) solutions in alkyl carbonates are slightly lower than that of the LiN(Tf)2 solution, but still sufficient for application in lithium ion batteries.

  10. Evaluation and optimization of switchable insulation using the climatic conditions of Vienna; Bewertung und Optimierung von dynamischen Daemmsystemen unter Beruecksichtigung des Wiener Klimas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdajewicz, Filip; Korjenic, Azra; Bednar, Thomas [Institut fuer Hochbau und Technologie, Forschungsbereich fuer Bauphysik und Schallschutz, Technische Universitaet Wien (Austria); Dipl. Ing. Rudolf Schwarzmayr, Thermocollect, Wiener Neustadt (Austria)

    2011-02-15

    There have been numerous efforts to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions in recent years. Terms such as ''more economical'', ''more efficient'', and ''more effective'' are often used in discussion of this theme. The field of building physics can make a significant contribution to energy efficiency since building heating and cooling produces a significant portion of overall hazardous greenhouse gases. In response, heat transfer coefficient limits are being set lower and lower resulting in thicker and more expensive insulation systems. Very creative systems are being developed and tested parallel to conventional solutions. This study examines and contrasts two of the systems focusing upon the heating and cooling requirements: the so called ''switchable insulation'' and a new system called ''Thermocollect''. The systems cannot be compared using standard software programs as the calculations are based on steady-state thermal conductivities. Therefore, an in-house simulation model was developed. Both systems are described in the introduction. A presentation of the basic thermodynamic concepts applied in the simulation fol lows. One section contains an explanation of the simulation model and its distinctive properties. The study is concluded by the results of the parametric studies, an interpretation of the results and implications, and engineering optimizations for the new insulation systems. (Copyright copyright 2011 Ernst and Sohn Verlag fuer Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH and Co. KG, Berlin)

  11. Which grid reconstruction is required by the energy policy turnaround? Under consideration of the network development plan 2012; Welchen Netzumbau erfordert die Energiewende? Unter Beruecksichtigung des Netzentwicklungsplans 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarass, Lorenz [Hochschule RheinMain Wiesbaden (Germany); Obermair, G.M.

    2012-07-01

    A structural and technical restructuring of the total electricity supply system is necessary as a part of the energy policy turnaround. That means a restructuring of the production, transfer and distribution of electrical energy. The authors of the book under consideration describe the fundamentals and measures for an efficient and cost-effective reconstruction of the power distribution system. The term ''reconstruction of the power distribution system'' shall include all the measures necessary for the enhancement of the maximal performance of power transfer by means of optimization and amplification of existing electric lines as well as by restructuring of the electric lines.

  12. Planning and acceptance of catenaries with reference to the High-Speed Energy TSI; Planung und Abnahme von Oberleitungen unter Bezugnahme auf die TSI ENE HGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnadhorst, Kai [Balfour Beatty Rail GmbH, Essen (Germany); Tessun, Heinz [Balfour Beatty Rail GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    It was in May 2002 that the first-ever Technical Specification for Interoperability (TSI) of the ''energy'' subsystem with validity throughout the European Union was adopted. In March 2008, this was then repealed in conjunction with the adoption of a revised TSI. The new decision has brought fresh movement into this field. (orig.)

  13. Experimental investigations on the coolability of prototypical particle beds with respect to reactor safety; Experimentelle Untersuchungen der Kuehlbarkeit prototypischer Schuettungskonfigurationen unter dem Aspekt der Reaktorsicherheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leininger, Simon

    2017-02-22

    In case of a severe accident in a light water reactor, continuous unavailability of cooling water to the reactor core may result in overheating of the fuel elements and finally the loss of core integrity. Under such conditions, a structure of heat-releasing particles of different size and shape may be formed by fragmentation of molten core material in several stages of the accident. The long-term coolability of such beds is of prime im-portance to avoid any damage to the reactor pressure vessel or even a release of fission products to the environment. In the frame of this work, specific experiments were con-ducted under prototypical conditions employing the existing DEBRIS test facility in order to gain further knowledge about the thermohydraulic behavior of such beds. In steady state boiling experiments, the pressure gradients in particle beds were meas-ured both for one- and multi-dimensional cooling water flow conditions and compared with one another in order to assess the flow behavior inside the bed. For these different flow conditions as well as for stratified bed configurations, the maximum removable heat flux densities were determined in the dryout experiments. E. g., it was found that an axial stratification of the permeability can significantly reduce the bed's coolability. For the first time, the quenching behavior of dry, superheated beds was investigated at elevated system pressure up to 0.5 MPa. In these experiments, the effect of system pressure on the coolability was quantified by means of the quenching time (time period to cool down the bed to saturation temperature). The investigated particle beds mainly consisted of non-spherical particles with well-defined geometry (cylinders and screws). It was shown that the effect of the particles geometry on the flow in a particle bed can be best estimated by using an equivalent particle diameter calculated for monodisperse particle beds from the product of the Sauter diameter and a shape factor and for polydisperse beds from the surface-averaged diameter. Accompanying exemplary model calculations have confirmed the applicability of the MEWA code for assessment of the coolability of both water-saturated and dry beds. Nevertheless, the implemented friction models should be improved to better predict the pressure gradient of two-phase flows in particle beds.

  14. Synthesis of sulfates and sulfate derivates of selected metals under harsh conditions; Synthese von Sulfaten und Sulfatderivaten ausgewaehlter Metalle unter drastischen Bedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuschulz, Kai

    2015-03-24

    In the course of this work sulfates und sulfate derivates of selected metals were synthesized under harsh conditions. The obtained compounds, in which the metal ions often reveal unusual oxidation states, have been characterized. Two mixed valent vanadium(IV/V) oxide sulfates (VO){sub 4}(SO{sub 4}){sub 5}, and (VO){sub 3}(SO{sub 4}){sub 4} and a vanadium(V) oxide sulfate (VO){sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} as well as a complex anionic vanadium(V) oxide sulfate (NO)[VO(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}] have been obtained starting from vanadium or vanadium(V) oxide and oleum. All vanadium oxide sulfates reveal a similar thermal behavior. The decomposition residues are either pure vanadium(V) oxide or vanadium(IV) oxide or a mixture of both residues in different ratios. It was possible to synthesize binary tantalum(V) sulfate Ta{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 5} for the first time by reaction of pure sulfur(VI) oxide and tantalum(V) oxide at 150 C and to characterize. The complete absence of any oxide ligands at the metal center is of special interest in this compound. The reaction of tin(II) sulfate with oleum lead to the formation of tin(IV) sulfate Sn(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}. Using IR spectroscopy, the oxidation state +IV was confirmed for tin, due to the absence of OH-band in the IR-spectra, which would have meant the oxidation state +II. Using methanesulfonic acid as solvent and reactant on different synthetic routes the anhydrous methanesulfonates Mn(CH{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 2}, and Fe(CH{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 2}, Ga(CH{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 3}, In(CH{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 3}, and Tl(CH{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 3}, as well as VO(CH{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 2} and SnCl{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 2} were obtained. For the element thallium it was possible to obtain two mixed anionic compounds with the composition TlX{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}SO{sub 3}) (X = Cl or Br). All methanesulfonates show a similar thermal decomposition behavior forming the metal oxide as decomposition product. The thallium compounds represent an exception, due to sublimation of the residue in the course of the analysis. In analogy to the methanesulfonates the first structurally characterized triflates could be obtained in the synthesis of pure triflic acid from chromium, molybdenum, thallium, tin, and lead. For chromium(III) two complex ionic compounds (H{sub 3}O){sub 3}[Cr(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 6}] and [Cr(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}Cl](CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 2} have been synthesized. In M[Mo{sub 2}(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 5}].2CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}H (M = Rb, Cs) a molybdenum dumbbell was synthesized which molybdenum in the oxidation state +II. Quantum mechanical calculations on the bonding situation in the molybdenum dumbbell were carried out. In addition, a ternary molybdenyl(V) triflate of the formula K{sub 2}[MoO(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 5}] was obtained and the magnetism was analyzed. For the elements tin and lead compounds of the formula Sn(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 2}, and Pb(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 2} could be obtained as well as the adducts Pb(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 2}(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}H), and Pb(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 2}(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}H){sub 2}. All triflates form layered structures and have been studied by thermal analysis.

  15. Stability, structural safety and integrity demonstration of stacked uranium oxide containers under seismic loads; Standsicherheits-, Tragsicherheits- und Integritaetsnachweise von gestapelten Uranoxid-Containern unter seismischer Beanspruchung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grawe, Juergen; Nagel, Felix; Nierhaus, Thomas [STEAG Energy Services GmbH, Essen (Germany). Nuclear Technologies

    2012-11-01

    For the storage of uranium oxide powder special containers are stacked fourfold on top of each other on a reinforced concrete base plate. The container stacks are arranged with a distance of 200 mm from each other. The stability of the container stacks has to be demonstrated for the load case earth quake. The demonstration of stability, structural safety and integrity of stacked uranium oxide containers under seismic loads has been performed using time dependent finite element (FEM) calculations. The evaluation and assessment was based on deformation and equivalent stress intensity values. Due to the constructive boundary conditions and the anchorless stacking under seismic loads the demonstration of stability is a nonlinear problem that cannot be solved with adequate efforts. The realistic simulation of the kinematic behavior of the container stacking was possible using the transient FEM technique.

  16. Shot peening under preloading conditions. Influence on residual stress state and fatigue of components. Festigkeitsstrahlen unter Vorspannung. Auswirkung auf Eigenspannungszustand und Schwingfestigkeit von Bauteilen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmohr, F. (BMW AG, Muenchen (Germany). Hauptabteilung Betriebsfestigkeit); Fiedler, B. (BMW AG, Muenchen (Germany). Hauptabteilung Betriebsfestigkeit)

    1994-10-01

    Lightweight construction of vehicles supports saving of energy. The service life and fatigue strength of certain car components can be improved by shot peening under preloading conditions. Simultaneously the scattering may be reduced. This enables to reduce the weight of those components. This paper deals with the reasons for increasing the fatigue strength and decreasing of its scattering as well as the influence of parameters on these properties for the examples of piston rods and barrel springs. (orig.)

  17. Prevention, screening and therapy of thyroid diseases and their cost-effectiveness; Praevention, Screening und Therapie gutartiger Schilddruesenerkrankungen unter dem Aspekt von Kosten und Nutzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietlein, M.; Moka, D.; Schmidt, M.; Theissen, P.; Schicha, H. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2003-10-01

    Cost-effectivness analyses focused on benign thyroid diseases are under-represented in the literature. The calculation of costs per additionally gained life year is difficult: The benefit of prevention is shifted into the distant future. The influence of an untreated subclinical thyroid disease on life expectancy can only be demonstrated by a long-term follow-up and by epidemiological databases. Iodine supplementation and programs for the prevention of tobacco smoking (primary prevention) are very cost-effective. Smoking increases the risk both of multinodular goiter and of Graves' disease. Screening programs (secondary prevention) are discussed for the laboratory parameters thyrotropin (TSH), calcium and calcitonin. TSH testing seems to be very cost-effective for epidemiological considerations in a certain lifespan (newborn, pregnancy, postpartal), older persons, hospitalisation due to acute diseases and in persons with previously elevated TPO-antibodies for TSH-values >2 mU/l, but dedicated cost-effectiveness analyses are lacking. On the other hand, the cost-effectiveness of a routine TSH testing beyond the age of 35 years has been shown by a high-quality decision analysis. Therapeutic strategies (tertiary prevention) aim at the avoidance of complications (atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction, death for cardiac reasons) and of iatrogenic complications. Examples of a tertiary prevention are: firstly the definitive therapy of Graves' disease in patients who have on increased risk of relapse after antithyroid drugs (ATD), secondly the radioiodine therapy for subclinical hyperthyroidism and the radioiodine therapy of large goiters in older patients or in patients suffering from a relevant comorbidity. Cost-effectiveness analyses for different therapeutic strategies of Graves' disease were published using a lifelong time-horizon. The ablative radioiodine dose-regime is cost-effective as a fist line therapy if the risk of relapse after ATD exceeds 60%. (orig.) [German] Kosten/Nutzenanalysen in Bezug auf gutartige Schilddruesenerkrankungen sind in der Literatur unterrepraesentiert. Insbesondere die Erhebung eines Geldwertes pro gewonnenem Lebensjahr gestaltet sich methodisch schwierig: Der Nutzen praeventiver Massnahmen ist weit in die Zukunft verlagert. Der Einfluss einer unbehandelten Schilddruesenerkrankung auf die Lebenszeit wird ebenfalls erst durch einen langfristigen Horizont und dann eher epidemiologisch als individuell zu erfassen sein. Als Prophylaxe (primaere Praevention) sind Programme zum Ausgleich des Iodmangels sowie die Aufklaerung ueber den negativen Einfluss des Rauchens auf die Entwicklung einer Struma oder eines M. Basedows aus entscheidungstheoretischer Sicht sehr kosteneffektiv. Screening-Programme (sekundaere Praevention) werden fuer die Parameter TSH, Calcium und Calcitonin diskutiert. Eine besonders guenstige Kosten-Effektivitaet des TSH-Screenings ist in besonderen Lebensphasen (Neugeborene, Schwangerschaft, postpartal, hoeheres Alter, stationaerer Patient mit akuter Erkrankung) und bei definierten Vorbefunden (TSH>2mU/l, TPO-Antikoerper) aus klinisch-epidemiologischer Sicht zu erwarten, ohne dass hierzu gesonderte gesundheitsoekonomische Berechnungen vorgelegt wurden. Andererseits konnte die Kosten-Effektivitaet eines generellen TSH-Screening ab dem 35. Lebensjahr in einer qualitativ hochwertigen gesundheitsoekonomischen Studie bereits belegt werden. Die Therapiestrategien bei gutartigen Schilddruesenerkrankungen (tertiaere Praevention) zielen auf eine Minimierung sekundaerer Krankheitsfolgen (Vorhofflimmern, Myokardinfarkt, Herztod) und iatrogener Nebenwirkungen. Beispiele fuer eine solche tertiaere Praevention sind die definitive Therapie (Radioiodtherapie) der Immunhyperthyreose M. Basedow bei unguenstigen initialen Praedikatoren fuer eine Rezidivhyperthyreose, die Radioiodtherapie der latenten Hyperthyreose sowie die Radioiodtherapie der grossvolumigen Struma bei aelteren oder multimorbiden Patienten. Hierzu liegen Kosten-Effektivitaets-Analysen mit einem lebenslangen Zeithorizont zur Behandlung der Immunhyperthyreose M. Basedow vor. Die Daten sprechen fuer den primaeren Einsatz der Radioiodtherapie bei solchen Patienten, deren Rezidivrisiko nach thyreostatischer Behandlung ueber 60% liegt. (orig.)

  18. Deficits in execution and legal protectio in environmental law under consideration of supranational and international defaults; Vollzugs- und Rechtsschutzdefizite im Umweltrecht unter Beruecksichtigung supranationaler und internationaler Vorgaben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussmann, A.

    2006-10-15

    The contribution under consideration considers the question, whether and which contributions courts can perform on executive level in order to compensate arising lacks within the environmental range by granting legal protection. The emphasis of this contribution is directed toward the processual access to the courts. In Germany, this strongly is characterized by the requirement of the possible damage of its own individual right and limits thereby the complaint possibilities. The author comes to the result that in the comparison of the European legal protection systems a demand of improvement of the German legal protection system exists in environmental questions. Using current examples, the author also points out, which important agrarian, politico-economic and legal changes occurred on international and supranational level in the last years. In the background of these supranational and international defaults, the author supplies some proposals for a solution to the question, to what extent the German legal protection model can be reformed.

  19. Untersuchungen von Leindotter (Camelina sativa (L.) Crtz.) auf Krankheiten unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von Falschem Mehltau (Peronospora parasitica (Pers.) Fr.)

    OpenAIRE

    Föller, Iris

    2000-01-01

    In den Anbauversuchen wurden am Leindotter 7 pilzliche/pilzähnliche und eine bakterielle Krankheit diagnostiziert. Dies waren der Falscher Mehltau (Peronospora parasitica), die Grauschimmelfäule (Botryotinia fuckeliana), die Weißstängeligkeit (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum), der Weiße Rost (Albugo candida), die Weißfleckigkeit (Pseudocercosporella capsellae), die Stängel- und Wurzelfäule (Rhizoctonia solani) und der Echte Mehltau (Erysiphe spec.), sowie der Bakterielle Brand (Pseudomonas ...

  20. Modern lining schemes for kilns in the lime industry with particular reference to standard shaft kilns. Neuzeitliches Zustellkonzept fuer die Oefen der Kalkindustrie unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der Normalschachtoefen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrowsky, F.; Steinwender, R.

    1990-08-01

    Over the last 40 years lime shaft kilns have developed in many directions, the improvement in the lime quality, the extension of the particle size range and the saving in energy being predominant. These conversions had the effect that the refractory linings also had to be adapted to suit the requirements. High-grade insulating materials reduce the radiation from the kiln shell in spite of reduced wall thicknesses. Chromium-free periclase-spinel bricks are being used increasingly for the burning zone linings. Another advantage of the spinel bricks is that the broken brick material can be deposited in waste-disposal sites due to the absence of chromium, especially Cr{sup 6+}. (orig./HK).

  1. Magneto-optical measurements on high-temperature superconductors influenced by AC-fields; Magnetooptische Untersuchungen an Hochtemperatursupraleitern unter Einfluss von Frequenzfeldern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Che' Rose, Simon

    2007-01-15

    In this work magneto-optical measurements on YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} and MgB{sub 2} thin films were done. For YBCO the influence of AC-pulses on the flux and current density of a thin film with transport current was investigated. For MgB{sub 2} the influence of AC-fields on the homogenous and dendritic flux penetration was researched. (orig.)

  2. Tax reform for ecologic reasons: The basic legal situation in Germany. Expert opinion; Steuerreform unter oekologischen Aspekten: Rechtliche Rahmenbedingungen. Gutachterliche Stellungnahme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birk, D.; Eckhoff, R. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Steuerrecht

    1999-04-01

    A model simulating the outcome of an ecologic tax reform in Germany is presented and discussed. The model was elaborated by Deutsches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW) and Finanzwissenschaftliches Forschungsinstitut (Fifo) of Cologne University. The model sets out the framework and scope of such a tax reform, as well as individual policy instruments, such as introduction of tax on energy consumption, an increase of the mineral oil tax, introduction of a road-use tax, introduction of new and increase of existing charges for waste management, a modification and increase of the sewage levy, and in the long run, introduction of a tax on land consumption by built environments. An analysis of the redistributional effects of the theoretical tax on energy consumption together with the increased mineral oil tax revealed that the prorated expenses for energy in relation to total incomes and revenues are declining with rising income. Especially the prorated expense for automotive fuels shows a particularly steep rise, which is calculated by the model to decline again only within the group of households with a very high income. The financial burden effect of the energy tax in relation to the available income and revenues is described by a regressive curve similar to the energy expenses curve, other than with the tax burden curve due to the increased mineral oil tax, which is calculated to have a regressive effect only at higher income levels, i.e. from a private household net income of DM 4000. Considering however the tax burden effects resulting from both the energy tax and the increased mineral oil tax, for all private hoseholds, a regressive effect is expected to set in as from a household income of DM 1000. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Das vom Deutschen Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW) und vom Finanzwissenschaftlichen Forschungsinstitut der Universitaet zu Koeln (Fifo) entworfene Modell einer oekologischen Steuerreform sieht die Einfuehrung einer Energiesteuer, eine Erhoehung der Mineraloelsteuer, die Einfuehrung von Abgaben fuer die Strassenbenutzung, die Einfuehrung oder Erhoehung von Abfallabgaben, die Umgestaltung und Erhoehung der Abwasserabgabe und laengerfristig die Einfuehrung einer Flaechenversiegelungsabgabe vor. Eine Analyse der Verteilungswirkung der geplanten Energiesteuer und der Erhoehung der Mineraloelsteuer ergibt, dass der Anteil der Energieausgaben an den ausgabefaehigen Einkommen und Einnahmen mit steigendem Einkommen deutlich abnimmt. Insbesondere der Anteil der Ausgaben fuer Kraftstoffe steigt jedoch und geht erst bei Haushalten mit sehr hohem Einkommen wieder zurueck. Die Belastungswirkung der Energiesteuer bezogen auf die ausgabefaehigen Einkommen und Einnahmen nimmt einen aehnlich regressiven Verlauf wie die Energieausgaben. Dagegen entfaltet die sich aufgrund der Mineraloelsteuererhoehung ergebende Steuerbelastung erst ab einem Haushaltsnettoeinkommen von 4.000 DM eine regressive Belastungswirkung. Das verhindert jedoch nicht, dass sich fuer Energiesteuer und Mineraloelsteuer insgesamt ab einem Haushaltseinkommen von 1.000 DM eine regressive Belastungswirkung ergibt. (orig.)

  3. Die deutsche Erwachsenenbildung unter dem Leitbild der lebenslangen Bildung%终身教育理念下的德国成人教育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任春

    2007-01-01

    本文阐述了德国成人教育的发展历史和终身教育理念在现代德国的形成过程,在终身教育思想指导下的德国成人教育的多元性和辅助性特点,德国成人终身学习的两大特色学习节活动和业余大学情况,以及德国成人教育带给我们的几点启示.

  4. The influence of walls on jet propagation and ignition under diesel engine conditions. Einfluss von Waenden auf Strahlausbreitung und Zuendverhalten unter dieselmotorischen Bedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Huanxin.

    1991-08-01

    This research on the influence of walls on jet propagation and ingnition behaviour of a diesel jet was carried out in a pressure chamber with different wall inserts. By using two-side schlieren optics and other optical measuring methods it was possible to identify jet characteristics, especially locations of ignition and ingition delays in the injection jet precisely and to analyse them statistically. Wall temperature, wall spacing, impact angle, chamber air temperature and chamber pressure, injection pressure and injection quantity were vaired within the range important for a diesel engine. (orig./HW).

  5. Strategies for the optimization of cathodic protection of pipelines under AC influence; Strategien fuer die Optimierung des kathodischen Korrosionsschutzes von Rohrleitungen unter Wechselspannungsbeeinflussung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechler, Markus [SGK Schweizerische Gesellschaft fuer Korrosionsschutz, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    The newly determined values for the protection of cathodically protected pipelines against AC corrosion cannot be readily applied to all pipelines. From this perspective, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on strategies for the optimization of cathodic protection of pipelines under AC influence. It is hardly possible to define general strategies. Rather, an examination of the entire pipeline is essential. Is a compliance with the prescribed limits not possible or only possible with unreasonable effort, an active cathodic corrosion protection in combination with remote-controlled monitoring and protection devices can reduce the current corrosion risk.

  6. Ammonia from manure slurry and measures for its reduction - in particular in connection with fermentation; Ammoniakemissionen aus Guelle und deren Minderungsmassnahmen unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der Vergaerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hersener, J.-L.; Meier, U.; Dinkel, F.

    2002-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made to demonstrate the potential of reducing ammonia emissions from manure slurries in connection with anaerobic digestion. The various methods of treatment that were assessed, including digestion, aeration, separation of the liquid phase, additives, acidification, flocculation, precipitation and stripping are discussed. The findings on the effectiveness of the different treatment methods are compared with normal slurry storage and distribution methods (open pits for storage, distribution by splash plate). Recommendations on convenient methods for reducing ammonia losses are made, whereby the authors state their opinion that digestion is not to be recommended and that separation is practical and can be realised rapidly.

  7. Usability im Online-Shopping : Entwicklung eines Fragebogeninstrumentes (ufosV2) unter Berücksichtigung formativer und reflektiver Messmodelle

    OpenAIRE

    Christophersen, Timo

    2007-01-01

    (Keine Zusammenfassung in deutscher Sprache hinterlegt.) In usability research, difference between formative and reflective measurement models for the assessment of latent variables has been ignored largely. As a consequence, many usability scales are misspecified. This might result in reduced scale validity because of the elimination of important usability facets within the procedure of scale development. The aim of the current study was to develop a questionnaire for the evaluation of On...

  8. Lifetime assessment of thick-walled components made of nickel-base alloys under near-service loading conditions; Lebensdauerbewertung dickwandiger Bauteile aus Nickelbasislegierungen unter betriebsnahen Beanspruchungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hueggenberg, Daniel

    2015-11-06

    Until 2050 the renewable energies should provide 80% of the power in Germany according to Renewable Energy law. Due to that reason the conventional power plants are not used for base load, but rather for the supply of average and peak load. The change of the operating mode leads to shorter times at stationary temperatures and the number of faster start-ups/shut-downs of the power plants will increase. As a result of this the components are exposed to an interacting load of creep and fatigue which reduces the lifetimes. The aim of this thesis is the development and verification of a lifetime assessment procedure for components made of the nickel-base alloys Alloy 617 mod. and Alloy 263 under creep fatigue loading conditions based on numerical phenomenological models and on the approaches of different standards/recommendations. The focus lies on two components of the high temperature material test rig II (HWT II), a header made of Alloy 617 mod. and Alloy 263 as well as a formed part made of Alloy 617 mod. For the basis characterization of the HWT II melts, specimens of the Alloy 617 mod. and Alloy 263 are tested in uniaxial tensile tests, (creep-)fatigue tests, creep tests and charpy tests in a temperature range between 20 C and 725 C. From the comparisons of the test results and the material specifications respectively the results of the projects COORETEC DE4, MARCKO DE2 and MARCKO700 no deviations were obvious for both materials with the exception of the creep test results with Alloy 617 mod. material. The creep tests with Alloy 617 mod. material of the HWT II melt show differences regarding the deformation and damage behavior. In addition to the basis characterization tests some complex lab tests for the characterization of the material behavior under creep-fatigue and multiaxial loading conditions were conducted. The developments of the microstructure, the precipitations as well as the structure of dislocations are investigated in the light optical microscope and the transmission electron microscope for the base raw material, the creep and creep-fatigue exposed material. For the classification the investigation results were compared to the results of the other projects and no differences could be identified. For the description of the deformation and damage behavior under creep-fatigue loading with finite elements simulations a viscoplastic deformation model with an integrated damage model of Lemaitre was used. The material dependent model parameters were fitted under consideration of the basis characterization test results of the Alloy 617 mod. and Alloy 263. All basis characterization tests are simulated with finite elements to classify the parameter fittings. The verification of the fitted material models was carried out by simulations of the complex lab tests. From the comparison of the simulation and test results it is obvious that the deformation and damage behavior can be reproduced with the used material model in a good manner. With finite element simulations of complex thick-walled components (header, formed part) under realistic thermal and mechanic loading conditions could be shown that the viscoplastic material model fitted for the Alloy 617 mod. and Alloy 263 is able to predict the locations of the maximum loadings and the lifetime until the first cracks appear. This could be confirmed by dye penetrant testing on the one hand and destructive investigations of two fracture surfaces of the header on the other hand. Additionally the approaches of the European DIN EN 12952-3/4, the American ASME Section III Division 1 Subsection NH, the French RCC-MR RB 3262.12 and the British R5 recommendations Volume 2/3 are used to predict the lifetimes. It can be seen that the approaches of ASME and RCC-MR provide very conservative predictions and that the approaches of R5 and DIN EN 12952 provide non-conservative predictions. These results lead to the conclusion that no approach of the standards/recommendation is suitable for the nickel base alloys Alloy 617 mod. and Alloy 263.

  9. Reducing particulate matter in the operation of firewood burning stoves taking into account the toxicological relevance; Feinstaubminderung im Betrieb von Scheitholzkaminoefen unter Beruecksichtigung der toxikologischen Relevanz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenz, Volker Alfred

    2010-12-02

    One of the greatest challenges facing humanity is climate change. Correspondingly, inter alia, the German government has set a target by 2020, to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases to the 1990 level by 20%. For this purpose can and should an increased energetic use of biomass contribute. End of 2007, the bioenergy had a share of around three quarters of the renewable primary energy input. Of which more than 45% were used for the heat supply. A total of more than 90% of renewable heat have been provided from biomass. From the provided amount of heat come over 80% from the combustion of solid biofuels - so far almost exclusively wood products - in small and medium wood-fuelled combustion systems. To reduce carbon dioxide emissions the federal government is accelerating a further expansion of energetic use of biomass in the heating sector. This expansion of thermal use of biomass, however, for reasons of pollution control, should not rise simultaneously with the emissions of air pollutants such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides or particulate matter. [German] Eine der groessten Herausforderungen fuer die Menschheit ist der Klimawandel. Entsprechend hat sich u.a. die deutsche Bundesregierung das Ziel gesetzt bis 2020 die Emissionen an Treibhausgasen im Vergleich zum Stand 1990 um 20 % zu mindern. Hierzu kann und soll eine verstaerkte energetische Nutzung der Biomasse beitragen. Ende 2007 hatte die Bioenergie einen Anteil von rund drei Viertel am erneuerbaren Primaerenergieeinsatz. Davon wurden mehr als 45 % fuer die Waermebereitstellung genutzt. Insgesamt wurden mehr als 90 % der erneuerbaren Waerme aus Biomasse bereitgestellt. Von der bereitgestellten Waermemenge kommen ueber 80 % aus der Verbrennung von festen Biobrennstoffen - bisher fast ausschliesslich Holzprodukte - in kleinen und mittleren Holzfeuerungsanlagen. Zur Verminderung der Kohlenstoffdioxidemissionen wird von Seiten des Bundes ein weiterer Ausbau der energetischen Biomassenutzung im Waermebereich forciert. Bei diesem Ausbau der thermischen Biomassenutzung duerfen aber aus Gruenden des Immissionsschutzes nicht gleichzeitig die Emissionen an Luftschadstoffen wie z. B. Kohlenstoffmonoxid, Stickstoffoxide oder Feinstaub ansteigen.

  10. Ökologischer Landbau in Sri Lanka - unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von Tee-Anbausystemen (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze)

    OpenAIRE

    Williges, Ute

    2005-01-01

    In Sri Lanka the agricultural structure of smallholder production has changed with population growth and land reforms. In former days a farm family could life from the production of their home garden through subsistence farming and barter economy. Additional income was achieved by selling surplus products like spices on the local markets. Today living standards and life style have changed and monetary needs for housing, schooling, electricity, telephone, household goods and transport faciliti...

  11. Further development of remote testing of submerged bolts and screws in reactors; Weiterentwicklung der ferngesteuerten Schrauben- und Stiftpruefung unter Wasser in Reaktoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, F.; Schirner, G.; Meier, R.; Wiesinger, W. [intelligeNDT Systems und Services, Erlangen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Since the eighties, intelligeNDT has been carrying out ultrasonic tests of bolts in reactor containments and pressure vessels both in Germany and abroad. The ultrasonic equipment used belonged to the SAPHIR/SAPHIRplus line. The recording and online evaluation software was adapted to the test requirements and optimized for high test rates and quality-assured documentation. As test manipulator, the 'SUSI' submarine by AREVA NP was used with good results. (orig.)

  12. Development of a coal winning and support system for underground mines; Entwicklung eines Gewinnungs- und Ausbausystems fuer den Bergbau unter Tage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langefeld, Oliver [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Abt. fuer Maschinelle Betriebsmittel und Verfahren im Bergbau unter Tage; Mues, Christian [HeidelbergCement AG, Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. Operational Support; Mentrup, Juergen [Bucyrus DBT Europe GmbH, Luenen (Germany)

    2009-05-28

    A flexible coal-winning system of simple construction suitable for various applications was developed as an alternative to the mechanical equipment currently used for the extraction of coal. The considerations in this respect are based on the design of coal-winning equipment for underground mines, which enables loosening and loading of the mineral at several points on a longwall face. Potential applications included drivage of gate roads, retreat working of pillars, the working of residual areas, the working of steep seams and use as face edge machines. The technical concept of the coal-winning equipment was investigated by tests on an artificial coal face and computer simulations. The investigations confirm the suitability of the ''front loading plough'' coal-winning and support system for different fields of application, in particular the use as face edge machine for shearer loader or plough faces. (orig.)

  13. Electric Energy Consumption of the Full Scale Research Biogas Plant “Unterer Lindenhof”: Results of Longterm and Full Detail Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Jungbluth

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work thoroughly evaluates the electric power consumption of a full scale, 3 × 923 m3 complete stirred tank reactor (CSTR research biogas plant with a production capacity of 186 kW of electric power. The plant was fed with a mixture of livestock manure and renewable energy crops and was operated under mesophilic conditions. This paper will provide an insight into precise electric energy consumption measurements of a full scale biogas plant over a period of two years. The results showed that a percentage of 8.5% (in 2010 and 8.7% (in 2011 of the produced electric energy was consumed by the combined heat and power unit (CHP, which was required to operate the biogas plant. The consumer unit agitators with 4.3% (in 2010 and 4.0% (in 2011 and CHP unit with 2.5% (in 2010 and 2011 accounted for the highest electrical power demand, in relation to the electric energy produced by the CHP unit. Calculations show that 51% (in 2010 and 46% (in 2011 of the total electric energy demand was due to the agitators. The results finally showed the need for permanent measurements to identify and quantify the electric energy saving potentials of full scale biogas plants.

  14. Studies about the current carrying capacity of the devices of the electric power transmission depending on the ambient conditions; Untersuchungen zur Strombelastbarkeit der Geraete der Elektroenergieuebertragung unter Freiluftatmosphaere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Ina

    2011-07-01

    Due to the liberalization of the electricity market and the increasing expansion of the generation of wind power the transport of electric power in the power grid is increasing. Due to that the electrical equipment is loaded higher up to its thermal limits. However the electrical power supply should be anytime reliable. Because the new construction and upgrade of overhead lines and substations is expensive and approval procedures can take up to ten years, solutions have to be found, to ensue in short and medium term the transport of electrical power through the power grid. In this paper a possibility is introduced and analyzed to increase the current carrying capacity of the electrical equipment without carrying out extensive reconstructions or new buildings. For that the method of thermal networks is used. For the different devices of the electric power transmission (overhead lines, electrical fittings, circuit-breaker, disconnecting switch and current transformer) thermal networks are designed. The heating on examples of all devices was studied and tested under laboratory conditions and the thermal networks were verified. By expansion of the thermal networks with elements for forced convection (wind velocity) and additional heat sources (solar radiation) the ambient conditions were considered. With the help of the so expanded thermal networks parameter studies depending on the wind velocity, ambient temperature and solar radiation were carried out. The studies showed that depending on the ambient conditions the current carrying capacity of all devices can be increased without changing the devices. The rated currents of all devices are specified for a high ambient temperature (e.g. 35 C) and low wind speed (e.g. 1 m/s). Most of the time in a year the ambient temperature is lower and the wind speed is higher than the specified values. So the devices can carry a higher current than the rated current without exceeding its thermal limits. The calculations show the possible increasing of each device depending on the ambient conditions. For completing the results weather data have been collected and analyzed. When increasing the current it has to be noticed that the devices will age faster due to the higher operating temperature. Exemplary calculations on an electrical fitting show how the increased current cause a considerable reduction of the life time of the fitting. So when loading the overhead lines and the other components with higher currents, depending on the ambient conditions, the grid should be regularly checked to avoid early failures. The studies introduced in this paper should help to take decisions by increasingly the current carrying capacity depending on the ambient conditions considering all the mentioned aspects. (orig.)

  15. Hypertonie und Hypalgesie : eine Untersuchung zum Einfluss endogener Opiate auf den R-III-Reflex und das subjektive Schmerzempfinden unter Barorezeptorenstimulation bei Hypertonikern

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Johannes Oliver

    2004-01-01

    Fragestellung Der aus Vorstudien bekannte Zusammenhang zwischen Bluthochdruck und verminderter Schmerzempfindlichkeit wurde in dieser Studie näher untersucht. Viele der früheren Studien weisen darauf hin, dass für diesen Zusammenhang den arteriellen Barorezeptoren eine wesentliche Bedeutung zukommt. In der vorliegenden Studie wird die Rolle des endogenen Opiatsystems bei der barorezeptorabhängigen Schmerzmodulation eines elektrischen Schmerzreizes bei Probanden mit arterieller Hyperton...

  16. Endovaskuläre Therapie der akuten Extremitätenischämie und der proximalen Beinvenenthrombose unter Verwendung der Rotationsthrombektomie: Aktuelle Studienlage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichtenberg M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Die akute und subakute Ischämie der unteren Extremität ist immer noch eine häufige Ursache für eine Amputation. Für die differenzierte Therapie boten sich in den vergangenen Jahren neben der anerkannten lokalen Lysetherapie und der chirurgischen Thrombektomie perkutane mechanische Thrombektomieverfahren wie die Rotationsthrombekomie an. Insbesondere die chirurgische Thrombektomie nach Fogarty zeigt jedoch in randomisierten Studien eine erhöhte perioperative Komplikationsinzidenz sowie teilweise niedrige technische Erfolgsraten. Auf der anderen Seite sind mit der lokalen Lysetherapie neben Blutungskomplikationen auch erhöhte Kosten durch Ressourcen verbrauchende Maßnahmen wie die Intensivüberwachung und Reangiographien verbunden. Als endovaskuläre Therapieoptionen konnten durch technische Weiterentwicklungen in der Vergangenheit das Straub Rotarex®- und Aspirex®-System in mehreren Studien gute Erfolge im amputationsfreien Überleben zeigen. Gleichzeitig war eine niedrige Komplikationsrate bei der Anwendung zu verzeichnen. Die meisten Untersuchungen wurden für den Einsatzbereich im arteriellen Stromgebiet des Oberschenkels durchgeführt. Inzwischen zeigen aber auch mehrere Register und Studien einen effektiven Einsatz im Bereich der Becken- und Beinvenenthrombose. In der vorliegenden Übersicht soll der aktuelle studienbasierte Stellenwert der Rotationsthrombektomie im venösen und arteriellen Stromgebiet dargestellt werden.

  17. Alternating pressure on blades and acoustic emissions of an axial blower in turbulent flow; Schaufelwechseldruecke und Schallabstrahlung bei einem Axialventilator unter turbulenter Zustroemung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stremel, M.

    2002-07-01

    Blower noise levels must be known already in the design stage. Simple models are unable to model details, e.g. transient forces on the blades or pressure variations at the blade surface caused by flow turbulence or by secondary effects. [German] Die Hersteller von Ventilatoren sind aufgrund gestiegener Anforderungen auf Auslegungsverfahren angewiesen, mit denen schon im Entwurfsstadium eine Aussage ueber das von einem Ventilator erzeugte Geraeusch getroffen werden kann. Bislang wird das abgestrahlte Geraeusch durch einfache Modelle abgeschaetzt und Details wie z.B. ein Geraeuschspektrum oft nicht wiedergegeben. Bei der Geraeuschentstehung an einem Ventilator sind die instationaeren Schaufelkraefte bzw. Oberflaechenwechseldruecke von besonderer Bedeutung. Bestimmt werden sie im wesentlichen durch den Einfluss der Zustroemturbulenz, Sekundaereffekte (wie z.B. bei der Kopfspaltstroemung), (orig.)

  18. Development of a low emission gas blower considering a two-component firing; Entwicklung eines emissionsarmen Gasgeblaesebrenners. Unter Beruecksichtigung der Zweistoff-Anwendung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuellemann, J. [Blue-Fan Waermetechnik AG, Mastrils (Switzerland)

    1997-11-01

    Through the NEFF supported development project, low nitrogen oxide gas blowers have been successfully developed, permitting realisation of the required low pollutant, largely combustion chamber independent combustion with waste gas recirculation inside the combustion head, up to an output of 700 kW. With the executed field systems it was verified that the values of the LRV92 are also reproducible in practice with the newly developed technique. (orig.) [Deutsch] Durch das NEFF-unterstuetzte Entwicklungsprojekt ist es gelungen, stickoxidarme Geblaesebrenner zu entwickeln, die es ermoeglichen, die gefordert schadstoffarme, weitgehend brennraumunabhaengige Verbrennung mit brennkopfinterner Abgasrezirkulation zu realisieren, und zwar bis zu einem Leistungsbereich von 700 kW. Mit den realisierten Feldanlagen konnte nachgewiesen werden, dass die Werte der LRV92 mit der neu entwickelten Technik auch in der Praxis immer reproduzierbar sind. (orig.)

  19. Quantitative Datenanalyse zur längsschnittlichen Erfassung der Rechtschreibkompetenz in NEPS unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Kompetenzstruktur und der Einflussfaktoren

    OpenAIRE

    Jarsinski, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    In der methodisch ausgerichteten Arbeit wurde aus einer erziehungswissenschaftlichen Perspektive grundlegenden Fragen zur längsschnittlichen Messung und Modellierung der Rechtschreibkompetenz nachgegangen. Dazu wurden Daten aus dem Nationalen Bildungspanel (National Educational Panel Study, NEPS) genutzt. Die kompetenzorientierte Leistungsmessung erfolgte mit einem sprachsystematischen Rechtschreibtest (SRT). Der SRT basiert auf einem theoretischen Rahmenkonzept, das auf Ergebnissen der lingu...

  20. Assessment of laserbeam-welded tubular overlap joints made of magnesium and aluminium under multiaxial loading; Bemessung laserstrahlgeschweisster Ueberlappverbindungen aus Magnesium und Aluminium unter mehrachsiger Beanspruchung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Exel, Nora; Wiebesiek, Jens; Sonsino, Cetin Morris [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Betriebsfestigkeit und Systemzuverlaessigkeit (LBF), Darmstadt (Germany); Hanselka, Holger [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Betriebsfestigkeit und Systemzuverlaessigkeit (LBF), Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Fachgebiet ' ' Systemzuverlaessigkeit und Maschinenakustik' '

    2013-07-01

    The present paper compares the wrought light-metal alloys AlMg3.5Mn and MgAl3Zn1 based on the fatigue behaviour of laserbeam-welded overlapped tubular joints. The experiments were carried out under pure axial, pure torsional and combined proportional as well as nonproportional loading. The test results were assessed by applying the notch stress concept with a reference radius of r{sub ref} = 0,05 mm and compared with allowable stresses taken from a standard. Finally, two stress based multiaxial hypothesis are compared to each other based on the test results. (orig.)

  1. Micromechanical Modeling of Grain Boundaries Damage in a Copper Alloy Under Creep; Mikromechanische Modellierung der Korngrenzenschaedigung in einer Kupferlegierung unter Kriechbeanspruchung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voese, Markus

    2015-07-01

    In order to include the processes on the scale of the grain structure into the description of the creep behaviour of polycrystalline materials, the damage development of a single grain boundary has been initially investigated in the present work. For this purpose, a special simulationmethod has been used, whose resolution procedure based on holomorphic functions. The mechanisms taken into account for the simulations include nucleation, growth by grain boundary diffusion, coalescence and shrinkage until complete sintering of grain boundary cavities. These studies have then been used to develop a simplified cavitation model, which describes the grain boundary damage by two state variables and the time-dependent development by a mechanism-oriented rate formulation. To include the influence of grain boundaries within continuum mechanical considerations of polycrystals, an interface model has been developed, that incorporates both damage according to the simplified cavitation model and grain boundary sliding in dependence of a phenomenological grain boundary viscosity. Furthermore a micromechanical model of a polycrystal has been developed that allows to include a material's grain structure into the simulation of the creep behaviour by means of finite element simulations. Thereby, the deformations of individual grains are expressed by a viscoplastic single crystal model and the grain boundaries are described by the proposed interface model. The grain structure is represented by a finite element model, in which the grain boundaries are modelled by cohesive elements. From the evaluation of experimental creep data, the micromechanical model of a polycrystal has been calibrated for a copper-antimony alloy at a temperature of 823 K. Thereby, the adjustment of the single crystal model has been carried out on the basis of creep rates of pure copper single crystal specimens. The experimental determination of grain boundary sliding and grain boundary porosity for coarse-grained copper-antimony specimens, on the other hand, have been used for the adjustment of the interface model. The calibrated model has finally been used in combination with artificially generated grain structures to investigate influences resulting from numerical and modelling issues. It was found that the mesh size has only a relatively small influence on the macroscopic creep behaviour. But because of the nearly incompressible deformation behaviour of the single crystal model, the use of special purpose continuum element types was necessary to avoid the occurrence of volumetric locking. Also the creep behaviour of polycrystalline materials, which includes the damage development leading to failure, has been analysed for different material and loading parameters. Especially for the copper-antimony alloy under consideration, it becomes evident that the creep behaviour was affected by grain boundary sliding. In particular, stress redistributions at the grain boundaries were comparable to the behaviour of free grain boundary sliding. Furthermore, simulations for multiaxial loading conditions indicated that the damage development is significantly influenced by the maximum principal stress and the von Mises stress.

  2. Changes of flora and vegetation of forests under the influence of atmospheric depositions. Veraenderung der Flora und Vegetation von Waeldern unter Imissionseinfluss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, P.A. (Technische Univ. Dresden, Fakultaet Bau-, Wasser- und Forstwesen, Abt. Forstwirtschaft, Tharandt (Germany))

    1993-08-01

    Structural changes in plant populations and phytocoenoses permit statements about environmental impacts and about changes in ground vegatation caused by air pollution. Besides experimental tolerance tests by means of fumigation and field experiments under controlled trial conditions, geobotanic studies including indicator value analyses are well suited to ascertain stress caused by atmospheric deposition. As for the Ore Mountains (Erzgebirge), it is demonstrated that the comparison of historical and recent conditions of the vegetation on identical trial plots allows for inferrences to be made in regard to site changes attributed to air pollution. Best results are obtained from investigations in nearly natural forest communities stocking on sites of different nutrient supply (Tilio-Acerion, Galio Odorati-Fagion, Luzulo-Fagion). In cotrast to comparable studies conducted in other regions of Germany for which mainly nitrogen input has been identified on the basis of indicator values, in the eastern parts of the Ore Mountains after a period of 35 years highly significantly dropped values of soil reaction were found in addition to a drastic decline in the number of species (ca. 50%). This indicates topsoil acidification, underlining the special position of the Ore Mountains as a classical fume damage region, with the forest damage being primarily caused by atmospheric deposition of SO[sub 2]. Even the buffering capacity of soils having a good nutrient supply seems to be overstrained. Bioindication of this kind proved to be less suitable for woodland and forest ecosystems comprised of a herb layer poor in species, such as in spruce and pine forests on potential deciduous woodlands (Tharandt Forest) and under extreme site conditions as found in ombrominerotrophic crest site bogs and their environment (central part of the Ore Mountains). Nevertheless, statements of trend are possible provided they undergo cautious interpretation.

  3. Ecology trends in Greece and in the Federal Republic of Germany. Oekologiebewegung in Griechenland und in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland; Unter Beruecksichtigung historischer, gesellschaftspolitischer und theoretischer Aspekte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dede, I.

    1993-01-01

    This study evolves and discusses a thesis which maintains that ecology trends, both in Greece and in the Federal Republic of Germany, are the results of specific processes of social ''modernization'' based on different historical developments. A definition of ''modernization'' is given discussing the ''Fordism'' conception as part of the regulation theory: ''new'' social trends are interpreted as the results of the practice and crisis of Fordistic capitalism which, however, differs depending on its ''metropolitan'' (Germany) and ''peripheral'' (Greece) manifestations. The applicability of the Fordism theorem to Greece is discussed taking into account some political and cultural parameters. (orig.)

  4. Radon transfer and intracorporal deposition of radon decay products under balneotherapeutic conditions; Radon-Transfer und intrakorporale Deposition von Radon-Folgeprodukten unter balneotherapeutischen Bedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunewald, Wolfgang A. [Kurmittelhaus Sibyllenbad, Neualbenreuth (Germany); Just, Guenther [Forschungsbuero Radon, Grosspoesna (Germany); Petzold, Juergen [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum, Leipzig (Germany); Philipsborn, Henning von [Radiometrisches Seminar, Univ. Regensburg (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The intracorporal deposition of radon decay products was determined on four persons after 40 and 30 min respectively in radon water with about 1500 Bq/L by whole-body gamma spectrometry. The measurements started about 2 1/2h after exposure. In addition, the radon activity concentration of inspiratory and expiratory air was measured on one person during and after exposure and the deposition of radon decay products on the skin was measured on another person. The radon activity leaving the body with the expiratory air during exposure in the water (called ''radon transfer'') amounts to about 800 Bq. An intracorporal radon activity immediately after therapeutic exposure of about 3000 Bq was obtained as a result of first measurements by extrapolation from measurements starting about 2 1/2 hours later. Additional studies are necessary. There are indications that both the radon transfer and the intracorporal deposition can be increased by exposure in mixed radon-CO{sub 2} water. (orig.)

  5. Shopping-Center in deutschen Mittelstädten und ihr Einfluss auf die Zentralitätsentwicklung. Eine Untersuchung unter der Verwendung von Einzelhandelskennzahlen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Yannick

    2017-06-01

    Shopping-centers have been subject to intense analysis from various angles. Due to by the growing number of shopping-centers located in medium-sized cities, a change of money flows within the municipal boundaries is expected. On a multi-level basis this article shows key retail figures of medium-sized cities with shopping-centers in comparison to ones without. The final result reveals that the retail turnover of medium-sized cities with a shopping-center reaches a significantly higher level than cities without a shopping-center. Furthermore, the evaluation of data shows a rise of the retail centrality in medium sized towns as a consequence of the opening of a shopping-center. This means the construction of shopping-centers doesn't only cause a shift of money flows within the city boundaries but also leads to an additional influx of money from outside the municipalities.

  6. Novel hydrogen technologies. Concrete applications in submarine, land-based and space projects. Neue Wasserstofftechnologien. Konkrete Nutzung unter Wasser, auf der Erde, im Weltall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledjeff, K. (ed.)

    1989-01-01

    The book describes the state of the art and presents new hydrogen technologies specially developed for various fields of application. It comprises three sections: A general survey, new equipment technologies, and a review of land-based, space, and submarine projects. The projects are: The Bavarian solar hydrogen project, fleet testing of H/sub 2/ vehicles in Berlin, hydrogen jet propulsion, and energy supply to space vehicles. The project 'Hydrogen in Submarine Engineering' is different in that hydrogen is not used as fuel but as a constituent of the gas supplied for breathing.

  7. Cold generation under 0 degrees Celsius with a water-lithiumbromide resorption refrigerating machine; Kaelteerzeugung unter 0 C mit einer Wasser/Lithiumbromid-Resorptionskaeltemaschine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, L. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Luft- und Kaeltetechnik

    2008-03-15

    The target of development in the area of absorption refrigeration is using low tempered waste heat to cold generation narrow under 0 degrees Celsius through realisation of a water lithiumbromide resorption refrigeration process because higher COP can be achieved with water lithiumbromide compared with ammonia water. In a development project a test plant was built, tested and measured in the ILK. Realised refrigerating plants of this type aren't known on the market till now. (orig.)

  8. Approaches to the dimensioning of enhanced biological phosphorus elimination systems, taking dynamic simulation into account; Bemessungshinweise zur vermehrten biologischen Phosphorelimination unter Beruecksichtigung der dynamischen Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheer, H.

    1997-12-31

    With so many projects either planned or under construction, the question of the dimensioning of sewage treatment plants with enhanced biological phosphorus elimination (BIO-P) is becoming more and more important. A detailed search of literature established in how far dimensioning approaches or models were already available in the spring of 1994. These modelling approaches were critically examined and compared as to their practical applicability by means of parameter and sensitivity studies. For this purpose, they were programmed and the relevance of certain dimensioning parameters to biological phosphorus elimination was studied by means of a pilot plant. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Der Auslegung von Klaeranlagen mit vermehrter biologischer Phosphorelimination (BIO-P) kommt bei der Vielzahl von Planungs- und Baumassnahmen eine immer wichtigere Bedeutung zu. Inwieweit fuer die Bemessung von Klaeranlagen mit BIO-P im Fruehjahr 1994 bereits auf vorhandene Bemessungsansaetze und -modelle zurueckgegriffen werden konnte, wurde mittels einer detaillierten Literaturstudie, untersucht. Diese Modellansaetze wurden im Hinblick auf ihre praxisorietierte Anwendbarkeit durch Parameter- und Sensitivitaetsstudien kritisch untersucht und verglichen. Hierzu wurden die verschiedenen, zum damaligen Zeitpunkt vorhandenen Ansaetze programmiert und die Auswirkungen wichtiger bemessungsrelevanter Parameter auf die BIO-P anhand einer Modellklaeranlage abgeschaetzt. (orig./SR)

  9. Lithium for future technologies. Demand and supply with special regard to electro-mobility; Lithium fuer Zukunftstechnologien. Nachfrage und Angebot unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der Elektromobilitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angerer, Gerhard; Marscheider-Weidemann, Frank; Wendl, Matthias; Wietschel, Martin

    2009-12-15

    The availability of the necessary commodities for electric vehicles with regard to their high market growth predictions is currently a frequent theme of controversial discussions. At this the mineral Lithium, which is used in vehicle batteries, is in the point of interest. An estimation of the worldwide Lithium (Li)-consumption and -supply to the year 2050 was established in this study with the goal of analysing whether significant resource shortages are in fact to be expected. A calculation model was therefore developed, which estimates the future Li-demand using the 2008 consumption of the main Li-consumers such as the glass- und ceramics- industry or lubricants and their respective industry growth rate predictions. As the vehicle battery market can dominate the future Li-demand its development was examined in detail using two market penetration scenarios. Moreover the amount of secondary Lithium which can be recovered through recycling was determined via collection and recycling-quotas. In the, concerning the future number of electric vehicles, moderate Pluralismus-scenario about 51 % of the world Lithium-reserves will be consumed in 2050 under consideration of the employment of recycled material. At this a rather low assumption of the Li-reserves was applied. The gained amount of secondary Lithium covers about 25 % of the total Li-demand which underlines the importance of recycling. In the second scenario which displays a quick and thorough market penetration of electric vehicles the Lithium-reserves are already exhausted in 2045 in spite of the recirculation of secondary-material. The reserves comprise the Li-supplies within the lithosphere which can be recovered under current commodity prices and state-of-the-art technical possibilities. Based on a (USGS, 2009) estimation they amount to 6 Mio. t. Lithium. The resources on the other hand also contain known sources which can't be economically exploited at the moment. They amount to approx. 14 Mio. t Lithium according to the above source whereas other noted sources, with (Roskill, 2009) among them, state them at 28 - 30 Mio. t Lithium. With regard to the geological resources of the USGS estimation just about 20 % of the geological occurrence is exploited in the Pluralismus-scenario, 49 % in the Dominanz-scenario. The bottom line of this study is that even under extreme assumptions a Lithiumshortage is not to be anticipated within the next four decades. On the other hand the fact that the world Li-reserves are concentrated on very few countries of which some currently don't belong to geopolitically stable regions (e.g. Bolivia) has to be considered. Furthermore the mining of Lithium intervenes in up to now mostly untouched ecosystems such as the salt-lakes in South America and China. For the preservation of the commodity base a working recycling system for Lithium has to be established in time. In a long-term perspective the development of alternative battery systems has to be promoted further. Additionally other raw materials have to be analysed on possible future shortages in the context of electro-mobility. Cobalt, copper,indium or neodymium for example are commodities which could cause trouble in future.

  10. Productivity of agricultural surfaces in the eastern parts of Germany under the influence of climatic changes; Die Ertragsfaehigkeit ostdeutscher Ackerflaechen unter Klimawandel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wechsung, Frank; Gerstengarbe, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Lasch, Petra; Luettger, Andrea (eds.)

    2008-12-15

    More than most other economic sectors agriculture depends on climatic conditions. This report presents an analysis of possible climate change effects on Eastern Germany's agriculture. It suggests that the risk of Eastern Germany's acreage losing in value is low. Negative regional impacts of climate change could be countered by appropriate adaptation measures, crop yields in many areas could even be raised and yield losses might be of set by counteracting price increases on the world market. The projection is based on a regional climate scenario. Using the statistical scenario-model STAR II available large scale projections from climate change global circulation models for middle Europe were downscaled to the existing network of East-German weather stations. The available weather records for the period 1951 to 2003 were extended for the scenario period 2004-2055. For the extension, a general increase of the average annual temperature in Eastern Germany by up to 2.7 degrees Celsius (4.8 degrees Fahrenheit) was assumed until the middle of the 21st century. The increase in temperature was triggered by a rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration from 386 at present to 542 ppm in 2055. The scenario model STAR II was used to derive the associated changes of the other major climate variables. Following the results the average annual rainfall is projected to decrease only marginally. However, shift of rainfall patterns is to be expected. Summertime rainfall will probably decrease while wintertime rainfall is likely to increase. This trend can already be monitored today and will continue as a tendency into the future. According to the projections this development will be interrupted infrequently, though, by relatively humid phases with comparatively high amounts of rainfall during the summer months. Based on this scenario, the future crop yield potentials were evaluated for the summer crop maize and the winter crop wheat in Eastern Germany. The evaluation used statistical yield models relating yearly changes in major climate variables to those in crop yield at the county level. The models were calibrated for the period 1990 to 2006 and then used for simulating the climate dominated yield variability beginning in 1951 up to 2055. The results received after integration revealed that the climate-determined yield level will probably remain stable under the projected climatic conditions for the next 20 to 30 years. A significant yield loss is to be expected by the middle of the 21st century, especially at locations in the eastern sandy lowlands distant from coast and mountain regions. The losses will be greater in the cultivation of the summer crop maize than that of the winter crop wheat. However, the increase in atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) might compensate part or all of these losses. Due to the fertilizing effect of this greenhouse gas, yields of wheat can even be expected to increase above current levels and yield losses of maize due to water stress will be mostly diminished. An optimum nitrogen provision is a necessary precondition for the CO2 fertilization to come to its full effect, though. In contrast to wheat and maize, yields of fast growing aspen in short rotation coppice plantation are expected to increase under the presumed changes of climate also on sandy soils with low water holding capacity even when neglecting the beneficial effect of higher CO2. This is indicated by simulation results using the eco-physiological forest dynamics model 4C. The model was applied to those areas of East-Germany's arable land where cereal cropping is less productive than the current median level. Following these results, short rotation coppicing of aspen is a promising cultivation alternative for farmers to secure future incomes. Woody biomass generated in short rotation coppice plantations with aspen is particularly suitable for bio-energy production. Taken the simulated effects of the projected climate change on crop and aspen yields and considering the global market prospects the conclusion can be drawn that the value of farmland for the production of biomass will at least remain stable in East-Germany for the next four decades. The global request for increased supply will continue to rise. Considering the given limitation for a simultaneous increase in production capacity the mean market prices will be most likely higher than those seen in the last decade. Thus, even if crop yields will decrease in some parts of Eastern Germany, monetary damages would probably be overcompensated by increases in farmers' incomes. (orig.)

  11. Untersuchung an Bioaerosolen in Tierställen unter Etablierung einer REAL-TIME PCR-basierten Methode zur Erfassung luftgetragener Salmonella und Thermoactinomyces Zellen

    OpenAIRE

    Fallschissel, Kerstin

    2011-01-01

    Bioaerosole aus bzw. in landwirtschaftlichen Tierställen beinhalten häufig hohe Konzentrationen an Mikroorganismen in stark zeitlich und räumlich variierender Zusammensetzung. In diesen Ställen arbeitende Menschen sind damit potentiell infektiösen und Allergie-auslösenden Mikroorganismen und deren Bestandteilen oder Stoffwechselprodukten exponiert, die ein erhebliches Gesundheitsrisiko darstellen können. Die kultivierungsbasierte Untersuchung von Bioaerosolen eines Putenstalles erfasste im...

  12. Photobiological hydrogen production with the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under process engineering aspects; Photobiologische Wasserstoffproduktion mit der einzelligen Gruenalge Chlamydomonas reinhardtii unter verfahrenstechnischen Aspekten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geier, Stephanie

    2011-07-01

    Hydrogen is of high interest as a clean and environmentally friendly energy source as its combustion only emits water and energy. However, currently hydrogen is produced in energy demanding processes by the consumption of fossil fuels. An alternative way of sustainable and non-polluting hydrogen production could be provided by use of photosynthetic active microalgae. Within this work, the photobiological hydrogen production with the unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is investigated under the aspects of bioprocess-engineering and economics. Objectives are, besides the increase of the photochemical efficiency, the cultivation of the algae and subsequent hydrogen production under cost-free sunlight. It could be demonstrated that outdoor cultivation of C. reinhardtii is possible in Central Europe throughout the year by using e.g. waste heat. Similar cell numbers in the range from 1,2.10{sup 7} cells ml{sup -1} to 1,7.10{sup 7} cells ml{sup -1} could be achieved in closed photobioreactors of the type Photobioreactor Screening Module under controlled laboratory conditions and both continuous illumination (200 {mu}mol.m{sup -2}.s{sup -1}) and simulated outdoor conditions according to the light intensity of idealized summer day as well as in outdoor experiments (up to 2000 {mu}mol.m{sup -2}.s{sup -1}).The use of 10 % CO{sub 2} corresponding to the CO{sub 2} content in flue gas led to a doubling of cell numbers under continuous illumination to 4,2.10{sup 7} cells ml{sup -1}, compared to the reference culture bubbled with 3 % CO{sub 2}. A significant increase of cell numbers under the light profiles of an idealized summer day could not be achieved. The cultivation under the light profile of a winter day at 25 C reduced cell growth to 54 %, compared to the summer simulation. In open 30 L outdoor ponds, only 0,26.10{sup 7} cells ml{sup -1} could be achieved under photoheterotrophic conditions during the summer months, which corresponds to 20 % of the cell numbers produced in the closed photobioreactors. The increase of the filling height from 5 cm to 10 cm resulted in a decrease of the cell numbers by 20 % to 30 %, related to cultures with 5 cm fill height. Mixing of the ponds by pumps did not lead to an increase of cell numbers. The induction of hydrogen production as a result of sulfate deprivation was carried out through media exchange by means of centrifugation according to the state of the art. The media exchange by tangential cross-flow filtration was established successfully, but subsequent hydrogen production resulted in lower hydrogen yields. Experiments to adjust sulfate deprivation by growth related self-reduction did not lead to hydrogen evolution under the chosen parameters. Hydrogen production could be established in two photobioreactor designs and was generally higher in the simplified hydrogen photobioreactor based on a glass bottle compared to the Photobioreactor Screening Modules, which are applicable for up-scaling. The light optimum for maximum cell specific hydrogen production and hydrogen yields was determined in case of the hydrogen photobioreactor based on the Photobioreactor Screening Module to be at 100 {mu}mol.m{sup -2}.s{sup -1} with an optimal culture density of 7,5.10{sup 6} cells ml{sup -1} and in case of the bottle hydrogen photobioreactor at 200 {mu}mol.m{sup -2}.s{sup -1} with an optimal culture density of 11.10{sup 6} cells ml{sup -1}. A small variance of 12 % was observed between multiple batches of one test run with the bottle hydrogen photobioreactor, however the scattering between comparable but independent test runs was wide-ranging by 72 % despite of standardized experimental conditions. The maximum hydrogen production was achieved in the bottle hydrogen photobioreactor with 130 ml L{sup -1} H{sub 2} under continuous light from one side with 200 {mu}mol.m{sup -2}.s{sup -1} over a period of 100 hours (incl. adaption). The space-time yield amounted to 32 ml H{sub 2}.L{sup -1}.d{sup -1}. Furthermore, it could be demonstrated that cells from running hydrogen production could be re

  13. Experimental investigation and analysis of damage evolution in concrete under high-cyclic fatigue loadings; Experimentelle Untersuchung und Analyse der Schaedigungsevolution in Beton unter hochzyklischen Ermuedungsbeanspruchungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiele, Marc

    2016-05-01

    The main objective of this thesis is the fatigue behavior of concrete under high-cycle compressive loadings. Current knowledge about fatigue behavior of concrete is still incomplete. This concerns especially the process of fatigue which is preceding the fatigue failure. The leak of knowledge about fatigue behavior is opposed to the steady growing importance of this topic within the practice in civil engineering. Therefore, within this thesis a systematic and comprehensive investigation of the process of fatigue itself was done. This contributes to the better understanding of the progression of damage and the corresponding processes within the material. The experimental investigation consisted mainly of experiments with constant amplitude loadings in compression with cylindrical specimen made of normal strength concrete. Two differed load levels were used which resulted in numbers of cycles to failure of 10{sup 6} and 10{sup 7} as well as 10{sup 3} and 10{sup 4}. The experiments were done in combination with different types of nondestructive and destructive testing methods like strain measuring, deformation of surface, ultrasonic signals, acoustic emissions, optical microscopy and also scattering electron microscopy. To access some parameters of influence in relation to the fatigue behavior additional creep tests and also several tests with different scales of specimen were done. The fatigue process of concrete is determined as an evolution of damage that starts from the beginning of the loading process. This evolution has manifold and different influences on the different material properties of concrete. In this relation a major finding was that fatigue related damage leads to a transformation of the complete stress-strain-relationship. This relationship is also subjected to an evolution process. Due to the authors observations it could not be determined that the investigated changes in macroscopic material behavior are caused by a development of micro cracks within the material structure. The results of the investigation indicated that rather the fatigue related changes in material behavior are mainly a result of viscous processes in cement stone especially in phase I and II of the fatigue process. Furthermore, it was observed that creep in concrete leads to similar but lesser changes in material behavior of concrete. Beside this, tests with different scales of specimens have shown an appreciable effect of size on the resulting material behavior under static and cyclic loadings respectively. From these experimental findings a detailed description was derived about the processes which take place within the material structure during the fatigue loading and also leads to the observed macroscopic changes in material behavior. In this context, the tests have shown that relating to stiffness reduction a scalar value could not capture the damage effect on the stressstrain- relationship caused by fatigue. A following consideration gives an overview about applicability of the different measured parameters for the detection of the degree of fatigue damage with regard to a reliable damage indicator. Finally an approach is presented which is able to describe the investigated developments of significant values within the observed fatigue process.

  14. Locating and classification of structure-borne sound occurrence using wavelet transformation; Ortung und Klassifizierung von Koerperschallereignissen unter Verwendung der Wavelet-Transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winterstein, Martin [TUEV SUED IS GmbH (Germany); Thurnreiter, Martina [Fachhochschule Deggendorf (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    For the surveillance of nuclear facilities with respect to detached or loose parts within the pressure boundary structure-borne sound detector systems are used. The impact of loose parts on the wall causes energy transfer to the wall that is measured a so called singular sound event. The run-time differences of sound signals allow a rough locating of the loose part. The authors performed a finite element based simulation of structure-borne sound measurements using real geometries. New knowledge on sound wave propagation, signal analysis and processing, neuronal networks or hidden Markov models were considered. Using the wavelet transformation it is possible to improve the localization of structure-borne sound events.

  15. Estimativa por DSC das entalpias de sublimação da etilenouréia e da propilenouréia: algumas correlações empíricas envolvendo amidas e tioamidas Estimative by DSC data of the sublimation enthalpies for ethyleneurea and propyleneurea: some empirical correlations with amides and tioamides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Fernandes de Farias

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available By using DSC data, the enthaplies of sublimation for ethyleneurea and propyleneurea, are calculated as 84 and 89 kJ mol-1 respectively. Using the vaporization enthalpy values for dimethylethyleneurea and dimethylprophyleneurea, as obtained from literature, the empirical relation: Dcrg Hmo (1/ Dcrg Hmo (2 = Dlg Hmo (1/ Dlg Hmo(2 = constant, that relate sublimation or vaporization enthalpies of two different substances and of its methylated derivatives, is obtained. Correlations like that are found to another ureas and thioureas.

  16. Optmization of culture media for Bifidobacterium bifidum and Bifidobacterium crudilactis and study of the antimicrobial effect of culture supernatants

    OpenAIRE

    Bondue, Pauline; Delcenserie, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    Complex oligosaccharides from human milk (HMO) contribute to infant health. Bifidobacteriumbifidum mainly found in breast-fed infant microbiota has all the enzymatic machinery for degradation of HMO. On the other hand, whey is rich in complex bovin milk oligosaccharides (BMO) very similar to HMO, including 3’-sialyllactose (3’SL). They are very likely to be metabolised by B. bifidum too, but also by B. crudilactis, a bovine origin strain. Fermentation of HMO or BMO by bifidobacteria can resul...

  17. A novel gene cluster allows preferential utilization of fucosylated milk oligosaccharides in Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum SC596

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Daniel; Ruiz-Moyano, Santiago; Kirmiz, Nina; Davis, Jasmine C.; Totten, Sarah M.; Lemay, Danielle G.; Ugalde, Juan A.; German, J. Bruce; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; Mills, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The infant intestinal microbiota is often colonized by two subspecies of Bifidobacterium longum: subsp. infantis (B. infantis) and subsp. longum (B. longum). Competitive growth of B. infantis in the neonate intestine has been linked to the utilization of human milk oligosaccharides (HMO). However, little is known how B. longum consumes HMO. In this study, infant-borne B. longum strains exhibited varying HMO growth phenotypes. While all strains efficiently utilized lacto-N-tetraose, certain strains additionally metabolized fucosylated HMO. B. longum SC596 grew vigorously on HMO, and glycoprofiling revealed a preference for consumption of fucosylated HMO. Transcriptomes of SC596 during early-stage growth on HMO were more similar to growth on fucosyllactose, transiting later to a pattern similar to growth on neutral HMO. B. longum SC596 contains a novel gene cluster devoted to the utilization of fucosylated HMO, including genes for import of fucosylated molecules, fucose metabolism and two α-fucosidases. This cluster showed a modular induction during early growth on HMO and fucosyllactose. This work clarifies the genomic and physiological variation of infant-borne B. longum to HMO consumption, which resembles B. infantis. The capability to preferentially consume fucosylated HMO suggests a competitive advantage for these unique B. longum strains in the breast-fed infant gut. PMID:27756904

  18. Software Design with HMO Method and its Application in Teaching of Structural Chemistry%HMO软件设计及其在结构化学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘祥; 朱称古

    2011-01-01

    基于Hückel分子轨道理论,应用Visual Basic语言编写了Windows环境下计算软件Hückel 1.0.该软件不仅可以计算全C原子共轭体系,还可以处理含杂原子的共轭体系,体系原子数目可以达到上百个.对若干有机共轭分子和C60的计算表明:其计算结果与文献报道值完全一致,说明程序设计正确,计算结果可靠.对富勒烯分子C24,C26,C28,C32,C44,C60,C70的计算表明:C24,C26,C28:的HOMO-LUMO能级差较小,而G32,C44,C60,C7o的HOMO-LUMO能级差较大,说明前者化学稳定性不如后者,这些都与文献报道一致.该软件可以作为课程中Hückel分子轨道理论教学的辅助计算工具.%Software of Hiickel 1.0 is designed based on Hückel molecular orbital theory using Visual Basic language, which runs under Microsoft Windows environment. The software can calculate the conjugated system with entire carbons as well as the heteroatom-contained system with several hundreds of atoms. It is demonstrated that the design is completely right and the results are quite credible by comparing the calculated results of some organic conjugated molecules and C60 with the reports. In addition, calculations on some fullerenes, such as C24,C26, C28, C32, C44, C60 and C70, show that C20, C24 and C26 possess small energy gaps of HOMO-LUMO compared with those of C32 C44, C60 and C70, which confirms that C32 C44, C60 and C70 hold a more chemical stability than C20,C24 and C26 as is consistent with the reports. The software can be used as an assistant tool in teaching molecular orbital theory of structural chemistry.

  19. Research trends in radiobiology since 40 years. a new approach: the enzymatic repair function of DNA, internal factor in evolution of biological systems under irradiation; Etude des tendances des recherches en radiologie depuis 40 ans. Une nouvelle voie de recherche: la fonction de reparation enzymatique de l'ADN, facteur interne d'evolution des systemes biologiques sous rayonnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouton, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    In the first part of the report, the author attempts to draw an historical scheme of successive research working hypotheses in radiobiology since 1924. Less than a generation ago the effect of radiation exposure were viewed as being direct, immediate, irreparable and unmodifiable. Now it is generally accepted that radiation lesion can also be indirect, delayed, reparable and often modified with appropriate chemical or biochemical treatment. It was however in 1962-1964 that came the decisive breakthrough in radiobiology with the discovery that the cell possesses a natural active self-defense mechanism against whatever stress would affect the integrity of the genetic message contained in the DNA structure itself. The existence of what could be considered as a fourth DNA function i.e. self-repair by enzymatic action under genetic control-brings at least to radiobiology the missing molecular biology basis it needed to get out of its 'phenomenological night' after abandon of the generalization of Lea's theory through lack of experimental evidence. In the second part, which is a prospective one, the author tries to set an enlarged synthesis considering the possible role of DNA repair system not only in cell survival - in presence or absence of dose modifiers or mutagens - but also in the artificial and natural evolution of biological system exposed to sub-lethal doses of radiation. Most recent data from the literature fit well with what must be still considered as a general working hypothesis. Studies dealing with phenotypic and genotypic characters linked with the acquisition of gamma and UV radiation resistance in 'Escherichia coli K12' has been started by the author, in collaboration with O. Tremeau, in order to bring a new experimental contribution in this respect. (author) [French] Dans la premiere partie, l'auteur tente de retracer l'historique des hypotheses successives qui ont jalonne les avances de la radiobiologie depuis 1924. Il y a moins d'une generation, l'on croyait encore que les effets des rayonnements sur les systemes vivants etaient des effets directs, immediats, irreparables et definitifs. Depuis lors, on s'est rendu compte que les radiolesions pouvaient resulter d'effets indirects, etre tardives, reparables, et le plus souvent modifiables par des traitements chimiques ou biochimiques ad hoc. Cependant, la percee decisive en radiobiologie se situe entre 1962 et 1964, avec la decouverte que la cellule possede un mecanisme de defense active vis-a-vis de tout ce qui peut porter atteinte a l'integrite du patrimoine genetique inscrit dans la structure meme de l'ADN. L'existence d'une quatrieme fonction de l'ADN, celle d'auto-reparation, par voie enzymatique sous controle genetique, apporte enfin a la radiobiologie la base biologique moleculaire qui lui manquait pour sortir de la nuit 'phenomenologique' ou elle s'etait enfoncee apres l'abandon de la generalisation de la theorie de Lea, faute de preuve experimentale. Dans la seconde partie, cette fois prospective, de l'etude l'auteur tente une synthese elargie en considerant le role que peut jouer cette fonction de reparation de l'ADN non seulement du point de vue de la survie des systemes biologiques irradies en presence ou non d'agents modificateurs de dose ou mutagenes, mais aussi de celui de l'evolution naturelle ou artificielle de ces systemes sous rayonnement. Les donnees les plus recentes de la litterature sont en accord avec ce qui ne constitue encore qu'une hypothese generale de recherche. Des travaux portant sur les caracteres phenotypiques et genotypiques lies a l'acquisition de radioresistance gamma et UV, chez 'Escherichia coli K12', ont ete entrepris par l'auteur, en collaboration avec O. Tremeau en vue d'apporter une contribution experimentale nouvelle a cet egard. (auteur)

  20. Incidence of radiodermatitis following interventional radiology: results of a feasibility study among members of the French Dermatology Society; Incidence des radiodermites secondaires a un geste de radiologie interventionnelle resultats d'une etude de faisabilite aupres des dermatologues francais adherents de la Societe Francaise de Dermatologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirard, Ph.; Sinno- Tellier, S.; Roudier, C.; Donadieu, J. [InVS - 12 rue du Val d ' Osnes - 94415 Saint-Maurice Cedex (France)

    2009-07-01

    Radiodermatitis is a radio-induced and dose-dependent cutaneous lesion which appears after an accidental exposure to ionizing radiations, or an error in dose optimization. In order to have a quantitative knowledge of the cases of secondary radiodermatitis diagnosed by dermatologists, a survey has been performed among the members of a French dermatologist professional association. A questionnaire was sent to the 1450 members and 218 of them answered. Ten cases of radiodermatitis have been reported. The author discusses the implications of these results in terms of dose optimization

  1. Medicine and ionizing rays: a help sheet in analysing risks in intra-oral dental radiology and applicable texts; Medecine et rayonnements ionisants: fiche d'aide a l'analyse des risques en radiologie dentaire endobuccale et textes applicables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauron, C. [Institut National de Recherche et de Securite, INRS, Dept. Etudes et Assistance Medicales, 75 - Paris (France)

    2009-07-01

    This document proposes a synthesis of useful knowledge for radioprotection in the case of intra-oral dental radiology. In the first part, several aspects are considered: the concerned personnel, the course of treatment procedures, the hazards, the identification of the risk associated with ionizing radiation, the risk assessment and the determination of exposure levels, the strategy to control the risks (reduction of risks, technical measures concerning the installation or the personnel, teaching and information, prevention and medical monitoring), and risk control assessment. A second part indicates the various applicable legal and regulatory texts (European directives, institutions in charge of radioprotection, general arrangements applicable to workers and patients, and regulatory texts concerning worker protection or patient protection against ionizing radiations)

  2. Radiation exposure of children in pediatric radiology, Pt. 8. Radiation doses during thoracoabdominal babygram and abdominal X-ray examination of the newborn and young infants; Zur Strahlenexposition von Kindern in der paediatrischen Radiologie. T. 8. Strahlendosen beim thorakoabdominalen babygramm und bei der abdomenaufnahme neugeborener und saeuglinge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Karl; Seidenbusch, M.C. [Abt. Radiologie, Dr. von Haunersches Kinderspital, Klinikum der Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    Purpose: Reconstruction of radiation doses for the thoracoabdominal babygram and the abdomen X-ray from radiographic settings and exposure data acquired at Dr. von Hauner's Kinderspital (children's hospital of the University of Munich, DvHK) between 1976 and 2007; comparison of these dose values with values reported in the literature; recommendation of a reference dose value for the thoracoabdominal babygram. Materials and Methods: The data from all X-ray examinations performed since 1976 at DvHK were stored electronically in a database. After 30 years of data collection, the database now includes 305 107 radiological examinations (radiographs and fluoroscopies), especially 1493 thoracoabdominal babygrams and 3632 abdomen X-rays of newborns and young infants. With the computer program PAeDOS, a specific dose reconstruction algorithm was developed. Results: the entrance dose values of thoracoabdominal babygrams and abdomen X-rays in DvHK could be reduced in the last 30 years by a factor of 5 to 8. They are far below the entrance dose values reported by other radiology departments in Europe. Nevertheless, a slight increase in the entrance doses that correlates with the introduction of a digital storage phosphor system could be observed in the last years. Conclusion: because nearly all radiosensitive body organs in early life are involved during a thoracoabdominal babygram and because of the high radiation sensitivity of newborns, thoracoabdominal babygrams should be performed in neonatology with caution. A dose value of 1.0 cGy cm{sup 2} could serve as the actual reference dose value for the thoracoabdominal babygram of the newborn. (orig.)

  3. Relative frequencies of interventional radiology procedures. Type of procedure, modality, dose, patient's gender and age. Final report; Erfassung der relativen Haeufigkeiten verschiedener Massnahmen in der interventionellen Radiologie. Art der Untersuchung, Modalitaet, Dosis, Geschlecht und Alter der Patienten fuer den stationaeren und ambulanten Bereich. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuser, Lothar; Bode-Schnurbus, Lucas [Bochum Univ. Klinikum (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Interventionelle Radiologie, Neuroradiologie und Nuklearmedizin

    2012-02-15

    The assessment of the relative frequencies of interventional radiology procedures in Germany includes the following chapters: (1) Introduction and scope. (2) Radiological interventions: diagnostics, pain therapy, liver and kidneys, vascular re-opening and extending measures, devascularization, special neuroradiologic therapies. (3) History of AGIR (workgroup vascular diseases and interventional radiology). (4) Software development. (5) Data pool. (6) Categorization of institutes. (7) Statistics: patients data; radiation protection relevant data; CT guided intervention, MR-guided interventions; ultrasound-guided interventions; process quality; retrospective analysis (2000-2003).

  4. Combined use of contrast media containing iodine and gadolinium for imaging and intervention. A hitherto widely ignored topic in radiological practice; Kombinierter zeitnaher Einsatz jod- und gadoliniumhaltiger Kontrastmittel in der diagnostischen und interventionellen Radiologie. Ein bisher vernachlaessigtes Kapitel der radiologischen Praxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golder, W.

    2012-02-15

    The synchronous use of chemically different contrast media in the same body compartment is a challenge for the radiologist, whether it is scheduled or unexpected. However, to inject contrast media containing iodine and gadolinium at the same time can be a prerequisite for the examination of several organs or organ systems. Unlike other topics of contrast-enhanced imaging procedures, the difficulties encountered with double contrast injections have been widely ignored in the literature. In the absence of reliable data from experimental and clinical studies the radiologist is dependent on case reports, information provided by the contrast media manufacturers, personal communications, mostly scanty personal experiences and a skilful time management, in order to overcome the situation. Only the combination of X-ray, computed tomography and magnetic resonance arthrography can be performed without another thought. However, the more or less synchronous vascular application of contrast media containing iodine and gadolinium requires vigilance. The more seriously ill the patient is, the more caution is advised even if the decision on the combined administration has to be reached urgently. The following overview gives a description of the properties of contrast media containing iodine and gadolinium as far as interactions following simultaneous administration are concerned. Subsequently, the clinically relevant situations and constellations are outlined and analyzed. (orig.) [German] Die kombinierte Gabe zweier chemisch verschiedener Kontrastmittel stellt fuer den Radiologen eine Herausforderung dar. Der mehr oder weniger zeitgleiche Einsatz jod- und gadoliniumhaltiger Kontrastmittel kann sowohl geplant sein als auch bei der Untersuchung einer Reihe von Organen/Organsystemen unvorhergesehen notwendig werden. Im Gegensatz zu anderen Themen der kontrastverstaerkten Diagnostik ist dem Problem der Doppelinjektion in der Literatur bisher wenig Aufmerksamkeit geschenkt worden. Mangels verlaesslicher Daten aus experimentellen und klinischen Studien ist der Radiologe auf Falldarstellungen, Informationen der Hersteller, persoenliche Mitteilungen, die meist spaerlichen eigenen Erfahrungen und ein geschicktes Zeitmanagement angewiesen, um die Situation zu meistern. Nur die kombinierte direkte Roentgen-/CT-/MR-Arthrographie kann ohne Bedenken durchgefuehrt werden. Die zeitnahe intravaskulaere Injektion jod- und gadoliniumhaltiger Kontrastmittel verlangt dagegen besondere Aufmerksamkeit. Je schwerer die Erkrankung des Patienten, desto vorsichtiger wird man handeln, desto dringlicher kann allerdings auch die Entscheidung fuer oder gegen die kombinierte Kontrastmittelgabe sein. Die folgende Uebersicht beschreibt die Eigenschaften der jod- und gadoliniumhaltigen Kontrastmittel, soweit sie fuer Interaktionen bei simultaner bzw. unmittelbar sukzessiver Gabe von Bedeutung sind. Anschliessend werden die fuer die Praxis bedeutsamen klinischen Situationen und Konstellationen dargestellt und analysiert sowie Entscheidungshilfen gegeben. (orig.)

  5. Design of a realistic radiation field for the calibration of dosimeters used in interventional radiology cardiology (medical personnel dosimetry); Conception d'un champ de rayonnements realiste pour l'etalonnage des dosimetres utilises en radiologie cardiologie interventionnelle (dosimetrie du personnel medical)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordy, J.M.; Daures, J.; Denoziere, M.; Gouriou, J. [CEA Saclay, LIST, Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Itie, Ch.; Donadile, L. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), 92263 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Struelens, L. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN) (Belgium); Schultz, F. [Delft University of Technology, Applied Physics-RRR-RIH, Pays Bas (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    The authors present the principle to determine the reference value in terms of individual dose equivalent for a calibration installation specifically designed to emulate a radiation field faced at a workstation during interventional cardiology or radiology. They present the workstation configuration which includes the patient and the surgeon. They report the study of the calibration installation where the patient and surgeon are replaced by 'phantoms', and indicate the various fluence spectra obtained at different locations corresponding to different parts of the human body. They compare the simulated and measured spectra

  6. The German Radiological Society and the protagonists of radiology during the time of National Socialism. State of research, explanation attempts, desiderata and research prospects; Die Deutsche Roentgengesellschaft und die Protagonisten der Radiologie in der Zeit des Nationalsozialismus. Forschungsstand, Erklaerungsansaetze, Desiderate und Perspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, M.; Winzen, T.; Gross, D. [RWTH Aachen University Medical School, Aachen (Germany). Inst. of the History, Theory and Ethics of Medicine

    2015-06-15

    The intention of the authors is the recognition and critical analysis of efforts to study the history of the German Radiological Society during the time of National Socialism from 1933 to 1945 with the goal of determining existing desiderata and identifying the resulting research prospects. There is a need to study concrete individual biographies of radiologists (members of the German Radiological Society, perpetrators, and victims) and their careers before and after 1945 as well as the importance of the interdisciplinarity of the discipline and the lack of institutional involvement during the ''Third Reich''. Moreover, the comparatively difficult starting situation of the study of the history of the German Radiological Society is discussed.

  7. Extraversion und Affekt im Rahmen der revidierten Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Zena, Khuzama

    2011-01-01

    In dieser Arbeit wurde die Motivation und die Lernleistung der Individuen in einer Kategorisierungsaufgabe unter Belohnungs- und Bestrafungsbedingungen im Rahmen der revidierten Reinforcement Sensitivity-Theorie (RST) untersucht. Nach RST sollen die emotional motivationalen Systeme BAS unter Belohnung und BIS unter Bestrafung aktiviert werden. Das BIS soll mit der Persönlichkeitseigenschaft Ängstlichkeit, das BAS mit der ...

  8. Intraoperative intermittent blocking of the common iliac arteries in cases of placenta percreta without the use of fluoroscopy; Intraoperative intermittierende Blockung der Arteriae iliacae communes bei Placenta percreta unter Vermeidung von Roentgenstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinze, S. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Forensic Medicine; Klinikum Oldenburg (Germany). Inst. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Filsinger, B. [St. Marienkrankenhaus, Ludwigshafen (Germany). Maternity Clinic; Kastenholz, G.; Schroeder, R.J. [St. Marienkrankenhaus, Ludwigshafen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology

    2016-12-15

    The number of patients with placenta accreta, percreta and increta is increasing. The morbidity and mortality are higher mostly due to hemorrhage. Therefore, new methods to reduce the risk of severe bleeding are necessary. Three patients were treated in collaboration by obstetricians, urologists, anesthesiologists, and radiologists. An MRI of the pelvis was performed and the diameters and lengths of the iliac arteries were measured to avoid fluoroscopy during the preoperative placement of catheter balloons into the iliac arteries. During the operational procedure the balloons were inflated and deflated depending on the operative site and the occurrence of bleeding. In comparison to the literature, severe bleeding was clearly reduced. No complications of the intervention were observed. The presented method to reduce severe bleeding might represent significant progress in the management of abnormal placenta implantation. Nevertheless, further controlled studies are needed in order to establish evidence-based recommendations.

  9. Numerical investigations of instationary heating processes at motor bearings by means of differently coupled methods of calculation; Numerische Untersuchungen instationaerer Aufheizvorgaenge an einem Motorlager unter Verwendung verschiedener gekoppelter Berechnungsmethoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Disch, Mario; Wittmeier, Felix; Widdecke, Nils; Wiedemann, Jochen [Forschungsinstitut fuer Fahrzeugmotoren und Kraftfahrwesen (FKFS), Stuttgart (Germany); Reister, Heinrich; Weidmann, Ernst-Peter [Daimler AG, Sindelfingen (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    In the vehicle development process at Daimler, thermal protection is an important task that has to be fulfilled. In the early stages of car development numerical analysis techniques are used to ensure that all critical components stay well below given temperature limits. Especially engine mounts are in the focus of investigation due to the geometrical design and the arrangement next to hot exhaust components. For a better understanding of the complex heat transfer mechanisms taking place in this part and as a first step into transient full Vehicle Thermal Management (VTM) computation, two different transient computational analyses are performed and described in this paper. The first one is the Conjugate Heat Transfer method (CHT) in which convection, conduction and radiation phenomena are solved simultaneously. The second one is a COSIM-method in which fluid and solid structures are splitted into two different simulations and brought to interaction by exchanging data at predetermined points. The major problem in transient computation is that thermal time scales on solid and fluid structures vary over a wide range. Using CHT a fine temporal discretization is needed for fluid and solid computation causing an enormous computational effort. In the COSIM-method solid structures are computed unsteady while the corresponding fluid is treated as steady and recalculated after each exchange. Corresponding measurements at an engine mount test rig show that both transient coupling schemes fit well to unsteady experimental results. In conclusion it can be said that the COSIM-method is an effective alternative to CHT computations for transient thermal applications. Computational and modeling effort can be reduced considerably especially for larger time scales which are relevant for full VTM computations. (orig.)

  10. Balance of groundwaterstreams below dumps with the application of environmental isotopes within hydrogeological examinations. Final report; Bilanzierung von Grundwasserstroemen unter Deponien mit Hilfe von umweltisotopen-hydrologischen Analysen im Rahmen hydrogeologischer Untersuchungen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geyh, M.A.; Ays, G.

    1995-08-15

    The aim of the work was to test current environmental isotope techniques for their suitability in the risk assessment of abandoned sites and landfills in operation. Analyses of the environmental isotopes {sup 18}O, {sup 2}H, {sup 13}C and {sup 3}H were made in order to follow up the pollutant plumes and, where possible, forecast their development regarding space and time. Hydrochemical results served as references.- The working hypothesis of the project was as follows: leachates from landfills may have a labelling that differs from the natural isotope composition and is characterized by the content of the landfill and isotope fractionations occurring during its degradation. The isotope values of the groundwater upstream and downstream of landfills were measured at different seasons in order to record natural and anthropogenous changes of isotope compositions in the area of the landfill. It was expected that the mobility of the chemical contaminants would be impaired by physical, chemical and biological retardation as compared with that of the isotope-labelled water molecules.- By means of the oxygen and carbon isotope composition of leachate, areas downstream of sanitary landfills that are influenced by them in different degrees can be delimited from each other. Carbon isotope composition can be used to follow up the phases of the chemical degradation of organic constituents. In hazardous waste landfills, there occur special isotope effects that are to be explained by the different composition of the material. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel war es, die ueblichen Umweltisotopen-Techniken auf ihre Eignung bei der Risikobewertung von Altlasten und Deponien zu ueberpruefen. Dazu wurden Analysen der Umweltisotope {sup 18}O, {sup 2}H, {sup 13}C und {sup 3}H eingesetzt, um Schadstoffahnen zu verfolgen und ggfs. deren raeumliche und zeitliche Entwicklung vorherzusagen. Als Referenz dienten hydrochemische Ergebnisse. Die Arbeitshypothese des Forschungsvorhabens war, dass Deponiesickerwaesser eine von der natuerlichen Isotopenzusammensetzung abweichende Markierung haben koennten, die vom Deponieinhalt und Isotopen-Fraktionierungen bei dessen Abbau gepraegt ist. Die Isotopenwerte des Grundwassers ober- oder unterstrom der Deponien wurden zu verschiedenen Jahreszeiten gemessen, um natuerliche und anthropogene Veraenderungen der Isotopenzusammensetzungen im Deponiebereich zu erfassen. Es wurde erwartet, dass die Mobilitaet der chemischen Kontaminanten durch physikalische, chemische und biologische Retardation gegenueber der der isotopisch markierten Wassermolekuele eingeschraenkt sei. Im Abstrom von Hausmuelldeponien koennen mit Hilfe der Sauerstoff- und Kohlenstoff-Isotopenzusammensetzung im Sickerwasser unterschiedlich stark von der Deponie beeinflusste Bereiche voneinander abgegrenzt werden. Die Kohlenstoff-Isotopenzusammensetzung kann zur Verfolgung der Phasen des chemischen Abbaus organischer Inhaltsstoffe eingesetzt werden. In Sonderabfalldeponien treten spezielle Isotopen-Effekte auf, die mit der andersartigen Zusammensetzung der Inhaltsstoffe zu erklaeren sind. (orig.)

  11. Background studies for the measurement of the strangeness vector form factor of the proton by parity-violating electron scattering under backward angles; Untergrundstudien zur Messung der Strangeness-Vektorfaktoren des Protons durch paritaetsverletzende Elektronenstreuung unter Rueckwaertswinkeln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capozza, Luigi

    2010-08-19

    Within the A4 experiment the contributions of the strange quark to the electromagnetic form factors of the proton are measured. These see-quark effects in low energy observables are very important for the understanding of hadron structure, because they are a direct manifestation of QCD degrees of freedom in the non-perturbative regime. Linear combinations of the strangeness vector form factors of the proton (G{sub E}{sup s} and G{sub M}{sup s}) are accessible experimentally by measuring the parity violating asymmetry in the cross section of the elastic scattering of longitudinal polarised electrons off unpolarised nucleons. Two such measurements were published by the A4 collaboration before this work. Both of them were forward angle measurements at the Q{sup 2} values of 0.23 and 0.10 (GeV/c){sup 2}, respectively. A measurement at backward angle with a beam energy of 315 MeV was performed for separating G{sub E}{sup s} and G{sub M}{sup s} at the higher of these Q{sup 2} values. In the A4 experiment a longitudinally polarised electron beam scatters on a liquid hydrogen target. Single scattered electrons are counted with a Cherenkov calorimeter. The separation of elastic from inelastic events is achieved by means of calorimetric energy measurement. For the backward angle measurement a plastic scintillator was installed as electron tagger for suppressing the {gamma} background coming from the decay of {pi}{sup 0} mesons. In order to make the data analysis possible the energy spectra needed to be studied thoroughly. This was done in this work using detailed simulations of both the scattering processes suffered by beam electrons and of the response of the detectors. A method for handling the remaining background due to {gamma} conversion before the scintillator has been also developed. The simulation results agree with the measured spectra at the 5% level and the strategy for handling the background was shown to be feasible. The asymmetry value obtained by handling the background as proposed in this work was combined with the previous A4 forward angle measurement at the same Q{sup 2} for separating G{sub E}{sup s} and G{sub M}{sup s} at Q{sup 2}=0.22{proportional_to}(GeV/c){sup 2}. The results are G{sub M}{sup s}= -0.14 {+-} 0.11{sub exp} {+-} 0.11{sub theo} and G{sub E}{sup s}= 0.050 {+-} 0.038{sub exp} {+-} 0.019{sub theo}, where the systematic uncertainty due to the background correction is contained in the experimental error. Conclusions about the influence of strangeness on the static electromagnetic properties of the proton are drawn from these results and are presented at the end of the work. (orig.)

  12. „Gene-Editing“-Verfahrenbr Stellungnahme der DVR-Mitglieder AAD, ADI, AGRBM, DGA, DGGEF, D.I.R, SRBM und SEF unter Federführung der DGRM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schorle H

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird das Verfahren des „Gene-Editing“ kurz erläutert und die Chancen und Risiken einer Anwendung an der menschlichen Keimbahn betrachtet. Weiterhin werden die Auswirkungen auf die Gesellschaft beleuchtet sowie die derzeit laufenden Diskussionen auf wissenschaftlicher als auch auf sozio-politischer Ebene aufgezeigt. Die Bildung einer Arbeitsgruppe, die sich dauerhaft mit diesem Thema befasst, erscheint angebracht.

  13. Interpretation of ozone vertical profiles and their variations in the Northern hemisphere on the basis of GOME satellite data. Final report; Interpretation von Ozon-Vertikalprofilen und deren Variationen in der noerdlichen Hemisphaere unter Benutzung von GOME Satellitendaten. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichmann, K.U.; Bramstedt, K.; Weber, M.; Rozanov, V.; Debeek, R.; Hoogen, R.; Burrows, J.P.

    2000-07-04

    Semiglobal ozone vertical profiles based on GOME measurements were established and evaluated systematically. GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment), carried by the ERS-2 satellite, is the first European passive optical sensor for long-term monitoring of ozone, other trace elements, and aerosols. Especially the vertical distribution of ozone in the Arctic region was measured and interpreted with a view to enhanced ozone degradation in the Arctic winter and spring seasons. Apart from the regional variations, also the time variations of the profiles are to provide further information on the dynamics and chemical processes in the polar vortex. The retrieval algorithm used for assessing the ozone vertical profiles, FURM (FUll Retrieval Method), is based on the GOMETRAN radiation transport model developed at Bremen university especially for evaluation of the GOME data. The GOME ozone profiles were validated with ozone probes and other satellite experiments. [German] Ziel des Projektes war eine systematische Bestimmung und Auswertung von semiglobalen Ozonvertikalprofilen aus den Messdaten von GOME. Das auf dem Satelliten ERS-2 fliegende Spektrometer GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment) ist der erste europaeische, passive, optische Sensor, der fuer Langzeitmessungen von Ozon, anderen Spurenstoffen und Aerosolen konzipiert wurde. Im Projekt wurde insbesondere die vertikale Verteilung von Ozon in der Arktis bestimmt und interpretiert hinsichtlich des verstaerkten Ozonabbaus im arktischen Winter und Fruehjahr. Neben der raeumlichen Variation sollen auch die zeitlichen Ablaeufe und Veraenderungen der Profile weitere Erkenntnise hinsichtlich der Dynamik und der chemischen Prozesse im Polarwirbel liefern. Der Retrievalalgorithmus zur Bestimmung des Ozonhoehenprofils, FURM (Full Retrieval Method) genannt, basiert auf dem Strahlungstransportmodell GOMETRAN, das an der Universitaet Bremen speziell fuer die Auswertung der Daten des GOME Instrumentes entwickelt wurde. Innerhalb dieser Studie sind die GOME Ozonprofile mit Ozonsonden und anderen Satellitenexperimenten validiert worden. (orig.)

  14. Low-emission combustion and using weak gases as a source of energy - Final report; Emissionsarme Verbrennung und energetische Nutzung von Schwachgasen bis unter 2.5 MJ/m{sup 3} - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, M.

    2009-05-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on research work done on the use of weak gas such as that generated in landfill sites as a source of energy. Such gases are quoted as having only 8 per cent of the calorific value of natural gas. A project is described which is to develop a bivalent burner which can use the weak gas to help provide heating for a fermenter that can produce biogas from organic wastes. The aims of the project are discussed and figures are presented on the results obtained in laboratory tests. Field tests are stated to have shown that the new burner produces better results as far as residual methane and carbon monoxide in the exhaust fumes are concerned.

  15. Bestimmung von Immunglobulin G und M im Serum neugeborener Kälber während der ersten zehn Lebenstage unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Fütterungsregimes

    OpenAIRE

    Lack, Pamela

    2006-01-01

    Die Überprüfung des Einflusses unterschiedlicher Fütterungsregime auf die Entwicklung der Immunglobulinspiegel beim bovinen Neonaten war bereits Gegenstand zahlreicher wissenschaftlicher Untersuchungen. Bislang fehlte allerdings eine vergleichende Untersuchung, welche auf Basis identischer Haltungsbedingungen alle in praxi durchführbaren Fütterungsregime in Hinblick auf die optimale Immunglobulinversorgung des neugeborenen Kalbes zum Gegenstand hatte. Ziel dieser Arbeit war daher die g...

  16. Visualization of pulmonary vein stenosis after radio frequency ablation for treatment of atrial fibrillation using multidetector computed tomography with retrospective gating; Darstellung von Pulmonalvenenstenosen nach Radiofrequenzablation zur Behandlung von Vorhofflimmern unter Verwendung der Multidetektor Computertomographie mit retrospektivem Gating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trabold, T.; Kuettner, A.; Heuschmid, M.; Kopp, A.F.; Claussen, C.D. [Radiologische Klinik, Abt. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Univ. Tuebingen (Germany); Burgstahler, C.; Mewis, C.; Schroeder, S.; Kuehlkamp, V. [Medizinische Klinik III, Abt. fuer Kardiologie, Univ. Tuebingen (Germany)

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: With the number of radio frequency ablations (RFA) for treatment of chronic atrial fibrillation increasing, the diagnostic evaluation for RFA associated pulmonary vein stenosis is getting more important. This study investigates the feasibility of the visualization of pulmonary vein stenosis using non-invasive multidetector computed tomography. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight patients were examined following RFA-treatment. A 4-slice (20 patients) and a 16-slice (8 patients) multidetector CT scanner (SOMATOM Volume Zoom and Sensation 16, Siemens, Forchheim, Germany) with retrospective gating was used to assess the pulmonary veins. Lesion severity was determined on a semi-quantitative scale (< 30%, 30 - 50%, > 50%). Results: CT was performed without any complications in all patients. Diagnostic image quality could be obtained in all examinations. The pulmonary veins showed lesions < 30% in four patients, lesions of 30 - 50% in five patients and a stenosis > 50% in one patient. Eighteen patients showed no lesions. Conclusion: Multidetector CT of the pulmonary veins seems to be able to visualize high-grade and low-grade lesions, but larger catheter-controlled studies are needed for further assessment of the diagnostic accuracy and clinical reliability of this noninvasive method. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Mit steigender Anzahl von Radiofrequenzablationen (RFA) zur Behandlung des chronischen Vorhofflimmerns wird die Diagnostik von RFA assoziierten Pulmonalvenenstenosen zunehmend wichtiger. Ziel dieser Studie war es, die Moeglichkeit der Darstellung von Pulmonalvenenstenosen mittels der nichtinvasiven Multidetektor-Computertomographie zu untersuchen. Material und Methoden: 28 Patienten wurden im Anschluss an eine RFA-Behandlung untersucht. Die Untersuchung wurde an einem 4-Zeilen- (20 Patienten) bzw. 16-Zeilen- (8 Patienten) Multidetektor-CT (SOMATOM Volume Zoom bzw. Sensation 16, Siemens, Forchheim, Germany) mit retrospektivem Gating durchgefuehrt. Der Schweregrad der Laesion wurde mittels einer semiquantitativen Skala eingeordnet (< 30%, 30 - 50%, > 50%). Ergebnisse: Die Multidetektor-CT konnte bei allen Patienten komplikationslos durchgefuehrt werden. Diagnostische Bildqualitaet wurde in allen Untersuchungen erzielt. 4 Patienten zeigten Laesionen der Pulmonalvenen < 30%, 5 Patienten Laesionen 30 - 50% und 1 Patient zeigte eine hoehergradige Stenose > 50%. Die uebrigen 18 Patienten zeigten keine Laesionen. Schlussfolgerungen: Mit der Multidetektor-CT der Pulmonalvenen scheint es moeglich zu sein, neben hoehergradigen Laesionen auch geringgradige Laesionen zu visualisieren. Groessere prospektive, katheterkorrelierte Studien sollten durchgefuehrt werden, um die diagnostische Genauigkeit und den klinischen Stellenwert dieser nichtinvasiven Methode zu evaluieren. (orig.)

  17. Cell proliferation in lichen planus of the buccal mucosa with special regard to a therapy with an aromatic retinoid (RO 10-9359). Proliferationsverhalten des oralen lichen planus unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung einer Therapie mit aromatischem Retinoid (RO 10-9359)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, G.

    1982-01-01

    The proliferative activity of buccal mucosa epithelium in 16 patients suffering from oral lichen planus was studied by using (/sup 3/H)-thymidine labelling technique in vitro and histometric methods. Autoradiographic sections of two groups of lesions (12 with atrophic and 4 with acanthotic epithelium) were compared with the buccal mucosa of 19 healthy controls investigated in the same way. Determinations comprised separate and combined labelling indices of the basal and suprabasal progenitor compartment (LIsub(bas), LIsub(sbas), LIsub(total)) in relation to basal cells as well as to surface of the epithelium. The following results were obtained. The values of LIsub(total) per 100 basal cells were increased in both groups of lesions, whereby the relation of LIsub(bas):LIsub(sbas) shifted markedly to LIsub(bas), in particular in the atrophic lesions. When relating the total of labelled nuclei to surface length, however, an increase could be confirmed only in acanthotic lesions, whereas most atrophic lesions showed a decrease. This indicates an impaired capacity of the atrophic epithelium to maintain regenerative steady state. This imbalance could also be confirmed by counting the total of basal cells per surface length, which were significantly lowered in atrophic lesions as compared with acanthotic ones as well as normal mucosa. From the results it can be concluded that the renewal activity of the epithelium in atrophic lesions of lichen planus mucosae becomes virtually deficient, though determination of LIsub(total) referred to basal cells simulates a slight increase. Thus, for detecting intrinsic imbalances in the proliferative equilibrium of squamous epithelium, correlation of progenitor compartment labelling to external surface as the site of continuous cell loss is required.

  18. Zytokin und Adhäsionsmolekülveränderungen im Serum bei an Multiple Sklerose erkrankten Patienten (RRMS und SPMS) ohne und unter Therapie mit Interferon-beta 1a und 1b

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Die Multiple Sklerose ist eine demyelinisierende Entmarkungskrankheit des zentralen Nervensystems unklarer Ursache, bei der es zu neurologischen Ausfällen der Sensibilität, der Motorik, des Zerebrums und der Sehfunktion kommen kann. Der häufigste Verlauf ist die schubförmig remittierende Multiple Sklerose, die nach ein paar Jahren meist in die sekundär chronische Verlaufsform übergeht. Während Kortikosteroide der schnellen Rückbildung der Symptome im akuten Schub dienen, kann die nachweislich...

  19. Planning, simulation and real time representation of processes in the coal mining industry with the use of 'Virtual Reality'; Planung, Simulation und Echtzeitdarstellung von Prozessen im Steinkohlenbergbau unter Einsatz von 'Virtueller Realitaet'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossmann, M. [Abteilung Technisches Innovationsmanagement (TI), Deutsche Steinkohle AG, Herne (Germany); Badia, W. [Abteilung KC Informationstechnologie bei der Deutschen Steinkohle AG, Herne (Germany)

    2002-12-05

    In the course of a research and development project a virtual reality system, which accompanies the process in the coal mining industry from the planning phase via the training phase to 3D real time visualisation, was developed. VR is a systematic driving force of expedited development processes in particular, in planning and production processes. The use of VR permits consideration of a mine as well as faces at all process and planning levels as a digital factory. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen eines Forschungs- und Entwicklungsvorhabens wurde ein Virtual-Reality-System entwickelt, welches die Prozesse im Steinkohlenbergbau von der Planungsphase ueber die Trainings- und Schulungsphase bis hin zur 3-D-Echtzeitvisualisierung begleitet. Besonders beim Planungs- und Produktentstehungsprozess zeichnet sich VR als gezielter Treiber beschleunigter Entwicklungsprozesse aus. Der Einsatz von VR gestattet die Betrachtung eines Bergwerks sowie Betriebspunkte in allen Prozess- und Planungsebenen als digitale Fabrik. (orig.)

  20. 100 km under ground. Longest well-known aqueduct tunnel of the antique in Jordan and Syria; 100 km unter Tage. Laengster bisher bekannter Aquaedukttunnel der Antike in Jordanien und Syrien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doering, Mathias [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). IWTG

    2010-05-15

    Since 2004, the author of the contribution under consideration investigates an ancient tunnel system with unknown extents in the border area between Jordan and Syria. It is a part of a nearly 170 km long Roman aqueduct which supplies three cities with water. The nearly 106 km long, partly plastered tunneling system was built from approximately 2,900 building pits with stairs in open ends tunneling. Not only mallet and iron, but also half-mechanical propulsion equipment were used due to regular cut traces. The aqueduct might be one the most extensive aqueducts in the Roman antiquity. The tunnel might be the longest well-known tunnel from the antiquity.

  1. Induction of an altered metabolite profile in streptomyces avermitilis in coculture with pseudomonas fluorescens; Induktion von veraenderten Metabolitenprofilen in Streptomyceten durch Umweltfaktoren. Kokultivierung von Streptomyces avermitilis und Pseudomonas fluorescens und von Streptomyces coelicolor unter Schwermetallionenstress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrend, Anne

    2010-10-04

    The cultivation with non kind microorganisms induces the production of antibacterial secondary metabolites in microbes. In S. avermitilis such reaction could be monitored by analyzing the frequently observed guttation droplets, which might serve as reservoir for secondary metabolites in streptomycetes and fungi. Analyses showed that S. avermitilis formed guttation droplets mainly contained sucrose. S. avermitilis produced the sucrose from the nutrients of the medium. As reaction coculture with P. fluorescens the reduction of available sucrose amount was detected. This suggests that the sucrose could serve as energy storage, which is mobilized under the competitive pressure in the mixed culture. As well as non kind microorganisms have certain metal ions a stimulating effect on the secondary metabolism of streptomycetes. Therefore, the effects of cobalt ion stress Streptomyces coelicolor were characterized systematically. Relatively high concentration of cobalt ion in the medium induced the differentiation of a red and a blue colored phenotype of S. coelicolor. GC-MS analysis indicates that the two pigmented phenotypes produce a volatile profile different from the wild type. The volatile emission of S. coelicolor was characterized by the reduction of terpene release under cobalt ion stress. Specifically the red phenotype produced 2-tridecanone and undecylpyrrole, whereas the blue phenotype intensified its isozizaene emission. The formation of undecylprodigiosin as well as butylcycloheptylprodigiosin in the red colonies, and {gamma}-actinorhodin, in the blue colonies was detected. These polyketides considerably contributed to pigmentation of the colored colonies. The gene expression of the colored phenotypes under cobalt ion stress was differentially regulated compared to the wild type. It can be concluded, that the development of an altered metabolite profile in S. coelicolor under cobalt ion stress is based on characteristic patterns in gene expression.

  2. Improvement of efficiency and performance of existing high pressure hydropower plants under consideration of economy and plant safety; Wirkungsgrad- und Leistungssteigerung bestehender Hochdruck-Wasserkraftanlagen unter Beruecksichtigung von Wirtschaftlichkeit und Anlagensicherheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadelmann, Gunnar

    2011-07-01

    Within the scope of a thesis, possible potentials for improving the efficiency or performance of existing hydroelectrical power plants were identified. The investigation was limited to high-pressure systems with predominantly Pelton turbines and Francis turbines as well as in particular to the hydraulic-mechanical part. With regard to the improvement of efficiency / performance increase, the individual potentials can be compared with the financial cost of an implementation ('benefit-cost analysis'). The contribution under consideration reports on a selection of the winning measures.

  3. Untersuchungen zur Beeinflussung der α-Amylase-Aktivität durch Pflanzenextrakte und polyphenolische Reinstoffe unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Einflusses von Cynara cardunculus L. ssp. flavescens Wikl. und seiner Inhaltsstoffe

    OpenAIRE

    Funke, Ines

    2010-01-01

    The creation of a microplate-reader-based kinetic assay led to a rapid screening of plant extracts and pure compounds. Plant extracts were found to be able to inhibit the α-amylase activity. Cynara cardunculus L. ssp. flavescens Wikl., Melissa officinalis L., Pyrus communis L., Vaccinium myrtillus L., Malus domestica Borkh., Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del., Tamarindus indica L. were found to be active in the used in vitro test model. A performed bioguided extraction showed that the active...

  4. Regulation management in the power industry. Results of an empirical analysis with particular consideration of institutional change; Regulierungsmanagement in der Energiewirtschaft. Ergebnisse einer empirischen Analyse unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung des institutionellen Wandels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuchardt, Lukas D.

    2012-11-01

    With the introduction of regulation by incentives in 2009, German grid operators were faced with a new challenge, i.e. economic efficiency instead of technical excellence became the determining factor on which decisions for actions were based. To these new requirements, grid operators reacted by introducing a central regulation management department. The book presents an empirical investigation of the tasks, organisational structure and goals of the new department and analyses the institutional changes in the structure of grid operating utilities.

  5. CO2 storage in deep underground strata. Integrity of deep wells under the influence of CO2; CO{sub 2} Lagerung im Geogrund. Integritaet von Tiefbohrungen unter Einfluss von CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinicke, K.M.; Franz, O. [Technische Univ. Clausthal (Germany). Inst. fuer Erdoel- und Erdgastechnik; Nangue Donfack, R. [Baker Hughes GmbH, Houston, TX (United States); Shinde, S. [Shell (Germany)

    2007-09-13

    Deep underground storage of CO2 is possible in petroleum reservoirs, gas reservoirs, aquifers and coal seams. Two aspects must be considered for safety: First, the technical integrity of the production and injection systems must be ensured during the operating phase of, typically, 10 to 50 years. Secondly, the technical integrity of the boreholes must be ensured for the whole storage period of 100 to 5000 years in order to prevent release of CO2 through the boreholes after sealing. The industry has long years of experience with injection of CO2 gained in CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR), in the production of high-pressure acid gas from natural gas wells, and in the injection of the acid components H2S and CO2 separated during acid gas production. Completion equipment and components of CO2 EOR and acid gas projects were analyzed, and detailed information on potential failure processes and their consequences. There are no major problems in ensuring safe injection and production during the operating phase. In contrast, the proof of technical stability over a period of 1000 years and more is a challenge as the experience so far covers only a few decades. This is the focus of research projects worldwide. The contribution presents the state of the art and shows how safe storage of CO2 may be possible. The results presented are part of the activities carried out in the CSEGR project (Carbon Sequestration with Enhanced Gas REcovery). The partners of Clausthal University are: Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hanover, EEG - Erdgas Erdoel GmbH Berlin, Wintershall AG Kassel, Vattenfall AB, and E.ON Ruhrgas GmbH, Essen. The project receives BMBF funds from the GEOTECHNOLOGIEN programme. (orig.)

  6. Electrical dipole polarizability and spin M1 strength from {sup 48}Ca(p,p') data under 0; Elektrische Dipol-Polarisierbarkeit und Spin-M1-Staerke aus {sup 48}Ca(p,p')-Daten unter 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkhan, Jonny Hubertus

    2016-07-01

    In this thesis, proton scattering data on the nucleus {sup 48}Ca at very forward angles had been analysed. The data stem from a measurement campaign which was launched at the Research Centre of Nuclear Physics at Osaka, Japan, in the past. One of the two objectives of this analysis was to extract a value for the static electric dipole polarisability from the isovector giant dipole resonance (IVGDR). The second objective was to extract the total electromagnetic M1 strength B(M1) of the spin-flip transition which excites the prominent 1{sup +} state at an excitation energy of E{sub x}=10.22 MeV. The polarisability was calculated from the distribution of photo-absorption cross sections within an energy range from E{sub x}=11 MeV to E{sub x}=26 MeV. The photo-absorption cross sections had been deduced from the distribution of E1 cross sections by the method of virtual photons. For this purpose the experimental cross sections had been deconvoluted by a multipole deconvolution into an E1 part and a background part. Then, the best estimate of the polarisability is given by α{sub D}=(1.36±0.14) fm{sup 3}. If a E3 model was included into the multipole decomposition of the (p,p') data the result increased up to α{sub D}=(1.50±0.09) fm{sup 3}. The deviation between these two results is mainly due to the fact that the multipole decomposition is very sensitive on the background function. Assuming that the the IVGDR of the nuclei {sup 48}Ca and {sup 40}Ca have approximately the same structure, estimates for the polarisability of the nucleus {sup 48}Ca could be drawn from {sup 40}Ca(γ,abs) data. Additionally, data from a {sup 48}Ca(e,e'n) measurement were used to estimate the polarisability of the nucleus {sup 48}Ca. Its polarisability seems to fall within the range of α{sub D}=(1.50±0.09) fm{sup 3} and α{sub D}=(1.69±0.03) fm{sup 3}. Beside this, it could be shown by the {sup 40}Ca data that a significant contribution to the polarisability has to be expected only up to an excitation energy of 60 MeV. Taking into account the excitation energy range from E{sub x}=10 MeV to E{sub x}=60 MeV the polarisability of the nucleus {sup 48}Ca was estimated to be α{sub D}=(2.09±0.02) fm{sup 3}. This result deviates significantly from a theoretical prediction of α{sub D}=(2.31±0.09) fm{sup 3} based on the energy density functional theory. The result of this work could further constrain the range of the parameters of the nuclear models and might give new insights on the neutron skin thickness of {sup 48}Ca as far as a theoretical prediction for the correlation between the polarisability and neutron skin thickness is available especially for the energy region investigated in this work. In the nucleus {sup 48}Ca, almost the full experimentally accessible spin-M1 strength is exhausted by a single spin-flip transition. The corresponding state is the prominent 1{sup +}-state at E{sub x}=10.22 MeV. The configuration of the nucleus {sup 48}Ca leads to nearly pure spin-flip transitions of the neutrons. In this case the isoscalar transition matrix element is as large as the isovector one. This means that the nucleus {sup 48}Ca is a reference case whereas the nucleus {sup 208}Pb is another one because its isoscalar and isovector M1 strength is well separated. The extraction of the total electromagnetic M1 strength was based on a method that had been successfully applied to Gamow-Teller transitions in other analyses in the framework of a distorted wave impulse approximation. This method allows to calculate the strength from the measured isovector cross section at θ{sub CM}=0 mainly by a single conversion factor, the so-called ''unit cross section''. The method was used for the analysis of this work assuming that isospin symmetry is given for isobars and that the unit cross section is the same for isovector spin-M1 excitations as well as for the excitations of analogue states. The problem was to extract the isovector part of the experimental cross section. This could be managed by a deconvolution of the cross sections

  7. Diagnostic potential of renal scintigraphy following ACE-inhibition ('captopril scintigraphy') for the detection of renovascular hypertension. Wertigkeit der Nierenszintigraphie unter ACE-Blockade ('Captoprilszintigraphie') in der Diagnostik der renovaskulaeren Hypertonie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, R.P.; Maul, F.D.; Hoer, G. (Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin)

    1991-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to: (a) briefly review the pathophysiological basis of renovascular hypertension and the renin-angiotensin-system; (b) to outline the potential of captopril scintigraphy especially using Tc-99m MAG{sub 3}; and (c) to propose a practical protocol for captopril scintigraphy and its role in screening for renovascular hypertension. (orig./MG).

  8. Zur Geschichte der Geowissenschaften im Museum für Naturkunde zu Berlin Teil 4: Das Mineralogische Museum der Universität Berlin unter Christian Samuel Weiss von 1810 bis 1856

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Hoppe

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Die Universitätsgründung in Berlin von 1810 war verbunden mit der Übernahme des Lehrbetriebes der aufgelösten Bergakademie, die nur noch in Form des Bergeleveninstituts bzw. Bergelevenklasse für die Finanzierung der Ausbildung der Bergeleven weiter bestand, sowie mit der Übernahme des von der Bergakademie genutzten Königlichen Mineralienkabinetts der preußischen Bergverwaltung als Mineralogisches Museum der Universität. Infolge des Todes von D. L. G. Karsten im Jahre 1810 erhielt der Leipziger Physiker und Mineraloge C. S. Weiss den Lehrstuhl für Mineralogie, den er bis zu seinem Tode 1856 innehatte. Weiss entwickelte die Lehre Werners, die die Mineralogie einschließlich Geologie umfasste, in kristallographischer Hinsicht weiter, während sich später neben ihm zwei seiner Schüler anderen Teilgebieten der Mineralogie annahmen, G. Rose der speziellen Mineralogie und E. Beyrich der geologischen Paläontologie. Der Ausbau der Sammlungen durch eigene Aufsammlungen, Schenkungen und Käufe konnte in starkem Maße fortgesetzt werden, auch zunehmend in paläontologischer Hinsicht, sodass das Mineralogische Museum für das ganze Spektrum der Lehre gut bestückt war. Der streitbare Charakter von Weiss verursachte zahlreiche Reibungspunkte. History of the Geoscience Institutes of the Natural History Museum in Berlin. Part 4 The establishment of the University in Berlin in 1810 resulted in the adoption of the teaching of the dissolved Bergakademie and of the royal Mineralienkabinett of the Prussian mining department, which was used by the Bergakademie before it became the Mineralogical Museum of the University. The Bergakademie continued to exist only as Bergeleveninstitut or Bergelevenklasse for financing the education of the mining students. The physicist and mineralogist C. S. Weiss was offered the chair of mineralogy after the death of D. L. G. Karsten 1810; he had the position to his death in 1856. Weiss developped the crystallographic part of the science of Werner which included mineralogy and geology. Two of his pupils progressed two other parts of mineralogy, G. Rose the speciel mineralogy and E. Beyrich the geological paleontology. The enlargement of the collections continued on large scale by own collecting, donations and purchases, also more paleontological objects, so that the Mineralogical Museum presented a good collection of the whole spectrum of the field. The pugnacious nature of Weiss resulted in many points of friction. doi:10.1002/mmng.20010040102

  9. Optimization of maintenance scheduling with genetic algorithms regarding the storage behavior during the availability prognosis of power plants; Optimierung der Instandhaltungsplanung mit genetischen Algorithmen unter Beruecksichtigung des Speicherverhaltens bei der Verfuegbarkeitsprognose von Kraftwerksanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warnecke, Martin

    2008-12-19

    In the age of the liberalized energy market the power plant raisers and operators have to consider several factors when choosing the fuel type and dimensioning their power plants, e.g. emissions, erection cost and last but not least operating cost. Simulations assuming different scenarios are required. The rivaling aspects of erection cost, partially dependant availability, maintenance philosophy and operating cost are motivating the optimization of maintenance scheduling and the availability prognosis which are the topic of this thesis. The focus of this thesis is on the scheduling of the time based maintenance strategy. This strategy defines the time spans between the repeating inspections of each component. This is based on the experience of operators and manufacturers. The mathematic problem itself is especially challenging because of strong interdependencies between the single components due to synergy effects. Each component has its own theoretically optimal lifetime and maintenance period. Yet as part of a compound it might be more cost efficient in the long run to maintain some components together shifting some of them forward or backward. The thereby caused interdependencies constitute a non-linear, mixed-whole-numbered calculation of the cost approximation. For the optimization of this maintenance scheduling a new approach was developed. It was realized that the problem couldn't be solved satisfyingly with classic optimization algorithms. Afterwards a solution based on ''genetic algorithms'' was developed. In the meantime the methods for the availability prognosis of complex power plant facilities were enhanced. Especially a new component with storage behavior (with optional losses) was added to the prognosis tool. This storage model integrates the behavior of a storage into the computing time reduced Monte-Carlo-Method. (orig.)

  10. Service life prediction. Development of models for predicting the service life of power plant components subject to thermomechanical creep fatigue; Lebensdauervorhersage. Entwicklung von Modellen zur Lebensdauervorhersage von Kraftwerksbauteilen unter thermisch-mechanischer Kriechermuedungsbeanspruchung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, L.; Scholz, A. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Institut fuer Werkstoffkunde; Hartrott, P. von; Schlesinger, M. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Werkstoffmechanik (IWM), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Extensive use is made of massive components of heat resistant and highly heat resistant materials in installations of the power and heating industry. These components are exposed to varying thermomechanical stress as a result of ramping-up and down processes. In this research project two computer-assisted methods of predicting service life until crack initiation were extended to include cases of thermomechanical multi-axis stress conducive to creep fatigue and of superposition of high-cycle stress on power plant components. Investigations were limited to rotor steel of type X12CrMoWVNbN10-1-1. Complex thermomechanical multi-axis experiments were performed on round, notched and cruciform test specimens of close-to-life dimensions in order to demonstrate by experiment the validity of these models. The results of these calculations showed an acceptable degree of agreement between experiment and simulation for both models. Calculations on earlier TMF experiments performed at IfW on hollow specimens of 1%CrMoNiV showed good predictability for both the SARA and the ThoMat programme. Calculations on experiments performed at MPA Stuttgart on model bodies consisting of the same 1%CrMoNiV showed a predictability of acceptable variability considering the complexity of the stresses involved. A further outcome of this project is that the use of SARA appears universally suitable for the construction of new plants and in the service area, while the use of ThoMat appears suited for detail optimisation in the development process.

  11. The energy balance of the biomass generation of Chlamydomonas acidophila under acidic and neutral conditions and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii; Die Energiebilanz der Biomasseneubildung von Chlamydomonas acidophila unter sauren und neutralen Bedingungen und von Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langner, Uwe

    2009-01-16

    In this study the influence of pH < 3 as an extreme environment has been investigated for the eukaryotic green alga Chlamydomonas (C.) acidophila. The limited number of trophic levels, consisting of bacteria, phytoplankton, zooplankton and macrophytes, is a special characteristic of extreme acidic water bodies. C. acidophila was isolated from an extreme acidic mining lake (RL 111) (Bissinger et al. 2000). A special feature of the examined algal species is its wide tolerance range of external pH values from 2 to 7 (Cassin 1874, Gerloff-Elias et al. 2005a). C. acidophila is a dominant species in the acidic mining lakes, it can grow up to chlorophyll maxima of 500 {mu}g L{sup -1} during the summer time (Nixdorf et al. 1998, 2003). The alga can be found elsewhere in extreme acidic water bodies around the world. The hydrochemistry of the acidic mining lakes in the central regions of Germany and Lusatia show clear differences compared to neutral water bodies. Some of the characteristics of acidic mining lakes are high metal and heavy metal (aluminum) concentrations, high ion concentrations, which lead to high conductivity, as well as low phosphate concentrations, ammonium as the only nitrogen source and CO{sub 2} as the only inorganic carbon source. Many eukaryotic microalgae in acidic water bodies including C. acidophila show a neutral cytosolic pH. This is provided by special adaptations of the organisms. Thus, organisms in extreme acidic environments have a positive cell surface charge, a very efficient H{sup +}-ATPase and high internal buffer capacities. These mechanisms work contrary to the proton influx and the acidification of the cytosol and are therefore proof for the physiological impact of osmoregulation by microalgae in extreme acidic environments (Sekler et al.1991, Weiss et al. 1999). Hence, these mechanisms also complicate the access to nutrients for the algal cell. The passive influx of positively charged ions such as potassium or ammonium is reduced by the positive cell surface charge and does facilitate the uptake of negative charged ions such as chloride and sulfate. Up to now from the unicellular green alga C. acidophila the pH-dependent growth (Cassin 1974, Gerloff-Elias et al. 2005), nutrient uptake (C, P) (Cuaresma et al. 2006, Nishikawa et al. 2006, Spijkerman 2007, 2008, Balkos and Colman 2007), heavy metal tolerance (Nishikawa et al. 2006, Spijkerman et al. 2007) and the adaptive mechanisms at pH < 3 (Messerli et al. 2005) have been analyzed. The present results expand the knowledge of the adaptation capacity of microalgae in extreme acidic water bodies. Nevertheless, which energetic and metabolic fluxes enable C. acidophila to achieve the growth rates like other Chlamydomonads under neutral conditions remains unclear. (orig.)

  12. Comparison of two navigation systems for CT-guided interventions under special consideration of the ergonomic properties of the used systems; Vergleich zweier Navigationshilfen fuer CT-gesteuerte Interventionen unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der Nutzungseigenschaften der verwendeten Systeme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, T. [Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Jena (Germany); Roettger, S. [Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Bahner-Heyne, E.J.; Kluge, G. [Inst. fuer Psychologie und Arbeitswissenschaft, FG Arbeits-, Ingenieur- und Organisationspsychologie, TU Berlin (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Purpose: investigation of the influence of CT-based navigation systems on the success of an intervention, assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of the utilized systems, and evaluation of the ergonomic system properties. Materials and method: a simple guiding system PatPos Invent trademark and the computer-based navigation system PinPoint trademark were employed on two CT systems. In order to investigate the influence of the navigation aids on the success of the interventions, 96 prospective, randomized, and standardized punctures were performed on a specifically developed, rigid phantom. 16 examiners punctured 6 targets with 3 degrees of difficulty with the navigation aids. Results: irrespective of the experience of the examiner, both navigation systems guided the target with an equal degree of certainty. PinPoint significantly reduced the length of the examination time (12 - 25 min) as compared to PatPos Invent (20 - 40 min). The expectation conformity and comprehensibility of PatPos Invent were assessed significantly more positively than PinPoint with regard to the general handling of the system. In contrast, the assessment of the usability during preoperative setup favored PinPoint. The type of navigation system has no influence on the precision of the implementation of a puncture procedure. (orig.)

  13. Energy crop cultivation in the environmental and agricultural legislation; Energiepflanzenanbau im Umwelt- und Agrarrecht. Umweltauswirkungen des Energiepflanzenanbaus unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung des Biogassubstrats Mais und Moeglichkeiten einer nachhaltigen Steuerung im Bodenschutz-, Naturschutz- und umweltrelevanten Agrarrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daenicke, Carmen

    2014-07-01

    The book on energy crop cultivation in the environmental and agricultural legislation covers the following issues: Part 1: Significance of the energy crop cultivation in Germany: Termini, development of renewable energies and bioenergy, political and legal frame work; Part 2: Disadvantageous environmental impact of the energy crop cultivation and possibilities for an environmentally compatible agriculture: subject of protection and mandate for protection, ways of energy plant utilization and disadvantageous consequences, possibilities for a sustainable concept for agricultural practices; Part 3: Legal instruments for the control of energy plant cultivation: requirements for the legal instruments for environmental protection, soil protection legislation, environmental protection legislation, environmentally relevant farming legislation; Part 4: Polymorphism of the legal instruments - considerations on the selective decision: existing instrumental types; public environmental legislation, environmental penal laws and private environmental protection legislation.

  14. How injurious to health is ionizing radiation. General overview and medical assessment with special regard to environment exposure by radon. Wie gesundheitsgefaehrdend ist ionisierende Strahlung. Allgemeiner Ueberblick und strahlenschutzmedizinische Bewertung unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der Umweltbelastung durch Radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arndt, D. (Staatliches Amt fuer Atomsicherheit und Strahlenschutz, Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Strahlenschutzmedizin)

    1990-10-01

    Basing on data and well-known facts a general overview is given about the danger of ionizing radiation to the health of man. It is the concern of this enlightening article to make an objective assessment of this noxa in its dose-effect-relation with special regard to the questions of environment exposure, as to be found for example in the uran mining area of the ore mountains, where at present a considerable radiophobie of the population can be observed. (orig.).

  15. Geschwister eines ausserfamilär platzierten Kindes: Handlungsempfehlungen für Beistandspersonen mit Fokus auf die systemische Familienarbeit unter Berücksichtigung der Besonderheit der Geschwisterbeziehung

    OpenAIRE

    Lötscher, Jana; Heimgartner, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Die vorliegende Fachliteraturarbeit befasst sich mit Handlungsempfehlungen für Beistandspersonen, welche eine Beistandschaft gemäss Art. 308 Abs. 1 und 2 ZGB nach Aufhebung des Aufenthaltsbestimmungsrechts gemäss Art. 310 Abs. 1 ZGB für ein Kind aus einer Familie führen. Die Geschwister des ausserfamiliär platzierten Kindes verbleiben dabei im Familiensystem. Diese besondere Konstellation erfordert von der Beistandsperson eine systemische Arbeitsweise, um der gesamten Familie gerecht zu werde...

  16. Microbial degradation of chloro- and methylphenol mixtures under aerobic and denitrifying conditions. Regulation and interaction in a mixed culture; Mikrobieller Abbau von Chlor- und Methylphenolen im Gemisch unter aeroben und denitrifizierenden Bedingungen. Regulation und Interaktion in einer Mischkultur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollender, J.

    1994-12-31

    The mechanism and the regulation of the microbial aerobic degradation of chloro- and methylphenol mixtures were investigated by comparing the mixed culture enriched of these phenolic compounds with the isolated pure cultures. The degradation assays and the characterization of the central degrading enzymes involved show that the degradation potential of the mixed culture was essentially determined by the additive abilities of the three pure cultures Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subspecies denitrificans JH1, Pseudomonas stutzeri JH3 and Comamonas testosteroni JH5. Degradation of some substrate mixtures and avoidance of enrichment of metabolites can only be explained by the interaction of the pure cultures or the participation of other organisms in the mixed culture which were not further investigated. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bei den Untersuchungen zum Mechanismus und der Regulation des aeroben Abbaus von Chlor- und Methylphenolen im Gemisch stand der Vergleich zwischen der auf diesen Phenolen angereicherten Mischkultur und den daraus isolierten Reinkulturen im Vordergrund. Die Abbauversuche und die Charakterisierung der am Metabolismus beteiligten zentralen Enzyme zeigen, dass fuer das Abbaupotential der Mischkultur im wesentlichen die additiven Abbauleistungen der drei Reinkulturen Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subspecies dentrificans JH1, Pseudomonas stutzeri JH3 und Comamonas testosteroni JH5 verantwortlich sind. Der Abbau einiger Substratmischungen und die Vermeidung einer Anreicherung von Metaboliten in der Mischkultur sind jedoch nur durch eine Interaktion der Reinkulturen oder durch eine Beteiligung anderer nicht naeher untersuchter Organismen in der Mischkultur zu erklaeren. (orig.)

  17. Clay under the magnifier. Scientists are investigating the properties of claystone in the international Mont Terri rock laboratory; Ton unter der Lupe. Wissenschaftler erforschen die Eigenschaften von Tongestein im internationalen Felslabor Mont Terri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    In the present report of the Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources whose activities and projects are presented. Among the issues: securing supplies of raw materials; Receive livelihoods; Develop and link Knowledge of Geosciences. Use deep underground, protected against geological hazards, assist developing countries, monitor Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban. Described are also studies of clay-mineral processes in barrier systems, studies of the long-term safety of the Morsleben repository, as well as international research of clay in the Swiss Mont Terri Rock Loboratory on the suitability of claystone as repository for secure high-level radioactive waste. [German] Im vorliegenden Report der Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe werden deren Aktivitaeten und Projekte dargestellt. Zu den Aspekten: Rohstoffversorgung sichern; Lebensgrundlagen erhalten; Geowissen entwickeln und vernetzen. Den tiefen Untergrund nutzen, vor Geogefahren schuetzen, Entwicklungslaender unterstuetzen, Kernwaffenteststopp ueberwachen. Beschrieben werden dabei auch Untersuchungen tonmineralischer Prozesse in Barrieresystemen, Untersuchungen zur Langzeitsicherheit des Endlagers Morsleben, sowie internationale Forschungen im Tongestein des Schweizer Felslabors Mont Terri zur Eignung von Tongestein als sicheres Endlager fuer hochradioaktive Abfallstoffe.

  18. Diglossische Prozesse (Zwischen Deutsch und Spanisch) unter den Spanischen Emigranten der 2. Generation in Deutschland: Eine Soziolinguistische Studie (Diglossia Processes (Between German and Spanish) Among Second Generation Spanish Immigrants in Germany: A Sociolinguistic Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Karin Vilar

    1998-01-01

    Presents a sociolinguistic study of second-generation Spanish immigrants in Germany. Specific focus is on "diglossia processes," or how Spanish and German are used for different sociolinguistic situations. (Author/VL)

  19. Time- and energy optimization during drying of green bricks taking specially into account the second drying period. Final report; Zeit- und Energieoptimierung der Trocknung von Ziegelrohlingen unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung des zweiten Trocknungsabschnittes. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junge, K.; Telljohann, U.

    2004-04-15

    Dryers of the brick industry are constructed according to empirical findings. Measurements are available only for the first drying period, the rest is speculation. The author investigated the processes going on inside the green brick during drying. This will provide the basis for a simulation program for calculating time-dependent moisture distributions, vibrational states and green brick temperatures, from which the required dryer air conditions and heat transfer processes can be derived. Brick producers and plant constructors will be enabled to design the drying process for high-speed drying without loss of quality and with higher economic efficiency. (orig.) [German] Die Auslegung von Trocknern der Ziegelindustrie und verwandter Branchen basiert bis heute ausschliesslich auf empirischen Erkenntnissen. Diese werden durch wissenschaftliche Arbeiten lediglich zum ersten Trocknungsabschnitt gestuetzt. Eine in Betriebsablaeufe integrierte messtechnische Erfassung des Uebergangs vom ersten zum zweiten Trocknungsabschnitt ist nicht moeglich. Fachleute schaetzen, dass der Uebergang 'etwa zur halben Anfangsfeuchte' stattfindet; diese Annahme ist jedoch aeusserst ungenau. Man unterstellt ferner, dass der erste Trocknungsabschnitt ungefaehr mit dem Zeitraum uebereinstimmt, in dem sich die mit erheblichen Riss- und Verkruemmungsgefaehrdungen einhergehende Rohlingsschwindung abspielt. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wird ein mathematisches Modell der Vorgaeng erstellt, die sich im Rohling waehrend der Trocknung abspielen. Es bildet die Grundlage fuer ein Simulationsprogramm zur Berechnung von zeitabhaengigen Feuchteverteilungen, Schwindungszustaenden und Rohlingstemperaturen. Daraus lassen sich dann fuer den Betrieb die notwendigen Trocknerluftzustaende und Waermeuebergaenge ermitteln. Diese Daten versetzen Ziegler und insbesondere Anlagenbauer in die Lage, den Trocknungsprozess verlaesslich so zu gestalten, dass Ziegelrohlinge ohne Qualitaetsmangel mit hoechstmoeglicher Geschwindigkeit getrocknet werden koennen. Eine schnellere Trocknung erhoeht die Wirtschaftlichkeit. (orig.)

  20. Still not generally accepted. Italy: Development of wind power controlled by established power utilities; Noch keine Breitenbewegung. Die Windkraft entwickelt sich in Italien unter der Kontrolle der etablierten Stromversorger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, K.

    2001-12-01

    Italy is lagging behind in solar and wind power. In September 2001, the installed capacity of wind power was no higher than 650 MW, i.e. one tenth of the installed capacity in Germany, the leader in the field. Experts estimate a potential of 2,500 MW in Italy. [German] Nicht nur bei der Nutzung der ueberreichlich vorhandenen Sonnenenergie hinkt Italien weit hinterher im europaeischen Vergleich (Neue Energie 9/2001). Im Windkraft-Bereich waren Ende September diesen Jahres lediglich knapp 650 Megawatt installiert, weniger als ein Zehntel der Anlagen, die beim Wind-Weltmeister Deutschland stehen. Diesen Spitzenwert wird Italien auch bei noch so grossen Anstrengungen kaum erreichen. Das von der Beschaffenheit des Landes vorgegebene Limit schaetzen die Experten auf 2.500 MW Anlagenleistung. (orig.)

  1. Environmental law. An introduction to the basic principles with special consideration of the law relating to water, pollution abatement, waste, and nature conservation. Umweltrecht. Eine Einfuehrung in die Grundlagen unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung des Wasser-, Immissionsschutz-, Abfall- und Naturschutzrechts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketteler, G.; Kippels, K. (Fachhochschule fuer Oeffentliche Verwaltung Nordrhein-Westfalen, Gelsenkirchen (Germany, F.R.))

    1988-01-01

    In section I 'Basic principles' the following topics are considered: Constitutional-legal aspects of environmental protection, e.g. nuclear hazards and the remaining risk; European environmental law; international environmental law; administrative law, private law and criminal law relating to the environment; basic principles of environmental law, the instruments of public environmental law. Section II 'Special areas of law' is concerned with the law on water and waste, prevention of air pollution, nature conservation and care of the countryside. Legal decisions and literature up to June 1988 have been taken into consideration. (orig./RST).

  2. Determination of vegetable tannins in tannery wastewater using RP-HPLC-technique with UV- and EC-detection; Bestimmung vegetabiler Gerbstoffe in Gerbereiabwasser unter Einsatz der RP-HPLC-Technik mit UV- und EC-Detektion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zywicki, B.; Reemtsma, T.; Jekel, M. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachgebiet Wasserreinhaltung

    2001-07-01

    Numerous types of inorganic and organic environmental pollutants are encountered in leather tannery effluents. For reduction of the environmental impact of leather tanneries the substitution of chromium tanning agents by natural organic tanning agents (vegetable tannins) is discussed. The use of vegetable tannins leads to an elevated dissolved organic carbon content (DOC) in tannery effluent, even after biological treatment. Vegetable tannins may also be used as retanning agents, but they may, then interfere with precipitation of chromium. Therefore, an analytical method had to be established to estimate the total amount of vegetable tanning agents in the complex matrix of tannery wastewater. The analytical strategy for the determination of vegetable tannins in tannery effluents is to degrade the polyphenolic compounds by acid hydrolysis and to detect the resulting specific monomeric subunit gallic acid by RP-HPLC-technique with UV- and electrochemical detection (EC-detection). (orig.)

  3. Analysis of damage processes in short glass fibre reinforced polyamide under mechanical loading by X-ray refractometry, fracture mechanics and fractography; Analyse der Schaedigungsprozesse in einem kurzglasfaserverstaerkten Polyamid unter mechanischer Belastung mittels Roentgenrefraktometrie, Bruchmechanik und Fraktografie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenzel, Stephan

    2013-04-01

    This thesis presents an analysis of the damage behaviour in a short glass fibre reinforced polyamide. The micro cracking is investigated by X-ray refraction technique under various, mechanical in-service loadings. In this context, potentials and limits of X-ray refraction analysis for short glass fibre reinforced polyamides are compiled. In particular the influence of fibre orientation and the influence of damage mechanisms are examined according to the X-ray refraction analysis and its interpretation. The method offers a quantitative and phenomenological based characterisation of micro crack damage. For the investigated material micro crack damage emerges as fibre matrix debonding and matrix micro cracking. The state of damage correlates with a nonlinear strain portion in a linear manner and depends on the kind of loading. Absorption of moisture in the material may influence significantly the micro crack damage behaviour. Damage of micro cracking appears preferentially under tension. The macro damage due to propagation of a single crack is characterised in an automated test setup, considering the fibre orientation and content of moisture. Based on the findings an empirical assessment approach is developed. The investigations of the micro and macro damage behaviour are accompanied by fractography, in order to support the model assumptions according to damage and fracture mechanisms.

  4. Influencing factors on the design, optimal operation as well as on maintenance strategies of devices under economic aspects; Einflussfaktoren auf das Design, den optimalen Betrieb sowie die Instandhaltungsstrategien von Anlagen unter wirtschaftlichen Gesichtspunkten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Hans Christian; Harder, Hans-Otto [TUeV SUeD Industrie Service GmbH, Mannheim (Germany). Kraftwerks- und Anlagenservice

    2008-07-01

    There are many causes and mode of actions which result in damages and a reduction of the lifetime of process engineering plants. Here, planning, design, production, assembly, acceptance, operation and maintenance play an important role. These factors play an important role in the case of future expecting operation temperatures above 600 C. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration present the changes which can be expected regarding to the design concepts and to the operationally enhanced operating stresses from the aspect of a certified supervisory board.

  5. Histopathologische, immunhistologische und biochemische Untersuchungen zur Prüfung der Wirksamkeit von Imexon im GalN/LPS-Modell der Maus unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Milz

    OpenAIRE

    Schiemenz, Nadja

    2002-01-01

    Anhand des Einflusses auf den Krankheitsverlauf des GalN/LPS-Modells der Maus wurde die potentielle Bedeutung des 2-Cyanaziridins Imexon als unterstützendes Therapeutikum für systemische bakterielle Infektionen und den septischen Schock untersucht. Das GalN/LPS-Modell ist gekennzeichnet durch einen hochakuten Verlauf. Todesfälle treten innerhalb der ersten fünf bis neun Stunden nach Injektion der Toxine auf. Imexon senkte die Zahl der Todesfälle im vorliegenden Versuch um die Hälfte...

  6. Study of the diffusion of lithium and sodium ions in solids under regardment of the dimensionality of the crystal lattice; Untersuchung der Diffusion von Lithium- und Natrium-Ionen in Festkoerpern unter Beruecksichtigung der Dimensionalitaet des Kristallgitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volgmann, Kai Tristan

    2016-07-29

    Low-dimensional diffusion was investigated to improve the understanding of the fundamentals of ion movement in condensed matter. Different model systems with different dimensionality of cation migration pathways were investigated using solidstate nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and impedance spectroscopy. Both experimental methods made it possible to complementarily study both Li and Na mobility over a wide range of jump rates. Metallic lithium as a well-known model system for isotropic diffusion was investigated using {sup 7}Li field-cycling NMR. The spin-lattice relaxation (SLR) rates were separated into an electronic contribution and a diffusion-induced contribution. The Korringa product was calculated from the actual measurements. The main focus was the comparison of different theoretical models describing the Li motion in metallic lithium. The well-known model by Bloembergen, Purcell and Pound already reproduced the data well, but two models by Sholl improved the results taking into account the type of crystal lattice and jump correlation effects. A single-vacancy diffusion mechanism was observed, but a double-vacancy mechanism was not excluded as elevated temperatures near the melting point of lithium were not available. Li{sub 0.7}Nb{sub 3}S{sub 4} is isostructural to Li{sub 0.7}Nb{sub 3}Se{sub 4} which was reported as possible 1D Li ion conductor due to its channel structure. Thus, Li{sub 0.7}Nb{sub 3}S{sub 4} was investigated as 1D model system using solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Multinuclear NMR spectroscopy gave insights into structural properties. Li dynamics was observed by several NMR methods over a wide temperature range. {sup 7}Li NMR motional narrowing led to an estimate of the activation energy for local Li hopping. {sup 7}Li NMR spin-alignment echo (SAE) was used for the determination of Li jump rates on a macroscopic scale. Possible dimensionality effects were investigated by {sup 7}Li NMR SLR. Out of the phase system Li{sub 2}O:TiO{sub 2} two compounds with different dimensionalities determined by their crystal lattice were also studied by solid-state NMR and impedance spectroscopy. In both Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7} and Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 13}, the Li dynamics was in the focus of the studies, but also the Na dynamics in their parent compounds Na{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7} and Na{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 13} was investigated. For Na{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7}, {sup 23}Na NMR spectroscopy gave insights into structural and dynamic properties. A detailed {sup 6}Li and {sup 7}Li NMR spectroscopy study on Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7} revealed 2D Li diffusion. Macroscopic cation diffusion for both Na{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7} and Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7} was investigated using impedance spectroscopy. Furthermore not only Na{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 13} and Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 13} were studied, but also mixed ion conductors with different Na/Li ratios. {sup 6}Li, {sup 7}Li and {sup 23}Na NMR spectroscopy and methods as SLR and SAE were used to explore structure and dynamics of cation diffusion in Li{sub x}Na{sub 2-x}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 13} (x=0,0.33,1,2). A possible 1D cation diffusion was also in the focus of this research. Impedance spectroscopy was again used for the investigation of macroscopic cation diffusion. This method revealed a mixed cation effect in Li{sub x}Na{sub 2-x}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 13}.

  7. Fatigue of the quenched and hardened steel 42CrMo4 under multiaxial in- and out-of-phase loading; Ermuedung des Stahles 42CrMo4 unter mehrachsiger, phasenverschobener Beanspruchung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewisch, G. [Stiftung Inst. fuer Werkstofftechnik, Bremen (Germany); Bomas, H.; Mayr, P.

    1999-10-01

    Two kinds of specimens out of the quenched and hardened steel 42CrMo4 (similar SAE 4140) were tested by combined tension-torsion in- and out-of-phase loading. The specimens batches differed in the residual stress state. Under cyclic, stress controlled loading an elastic behaviour is registrated until 50% of the life time. Then a rapid softening occurs, which correlates with the von-Mises equivalent stress in the case of in-phase loading. At high stress amplitudes, the residual stresses may be neglected. The lifetime is best described by the fatigue criterion of Zenner which considers the integral average of the stress state in every plane. This stress state is described by a linear combination of the shear stress amplitude and the normal stress amplitude. Below the cyclic yield strength, the residual stresses must be taken into account as static stresses. The comparison of the local residual stress distributions is possible by using the weakest link model of Heckel, which is described in detail. (orig.)

  8. Investigation of various trading strategies for wind and solar power developed for the new EEG 2012 law; Untersuchung verschiedener Handelsstrategien fuer Wind- und Solarenergie unter Beruecksichtigung der EEG 2012 Novellierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moehrlen, Corinna; Pahlow, Markus [WEPROG GmbH, Altdorf (Germany); Joergensen, Jess U. [WEPROG ApS, Ebberup (Denmark)

    2012-03-15

    The new EEG 2012 law opens up for more parties to participate in the trading of wind and solar power, because of the bonus system that now compensates everybody for all market relevant costs, not only the Transmission System Operators. Therefore it can be expected, that the trading of renewable energies by private parties will increase. One of the central questions to be answered is how efficient does a balance responsible party have to be to stay competitive also with a small pool. The quantification of balance costs for different trading strategies is however complex and non-trivial. We propose a methodology in this study that accounts for this fact. Additionally, we analyse and show the requirements and the monetary value of Intra-Day trading for the handling of wind and solar power. The trading strategies proposed in this article make use of an uncertainty band around the forecasts used in the Intra-Day, in order to avoid double trading and thereby reducing the total balancing volume and the associated costs. (orig.)

  9. Possibilities to improve the down grade performance of trucks by applying a decompression valve engine brake; Moeglichkeiten zur Verbesserung des Gefaellefahrverhaltens von Nutzfahrzeugen unter Verwendung einer Dekompressionsventil-Motorbremse (DVB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, T. [Mercedes-Benz AG, Stuttgart (Germany); Holloh, K.D. [Mercedes-Benz AG, Stuttgart (Germany); Fleckenstein, G. [Mercedes-Benz AG, Stuttgart (Germany); Juergens, R. [Mercedes-Benz AG, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    After Mercedes-Benz developed the constant choke engine brake and started serial production in 1989, further possibilities to increase the engine brake performance have been investigated. A considerable improvement has been achieved due to the fact that the decompression valve is not kept constantly open during the whole operating cycle (constant choke) but is only opened shortly before the upper dead centre until approx. 90.. 120 C after the upper dead centre of the crankshaft in order to release the compressed air from the combustion chamber (pulsed decompression valve). The hydraulic operating system is described, and the achieved engine brake performance is compared with other engine brake systems. The effects on the down grade performance of trucks are described and compared with other permanent braking systems. (orig.) [Deutsch] Nachdem bei Mercedes-Benz die Konstantdrossel-Motorbremse entwickelt und 1989 in die Serie eingefuehrt worden ist, wurde nach weiteren Moeglichkeiten zur Steigerung der Motorbremsleistung gesucht. Eine wesentliche Steigerung wurde dadurch erreicht, dass das Dekompressionsventil nicht mehr waehrend des gesamten Arbeitsspiels konstant offen gehalten wird (Konstantdrossel), sondern nur noch von kurz vor bis ca. 90... 120 C Kurbelwelle nach Komppressions-OT zum Abblasen der verdichteten Luft aus dem Brennraum geoeffnet wird (getaktetes Dekompressionsventil). Das hydraulische Betaetigungssystem wird im folgenden beschrieben. Die hiermit erreichten Motorbremsleistungen im Vergleich zu anderen Motorbremssystemen werden gezeigt. Die Auswirkungen auf das Gefaellefahrverhalten von Nutzfahrzeugen im Vergleich zu anderen Dauerbremssystemen werden dargestellt. (orig.)

  10. Investigations to the reduction of the drying time of temperature sensitive goods with assistance of sorbents. Final report; Untersuchungen zur Verkuerzung der Trocknungszeit temperaturempfindlicher Gueter unter Verwendung von Sorptionsmitteln. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutelle, R.

    1998-07-31

    It was the aim of the project to improve the solar drying process with assistance of solar regenerated sorbents. Fruits, vegetables, herbs and mushrooms were dried in hurdles and calcium chloride solutions were concentrated in black plastic basins with solar energy during the day. At night or at bad meteorological conditions the hurdles with the drying goods were set into the basins and capped in order to continue the drying process. By this means a microbial decay was prohibited and the drying time was shortened roughly by half. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel des Vorhabens war es, den Prozess der solaren Trocknung mit Hilfe von solar regenerierten Sorptionsmitteln zu verbessern. Tagsueber wurden mit Solarenergie Fruechte, Gemuese, Kraeuter und Pilze in Horden getrocknet, und Calciumchloridloesungen wurden in schwarzen Kunststoffwannen regeneriert. Zur Fortsetzung der Trocknung waehrend der Nacht und bei unguenstigen Witterungsverhaeltnissen wurden die Horden mit den Trocknungsguetern in die Wannen gesetzt und abgedeckt. Durch dieses Verfahren konnte ein mikrobieller Verderb vermieden und die Trocknungszeit auf ca. die Haelfte verkuerzt werden. (orig.)

  11. Statistical estimation of future precipitation in south-western Europe taking into account spatial differentiation methods; Abschaetzung einer zukuenftigen Niederschlagsentwicklung mit statistischen Methoden unter Einbezug raeumlicher Differenzierungsverfahren am Beispiel des suedwesteuropaeischen Raums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woth, K. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Kuestenforschung

    2001-07-01

    This study presents a method to identify homogenous sub-regions and their corresponding large-scale sector in statistical-empirical downscaling models systematically. The analysis was done with a gridded observed sea level pressure field (SLP) of the North Atlantic sector as predictor and time series of precipitation at 82 Stations as dependent variable, distributed nearly homogeneously in Spain and the south of France. The precipitation stations were classified in more homogeneous groups by cluster analysis. For some of the resulting groups the domain of the SLP field with the highest influence on rainfall was also identified. In the next step Canonical Correlation Analysis was applied between the groups suitable for a statistical downscaling and their corresponding SLP sector. The result is that the statistical skill in the validation period is increased compared to the standard downscaling model. Last, this statistical downscaling model are applied to a climate change experiment with ECHAM4-OPYC3 under increasing atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. (orig.)

  12. Setting prices for tariff and volume risks of power acquisition in consideration of portfolio aspects of industrial customers in the electricity market; Bepreisen von Preis- und Mengenrisiken der Strombeschaffung unter Beruecksichtigung von Portfolioaspekten bei Grosskunden im Strommarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strohbuecker, Sandra

    2011-07-01

    Against the background of increasing price pressure and competition for industrial customers in the market, utilities find it a challenge to offer interesting electricity rates that will also cover the cost and risk involved. The author investigates inhowfar portfolio effects affect risk premiums of customers in the portfolio, and how existing effects may be used for pricing. The methods are derived from risk assessment and capital allocation methods of the banking and insurance sector. This is followed by and exemplary analysis of risks and the portfolio effect using a concrete portfolio as an example.

  13. Simulation and design of multi-stage demineralisation processes by using reverse osmosis and ion exchanger; Simulation und Auslegung mehrstufiger Wasser-Entsalzungsprozesse unter Einsatz von Umkehrosmose und Ionenaustausch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipnizki, Jens; Dinges, Bjoern; Schaberger, Heinz [Lanxess Deutschland GmbH, Leverkusen (Germany)

    2013-09-01

    Simulation and design of both reverse osmosis (RO) and ion exchange (IEX) processes for water demineralisation are supported by the user-friendly, integrated software LewaPlus trademark. This new software offers the option to design complex water treatment solutions, and provides the possibility to directly compare the results of RO and IEX calculations. It is possible to calculate with a given water analysis the results of RO treatment, and of subsequent treatment of this water with RO or IEX, respectively. The effect of variables such as temperature, silica, and carbonate concentration in the feed on process design and final water quality can be calculated for a whole system. The paper gives an overview of the capabilities of the software package and presents several application examples. (orig.)

  14. Formation of colloids of the tetravalent uranium under influence of silicate in neutral and low alkaline aqueous systems; Bildung von Kolloiden des tetravalenten Urans unter Einfluss von Silikat in neutralen und schwachalkalischen waessrigen Systemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulbricht, Isabell

    2016-03-30

    This work includes the preparation and characterization of new uranium(IV) colloids which are formed and stabilized in the near neutral pH range and under environmentally relevant conditions. Conclusions on stability behavior and particle size distributions were drawn based on results obtained by dynamic light scattering, zeta potential measurements, as well as ultrafiltration and ultracentrifugation in combination with element analyzes. Spectroscopic methodes confirmed the tetravalent state of uranium in the experiments. Unlike empirical data, it is possible to generate long-term stable uranium(IV) colloids at higher concentrations. By addition of geochemical components such as carbonate and silicate, they are stable and resistant in the near neutral pH range over a long period. It was found that dissolved silica plays an essential role in the preparation of colloids. Colloid-borne uranium(IV) up to a concentration of 10{sup -3} mol/L, corresponding to 0,238 g/L, is stabilized in solutions. This concentration is about three orders of magnitude higher than so far known silicate-free aqueous uranium(IV) colloids. Through the use of different analytical methods (invasive and non-invasive) it could be shown that the resulting uranium(IV) colloids are in the nanoscalar range. A high mobility can be assumed in aquatic systems. Evidence is provided by photon correlation spectroscopy, ultrafiltration, and ultracentrifugation that uranium(IV) can form silicate-containing colloids of a size lower than 20 nm. The particles are generated in near neutral to slightly alkaline solutions containing geochemical relevant components (carbonate, silicate, sodium ions). They remain stable in aqueous suspension over years. Electrostatic repulsion due to a negative zeta potential in the near-neutral to alkaline pH range caused by the silicate stabilizes the uranium(IV) colloids. The isoelectric point of the nanoparticles is shifted towards lower pH values by the silicate. The higher the silicate to uranium(IV) content ratio and the higher the pH of the solution are, the smaller and more stable (in terms of pH-changes) are the particles. It should be noted that no colloids were formed in absence of uranium(IV). The mechanism of the colloidal stabilization can be regarded as ''sequestration'' by silicate, a phenomenon well known from heavy metal ions of high ion potential such as iron(III) or manganese(III,IV), but never reported for uranium(IV) so far. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy showed that U-O-Si bonds, which increasingly replace the U-O-U bonds of the amorphous uranium(IV) oxyhydroxide with increasing silicate concentration, make up the internal structure of the colloids. The next-neighbor coordination of uranium(IV) in the uranium(IV)-silica colloids is comparable with that of coffinite, USiO{sub 4}. The assessment of uranium behavior in the aquatic environment should take the possible existence of uranium(IV)-silica colloids into consideration. Their occurrence might influence uranium migration in anoxic waters. The silicate-stabilized colloids have been generated in laboratory experiments under controlled conditions; i.e., it is not known yet whether these phases can occur in natural water. The qualitative composition of the matrix of the experimental solutions (H{sup +}, OH{sup -}, Na{sup +}, HCO{sub 3}{sup -}/CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, silicate) was chosen similar to the geochemical nature of groundwater. Thereby, it can be assumed that such colloids are present in natural waters. The existence of such particles would provide an ex-planation for the occurrence of uranium(IV) colloids in anoxic pore waters or groundwaters. However, it should be noted that these results were observed by the reduction of uranium(VI) carbonate and dilution in the presence of silicate. Studies on the mobility and stability of these colloids in aquatic systems were not subject of this work and an environmental assessment of these novel uranium(IV) colloids with respect to the entry in the biosphere cannot be taken into account. But the possibilities of mobilization and stabilization can be applied to surrogate actinides and heavy metals, and point to the need for more intensive research in this area.

  15. Energetic retrofitting of an office unit under installation of a double facade. Phase 1: Fundamental investigations. Final report; Energetische Sanierung eines Buerokomplexes unter Einbeziehung einer Doppelfassade. Phase 1: Grundlagenuntersuchung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renz, U.; Al-Sibai, F. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Waermeuebertragung und Klimatechnik

    2002-12-01

    Conditions of science and technology: Due to the increasing building requirements regarding energy and economical concepts, connected with a large formation freedom of the building outer skin, the double facades gain importance. Objective: The aim of the research project is an evaluation for the following energetic redevelopment of the building on the basis the available results. Method: The actual condition of the building will be examined and different redeveloment variants compared. Results: The measured heating energy consumption is 241 kWh/m{sup 2}. This is a very high value which can be reduced with a redevelopment of the building. For the office at the south/east front for example a heating energy consumption from 30 to 40 kWh/m{sup 2} could be expected on the basis of calculations. An essential part of the report is the installation of double facade test modules at the south/east front of the building. The main interest of the project is the thermal protection in summer since the overheating of the building is a serious problem. In order to obtain improvements, a high-quality sun protection is necessary. For example a set of blinds in the double facade gap was examined here. An influence of the amount of heating energy and/or the ambient temperature is practically not possible so overheating exsits for all weather conditions. Thus during the winter months Decembers until February 160 hours of temperatures over 27 C and peak temperature of even 31 C were determined in the test rooms. The consequence is that the heat is then ventilated away by the user, where a cause for high heating energy consumption lies. Conclusion: The stocktaking for the building shows that urgent redevelopment demand exists. (orig.) [German] Stand von Wissenschaft und Technik: In den letzten Jahren haben vor dem Hintergrund wachsender Ansprueche an die Gebaeudegestaltung hinsichtlich eines energetisch sparsamen Gesamtkonzeptes, verbunden mit einer grossen Gestaltungsfreiheit der Gebaeudeaussenhaut, die Doppelfassaden an Bedeutung gewonnen. Zielsetzung: Das Ziel des Forschungsvorhaben ist eine Beurteilung fuer die anschliessende energetische Sanierung des Gebaeudes anhand der vorliegenden Erkenntnisse. Methode: Das Gebaeude wird im Ist-Zustand untersucht und verschiedene Sanierungsvarianten werden anhand von Testraeumen miteinander verglichen. Ergebnis: Der gemessene Heizenergieverbrauch liegt bei 241 kWh/m{sup 2} beheizter Flaeche. Dieses ist ein sehr hoher Wert, der bei entsprechenden Sanierungsmassnahmen auf einen Bruchteil reduziert werden kann. Fuer die Bueroraeume an der Sued/Ost-Fassade ist beispielsweise anhand der Simulationsrechnungen ein Heizenergieverbrauch von 30 bis 40 kWh/m{sup 2} zu erwarten. Im Zentrum des vorliegenden Berichtes steht die Installation von Doppelfassaden-Testmodulen an der Sued/Ost-Fassade. Von besonderem Interesse fuer dieses Gebaeude ist der sommerliche Waermeschutz, da die Ueberhitzung des Gebaeudes ein gravierendes Problem darstellt. Um hier Verbesserungen zu erzielen, ist ein hochwertiger Sonnenschutz erforderlich. Geeignet ist z.B. eine Jalousie im Doppelfassadenzwischenraum, wie sie hier untersucht worden ist. Eine Beeinflussung der Heizleistung bzw. der Raumtemperatur ist praktisch nicht moeglich, so dass es ganzjaehrig bei entsprechenden Wetterlagen zu erheblichen Ueberwaermungen kommt. So wurden in den Wintermonaten Dezember bis Februar im Testraum an 160 Stunden Temperaturen ueber 27 C festgestellt, in der Spitze sogar 31 C. In der Konsequenz wird die Waerme dann haeufig vom Nutzer weggelueftet, worin eine Ursache fuer den hohen Heizenergieverbrauch liegt. Schlussfolgerung: Die Bestandsaufnahme fuer das Gebaeude zeigt, dass dringender Sanierungsbedarf besteht. (orig.)

  16. Diagnosis und differential diagnosis of focal liver lesions using the hepatocyte-specific contrast agent Gd-EOB-DTPA; Diagnose und Differenzialdiagnose fokaler Leberlaesionen unter Verwendung von Gd-EOB-DTPA (Primovist)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringe, Kristina Imeen [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2016-03-15

    The implementation of MR contrast agents significantly improves detection and characterization of focal liver lesions. This article is focusing on the hepatocyte-specific contrast agent Gd-EOB-DTPA, which has been available in Germany for liver MRI since 2004. In the introduction, the specific pharmacokinetic and -dynamic properties of this contrast agent are reviewed, and a workflow-optimized pulse sequence protocol for comprehensive hepatobiliary MRI in daily routine is presented. Afterwards, the appearance of the most common focal liver lesions is illustrated, including the differences to the use of extracellular contrast agents as well as a discussion of the most important differential diagnoses.

  17. Measurements of ozone precursors in urban areas and at highways; Messungen der Immissionskonzentrationen verschiedener Ozonvorlaeufersubstanzen in Ballungsgebieten und an Autobahnen. Charakterisierung der Emissionsverhaeltnisse des Strassenverkehrs unter verschiedenen Verkehrssituationen durch Messungen in Quellnaehe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, T.; Klemp, D.; Kley, D.

    1997-11-01

    Measurements of real-world traffic emissions were performed in three different locations: a highway without speed limit, a highway with a speed limit of 60 km/h and a slight road inclination, and an urban location close to the city centre of Wuppertal. Special emphasis was placed on the speciation of the emissions with respect to hydrocabons. To this end, a GC system for the analysis C{sub 2}-C{sub 9}-hydrocarbons was built up and characterised. The data were analysed with respect to the VOC/NO{sub x} ratio and the composition of the hydrocarbon mixture. The VOC/NO{sub x} ratio differed significantly between weekends and weekdays. It was higher on weekends due to the reduced amount of heavy duty vehicles. The VOC/NO{sub x} ratio decreased with increasing speed. The lowest VOC/NO{sub x} ratio of 0,71 ppbC/ppbV was found on weekdays on the highway without speed limit. The highest VOC/NO{sub x} ratio of 7,5 ppbC/ppbV was found on weekends in the urban location. The measured VOC/NO{sub x} ratios were compared with the results of an emission model [INFRAS AG, 1995]. The model always underpredicts the observed VOC/NO{sub x} ratios, differences of up to a factor of two were found. However, the trends predicted by the model with respect to different traffic situations agree with the observed trends. Detailed analysis of individual hydrocarbons showed an increase of the emissions of alkenes with increasing speed, whereas the emissions of aromatics were found to increase substantially at reduced speeds. In addition, the measured data were compared to the emission profiles of individual vehicles obtained by different dynamometer studies. The literature data for the vehicles without catalysts agree reasonably well between the different studies, while larger differences for vehicles equipped with catalysts are found in the literature. The comparison of the literature data with the measured emissions suggests that the measured emissions are dominated by vehicles without catalysts. The influence of the VOC/NO{sub x} ratio on the photochemical formation of O{sub x} was studied with a photochemical box model (Euro-RADM). It was found that the VOC/NO{sub x} ratio has a dominating influence on the production rate of O{sub x} as well as on the maximum O{sub x} concentration. To analyse the influence of the different hydrocarbon mixtures, a four day summer smog episode was simulated. The maximum O{sub x} concentrations obtained with the different hydrocarbons mixtures (using the same VOC/NO{sub x} ratio) span a factor of about 1,5. No correlation was found between the maximum O{sub x} concentration obtained and the average reactivity of the different mixtures with respect to the reaction with OH. This indicates the importance of secondary pollutants (e.g. carbonyls) for the ozone production close to the sources and the need to analyse the hydrocarbon mixtures in detail for the successful development of ozone reduction strategies. (orig.)

  18. Investigations of the transport behavior of contaminants in fresh water/brine systems under consideration of density differences; Untersuchungen zum Transportverhalten von Schadstoffen in Suess- / Salzwassersystemen unter Beruecksichtigung von Dichteunterschieden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larue, Juergen; Weyand, Torben; Mayer, Kim-Marisa

    2016-10-15

    This report contains a compilation of national and international experience gathered as part of a research project sponsored by the BMUB concerning the aspect of the transport behaviour of contaminants in freshwater/brine systems with consideration of density and viscosity differences. The fundamentals of modelling density-dependent flows are presented and a series of examples of the application with different codes and their uses with reference to real sites is described. Besides an overview of test cases for the verification of these codes, the further development of the instruments available to GRS and test calculations regarding their implementation are presented.

  19. The Commitment decision according to paragraph 29 EnWG - a standardizing regulation under the supervision of the courts; Die Festlegungsentscheidung nach paragraph 29 EnWG - normierende Regulierung unter den Augen der Gerichte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attendorn, Thorsten [Bezirksregierung Arnsberg (Germany)

    2009-03-15

    With the commitment decision according to paragraph 29 Energy Economy Act, the regulation authority has an effective instrument, which enables a one-sided determination of the entrance conditions and entrance methods as well as tariffs. This is an application of the standardizing regulation. The desired result is not caused ex post, but ex-ante. This is due to a uniform decision instead of a multiplicity of abuse decisions. The first commitment decisions passed the court instances. In the meantime, there are several decisions of the higher regional court and the Federal High Court. That gives cause to a stock-taking. The author of the contribution under consideration reports on this stock-tacking.

  20. Exemplary assessment of an entire and high value recovery in a MSWI with special regard on climate relevance; Beispielhafte Darstellung einer vollstaendigen, hochwertigen Verwertung in einer MVA unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der Klimarelevanz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehrenbach, Horst; Giegrich, Juergen; Mahmood, Sameh [ifeu-Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    The 'Goal 2020' of German waste management policy defines the entire recycling/recovery of municipal waste and the abandonment of disposal above ground to a great extend. Thus an entire material recycling and re-use also of the MSWI (Municipal Solid Waste Incineration) residuals is required, especially the mass-relevant slag. Apart from the material aspect the energy efficiency issue (actual substitution of primary energy carriers) is another decisive criterion as well as assurance of low pollutant discharge. Screening of all MSWI in Germany in terms of these criteria ends up with rather positive results. A large mass percentage of the mineral residues are yet conveyed to material recycling. According to energy use there is a wide bandwidth from rather high to rather low efficiency. The assessed emission levels again show an overall high standard performance. Four exemplary plants - each representing one of the three criteria in special way plus one low standard reference plant - were assessed by mass flow calculation and evaluating by the indicators CO{sub 2}, NOX, Hg and Cd emissions - caused by the plants and replaced by material and energy substitution. The energy efficiency turns out to the most decisive factor. A rough cost analysis looking at measures for entire recovery shows that cost increase as well as decrease can be figured out depending on basic presumptions. Scenarios for status quo and optimization at national scope were calculated to combine CO{sub 2} balance and costs. It concludes in a potential saving of about 3 million t CO{sub 2}/a, whereas cost won't increase in higher magnitude than preventing landfill costs for slag disposal have saved. (orig.)

  1. Investigations on the bioavailability of traffic-related platinum group elements (PGE) to the aquatic fauna with special consideration being given to palladium; Untersuchungen zur Bioverfuegbarkeit Kfz-emittierter Platingruppenelemente (PGE) fuer die aquatische Fauna unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung von Palladium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sures, B.; Thielen, F.; Zimmermann, S. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Zoologisches Inst.

    2002-07-01

    The uptake and accumulation of the traffic-related platinum group elements (PGE) Pt, Pd and Rh by the aquatic fauna was investigated. Zebra mussels, eels and barbels were maintained in water containing either road dust or ground catalytic converter material. Following the exposure, samples of fish liver and kidney, as well as the soft tissues of the mussels, were analysed. Our results revealed that all three catalytic noble metals were accumulated by aquatic organisms. The highest bioavailability was found for Pd, followed by Pt and Rh. The concentration factor of Pd for Dreissena polymorpha was 5 times higher compared with Pb and only 6 times lower than the essential element Cu. With regard to the increasing emission of Pd the level of this metal has to be monitored very carefully in the environment. (orig.) [German] Die Aufnahme und Anreicherung der Kfz-buertigen Platingruppenelemente (PGE) Pt, Pd und Rh durch aquatische Tiere wurde an Dreikantmuscheln, Aalen und Barben untersucht. Hierzu wurden die Testorganismen in Wasser mit Strassenstaub einer stark befahrenen Strasse oder mit zerriebenem Autokatalysatormaterial ueber mehrere Wochen exponiert und anschliessend Leber und Niere der Fische sowie das Weichgewebe der Muscheln analysiert. Im Rahmen dieser Studien konnte nachgewiesen werden, dass alle drei Edelmetalle durch Fische wie durch Muscheln aufgenommen und angereichert werden. Fuer Pd fand sich die hoechste Bioverfuegbarkeit, gefolgt von Pt und Rh. Das Ausmass der Aufnahme von Pd durch Dreissena polymorpha war ca. 5fach hoeher als von Pb und 6fach niedriger verglichen mit dem essenziellen Element Cu. In Anbetracht der steigenden Emission von Pd sollte ein Umweltmonitoring die Verbreitung von Pd in der Umwelt klaeren. (orig.)

  2. Ribosomal studies on the 70S ribosome of E.coli by means of neutron scattering; Strukturuntersuchungen am 70S-Ribosom von E.coli unter Anwendung von Neutronenstreuung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkhardt, N. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstofforschung

    1997-12-31

    Ribosomes are ribonucleo-protein complexes, which catalyse proteinbiosynthesis in all living organisms. Currently, most of the structural models of the prokaryotic 70S ribosome rely on electron microscopy and describe mainly the outer shape of the particle. Neutron scattering can provide information on the internal structure of the ribosome. Parts of the structure can be contrasted for neutrons by means of an isotopic exchange of the naturally occurring hydrogen ({sup 1}H) for deuterium ({sup 2}H), allowing direct measurements in situ. Specifically deuterium-labeled ribosomes (E. coli) were prepared and analysed with neutron scattering. The biochemical methods were established and combined to a generally applicable preparation system. This allows labeling of all ribosomal components in any combination. A systematic analysis of the protein and RNA phases resulted in the development of a new model for the 70S ribosome. This model describes not only the outer shape of the particle, but displays also an experimentally determined internal protein-RNA distribution and the border of subunits for the first time (four-phase model; resolution: 50A). Models of the 70S ribosome from other studies were evaluated and ranked according to consistency with the measured scattering data. Applying a new neutron scattering technique of particular sensitivity, the proton-spin contrast-variation, single proteins could be measured and localized. The positions of the proteins S6 and S10 were determined, providing the first coordinates of protein mass centers within the 70S ribosome. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ribosomen sind Ribonukleinsaeure-Protein Komplexe, die in allen lebenden Organismen die Proteinbiosynthese katalysieren. Strukturmodelle fuer das prokaryontische 70S-Ribosom beruhen derzeit vorwiegend auf elektronenmikroskopischen Untersuchungen und beschreiben im wesentlichen die aeussere Oberflaeche des Partikels. Informationen ueber die innere Struktur des Ribosoms koennen Messungen mit Neutronenstreuung liefern. Durch den Austausch des natuerlichen Wasserstoffs ({sup 1}H) gegen Deuterium ({sup 2}H) lassen sich Teilstrukturen des Komplexes fuer Neutronen kontrastieren und direkt in situ vermessen. Im Rahmen der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden solche deuterium-markierten Ribosomenpraeparate (E. coli) hergestellt und mit Neutronen analysiert. Die erforderlichen biochemischen Methoden wurden etabliert und zu einem allgemein anwendbaren Praeparationssystem zusammengefasst. Es koennen damit alle Komponenten des 70S-Ribosoms in beliebiger Kombination markiert werden. Auf der Grundlage einer systematischen Analyse der Protein- und RNA-Phasen konnte ein neues 70S-Ribosomenmodell entwickelt werden, das nicht nur die aeussere Form des Partikels beschreibt, sondern erstmals auch eine vermessene interne Protein-RNA-Verteilung und den Verlauf der Untereinheitengrenze angibt (Vierphasen-Modell; Aufloesung: 50 A). 70S-Ribosomenmodelle aus anderen Studien wurden anhand der gemessenen Streudaten beurteilt und gewichtet. Mit Hilfe einer neuen, besonders empfindlichen Neutronenstreutechnik, der Protonenspin-Kontrastvariation, gelang es ausserdem, einzelne markierte Proteine zu vermessen und zu lokalisieren. Mit den Positionen von S6 und S10 werden die ersten im 70S-Ribosom vermessenen Proteinschwerpunktskoordinaten vorgelegt. (orig.)

  3. Tue Gutes und stifte darüber : Pflichtteilsreduzierende Zuwendungen in Form des Stifterbriefes - unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des BGH Urteils zur Dresdner Frauenkirche (BGH, Urt. v. 10.12.2003 - IV ZR 249/02) -

    OpenAIRE

    Pantaleon Stemberg, Gesa Carola

    2006-01-01

    Die Verfasserin widmet sich der Frage, inwieweit lebzeitige Zuwendungen eines Erblassers an eine gemeinnützige Stiftung einen Pflichtteilsergänzungsanspruch des Erben gegen den Beschenkten auslösen können. Dabei steht die Entscheidung des BGHs zur Dresdner Frauenkirche und die besondere Gestaltungsform des Stifterbriefes im Vordergrund. Das Stiftergeschäft wird von der Verfasserin als Rechtsgeschäft sui generis eingeordnet, das vom Pflichtteilsergänzungsanspruch nicht betroffen ist. Im zweite...

  4. Energy wood production in short rotation. Opportunities and problems in their implementation. An analysis involving expert interviews; Energieholzproduktion im Kurzumtrieb. Chancen und Probleme bei ihrer Umsetzung. Eine Analyse unter Einbeziehung von Experteninterviews

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirkner, Ronny

    2010-12-01

    The thesis has to the content the latest stand and the possibilities of further development of wood energy production by short rotation coppice (SRC). After analyzing the development of this relatively new option of the management of fast growing tree species and their possibilities, the associated legal bases are being analyzed. In addition to related agricultural land, other options will be considered to establish land (forest, fallow land). Weaknesses in delimitation and promotion, especially at country level are discussed. There follows a detailed consideration of the economical and ecological contemplation of wood agricultural cultivation, as well as the basics of the management including the raw material supply. The analyzed results serve as a basis for running interviews with experts of the subject fast growing tree species. The results of the interviews show that SRC mainly as an opportunity for long-term wood energy supply and establishment of regional circuits is seen with emphasis on the agricultural sector, but in this context there are lots of deficits on side of the management technology, basic conditions and other establishment barriers that we are confront with. After overcoming the remaining start-up difficulties however the chances are good to expand the energy wood production in short rotation forestry in an economically viable, ecologically profitable and socially acceptable way and therewith contribute to the diversification of agricultural production and relief of multifunctional forest management. (orig.)

  5. Energetic evaluation of the biomass utilization. Use of biomass under the changing framework conditions within the energy policy turnaround; Energetische Bewertung der Bioabfallverwertung. Nutzung der Biomasse unter den veraenderten Rahmenbedingungen innerhalb der Energiewende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldhafer, Nils [umwelttechnik und ingenieure GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2013-03-01

    The contribution under consideration reports on the energetic evaluation of waste biomass from two pints of view. The first point of view corresponds to the necessary critical questioning of the possible growth rates of the plant-specific efficiency. The second point of view corresponds to the necessary alteration of power generating plants in the light of the energy policy turnaround. The author presents three theses for power generation plants within the range of renewable energy sources: (a) The utilization of biomass as well as the power generation plants resulting from this work in the base load. These plants must have a grid relieving effect and have to supply control energy; (b) Due to the requirements of the volatile market of renewable energy sources, the power generation plants biomass fermentation and biomass-fired cogeneration plants have to achieve a more rapid load change behaviour between maximal and minimal behaviour of a plant; (c) Supplementary to the first two thesis, correlative primary and secondary storages should be designed.

  6. Analytic studies of test problems of laser welds in consideration of tolerated hardness peaks. Final report; Analytische Untersuchungen der Pruefproblematik an laserstrahlgeschweissten Verbindungen unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der zu tolerierenden Haertespitzen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Test methods for laser welds were investigated under the following aspects: 1. Setting a defined cracking path by changing the test piece geometry - is it possible and does it make sense? 2. Can the results obtained with changed test piece geometries be applied to standard test pieces? 3. Is crack displacement typical of small test pieces, or is it observable in real components as well? 4. Should the cracking path be predefined at all if it results in 'non-realistic' fractures? The focus was on notched bar impact tests. [German] Ziel des Forschungsvorhabens war die Ermittlung geeigneter Pruefverfahren zur Charakterisierung einer Laserstrahlschweissnaht. Folgende Fragen sollten geklaert werden: 1. Ist es moeglich und sinnvoll, mit einer Aenderung der Probengeometrie (z.B. Einbringen von Seitenkerben) den Rissverlauf in das aufgehaertete Laserschweissgut zu zwingen? 2. Welche Aussagen liefern uns die Ergebnisse dieser abgeaenderten Probengeometrie und inwiefern sind diese vor allen Dingen beim Kerbschlagbiegeversuch auf die Ergebnisse der standardisierten Probengeometrie zu uebertragen? 3. Ist das Rissauswandern ein nur fuer Kleinproben typisches Verhalten oder wird es auch bei realen Bauteilen beobachtet? 4. Ist es sinnvoll, den Rissverlauf in die sproede, aufgehaertete Schweissnaht zu zwingen, obwohl daraus ein 'realitaetsfernes' Bruchverhalten resultiert? Dabei wurde der Schwerpunkt auf die Untersuchung des Kerbschlagbiegeversuches gelegt. (orig.)

  7. Geschwister eines ausserfamilär platzierten Kindes: Handlungsempfehlungen für Beistandspersonen mit Fokus auf die systemische Familienarbeit unter Berücksichtigung der Besonderheit der Geschwisterbeziehung

    OpenAIRE

    Lötscher, Jana; Heimgartner, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Die vorliegende Fachliteraturarbeit befasst sich mit Handlungsempfehlungen für Beistandspersonen, welche eine Beistandschaft gemäss Art. 308 Abs. 1 und 2 ZGB nach Aufhebung des Aufenthaltsbestimmungsrechts gemäss Art. 310 Abs. 1 ZGB für ein Kind aus einer Familie führen. Die Geschwister des ausserfamiliär platzierten Kindes verbleiben dabei im Familiensystem. Diese besondere Konstellation erfordert von der Beistandsperson eine systemische Arbeitsweise, um der gesamten Familie gerecht zu werde...

  8. Ein Mythos wird besichtigt. Le deuxième sexe von Simone de Beauvoir unter dem Mikroskop der Genderforschung A Myth is Probed: Simone de Beauvoir’s Le deuxième sexe Under the Microscope of Gender Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieselotte Steinbrügge

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Aus Anlass des 50jährigen Jubiläums der Erstausgabe von Das andere Geschlecht haben namhafte Wissenschaftlerinnen aus den Gebieten Philosophie, Biologie, Soziologie, Psychoanalyse, Geschichte und Literatur das fast tausendseitige Standardwerk des Feminismus einer akribischen Lektüre unterzogen und dabei versucht, jene Fragen zu rekonstruieren, auf die das Werk bei seinem Erscheinen im Jahr 1949 eine Antwort gab. Die zeitlos scheinende Formel von der Konstruiertheit weiblicher Identität sollte wieder in ihren ursprünglichen Entstehungszusammenhang gestellt, die Autorin aus der mythischen Ferne in die kritische Nähe gerückt werden. Diese kritischen Lektüren sind insgesamt gut dokumentiert und erlauben meines Wissens zum ersten Mal einen Einblick in die Beauvoirsche Werkstatt. Ein weiterer – ebenfalls von Ingrid Galster herausgegebener – Band dokumentiert die Reaktionen, die unmittelbar nach Erscheinen von Le deuxième sexe in der französischen Presse erschienen sind.In celebration of the 50-year anniversary of the first edition of The Second Sex, well-known scholars from the fields of philosophy, biology, sociology, psychoanalysis, history, and literature have meticulously read the almost one-thousand-page standard work of feminism. In doing so, they have attempted to reconstruct those questions to which the work provided an answer at the time of its publication in the year 1949. The seemingly timeless formula of the constructed nature of feminine identity is placed in its original context and the author brought from the mythological distance to close critical proximity. These critical readings are overall well documented and allow a first glimpse, to my knowledge, into de Beauvoir’s workshop. A second volume—also edited by Ingrid Galster—documents the reactions that appeared in the French press at the time of the first publication of The Second Sex.

  9. The construction of a process line for high efficiency silicon solar cells under clean-room conditions. Final report; Erstellung einer Prozesslinie fuer `High-Efficiency`-Silicium-Solarzellen unter Reinraumbedingungen; Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aberle, A.; Faller, C.; Grille, T.; Glunz, S.; Kamerewerd, F.J.; Kopp, J.; Knobloch, J.; Klussmann, S.; Lauby, E.; Noel, A.; Paul, O.; Schaeffer, E.; Schubert, U.; Seitz, S.; Sterk, S.; Voss, B.; Warta, W.; Wettling, W.

    1992-08-01

    The aim of this research project was to plan, construct and test a clean-room technology laboratory for the manufacturing of silicon solar cells with 20% efficiency (1.5AM). In addition to the establishment of the laboratory, there existed the case of establishing the material and technological fundamentals of high-efficiency solar cells, testing and optimizing all stages of production as well as constructing test stands for accompanying characterisation work. The following final report describes the construction of the laboratory and characterisation systems, the material elements of high-efficiency solar cells as well as the most important results of solar cell production and optimisation. (orig./BWI) [Deutsch] Erstellung und Erprobung eines Reinraum-Technologielabors fuer die Herstellung von Si-Solarzellen mit Wirkungsgraden von 20% (AM1.5). Neben der Einrichtung des Labors bestand die Aufgabe darin, die physikalischen und technologischen Grundlagen der ``High-efficiency``-Solarzelle zu erarbeiten, alle Prozessschritte zu erproben und zu optimieren, sowie Messplaetze fuer begleitende Charakterisierungsarbeiten zu erstellen. Der vorliegende Abschlussbericht beschreibt den Aufbau der Labor- und Charakterisierungseinrichtungen, die physikalischen Grundlagen der ``High-efficiency``-Solarzelle, sowie die wichtigsten Ergebnisse der Solarzellenherstellung und -optimierung. (orig./BWI)

  10. (Rekonstruktion der Vergangenheit im neuen deutschen Familienroman (unter besonderer Berüchsichtigung des Romans Die Mittagsfrau von Julia Franck. Praeities (rekonstravimas naujajame vokiečių šeimos romane (remiantis Julijos Franck romanu Die Mittagsfrau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rūta Eidukevičienė

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Pastaraisiais metais šeimos romano žanras Vokietijoje išgyveną savotišką renesansą. Prie šio populiarumo itin prisidėjo trečiosios pokario kartos pastangos rekonstruoti šeimos istoriją, ypač senelių kartos išgyvenimus XX a. istorinių kataklizmų metu. Remiantis Julijos Franck romanu Die Mittagsfrau, kuris 2007 m. buvo pripažintas geriausiu Vokietijos romanu, straipsnyje aptariami naujojo šeimos romano turinio ir formos bruožai (autobiografinio vaizdavimo ir fikcijos sintezė, istorinio konteksto susiaurinimas iki vienos šeimos likimo, jaunosios kartos pastangos suprasti, o kartais netgi pateisinti senelių ir tėvų veiksmus tarpukario ir karo metais, keleto pasakojimo perspektyvų derinimas ir kt.. Autorė romane bando ne tiek atkurti, kiek sukurti niekada nematytos močiutės (iš dalies ir tėvo gyvenimo istoriją, tačiau skirtingai nei daugelis kitų vokiečių autorių ji neaprašinėja paties praeities rekonstravimo, t. y. šeimos relikvijų ar istorinių šaltinių paieškos, proceso. Pagrindinis dėmesys sutelkiamas į šeimos tarpusavio santykių bei intymių vidinių moters išgyvenimų vaizdavimą, tačiau kartu paliečiamas ir bendras XX a. politinis bei socialinis kontekstas, pvz., 3-ojo dešimt. ekonominė krizė, Berlyno bohemos gyvenimas, nacionalsocializmo iškilimas, žydų persekiojimas, pokario suirutė. Toks istorinio pobūdžio šeimos romanas atskleidžia prieštaravimus tarp individualios ir oficialiosios atminties, atliepia aktualias istorines diskusijas bei prisideda prie kultūrinės vokiečių tautos atminties formavimo.

  11. Time is running out. From 2005, a lack of capacity is expected in systems for mechanical-biological treatment of waste; Planung unter Zeitdruck. Ab 2005 drohen auch bei MBA-Anlagen Unterkapazitaeten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennings H.; Fischer, K. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany) Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserbau, Wasserguete- und Abfallwirtschaft; Oesterle, E. [Fichtner Consulting and IT, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2003-03-01

    According to German law, waste treatment prior to dumping is required from 2005. The waste volumes to be processed in incinerators and plants for mechanical-biological treatment of waste are still under discussion. Time is another problem as design, licensing, tendering and construction will take at least three years, so plans should already be in the pipeline today. [German] Ab 2005 ist eine Behandlung von Restabfall vor der Deponierung zwingend vorgeschrieben. Welche Mengen dabei auf MVA und MBA zu verteilen sind, wird noch diskutiert. Unabhaengig davon existiert jedoch auch ein zeitliches Problem. Die Konzeption, Genehmigung, Ausschreibung und der Bau einer Anlage dauert mindestens drei Jahre. Die Planung sollte also schon begonnen haben. (orig.)

  12. Dose reduction of radiographs of the pediatric pelvis for diagnosing hip dysplasia using a digital flat-panel detector system; Dosisreduktion bei Roentgenaufnahmen des kindlichen Beckenskelettes zur Diagnostik der Hueftgelenksdysplasie unter Verwendung eines digitalen Flachdetektorsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, K.; Ahlers, K.; Kloska, S.; Vieth, V.; Meier, N.; Heindel, W. [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Univ. Muenster (Germany); Sandmann, C.; Gosheger, G. [Orthopaedische Klinik, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Univ. Muenster (Germany)

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a possible dose reduction in pediatric pelvic radiographs in congenital hip dysplasia using a digital flat-panel system instead of a phosphor-storage system. Materials and Methods: During a six-month period, all pediatric patients referred for pelvic radiography for the evaluation of congenital hip dysplasia were randomely assigned to be examined by either a phosphor-storage system or a digital flat-panel system, whereby the latter system was operated with half the radiation dose. Thirty pairs of radiographs were assessed for the visibility of 16 anatomic details and for 5 orthopedic-radiographic measurements (5-point scale with 1 = excellent; three independent observers). The projection indices of Ball and Kommenda and of Toennis and Brunken were calculated for all radiographs. The Student's t-test was used to compare the flat-panel and the phosphor-storage radiographs for observers' assessments, patients' age and projection indices. Results: In a total of 7560 observations, the scores for the visibility of anatomic details and orthopedic-radiographic measurements were respectively 2.72 and 2.64 for the flat-panel system and 2.93 and 2.79 for the phosphor-storage system. No significant differences were found between both systems (p > 0.05) and between patient age and projection indices (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Pediatric pelvic radiographs can be obtained with a digital flat-panel system using half the radiation dose instead of a phosphor-storage system without sacrificing relevant information in the diagnosis of congenital hip dysplasia. (orig.) [German] Zielsetzung: Evaluation einer moeglichen Dosisreduktion bei kindlichen Beckenroentgenaufnahmen zur Diagnostik der Hueftgelenksdysplasie mit einem digitalen Flachdetektorsystem im Vergleich zu einem digitalen Speicherfoliensystem. Material und Methoden: Prospektiv wurden alle ueber einen Zeitraum von 6 Monaten zur Roentgenaufnahme des Beckenskelettes im Rahmen der Diagnostik der Hueftgelenksdysplasie zugewiesenen Kinder randomisiert mittels Speicherfoliensystem oder Flachdetektorsystem - letztere bei halbierter Strahlendosis - untersucht. 30 Paare von Roentgenaufnahmen wurden hinsichtlich der Sichtbarkeit von 16 anatomischen Details und der Bestimmbarkeit von 5 orthopaedisch-radiographischen Messgroessen bewertet (5-gliedrige Skala, 1 = sehr gut, 3 unabhaengige Observer). Fuer alle Aufnahmen wurden Projektionsindices nach Ball und Kommenda und nach Toennis und Brunken berechnet. Fuer die Flachdetektor- und die Speicherfolienaufnahmen wurden die Bewertungen der Observer, das Patientenalter und die Projektionsindices mittels Student'schem t-Test verglichen. Ergebnisse: Aus insgesamt 7560 Beobachtungen ergab sich fuer die Sichtbarkeit anatomischer Details/Bestimmbarkeit orthopaedisch radiographischer Messgroessen fuer das Flachdetektorsystem ein Score von 2,72/2,64, fuer das Speicherfoliensystem von 2,93/2,79. Ein signifikanter Unterschied zwischen dem Flachdetektorsystem und dem Speicherfoliensystem ergab sich nicht (p > 0,05). Patientenalter und Projektionsindices waren ebenfalls ohne signifikanten Unterschied (p > 0,05). Schlussfolgerung: Kindliche Beckenroentgenaufnahmen zur Diagnostik der Hueftgelenksdysplasie koennen ohne diagnostisch relevante Einbussen mit einem Flachdetektorsystem bei einer im Vergleich zu einem Speicherfoliensystem halbierten Dosis angefertigt werden. (orig.)

  13. Forest damage survey for 1997. Study on forest ecosystems in Hessen. Canopy density and forest growth in changing environmental conditions; Waldschadensbericht `97. Waldoekosystemstudie Hessen. Kronenverlichtungen und Waldwachstum unter sich veraendernden Umweltbedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paar, U.; Koerver, F.; Gawehn, P.; Kirchhoff, A.; Schoenfelder, E.; Eichhorn, J. [comps.

    1997-12-31

    The results of this year`s forest damage survey, the fourteenth of its kind, show that the condition of our forests has improved slightly during the past two years. The mean loss of needle and leaf foliage across all tree species and age classes is now at 25%, which is a slight decrease from the 26% peak in 1995. In keeping with the schedule this year`s survey also contains the regional results of the twelve Hessian forest areas, which were last compiled in 1994. Our relief about the slight improvement is somewhat attenuated by the condition of the oak, whose deterioration is not least due to insect attack. Moreover, all tree species are still in a markedly poorer condition than at the first forest damge survey in 1984. We must accept the f