Implementation of Couples' Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing Services in Durban, South Africa, for HIV Prevention and Intervention. Heterosexual couples represent the largest HIV risk group in sub-Saharan Africa. Couples' Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing (CVCT) is an effective HIV prevention strategy because ...
The overall acceptance of pre-test counseling in labour among women with unknown sero-status was 71.7% while acceptance of counseling and voluntary HIV testing was 56.6%. Among those who accepted pre-test counseling in labour, 78.9% accepted HIV testing and 8.6% of these were found to be HIV infected.
An intervention workshop was organised by a community-based project with aim to promote HIV Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT) and assess the perception of participants about the benefits of VCT and knowing their HIV status. The intervention workshop was conducted on a group of thirty teachers who consented ...
Objective: The objective of this qualitative study was to identify psychosocial correlates of HIV voluntary counselling and testing (VCT), with an emphasis on the association between fear of AIDS-related stigma and willingness to have an HIV test. Methods: The study was executed in Limpopo Province at University of ...
OBJECTIVE: To determine barriers and attitudes towards voluntary counseling and HIV-testing among secondary school students in Sengerema district. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study was done in Sengerema district, Mwanza August 2006. A total of 400 secondary school students from the two schools ...
The study assessed gender differences in practice of HIV voluntary counselling among secondary school adolescents in Edo State. One hypothesis guided the study. This was a descriptive study based on survey research design. One thousand, nine hundred and eighty eight (1988) secondary school adolescents were ...
This study assessed the demographic variables predicting the practice of HIV Voluntary Counselling among secondary school adolescents in Edo State. Thus, a descriptive survey research was adopted for the study. One thousand, nine hundred and eighty eight (1988) secondary school adolescents were sampled from ...
characterized young people aged 15-24 and their attitudes and knowledge towards HIV and voluntary. Counselling and testing. The purpose of this paper is to explore the prevalence and pattern of VCT uptake among youths in Nigeria, exploring the differences across the geopolitical zones, religions, etc. This will.
Review of antenatal-linked voluntary counseling and HIV testing in Sub-Saharan Africa: lessons and options for Ghana. F Baiden, Rita Baiden, J Williams, Patricia Akweongo, Christine Clerk, C Debpuur, J Philips, A Hodgson ...
Leta Tesfaye H; Sandøy Ingvild F; Fylkesnes Knut
Abstract Background Voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT) is one of the key strategies in the HIV/AIDS prevention and control programmes in Ethiopia. However, utilization of this service among adults is very low. The aim of the present study was to investigate factors associated with VCT utilization among adult men since men are less likely than women to be offered and accept routine HIV testing. Methods The study utilized data from the Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey (EDHS) 2005, w...
Nava Yeganeh; Mariana Simon; Deborah Mindry; Karin Nielsen-Saines; Maria Cristina Chaves; Breno Santos; Marineide Melo; Brenna Mendoza; Pamina Gorbach
Background Providing HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) to men who attend their partner's prenatal care is an intervention with potential to reduce HIV transmission to women and infants during the vulnerable period of pregnancy...
Izugbara, Chimaraoke O.; Undie, Chi-Chi; Mudege, Netsayi N.; Ezeh, Alex C.
There is limited research addressing the beliefs of adolescents related to Voluntary Counseling and HIV-Testing (VCT). This paper analyzes qualitative data on such beliefs elicited from male youth in Uganda and Malawi. Although study participants understood the mainstream public health rhetoric on VCT, much of their narratives framed going for HIV…
He, Na; Zhang, Jinling; Yao, Jinjian; Tian, Xiuhong; Zhao, Genming; Jiang, Qingwu; Detels, Roger
A study of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT) among rural migrants was conducted in Shanghai, China. An anonymous questionnaire was administered face-to-face. Among 2,690 participants, 78% reported having had lifetime sexual intercourse with 41.3% of singles reporting sexual intercourse, 9.2%…
Muula Adamson S
Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV counseling and testing is an important intervention in the prevention, control and management of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Counseling and testing can be an entry point for prevention, care and support. Knowledge of the quality of services and motivations for testing by individuals is important for effective understanding of the testing environment. Methods A cross sectional explorative study of clients accessing HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT and counselors was conducted in 6 government health centers in Blantyre City, Malawi. We aimed to assess the availability of critical clinic supplies and identify the motivations of clients seeking counseling and testing services. We also aimed to identify the health professional cadres that were providing VCT in Blantyre city. Results 102 VCT clients and 26 VCT counselors were interviewed. Among the VCT clients, 74% were Conclusion HIV counseling and testing facilities were available in Blantyre city in all the six public health facilities assessed. The majority of counseling and testing clients were motivated by perceptions of being at risk of HIV infection. In a country with 12% of individuals 15 to 49 years infected, there is need to encourage testing among population groups that may not perceive themselves to be at risk of infection.
Baryarama, Fulgentius; Bunnell, Rebecca E; Montana, Livia; Hladik, Wolfgang; Opio, Alex; Musinguzi, Joshua; Kirungi, Wilford; Waswa-Bright, Laban; Mermin, Jonathan H
To compare HIV prevalence from routine voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) data with a population-based serosurvey in Uganda and to assess the utility of VCT data as a supplemental data source for HIV surveillance. We analyzed HIV testing data from 75,640 unique VCT clients aged 15-59 years collected from August 2004 to January 2005 at 160 VCT sites. We excluded clients who reported illness as the reason for testing. During the same time period, 18,525 adults aged 15-59 years were tested for HIV in the Uganda HIV/AIDS Sero-Behavioral Survey (UHSBS). We compared UHSBS HIV prevalence with age-standardized VCT prevalence, overall and among stand-alone and facility-based VCT sites. HIV prevalence in urban areas was similar overall [UHSBS: 9.7%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 8.6 to 10.7; VCT: 10.1%, CI 9.8 to 10.5] and for both men (UHSBS: 6.3%, CI 4.9 to 7.6; VCT: 7.1, CI 6.6 to 7.5) and women (UHSBS: 12.2%, CI 10.6 to 13.7; VCT: 12.9%, CI 12.3 to 13.4). Urban prevalence from UHSBS (9.7%, CI 8.6 to 10.7), VCT stand-alone sites (10.3% CI 9.8 to 10.8), and VCT sites in health facility settings (10.0%, CI 9.5 to 10.4) was similar. However, in rural areas where VCT coverage is much lower than in urban areas (10% versus 31%), HIV prevalence was much higher among rural VCT clients (8.2%, CI 7.9% to 8.4%) than among rural UHSBS participants (5.2%, CI 4.8% to 5.5%). This resulted in overall higher HIV prevalence among all VCT clients (8.8%, CI 8.7 to 9.1) compared with all survey participants (5.9%, CI 5.6 to 6.2). After excluding clients who give illness as a reason for testing, VCT data may be used without further adjustment to monitor the HIV epidemic among urban Ugandans using either VCT data from stand-alone or health facility-based sites. However, monitoring rural and overall HIV prevalence using VCT data may not be appropriate until the uptake of VCT in rural areas is significantly improved or an adjustment factor is applied.
Adesina Omololu Ayodele Adekanbi
Full Text Available Introduction: HIV counseling and testing is the vital and preliminary interventional step aimed at reducing the spread of HIV infection. The study was designed to determine the attitude of health care professionals towards voluntary counseling and testing (VCT for HIV/AIDS at Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive cross sectional prospective study a self –administered structured questionnaire was used, it contained sections on bio social variables and section aimed at fulfilling the objectives of the study; the participants were medical doctors, nurses, medical laboratory scientists, radiographers, social workers and pharmacists. Data were collated, inputted into a computer and statistical analysis performed using SPSS version 22 software. Descriptive variables were summarized using percentages and proportions for categorical variables. Bivariate analysis was done to test for association between categorical variables using the chi square test; p value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to identify predictive variables appropriate for the association between socio-demographic and willingness to go for screening. Results: Two hundred and thirty eight questionnaires were administered and statistically analyzed; the group consists of workers mostly females, (55% aged 21-30 years, (47.8%, married, (52.5% Christians, (96.2% medical doctors, (49.2% of Esan extraction; marital status and occupation of the participants significantly influenced their attitude towards voluntary counseling and testing for HIV/AID. A good percentage of the respondents have the right attitude towards VCT of HIV/AIDS. Conclusion: This study has shown that a good percentage of the respondents have the right attitude towards VCT of HIV/AIDS while a lesser proportion had negative attitude.
Bukola Olateju Omolase
Full Text Available AIM: This study was designed to determine the acceptability of voluntary counselling and testing (VCT for HIV and identify possible barriers to its uptake amongst pregnant women in a Nigerian community. METHODS: One hundred and twenty seven consenting pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at Federal Medical Centre, Owo were randomly selected and interviewed by the authors and two trained assistants. The study was conducted between August and October, 2007. The information obtained with the aid of semi structured questionnaire included their bio data, awareness about VCT and vertical transmission of HIV-AIDS. Other information obtained included acceptability of VCT and barriers to its uptake. RESULT: Majority (85% were aware about vertical transmission of HIV, most (83.5% knew of VCT. They were predominantly willing to accept VCT (77.2% and were ready to recommend VCT to others(76.2%. The main identified barriers to uptake of voluntary counseling were fear of possible outcome (82.7% and risk of divorce (70.9%. CONCLUSION: Most respondents were aware of voluntary counselling and testing for HIV as well as the vertical transmission of HIV. Majority were willing to accept HIV test and recommend same to others. Barriers to uptake of HIV test included fear of possible outcome, lack of felt need, stigmatization and financial constraint. There is need to extend voluntary counselling and testing for HIV to all antenatal patients. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(4.000: 309-314
Njau, B; Watt, M H; Ostermann, J; Manongi, R; Sikkema, K J
It is estimated that 5.6% of the Tanzanian population ages 15-49 are infected with HIV, but only 30% of adults have ever had an HIV test. Couples' testing has proven to increase testing coverage and introduce HIV prevention, but barriers include access to testing services and unequal gender dynamics in relationships. Innovative approaches are needed to address barriers to couple's testing and increase uptake of HIV testing. Using qualitative data collection methods, a formative study was conducted to assess the acceptability of a home-based couples counseling and testing (HBCCT) approach. Eligible study participants included married men and women, HIV-infected individuals, health care and home-based care providers, voluntary counseling and testing counselors, and community leaders. A total of 91 individuals participated in focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews conducted between September 2009 and January 2010 in rural settings in Northern Tanzania. An HBCCT intervention appears to be broadly acceptable among participants. Benefits of HBCCT were identified in terms of access, confidentiality, and strengthening the relationship. Fears of negative consequences from knowing one's HIV status, including stigma, blame, physical abuse, or divorce, remain a concern and a potential barrier to the successful provision of the intervention. Lessons for implementation highlighted the importance of appointments for home visits, building relationships of confidence and trust between counselors and clients, and assessing and responding to a couple's readiness to undergo HIV testing. HBCCT should addresses HIV stigma, emphasize confidentiality, and improve communication skills for disclosure and decision-making among couples.
Leta Tesfaye H
Full Text Available Abstract Background Voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT is one of the key strategies in the HIV/AIDS prevention and control programmes in Ethiopia. However, utilization of this service among adults is very low. The aim of the present study was to investigate factors associated with VCT utilization among adult men since men are less likely than women to be offered and accept routine HIV testing. Methods The study utilized data from the Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey (EDHS 2005, which is a cross-sectional survey conducted on a nationally representative sample. Using cluster sampling, 6,778 men aged 15–59 years were selected from all the eleven administrative regions in Ethiopia. Logistic regression was used to analyze potential factors associated with VCT utilization. Results Overall, 21.9% of urban men and 2.6% of rural men had ever tested for HIV through VCT and most of them had learned their HIV test result. Having no stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS was found to be strongly and positively associated with VCT utilization in both urban and rural strata. In rural areas HIV test rates were higher among younger men (aged ≤44 years and those of higher socio-economic position (SEP. Among urban men, risky sexual behaviour was positively associated with VCT utilization whereas being Muslim was found to be inversely associated with utilization of VCT. Area of residence as well as SEP strongly affected men’s level of stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS. Conclusions VCT utilization among men in Ethiopia was low and affected by HIV/AIDS-related stigma and residence. In order to increase VCT acceptability, HIV/AIDS prevention and control programs in the country should focus on reducing HIV/AIDS-related stigma. Targeting rural men with low SEP should be given first priority when designing, expanding, and implementing VCT services in the country.
Kouassi-M ’Bengue A
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the co-infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV and immune deficiency virus (HIV among clients consulting at the Voluntary Counseling and Testing Center (VCT Center of the Institut Pasteur de C ôte d ’Ivoire (IPCI. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to June 2010 at the VCT of IPCI. All clients attending the VCT of IPCI for HIV test after having signed the informed consent form were included in the study. Venous blood samples were collected from the clients after an interview. Then the rapid tests for screening of HIV infection (Determine HIV 1/2 of Abbott and Genie II HIV-1/HIV-2, Bio-Rad were performed. As for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg test, it was performed using ELISA test system using Monolisa HBsAg Ultra-Bio-Rad. Results: Of 278 samples analyzed, 30 were positive to antibody against HIV-1, giving a seroprevalence of about 10.8%, and 35 were positive to HBsAg, giving a seroprevalence of 12.6%. As for co-infection of HIV and HBV, it was 7/278 cases about 2.5%. Conclusions: It can be concluded that co-infection of HBV and HIV is relatively low among clients consulting at the VCT of the IPCI. Serological surveillance should be systematic in various HIV testing centers in the country. The use of rapid tests for detection of HBsAg allows a lot of tests to be realized. However, the choice of these tests depends on the evaluation results in reference laboratories and situation on ground.
Mitchell, Jason W
Many men who have sex with men acquire HIV from their primary male partners while in a relationship. Studies with gay couples have demonstrated that relationship characteristics and testing behaviors are important to examine for HIV prevention. Recently, couples-based voluntary HIV counseling and testing (CVCT) has become available to male couples throughout the U.S. However, HIV-negative couples' attitudes toward using CVCT and how their relationship characteristics may affect their use of CVCT remain largely unknown. This information is particularly relevant for organizations that offer CVCT. To assess couples' attitudes, and associated factors toward using CVCT, a cross-sectional study design was used with a novel Internet-based recruitment method to collect dyadic data from a national sample of 275 HIV-negative gay couples. Multivariate multilevel modeling was used to identify factors associated with differences between and within couples about their attitudes towards using CVCT. Findings revealed that couples were "somewhat" to "very likely" to use CVCT. More positive attitudes toward using CVCT were associated with couples who had higher levels of relationship satisfaction and commitment toward their sexual agreement and among those who had at least one partner having had sex outside of the relationship. Less positive attitude toward using CVCT was associated with couples who had higher levels of trust toward their partners being dependable. Differences within couples, including age between partners, whether sex had occurred outside of the relationship, and value toward a sexual agreement also affected their attitudes toward using CVCT. Providing additional testing methods may help HIV-negative gay couples better manage their HIV risk.
Wang, Yuan; Guo, Jian; Lu, Wenli
Rapid HIV voluntary counselling and testing (RVCT) is an alternative method of standard HIV voluntary counselling and testing (SVCT). Less is known about whether RVCT improves the receipt rate of HIV test results among clients who seek HIV counselling and testing. We aimed to evaluate effectiveness of RVCT on result receipt rate. We conducted a comprehensive search of databases containing Medline, EBSCO, Web of science, and Cochrane library to identify studies published up to August 2012. Reviewers extracted information independently. Risk of bias was evaluated with Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing study quality. Five randomised controlled trials were included and analysed for the result receipt rate using a random-effects model. The pooled receipt rate of HIV test results in the RVCT was significantly higher than in the SVCT (RR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.47-2.07). Our results suggest RVCT as a favourable method to increase the receipt of HIV test results. Only two included studies assessed the modification of risk behaviour after HIV-CT in a different manner; also, the sample size was small in the current meta-analysis. In future research, it is necessary to confirm the effect of RVCT on disinhibition of post-test risk behaviour. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Rasch, Vibeke; Yambesi, Fortunata; Massawe, Siriel
OBJECTIVE: To assess the acceptance and outcome of voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT) among women who had an unsafe abortion. METHOD: 706 women were provided with post-abortion contraceptive service and offered VCT. We collected data on socioeconomic characteristics and contraceptive use...... and determined the HIV status of those who accepted VCT. Using a nested case-control design, we compared women who accepted HIV testing with women who did not. To study the association between socioeconomic factors, HIV testing acceptance and condom use in more detail, we did stratified analyses based on age......-24 years and 25% among single women aged 25-45 years. CONCLUSION: HIV testing and condoms were accepted by most women who had an unsafe abortion. The poor reproductive health of these women could be improved by good post-abortion care that includes contraceptive counselling, VCT and condom promotion....
MacPhail, Catherine Lorne; Pettifor, Audrey; Coates, Tom; Rees, Helen
Reduced HIV risk behavior and increased use of care and support services have been demonstrated among adults accessing HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT). The impact of VCT on adolescents is, however, not known. Focus group discussions were held with adolescents and parents in two South African townships to establish the perceptions of and…
Full Text Available The study investigated the perceptions of the youth regarding Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT and sexual aspects related to HIV and AIDS. The study was grounded in qualitative methodology, using 4 focus group interviews for data collection - triangulating the results with field notes and literature. The participants of the four focus groups proved to be well informed on the topic and had clear perceptions concerning several aspects. They were very positive regarding the advantages of VCT for the prevention and management of HIV and AIDS. The participants recognised the need for the youth to be better informed about VCT and HIV and AIDS. They were much concerned by the lack of parental involvement in sexual education as well as the permissiveness of the youth who partook in alcohol and drug abuse as well as prostitution. Participants of the study stated that this problem was exacerbated by poverty and poor socio economic conditions.
It is critically important for individuals to learn about their HIV status and make informed decisions about their future. The study aimed at determining the patterns of voluntary counselling and testing among undergraduate university students in Lagos, Nigeria. The study was conducted in May 2010 among students recruited ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Health, fair financing and responsiveness to the user's needs and expectations are seen as the essential objectives of health systems. Efforts have been made to conceptualise and measure responsiveness as a basis for evaluating the non-health aspects of health systems performance. This study assesses the applicability of the responsiveness tool developed by WHO when applied in the context of voluntary HIV counselling and testing services (VCT at a district level in Kenya. Methods A mixed method study was conducted employing a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methods concurrently. The questionnaire proposed by WHO was administered to 328 VCT users and 36 VCT counsellors (health providers. In addition to the questionnaire, qualitative interviews were carried out among a total of 300 participants. Observational field notes were also written. Results A majority of the health providers and users indicated that the responsiveness elements were very important, e.g. confidentiality and autonomy were regarded by most users and health providers as very important and were also reported as being highly observed in the VCT room. However, the qualitative findings revealed other important aspects related to confidentiality, autonomy and other responsiveness elements that were not captured by the WHO tool. Striking examples were inappropriate location of the VCT centre, limited information provided, language problems, and concern about the quality of counselling. Conclusion The results indicate that the WHO developed responsiveness elements are relevant and important in measuring the performance of voluntary HIV counselling and testing. However, the tool needs substantial revision in order to capture other important dimensions or perspectives. The findings also confirm the importance of careful assessment and recognition of locally specific aspects when conducting comparative studies on responsiveness of HIV testing
Van Der Borght, Stefaan; Schim Van Der Loeff, Maarten Franciscus; Clevenbergh, Philippe; Kabarega, Jean Pierre; Kamo, Emmanuel; Van Cranenburgh, Katinka; Rijckborst, Henk; Lange, Joep M; Rinke De Wit, Tobias Floris
International audience; High uptake of HIV voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) services is important for the success of HIV workplace programs in sub-Saharan Africa. From 2001 onwards Heineken, a multinational brewing company, implemented a comprehensive HIV prevention and treatment program for employees and their dependents of its African subsidiaries. Confidential in-house VCT is part of this program. VCT uptake dynamics over time, and factors associated with early uptake were studied. ...
Abstract High uptake of HIV voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) services is important for the success of HIV workplace programs in sub-Saharan Africa. From 2001 onwards Heineken, a multinational brewing company, implemented a comprehensive HIV prevention and treatment program for employees and their dependents of its African subsidiaries. Confidential in-house VCT is part of this program. VCT uptake dynamics over time, and factors associated with early uptake were studied. Be...
Full Text Available Sexual violence, an HIV determinant, is an integrated behavior in the D.R.Congo. We aimed to analyze the prevalence of forced sexual intercourse (FSI among people receiving HIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing in a hospital in Kinshasa, and its association with socio-demographics, behaviors and HIV status.Case-control study (2010-2012. Two-hundred and seventy-four cases with a new HIV+ test and 1,340 controls with an HIV- test were interviewed about HIV-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, including FSI.Thirty-four percent of the participants declared having had FSI (38% of women and 32% of men. Being a woman, aged 25-49 and reporting multiple sexual partners were associated with reporting FSI. For men, being single was protective against FSI; and cohabiting, having a high socioeconomic status, and alcohol consumption increased the odds. For women, being single, divorced/separated and widow was associated with reporting FSI. A significant positive association was found between FSI and an HIV positive test.Among our Congolese population, FSI was strongly associated with HIV infection and it was also associated with alcohol consumption and multiple sexual partnerships, other key HIV determinants. These behaviors need to be identified as potential risk factors of FSI during counseling interventions. Researchers, practitioners and decision-makers should work together to get violence prevention integrated into health, social and educational policies.
Yahaya, L A; Jimoh, A A G; Balogun, O R
HIV/AIDS has become a source of concern all over the world. The concern cannot be isolated from the devastating effects of HIV/AIDS on economic, social, political and technological development of any nation with a high prevalence rate Nigeria is one of the countries with HIV/AIDS prevalence rate of over 4%. Despite this challenge, the patronage of Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) is still very low. This study therefore examined the factors hindering the acceptance of VCT as expressed by youths in Kwara State. A total of 600 youths from the three Senatorial districts in the State were involved in the study. A survey instrument designed by the researchers was used to collect relevant information from the respondents. Among others, the study identified ignorance, poverty, inadequate number of VCT centres, stigma and discrimination as major factors responsible for the low patronage of VCT centres in Kwara State. Gender and religion had no significant influence on the respondents' views while place of residence had significant influence. The implications of the findings to medical practice and counseling were identified and discussed.
Manirankunda, Lazare; Loos, Jasna; Alou, Therese Assebide; Colebunders, Robert; Nostlinger, Christiana
This study explored perceptions, needs, and barriers of sub-Saharan African migrants in relation to HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT). Using an inductive qualitative methodological approach, data were obtained from focus group discussions. Results showed that participants were in principle in favor of VCT. However, they indicated that…
Background HIV voluntary counselling and testing was a key HIV prevention strategy brought to scale by India's National AIDS Control Organization. Condom uptake is an essential metric of intervention impact given the expansion of the epidemic into an increasingly diverse population. With only 20% of first-time counselling and testing clients at the largest HIV treatment hospital in south India reporting previous condom use, the question of intervention impact on condom use deserves investigation. In this study, we track intervention impact across various demographic groups and identify the added value of more thorough counselling. Methods Data were collected from 8,865 individuals who attended counselling multiple times at the Tamil Nadu Government Hospital of Thoracic Medicine over the years 2004-2009. Counsellors recorded client demographic characteristics, HIV risk behaviours reported, and counselling services provided after each counselling session. Matching and regression methods were used to determine the probability of condom uptake by serostatus, gender, and receipt of personalized risk reduction counselling while controlling for other characteristics. Results HIV counselling and testing was associated with condom uptake among 29.2% of HIV positive women (CI 24.5-34.4%), 31.7% of HIV positive men (CI 27.8-35.4%), 15.5% of HIV negative women (CI 11.2-20.8%), and only 3.6% of HIV negative men (CI 1.9-5.9%) who had previously never used condoms. Personalized risk reduction counselling increased impact in some groups; for example an additional 18% of HIV negative women (CI 11.3-24.4%) and 17% of HIV positive men (CI 10.9-23.4%) started using condoms. The number of sexual partners was not associated with the impact of counselling completeness. Conclusions Because the components of testing and counselling impact the condom use habits of men and women differently, understanding the dynamics of condom use negotiation between partners is essential to optimizing
Liu, Y; Tang, H F; Ning, Z; Zheng, H; He, N; Zhang, Y Y
Objective: To understand the prevalence rates of HIV-syphilis and HIV-herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) co-infections and related factors among men having sex with men (MSM) who had visited the voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT) clinics in Shanghai, China. Methods: 756 eligible MSM who attended the VCT clinics of Shanghai Municipality and Putuo district during March to August, 2015 were recruited to participate in a cross-sectional survey with questionnaire interview and blood testing for HIV, syphilis and HSV-2. Results: A total of 732 participants completed a valid questionnaire survey. The prevalence rates were 3.3 % (24/732) for HIV/Syphilis co-infection, 1.9 % (14/732) for HIV/HSV-2 co-infection, and 0.7 % (5/732) for HIV/Syphilis/HSV-2 co-infection, respectively. HIV prevalence appeared significantly higher among syphilis-infected participants (45.3 % , 24/53) than those without Syphilis (7.2 % , 61/679) (χ(2)=63.11, P Syphilis co-infection. Those participants who had high middle school or lower levels of education ( OR =6.87, 95 %CI : 1.86-25.42; OR =9.82, 95 %CI : 2.25-42.85) were under risk on HIV and HSV-2 co-infection. Conclusion: HIV/Syphilis and HIV/HSV-2 co-infection were seen among MSM who attended the VCT clinics in Shanghai that called for special attention, especially on migrants, those with low education or illicit drug users.
Background/Objective: Sub-Saharan Africa is home to two-thirds of all people living with HIV/AIDS. Nigeria has the third highest population of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) is rapidly becoming an important component of HIV/AIDS prevention and care strategy.
Full Text Available Background: The growing menace created by the HIV/AIDS (human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome has alarmed not only the public health officials but also the general community. The Voluntary Counseling and Testing Centre (VCTC services have begun as a cost-effective intervention in reversing this epidemic. Objectives: 1. To study the sociodemographic characteristics of HIV-positive clients and their risk behaviors. 2. To elucidate the reasons for their visit to the VCTC and know the problems anticipated by the clients after revealing their HIV-positive status. Study Design: A cross-sectional record-based study. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in August 2007 among clients who tested positive for HIV in the VCTC of a district hospital in Karnataka from January to July 2007. Results: Study included 249 individuals, of whom 64.7% were males, 88.7% (age, 15-49 years, married (72.7% males and 84.0% females and literate (females 71.5% and males 85.7%. A high percentage of nonresponse regarding the pattern of risk behavior was noted among the subjects (males: 42.8% and females: 90.9%. Of the individuals who responded, 91 males (98.9% and 6 females (75.0% had multiple heterosexual sex partners, while 1 male had homosexual partner. The figures in females show that two (25% of them had a history of blood transfusion. The reason for visiting the VCTC were cited as some form of illness (33.3%, confirmation of test results (32.9%, family members diagnosed as HIV positive (12.9% and 11.6% were referred from Directly Observed Treatment Scheme (DOTS center. More than three quarter of the sample population anticipated discrimination at the time of medical treatment. Conclusion: People have begun using VCTC services, which reflects a change in their attitude toward HIV. The study provides us a clue to formulate an effective approach to educate people as well as the health personnel who are thought of as one of the important
Collier, Alizanne C.; van der Borght, Stefaan F. M.; Rinke de Wit, Tobias; Richards, Sarah C.; Feeley, Frank G.
Heineken Breweries launched a workplace HIV/AIDS program at its Rwanda subsidiary in September 2001. By January 25, 2005, 736/2,595 eligible individuals had reported for counseling and HIV testing: 380/521 employees (72.9%), 254/412 spouses (61.7%), 99/1,517 children (6.5%), and 3/145 retired
Perception, attitude and practice of voluntary counseling and testing for HIV/AIDS among undergraduates ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives ... people living with HIV/AIDS world wide is about 39.5 million (34.1-47.7million).1 In Nigeria ...
Background: Voluntary Counselling and Testing. (VCT) has become a cornerstone intervention in the fight against HIV. Current evidence suggests that it is cost-effective in changing behaviour and preventing. HIV infection. A number of studies have demonstrated some of the factors which are associated with both intention ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. University students are often a young and sexually active group that is at risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV. We assessed risky HIV sexual behaviors and utilization of voluntary counseling and testing services among undergraduate students at Addis Ababa Science and Technology University, Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between May and June, 2013. Standardized semi-structured self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Simple random sampling technique was use to select departments from each school. All students in the selected departments were the study participants. Data were entered into EPI-Info and analyzed using SPPS statistical packages. P-value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results Of the total 602 students selected, an overall response rate of 557 (92.6% were registered. Among the participants 361 (60% were males. The student ages’ were ranged from 17 up to 25 years with mean age of 20.3 ± 1.6. Around 385 (64% of them were in the age group of 17 up to 20 years. Among the study participants, 161 (26.8% had sexual contact and the mean age of first sexual encounter was 17.4 (SD =2.3 years. About 443 (76% of students knew that condoms can prevent Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs. Among sexually active students, 74 (46% had not used condom during first time sex. Among those responded, 488 (83.4% had heard information about VCT; however, 52% had not ever used VCT service. The overall mean score of knowledge and attitude of students towards risk perception on HIV was around 66% and 57%, respectively. Students who enrolled in health science departments had almost three time more knowledge [AOR(95%CI = 2.83 (1.67, 4.80] and two and half times more favorable [AOR (95% CI = 2.55 (1.60, 4.06] attitudes towards HIV risk reduction strategies than students in non-health related departments
Woldeyohannes, Desalegn; Asmamaw, Yehenew; Sisay, Solomon; Hailesselassie, Werissaw; Birmeta, Kidist; Tekeste, Zinaye
HIV/AIDS is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. University students are often a young and sexually active group that is at risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV. We assessed risky HIV sexual behaviors and utilization of voluntary counseling and testing services among undergraduate students at Addis Ababa Science and Technology University, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted between May and June, 2013. Standardized semi-structured self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Simple random sampling technique was use to select departments from each school. All students in the selected departments were the study participants. Data were entered into EPI-Info and analyzed using SPPS statistical packages. P-value sexual contact and the mean age of first sexual encounter was 17.4 (SD =2.3) years. About 443 (76%) of students knew that condoms can prevent Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs). Among sexually active students, 74 (46%) had not used condom during first time sex. Among those responded, 488 (83.4%) had heard information about VCT; however, 52% had not ever used VCT service. The overall mean score of knowledge and attitude of students towards risk perception on HIV was around 66% and 57%, respectively. Students who enrolled in health science departments had almost three time more knowledge [AOR(95%CI) = 2.83 (1.67, 4.80)] and two and half times more favorable [AOR (95% CI) = 2.55 (1.60, 4.06)] attitudes towards HIV risk reduction strategies than students in non-health related departments. Some students were engaged in risky sexual behaviour even though they had heard about HIV/AIDS. The perception of risk for acquisition of HIV infection and utilization of VCT were low. HIV prevention and control strategies including education in the areas of HIV/AIDS as part of university programs curriculum, specially non-health students, and strengthening health institutions to provide youth-friendly VCT services for HIV with "know
Anonymity and confidentiality was maintained throughout the study. ResULTs. A total of 400 students from two secondary schools were interviewed. .... Peltzer, K., Nzewi, E., Mohan, K. Attitudes towards HIV- antibody testing and people with AIDS among university students in India, South Africa and United States. Indian.
Peck, Robert; Fitzgerald, Daniel W; Liautaud, Bernard; Deschamps, Marie Marcelle; Verdier, Rose Irene; Beaulieu, Marie Eugene; GrandPierre, Reynold; Joseph, Patrice; Severe, Patrice; Noel, Francine; Wright, Peter; Johnson Jr, Warren D; Pape, Jean William
HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) may be an effective strategy to prevent transmission of HIV in developing countries. Hypothesizing that primary care services and HIV VCT have synergistic benefits, we examine the feasibility, the demand, and the effect of integrating on-site primary care services into VCT at a stand-alone VCT center in Port au Prince, Haiti. Through a retrospective review of patient records, we describe the integration of primary care services at the Groupe Haitien d'Etude du Sarcome de Kaposi et des Infections Opportunistes (GHESKIO) VCT center between1985 and 2000. Between 1985 and 1999, services for HIV care, tuberculosis care, treatment of sexually transmitted diseases, and reproductive health were sequentially integrated into HIV VCT at GHESKIO. The number of new people seeking voluntary counseling and testing at GHESKIO increased from 142 in 1985 to 8175 in 1999, with an increasing percentage of women, adolescents, symptom-free clients, and self-referred clients. Of new adults seeking VCT in 1999, the center was able to provide AIDS care to 17%, tuberculosis treatment to 6%, sexually transmitted infection management to 18%, and family planning to 19%. HIV transmission between discordant couples was 0 infections/100 follow-up years (95% CI, 0-3.2); vertical transmission from mother to child was 11 infections/100 live births (95% CI, 4.6-21.9); These rates are significantly lower than expected rates of transmission in Haiti. This report demonstrates the feasibility, demand, and effective synergy of integrating on-site primary care services into HIV VCT in Haiti. VCT is a good entry point for people in need of services for communicable diseases and reproductive health, and, reciprocally, services attract more people to VCT, including populations that are at high risk for HIV infection. This program is being duplicated elsewhere in Haiti and can serve as a model for other countries.
Karita, Etienne; Nsanzimana, Sabin; Ndagije, Felix; Wall, Kristin M; Mukamuyango, Jeannine; Mugwaneza, Placidie; Remera, Eric; Raghunathan, Pratima L; Bayingana, Roger; Kayitenkore, Kayitesi; Bekan-Homawoo, Brigitte; Tichacek, Amanda; Allen, Susan
Couples' voluntary HIV counseling and testing (CVCT) is a WHO-recommended intervention for prevention of heterosexual HIV transmission which very few African couples have received. We report the successful nationwide implementation of CVCT in Rwanda. From 1988 to 1994 in Rwanda, pregnant and postpartum women were tested for HIV and requested testing for their husbands. Partner testing was associated with more condom use and lower HIV and sexually transmitted infection rates, particularly among HIV-discordant couples. After the 1994 genocide, the research team continued to refine CVCT procedures in Zambia. These were reintroduced to Rwanda in 2001 and continually tested and improved. In 2003, the Government of Rwanda (GoR) established targets for partner testing among pregnant women, with the proportion rising from 16% in 2003 to 84% in 2008 as the prevention of mother-to-child transmission program expanded to >400 clinics. In 2009, the GoR adopted joint posttest counseling procedures, and in 2010 a quarterly follow-up program for discordant couples was established in government clinics with training and technical assistance. An estimated 80%-90% of Rwandan couples have now been jointly counseled and tested resulting in prevention of >70% of new HIV infections. Rwanda is the first African country to have established CVCT as standard of care in antenatal care. More than 20 countries have sent providers to Rwanda for CVCT training. To duplicate Rwanda's success, training and technical assistance must be part of a coordinated effort to set national targets, timelines, indicators, and budgets. Governments, bilateral, and multilateral funding agencies must jointly prioritize CVCT for prevention of new HIV infections.
Van der Borght, Stefaan F; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F; Clevenbergh, Philippe; Kabarega, Jean Pierre; Kamo, Emmanuel; van Cranenburgh, Katinka; Rijckborst, Henk; Lange, Joep M; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F
High uptake of HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) services is important for the success of HIV workplace programs in sub-Saharan Africa. From 2001 onwards, Heineken, a multinational brewing company, implemented a comprehensive HIV prevention and treatment program for employees and their dependents of its African subsidiaries. Confidential in-house VCT is part of this program. VCT uptake dynamics over time, and factors associated with early uptake were studied. Between September 2001 and December 2007, 9723 adult beneficiaries were tested for HIV in 14 company sites in five African countries. Three hundred and seventy (3.8%) of tested persons were infected with HIV-1. During the first 12 months 1412 tests were done, compared to 8311 tests in the subsequent years. The annual average uptake of testing among eligible persons varied between 15 and 32%. The coverage was higher among female compared to male employees, and higher among female compared to male spouses. Distinct peaks in uptake were linked to specific local events. HIV-1 infected persons were significantly more likely to be tested in the early period. The proportion of HIV-1 infected persons among testees was 8.8% in the first 12 months compared to 3.0% in the subsequent period (p<0.001). HIV-1 infected persons diagnosed in the early period were in a more advanced clinical stage, and had a significantly lower CD4 count than those tested later (median CD4 count 227 vs. 314 cells/microl; p=0.002). In this workplace program, HIV-1 infected individuals came earlier for an HIV test than uninfected people, and people with advanced infection came earlier than those with less advanced disease. Employees' spouses are harder to reach than employees and extra efforts should be undertaken to reach them as well. Uptake of HIV testing can be actively influenced by educational or promotional activities.
Full Text Available Most HIV infections in Africa are acquired by married/cohabiting adults and WHO recommends couple's voluntary HIV counseling and testing (CVCT for prevention. The handover from NGO-sponsored weekend CVCT to government-sponsored services in routine weekday antenatal care (ANC and individual voluntary testing and counseling (VCT services in Zambia's two largest cities from 2009-2015 is described.Government clinic counselors were trained to provide CVCT, and along with community health workers they promoted CVCT services in their clinic and surrounding areas. When client volume exceeded the capacity of on-duty staff in ANC and VCT, non-governmental organization (NGO subsidies were offered for overtime pay.Implementation of routine CVCT services varied greatly by clinic and city. The 12 highest volume clinics were examined further, while 13 clinics had CVCT numbers that were too low to warrant further investigation. In Lusaka, the proportion of pregnant women whose partners were tested rose from 2.6% in 2009 to a peak of 26.2% in 2012 and 24.8% in 2015. Corresponding reports in Ndola were 2.0% in 2009, 17.0% in 2012 and 14.5% in 2015. Obstacles to CVCT included: limited space and staffing, competing priorities, record keeping not adapted for couples, and few resources for promotion and increasing male involvement. Conflicting training models for 'partner testing' with men and women separately vs. CVCT with joint post-test counseling led to confusion in reporting to district health authorities.A focused and sustained effort will be required to reach a meaningful number of couples with CVCT to prevent heterosexual and perinatal HIV transmission. Establishing targets and timelines, funding for dedicated and appropriately trained staff, adoption of standardized data recording instruments with couple-level indicators, and expansion of community and clinic-based promotions using proven models are recommended.
Inambao, Mubiana; Kilembe, William; Canary, Lauren A; Czaicki, Nancy L; Kakungu-Simpungwe, Matilda; Chavuma, Roy; Wall, Kristin M; Tichacek, Amanda; Pulerwitz, Julie; Thior, Ibou; Chomba, Elwyn; Allen, Susan A
Most HIV infections in Africa are acquired by married/cohabiting adults and WHO recommends couple's voluntary HIV counseling and testing (CVCT) for prevention. The handover from NGO-sponsored weekend CVCT to government-sponsored services in routine weekday antenatal care (ANC) and individual voluntary testing and counseling (VCT) services in Zambia's two largest cities from 2009-2015 is described. Government clinic counselors were trained to provide CVCT, and along with community health workers they promoted CVCT services in their clinic and surrounding areas. When client volume exceeded the capacity of on-duty staff in ANC and VCT, non-governmental organization (NGO) subsidies were offered for overtime pay. Implementation of routine CVCT services varied greatly by clinic and city. The 12 highest volume clinics were examined further, while 13 clinics had CVCT numbers that were too low to warrant further investigation. In Lusaka, the proportion of pregnant women whose partners were tested rose from 2.6% in 2009 to a peak of 26.2% in 2012 and 24.8% in 2015. Corresponding reports in Ndola were 2.0% in 2009, 17.0% in 2012 and 14.5% in 2015. Obstacles to CVCT included: limited space and staffing, competing priorities, record keeping not adapted for couples, and few resources for promotion and increasing male involvement. Conflicting training models for 'partner testing' with men and women separately vs. CVCT with joint post-test counseling led to confusion in reporting to district health authorities. A focused and sustained effort will be required to reach a meaningful number of couples with CVCT to prevent heterosexual and perinatal HIV transmission. Establishing targets and timelines, funding for dedicated and appropriately trained staff, adoption of standardized data recording instruments with couple-level indicators, and expansion of community and clinic-based promotions using proven models are recommended.
Background: Voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) is one of the cornerstones for successful implementation of. HIV prevention, care and support services ... of the city that promote the development of hotels, and night clubs. Thus, this study attempted ... Data analysis and measurement. Data were analyzed using the SPSS ...
Objective: To understand the factors influencing choice of voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) for HIV with a view of suggesting measures for increased uptake. Design: Focus group discussions were used to elicit reasons for carrying out VCT and a cross sectional survey to estimate the proportion of people who ...
Access to voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) services has become an important tool in the treatment and prevention of HIV infection. A cross-sectional knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) study was conducted with 50 nursing students in Zambia. All students were aware of where to go for VCT, and 80% had ...
The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) for HIV in Mekelle, Tigray, Ethiopia with a view of suggesting measures for increased up takes in University students. Institution based cross-sectional study design was used. Respondents were selected by ...
among University Students, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Alemayehu Bayray. *. Department of Nursing ... Voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) for HIV is acknowledged in the international arena as an effective and pivotal strategy for .... necessary corrections and adjustments were made. The data collection took 10 days.
Collier, Alizanne C; Van der Borght, Stefaan F M; Rinke de Wit, Tobias; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F; Richards, Sarah C; Feeley, Frank G
Heineken Breweries launched a workplace HIV/AIDS program at its Rwanda subsidiary in September 2001. By January 25, 2005, 736/2,595 eligible individuals had reported for counseling and HIV testing: 380/521 employees (72.9%), 254/412 spouses (61.7%), 99/1,517 children (6.5%), and 3/145 retired (2.0%). As a result, 109 HIV+ individuals were identified: 62 employees, 34 spouses, 12 children, and 1 retired. In September 2003 an anonymous HIV seroprevalence survey was performed with participation rates of 69.4% for employees, 58.2% for spouses, and 79.7% for adolescents. Using the survey result, the expected number of HIV+ employees was 71, which implies a program uptake of 87.1% (62/71) in this group. Of the identified 109 HIV+ beneficiaries, 42 were on highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). In November 2003 a qualitative study of awareness and health-seeking behavior of the Heineken Rwanda beneficiaries identified key principles contributing to the success of this program.
Lee, Yi-Chieh; Chang, Sui-Yuan; Lin, Kuan-Yin; Chang, Lan-Hsin; Liu, Wen-Chun; Wu, Cheng-Hsin; Sun, Hsin-Yun; Hung, Chien-Ching; Chang, Shan-Chwen
We aimed to investigate the awareness and willingness towards pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among individuals seeking voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) for HIV in Taiwan, where PrEP is currently not reimbursed by the insurance. Between April and October 2016, a questionnaire interview was conducted among VCT clients to inquire about the attitudes towards PrEP against HIV infection. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the associated factors with willingness to initiate PrEP. During the 6-month period, 1173 VCT clients (99.8%) completed the interviews, with 67.4% being homosexual or bisexual male. While 67.2% of the clients knew of postexposure prophylaxis, 40.2% heard of PrEP. Overall, 546 clients (46.5%) were willing to initiate PrEP and 89.5% of them would choose event-driven PrEP. In multivariate analysis, male gender (OR 1.796; 95% CI 1.165 to 2.768), full-time job (OR 1.354; 95% CI 1.052 to 1.742), one-night stand (OR 1.374; 95% CI 1.043 to 1.810), having casual sex partners within 3 months (OR 1.329; 95% CI 1.031 to 1.714), condomless anal sex (OR 1.405; 95% CI 1.122 to 1.878) and ever having chemsex or attending a drug party in the past 1 year (OR 2.571; 95% CI 1.541 to 4.287), regular screening for HIV infection (OR 1.321; 95% CI 1.021 to 1.711) and knowledge of PrEP (OR 1.504; 95% CI, 1.159 to 1.953) were associated with willingness to initiate PrEP. Understanding the willingness to initiate PrEP against HIV among the VCT clients in Taiwan, which was associated with male gender, risky sexual behaviours and awareness of PrEP, will help inform the implementation of PrEP programme. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Bastos Francisco I
Full Text Available Abstract Background BED-EIA HIV-1 Incidence Test (BED-CEIA has been described as a tool to discriminate recent (RS from long-term (LTS seroconversion of HIV-1 infection, contributing to a better understanding of the dynamics of the HIV/AIDS epidemic over time. This study determined the prevalence, estimated incidence and HIV-1 subtype infection among individuals seeking testing in Voluntary Counseling and Testing centers (VCTs from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods Demographics and behavioral data were obtained from 434 individuals, diagnosed as HIV-positive among 9,008 volunteers screened from November 2004 to October 2005 in three VCTs located in the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan area, Brazil. BED-CEIA protocol was performed to identify RS. DNA samples from RS and a subset of LTS (under a proportion of 1:2 were selected for gp120 C2-V3 and pol (protease and reverse transcriptase regions genomic sequencing. Results Overall HIV-1 prevalence was 4.8%. Sixty-one of 434 seropositive individuals were classified as RS, corresponding to an incidence rate of 1.68%/year (95%CI 1.26% -2.10%. Estimated incidence between Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM was 11 times higher than among heterosexual men and 55% of the new cases were identified in volunteers aged 25-40 years. A similar distribution of different HIV-1 subtypes was found among RS and LTS. Conclusions Our data suggest that prevention for MSM remains a challenge and efforts focusing on prevention targeting this population should be prioritized. No significant changes in HIV-1 subtypes were observed among the RS and LTS subgroups. One case of HIV-1 AUK (pol/A (env recombinant genome was detected for the first time in Brazil.
de Castro, Carlos A Velasco; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Veloso, Valdiléa G; Bastos, Francisco I; Pilotto, José H; Morgado, Mariza G
BED-EIA HIV-1 Incidence Test (BED-CEIA) has been described as a tool to discriminate recent (RS) from long-term (LTS) seroconversion of HIV-1 infection, contributing to a better understanding of the dynamics of the HIV/AIDS epidemic over time. This study determined the prevalence, estimated incidence and HIV-1 subtype infection among individuals seeking testing in Voluntary Counseling and Testing centers (VCTs) from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Demographics and behavioral data were obtained from 434 individuals, diagnosed as HIV-positive among 9,008 volunteers screened from November 2004 to October 2005 in three VCTs located in the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan area, Brazil. BED-CEIA protocol was performed to identify RS. DNA samples from RS and a subset of LTS (under a proportion of 1:2) were selected for gp120 C2-V3 and pol (protease and reverse transcriptase) regions genomic sequencing. Overall HIV-1 prevalence was 4.8%. Sixty-one of 434 seropositive individuals were classified as RS, corresponding to an incidence rate of 1.68%/year (95%CI 1.26% -2.10%). Estimated incidence between Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) was 11 times higher than among heterosexual men and 55% of the new cases were identified in volunteers aged 25-40 years. A similar distribution of different HIV-1 subtypes was found among RS and LTS. Our data suggest that prevention for MSM remains a challenge and efforts focusing on prevention targeting this population should be prioritized. No significant changes in HIV-1 subtypes were observed among the RS and LTS subgroups. One case of HIV-1 AUK (pol)/A (env) recombinant genome was detected for the first time in Brazil.
Full Text Available To explore the feasibility of using Internet outreach to encourage men who have sex with men (MSM to get tested for HIV at voluntary counseling and testing (VCT clinics in Beijing and Urumqi, China.From June to August 2007, two volunteers contacted MSM using instant messaging, online chat rooms, mobile phone, and e-mail (active recruitment. Banners with study information were put at the front pages of three major Chinese gay websites (passive recruitment. Those contacted were offered a modest financial incentive to seek HIV testing at existing VCT clinics. Those who subsequently sought HIV testing services at VCT clinics and provided informed consent completed a questionnaire and a blood draw to test for HIV and syphilis.A total of 3,332 MSM were contacted and 429 attended VCT clinics. One out of every 4 men that were recruited through instant messaging actually went for HIV testing, while the recruitment yields for online gay chat rooms, mobile phone contact, and email were 1∶6, 1∶10, and 1∶140, respectively. The majority of participants (80%, 317/399 reported being motivated to seek HIV testing out of concern for their health, and only 3% (11/399 reported being motivated by the financial incentive. Active recruitment tend to recruit MSM who are younger (X(2 = 11.400, P = 0.001, never tested for HIV (X(2 = 4.281, P = 0.039, tested less often (X(2 = 5.638, P = 0.018.Internet outreach is a promising way to encourage MSM to seek HIV testing at existing VCT clinics. Active recruitment can target MSM who are younger, never tested for HIV and tested less often.
Back ground: Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) is one of the best interventions to reduce mother to child transmission of HIV. ... Objective: The objective of this study was to identify factors that determine the acceptance of voluntary HIV testing ... Recently, child mortality has fallen in some countries as a result of.
Background: HIV testing and counseling (HTC) is the entry point to HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support services. HTC can be voluntary or mandatory. This study aimed to determine the awareness, willingness, and use of voluntary HTC (VHTC) services by students of the Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State Nigeria ...
Dagnan, N'cho Simplice; Tiembré, Issaka; Bi Vroh, Joseph Benié; Diaby, Badara; Zengbe-Acray, Pétronille; Attoh-Touré, Harvey; Adjoua, Didier; Ekra, Kouadio Daniel; Tagliante-Saracino, Janine
In Côte d'Ivoire, HIV testing and counselling has been identified as a priority in the National 2006-2010 AIDS Strategic Plan, which is designed to evaluate the prevalence of HIV in rural areas measured by means of a mobile strategy. We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study from 1st April, 2007 to 31st March 2008 in six rural areas of Côte d'Ivoire: Dabou, San Pedro, Abengourou, Tanda, Daloa, and Soubré*. The study population consisted of subjects attending the mobile voluntary counselling and testing units. The mean prevalence of HIV infection in this study was 5.30%. The mean prevalence rate in men was 5.26%, with a peak of 7.55% in the 30-34 years age-group. The mean prevalence rate in women was 5.35%, with a peak of 6.59% in the same age-group. Type HIV-1 was predominant (84.2% of the total). The most affected area was Dabou, with a rate three times higher (15.83%) than the average rate observed during the study. More educated people (university level) presented 3.5-fold (for men) or 6-fold (for women) higher infection rates than illiterate people. Although 100% of people who tested positive received a medical or community referral according to their specific needs, only 62.1% were first-line referred for medical care. In the light of the results of this study, we believe that community mobilization must be redirected to the most severely affected populations to facilitate earlier diagnosis. Actions such as training and prevention based on communication to encourage changes of behaviour should therefore be priorities in the national counselling and testing programme.
Christofides, Nicola; Jewkes, Rachel
Women who experience intimate partner violence (IPV) are more likely to be HIV positive. Many of these women never receive any relevant services, and those who do often access them only after events have escalated to a crisis requiring the police or emergency medical care. Evidence from other settings suggests that routinely asking women about experiences of partner violence is received positively. Voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) services would seem an ideal opportunity to screen for IPV in South Africa. However, in low resource settings, VCT is carried out by lay counselors with few skills. We therefore conducted a qualitative study that explored women's experience of IPV screening in VCT services, and explored implications for VCT counseling. The study was conducted in a clinic in Johannesburg where we trained the lay counselors to do IPV screening. In-depth interviews were conducted with 35 women attending VCT services. Participants were recruited before they attended VCT, and 12 women participated in a follow-up interview. A focus group was held with lay counselors a year after the intervention was implemented. Findings suggest that women were supportive of being asked about their experiences of IPV during VCT sessions. Reasons for supporting IPV screening at VCT services include the limited access of many women to health services. Many women who were aware of their HIV risk felt powerless to discuss condom use, HIV testing, and infidelity with their male partners. Women directly related such experience of gender power inequality to HIV risk. One year after training, there was no evidence of screening continuing. Our findings suggest that the focus should shift from asking about violence to equipping counselors to discuss gender inequality in relationships more broadly. This needs to be part of basic counselor training as it is integral to approaching HIV risk reduction.
Mtenga, Sally M; Exavery, Amon; Kakoko, Deodatus; Geubbels, Eveline
Cumulative evidence indicates increasing HIV infection among married individuals. Voluntary Counselling and Testing for HIV (HCT) is known to be an effective intervention to induce safer sex behaviour and access to early treatment, care and support among married individuals, which are important for HIV prevention. In this context, knowledge of factors associated with HCT uptake among married individuals is critical in promoting the use of the services. This study therefore intended to identify the social cognitive factors associated with acceptance of HCT among married individuals. In a cross-sectional analytical study face to face questionnaires were administered among 200 randomly selected married individuals in Kinondoni district, Dar es Salaam Tanzania. The questionnaire included self-reported HCT, socio-demographic variables and social cognitive variables (attitude, subjective norms, perceived control and perceived risk). Logistic regression was used to identify the independent association of social cognitive predictors of HCT among married individuals. Nearly half (42%) of the respondents had never had HCT. Of the social cognitive constructs, the strongest predictor of HCT uptake was attitude (OR per additional score point = 1.07, 95% CI 1.04-1.10) followed by perceived behavioural control (OR = 1.04, 95% CI 1.02-1.06). Subjective norm and perceived risk were not associated with HCT uptake. Public health interventions targeting married individuals should be designed to enhance their positive attitude towards HCT and empower them to overcome barriers to the use of the services.
Bradley H Wagenaar
Full Text Available We evaluated willingness to participate in CVCT and associated factors among MSM in the United States.5,980 MSM in the US, recruited through MySpace.com, completed an online survey March-April, 2009. A multivariable logistic regression model was built using being "willing" or "unwilling" to participate in CVCT in the next 12 months as the outcome.Overall, 81.5% of respondents expressed willingness to participate in CVCT in the next year. Factors positively associated with willingness were: being of non-Hispanic Black (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-1.8, Hispanic (aOR: 1.3, CI: 1.1-1.6, or other (aOR: 1.4, CI: 1.1-1.8 race/ethnicity compared to non-Hispanic White; being aged 18-24 (aOR: 2.5, CI: 1.7-3.8, 25-29 (aOR: 2.3, CI: 1.5-3.6, 30-34 (aOR: 1.9, CI: 1.2-3.1, and 35-45 (aOR: 2.3, CI: 1.4-3.7 years, all compared to those over 45 years of age; and having had a main male sex partner in the last 12 months (aOR: 1.9, CI: 1.6-2.2. Factors negatively associated with willingness were: not knowing most recent male sex partner's HIV status (aOR: 0.81, CI: 0.69-0.95 compared to knowing that the partner was HIV-negative; having had 4-7 (aOR: 0.75, CI: 0.61-0.92 or >7 male sex partners in the last 12 months (aOR: 0.62, CI: 0.50-0.78 compared to 1 partner; and never testing for HIV (aOR: 0.38, CI: 0.31-0.46, having been tested over 12 months ago (aOR: 0.63, CI: 0.50-0.79, or not knowing when last HIV tested (aOR: 0.67, CI: 0.51-0.89, all compared to having tested 0-6 months previously.Young MSM, men of color, and those with main sex partners expressed a high level of willingness to participate in couples HIV counseling and testing with a male partner in the next year. Given this willingness, it is likely feasible to scale up and evaluate CVCT interventions for US MSM.
Suthar, Amitabh B; Ford, Nathan; Bachanas, Pamela J; Wong, Vincent J; Rajan, Jay S; Saltzman, Alex K; Ajose, Olawale; Fakoya, Ade O; Granich, Reuben M; Negussie, Eyerusalem K; Baggaley, Rachel C
Effective national and global HIV responses require a significant expansion of HIV testing and counselling (HTC) to expand access to prevention and care. Facility-based HTC, while essential, is unlikely to meet national and global targets on its own. This article systematically reviews the evidence for community-based HTC. PubMed was searched on 4 March 2013, clinical trial registries were searched on 3 September 2012, and Embase and the World Health Organization Global Index Medicus were searched on 10 April 2012 for studies including community-based HTC (i.e., HTC outside of health facilities). Randomised controlled trials, and observational studies were eligible if they included a community-based testing approach and reported one or more of the following outcomes: uptake, proportion receiving their first HIV test, CD4 value at diagnosis, linkage to care, HIV positivity rate, HTC coverage, HIV incidence, or cost per person tested (outcomes are defined fully in the text). The following community-based HTC approaches were reviewed: (1) door-to-door testing (systematically offering HTC to homes in a catchment area), (2) mobile testing for the general population (offering HTC via a mobile HTC service), (3) index testing (offering HTC to household members of people with HIV and persons who may have been exposed to HIV), (4) mobile testing for men who have sex with men, (5) mobile testing for people who inject drugs, (6) mobile testing for female sex workers, (7) mobile testing for adolescents, (8) self-testing, (9) workplace HTC, (10) church-based HTC, and (11) school-based HTC. The Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale and the Cochrane Collaboration's "risk of bias" tool were used to assess the risk of bias in studies with a comparator arm included in pooled estimates. 117 studies, including 864,651 participants completing HTC, met the inclusion criteria. The percentage of people offered community-based HTC who accepted HTC was as follows: index testing, 88% of
Amitabh B Suthar
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Effective national and global HIV responses require a significant expansion of HIV testing and counselling (HTC to expand access to prevention and care. Facility-based HTC, while essential, is unlikely to meet national and global targets on its own. This article systematically reviews the evidence for community-based HTC. METHODS AND FINDINGS: PubMed was searched on 4 March 2013, clinical trial registries were searched on 3 September 2012, and Embase and the World Health Organization Global Index Medicus were searched on 10 April 2012 for studies including community-based HTC (i.e., HTC outside of health facilities. Randomised controlled trials, and observational studies were eligible if they included a community-based testing approach and reported one or more of the following outcomes: uptake, proportion receiving their first HIV test, CD4 value at diagnosis, linkage to care, HIV positivity rate, HTC coverage, HIV incidence, or cost per person tested (outcomes are defined fully in the text. The following community-based HTC approaches were reviewed: (1 door-to-door testing (systematically offering HTC to homes in a catchment area, (2 mobile testing for the general population (offering HTC via a mobile HTC service, (3 index testing (offering HTC to household members of people with HIV and persons who may have been exposed to HIV, (4 mobile testing for men who have sex with men, (5 mobile testing for people who inject drugs, (6 mobile testing for female sex workers, (7 mobile testing for adolescents, (8 self-testing, (9 workplace HTC, (10 church-based HTC, and (11 school-based HTC. The Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale and the Cochrane Collaboration's "risk of bias" tool were used to assess the risk of bias in studies with a comparator arm included in pooled estimates. 117 studies, including 864,651 participants completing HTC, met the inclusion criteria. The percentage of people offered community-based HTC who accepted HTC
Background: Voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT) has been shown to be an acceptable and effective tool in the fight against HIV/AIDS. Couple HIV Counselling and Testing (CHCT) however, is a relatively new concept whose acceptance and efficacy is yet to be determined. Objective: To describe factors that ...
Abamecha, Fira; Godesso, Ameyu; Girma, Eshetu
Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing (VCT) forms one of the cornerstones of HIV prevention strategies. It is imperative to understand HIV testing correlates and their theoretical underpinnings in order to promote VCT uptake. The aim of this study was to predict the intention to VCT and associated factors among health professionals in Jimma zone, Ethiopia using the theory of planned behavior. An institution based cross-sectional quantitative study among a sample of 336 health professionals in 12 selected districts of Jimma, Ethiopia was conducted in 2012. The constructs and principles of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) were measured. Data were collected using structured questionnaire on self administered basis. A multivariable linear regression model was used to predict the role of independent variables/TPB constructs on the intention to use VCT using SPSS version 16.0. The components of TPB independently explained the variance in intention to VCT by 30.3%. Both components of TPB and socio-demographic characteristic in the final model explained 32.7% of variance in the intention to use VCT services. Significant proportions (33.0%) of the respondents have never been tested for HIV. The respective indirect components of the TPB predicted the direct components. The strongest predictors of intention to VCT were subjective norm (β=0.39, p<0.001) and attitude (β= 0.19, p<0.001) whereas, none of the socio-demographic variables were significantly predicted the intention to use VCT. Past VCT experience did not have significant statistical association with VCT use intention. Behavioral intention to use VCT was a function of attitude and perceived social pressure. Demographic related social determinants were not barriers for VCT use intention. Most health workers test their blood by themselves. Strategies to empower health professionals on social pressure resistance and programs targeted at changing negative attitude on VCT use can enhance intention of health
Background Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing (VCT) forms one of the cornerstones of HIV prevention strategies. It is imperative to understand HIV testing correlates and their theoretical underpinnings in order to promote VCT uptake. The aim of this study was to predict the intention to VCT and associated factors among health professionals in Jimma zone, Ethiopia using the theory of planned behavior. Methods An institution based cross-sectional quantitative study among a sample of 336 health professionals in 12 selected districts of Jimma, Ethiopia was conducted in 2012. The constructs and principles of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) were measured. Data were collected using structured questionnaire on self administered basis. A multivariable linear regression model was used to predict the role of independent variables/TPB constructs on the intention to use VCT using SPSS version 16.0. Results The components of TPB independently explained the variance in intention to VCT by 30.3%. Both components of TPB and socio-demographic characteristic in the final model explained 32.7% of variance in the intention to use VCT services. Significant proportions (33.0%) of the respondents have never been tested for HIV. The respective indirect components of the TPB predicted the direct components. The strongest predictors of intention to VCT were subjective norm (β=0.39, pintention to use VCT. Past VCT experience did not have significant statistical association with VCT use intention. Conclusions Behavioral intention to use VCT was a function of attitude and perceived social pressure. Demographic related social determinants were not barriers for VCT use intention. Most health workers test their blood by themselves. Strategies to empower health professionals on social pressure resistance and programs targeted at changing negative attitude on VCT use can enhance intention of health professionals to use VCT. PMID:23414398
Hewer, Raymond; Motaung, Enea; Mathope, Alicia; Meyer, Debra
In order for HIV voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) to be successful, the approval of and attendance at the VCT centre by the community it serves is necessary. To this end, the Township AIDS Project (TAP), which has VCT sites serving the greater Soweto area, attempts to maintain a high degree of visibility in the community through campaigning and various forms of advertising. To determine whether the social marketing strategies employed by the organisation encouraged attendance, pre-test questionnaires completed by volunteers attending the TAP VCT site located in the Meadowlands district of Soweto were retrospectively analysed. During 2003, approximately 34% of volunteers were made aware of the VCT site through marketing. However, a more important factor in volunteer awareness was word of mouth, with about 46% of volunteers informed of TAP VCT by a friend, partner or relative. This attests to the success of the marketing strategies employed by the TAP organisation in raising community awareness and attendance at the VCT site investigated in this study. In total, 1 141 volunteers completed a questionnaire and 1 054 of these consented to being tested for HIV antibodies. The level of infection among the sample of individuals tested at this clinic-based VCT programme was 29.9%.
Lelaka C Motshabi MPH , Professor Supa Pengpid MSc DrPH MBA a & Professor Karl Peltzer PhD DrHabil b firstname.lastname@example.org
Sep 3, 2011 ... UNAIDS (2002). HIV Voluntary Counselling and Testing. Geneva: UNAIDS. UNAIDS (2004). Voluntary Counselling and Testing and operational guidelines. 2004. Geneva: UNAIDS. Uys, L., Chirwa, M., Kohi, T., Greeff, M., Naidoo, J., Makoae, L., Dlamini, P.,. Durrheim, K., Cuca, Y., & Holzemer, W.L. (2009).
Kwee Choy Koh
Full Text Available We describe the HIV risk perception, sexual behavior, and HIV prevalence among 423 men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM clients who received voluntary counseling and testing (VCT services at a community-based center in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The mean age was 29 years old. One hundred one (23.9% clients rated themselves as low risk, 118 (27.9% as medium risk, 36 (8.5% as high risk, and 168 (39.7% were unsure of their risk. Twenty-four (9.4% clients tested HIV positive (4 (4% low risk, 9 (7.6% medium risk, 11 (30.6% high risk, and 13 (7.7% unsure risk. We found a positive correlation between risk perception and HIV infection in this study. Clients with high HIV risk perception have 17x the odds of testing HIV positive compared to low risk clients. High HIV risk perception was significantly associated with multiple sex partners, multiple types of sex partners, alcohol use before intercourse, unprotected sex beyond 6 months, and inconsistent condom use during anal sex compared to low risk clients. There were no statistically significant differences between medium risk and unsure risk clients compared to low risk clients. Strategies should be targeted towards change in sexual practices among those who are perceived to be at high risk.
Full Text Available HIV voluntary counselling and testing (VCT is an integral component of HIV prevention and treatment programmes. However, testing coverage in sub-Saharan Africa is still low, particularly among young people. As treatment becomes more widely available, strategies to expand VCT coverage are critically important. We compare VCT uptake using two delivery strategies (opt-in and opt-out within the MEMA kwa Vijana trial in 20 communities in northwest Tanzania.We analysed data from 12,590 young persons (median (IQR age 22 years (20-23 to assess the effect of delivery strategy on VCT uptake. Ten communities used an opt-in approach and 10 used opt-out, balanced across intervention and control. Conditional logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with uptake within each strategy.VCT uptake was significantly higher with the opt-out approach (90.9% vs 60.5%, prevalence ratio = 1.51, CI = 1.41-1.62. Among females, uptake in the opt-out approach was associated with decreased knowledge of HIV acquisition, sex with a casual partner, and being HSV-2 seronegative; among males, uptake was associated with lower education and increasing lifetime partners. In contrast, uptake using the opt-in approach varied by ethnic group, religion and marital status, and increased with increasing knowledge of STI acquisition (males or pregnancy prevention (females.VCT uptake among young people was extremely high when offered an opt-out strategy. Sociodemographic and knowledge factors affected uptake in different ways depending on delivery strategy. Increased knowledge may increase young persons' self-efficacy, which may have a different impact on testing uptake, depending on the approach used.
Abamecha, Fira; Godesso, Ameyu; Girma, Eshetu
To endorse involvement in voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT), it is essential to recognize factors that influence people in deciding whether to access VCT services and their underlying route factors. Theory of planned behavior (TPB) constitutes a proficient framework for predicting behaviors and intentions. The aim of the study reported here was to assess the predicting ability of TPB in determining the intended use of VCT services among health professionals in Jimma, southwest Ethiopia. This was an institution-based cross-sectional quantitative study of a sample of 336 health professionals in 12 selected districts of Jimma, southwest Ethiopia between February 5 to March 28, 2012. Data were collected using structured questionnaire self-administered by the study participants. A hierarchal multivariable linear regression model was used to predict the role of TPB constructs that can influence the intention to use VCT services. The constructs of TPB explained the variability in intention to use VCT by 27% (R (2) adjusted = 0.27). The standardized regression coefficients showed that the strongest predictor of intention to use VCT was subjective norms (β = 0.32, P TPB, with perceived social pressure being the leading predictor. In light of this, health intervention programs should be designed to develop health professionals' ability to resist norms that oppose the use of VCT and to change community-held norms against VCT use, provided they help individuals develop a positive attitude toward the services.
Tian, T; Cai, A J; Huang, B X; Abidan, Ainiwaer; Wang, H; Dai, J H
Objective: To understand the human papilloma virus (HPV) infection status in men who have sex with men (MSM) recruited from gay bathhouses and HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) clinics in Urumqi, Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, and identify the associated risk factors. Methods: A total of 200 MSM aged ≥18 years were recruited by using the " snowballing" sampling method from gay bathhouses and VCT clinics in Urumqi during March-May, 2016. The MSM recruited completed questionnaires after filling in the informed consent form. The information about their demographic characteristics and sexual behaviors were collected, and anal swabs were collected from them for HPV genotyping. Results: The overall HPV infection rate was 54.0%. The HPV infection rate was 66.7%(74/111) in MSM from gay bathhouses and 38.2%(34/89) in MSM from VCT clinics and the high risk type HPV infection rate was 39.6% (44/111) in MSM from gay bathhouses and 14.6% (13/89) in MSM from VCT clinics, the differences were significant (χ(2)=16.112, PHPV infection included activity in gay bathhouse (OR=3.732, 95% CI: 1.950-7.141) and anal sexual behavior (OR=2.555, 95%CI: 1.329-4.912). Conclusion: The prevalence of HPV in MSM from gay bathhouses was higher than that in MSM from VCT clinics, indicating that close attention should be paid to the behavior intervention in MSM.
Full Text Available Fira Abamecha,1 Ameyu Godesso,2 Eshetu Girma3 1Department of Nursing, Mizan-Tepi University, Mizan, 2Department of Sociology, Jimma University, Jimma, 3Department of Health Education and Behavioral Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia Background: To endorse involvement in voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT, it is essential to recognize factors that influence people in deciding whether to access VCT services and their underlying route factors. Theory of planned behavior (TPB constitutes a proficient framework for predicting behaviors and intentions. Objective: The aim of the study reported here was to assess the predicting ability of TPB in determining the intended use of VCT services among health professionals in Jimma, southwest Ethiopia. Methods: This was an institution-based cross-sectional quantitative study of a sample of 336 health professionals in 12 selected districts of Jimma, southwest Ethiopia between February 5 to March 28, 2012. Data were collected using structured questionnaire self-administered by the study participants. A hierarchal multivariable linear regression model was used to predict the role of TPB constructs that can influence the intention to use VCT services. Results: The constructs of TPB explained the variability in intention to use VCT by 27% (R2 adjusted = 0.27. The standardized regression coefficients showed that the strongest predictor of intention to use VCT was subjective norms (β = 0.32, P < 0.0005 followed by attitude (β = 0.21, P < 0.002. Perceived behavioral control was not a significant predictor of intention to use VCT among the study group (P = 0.12. Conclusion: The study revealed the possibility of describing the intention to use VCT among health professionals using TPB, with perceived social pressure being the leading predictor. In light of this, health intervention programs should be designed to develop health professionals’ ability to resist norms that oppose the use of VCT and to
Background: In Uganda, the main stay for provision of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) has been at health facilities. Home based VCT on the other hand, was initiated in the country to improve service coverage. Objective: To evaluate the cost effectiveness of facility- and ...
Objective: To assess the perception and attitude of students towards VCT services using the Health Belief Model. Methods: A cross ... that the anticipated barrier to (or cost of) taking action are outweighed by its ... Perception of high school students towards voluntary HIV counseling and testing 149. Ethiop. J. Health Dev.
and testing (CICT); and (ii) PICT. In CICT, also referred to as voluntary counselling and testing (VCT), individuals actively seek. HIV testing and counselling at a facility that offers these services, as well as pre-test information. The process is voluntary and the. 'three Cs' (informed consent, counselling and confidentiality) are.
Liddicoat, Rebecca V.; Zheng, Hui; Internicola, Jeanne; Werner, Barbara G.; Kazianis, Arthur; Golan, Yoav; Rubinstein, Eric P.; Kenneth A Freedberg; Walensky, Rochelle P.
Although U.S. prison inmates have higher rates of HIV infection than the general population, most inmates are not routinely tested for HIV infection at prison entry. The study objective was to implement a routine, voluntary HIV testing program in a Massachusetts county prison. During admission, inmates were given group HIV pre-test counseling and were subsequently offered private HIV testing. This intervention was compared to a control period during which HIV testing was provided only upon in...
In 1989 the Scottish Health Education Group and the Scottish Association for Counselling compiled a directory of counselling services in Scotland. When asked if they offered counselling, the great majority of voluntary sector organisations in the welfare field said that they did, and they were therefore included in the directory, generating over 500 entries in total, including, among others, all the Citizens Advice Bureaux in Scotland. In 2001, I was involved in the implementat...
And among the challenges these include: HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination, fear, low perception of risk to HIV infection, lack of student friendly VCT services, shortage of resources, inaccessibility of VCT services, long waiting period for test results, negative perceptions about VCT, pre-test counselling and ...
Assessment of factors associated with voluntary counseling and testing uptake among students in Bahir Dar University: A case control study. ... Conclusion: In order to promote VCT service, more emphasis should be given to the knowledge and attitudes of students towards VCT, and to help the students to internalize the risk ...
The aim of this study was to determine predictors of HIV/AIDS knowledge and voluntary counselling and testing of undergraduate students in two campuses of the North-West University.The paper used cross-sectional data of 1,498 and 1,392 university students from Mafikeng and Potchefstroom Campuses. The major ...
Men aged 15-54 and women aged 15-49 were selected for the study because these are the ages most at risk to HIV/AIDS. Data on socio-demographic, sexual and ..... UNGASS Country. Progress Report Uganda, January 2008-. December 2009, March 2010. 12. Sebudde S, Nangendo F. Voluntary counselling and testing ...
Mwangi, Rose; Ngure, Peter; Thiga, Moses; Ngure, Jane
Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT) is recognized as a critical component of effective HIV prevention initiative and has therefore been promoted nationally and within universities in Kenya. Upon successful counselling and testing those found to be HIV negative are informed to take the necessary measures to protect themselves while the infected are advised to start the required medication. This study examined the attitudes toward VCT services among university students in four Kenyan universities. 980 students filled self administered questionnaires. Results showed that 38.5% of the subjects had tested for HIV in the last 12 months and students (55.8%) felt less susceptible to HIV infection. Findings from a factor analysis revealed that the intention to seek the services was associated with five attitude subscales that were ranked as follows (i) people’s and personal concerns, (ii) friends concerns, (iii) value of testing, (iv) confidentiality and support, and (v) perceived susceptibility. The first three items are associated with stigma which was evidenced in the subjects’ report that admitting that one should test for HIV would imply that one has engaged in immoral behaviour. Secondly, subjects felt that their friends would look down on them if they tested for HIV. Knowing the students’ attitudes will therefore assist in the development of appropriate VCT interventions that will promote HIV testing and behaviour change. PMID:24999153
Kautako-Kiambi, Mida; Ekila, Mathilde B.; Kama-Lemba, Smith; Wumba, Roger; Aloni, Michel N.
Aims. To determine the prevalence of HIV, the level of sexual risk for HIV, and determinants of VCT attendance among adult population living in a rural area. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Mbanza-Ngungu, Democratic Republic of the Congo. An anonymous questionnaire was designed to extract relevant data. Results. In our cohort, 69% were respondents of more than 24 years of age and the single marital status was most represented (64.1%). A high proportion of respondents (90.6%) visited VCT service for requiring information (good acceptability). Positive test for HIV was reported in 9.4% of respondents. In this cohort, 49.6% of respondents had declared themselves to never use condom. In binary analysis, there was association between positive HIV test and age (p = 0.04) and religions (p = 0.02). In this cohort, it was observed that positive HIV test was significantly associated with confidentiality (p = 0.02). However, there was no association between positive HIV test and condom use (p = 0.25), knowledge of VCT (p = 0.81), service requested (p = 0.20), and previous HIV test (p = 0.68). Conclusions. Preventive information for AIDS should be recommended in the population living in rural zone. PMID:26347477
Anna Maria Luzi
Full Text Available In the present work, we outline basic health counselling skills, specifically, those for performing pre-test and post-test counselling for HIV infection. The ultimate goal is to propose that counselling be performed in facilities that carry out screening for anti-HIV antibodies, following standardised (and thus replicable criteria, with consistent focus on the quality of the relationship between the healthcare professional and the individual undergoing testing and on the individual's specific needs.
Full Text Available This article draws on a larger study that examined the ways in which out-of-school youth responded to a context of HIV/AIDS and how they themselves can be active participants in HIV/AIDS prevention. In addition, four out-of-school youths, trained as fieldworkers, interviewed 32 other out-of-school youths in the Shongweni area of KwaZulu-Natal about their attitudes towards VCT. The out-of-school youth displayed a very positive attitude towards VCT and 91% stated their intentions of getting tested. However this attitude was contradicted by the facts that only nine (28% had been for testing and that participants evidenced high levels of fear and stigma surrounding VCT. Of the participants, 43% stated a preference for a VCT site or hospital far from home, or, if they could afford it, a private doctor, to minimise the likelihood of being seen by someone they knew. This factor made it more difficult and costlier for outof-school youth to access VCT. For some, the fear of HIV infection is caught up with their existing social exclusion. In contrast, one reason for wanting to test amongst girls was the health of future children. While out-of-school youth understood the role of VCT in maintaining a healthy lifestyle, the obstacles to acting on those intentions included the context of poverty, gender inequalities, stigma and the fear of gossip. Campaigns have succeeded in raising awareness, but translating awareness into action remains a central problem.
Reed, Jason Bailey; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Thomas, Anne Goldzier; Bacon, Melanie C.; Bailey, Robert; Cherutich, Peter; Curran, Kelly; Dickson, Kim; Farley, Tim; Hankins, Catherine; Hatzold, Karin; Justman, Jessica; Mwandi, Zebedee; Nkinsi, Luke; Ridzon, Renee; Ryan, Caroline; Bock, Naomi
As the science demonstrating strong evidence for voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) for HIV prevention has evolved, the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has collaborated with international agencies, donors, and partner country governments supporting VMMC programming. Mathematical models forecast that quickly reaching a large number of uncircumcised men with VMMC in strategically chosen populations may dramatically reduce community-level HIV incidence and save billions of dollars in HIV care and treatment costs. Because VMMC is a 1-time procedure that confers life-long partial protection against HIV, programs for adult men are vital short-term investments with long-term benefits. VMMC also provides a unique opportunity to reach boys and men with HIV testing and counseling services and referrals for other HIV services, including treatment. After formal recommendations by WHO in 2007, priority countries have pursued expansion of VMMC. More than 1 million males have received VMMC thus far, with the most notable successes coming from Kenya’s Nyanza Province. However, a myriad of necessary cultural, political, and ethical considerations have moderated the pace of overall success. Because many millions more uncircumcised men would benefit from VMMC services now, US President Barack Obama committed PEPFAR to provide 4.7 million males with VMMC by 2014. Innovative circumcision methods—such as medical devices that remove the foreskin without injected anesthesia and/or sutures—are being rigorously evaluated. Incorporation of safe innovations into surgical VMMC programs may provide the opportunity to reach more men more quickly with services and dramatically reduce HIV incidence for all. PMID:22797745
Chheng, P; Tamhane, A; Natpratan, C; Tan, V; Lay, V; Sar, B; Kimerling, M E
Voluntary counseling and confidential testing center (VCCT), Battambang District, Cambodia. To determine newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) prevalence and predicting factors, and assess the utility of TB-related symptoms and yield of sputum microscopy and culture. Cross-sectional survey using interview, sputum smears and cultures and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing. Of 496 participants, 29 (5.8%) had culture-confirmed PTB while 19 (65.5%) were acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear-positive. PTB prevalence was higher (P or =35 years were predictors of PTB. Fever (93%) and hemoptysis (86%) had the highest sensitivity and specificity, respectively. The symptom complex of rapid weight loss, fever and hemoptysis detected all PTB cases (sensitivity 100%). Examination of three sputum smears with culture of the first sample detected 95% (19/20) of the HIV-associated PTB cases and 90% (26/29) overall. TB is common in the VCCT setting, regardless of HIV status. The high prevalence of HIV and PTB among the participants warrants consideration of TB screening for all HIV suspects. Such screening through VCCT is feasible. Adding a single culture test to the evaluation of an initial sputum sample set will substantially increase case detection.
Kaufman, Michelle R; Dam, Kim H; Van Lith, Lynn M; Hatzold, Karin; Mavhu, Webster; Kahabuka, Catherine; Mahlasela, Lusanda; Marcell, Arik V; Patel, Eshan U; Figueroa, Maria Elena; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Seifert-Ahanda, Kim; Ncube, Getrude; Lija, Gissenge; Bonnecwe, Collen; Tobian, Aaron A R
Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is one of the first opportunities for adolescent males in African countries to interact with the healthcare system. This study explored the approaches used during adolescent VMMC counseling and whether these strategies maximize broader HIV prevention opportunities. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 92 VMMC clients ages 10-19 years in South Africa (n = 36), Tanzania (n = 36), and Zimbabwe (n = 20) and 33 VMMC providers across the three countries. Discussions explored HIV prevention counseling, testing, and disclosure of results. Audio recordings were transcribed, translated into English, and coded thematically by two individuals. Male adolescents in all three countries reported that limited information was provided about HIV prevention and care, and adolescents were rarely provided condoms. Although VMMC protocols require opt-out HIV testing, adolescents recounted having blood taken without knowing the purpose, not receiving results, nor completely understanding the link between VMMC and HIV. Most males interviewed assumed they had tested negative because they were subsequently circumcised without knowing test results. Providers reported spending little time talking about HIV prevention, including condom use. They admitted that younger adolescent clients often receive little information if assumed they are not sexually active or too young to understand and instead discussed nonsexually transmitted routes of HIV. In the sites of the three countries studied, HIV prevention and care messages were inconsistent and sometimes totally absent from VMMC counseling sessions. VMMC appears to be a missed opportunity to engage in further HIV prevention and care with adolescents.
This study, therefore, investigated the effect of HIV/AIDS-related internal and external stigma on the disposition of pregnant women in the Limpopo Province of South Africa to go for voluntary HIV-testing. Four hundred and fifty ... Furthermore, HIV/AIDS-related internal stigma came out to be a significant factor. The more ...
South Africa's HIV epidemic disproportionately affects the youth.¹ The importance of knowing one's status via voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) is recognised as a key strategy in fighting the epidemic and is reflected in the National Strategic Plan (NSP),2 which has set targets of 70% of all adults knowing their status by ...
Mugisha, Emmanuel; van Rensburg, Gisela Hildegard; Potgieter, Eugine
This article reports on part of a study that described models of voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) service delivery and analyzed how a model influenced uptake of VCT services in a Ugandan community. A quantitative, exploratory, and descriptive design was used. Respondents (N = 127, 52% male, 48% female) provided data during structured interviews. Although knowledge about HIV transmission and prevention was high, only 47.2% of respondents had been tested for HIV. Married people were less likely to have been tested than unmarried people. The most common reasons for testing included risky lifestyle, signs and symptoms related to HIV, sex partners' risky lifestyles, and a sex partner's death. The most common barriers to testing were fear of results, belief that it was not necessary, and lack of time. VCT use was low. Sensitization to testing, mobilization of the community, and improving the quality and volume of VCT services are needed. Copyright © 2010 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Luis Alfredo Juárez-Figueroa
Full Text Available Objective. To describe results of HIV, sexually transmitted diseases (STI and CD4 counts at the HIV-specialized Condesa Clinic (CC in Mexico City. Materials and methods. Individuals who requested voluntary counseling and testing at CC were studied. We identified antibodies against HIV, syphilis, hepatitis C, and hepatitis B HBsAg. CD4 cell counts and viral load of HIV positive individuals were also obtained. Late HIV infection diagnosis was established if CD4 counts were lower than 200 cells/μL. Results. Global seroprevalence of HIV, syphilis, HBsAg, and anti HCV markers was of 20.1, 6, 1 and 1, respectively. Men displayed higher seroprevalence of infection markers than women. Among men, HIV infection was related to age and with all STI markers. Late HIV diagnosis was 31.8%. The risk of late HIV diagnosis was higher among women and it increased as age increased. Conclusions. Differences between genders regarding HIV and STIs prevalence as well as risk factors for HIV infection and late HIV diagnosis were observed.
Braunstein, S.L.; Ingabire, C.M.; Geubbels, E.; Vyankandondera, J.; Umulisa, M.M.; Gahiro, E.; Uwineza, M.; Tuijn, C.J.; Nash, D.; van de Wijgert, J.H.H.M.
Objectives: To estimate HIV prevalence and risk factors in population-based samples of female sex workers (FSW) and female voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) clients in Rwanda. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 800 FSW and 1,250 female VCT clients in Rwanda, which included
Background Voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) is one among different approaches which have been implemented as an attempt to slow the spread of HIV infection and minimize its impact at the individual, family and society level. VCT is perceived to be an effective strategy in risk reduction among sexually active young people like tertiary level students. Ethiopia as a country with high burden of HIV started responding to the epidemic by preparing and updating guidelines on VCT. The objective of this study was to assess the level of knowledge, attitude and practice of Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) for HIV among university students in North West Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted from February to May 2010 using a stratified sampling method to enroll students from different faculties into the study. A total of 330 university students filled in a self-administered questionnaire with response rate of 97.3%. Main outcome measures included level of knowledge, attitude and practice of VCT for HIV. A chi-square test was used to determine an association between a number of independent factors and dependant variables. Result About 66.1% of the study participants were males with a mean age of 20 years. Majority (75.6%) of the respondents were Orthodox with 63% reported living in urban areas before joining the university. From the study participants 86.3% were knowledgeable on VCT, 73.3% had positive attitude towards VCT for HIV and 61.8% had had VCT for HIV in the past. Previous residence before joining the university, level of education, sex and religion were among the sociodemographic variables that showed statistically significant association with the one or more of the outcome variables. Fear of positive results, stigma and discrimination following the positive results were reported as main barriers for VCT uptake. Conclusion The findings reveal important barriers for VCT uptake and suggest strategies to reduce stigma and discrimination
Addis, Zelalem; Yalew, Aregawi; Shiferaw, Yitayal; Alemu, Abebe; Birhan, Wubet; Mathewose, Biniam; Tachebele, Belayenesh
Voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) is one among different approaches which have been implemented as an attempt to slow the spread of HIV infection and minimize its impact at the individual, family and society level. VCT is perceived to be an effective strategy in risk reduction among sexually active young people like tertiary level students. Ethiopia as a country with high burden of HIV started responding to the epidemic by preparing and updating guidelines on VCT. The objective of this study was to assess the level of knowledge, attitude and practice of Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) for HIV among university students in North West Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted from February to May 2010 using a stratified sampling method to enroll students from different faculties into the study. A total of 330 university students filled in a self-administered questionnaire with response rate of 97.3%. Main outcome measures included level of knowledge, attitude and practice of VCT for HIV. A chi-square test was used to determine an association between a number of independent factors and dependant variables. About 66.1% of the study participants were males with a mean age of 20 years. Majority (75.6%) of the respondents were Orthodox with 63% reported living in urban areas before joining the university. From the study participants 86.3% were knowledgeable on VCT, 73.3% had positive attitude towards VCT for HIV and 61.8% had had VCT for HIV in the past. Previous residence before joining the university, level of education, sex and religion were among the sociodemographic variables that showed statistically significant association with the one or more of the outcome variables. Fear of positive results, stigma and discrimination following the positive results were reported as main barriers for VCT uptake. The findings reveal important barriers for VCT uptake and suggest strategies to reduce stigma and discrimination.
Rosen, David L; Golin, Carol E; Grodensky, Catherine A; May, Jeanine; Bowling, J Michael; DeVellis, Robert F; White, Becky L; Wohl, David A
HIV testing in prison settings has been identified as an important mechanism to detect cases among high-risk, underserved populations. Several public health organizations recommend that testing across health-care settings, including prisons, be delivered in an opt-out manner. However, implementation of opt-out testing within prisons may pose challenges in delivering testing that is informed and understood to be voluntary. In a large state prison system with a policy of voluntary opt-out HIV testing, we randomly sampled adult prisoners in each of seven intake prisons within two weeks after their opportunity to be HIV tested. We surveyed prisoners' perception of HIV testing as voluntary or mandatory and used multivariable statistical models to identify factors associated with their perception. We also linked survey responses to lab records to determine if prisoners' test status (tested or not) matched their desired and perceived test status. Thirty-eight percent (359/936) perceived testing as voluntary. The perception that testing was mandatory was positively associated with age less than 25 years (adjusted relative risk [aRR]: 1.45, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24, 1.71) and preference that testing be mandatory (aRR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.41, 2.31) but negatively associated with entry into one of the intake prisons (aRR: 0.41 95% CI: 0.27, 0.63). Eighty-nine percent of prisoners wanted to be tested, 85% were tested according to their wishes, and 82% correctly understood whether or not they were tested. Most prisoners wanted to be HIV tested and were aware that they had been tested, but less than 40% understood testing to be voluntary. Prisoners' understanding of the voluntary nature of testing varied by intake prison and by a few individual-level factors. Testing procedures should ensure that opt-out testing is informed and understood to be voluntary by prisoners and other vulnerable populations.
Introduction. HIV counseling and testing during labour can be emotional, but is important because it allows mothers and babies to receive PMTCT prophylaxis if previous identification of HIV infection has not occurred. The study explores how HIV testing and counseling during early labour affects women. Methodology.
Background Kenya experienced rapid scale up of HIV testing and counselling services in government health services from 2001. We set out to examine the human resource policy implications of scaling up HIV testing and counselling in Kenya and to analyse the resultant policy against a recognised theoretical framework of health policy reform (policy analysis triangle). Methods Qualitative methods were used to gain in-depth insights from policy makers who shaped scale up. This included 22 in-depth interviews with Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT) task force members, critical analysis of 53 sets of minutes and diary notes. We explore points of consensus and conflict amongst policymakers in Kenya and analyse this content to assess who favoured and resisted new policies, how scale up was achieved and the importance of the local context in which scale up occurred. Results The scale up of VCT in Kenya had a number of human resource policy implications resulting from the introduction of lay counsellors and their authorisation to conduct rapid HIV testing using newly introduced rapid testing technologies. Our findings indicate that three key groups of actors were critical: laboratory professionals, counselling associations and the Ministry of Health. Strategic alliances between donors, NGOs and these three key groups underpinned the process. The process of reaching consensus required compromise and time commitment but was critical to a unified nationwide approach. Policies around quality assurance were integral in ensuring standardisation of content and approach. Conclusion The introduction and scale up of new health service initiatives such as HIV voluntary counselling and testing necessitates changes to existing health systems and modification of entrenched interests around professional counselling and laboratory testing. Our methodological approach enabled exploration of complexities of scale up of HIV testing and counselling in Kenya. We argue that a better
child transmission of HIV in Rivers State, Nigeria. ... Similarly, other resources for counselling such as television and video sets, posters and banners were in short supply. Important issues in post-test counselling such as information about ...
Full Text Available Yohannes Sinku,1,2 Takele Gezahegn,1 Yalewayiker Gashaw,1 Meseret Workineh,1 Tekalign Deressa1 1School of Biomedical and Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, 2Diagnostic Laboratory Case Team, University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Gondar, Ethiopia Background: The epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection in Ethiopia varies with regions, study population, and time. Thus, timely information on HIV epidemiology is critical for the combat of the epidemic. In this study, we aim to update HIV prevalence and risk factors among voluntary counseling and testing (VCT clients at the University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia.Methods: A total of 2,120 VCT clients’ records from September 2007 to August 2010 were analyzed retrospectively. Bivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify significant predictors. Odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated. Statistical significance was set at P-value <0.05.Results: Of 2,120 VCT clients, 363 (17.1% were seropositive for HIV. A higher rate of HIV positivity was observed among female clients (20.4% than that in male clients (14.0% (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.26–1.98, P=0.00. Widowed (95% CI 10.42–34.92, P=0.00, married (95% CI 3.42–5.94, P=0.00, divorced (95% CI 2.79–5.32, P=0.00, and illiterate (95% CI 2.33–5.47, P=0.00 clients were associated with HIV infection with the odds ratios of 19.07, 4.51, 3.85, and 3.57, respectively. Clients within the age category of 35–49 years (OR 5.03, 95% CI 3.56–7.12, P=0.00 and above the age of 50 years (OR 4.99, 95% CI 2.67–9.34, P=0.00 were more likely to be infected with HIV.Conclusion: HIV is still the major concern of public health in the Gondar area as evidenced by our data. Being female, widowed, married, illiterate, and older age were the identified risk factors for HIV infection. Thus, consideration of these factors in future intervention and
Background Many HIV voluntary testing and counselling centres in Africa use rapid antibody tests, in parallel or in sequence, to establish same-day HIV status. The interpretation of indeterminate or discrepant results between different rapid tests on one sample poses a challenge. We investigated the use of an algorithm using three serial rapid HIV tests in cohabiting couples to resolve unclear serostatuses. Methods Heterosexual couples visited the Rwanda Zambia HIV Research Group testing centres in Kigali, Rwanda, and Lusaka, Zambia, to assess HIV infection status. Individuals with unclear HIV rapid antibody test results (indeterminate) or discrepant results were asked to return for repeat testing to resolve HIV status. If either partner of a couple tested positive or indeterminate with the screening test, both partners were tested with a confirmatory test. Individuals with indeterminate or discrepant results were further tested with a tie-breaker and monthly retesting. HIV-RNA viral load was determined when HIV status was not resolved by follow-up rapid testing. Individuals were classified based on two of three initial tests as "Positive", "Negative" or "Other". Follow-up testing and/or HIV-RNA viral load testing determined them as "Infected", "Uninfected" or "Unresolved". Results Of 45,820 individuals tested as couples, 2.3% (4.1% of couples) had at least one discrepant or indeterminate rapid result. A total of 65% of those individuals had follow-up testing and of those individuals initially classified as "Negative" by three initial rapid tests, less than 1% were resolved as "Infected". In contrast, of those individuals with at least one discrepant or indeterminate result who were initially classified as "Positive", only 46% were resolved as "Infected", while the remainder was resolved as "Uninfected" (46%) or "Unresolved" (8%). A positive HIV serostatus of one of the partners was a strong predictor of infection in the other partner as 48% of individuals who
Voluntary counseling and testing (VCT services and their contribution to access to HIV diagnosis in Brazil Contribuição dos Centros de Testagem e Aconselhamento (CTA para o acesso ao diagnóstico da infecção pelo HIV no Brasil
Full Text Available The Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT Network was implemented in Brazil in the 1980s to promote anonymous and confidential access to HIV diagnosis. As a function of the population and dimensions of the local epidemic, the study assessed the network's coverage, using data from a self-applied questionnaire and data from the Information Technology Department of the Unified National Health System (SUS, UNDP, and National STD/AIDS Program. The Student t test was used for comparison of means and the chi-square test for proportions. Brazil has 383 VCT centers, covering 48.9% of the population and 69.2% of the AIDS cases. The network has been implemented predominantly in regions where the epidemic shows a relevant presence, but 85.3% of the cities with high HIV incidence lack VCT centers; absence of VCT was associated with more limited health infrastructure and worse social indicators. A slowdown in expansion of the network was observed, with VCT Centers implemented on average 16 years after the first AIDS case in the given municipality. The number of HIV tests performed under the SUS is 2.3 times higher in cities with VCT centers. The network's scope is limited, thus minimizing the contribution by these services to the supply of HIV diagnosis in Brazil.A rede nacional de Centros de Testagem e Aconselhamento (CTA foi implantada no Brasil nos anos 1980 para promover, anônima e confidencialmente, o diagnóstico do HIV. Em função da população abrangida e das dimensões da epidemia local, o estudo avaliou a cobertura dessa rede, utilizando dados de questionário auto-aplicado e de bancos de informações do DATASUS, PNUD e Programa Nacional de DST e AIDS. Aplicou-se teste t para comparações de média e qui-quadrado para proporções. Existem no Brasil 383 CTA, abrangendo 48,9% da população e 69,2% dos casos de AIDS. A rede está predominantemente implantada em regiões em que a epidemia é relevante, entretanto 85,3% das cidades com alta incid
Objective: The objective of this study was to identify factors that determine the acceptance of voluntary HIV testing among pregnant women attending antenatal care at Dil Chora Hospital in Dire Dawa. Method: The study employed unmatched case control study which was conducted from August 20 to September 10, 2006.
Kivimets, K; Uuskula, A
We present data from an observational cohort study on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and control measures in prisons in Estonia to assess the potential for HIV transmission in this setting. HIV testing and retesting data from the Estonian prison health department were used to estimate HIV prevalence and incidence in prison. Since 2002, voluntary HIV counselling and testing has routinely been offered to all prisoners and has been part of the new prisoners health check. At the end of 2012, there were 3,289 prisoners in Estonia, including 170 women: 28.5% were drug users and 15.6% were infected with HIV. Of the HIV-positive inmates, 8.3% were newly diagnosed on prison entry. In 2012, 4,387 HIV tests (including retests) were performed in Estonian prisons. Among 1,756 initially HIV-negative prisoners who were in prison for more than one year and therefore tested for HIV twice within 12 months (at entry and annual testing), one new HIV infection was detected, an incidence of 0.067 per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.025–5.572). This analysis indicates low risk of HIV transmission in Estonian prisons. Implementation of HIV management interventions could impact positively on the health of prisoners and the communities to which they return.
Background. Objective: To describe our experience with the feasibility and acceptance of home-based HIV counselling and testing (HBCT) in two large, rural, administrative divisions of western Kenya. Design: Setting: Results: Conclusion. : Home-based HIV counselling and testing was feasible among this rural population ...
A questionnaire was distributed to 64 of the 78 interns working at a teaching hospital in Cape Town in August 1992 to examine their attitudes and practice in respect of HIV test counselling. The questionnaire was completed by 61 interns. Thirteen per cent of those who responded counselled all patients, 49% counselled ...
April L Kelley
Full Text Available Most incident HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa occur between cohabiting, discordant, heterosexual couples. Though couples' voluntary HIV counseling and testing (CVCT is an effective, well-studied intervention in Africa, <1% of couples have been jointly tested.We conducted cross-sectional household surveys in Kigali, Rwanda (n = 600 and Lusaka, Zambia (n = 603 to ascertain knowledge, perceptions, and barriers to use of CVCT.Compared to Lusaka, Kigali respondents were significantly more aware of HIV testing sites (79% vs. 56%; had greater knowledge of HIV serodiscordance between couples (83% vs. 43%; believed CVCT is good (96% vs. 72%; and were willing to test jointly (91% vs. 47%. Stigma, fear of partner reaction, and distance/cost/logistics were CVCT barriers.Though most respondents had positive attitudes toward CVCT, the majority were unaware that serodiscordance between cohabiting couples is possible. Future messages should target gaps in knowledge about serodiscordance, provide logistical information about CVCT services, and aim to reduce stigma and fear.
Mora Cárdenas, Claudia Mercedes; Monteiro, Simone; Moreira, Carlos Otávio Fiúza
Incentives to provide universal access to antiretroviral therapy in order to control the HIV/AIDS epidemic also encouraged the diversification of HIV testing strategies, as demonstrated by the simultaneous existence of Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) and Provider-Initiated HIV Testing and Counseling (PITC). This paper analyzes the concepts, principles and implementation of the VCT and PITC models regarding counseling, confidentiality and informed consent in Brazil and other countries, based on a literature review of works in the Lilacs, Medline, Sociological Abstracts and Cochrane databases published between 2000 and 2013. According to the literature, PITC increases rates of testing in comparison with VCT, but reduces sexual and reproductive rights and the autonomy of users. These findings suggest technical challenges and ethical tensions between the paradigm of exceptionalism and the normalization of HIV testing. The necessity to reconcile increased access to HIV tests with the local capacity to offer comprehensive care for people living with HIV/AIDS is highlighted. It is recommended that interdisciplinary studies about the social effects of VCT and PITC be amplified.
Despite huge prevention efforts the number of HIV infections worldwide continues to increase dramatically. Among other strategies, the HIV test offers an important chance for targeted prevention, provided quality counselling is offered. Several studies have revealed that HIV testing is often performed in less than optimal conditions and is often…
Background: There is ample scientific evidence that a person with an untreated sexually transmitted infection (STI), particularly those inducing ulcers or discharge, is at an increased risk of passing on or acquiring HIV during sexual intercourse. HIV counseling and testing (HIV CT) for STI cases is thus an important tool in the ...
Plazy, M; Orne-Gliemann, J; Balestre, E; Miric, M; Darak, S; Butsashvili, M; Tchendjou, P; Dabis, F; Desgrées du Loû, A
The Prenahtest study investigated the efficacy of a couple-oriented HIV counselling session (COC) in encouraging couple HIV counselling and testing, and improving intra-couple communication about sexual and reproductive health. We report here on the effect of COC on intra-couple communication about HIV. Within this 4-country trial (India, Georgia, Dominican Republic and Cameroon), 484 to 491 pregnant women per site were recruited and individually randomized to receive either the COC intervention, enhanced counselling with role playing, or standard post-test HIV counselling. Women were interviewed at recruitment, before HIV testing (T0), and 2 to 8 weeks after post-test HIV counselling (T1). Four dichotomous variables documented intra-couple communication about HIV at T1: 1) discussion about HIV, 2) discussion about condom use, 3) suggesting HIV testing and 4) suggesting couple HIV counselling to the partner. An intra-couple HIV communication index was created: low degree of communication ("yes" response to zero or one of the four variables), intermediate degree of communication ("yes" to two or three variables) or high degree of communication ("yes" to the four variables). To estimate the impact of COC on the intra-couple HIV communication index, multivariable logistic regressions were conducted. One thousand six hundred and seven women were included in the analysis of whom 54 (3.4%) were HIV-infected (49 in Cameroon). In the four countries, the counselling group was associated with intra-couple HIV communication (P≤0.03): women allocated to the COC group were significantly more likely to report high or intermediate degrees of intra-couple communication about HIV (versus low degree of communication) than women allocated to standard counselling. COC improved short-term communication about HIV within couples in different sociocultural contexts, a positive finding for a couple approach to HIV prevention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Avaliação do perfil tecnológico dos centros de testagem e aconselhamento para HIV no Brasil Evaluación del perfil tecnológico de los centros de consejería y pruebas de VIH en Brasil Technological profile assessment of voluntary HIV counseling and testing centers in Brazil
estructurado y auto-aplicado con 78 preguntas, respondido por 320 (83,6% de los 383 centros brasileros, durante 2006. Fueron analizadas respuestas que caracterizan el perfil tecnológico de los servicios mediante el uso de la técnica de agrupamiento k-means. Las asociaciones entre los perfiles descritos y los contextos municipales fueron analizadas usándose ji-cuadrado y análisis de residuo en el caso de proporciones, Anova y Bonferroni para promedios. RESULTADOS: Los centros presentaron deficiencias significativas con relación a la garantía de la atención adecuada. Fueron identificados cuatro perfiles tecnológicos. El perfil "asistencia" (21,6% fue predominante entre los servicios instituidos antes de 1993, en regiones con alta incidencia de SIDA y municipios de gran porte. El perfil "prevención" (30,0%, prevaleciente entre 1994-1998, fue el que más correspondió con las normas del Ministerio de la Salud, con mejores indicadores de resolución y productividad. El perfil "asistencia y prevención" (26,9%, inserido en los servicios de SIDA, fue predominante entre 1999-2002 y desarrollaba un conjunto más completo de actividades, incluyendo tratamiento de enfermedades sexualmente transmisibles. El perfil "oferta de diagnóstico" (21,6% fue el más precario y localizado donde la epidemia es más reciente y con menor proporción de personas evaluadas. CONCLUSIONES: Los centros de consejería y pruebas de VIH constituyen un conjunto de servicios heterogéneos y las directrices que nortearon la implantación de los servicios en Brasil no están plenamente incorporadas, influyendo en los bajos indicadores de resolución y productividad y en el desarrollo insuficiente de acción de prevención.OBJECTIVE: To characterize and analyze technological profiles of voluntary HIV counseling and testing centers in Brazil. METHODS: A structured self-completion questionnaire with 78 questions was used. This questionnaire was answered by 320 (83.6% of the 383 Brazilian centers, in 2006
AJRH Managing Editor
Yawson et al. HIV Testing in Ghana. African Journal of Reproductive Health March 2014; 18(1): 145. ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE. Utilization of HIV Testing and Counseling in Ghana: Implications for Universal Coverage. Alfred E Yawson. 1, 2*. , Phyllis Dako-Gyeke. 3. , Stephen Ayisi Addo. 1. , Bernard T Dornoo. 1.
tested to update their status. Four women were found HIV-positive while 6 were HIVnegative. The primary theme was that women appreciated and accepted HIV testing and counseling. Testing was accepted as a necessary step to protect the ...
Introduction: While HIV testing and counseling (HTC) services remain to be amongst the effective strategies in slowing HIV transmission, its accessibility and uptake in Tanzania is low. In 2011, 50% of adults have been ever tested and received their results. We conducted this study to assess barriers to accessibility and ...
to HIV/AIDS. Objective: To assess factors affecting willingness towards HIV CT among patients with conventional STIs in Addis. Ababa. ... patient-centered risk reduction counseling for STI patients during the initial visit to health care facilities. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev .... tertiary level of education, and the rest 75 (17.9%) had no.
Routine HIV counseling and testing (RCT) is a necessary first step in accessing health care for persons who may test HIV-positive. Despite the availability of RCT in many South African settings, uptake has often been low. We sought to determine whether the main components of the Health Belief Model (HBM), namely ...
The advent of AIDS has had such a deep-reaching effect on the international haemophilia community that one can make a reasonable distinction between a pre-AIDS and a post-AIDS era in haemophilia management. In the context of counselling, however, talking about a 'before' and an 'after' in haemophilia does not (and, in our opinion, should not) necessarily imply a separation of the past from the present. Dealing with the psycho-social implications of haemophilia and HIV infection does not mean focusing exclusively on HIV-generated problems at the expense of haemophilia-related issues. Since the HIV crisis, counselling has posed the multiple challenge of: (a) assessing and alleviating the more immediate emotional effects of HIV infection; (b) paying due attention to the underlying influence of haemophilia on reaction, defence and coping; (c) formulating a flexible approach that is based on close cooperation with the medical staff and effective interpersonal communication with the counsellees.* In practice, the flexibility and effectiveness of the counselling model are promoted by means of: (a) ongoing counselling, (b) multiple counselling sites (i.e. the Haemophilia Centre and other appropriate locations), (c) interdisciplinary team-work, (d) respect for individual/ ethnic values, (e) maintenance of exo-empathy (i.e. neutrality), and (f) transfer of coping skills. The above framework can help maximize the effectiveness of counselling sessions through a personalized rapport of mutual trust and confidence between the counselling team and the counsellees.
Plazy, M.; Orne-Gliemann, J.; Balestre, E.; Miric, M.; Darak, S.; Butsashvili, M.; Tchendjou, P.; Dabis, F.; du Lou, A. Desgrees
Background. - The Prenahtest study investigated the efficacy of a couple-oriented HIV counselling session (COC) in encouraging couple HIV counselling and testing, and improving intra-couple communication about sexual and reproductive health. We report here on the effect of COC on intra-couple
Onah, H E; Ibeziako, N; Nkwo, P O; Obi, S N; Nwankwo, T O
This study assessed voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) uptake, nevirapine use and infant feeding options among the pregnant women seen in a tertiary care centre in Enugu, South-east Nigeria, with the aim of identifying gaps (if any) in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) implementation in the hospital. It was a prospective study of all antenatal clinic attendees and those who delivered at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, within a 7-month period (1 March to 30 September 2005). During the 7-month period, 635 pregnant women accessed the PMTCT services in the hospital. With respect to VCT, 25 (3.9%) of the antenatal clinic attendees had only group counselling, while 610 (96.1%) others had both group and individual pre-test counselling. A total of 87 (13.7%) of the 635 women tested were HIV positive. Some 426 (67.1%) women had post-test counselling carried out. Twenty (23.0%) of the 87 HIV-positive women had their infection diagnosed prior to the current pregnancy, while 67 (77.0%) had the disease diagnosed during the index pregnancy. Eight (9.2%) of them had previously had anti-retroviral therapy with nevirapine. Twelve (13.8%) of the women were on antiretroviral therapy in the index pregnancy - two on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and 10 on nevirapine. A total of 41 (47.1%) of the 87 HIV-positive women had delivered as at 30 September 2005. Ten of them had antiretrovirals administered to them during the antenatal period. The remaining 31 had antiretrovirals administered to them on arrival at the labour ward for delivery. Of the 41 women who delivered, 39 had intra-partum nevirapine, while the 2 women on HAART took their usual daily dosage. Regarding mode of delivery, one-third of the women had a caesarean section and two-thirds had vaginal delivery. Ten (24.4%) of the 41 women had episiotomy, while seven of the remaining 31 women who did not receive episiotomy sustained varying degrees of perineal tear. There
Miranda, Karla Corrêa Lima; Barroso, Maria Grasiela Teixeira
The study aimed to investigate the strategies health professionals use in HIV/AIDS counseling. This study is a qualitative research, based on Paulo Freire's theory and practice. Bardin's content analysis was used as the analysis technique. For the studied group, the counseling is focused on cognition, although new concepts permeating this subject are emerging. The main difficulties in counseling are related to the clients and the institution. The main facility is related to the team, which according to the group has a good relationship. Counseling represents a moment of distress, especially because it brings up existential questions to the counselor. It can be inferred that counseling is a special moment, but it does not constitute an educational moment yet. To obtain this goal, a counseling methodology is proposed, based on Paulo Freire's principles and concepts.
AIDS training course presented either by the medical school or an AIDS training centre. In view of the perceived lack of training in general counselling, this would perhaps be most effective as part of a formal general counselling programme for all undergraduates. In a tertiary hospital one has the added benefit of a large.
Simbaya, J.; Moyer, E.
HIV-related counselling practices have evolved since emerging in Zambia in 1987. Whereas, initially, the goal of HIV counselling was to provide psychological support to the dying and their families, as knowledge about HIV grew, counselling objectives expanded to include behavioural change,
Détermination des facteurs de sécrétion des muqueuses influant sur la vulnérabilité à l'infection par le VIH chez les travailleuses du sexe au Kenya. Il est crucial de comprendre les facteurs complexes pouvant mener à l'infection par le VIH afin de s'attaquer au problème chez les populations vulnérables, telles que les ...
This study surveyed the counselling needs of HIV/AIDS-infected adolescents and young adults. Participants were 260 service providers (health care providers and Non-Governmental Organizations), age range 25-60, mean age 46.4, SD 9.9, 130 males, 130 females from five South Eastern States of Nigeria. They responded ...
HIV testing and counselling (HTC) is a gateway to all systems of AIDS-related care. This study examined national programme data to highlight gaps in HTC service utilization, regional differences and differential use of various HTC programs in Ghana in the period, 2007-2010. Analysis showed HTC increased rapidly across ...
that is conducting a multisite cluster randomised trial of an HIV prevention intervention for HIV-positive patients delivered in the context of ongoing clinical care in ... He also has certificates in Community Health Management, Epidemiology, Health Services ... inpatient, antenatal, sexually transmitted infection, tuberculosis.
Full Text Available Research Question: What are the socio-demographic profile and risk behavior pattern of seropositive attendees in the voluntary counseling and testing center (VCTC? Study Design: Retrospective study. Setting: VCTC in the outpatient complex of Kasturba Medical College Hospital, Mangalore, Karnataka. Subjects: Records pertaining to all the 539 and 330 seropositive attendees during the years 2005 and 2006, respectively, were included in the study besides data from 2001 onwards in order to assess the time trend of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Study Variables: Age, sex, marital status, religion, educational status, occupation, place of residence and pattern of risk behavior in relation to HIV/AIDS. Statistical Analysis: Analysis was done with SPSS version 11. Statistical test and Chi-square was done, and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The time trend of VCTC attendees reveals a gradual increase except in 2006 showing a sharp decline. Seropositives were around 20% between 2001 and April 2007 with a sharp increase in 2006, i.e., 33.64%. Male seropositivity constituted 60-63%; 81-91% of seropositive attendees belonged to the age group of 15-50 years; 58-70% were married. Only about 3% were illiterates and 20-25% constituted 6 th -12 th pass-outs. With regard to occupational profile, about 17-27% were housewives, 19-21% were laborers/hotel workers and 7% were entrepreneurs. About 45% were from urban area and nearly one-third hailing from other districts in the border of Karnataka. About 25% were exposed to commercial sex workers; another 21-23% were involved in premarital sex and nearly 38% were indulging in heterosexual activities.
Grillo, Michael P; Sloan, Margo; Wankie, Che; Woodland, Kelly; Reader, Elizabeth; Porter, Bruce; Shaffer, Richard; Macera, Caroline A; Bulterys, Marc
Compared with the general population in low- and middle-income countries, military members tend to be male, young, travel more frequently away from their main sexual partners, drink more alcohol and have a consistent source of income. All of these factors may lead to an increased risk of contracting HIV. In response, the Department of Defense HIV/AIDS Prevention Program advocates for the integration of HIV prevention "building blocks" into military health services to reduce the risk of acquiring HIV among foreign uniformed services. The building blocks include basic HIV education including outreach, condom promotion, enabling HIV policies, HIV testing services, screening for sexually transmitted infections, voluntary medical male circumcision where appropriate, prevention of mother-to-child transmission, and other supportive services. The Department of Defense HIV/AIDS Prevention Programs supports implementation of these building blocks though partnerships with foreign militaries. This comprehensive prevention package, when closely linked with HIV treatment services, is the cornerstone of creating an HIVfree generation in military and surrounding communities worldwide. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at email@example.com.
AIDS Counseling and Testing (HCT) is low in sub-Saharan Africa, where the disease continues to be a serious public health problem. This has in part been attributed to HIV/AIDS related stigma. Objective: To assess the level of HIV/AIDS related ...
Descriptive statistical analysis revealed a broad range of HIV&AIDS-related counselling services including life-skills education, care and support education and stigma reduction counselling. Teachers perceived a greater need for training in HIV&AIDS counselling skills and also in the use of information technology to support ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Counselling human immunodeficiency virus (HIV positive mothers on safer infant and young child feeding (IYCF options is an important component of programmes to prevent mother to child transmission of HIV, but the quality of counselling is often inadequate. The aim of this study was to determine the effect the World Health Organization HIV and infant feeding cards on the quality of counselling provided to HIV positive mothers by health workers about safer infant feeding options. Method This was a un-blinded cluster-randomized controlled field trial in which 36 primary health facilities in Kafue and Lusaka districts in Zambia were randomized to intervention (IYCF counselling with counselling cards or non- intervention arm (IYCF counselling without counselling cards. Counselling sessions with 10 HIV positive women attending each facility were observed and exit interviews were conducted by research assistants. Results Totals of 180 women in the intervention group and 180 women in the control group were attended to by health care providers and interviewed upon exiting the health facility. The health care providers in the intervention facilities more often discussed the advantages of disclosing their HIV status to a household member (RR = 1.46, 95% CI [1.11, 1.92]; used visual aids in explaining the risk of HIV transmission through breast milk (RR = 4.65, 95% CI [2.28, 9.46]; and discussed the advantages and disadvantages of infant feeding options for HIV positive mothers (all p values Conclusion The addition of counselling cards to the IYCF counselling session for HIV positive mothers were a valuable aid to counselling and significantly improved the quality of the counselling session.
Nguyen, T.A.; Oosterhoff, P.; Hardon, A.; Ngoc, Y.P.; Tran, H.N.; Coutinho, R.A.; Wright, P.
In Hanoi, Vietnam, HIV counseling and testing is available but apparently still many HIV-positive women were either not detected or were identified too late for optimal PMTCT intervention. The study looked at how easily pregnant women could find out about and use HIV counseling and testing and
Thrun, Mark; Cook, Paul F.; Bradley-Springer, Lucy A.; Gardner, Lytt; Marks, Gary; Wright, Julie; Wilson, Tracey E.; Quinlivan, E. Byrd; O'Daniels, Christine; Raffanti, Stephen; Thompson, Melanie; Golin, Carol
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have recommended that HIV care clinics incorporate prevention into clinical practice. This report summarizes HIV care providers' attitudes and counseling practices before and after they received training to deliver a counseling intervention to patients. Providers at seven HIV clinics received training…
Background: Many patients are referred to labour ward as emergencies, and therefore do not benefit from the antenatal HIV counselling and testing and treatment offered to registered patients. Objective: To assess the acceptability and suitability of offering HIV counselling and testing to women of unknown HIV status ...
Relationship between Knowledge and Attitude towards HIV Voluntary Counselling among Adolescents in Secondary Schools in Edo State. ... A validated instrument titled “Knowledge and Attitude towards HIV Voluntary Counselling Questionnaire (KAHVCQ)” developed by the researchers with the assistance of experts was ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background A large proportion of the 2.5 million new adult HIV infections that occurred worldwide in 2007 were in stable couples. Feasible and acceptable strategies to improve HIV prevention in a conjugal context are scarce. In the preparatory phase of the ANRS 12127 Prenahtest multi-site HIV prevention trial, we assessed the acceptability of couple-oriented post-test HIV counseling (COC and men's involvement within prenatal care services, among pregnant women, male partners and health care workers in Cameroon, Dominican Republic, Georgia and India. Methods Quantitative and qualitative research methods were used: direct observations of health services; in-depth interviews with women, men and health care workers; monitoring of the COC intervention and exit interviews with COC participants. Results In-depth interviews conducted with 92 key informants across the four sites indicated that men rarely participated in antenatal care (ANC services, mainly because these are traditionally and programmatically a woman's domain. However men's involvement was reported to be acceptable and needed in order to improve ANC and HIV prevention services. COC was considered by the respondents to be a feasible and acceptable strategy to actively encourage men to participate in prenatal HIV counseling and testing and overall in reproductive health services. Conclusions One of the keys to men's involvement within prenatal HIV counseling and testing is the better understanding of couple relationships, attitudes and communication patterns between men and women, in terms of HIV and sexual and reproductive health; this conjugal context should be taken into account in the provision of quality prenatal HIV counseling, which aims at integrated PMTCT and primary prevention of HIV.
Conclusion: The high prevalence of HIV sero-positivity in this study may be attributed to the hospital based survey since this centre is a national referral centre for HIV treatment. Most of the visitors to the HCT centre have risky behaviour except for the pregnant women who came for routine antenatal care in the hospital.
Full Text Available Abstract Background An increase in new HIV cases among men who have sex with men (MSM has been reported in Switzerland since 2001. A rapid result HIV testing for MSM through voluntary counselling and testing (VCT facility (“Checkpoint” was opened in Geneva in 2005. This gay-friendly facility, the first to open in Switzerland, provides testing for sexually transmitted infections (STI and rapid result HIV testing and counselling. Our objective was to analyze Checkpoint’s activity over its first five years of activity and its ability to attract at-risk MSM. Methods We used routine data collected anonymously about the facility activity (number of clients, number of tests, and test results and about the characteristics of the clientele (sociodemographic data, sexual risk behaviour, and reasons for testing from 2005 to 2009. Results The yearly number of HIV tests performed increased from 249 in 2005 to 561 in 2009. The annual proportion of positive tests among tests performed varied between 2% and 3%. Among MSM clients, the median annual number of anal intercourse (AI partners was three. Roughly 30% of all MSM clients had at least one unprotected anal intercourse (UAI experience in the previous 12 months with a partner of different/unknown HIV status. The main reason for testing in 2007, 2008, and 2009 was “sexual risk exposure” (~40%, followed by “routine” testing (~30% and “condom stopping in the beginning of a new steady relationship” (~10%. Clients who came to the facility after a sexual risk exposure, compared to clients who came for "routine testing" or "condom stopping" reasons, had the highest number of AI partners in the previous 12 months, were more likely to have had UAI with a partner of different/unknown HIV status in the previous 12 months (respectively 57.3%, 12.5%, 23.5%, more likely to have had an STI diagnosed in the past (41.6%, 32.2%, 22.9%, and more likely to report recent feelings of sadness or depression
Background: In Tanzania HIV Testing and Counselling (HTC) is being implemented through voluntary counselling and testing (VCT), provider initiated counselling and testing (PITC) and work place counselling and testing (HTC). Within these programmes, HIV status disclosure is emphasized. However, among persons who ...
Visser, Maretha; Mabota, Princess
The HIV testing, treatment and care programme of the South African public healthcare system depends on HIV counselling and testing (HCT) that is primarily delivered by lay counsellors. Lay counsellors are expected to educate clients about HIV/AIDS, advocate behaviour change, convey test results and support those infected and affected to cope with the emotional and social challenges associated with HIV/AIDS. This research focuses on the emotional wellbeing of lay HCT counsellors because this influences the quality of services they provide. A mixed methods approach was used. The emotional wellbeing, level of burnout, depression and coping style of 50 lay HCT counsellors working at the City of Tshwane clinics were assessed. Additionally, five focus group discussions were conducted. The results showed that HCT counsellors reported average emotional wellbeing, high levels of emotional exhaustion and depression. They had a sense of personal accomplishment and positive coping skills. The results revealed that they may have difficulty dealing with clients' emotional distress without adequate training and supervision. This creates a dilemma for service delivery. In the light of the important role they play in service delivery, the role of the lay HCT counsellor needs to be reconsidered. HCT should develop as a profession with specific training and supervision to develop their emotional competencies to conduct effective counselling sessions.
Samson, L; King, S.
OBJECTIVE: To provide Canadian health care workers with evidence-based guidelines for universal counselling about HIV testing and the offering of such testing to all pregnant women. OPTIONS: Universal counselling and offering of HIV testing to all pregnant women versus targeted testing of only pregnant women at high risk for HIV infection. Antiretroviral treatment protocols for HIV-positive mothers and their infants are discussed as the intervention to reduce mother-to-child transmission rate...
Alvarez-del Arco, Debora; Monge, Susana; Azcoaga, Amaya; Rio, Isabel; Hernando, Victoria; Gonzalez, Cristina; Alejos, Belen; Caro, Ana Maria; Perez-Cachafeiro, Santiago; Ramirez-Rubio, Oriana; Bolumar, Francisco; Noori, Teymur; Del Amo, Julia
Background: The barriers to HIV testing and counselling that migrants encounter can jeopardize proactive HIV testing that relies on the fact that HIV testing must be linked to care. We analyse available evidence on HIV testing and counselling strategies targeting migrants and ethnic minorities in high-income countries. Methods: Systematic literature review of the five main databases of articles in English from Europe, North America and Australia between 2005 and 2009. Results: Of 1034 abstrac...
A. C. van Dyk; P. J. van Dyk
Voluntary HIV Counselling and Testing (VCT) is still in its infancy in South Africa, and although the necessary infrastructure in terms of clinics and hospitals exists, a VCT culture is not yet established in the country. The purpose of this study was to determine the needs, attitudes and beliefs of a sample of South Africans towards VCT, and to investigate possible barriers affecting participation in VCT programs in South Africa. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to survey the views o...
Internal and external stigmas are often lumped together while addressing issues of stigma and HIV-testing, not considering that one of them may actually affect the disposition HIV-testing than the other. This study, therefore, investigated the effect of HIV/AIDS-related internal and external stigma on the disposition of pregnant ...
OʼLaughlin, Kelli N; Kasozi, Julius; Walensky, Rochelle P; Parker, Robert A; Faustin, Zikama M; Doraiswamy, Sathyanarayanan; Owino, Chris Omara; Bassett, Ingrid V
We implemented and evaluated a clinic-based routine voluntary HIV testing intervention in Nakivale Refugee Settlement in Uganda. Comparing the standard of care period (40 d) with the intervention period (168 d), the mean HIV-infected clients identified per week increased from 0.9 to 5.6, and there was no significant difference between the HIV prevalence in the 2 periods (standard of care: 3.3%; intervention: 4.5%; P > 0.5). Clinic-based routine HIV testing in a refugee settlement is effective and should be considered for implementation in refugee settlements in other high-prevalence regions in sub-Saharan Africa.
O’Laughlin, Kelli N.; Kasozi, Julius; Walensky, Rochelle P.; Parker, Robert A.; Faustin, Zikama M.; Doraiswamy, Sathyanarayanan; Owino, Chris Omara; Bassett, Ingrid V.
We implemented and evaluated a clinic-based routine voluntary HIV testing intervention in Nakivale Refugee Settlement in Uganda. Comparing the SOC period (40 days) to the Intervention period (168 days), the mean HIV-infected clients identified per week increased from 0.9 to 5.6, and there was no significant difference between the HIV prevalence in the two periods (standard of care: 3.3%, intervention: 4.5%; p > 0.5). Clinic-based routine HIV testing in a refugee settlement is effective and sh...
Kayigamba, Felix R.; van Santen, Daniëla; Bakker, Mirjam I.; Lammers, Judith; Mugisha, Veronicah; Bagiruwigize, Emmanuel; de Naeyer, Ludwig; Asiimwe, Anita; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.
Provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling (PITC) is promoted as a means to increase HIV case finding. We assessed the effectiveness of PITC to increase HIV testing rate and HIV case finding among outpatients in Rwandan health facilities (HF). PITC was introduced in six HFs in 2009-2010. HIV
Myers, Janet J; Kang Dufour, Mi-Suk; Koester, Kimberly A; Rose, Carol Dawson; Shade, Starley B; Maiorana, Andres; Morin, Stephen F
The delivery of HIV risk assessment and behavioral counseling by clinicians in HIV clinical settings is one component in a comprehensive "positive prevention" strategy to help patients reduce their transmission risk behavior. Clinicians engage in behavioral prevention inconsistently, however, depending on whether patients are new to a practice or are established in regular care and on their attitudes and characteristics of their practices. We analyzed clinician reports of behavioral prevention delivered before and after participation in a large federal demonstration project of positive prevention interventions. The interventions that were part of this project were successful in increasing behavioral prevention among both new and returning patients. Prior to study interventions, clinicians reported counseling 69% of new patients and 52% of returning patients. In follow-up interviews 12 months after receiving training, clinicians reported delivering prevention messages to 5% more new patients and 9% of returning patients (both phelp clinicians more consistently deliver behavioral prevention messages to their HIV-infected patients.
Background: Healthcare workers are seen as being at the centre of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) management. They are also at risk of HIV infection from occupational exposure to blood-borne pathogens during their daily work activities. Although many studies on ...
Local beliefs and practices about voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) may influence uptake and effectiveness. Data were gathered through interviews with 40 people from four ethnically mixed fishing communities in Uganda. Some men believed that wound healing could be promoted by contact with vaginal fluids ...
Bach Xuan Tran
Full Text Available Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT reduces HIV risk behaviors and improves access to HIV-related services among drug users. In this study, we assessed the uptake and willingness of MMT patients to refer HIV testing and counseling (HTC service to their sexual partners and relatives.Health status, HIV-related risk behaviors, and HTC uptake and referrals of 1,016 MMT patients in Hanoi and Nam Dinh were investigated. Willingness to pay (WTP for HTC was elicited using a contingent valuation technique. Interval and logistic regression models were employed to determine associated factors.Most of the patients (94.2% had received HTC, 6.6 times on average. The proportion of respondents willing to refer their partners, their relatives and to be voluntary peer educators was 45.7%, 35.3%, and 33.3%, respectively. Attending MMT integrated with HTC was a facilitative factor for HTC uptake, greater WTP, and volunteering as peer educators. Older age, higher education and income, and HIV positive status were positively related to willingness to refer partners or relatives, while having health problems (mobility, usual care, pain/discomfort was associated with lower likelihood of referring others or being a volunteer. Over 90% patients were willing to pay an average of US $17.9 for HTC service.The results highlighted the potential role of MMT patients as referrers to HTC and voluntary peer educators. Integrating HIV testing with MMT services and applying users' fee are potential strategies to mobilize resources and encourage HIV testing among MMT patients and their partners.
infection among voluntary blood donors at the National Blood Transfusion Centre and clients at the Kenyatta National Hospital HIV-Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT) Centre. Design: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study.
Joe, J. Richelle; Foster, Victoria A.
People living with HIV/AIDS will likely require services from mental health professionals to address the complex psychosocial effects of the illness. In the United States, counseling students are not likely to be well prepared to serve clients affected by HIV/AIDS, and little is known about their HIV-related knowledge and attitudes. The present…
Full Text Available Jennifer M Cocohoba,1 Keri N Althoff,2 Mardge Cohen,3 Haihong Hu,4 Chinazo O Cunningham,5 Anjali Sharma,6 Ruth M Greenblatt1,71University of California, San Francisco School of Pharmacy, San Francisco, CA; 2Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD; 3Department of Medicine, Stroger Hospital and Rush Medical College, Chicago, IL; 4Department of Medicine, Georgetown University, Washington, DC; 5Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY; 6SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY; 7University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA, USABackground and methods: Achieving high adherence to antiretroviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is challenging due to various system-related, medication-related, and patient-related factors. Community pharmacists can help patients resolve many medication-related issues that lead to poor adherence. The purpose of this cross-sectional survey nested within the Women’s Interagency HIV Study was to describe characteristics of women who had received pharmacist medication counseling within the previous 6 months. The secondary objective was to determine whether HIV-positive women who received pharmacist counseling had better treatment outcomes, including self-reported adherence, CD4+ cell counts, and HIV-1 viral loads.Results: Of the 783 eligible participants in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study who completed the survey, only 30% of participants reported receiving pharmacist counseling within the last 6 months. Factors independently associated with counseling included increased age (odds ratio [OR] 1.28; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07–1.55, depression (OR 1.75; 95% CI 1.25–2.45, and use of multiple pharmacies (OR 1.65; 95% CI 1.15–2.37. Patients with higher educational attainment were less likely to report pharmacist counseling (OR 0.68; 95% CI 0.48–0.98, while HIV status did not play a statistically significant role. HIV
Egli, Benjamin; Schlesinger, Torsten; Splinter, Mariëlle; Nagel, Siegfried
Introduction Recruiting and retaining volunteers who are prepared to make a long-term commitment is a major problem for Swiss sports clubs. With the inclusion of external counselling for the change and systematisation of volunteer management, sports clubs have a possibility to develop and defuse problems in spite of existing barriers and gaps in knowledge. To what extent is external counselling for personnel problems effective? It is often observed that standardised counselling inputs lead...
Witzel, T Charles; Lora, Wezzie; Lees, Shelley; Desmond, Nicola
HIV testing and counselling (HTC) interventions are key to controlling the HIV epidemic in East and Southern Africa where HTC is primarily delivered through voluntary counselling and testing (VCT), provider initiated testing and counselling (PITC), and home-based counselling and testing (HBVCT). Decision making processes around uptake of HTC models must be taken into account when designing new interventions. Counselling in HTC aims to reduce post-test risk taking behaviour and to link individuals to care but its efficacy is unclear. This meta-ethnography aims to understand the contexts of HTC uptake in East and Southern Africa and to analyse the perceived impacts of counselling-based interventions in relation to sexual behaviour and linkage to care. We conducted a systematic literature review of studies investigating HTC in East and Southern Africa from 2003 -April 2014. The search and additional snowballing identified 20 studies that fit our selection criteria. These studies were synthesised through a thematic framework analysis. Twenty qualitative and mixed-methods studies examining impacts of HTC models in East and Southern Africa were meta-synthesised. VCT decisions were made individually while HBVCT decisions were located in family and community units. PITC was associated with coercion from healthcare providers. Low quality counselling components and multiple-intersecting barriers faced by individuals mean that counselling in HTC was not perceived to be effective in reducing post-test risk behaviour and had limited perceived effect in facilitating linkage to care. HBVCT is associated with minimal stigma and should be considered as an area of priority. Counselling components in HTC interventions were effective in transmitting information about HIV and sexual risk, but were perceived as ineffective in addressing the broader personal circumstances preventing sexual behaviour change and modulating access to care.
Steward, Wayne T; Koester, Kimberly A; Myers, Janet J; Morin, Stephen F
We examined the relationship between provider fatalism, a belief that behavior change among HIV-infected patients is unlikely, and HIV-prevention counseling in 16 publicly funded clinics. HIV-seropositive patients (N = 618) completed surveys assessing prevention counseling in the past 6 months. Additionally, 144 interviews were conducted with providers, administrators, and patients to examine beliefs about prevention counseling. We summed the number of fatalistic comments made by providers and administrators in each clinic, and assigned these counts as clinic-level fatalism scores to survey participants. Patients in high fatalism clinics were less likely to report prevention counseling than patients in low fatalism clinics. This difference remained significant even after controlling for clinic characteristics or patients' sexual risk and health status. However, clients in high fatalism clinics were more likely to be White, gay, educated, and older. Provider fatalism is a barrier that must be addressed when implementing HIV-prevention counseling in primary care settings.
Zachariah, R.; Harries, A. D.; Nkhoma, W; Arendt, V; Spielmann, M P; Buhendwa, L.; Chingi, C; Mossong, J
OBJECTIVES: To estimate HIV prevalence in various blood donor populations, to identity sociodemographic risk factors associated with prevalent HIV and to assess the feasibility of offering routine voluntary counselling services to blood donors. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Thyolo district, Malawi. METHODS: Data analysis involving blood donors who underwent voluntary counselling and HIV testing between January 1998 and July 2000. RESULTS: Crude HIV prevalence was 22%, while the age ...
Background. Early initiation of antiretroviral therapy reduces transmission of HIV and prolongs life. Expansion of HIV testing is therefore pivotal in overcoming the HIV pandemic. Provider-initiated counselling and testing (PICT) at first clinical contact is one way of increasing the number of individuals tested. Our impression is ...
Full Text Available Background: HIV/AIDS pandemic brought into focus the importance of safe blood donor pool. Aims: To analyze true seroprevalence of HIV infection in our blood donors and devise an algorithm for donor recall avoiding unnecessary referrals to voluntary counseling and testing centre (VCTC. Materials and Methods: 39,784 blood units were screened for anti-HIV 1/2 using ELISA immunoassay (IA-1. Samples which were repeat reactive on IA-1 were further tested using two different immunoassays (IA-2 and IA-3 and Western blot (WB. Based on results of these sequential IAs and WB, an algorithm for recall of true HIV seroreactive blood donors is suggested for countries like India where nucleic acid testing or p24 antigen assays are not mandatory and given the limited resources may not be feasible. Results: The anti-HIV seroreactivity by repeat IA-1, IA-2, IA-3 and WB were 0.16%, 0.11%, 0.098% and 0.07% respectively. Of the 44 IA-1 reactive samples, 95.2% (20/21 of the seroreactive samples by both IA-2 and IA-3 were also WB positive and 100% (6/6 of the non-reactive samples by these IAs were WB negative. IA signal/cutoff ratio was significantly low in biological false reactive donors. WB indeterminate results were largely due to non-specific reactivity to gag protein (p55. Conclusions: HIV seroreactivity by sequential immunoassays (IA-1, IA-2 and IA-3; comparable to WHO Strategy-III prior to donor recall results in decreased referral to VCTC as compared to single IA (WHO Strategy-I being followed currently in India. Moreover, this strategy will repose donor confidence in our blood transfusion services and strengthen voluntary blood donation program.
Arlene C Chua
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Since 2008, the Singapore Ministry of Health (MOH has expanded HIV testing by increasing anonymous HIV test sites, as well as issuing a directive to hospitals to offer routine voluntary opt out inpatient HIV testing. We reviewed this program implemented at the end of 2008 at Tan Tock Seng Hospital (TTSH, the second largest acute care general hospital in Singapore. METHODS AND FINDINGS: From January 2009 to December 2010, all inpatients aged greater or equal than 21 years were screened for HIV unless they declined or were not eligible for screening. We reviewed the implementation of the Opt Out testing policy. There were a total of 93,211 admissions; 41,543 patients were included based on HIV screening program eligibility criteria. Among those included, 79% (n = 32,675 opted out of HIV screening. The overall acceptance rate was 21%. Majority of eligible patients who were tested (63% were men. The mean age of tested patients was 52 years. The opt out rate was significantly higher among females (OR: 1.5, 95%CI: 1.4-1.6, aged >60 years (OR: 2.3, 95%CI: 2.2-2.4 and Chinese ethnicity (OR: 1.7, 95%CI:1.6-1.8. The false positive rate of the HIV screening test is 0.56%. The proportion of patients with HIV infection among those who underwent HIV screening is 0.18%. All 16 confirmed HIV patients were linked to care. CONCLUSION: The default opt-in rate of inpatient HIV testing was low at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore. Efforts to address individual HIV risk perception and campaigns against HIV stigma are needed to encourage more individuals to be tested for HIV.
Dorjgochoo, Tsogzolmaa; Noel, Francine; Deschamps, Marie Marcel; Theodore, Harry; Charles, Sabine; Dupont, William; Wright, Peter F; Fitzgerald, Dan W; Vermund, Sten H; Pape, Jean W
Many Haitian adolescents are highly vulnerable to HIV infection. Among 3,391 sexually active 13-25-year-olds in our Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) Center in Port-au-Prince from October 2005 to September 2006, we assessed associations between demographic and behavioral factors and HIV status using multivariable logistic regression analyses. We diagnosed HIV infection in 6.3% of 2,533 females and 5.5% of 858 males. Age-specific prevalence was 3.4% for 13-15-year-olds, 4.7% for 16-19, and 6.8% for 20-25 (P=0.02). Poor education, not residing with parents, currently or formerly married, having a child, and being self-referred to VCT services by others were significant predictors of HIV in females. HIV infection was associated with considering oneself at higher risk, though most youth did not recognize this risk. HIV in females was also associated with suspected/confirmed sexually transmitted infection (STI), especially genital ulcers (ORadj=2.28, 95%CI:1.26-4.13), years of sexual activity (Ptrend=0.07), and suspicion that partners had other partners or an STI. Among males, HIV was associated with drug use (though uncommon), as well as sexual debut with a casual/unknown person (ORadj=3.18, 95%CI:1.58-6.42). HIV-infected young people were more likely to be RPR positive and less likely to use condoms. Young Haitians are a key target for HIV prevention and care and avail themselves readily of youth-focused VCT services. PMID:19738486
Full Text Available Abstract Background Voluntary counselling and testing (VCT for HIV first evolved in Western settings, with one aim being to promote behaviours which lower the risk of onward transmission or acquisition of HIV. However, although quantitative studies have shown that the impact of VCT on sexual behaviour change has been limited in African settings, there is a lack of qualitative research exploring perceptions of HIV prevention counselling messages, particularly among clients testing HIV-negative. We conducted a qualitative study to explore healthcare worker, community and both HIV-negative and HIV-positive clients’ perceptions of HIV prevention counselling messages in rural Tanzania. Methods This study was carried out within the context of an ongoing community HIV cohort study in Kisesa, northwest Tanzania. Nine group sessions incorporating participatory learning and action (PLA activities were conducted in order to gain general community perspectives of HIV testing and counselling (HTC services. Thirty in-depth interviews (IDIs with HIV-negative and HIV-positive service users explored individual perceptions of HIV prevention counselling messages, while five IDIs were carried out with nurses or counsellors offering HTC in order to explore provider perspectives. Results Two key themes revolving around socio-cultural and contextual factors emerged in understanding responses to HIV prevention counselling messages. The first included constraints to client-counsellor interactions, which were impeded as a result of difficulties discussing private sexual behaviours during counselling sessions, a hierarchical relationship between healthcare providers and clients, insufficient levels of training and support for counsellors, and client concerns about confidentiality. The second theme related to imbalanced gender-power dynamics, which constrained the extent to which women felt able to control their HIV-related risk. Conclusion Within the broader social
Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in January 2006, among Butajira senior secondary school ... There are a few studies describing barriers to HIV testing in sub. Saharan Africa including Ethiopia (5). The second round. Behavioral Surveillance Survey in Ethiopia ... family planning programs. In its ...
Sema K Sgaier
Full Text Available Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC is capable of reducing the risk of sexual transmission of HIV from females to males by approximately 60%. In 2007, the WHO and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS recommended making VMMC part of a comprehensive HIV prevention package in countries with a generalized HIV epidemic and low rates of male circumcision. Modeling studies undertaken in 2009-2011 estimated that circumcising 80% of adult males in 14 priority countries in Eastern and Southern Africa within five years, and sustaining coverage levels thereafter, could avert 3.4 million HIV infections within 15 years and save US$16.5 billion in treatment costs. In response, WHO/UNAIDS launched the Joint Strategic Action Framework for accelerating the scale-up of VMMC for HIV prevention in Southern and Eastern Africa, calling for 80% coverage of adult male circumcision by 2016. While VMMC programs have grown dramatically since inception, they appear unlikely to reach this goal. This review provides an overview of findings from the PLOS Collection "Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention: Improving Quality, Efficiency, Cost Effectiveness, and Demand for Services during an Accelerated Scale-up." The use of devices for VMMC is also explored. We propose emphasizing management solutions to help VMMC programs in the priority countries achieve the desired impact of averting the greatest possible number of HIV infections. Our recommendations include advocating for prioritization and funding of VMMC, increasing strategic targeting to achieve the goal of reducing HIV incidence, focusing on programmatic efficiency, exploring the role of new technologies, rethinking demand creation, strengthening data use for decision-making, improving governments' program management capacity, strategizing for sustainability, and maintaining a flexible scale-up strategy informed by a strong monitoring, learning, and evaluation platform.
Ngangue, Patrice; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Bedard, Emmanuelle
The Cameroon government has made HIV testing and counselling (HTC) a priority in its HIV/AIDS strategic plan. However, there is a dearth of literature on the perspectives of providers on the quality of HTC services. The aim of this study was to explore challenges in the provision of HTC services and their implications on quality of HTC services in Douala's district hospitals. Two primary data collection methods supported by the Donabedian's model of healthcare were used to explain the challenges in the provision of HTC services and their implications on quality of HTC services. This consisted of semi-structured individual interviews with 6 nurses and 16 lay counsellors and a non-participant observation of the physical environment for HTC by site. The study sites were the prevention and voluntary testing and counselling centre (PVTCC) of the six district hospitals of the city of Douala. The study reveals concerns about confidentiality and privacy during the counselling sessions due to inadequate and limited space. An absence of consent, even verbal, was reported in one PVTCC. There is no specific accredited training curriculum that leads to a formal registration as a PVTCC staff, and some lay counsellors work without training. Lay counsellors carry the burden of HIV counselling, but the majority of them work for many years without remuneration and recognition. Another quality challenge is the high workload in the district hospitals' lab, which leads to long waiting times for HIV test results, thus contributing to failure to return for results. The findings of this study highlighted some issues such as lack of adequate space and equipment for HIV testing and counselling that hinder the quality of HTC services and should challenge the health authorities of Cameroon on the need to reorganize HTC services and create a national HIV quality assurance program.
Nyitray, Alan G; Bagyinszky, Ferenc; Ross, Michael W; Schmidt, Axel J
Using data from a large internet-based survey of European men having sex with men (MSM), we assessed factors associated with HIV testing and reasons for dissatisfaction with HIV testing and counselling among Hungarian MSM. A total of 2052 Hungarian MSM provided evaluable data for the European MSM Internet Survey (EMIS) in 2010. χ2 tests and Poisson regression with a robust variance estimator were used to assess factors associated with HIV testing and dissatisfaction with HIV testing and counselling. A total of 42.1% of MSM reported never being testing for HIV. Over one-half of men (54.1%) who reported condomless anal intercourse (CAI) in the prior 12 months with a person of unknown or sero-discordant HIV status reported no lifetime HIV testing. The factor most strongly associated with dissatisfaction with HIV testing and counselling was test site with increased dissatisfaction with inpatient hospital settings vs. community-based organizations. Both lack of HIV testing and dissatisfaction with testing were independently associated with MSM who reported that no one, or only a few people, knew they were attracted to men. Lack of HIV testing was strongly associated with CAI. MSM reported that community-based organizations better supported confidentiality and were more respectful during HIV testing.
Mukolo, Abraham; Blevins, Meridith; Victor, Bart; Paulin, Heather N; Vaz, Lara M E; Sidat, Mohsin; Vergara, Alfredo E
Some aspects of HIV-related stigma have been shown to be a barrier to HIV services uptake and adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART). Distinguishing which domains of stigma impact HIV services uptake can enhance the efficacy and efficiency of stigma-reduction interventions. The relationships between use of voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) services and two domains of community stigma identified through factor analysis, negative labeling/devaluation and social exclusion, were investigated among 3749 female heads of household. Data were from a general household survey conducted in rural Mozambique. Multivariable logistic regression outcomes were: lifetime VCT use, past-6-months VCT use and VCT endorsement. Thirteen percent (13%) of the participants reported lifetime VCT use, 10% reported past-6-months VCT use and 63% endorsed VCT. A 25-point decrease (from 50 to 25) in the score for negative labeling and devaluation stigma was associated with increased lifetime VCT use (adjusted OR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1-2.3) and past-6-months VCT use (adjusted OR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1-2.4). A decrease from 50 to 25-points in the score for social exclusion stigma was associated with 1.5 and 1.3-fold increase in odds for past-6-months VCT use and endorsing VCT use, respectively (p endorsement of VCT use was observed among testers who did not receive HIV test results (adjusted OR: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.6-4.6) and much higher among testers who received results (adjusted OR: 7.3, 95% CI: 4.9-11.0). Distance from health facilities was associated with lower VCT use, but not lower endorsement of VCT. VCT use and endorsement might differ by domains of stigma held by individuals in the community. Greater uptake and favorable disposition towards use of VCT services in rural settings might be achieved by addressing stigma via domain-specific interventions and by improving the proximity of services and the dissemination of HIV test results.
Context Knowledge of different HIV testing modules is necessary to make an informed consent. The basic conditions of confidentiality, voluntary and counseling (pre-and-post) should apply in all HIV testing. Objective To assess the knowledge and preference of HIV counseling and testing types among antenatal women at ...
DeGuzman, Michael A.; Ross, Michael W.
Reviews Internet technological capabilities for counseling and assesses the application of HIV/AIDS related counseling on the Internet. Interviews with health professionals reveal four major themes: counselor client relationship, target population, ethics, and operation. Major concerns include the lack of visual and verbal cues during interaction,…
Onoya, D; Mohlabane, N; Maduna, V; van Zyl, J; Sewpaul, R; Naidoo, Y
To examine the association between testing in the 2010 HIV Testing and Counselling (HCT) campaign with HIV risk behaviours and enrolment on ART. Data for this study were collected as part of a nationally representative cross-sectional household survey conducted in 2012 in South Africa. Consenting participants completed a structured questionnaire and provided a dry blood spot specimen which was tested for HIV antibodies and antiretroviral drugs. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the association between HIV testing history and explanatory variables of interest. There was no association between testing in the 2010 HCT campaign and condom use at last sex, number of sexual partnerships or HIV knowledge. Individuals who tested in the HCT campaign were more likely to disclose their status (COR 2.6, 95% CI: 1.71-3.8) and those who tested HIV positive in the campaign were more likely to be receiving ART (COR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-2.9). Testing in the HCT campaign was associated with having received both pretest and post-test counselling while testing before the campaign was associated with having received HIV results with no counselling (COR 2.1, 95% CI: 1.2-3.8). We highlight the success of the 2010 HCT campaign in improving HIV status disclosure and enrolment on ART as well as shortcomings on HIV risk behaviours and HIV knowledge. These may be related to issues of quality assurance in the counselling process. Our results further highlight possible HCT counselling inconsistencies across sectors requiring stronger public-private partnership in the delivery of HCT in South Africa. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Monge, Susana; Azcoaga, Amaya; Rio, Isabel; Hernando, Victoria; Gonzalez, Cristina; Alejos, Belen; Caro, Ana Maria; Perez-Cachafeiro, Santiago; Ramirez-Rubio, Oriana; Bolumar, Francisco; Noori, Teymur; Del Amo, Julia
Background: The barriers to HIV testing and counselling that migrants encounter can jeopardize proactive HIV testing that relies on the fact that HIV testing must be linked to care. We analyse available evidence on HIV testing and counselling strategies targeting migrants and ethnic minorities in high-income countries. Methods: Systematic literature review of the five main databases of articles in English from Europe, North America and Australia between 2005 and 2009. Results: Of 1034 abstracts, 37 articles were selected. Migrants, mainly from HIV-endemic countries, are at risk of HIV infection and its consequences. The HIV prevalence among migrants is higher than the general population’s, and migrants have higher frequency of delayed HIV diagnosis. For migrants from countries with low HIV prevalence and for ethnic minorities, socio-economic vulnerability puts them at risk of acquiring HIV. Migrants have specific legal and administrative impediments to accessing HIV testing—in some countries, undocumented migrants are not entitled to health care—as well as cultural and linguistic barriers, racism and xenophobia. Migrants and ethnic minorities fear stigma from their communities, yet community acceptance is key for well-being. Conclusions: Migrants and ethnic minorities should be offered HIV testing, but the barriers highlighted in this review may deter programs from achieving the final goal, which is linking migrants and ethnic minorities to HIV clinical care under the public health perspective. PMID:23002238
Alvarez-del Arco, Debora; Monge, Susana; Azcoaga, Amaya; Rio, Isabel; Hernando, Victoria; Gonzalez, Cristina; Alejos, Belen; Caro, Ana Maria; Perez-Cachafeiro, Santiago; Ramirez-Rubio, Oriana; Bolumar, Francisco; Noori, Teymur; Del Amo, Julia
The barriers to HIV testing and counselling that migrants encounter can jeopardize proactive HIV testing that relies on the fact that HIV testing must be linked to care. We analyse available evidence on HIV testing and counselling strategies targeting migrants and ethnic minorities in high-income countries. Systematic literature review of the five main databases of articles in English from Europe, North America and Australia between 2005 and 2009. Of 1034 abstracts, 37 articles were selected. Migrants, mainly from HIV-endemic countries, are at risk of HIV infection and its consequences. The HIV prevalence among migrants is higher than the general population's, and migrants have higher frequency of delayed HIV diagnosis. For migrants from countries with low HIV prevalence and for ethnic minorities, socio-economic vulnerability puts them at risk of acquiring HIV. Migrants have specific legal and administrative impediments to accessing HIV testing-in some countries, undocumented migrants are not entitled to health care-as well as cultural and linguistic barriers, racism and xenophobia. Migrants and ethnic minorities fear stigma from their communities, yet community acceptance is key for well-being. Migrants and ethnic minorities should be offered HIV testing, but the barriers highlighted in this review may deter programs from achieving the final goal, which is linking migrants and ethnic minorities to HIV clinical care under the public health perspective.
Evans, Catrin; Ndirangu, Eunice
In 2007 WHO/UNAIDS issued new HIV testing guidelines recommending 'provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling' (PITC). In contrast to existing 'voluntary counselling and testing' guidelines (whereby individuals self refer for testing), the PITC guidance recommends that, in countries with generalised epidemics, all patients are routinely offered an HIV test during clinical encounters. In sub-Saharan Africa, PITC aims to dramatically increase HIV testing rates so that PITC becomes a vehicle to increase access to HIV prevention and care. Nurses in this region work on the frontlines of HIV testing but have been neglected in related policy development. To provide an overview of the PITC policy guidance and to critically consider its implications for the nursing profession in sub-Saharan Africa. Policy documents and published and unpublished research were identified from organisational websites, electronic databases and conference proceedings. PITC has generated widespread debate about whether it is the right approach in a context of HIV-related stigma and lack of human/material resources. Key concerns are whether/how informed consent, privacy and confidentiality will be upheld in overstretched health care settings, and whether appropriate post-test counselling, treatment and support can be provided. Limited available evidence suggests that health systems factors and organisational/professional culture may create obstacles to effective PITC implementation. Specific findings are that: PITC greatly increases nurses' workload and work-related stress. Nurses are generally positive about PITC, but express the need for more training and managerial support. Health system constraints (lack of staff, lack of space) mean that nurses do not always have time to provide adequate counselling. A hierarchical and didactic nursing culture affects counselling quality and the boundaries between voluntary informed consent and coercion can become rather blurred. Nurses are particularly
Manirankunda, Lazare; Loos, Jasna; Debackaere, Pieterjan; Nostlinger, Christiana
This study identified physicians' HIV testing practices and their barriers toward implementing provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC) for Sub-Saharan African migrants (SAM) in Flanders, Belgium. In-depth interviews were conducted on a purposive sample of 20 physicians (ten GPs and ten internists). GPs performed mainly…
Bemelmans, Marielle; Baert, Saar; Negussie, Eyerusalem; Bygrave, Helen; Biot, Marc; Jamet, Christine; Ellman, Tom; Banda, Amanda; van den Akker, Thomas; Ford, Nathan
Counselling services are recommended by the World Health Organization and have been partially adopted by national HIV guidelines. In settings with a high HIV burden, patient education and counselling is often performed by lay workers, mainly supported with international funding. There are few examples where ministries of health have been able to absorb lay counsellors into their health systems or otherwise sustain their work. We document the role of lay cadres involved in HIV testing and counselling and adherence support and discuss approaches to sustainability. We focused on a purposive sample of eight sub-Saharan African countries where Médecins Sans Frontières supports HIV programmes: Guinea, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe. We reviewed both published and grey literature, including national policies and donor proposals, and interviewed key informants, including relevant government staff, donors and non-governmental organizations. Lay counsellors play a critical role in scaling up HIV services and addressing gaps in the HIV testing and treatment cascade by providing HIV testing and counselling and adherence support at both the facility and community levels. Countries have taken various steps in recognizing lay counsellors, including harmonizing training, job descriptions and support structures. However, formal integration of this cadre into national health systems is limited, as lay counsellors are usually not included in national strategies or budgeting. The current trend of reduced donor support for lay counsellors, combined with lack of national prioritization, threatens the sustainability of this cadre and thereby quality HIV service delivery.
Sefhedi, Sheila; Montsi, Mercy; Mpofu, Elias
This exploratory study describes the provision of HIV & AIDS counselling services in Botswana junior secondary schools as perceived by teachers. A total of 45 teachers (age range = 20-55; teaching experience range = 0-21 years) from three schools participated. The participants completed a questionnaire on the types of HIV & AIDS-related…
Between April and August 2004, all pregnant women in labour at JUTH, were offered rapid HIV testing and counseling with opportunity to decline testing. HIV positive women were offered the standard nevirapine mono-therapy prophylaxis regimen (HIVNET 012). Four hundred and thirty (99.8%) of the 431 pregnant women ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background To benefit from available care and treatment options, patients should first be counselled and tested for HIV. Our aim was to assess the acceptability of HIV testing among tuberculosis patients under routine care conditions in south Ethiopia. Methods We interviewed all adult tuberculosis patients who were treated at Arba Minch Hospital in Ethiopia between January and August 2005. After recording socio-demographic information and tuberculosis treatment history, we referred those patients who showed initial willingness to a counsellor for HIV counselling and testing. Rapid test methods were used following a pretest counselling session. The results were disclosed during a post-test counselling session. We used the logistic regression method to assess factors associated with willingness and acceptability. Results 190 adult tuberculosis patients were treated at the hospital and all of them consented to take part in the study. Their median age was 30 years (range, 15–68 and 52% of them were males. 49 patients (26% were previously tested including 29 (59% HIV positive. Of 161 patients (excluding the 29 already positive, 118 (73% were willing to be tested and 58% (68/118 of those willing accepted the test. The overall acceptability rate was 35% (56/161. Fourteen (20.6% were HIV positive and women were more likely to be HIV infected (p = 0.029. Unemployment and self-perceived high risk of HIV infection were associated with initial willingness (OR [95%CI]:2.6 [1.3–5.5] vs. 5.0 [1.1–22.4], respectively. However, only being unemployed was associated with accepting the test (OR = 4.2; 95%CI = 1.9–9.3. Conclusion The low acceptability of HIV counselling and testing among tuberculosis patients poses a challenge to the scale-up of TB/HIV collaborative efforts. There is a need for alternative counselling and testing strategies.
O'Byrne, Patrick; Holmes, Dave; Roy, Marie
Recently, focus groups and qualitative interviews with nurses who provide frontline care for persons living with HIV highlighted the contentiousness surrounding the seemingly innocuous activity of counselling clients about HIV-status disclosure, hereafter disclosure counselling. These empirical studies highlighted that while some nurses felt they should instruct clients to disclose their HIV-positive status if HIV transmission were possible, other nurses were equally adamant that such counselling was outside the nursing scope of practice. A review of these opposing perceptions about disclosure counselling, including an examination of the empirical evidence which supports each point, revealed that the dichotomous arguments needed to be nuanced. The empirical evidence about serostatus disclosure neither supported nor refuted either of these assertions; rather, it substantiated parts of each. To create this understanding, both empirical and theoretical works are used. First, the results of empirical studies about serostatus disclosure, or lack thereof and HIV transmission is presented; as part of this, Marks and Crepaz's HIV disclosure and exposure framework is examined. Second, the work of Michel Foucault on disciplinary and pastoral power is drawn from. The outcome is a nuanced understanding about the interrelationships between disclosure counselling and nursing practice and a final interpretation about what this understanding means for public health practice. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Counselling and testing is important in HIV prevention and care. Majority of people in sub-Saharan Africa do not know their HIV status and are therefore unable to take steps to prevent infection or take up life prolonging anti-retroviral drugs in time if infected. This study aimed at exploring determinants of HIV testing and counselling in two Nairobi informal settlements. Methods Data are derived from a cross-sectional survey nested in an ongoing demographic surveillance system. A total of 3,162 individuals responded to the interview and out of these, 82% provided a blood sample which was tested using rapid test kits. The outcome of interest in this paper was HIV testing status in the past categorised as "never tested"; "client-initiated testing and counselling (CITC" and provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify determinants of HIV testing. Results Approximately 31% of all respondents had ever been tested for HIV through CITC, 22% through PITC and 42% had never been tested but indicated willingness to test. Overall, 62% of females and 38% of males had ever been tested for HIV. Males were less likely to have had CITC (OR = 0.47; p value Conclusion Although the proportion of individuals ever tested in the informal settlements is similar to the national average, it remains low compared to that of Nairobi province especially among men. Key determinants of HIV testing and counselling include; gender, age, education level, HIV status and marital status. These factors need to be considered in efforts aimed at increasing participation in HIV testing.
Oppong Asante, Kwaku
HIV Counselling and Testing (VCT) and knowledge about HIV are some key strategies in the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS in Ghana. However, HIV knowledge and utilization of VCT services among university students is low. The main objective was to determine the level of HIV/AIDS knowledge and to explore factors associated with the use HIV counselling and testing among private university students in Accra, Ghana. A cross-sectional study was conducted using structured questionnaires among 324 conveniently selected students enrolled at a privately owned tertiary institution in Accra, Ghana. The respondents consisted of 56.2% males and 43.8% females aged 17 - 37 years. The mean HIV/AIDS knowledge score of was 7.70. There was a significant difference in knowledge of HIV/AIDS by gender where female students had more knowledge about HIV/AIDS than males [t (322) = 2.40, p = 0.017]. The ANOVA results showed that there was a significant difference in HIV/AIDS knowledge according to the age groups [F (3, 321) = 6.26, p = 0. 0001] and marital status [F (3, 321) = 4.86, p = 0. 008] of the sample. Over half of the participants had not tested for HIV, although over 95% of them knew where to access counseling and testing services. The study also revealed a significant association between demographic variables, testing for HIV and intention to test in the future. Participants who were never married (single), aged 17 - 20 years and had knowledge of two routes of HIV transmission were more likely to have taken an HIV test. Males were more likely to take an HIV test in the future than females. Majority of the students receive HIV/AIDS information from both print and electronic media, but few of them received such information from parents. The students HIV knowledge was very good, yet HIV testing were low. Health education and HIV intervention programmes must not only provide accurate information, but must be made to help to equip private university students
Osuji, Alice; Pharr, Jennifer R; Nwokoro, Uche; Ike, Anulika; Ali, Christiana; Ejiro, Ogheneaga; Osuyali, John; Obiefune, Michael; Fiscella, Kevin; Ezeanolue, Echezona E
Nigeria is second in the world for the number of people with HIV and has a high rate of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Over 60% of births in Nigeria occur outside of health care facilities, and because of this, Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) play a significant role in maternal and child health. It is important that TBAs be knowledgeable about HIV prevention. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of HIV testing and counseling (HTC) knowledge on the HIV prevention practices among TBAs in Nigeria. Five hundred TBAs were surveyed. Chi-square and logistic regression were used to assess differences in HIV prevention practices between TBAs with and without HTC knowledge. TBAs with HTC knowledge are significantly more likely to engage in HIV prevention practices than TBAs without HTC. Prevention practices included: wearing gloves during delivery (p HTC training increases HIV prevention practices and can be a key to improve maternal and child health.
Full Text Available Background: Studies have shown a reduced uptake of contraceptive methods in HIV-positive women of childbearing age, mainly because of unmet needs that may be a result of poor promotion of available methods of contraception, especially long-term and permanent methods (LTPM.Aim: To compare the uptake of contraceptive methods, and particularly LTPM, by HIV-positive and HIV negative post-partum mothers, and to assess the effects of counselling on contraceptive choices.Setting: Three government district hospitals in Swaziland.Methods: Interviews were conducted using a structured questionnaire, before and after counselling HIV negativeand HIV-positive post-partum women in LTPM use, unintended pregnancy rates, future fertility and reasons for contraceptive choices.Results: A total of 711 women, of whom half were HIV-positive, participated in the study. Most (72.3% HIV-negative and 84% HIV-positive were on modern methods of contraception, with the majority using 2-monthly and 3-monthly injectables. Intended use of any contraceptive increased to 99% after counselling. LTPM use was 7.0% in HIV-negative mothers and 15.3% in HIV-positive mothers before counselling, compared with 41.3% and 42.4% in HIV-negative and HIV-positive mothers, respectively, after counselling. Pregnancy intentions and counselling on future fertility were significantly associated with current use of contraception, whilst current LTPM use and level of education were significantly associated with LTPM post-counselling.Conclusion: Counselling on all methods including LTPM reduced unmet needs in contraception in HIV positive and HIV-negative mothers and could improve contraceptive uptake and reduce unintended pregnancies. Health workers do not always remember to include LTPM when they counsel clients, which could result in a low uptake of these methods. Further experimental studies should be conducted to validate these results.
Siveregi, Amon; Dudley, Lilian; Makumucha, Courage; Dlamini, Phatisizwe; Moyo, Sihle; Bhembe, Sibongiseni
Studies have shown a reduced uptake of contraceptive methods in HIV-positive women of childbearing age, mainly because of unmet needs that may be a result of poor promotion of available methods of contraception, especially long-term and permanent methods (LTPM). To compare the uptake of contraceptive methods, and particularly LTPM, by HIV-positive and HIV negative post-partum mothers, and to assess the effects of counselling on contraceptive choices. Three government district hospitals in Swaziland. Interviews were conducted using a structured questionnaire, before and after counselling HIV negativeand HIV-positive post-partum women in LTPM use, unintended pregnancy rates, future fertility and reasons for contraceptive choices. A total of 711 women, of whom half were HIV-positive, participated in the study. Most (72.3% HIV-negative and 84% HIV-positive) were on modern methods of contraception, with the majority using 2-monthly and 3-monthly injectables. Intended use of any contraceptive increased to 99% after counselling. LTPM use was 7.0% in HIV-negative mothers and 15.3% in HIV-positive mothers before counselling, compared with 41.3% and 42.4% in HIV-negative and HIV-positive mothers, respectively, after counselling. Pregnancy intentions and counselling on future fertility were significantly associated with current use of contraception, whilst current LTPM use and level of education were significantly associated with LTPM post-counselling. Counselling on all methods including LTPM reduced unmet needs in contraception in HIV positive and HIV-negative mothers and could improve contraceptive uptake and reduce unintended pregnancies. Health workers do not always remember to include LTPM when they counsel clients, which could result in a low uptake of these methods. Further experimental studies should be conducted to validate these results.
Tromp, Noor; Siregar, Adiatma; Leuwol, Barnabas; Komarudin, Dindin; van der Ven, Andre; van Crevel, Reinout; Baltussen, Rob
to evaluate the costs-effectiveness of scaling up community-based VCT in West-Java. the Asian epidemic model (AEM) and resource needs model (RNM) were used to calculate incremental costs per HIV infection averted and per disability-adjusted life years saved (DALYs). Locally monitored demographic, epidemiological behavior and cost data were used as model input. scaling up community-based VCT in West-Java will reduce the overall population prevalence by 36% in 2030 and costs US$248 per HIV infection averted and US$9.17 per DALY saved. Cost-effectiveness estimation were most sensitive to the impact of VCT on condom use and to the population size of clients of female sex workers (FSWs), but were overall robust. The total costs for scaling up community-based VCT range between US$1.3 and 3.8 million per year and require the number of VCT integrated clinics at public community health centers to increase from 73 in 2010 to 594 in 2030. scaling up community-based VCT seems both an effective and cost-effective intervention. However, in order to prioritize VCT in HIV/AIDS control in West-Java, issues of budget availability and organizational capacity should be addressed.
Echenique, Marisa; Rodriguez, Violeta J; LaCabe, Richard P; Privette, C Kyle; Jones, Deborah L; Potter, JoNell Efantis; Fischl, Margaret A
This study aimed to describe demographic and psychological characteristics among HIV-infected young women, and to identify knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors associated with conception, with the goal of informing interventions or programmatic decisions regarding preconception counseling methods for young women living with HIV. Behaviorally and perinatally HIV-infected young women (n = 34) were conveniently sampled in Miami, Florida. Participants were asked to complete measures of reproductive knowledge, attitudes toward conception, and risk behaviors, as well as measures of depression and cognitive functioning. Perinatally and behaviorally HIV-infected young women were very similar in important areas of health preconception practices such as conception-related health literacy and conception-related communication with providers. Behaviorally infected women, however, were somewhat more likely to have been pregnant in the past, and had greater knowledge of healthy contraception practices and family planning. Despite the difference among groups, both the perinatally and behaviorally acquired women demonstrated having adequate overall knowledge. Depression was higher and consistent with moderate depression among the behaviorally HIV-infected women in comparison to perinatally infected women. This study found that that despite adequate reproductive knowledge, most young HIV-infected women were not using contraception. Given the consequences of presentation of advanced HIV during pregnancy, the need for both treatment adherence and preconception counseling is essential. Results suggest that interventions or programmatic decisions regarding preconception counseling methods for young women living with HIV are necessary and potentially transferrable between populations.
Mwisongo, Aziza; Mehlomakhulu, Vuyelwa; Mohlabane, Neo; Peltzer, Karl; Mthembu, Jacque; Van Rooyen, Heidi
With the launch of the national HIV Counselling and Testing (HCT) campaign in South Africa (SA), lay HIV counsellors, who had been trained in blood withdrawal, have taken up the role of HIV testing. This study evaluated the experiences, training, motivation, support, supervision, and workload of HIV lay counsellors and testers in South Africa. The aim was to identify gaps in their resources, training, supervision, motivation, and workload related to HCT services. In addition it explored their experiences with providing HIV testing under the task shifting context. The study was conducted in eight of South Africa's nine provinces. 32 lay counsellors were recruited from 67 HCT sites, and were interviewed using two questionnaires that included structured and semi-structured questions. One questionnaire focused on their role as HIV counsellors and the other on their role as HIV testers. Ninety-seven percent of counsellors reported that they have received training in counselling and testing. Many rated their training as more than adequate or adequate, with 15.6% rating it as not adequate. Respondents reported a lack of standardised counselling and testing training, and revealed gaps in counselling skills for specific groups such as discordant couples, homosexuals, older clients and children. They indicated health system barriers, including inadequate designated space for counselling, which compromises privacy and confidentiality. Lay counsellors carry the burden of counselling and testing nationally, and have other tasks such as administration and auxiliary duties due to staff shortages. This study demonstrates that HCT counselling and testing services in South Africa are mainly performed by lay counsellors and testers. They are challenged by inadequate work space, limited counselling skills for specific groups, a lack of standardised training policies and considerable administrative and auxiliary duties. To improve HCT services, there needs to be training needs with a
Peltzer, Karl; Tabane, Cily; Matseke, Gladys; Simbayi, Leickness
Objective: To evaluate the feasibility, fidelity, and effect of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk reduction intervention delivered to HIV-infected patients by lay counsellors during routine HIV counselling and testing (HCT) public service in Mpumalanga, South Africa. Methods: A total of 488 HIV-infected patients, aged 18 years and older,…
Mitiku, Israel; Addissie, Adamu; Molla, Mitike
Ethiopia has implemented routine HIV testing and counselling using a provider initiated HIV testing ('opt-out' approach) to achieve high coverage of testing and prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. However, women's perceptions and experiences with this approach have not been well studied. We conducted a qualitative study to explore pregnant women's perceptions and experiences of routine HIV testing and counselling in Ghimbi town, Ethiopia, in May 2013. In-depth interviews were held with 28 women tested for HIV at antenatal clinics (ANC), as well as four health workers involved in routine HIV testing and counselling. Data were analyzed using the content analysis approach. We found that most women perceived routine HIV testing and counselling beneficial for women as well as unborn babies. Some women perceived HIV testing as compulsory and a prerequisite to receive delivery care services. On the other hand, health workers reported that they try to emphasise the importance HIV testing during pre-test counselling in order to gain women's acceptance. However, both health workers and ANC clients perceived that the pre-test counselling was limited. Routine HIV testing and counselling during pregnancy is well acceptable among pregnant women in the study setting. However, there is a sense of obligation as women felt the HIV testing is a pre-requisite for delivery services. This may be related to the limited pre-test counselling. There is a need to strengthen pre-test counselling to ensure that HIV testing is implemented in a way that ensures pregnant women's autonomy and maximize opportunities for primary prevention of HIV.
Muhith, Abdul; Prasetyaning, Linda; Nursalam, Nursalam
Introduction: VCT is one of the efforts of the prison to minimize the risk of HIV/AIDS on Injecting Drug User Prisoners. But there are still obstacles in the implementation of this program in prison. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the VCT in Class I Surabaya Prison. Method: This study used qualitative and quantitative method. Samples to evaluate the VCT Program among Ofﬁ cer, Clinical Ofﬁcers who carry out VCT and NGOs as well as four IDU prisoners selected using purposive sampling...
Priddy, Frances H; Pilcher, Christopher D; Moore, Renee H; Tambe, Pradnya; Park, Mahin N; Fiscus, Susan A; Feinberg, Mark B; del Rio, Carlos
The southeastern United States has an increasing burden of HIV, particularly among blacks, women, and men who have sex with men. To evaluate HIV nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) and antibody-based algorithms in determination of HIV incidence, detection of acute HIV infections, and surveillance of drug-resistant virus transmission in the urban southeastern United States, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of prospectively collected data from 2202 adults receiving HIV testing and counseling at 3 sites in Atlanta, GA from October 2002 through January 2004. After standard testing with an HIV enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and Western blot confirmation, HIV-positive specimens were tested with 2 standardized assays to detect recent infection. HIV antibody-negative specimens were pooled and screened for HIV using NAAT. Seventy (3.2%) of 2202 subjects were HIV infected. Only 66 were positive on the standard HIV antibody test; 4 were antibody-negative but acutely HIV infected. The overall annual HIV incidence was 1.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.4 to 1.8) based on the Vironostika-LS assay and 1.3% (95% CI: 0.6 to 2.1) based on the BED Incidence Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA). The prevalence of acute HIV infection was 1.8 per 1000 persons (95% CI: 0.7 to 4.6). The sensitivity of the current testing algorithm using an EIA and Western blot test for detectable infections was only 94.3% (95% CI: 86.2 to 97.8). All 3 of the acutely infected subjects genotyped had drug resistance mutations, and 1 had multiclass resistance. Adding NAAT-based screening to standard HIV antibody testing increased case identification by 6% and uncovered the first evidence of multidrug-resistant HIV transmission in Atlanta. Antibody tests alone are insufficient for public health practice in high-risk urban HIV testing settings.
Reed, Elizabeth; Fisher, Celia B; Blankenship, Kim M; West, Brooke S; Khoshnood, Kaveh
The purpose of this study was to examine factors influencing the motivation for and perceived voluntariness of participation in non-intervention HIV research among female sex workers (FSW) in India. FSW (n = 30) who participated in non-intervention HIV studies in the previous three years were recruited from a local community-based organization. Semi-structured qualitative interviews focused on women's personal and economic motivations for participation and their perceptions of the informed consent process. Interviews were audio-recorded, translated, transcribed, and reviewed for common themes. Content analysis indicated that while many women reported willing participation, reports of obligatory participation were also a common theme. Obligations included money-related pressures and coercion by other FSW, social pressures, not wanting to disappoint the researchers, and perceiving that they had a contractual agreement to complete participation as a result of signing the consent form. Findings suggest a need for additional efforts during and following informed consent to prevent obligatory participation in HIV research studies among FSW. Findings emphasize the importance of integrating ongoing participant feedback into research ethics practices to identify issues not well addressed via standard ethics protocols when conducting HIV research among vulnerable populations.
Worthington, Catherine A; Calzavara, Liviana M; White, Samantha J; Allman, Dan; Tyndall, Mark W
HIV testing remains a central strategy for HIV prevention for its ability to link those who test positive to treatment and support. In Canada, national guidelines have recently changed as part of standard primary care to recommend voluntary HIV testing for those aged 16-64 years. Using results from a nationally representative survey, we examined individual and jurisdictional factors associated with voluntary testing. A total of 2,139 participants were sampled using a regionally stratified, two-stage recruitment process. English or French interviews (by phone or online) were conducted during May 2011. Voluntary testing was defined as testing at least once for reasons other than blood donation, insurance purposes, immigration screening or research participation. Weighted logistic regression analysis (including socio-demographic, sexual activity, HIV/AIDS knowledge and jurisdictional factors of HIV prevalence and anonymous testing availability) were conducted for the overall sample, and stratified by sex. Twenty-nine percent (29%) of survey participants reported at least one lifetime voluntary HIV test. For the full-sample model, the following were associated with increased odds of testing: age <60 years, female sex, sexual minority status, perceived HIV knowledge, casual sex partner in previous year, and living in a higher-prevalence jurisdiction. For men, the strongest factor related to testing was sexual minority status (OR = 5.15, p < 0.001); for women, it was having a casual sex partner in the previous year (OR = 2.57, p = 0.001). For both men and women, residing in a jurisdiction with lower HIV prevalence decreased odds of testing. Sex differences should be considered when designing interventions to increase testing uptake. Jurisdictional factors, including HIV prevalence and testing modality, should be investigated further.
Approximately 90% of the women respondents had heard of HIV/AIDS, but only about 27% knew HIV could be transmitted from mother to child; of those, almost 94% believed in the reality of HIV disease; ... Keywords: access to healthcare, Africa, attitudes, mother-to-child transmission of HIV, voluntary counselling and testing
Barrio, Casey A.; Shoffner, Marie F.
Advances in medical treatment have greatly extended the life span and quality of life of persons living with HIV, with the nature of the disease evolving from causing an early death to chronic, manageable illness. Career counselors will increasingly be called upon to assist persons living with HIV. This article provides an overview of HIV disease…
There is a dire need to begin HIV/AIDS education early in the life of individuals before exposure to situations that put them at risk of HIV infection. It is also believed that the most common place for people to learn about HIV and AIDS is the school where the attitudes and behaviour of young people are shaped. Counsellors ...
Results indicate that a poor health system (OR=0.34, 95%CI:0.23 - 0.50) was inversely associated with HIV testing acceptance in prison, while age, educational level, population group, marital status, length of incarceration and access to HIV testing in prison were not associated with HIV testing acceptance in prison. Half of ...
Tan, Xin Quan; Goh, Wei-Ping; Venkatachalam, Indumathi; Goh, Diana; Sridhar, Revathi; Chan, Hwang Ching; Archuleta, Sophia
Early diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) allows for appropriately timed interventions with improved outcomes, but HIV screening among asymptomatic persons and the general population in Singapore remains low. In 2008, Singapore's Ministry of Health implemented HIV voluntary opt-out screening (VOS) for hospitalised adults. We evaluated the outcome of VOS and surveyed reasons for its low uptake in our institution. We assessed the outcomes of the VOS programme from January 2010 to December 2013 at National University Hospital, a 1081-bed tertiary hospital in Singapore. We also examined reasons for opting-in and opting-out using an interviewer-administered structured questionnaire in a representative sample in January 2013. 107,523 patients fulfilled VOS criteria and were offered HIV screening, of which 5215 (4.9%) agreed to testing. 4850 (93.1%) of those who opted-in had an HIV test done. Three (0.06%) tested positive for HIV. 238 patients (14.2%) were surveyed regarding reasons for opting-in or out of VOS. 21 (8.8%) had opted-in. Patients who opted-in were likely to be younger, more educated and reported having more regular sexual partners. Type of housing, number of casual sexual partners, sexual orientation, intravenous drug use, condom use and previous sexually transmitted infection were not associated with deciding to opt-in/out. Patients' most common reasons for opting-out were: belief that they were at low risk (50.2%), belief that they were too old (26.8%), cost (6.9%) and aversion to venepuncture (6.5%). The most common reason for opting-in was desire to know their HIV status (47.6%). The success of an HIV-VOS program is largely determined by test uptake. Our study showed that the majority of eligible VOS patients opted-out of HIV screening. Given the considerable cost and low yield of this programme, more needs to be done to better equip patients in self-risk assessment and opting in to testing.
Xin Quan Tan
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV allows for appropriately timed interventions with improved outcomes, but HIV screening among asymptomatic persons and the general population in Singapore remains low. In 2008, Singapore's Ministry of Health implemented HIV voluntary opt-out screening (VOS for hospitalised adults. We evaluated the outcome of VOS and surveyed reasons for its low uptake in our institution. METHODS: We assessed the outcomes of the VOS programme from January 2010 to December 2013 at National University Hospital, a 1081-bed tertiary hospital in Singapore. We also examined reasons for opting-in and opting-out using an interviewer-administered structured questionnaire in a representative sample in January 2013. RESULTS: 107,523 patients fulfilled VOS criteria and were offered HIV screening, of which 5215 (4.9% agreed to testing. 4850 (93.1% of those who opted-in had an HIV test done. Three (0.06% tested positive for HIV. 238 patients (14.2% were surveyed regarding reasons for opting-in or out of VOS. 21 (8.8% had opted-in. Patients who opted-in were likely to be younger, more educated and reported having more regular sexual partners. Type of housing, number of casual sexual partners, sexual orientation, intravenous drug use, condom use and previous sexually transmitted infection were not associated with deciding to opt-in/out. Patients' most common reasons for opting-out were: belief that they were at low risk (50.2%, belief that they were too old (26.8%, cost (6.9% and aversion to venepuncture (6.5%. The most common reason for opting-in was desire to know their HIV status (47.6%. CONCLUSION: The success of an HIV-VOS program is largely determined by test uptake. Our study showed that the majority of eligible VOS patients opted-out of HIV screening. Given the considerable cost and low yield of this programme, more needs to be done to better equip patients in self-risk assessment and opting in to testing.
Rupsa C. Boelig
Full Text Available Objective. To describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of HIV-infected individuals and HIV-affected couples who were referred for preconception counseling (PCC at a large urban US-based HIV clinic. Methods. Electronic medical records were reviewed for HIV-infected individuals and HIV-affected couples. Medical, reproductive, surgical, psychosocial, and family history data were abstracted. Univariate analyses were done. Results. There were 8 single HIV-infected women and 100 HIV-affected couples who underwent PCC. HIV-infected women were older (mean age 35 years versus 32 years, P=0.06, were more likely to smoke (23% versus 0%, P<0.01, and had more medical comorbidities (57% versus 33%, P=0.04 than HIV-uninfected women. The majority of couples were serodiscordant (77%, and of these couples, 32% had a detectable plasma viral load and 33% report inconsistent condom use. Conclusions. HIV-infected women have a number of medical and psychosocial issues, including those related to HIV that may increase the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and HIV perinatal and sexual transmission. PCC is an important intervention to optimize maternal management to improve perinatal outcomes and minimize transmission risks.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The human resource shortage in Zambia is placing a heavy burden on the few health care workers available at health facilities. The Zambia Prevention, Care and Treatment Partnership began training and placing community volunteers as lay counsellors in order to complement the efforts of the health care workers in providing HIV counselling and testing services. These volunteers are trained using the standard national counselling and testing curriculum. This study was conducted to review the effectiveness of lay counsellors in addressing staff shortages and the provision of HIV counselling and testing services. Methods Quantitative and qualitative data were collected by means of semistructured interviews from all active lay counsellors in each of the facilities and a facility manager or counselling supervisor overseeing counseling and testing services and clients. At each of the 10 selected facilities, all counselling and testing record books for the month of May 2007 were examined and any recordkeeping errors were tallied by cadre. Qualitative data were collected through focus group discussions with health care workers at each facility. Results Lay counsellors provide counselling and testing services of quality and relieve the workload of overstretched health care workers. Facility managers recognize and appreciate the services provided by lay counsellors. Lay counsellors provide up to 70% of counselling and testing services at health facilities. The data review revealed lower error rates for lay counsellors, compared to health care workers, in completing the counselling and testing registers. Conclusion Community volunteers, with approved training and ongoing supervision, can play a major role at health facilities to provide counselling and testing services of quality, and relieve the burden on already overstretched health care workers.
Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV testing and counseling (HTC with linkage to care after known infection are key components for HIV transmission prevention. This study was conducted to assess HTC uptake, HIV risk perception and linkage to care among Thai university students. Methods An outreach HTC program was conducted in a large public university in Thailand from January 2013 to December 2014. The program consisted of brief HIV knowledge assessment, free HTC, HIV risk assessment and education provided by the healthcare personnel. Students were categorized into low, moderate and high-risk groups according to the pre-defined HIV risk characteristics. Results One-thousand-eight-hundred-one students participated in the program, 494 (27 % underwent HTC. Independent characteristics associated with no HTC uptake included female sex (P < 0.001, lower HIV knowledge score (P < 0.001, younger age (P < 0.001 and students from non-health science faculties (P = 0.02. Among the 494 students undergoing HTC, 141 (29 % were categorized into moderate or high-risk group, of whom 45/141 (32 % had false perception of low HIV risk. Being heterosexual was independently associated with false perception of low HIV risk (P = 0.04. The rate of new HIV infection diagnosis was 4/494 (0.8 %. Of these 4 HIV-infected students, 3 (75 % were men who have sex with men and only 2 of the 4 students (50 % showed up for HIV continuity care. Conclusions An outreach HIV prevention program with HTC was feasible and beneficial in detecting HIV risk and infection among the university students. However, interventions to improve HTC uptake, HIV risk perception and linkage to care are needed.
Full Text Available Introduction: Counselling services are recommended by the World Health Organization and have been partially adopted by national HIV guidelines. In settings with a high HIV burden, patient education and counselling is often performed by lay workers, mainly supported with international funding. There are few examples where ministries of health have been able to absorb lay counsellors into their health systems or otherwise sustain their work. We document the role of lay cadres involved in HIV testing and counselling and adherence support and discuss approaches to sustainability. Methods: We focused on a purposive sample of eight sub-Saharan African countries where Médecins Sans Frontières supports HIV programmes: Guinea, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe. We reviewed both published and grey literature, including national policies and donor proposals, and interviewed key informants, including relevant government staff, donors and non-governmental organizations. Results and discussion: Lay counsellors play a critical role in scaling up HIV services and addressing gaps in the HIV testing and treatment cascade by providing HIV testing and counselling and adherence support at both the facility and community levels. Countries have taken various steps in recognizing lay counsellors, including harmonizing training, job descriptions and support structures. However, formal integration of this cadre into national health systems is limited, as lay counsellors are usually not included in national strategies or budgeting. Conclusions: The current trend of reduced donor support for lay counsellors, combined with lack of national prioritization, threatens the sustainability of this cadre and thereby quality HIV service delivery.
This paper contextualises counselling within a broader historical formation that links disclosure to healing and deploys confessional technologies to incite disclosure and awareness of the mysterious substance of the self. Foucault's argument that sexuality was the privileged arena for using
Samson, L; King, S
To provide Canadian health care workers with evidence-based guidelines for universal counselling about HIV testing and the offering of such testing to all pregnant women. Universal counselling and offering of HIV testing to all pregnant women versus targeted testing of only pregnant women at high risk for HIV infection. Antiretroviral treatment protocols for HIV-positive mothers and their infants are discussed as the intervention to reduce mother-to-child transmission rates. Main outcomes are mother-to-child HIV transmission rates and consequences of HIV testing on the mother and infant. Articles published from January 1985 to March 1997 identified through a MEDLINE search; articles published in pertinent medical journals in 1996 and 1997 identified through a manual search; and abstracts presented at international HIV/AIDS conferences. Early diagnosis of HIV infection in a pregnant woman optimizes her medical and psychosocial care, decreases the incidence of mother-to-child transmission and decreases the risk of horizontal transmission to sexual partners. New, third-generation HIV tests have reduced false-positive rates and thus diminished the harm of screening. A screening strategy consisting of universal counselling and offering of HIV testing is recommended for all pregnant women in Canada (grade B recommendation). Targeted testing of only pregnant women at high risk for HIV infection fails to identify a substantial proportion of HIV-positive pregnant women and is therefore not recommended (grade D recommendation). Women who identify themselves as being at high risk and whose initial HIV test result is negative should be counselled about the reduction of high-risk behaviours and retested in 6 months (grade B recommendation). Treatment of seropositive women and infants with zidovudine to prevent mother-to-child transmission is recommended (grade A or B recommendation depending on gestational age and CD4 count). These guidelines are endorsed by the Canadian
Dr Karen Kroeger a firstname.lastname@example.org, Allan W Taylor MD MPH a , Heather M Marlow b , Dr Douglas T Fleming c , Vanessa Beyleveld d , Mary Grace Alwano e e , Mabel Tebogo Kejelepula f , Kentsenao Busang Chilume g , Dr Dawn K Smith a , Dr Thierry Roels h & Dr Peter Kilmarx i
technical assistance in the development and implementation of PEPFAR supported HIV Testing and Counselling programmes in Botswana. Mabel Tebogo ... Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Previously ... He is responsible for 9 countries in west and central. Africa and ...
Psychologists may struggle with what to do when counseling recalcitrant HIV-positive clients who refuse to disclose to third parties at risk. This paper revisits the legal and ethical quagmire that pits "dangerous patient exception" against client confidentiality rights. A 'duty to maintain hope,' which may ultimately minimize the spread…
This article raises the question of whether the practice of HIV/AIDS counselling in Ghana can be linked to the wisdom that older people are said to have and use when they give advice to younger family members. Older people believe they have wisdom and life experience that young people should listen to; counsellors hold ...
Confirmation by Western Blot: while during the second period- November 2003 to June 2004 (Period 2), the women received free HIV screening and confirmation tests (by Double ELISA) and additional individual pre-test counseling. Result: 638 women were seen in Period 1, out of which 269 (45.1%) accepted testing: ...
Full Text Available Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC for HIV prevention has been a priority for Swaziland since 2009. Initially focusing on men ages 15-49, the Ministry of Health reduced the minimum age for VMMC from 15 to 10 years in 2012, given the existing demand among 10- to 15-year-olds. To understand the implications of focusing VMMC service delivery on specific age groups, the MOH undertook a modeling exercise to inform policy and implementation in 2013-2014.The impact and cost of circumcising specific age groups were assessed using the Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0, a simple compartmental model. We used age-specific HIV incidence from the Swaziland HIV Incidence Measurement Survey (SHIMS. Population, mortality, births, and HIV prevalence were imported from a national Spectrum/Goals model recently updated in consultation with country stakeholders. Baseline male circumcision prevalence was derived from the most recent Swaziland Demographic and Health Survey. The lowest numbers of VMMCs per HIV infection averted are achieved when males ages 15-19, 20-24, 25-29, and 30-34 are circumcised, although the uncertainty bounds for the estimates overlap. Circumcising males ages 25-29 and 20-24 provides the most immediate reduction in HIV incidence. Circumcising males ages 15-19, 20-24, and 25-29 provides the greatest magnitude incidence reduction within 15 years. The lowest cost per HIV infection averted is achieved by circumcising males ages 15-34: $870 U.S. dollars (USD.The potential impact, cost, and cost-effectiveness of VMMC scale-up in Swaziland are not uniform. They vary by the age group of males circumcised. Based on the results of this modeling exercise, the Ministry of Health's Swaziland Male Circumcision Strategic and Operational Plan 2014-2018 adopted an implementation strategy that calls for circumcision to be scaled up to 50% coverage for neonates, 80% among males ages 10-29, and 55% among males ages 30-34.
Gesinde, Abiodun M.
The HIV/AIDS pandemic is recognized globally as the greatest health challenge of the present generation. It is widely acknowledged to be the foremost killer disease in Africa. Since the first AIDS case was publicly announced in 1986, the astronomical increase in victims has been a matter of concern. The rates of HIV/AIDS infection indicate that…
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that effective coverage of Voluntary Counseling and Testing service was very low based on the providers ... questionnaire was developed and used in this study. Training topics included: discussion on ... measurement of HIV/AIDS intervention would be by use of coverage indicators ...
Background Routine HIV counselling and testing as part of antenatal care has been institutionalized in Uganda as an entry point for pregnant women into the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programme. Understanding how women experience this mode of HIV testing is important to generate ideas on how to strengthen the PMTCT programme. We explored pregnant HIV positive and negative women’s experiences of routine counselling and testing in Mbale District, Eastern Uganda and formulated suggestions for improving service delivery. Methods This was a qualitative study conducted at Mbale Regional Referral Hospital in Eastern Uganda between January and May 2010. Data were collected using in-depth interviews with 30 pregnant women (15 HIV positive and 15 HIV negative) attending an antenatal clinic, six key informant interviews with health workers providing antenatal care and observations. Data were analyzed using a content thematic approach. Results Prior to attending their current ANC visit, most women knew that the hospital provided HIV counselling and testing services as part of antenatal care (ANC). HIV testing was perceived as compulsory for all women attending ANC at the hospital but beneficial, for mothers, especially those who test HIV positive and their unborn babies. Most HIV positive women were satisfied with the immediate counselling they received from health workers, but identified the need to provide follow up counselling and support after the test, as areas for improvement. However, most HIV negative women mentioned that they were given inadequate attention during post-test counselling. This left them with unanswered questions and, for some, doubts about the negative test results. Conclusions In this setting, routine HIV counselling and testing services are known and acceptable to mothers. There is need to strengthen post-test and follow up counselling for both HIV positive and negative women in order to maximize opportunities for
Pilcher, Christopher D; McPherson, J Todd; Leone, Peter A; Smurzynski, Marlene; Owen-O'Dowd, Judy; Peace-Brewer, Amy L; Harris, Juanita; Hicks, Charles B; Eron, Joseph J; Fiscus, Susan A
Acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection cannot be diagnosed by routine antibody tests and is rarely diagnosed in clinical practice. However, HIV nucleic acid-based testing is widely used to screen for antibody-negative acute infection among low-risk blood donors. To assess the feasibility of screening in high-volume laboratories for acute and long-term HIV infection in a routine HIV testing population, in which HIV infection prevalence is low, using specimen pooling and HIV RNA reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests. Clinical diagnostic performance evaluation at a state-funded public health virology and serology laboratory. A total of 8505 consecutive individuals presenting for routine HIV counseling and testing during a total of 20 business days to simulate a month of testing in August and December 2001 at 110 publicly funded testing sites in North Carolina. Prevalence of acute and long-term HIV infection. Serum specimens negative by HIV enzyme immunoassay (EIA) were screened in pools by an ultrasensitive HIV RNA RT-PCR test. Results for individual HIV RNA-positive specimens were reclassified as true or false according to results of confirmatory testing. Of the 8505 individuals screened, 8194 had not previously tested HIV positive and had sufficient serum to complete the testing protocol. Of those, 39 had long-term HIV infection (prevalence, 47.6 per 10,000 at-risk persons [95% confidence interval, 33.8-65.0 per 10,000]). Of the 8155 at-risk individuals whose antibody tests were negative, 5 were HIV RNA positive. Four of those had true-positive acute infection (prevalence, 4.9 per 10,000 [95% confidence interval, 1.3-12.5 per 10,000]). All 4 were women; 2 developed symptoms consistent with an acute retroviral syndrome in the week after testing. Screening all specimens required 147 HIV RNA tests. Overall specificity of the strategy was 0.9999. These findings suggest the widespread diagnosis of acute HIV infections in a routine
Full Text Available Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV counseling and testing (HCT conducted at integrated counseling and testing centers (ICTCs is an entry point, cost-effective intervention in preventing transmission of HIV. Objectives: To study the prevalence of HIV among ICTC attendees, sociodemographic characteristics, and risk behaviors of HIV-seropositive clients. Materials and Methods: It was hospital record-based cross-sectional study of 26,518 registered ICTC clients at a tertiary care hospital in Ganjam district, Odisha, India over a 4-year period from January 2009 to September 2012. Results: A total of 1732 (7.5% out of 22,897 who were tested for HIV were seropositive. Among HIV-seropositives, 1138 (65.7% were males, while 594 (34.3% were females. Majority (88.3% of seropositives were between the age group of 15-49 years. Client-initiated HIV testing (12.1% was more seropositive compared to provider-initiated (2.9%. Among discordant couples, majority (95.5% were male partner/husband positive and female partner/wife negative. Positives were more amongst married, less educated, low socioeconomic status, and outmigrants (P<0.0001. Risk factors included heterosexual promiscuous (89.3%, parent-to-child transmission 5.8%, unknown 3.1%, infected blood transfusion 0.8%, homosexual 0.5%, and infected needles (0.5%. Conclusions: There is need to encourage activities that promote HCT in all health facilities. This will increase the diagnosis of new HIV cases. The data generated in ICTC provide an important clue to understand the epidemiology in a particular geographic region and local planning for care and treatment of those infected with HIV and preventive strategies for those at risk especially married, young adults, and outmigrants to reduce new infections.
Bodika, Stephane M; Lekone, Phenyo E; Loeto, Peter; Alwano, Mary G; Zulu, Thekiso C; Kim, Evelyn; Machao, Gape; Voetsch, Andrew C
The World Health Organization recommends HIV testing and counseling (HTC) for all adolescents living in countries with generalized HIV epidemics. In Botswana, HIV prevalence among adolescents 15-19 years is 3.7% and among pregnant adolescents is 10%. We describe the proportion and characteristics of secondary school students who have accessed HTC. A multistage sample survey was conducted among students in Botswana's public secondary schools in 2010. The survey was self-administered using a personal digital assistant device. The HTC rate was estimated using self-reported history of HIV testing. Of 1,632 participants, 52% were girls, 43% aged below 16 years, and 27% had ever had sexual intercourse. Most (81%) students knew where to get tested for HIV. Overall, 2.2% of students were HIV positive by self-report. The HTC rate was 23% overall, 34% among students who had ever had sexual intercourse, and 45% among students who had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months. Being pregnant or having made someone pregnant and having had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months were associated with having been tested for HIV among students who had ever had sexual intercourse. Overall, the HTC rate was low, and the self- reported HIV prevalence was high among secondary students in Botswana. Most sexually active students have never been tested for HIV. Health communications efforts for adolescents that increase demand for HTC, routine opt-out HIV testing in healthcare facilities, and school-based HIV testing are needed as part of a national HIV prevention strategy.
Israel-Ballard, Kiersten; Waithaka, Margaret; Greiner, Ted
While WHO no longer recommends individual infant feeding counselling to HIV-positive women, it may still be practised in some settings and for specific cases. In any case, lessons can be learned by examining how well front line health workers are able to take on counselling tasks. This qualitative study was designed to assess how counsellors deal with challenges they face in two Kenyan provinces. It consisted of brief post-counselling exit interviews with 80 mothers, observations of 21 counselling sessions and 11 key informant interviews. Much infant feeding counselling was of reasonable quality, better than often reported elsewhere. However, nutrition and infant feeding were given low priority, counsellors' training was inadequate, individual postnatal counselling as well as growth monitoring and promotion were rarely done and complementary feeding was inadequately covered. Acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable and safe (AFASS) assessments were not of satisfactory quality. Breast milk expression was mentioned only to a minority and the possibility of heat treatment during the transition to cessation was not mentioned. Counsellors were often biased in discussing risks of breastfeeding and replacement feeding. Implementing the new WHO guidance will reduce the need for AFASS assessments, greatly simplifying both the government's and counsellors' tasks. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
LAMBDIN, Barrot; Kanweka, William; Inambao, Mubiana; Mwananyanda, Lawrence; Shah, Heena; Linton, Sabriya; Wong, Frank,; Luisi, Nicole; Tichacek, Amanda; Kalowa, James; Chomba, Elwyn; Allen, Susan
Couples in sub-Saharan Africa are the largest group in the world at risk for HIV infection. Couples counseling and testing programs have been shown to reduce HIV transmission, but such programs remain rare in Africa. Before couples counseling and testing can become the norm, it is essential to increase demand for the services. We evaluated the effectiveness of several promotional strategies during a two -year program in Kitwe and Ndola, Zambia. The program attracted more than 7,600 couples th...
A secondary data analysis was carried out on Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey 2005 and 2011 records. In the study 6564 (age 15-49 years) study subjects were included. Spatial data of Amhara region was integrated and analyzed with data mining techniques. HIV testing uptake coverage was much lower (2%) in ...
Dec 29, 2011 ... 2Department of Community Medicine & Primary Care, Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu,. Ogun State. ... roles to play--therefore, limited time for HCT, and burnout (emotional exhaustion) ..... HIV/AIDS among students in the University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. J. Community Med ...
child Transmission of HIV Infection in Rivers State, South-South, Nigeria. ... However, three major barriers to accessing the services were identified as distance from home 31.7%, cost of transportation to clinics 20.1% and long waiting time to ...
Sep 3, 2017 ... ally low2,9-11. The proportion of those who are aware of their own or each other's HIV status becomes even much lower among those working in the informal ... After accounting for an estimated 20% non-response14, a sam- ple of 307 respondents was obtained. African Health Sciences Vol 17 Issue 3, ...
AJRH Managing Editor
the KYS data were disaggregated and shown as a separate category from the DC. Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission. (PMTCT) Services. Although Ghana adopted a policy of using combination antiretroviral therapy for all pregnant women carrying HIV since 2006,. PMTCT has been provided since initiation of ART.
... the emotional and social challenges associated with HIV/AIDS. This research focuses on the emotional wellbeing of lay HCT counsellors because this influences the quality of services they provide. A mixed methods approach was used. The emotional wellbeing, level of burnout, depression and coping style of 50 lay HCT ...
Alexovitz, Kelsey A; Merchant, Roland C; Clark, Melissa A; Liu, Tao; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Bauermeister, Jose; Mayer, Kenneth H
Discordance between self-perceived HIV risk and actual risk-taking may impede efforts to promote HIV testing among young adult men-who-have-sex-with-men (YMSM) in the United States (US). Understanding the extent of, and reasons for, the discordance of HIV risk self-perception, HIV risk-taking and voluntary HIV testing among black, Hispanic and white YMSM could aid in the development of interventions to increase HIV testing among this higher HIV risk population. HIV-uninfected 18-24-year-old black, Hispanic, and white YMSM were recruited from across the US through multiple social media websites. Participants were queried about their voluntary HIV testing history, perception of currently having an undiagnosed HIV infection, and condomless anal intercourse (CAI) history. We assessed the association between previous CAI and self-perceived possibility of currently having an HIV infection by HIV testing status using Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel testing. Of 2275 black, Hispanic and white social media-using 18-24 year-old YMSM, 21% had never been tested for HIV voluntarily, 87% ever had CAI with another man, 77% believed that it was perhaps possible (as opposed to not possible at all) they currently could have an undiagnosed HIV infection, and 3% who reported CAI with casual or exchange partners, but had not been tested for HIV, self-perceived having no possibility of being HIV infected. Of 471 YMSM who had not been HIV tested, 57% reported CAI with casual or exchange partners, yet self-perceived having no possibility of being HIV infected. Per the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test results, among those reporting HIV risk behaviors, the self-perception of possibly being HIV-infected was not greater among those who had never been tested for HIV, as compared to those who had been tested. Future interventions should emphasize promoting self-realization of HIV risk and translating that into seeking and accepting voluntary HIV testing among this higher HIV risk population.
Patel, Shilpa N.; Marks, Gary; Gardner, Lytt; Golin, Carol E.; Shinde, Sanjyot; O'Daniels, Christine; Wilson, Tracey E.; Quinlivan, E. Byrd; Banderas, Julie W.
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine whether brief training of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) medical providers increased the frequency with which they routinely delivered prevention counselling to patients, and whether patient characteristics were associated with receipt of that counselling. Design: Longitudinal. Setting: Seven HIV…
Fonchingong, Charles C; Mbuagbo, Timothy O; Abong, Jennifer T
The potential synergy between counselling and HIV/AIDS prevention is gaining recognition in Cameroon as counselling sessions are more often organised at health centres. In order to evaluate the actual achievements of these efforts, a qualitative ethnographic survey (based on interviews and focus group discussions) was conducted in two public and two private hospitals in the South-West Province. Churches and public health officials in Cameroon are struggling with the psycho-social, philosophical, psychological, theological, social, moral, ethical and cultural dimensions of HIV/AIDS, as they seek out viable prevention strategies. Health centres are also struggling to embrace the full meaning of counselling and to make psychological and spiritual support to AIDS patients available through the centres. Patients using these health centres may receive HIV testing against a backdrop of cultural standards that allow unsafe sex and bar open discussion on sex and sexuality. We propose that reversing the trend of the epidemic requires the intervention of the State, organisations in civil society and the family. Equally crucial is the role played by the churches - especially in confronting issues of stigmatisation and abandonment that often accompany patient disclosure, and in providing spiritual, emotional and psychological support to patients undergoing treatment.
Full Text Available Abstract Background We examine the uptake of HIV Testing and Counselling (HTC and linkage into care over one year of providing HTC through community and health facility testing modalities among people living in Kibera informal urban settlement in Nairobi Kenya. Methods We analyzed program data on health facility-based HIV testing and counselling and community- based testing and counselling approaches for the period starting October 2013 to September 2014. Univariate and bivariate analysis methods were used to compare the two approaches with regard to uptake of HTC and subsequent linkage to care. The exact Confidence Intervals (CI to the proportions were approximated using simple normal approximation to binomial distribution method. Results Majority of the 18,591 clients were tested through health facility-based testing approaches 72.5 % (n = 13485 vs those tested through community-based testing comprised 27.5 % (n = 5106. More clients tested at health facilities were reached through Provider Initiated Testing and Counselling PITC 81.7 % (n = 11015 while 18.3 % were reached through Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT/Client Initiated Testing and Counselling (CITC services. All clients who tested positive during health facility-based testing were successfully linked to care either at the project sites or sites of client choice while not all who tested positive during community based testing were linked to care. The HIV prevalence among all those who were tested for HIV in the program was 5.2 % (n = 52, 95 % CI: 3.9 %–6.8 %. Key study limitation included use of aggregate data to report uptake of HTC through the two testing approaches and not being able to estimate the population in the catchment area likely to test for HIV. Conclusion Health facility-based HTC approach achieved more clients tested for HIV, and this method also resulted in identifying greater numbers of people who were HIV positive in Kibera slum within
Wang, Mei; Mao, Wenwen; Zhang, Linglin; Jiang, Baofa; Xiao, Yan; Jia, Yujiang; Wu, Pingsheng; Cassell, Holly; Vermund, Sten
Three consecutive cross-sectional surveys were conducted among injection drug users (IDUs). Of 2,530 participants, 47.7% reported ever sharing needles, 78.2% having had unprotected sex in the last month, 34.4% not receiving either methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) or HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT), 4.8% ever receiving MMT-only, 36.6% ever receiving VCT-only, and 24.2% ever receiving both MMT and VCT. MMT-only and the combination of MMT and VCT had significant associations with needle sharing and on unprotected sexual behaviors. Effectively integrating VCT into MMT services is a logical way to maximize the impact of both interventions on risky behaviors among IDUs.
Toma, S; Sartori, M; Moayedoddin, B; Weber, K; Toutous Trellu, L; Canuto, A; Calmy, A
Despite improvement of life expectancy of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected people since the implementation of antiretroviral treatment, psychological suffering prevails and needs to be considered as part of the treatment to guarantee its efficiency. Mental disorders and social stigmatization substantially affect patients' quality of life and their adherence to treatment. The article details the benefits of a routine screening for mental disorders within this population, who is often reluctant to consult psychiatric services. The different treatments provided by the Geneva University Hospital (HUG) are introduced. A clinical case report illustrates the relevance of a multidisciplinary care program and the role of the liaison psychiatry in this field.
Wanyenze, Rhoda K; Kamya, Moses R; Fatch, Robin; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Baveewo, Steven; Szekeres, Gregory; Bangsberg, David R; Coates, Thomas; Hahn, Judith A
HIV counselling and testing and linkage to care are crucial for successful HIV prevention and treatment. Abbreviated counselling could save time; however, its effect on HIV risk is uncertain and methods to improve linkage to care have not been studied. We did this factorial randomised controlled study at Mulago Hospital, Uganda. Participants were randomly assigned to abbreviated or traditional HIV counselling and testing; HIV-infected patients were randomly assigned to enhanced linkage to care or standard linkage to care. All study personnel except counsellors and the data officer were masked to study group assignment. Participants had structured interviews, given once every 3 months. We compared sexual risk behaviour by counselling strategy with a 6·5% non-inferiority margin. We used Cox proportional hazards analyses to compare HIV outcomes by linkage to care over 1 year and tested for interaction by sex. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00648232). We enrolled 3415 participants; 1707 assigned to abbreviated counselling versus 1708 assigned to traditional. Unprotected sex with an HIV discordant or status unknown partner was similar in each group (232/823 [27·9%] vs 251/890 [28·2%], difference -0·3%, one-sided 95% CI 3·2). Loss to follow-up was lower for traditional counselling than for abbreviated counselling (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0·61, 95% CI 0·44-0·83). 1003 HIV-positive participants were assigned to enhanced linkage (n=504) or standard linkage to care (n=499). Linkage to care did not have a significant effect on mortality or receipt of co-trimoxazole. Time to treatment in men with CD4 cell counts of 250 cells per μL or fewer was lower for enhanced linkage versus standard linkage (adjusted HR 0·60, 95% CI 0·41-0·87) and time to HIV care was decreased among women (0·80, 0·66-0·96). Abbreviated HIV counselling and testing did not adversely affect risk behaviour. Linkage to care interventions might decrease time to enrolment
Wilkie, P A; Markova, I; Naji, S A; Forbes, C D
The advent of AIDS not only signifies the emergence of a new disease that affects hitherto healthy members of the general population but also highlights many unresolved problems of people with haemophilia, a life-long genetic disorder of blood clotting. Although HIV infection and the threat of AIDS has been a tragedy for people with haemophilia, the reported study shows that in spite of recent technological advancement in treatment, problems caused by haemophilia as such are still devastating for some severely affected patients. The ability of people with haemophilia to cope with their daily living problems such as chronic and acute pain, stress in the family, difficulties with unemployment and social relationships affects their response to HIV/AIDS. These facts have important implications for their rehabilitation and counselling and raise questions about coping with HIV/AIDS for other risk groups.
Gokhale, Runa H; Bradley, Heather; Weiser, John
Advances in antiretroviral therapy (ART) and reproductive technologies have made transmission of HIV to partners and infants almost completely preventable. Comprehensive reproductive health counseling (CRHC) is an important component of care for women living with HIV, but few women report discussing reproductive health with an HIV care provider. We surveyed a probability sample of U.S. HIV care providers during 2013-2014. Of 2023 eligible providers, 1234 responded (64% adjusted provider response rate). We estimated the percentage delivering CRHC to their female patients. CRHC was defined as delivering each of five components of reproductive health care to most or all female patients. We assessed associations between provider characteristics and delivering CRHC using chi-squared tests and multivariable logistic regression. Of all providers, 49% (95% confidence interval [CI], 42-55) reported delivering all components of CRHC: 71% assessed reproductive intentions of reproductive-aged women, 78% explained perinatal transmission risk, 87% discussed ART for preventing perinatal transmission, 76% provided contraception as appropriate, and 64% provided referrals for preconception care. Among providers who offered primary care (83% of sample), 52% (CI: 44-60) delivered CRHC compared to 33% (CI: 22-44) of providers who did not offer primary care (P = .01). More female providers (46% of sample) compared to male providers delivered CRHC (57% [CI: 48-65] vs. 40% [CI: 31-50], P reproductive health with all reproductive-aged women who are living with HIV, even among providers offering primary care to their HIV patients.
Full Text Available Background: Acquired immunodeficiency may impose considerableconsequences on patients’ family behaviors towardthem. The objective of the present study was to investigatewhether a counseling program at Behavioral Counseling Centerin the city of Shiraz, Iran could change the attitude, knowledgeand behavior of patients' family members.Methods: 125 HIV/AIDS patients’ family members were interviewed,using a valid and reliable questionnaire before andafter performing counseling sessions at Behavioral CounselingCenter. The findings were analyzed using nonparametric tests.Results: The age of the participants was 40±13 years. Sixty fivepercent were female, 63% married and 79% educated. Forty fourpercent of participants had spousal relationships with their patients.Their knowledge about the main routes of HIV transmissionwere 9.76 ± 2.59 and10.64±0.88 before and after counseling,respectively (P=0.028. Supportive behaviors of families towardtheir patients reached to 79% after counseling compared with 44% before that (P=0.004. Belief to isolate the patients and thepractice of this approach at home dropped from 71% to 15% andfrom 29% to 7% after counseling, respectively (P0.05.Conclusion: Ongoing counseling for HIV/AIDS patients’ familiesat Behavioral Counseling Center of Shiraz did advance theirknowledge about AIDS and improved their attitude and behaviortoward their patients However, the counseling program didnot show remarkable success in some aspects such as the removalof fear about HIV spread in the family or the change ofthe patients’ wives attitude to have protected sex with their HIVinfected husbands.Iran J Med Sci 2010; 35(4: 287-292.
Ribeiro, Luciana Viana da Costa; Sabidó, Meritxell; Galbán, Enrique; Guerra, Jorge Augusto de Oliveira; Mabey, David; Peeling, Rosanna W; Benzaken, Adele Schwartz
Home-based, voluntary counselling and testing (HBCT) can help scale up early diagnosis. We aimed to evaluate the acceptance of HBCT for HIV and syphilis, estimate the prevalence among home-tested individuals and assess the performance of point-of-care testing by health staff using dried tube specimens (DTS) in a remote municipality of the Amazon region. Community health teams conducted door-to-door outreach in the urban area of São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Amazonas. HBCT for HIV and syphilis was offered to all residents aged ≥15 years. To provide an external quality assurance (EQA) of the healthcare workers' (HCW') ability to perform testing, DTS panels of reference samples were reconstituted and tested by the workers. HBCT was offered to 1752 individuals and accepted by 1501 (85.6%). Those tested had a median age 32.0 years, 64.4% were women and 85.1% were indigenous; none were previously tested using a rapid test. The prevalence of HIV was 0.37% in men and 0.0% in women; the prevalence of syphilis was 1.12% in men and 2.69% in women. Eleven HCW tested 44 DTS samples for HIV and 44 for syphilis. EQA testing revealed that workers interpreted 55.8% and 90.7% of HIV and syphilis reference samples correctly. HBCT was acceptable and successful in reaching untested individuals. However, there were concerns with the quality of test performance, highlighting the need for continual evaluation and retraining of community HCW. As Brazil scales up HIV and syphilis testing, our findings highlight how HBCT can maximise coverage in similar remote areas and improve knowledge about prevalence of these infections. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Bott, Sarah; Neuman, Melissa; Helleringer, Stephane; Desclaux, Alice; Asmar, Khalil El; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf
The rapid scale-up of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing, counselling and treatment throughout sub-Saharan Africa has raised questions about how to protect patients' rights to consent, confidentiality, counselling and care in resource-constrained settings. The Multi-country African Testing and Counselling for HIV (MATCH) study investigated client and provider experiences with different modes of testing in sub-Saharan Africa. One component of that study was a survey of 275 HIV service providers in Burkina Faso, Kenya and Uganda that gathered quantifiable indicators and qualitative descriptions using a standardized instrument. This article presents provider perspectives on the challenges of obtaining consent, protecting confidentiality, providing counselling and helping clients manage disclosure. It also explores health workers' fear of infection within the workplace and their reports on discrimination against HIV clients within health facilities. HIV care providers in Burkina Faso, Kenya and Uganda experienced substantial rewards from their work, including satisfaction from saving lives and gaining professional skills. They also faced serious resource constraints, including staff shortages, high workloads, lack of supplies and inadequate infrastructure, and they expressed concerns about accidental exposure. Health workers described heavy emotional demands from observing clients suffer emotional, social and health consequences of being diagnosed with HIV, and also from difficult ethical dilemmas related to clients who do not disclose their HIV status to those around them, including partners. These findings suggest that providers of HIV testing and counselling need more resources and support, including better protections against HIV exposure in the workplace. The findings also suggest that health facilities could improve care by increasing attention to consent, privacy and confidentiality and that health policy makers and ethicists need to address some
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Pregnancy and the postpartum period present important intervention opportunities. Counseling can leverage the motivation women have during this time to change behaviors that may negatively affect their health and the heath of their infants. METHODS: Pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in South Africa were randomly allocated to treatment (n=733 and control arms (n=747. Treatment arm participants received enhanced HIV pre- and post-test counseling, legal support and access to support groups at baseline, which occurred at the first antenatal visit, and then six and ten weeks postpartum. Control arm participants received standard HIV testing and counseling (HTC and two postpartum attention control sessions. Outcomes were incidence of sexually transmitted infection (STI by 14 weeks postpartum and past 30-day inconsistent condom use at 14 weeks and 9 months postpartum. RESULTS: There were no intervention effects on incident STIs for either HIV-negative (adjusted risk ratio (aRR 1.01, 95% CI 0.71-1.44 or HIV-positive participants (aRR 0.86, 95% CI 0.61-1.23. The intervention was associated with a 28% decrease in risk of past 30-day inconsistent condom use at nine-months among HIV-negative women (aRR 0.72,95% CI 0.59-0.88, but did not affect inconsistent condom use among HIV-positive women (aRR1.08; 95% CI 0.67-1.75. DISCUSSION: An enhanced counseling intervention during pregnancy and the postpartum period can lead to reductions in inconsistent condom use among HIV-negative women. Results underscore the importance of the counseling that accompanies HIV HTC. More work is needed to understand how to promote and sustain risk reduction among HIV-positive women. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01683461.
Pope, Diana S; Deluca, Andrea N; Kali, Paula; Hausler, Harry; Sheard, Carol; Hoosain, Ebrahim; Chaudhary, Mohammad A; Celentano, David D; Chaisson, Richard E
To determine whether implementation of provider-initiated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) counseling would increase the proportion of tuberculosis (TB) patients who received HIV counseling and testing. Cluster-randomized trial with clinic as the unit of randomization. Twenty, medium-sized primary care TB clinics in the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Municipality, Port Elizabeth, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. A total of 754 adults (18 years and older) newly registered as TB patients in the 20 study clinics. Implementation of provider-initiated HIV counseling and testing. Percentage of TB patients HIV counseled and tested. SECONDARY: Percentage of patients with HIV test positive, and percentage of those who received cotrimoxazole and who were referred for HIV care. : A total of 754 adults newly registered as TB patients were enrolled. In clinics randomly assigned to implement provider-initiated HIV counseling and testing, 20.7% (73/352) patients were counseled versus 7.7% (31/402) in the control clinics (P = 0.011), and 20.2% (n = 71) versus 6.5% (n = 26) underwent HIV testing (P = 0.009). Of those patients counseled, 97% in the intervention clinics accepted testing versus 79% in control clinics (P = 0.12). The proportion of patients identified as HIV infected in intervention clinics was 8.5% versus 2.5% in control clinics (P = 0.044). Fewer than 40% of patients with a positive HIV test were prescribed cotrimoxazole or referred for HIV care in either study arm. Provider-initiated HIV counseling significantly increased the proportion of adult TB patients who received HIV counseling and testing, but the magnitude of the effect was small. Additional interventions to optimize HIV testing for TB patients urgently need to be evaluated.
Pope, Diana S.; DeLuca, Andrea N.; Kali, Paula; Hausler, Harry; Sheard, Carol; Hoosain, Ebrahim; Chaudhary, Mohammed A.; Celentano, David D.; Chaisson, Richard E.
Objective To determine whether implementation of provider-initiated HIV counseling would increase the proportion of tuberculosis patients that received HIV counseling and testing. Design Cluster-randomized trial with clinic as unit of randomization Setting Twenty, medium-sized primary care TB clinics in the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Municipality, Port Elizabeth, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa Subjects A total of 754 adults (≥ 18 years) newly registered as tuberculosis patients the twenty study clinics Intervention Implementation of provider-initiated HIV counseling and testing. Main outcome measures Percentage of TB patients HIV counseled and tested. Secondary Percentage of patients HIV test positive and percentage of those that received cotrimoxazole and who were referred for HIV care. Results A total of 754 adults newly registered as tuberculosis patients were enrolled. In clinics randomly assigned to implement provider-initiated HIV counseling and testing, 20.7% (73/352) patients were counseled versus 7.7% (31/402) in the control clinics (p = 0.011), and 20.2 % (n = 71) versus 6.5% (n = 26) underwent HIV testing (p = 0.009). Of those patients counseled, 97% in the intervention clinics accepted testing versus 79% in control clinics (p =0.12). The proportion of patients identified as HIV-infected in intervention clinics was 8.5% versus 2.5% in control clinics (p=0.044). Fewer than 40% of patients with a positive HIV test were prescribed cotrimoxazole or referred for HIV care in either study arm. Conclusions Provider-initiated HIV counseling significantly increased the proportion of adult TB patients that received HIV counseling and testing, but the magnitude of the effect was small. Additional interventions to optimize HIV testing for TB patients urgently need to be evaluated. PMID:18520677
Matovu, Joseph K B; Todd, Jim; Wanyenze, Rhoda K; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Serwadda, David
Studies show that uptake of couples' HIV counseling and testing (couples' HCT) can be affected by individual, relationship, and socioeconomic factors. However, while couples' HCT uptake can also be affected by background HIV prevalence and awareness of the existence of couples' HCT services, this is yet to be documented. We explored the correlates of previous couples' HCT uptake among married individuals in a rural Ugandan district with differing HIV prevalence levels. This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 2,135 married individuals resident in the three HIV prevalence strata (low HIV prevalence: 9.7-11.2%; middle HIV prevalence: 11.4-16.4%; and high HIV prevalence: 20.5-43%) in Rakai district, southwestern Uganda, between November 2013 and February 2014. Data were collected on sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics, including previous receipt of couples' HCT. HIV testing data were obtained from the Rakai Community Cohort Study. We conducted multivariable logistic regression analysis to identify correlates that are independently associated with previous receipt of couples' HCT. Data analysis was conducted using STATA (statistical software, version 11.2). Of the 2,135 married individuals enrolled, the majority (n=1,783, 83.5%) had been married for five or more years while (n=1,460, 66%) were in the first-order of marriage. Ever receipt of HCT was almost universal (n=2,020, 95%); of those ever tested, (n=846, 41.9%) reported that they had ever received couples' HCT. There was no significant difference in previous receipt of couples' HCT between low (n=309, 43.9%), middle (n=295, 41.7%), and high (n=242, 39.7%) HIV prevalence settings (p=0.61). Marital order was not significantly associated with previous receipt of couples' HCT. However, marital duration [five or more years vis-à-vis 1-2 years: adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.06; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.04-1.08] and awareness about the existence of couples' HCT services within the Rakai
Joseph K. B. Matovu
Full Text Available Background: Studies show that uptake of couples’ HIV counseling and testing (couples’ HCT can be affected by individual, relationship, and socioeconomic factors. However, while couples’ HCT uptake can also be affected by background HIV prevalence and awareness of the existence of couples’ HCT services, this is yet to be documented. We explored the correlates of previous couples’ HCT uptake among married individuals in a rural Ugandan district with differing HIV prevalence levels. Design: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 2,135 married individuals resident in the three HIV prevalence strata (low HIV prevalence: 9.7–11.2%; middle HIV prevalence: 11.4–16.4%; and high HIV prevalence: 20.5–43% in Rakai district, southwestern Uganda, between November 2013 and February 2014. Data were collected on sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics, including previous receipt of couples’ HCT. HIV testing data were obtained from the Rakai Community Cohort Study. We conducted multivariable logistic regression analysis to identify correlates that are independently associated with previous receipt of couples’ HCT. Data analysis was conducted using STATA (statistical software, version 11.2. Results: Of the 2,135 married individuals enrolled, the majority (n=1,783, 83.5% had been married for five or more years while (n=1,460, 66% were in the first-order of marriage. Ever receipt of HCT was almost universal (n=2,020, 95%; of those ever tested, (n=846, 41.9% reported that they had ever received couples’ HCT. There was no significant difference in previous receipt of couples’ HCT between low (n=309, 43.9%, middle (n=295, 41.7%, and high (n=242, 39.7% HIV prevalence settings (p=0.61. Marital order was not significantly associated with previous receipt of couples’ HCT. However, marital duration [five or more years vis-à-vis 1–2 years: adjusted odds ratio (aOR: 1.06; 95% confidence interval (95% CI: 1.04–1.08] and
Jane N Mutanga
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC is a priority strategy for increasing access for HIV-exposed children to prevention measures, and infected children to treatment and care interventions. This article examines efforts to scale-up paediatric PITC at a second-level hospital located in Zambia's Southern Province, and serving a catchment area of 1.2 million people. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our retrospective case study examined best practices and enabling factors for rapid institutionalization of PITC in Livingstone General Hospital. Methods included clinical observations, key informant interviews with programme management, and a desk review of hospital management information systems (HMIS uptake data following the introduction of PITC. After PITC roll-out, the hospital experienced considerably higher testing uptake. In a 36-month period following PITC institutionalization, of total inpatient children eligible for PITC (n = 5074, 98.5% of children were counselled, and 98.2% were tested. Of children tested (n = 4983, 15.5% were determined HIV-infected; 77.6% of these results were determined by DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR testing in children under the age of 18 months. Of children identified as HIV-infected in the hospital's inpatient and outpatient departments (n = 1342, 99.3% were enrolled in HIV care, including initiation on co-trimoxazole prophylaxis. A number of good operational practices and enabling factors in the Livingstone General Hospital experience can inform rapid PITC institutionalization for inpatient and outpatient children. These include the placement of full-time nurse counsellors at key areas of paediatric intake, who interface with patients immediately and conduct testing and counselling. They are reinforced through task-shifting to peer counsellors in the wards. Nurse counsellor capacity to draw specimen for DNA PCR for children under 18 months has significantly enhanced early
Shah, Ripal; Tiwari, Aseem Kumar; Shah, Priti; Tulsiani, Sunita; Harimoorthy, V; Choudhury, N
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is one of the serious public health problems in India. AIDS education has been considered as one of the main intervention for control. Sexual route is the major route of transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV); however, approximately 2.5% is transmitted through blood and blood products. The present study was carried out to know the level of awareness about HIV infection and blood donation among first time (190) and repeat (310) voluntary donors of all age groups. One pre-structured questionnaire was circulated among altruistic blood donors. About 96.6% donors want to become repeat donors. Majority of the donors had good knowledge about routes of HIV transmission. According to 97.4% donors, it is transmitted by sexual route, according to 87.4% of donors by sharing needle, according to 85% of donors by blood transfusion and 82.4% of donors believe through vertical transmission. However, 32.4% of the donors, still believe that HIV infection could be transmitted through blood donation. Intense motivational program among donors is needed to remove this myth. Regular donors were convinced the importance of regular and repeat blood donation. They came forward to donate blood for the cause of humanity (80.6%) and the sense of pride (27.79%). First time donors were less motivated by the cause of humanity (56.21%) and volunteered because of peer pressure (26.03%) and motivated by relative or friend. Donors were very alert about precaution to be taken for protecting themselves from danger of HIV infection and priority wise use of safe sexual practice (90%), disposable needles (61.43%) and receive tested blood (45.71%) whenever required. When in need of blood for relatives the donors will give priority to the quality (64.65%) and properly tested blood from voluntary blood donors (86.7%).
Khu, Naw H; Vwalika, Bellington; Karita, Etienne; Kilembe, William; Bayingana, Roger A; Sitrin, Deborah; Roeber-Rice, Heidi; Learner, Emily; Tichacek, Amanda C; Haddad, Lisa B; Wall, Kristin M; Chomba, Elwyn N; Allen, Susan A
HIV-discordant heterosexual couples are faced with the dual challenge of preventing sexual HIV transmission and unplanned pregnancies with the attendant risk of perinatal HIV transmission. Our aim was to examine uptake of two long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods--intrauterine devices (IUD) and hormonal implants--among HIV-discordant couples in Rwanda and Zambia. Women were interviewed alone or with their partner during routine cohort study follow-up visits to ascertain fertility goals; those not pregnant, not infertile, not already using LARC, and wishing to limit or delay fertility for ≥3 years were counseled on LARC methods and offered an IUD or implant on-site. Among 409 fertile HIV-discordant Rwandan women interviewed (126 alone, 283 with partners), 365 (89%) were counseled about LARC methods, and 130 (36%) adopted a method (100 implant, 30 IUD). Of 787 fertile Zambian women interviewed (457 alone, 330 with partners), 528 (67%) received LARC counseling, of whom 177 (34%) adopted a method (139 implant, 38 IUD). In both countries, a woman's younger age was predictive of LARC uptake. LARC users reported fewer episodes of unprotected sex than couples using only condoms. Integrated fertility goal-based family planning counseling and access to LARC methods with reinforcement of dual-method use prompted uptake of IUDs and implants and reduced unprotected sex among HIV-discordant couples in two African capital cities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Background: The national South African HIV Counselling and Testing (HCT) guidelines mandate that voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) should be offered in all healthcare facilities. Emergency departments (EDs) are at the forefront of many healthcare facilities, yet VCT is not routinely implemented in this setting.
L.M. Kleijn; Dr. P.D.D.M. Roelofs; Dr. H.S. Miedema; Dr. M.N. Wagener; E.C.M. van Gorp
People living with HIV (PLWH) face various workrelated problems, such as stigma and physical difficulties. Health care professionals can help improve the employment situation of PLWH. Nurses who work in HIV care play a central role in the care of PLWH in the Netherlands. The aim of this
Johns, Benjamin; Doroshenko, Olena; Tarantino, Lisa; Cowley, Peter
We estimate the number of HIV cases diagnosed, costs, and cost per HIV case detected associated with integrating HIV counseling and testing (HCT) into primary health care facilities in Ukraine. The study uses a difference-in-difference design with four districts implementing the intervention compared to 20 districts where HCT were offered only at specialized HIV clinics. There was a 2.01 (95 % CI: 1.12-3.61) times increase in the number of HIV cases detected per capita in intervention districts compared to other districts. The incremental cost of the intervention was $21,017 and the incremental cost per HIV case detected was $369. The average cost per HIV case detected before the intervention was $558. Engaging primary health care facilities to provide HCT is likely desirable from an efficiency point-of-view. However, the affordability of the intervention needs to be assessed because expansion will require additional investment.
Ruzagira, Eugene; Baisley, Kathy; Kamali, Anatoli; Biraro, Samuel; Grosskurth, Heiner
Home-based HIV counselling and testing (HBHCT) has the potential to increase HIV testing uptake in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), but data on linkage to HIV care after HBHCT are scarce. We conducted a systematic review of linkage to care after HBHCT in SSA. Five databases were searched for studies published between 1st January 2000 and 19th August 2016 that reported on linkage to care among adults newly identified with HIV infection through HBHCT. Eligible studies were reviewed, assessed for risk of bias and findings summarised using the PRISMA guidelines. A total of 14 studies from six countries met the eligibility criteria; nine used specific strategies (point-of-care CD4 count testing, follow-up counselling, provision of transport funds to clinic and counsellor facilitation of HIV clinic visit) in addition to routine referral to facilitate linkage to care. Time intervals for ascertaining linkage ranged from 1 week to 12 months post-HBHCT. Linkage ranged from 8.2% [95% confidence interval (CI), 6.8-9.8%] to 99.1% (95% CI, 96.9-99.9%). Linkage was generally lower (80%) if additional strategies were used. Only one study assessed linkage by means of a randomised trial. Five studies had data on cotrimoxazole (CTX) prophylaxis and 12 on ART eligibility and initiation. CTX uptake among those eligible ranged from 0% to 100%. The proportion of persons eligible for ART ranged from 16.5% (95% CI, 12.1-21.8) to 77.8% (95% CI, 40.0-97.2). ART initiation among those eligible ranged from 14.3% (95% CI, 0.36-57.9%) to 94.9% (95% CI, 91.3-97.4%). Additional linkage strategies, whilst seeming to increase linkage, were not associated with higher uptake of CTX and/or ART. Most of the studies were susceptible to risk of outcome ascertainment bias. A pooled analysis was not performed because of heterogeneity across studies with regard to design, setting and the key variable definitions. Only few studies from SSA investigated linkage to care among adults newly diagnosed with HIV through
Snyder, Hannah; Yeldandi, Vijay V.; Kumar, G. Prem; Liao, Chuanhong; Lakshmi, Vemu; Gandham, Sabitha R.; Muppudi, Uma; Oruganti, Ganesh; Schneider, John A.
In India, men who have sex with men (MSM) and truck drivers are high-risk groups that often do not access HIV testing due to stigma and high mobility. This study evaluated a field testing package (FTP) that identified HIV positive participants through video pre-test counseling, OraQuick oral fluid HIV testing, and telephonic post-test counseling…
The purpose of this study was to develop a core HIV/AIDS knowledge assessment (CHAKA) for students enrolled in counseling-related degree programs. Although there are studies that examined counseling HIV/AIDS knowledge, the instruments that were used were limited in ways that may compromise the accuracy of the inferences that were made. This study…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant feeding is a subject of worry in prevention of mother to child transmission (pMTCT programmes in settings where breastfeeding is normative. Nurse-counsellors, expected to counsel HIV-positive women on safer infant feeding methods as defined in national/international guidelines, are faced with a number of challenges. This study aims to explore the experiences and situated concerns of nurses working as infant feeding counsellors to HIV-positive mothers enrolled in pMTCT programmes in the Kilimanjaro region, northern Tanzania. Methods A qualitative study was conducted using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs with 25 nurse-counsellors at four pMTCT sites. Interviews were handwritten and FGDs were tape-recorded and transcribed, and the programme Open Code assisted in sorting and structuring the data. Analysis was performed using 'content analysis.' Results The findings revealed a high level of stress and frustration among the nurse-counsellors. They found themselves unable to give qualified and relevant advice to HIV-positive women on how best to feed their infants. They were confused regarding the appropriateness of the feeding options they were expected to advise HIV-positive women to employ, and perceived both exclusive breastfeeding and exclusive replacement feeding as culturally and socially unsuitable. However, most counsellors believed that formula feeding was the right way for an HIV-positive woman to feed her infant. They expressed a lack of confidence in their own knowledge of HIV and infant feeding, as well as in their own skills in assessing a woman's possibilities of adhering to a particular method of feeding. Moreover, the nurses were in general not comfortable in their newly gained role as counsellors and felt that it undermined the authority and trust traditionally vested in nursing as a knowledgeable and caring profession. Conclusion The findings illuminate the immense burden placed on
Bello, F A; Ogunbode, O O; Adesina, O A; Olayemi, O; Awonuga, O M; Adewole, I F
Many patients are referred to labour ward as emergencies, and therefore do not benefit from the antenatal HIV counselling and testing and treatment offered to registered patients. To assess the acceptability and suitability of offering HIV counselling and testing to women of unknown HIV status presenting in labour. A cross-sectional study comprising counselling and obtaining consent for HIV testing among 104 unregistered patients who presented in labour over a 3-month period. Rapid and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay screening was performed for 90 consenting respondents. Reactive results were confirmed by Western blot. Appropriate therapy was instituted. Acceptance rate for HIV testing was 86.5%, prevalence of HIV was 6.7%. Women of lower educational status were more likely to accept testing in labour (OR: 0.3; 95% CI: 0.1-0.7; p=0.01); age, parity, occupation and knowledge of HIV had no influence. Most women (66.3%) had satisfactory knowledge of HIV. No one admitted to feeling coerced to test in fear of being denied care. Most refusals for screening were to avoid needle pricks (28.6%). Compared to ELISA screening test, specificity of the rapid test was 100%, sensitivity 85.7%, positive predictive value 100% and negative predictive value 98.8%. Attitude to testing was maintained on post-partum re-evaluation. The prevalence of HIV amongst unregistered parturients showed the importance of offering point-of-care HIV testing and intervention, especially in an environment where antenatal clinic attendance is poor. Rapid testing appeared to be acceptable and feasible in labour to prevent the mother-to-child transmission of HIV.
Ajuwon, A J
HIV/AIDS is a major pubic health problem in Nigeria. This paper identifies the ethical issues involved in HIV/AIDS biomedical and behavioural research, counselling and testing in the country. These concerns are discussed in the context of the three universal ethical principles of respect for persons, beneficence, and justice. Written informed consent, which is a component of respect for persons, is a challenge in Nigeria because of skepticism to documentation, sensitivity of sexual practices often explored in behavioural research, and a tradition that discourages patients from questioning medical authority. Although monetary inducement of research participants is ethically acceptable, the high levels of poverty in Nigeria raise concerns that payment of money may unduly induce indigent participants to enroll in research. The disclosure of results in situations when married HIV positive persons insist that their status should not be revealed to their spouse illustrate the dilemma that health workers face in adhering to the ethical norm of keeping confidentiality and the public health obligation of preventing HIV transmission in a third party. Some recommendations are offered to address these concerns.
Gahagan, Jacqueline C; Fuller, Janice L; Delpech, Valerie C; Baxter, Larry N; Proctor-Simms, E Michelle
Nova Scotia, as a small province in Atlantic Canada, provides health care professionals and policy analysts with unique challenges for developing and implementing a strategy for accessible and acceptable HIV counselling and testing. Despite universal health care in Canada, barriers and challenges persist in relation to HIV counselling and testing programs and services in Nova Scotia. It is therefore necessary to examine the unique circumstances in the provision of programs and services in Nova Scotia prior to the possibility of adopting international HIV counselling and testing standards and guidelines being implemented in other jurisdictions. Nova Scotia's provincial strategy on HIV/AIDS promotes a harm-reduction approach for different populations in various service settings, recognizing the diverse circumstances and experiences of people living in Nova Scotia. By contrast, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recommended strategy promotes opt-out testing and in some instances alters the requirement of informed consent. As the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) revises the national HIV counselling and testing policies, it is imperative to address the unique characteristics of Nova Scotia's provision of services, and how divergent strategies have the potential to address or compound the barriers to access that exist in this province's communities.
Full Text Available Deborah L Jones,1 Marisa Echenique,1 JoNell Potter,2 Violeta J Rodriguez,1 Stephen M Weiss,1 Margaret A Fischl3 1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 3Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA Background: Rates of pregnancy among women living with HIV are similar to those in the general population. Unintended pregnancies are also common, and among adolescents and young women perinatally infected (PHIV+ or behaviorally infected (BHIV+ with HIV, planning for both conception and contraception is an important element of HIV care that may be neglected. This pilot study examined the influence of intervention strategies targeting fertility planning, safer conception practices and patient-provider communication. It was hypothesized that preconception counseling interventions would enhance reproductive knowledge, planning and practices, as well as stimulate discussion with providers regarding conception. Methods: Adolescent girls and young women (N=34 perinatally (n=21 or behaviorally (n=13 infected with HIV, aged 16–29 years, were recruited from urban South Florida, and completed measures of reproductive knowledge, sexual practices and fertility intentions. Participants were randomized to condition, ie, video presentation plus Motivational Interviewing (MI, MI only, control. Results: The average age of women was 22 years (SD =3.27, and the majority of them were African American. Levels of depression were higher among BHIV+ compared to PHIV+ at baseline and 6 months. Pregnancy knowledge (pregnancy, safe conception and pregnancy planning and the proportion of those engaging in birth control planning (condom use, long-term birth control, patient-provider discussions on preventing pregnancy and fertility desires were similar between conditions at post-intervention and 6 months. Bayes factors indicated that the data were
Lyons, Thomas; Osunkoya, Emmanuel; Anguh, Ivonne; Adefuye, Adedeji; Balogun, Joseph
The prevalence rate of HIV infection in jails and prisons is approximately 5 times the rate in the U.S. general population. The authors surveyed state prison officials to assess HIV testing and HIV prevention policies--specifically voluntary testing, group HIV prevention counseling, and peer education--in the 50 states and to determine whether those policies are associated with the characteristics of the state and its prison population.
Full Text Available There is a substantial burden of HIV infection among older children in sub-Saharan Africa, the majority of whom are diagnosed after presentation with advanced disease. We investigated the provision and uptake of provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling (PITC among children in primary health care facilities, and explored health care worker (HCW perspectives on providing HIV testing to children.Children aged 6 to 15 y attending six primary care clinics in Harare, Zimbabwe, were offered PITC, with guardian consent and child assent. The reasons why testing did not occur in eligible children were recorded, and factors associated with HCWs offering and children/guardians refusing HIV testing were investigated using multivariable logistic regression. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with clinic nurses and counsellors to explore these factors. Among 2,831 eligible children, 2,151 (76% were offered PITC, of whom 1,534 (54.2% consented to HIV testing. The main reasons HCWs gave for not offering PITC were the perceived unsuitability of the accompanying guardian to provide consent for HIV testing on behalf of the child and lack of availability of staff or HIV testing kits. Children who were asymptomatic, older, or attending with a male or a younger guardian had significantly lower odds of being offered HIV testing. Male guardians were less likely to consent to their child being tested. 82 (5.3% children tested HIV-positive, with 95% linking to care. Of the 940 guardians who tested with the child, 186 (19.8% were HIV-positive.The HIV prevalence among children tested was high, highlighting the need for PITC. For PITC to be successfully implemented, clear legislation about consent and guardianship needs to be developed, and structural issues addressed. HCWs require training on counselling children and guardians, particularly male guardians, who are less likely to engage with health care services. Increased awareness of the risk of HIV infection
Objectives: To estimate HIV prevalence in various blood donor populations, to identity sociodemographic risk factors associated with prevalent HIV and to assess the feasibility of offering routine voluntary counselling services to blood donors. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Thyolo district, Malawi. Methods: Data ...
Background and objectives. HIV/AIDS and suicidal behaviour are major public health concerns. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between hopelessness, depression and suicidal ideation in HIV-infected persons. Methods. The sample consisted of all adult volunteers attending a voluntary counselling ...
Tabana, Hanani; Nkonki, Lungiswa; Hongoro, Charles; Doherty, Tanya; Ekström, Anna Mia; Naik, Reshma; Zembe-Mkabile, Wanga; Jackson, Debra; Thorson, Anna
There is growing evidence concerning the acceptability and feasibility of home-based HIV testing. However, less is known about the cost-effectiveness of the approach yet it is a critical component to guide decisions about scaling up access to HIV testing. This study examined the cost-effectiveness of a home-based HIV testing intervention in rural South Africa. Two alternatives: clinic and home-based HIV counselling and testing were compared. Costs were analysed from a provider's perspective for the period of January to December 2010. The outcome, HIV counselling and testing (HCT) uptake was obtained from the Good Start home-based HIV counselling and testing (HBHCT) cluster randomised control trial undertaken in KwaZulu-Natal province. Cost-effectiveness was estimated for a target population of 22,099 versus 23,864 people for intervention and control communities respectively. Average costs were calculated as the cost per client tested, while cost-effectiveness was calculated as the cost per additional client tested through HBHCT. Based on effectiveness of 37% in the intervention (HBHCT) arm compared to 16% in control arm, home based testing costs US$29 compared to US$38 per person for clinic HCT. The incremental cost effectiveness per client tested using HBHCT was $19. HBHCT was less costly and more effective. Home-based HCT could present a cost-effective alternative for rural 'hard to reach' populations depending on affordability by the health system, and should be considered as part of community outreach programs.
Kristin M Wall
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We describe rates of unintended pregnancy among HIV positive couples in Lusaka, Zambia. We also identify factors associated with unintended pregnancy among oral contraceptive pill (OCP using couples in this cohort. DESIGN: Data were analyzed from couples randomized in a factorial design to two family planning intervention videos. METHODS: Rates of unintended pregnancy were stratified by contraceptive method used at time of pregnancy. Predictors of time to unintended pregnancy among OCP users were determined via multivariate Cox modeling. RESULTS: The highest rates of unintended pregnancy were observed among couples requesting condoms only (26.4/100CY or OCPs (20.7/100CY; these rates were not significantly different. OCP users accounted for 37% of the couple-years (CY observed and 87% of unintended pregnancies. Rates of unintended pregnancy for injectable (0.7/100CY and intrauterine device (1.6/100CY users were significantly lower relative to condom only users. No pregnancies occurred among contraceptive implant users or after tubal ligation. Factors associated (p<0.05 with time to unintended pregnancy among OCP users in multivariate analysis included the man wanting more children, the woman being HIV negative versus having stage IV HIV disease, and the woman reporting: younger age, no previous OCP use, missed OCPs, or sex without a condom. CONCLUSIONS: Long-acting reversible contraceptive methods were effective in the context of integrated couples HIV prevention and contraceptive services. Injectable methods were also effective in this context. Given the high user failure rate of OCPs, family planning efforts should promote longer-acting methods among OCP users wishing to avoid pregnancy. Where other methods are not available or acceptable, OCP adherence counseling is needed, especially among younger and new OCP users. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00067522.
Bell, Stephen A; Delpech, Valerie; Raben, Dorthe; Casabona, Jordi; Tsereteli, Nino; de Wit, John
In the context of a shift from exceptionalism to normalisation, this study examines recommendations/evidence in current pan-European/global guidelines regarding pre-test HIV testing and counselling practices in health care settings. It also reviews new research not yet included in guidelines. There
Abiodun, Olumide; Sotunsa, John; Ani, Franklin; Jaiyesimi, Ebunoluwa
The spread of HIV/AIDS among the reproductive age group particularly young adults is a major public health concern in Nigeria. Lifestyles of students on university campuses put them at increased risk of contracting the HIV. The aim of this study was to assess the level of HIV/AIDS knowledge and to investigate the factors that were correlated with the uptake of and willingness to take up HIV counseling and testing. A cross-sectional study of 1,250 university students selected by 2-stage random sampling technique using self-administered questionnaire. The participants consisted of 57.7% females and 42.3% males with ages ranging from 15 to 32 years and a mean of 19.13 ± 2.32 years. The awareness of HIV was universal. The knowledge about HIV/AIDS was very high with a mean score of 8.18 ± 1.60 out of 10; and 97.1% of participants having good knowledge of HIV/AIDS. The major source of HIV/AIDS information was the mass media. There was a significant difference in knowledge of HIV/AIDS by gender where male students had better knowledge about HIV/AIDS than females [t (1225) = 3.179, p = 0.002]. While 95% of the participants knew where to get an HIV test done, only 30.4% had tested for HIV within the six months preceding the study. However, 72.2% of them were willing to test for HIV. There was no significant association between demographic characteristics and having tested for HIV in the preceding six months but there was significant association between willingness to have an HIV test and the participants' age groups, sex, marital status and their knowledge of HIV/AIDS. Participants who were aged 21 years and above and had good knowledge about HIV were more willing to take an HIV test. Females were more willing to take an HIV test than males. The participants' knowledge about HIV /AIDS was quite good, the willingness to have HIV test done was high and the knowledge of a place where test can be done was nearly universal yet HIV testing was low. Innovative
Evans, Catrin; Nalubega, Sylivia; McLuskey, John; Darlington, Nicola; Croston, Michelle; Bath-Hextall, Fiona
Global progress towards HIV prevention and care is contingent upon increasing the number of those aware of their status through HIV testing. Provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling is recommended globally as a strategy to enhance uptake of HIV testing and is primarily conducted by nurses and midwives. Research shows that provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling implementation is sub-optimal. The reasons for this are unclear. The review aimed to explore nurses' and midwives' views and experiences of the provision and management of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling. All cadres of nurses and midwives were considered, including those who undertake routine HIV testing as part of a diverse role and those who are specifically trained as HIV counselors. Types of phenomenon of interest: The review sought to understand the views and experiences of the provision and management of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (including perceptions, opinions, beliefs, practices and strategies related to HIV testing and its implementation in practice). The review included only provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling. It excluded all other models of HIV testing. The review included all countries and all healthcare settings. Types of studies: This review considered all forms of qualitative study design and methodology. Qualitative elements of a mixed method study were included if they were presented separately within the publication. A three-step search strategy was utilized. Eight databases were searched for papers published from 1996 to October 2014, followed by hand searching of reference lists. Only studies published in the English language were considered. Methodological quality was assessed using the Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument developed by the Joanna Briggs Institute. Qualitative findings were extracted using the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument. Qualitative research findings were pooled
Full Text Available Abstract Background Couple HIV Counseling and Testing (CHCT is one of the key preventive strategies used to reduce the spread of HIV. In Uganda, HIV prevalence among married/living together is 7.2% among women and 7.6% among men. CHCT can help ease disclosure of HIV-positive status, which in turn may help increase opportunities to get social support and reduce new infections. The uptake of CHCT among attendees of health facilities in rural Uganda is as high as 34%. The purpose of this study was to explore the motivators of CHCT uptake in Mukono district, a rural setting in Uganda. Methods The study was conducted in two sub-counties in a rural district (Mukono district about 28 km east of the capital Kampala, using a descriptive and explorative qualitative research design. Specifically, we conducted focus group discussions and key informant interviews with HIV focal persons, village health team (VHT members, religious leaders and political leaders. We also interviewed persons in couple relationships. Data was analysed using NVivo 8 software. Ethical clearance was received from the Mengo Hospital Research Review Board and from the Uganda National Council of Science and Technology. Results The study was conducted from June 2013 to July 2013 We conducted 4 focus group discussions, 10 key informant interviews and interviewed 53 persons in couple relationships. None of the participants were a couple. The women were 68% (36/53 and 49% (26/53 of them were above 29 years old. The motivators of CHCT uptake were; perceived benefit of HIV testing, sickness of a partner or child in the family and suspicion of infidelity. Other important motivators were men involvement in antenatal care (ANC attendance and preparation for marriage. Conclusion The motivators for CHCT uptake included the perceived benefit of HIV testing, sickness of a partner or child, preparation for marriage, lack of trust among couples and men involvement in antenatal care. Greater
Van Thu Nguyen
Full Text Available Currently, HIV testing and counseling (HTC services in Vietnam are primarily funded by international sources. However, international funders are now planning to withdraw their support and the Government of Vietnam (GVN is seeking to identify domestic funding and generate client fees to continue services. A clear understanding of the cost to sustain current HTC services is becoming increasingly important to facilitate planning that can lead to making HTC and other HIV services more affordable and sustainable in Vietnam. The objectives of this analysis were to provide a snapshot of current program costs to achieve key program outcomes including 1 testing and identifying PLHIV unaware of their HIV status and 2 successfully enrolling HIV (+ clients in care.We reviewed expenditure data reported by 34 HTC sites in nine Vietnamese provinces over a one-year period from October 2012 to September 2013. Data on program outcomes were extracted from the HTC database of 42,390 client records. Analysis was carried out from the service providers' perspective.The mean expenditure for a single client provided HTC services (testing, receiving results and referral for care/treatment was US $7.6. The unit expenditure per PLHIV identified through these services varied widely from US $22.8 to $741.5 (median: $131.8. Excluding repeat tests, the range for expenditure to newly diagnose a PLHIV was even wider (from US $30.8 to $1483.0. The mean expenditure for one successfully referred HIV client to care services was US $466.6. Personnel costs contributed most to the total cost.Our analysis found a wide range of expenditures by site for achieving the same outcomes. Re-designing systems to provide services at the lowest feasible cost is essential to making HIV services more affordable and treatment for prevention programs feasible in Vietnam. The analysis also found that understanding the determinants and reasons for variance in service costs by site is an important
Patrone R. Risenga
Background: Perception forms the core of HIV Counselling and Testing (HCT use by young adults, because it is from these perceptions that young adults will decide to follow an HCT programme or not, depending on how they perceive the programme. HCT as an entry point in HIV and AIDS services should be accessible and young adults' perceptions towards the programme be promoted in order to assist them to develop positive perceptions towards the programme, which will enhance its uptake. Data sources: A literature search was undertaken using internet search engines, different journals, websites and electronic literature indexes. A sample of 60 documents met the criteria. The inclusion criterion was any article addressing perceptions in psychology, social sciences, nursing and education were reviewed. Review method: A concept analysis was conducted according to the steps of Rodger andKnafl (2000; Walker and Avant (2005 and Wilson (1963. Results: Perception has been defined as a constructive process that relies on a top-down processing. This entails that people make inferences about what they see and try to make a best guess as to what the object is all about. Attributes for perception were defined as intensity and physical dimension of stimulus, past experiences, and attention factors such as readiness to respond to the stimulus, motivation and emotional state of the subject. Consequences include increasedHCTuptake by young adults, a positive lifestyle, a reduction in the spreading of HIV and AIDS and lowered HIV statistics amongst young adults. Conclusion: The study findings related to HCT and perceptions paved the way towards a further understanding of HCT as an entry programme in HIV/AIDS services or programmes in relation to young adults. The ability of young adults to use their auditory senses to hear the nurses talk about HCT and HIV, the ability to see the attitudes displayed by HCT counsellors, and their perceptions with regard to lack of privacy, together with a
Galindo-Quintero, Jaime; Mueses-Marin, Hector Fabio; Montaño-Agudelo, David; Pinzón-Fernández, María Virginia; Tello-Bolívar, Inés Constanza; Alvarado-Llano, Beatriz Eugenia; Martinez-Cajas, Jorge Luis
HIV testing rates remain very low in Colombia, with only 20% of individuals at risk ever tested. In order to tackle this issue, the Corporacion de Lucha Contra el Sida (CLS) has implemented a multidisciplinary, provider-initiated, population-based HIV testing/counselling strategy named BAFI. In this report, we describe the experience of CLS at reaching populations from low socioeconomic backgrounds in 2008-2009. Two different approaches were used: one led by CLS and local health care providers (BAFI-1) and the other by CLS and community leaders (BAFI-2). Both approaches included the following: consented HIV screening test, a demographic questionnaire, self-reported HIV knowledge and behaviour questionnaires, pre- and posttest counselling, confirmatory HIV tests, clinical follow-up, access to comprehensive care and antiretroviral treatment. A total of 2085 individuals were enrolled in BAFI-1 and 363 in BAFI-2. The effectiveness indicators for BAFI-1 and BAFI-2, respectively, were HIV positive-confirmed prevalence = 0.29% and 3.86%, return rate for confirmatory results = 62.5% and 93.7%, return rate for comprehensive care = 83.3% and 92.8%, and ART initiation rate = 20% and 76.9%. Although more people were reached with BAFI-1, the community-led BAFI-2 was more effective at reaching individuals with a higher prevalence of behavioural risk factors for HIV infection. PMID:24592330
Galindo-Quintero, Jaime; Mueses-Marin, Hector Fabio; Montaño-Agudelo, David; Pinzón-Fernández, María Virginia; Tello-Bolívar, Inés Constanza; Alvarado-Llano, Beatriz Eugenia; Martinez-Cajas, Jorge Luis
HIV testing rates remain very low in Colombia, with only 20% of individuals at risk ever tested. In order to tackle this issue, the Corporacion de Lucha Contra el Sida (CLS) has implemented a multidisciplinary, provider-initiated, population-based HIV testing/counselling strategy named BAFI. In this report, we describe the experience of CLS at reaching populations from low socioeconomic backgrounds in 2008-2009. Two different approaches were used: one led by CLS and local health care providers (BAFI-1) and the other by CLS and community leaders (BAFI-2). Both approaches included the following: consented HIV screening test, a demographic questionnaire, self-reported HIV knowledge and behaviour questionnaires, pre- and posttest counselling, confirmatory HIV tests, clinical follow-up, access to comprehensive care and antiretroviral treatment. A total of 2085 individuals were enrolled in BAFI-1 and 363 in BAFI-2. The effectiveness indicators for BAFI-1 and BAFI-2, respectively, were HIV positive-confirmed prevalence = 0.29% and 3.86%, return rate for confirmatory results = 62.5% and 93.7%, return rate for comprehensive care = 83.3% and 92.8%, and ART initiation rate = 20% and 76.9%. Although more people were reached with BAFI-1, the community-led BAFI-2 was more effective at reaching individuals with a higher prevalence of behavioural risk factors for HIV infection.
Full Text Available HIV testing rates remain very low in Colombia, with only 20% of individuals at risk ever tested. In order to tackle this issue, the Corporacion de Lucha Contra el Sida (CLS has implemented a multidisciplinary, provider-initiated, population-based HIV testing/counselling strategy named BAFI. In this report, we describe the experience of CLS at reaching populations from low socioeconomic backgrounds in 2008-2009. Two different approaches were used: one led by CLS and local health care providers (BAFI-1 and the other by CLS and community leaders (BAFI-2. Both approaches included the following: consented HIV screening test, a demographic questionnaire, self-reported HIV knowledge and behaviour questionnaires, pre- and posttest counselling, confirmatory HIV tests, clinical follow-up, access to comprehensive care and antiretroviral treatment. A total of 2085 individuals were enrolled in BAFI-1 and 363 in BAFI-2. The effectiveness indicators for BAFI-1 and BAFI-2, respectively, were HIV positive-confirmed prevalence = 0.29% and 3.86%, return rate for confirmatory results = 62.5% and 93.7%, return rate for comprehensive care = 83.3% and 92.8%, and ART initiation rate = 20% and 76.9%. Although more people were reached with BAFI-1, the community-led BAFI-2 was more effective at reaching individuals with a higher prevalence of behavioural risk factors for HIV infection.
Nguyen Thi Thuy, Hanh; Gammeltoft, Tine; Rasch, Vibeke
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: HIV counselling and testing for pregnant women is a key factor for successful prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV. Women's access to testing can be improved by scaling up the distribution of this service at all levels of health facilities. However, this strategy...... will only be effective if pregnant women are tested early and provided enough counselling. OBJECTIVE: To assess early uptake of HIV testing and the provision of HIV counselling among pregnant women who attend antenatal care at primary and higher level health facilities. METHODS: A community based study...... was conducted among 1108 nursing mothers. Data was collected during interviews using a structured questionnaire focused on socio-economic background, reproductive history, experience with antenatal HIV counselling and testing as well as types of health facility providing the services. RESULTS: In all 91...
Lubogo, David; Ddamulira, John Bosco; Tweheyo, Raymond; Wamani, Henry
The HIV/AIDS health challenge continues to ravage many resource-constrained countries of the world. Approximately 75 % of all the global HIV/AIDS related deaths totaling 1.6 (1.4-1.9) million in 2012 occurred in sub-Saharan Africa, Uganda contributed 63,000 (52,000-81,000) to these deaths. Most of the morbidity and mortality associated with HIV/AIDS can be averted if individuals with HIV/AIDS have improved access to HIV care and treatment. The aim of this study therefore, was to explore the factors associated with access to HIV care services among HIV seropositive clients identified by a home based HIV counseling and testing program in Kumi district, eastern Uganda. In a cross sectional study conducted in February 2009, we explored predictor variables: socio-demographics, health facility and community factors related to access to HIV care and treatment. The main outcome measure was reported receipt of cotrimoxazole for prophylaxis. The majority [81.1 % (284/350)] of respondents received cotrimoxazole prophylaxis (indicating access to HIV care). The main factors associated with access to HIV care include; age 25-34 years (AOR = 5.1, 95 % CI: 1.5-17.1), male sex (AOR = 2.3, 95 % CI: 1.2-4.4), urban residence (AOR = 2.5, CI: 1.1-5.9) and lack of family support (AOR = 0.5, CI: 0.2-0.9). There was relatively high access to HIV care and treatment services at health facilities for HIV positive clients referred from the Kumi home based HIV counseling and testing program. The factors associated with access to HIV care services include; age group, sex, residence and having a supportive family. Stakeholders involved in providing HIV care and treatment services in similar settings should therefore consider these socio-demographic variables as they formulate interventions to improve access to HIV care services.
HIV Prevention Counseling Intervention Delivered During Routine Clinical Care Reduces HIV Risk Behavior in HIV-Infected South Africans Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy: The Izindlela Zokuphila/Options for Health Randomized Trial
Fisher, Jeffrey D.; Cornman, Deborah H.; Shuper, Paul A.; Christie, Sarah; Pillay, Sandy; Macdonald, Susan; Ngcobo, Ntombenhle; Amico, K. Rivet; Lalloo, Umesh; Friedland, Gerald; Fisher, William A.
Context Sustainable interventions are needed to minimize HIV risk behavior among people living with HIV (PLWH) in South Africa on antiretroviral therapy (ART), a significant proportion of whom do not achieve viral suppression. Objective To determine whether a brief lay counselor delivered intervention implemented during routine care can reduce risky sex among PLWH on ART. Design Cluster randomized 16 HIV clinical care sites in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa, to intervention or standard-of-care. Setting Publicly funded HIV clinical care sites. Patients 1891 PLWH on ART received the HIV prevention counseling intervention (n = 967) or standard-of-care counseling (n = 924). Intervention Lay counselors delivered a brief intervention using motivational interviewing strategies based on the Information—Motivation—Behavioral Skills (IMB) model during routine clinical care. Main Outcome Measures Number of sexual events without a condom in the past four weeks with partners of any HIV status, and with partners perceived to be HIV-negative or HIV-status unknown, assessed at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months. Results Intervention participants reported significantly greater reductions in HIV risk behavior on both primary outcomes, compared to standard-of-care participants. Differences in STI incidence between arms were not observed. Conclusion Effective behavioral interventions, delivered by lay counselors within the clinical care setting, are consistent with the strategy of linking HIV care and HIV prevention and integrating biomedical and behavioral approaches to stemming the HIV epidemic. PMID:25230288
Deering, K N; Montaner, J S; Chettiar, J; Jia, J; Ogilvie, G; Buchner, C; Feng, C; Strathdee, S A; Shannon, K
Despite evidence globally of the heavy HIV burden among sex workers (SWs) as well as other poor health outcomes, including violence, SWs are often excluded from accessing voluntary, confidential and non-coercive health services, including HIV prevention, treatment, care and support. This study therefore assessed the prevalence and association with regular HIV testing among street- and off-street SWs in Vancouver, Canada. Cross-sectional baseline data were used from a longitudinal cohort known as "An Evaluation of Sex Worker's Health Access" (AESHA; January 2010-July 2012). This cohort included youth and adult SWs (aged 14+ years). We used multivariable logistic regression to assess the relationship between explanatory variables and having a recent HIV test (in the last year). Of the 435 seronegative SWs included, 67.1% reported having a recent HIV test. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, having a recent HIV test remained significantly independently associated with elevated odds of inconsistent condom use with clients [adjusted (multivariable) odds ratios, AOR: 2.59, 95% confidence intervals [95% CIs]: 1.17-5.78], injecting drugs (AOR: 2.33, 95% CIs: 1.17-4.18) and contact with a mobile HIV prevention programme (AOR: 1.76, 95% CIs: 1.09-2.84) within the last six months. Reduced odds of having a recent HIV test was also significantly associated with being a migrant/new immigrant to Canada (AOR: 0.33, 95% CIs: 0.19-0.56) and having a language barrier to health care access (AOR: 0.26, 95% CIs: 0.09-0.73). Our results highlight successes of reaching SWs at high risk of HIV through drug and sexual pathways. To maximize the effectiveness of including HIV testing as part of comprehensive HIV prevention and care to SWs, increased mobile outreach and safer-environment interventions that facilitate access to voluntary, confidential and non-coercive HIV testing remain a critical priority, in addition to culturally safe services with language support.
Becker, Stan; Taulo, Frank O; Hindin, Michelle J; Chipeta, Effie K; Loll, Dana; Tsui, Amy
HIV counseling and testing for couples is an important component of HIV prevention strategies, particularly in Sub Saharan Africa. The purpose of this pilot study is to estimate the uptake of couple HIV counseling and testing (CHCT) and couple family planning (CFP) services in a single home visit in peri-urban Malawi and to assess related factors. This study involved offering CHCT and CFP services to couples in their homes; 180 couples were sampled from households in a peri-urban area of Blantyre. Baseline data were collected from both partners and follow-up data were collected one week later. A pair of male and female counselors approached each partner separately about HIV testing and counseling and contraceptive services and then, if both consented, CHCT and CFP services (pills, condoms and referrals for other methods) were given. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were done to examine the relationship between individual partner characteristics and acceptance of the services. Selected behaviors reported pre- and post-intervention, particularly couple reports on contraceptive use and condom use at last sex, were also tested for differences. 89% of couples accepted at least one of the services (58% CHCT-only, 29% CHCT + CFP, 2% CFP-only). Among women, prior testing experience (p contraceptive services to prevent the undesired consequences of sexually transmitted infection and unintended pregnancy via unprotected sex.
Hoyos Miller, Juan; Fernández-Balbuena, Sonia; Belza Egozcue, María José; García de Olalla, Patricia; Pulido Manzanero, Jose; Molist Señe, Gemma; de la Fuente de Hoz, Luis
The role of pre- and post-test counselling in new HIV testing strategies to reduce delayed diagnosis has been debated. Data on time devoted to counselling are scarce. One approach to this problem is to explore patients' views on the time devoted to counselling by venue of their last HIV test. We analysed data from 1568 people with a previous HIV test who attended a mobile HIV testing program in Madrid between May and December 2008. The majority (71%) were men (48% had had sex with other men), 51% were <30 years, 40% were foreigners, 56% had a university degree, and 40% had the most recent HIV test within the last year. As regards pre-test counselling, 30% stated they were told only that they would receive the test; 26.3% reported <10 min; 20.4% about 10 min; and 24.2%, 15 min or more. For post-test counselling: 40.2% stated they were told only that the test was negative; 24.9% reported 2-6 min; 16.4% about 10 min; and 18.5%, 15 min or more. The percentage of participants who reported no counselling time was higher among those tested in general health services: primary care, hospital settings and private laboratories (over 40% in pre-test, over 50% in post-test counselling). Women received less counselling time than men in almost all settings. Policies to expand HIV testing in general health services should take this current medical behaviour into account. Any mention of the need for counselling can be a barrier to expansion, because HIV is becoming less of a priority in developed countries. Oral consent should be the only requirement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Shumba, Constance S; Atuhaire, Lydia; Memiah, Peter; Atukunda, Ruth
Home-based HIV counselling and testing (HBHCT) and community mobilization have been proven to be effective in increasing the number of people linked to HIV care and treatment. An assessment was conducted in 18 health facilities in Uganda to evaluate the availability and extent of home based testing services and community mobilization activities in underserved communities. The performance of the health facilities was assessed using a checklist with indicators of HBHCT and community mobilization. While most of the health facilities (72.2%) had active community mobilization, only 12.2% had HBHCT services and this might have affected universal access to HIV prevention, care and treatment. The health facilities did not accompany their intensive community mobilization activities with HBHCT yet this provided the ideal entry point and opportunity to improve linkage to HIV treatment and care.
Spielberg, Freya; Kurth, Ann; Reidy, William; McKnight, Teka; Dikobe, Wame; Wilson, Charles
This article highlights findings from an evaluation that explored the impact of mobile versus clinic-based testing, rapid versus central-lab based testing, incentives for testing, and the use of a computer counseling program to guide counseling and automate evaluation in a mobile program reaching people of color at risk for HIV. The program's…
Tovar Cuevas, Luis Miguel; Arrivillaga Quintero, Marcela
The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of, and the factors associated with HIV testing and pre- and post-test counselling (PPTC) in Colombia. Cross-sectional data from the National Health Survey carried out during 2007 were analysed. Data were gathered from records of 29,760 individuals between the ages of 18 and 69 from the main regions in the country. Only 19.7% of the sample had taken an HIV test. Men, people with no education, not affiliated to the health-care sys...
Ansari, M Ridwan; Lazuardi, Elan; Wignall, Frank Stephen; Karma, Constant; Sumule, Sylvanus A; Tarmizi, Siti Nadia; Magnani, Robert
Relatively little attention has been paid to the significant HIV prevention role that voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) can play in populations with moderate levels of HIV prevalence. One such location is Tanah Papua, Indonesia, which in 2013 had a general population having HIV prevalence of 2.3% concentrated among indigenous Papuans (2.9% prevalence), very few of whom are circumcised. This article reports the findings of an implementation research study assessing the acceptability and feasibility of introducing VMMC for HIV prevention. Following a situational assessment and socialization of targeted groups of men and key stakeholders, a single-arm, open-label, prospective cohort trial using the non-surgical PrePex® device was undertaken in four cities. Study participants were recruited via study-associated socialization events. Data were collected from clients prior to and following device insertion, and at several "check-up" points (2-, 21- and 42-days) using standardized case report forms. A random sample of circumcision clients from one city was surveyed six months' post-removal to assess the prevalence of compensatory sexual risk behaviours. Demand for circumcision was weak in three of the cities, reflecting insufficient prior socialization and lingering concerns over religious appropriateness and safety issues. Despite no prior experience with PrePex ®, the pilot implementation yielded side-effect and adverse event rates that were unremarkable in comparison with sub-Saharan African countries, where PrePex ® is widely used. No evidence of increased post-procedure sexual risk-taking was found. The study findings point to both opportunity and significant challenges in introducing VMMC on a large scale in Tanah Papua, Indonesia. Although there were enough promising signs in the qualitative research and in the limited-scale implementation trial undertaken to remain optimistic as to the potential for VMMC to help contain HIV in Tanah Papua, much remains
L. T. Matthews
Full Text Available Background. Understanding HIV-infected patient experiences and perceptions of reproductive counseling in the health care context is critical to inform design of effective pharmaco-behavioral interventions that minimize periconception HIV risk and support HIV-affected couples to realize their fertility goals. Methods. We conducted semistructured, in-depth interviews with 30 HIV-infected women (with pregnancy in prior year and 20 HIV-infected men, all reporting serodiscordant partners and accessing care in Durban, South Africa. We investigated patient-reported experiences with safer conception counseling from health care workers (HCWs. Interview transcripts were reviewed and coded using content analysis for conceptual categories and emergent themes. Results. The study findings indicate that HIV-infected patients recognize HCWs as a resource for periconception-related information and are receptive to speaking to a HCW prior to becoming pregnant, but seldom seek or receive conception advice in the clinic setting. HIV nondisclosure and unplanned pregnancy are important intervening factors. When advice is shared, patients reported receiving a range of information. Male participants showed particular interest in accessing safer conception information. Conclusions. HIV-infected men and women with serodiscordant partners are receptive to the idea of safer conception counseling. HCWs need to be supported to routinely initiate accurate safer conception counseling with HIV-infected patients of reproductive age.
Denison, Julie A.; McCauley, Ann P.; Dunnett-Dagg, Wendy A.; Lungu, Nalakwanji; Sweat, Michael D.
This study examined how individual, relational and environmental factors related to adolescent demand for HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT). A cross-sectional survey among randomly selected 16-19-year-olds in Ndola, Zambia, covered individual (e.g., HIV knowledge), environmental (e.g., distance), and relational factors (e.g., discussed…
Objective: Suicidal behaviour and HIV/AIDS are significant public health concerns. The aim of this study was to investigate suicidal ideation in patients who were referred to a voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT) clinic and who were found to be seropositive. This in order to improve suicide prevention and intervention ...
A. C. van Dyk
Full Text Available Voluntary HIV Counselling and Testing (VCT is still in its infancy in South Africa, and although the necessary infrastructure in terms of clinics and hospitals exists, a VCT culture is not yet established in the country. The purpose of this study was to determine the needs, attitudes and beliefs of a sample of South Africans towards VCT, and to investigate possible barriers affecting participation in VCT programs in South Africa. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to survey the views of 1422 people. Results indicate that while subjects were not opposed to VCT in principle, 33% would go to clinics where nobody would know them. The following problems with VCT services were mentioned: Logistical problems (not enough counsellors, long lines, lack of privacy; no trust in the health care system or fearing a breach of confidentiality; fear of rejection; and a lack of follow-up support after diagnosis. Suggestions are made on how to improve VCT services in South Africa.
Madiba, Sphiwe; Mokgatle, Mathilda
The proposal by the South African Health Ministry to implement HIV testing and counselling (HTC) at schools in 2011 generated debates about the appropriateness of such testing. However, the debate has been between the Ministries of Education and Health, with little considerations of the students. The main aim of the study was to assess the students' opinions and uptake of HIV testing and counselling in general, and the acceptability of the provision of HIV testing and counselling in schools. The study also determined the association between socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behaviour, and HIV testing behaviour of the students. A survey was conducted among grade 10-12 high school students in North West and Gauteng provinces, South Africa. Seventeen high schools (nine rural and eight urban) were randomly selected for the administration of a researcher-assisted, self-administered, semi-structured questionnaire. A total of 2970 students aged 14-27 years participated in the study; 1632 (55%) were girls, 1810 (61%) ever had sex, and 1271 (49.8%) had more than one sex partner. The mean age of first sexual activity was 15.6. Half (n = 1494, 50.1%) had been tested for HIV. Having multiple sexual partners, age, and gender were significantly associated with increased odds of having had a HIV test. Fear, being un-informed about HTC, and low HIV risk perceptions were the reasons for not getting tested. The acceptability of HTC at school was high (n = 2282, 76.9%) and 2129 (71.8%) were willing to be tested at school. Appropriateness, privacy, and secrecy were the main arguments for and against HTC at school. One-third (n = 860, 29%) had intentions to disclose their HIV status to students versus 1258 (42.5%) for teachers. Stigma, discrimination and secrecy were the primary reasons students did not intend to disclose. A high acceptability of HTC and willingness to be tested at school suggest that HIV prevention programs tailored to youth have a high potential of success
Nlend, Anne Esther Njom; Ekani, Bernadette Bagfegue
The objective is to describe the trends of infant feedings choices in HIV context after infant feeding counseling. Descriptive retrospective study: Infant feeding counseling (IFC) sessions were offered to HIV pregnant women by the same team of counselors from April 2008 to December 2012. Counseling content was promoting either exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) or exclusive formula feeding (EFF) prior to 2010. Later on, versus EBF+ antiretroviral (ARV) drug given either to the mother or the infant or EFF was the gold standard. Mixed feeding was prohibited. Infants feeding were practices recorded at the first post natal visit. rate of EBF/ EFF per year and period. We included a total of 1114 live-born babies. During the five year the overall rate of EBF and EFF stood at 41% and 59% respectively. The rate of EBF/EFF was recorded as follow: varies from 25/75% in year one to 52/48% in year five(p ≤ 0.001). The rate of mixed was virtually cancelled during the same period, 3/237 (1.2%) in year one to period 1/165 (0.6%) in the latest period. In conclusion, in Yaoundé, there is a slight increase in breastfeeding rate among HIV exposed infants during the first two months of life. Further investigations are required to confirm this tendency and analyze the new features of breastfeeding practices.
Urmi, Arunthia Zaidi; Leung, Daniel T; Wilkinson, Vanessa; Miah, Mohammad Abdul Awal; Rahman, Mahfuza; Azim, Tasnim
Analysis of data from HIV testing and counseling (HTC) services provides an opportunity to identify important populations for targeting of HIV prevention efforts. Our primary aim was to describe the demographics of clients presenting to HTC in Bangladesh, a low HIV prevalence country. Our secondary aim was to determine the risk factors for HIV positivity among returning migrant workers who were tested. We performed a cross-sectional study of data collected between 2002 and 2010 from the first HTC service established in Bangladesh, located in three large cities. 8973 individuals attended HTC services, with 558 (6.2%) of clients testing positive for HIV, including 33 children. The majority of those who tested positive were aged 25-44 (71%), male (70%), and married (68%). Key populations considered at increased risk of HIV, such as female sex workers, people who inject drugs, and males who have sex with males accounted for only 11% of adults who tested positive. Notably, 75% of adults testing positive had a history of migrant work or was the spouse of a migrant worker. In multivariable logistic regression of those with a migrant work history presenting for HTC, we found rural residence, working in the Middle East, and longer duration of migrant work to be independently associated with testing positive, and female gender and higher level of education to be negatively associated. These data suggest that in Bangladesh, in addition to targeting traditional key populations, HIV prevention efforts should also focus on migrant workers and their spouses.
Tuberculosis (TB) is the second most common cause of death from infectious disease in the world after human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Immunosuppressed HIV-infected persons are highly susceptible to TB disease, and countries in sub-Saharan Africa have the highest TB incidence rates, primarily because of the HIV epidemic. In Zambia, the TB rate increased during 1984-2005 from approximately 100 cases per 100,000 population to 580 cases per 100,000 population. Much of this increase has been attributed to the high rate of coinfection with HIV; currently, an estimated 50%-70% of TB patients are infected with HIV (N. Kapata, Ministry of Health, Zambia, personal communication, 2008). In 2007, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended that countries with high coinfection rates develop TB/HIV collaborative activities, including routine provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC) of TB patients in TB clinical settings, using an "opt-out" approach. This report summarizes results from a PITC pilot study conducted by the Zambian Ministry of Health, with assistance from the CDC Global AIDS Program Zambia, during September 2004-December 2006 with TB patients at three clinics in the Livingstone District in the Southern Province of Zambia. The results indicated that, among 4,148 persons who had TB diagnosed, 2,072 (50%) were tested for HIV; of these, 1,497 (72%) tested positive. These findings demonstrate the practicality and acceptance of PITC and HIV rapid testing and support the need to expand this program to TB clinical settings in Zambia and other countries with high rates of TB and HIV.
Haskew, John; Turner, Kenrick; Rø, Gunnar; Ho, Andrew; Kimanga, Davies; Sharif, Shahnaaz
Background The Kenyan Ministry of Health and partners implemented a community-based integrated prevention campaign (IPC) in Western Kenya in 2008. The aim of this study was to determine whether the IPC, compared to Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT) services, was able to identify HIV positive individuals earlier in the clinical course of HIV infection following testing. Methods A total of 1,752 adults aged over 15 years who tested HIV positive through VCT services or the IPC, and subsequ...
Objective: An HCT survey was carried out to ascertain barriers and facilitators for HIV testing in South Africa. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 67 HCT-offering health facilities in 8 South African provinces was undertaken. Individuals (n = 489 who had not tested for HIV on the day of the site visit were interviewed on awareness of HCT services, HIV testing history and barriers to HIV testing. Frequencies were run to describe the sample characteristics, barriers and facilitators to HIV testing. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was usedt o identify the association between never tested for HIV with socio-demographics, awareness of HCT services and type of HCT facilities. Results: In all 18.1% participants never had an HIV test. Major barriers to HCT uptake comprise being scared of finding out one's HIV test result or what people may say, shyness or embarrassment, avoidance of divulging personal information to health workers and fear of death. In multivariate analysis the age group 55 years and older, and not being recommended to have an HIV test were associated with never had an HIV test. Potential facilitators for HIV testing include community or household HIV testing, providing incentives for those who test for HIV, mandatory HIV testing and disclosure of HIV status by those who test HIV positive. Conclusion: The benefits of HCT which include the reduction of HIV transmission, the availability of HIV care and treatment needs to be emphasized to enhance HCT uptake.
Full Text Available Over 11 million voluntary medical male circumcisions (VMMC have been performed of the projected 20.3 million needed to reach 80% adult male circumcision prevalence in priority sub-Saharan African countries. Striking numbers of adolescent males, outside the 15-49-year-old age target, have been accessing VMMC services. What are the implications of overall progress in scale-up to date? Can mathematical modeling provide further insights on how to efficiently reach the male circumcision coverage levels needed to create and sustain further reductions in HIV incidence to make AIDS no longer a public health threat by 2030? Considering ease of implementation and cultural acceptability, decision makers may also value the estimates that mathematical models can generate of immediacy of impact, cost-effectiveness, and magnitude of impact resulting from different policy choices. This supplement presents the results of mathematical modeling using the Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0, the Actuarial Society of South Africa (ASSA2008 model, and the age structured mathematical (ASM model. These models are helping countries examine the potential effects on program impact and cost-effectiveness of prioritizing specific subpopulations for VMMC services, for example, by client age, HIV-positive status, risk group, and geographical location. The modeling also examines long-term sustainability strategies, such as adolescent and/or early infant male circumcision, to preserve VMMC coverage gains achieved during rapid scale-up. The 2016-2021 UNAIDS strategy target for VMMC is an additional 27 million VMMC in high HIV-prevalence settings by 2020, as part of access to integrated sexual and reproductive health services for men. To achieve further scale-up, a combination of evidence, analysis, and impact estimates can usefully guide strategic planning and funding of VMMC services and related demand-creation strategies in priority countries. Mid
Hankins, Catherine; Warren, Mitchell; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel
Over 11 million voluntary medical male circumcisions (VMMC) have been performed of the projected 20.3 million needed to reach 80% adult male circumcision prevalence in priority sub-Saharan African countries. Striking numbers of adolescent males, outside the 15-49-year-old age target, have been accessing VMMC services. What are the implications of overall progress in scale-up to date? Can mathematical modeling provide further insights on how to efficiently reach the male circumcision coverage levels needed to create and sustain further reductions in HIV incidence to make AIDS no longer a public health threat by 2030? Considering ease of implementation and cultural acceptability, decision makers may also value the estimates that mathematical models can generate of immediacy of impact, cost-effectiveness, and magnitude of impact resulting from different policy choices. This supplement presents the results of mathematical modeling using the Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0), the Actuarial Society of South Africa (ASSA2008) model, and the age structured mathematical (ASM) model. These models are helping countries examine the potential effects on program impact and cost-effectiveness of prioritizing specific subpopulations for VMMC services, for example, by client age, HIV-positive status, risk group, and geographical location. The modeling also examines long-term sustainability strategies, such as adolescent and/or early infant male circumcision, to preserve VMMC coverage gains achieved during rapid scale-up. The 2016-2021 UNAIDS strategy target for VMMC is an additional 27 million VMMC in high HIV-prevalence settings by 2020, as part of access to integrated sexual and reproductive health services for men. To achieve further scale-up, a combination of evidence, analysis, and impact estimates can usefully guide strategic planning and funding of VMMC services and related demand-creation strategies in priority countries. Mid-course corrections
Ron Levey, Ilana; Wang, Wenjuan
Despite the substantial investment for providing HIV counselling and testing (VCT) services in Zambia, there has been little effort to systematically evaluate the quality of VCT services provided by various types of health providers. This study, conducted in 2009, examines VCT in the public and private sectors including private for-profit and NGO/faith-based sectors in Copperbelt and Luapula. The study used five primary data collection methods to gauge quality of VCT services: closed-ended client interviews with clients exiting VCT sites; open-ended client interviews; interviews with facility managers; review of service statistics; and an observation of the physical environment for VCT by site. Over 400 clients and 87 facility managers were interviewed from almost 90 facilities. Sites were randomly selected and results are generalizable at the provincial level. The study shows concerning levels of underperformance in VCT services across the sectors. It reveals serious underperformance in counselling about key risk-reduction methods. Less than one-third of clients received counselling on reducing number of sexual partners and only approximately 5% of clients received counselling about disclosing test results to partners. In terms of client profiles, the NGO sector attracts the most educated clients and less educated Zambians seek VCT services at very low rates (7%). The private for-profit performs equally or sometimes better than other sectors even though this sector is not adequately integrated into the Zambian national response to HIV. The private for-profit sector provides VCT services on par in quality with the other sectors. Most clients did not receive counselling on partner reduction or disclosure of HIV test results to partners. In a generalized HIV epidemic where multiple concurrent sexual partners are a significant problem for transmitting the disease, risk-reduction methods and discussion should be a main focus of pre-test and post-test counselling
Full Text Available HIV counseling and testing (HCT is a critical gateway to treatment, care, and support services. For pregnant women, it is to access prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT services. However, not much has been done to appraise this service from the perspective of the recipients in Nigeria. This study documents the appraisal of the HCT services received at the antenatal care (ANC services in three government hospitals in Ibadan, Nigeria, from the perspectives of pregnant women. Data were collected using focus group discussion guide among purposively selected 40 (21 primigravida and 19 multigravida pregnant women. Observation and inventory checklists were used to collect data on procedures and basic requirements of HCT. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. Participants were neither counseled nor given opportunity to voluntarily participate in HCT services as it was made compulsory before accessing ANC. Test results were reportedly handed over directly to participants without post-test counseling. Observation of HCT procedure showed that guidelines for counseling were not strictly adhered to. Inventory of facilities, staff, and materials revealed inadequate staffing, lack of a dedicated counseling room, and inadequate antiretroviral drugs and test kits. The HCT services as provided for pregnant women are fraught with procedural inadequacies. Training and supervision of health care workers as well as provision of resources are needed to address the situation.
Full Text Available Children living with HIV who are not diagnosed in infancy often remain undiagnosed until they present with advanced disease. Provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC in health facilities is recommended for high-HIV-prevalence settings, but it is unclear whether this approach is sufficient to achieve universal coverage of HIV testing. We aimed to investigate the change in community burden of undiagnosed HIV infection among older children and adolescents following implementation of PITC in Harare, Zimbabwe.Over the course of 2 years (January 2013-January 2015, 7 primary health clinics (PHCs in southwestern Harare implemented optimised, opt-out PITC for all attendees aged 6-15 years. In February 2015-December 2015, we conducted a representative cross-sectional survey of 8-17-year-olds living in the 7 communities served by the study PHCs, who would have had 2 years of exposure to PITC. Knowledge of HIV status was ascertained through a caregiver questionnaire, and anonymised HIV testing was carried out using oral mucosal transudate (OMT tests. After 1 participant taking antiretroviral therapy was observed to have a false negative OMT result, from July 2015 urine samples were obtained from all participants providing OMTs and tested for antiretroviral drugs to confirm HIV status. Children who tested positive through PITC were identified from among survey participants using gender, birthdate, and location. Of 7,146 children in 4,251 eligible households, 5,486 (76.8% children in 3,397 households agreed to participate in the survey, and 141 were HIV positive. HIV prevalence was 2.6% (95% CI 2.2%-3.1%, and over a third of participants with HIV were undiagnosed (37.7%; 95% CI 29.8%-46.2%. Similarly, among the subsample of 2,643 (48.2% participants with a urine test result, 34.7% of those living with HIV were undiagnosed (95% CI 23.5%-47.9%. Based on extrapolation from the survey sample to the community, we estimated that PITC over 2 years identified
Full Text Available Carolyne Ajema,1 Charity Mbugua,2 Peter Memiah,3 Camille Wood,3 Courtney Cook,4 Ronald Kotut,2 Lina Digolo1 1Research and Strategic Information Department, LVCT Health, Nairobi, Kenya; 2Post Rape Care Department, LVCT Health, Nairobi, Kenya; 3Department of Public Health, University of West Florida, University Parkway, Pensacola, FL, USA; 4Biology Department, University of West Florida, University Parkway, Pensacola, FL, USA Purpose: Child sexual abuse and HIV are key health challenges in Kenya. In 2015, LVCT Health conducted a study aimed at assessing the quality of HIV-related services offered to child survivors of sexual violence in public health facilities.Materials and methods: A qualitative data collection approach was utilized. Qualitative data were collected through in-depth interviews with 31 providers. Quantitative methods included a retrospective review of 164 records of child survivors of rape who had accessed services 6 months prior to the commencement of the study. SPSS Version 22 was used in the descriptive analysis of the medical records. Client exit interviews and observation data were analyzed using MS Excel. In-depth interviews were analyzed using a thematic analytical approach.Results: Twenty-seven percent (n=164 survivors were documented to have received the first dose of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP. Providers did not conduct HIV pre- and posttest counseling for the survivors. There were no longitudinal follow-up mechanisms to ensure child survivors initiated on PEP adhered to the treatment plan. Less than 30% of survivors returned to the facility for PEP adherence counseling and follow-up HIV testing. Twenty providers cited capacity gaps in undertaking HIV risk assessment for child survivors. Limited availability of PEP is a barrier to HIV prevention, as most departments only offer services between 8 am and 5 pm. HIV tests were only available on weekdays before 5 pm. PEP being out of stock remains a barrier to HIV
Tuthill, Emily L; Chan, Jessica; Butler, Lisa M
Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) has been identified as the optimal nutrition and critical behavior in attaining human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-free infant survival in resource-limited settings. Health-care providers (HCPs) in clinic- and community-settings throughout sub-Saharan Africa (sSA) provide infant-feeding counseling. However, rates of EBF at 6 months of age are suboptimal. HCPs are uniquely positioned to educate HIV-positive mothers and provide support by addressing known barriers to EBF. However, limited evidence exists on the experiences faced by HCPs in providing counseling on infant feeding to HIV-positive women. Our objective is to describe experiences faced by HCPs when delivering infant-feeding counseling in the context of HIV in program settings in sSA. We searched a range of electronic databases, including PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO from January 1990 to February 2013, in addition to hand-searching, cross-reference searching, and personal communications. The search was limited to publications in English. Empirical studies of HCP experiences providing infant-feeding counseling in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV programs in sSA were selected. We identified 10 peer-reviewed articles reporting HCP challenges in infant-feeding counseling that met inclusion criteria. Articles included qualitative, cross-sectional and mixed-method studies, and cumulatively reported 31 challenges faced by HCPs. Among the challenges identified, the most commonly reported were personal beliefs held by the HCPs toward infant feeding in the context of HIV, contradictory messages, staff workload, directive counseling styles, and a lack of practical strategies to offer mothers, often leading to improvised counseling approaches. Counseling strategies need to be developed that are relevant, meaningful, and responsive to the needs of both HCPs and mothers.
Full Text Available Reducing substance use and unprotected sex by HIV-positive persons improves individual health status while decreasing the risk of HIV transmission. Despite recommendations that health care providers screen and counsel their HIV-positive patients for ongoing behavioral risks, it is unknown how to best provide "prevention with positives" in clinical settings. Positive Choice, an interactive, patient-tailored computer program, was developed in the United States to improve clinic-based assessment and counseling for risky behaviors.We conducted a parallel groups randomized controlled trial (December 2003-September 2006 at 5 San Francisco area outpatient HIV clinics. Eligible patients (HIV-positive English-speaking adults completed an in-depth computerized risk assessment. Participants reporting substance use or sexual risks (n = 476 were randomized in stratified blocks. The intervention group received tailored risk-reduction counseling from a "Video Doctor" via laptop computer and a printed Educational Worksheet; providers received a Cueing Sheet on reported risks. Compared with control, fewer intervention participants reported continuing illicit drug use (RR 0.81, 95% CI: 0.689, 0.957, p = 0.014 at 3 months; and RR 0.65, 95% CI: 0.540, 0.785, p<0.001 at 6 months and unprotected sex (RR 0.88, 95% CI: 0.773, 0.993, p = 0.039 at 3 months; and RR 0.80, 95% CI: 0.686, 0.941, p = 0.007 at 6 months. Intervention participants reported fewer mean days of ongoing illicit drug use (-4.0 days vs. -1.3 days, p = 0.346, at 3 months; and -4.7 days vs. -0.7 days, p = 0.130, at 6 months than did controls, and had fewer casual sex partners at (-2.3 vs. -1.4, p = 0.461, at 3 months; and -2.7 vs. -0.6, p = 0.042, at 6 months.The Positive Choice intervention achieved significant cessation of illicit drug use and unprotected sex at the group-level, and modest individual-level reductions in days of ongoing drug use and number of casual sex partners compared with the
Cawley, C; Wringe, A; Todd, J.; Gourlay, A; CLARK, B; Masesa, C; Machemba, R; Reniers, G; Urassa, M; Zaba, B
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relative effectiveness of different HIV testing and counselling (HTC) services in improving HIV diagnosis rates and increasing HTC coverage in African settings. METHODS: Patient records from three HTC services [community outreach HTC during cohort study rounds (CO-HTC), walk-in HTC at the local health centre (WI-HTC) and antenatal HIV testing (ANC-HTC)] were linked to records from a community cohort study using a probabilistic record linkage algorithm. Character...
Cawley, Caoimhe; Wringe, Alison; Todd, Jim; Gourlay, Annabelle; Clark, Benjamin; Masesa, Clemens; Machemba, Richard; Reniers, Georges; Urassa, Mark; Zaba, Basia
Abstract Objectives To investigate the relative effectiveness of different HIV testing and counselling (HTC) services in improving HIV diagnosis rates and increasing HTC coverage in African settings. Methods Patient records from three HTC services [community outreach HTC during cohort study rounds (CO?HTC), walk?in HTC at the local health centre (WI?HTC) and antenatal HIV testing (ANC?HTC)] were linked to records from a community cohort study using a probabilistic record linkage algorithm. Ch...
Kamath, Veena; Limaye, Rupali J
A number of programs have focused on scale-up and implementation research regarding voluntary medical male circumcision; however, there is limited research with regard to factors and strategies related to abstinence compliance and the effects of resuming sex during the wound healing period (42-day post-circumcision). We searched the literature for peer-reviewed articles examining early resumption of sex during this period. This review identifies factors that may predispose a client to engage in sex during the 42-day postoperative period, examines how early resumption of sex can inhibit wound healing and increase seroconversion, and reviews strategies that may increase adherence to abstinence during the wound healing period. We found that the most common factor that may predispose a client to engage in sex before the end of the postoperative period is marriage or cohabitation with a sexual partner. With regard to the effect of sex during the postoperative period on wound healing and seroconversion, we found that adverse events incurred were mild, and there was an increased risk of seroconversion. The only strategy studied to increase compliance to abstinence during the postoperative period utilized text messaging, and the trial results indicate that text messaging did not increase abstinence compliance.
Trevor A Hart
Full Text Available Even in the presence of promising biomedical treatment as prevention, HIV incidence among men who have sex with men has not always decreased. Counseling interventions, therefore, continue to play an important role in reducing HIV sexual transmission behaviors among gay and bisexual men and other men who have sex with men. The present study evaluated effects of a small-group counseling intervention on psychosocial outcomes and HIV sexual risk behavior.HIV-positive (HIV+ peer counselors administered seven 2-hour counseling sessions to groups of 5 to 8 HIV+ gay and bisexual men. The intervention employed information provision, motivational interviewing, and behavioral skills building to reduce sexual transmission risk behaviors.There was a significant reduction in condomless anal sex (CAS with HIV-negative and unknown HIV-status partners, from 50.0% at baseline to 28.9% of the sample at 3-month follow-up. Findings were robust even when controlling for whether the participant had an undetectable viral load at baseline. Significant reductions were also found in the two secondary psychosocial outcomes, loneliness and sexual compulsivity.The findings provide preliminary evidence that this intervention may offer an efficient way of concurrently reducing CAS and mental health problems, such as sexual compulsivity and loneliness, for HIV+ gay and bisexual men.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02546271.
Balfour, Louise; Wiebe, Stephanie A; Cameron, William D; Sandre, Daniella; Pipe, Andrew; Cooper, Curtis; Angel, Jonathan; Garber, Gary; Holly, Crystal; Dalgleish, Tracy L; Tasca, Giorgio A; MacPherson, Paul A
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) rates among people living with HIV/AIDS (PHAs) are high. Rates of cigarette smoking, a leading contributor to CVD among PHAs, are 40-70% (2-3 times higher than the general population). Furthermore, PHAs have high rates of depression (40-60%), a risk factor for smoking cessation relapse. The current pilot study examined the effectiveness of a specifically tailored 5-session smoking cessation counselling programme for PHAs, which addressed depression, in combination with Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) in a cohort of PHA smokers (n = 50). At 6-month follow-up, 28% of participants demonstrated biochemically verified abstinence from smoking. This result compares favourably to other quit-smoking intervention studies, particularly given the high percentage of HIV+ smokers with depression. At study baseline, 52% of HIV+ smokers scored above the clinical cut-off for depression on the Centre for Epidemiological Studies - Depression (CES-D) scale. HIV+ smokers with depression at study baseline demonstrated quantitatively lower depression at 6-month follow-up with a large effect size (d = 1), though it did not reach statistical significance (p = .058). Furthermore, those with depression were no more likely to relapse than those without depression (p = .33), suggesting that our counselling programme adequately addressed this significant barrier to smoking cessation among PHAs. Our pilot study indicates the importance of tailored programmes to help PHAs quit smoking, the significance of addressing depressive symptoms, and the need for tailored counselling programmes to enhance quit rates among PHAs.
Johns, David Merritt; Bayer, Ronald; Fairchild, Amy L
In situations of scientific uncertainty, public health interventions, such as counseling for HIV infection, sometimes must be implemented before obtaining evidence of efficacy. The history of HIV counseling and testing, which served as the cornerstone of HIV prevention efforts at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for a quarter of a century, illustrates the influence of institutional resistance on public health decision making and the challenge of de-implementing well-established programs. In 1985, amid uncertainty about the accuracy of the new test for HIV, public health officials at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and AIDS activists agreed that counseling should always be provided both before and after testing to ensure that patients were tested voluntarily and understood the meaning of their results. As the "exceptionalist" perspective that framed HIV in the early years began to recede, the purpose of HIV test counseling shifted over the next 30 years from emphasizing consent, to providing information, to encouraging behavioral change. With this increasing emphasis on prevention, HIV test counseling faced mounting doubts about whether it "worked." The CDC finally discontinued its preferred test counseling approach in October 2014. Drawing on key informant interviews with current and former CDC officials, behavioral scientists, AIDS activists, and others, along with archival material, news reports, and scientific and governmental publications, we examined the origins, development, and decline of the CDC's "counseling and testing" paradigm for HIV prevention. Disagreements within the CDC emerged by the 1990s over whether test counseling could be justified on the basis of efficacy and cost. Resistance to the prospect of policy change by supporters of test counseling in the CDC, gay activists for whom counseling carried important ethical and symbolic meanings, and community organizations dependent on federal funding made it
Spizzichino, L; Casella, P; Zaccarelli, M; Rezza, G; Venezia, S; Gattari, P
Between September 1993 and December 1995, 528 foreign individuals at risk of HIV infection attended the drug treatment centre located in the Santo Spirito Hospital in Rome, undergoing medical examination, HIV testing and counselling. The geographic distribution showed that the majority of the participants were from South America (40.0%), most of whom were transsexual sex workers (from Brazil or Columbia), and from North Africa (37.5%); all the individuals coming from Western and Eastern Europe and the USA were heroin users. The overall HIV prevalence was high (21.6%), though it varied by nationality, ranging from 5.1% among North Africans to 68.3% among Brazilian transsexuals. During the study period, 170 of the individuals returned for at least one follow-up visit. Three seroconversions occurred among the 118 initially HIV-negative immigrants who were retested, all three among the 26 HIV-negative Columbian transsexuals; the seroconversion rate within this group was 10.1 per 100 persons/years. During follow-up, there was no reduction observed in drug-related practices associated with HIV infection, yet a general increase in regular condom use was reported. The increasing number of foreign persons contacting our programme emphasizes the need for easy access to care and treatment for marginalized populations possibly engaging in behaviour at risk for HIV infection. Counselling strategies seem to be relatively effective in promoting safer sex among these population groups.
Ahmed, Saeed; Schwarz, Monica; Flick, Robert J; Rees, Chris A; Harawa, Mwelura; Simon, Katie; Robison, Jeff A; Kazembe, Peter N; Kim, Maria H
To assess implementation of provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC) for HIV in Malawi. A review of PITC practices within 118 departments in 12 Ministry of Health (MoH) facilities across Malawi was conducted. Information on PITC practices was collected via a health facility survey. Data describing patient visits and HIV tests were abstracted from routinely collected programme data. Reported PITC practices were highly variable. Most providers practiced symptom-based PITC. Antenatal clinics and maternity wards reported widespread use of routine opt-out PITC. In 2014, there was approximately 1 HIV test for every 15 clinic visits. HIV status was ascertained in 94.3% (5293/5615) of patients at tuberculosis clinics, 92.6% (30,675/33,142) of patients at antenatal clinics and 49.4% (6871/13,914) of patients at sexually transmitted infection clinics. Reported challenges to delivering PITC included test kit shortages (71/71 providers), insufficient physical space (58/71) and inadequate number of HIV counsellors (32/71) while providers from inpatient units cited the inability to test on weekends. Various models of PITC currently exist at MoH facilities in Malawi. Only antenatal and maternity clinics demonstrated high rates of routine opt-out PITC. The low ratio of facility visits to HIV tests suggests missed opportunities for HIV testing. However, the high proportion of patients at TB and antenatal clinics with known HIV status suggests that routine PITC is feasible. These results underscore the need to develop clear, standardised PITC policy and protocols, and to address obstacles of limited health commodities, infrastructure and human resources. © 2016 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An, Selena J; George, Asha S; LeFevre, Amnesty E; Mpembeni, Rose; Mosha, Idda; Mohan, Diwakar; Yang, Ann; Chebet, Joy; Lipingu, Chrisostom; Baqui, Abdullah H; Killewo, Japhet; Winch, Peter J; Kilewo, Charles
Integration of HIV into RMNCH (reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health) services is an important process addressing the disproportionate burden of HIV among mothers and children in sub-Saharan Africa. We assess the structural inputs and processes of care that support HIV testing and counselling in routine antenatal care to understand supply-side dynamics critical to scaling up further integration of HIV into RMNCH services prior to recent changes in HIV policy in Tanzania. This study, as a part of a maternal and newborn health program evaluation in Morogoro Region, Tanzania, drew from an assessment of health centers with 18 facility checklists, 65 quantitative and 57 qualitative provider interviews, and 203 antenatal care observations. Descriptive analyses were performed with quantitative data using Stata 12.0, and qualitative data were analyzed thematically with data managed by Atlas.ti. Limitations in structural inputs, such as infrastructure, supplies, and staffing, constrain the potential for integration of HIV testing and counselling into routine antenatal care services. While assessment of infrastructure, including waiting areas, appeared adequate, long queues and small rooms made private and confidential HIV testing and counselling difficult for individual women. Unreliable stocks of HIV test kits, essential medicines, and infection prevention equipment also had implications for provider-patient relationships, with reported decreases in women's care seeking at health centers. In addition, low staffing levels were reported to increase workloads and lower motivation for health workers. Despite adequate knowledge of counselling messages, antenatal counselling sessions were brief with incomplete messages conveyed to pregnant women. In addition, coping mechanisms, such as scheduling of clinical activities on different days, limited service availability. Antenatal care is a strategic entry point for the delivery of critical tests and counselling messages
Weihs, Martin; Meyer-Weitz, Anna
Despite South African mid-sized companies' efforts to offer HIV counselling and testing (HCT) in the workplace, companies report relatively poor uptake rates. An urgent need for a range of different interventions aimed at increasing participation in workplace HCT has been identified. The aim of this study was to explore qualitatively the influence of a lottery incentive system (LIS) as an intervention to influence shop-floor workers' workplace HIV testing behaviour. A qualitative study was conducted among 17 shop-floor workers via convenience sampling in two mid-sized South African automotive manufacturing companies in which an LIS for HCT was implemented. The in-depth interviews employed a semi-structured interview schedule and thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. The interviews revealed that the LIS created excitement in the companies and renewed employees' personal interest in HCT. The excitement facilitated social interactions that resulted in a strong group cohesion pertaining to HCT that mitigated the burden of HIV stigma in the workplace. Open discussions allowed for the development of supportive social group pressure to seek HCT as a collective in anticipation of a reward. Lotteries were perceived as a supportive and innovative company approach to workplace HCT. The study identified important aspects for consideration by companies when using an LIS to enhance workplace HIV testing. The significance of inter- and intra-player dialogue in activating supportive social norms for HIV testing in collectivist African contexts was highlighted.
Orr, Neil; Hajiyiannis, Helen; Myers, Laura; Makhubele, Mzamani Benjamin; Matekane, Tselisehang; Delate, Richard; Mahlasela, Lusanda; Goldblatt, Brenda
South African men are less likely to get tested for HIV than women and are more likely to commence antiretroviral treatment (ART) at later stages of disease, default on treatment, and to die from AIDS compared with women. The purpose of this study was to conduct formative research into the ideational and behavioral factors that enable or create obstacles to mens' uptake of HIV counseling and testing (HCT) and ART. The study consulted men with a goal of developing a communication campaign aimed at improving the uptake of HIV testing and ART initiation among men. Eleven focus groups and 9 in-depth interviews were conducted with 97 male participants in 6 priority districts in 4 South African provinces in rural, peri-urban, and urban localities. Fears of compromised masculine pride and reputation, potential community rejection, and fear of loss of emotional control ("the stress of knowing") dominated men's rationales for avoiding HIV testing and treatment initiation. A communication campaign was developed based on the findings. Creative treatments aimed at redefining a 'strong' man as someone who faces his fears and knows his HIV status. The resultant campaign concept was: "positive or negative-you are still the same person."
Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV counselling and testing (HCT is a critical gateway for addressing HIV prevention and linking people to treatment, care, and support. Since national testing rates are often less than optimal, there is growing interest in expanding testing coverage through the implementation of innovative models such as home-based HIV counselling and testing (HBHCT. With the aim of informing scale up, this paper discusses client characteristics and acceptability of an HBHCT intervention implemented in rural South Africa. Methods Trained lay counsellors offered door-to-door rapid HIV testing in a rural sub-district of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Household and client data were captured on cellular phones and transmitted to a web-based data management system. Descriptive analysis was undertaken to examine client characteristics, testing history, HBHCT uptake, and reasons for refusal. Chi-square tests were performed to assess the association between client characteristics and uptake. Results Lay counsellors visited 3,328 households and tested 75% (5,086 of the 6,757 people met. The majority of testers (73.7% were female, and 57% had never previously tested. With regard to marital status, 1,916 (37.7%, 2,123 (41.7%, and 818 (16.1% were single, married, and widowed, respectively. Testers ranged in age from 14 to 98 years, with a median of 37 years. Two hundred and twenty-nine couples received couples counselling and testing; 87.8%, 4.8%, and 7.4% were concordant negative, concordant positive, and discordant, respectively. There were significant differences in characteristics between testers and non-testers as well as between male and female testers. The most common reasons for not testing were: not being ready/feeling scared/needing to think about it (34.1%; knowing his/her status (22.6%, being HIV-positive (18.5%, and not feeling at risk of having or acquiring HIV (10.1%. The distribution of reasons for refusal differed significantly by gender
Nannozi, Victoria; Wobudeya, Eric; Gahagan, Jacqueline
Couples HIV counselling and testing (CHCT) is a key preventive strategy used to reduce the spread of HIV. In Uganda, HIV prevalence among married or cohabiting couples is 5.6%, compared to 2.2% among those never married. CHCT can help ease disclosure of HIV positive status, which in turn may help increase opportunities to obtain social supports and reduce new infections. The purpose of this study was aimed at exploring the possible reasons for the low uptake of CHCT in Mukono district, a rural in setting in Uganda. The study was conducted in two sub-counties in a rural district (Mukono district) using a descriptive qualitative research design. Specifically, we conducted four focus group discussions and 10 key informant interviews. We also interviewed 53 individuals in couple relationships. Data were collected mainly in the local language Luganda and English, all data were transcribed into English and coded for emergent themes. Ethical clearance for this study was obtained from the Mengo Hospital Research Review Board and from the Uganda National Council of Science and Technology. Fear of a positive HIV test result emerged strongly as the most significant barrier to CHCT. To a lesser extent, perceptions and knowledge of CHCT, mistrust in marriages and culture were also noted by participants as important barriers to the uptake of CHCT among couples. Participants offered suggestions on ways to overcome these barriers, including peer couple counselling, offering incentives to couples that test together and door-to-door CHCT testing. In an effort to improve the uptake of CHCT, it is crucial to involve both females and males in the planning and implementation of CHCT, as well as to address the misconceptions about CHCT and to prioritise CHCT within health care systems management.
Wilson, Kristina; Durantini, Marta R; Albarracín, Julia; Crause, Candi; Albarracín, Dolores
Aspects of Latino culture (e.g., machismo, marianism) can act as barriers to enrollment in HIV-prevention programs. To lift these barriers, a culturally appropriate meta-intervention was designed to increase intentions to enroll in HIV-prevention counseling by Latinos. Latino participants (N=41) were recruited from the community and randomly assigned to either an experimental or control meta-intervention condition that varied the introduction to a HIV-prevention counseling program. Following the meta-intervention, participants were issued an invitation to take part in HIV-prevention counseling. The outcome measure was the intention to enroll in a HIV-prevention counseling session. Findings indicated that enrollment intentions were higher in the experimental meta-intervention condition (96%) than in the control meta-intervention condition (53%). In addition, the effects of the meta-intervention were comparable across genders and participant ages. Findings suggest that the use of a culturally appropriate meta-intervention may be an effective strategy for increasing Latino enrollment in HIV-prevention programs. These promising findings warrant further investigation into the efficacy and effectiveness of this meta-intervention.
Arunthia Zaidi Urmi
Full Text Available Analysis of data from HIV testing and counseling (HTC services provides an opportunity to identify important populations for targeting of HIV prevention efforts. Our primary aim was to describe the demographics of clients presenting to HTC in Bangladesh, a low HIV prevalence country. Our secondary aim was to determine the risk factors for HIV positivity among returning migrant workers who were tested.We performed a cross-sectional study of data collected between 2002 and 2010 from the first HTC service established in Bangladesh, located in three large cities.8973 individuals attended HTC services, with 558 (6.2% of clients testing positive for HIV, including 33 children. The majority of those who tested positive were aged 25-44 (71%, male (70%, and married (68%. Key populations considered at increased risk of HIV, such as female sex workers, people who inject drugs, and males who have sex with males accounted for only 11% of adults who tested positive. Notably, 75% of adults testing positive had a history of migrant work or was the spouse of a migrant worker. In multivariable logistic regression of those with a migrant work history presenting for HTC, we found rural residence, working in the Middle East, and longer duration of migrant work to be independently associated with testing positive, and female gender and higher level of education to be negatively associated.These data suggest that in Bangladesh, in addition to targeting traditional key populations, HIV prevention efforts should also focus on migrant workers and their spouses.
Ferguson, Yvonne Owens; Eng, Eugenia; Bentley, Margaret; Sandelowski, Margarete; Steckler, Allan; Randall-David, Elizabeth; Piwoz, Ellen G; Zulu, Cynthia; Chasela, Charles; Soko, Alice; Tembo, Martin; Martinson, Francis; Tohill, Beth Carlton; Ahmed, Yusuf; Kazembe, Peter; Jamieson, Denise J; van der Horst, Charles; Adair, Linda; Ahmed, Yusuf; Ait-Khaled, Mounir; Albrecht, Sandra; Bangdiwala, Shrikant; Bayer, Ronald; Bentley, Margaret; Bramson, Brian; Bobrow, Emily; Boyle, Nicola; Butera, Sal; Chasela, Charles; Chavula, Charity; Chimerang'ambe, Joseph; Chigwenembe, Maggie; Chikasema, Maria; Chikhungu, Norah; Chilongozi, David; Chiudzu, Grace; Chome, Lenesi; Cole, Anne; Corbett, Amanda; Corneli, Amy; Duerr, Ann; Eliya, Henry; Ellington, Sascha; Eron, Joseph; Farr, Sherry; Ferguson, Yvonne Owens; Fiscus, Susan; Galvin, Shannon; Guay, Laura; Heilig, Chad; Hoffman, Irving; Hooten, Elizabeth; Hosseinipour, Mina; Hudgens, Michael; Hurst, Stacy; Hyde, Lisa; Jamieson, Denise; Joaki, George; Jones, David; Kacheche, Zebrone; Kamanga, Esmie; Kamanga, Gift; Kampani, Coxcilly; Kamthunzi, Portia; Kamwendo, Deborah; Kanyama, Cecilia; Kashuba, Angela; Kathyola, Damson; Kayira, Dumbani; Kazembe, Peter; Knight, Rodney; Kourtis, Athena; Krysiak, Robert; Kumwenda, Jacob; Loeliger, Edde; Luhanga, Misheck; Madhlopa, Victor; Majawa, Maganizo; Maida, Alice; Marcus, Cheryl; Martinson, Francis; Thoofer, Navdeep; Matika, Chrissie; Mayers, Douglas; Mayuni, Isabel; McDonough, Marita; Meme, Joyce; Merry, Ceppie; Mita, Khama; Mkomawanthu, Chimwemwe; Mndala, Gertrude; Mndala, Ibrahim; Moses, Agnes; Msika, Albans; Msungama, Wezi; Mtimuni, Beatrice; Muita, Jane; Mumba, Noel; Musis, Bonface; Mwansambo, Charles; Mwapasa, Gerald; Nkhoma, Jacqueline; Pendame, Richard; Piwoz, Ellen; Raines, Byron; Ramdas, Zane; Rublein, John; Ryan, Mairin; Sanne, Ian; Sellers, Christopher; Shugars, Diane; Sichali, Dorothy; Snowden, Wendy; Soko, Alice; Spensley, Allison; Steens, Jean-Marc; Tegha, Gerald; Tembo, Martin; Thomas, Roshan; Tien, Hsiao-Chuan; Tohill, Beth; van der Horst, Charles; Waalberg, Esther; Wiener, Jeffrey; Wilfert, Cathy; Wiyo, Patricia; Zgambo, Onnocent; Zimba, Chifundo
A process evaluation of nurses' implementation of an infant-feeding counseling protocol was conducted for the Breastfeeding, Antiretroviral and Nutrition (BAN) Study, a prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV clinical trial in Lilongwe, Malawi. Six trained nurses counseled HIV-infected mothers to exclusively breastfeed for 24 weeks postpartum and to stop breastfeeding within an additional four weeks. Implementation data were collected via direct observations of 123 infant feeding counseling sessions (30 antenatal and 93 postnatal) and interviews with each nurse. Analysis included calculating a percent adherence to checklists and conducting a content analysis for the observation and interview data. Nurses were implementing the protocol at an average adherence level of 90% or above. Although not detailed in the protocol, nurses appropriately counseled mothers on their actual or intended formula milk usage after weaning. Results indicate that nurses implemented the protocol as designed. Results will help to interpret the BAN Study's outcomes.
A thorough clinical examination and otoscopy done followed by tuning fork tests, Pure Tone Audiometry and tympanometric tests. This was compared with 124 HIV negative subjects matched for age and sex who were recruited from the voluntary counseling and testing centre. The world health organization staging of the ...
This retrospective study was conducted at the maternity unit of the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital Uyo. The aim was to determine the prevalence of HIV infection among pregnant women receiving antenatal care in the center. The voluntary counselling and testing register, the partner notification and antenatal clinic ...
This six-month study reports on the seroprevalence of HIV infection among children less than 15 years of age but above 18 months attending Murtala Muhammad Specialist Hospitals (MMSH), Infectious Diseases Hospital (IDH) and Hasiya Bayero Pediatric Hospital (HBPH) Kano. The voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) ...
Kleinman, S; Busch, M P; Hall, L; Thomson, R; Glynn, S; Gallahan, D; Ownby, H E; Williams, A E
Persons at risk of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection, have been classified incorrectly as HIV infected because of Western blot results, but the frequency of false-positive Western blot results is unknown. To determine the frequency of false-positive HIV-1 Western blot results in US blood donors and to make projections to other screened populations. Secondarily, to validate an algorithm for evaluating possible false-positive cases. A retrospective cohort study of HIV-1 enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and Western blot results from large blood donor screening programs in which donors with suspected false-positive Western blot results underwent HIV-1 RNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing and follow-up HIV-1 serology. Five US blood centers participating in the Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study. More than 5 million allogeneic and autologous blood donors who successfully donated blood at 1 of the 5 participating centers from 1991 through 1995. Rate of false positivity by Western blot and true HIV-1 infection status as determined by HIV-1 RNA PCR and by serologic follow-up of blood donors more than 5 weeks after donation. Of 421 donors who were positive for HIV-1 by Western blot, 39 (9.3%) met the criteria of possible false positivity because they lacked reactivity to p31. Of these, 20 (51.3%) were proven by PCR not to be infected with HIV-1. The false-positive prevalence was 4.8% of Western blot-positive donors and 0.0004% (1 in 251000) of all donors (95% confidence interval, 1 in 173000 to 1 in 379000 donors). A false diagnosis of HIV-1 infection can result from the combination of EIA and Western blot testing in blood donor and other HIV-1 screening programs. Individuals with a positive Western blot result lacking the p31 band should be counseled that, although they may be HIV infected, there is uncertainty about this conclusion. These individuals should be further evaluated by RNA PCR testing (if feasible) and HIV serologic analysis on a follow-up sample.
to-door HIV testing, including convenience, confidentiality, capacity to increase the number of people tested, and opportunities to increase knowledge of HIV transmission, prevention and care through provision of correct information to ...
Simoni, Jane M.; Martone, Maria G.; Kerwin, Joseph F.
Survey interviews with 230 predominantly African American and Puerto Rican low-income women who were living with HIV/AIDS in New York City revealed high levels of spirituality and spiritually based coping with HIV. Both spirituality indicators positively correlated with the frequency of receipt of HIV-related social support; they were negatively…
Examines the persuasive communication of HIV test counselors as cues to action in clients' decisions to practice safer sex. Indicates hypothesized relationships inherent in the Health Belief Model were not supported for the pre-HIV test survey, but the post-HIV test survey reported compliance with safer-sex recommendations. Finds use of certain…
Fox, Matthew P; Berhanu, Rebecca; Steegen, Kim; Firnhaber, Cindy; Ive, Prudence; Spencer, David; Mashamaite, Sello; Sheik, Sadiyya; Jonker, Ingrid; Howell, Pauline; Long, Lawrence; Evans, Denise
In resource-limited settings, where genotypic drug resistance testing is rarely performed and poor adherence is the most common reason for treatment failure, programmatic approaches to handling treatment failure are essential. This study was performed to describe one such approach to adherence optimisation. This was a single-arm study of patients on second-line protease inhibitor (PI)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) with a HIV-1 RNA ≥400 copies/ml in Johannesburg, South Africa, between 1 March 2012 and 1 December 2013. Patients underwent enhanced adherence counselling. Those with improved adherence and a repeat viral load of >1000 copies/ml underwent HIV-1 drug resistance testing. We describe results using simple proportions and 95% confidence intervals. Of the 400 patients who underwent targeted adherence counselling after an elevated viral load on second-line ART, 388 (97%) underwent repeat viral load testing. Most of these (n = 249; 64%, 95% CI 59-69) resuppressed (400 copies/ml, 11 switched to third line, 5 were awaiting third line, 4 had died and 13 were lost to follow-up. Among the unsuppressed, 48 successfully underwent resistance testing with some resistance detected in most (41/48). Most (64%) second-line treatment failure in this clinic is related to adherence and can be overcome with careful adherence support. Controlled interventions are needed to determine what the optimal approach is to improving second-line outcomes and reducing the need for third-line ART. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Bentz, L; Enel, P; Dunais, B; Durant, J; Poizot-Martin, I; Tourette-Turgis, C; Rebillon, M; Le Duff, F; Dellamonica, P; Pradier, C
Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is recommended for the management of sexual HIV-risk exposure. However, a high percentage of exposed patients discontinue both their 28-day prophylaxis course before 15 days and HIV testing follow-up before M3. The objective of this study is to assess the efficacy of a counseling intervention in enhancing both adherence to PEP and HIV testing follow-up. Between 1 June 2004 and 31 December 2005, 54 patients exposed to sexual HIV-risk exposure were included in a multicenter, prospective, controlled, randomized trial, comparing a group receiving a counseling intervention in addition to traditional medical management (intervention group (IG), n=28) vs. a control group (CG, n=26). Patients in the IG received interactive counseling interventions focused on adherence to PEP and to HIV testing follow-up, led by specially trained nurses. The main outcome measures were proportion of patients achieving 100% adherence to PEP as evaluated on D15 by a self-completed patient questionnaire and on HIV testing on D45 and M3. Groups were well balanced at baseline for age, sex, and circumstances of exposure. The proportion of 100% adherent patients to PEP was significantly higher in the IG compared to the CG (54% vs. 23%, p=0.036). Patients in the IG were more likely to complete the HIV testing follow-up at D45 (86% vs. 54%, p=0.023) and M3 (68% vs. 38%, p=0.056). This study suggests the effectiveness of a counseling program to enhance adherence to both PEP and HIV testing follow-up after sexual exposure.
Maheswaran, Hendramoorthy; Petrou, Stavros; MacPherson, Peter; Choko, Augustine T; Kumwenda, Felistas; Lalloo, David G; Clarke, Aileen; Corbett, Elizabeth L
HIV self-testing (HIVST) has been found to be highly effective, but no cost analysis has been undertaken to guide the design of affordable and scalable implementation strategies. Consecutive HIV self-testers and facility-based testers were recruited from participants in a community cluster-randomised trial ( ISRCTN02004005 ) investigating the impact of offering HIVST in addition to facility-based HIV testing and counselling (HTC). Primary costing studies were undertaken of the HIVST service and of health facilities providing HTC to the trial population. Costs were adjusted to 2014 US$ and INT$. Recruited participants were asked about direct non-medical and indirect costs associated with accessing either modality of HIV testing, and additionally their health-related quality of life was measured using the EuroQol EQ-5D. A total of 1,241 participants underwent either HIVST (n = 775) or facility-based HTC (n = 446). The mean societal cost per participant tested through HIVST (US$9.23; 95 % CI: US$9.14-US$9.32) was lower than through facility-based HTC (US$11.84; 95 % CI: US$10.81-12.86). Although the mean health provider cost per participant tested through HIVST (US$8.78) was comparable to facility-based HTC (range: US$7.53-US$10.57), the associated mean direct non-medical and indirect cost was lower (US$2.93; 95 % CI: US$1.90-US$3.96). The mean health provider cost per HIV positive participant identified through HIVST was higher (US$97.50) than for health facilities (range: US$25.18-US$76.14), as was the mean cost per HIV positive individual assessed for anti-retroviral treatment (ART) eligibility and the mean cost per HIV positive individual initiated onto ART. In comparison to the facility-testing group, the adjusted mean EQ-5D utility score was 0.046 (95 % CI: 0.022-0.070) higher in the HIVST group. HIVST reduces the economic burden on clients, but is a costlier strategy for the health provider aiming to identify HIV positive individuals for treatment. The
Conclusion: The benefits of HCT which include the reduction of HIV transmission, the availability of HIV care and treatment needs to be emphasized to enhance HCT uptake. Health workers also need to recommend HCT to all individuals attending health facilities offering this service.
Hines, Jonas Z; Ntsuape, Onkemetse Conrad; Malaba, Kananga; Zegeye, Tiruneh; Serrem, Kennedy; Odoyo-June, Elijah; Nyirenda, Rose Kolola; Msungama, Wezi; Nkanaunena, Kondwani; Come, Jotamo; Canda, Marcos; Nhaguiombe, Herminio; Shihepo, Ella K; Zemburuka, Brigitte L T; Mutandi, Gram; Yoboka, Emmanuel; Mbayiha, André H; Maringa, Hilda; Bere, Alfred; Lawrence, J Joseph; Lija, Gissenge J I; Simbeye, Daimon; Kazaura, Kokuhumbya; Mwiru, Ramadhani S; Talisuna, Stella Alamo; Lubwama, Joseph; Kabuye, Geoffrey; Zulu, James Exnobert; Chituwo, Omega; Mumba, Maybin; Xaba, Sinokuthemba; Mandisarisa, John; Baack, Brittney N; Hinkle, Lawrence; Grund, Jonathan M; Davis, Stephanie M; Toledo, Carlos
Countries in Southern and Eastern Africa have the highest prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the world; in 2015, 52% (approximately 19 million) of all persons living with HIV infection resided in these two regions.* Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) reduces the risk for heterosexually acquired HIV infection among males by approximately 60% (1). As such, it is an essential component of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) strategy for ending acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) by 2030 (2). Substantial progress toward achieving VMMC targets has been made in the 10 years since the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNAIDS recommended scale-up of VMMC for HIV prevention in 14 Southern and Eastern African countries with generalized HIV epidemics and low male circumcision prevalence (3).† This has been enabled in part by nearly $2 billion in cumulative funding through the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), administered through multiple U.S. governmental agencies, including CDC, which has supported nearly half of all PEPFAR-supported VMMCs to date. Approximately 14.5 million VMMCs were performed globally during 2008-2016, which represented 70% of the original target of 20.8 million VMMCs in males aged 15-49 years through 2016 (4). Despite falling short of the target, these VMMCs are projected to avert 500,000 HIV infections by the end of 2030 (4). However, UNAIDS has estimated an additional 27 million VMMCs need to be performed by 2021 to meet the Fast Track targets (2). This report updates a previous report covering the period 2010-2012, when VMMC implementing partners supported by CDC performed approximately 1 million VMMCs in nine countries (5). During 2013-2016, these implementing partners performed nearly 5 million VMMCs in 12 countries. Meeting the global target will require redoubling current efforts and introducing novel strategies that increase demand among subgroups of males who
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Uganda, public human immunodeficiency virus (HIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT services are mainly provided through the facility based model, although the home based approach is being promoted as a strategy for improving access to VCT. However the uptake of VCT varies according to service delivery model and is influenced by a number of factors. The aim of this study therefore, was to compare predictors for uptake of facility and home based VCT in a rural context. Methods A longitudinal study with cross-sectional investigative phases was conducted at two sites (Rugando and Kabingo in southwestern Uganda between November 2007 (baseline and March 2008 (follow up. During the baseline visit, facility based VCT was offered at the main health centre in Rugando while home based VCT was offered at the household level in Kabingo and a mixed survey questionnaire administered to the respondents. The results presented in this paper are derived from only the baseline data. Results Nine hundred ninety four (994 respondents were interviewed, of whom 500 received facility based VCT in Rugando and 494 home based VCT in Kabingo during the baseline visit. The respondents had a mean age of 32.2 years (SD 10.9 and were mainly female (68 percent. Clients who received facility based VCT were less likely to be residents of the more rural households (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR = 0.14, 95% CI 0.07, 0.22. The clients who received home based VCT were less likely to report having an STI symptom (aOR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.46, 0.86, and more likely to be worried about discrimination if they contracted AIDS (aOR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.22, 2.61. Conclusion The uptake of VCT provided through either the facility or home based models is influenced by client characteristics such as proximity to service delivery points, HIV related symptoms, and fear of discrimination in rural Uganda. Interventions that seek to improve uptake of VCT should provide potential clients
Khan, Rabia; Yassi, Annalee; Engelbrecht, Michelle C; Nophale, Letshego; van Rensburg, André J; Spiegel, Jerry
Recent WHO/ILO/UNAIDS guidelines recommend priority access to HIV services for health care workers (HCWs), in order to retain and support HCWs, especially those at risk of occupationally acquired tuberculosis (TB). The purpose of this study was to identify barriers to uptake of HIV counselling and testing (HCT) services for HCWs receiving HCT within occupational health units (OHUs). Questions were included within a larger occupational health survey of a 20% quota sample of HCWs from three public hospitals in Free State Province, South Africa. Of the 978 respondents, nearly 65% believed that their co-workers would not want to know their HIV status. Barriers to accessing HCT at the OHU included ambiguity over whether antiretroviral treatment was available at the OHU (only 51.1% knew), or whether TB treatment was available (55.5% knew). Nearly 40% of respondents perceived that stigma as a barrier. When controlling for age and race, the odds of perceiving HIV stigma in the workplace among patient-care health care workers (PCHWs) were 2.4 times that for non-PCHWs [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.80-3.15]. Of the 692 survey respondents who indicated a reason for not using HIV services at the OHU, 38.9% felt that confidentiality was the reason cited. Among PCHWs, the adjusted odds of expressing concern that confidentiality may not be maintained in the OHU were 2.4 times (95% CI: 1.8-3.2) that of non-PCHWs and were higher among Black [odds ratio (OR): 2.7, CI: 1.7-4.2] and Coloured HCWs (OR: 3.0, 95% CI: 1.6-5.6) as compared to White HCWs, suggesting that stigma and confidentiality concerns are still barriers to uptake of HCT. Campaigns to improve awareness of HCT and TB services offered in the OHUs, address stigma and ensure that the workforce is aware of the confidentiality provisions that are in place are warranted.
Corbett, EL; E. Dauya; Matambo, R; Cheung, YB; Makamure, B.; Bassett, MT; Chandiwana, S.; Munyati, S.; Mason, PR; Butterworth, AE; Godfrey-Faussett, P; Hayes, RJ
Editors' Summary Background. Since the first case of AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) was reported 25 years ago, AIDS has become a major worldwide epidemic, with 3 million people dying from it in 2005. AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which is usually spread through unprotected sex with an infected partner. HIV damages the immune system, leaving infected individuals unable to fight off other viruses and bacteria. HIV infections can be treated with drugs know ...
Stephens, Torrance; Braithwaite, Ronald L.; Taylor, Sandra E.
Presents a HIV/AIDS preventive counseling protocol developed for use with African American young adults that makes use of hip-hop music. Contends that an increased understanding of the relationships that many African American young adults have with hip-hop music may be used by disease prevention personnel to educate these populations about…
Mesenburg, Marilia Arndt; Wehrmeister, Fernando César; Silveira, Mariângela Freitas da
This was a cross-sectional population-based study that aimed to describe the prevalence of HIV testing and associated factors in women in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A total of 1,222 women were interviewed. We estimated the overall testing prevalence (yes/no) and prevalence disaggregated by testing ordered by a health professional versus voluntary testing. Test prevalence was 66.1% (95%CI: 63.4-68.8): 52.4% for testing ordered by a health professional (95%CI: 49.6-55.2) and 13.6% for spontaneous testing (95%CI: 11.6-15.5). The principal reason for testing was prenatal screening (52%). Age, age at sexual initiation, and having children were associated statistically with both voluntary and health professional-initiated testing. Sexual risk score, conjugal status, and condom use were only associated statistically with testing ordered by a health professional, while history of anal sex was only associated with spontaneous testing. The results indicate that HIV testing is closely related to prenatal care and that risk perception by the attending health professional appears to be more accurate than the patient's own perception.
Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV testing rates have exceeded 90% among the pregnant women at Mbale Regional Referral Hospital in Mbale District, eastern Uganda, since the introduction of routine antenatal counselling and testing for HIV in June 2006. However, no documented information was available about opinions of pregnant women in eastern Uganda about this HIV testing approach. We therefore conducted a study to assess attitudes of antenatal attendees towards routine HIV counselling and testing at Mbale Hospital. We also assessed their knowledge about mother to child transmission of HIV and infant feeding options for HIV-infected mothers. Methods The study was a cross-sectional survey of 388 women, who were attending the antenatal clinic for the first time with their current pregnancy at Mbale Regional Referral Hospital from August to October 2009. Data were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire and analysed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Permission to conduct the study was obtained from the Makerere University College of Health Sciences, the Uganda National Council of Science and Technology, and Mbale Hospital. Results The majority of the antenatal attendees (98.5%, 382/388 had positive attitudes towards routine HIV counselling and testing, and many of them (more than 60% had correct knowledge of how mother to child transmission of HIV could occur during pregnancy, labour and through breastfeeding, and ways of preventing it. After adjusting for independent variables, having completed secondary school (odds ratio: 2.5, 95% confidence interval: 1.3-4.9, having three or more pregnancies (OR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.4-4.5 and belonging to a non-Bagisu ethnic group (OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.0-2.7 were associated with more knowledge of exclusive breastfeeding as one of the measures for prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV. Out of 388 antenatal attendees, 386 (99.5% tested for HIV and 382 (98.5% received same-day HIV test results
Åstrøm Anne N
Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the process used to develop an integrated set of culturally sensitive, evidence-based counselling tools (job aids by using qualitative participatory research. The aim of the intervention was to contribute to improving infant feeding counselling services for HIV positive women in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania. Methods Formative research using a combination of qualitative methods preceded the development of the intervention and mapped existing practices, perceptions and attitudes towards HIV and infant feeding (HIV/IF among mothers, counsellors and community members. Intervention Mapping (IM protocol guided the development of the overall intervention strategy. Theories of behaviour change, a review of the international HIV/IF guidelines and formative research findings contributed to the definition of performance and learning objectives. Key communication messages and colourful graphic illustrations related to infant feeding in the context of HIV were then developed and/or adapted from existing generic materials. Draft materials were field tested with intended audiences and subjected to stakeholder technical review. Results An integrated set of infant feeding counselling tools, referred to as 'job aids', was developed and included brochures on feeding methods that were found to be socially and culturally acceptable, a Question and Answer Guide for counsellors, a counselling card on the risk of transmission of HIV, and an infant feeding toolbox for demonstration. Each brochure describes the steps to ensure safer infant feeding using simple language and images based on local ideas and resources. The brochures are meant to serve as both a reference material during infant feeding counselling in the ongoing prevention of mother to child transmission (pMTCT of HIV programme and as take home material for the mother. Conclusion The study underscores the importance of formative research and a systematic theory
Kripke, Katharine; Perales, Nicole; Lija, Jackson; Fimbo, Bennet; Mlanga, Eric; Mahler, Hally; Juma, James McOllogi; Baingana, Emmanuel; Plotkin, Marya; Kakiziba, Deogratias; Semini, Iris; Castor, Delivette; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel
Since its launch in 2010, the Tanzania National Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) Program has focused efforts on males ages 10-34 in 11 priority regions. Implementers have noted that over 70% of VMMC clients are between the ages of 10 and 19, raising questions about whether additional efforts would be required to recruit men age 20 and above. This analysis uses mathematical modeling to examine the economic and epidemiological consequences of scaling up VMMC among specific age groups and priority regions in Tanzania. Analyses were conducted using the Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0), a compartmental model implemented in Microsoft Excel 2010. The model was populated with population, mortality, and HIV incidence and prevalence projections from external sources, including outputs from Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM). A separate DMPPT 2.0 model was created for each of the 11 priority regions. Tanzania can achieve the most immediate impact on HIV incidence by circumcising males ages 20-34. This strategy would also require the fewest VMMCs for each HIV infection averted. Circumcising men ages 10-24 will have the greatest impact on HIV incidence over a 15-year period. The most cost-effective approach (lowest cost per HIV infection averted) targets men ages 15-34. The model shows the VMMC program is cost saving in all 11 priority regions. VMMC program cost-effectiveness varies across regions due to differences in projected HIV incidence, with the most cost-effective programs in Njombe and Iringa. The DMPPT 2.0 results reinforce Tanzania's current VMMC strategy, providing newfound confidence in investing in circumcising adolescents. Tanzanian policy makers and program implementers will continue to focus scale-up of VMMC on men ages 10-34 years, seeking to maximize program impact and cost-effectiveness while acknowledging trends in demand among the younger and older age groups.
Full Text Available Since its launch in 2010, the Tanzania National Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC Program has focused efforts on males ages 10-34 in 11 priority regions. Implementers have noted that over 70% of VMMC clients are between the ages of 10 and 19, raising questions about whether additional efforts would be required to recruit men age 20 and above. This analysis uses mathematical modeling to examine the economic and epidemiological consequences of scaling up VMMC among specific age groups and priority regions in Tanzania.Analyses were conducted using the Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0, a compartmental model implemented in Microsoft Excel 2010. The model was populated with population, mortality, and HIV incidence and prevalence projections from external sources, including outputs from Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM. A separate DMPPT 2.0 model was created for each of the 11 priority regions. Tanzania can achieve the most immediate impact on HIV incidence by circumcising males ages 20-34. This strategy would also require the fewest VMMCs for each HIV infection averted. Circumcising men ages 10-24 will have the greatest impact on HIV incidence over a 15-year period. The most cost-effective approach (lowest cost per HIV infection averted targets men ages 15-34. The model shows the VMMC program is cost saving in all 11 priority regions. VMMC program cost-effectiveness varies across regions due to differences in projected HIV incidence, with the most cost-effective programs in Njombe and Iringa.The DMPPT 2.0 results reinforce Tanzania's current VMMC strategy, providing newfound confidence in investing in circumcising adolescents. Tanzanian policy makers and program implementers will continue to focus scale-up of VMMC on men ages 10-34 years, seeking to maximize program impact and cost-effectiveness while acknowledging trends in demand among the younger and older age groups.
Stockton, Rex; Paul, Tebatso; Voils-Levenda, Amanda; Robbins, Melanie; Li, Peiwei; Zaitsoff, Andrew
Mental health concerns can exacerbate the progression and transmission of HIV/AIDS. Thus there have been calls for increased research and integration of mental health care into HIV/AIDS treatment in Sub-Saharan Africa, where the disease has reached pandemic levels. This qualitative study analyzed the open-ended survey responses of 181 individuals…
Carvalho, Fernanda T; Both, Nalu S; Alnoch, Edi M; Conz, Jaqueline; Rocha, Katia B
This article discusses the perceptions of professionals and users about counselling practices at a counselling and testing centre in Porto Alegre/RS based on interviews with 27 service users and 14 members of the staff. The following categories emerged from thematic analysis: professionals' perceptions on counselling, users' perceptions on counselling and changes in counselling due to the introduction of rapid test procedures. The results show that, although initially there were some imprecision and apparent contradictions in its use, rapid testing was considered an invitation to rethink practices, bringing service closer to users' needs. © The Author(s) 2016.
Labhardt, Niklaus Daniel; Motlomelo, Masetsibi; Cerutti, Bernard; Pfeiffer, Karolin; Kamele, Mashaete; Hobbins, Michael A; Ehmer, Jochen
The success of HIV programs relies on widely accessible HIV testing and counseling (HTC) services at health facilities as well as in the community. Home-based HTC (HB-HTC) is a popular community-based approach to reach persons who do not test at health facilities. Data comparing HB-HTC to other community-based HTC approaches are very limited. This trial compares HB-HTC to mobile clinic HTC (MC-HTC). The trial was powered to test the hypothesis of higher HTC uptake in HB-HTC campaigns than in MC-HTC campaigns. Twelve clusters were randomly allocated to HB-HTC or MC-HTC. The six clusters in the HB-HTC group received 30 1-d multi-disease campaigns (five villages per cluster) that delivered services by going door-to-door, whereas the six clusters in MC-HTC group received campaigns involving community gatherings in the 30 villages with subsequent service provision in mobile clinics. Time allocation and human resources were standardized and equal in both groups. All individuals accessing the campaigns with unknown HIV status or whose last HIV test was >12 wk ago and was negative were eligible. All outcomes were assessed at the individual level. Statistical analysis used multivariable logistic regression. Odds ratios and p-values were adjusted for gender, age, and cluster effect. Out of 3,197 participants from the 12 clusters, 2,563 (80.2%) were eligible (HB-HTC: 1,171; MC-HTC: 1,392). The results for the primary outcomes were as follows. Overall HTC uptake was higher in the HB-HTC group than in the MC-HTC group (92.5% versus 86.7%; adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.18-3.60; p = 0. 011). Among adolescents and adults ≥ 12 y, HTC uptake did not differ significantly between the two groups; however, in children HTC uptake was higher in the HB-HTC arm (87.5% versus 58.7%; aOR: 4.91; 95% CI: 2.41-10.0; pHTC, 114 (4.9%) tested HIV-positive, 39 (3.6%) in the HB-HTC arm and 75 (6.2%) in the MC-HTC arm (aOR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.48-0.86; p = 0.002). Ten (25.6%) and 19 (25
Maksut, Jessica L; Eaton, Lisa A; Siembida, Elizabeth J; Driffin, Daniel D; Baldwin, Robert
Men who have sex with men (MSM), particularly MSM who identify as African-American or Black (BMSM), are the sociodemographic group that is most heavily burdened by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in the United States. To meet national HIV testing goals, there must be a greater emphasis on novel ways to promote and deliver HIV testing to MSM. Obstacles to standard, clinic-based HIV testing include concerns about stigmatization or recognition at in-person testing sites, as well as the inability to access a testing site due to logistical barriers. This study examined the feasibility of self-administered, at-home HIV testing with Web-based peer counseling to MSM by using an interactive video chatting method. The aims of this study were to (1) determine whether individuals would participate in at-home HIV testing with video chat-based test counseling with a peer counselor, (2) address logistical barriers to HIV testing that individuals who report risk for HIV transmission may experience, and (3) reduce anticipated HIV stigma, a primary psychosocial barrier to HIV testing. In response to the gap in HIV testing, a pilot study was developed and implemented via mailed, at-home HIV test kits, accompanied by HIV counseling with a peer counselor via video chat. A total of 20 MSM were enrolled in this test of concept study, 80% of whom identified as BMSM. All participants reported that at-home HIV testing with a peer counseling via video chat was a satisfying experience. The majority of participants (13/18, 72%) said they would prefer for their next HIV testing and counseling experience to be at home with Web-based video chat peer counseling, as opposed to testing in an office or clinic setting. Participants were less likely to report logistical and emotional barriers to HIV testing at the 6-week and 3-month follow-ups. The results of this study suggest that self-administered HIV testing with Web-based peer counseling is feasible and that MSM find it to be a
Nelwan, Erni J; Indrati, Agnes K; Isa, Ahmad; Triani, Nurlita; Alam, Nisaa Nur; Herlan, Maria S; Husen, Wahid; Pohan, Herdiman T; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Meheus, Andre; Van Crevel, Reinout; van der Ven, Andre Jam
Validated data regarding HIV-transmission in prisons in developing countries is scarce. We examined sexual and injecting drug use behavior and HIV and HCV transmission in an Indonesian narcotic prison during the implementation of an HIV prevention and treatment program during 2004-2007 when the Banceuy Narcotic Prison in Indonesia conducted an HIV transmission prevention program to provide 1) HIV education, 2) voluntary HIV testing and counseling, 3) condom supply, 4) prevention of rape and sexual violence, 5) antiretroviral treatment for HIV-positive prisoners and 6) methadone maintenance treatment. During a first survey that was conducted between 2007 and 2009, new prisoners entered Banceuy Narcotics Prison were voluntary tested for HIV and HCV-infection after written informed consent was obtained. Information regarding sexual and injecting risk behavior and physical status were also recorded at admission to the prison. Participants who tested negative for both HIV and HCV during the first survey were included in a second survey conducted during 2008-2011. During both surveys, data on mortality among HIV-seropositive patients were also recorded. All HIV-seropositive participants receive treatment for HIV. HIV/ AIDS-related deaths decreased: 43% in 2006, 18% in 2007, 9% in 2008 and 0% in 2009. No HIV and HCV seroconversion inside Banceuy Narcotic Prison were found after a median of 23 months imprisonment (maximum follow-up: 38 months). Total of 484.8 person-years observation was done. Participants reported HIV transmission risk-behavior in Banceuy Prison during the second survey was low. After implementation of HIV prevention and treatment program, no new HIV or HCV cases were detected and HIV-related mortality decreased.
Nov 1, 2016 ... software for analysis. Counselor quality scores for pre-test coun- seling, testing and post-test counseling sessions were created as continuous variables with possibilities to create dichotomous cut-off points depending on the distributions observed. For the purposes of this study quality is defined according ...
An SRSS was developed, drawing 14 items from two established screening tests, and assessed using a sample of 150. HIV-infected consenting adults identified at a voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) clinic at an academic district level hospital in .... validated as a measure to predict suicide and is still being used ...
This qualitative study sought to understand users' perceptions of the voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) and HIV-treatment services offered by a mining company in South Africa, with the intention of making recommendations to improve the rates of uptake. A purposive sample of 75 employees was interviewed and three ...
Roman Isler, Malika; Eng, Eugenia; Maman, Susanne; Adimora, Adaora; Weiner, Bryan
The black church is influential in shaping health behaviors within African-American communities, yet few use evidence-based strategies for HIV prevention (abstinence, monogamy, condoms, voluntary counseling and testing, and prevention with positives). Using principles of grounded theory and interpretive description, we explored the social…
Female genital schistosomiasis prevalence found was 10.3%, Trichomonas vaginalis, 2.1%, Candida albicans, 9.6%, Gardnerella vaginalis, 11.8% and HIV 6.6%. The study also showed that, the location of Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) services in rural communities in the Volta Basin were unavailable. The use ...
The study investigated the sexual, sex risk-taking behaviours, and knowledge on transmission, prevention and voluntary counselling and testing for HIV/AIDS among university athletes. Data were collected through questionnaires from 64 male and 46 female athletes who had volunteered to take part in the study at Kenyatta ...
Suicidal ideation in seropositive patients seen at a South African HIV voluntary counselling and testing clinic. RD Govender1, L Schlebusch2. 1Department of Family Medicine, University of Kwa-Zulu Natal, Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, Durban, South Africa. 2Department of Behavioural Medicine, University of ...
Rothenberg, K H; Paskey, S J; Reuland, M M; Zimmerman, S I; North, R L
Current public health policy encourages partner notification to protect those at risk of HIV infection. Provider experiences with partner notification, domestic violence, and women with HIV compel a reassessment of this strategy. In a survey of 136 health care providers in Baltimore, substantial numbers reported knowledge of their HIV-infected patients' experiences with domestic violence before and after partner notification. Providers believed that fear of physical abuse, emotional abuse, and abandonment are important reasons why many female patients resist partner notification. Provider opposition to partner notification was strong in cases where female patients faced a risk of domestic violence. The realization that HIV-infected women fear and experience domestic violence has broad implications for health care practice. The authors recommend changes in provider practices to insure that the risk of domestic violence is identified and addressed, and that partner notification strategies do not threaten the safety of HIV-infected women. They also highlight areas for further research on the connections among partner notification, domestic violence, and women with HIV.
Sawe, Hendry R; Mfinanga, Juma A; Ringo, Faith H; Mwafongo, Victor; Reynolds, Teri A; Runyon, Michael S
To describe the HIV counselling and testing practices for children presenting to an emergency department (ED) in a low-income country. The ED of a large east African national referral hospital. This retrospective review of all paediatric (counselling, or deferral of counselling, for children tested for HIV in the ED. Secondary measures included the overall rate of HIV testing, rate of counselling documented in the inpatient record when deferred in the ED, rate of counselling documented when testing was initiated by the inpatient service, rate of counselling documented by test result (positive vs negative) and the rate of referral to follow-up HIV care among patients testing positive. Of 418 patients tested in the ED, counselling, or deferral of counselling, was documented for 70 (17%). When deferred to the ward, subsequent counselling was documented for 15/42 (36%). Counselling was documented in 33% of patients testing positive versus 1.1% patients testing negative (OR 43 (95% CI 23 to 83). Of 199 patients who tested positive and survived to hospital discharge, 76 (38%) were referred for follow-up at the HIV clinic on discharge. Physicians documented the provision, or deferral, of counselling for Counselling was much more likely to be documented when the test result was positive. Less than 40% of those testing positive were referred for follow-up care. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Full Text Available Abstract Background To prevent postnatal transmission of HIV in settings where safe alternatives to breastfeeding are unavailable, the World Health Organization (WHO recommends exclusive breastfeeding followed by early, rapid cessation of breastfeeding. Only limited data are available on the attitudes of health workers toward this recommendation and the impact of these attitudes on infant feeding counselling messages given to mothers. Methods As part of the Breastfeeding, Antiretroviral, and Nutrition (BAN clinical trial, we carried out an in-depth qualitative study of the attitudes, beliefs, and counselling messages of 19 health workers in Lilongwe, Malawi. Results Although none of the workers had received formal training, several reported having counseled HIV-positive mothers about infant feeding. Health workers with counselling experience believed that HIV-infected mothers should breastfeed exclusively, rather than infant formula feed, citing poverty as the primary reason. Because of high levels of malnutrition, all the workers had concerns about early cessation of breastfeeding. Conclusion Important differences were observed between the WHO recommendations and the attitudes and practices of the health workers. Understanding these differences is important for designing effective interventions.
Makinde, Olusesan A; Ezomike, Chioma F; Lehmann, Harold P; Ibanga, Iko J
To share our experience on how we used simple but detailed processes and deployed a management information system on a new HIV counseling and testing (HCT) project in Nigeria. The procedures used in this study were adopted for their strength in identifying areas of continuous improvement as the project was implemented. We used an iterative brainstorming technique among 30 participants (volunteer counselors and project management staff) as well as iterative quality audits to identify several limitations to the success of the project and to propose solutions. We then implemented the solutions and reevaluated for performance. Findings from the evaluations were then reintroduced into the brainstorming and planning sessions. Several limitations were identified with the most prominent being the poor documentation of records at the site and the lack of a document transfer trail for audit purposes. Communication, cohesion and team focus are necessary to achieve success on any new project. Institutionalizing routine HIV behavioral surveillance using data collected at HCT will help in streamlining interventions that will be evidence-based. 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Imai, Mitsunobu; Kato, Shingo
HIV testing plays a crucial role in detecting and monitoring HIV infection. Diagnosis of HIV infection is basically made by sequential two tests: a screening test with an enzyme immunoassay(EIA) and a confirmatory test with Western blot. The most recent EIAs, used in commercial laboratories, identify HIV infection earlier because they detect both HIV-1 antibody and antigen. Rapid tests represent another advance for HIV screening. They are widely used in voluntary counselling and testing at public health centers and private clinics. An assay for detection of HIV-1 RNA was approved as a confirmatory test of reactive screening tests to diagnose early infection. These new testing technologies offer more accurate, reliable, and convenient diagnosis of HIV infection.
melalui Konseling dan Edukasi Gizi HIV, AIDS, dan gizi saling berhubungan. Pada Unit Pelayanan Terpadu HIV Rumah Sakit Umum Pusat Nasional Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo, layanan edukasi dan konseling gizi disediakan secara kolaboratif untuk orang yang hidup dengan HIV. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pendidikan dan konseling gizi terhadap pengetahuan dan perilaku orang yang hidup dengan HIV. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan desain kuasi eksperimental menggunakan kelompok perlakuan dan kontrol. Kelompok perlakuan terdiri dari 25 sampel dan 29 sampel untuk kelompok kontrol, dilakukan sebelum dan setelah perlakuan. Sampel berusia dewasa antara 18 – 50 tahun dipilih dengan menerapkan kriteria inklusi dan eksklusi. Sampel uji-t berpasangan digunakan untuk menganalisis data. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada bulan Mei – Juli 2014. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, diketahui bahwa adanya efek berupa perubahan pengetahuan (nilai p = 0,000 dengan nilai 6,38 poin lebih rendah pada kelompok kontrol dan terdapat perbedaan yang signifikan dalam perubahan perilaku (nilai p = 0,048 untuk kelompok perlakuan setelah menerima edukasi dan konseling gizi. Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa edukasi dan konseling gizi menggunakan media edukasi yang lebih lengkap dan diberikan secara berkelanjutan dapat meningkatkan pengetahuan dan mengubah perilaku orang yang hidup dengan HIV.
Haacker, Markus; Fraser-Hurt, Nicole; Gorgens, Marelize
Empirical studies and population-level policy simulations show the importance of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) in generalized epidemics. This paper complements available scenario-based studies (projecting costs and outcomes over some policy period, typically spanning decades) by adopting an incremental approach-analyzing the expected consequences of circumcising one male individual with specific characteristics in a specific year. This approach yields more precise estimates of VMMC's cost-effectiveness and identifies the outcomes of current investments in VMMC (e.g., within a fiscal budget period) rather than of investments spread over the entire policy period. The model has three components. We adapted the ASSA2008 model, a demographic and epidemiological model of the HIV epidemic in South Africa, to analyze the impact of one VMMC on HIV incidence over time and across the population. A costing module tracked the costs of VMMC and the resulting financial savings owing to reduced HIV incidence over time. Then, we used several financial indicators to assess the cost-effectiveness of and financial return on investments in VMMC. One circumcision of a young man up to age 20 prevents on average over 0.2 HIV infections, but this effect declines steeply with age, e.g., to 0.08 by age 30. Net financial savings from one VMMC at age 20 are estimated at US$617 at a discount rate of 5% and are lower for circumcisions both at younger ages (because the savings occur later and are discounted more) and at older ages (because male circumcision becomes less effective). Investments in male circumcision carry a financial rate of return of up to 14.5% (for circumcisions at age 20). The cost of a male circumcision is refinanced fastest, after 13 y, for circumcisions at ages 20 to 25. Principal limitations of the analysis arise from the long time (decades) over which the effects of VMMC unfold-the results are therefore sensitive to the discount rate applied, and more
The mean duration of pre-test counselling was 5.37 minutes (+3.34) and that of post test was 3.0 minutes (+ 2.24). In 78.8% of the sessions, the counsellors gave clear and simple information to mothers; in 25.8% of the sessions, the mothers were not given the chance to freely consent or dissent for blood test. In the post test ...
Mwangosi, Ibrahim E A T; Tillya, Jackline
To assess the prevalences and patterns of oral lesions occurring in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). A cross-sectional study was conducted among 200 people living with HIV/AIDS (PlwHA) who regularly attended a counselling and treatment centre in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A questionnaire-guided interview and clinical oral assessment were used. Strict confidentiality and adherence to ethical codes were observed. The mean age of participants was 38.91 years (standard deviation: 10.424; mode: 35 years; median: 37.0 years; range: 15-76 years). Most participants (58.5%) were aware of predispositions towards the occurrence of oral lesions such as oral candidiasis (60.0%) in HIV/AIDS and most of these (72.0%) were aware that the lesions are treatable. Some participants reported occurrences of oral thrush (22.5%) and lip ulcerations (28.5%), although only 47.0% of these had sought medical advice. Examinations revealed that 29.0% of participants had at least one oral lesion associated with HIV/AIDS. Prevalences of the various types of lesion were: 11.5% for herpes simplex; 7.5% for oral candidiasis; 4.0% for oral hairy leukoplakia; 3.5% for Kaposi's sarcoma; 1.5% for dry mouth; 0.5% for angular cheilitis, and 0.5% for acute necrotising ulcerative gingivitis. Herpes simplex and Kaposi's sarcoma were more frequently observed in males (56.5% and 71.4%, respectively), whereas oral candidiasis and dry mouth were observed more often in females (86.7% and 66.7%, respectively) (χ(2) = 16.692, P = 0.016). Prevalences of oral lesions associated with HIV/AIDS in PlwHA and using antiretroviral therapy are persistent, of moderate intensity and vary according to individual immune status. These patients' level of awareness about oral lesions was satisfactory, but formal medicodental lines of management were not prioritised. Contemporary protocol for the management of oral lesions should be understood and disseminated to the
homelessness), resulting in no money for condoms and no privacy for safer sex negotiation. • hospitalisation, which impedes long-term relationships and the formation of social support structures. • substance use. Mental health problems are associated with an increased risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV and may also ...
Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is a powerful risk factor for the development of tuberculosis. This study assessed the acceptance and associated factors that can affect provider initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC among tuberculosis patients at the East Wollega administrative zone, Oromia regional state, western Ethiopia, from January to August, 2010. A single population proportion formula is used to calculate the total sample size of 406 and the cluster sampling technique was used to select 13 health centers that provide PITC services. The sample size was proportionally allocated to each health center. The study participants were selected using a simple random sampling technique using the lottery method. Structured questionnaire was used for collection of sociodemographic data. From the total of study subjects, 399 (98.2% TB patients were initiated for HIV test and 369 (92.5% patients accepted the initiation. Of those, 353 (95.5% patients had taken HIV test and received their results. According to the reviewed documents, the prevalence of HIV among tuberculosis (TB patients in the study area was 137 (33.7%. The logistic regression result showed the PITC was significantly associated with their knowledge about HIV (AOR = 3.22, 95% CI: 1.3–7.97, self-perceived risk (AOR = 2.93, 95% CI: 1.12–7.66, educational status (AOR = 3.51, 95% CI: 1.13–10.91, and knowledge on transmission of HIV/AIDS (AOR = 7.56, 95% CI: 1.14–40.35 which were significantly associated with the acceptance of PITC among TB patients. Therefore, this study’s results showed, the prevalence of HIV among TB patient was high; to enhance the acceptance of PITC among TB patients, health extension workers must provide health education during home-to-home visiting. TB treatment supervisors also provide counseling intensively for all forms of TB patients during their first clinical encounter.
Nyblade, Laura; Reddy, Aditi; Mbote, David; Kraemer, John; Stockton, Melissa; Kemunto, Caroline; Krotki, Karol; Morla, Javier; Njuguna, Stella; Dutta, Arin; Barker, Catherine
The barrier HIV-stigma presents to the HIV treatment cascade is increasingly documented; however less is known about female and male sex worker engagement in and the influence of sex-work stigma on the HIV care continuum. While stigma occurs in all spheres of life, stigma within health services may be particularly detrimental to health seeking behaviors. Therefore, we present levels of sex-work stigma from healthcare workers (HCW) among male and female sex workers in Kenya, and explore the relationship between sex-work stigma and HIV counseling and testing. We also examine the relationship between sex-work stigma and utilization of non-HIV health services. A snowball sample of 497 female sex workers (FSW) and 232 male sex workers (MSW) across four sites was recruited through a modified respondent-driven sampling process. About 50% of both male and female sex workers reported anticipating verbal stigma from HCW while 72% of FSW and 54% of MSW reported experiencing at least one of seven measured forms of stigma from HCW. In general, stigma led to higher odds of reporting delay or avoidance of counseling and testing, as well as non-HIV specific services. Statistical significance of relationships varied across type of health service, type of stigma and gender. For example, anticipated stigma was not a significant predictor of delay or avoidance of health services for MSW; however, FSW who anticipated HCW stigma had significantly higher odds of avoiding (OR = 2.11) non-HIV services, compared to FSW who did not. This paper adds to the growing evidence of stigma as a roadblock in the HIV treatment cascade, as well as its undermining of the human right to health. While more attention is being paid to addressing HIV-stigma, it is equally important to address the key population stigma that often intersects with HIV-stigma.
Nelwan, E.J.; Crevel, R. van; Alisjahbana, B.; Indrati, A.K.; Dwiyana, R.F.; Nuralam, N.; Pohan, H.T.; Jaya, I.; Meheus, A.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and behavioural correlates of HIV, HBV and HCV infections among Indonesian prisoners and to examine the impact of voluntary counselling and testing for all incoming prisoners on access to antiretroviral treatment (ART). METHODS: In a non-anonymous survey in an
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Integrated disease prevention in low resource settings can increase coverage, equity and efficiency in controlling high burden infectious diseases. A public-private partnership with the Ministry of Health, CDC, Vestergaard Frandsen and CHF International implemented a one-week integrated multi-disease prevention campaign. METHOD: Residents of Lurambi, Western Kenya were eligible for participation. The aim was to offer services to at least 80% of those aged 15-49. 31 temporary sites in strategically dispersed locations offered: HIV counseling and testing, 60 male condoms, an insecticide-treated bednet, a household water filter for women or an individual filter for men, and for those testing positive, a 3-month supply of cotrimoxazole and referral for follow-up care and treatment. FINDINGS: Over 7 days, 47,311 people attended the campaign with a 96% uptake of the multi-disease preventive package. Of these, 99.7% were tested for HIV (87% in the target 15-49 age group; 80% had previously never tested. 4% of those tested were positive, 61% were women (5% of women and 3% of men, 6% had median CD4 counts of 541 cell/µL (IQR; 356, 754. 386 certified counselors attended to an average 17 participants per day, consistent with recommended national figures for mass campaigns. Among women, HIV infection varied by age, and was more likely with an ended marriage (e.g. widowed vs. never married, OR.3.91; 95% CI. 2.87-5.34, and lack of occupation. In men, quantitatively stronger relationships were found (e.g. widowed vs. never married, OR.7.0; 95% CI. 3.5-13.9. Always using condoms with a non-steady partner was more common among HIV-infected women participants who knew their status compared to those who did not (OR.5.4 95% CI. 2.3-12.8. CONCLUSION: Through integrated campaigns it is feasible to efficiently cover large proportions of eligible adults in rural underserved communities with multiple disease preventive services simultaneously achieving
Fadnes Lars T
Full Text Available Abstract Background Health workers' counselling practices are essential to improve infant feeding practices. This paper will assess how infant feeding counselling was done and experienced by counsellors and mothers in Eastern Uganda in the context of previous guidelines. This has implications for implementation of the new infant feeding guidelines from 2009. Methods This paper combines qualitative and quantitative data from Mbale District in Eastern Uganda. Data was collected from 2003 to 2005 in a mixed methods approach. This includes: key-informant interviews among eighteen health workers in the public hospital, health clinics and non-governmental organisations working with people living with HIV, fifteen focus group discussions in the general population and among clients from an HIV clinic, two cross-sectional surveys including 727 mothers from the general population and 235 HIV-positive mothers. Results The counselling sessions were often improvised. Health workers frequently had pragmatic approaches to infant feeding as many clients struggled with poverty, stigma and non-disclosure of HIV. The feasibility of the infant feeding recommendations was perceived as challenging among health workers, both for HIV-positive mothers and in the general population. Group counselling with large groups was common in the public health service. Some extra infant feeding teaching capacities were mobilised for care-takers of undernourished children. A tendency to simplify messages giving one-sided information was seen. Different health workers presented contradicting simplified perspectives in some cases. Outdated training was a common concern with many health workers not being given courses or seminars on infant feeding since professional graduation. Other problems were minimal staffing, lack of resources, and programs being started and subsequently stopped abruptly. Many of the HIV-counsellors in the non-governmental organisations got extended training in
Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years children and adolescents have emerged as a priority for HIV prevention and care services. We conducted a systematic review to investigate the acceptability, yield and prevalence of HIV testing and counselling (HTC strategies in children and adolescents (5 to 19 years in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: An electronic search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health and conference abstract databases. Studies reporting on HTC acceptability, yield and prevalence and published between January 2004 and September 2014 were included. Pooled proportions for these three outcomes were estimated using a random effects model. A quality assessment was conducted on included studies. Results and discussion: A total of 16,380 potential citations were identified, of which 21 studies (23 entries were included. Most studies were conducted in Kenya (n=5 and Uganda (n=5 and judged to provide moderate (n=15 to low quality (n=7 evidence, with data not disaggregated by age. Seven studies reported on provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC, with the remainder reporting on family-centred (n=5, home-based (n=5, outreach (n=5 and school-linked HTC among primary schoolchildren (n=1. PITC among inpatients had the highest acceptability (86.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 65.5 to 100%, yield (12.2%; 95% CI: 6.1 to 18.3% and prevalence (15.4%; 95% CI: 5.0 to 25.7%. Family-centred HTC had lower acceptance compared to home-based HTC (51.7%; 95% CI: 10.4 to 92.9% vs. 84.9%; 95% CI: 74.4 to 95.4% yet higher prevalence (8.4%; 95% CI: 3.4 to 13.5% vs. 3.0%; 95% CI: 1.0 to 4.9%. School-linked HTC showed poor acceptance and low prevalence. Conclusions: While PITC may have high test acceptability priority should be given to evaluating strategies beyond healthcare settings (e.g. home-based HTC among families to identify individuals earlier in their disease progression. Data on linkage to care and cost-effectiveness of HTC strategies are needed to
reported. Intensified adverse event and death monitoring and reporting were instituted in July 2014 in all 14 PEPFAR-supported countries providing...years. Each patient was deemed eligible for VMMC through preoperative screening and physical examination, and received counseling on postoperative...reported. Intensified adverse event and death monitoring and reporting were instituted in July 2014 in all 14 PEPFAR-supported countries providing VMMC for
Full Text Available In 2007, the World Health Organization and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS identified 14 priority countries across eastern and southern Africa for scaling up voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC services. Several years into this effort, we reflect on progress.Using the Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool (DMPPT 2.1, we assessed age-specific impact, cost-effectiveness, and coverage attributable to circumcisions performed through 2014. We also compared impact of actual progress to that of achieving 80% coverage among men ages 15-49 in 12 VMMC priority countries and Nyanza Province, Kenya. We populated the models with age-disaggregated VMMC service statistics and with population, mortality, and HIV incidence and prevalence projections exported from country-specific Spectrum/Goals files. We assumed each country achieved UNAIDS' 90-90-90 treatment targets.More than 9 million VMMCs were conducted through 2014: 43% of the estimated 20.9 million VMMCs required to reach 80% coverage by the end of 2015. The model assumed each country reaches the UNAIDS targets, and projected that VMMCs conducted through 2014 will avert 240,000 infections by the end of 2025, compared to 1.1 million if each country had reached 80% coverage by the end of 2015. The median estimated cost per HIV infection averted was $4,400. Nyanza Province in Kenya, the 11 priority regions in Tanzania, and Uganda have reached or are approaching MC coverage targets among males ages 15-24, while coverage in other age groups is lower. Across all countries modeled, more than half of the projected HIV infections averted were attributable to circumcising 10- to 19-year-olds.The priority countries have made considerable progress in VMMC scale-up, and VMMC remains a cost-effective strategy for epidemic impact, even assuming near-universal HIV diagnosis, treatment coverage, and viral suppression. Examining circumcision coverage by five-year age groups will inform
Full Text Available In 2007, the World Health Organization (WHO recommended scaling up voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC in priority countries with high HIV prevalence and low male circumcision (MC prevalence. According to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS, an estimated 5.8 million males had undergone VMMC by the end of 2013. Implementation experience has raised questions about the need to refocus VMMC programs on specific subpopulations for the greatest epidemiological impact and programmatic effectiveness. As Malawi prepared its national operational plan for VMMC, it sought to examine the impacts of focusing on specific subpopulations by age and region.We used the Decision Makers' Program Planning Toolkit, Version 2.0, to study the impact of scaling up VMMC to different target populations of Malawi. National MC prevalence by age group from the 2010 Demographic and Health Survey was scaled according to the MC prevalence for each district and then halved, to adjust for over-reporting of circumcision. In-country stakeholders advised a VMMC unit cost of $100, based on implementation experience. We derived a cost of $451 per patient-year for antiretroviral therapy from costs collected as part of a strategic planning exercise previously conducted in- country by UNAIDS.Over a fifteen-year period, circumcising males ages 10-29 would avert 75% of HIV infections, and circumcising males ages 10-34 would avert 88% of infections, compared to the current strategy of circumcising males ages 15-49. The Ministry of Health's South West and South East health zones had the lowest cost per HIV infection averted. Moreover, VMMC met WHO's definition of cost-effectiveness (that is, the cost per disability-adjusted life-year [DALY] saved was less than three times the per capita gross domestic product in all health zones except Central East. Comparing urban versus rural areas in the country, we found that circumcising men in urban areas would be both cost
Perez, Freddy; Orne-Gliemann, Joanna; Mukotekwa, Tarisai; Miller, Anna; Glenshaw, Monica; Mahomva, Agnes; Dabis, François
Zimbabwe has one of the highest rates of HIV seroprevalence in the world. In 2001 only 4% of women and children in need of services for prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV were receiving them. Pilot implementation of the first programme for prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV in rural Zimbabwe. 120 bed district hospital in Buhera district (285,000 inhabitants), Manicaland, Zimbabwe. Programme uptake indicators monitored for 18 months; impact of policy evaluated by assessing up-scaling of programme. Voluntary counselling and testing services for HIV were provided in the hospital antenatal clinic. Women identified as HIV positive and informed of their serostatus and their newborn were offered a single dose antiretroviral treatment of nevirapine; mother-child pairs were followed up through routine health services. Nursing staff and social workers were trained, and community mobilisation was conducted. No services for prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV were available at baseline. Within 18 months, 2298 pregnant women had received pretest counselling, and the acceptance of HIV testing reached 93.0%. Of all 2137 women who had an HIV test, 1588 (74.3%) returned to collect their result; 326 of the 437 HIV positive women diagnosed had post-test counselling, and 104 (24%) mother-child pairs received nevirapine prophylaxis. Minimum staffing, an enhanced training programme, and involvement of district health authorities are needed for the implementation and successful integration of services for prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV. Voluntary counselling and testing services are important entry points for HIV prevention and care and for referral to community networks and medical HIV care services. A district approach is critical to extend programmes for prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV in rural settings. The lessons learnt from this pilot programme have contributed to the design of the national expansion
Stephens, T; Braithwaite, R L; Taylor, S E
Currently little attention has been directed, with the exception of peer education efforts, to constructively develop new and innovative ways to promote HIV/AIDS primary prevention among African American (AA) adolescents and young adults. With this in mind, the aim of this conceptual effort is to present a HIV/AIDS preventive counseling protocol developed for use with AA young adults that makes use of hip-hop music, a form of music popularized by young AAs. The author contend that an increased understanding of the relationships that many AA young adults have with hip-hop music may be used by disease prevention personnel to educate these populations about protective factors for HIV. Making use of hip-hop music is one strategy for integrating counseling in prevention and health maintenance. The overall implications of using hip-hop music in health promotion are unlimited. First, this method makes use of cultural relevant materials to address the educational and health needs of the target community. Second, it is grounded in an approach that serves to stimulate cooperative learning based on peer developed content. Moreover, the use of this medium can be applied to other health promotion activities such as violence/harm reduction and substance abuse prevention, upon reviews of songs for appropriate content. The authors contend that such an approach holds heuristic value in dealing with HIV/AIDS prevention among AA young adults. Additional testing of the intervention is warranted in the refinement of this innovative intervention.
Ameyan, Wole; Jeffery, Caroline; Negash, Kassahun; Biruk, Etsegenet; Taegtmeyer, Miriam
Despite growing efforts to increase HIV testing and counselling (HTC) services for most at risk populations in Ethiopia, the use of these services by female sex workers (FSWs) remains low. With rising numbers of FSWs in Addis Ketema and concerns about their high risk behaviours, exploring and addressing the barriers to uptake is crucial. This qualitative study explores the barriers to utilising HTC facilities and identifies the motives and motivations of FSWs who seek HTC through in-depth and semi-structured interviews with female sex workers, healthcare workers and key informants. Results indicate that FSWs face numerous barriers including inability to seek treatment if found to be positive due to the requirement of an identity (ID) card many do not own. Many FSWs reported discriminatory behaviour from healthcare workers and a lack of dedicated services. What is clear from the findings is that distinct strategies, which differ from those of the broader population, are required to attract FSWs--strategies which take into account the barriers and maximise the reported motives and motivations for testing.
Arnold, Emily A; Operario, Don; Cornwell, Stephanie; Benjamin, Michael; Smith, Carla Dillard; Lockett, Gloria; Kegeles, Susan M
African American men who have sex with both men and women (AAMSMW) are at high risk for acquiring and transmitting HIV, yet few interventions exist to address their unique prevention needs. We conducted 3 focus groups, 21 in-depth interviews, and a pilot test of our intervention with = 61 AAMSMW, which showed significant reductions in sexual risk behavior after 6 months. The intervention is currently being tested in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). We discuss the development of a culturally tailored, theoretically grounded counseling intervention for AAMSMW, presenting findings from our formative research, intervention development process, pilot study, and the implementation of our RCT. We describe the content of each session, our protocol for merging Bruthas with HIV testing, and best practices for recruiting AAMSMW. If Bruthas is found to be efficacious, the intervention will reach a vulnerable population to encourage uptake of regular HIV testing and reduced sexual risk taking.
Nelwan, Erni J; Van Crevel, Reinout; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Indrati, Agnes K; Dwiyana, Reiva F; Nuralam, Nisaa; Pohan, Herdiman T; Jaya, Ilham; Meheus, Andre; Van Der Ven, Andre
To determine the prevalence and behavioural correlates of HIV, HBV and HCV infections among Indonesian prisoners and to examine the impact of voluntary counselling and testing for all incoming prisoners on access to antiretroviral treatment (ART). In a non-anonymous survey in an Indonesian prison for drug-related offences, all incoming prisoners and symptomatic resident prisoners were counselled and offered testing for HIV, hepatitis B and C. Screening was performed in 679 incoming prisoners, of whom 639 (94.1%) agreed to be tested, revealing a seroprevalence of 7.2% (95% CI 5.2-9.2) for HIV, 5.8% (95% CI 3.9-7.6) for HBsAg and 18.6% (95% CI 15.5-21.6) for HCV. Of 57 resident prisoners tested, 29.8% were HIV-positive. HIV infection was strongly associated with injecting drug use (IDU; P prisoners was responsible for diagnosing and treating HIV in 73.0%, respectively, and 68.0% of HIV-positive individuals. HIV and HCV are highly prevalent among incoming Indonesian prisoners and almost entirely explained by IDU. Our study is the first to show that voluntary HIV counselling and testing during the intake process in prison may greatly improve access to ART in a developing country. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Full Text Available Introduction: It would be useful to understand which populations are not reached by home-based HIV-1 testing and counselling (HTC to improve strategies aimed at linking these individuals to care and reducing rates of onward HIV transmission. Methods: We present the results of a baseline home-based HTC (HBHTC campaign aimed at counselling and testing residents aged 16 to 64 for HIV in the north-eastern sector of Mochudi, a community in Botswana with about 44,000 inhabitants. Collected data were compared with population references for Botswana, the United Nations (UN estimates based on the National Census data and the Botswana AIDS Impact Survey IV (BAIS-IV. Analyzed data and references were stratified by age and gender. Results: A total of 6238 age-eligible residents were tested for HIV-1; 1247 (20.0%; 95% CI 19.0 to 21.0% were found to be HIV positive (23.7% of women vs. 13.4% of men. HIV-1 prevalence peaked at 44% in 35- to 39-year-old women and 32% in 40- to 44-year-old men. A lower HIV prevalence rate, 10.9% (95% CI 9.5 to 12.5%, was found among individuals tested for the first time. A significant gender gap was evident in all analyzed subsets. The existing HIV transmission network was analyzed by combining phylogenetic mapping and household structure. Between 62.4 and 71.8% of all HIV-positive individuals had detectable virus. When compared with the UN and BAIS-IV estimates, the proportion of men missed by the testing campaign (48.5%; 95% CI 47.0 to 50.0% was significantly higher than the proportion of missed women (14.2%; 95% CI 13.2 to 15.3%; p<0.0001. The estimated proportion of missed men peaked at about 60% in the age group 30 to 39 years old. The proportions of missed women were substantially smaller, at approximately 28% within the age groups 30 to 34 and 45 to 49 years old. Conclusions: The HBHTC campaign seems to be an efficient tool for reaching individuals who have never been tested previously in southern African communities
Full Text Available Abstract The high prevalence of HIV infection among prisoners and pre-trial detainees, combined with overcrowding and sub-standard living conditions sometimes amounting to inhuman or degrading treatment in violation of international law, make prisons and other detention centres a high risk environment for the transmission of HIV. Ultimately, this contributes to HIV epidemics in the communities to which prisoners return upon their release. We reviewed the evidence regarding HIV prevalence, risk behaviours and transmission in prisons. We also reviewed evidence of the effectiveness of interventions and approaches to reduce the risk behaviours and, consequently, HIV transmission in prisons. A large number of studies report high levels of risk behaviour in prisons, and HIV transmission has been documented. There is a large body of evidence from countries around the world of what prison systems can do to prevent HIV transmission. In particular, condom distribution programmes, accompanied by measures to prevent the occurrence of rape and other forms of non-consensual sex, needle and syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapies, have proven effective at reducing HIV risk behaviours in a wide range of prison environments without resulting in negative consequences for the health of prison staff or prisoners. The introduction of these programmes in prisons is therefore warranted as part of comprehensive programmes to address HIV in prisons, including HIV education, voluntary HIV testing and counselling, and provision of antiretroviral treatment for HIV-positive prisoners. In addition, however, action to reduce overcrowding and improve conditions in detention is urgently needed.
Jürgens, Ralf; Nowak, Manfred; Day, Marcus
The high prevalence of HIV infection among prisoners and pre-trial detainees, combined with overcrowding and sub-standard living conditions sometimes amounting to inhuman or degrading treatment in violation of international law, make prisons and other detention centres a high risk environment for the transmission of HIV. Ultimately, this contributes to HIV epidemics in the communities to which prisoners return upon their release. We reviewed the evidence regarding HIV prevalence, risk behaviours and transmission in prisons. We also reviewed evidence of the effectiveness of interventions and approaches to reduce the risk behaviours and, consequently, HIV transmission in prisons. A large number of studies report high levels of risk behaviour in prisons, and HIV transmission has been documented. There is a large body of evidence from countries around the world of what prison systems can do to prevent HIV transmission. In particular, condom distribution programmes, accompanied by measures to prevent the occurrence of rape and other forms of non-consensual sex, needle and syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapies, have proven effective at reducing HIV risk behaviours in a wide range of prison environments without resulting in negative consequences for the health of prison staff or prisoners.The introduction of these programmes in prisons is therefore warranted as part of comprehensive programmes to address HIV in prisons, including HIV education, voluntary HIV testing and counselling, and provision of antiretroviral treatment for HIV-positive prisoners. In addition, however, action to reduce overcrowding and improve conditions in detention is urgently needed.
Sangita V Patel
Full Text Available Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV disclosure offers important benefits to people living with HIV/AIDS. However, fear of discrimination, blame, and disruption of family relationships can make disclosure a difficult decision. Barriers to HIV disclosure are influenced by the particular culture within which the individuals live. Although many studies have assessed such barriers in the U.S., very few studies have explored the factors that facilitate or prevent HIV disclosure in India. Understanding these factors is critical to the refinement, development, and implementation of a counseling intervention to facilitate disclosure. Materials and Methods: To explore these factors, we conducted 30 in-depth interviews in the local language with HIV- positive individuals from the Integrated Counselling and Testing Centre in Gujarat, India, assessing the experiences, perceived barriers, and facilitators to disclosure. To triangulate the findings, we conducted two focus group discussions with HIV medical and non-medical service providers, respectively. Results: Perceived HIV-associated stigma, fear of discrimination, and fear of family breakdown acted as barriers to HIV disclosure. Most people living with HIV/AIDS came to know of their HIV status due to poor physical health, spousal HIV-positive status, or a positive HIV test during pregnancy. Some wives only learned of their husbands′ HIV positive status after their husbands died. The focus group participants confirmed similar findings. Disclosure had serious implications for individuals living with HIV, such as divorce, maltreatment, ostracism, and decisions regarding child bearing. Interpretation and Conclusion: The identified barriers and facilitators in the present study can be used to augment training of HIV service providers working in voluntary counseling and testing centers in India.
Full Text Available HIV/AIDS related stigma is a major barrier to uptake of HIV testing and counselling (HTC. We assessed the extent of stigmatising attitudes expressed by participants offered community-based HTC, and their anticipated stigma from others to assess relationship with HIV test uptake. From these data, we constructed a brief stigma scale for use around the time of HIV testing.Adult members of 60 households in urban Blantyre, Malawi, were selected using population-weighted random cluster sampling and offered HTC with the option to self-test before confirmatory HTC. Prior to HTC a 15-item HIV stigma questionnaire was administered. We used association testing and principal components analysis (PCA to construct a scale measure of stigma. Of 226 adults invited to participate, 216 (95.6% completed questionnaires and 198/216 (91.7% opted to undergo HTC (all self-tested. Stigmatising attitudes were uncommon, but anticipated stigma was common, especially fearing verbal abuse (22% or being abandoned by their partner (11%. Three questions showed little association or consistency with the remaining 12 stigma questions and were not included in the final scale. For the 12-question final scale, Cronbach's alpha was 0.75. Level of stigma was not associated with previously having tested for HIV (p = 0.318 or agreeing to HTC (p = 0.379, but was associated with expressed worry about being or becoming HIV infected (p = 0.003.Anticipated stigma prior to HTC was common among both men and women. However, the high uptake of HTC suggests that this did not translate into reluctance to accept community-based testing. We constructed a brief scale to measure stigma at the time of HIV testing that could rapidly identify individuals requiring additional support following diagnosis and monitor the impact of increasing availability of community-based HTC on prevalence of stigma.
McMahon, James M; Chimenti, Ruth; Trabold, Nicole; Fedor, Theresa; Mittal, Mona; Tortu, Stephanie
Heterosexual transmission of HIV often occurs in the context of intimate sexual partnerships. There is mounting evidence that couple-based HIV prevention interventions may be more effective than individual-based interventions for promoting risk reduction within such relationships. Yet, concerns have been raised about the safety of couple-based prevention approaches, especially with regard to the risk of intimate partner violence against women. Although several international studies have examined the potential for adverse consequences associated with couple-based interventions, with inconsistent results, there is little data from U.S. studies to shed light on this issue. The current study analyzed data from a randomized trial conducted in New York City with 330 heterosexual couples to examine whether participation in couple-based or relationship-focused HIV counseling and testing (HIV-CT) interventions resulted in an increased likelihood of post-intervention breakups, relationship conflicts, or emotional, physical, or sexual abuse, compared with standard individual HIV-CT. Multinomial logistic regression was used to model the odds of experiencing change in partner violence from baseline to follow-up by treatment condition. A high prevalence of partner-perpetrated violence was reported by both male and female partners across treatment conditions, but there was no conclusive evidence of an increase in relationship dissolution or partner violence subsequent to participation in either the couple-based HIV-CT intervention or relationship-focused HIV-CT intervention compared with controls. Qualitative data collected from the same participants support this interpretation. HIV prevention interventions involving persons in primary sexual partnerships should be sensitive to relationship dynamics and the potential for conflict, and take precautions to protect the safety of both male and female participants. © The Author(s) 2015.
Cawley, Caoimhe; Wringe, Alison; Todd, Jim; Gourlay, Annabelle; Clark, Benjamin; Masesa, Clemens; Machemba, Richard; Reniers, Georges; Urassa, Mark; Zaba, Basia
To investigate the relative effectiveness of different HIV testing and counselling (HTC) services in improving HIV diagnosis rates and increasing HTC coverage in African settings. Patient records from three HTC services [community outreach HTC during cohort study rounds (CO-HTC), walk-in HTC at the local health centre (WI-HTC) and antenatal HIV testing (ANC-HTC)] were linked to records from a community cohort study using a probabilistic record linkage algorithm. Characteristics of linked users of each HTC service were compared to those of cohort participants who did not use the HTC service using logistic regression. Data from three cohort study rounds between 2003 and 2010 were used to assess trends in the proportion of persons testing at different service types. The adjusted odds ratios for HTC use among men with increasing numbers of sexual partners in the past year, and among HIV-positive men and women compared to HIV-negative men and women, were higher at WI-HTC than at CO-HTC and ANC-HTC. Among sero-survey participants, the largest numbers of HIV-positive men and women learned their status via CO-HTC. However, we are likely to have underestimated the numbers diagnosed at WI-HTC and ANC-HTC, due to low sensitivity of the probabilistic record linkage algorithm. Compared to CO-HTC or ANC-HTC, WI-HTC was most likely to attract HIV-positive men and women, and to attract men with greater numbers of sexual partners. Further research should aim to optimise probabilistic record linkage techniques, and to investigate which types of HTC services most effectively link HIV-positive people to treatment services relative to the total cost per diagnosis made. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Jenny H Ledikwe
Full Text Available Unprotected sexual intercourse after undergoing voluntary medical male circumcision but prior to complete wound healing can lead to major adverse events including HIV acquisition. To better understand perceptions related to early resumption of sex prior to wound healing, 27 focus group discussions were conducted among 238 adult men, women, and community leaders in Botswana. Median age among all participants was 31 years of whom 60% were male and 51% were either employed and receiving salary or self-employed. Only 12% reported being currently married. Pain, not risk of HIV acquisition, was perceived as the main adverse consequence of early resumption of sex. In fact, no participant mentioned that early resumption of sex could lead to an increase in HIV risk. Demonstrating masculinity and virility, fear of losing female partners, and misperception about post-operative wound healing also played key roles in the decision to resume sex prior to complete wound healing. Findings from this study highlight a potentially widespread lack of awareness of the increased risk of HIV acquisition during the wound healing period. Strengthening post-operative counseling and identifying strategies to discourage the early resumption of sex will be increasingly important as older men and HIV-positive men seek voluntary medical male circumcision services.
Brito, Maximo O.; Lerebours, Leonel; Volquez, Claudio; Basora, Emmanuel; Khosla, Shaveta; Lantigua, Flavia; Flete, Roberto; Rosario, Riqui; Rodriguez, Luis A.; Fernandez, Mathius; Donastorg, Yeycy; Bailey, Robert C.
Background Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) is an effective strategy to reduce the risk of HIV infection. Studies conducted in the Dominican Republic (DR) suggest that acceptability of VMMC among men may be as high as 67%. The goal of this clinical trial was to assess the acceptability, uptake and safety for VMMC services in two areas of high HIV prevalence in the country. Methods This was a single-arm, non-randomized, pragmatic clinical trial. Study personnel received background information about the risks and benefits of VMMC and practical training on the surgical technique. A native speaking research assistant administered a questionnaire of demographics, sexual practices and knowledge about VMMC. One week after the surgery, participants returned for wound inspection and to answer questions about their post-surgical experience. Results 539 men consented for the study. Fifty seven were excluded from participation for medical or anatomical reasons and 28 decided not to have the procedure after providing consent. A total of 454 men were circumcised using the Forceps Guided Method Under Local Anesthesia. The rate of adverse events (AE) was 4.4% (20% moderate, 80% mild). There were no serious AEs and all complications resolved promptly with treatment. Eighty eight percent of clients reported being “very satisfied” and 12% were “somewhat satisfied” with the outcome at the one-week postoperative visit. Conclusions Recruitment and uptake were satisfactory. Client satisfaction with VMMC was high and the rate of AEs was low. Roll out of VMMC in targeted areas of the DR is feasible and should be considered. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02337179 PMID:26367187
Winter, Meredith C; Halpern, Mina; Brozovich, Ava; Neu, Natalie
Research has demonstrated that adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) results in lower rates of morbidity and mortality associated with HIV infection, yet adherence remains a challenge in resource-limited settings like the Dominican Republic. Clinica de Familia La Romana addressed this problem with an education-based adherence program for adult patients new to ART, and this retrospective cohort study aimed to evaluate the impact of this intervention. Appointment adherence and biological markers were assessed in cases and controls through 12 months. A total of 101 participants were included, with 61 controls and 40 cases. The baseline CD4 count was 162 and 157 cells/mm3 in controls and cases, respectively. Cases showed a 15-fold increase in CD4 count compared with a 2.5-fold increase in controls. Cases were more likelyto adhere to appointments with adherence rates of 86% versus 76% in controls. There was no difference between the rates of treatment abandonment, transfer of care, or death.
Brunie, Aurélie; Wamala-Mucheri, Patricia; Akol, Angela; Mercer, Sarah; Chen, Mario
Improving HIV testing and counselling (HTC) requires a range of strategies. This article reports on HTC service delivery by Village Health Teams (VHTs) in Uganda in the context of a model integrating this new component into pre-existing family planning services. Eight health centres from matched pairs were randomly allocated to intervention or control. After being trained, 36 VHTs reporting to selected facilities in the intervention group started offering HTC along with family planning, while VHTs in the control group provided family planning only. Proficiency testing was conducted as external quality assurance. A survey of all 36 VHTs and 137 family planning clients in the intervention group and 119 clients in the control group and a review of record data were conducted after 10 months. Survey responses by VHTs and their clients in the intervention group demonstrate knowledge of counselling messages and safe testing. External quality assessment results provide additional evidence of competency. Eighty per cent of the family planning clients surveyed in the intervention group received an HIV test during the intervention; 27% of those were first-time testers. More clients had ever tested for HIV in the intervention group compared with the control; clients also retested more often. Findings indicate that this model is feasible and acceptable for expanding quality HTC into communities. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number [NCT02244398]. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Full Text Available Sami Abdurahman,1 Berhanu Seyoum,2 Lemessa Oljira,2 Fitsum Weldegebreal2 1Harari Regional Health Bureau, 2Haramaya University, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Harar, Ethiopia Purpose: To improve the slow uptake of HIV counseling and testing, the World Health Organization (WHO and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS have developed draft guidelines on provider-initiated testing and counseling (PITC. Both in low- and high-income countries, mainly from outpatient clinics and tuberculosis settings, indicates that the direct offer of HIV testing by health providers can result in significant improvements in test uptake. In Ethiopia, there were limited numbers of studies conducted regarding PITC in outpatient clinics. Therefore, in this study, we have assessed the factors affecting the acceptance of PITC among outpatient clients in selected health facilities in Harar, Harari Region State, Ethiopia. Materials and methods: Institutional-based, cross-sectional quantitative and qualitative studies were conducted from February 12–30, 2011 in selected health facilities in Harar town, Harari Region State, Ethiopia. The study participants were recruited from the selected health facilities of Harar using a systematic random sampling technique. The collected data were double entered into a data entry file using Epi Info version 3.5.1. The data were transferred to SPSS software version 16 and analyzed according to the different variables. Results: A total of 362 (70.6% clients accepted PITC, and only 39.4% of clients had heard of PITC in the outpatient department service. Age, occupation, marital status, anyone who wanted to check their HIV status, and the importance of PITC were the variables that showed significant associations with the acceptance of PITC upon bivariate and multivariate analyses. The main reasons given for not accepting the tests were self-trust, not being at risk for HIV, not being ready, needing to consult their
Same day ART initiation versus clinic-based pre-ART assessment and counselling for individuals newly tested HIV-positive during community-based HIV testing in rural Lesotho - a randomized controlled trial (CASCADE trial).
Labhardt, Niklaus Daniel; Ringera, Isaac; Lejone, Thabo Ishmael; Masethothi, Phofu; Thaanyane, T'sepang; Kamele, Mashaete; Gupta, Ravi Shankar; Thin, Kyaw; Cerutti, Bernard; Klimkait, Thomas; Fritz, Christiane; Glass, Tracy Renée
Achievement of the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets in Sub-Sahara Africa is challenged by a weak care-cascade with poor linkage to care and retention in care. Community-based HIV testing and counselling (HTC) is widely used in African countries. However, rates of linkage to care and initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in individuals who tested HIV-positive are often very low. A frequently cited reason for non-linkage to care is the time-consuming pre-ART assessment often requiring several clinic visits before ART-initiation. This two-armed open-label randomized controlled trial compares in individuals tested HIV-positive during community-based HTC the proposition of same-day community-based ART-initiation to the standard of care pre-ART assessment at the clinic. Home-based HTC campaigns will be conducted in catchment areas of six clinics in rural Lesotho. Households where at least one individual tested HIV positive will be randomized. In the standard of care group individuals receive post-test counselling and referral to the nearest clinic for pre-ART assessment and counselling. Once they have started ART the follow-up schedule foresees monthly clinic visits. Individuals randomized to the intervention group receive on the spot point-of-care pre-ART assessment and adherence counselling with the proposition to start ART that same day. Once they have started ART, follow-up clinic visits will be less frequent. First primary outcome is linkage to care (individual presents at the clinic at least once within 3 months after the HIV test). The second primary outcome is viral suppression 12 months after enrolment in the study. We plan to enrol a minimum of 260 households with 1:1 allocation and parallel assignment into both arms. This trial will show if in individuals tested HIV-positive during community-based HTC campaigns the proposition of same-day ART initiation in the community, combined with less frequent follow-up visits at the clinic could be a pragmatic approach to
Same day ART initiation versus clinic-based pre-ART assessment and counselling for individuals newly tested HIV-positive during community-based HIV testing in rural Lesotho – a randomized controlled trial (CASCADE trial
Niklaus Daniel Labhardt
Full Text Available Abstract Background Achievement of the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets in Sub-Sahara Africa is challenged by a weak care-cascade with poor linkage to care and retention in care. Community-based HIV testing and counselling (HTC is widely used in African countries. However, rates of linkage to care and initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART in individuals who tested HIV-positive are often very low. A frequently cited reason for non-linkage to care is the time-consuming pre-ART assessment often requiring several clinic visits before ART-initiation. Methods This two-armed open-label randomized controlled trial compares in individuals tested HIV-positive during community-based HTC the proposition of same-day community-based ART-initiation to the standard of care pre-ART assessment at the clinic. Home-based HTC campaigns will be conducted in catchment areas of six clinics in rural Lesotho. Households where at least one individual tested HIV positive will be randomized. In the standard of care group individuals receive post-test counselling and referral to the nearest clinic for pre-ART assessment and counselling. Once they have started ART the follow-up schedule foresees monthly clinic visits. Individuals randomized to the intervention group receive on the spot point-of-care pre-ART assessment and adherence counselling with the proposition to start ART that same day. Once they have started ART, follow-up clinic visits will be less frequent. First primary outcome is linkage to care (individual presents at the clinic at least once within 3 months after the HIV test. The second primary outcome is viral suppression 12 months after enrolment in the study. We plan to enrol a minimum of 260 households with 1:1 allocation and parallel assignment into both arms. Discussion This trial will show if in individuals tested HIV-positive during community-based HTC campaigns the proposition of same-day ART initiation in the community, combined with less frequent follow
Qvist, Tavs; Cowan, Susan Alice; Graugaard, Christian
of the Copenhagen MSM community provided sexually transmitted infection counseling and rapid HIV testing. In addition, syphilis testing and hepatitis B vaccination were offered. The clinic was staffed with specially trained, predominantly non-health care personnel, and services were anonymous and free of charge...... syphilis positive in rapid testing and referred for confirmatory testing. Furthermore, 264 MSM completed a 3-shot hepatitis B vaccination program. CONCLUSIONS: Easily accessible, community walk-in clinics and targeted testing in high-risk settings are convenient for populations of MSM less likely to seek...
expand the anonymous testing centers and Voluntary Counselling and Testing Program (VCT for general population to easily access to HIV testing.
Dolan, Kate; Larney, Sarah
HIV is a major health challenge for prison authorities. HIV in prisons has implications for HIV in the general community. The aim of this paper was to gather information on HIV risk, prevalence, prevention and treatment in prisons in India. Relevant published and unpublished reports and information were sought in order to provide a coherent picture of the current situation relating to HIV prevention, treatment and care in prisons in India. Information covered prison management and population statistics, general conditions in prisons, provision of general medical care and the HIV situation in prison. No data on drug injection in prison were identified. Sex between men was reported to be common in some Indian prisons. A national study found that 1.7 per cent of inmates were HIV positive. Some prisons provided HIV education. Condom provision was considered illegal. A few prisoners received drug treatment for drug use, HIV infection or co-infection with sexually transmitted infections (STIs). HIV prevalence in prisons in India was higher than that in the general community. Regular monitoring of information on HIV risk behaviours and prevalence in Indian prisons is strongly recommended. Evidence based treatment for drug injectors and nation-wide provision of HIV prevention strategies are urgently required. Voluntary counselling, testing and treatment for HIV and STIs should be provided.
Ifekandu, Chiedu; Suleiman, Aliyu; Aniekwe, Ogechukwu
Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at increased risk of HIV and other STI infections in Nigeria. This is because MSM are afraid to seek medical help because the healthcare workers in various facilities are afraid of the consequences if they provide services for MSM citing the law as a reason not to intervene. MSM in northern states of Nigeria are facing double-jeopardy because the few international partners working in MSM in Nigeria are pulling out of these volatile areas because of the fear of attacks by the Boko Haram and the Nigerian law enforcement agencies. The intervention was conducted to promote affordable and sustainable HIV care and treatment for MSM in Nigeria. This intervention was conducted in the Boko Haram ravaged cities of Kano and Maiduguri (North-East Nigeria). Twenty MSM-key influencers from the two cities were identified and trained on HIV counselling and testing, caregivers, case managers and on initiation process for ARV treatment for new HIV+MSM as well as ethical considerations. The mean age of the key influencers was 24 years +/-SD. Each of the trained 20 key influencers reached 20 MSM-peer with condom promotion, HCT, referral to identified MSM-community health centers and follow-up/caregiving within the space of one month. The project was able to reach 400 MSM in the two cities. 89% of the peers consented to HCT. HIV prevalence among the participants was at 18%. The project recorded ARV-successful referral to healthcare facilities for the respondents that tested positive. The key influencers have been following up for ARV-adherence. Use of community members should be promoted for sustainability and ownership. It also helps in eradicating socio-cultural barrier to HIV intervention for MSM. Moreover, this proves to be one of the safest and affordable methods of reaching MSM in Nigeria in this ugly time of legalization of homophobia in the country's constitution.
Rosenberg, Nora E; Graybill, Lauren A; Wesevich, Austin; McGrath, Nuala; Golin, Carol E; Maman, Suzanne; Bhushan, Nivedita; Tsidya, Mercy; Chimndozi, Limbikani; Hoffman, Irving F; Hosseinipour, Mina C; Miller, William C
In sub-Saharan Africa couple HIV testing and counseling (CHTC) has been associated with substantial increases in safe sex, especially when at least one partner is HIV infected. However, this relationship has not been characterized in an Option B+ context. The study was conducted at the antenatal clinic at Bwaila District Hospital in Lilongwe, Malawi in 2016 under an Option B+ program. Ninety heterosexual couples with an HIV-infected pregnant woman (female-positive couples) and 47 couples with an HIV-uninfected pregnant woman (female-negative couples) were enrolled in an observational study. Each couple member was assessed immediately before and 1 month after CHTC for safe sex (abstinence or consistent condom use in the last month). Generalized estimating equations were used to model change in safe sex before and after CHTC and to compare safe sex between female-positive and female-negative couples. Mean age was 26 years among women and 32 years among men. Before CHTC, safe sex was comparable among female-positive couples (8%) and female-negative couples (2%) [risk ratio (RR): 3.7, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.5 to 29.8]. One month after CHTC, safe sex was higher among female-positive couples (75%) than among female-negative couples (3%) (RR: 30.0, 95% CI: 4.3 to 207.7). Safe sex increased substantially after CTHC for female-positive couples (RR 9.6, 95% CI: 4.6 to 20.0), but not for female-negative couples (RR: 1.2, 95% CI: 0.1 to 18.7). Engaging pregnant couples in CHTC can have prevention benefits for couples with an HIV-infected pregnant woman, but additional prevention approaches may be needed for couples with an HIV-uninfected pregnant woman.
Antônio José Costa Cardoso
counseling center that performed prenatal assistance. Sociodemographic and behavioral data were gathered, as well as syphilis and HIV test results, during the individual counseling sessions registered in the data bank of the Sistema de Informações dos Centros de Testagem e Aconselhamento (Information System on Testing and Counseling Centers. Women who sought the centers for confirmation of previous serology or were referred to this service due to the presence of AIDS symptoms were excluded from the data base. RESULTS: A total of 0.5% of all the pregnant women analyzed (CI 95%=0.3;0.6 were HIV positive. The only variable associated with HIV seropositivity was schooling. The majority of them were basically exposed through unprotected sexual intercourse with the only partner they had a steady relationship with. Younger pregnant women who were single, unemployed and had lower level of education constituted the group with highest exposure. CONCLUSIONS: The Sistema de Informações dos Centros de Testagem e Aconselhamento turned out to be useful for the epidemiological surveillance of HIV infection and high-risk behavior among pregnant women and could also be useful as regards other populations.
Diaz, A; del Romero, J; Rodriguez, C; Alastrue, I; Belda, J; Bru, F J; Cámara, M M; Junquera, M L; Sanz, I; Viloria, L J; Gil, L; Martínez, E; Gual, F; Landa, M C; Pueyo, I; Ureña, J M; Martínez, B; Varela, J A; Polo, A; Azpiri, M A; Diez, M
This paper analyses late presentation (LP) of HIV infection, and its determinants, among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Spain, newly diagnosed with HIV (2003-2011) in 15 sexually transmitted infection/HIV counselling and testing clinics. LP was defined as 12 months before diagnosis (12-24 months (aOR:1.4; 95% CI:1.0-2.0); > 24 months (aOR:2.2; 95% CI:1.7-3.0)). LP was less likely in MSM reporting a known HIV-infected partner as infection source or symptoms compatible with acute retroviral syndrome. 'Region of birth' interacted with 'educational level' and 'steady partner as infection source': only African and Latin-American MSM with low educational level were more likely to present late; Latin-American men attributing their infection to steady partner, but no other MSM, had LP more frequently. In Spain, HIV testing among MSM should be promoted, especially those > 34 years old and migrants with low educational level. The current recommendation that MSM be tested at least once a year is appropriate.
Full Text Available Background: A large, district-wide, home-based HIV counselling and testing (HBHCT programme was implemented in Bushenyi district of Uganda from 2004 to 2007. This programme provided free HBHCT services to all consenting adults of Bushenyi district and had a very high uptake and acceptability. We measured population-level changes in knowledge of HIV status, stigma and HIV-risk behaviours before and after HBHCT to assess whether widespread HBHCT had an effect on trends of risky sexual behaviours and on stigma and discrimination towards HIV. Methods: Serial cross-sectional surveys were carried out before and after the implementation of HBHCT programme in Bushenyi district of Uganda. A total of 1402 randomly selected adults (18 to 49 years were interviewed in the baseline survey. After the implementation, a different set of randomly selected 1562 adults was interviewed using the same questionnaire. Data was collected on socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behaviour, whether respondents had ever tested for HIV and stigma and discrimination towards HIV/AIDS. Results: The proportion of people who had ever tested for HIV increased from 18.6% to 62% (p<0.001. Among people who had ever tested, the proportion of people who shared HIV test result with a sexual partner increased from 41% to 57% (p<0.001. The proportion of persons who wanted infection status of a family member not to be revealed decreased from 68% to 57% (p<0.001. Indicators of risk behaviour also improved; the proportion of people who exchanged money for sex reduced from 12% to 4% (p<0.001, who used a condom when money was exchanged during a sexual act increased from 39% to 80% (p<0.001 and who reported genital ulcer/discharge decreased from 22% to 10% (p<0.001. Conclusion: These data suggest that HBHCT rapidly increased the uptake of HCT and may have led to reduction in high-risk behaviours at population level as well as reduction in stigma and discrimination. Because HBCT programmes
Full Text Available HIV counseling and testing (HCT has been prioritized as one of the prevention strategies for HIV/AIDS, and promoted as an essential tool in scaling up and improving access to treatment, care and support especially in community settings. Home-based HCT (HBHCT is a model that has consistently been found to be highly acceptable and has improved HCT coverage and uptake in low- and middle-income countries since 2002. It involves trained lay counselors going door-to-door offering pre-test counseling and providing HCT services to consenting eligible household members. Currently, there are few studies reporting on the quality of HBHCT services offered by lay counselors especially in Sub-Saharan Africa, including South Africa. This is a quantitative descriptive sub-study of a community randomized trial (Good Start HBHCT trial which describes the quality of HBHCT provided by lay counselors. Quality of HBHCT was measured as scores comparing observed practice to prescribed protocols using direct observation. Data were collected through periodic observations of HCT sessions and exit interviews with clients. Counselor quality scores for pre-test counseling and post-test counseling sessions were created to determine the level of quality. For the client exit interviews a continuous score was created to assess how satisfied the clients were with the counseling session. A total of 196 (3% observational assessments and 406 (6% client exit interviews were completed. Overall, median scores for quality of counseling and testing were high for both HIV-negative and HIV-positive clients. For exit interviews all 406 (100% clients had overall satisfaction with the counseling and testing services they received, however 11% were concerned about the counselor keeping their discussion confidential. Of all 406 clients, 393 (96.8% intended to recommend the service to other people. In ensuring good quality HCT services, ongoing quality assessments are important to monitor
Magasana, Vuyolwethu; Zembe, Wanga; Tabana, Hanani; Naik, Reshma; Jackson, Debra; Swanevelder, Sonja; Doherty, Tanya
HIV counseling and testing (HCT) has been prioritized as one of the prevention strategies for HIV/AIDS, and promoted as an essential tool in scaling up and improving access to treatment, care and support especially in community settings. Home-based HCT (HBHCT) is a model that has consistently been found to be highly acceptable and has improved HCT coverage and uptake in low- and middle-income countries since 2002. It involves trained lay counselors going door-to-door offering pre-test counseling and providing HCT services to consenting eligible household members. Currently, there are few studies reporting on the quality of HBHCT services offered by lay counselors especially in Sub-Saharan Africa, including South Africa. This is a quantitative descriptive sub-study of a community randomized trial (Good Start HBHCT trial) which describes the quality of HBHCT provided by lay counselors. Quality of HBHCT was measured as scores comparing observed practice to prescribed protocols using direct observation. Data were collected through periodic observations of HCT sessions and exit interviews with clients. Counselor quality scores for pre-test counseling and post-test counseling sessions were created to determine the level of quality. For the client exit interviews a continuous score was created to assess how satisfied the clients were with the counseling session. A total of 196 (3%) observational assessments and 406 (6%) client exit interviews were completed. Overall, median scores for quality of counseling and testing were high for both HIV-negative and HIV-positive clients. For exit interviews all 406 (100%) clients had overall satisfaction with the counseling and testing services they received, however 11% were concerned about the counselor keeping their discussion confidential. Of all 406 clients, 393 (96.8%) intended to recommend the service to other people. In ensuring good quality HCT services, ongoing quality assessments are important to monitor quality of HCT
Full Text Available Background: HIV counselling and testing (HCT and knowledge about HIV have been key strategies utilised in the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS worldwide. HIV knowledge and uptake of HCT services in sub-Saharan Africa are still low. This study was conducted to determine factors associated with HCT and HIV/AIDS knowledge levels among a commuter population in Johannesburg, South Africa. Objective: To identify the factors associated with HCT uptake among the commuter population. Design: A simple random sampling method was used to select participants in a venue-based intercept survey at a taxi rank in the Johannesburg Central Business District. Data were collected using an electronic questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis assessed factors associated with HIV testing stratified by gender. Results: 1,146 respondents were interviewed, the maority (n=579, 50.5% were females and (n=780, 68.1% were over 25 years of age. Overall HCT knowledge was high (n=951, 83% with more females utilising HCT facilities. There was a significant difference in HIV testing for respondents living closer to and further away from health facilities. Slightly more than half of the respondents indicated stigma as one of the barriers for testing (n=594, 52%, p-value=0.001. For males, living with a partner (aOR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.02–2.78, p-value: 0.041 and possessing a post-primary education were positively associated with testing (aOR: 2.00, 95% CI: 1.15–3.47, p-value: 0.014, whereas stigma and discrimination reduced the likelihood of testing (aOR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.31–0.62, p-value: <0.001. For females, having one sexual partner (aOR: 2.65, 95% CI: 1.19–5.90, p-value: 0.017 and a low perceived benefit for HIV testing (aOR: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.30–0.96, p-value: 0.035 were associated with HIV testing. Conclusion: The overall HIV/AIDS knowledge was generally high. Gender-specific health education and HIV intervention programmes are needed for improved access to HCT services
Knowledge of tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and perception about provider initiated HIV testing and counselling among TB patients attending health facilities in Harar town, Eastern Ethiopia
Background Tuberculosis (TB) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) co-infection is one of the major health problems in Ethiopia. The national TB and HIV control guideline in Ethiopia recommends provider initiated HIV testing and counselling (PITC) as a routine care for TB patients. However, the impact of this approach on the treatment seeking of TB patients has not been well studied. In this study, we assessed knowledge of TB and HIV, and perception about PITC among TB patients attending health facilities in Harar town, Eastern Ethiopia. Methods In a health facilities based cross-sectional study, a total of 415 study participants were interviewed about knowledge of TB and HIV as well as the impact of HIV testing on their treatment seeking behavior using a semi-structured questionnaires. Results Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed the association of distance > 10 km from health facility [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=0.48, 95% CI: 0.24 - 0.97, P=0.042] with low knowledge of TB. Distance > 10 km from health facility (AOR= 0.12, 95% CI: 0.06 -0.23, P .001) was also associated with low knowledge of HIV testing. Delay in treatment seeking was associated with female participants (AOR = 0.11, 95% CI: 0.05-0.25, .001), single marital status (AOR =0.001, 95% CI: 0.00 - 0.01, P.001) and distance > 10 km from health facility (AOR =0.46, 95% CI: 0.28 - 0.75, P=0.002). Most of the study participants (70%) believed that there is no association between TB and HIV/AIDS. On the other hand, two thirds (66.5%) of the participants thought that HIV testing has importance for TB patients. However, the majority (81.6%) of the study participants in the age category less than 21 years believed that fear of PITC could cause delay in treatment seeking. Conclusion The study showed the association of low knowledge of the study participants about TB and HIV testing with distance > 10 km from health facility. Study participants in the age category less than 21 years thought that fear
Mayston, Rosie; Patel, Vikram; Abas, Melanie; Korgaonkar, Priya; Paranjape, Ramesh; Rodrigues, Savio; Prince, Martin
Successful linkage to care is increasingly recognised as a potentially important factor in determining the success of Antiretroviral Therapy treatment programmes. However, the role of psychological factors during the early part of the continuum of care has so far been under-investigated. The objective of the Umeed study was to evaluate the impact of Common Mental Disorder (CMD), hazardous alcohol use and low cognitive functioning upon attendance for post-test counselling and linkage to care among people attending for HIV-testing in Goa, India. The study was a prospective cohort design. Participants were recruited at the time of attending for testing and were asked to complete a baseline interview covering sociodemographic characteristics and mental health exposures. HIV status, post-test counselling (PTC) and Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) Centre data were extracted from clinical records. Among 1934 participants, CMD predicted non-attendance for PTC (adjusted OR = 0.51, 0.21-0.82). There was tentative evidence of an association between hazardous alcohol use and non-attendance for PTC (adjusted OR = 0.69, 0.45-1.02). There was no evidence of an association between CMD caseness and attendance for ART. However, post-hoc analyses showed an association between increasing symptoms of CMD and non-attendance. Although participation rates were high (86%), non-participation was a possible source of bias. Cognitive tests had not been previously validated in a young population in Goa. The context in which cognitive testing took place may have contributed to the high prevalence of low scores. Findings suggest the need to move towards a broader conceptualisation of the interrelationship between mental health and HIV. It may be important to consider the impact of symptoms of depression and anxiety at every stage of the continuum of care, including immediately after diagnosis and when initiating contact with treatment services.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT is an important component of any HIV/AIDS control and prevention activities. VCT makes people aware of their HIV serostatus and enables early identification of those who need care. It is an important link to HIV care and support. The main aim of this study is to describe the HIV burden at VCT and define the relationship between the VCT Center and the HIV Chronic Care Clinic of the University of Gondar (UoG Hospital. Methods It is a record based descriptive study undertaken by using data collected by health professionals at the VCT center and the HIV chronic care clinic of the UoG Hospital. Patient data collected from 2005/06 to 2008/09 was investigated. Analysis was carried out using the SPSS version 16.0. Results A total of 19,168 people were tested for HIV and a prevalence of 25.4% was obtained. 4298 HIV positive people were referred to the HIV chronic care clinic but only 27% actually registered at the clinic. Chi-square analyses showed residence, age and time of VCT visit showed significant relations with hospital care attendance. Conclusion The overall HIV prevalence is high. The data obtained at the HIV care clinic regarding patients’ clinical conditions at acceptance were incomplete. Improvements are required on the link between VCT and HIV care and documentation of data.
Knowledge of tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and perception about provider initiated HIV testing and counselling among TB patients attending health facilities in Harar town, Eastern Ethiopia.
Seyoum, Ayichew; Legesse, Mengistu
Tuberculosis (TB) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) co-infection is one of the major health problems in Ethiopia. The national TB and HIV control guideline in Ethiopia recommends provider initiated HIV testing and counselling (PITC) as a routine care for TB patients. However, the impact of this approach on the treatment seeking of TB patients has not been well studied. In this study, we assessed knowledge of TB and HIV, and perception about PITC among TB patients attending health facilities in Harar town, Eastern Ethiopia. In a health facilities based cross-sectional study, a total of 415 study participants were interviewed about knowledge of TB and HIV as well as the impact of HIV testing on their treatment seeking behavior using a semi-structured questionnaires. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed the association of distance > 10 km from health facility [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=0.48, 95% CI: 0.24 - 0.97, P=0.042] with low knowledge of TB. Distance > 10 km from health facility (AOR= 0.12, 95% CI: 0.06 -0.23, P 10 km from health facility (AOR =0.46, 95% CI: 0.28 - 0.75, P=0.002). Most of the study participants (70%) believed that there is no association between TB and HIV/AIDS. On the other hand, two thirds (66.5%) of the participants thought that HIV testing has importance for TB patients. However, the majority (81.6%) of the study participants in the age category less than 21 years believed that fear of PITC could cause delay in treatment seeking. The study showed the association of low knowledge of the study participants about TB and HIV testing with distance > 10 km from health facility. Study participants in the age category less than 21 years thought that fear of PITC could cause treatment delay of TB patients. Hence, emphasis should be given to improve knowledge of TB and HIV among residents far away from health facility, and attention also needs to be given to improve the perception of individuals in the age group less than 21 years
Préau, Marie; Lorente, Nicolas; Sagaon-Teyssier, Luis; Champenois, Karen; Gall, Jean Marie Le; Mabire, Xavier; Spire, Bruno; Mora, Marion; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Suzan, Marie
The aims of the study were to determine the level of satisfaction of men who have sex with men (MSM) participating in two community-based non-medicalized counseling and testing programs (ANRS-DRAG and ANRS-COM'TEST) offering HIV rapid tests (hereafter CBOffer), and to identify factors associated with satisfaction. Between 2009 and 2011, 436 participants voluntarily benefited from a CBOffer in the two programs. They completed self-administered questionnaires before and after testing. Psychosocial scores were constructed using principal component analyses to reflect the following dimensions: post-test satisfaction, avoidance of at-risk situations as a HIV risk-reduction strategy, and attitudes towards condom use. Logarithmic regression of the post-test satisfaction score was performed on these scores and on other selected explanatory variables, including the variable "self-identification as homosexual or bisexual". Post-test satisfaction ranged between 90-99 and below 90 for 50% and 25% of the participants, respectively. Post-test satisfaction with the CBOffer was independently associated with self-defined sexuality, meeting place for sexual partners, participants' attitudes about being HIV-positive, and condom use. The very high level of satisfaction was associated with both personal and socio-behavioral factors. Vulnerable MSM could be targeted better and, accordingly, could use this offer more frequently as a combined prevention tool.
Zhang, Liying; Shah, Iqbal H; Li, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yuejiao; Zhang, Chen; Zhang, Lihong; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Cui, Yan; Xu, Jinping
HIV testing and counseling (HTC) are increasingly used in China during routine medical care visits to health facilities. However, limited data are available regarding the association between the utilization of HTC services and condom use among low-paid female sex workers (FSWs) who are at high risk of HIV infection but are hard to reach. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 794 low-paid FSWs in a city of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in 2011. Results showed that 71.7% of low-paid FSWs had utilized HTC services in the previous year and 65.7% reported having used a condom during the last sexual intercourse with their clients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that utilizing HTC services was significantly and positively associated with the condom use. It also indicated that low-paid FSWs who were older, married, had higher education, earned less money, had high number of clients, had a history of sexually transmitted diseases, or had little or no HIV knowledge were less likely to use a condom during the last sexual encounter. The study suggests that HTC services need to be scaled up and made more accessible for this vulnerable population.
Conclusions: Strategies to improve HIV testing acceptance are necessary. Qualitative research is recommended to understand the reasons for testing refusals so that remedial interventions can be implemented.
Hanh, Nguyen Thi Thúy; Rasch, Vibeke; Chi, Bùi Kim
Women with HIV who want to have children face a range of challenges, quandaries, and hard decisions. This article examines the role of health staff in supporting HIV-infected pregnant women who desire to maintain their pregnancies. The article is derived from anthropological research conducted in...
Norma C Ware
Full Text Available Introduction: The successes of HIV treatment scale-up and the availability of new prevention tools have raised hopes that the epidemic can finally be controlled and ended. Reduction in HIV incidence and control of the epidemic requires high testing rates at population levels, followed by linkage to treatment or prevention. As effective linkage strategies are identified, it becomes important to understand how these strategies work. We use qualitative data from The Linkages Study, a recent community intervention trial of community-based testing with linkage interventions in sub-Saharan Africa, to show how lay counsellor home HIV testing and counselling (home HTC with follow-up support leads to linkage to clinic-based HIV treatment and medical male circumcision services. Methods: We conducted 99 semi-structured individual interviews with study participants and three focus groups with 16 lay counsellors in Kabwohe, Sheema District, Uganda. The participant sample included both HIV+ men and women (N=47 and HIV-uncircumcised men (N=52. Interview and focus group audio-recordings were translated and transcribed. Each transcript was summarized. The summaries were analyzed inductively to identify emergent themes. Thematic concepts were grouped to develop general constructs and framing propositional statements. Results: Trial participants expressed interest in linking to clinic-based services at testing, but faced obstacles that eroded their initial enthusiasm. Follow-up support by lay counsellors intervened to restore interest and inspire action. Together, home HTC and follow-up support improved morale, created a desire to reciprocate, and provided reassurance that services were trustworthy. In different ways, these functions built links to the health service system. They worked to strengthen individuals’ general sense of capability, while making the idea of accessing services more manageable and familiar, thus reducing linkage barriers. Conclusions
Ware, Norma C; Wyatt, Monique A; Asiimwe, Stephen; Turyamureeba, Bosco; Tumwesigye, Elioda; van Rooyen, Heidi; Barnabas, Ruanne V; Celum, Connie L
The successes of HIV treatment scale-up and the availability of new prevention tools have raised hopes that the epidemic can finally be controlled and ended. Reduction in HIV incidence and control of the epidemic requires high testing rates at population levels, followed by linkage to treatment or prevention. As effective linkage strategies are identified, it becomes important to understand how these strategies work. We use qualitative data from The Linkages Study, a recent community intervention trial of community-based testing with linkage interventions in sub-Saharan Africa, to show how lay counsellor home HIV testing and counselling (home HTC) with follow-up support leads to linkage to clinic-based HIV treatment and medical male circumcision services. We conducted 99 semi-structured individual interviews with study participants and three focus groups with 16 lay counsellors in Kabwohe, Sheema District, Uganda. The participant sample included both HIV+ men and women (N=47) and HIV-uncircumcised men (N=52). Interview and focus group audio-recordings were translated and transcribed. Each transcript was summarized. The summaries were analyzed inductively to identify emergent themes. Thematic concepts were grouped to develop general constructs and framing propositional statements. Trial participants expressed interest in linking to clinic-based services at testing, but faced obstacles that eroded their initial enthusiasm. Follow-up support by lay counsellors intervened to restore interest and inspire action. Together, home HTC and follow-up support improved morale, created a desire to reciprocate, and provided reassurance that services were trustworthy. In different ways, these functions built links to the health service system. They worked to strengthen individuals' general sense of capability, while making the idea of accessing services more manageable and familiar, thus reducing linkage barriers. Home HTC with follow-up support leads to linkage by building
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Full Text Available Abstract Background Following universal access to antiretroviral therapy in Thailand, evidence from National AIDS Spending Assessment indicates a decreasing proportion of expenditure on prevention interventions. To prompt policymakers to revitalize HIV prevention, this study identifies a comprehensive list of HIV/AIDs preventive interventions that are likely to be effective and cost-effective in Thailand. Methods A systematic review of the national and international literature on HIV prevention strategies from 1997 to 2008 was undertaken. The outcomes used to consider the effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions were changes in HIV risk behaviour and HIV incidence. Economic evaluations that presented their results in terms of cost per HIV infection averted or cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY gained were also included. All studies were assessed against quality criteria. Results The findings demonstrated that school based-sex education plus life-skill programs, voluntary and routine HIV counselling and testing, male condoms, street outreach programs, needle and syringe programs, programs for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission, male circumcision, screening blood products and donated organs for HIV, and increased alcohol tax were all effective in reducing HIV infection among target populations in a cost-effective manner. Conclusion We found very limited local evidence regarding the effectiveness of HIV interventions amongst specific high risk populations. This underlines the urgent need to prioritise health research resources to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of HIV interventions aimed at reducing HIV infection among high risk groups in Thailand.
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the neurological complications among Iranian HIV-positive patients. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 428 patients diagnosed with HIV infection between 2006 and 2009 at Imam Khomeini hospital, Tehran, Iran. Demographic and clinical variables as well as laboratory tests were extracted and analyzed. Also, another 100 patients refereed to Voluntary Counseling and Testing center of the hospital were visited and evaluated for neurological complications. Results: Among the patients, neurologic manifestations were observed in 34 (7.94% patients. Twenty three percent of the patients received antiretroviral therapy. Identified causes included brain toxoplasmosis (14.7%, progressive multi-focal leuko encephalopathy (5.9%, HIV encephalopathy (5.9%, TB meningitis (5% and unknown etiologies (11.8%. Also, among 100 patients who were admitted and visited at the Voluntary Counseling and Testing center, no one was diagnosed for any neurological manifestations. Conclusions: According to our results, toxoplasmosis is the most frequent cause of neurological conditions among Iranian HIV infected patients and should be considered in any HIV/AIDS patient with neurological manifestations.
Sweat, Michael; Morin, Stephen; Celentano, David; Mulawa, Marta; Singh, Basant; Mbwambo, Jessie; Kawichai, Surinda; Chingono, Alfred; Khumalo-Sakutukwa, Gertrude; Gray, Glenda; Richter, Linda; Kulich, Michal; Sadowski, Andrew; Coates, Thomas
SUMMARY BACKGROUND HIV counseling and testing is the gateway to treatment and care and provides important preventative and personal benefits to recipients. However, in developing countries the majority of HIV infected persons have not been tested for HIV. Combining community mobilization, mobile community-based HIV testing and counseling, and post-test support may increase HIV testing rates. METHODS We randomly assigned half of 10 rural communities in Tanzania, 8 in Zimbabwe, and 14 in Thailand to receive a multiple component community-based voluntary counseling and testing (CBVCT) intervention together with access to standard clinic-based voluntary counseling and testing (SVCT). The control communities received only SVCT. The intervention was provided for approximately 3 years. The primary study endpoint is HIV incidence and is pending completion of the post-intervention assessment. This is a descriptive interim analysis examining the percentage of the total population aged 16–32 years tested for HIV across study arms, and differences in client characteristics by study arm. FINDINGS A higher percentage of 16–32 year-olds were tested in intervention communities than in control communities (37% vs. 9% in Tanzania; 51% vs. 5% in Zimbabwe; and 69% vs. 23% in Thailand). The mean difference between the percentage of the population tested in CBVCT versus SVCT communities was 40.4% across the 3 country study arm pairs, (95% CI 15.8% – 64.7%, p-value 0.019, df=2). Despite higher prevalence of HIV among those testing at SVCT venues the intervention detected 3.6 times more HIV infected clients in the CBVCT communities than in SVCT communities (952 vs. 264, ptesting grew substantially across all sites to 28% of all those testing for HIV by the end of the intervention period. INTERPRETATION This multiple component, community-level intervention is effective at both increasing HIV testing rates and detecting HIV cases in rural settings in developing countries. PMID
M.E.G. Wolfers (Mireille); J.B.F. de Wit (John); H.J. Hospers (Harm Jan); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik); O. de Zwart (Onno)
textabstractBackground. There is currently a trend towards unsafe unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) among men who have sex with men. We evaluated a short individual counselling session on reducing UAI among gay and bisexual men. Methods. A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the face of the dual TB/HIV epidemic, the ProTEST Initiative was one of the first to demonstrate the feasibility of providing collaborative TB/HIV care for people living with HIV (PLWH in poor settings. The ProTEST Initiative facilitated collaboration between service providers. Voluntary counselling and testing (VCT acted as the entry point for services including TB screening and preventive therapy, clinical treatment for HIV-related disease, and home-based care (HBC, and a hospice. This paper estimates the costs of the ProTEST Initiative in two sites in urban Zambia, prior to the introduction of anti-retroviral therapy. Methods Annual financial and economic providers costs and output measures were collected in 2000–2001. Estimates are made of total costs for each component and average costs per: person reached by ProTEST; VCT pre-test counselled, tested and completed; isoniazid preventive therapy started and completed; clinic visit; HBC patient; and hospice admission and bednight. Results Annual core ProTEST costs were (in 2007 US dollars $84,213 in Chawama and $31,053 in Matero. The cost of coordination was 4%–5% of total site costs ($1–$6 per person reached. The largest cost component in Chawama was voluntary counselling and testing (56% and the clinic in Matero (50%, where VCT clients had higher HIV-prevalences and more advanced HIV. Average costs were lower for all components in the larger site. The cost per HBC patient was $149, and per hospice bednight was $24. Conclusion This study shows that coordinating an integrated and comprehensive package of services for PLWH is relatively inexpensive. The lessons learnt in this study are still applicable today in the era of ART, as these services must still be provided as part of the continuum of care for people living with HIV.
Hospers Harm J
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is currently a trend towards unsafe unprotected anal intercourse (UAI among men who have sex with men. We evaluated a short individual counselling session on reducing UAI among gay and bisexual men. Methods A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the counselling session. This session was conducted during consulting hours at four municipal health clinics during a Hepatitis B vaccination campaign. These clinics offered free vaccination to high-risk groups, such as gay and bisexual men. All gay and bisexual men attending health clinics in four cities in the Netherlands were asked to participate. Each participant in the intervention group received a fifteen-minute individual counselling based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour and Motivational Interviewing. Changes in UAI were measured over a 5-months period, using self-administered questionnaires. UAI was measured separately for receptive and insertive intercourse in steady and casual partners. These measures were combined in an index-score (range 0–8. Results While UAI in the counselling group remained stable, it increased in the controls by 66% from 0.41 to 0.68. The results show that the intervention had a protective effect on sexual behaviour with steady partners. Intervention effects were strongest within steady relationships, especially for men whose steady-relationship status changed during the study. The intervention was well accepted among the target group. Conclusion The fifteen-minute individually tailored counselling session was not only well accepted but also had a protective effect on risk behaviour after a follow-up of six months.
Linguistic and Cultural Adaptation of a Computer-Based Counseling Program (CARE+ Spanish) to Support HIV Treatment Adherence and Risk Reduction for People Living With HIV/AIDS: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
Kurth, Ann E; Chhun, Nok; Cleland, Charles M; Crespo-Fierro, Michele; Parés-Avila, José A; Lizcano, John A; Norman, Robert G; Shedlin, Michele G; Johnston, Barbara E; Sharp, Victoria L
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease in the United States disproportionately affects minorities, including Latinos. Barriers including language are associated with lower antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence seen among Latinos, yet ART and interventions for clinic visit adherence are rarely developed or delivered in Spanish. The aim was to adapt a computer-based counseling tool, demonstrated to reduce HIV-1 viral load and sexual risk transmission in a population of English-speaking adults, for use during routine clinical visits for an HIV-positive Spanish-speaking population (CARE+ Spanish); the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was the theoretical framework guiding program development. A longitudinal randomized controlled trial was conducted from June 4, 2010 to March 29, 2012. Participants were recruited from a comprehensive HIV treatment center comprising three clinics in New York City. Eligibility criteria were (1) adults (age ≥18 years), (2) Latino birth or ancestry, (3) speaks Spanish (mono- or multilingual), and (4) on antiretrovirals. Linear and generalized mixed linear effects models were used to analyze primary outcomes, which included ART adherence, sexual transmission risk behaviors, and HIV-1 viral loads. Exit interviews were offered to purposively selected intervention participants to explore cultural acceptability of the tool among participants, and focus groups explored the acceptability and system efficiency issues among clinic providers, using the TAM framework. A total of 494 Spanish-speaking HIV clinic attendees were enrolled and randomly assigned to the intervention (arm A: n=253) or risk assessment-only control (arm B, n=241) group and followed up at 3-month intervals for one year. Gender distribution was 296 (68.4%) male, 110 (25.4%) female, and 10 (2.3%) transgender. By study end, 433 of 494 (87.7%) participants were retained. Although intervention participants had reduced viral loads, increased ART adherence and decreased sexual
Prof. Thomas J Coates, PhD
Funding: US National Institute of Mental Health, the Division of AIDS of the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, and the Office of AIDS Research of the US National Institutes of Health.
Pillay, S K; Moolla, Z; Sartorius, B; Madiba, T E
The link between colorectal cancer (CRC) and HIV has not been extensively studied. Study setting: Colorectal unit at a tertiary institution. Study population: HIV negative and positive patients with colorectal cancer over 12 years (2005-2016). Study design: This is an analysis of prospectively collected data from a colorectal cancer database archived in the Gastrointestinal Cancer Research Centre, University of KwaZulu-Natal. Demographic details, HIV status, anatomical site, stage, treatment and follow-up were documented. Data was entered into Microsoft Excel® and analysed. The study endpoints were clinicopathological pattern, disease distribution, staging and treatment outcomes. Voluntary counselling and testing were performed on 381 out of 1543 CRC. Three hundred and eight patients [M:F 1.6:1] tested negative and 73 [M:F 1:2] tested positive. Mean age was 44.6 + 13.7 and 55 + 14.9 years among HIV positive and negative patients respectively (p dead in HIV positive, and 92 (39%) among HIV negative. Recurrence rate was 1% and 6% for HIV positive and HIV negative patients respectively. HIV positive patients tend to present at a younger age with more proximal disease, at an advanced stage. Resection rate was lower among HIV positive individuals. Follow-up was shorter for HIV positive patients and recurrence rate was higher for HIV negative patients. There were more deaths in the HIV positive group during follow-up.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB and HIV are two worldwide public health concerns. Co-infection of these two diseases has been considered to be a major obstacle for the global efforts in reaching the goals for the prevention of HIV and TB. METHOD: A comprehensive cross-sectional study was conducted to recruit TB patients in three provinces (Guangxi, Henan and Sichuan of China between April 1 and September 30, 2010. RESULTS: A total of 1,032 consenting TB patients attended this survey during the study period. Among the participants, 3.30% were HIV positive; about one quarter had opportunistic infections. Nearly half of the participants were 50 years or older, the majority were male and about one third were from minority ethnic groups. After adjusting for site, gender and areas of residence (using the partial/selective Model 1, former commercial plasma donors (adjusted OR [aOR] = 33.71 and injecting drug users(aOR = 15.86 were found to have significantly higher risk of being HIV-positivity. In addition, having extramarital sexual relationship (aOR = 307.16, being engaged in commercial sex (aOR = 252.37, suffering from opportunistic infections in the past six months (aOR = 2.79, losing 10% or more of the body weight in the past six months (aOR = 5.90 and having abnormal chest X-ray findings (aOR = 20.40 were all significantly associated with HIV seropositivity (each p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: HIV prevalence among TB patients was high in the study areas of China. To control the dual epidemic, intervention strategies targeting socio-demographic and behavioral factors associated with higher risk of TB-HIV co-infection are urgently called for.
Salazar-Austin, N; Kulich, M; Chingono, A; Chariyalertsak, S; Srithanaviboonchai, K; Gray, G; Richter, L; van Rooyen, H; Morin, S; Sweat, M; Mbwambo, J; Szekeres, G; Coates, T; Celentano, D
Youth represent a large proportion of new HIV infections worldwide, yet their utilization of HIV testing and counseling (HTC) remains low. Using the post-intervention, cross-sectional, population-based household survey done in 2011 as part of HPTN 043/NIMH Project Accept, a cluster-randomized trial of community mobilization and mobile HTC in South Africa (Soweto and KwaZulu Natal), Zimbabwe, Tanzania and Thailand, we evaluated age-related differences among socio-demographic and behavioral determinants of HTC in study participants by study arm, site, and gender. A multivariate logistic regression model was developed using complete individual data from 13,755 participants with recent HIV testing (prior 12 months) as the outcome. Youth (18-24 years) was not predictive of recent HTC, except for high-risk youth with multiple concurrent partners, who were less likely (aOR 0.75; 95% CI 0.61-0.92) to have recently been tested than youth reporting a single partner. Importantly, the intervention was successful in reaching men with site specific success ranging from aOR 1.27 (95% CI 1.05-1.53) in South Africa to aOR 2.30 in Thailand (95% CI 1.85-2.84). Finally, across a diverse range of settings, higher education (aOR 1.67; 95% CI 1.42, 1.96), higher socio-economic status (aOR 1.21; 95% CI 1.08-1.36), and marriage (aOR 1.55; 95% CI 1.37-1.75) were all predictive of recent HTC, which did not significantly vary across study arm, site, gender or age category (18-24 vs. 25-32 years).
Kalichman, Seth C; Kalichman, Moira O; Cherry, Chauncey; Swetzes, Connie; Amaral, Christina M; White, Denise; Jones, Mich'l; Grebler, Tamar; Eaton, Lisa
Affordable and effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence interventions are needed for many patients to promote positive treatment outcomes and prevent viral resistance. We conducted a two-arm randomized trial (n = 40 men and women receiving and less than 95% adherent to ART) to test a single office session followed by four biweekly cell phone counseling sessions that were grounded in behavioral self-management model of medication adherence using data from phone-based unannounced pill counts to provide feedback-guided adherence strategies. The control condition received usual care and matched office and cell phone/pill count contacts. Participants were baseline assessed and followed with biweekly unannounced pill counts and 4-month from baseline computerized interviews (39/40 retained). Results showed that the self-regulation counseling delivered by cell phone demonstrated significant improvements in adherence compared to the control condition; adherence improved from 87% of pills taken at baseline to 94% adherence 4 months after baseline, p self-efficacy (p < 0.05) and use of behavioral strategies for ART adherence (p < 0.05). We conclude that the outcomes from this test of concept trial warrant further research on cell phone-delivered self-regulation counseling in a larger and more rigorous trial.
Full Text Available Pasien HIV/AIDS mengalami problem yang kompleks baik fisik, psikologis, sosial, maupun spiritual. Karenanya mereka membutuhkan perawatan paliatif yang bertujuan untuk meningkatkan kualitas hidup pasien HIV/AIDS dan keluarganya. Realitasnya, dimensi spiritual dalam perawatan paliatif, sering kali terabaikan karena tidak tersedianya rohaniawan. Tetapi dimensi spiritual mendapatkan perhatian besar pada rumah sakit “agama” seperti Rumah Sakit Islam Sultan Agung.Hal ini terlihat dari keterlibatan rohaniawan sebagai konselor Voluntary Counseling Test (VCT HIV/AIDS. Adanya konselor dari rohaniawan inilah yang memberikan terapi psikoreligi dalam pelayanan konseling di Klinik Voluntary Counseling Test HIV/AIDS. Konseling Islam terbukti memberikan solusi bagi problem yang dialami pasien HIV/AIDS. Solusi tersebut tidak sebatas pada problem spiritual, tetapi juga problem psikologis dan sosial. Pasien HIV/AIDS yang terbebas dari problem psikososio-spiritual, selanjutnya akan memiliki fisik yang lebih sehat. Pasien yang memiliki kondisi fisik, psikologis, sosial, dan spiritual yang lebih baik berarti telah mengalami peningkatan kualitas hidup. Penjelasan tersebut menunjukkan bahwa konseling Islam memberikan kontribusi dalam mewujudkan palliative care bagi pasien HIV/AIDS
Stranix-Chibanda, Lynda; Chibanda, Dixon; Chingono, Albert; Montgomery, Elizabeth; Wells, Jennifer; Maldonado, Yvonne; Chipato, Tsungai; Shetty, Avinash K
To examine the prevalence of psychological morbidity in HIV-infected and uninfected pregnant women seeking antenatal care in Zimbabwe. Pregnant women were screened for psychological morbidity at the initial antenatal care visit using the 14-item Shona Symptom Questionnaire (SSQ) before voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT). The primary outcome measure was "cases," as determined by a SSQ score of >or= 8. Demographic characteristics and HIV status were compared between cases and noncases to determine the risk factors for psychological morbidity. Of the 437 participants, psychological morbidity was detected in 73 (17%) women before undergoing VCT. Risk factors for psychological morbidity included having a spouse older than 35 years of age. HIV infection by itself was not a risk factor for psychological morbidity for women. There is a high burden of psychological morbidity among pregnant women in Zimbabwe. Mental health services should be integrated into antenatal care to improve psychological health for all women in Zimbabwe.
Haskew, John; Turner, Kenrick; Rø, Gunnar; Ho, Andrew; Kimanga, Davies; Sharif, Shahnaaz
The Kenyan Ministry of Health and partners implemented a community-based integrated prevention campaign (IPC) in Western Kenya in 2008. The aim of this study was to determine whether the IPC, compared to Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT) services, was able to identify HIV positive individuals earlier in the clinical course of HIV infection following testing. A total of 1,752 adults aged over 15 years who tested HIV positive through VCT services or the IPC, and subsequently registered at initial clinic visit between September 2008 and September 2010, were considered in the analysis. Multivariable logistic regression models were developed to assess the association of CD4 count and WHO clinical stage of HIV infection at first clinic appointment with age group, gender, marital status and HIV testing source. Male gender and marital status were independently associated with late HIV presentation (WHO clinical stage 3 or 4 or CD4 count ≤ 350 cells/μl) at initial clinic visit. Patients testing HIV positive during the IPC had significantly higher mean CD4 count at initial clinic visit compared to individuals who tested HIV positive via VCT services. Patients testing HIV positive during the IPC had more than two times higher odds of presenting early with CD4 count greater than 350 cells/μl (adjusted OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.28 - 3.61, p = 0.004) and presenting early with WHO clinical stage 1 or 2 of HIV infection (adjusted OR 2.39, 95% CI 1.24 - 4.60, p = 0.01) at initial clinic visit compared to individuals who tested HIV positive via VCT services. The community-based integrated prevention campaign identified HIV positive individuals earlier in the course of HIV infection, compared to Voluntary Counselling and Testing services. Community-based campaigns, such as the IPC, may be able to assist countries to achieve earlier testing and initiation of ART in the course of HIV infection. Improving referral mechanisms and strengthening linkages between HIV testing and treatment
BARRIERS, FACILITATORS AND SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS ASSOCIATED WITH CONDOM USAGE AMONGST MALE HIV INTEGRATED COUNSELLING AND TESTING CENTRE ATTENDEES AT THE GOVERNMENT HOSPITAL OF THORACIC MEDICINE, AN HIV TERTIARY CARE CENTRE IN CHENNAI
Full Text Available Background: HIV is transmitted largely through sexual route which can be prevented by using condoms. The objectives of this study were to describe condom usage with various barriers, facilitators and to determine association between different socioeconomic characteristics among male Integrated Counselling and Testing Centre (ICTC attendees. Methods: This is a hospital based cross sectional study (n=300. Clients (18-45years attending ICTC for first time, between June-October ‘2010, were interviewed with structured questionnaire after obtaining informed consent. Description of demographic characteristics of respondents; univariate, multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed for estimation of association. Results: Among respondents, awareness of HIV and condom were 80% and 85.3% respectively; Knowledge of prevention from STI/HIV (97.7% was most common facilitator while forgetfulness after drinking alcohol (64.1% was most common barrier to use condom; Respondents who had education up to secondary or above level were more associated with condom usage (AOR 2.9,95%CI1.34-6.24, after adjusting for income compared to non educated respondents; considering less than Indian rupee (INR 3000 per month as reference category, there were association of condom usage among relatively higher income groups between INR.3000 to 5000 per month (AOR 2.6, 95%CI 1.38-5.0,adjusting education and income above INR5000 per month (AOR 2.85,95%CI1.37-5.9, adjusting education. Conclusions: Condom usage was independently associated with education and income level of respondents. Forgetfulness after drinking alcohol was main barrier; knowledge of prevention from HIV was main facilitator of condom usage. Dissemination of knowledge regarding facilitator of condom usage and implementation of Rapid Needs Assessment Tool for Condom Programming can encourage condom use.
Education and employment were associated with good knowledge on MTCT of HIV. Women had positive attitudes towards HIV counseling and ... Effective counseling on PMTCT in the PHFs will bridge the identified knowledge gap and help in reduction of pediatric HIV. African Health sciences Vol 14 No. 1 March 2014 ...
de Bruin, Marijn; Hospers, Harm J.; van Breukelen, Gerard J. P.; Kok, Gerjo; Koevoets, William M.; Prins, Jan M.
Objective: To investigated the effectiveness of an adherence intervention (AIMS) designed to fit HIV-clinics' routine care procedures. Design: Through block randomization, patients were allocated to the intervention or control group. The study included 2 months baseline measurement, 3 months
Karla Corrêa Lima Miranda
Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate the strategies health professionals use in HIV/AIDS counseling. This study is a qualitative research, based on Paulo Freire's theory and practice. Bardin's content analysis was used as the analysis technique. For the studied group, the counseling is focused on cognition, although new concepts permeating this subject are emerging. The main difficulties in counseling are related to the clients and the institution. The main facility is related to the team, which according to the group has a good relationship. Counseling represents a moment of distress, especially because it brings up existential questions to the counselor. It can be inferred that counseling is a special moment, but it does not constitute an educational moment yet. To obtain this goal, a counseling methodology is proposed, based on Paulo Freire's principles and concepts.La finalidad del estudio fue averiguar las estrategias utilizadas por profesionales de salud en el aconsejamiento en VIH/SIDA. Se trata de una investigación cualitativa, inspirada en la teoría y práctica de Paulo Freire. Como técnica de análisis, se utilizó el análisis de contenido de Bardin. Para el grupo estudiado, el aconsejamiento aún está centrado en la percepción, mismo que ya se vislumbren otros conceptos. Las principales dificultades del aconsejamiento ocurren con relación a los clientes y la institución. Las principales facilidades están vinculadas al equipo, que tiene buena relación según el grupo. Representa un momento de sufrimiento, principalmente para el aconsejador, por traer cuestiones existenciales. Puede deducirse por medio de este estudio que el aconsejamiento es un momento especial, aunque no se configura como un momento educativo. Para la obtención de este fin, proponemos una metodología de aconsejamiento, utilizando principios y conceptos de Paulo Freire.O estudo teve como objetivo investigar as estratégias utilizadas pelos profissionais de sa
Sibanda, Euphemia L; Tumushime, Mary; Mufuka, Juliet; Mavedzenge, Sue Napierala; Gudukeya, Stephano; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; Hatzold, Karin; Thirumurthy, Harsha; McCoy, Sandra I; Padian, Nancy; Copas, Andrew; Cowan, Frances M
Couples' HIV testing and counselling (CHTC) is associated with greater engagement with HIV prevention and care than individual testing and is cost-effective, but uptake remains suboptimal. Initiating discussion of CHTC might result in distrust between partners. Offering incentives for CHTC could change the focus of the pre-test discussion. We aimed to determine the impact of incentives for CHTC on uptake of couples testing and HIV case diagnosis in rural Zimbabwe. In this cluster-randomised trial, 68 rural communities (the clusters) in four districts receiving mobile HIV testing services were randomly assigned (1:1) to incentives for CHTC or not. Allocation was not masked to participants and researchers. Randomisation was stratified by district and proximity to a health facility. Within each stratum random permutation was done to allocate clusters to the study groups. In intervention communities, residents were informed that couples who tested together could select one of three grocery items worth US$1·50. Standard mobilisation for testing was done in comparison communities. The primary outcome was the proportion of individuals testing with a partner. Analysis was by intention to treat. 3 months after CHTC, couple-testers from four communities per group individually completed a telephone survey to evaluate any social harms resulting from incentives or CHTC. The effect of incentives on CHTC was estimated using logistic regression with random effects adjusting for clustering. The trial was registered with the Pan African Clinical Trial Registry, number PACTR201606001630356. From May 26, 2015, to Jan 29, 2016, of 24 679 participants counselled with data recorded, 14 099 (57·1%) were in the intervention group and 10 580 (42·9%) in the comparison group. 7852 (55·7%) testers in the intervention group versus 1062 (10·0%) in the comparison group tested with a partner (adjusted odds ratio 13·5 [95% CI 10·5-17·4]). Among 427 (83·7%) of 510 eligible
Vanden Driessche, Koen; Sabue, Mulangu; Dufour, Wendy; Behets, Frieda; Van Rie, Annelies
HIV counseling and testing, HIV prevention and provision of HIV care and support are essential activities to reduce the burden of HIV among patients with TB, and should be integrated into routine TB care. The development of training materials to promote HIV services for TB patients involved the definition of target health care workers (HCWs); identification of required tasks, skills and knowledge; review of international guidelines; and adaptation of existing training materials for voluntary counseling and testing, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, and management of opportunistic infections (OIs). Training effectiveness was assessed by means of questionnaires administered pre- and post-training, by correlating post-training results of HCWs with the centre's HIV testing acceptance rates, and through participatory observations at the time of on-site supervisory visits and monthly meetings. Pre-training assessment identified gaps in basic knowledge of HIV epidemiology, the link between TB and HIV, interpretation of CD4 counts, prevention and management of OIs, and occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). Opinions on patients' rights and confidentiality varied. Mean test results increased from 72% pre-training to 87% post-training (peducation. Training was also used as an opportunity to improve patient-centred care and HCWs' communication skills. Many HCWs did not possess the knowledge or skills necessary to integrate HIV activities into routine care for patients with TB. A participatory approach resulted in training materials that fulfilled local needs.
Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV counseling and testing, HIV prevention and provision of HIV care and support are essential activities to reduce the burden of HIV among patients with TB, and should be integrated into routine TB care. Methods The development of training materials to promote HIV services for TB patients involved the definition of target health care workers (HCWs; identification of required tasks, skills and knowledge; review of international guidelines; and adaptation of existing training materials for voluntary counseling and testing, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, and management of opportunistic infections (OIs. Training effectiveness was assessed by means of questionnaires administered pre- and post-training, by correlating post-training results of HCWs with the centre's HIV testing acceptance rates, and through participatory observations at the time of on-site supervisory visits and monthly meetings. Results Pre-training assessment identified gaps in basic knowledge of HIV epidemiology, the link between TB and HIV, interpretation of CD4 counts, prevention and management of OIs, and occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP. Opinions on patients' rights and confidentiality varied. Mean test results increased from 72% pre-training to 87% post-training (p Conclusion Many HCWs did not possess the knowledge or skills necessary to integrate HIV activities into routine care for patients with TB. A participatory approach resulted in training materials that fulfilled local needs.
Henry-Reid, Lisa M; Martinez, Jaime
The obstetrician/gynecologists may be responsible for the primary reproductive healthcare, prenatal care and pregnancy options counseling of the adolescent with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Important knowledge includes the stages of HIV infection, biologic and behavioral risk factors for HIV acquisition in youth, HIV counseling and testing procedures, and the reproductive healthcare issues in HIV-positive adolescents.
Canidate, Shantrel; Hart, Mark
The number of adults using the Internet to obtain health information is on the rise. An estimated 66% of the adults reportedly use the Internet to obtain health information related to a specific disease (ie, human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, HIV/AIDS). Previous research has demonstrated that health information seekers use the Internet to seek answers to stigma-laden questions from health avatars. The objective of this study was to identify patterns in the choice of avatar among health information seekers (patients or public health workers) using the Internet to obtain HIV/AIDS information and to describe the demographic characteristics (age, gender, and ethnicity) of health information seekers to determine whether they preferred an avatar that was similar to their own gender and ethnicity. The Rural South Public Health Training Center (RSPHTC) partnered with the New York State Department of Health to create the HIV/AIDS Avatar project. The avatar project was created to serve as an educational resource for public health workers by providing relevant and accurate information about HIV/AIDS. First, the user was instructed to choose one of the 8 avatars that voiced responses to 100 common questions and answers about HIV/AIDS. Next, the website gave users the option to complete a brief 3-question demographic survey. Finally, the demographic characteristics of each user were compared with the chosen avatar to determine whether they preferred an avatar that was similar to their own gender and ethnicity. The avatar project website was loaded with 800 videos that included the answers to the top 100 questions about HIV/AIDS voiced by 8 avatars. A total of 1119 Web-based health information seekers completed the demographic survey upon accessing the website. Of these, 55.14% (617/1119) users were female. A total of 49.96% (559/1119) users were aged between 30 and 49 years. The ethnicity of the user and the avatar was found to have the
Genetic counseling provides information and support to people who have, or may be at risk for, genetic disorders. A ... meets with you to discuss genetic risks. The counseling may be for yourself or a family member. ...
Courbil, R; Fabrigli, P; Garraud, O
In this article, we present transfusion counseling; its organization, actors, their formations and we deal with factual positions. Transfusion counseling needs better identification, tending to a homogeneous organization between every bloodbank centre.
Mamakwa S. Mataboge
Full Text Available Background: In an era when antiretroviral (ARV therapy has become part of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV prevention strategy, early testing and introduction to ARVs iscritical for improving public health outcomes in general and, in particular, the lives of people living with HIV. South Africa has the highest number of people living with HIV as compared with the rest of the world. Initiated voluntary HIV counselling and testing and provider initiated counselling and testing (PICT are required in order to increase the uptake of HIV testing.Objectives: To explore and describe the experiences of healthcare workers who are themselves in need of HIV testing.Method: A descriptive, exploratory design was used. In-depth interviews were conducted with the 26 healthcare workers who were involved in HIV testing in the Tshwane district of South Africa. The participants were sampled purposively from two healthcare settings. A thematic framework was used for data analysis.Results: There was a complication with regard to PICT as healthcare workers felt they could not initiate HIV testing for themselves and or their work colleagues without their confidentiality being compromised. This was complicated further by both the perceived and actual fear of stigmatisation and discrimination. It was difficult for qualified staff to support and encourage the uptake of HIV testing by students nurses as this was seen, albeit incorrectly, as targeting the students in a negative manner.Conclusion: There is a need for accessible HIV testing policies for healthcare workers in order to increase access to HIV testing and prevent the progression of the disease
Background: HIV1&2, HBsAg, anti-HCV and syphilis antibody are mandatory disease marker tests of Transfusion Transmissible Infections (TTIs) conducted on every donated unit of blood in Zambia. Blood is donated by first time voluntary donors and repeat/regular donors of ages between 16 and 65 years. Both first time ...
ABSTRACT. Background: HIV1&2, HBsAg, anti-HCV and syphilis antibody are mandatory disease marker tests of Transfusion Transmissible Infections (TTIs) conducted on every donated unit of blood in Zambia. Blood is donated by first time voluntary donors and repeat/regular donors ofages between 16 and 65 years.
Andrea L Wirtz
Full Text Available Introduction: There are limited data characterizing the burden of HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM in Malawi. Epidemiologic research and access to HIV prevention, treatment and care services have been traditionally limited in Malawi by criminalization and stigmatization of same-sex practices. To inform the development of a comprehensive HIV prevention intervention for Malawian MSM, we conducted a community-led assessment of HIV prevalence and correlates of infection. Methods: From April 2011 to March 2012, 338 MSM were enrolled in a cross-sectional study in Blantyre, Malawi. Participants were recruited by respondent-driven sampling methods (RDS, reaching 19 waves. Trained staff administered the socio-behavioural survey and HIV and syphilis voluntary counselling and testing. Results: Crude HIV and syphilis prevalence estimates were 15.4% (RDS-weighted 12.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI: 7.3–17.8 and 5.3% (RDS-weighted 4.4%, 95% CI: 3.1–7.6, respectively. Ninety per cent (90.4%, unweighted of HIV infections were reported as being previously undiagnosed. Participants were predominantly gay-identified (60.8% or bisexually identified (36.3%; 50.7% reported recent concurrent relationships. Approximately half reported consistent condom use (always or almost always with casual male partners, and proportions were relatively uniform across partner types and genders. The prevalence of perceived and experienced stigma exceeded 20% for almost all variables, 11.4% ever experienced physical violence and 7% were ever raped. Current age >25 years (RDS-weighted adjusted odds ratio (AOR 3.9, 95% CI: 1.2–12.7, single marital status (RDS-weighted AOR: 0.3; 95% CI: 0.1–0.8 and age of first sex with a man <16 years (RDS-weighted AOR: 4.3, 95% CI: 1.2–15.0 were independently associated with HIV infection. Conclusions: Results demonstrate that MSM represent an underserved, at-risk population for HIV services in Malawi and merit comprehensive HIV
Allison, Waridibo E; Iobuna, Varina; Kalebe, Veronica; Kiromat, Mobumo; Vince, John; Schaefer, Myrto; Kaldor, John
To assess the acceptability of voluntary counselling and testing among the carers of children admitted to hospital in Papua New Guinea. Forty semistructured interviews were carried out between February and April 2007. All the carers interviewed were women, mostly from Port Moresby. Virtually all of them attended primary school. About half of them attended secondary school but none completed it. Half of them knew an adult or child with HIV. Three quarters of the women interviewed would consent to having a child in their care tested for HIV, and over half of those who had never been tested would agree to be tested themselves. Correct answers to more than half the HIV knowledge questions posed were significantly related to agreement to an HIV test. This study supports the need for further evaluation of knowledge about HIV/AIDS and opportunities for health promotion in this group of women, particularly in view of the implication for voluntary counselling and testing and prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission programmes in Papua New Guinea.
Gloria T. Tshweneagae
Full Text Available Background: Disclosure of one’s HIV status to a sexual partner can have significant health implications. From a health promotion point of view, disclosure is seen as a cornerstone for the prevention of HIV transmission between partners. Despite its importance as a strategy for controlling the spread of HIV, there are challenges that inhibit voluntary disclosure.Objectives: In exploring factors associated with disclosure of HIV status, the study had two complementary objectives related to: (1 investigation of participants’ views about HIV-positive status disclosure to sexual partners; and (2 a broader identification of factors that influence disclosure of HIV-positive status.Method: The study explored factors associated with disclosure of the HIV status of people living with HIV to their sexual partners. Purposive sampling was used to select 13 participants living with HIV who attended a wellness clinic. Primary data were collected via an in-depth interview with each of the participants.Results: The exploration showed that male participants were notably more reluctant to disclose to their sexual partners for fear of rejection; and secrecy was commonly reported around sexual matters. Female participants (who were in the majority were relatively more willing to disclose their HIV status to their sexual partners. Despite the complexity of disclosure, all participants understood the importance of disclosure to their sexual partners.Conclusion: There is a need for HIV prevention strategies to focus on men in particular, so as to strengthen disclosure counselling services provided to people living with HIV and to advocate strongly for partner testing.
van der Heijden, J.
Voluntary environmental governance arrangements have focal attention in studies on environmental policy, regulation and governance. The four major debates in the contemporary literature on voluntary environmental governance arrangements are studied. The literature falls short of sufficiently
Department of Veterans Affairs — Voluntary Service System (VSS) is a national-level application which replaced the site-based Voluntary Timekeeping System (VTK). VTK was used for many years at the...
The role of family planning in achieving safe pregnancy for serodiscordant couples: commentary from the United States government's interagency task force on family planning and HIV service integration.
Mason, Jennifer; Medley, Amy; Yeiser, Sarah; Nightingale, Vienna R; Mani, Nithya; Sripipatana, Tabitha; Abutu, Andrew; Johnston, Beverly; Watts, D Heather
People living with HIV (PLHIV) have the right to exercise voluntary choices about their health, including their reproductive health. This commentary discusses the integral role that family planning (FP) plays in helping PLHIV, including those in serodiscordant relationships, achieve conception safely. The United States (US) President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) is committed to meeting the reproductive health needs of PLHIV by improving their access to voluntary FP counselling and services, including prevention of unintended pregnancy and counselling for safer conception. Inclusion of preconception care and counselling (PCC) as part of routine HIV services is critical to preventing unintended pregnancies and perinatal infections among PLHIV. PLHIV not desiring a current pregnancy should be provided with information and counselling on all available FP methods and then either given the method onsite or through a facilitated referral process. PLHIV, who desire children should be offered risk reduction counselling, support for HIV status disclosure and partner testing, information on safer conception options to reduce the risk of HIV transmission to the partner and the importance of adhering to antiretroviral treatment during pregnancy and breastfeeding to reduce the risk of vertical transmission to the infant. Integration of PCC, HIV and FP services at the same location is recommended to improve access to these services for PLHIV. Other considerations to be addressed include the social and structural context, the health system capacity to offer these services, and stigma and discrimination of providers. Evaluation of innovative service delivery models for delivering PCC services is needed, including provision in community-based settings. The US Government will continue to partner with local organizations, Ministries of Health, the private sector, civil society, multilateral and bilateral donors, and other key stakeholders to strengthen both the policy and
AC van Dyk
Full Text Available HIV/AIDS in Africa places a tremendous burden on the nursing profession. Hospitals are inundated with very sick and dying AIDS patients and nurses often find that their role as healers has shifted to a great extent to that of caregivers, counsellors and educators. AIDS also calls for nurses to go beyond the strict Western-based bio-medical model to be able to help and understand patients who come from a traditional African background. This article discusses relevant aspects of the traditional African worldview by explaining what health, sickness and sexuality mean in traditional Africa. Traditional African perceptions of the causes of illness (God, ancestors, witches, pollution and germs, perceptions of sexuality, the importance of having children, cultural beliefs inhibiting the usage of condoms, the importance of community life, as well as the controversial issue of confidentiality in Africa are discussed. The implications for AIDS care and counselling in Africa are explored and suggestions on how to use traditional beliefs and customs to the advantage of AIDS education, are offered.
Toya V Russell
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: After the first two cases of locally-acquired HIV infection were recognized in Chuuk State, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM, a public health response was initiated. The purpose of the response was to assess the need for HIV education and prevention services, to develop recommendations for controlling further spread of HIV in Chuuk, and to initiate some of the prevention measures. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A public health team conducted a survey and rapid HIV testing among a sample of residents on the outer islands in Chuuk. Local public health officials conducted contact tracing and testing of sex partners of the two locally-acquired cases of HIV infection. A total of 333 persons completed the survey. The majority knew that HIV is transmitted through unprotected sexual contact (81%, injection drug use (61%, or blood transfusion (64%. Sexual activity in the past 12 months was reported among 159 participants, including 90 females and 69 males. Compared to women, men were more likely to have had multiple sex partners, to have been drunk during sex, but less likely to have used a condom in the past 12 months. The two men with locally acquired HIV infection had unprotected anal sex with a third Chuukese man who likely contracted HIV while outside of Chuuk. All 370 persons who received voluntary, confidential HIV counseling and testing had HIV negative test results. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite the low HIV seroprevalence, risky sexual behaviors in this small isolated population raise concerns about the potential for rapid spread of HIV. The lack of knowledge about risks, along with stigmatizing attitudes towards persons infected with HIV and high risk sexual behaviors indicate the need for resources to be directed toward HIV prevention in Chuuk and on other Pacific Islands.
Full Text Available This paper describes an approach to incorporating the impact of HIV/AIDS and the effects of HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programmes into a cohort component projection model of the South African population. The modelled HIV-positive population is divided into clinical and treatment stages, and it is demonstrated that the age profile and morbidity profile of the HIV-positive population is changing significantly over time. HIV/AIDS is projected to have a substantial demographic impact in South Africa. Prevention programmes - social marketing, voluntary counselling and testing, prevention of mother-to-child transmission and improved treatment for sexually transmitted diseases - are unlikely to reduce AIDS mortality significantly in the short term. However, more immediate reductions in mortality can be achieved when antiretroviral treatment is introduced.
Feyissa, Garumma Tolu; Lockwood, Craig; Munn, Zachary
Human immunodeficiency virus counselling and testing is a critical and essential gateway to Human immunodeficiency virus prevention, treatment, care and support services. Though some primary studies indicate that home-based counselling and testing is more effective than facility based counselling and testing to reduce stigma and risky sexual behavior, to the best of the author's knowledge, no systematic review has tried to establish consistency in the findings across populations. The objective of this review was to determine the effectiveness of home-based Human immunodeficiency virus counselling and testing in reducing Human immunodeficiency virus-related stigma and risky sexual behavior among adults and adolescents. All adults and adolescents aged 13 years or above. TYPE OF INTERVENTION: This review considered any studies that evaluated home-based Human immunodeficiency virus counseling and testing as an intervention. TYPES OF STUDIES: This review considered quantitative (experimental and observational) studies. TYPES OF OUTCOMES: This review considered studies that included the following outcome measures: stigma, violence, sexual behavior and clinical outcomes. The search strategy aimed to find both published and unpublished studies reported in English Language from 2001 to 2014 in MEDLINE, Web of Science, EMBASE, Scopus and CINAHL. The search for unpublished studies included: WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Clinicaltrials.gov, Mednar, Google Scholar, AIDSinfo and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Database. Papers selected for retrieval were assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological validity prior to inclusion in the review using standardized critical appraisal instruments from the Joanna Briggs Institute. Data were extracted from papers included in the review using the standardized data extraction tool from the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument. Quantitative data were pooled using the meta
R D Govender
Full Text Available Background and objectives. HIV/AIDS and suicidal behaviour are major public health concerns. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between hopelessness, depression and suicidal ideation in HIV-infected persons. Methods. The sample consisted of all adult volunteers attending a voluntary counselling and testing (VCT HIV clinic at a university affiliated state hospital. Suicidal ideation and depression were measured using the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, respectively, at two intervals, viz. 72 hours and 6 weeks after HIV diagnosis. Results. Of the 156 patients who tested positive for HIV, 32 (20.5% had a hopelessness score of 9 or above on the BHS and 130 patients (82.8% were depressed according to the BDI at 72 hours after diagnosis. Of the 109 patients assessed 6 weeks after diagnosis, 32 (28.8% had a hopelessness score of >9 on the BHS and 86 (78.2% were depressed according to the BDI. A moderately positive correlation at both time periods was found between hopelessness and depression. A ROC analysis showed optimal sensitivity, indicating that the HIV-positive depressed patients were at risk for suicidal behaviour. Conclusion. The significant correlations between hopelessness, depression and suicidal ideation are important markers that should alert healthcare professionals to underlying suicide risks in HIV-positive patients. Early recognition of this and suicide prevention strategies should be incorporated into the treatment offered at VCT HIV clinics.
G M Lohrmann
Full Text Available Background. There are few data on HIV prevalence and risk factors among inner-city homeless and marginally housed individuals in South Africa. Methods. We recruited 136 adults from a Johannesburg inner-city homeless clinic; mean age was 32.4 years, 129 (95% were male, and 90 (66% were of South African nationality. Participants were tested for HIV and answered a short demographic survey. Descriptive statistics and uni- and multivariate regression analyses were used for data analysis. Results. The HIV prevalence in the cohort was 23.5%. Transactional sex, relationship status, number of concurrent sexual partners, condom usage and history of previously treated sexually transmitted infections (STIs, living on the street, the use of alcohol or drugs, and previous exposure to voluntary counselling and testing (VCT, were not significant risk factors for HIV-positivity. Statistically significant HIV risk factors on multivariate analysis included the presence of an STI (odds ratio (OR 5.6; p<0.01 and unemployment (OR 6.7; p<0.01. South African nationality was a significant risk factor on univariate analysis (OR 2.99; p<0.05, but not on multivariate analysis (OR 2.2; p=0.17. Conclusion. The HIV prevalence in the sample did not differ appreciably from HIV prevalence estimates in other at-risk populations in similar settings, suggesting that homelessness in a South African city alone may not be a significant risk factor for HIV infection. HIV prevention efforts cannot be restricted to behaviour change programmes, but must be more holistic, recognising the protective role that employment has on HIV incidence.
A K Srikrishnan
Full Text Available To describe the changes in HIV services provided and the patient population utilizing voluntary counseling and testing (VCT services at private testing laboratories in Chennai, India in 2001 and 2006.In 2001, a cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted to assess the services provided and client population of 1,031 private laboratories. A subset of labs (9% that had been surveyed in 2001 were also studied in 2006.In 2001, significantly more high volume labs (>10 HIV tests per month offered HIV diagnostic tests than low volume labs (<10 HIV test per month (p<0.001. More high volume labs (20.0% provided pre-test counseling as part of HIV testing than low volume labs (11.1% (p = 0.003. Between 2001 and 2006, the number of labs that provided HIV diagnostic tests significantly increased, including ELISA (87.8% vs. 40.0%, Western Blot (84.4% vs. 13.3%, and Tridot (98.9% vs. 72.2% (p<0.001. Also the number of labs that reported greater than 10 women seeking HIV testing per month significantly increased from 14.5% to 79.0% (p = 0.006. More labs provided pre-test counseling in 2006 (34.4% than in 2001 (21.1% (p = 0.046.Though HIV diagnostic testing services have increasingly become available, counseling services have not expanded commensurately. Further outreach and education is necessary to expand comprehensive HIV VCT services in both urban and rural India.
Orne-Gliemann, Joanna; Balestre, Eric; Tchendjou, Patrice; Miric, Marija; Darak, Shrinivas; Butsashvili, Maia; Perez-Then, Eddy; Eboko, Fred; Plazy, Melanie; Kulkarni, Sanjeevani; du Lou, Annabel Desgrees; Dabis, Francois
Objective: Couple-oriented posttest HIV counselling (COC) provides pregnant women with tools and strategies to invite her partner to HIV counselling and testing. We conducted a randomized trial of the efficacy of COC on partner HIV testing in low/medium HIV prevalence settings (Cameroon, Dominican
Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV prevalence in Malawi is 12% and Kamuzu Central Hospital (KCH, in the capital Lilongwe, is the main provider of adult and paediatric HIV services in the central region. The Lighthouse at KCH offers opt-in HIV testing and counselling (HTC for adults and children. In June 2004, Lighthouse was the first clinic to provide free antiretroviral treatment (ART in the public sector, but few children accessed the services. In response, provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling (PITC and an ART clinic were introduced at the paediatric department at KCH in Quarter 4 (Q4 2004. Methods We analysed prospectively collected, aggregated data of quarterly reports from Q1 2003 to Q4 2006 from HTC centre registers, ART registers and clinic registrations at the ART clinics of both Lighthouse and the paediatric department. By comparing data of both facilities before (Q1 2003 to Q3 2004, and after the introduction of the services at the paediatric department (Q4 2004 to Q4 2006, we assessed the effect of this intervention on the uptake of HIV services for children at KCH. Results Overall, 3971 children were tested for HIV, 2428 HIV-infected children were registered for care and 1218 started ART. Between the two periods, the median (IQR number of children being tested, registered and starting ART per quarter rose from 101 (53-109 to 358 (318-440, 56 (50-82 to 226 (192-234 and 18 (8-23 to 139 (115-150, respectively. The median proportion of tested clients per quarter that were children rose from 3.8% (2.7-4.3 to 9.6% (8.8 to 10.0 (p = 0.0009 and the proportion of ART starters that were children rose from 6.9% (4.9-9.3 to 21.1% (19.2-24.2 (p = 0.0036. The proportion of registered children and adults starting ART each quarter increased similarly, from 26% to 53%, and 20% to 52%, respectively. Conclusions Implementation of PITC and integration of ART services within the paediatric ward are likely to be the main reasons for improved access to
Wall, Kristin M.; Kilembe, William; Vwalika, Bellington; Khu, Naw Htee; Brill, Ilene; Chomba, Elwyn; Johnson, Brent A.; Haddad, Lisa; Tichacek, Amanda; Allen, Susan
Objective To determine the impact of hormonal contraceptive methods on risk of HIV acquisition among HIV-negative women cohabiting with HIV-positive male partners. Study design From 1994–2012, HIV discordant couples recruited from a couples’ voluntary HIV counseling and testing center in Lusaka, Zambia were followed longitudinally. HIV-negative partners were tested quarterly. This analysis is restricted to couples in which the man was HIV-positive and the woman was HIV-negative at enrollment and the man was not on antiretroviral treatment. Multivariate Cox models evaluated associations between time-varying contraceptive methods and HIV acquisition among women. Sensitivity analyses explored exposure misclassification and time-varying confounder mediation. Results Among 1393 couples, 252 incident infections occurred in women over 2842 couple-years (8.9 infections per 100 couple-years; 95% CI, 7.8–10.0). Multivariate Cox models indicated that neither injectable [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR)=1.2; 95% CI, 0.8–1.7], oral contraceptive pill (OCP, aHR=1.3; 95% CI, 0.9–1.8), or implant (aHR=1.1; 95% CI, 0.5–2.2) use was significantly associated with HIV acquisition relative to non-hormonal contraception controlling for woman's age, literacy and time-varying measures of genital ulceration/inflammation. This remained true when only looking at the subset of infections acquired from the spouse (82% of infections) and additionally controlling for baseline HIV viral load of the male partner, pregnancy status, and time-varying measures of sperm on a vaginal swab wet prep and self-reported unprotected sex. OCP and injectable users reported more unprotected sex (pcontraception and HIV acquisition risk in women. Condom use and reinforced condom counseling should always be recommended for HIV discordant couples. HIV testing of sex partners together is critical to establish HIV risk, ascertain couple fertility intentions and counsel appropriately. Implications These findings
Wall, Kristin M; Kilembe, William; Vwalika, Bellington; Htee Khu, Naw; Brill, Ilene; Chomba, Elwyn; Johnson, Brent A; Haddad, Lisa; Tichacek, Amanda; Allen, Susan
To determine the impact of hormonal contraceptive methods on risk of HIV acquisition among HIV-negative women cohabiting with HIV-positive male partners. From 1994-2012, HIV discordant couples recruited from a couples' voluntary HIV counseling and testing center in Lusaka, Zambia were followed longitudinally. HIV-negative partners were tested quarterly. This analysis is restricted to couples in which the man was HIV-positive and the woman was HIV-negative at enrollment and the man was not on antiretroviral treatment. Multivariate Cox models evaluated associations between time-varying contraceptive methods and HIV acquisition among women. Sensitivity analyses explored exposure misclassification and time-varying confounder mediation. Among 1393 couples, 252 incident infections occurred in women over 2842 couple-years (8.9 infections per 100 couple-years; 95% CI, 7.8-10.0). Multivariate Cox models indicated that neither injectable [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR)=1.2; 95% CI, 0.8-1.7], oral contraceptive pill (OCP, aHR=1.3; 95% CI, 0.9-1.8), or implant (aHR=1.1; 95% CI, 0.5-2.2) use was significantly associated with HIV acquisition relative to non-hormonal contraception controlling for woman's age, literacy and time-varying measures of genital ulceration/inflammation. This remained true when only looking at the subset of infections acquired from the spouse (82% of infections) and additionally controlling for baseline HIV viral load of the male partner, pregnancy status, and time-varying measures of sperm on a vaginal swab wet prep and self-reported unprotected sex. OCP and injectable users reported more unprotected sex (pcontraception and HIV acquisition risk in women. Condom use and reinforced condom counseling should always be recommended for HIV discordant couples. HIV testing of sex partners together is critical to establish HIV risk, ascertain couple fertility intentions and counsel appropriately. These findings add to a controversial literature and uniquely address
Carlos, Silvia; Nzakimuena, Francis; Reina, Gabriel; Lopez-Del Burgo, Cristina; Burgueño, Eduardo; Ndarabu, Adolphe; Osorio, Alfonso; de Irala, Jokin
Considering the high percentage of couples in which one or both members are HIV negative, the frequency of transmission among non-regular partners and the probabilities of non-disclosure, attention should be paid to people getting a negative HIV test at the Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT). Research has shown that a negative HIV test may be followed by a change in sexual behaviours. In Sub-Saharan Africa, where most HIV infections occur, there are few studies that have analysed the factors associated with changes in sexual risk behaviours after a negative HIV test at the VCT clinic. The aim of this project is to evaluate the specific factors associated with changes in sexual behaviours, three months after a negative result in an HIV test, and to analyse the effect of counseling and testing on HIV-related knowledge of participants in an outpatient centre of Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo). Prospective cohort study from December 2014 until March 2016. People 15-60 year old that received VCT at Monkole Hospital (Kinshasa) were followed three months after they got a negative HIV test. In a face-to-face interview, participants replied to a baseline and a follow-up research questionnaire on HIV-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours. At follow-up respondents were also offered a new HIV test and additional HIV counseling. Four hundred and fifteen participants completed the baseline questionnaire and 363 (87 %) came back for their 3-month follow up. This is the first longitudinal study in the DRC that evaluates the factors associated with changes in sexual behaviours after a negative HIV test at the VCT. Participants attending the VCT services within a clinical setting are a good study population as they can be good transmitters of preventive information for other people with no access to health facilities.
This pretest-posttest separate-sample study with intervention and comparison groups documented the abilities and willingness of trained voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) service providers to integrate alcohol screening and risk reduction counseling into their routine service delivery. Pre-test (n=1073) and post-test ...
Olaleye, Abiola O; Tsibolane, Yolisa; Van-Turha, Lydia; Monareng, Sibongile; Chikobvu, Perpetual; Boleme, Mohlouoa Sam; Serenata, Celicia
Although HIV/AIDS constitute a significant health burden among children in South Africa, testing and counselling of exposed children are inadequate. It is therefore imperative that factors relating to paediatric HCT services offered by health workers are examined. This study was conducted to explore and describe the perceptions and experiences of trained professional nurses regarding HIV counselling and testing among children. We conducted six focus group discussions among trained professional nurses in health facilities in a district in Free State Province, South Africa. All verbatim transcripts were analysed with a thematic approach and emergent codes were applied. Forty-seven trained professional nurses participated in the study and two of them were males. The age of the participants ranges from 38 to 60 years while the median age was 50 years. Most participants in the focus groups explained how HCT occurs during regular health talks and that lay counsellors are doing most of the counselling. While a few participants thought that children should not be bothered with HCT, most of them seek consent from caregivers for HIV test for children. While children whose parents are negative are usually not tested, most children are tested only when they become ill. Identified barriers to HCT among children include refusal of consent, work overload, lack of encouragement, and poor record keeping. Participants recommended improvement of issues relating to community mobilization and increasing trained staff strength for optimal paediatric HCT service delivery. Developing guidance and policies with respect to obtaining consent, recruiting more health providers, and addressing structural issues in the society to reduce stigma and discrimination were identified as key priority issues by majority of the participants. The perspectives of these participants who provide paediatric HCT services offer vital insight which may be useful to inform policy interventions.
Patient- and delivery-level factors related to acceptance of HIV counseling and testing services among tuberculosis patients in South Africa: a qualitative study with community health workers and program managers.
Heunis, J Christo; Wouters, Edwin; Norton, Wynne E; Engelbrecht, Michelle C; Kigozi, N Gladys; Sharma, Anjali; Ragin, Camille
South Africa has a high tuberculosis (TB)-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection rate of 73%, yet only 46% of TB patients are tested for HIV. To date, relatively little work has focused on understanding why TB patients may not accept effective services or participate in programs that are readily available in healthcare delivery systems. The objective of the study was to explore barriers to and facilitators of participation in HIV counseling and testing (HCT) among TB patients in the Free State Province, from the perspective of community health workers and program managers who offer services to patients on a daily basis. These two provider groups are positioned to alter the delivery of HCT services in order to improve patient participation and, ultimately, health outcomes. Group discussions and semistructured interviews were conducted with 40 lay counselors, 57 directly observed therapy (DOT) supporters, and 13 TB and HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) program managers in the Free State Province between September 2007 and March 2008. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and thematically analyzed. The themes emerging from the focus group discussions and interviews included four main suggested barrier factors: (1) fears of HIV/AIDS, TB-HIV coinfection, death, and stigma; (2) perceived lack of confidentiality of HIV test results; (3) staff shortages and high workload; and (4) poor infrastructure to encourage, monitor, and deliver HCT. The four main facilitating factors emerging from the group and individual interviews were (1) encouragement and motivation by health workers, (2) alleviation of health worker shortages, (3) improved HCT training of professional and lay health workers, and (4) community outreach activities. Our findings provide insight into the relatively low acceptance rate of HCT services among TB patients from the perspective of two healthcare workforce groups that play an integral role in the delivery of effective health
Full Text Available Abstract Background Client-initiated HIV counselling and testing has been scaled up in many African countries, in the form of voluntary counselling and testing (VCT. Test rates have remained low, with HIV-related stigma being an important barrier to HIV testing. This study explored HIV testing decisions in one rural and one urban district in Zambia with high HIV prevalence and available antiretroviral treatment. Methods Data were collected through 17 in-depth interviews and two focus group discussions with individuals and 10 in-depth interviews with counsellors. Interpretive description methodology was employed to analyse the data. Results 'To know your status' was found to be a highly charged concept yielding strong barriers against HIV testing. VCT was perceived as a diagnostic device and a gateway to treatment for the severely ill. Known benefits of prevention and early treatment were outweighed by a perceived burden of knowing your HIV status related to stigma and fear. The manner in which the VCT services were organised added to this burden. Conclusions This study draws on social stigma theory to enhance the understanding of the continuity of HIV related stigma in the presence of ART, and argues that the burden of knowing an HIV status and the related reluctance to get HIV tested can be understood both as a form of label-avoidance and as strong expressions of the still powerful embodied memories of suffering and death among non-curable AIDS patients over the last decades. Hope lies in the emerging signs of a reduction in HIV related stigma experienced by those who had been tested for HIV. Further research into innovative HIV testing service designs that do not add to the burden of knowing is needed.
Thomas Obinchemti Egbe
Full Text Available Background. We determined the incidence of HIV seroconversion during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy and ad hoc potential cofactors associated with HIV seroconversion after having an HIV-negative result antenatally. We also studied knowledge of PMTCT among pregnant women in seven health facilities in Fako Division, South West Region, Cameroon. Method. During the period between September 12 and December 4, 2011, we recruited a cohort of 477 HIV-negative pregnant women by cluster sampling. Data collection was with a pretested interviewer-administered questionnaire. Sociodemographic information, knowledge of PMTCT, and methods of HIV prevention were obtained from the study population and we did Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT for HIV. Results. The incidence rate of HIV seroconversion during pregnancy was 6.8/100 woman-years. Ninety percent of the participants did not use condoms throughout pregnancy but had a good knowledge of PMTCT of HIV. Only 31.9% of participants knew their HIV status before the booking visit and 33% did not know the HIV status of their partners. Conclusion. The incidence rate of HIV seroconversion in the Fako Division, Cameroon, was 6.8/100 woman-years. No risk factors associated with HIV seroconversion were identified among the study participants because of lack of power to do so.
Egbe, Thomas Obinchemti; Tazinya, Rose-Mary Asong; Halle-Ekane, Gregory Edie; Egbe, Eta-Nkongho; Achidi, Eric Akum
We determined the incidence of HIV seroconversion during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy and ad hoc potential cofactors associated with HIV seroconversion after having an HIV-negative result antenatally. We also studied knowledge of PMTCT among pregnant women in seven health facilities in Fako Division, South West Region, Cameroon. During the period between September 12 and December 4, 2011, we recruited a cohort of 477 HIV-negative pregnant women by cluster sampling. Data collection was with a pretested interviewer-administered questionnaire. Sociodemographic information, knowledge of PMTCT, and methods of HIV prevention were obtained from the study population and we did Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT) for HIV. The incidence rate of HIV seroconversion during pregnancy was 6.8/100 woman-years. Ninety percent of the participants did not use condoms throughout pregnancy but had a good knowledge of PMTCT of HIV. Only 31.9% of participants knew their HIV status before the booking visit and 33% did not know the HIV status of their partners. The incidence rate of HIV seroconversion in the Fako Division, Cameroon, was 6.8/100 woman-years. No risk factors associated with HIV seroconversion were identified among the study participants because of lack of power to do so.
In Tanzania, HIV counselling and testing practices are now widely accepted as the cornerstone of HIV prevention programmes. Within HIV testing and counselling, emphasis is placed on the importance of individuals to disclose their HIV status. Despite increasing focus on disclosure of HIV status, relatively little is known ...
Lovell, Jonathan B.; Keefe, Janice A.
The program of voluntary separation at Smith College (Massachusetts), implemented as an alternative to forced staff layoffs, is described. The plan included generous separation benefits and counseling services. Related issues are discussed, including tax considerations, eligibility, cost estimation, the plan's timeline, information dissemination,…
No respondent was offered incentives for accepting tubal ligation. There was a statistically significant association between having a voluntary sterilization done on clients and having counseled client on benefits of the procedure (P - 0.01), having sterilization done based on both client and her husband's decision. (P - 0.05) ...
There was a statistically significant association between having a voluntary sterilization done on clients and having counseled client on benefits of the procedure (P - 0.01), having sterilization done based on both client and her husband's decision (P - 0.05), and clients voluntarily accepting sterilization (P - 0.02). Conclusion: ...
Introduction. The·human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can be transmiHed from one person to onother through the use of non-sterile nee- dles, syringes, and other skin-piercing and invasive instruments. Proper .sterilization of all such instruments is therefore important to prevent its transmission. HIV is very sensitive to ...
Mar 31, 2016 ... Indexed By: African Journal Online (AJOL); Texila American University; Genamics; Scholarsteer; EIJASR; CAS-American Chemical. Society; and IRMS Informatics India (J-Gate). ABSTRACT. This study evaluated the effect of HIV infection on CD4 T-lymphocyte depletion in people living with HIV/AIDS.
... to improve a troubled relationship. You can use marriage counseling to help with many specific issues, including: Communication problems Sexual difficulties Conflicts about child rearing or blended families Substance abuse Anger Infidelity ...
Ndabarora, Eléazar; Mchunu, Gugu
Various studies have reported that university students, who are mostly young people, rarely use existing HIV/AIDS preventive methods. Although studies have shown that young university students have a high degree of knowledge about HIV/AIDS and HIV modes of transmission, they are still not utilising the existing HIV prevention methods and still engage in risky sexual practices favourable to HIV. Some variables, such as awareness of existing HIV/AIDS prevention methods, have been associated with utilisation of such methods. The study aimed to explore factors that influence use of existing HIV/AIDS prevention methods among university students residing in a selected campus, using the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a theoretical framework. A quantitative research approach and an exploratory-descriptive design were used to describe perceived factors that influence utilisation by university students of HIV/AIDS prevention methods. A total of 335 students completed online and manual questionnaires. Study findings showed that the factors which influenced utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods were mainly determined by awareness of the existing university-based HIV/AIDS prevention strategies. Most utilised prevention methods were voluntary counselling and testing services and free condoms. Perceived susceptibility and perceived threat of HIV/AIDS score was also found to correlate with HIV risk index score. Perceived susceptibility and perceived threat of HIV/AIDS showed correlation with self-efficacy on condoms and their utilisation. Most HBM variables were not predictors of utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among students. Intervention aiming to improve the utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among students at the selected university should focus on removing identified barriers, promoting HIV/AIDS prevention services and providing appropriate resources to implement such programmes.
Bulterys, Marc; Jamieson, Denise J; O'Sullivan, Mary Jo; Cohen, Mardge H; Maupin, Robert; Nesheim, Steven; Webber, Mayris P; Van Dyke, Russell; Wiener, Jeffrey; Branson, Bernard M
Timely testing of women in labor with undocumented human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status could enable immediate provision of antiretroviral prophylaxis. To determine the feasibility and acceptance of rapid HIV testing among women in labor and to assess rapid HIV assay performance. The Mother-Infant Rapid Intervention At Delivery (MIRIAD) study implemented 24-hour counseling and voluntary rapid HIV testing for women in labor at 16 US hospitals from November 16, 2001, through November 15, 2003. A rapid HIV-1 antibody test for whole blood was used. Acceptance of HIV testing; sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of the rapid test; time from blood collection to patient notification of results. There were 91,707 visits to the labor and delivery units in