Sample records for history religion politics

  1. Religion and Politics

    Bandak, Andreas


    Religion and politics provide an interesting juxtaposition. On the one hand, both may initially come across as rather self-evident categories, with religion dealing with human perceptions and what people hold as sacred, and politics addressing the control and governance of fellow human beings....... Nonetheless, such a simple opposition should only work as a starting point for an interrogation of both terms and how they have come to look and function as empirical and analytical categories. Focusing on the ways that religion is played out in relation to politics reveals different historical and cultural...... constellations and positions, which can be highlighted as variations of religion as politics, religion in politics, religion out of politics, and religion not politics....

  2. Has Political Science Ignored Religion?

    Kettell, Steven


    A common complaint from political scientists involved in the study of religion is that religious issues have been largely overlooked by political science. Through a content analysis of leading political science and sociology journals from 2000 to 2010, this article considers the extent of this claim. The results show that political science…

  3. Spiritual Politics, Political Religion, and Religious Freedom in Burma

    Gravers, Mikael


    A state of the art artcle on academic work on religion, politics, and religious freedom in Burma......A state of the art artcle on academic work on religion, politics, and religious freedom in Burma...

  4. First Handbooks on History of Religion and Comparative Religion Abroad

    Barashkov Viktor


    Full Text Available One of the important aspects of institutionalization of the religious studies in 1870– 1910s was the publishing of the fi rst handbooks on history of religion and comparative religion. The aim of the paper is to analyze methods and approaches of religious studies, as they described in these handbooks. The main characteristic of religion for the historians of religion was its universality. The most important methods, according to them, were historical approach, comparative approach, using of the notion «development». It is important, that we deal foremost with the «history of religion» in these handbooks, not with the «history of religions». Primitive religions were usually excluded from these handbooks, because they «have not history». First handbooks on history of religion often were edited in the series of theological handbooks, that’s why Christianity was described in them quite often as «higher» religion. Researches on comparative religion were based upon the history of religion. One of the main principles of comparative religion was that it should not deal with religious values, but only with a comparison of facts. The author concludes that scholars of religion nowadays should not only collect the facts, but also realize projects on the general history (theory of religion.

  5. Local Politics and Religion in Papua

    Idrus Al Hamid


    Full Text Available Local political conflicts become an integral part of Indonesia. Various cause roots are assumed come from a religious dimension, in addition to ethnicity. In cases of Jayapura, Papua, local political dimensions of the conflict was obviously display as factors that religion should be integrating factor, but in fact religion become disintegrating factor. The various power of groups interconnect with a religious impulse that local political tensions grew louder and spread. The aim of this study is to describe analytically about the emergence of a strain on the local level in Jayapura Papua in the field of religion. To elaborate the analysis in this article, the excavation data through in-depth interviews, focus group discussion, and literature studies or documents on issues that occur on local level.

  6. Religion in Nigerian President Olusegun Obasanjo's Political ...

    Language on the other hand provides the conduit for performance and expression of religion and religiousness; as well as political ideologies. The data consists of Obasanjo's speeches delivered on 29th May 1999 and 2003. Working within the tenets of Critical Discourse Analysis, the paper interrogates the trajectory in ...

  7. Religion and Politics by Other Means

    José Fernando Serrano Amaya


    Full Text Available The article discusses the 2016 debate over egalitarian adoption in Colombia in order to suggest that in the fields of gender and sexuality, religion and politics constitute the same flow of signifiers. That flow is dislocated, temporary, and unstable, since it depends on the dynamics of social conflicts and political transitions. Thus, the Colombian case can be interpreted as the emergence of a religious project in political terms, which secularizes its discourse in order to spiritualize society.  In turn, both the legal debate, with its appeal to State authority, and populism, with its longing to return to founding principles, are means for that emergence.

  8. Religion, culture and political corruption in Nigeria

    Dhikru A. Yagboyaju


    Full Text Available For so long, development theories and practices have either deliberately neglected or simply overlooked the possible interconnections between religion, culture and the attainment of development goals. Against this background, this article reviews the literature on corruption, as a major factor of underdevelopment in Nigeria, particularly as it relates to religion and culture in the country. In its analysis, this article argues that corruption in Nigeria, especially in view of the country’s multi-ethnic and multi-religious status, must be conceived as a phenomenon transcending legal, political and economic boundaries. The study adopts an interpretative and descriptive methodology for its analysis.

  9. Gender, religion and democratic politics in India.

    Hasan, Zoya


    This article examines the impact of identity politics on gender equality. More specifically it explores the paradoxical and complex relationship of religion and politics in a multi-religious society and the complicated ways in which women's activism has both reinforced and challenged their gender identities. Contrary to the argument that religious politics does not always negate gender equality, the article argues that the Hindu religious politics and women's activism associated with it provides a compelling example of the instrumentalisation of women to accomplish the political goals of the Hindu right. It also examines the approach and strategies of influential political parties, women's organisations and Muslim women's groups towards legal reform and the contested issue of a uniform civil code. Against those who argue that, in the current communal conjuncture, reform within Muslim personal laws or Islamic feminism is the best strategy for enhancing the scope of Muslim women's rights, the article argues that such an approach tends to freeze identities within religious boundaries. It shows how women's and minority rights are used within the politics of religion to sideline the agenda of women's rights.

  10. [Euthanasia through history and religion].

    Gajić, Vladimir


    INTRODUCTION Euthanasia represents an ethical, social, legal and medical issue, which is being disputed more and more frequently worldwide. In Serbia, it is illegal and punishable by law and subject to a prison sentence. Euthanasia verbatim, meaning "good death", refers to the practice of ending a life in order to relieve pain and suffering. It can be voluntary, when a person knowingly declares the wish to end life, and involuntary, when relatives and family make decisions on behalf of patients in coma. It can be active, when a person applies a medical procedure to end life and passive, when medical procedures which can extend a patient's life are not applied. EUTHANASIA THROUGH HISTORY: The term was known in old Greece, and Hippocrates mentioned it in his oath, which is now taken by all doctors in the world, by which they pledge not to apply a medicine which can lead to death of the patients, nor to give such counsel. Euthanasia had its most vigorous impetus in the mid-20th century when it was being carried out deliberately in Nazi Germany. All leading religions from Christianity, over Buddhism, to Islam, are directly or indirectly against any kind of euthanasia. EUTHANASIA TODAY: At the beginning of the 21st century, euthanasia was legalized in several most developed countries in the world, among them the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, Switzerland, Japan, India and some American and Mexican federal states. The World Medical Association from 82 countries has condemned euthanasia, and called all medical workers who practice euthanasia to reconsider their attitudes and to stop this practice.

  11. Restoring Politics to Political History

    Kousser, J. Morgan


    If history ever was simply the study of past politics, it is no longer. Dissatisfied with narratives of Great Men, more interested in analyzing the impact of larger forces and in tracing out patterns of the lives of the masses of people, skeptical that a recounting of election campaigns and a counting of votes reveals much about social thought or action, strongly affected by currents of opinion which have long run deep in France, American historians have turned increas...

  12. Provide History of Religion and God

    Ginex, Nicholas P.


    There is a need for high school, college, and university educators to introduce their students to a history of mankind's development of religions and beliefs in God. Regarded as too sensitive a subject, students are deprived of learning how mankind has evolved ways to establish moral and righteous behavior to maintain harmony among competing…

  13. From the History of Religions to the Study of Religion in Denmark

    Jensen, Tim; Geertz, Armin W.


    The history of the academic study of religion in Denmark resembles developments in other Nordic and European countries as it has moved from a primarily historical-philological and comparative ‘history of religions’ towards a broader ‘study of religion(s)’ that includes history of religions together...

  14. Between Politics and Religion – In Search of the Golden Mean

    Pawel Tarasiewicz


    Full Text Available The author undertakes the problem of the identity of Western civilization in the light of a correlation between politics and religion. First, he traces the theoretical debates about the mutual correspondence of politics and religion in ancient Greece. Following two extreme errors depicted by Sophocles in his “Antigone,” and by Plato in his “Apology of Socrates,” he infers that the “Golden Mean” is necessary in resolving the problem of politics and religion. Then, he examines the underlying errors put forward in the history. His investigations show the erroneousness of endowing either politics or religion with sovereign status in culture. There is always a conflict between politics and religion unless man regains his own sovereignty from them. Ultimately the author arrives at the conclusion that the “Golden Mean” correlating politics and religion distinctly strengthens the identity of the Western Civilization, and consists in respecting all real and universal parameters of human person life, such as cognition, freedom (and responsibility, love, agency in law, ontological sovereignty, and religious dignity.

  15. Special section: religion and territorial politics in southern Europe

    Giorgi , Alberta; Itçaina , Xabier


    International audience; The invisible politics of religion in southern European territories: preliminary considerations With this issue of Religion, State & Society, we inaugurate a planned series of special sections focusing on the analysis of the political involvement of religious associations and organisations at the local level. Without pre-empting the more substantial conclusion that we plan for the last of the special sections, in this short introduction we aim to state brieflythe main ...

  16. Historical intersections of psychology, religion, and politics in national contexts.

    Kugelmann, Robert; Belzen, Jacob A


    Various types of psychology have come into existence in and have been interacting with a plurality of contexts, contexts that have been radically varying in different states or nations. One important factor in the development of psychology has been the multiple relationships to the Christian religion, whether understood as an institution, a worldview, or a form of personal spirituality. The articles in this issue focus on the intertwinements between institutional religion and national political structures and on their influence on developing forms of psychology in four different national contexts: Spain, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Within these four settings, aspects of the ways in which varying forms of Christian religion coconstituted, facilitated, and shaped psychology, theoretically, practically, and institutionally, are examined. The formative power of the religions was not independent of the relationships between religion and political power, but rather mediated by these.

  17. Teaching about Religion in History Classes: Sacred and Secular History.

    Abrahamson, Brant; Smith, Fred

    In teaching about religion there is the fundamental distinction between secular history, which is restricted to natural cause and effect relationships, and sacred histories, which assume that a spirit world exists and that human/divine interaction has taken place. In the United States, the academically approved way of dealing with these…

  18. Theorizing Religion as Politics in Postsecular International Relations

    Wilson, Erin


    This article reconsiders the political dimensions of religious activity in light of a supposedly emerging post-secular society. I argue that limited understandings of both religion and politics restrict the capacity of scholars and faith-based actors alike to perceive the signifi- cant influence

  19. Patriarchy, religion and women's political participation in Kwara ...

    This study examines the relationship between patriarchy and religion and how they impact on women's political participation in Kwara State. The Gender and Development (GAD) approach is employed to examine the impact of social construct on women's political participation. Primary and secondary data were utilized for ...

  20. Religion as Political Instrument: The Case of Japan and South Africa ...

    Religion can be an effective instrument in politics. This has been a phenomenon all over the ages and different political contexts. Politicians utilise religion in order to gain political goals. This paper wants to investigate the reasons why religion is such an effective instrument within politics. The investigation is as much a ...


    Editorial Al-Jami'ah: Journal of Islamic Studies


    Full Text Available Radical Islamism has become the “sexiest” issue in the international scholarship of religion since the September 11 tragedy in 2001. It has been associated with a number of terrorist attacks not only in the West but also in Muslim countries. Every single of radical Islamism has caught the interest of not only scholars and policy makers but also general public. Interestingly, the general assumption that religion is the source of peace has been seriously challenged, not by non-religious communities, but by the violent practices of particular religious groups, however small they are. Indeed, there are certain groups striving for Islam but by using acts which could give awful image on Islam itself and against humanity.

  2. Gender inequality in education : political institutions or culture and religion?

    Cooray, Arusha; Potrafke, Niklas


    We investigate empirically whether political institutions or culture and religion underlie gender inequality in education. The dataset contains up to 157 countries over the 1991-2006 period. The results indicate that political institutions do not significantly influence education of girls: autocratic regimes do not discriminate against girls in denying educational opportunities and democracies do not discriminate by gender when providing educational opportunities. The primary influences on ge...

  3. Stalinist ritual and belief system : Reflections on "political religion"

    van Ree, E.


    This article offers a critical assessment of the Political Religion Theory on the basis of a comparative analysis of the Orthodox and Stalinist belief systems and ritual. The theory works under the assumption that sacralisation of secular objects endows these objects with a transcendental, divine

  4. Prosociality and religion: History and experimentation.

    Beit-Hallahmi, Benjamin


    Norenzayan et al. are praised for choosing to deal with significant questions in the understanding of religion. They are then criticized for refusing to define religion and for relying on problematic theoretical concepts. The authors discuss Abrahamic religions as the best-known prosocial religions, but the evidence shows that the case does not fit their conceptual framework. Finally, an extension of the authors' ideas about the meaning of priming effects is proposed.

  5. Paths of Research in Religion and Politics: An Introduction

    Alberta Giorgi


    Full Text Available Religion plays an important role in contemporary politics, both as a public and political actor, and as set of values. As a public actor, religion widely participates in the political spheres of European countries. At the same time, both European and non-European societies are experiencing a profound reshaping of their political landscapes. In these contexts, it has become clear that new modes of governance redraw the boundaries between institutional actors and citizens, and create space for horizontal and/or transnational networks. Today, the separation between religion and politics is being questioned more or less radically, and the meaning and the substance of democracy likewise. This special issue aims to offer a wide range of examples of studies focusing on the interactions between religion and politics from different disciplinary perspectives and scientific traditions. Ranging from single case studies to transnational comparative analyses, from sociology of religion to political science, and from the analysis of specific religious traditions to comparative studies, the articles presented offer a useful insight of topics and debates. This heterogeneity allows the readers to have an overview on some of the most important religious actors (movements, associations, groups and, parties in contemporary democracies, such as Christian traditional parties in Europe and the US, Islamist groups in Turkey and in Pakistan. At the same time, this collection of article shows different approaches through which is possible to analyse these movements, such as cross-country comparative approaches, comparison between different cases of religious groups’ collective action within the same national contexts or in the same urban area, or in-depth case studies of the specific role of religious groups in a broader national mobilization. The common element of these different contributions is the objective of looking at the complex relationships between religious

  6. Freedom of religion in the 21st century : A human rights perspective on the relation between politics and religion

    Ziebertz, Hans-Georg; Hirsch Ballin, Ernst


    Freedom of religion consists of the right to practice, to manifest and to change one’s religion. The modern democratic state is neutral towards the variety of religions, but protects the right of citizens to practice their different religious beliefs. Recent history shows that a number of religious

  7. Ethnic Religion in nowadays Europe: renaissance of the historical pagan beliefs or Political Paganism? Exemplified by the Asatru in Denmark and the Mari Native Religion in Russia

    Christensen Carsten Sander


    Full Text Available The article deals with the history and the problems of ethnic religions in nowadays Europe. Based on a definition and discussion of Paganism and Neopaganism, and a thereby following definition and discussion of differences between ethnic religion and monotheistic religion, the article tries to get the answer as to whether ethnic religion, nowadays, is a Political Paganism, a renaissance of historical pagan beliefs or a mixture. To answer the question, the problem of the article will be exemplified by an analysis of two types of paganism in contemporary Europe: the Asatru in Denmark and the Mari Native Religion in Russia. Revived in the 1970s, the Asatru is a rather new phenomenon as well in Denmark as in other countries of the world. On 15 November 1997 the Forn Siðr association, the Asatru and Vanatru Association in Denmark, was established, in 2003 recognized, and registered as an official religion in Denmark. Whereas the Mari Native Religion, a religion practiced by the Mari people in a Russian region of Mari El Republic, 800 kilometres east of Moscow, can lead its roots several thousand years back.

  8. Galileo's Religion Versus the Church's Science? Rethinking the History of Science and Religion

    Wilson, D. B.

    Galileo's conflict with the Catholic Church is well recognized as a key episode in the history of physics and in the history of science and religion. This paper applies a new, historiographical approach to that specific episode. It advocates eliminating the science and religion. The Church concluded that the plainest facts of human experience agreed perfectly with an omniscient God's revealed word to proclaim the earth at rest. Supported by the Bible, Galileo, God-like, linked the elegance of mathematics to truths about nature. The Church, in effect, resisted Galileo's claim to be able to think like God, instead listening to God himself - and paying close attention to what man himself observed. We can thus see that the phrase ``Galileo's religion versus the Church's science'' is as meaningful (or meaningless) as the usual designation ``Galileo's science versus the Church's religion.''

  9. Politics out of the History of Politics

    Diana Sartori


    Full Text Available Wendy Brown’s approach in Politics out of History is characterized by an attempt to analyze the presence of the past which can be read not only under the light of Nietzsche’s legacy, but also through a comparison with Hannah Arendt’s conception of the gap between the past and the future. Like Arendt, Brown aims to look at the present as the site of politics and freedom, even though the former conceives the break with tradition as the unavoidable starting point, while the latter assumes that that break is not fully accomplished because it was not recognized. Rather, it produces Wounded Attachments whose effect is that of limiting the possibility of left criticism. Moving from this parallel, Brown’s analysis is compared to the Italian philosophy of sexual difference, stressing their common interest in thinking freedom beyond a female identity built on a presumed common oppression.

  10. Indian Women, Religion and Politics in Salman Rushdie’s Midnight’s Children

    Cerasela BASTON-TUDOR


    Full Text Available This analysis of Salman Rushdie’s Midnight’s Children focuses on the construction of womanhood in postcolonial India, with reference to women’s role in two significant domains, politics and religion, as female characters are assigned the part of either homo politicus or homo religiosus. Within the sphere of politics, women are indissolubly connected to the concept of nation, and Rushdie intertwines personal history with that of the country, using birth metaphors for both children and country. The second domain under scrutiny is set in antithesis with the former, since all women belonging to this class are fundamentally against any political statement, be it Gandhian, peaceful, or otherwise, as their main objective is to follow Islamic laws. Such a complex transfer from one field and type of female character to an opposite one constitutes itself into the challenge of offering a possible interpretation of the novel Midnight’s Children.

  11. Contested identities: gendered politics, gendered religion in Pakistan.

    Shaheed, Farida


    In Pakistan, the self-serving use of Islam by more secular elements alongside politico-religious ones facilitated the latter's increasing influence and the conflation and intricate interweaving of Islam and Pakistani nationhood. A paradigm shift under Zia's martial law revamped society as much as state laws, producing both religiously defined militias and aligned civil society groups. Examining the impact on women of fusing religion and politics, this paper argues that women become symbolic markers of appropriated territory in the pursuit of state power, and that the impact of such fusing, different for differently situated women, needs to be gauged in societal terms as well as in terms of state dynamics. Questioning the positing of civil society as a self-evident progressive desideratum, the paper concludes that gender equality projects seeking reconfigurations of power cannot be effective without vigorously competing in the creation of knowledge, culture and identity.

  12. Ritualistics: a New Discipline in the History of Religions

    Jørgen Podemann Sørensen


    Full Text Available The history of Religions is in need of subdisciplines. Those that it has are mostly derived from other academic disciplines such as psychology, sociology, or, to mention a more recent invention, aesthetics. Interdisciplinary studies are in many ways a characteristic, inherent feature of the humanities, and certainly not to be resented or mistrusted. It is, however, worth noticing that the History of Religions has only one discipline entirely of its own: a comparative, cross-cultural, religio-specific discipline sometimes called the phenomenology of religion. The study of ritual is more than just the study of a very broad. It is with a view to the further exploration of the way meaning and form are put to work in ritual, and the way ritual determines and conditions the form of representations, that ritualistics can be suggested as a new discipline.

  13. Religions and the History of Education: A Historiography

    Raftery, Deirdre


    This article provides a study of scholarship on religions and education, published over the past forty years, in "History of Education". It also includes reference to other publications, attempting a thematic analysis that scrutinises work on missionaries, churchmen, convents, charitable societies, denominations and education. Methodologies and…

  14. From Mystics to Modern Times: A History of Craniotomy & Religion.

    Newman, W Christopher; Chivukula, Srinivas; Grandhi, Ramesh


    Neurosurgical treatment of diseases dates back to prehistoric times and the trephination of skulls for various maladies. Throughout the evolution of trephination, surgery and religion have been intertwined to varying degrees, a relationship that has caused both stagnation and progress. From its mystical origins in prehistoric times to its scientific progress in ancient Egypt and its resurgence as a well-validated surgical technique in modern times, trephination has been a reflection of the cultural and religious times. Herein we present a brief history of trephination as it relates religion, culture, and the evolution of neurosurgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The unborn child: history, philosophy and religion

    Lucan Maria Casandra


    Full Text Available All throughout history the unborn, and implicitly its protection, have been subject for academics and practitioners of various areas. The problem of the origin of the soul and the exact determination of the moment when it is united with the body was crucial in enabling us to define the exact moment when the human life begins, and, consequently, for providing proper protection for the unborn child. In this context visions of the Greek philosophers like Plato, Aristotle, Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas, and of the Latin writer Tertullian, as well as Christian perspectives were analysed in order to identify the starting point of the human being to help determine the level of protection provided for the unborn in history. Finally, considering the fact that not even today has consensus been achieved concerning the beginning of human life, it was and still is difficult to provide proper legal protection for the unborn child, but in our opinion this is by far not impossible.

  16. Religion, politics and gender in the context of nation-state formation: the case of Serbia.

    Drezgić, Rada


    This article argues that nationalism has connected religion with secular politics in Serbia but that their rapprochement has been a gradual process. In order to demonstrate the transition from a limited influence of religion on politics to a much tighter relationship between the two, this article discusses the abortion legislation reform and the introduction of religious education in public schools, respectively. It argues that, while illustrative of different types of connection between religion and politics, these two issues had similar implications for gender equality-they produced discourses that recreated and justified patriarchal social norms. After religion gained access to public institutions, its (patriarchal) discourses on gender were considerably empowered. The article points to some tangible evidence of a re-traditionalisation and re-patriarchalisation of gender roles within the domestic realm in Serbia.

  17. The unhappy marriage of religion and politics: problems and pitfalls for gender equality.

    Razavi, Shahra; Jenichen, Anne


    This article explores how religion as a political force shapes and deflects the struggle for gender equality in contexts marked by different histories of nation building and challenges of ethnic diversity, different state-society relations (from the more authoritarian to the more democratic), and different relations between state power and religion (especially in the domain of marriage, family and personal laws). It shows how 'private' issues, related to the family, sexuality and reproduction, have become sites of intense public contestation between conservative religious actors wishing to regulate them based on some transcendent moral principle, and feminist and other human rights advocates basing their claims on pluralist and time- and context-specific solutions. Not only are claims of 'divine truth' justifying discriminatory practices against women hard to challenge, but the struggle for gender equality is further complicated by the manner in which it is closely tied up with, and inseparable from, struggles for social and economic justice, ethnic/racial recognition, and national self-determination vis--vis imperial/global domination.

  18. Danmark. Religion

    Lausten, Martin Schwarz


    Danmarks kirkehistorie fra begyndelsen til nyere tid. Kirkehistorie, historie, folkekirke, religion......Danmarks kirkehistorie fra begyndelsen til nyere tid. Kirkehistorie, historie, folkekirke, religion...

  19. Religion

    Riis, Ole


    En sociologisk indgang til religion, som individuel religiøsitet, som organisation af et trossamfund og som samfundsinstitution. Religion betragtes både im- og eksplicit, og som både samlende og splittende for sociale fællesskaber.......En sociologisk indgang til religion, som individuel religiøsitet, som organisation af et trossamfund og som samfundsinstitution. Religion betragtes både im- og eksplicit, og som både samlende og splittende for sociale fællesskaber....

  20. Religion and Political Violence in Apartheid South Africa | Matheba ...

    In analyzing religion and violence in apartheid South Africa, the article expresses the hope that churches and other civil society organs will reclaim their watchdog role in entrenching democracy even more deeply in a post-apartheid South African society. (The Journal of Cultural Studies: 2001 3(1): 108-123) ...

  1. Religion

    Lægaard, Sune


    Article on the different ways on which religion is relevant to discussions of discrimination and the normative issues this gives rise to.......Article on the different ways on which religion is relevant to discussions of discrimination and the normative issues this gives rise to....

  2. Religion

    Welz, Claudia


    In the world of Greek Comedy, the traditionally austere gods of Tragedy are lowered to fit the streets of Athens. Religion is omnipresent in comedy on many levels, and we find gods on stage, prayers and oaths performed, sacrifices narrated, festivals performed. Religion in comedy is generally...

  3. Religion and Politics in Africa: The Future of “The Secular”

    Jon Abbink


    Full Text Available This essay discusses the continued importance that religion holds in African life, not only in terms of numbers of believers, but also regarding the varieties of religious experience and its links with politics and the “public sphere(s”. Coinciding with the wave of democratization and economic liberalization efforts since about 1990, a notable growth of the public presence of religion and its political referents in Africa has been witnessed; alongside “development”, religion will remain a hot issue in the future political trajectory of the continent. Its renewed presence in public spheres has also led to new understandings of what religion means and how it figures into both “world-making” and identity politics. This will prolong the challenges associated with the role and status of religion in the “secular state model” found in most African countries. Can these states, while “besieged” by believers, maintain neutrality among diverse worldviews, and if so, how? The paper discusses these issues in a general manner with reference to African examples, some taken from fieldwork by the author, and makes a philosophical argument for the development of a new kind of “secular state” that can respect the religious commitments of African populations.

  4. Public Concern with Farm-Animal Welfare: Religion, Politics, and Human Disadvantage in the Food Sector

    Deemer, Danielle R.; Lobao, Linda M.


    The welfare of farm animals has become a continuing source of controversy as states seek greater regulation over the livestock industry. However, empirical studies addressing the determinants of public concern for farm-animal welfare are limited. Religion and politics, two institutional bases of attitudes, are rarely explored. Nor have…

  5. Who's Afraid of Sex at School? The Politics of Researching Culture, Religion and Sexuality at School

    Allen, Louisa; Rasmussen, Mary Lou; Quinlivan, Kathleen; Aspin, Clive; Sanjakdar, Fida; Brömdal, Annette


    This paper explores the methodological politics of researching at the intersections of sexuality, culture and religion in secondary schools. It draws on experiences during a project concerned with how to address cultural and religious diversity in sexuality education in Australia and New Zealand. The paper focuses on two methodological sticking…

  6. Fiction-based Religion : Conceptualising a New Category against History-based Religion and Fandom

    Davidsen, M.A.


    During the last decade, scholars of religion have researched Star Wars-based Jediism, the Tolkien-inspired Elven community, and other religious movements inspired by popular fiction. This article raises two related questions about this new kind of religion: what should we call it?, and what

  7. The fluctuating female vote: politics, religion, and the ovulatory cycle.

    Durante, Kristina M; Rae, Ashley; Griskevicius, Vladas


    Each month, many women experience an ovulatory cycle that regulates fertility. Although research has found that this cycle influences women's mating preferences, we proposed that it might also change women's political and religious views. Building on theory suggesting that political and religious orientation are linked to reproductive goals, we tested how fertility influenced women's politics, religiosity, and voting in the 2012 U.S. presidential election. In two studies with large and diverse samples, ovulation had drastically different effects on single women and women in committed relationships. Ovulation led single women to become more liberal, less religious, and more likely to vote for Barack Obama. In contrast, ovulation led women in committed relationships to become more conservative, more religious, and more likely to vote for Mitt Romney. In addition, ovulation-induced changes in political orientation mediated women's voting behavior. Overall, the ovulatory cycle not only influences women's politics but also appears to do so differently for single women than for women in relationships.

  8. Religion

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal


    Anmeldelse af Niels Reehs "Secularization Revisited. Teaching of Religion and the State of Denmark" med afsæt i de nutidige kampe om kristendom og islam og med fremhævelse af Reehs forståelse af staten/religionen som en 'survival unit'.......Anmeldelse af Niels Reehs "Secularization Revisited. Teaching of Religion and the State of Denmark" med afsæt i de nutidige kampe om kristendom og islam og med fremhævelse af Reehs forståelse af staten/religionen som en 'survival unit'....

  9. Religion and politics in sub-Saharan Africa

    Ellis, S.D.K.; Haar, Gerrie ter


    In the considerable number of countries in sub-Saharan Africa in which political institutions have largely broken down, religious discourse can be seen as an attempted remedy by means of a reordering of power. The numerous popular texts on witchcraft and other perceived forms of evil reflect the

  10. Religion

    This is a thematic issue of the journal Religion 47 (3) entitled Exploring Aniconism. It contains elleven research articles on the use of aniconism in different religious traditions. Table of Content 1. Aniconism: definitions, examples and comparative perspectives (Milette Gaifman, concluding...

  11. Religion, Human Rights and Constitutional-Contract Politics in Malaysia

    Marzuki Mohamad


    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-MY X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Abstract: The debate about human rights in Malaysia took a new turn in the early twenty-first century when it started to focus on the issue of religious freedom. The proponents of secular-liberal notion of religious freedom argued that religious and racial harmony would be better achieved if Malaysians of all races and religions enjoy absolute religious freedom, which includes the right to renounce Islam. However, the secular-liberal approach to religious freedom, contrary to the expectation of its proponents, accentuates religious and racial division in Muslim-majority Malaysia.

  12. Dialectics or politics? Atheism and the return to religion

    Gavin Hyman


    Full Text Available Much scholarly attention has been given to the vast differences in understandings of theism throughout the history of the theological tradition. Rather less attention has been given to differences in understandings of atheism. That there are and have been such differences, however, is obvious. This may be seen in the contemporary context if we juxtapose the ‘newly visible’ atheisms of, for instance, Richard Dawkins and Slavoj Žižek. In previous work, I and several other scholars have drawn attention to the ways in which the existence of different forms of atheism may be explained by the fact that they are responding to and negating very different forms of theism. But there may well be more at stake in differences between atheisms than this.

  13. A Political End to a Pioneering Career: Marianne Beth and the Psychology of Religion

    Jacob A. Belzen


    Full Text Available Although forgotten in both Religionswissenschaft (the Science of Religion and psychology, Marianne Beth (1880-1984, initially trained as a lawyer and already in 1928 called a “leading European woman”, must be considered as one of the female pioneers of these fields. She has been active especially in the psychology of religion, a field in which she, together with her husband Karl Beth, founded a research institute, an international organization and a journal. In 1932, the Beths organized in Vienna (where Karl was a professor the largest conference ever in the history of the psychology of religion. Because of her Jewish descent, Marianne Beth fled to the USA when Austria was annexed by Nazi Germany in 1938. This brought an abrupt end to her career as researcher and writer. The article reconstructs Marianne Beth’s path into psychology, analyzes some of her work and puts her achievements in an international perspective.

  14. From the Cross (and Crescent) to the Cedar and Back Again: Transnational Religion and Politics Among Lebanese Christians in Senegal

    Leichtman, Mara A.


    This article examines the changing relationship between religion, secularism, national politics, and identity formation among Lebanese Christians in Senegal. Notre Dame du Liban, the first Lebanese religious institution in West Africa, draws on its Lebanese “national” character to accommodate Lebanese Maronite Catholic and Greek Orthodox Christians in Dakar, remaining an icon of “Lebanese” religion, yet departing from religious sectarianism in Lebanon. As such, transnational religion can vary from national religion, gaining new resonances and reinforcing a wider “secular” ethno-national identity. PMID:24077518

  15. Superstition, religion and the political / Superstição, religião e o político

    Michel Despland


    Full Text Available Abstract/presentationAlthough a respected researcher of religion in both the European and North American intellectual scene, Michel Despland is to date still little known in Brazilian religion studies circles. Among his several publications, we name but a few: Kant on history and religion: with a translation of Kant's On the failure of all attempted philosophical theodicies (McGill-Queen's University Press, 1973; The education of desire, Plato and the philosophy of religion (University of Toronto Press, 1985; Les hierarchies sont ebranlees, politiques et theologies au XIXe siècle, (Fides, 1998; Comparatisme et Christianisme: questions d'histoire et de methode (L'Harmattan, 2002. In the paper before us, which was presented during the 12th Symposium of the Brazilian Association for the History of Religions (2011, UFJF, Professor Despland starts from the anthropological premise that religion is “something people do”. Drawing on Spinoza’s work, Despland elects the category of “superstition” as the most adequate tool for the analysis of the religious realm, rather than, for instance, “the sacred”. The author’s immediate goal is first to understand Spinoza’s own construal of the religious and political realms in their interrelatedness – both in conceptual continuity and rupture with the Western/Christian traditions of political theology. He then proceeds to probe historically into the moral and social dimensions of religion as embedded both in its own institutions and in the ever growing third realm of civil society vis-à-vis the state. This discussion, enriched by the contribution of other important writers such as J.-J. Rousseau, A. de Tocqueville, B. Constant and C. Lefort, should serve as a test for his theoretical choices. Despland hopes to have shown, at the end, that a consideration of religion as inevitably rooted in human nature, together with the analysis of the particular historical configuration of the political and

  16. Christian Privilege, History, and Trends in U.S. Religion

    Fairchild, Ellen E.


    In her seminal essay on white privilege, McIntosh (1988) began a discussion on privilege that has taken hold in areas outside her original intent. In this chapter, the author discusses privilege as it pertains not only to race and gender but to religion, especially the Christian faith. The author incorporates the current state of religious flux in…

  17. Religion and the political: the answer of Hegel’s philosophy between tension and reconciliation

    Montserrat Herrero


    Full Text Available A tense relationship between politics and the religious conscience is a constant in political thinking and action. This article deals with Hegel’s philosophy in order to clarify the reasons for that tension and the complexity of the possible solution. How is the way to approach the intricate relationship between the different ways of manifestation of the spirit —as subjective, objective and Absolut Spirit that are implicated in the relationship between religion and politics in Hegel’s Philosophy? I have chosen a place inside the Hegelian’s system to approach this question: the moral conscience. The analysis of this shape of the Spirit allows an original perspective on this topic.

  18. The Canonical Black Body: Alternative African American Religions and the Disruptive Politics of Sacrality

    Joseph L. Tucker Edmonds


    Full Text Available “The Canonical Black Body” argues that central to the study of African American religions is a focus on the black body and the production and engagement of canons on the sacred black body within the black public sphere. Furthermore, this essay suggests that, by paying attention to alternative African American religions in the twentieth century, we can better engage the relationship between African American religion and the long history of creating these canons on the black body, debating their relationship to black freedom, and circulating the canons to contest the oppressive, exclusive practices of modern democracy. Through a critical engagement of the fields of Black Theology and New Religious Movements and using the resources offered by Delores Williams’ accounts of variety and experience and Vincent Wimbush’s category of signifying, this essay will argue for how a return to the body provides resources and tools for not only theorizing African American religions but thinking about the production and creation of competing black publics, including the important role of alternative black sacred publics.

  19. Politics, doctors, assisted reproductive technologies & religion: Transgenerational understandings and experiences of single motherhood in Spain.

    Bravo-Moreno, Ana


    The aim is to achieve a transgenerational view of single motherhood in Spain, to look at which contexts it arises in, how it changes with the introduction of assisted reproduction, and how the role of religion in Spanish society permeates medical practice and affects the lives of women patients. I examine single motherhood and investigate two interconnected themes: (a) being a mother and being mothered are both permeated with sociocultural, political, religious, economic and psychological significance; (b) Spain led Europe in multiple births due to assisted reproduction, thus ethical conflicts and patient rights are analyzed.

  20. From the Axial Age to the New Age: Religion as a Dynamic of World History.

    Tucker, Carlton H.

    In order to broaden student understanding of past and contemporary situations, the world history survey course needs to consider religion as a vehicle through which history moves. The course proposal includes prehistory and paleolithic times to contemporary Islamic culture. The course is thematic and comparative in orientation, but moves through…

  1. The nature and dynamics of world religions: a life-history approach.

    Baumard, Nicolas; Chevallier, Coralie


    In contrast with tribal and archaic religions, world religions are characterized by a unique emphasis on extended prosociality, restricted sociosexuality, delayed gratification and the belief that these specific behaviours are sanctioned by some kind of supernatural justice. Here, we draw on recent advances in life history theory to explain this pattern of seemingly unrelated features. Life history theory examines how organisms adaptively allocate resources in the face of trade-offs between different life-goals (e.g. growth versus reproduction, exploitation versus exploration). In particular, recent studies have shown that individuals, including humans, adjust their life strategy to the environment through phenotypic plasticity: in a harsh environment, organisms tend to adopt a 'fast' strategy, pursuing smaller but more certain benefits, while in more affluent environments, organisms tend to develop a 'slow' strategy, aiming for larger but less certain benefits. Reviewing a range of recent research, we show that world religions are associated with a form of 'slow' strategy. This framework explains both the promotion of 'slow' behaviours such as altruism, self-regulation and monogamy in modern world religions, and the condemnation of 'fast' behaviours such as selfishness, conspicuous sexuality and materialism. This ecological approach also explains the diffusion pattern of world religions: why they emerged late in human history (500-300 BCE), why they are currently in decline in the most affluent societies and why they persist in some places despite this overall decline. © 2015 The Author(s).

  2. The nature and dynamics of world religions: a life-history approach

    Baumard, Nicolas; Chevallier, Coralie


    In contrast with tribal and archaic religions, world religions are characterized by a unique emphasis on extended prosociality, restricted sociosexuality, delayed gratification and the belief that these specific behaviours are sanctioned by some kind of supernatural justice. Here, we draw on recent advances in life history theory to explain this pattern of seemingly unrelated features. Life history theory examines how organisms adaptively allocate resources in the face of trade-offs between different life-goals (e.g. growth versus reproduction, exploitation versus exploration). In particular, recent studies have shown that individuals, including humans, adjust their life strategy to the environment through phenotypic plasticity: in a harsh environment, organisms tend to adopt a ‘fast' strategy, pursuing smaller but more certain benefits, while in more affluent environments, organisms tend to develop a ‘slow' strategy, aiming for larger but less certain benefits. Reviewing a range of recent research, we show that world religions are associated with a form of ‘slow' strategy. This framework explains both the promotion of ‘slow' behaviours such as altruism, self-regulation and monogamy in modern world religions, and the condemnation of ‘fast' behaviours such as selfishness, conspicuous sexuality and materialism. This ecological approach also explains the diffusion pattern of world religions: why they emerged late in human history (500–300 BCE), why they are currently in decline in the most affluent societies and why they persist in some places despite this overall decline. PMID:26511055

  3. Goodwill in the valley of the shadow: religion, psychotherapy, and politics in Britain from 1945 to the early 1960s.

    Richards, Graham


    The author hypothesizes that the British psychological climate following World War II, from 1945 to approximately 1960, created the conditions for an unusually frank, honest, and collaborative debate on matters related to religion and spirituality generally as well as broader social and political issues. The author first sketches the nature of this climate, before looking more specifically at the interrelationships among religion, psychotherapy and, very briefly, politics during this period. Suggestions regarding the dissipation of this phase after 1960 are examined. The final section considers some qualifications to the case previously outlined and identifies issues and questions that the author feels need addressing further.

  4. Unity in Diversity: History and Religion in Indonesia.

    Jones, Bruce William

    This paper, intended as lecture material for university students or as background material for teachers of social studies and world history, assumes that students already have some knowledge about the origins, practices, and beliefs of Islam, but that they have no prior background about Indonesia or its history. The paper describes the diversity…

  5. The Early History of the European Conferences on Science and Religion and of ESSSAT

    Drees, W.B.

    The early history of the European Conferences on Science and Religion and ESSSAT, the European Society for the Study of Science And Theology, is documented and discussed. In Europe, there were, and still are, genuine differences in attitude towards methodology, ideas about the reach of knowledge,

  6. William Whewell, Galileo, and reconceptualizing the history of science and religion.

    Wilson, David B


    This paper advocates a reconceptualization of the history of science and religion. It is an approach to the subject that would aid research by historians of science as well as their message to others, both academic and non-academic. The approach is perfectly illustrated by the life and ideas of William Whewell and Galileo.

  7. Climate Change, Politics and Religion: Australian Churchgoers’ Beliefs about Climate Change

    Miriam Pepper


    Full Text Available A growing literature has sought to understand the relationships between religion, politics and views about climate change and climate change policy in the United States. However, little comparative research has been conducted in other countries. This study draws on data from the 2011 Australian National Church Life Survey to examine the beliefs of Australian churchgoers from some 20 denominations about climate change—whether or not it is real and whether it is caused by humans—and political factors that explain variation in these beliefs. Pentecostals, Baptist and Churches of Christ churchgoers, and people from the smallest Protestant denominations were less likely than other churchgoers to believe in anthropogenic climate change, and voting and hierarchical and individualistic views about society predicted beliefs. There was some evidence that these views function differently in relation to climate change beliefs depending on churchgoers’ degree of opposition to gay rights. These findings are of interest not only for the sake of international comparisons, but also in a context where Australia plays a role in international climate change politics that is disproportionate to its small population.

  8. The Effects of Gender, Race, Religion, and Political Orientation on the Sex Role Attitudes of College Freshmen.

    Lottes, Ilsa L.; Kuriloff, Peter J.


    Examined effects of gender, race, religion, and political orientation on 4 sex role measures among 556 first-year college students. Liberals as compared to conservatives and Jews as compared to Protestants were less traditional in their attitudes toward female sexuality, less accepting of male dominance and negative attitudes toward homosexuality,…

  9. Politics, religion and space. About places of mediation and sacred space among the Gurage of Ethiopia

    PALMISANO, Antonio Luigi


    Full Text Available The main faiths among the Gurage of Ethiopia – Orthodox Christianity, Islam and autochthonous polytheism – provide a constellation of integrative principles for territorial and descent segmentation. Religious leaders and ritual specialists of the three confessions have always represented the unity of Gurage tribes facing the outside world and still receive tributes of cattle, sheep, goats, honey, ensete, money etc. The ethnic court of justice of the Gurage, the yejoka, has re-dimensioned its office, in order to prevent the rise of central instances within the process of political mediation between juxtaposed lineages and territorial segments. The article focuses on the identification and institutionalisation of sacred places among these tribes, the places where the personae, the lineages and residential groups interact within the self-representation processes of Gurage society. The theological and liturgical pluralism, practised by the three faiths, confirms the Gurage’s capacity to answer to the many and contradictory stimuli of modern society, of market economy, of political, administrative and territorial transformation which takes place in the world. This religious plurality in a single family, in a single person, unveils religion as an answer, or rather as a structure of satisfactory answers.

  10. Religion, Education and the Politics of Recognition: A Critique and a Counter-Proposal

    Kamat, Sangeeta; Mathew, Biju


    How should religion be integrated into school curriculum? The authors compare two recent controversies about religion in school curriculum to provide an overarching perspective that can guide educators in their efforts to use religion for pedagogical purposes. The first controversy concerns curriculum approved by the California State Board of…

  11. The Uses of Race and Religion: James Baldwin’s Pragmatist Politics in The Fire Next Time

    Courtney D Ferriter


    Full Text Available In The Fire Next Time, James Baldwin argues that the American dream is far from being a reality in part because there is much Americans do not wish to know about themselves. Given the current political climate in the United States, this idea seems just as timely as it did in the 1960s. Baldwin’s politics and thinking about race and religion are informed by an optimistic belief in the human capacity to love and change for the better, in contrast with Ta-Nehisi Coates, the heir apparent to Baldwin’s legacy. Considering current events, it seems particularly useful to turn back to The Fire Next Time. Not only does Baldwin provide a foundation for understanding racism in the United States, but more importantly, he provides some much-needed hope and guidance for the future. Baldwin discusses democracy as an act that must be realized, in part by coming to a greater understanding of race and religion as performative acts that have political consequences for all Americans. In this article, I examine the influence of pragmatism on Baldwin’s understanding of race and religion. By encouraging readers to acknowledge race and religion as political constructs, Baldwin highlights the inseparability of theory and practice that is a hallmark of both pragmatism and the realization of a democratic society. Furthermore, I argue that Baldwin’s politics provide a more useful framework than Coates’s for this particular historical moment because of Baldwin’s emphasis on change and evolving democracy.

  12. Energy - politics - history. National and international energy politics since 1945

    Hohensee, J.; Salewski, M.


    All articles focus on historical aspects of the development of energy politics in the Federal Republic of Germany (energy enconomy and industry, hard coal, nuclear energy). Some articles also look at international developments (oil boycott, Saudia Arabias's oil policies, International Energy Agency). (UA) [de

  13. Religion and politics in conflict: Paul Stuart Wright and the 1964 coup

    Márcio Ananias Ferreira Vilela


    Full Text Available In this article, we seek to understand the implications of Paulo Stuart Wright´s political and religious action. Beginning with the civil and military coup of 1964, it suffered a strong reaction from majority sectors in the Presbyterian Church of Brazil that started to perceive him as a threat to the religious community and to society itself. The following period was marked by an intense political conflict in Brazil. This contributed for the person in question to be expelled from the Church, have his mandate as a state representative for Santa Catarina impeached, be exiled, live in clandestinity and, later on in the 1970s, be murdered by the organs of repression. Thus, his trajectory bears many similarities to those of others who marked the recent history of Brazil.

  14. Left or right? Teachers, political options and history didactics.

    Caroline Pacievitch


    Full Text Available In this text we discuss the political options of history teachers and its consequences to teaching. We ask if there are relations between political options and didactical choices of the history teacher. The data were obtained from the project “Youth and History in MERCOSUR”, that uses a questionnaire which was responded by a sample of 288 history teacher of Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile and Paraguay. A descriptive and inferential statics treatment was given to the answers, with special attention to political options of the teachers, and crossing general information with stances about didactical aspects.  Norberto Bobbio’s notion about left and right was used. It was noted that the teachers, regardless of political opinion, defend the history teaching importance and care about their own political participation. There are subtle differences about the  teaching objectives evaluation and about professional difficulties among teachers, that also interpret sensitive historical themes coherently to their political stances. These findings invite to think more about the role of those professors who performs history teachers training, as to reinforce the importance of connecting politics and didactics in the making of teaching responsibility.

  15. The Political History of European Integration

    Schulz-Forberg, Hagen; Stråth, Bo

    This book adopts a historical perspective to explore the tensions between the idea of a European democracy through a European market, and the observations that there are signs of increasing social disintegration, political extremism and populism in the wake of economic integration. It was shortli......This book adopts a historical perspective to explore the tensions between the idea of a European democracy through a European market, and the observations that there are signs of increasing social disintegration, political extremism and populism in the wake of economic integration...

  16. Political Repression in U.S. History

    van Minnen, C.A.


    The authors of the essays in this book amass considerable historical evidence illustrating various forms of political repression and its relationship with democracy in the United States, from the late-eighteenth century to the present. They discuss efforts, made mostly but not only by government

  17. Eski Mezopotamya’da Siyasi Örgütlenmede Din Olgusu Religion In The Political Structure Of Ancient Mesopotamia

    Yusuf KILIÇ


    Full Text Available As we know there are various ideas about how the firts statesestbalished and its parametres but we should consider that there is anintegrity of an organization on the basis of its concept. Historicalperiods begins at the same time in Mesopotamia and Egypt and the firstpolitical organizations appears in these lands too. In Mesopotamia, thetemples, called “Ziggurat”, was the center of the city-states inChalcolithic and Early Bronze age. The temple was not only the centerof religion also the center of economy. This multi-function of the temple,political and administrative mechanism was naturally affected by thereligion, a more accurate expression state mechansim expresses religionas a source. The main duty of the king, called EN, was to manage thetemple and the economy in the name of God. The most importance ofthe temple economy was to keep the control of the labor force. On theother hand, to continue the social and political life in an orderlymanner, to ensure the unity and the order in society, there neededsome rules. Religion, in terms of its results, had undertaken this socialtask. When we consider this situation in the concept of ancient history,we may have two different results. According to this, behind thequalification of “thousand of gods land”, Hittites used the religioustolerance in order to avoid a political threat against it self by the variouspeople which it reigned, and on the other hand, rather than thereligious toleration, there appeared gradually decreasing number ofgods and using the religion to centralize the function of establishing thestates of Semitic tribes like Akkadian, Babylonian and Assyrian States.In this study we will try to discuss the case of religion in the politicalorganizations of Ancient Near East. Devlet’in nasıl oluştuğu, parametrelerinin ne olduğu konusunda çeşitli görüşler bulunmakla beraber, hemen hemen hepsinin temelinde bir organizasyon bütünlüğü yatmaktadır. Bilindiği

  18. Cinema as the Interdisciplinary Conjuncture of Political Thought and History

    S. M. Alavipoor


    Full Text Available From the dawn of its history, cinema has been considered as a phenomenon in which different thoughts, among them the political, could be addressed. Indeed, many film-makers have presented various aspects of political norms and the good order of society through movies. However, this combination of the idea and image has been addressed in different ways and among others, as seems, the historical narrative has the potentiality to convey critical and normal political ideas in cinema. Exploring different types of representing the political thought in cinematic historical narratives, the present study attempts to identify cinema’s interdisciplinary potential as a conjuncture for the disciplines of history and political thought.

  19. Ideology, politics, and personality: shaping forces in Dutch psychology of religion, 1907-1957.

    Belzen, Jacob A


    Although the academic establishment of the psychology of religion in the Netherlands has been stronger than in any other Western country, the start of these developments has been remarkably late (in 1957), especially when taking into account that Dutch academic life: (1) before World War II modeled itself after Germany (where psychology of religion flourished); and (2) was to a considerable extent included in the system of pillarization, which characterized Dutch society at large. The general factors that can be distinguished as having played an important role in the shaping of the situation for psychology of religion in the Netherlands had different impacts in the several universities under consideration.

  20. Politics, religion and gender equality in contemporary Mexico: women's sexuality and reproductive rights in a contested secular state.

    Amuchástegui, Ana; Cruz, Guadalupe; Aldaz, Evelyn; Mejía, María Consuelo


    This article explores the complexities of the interaction between politics, religion and gender equality in contemporary Mexico, by analysing recent developments in public debate, legal changes and implementation of government policies in two areas: 1) the inclusion of emergency contraception in public health services in 2004; and 2) the decriminalisation of abortion in Mexico City in 2008, which was followed by a massive campaign to re-criminalise abortion in the federal states. Three main findings emerge from our analysis: first, that women's sexual and reproductive autonomy has become an issue of intense public debate that is being addressed by both state-public policy and society; second, that the gradual democratisation of the Mexican political system and society is forcing the Catholic Church to play by the rules of democracy; and third, that the character and nature of the Mexican (secular) state has become an arena of intense struggle within which traditional political boundaries and ideologies are being reconfigured.

  1. Roots of political corruption in ancient history

    Deretić Nataša Lj.


    Full Text Available Corruption has always been regarded as a special form of enrichment, based on prohibited and unethical grounds. Hence 'political corruption' could be defined as the immorality of the powerful; as the use of political power for the purpose of getting rich without any legal basis. Immorality of the powerful is the root of all the abuses that occur in the society. Those who are at the top of the pyramid of power have been particularly prominent in acquiring as large a fortune as possible. The phenomenon of 'political corruption' has been known in all societies, from the oldest to modern ones. In the ancient civilization of Mesopotamia, there was an established custom of reciprocity between deliberate gifts and requested services. This phenomenon could be observed with Pericles, who is, among other things, attributed the idea of compensation for participation in state affairs. The phenomenon of 'political corruption' is referred to in Cicero's Rome, where bribery as a form of wealth acquisition without legal basis was formally condemned, but also widespread. Even today we can see that there are powerful persons who persist in the violation or circumvention of rules which guide any structured society: their wealth originates from the enormous acquisition of material things, but also the acquisition of various privileges which they are not entitled to, such as titles, promotions, etc. They are the ones who have brought about the demise of the Latin sentence that the basis of any developed society is: 'To live an honest life, hurt no one, and grant everyone their due.'.

  2. Religião, política e cultura Religion, politics and culture

    Joanildo A. Burity


    Full Text Available Este artigo se propõe a ser uma metareflexão sobre a construção de uma interrogação quanto ao vínculo entre religião e política na contemporaneidade. O que vemos entre religião e política na contemporaneidade? Como nos posicionamos - para ver e em face de que vemos? Que lugar é esse do/no qual vemos? Essas questões são formuladas ao longo do texto, a partir do que seria o cenário perceptível das relações entre religião e política: a no plano da cultura e do cotidiano, da esfera pública e da política, os atores religiosos se movimentam e trazem a público sua linguagem, ethos, demandas, nas mais diversas direções; b isso ora contribui para caracterizar formas pluralistas e dialógicas, ora aponta para o estreitamento dos canais de comunicação e para a escalada da violência e da intolerância; c articulando ou deixando-se cruzar por questões de identificação nacional/étnica/racial/de gênero/de classe/etária e reivindicações políticas, tais processos geram "reconhecimentos", "valorizações" e "diálogos" entre atores laicos e religiosos. O cenário suscita reposicionamentos temáticos e teóricos dos cientistas sociais, que são identificados e discutidos no texto.This article is offered as a meta-reflection on the links between religion and politics in the contemporary world. What do we see? How do we position ourselves - both in order to see and in response to what we see? What is this place in/from which we see? These questions are posed over the course of the text, which pursues the following hypotheses: a at the level of culture and everyday life, the public sphere and politics, religious actors circulate and publicly express their language, ethos and demands, with a variety of implications; b this either contributes to the emergence of pluralistic and dialogic forms, or indicates a narrowing of the communication channels and the escalation of violence and intolerance; c processes of 'recognition

  3. The Treatment of the Monotheistic Religions in World History High School Textbooks: A Comparison of Sample Editions 2001-2007

    Allen, Jason Eugene


    This study examines the treatment of the three most practiced monotheistic religions, Christianity, Islam, and Judaism, within the pages of High School World History Textbooks. The results find that within World History textbooks Christianity and Islam receive more coverage than Judaism in narrative content, word usage, illustrations, and…

  4. Biographical Metamorphoses in the History of Religion - Moshe Idel and Three Aspects of Mircea Eliade

    Eduard Iricinschi


    Full Text Available This paper includes an extended review of Moshe Idel’s Mircea Eliade: From Magic to Myth (New York: Peter Lang, 2014 through a triple analysis of Eliade’s early literary, epistolary, and academic texts. The paper examines Idel’s analysis of some important themes in Eliade’s research, such as his shift from understanding religion as magic to its interpretation as myth; the conception of the camouflage of sacred; the notions of androgyny and restoration; and also young Eliade’s theories of death. The paper also discusses Idel’s evaluation of Eliade’s programatic misunderstanding of Judaism and Kabbalah, and also of Eliade’s moral and professional abdication regarding the political and religious aspect of the Iron Guard, a Romanian nationalist extremist and anti-Semitic group he was affiliated with in 1930s.

  5. Beyond Essentialist and Functionalist Analyses of the "Politicisation of Religion": The Evolution of Religious Parties in Political Catholicism and Political Islam

    Joerg Baudner


    Full Text Available The debate about “politics and religion” has already rejected essentialist claims of fundamental differences in the impact of religion on politics in different cultures. This article will argue that political Islam in Turkey and political Catholicism in Italy and Germany adopted remarkably similar patterns of cross-class coalitions and policies for a “reconciliation of capitalism and democracy”. First, religious parties developed as mass integration parties which already encompassed cross-class coalitions. Second, in the aftermath of political and economic crises these parties transformed into catch-all parties with a pronounced neo-liberal agenda which was given a religious justification. Third, at the same time these parties continued to sponsor policies and organizations which cushioned and supplemented an uneven economic development. Fourth, the parties kept traditional family policies which helped attracting a significant female electorate. “Organized religion” provided religious parties with a potential electorate, ancillary organizations and ideological concepts; however, their role in this political evolution changed. The conclusion will discuss whether these findings can be generalized.

  6. Whose History and Who Is Denied? Politics and the History Curriculum in Lebanon and Australia

    Maadad, Nina; Rodwell, Grant


    This paper seeks to explain and develop a better understanding of the relationship between the History curriculum and the consequences of political motive. It compares the History curricula of Australia and Lebanon, and is relevant to understanding the purpose of the History curricula in the two countries as well as, more generally, other…

  7. Religion, sex and politics: Scripting connections in Romans 1:18–32 and Wisdom 14:12–14

    Jeremy Punt


    Full Text Available Ancient people envisaged a strong link between what was deemed transgressive religious activities and objectionable sexual practices. Moreover, sexual behaviour considered aberrant was deemed to upset political boundaries which should protect civic and national stability, especially when this behaviour was suspected of effeminacy. Such thinking appears to inform both Romans 1:18–32 and Wisdom of Solomon 14:12–14. Focussing on two passages from these documents, the links between religion, sexual behaviour and politics in the context of the 1st-century Roman Empire are investigated, tracing underlying ideological intersections, connections and divergences.

  8. Stealing land in the name of religion: A Rastafari religio-political critique of land theft by global imperial forces

    Roderick Hewitt


    Full Text Available The issue of land has been central to Rastafari origins and ideological construct. Ethiopia, Africa, Babylon, Zion and Jamaica are symbols that point not only to physical location but also their ideological and psychological identity formation. This article uses Rastafari hermeneutics to critique the phenomenon of African Jamaican uprooting and dispossession of and from their land by powerful and global conglomerate forces that use the instrument of politics, economic and religion to accomplish their agenda. This article uses the Rastafari theological reflections, a theoretical framework that employs the phenomenon of faith, tradition and experience to interrogate the phenomenon of displacement of people through land theft. The religio-political narrative of Jamar Rolando McNaughton Jr, a young Jamaican reggae artist popularly known by his stage name Chronixx, will serve as the principal lens through which to interrogate the phenomenon of landlessness among the poor, primarily within the Jamaican context.

  9. 'Let it Become the Political Religion of the Nation': Liberal Democracy as Public Morality

    Zoethout, C.M.


    At the beginning of the twenty-first century, European societies reflect a great diversity of different religious and philosophical convictions. In order to guarantee that our future society will be just as varied as today's, attention should not only be focused at the different religions and life

  10. Ideology, politics and personality: shaping forces in Dutch psychology of religion, 1907-1957

    Belzen, J.A.


    Although the academic establishment of the psychology of religion in the Netherlands has been stronger than in any other Western country, the start of these developments has been remarkably late (in 1957), especially when taking into account that Dutch academic life: (1) before World War II modeled

  11. Religion and Politics: The Intentions of the Authors of the First Amendment.

    Malbin, Michael J.

    The author demonstrates why he thinks the Supreme Court has misinterpreted the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. The First Amendment states that "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof..." The author claims that the Supreme Court, based on flawed reading of the…

  12. A political end to a pioneering career: Marianne Beth and the psychology of religion

    Belzen, J.A.


    Although forgotten in both Religionswissenschaft (the Science of Religion) and psychology, Marianne Beth (1880-1984), initially trained as a lawyer and already in 1928 called a "leading European woman", must be considered as one of the female pioneers of these fields. She has been active especially

  13. Interdisciplinary Education and Critical Thinking in Religion and History: The Delivery of Two "Content-Based" Linked Courses

    McDougall, Roseanne; LaMonica, Jeffrey


    Primary sources in religion and history enable first year university students to connect "content-based" linked courses in the core curriculum. Fifty-four first year university students in three separate pairs of courses worked in teams to present oral critical reports on texts related to the Reformation, the Enlightenment, and the…

  14. A History of Experiences and Thinking Men. The History of Political Thought according to Michael Oakeshott

    Spartaco Pupo


    Full Text Available Michael Oakeshott conceives the history of European political thought as a structuring of ideas and arguments of the practical experience aimed to understanding political expressions in vogue in the culture of a people. It is not a continuous and cumulative history of abstract and disembodied ideas, as it is wrongly conceived, but of some men who thought politics in a certain way on the basis of the language and of the set of actions, moral beliefs and contingencies of the people which they belong to. The article highlights the comparison between Oakeshott, Quentin Skinner and Gianfranco Miglio on the search for the most appropriate method to be applied in the study of the history of political thought.

  15. Material security, life history, and moralistic religions: A cross-cultural examination

    Ross, Cody T.; Apicella, Coren; Atkinson, Quentin D.; Cohen, Emma; McNamara, Rita Anne; Willard, Aiyana K.; Xygalatas, Dimitris; Norenzayan, Ara; Henrich, Joseph


    Researchers have recently proposed that “moralistic” religions—those with moral doctrines, moralistic supernatural punishment, and lower emphasis on ritual—emerged as an effect of greater wealth and material security. One interpretation appeals to life history theory, predicting that individuals with “slow life history” strategies will be more attracted to moralistic traditions as a means to judge those with “fast life history” strategies. As we had reservations about the validity of this application of life history theory, we tested these predictions with a data set consisting of 592 individuals from eight diverse societies. Our sample includes individuals from a wide range of traditions, including world religions such as Buddhism, Hinduism and Christianity, but also local traditions rooted in beliefs in animism, ancestor worship, and worship of spirits associated with nature. We first test for the presence of associations between material security, years of formal education, and reproductive success. Consistent with popular life history predictions, we find evidence that material security and education are associated with reduced reproduction. Building on this, we then test whether or not these demographic factors predict the moral concern, punitiveness, attributed knowledge-breadth, and frequency of ritual devotions towards two deities in each society. Here, we find no reliable evidence of a relationship between number of children, material security, or formal education and the individual-level religious beliefs and behaviors. We conclude with a discussion of why life-history theory is an inadequate interpretation for the emergence of factors typifying the moralistic traditions. PMID:29513766

  16. State and religion in contemporary Iran modernity, tradition, and political Islam (1979-2005)

    Rad, Darius


    The title of this study raises questions about the meaning and the significance of the words 'modernity', 'tradition' and 'Political Islam' in contemporary Iran. The purpose of this study is to reveal true meanings of the thoughts and practises of the post-revolution Iranian elites and

  17. The Sunni and Shia Schism: Religion, Islamic Politics, and Why Americans Need to Know the Differences

    Moore, James


    Research indicates that most American citizens know little about Islam and, specifically, the major differences between Sunni Muslims and Shiite Muslims and why this matters to the United States. Although the two major Islamic factions share many common core beliefs and practices, there are some significant religious and political differences…

  18. On the history of political diversity in social psychology.

    Binning, Kevin R; Sears, David O


    We argue that the history of political diversity in social psychology may be better characterized by stability than by a large shift toward liberalism. The branch of social psychology that focuses on political issues has defined social problems from a liberal perspective since at least the 1930s. Although a lack of ideological diversity within the discipline can pose many of the problems noted by Duarte et al., we suggest that these problems (a) are less apparent when the insights of social psychology are pitted against the insights from other social science disciplines, and (b) are less pressing than the need for other types of diversity in the field, especially ethnic and racial diversity.

  19. Religion, politics and gender equality in Turkey: implications of a democratic paradox?

    Arat, Yeşim


    This article examines the gendered implications of the intertwining of Islam and politics that took shape after the process of democratisation in Turkey had brought a political party with an Islamist background to power. This development revived the spectre of restrictive sex roles for women. The country is thus confronted with a democratic paradox: the expansion of religious freedoms accompanying potential and/or real threats to gender equality. The ban on the Islamic headscarf in universities has been the most visible terrain of public controversy on Islam. However, the paper argues that a more threatening development is the propagation of patriarchal religious values, sanctioning secondary roles for women through the public bureaucracy as well as through the educational system and civil society organisations.

  20. “Islam, properly understood” Mahathir Mohamad on religion, Malaysian society and politics

    Schottmann, Sven Alexander


    This thesis represents the first major study of the representations that Mahathir Mohamad made of Islam and of the role that Islam played in shaping his political vision and discourse. The longest serving Prime Minister of Malaysia, holding the post from 1981 to 2003, Mahathir was a remarkable politician by any measure. Most aspects of his leadership have been closely studied, but his articulation of Islam represents a long neglected but greatly needed perspective on both the man and the coun...

  1. Religion, Poverty, and Politics: Their Impact on Women's Reproductive Health Outcomes.

    Kimball, Richard; Wissner, Michael


    This study sought to explore the relationship(s) between U.S. states of selected social determinants of health (SDH) and three women's reproductive health outcomes including abortion, teen births, and infant mortality rates (IMR). The data from multiple population surveys were used to establish on a state-by-state basis, the interactions between selected SDH (religion, voting patterns, child poverty, and GINI) and their policy effects on three women's reproductive health outcomes (abortion, teen births, and IMRs) using publicly available national databases. Child poverty rates and the GINI coefficient were analyzed. Religiosity information was obtained from the Pew Forum's surveys. Voting results were collected from the 2008 congressional and presidential races and were used as proxy measures for conservative- versus liberal-leaning policies and policy makers. Using multiple regression analysis, higher IMRs were associated with higher religiosity scores. Lower abortion rates were associated with voting conservatively and higher income inequality. Higher teen birth rates were associated with higher child poverty rates and voting conservatively. This study shows that selected SDH may have substantial impacts on women's reproductive health outcomes at the state level. Significant inequalities exist between liberal and conservative states that affect women's health outcomes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Michele Renee Salzman, Marvina A. Sweeney & William Adler (eds., The Cambridge History of Religions in the Ancient World (2 vols. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013

    Giorgio Baruchello


    Full Text Available Review of: Michele Renee Salzman, Marvina A. Sweeney & William Adler (eds., The Cambridge History of Religions in the Ancient World (2 vols. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013

  3. History from the ground up: bugs, political economy, and God in Kirby and Spence's Introduction to Entomology (1815-1856).

    Clark, J F M


    William Kirby and William Spence's Introduction to Entomology is generally recognized as one of the founding texts of entomological science in English. This essay examines the ideological allegiances of the coauthors of the Introduction. In particular, it analyzes the ideological implications of their divergent opinions on animal instinct. Different vocational pursuits shaped each man's natural history. Spence, a political economist, pursued fact-based science that was shorn of references to religion. Kirby, a Tory High Churchman, placed revelation at the very heart of his natural history. His strong commitment to partisan sectarianism cautions against reference to a homogeneous "natural theology" that was an agent of mediation. Fissures in the "common intellectual context" reached beyond the clash between natural theologians and radical anatomists to render the intellectual edifice of natural theology structurally less sound for the future.

  4. The Role of Muslim Mentors in Eritrea: Religion, Health and Politics

    Silvia Bruzzi


    Full Text Available The role of Islam and the participation of Muslim shaykhs, in both defining and implementing colonial policies in Eritrea, have roused less interest among scholars than Christian and missionary activities. This article sheds more light on the Islamic players and especially on the role of a holy family: the Mīrghanī. During the Colonial occupation of Eritrea this family adapted to the political and economic context imposed by the colonial rule. Our aim is to point out their activity not only as religious representatives, but also as medical mentors for local people. As a social and religious focal point, it is remarkable to see their growing interest, not only in endogenous and Islamic practices, but also in colonial medicine within the context of their charity work for the sick.

  5. Debating death: religion, politics, and the Oregon Death With Dignity Act.

    Purvis, Taylor E


    In 1994, Oregon passed the Oregon Death With Dignity Act, becoming the first state in the nation to allow physician-assisted suicide (PAS). This paper compares the public discussion that occurred in 1994 and during the Act's implementation in 1997 and examines these debates in relation to health care reform under the Obama administration. I argue that the 1994 and 1997 Oregon PAS campaigns and the ensuing public debate represent the culmination of a growing lack of deference to medical authority, concerns with the doctor-patient relationship, and a desire for increased patient autonomy over decisions during death. The public debate over PAS in Oregon underscored the conflicts among competing religious, political, and personal interests. More visible and widespread than any other American debate on PAS, the conflict in Oregon marked the beginning of the now nationwide problem of determining if and when a terminally ill person can choose to die.

  6. Between universal feminism and particular nationalism: politics, religion and gender (in)equality in Israel.

    Halperin-Kaddari, Ruth; Yadgar, Yaacov


    This article argues that one of the many "idiosyncrasies" of the Israeli case, namely Israel's continuing, violent conflict with its Arab neighbours, is of highly influential relevance to the issue of gender relations. Viewed by many Israeli Jews as a struggle for the very existence of the Jewish state, the Arab-Israeli conflict has overshadowed most other civil and social issues, rendering them "secondary" to the primary concern of securing the safe existence of the state. This has pushed such pressing issues as gender equality and women's rights aside, thus allowing for the perpetuation of discriminatory, sometimes rather repressive treatment of women in Israel. The most blatant expression of this is the turning of the struggle for civil marriage and divorce into a non-issue. Following a short introduction of the relevant political context, we discuss women's positivist and legal status, then conclude with an analysis of the women's movement, highlighting the emergence of religious feminism.

  7. What is Religion?

    Jensen, Jeppe Sinding

    which can be analysed and compared across time and cultures, What is Religion? brings the most up-to-date scholarship to bear on humankind’s most enduring creation. The book opens with a brief history of the idea of religion, then divides the study of religion into four essential topics - types......Religious belief is one of the most pervasive and ubiquitous characteristics of human society. Religion has shadowed and illuminated human lives since primitive times, shaping the world views of cultures from isolated tribes to vast empires. Starting from the premise that religion is a concept......, representations, practices, and institutions – and concludes with a final, eye-opening chapter on religion today. Packed with case studies from a wide range of religions, past and present, What is Religion? offers a very current, comprehensive, yet intellectually challenging overview of the history, theories...

  8. Democracy in the country but not in the home? Religion, politics and women's rights in Chile.

    Guzmán, Virginia; Seibert, Ute; Staab, Silke


    This article explores the influence of religious actors on the elaboration of two public policies that are key to the advancement of women's rights and have long formed part of the women's movement's agenda in Chile: the introduction of sexual education in secondary schools in the 1990s and the distribution of emergency contraception in the 2000s. Our analysis of how different actors-from a variety of ideological and power positions-have influenced the two policy debates suggests that their discourses and strategies are highly contingent on the political environment. While conservative religious forces retain an enormous capacity to hinder policy making and implementation in the arena of family and sexuality, the government's determination to confront such interference seems to have grown in a context of fewer authoritarian enclaves, a more pluralist society and a strong sexual and reproductive rights movement. The diversification of religious positions on issues of family and sexuality has also affected the room for manoeuvre in the policy arena.

  9. From the History of Islamic Studies: A.-M. Schimmel and Phenomenological Approach to Religion

    Samarina Tat’iana


    Full Text Available This article analyses key works of the well-known classic of Islamic studies A.-M. Schimmel and demonstrates that in her legacy the methodology of classical phenomenology of religion has found its fresh application to the study of Islam. The article focuses on essential points of A.-M. Schimmel’s biography that had infl uenced her academic career, and then analyses her phenomenological approach showing how she builds a system of description of Islam by means of systematising religious phenomena that proceeds from external forms (material objects to the centre of religion, God. Phenomenological analysis of Islam provides a base for comprehensive understanding and description of religious phenomena, starting from the perception of stone, holiday, clothes, myth in minds of ordinary Muslims. Schimmel’s phenomenological approach to Islam takes into account the specifi city of lived religion prior to the emergence of this trend. A.-M. Schimmel’s legacy therefore fits in the context of contemporary religious studies. The second part of the article examines the influence of leading scholars in phenomenology of religion (Mircea Eliade, Gerardus van der Leeuw, Friedrich Heiler on A.-M. Schimmel. It is concluded that the positive reception of her work among scholars of Islam and among Muslims themselves suggests that the language of the phenomenological description is the language of religious dialogue.

  10. Mediality and Materiality in the History of Religions. A Medieval Case Study about Religion and Gender in In-Between Spaces

    Bärbel Beinhauer-Köhler


    Full Text Available The article discusses possible terminologies for labelling historical materials. Drawing on the history of the city of Cairo around the 12th century – to the Fatimid era and to later Ayyubid times – it looks at the documents of three religions on religious infrastructure donated by women. This reveals women’s ability to shape the public sphere. At least to a certain extent, the segregation of the sexes and the concept of the harem are questionable. This topic requires the reconstruction and re-reading of fragmental materials. Methodological reflections are helpful for dealing with different sources, mostly combinations of texts and archaeology, embedded in the current debate about material culture and media as well as materialization and mediation. It might seem anachronistic, but to specify these categories it is useful to compare this example with a contemporary study by Mia Lövheim on female Internet bloggers. In both cases we find women as self-confident agents in public spaces.

  11. A political history of the Indian Health Service.

    Bergman, A B; Grossman, D C; Erdrich, A M; Todd, J G; Forquera, R


    One of the few bright spots to emerge from the history of relations between American Indians and the federal government is the remarkable record of the Indian Health Service (IHS). The IHS has raised the health status of Indians to approximate that of most other Americans, a striking achievement in the light of the poverty and stark living conditions experienced by this population. The gains occurred in spite of chronically low funding and can be attributed to the combination of vision, stubbornness, and political savvy of the agency's physician directors and the support of a handful of tribal leaders and powerful allies in the Congress and the White House. Despite the agency's imperfections and the sizeable health problems that still exist among American Indians and Alaskan Natives, the IHS is an example of one federal program that has worked.

  12. "For They Knew Not What It Was": Rethinking the Tacit Narrative History of Religion and Health Research.

    Levin, Jeff


    Over the past couple of decades, research on religion and health has grown into a thriving field. Misperceptions about the history and scope of this field, however, continue to exist, especially among new investigators and commentators on this research. Contrary to the tacit narrative, published research and writing date to the nineteenth century, programmatic research to the 1950s, and NIH funding to 1990; elite medical journals have embraced this topic for over 100 years; study populations are religiously and sociodemographically diverse; and published findings are mostly positive, consistent with psychosocial theories of health and confirmed by comprehensive reviews and expert panels.

  13. Religion and the secularisation of health care.

    Paley, John


    To assess the claim that conceptualisations of religion and spirituality should be grounded in theology, and acknowledge the global resurgence of religion. Although there is widespread agreement in the nursing literature that 'spirituality' is a broader concept than 'religion,' and should be understood generically, this approximate consensus has occasionally been challenged. A recent paper by Barbara Pesut and colleagues argues that the generic view not only empties spirituality of powerful religious symbols and narratives, but underestimates the continuing social influence of religion, and its resurgence on a global scale. Accordingly, these authors suggest three principles for conceptualising spirituality and religion in health care, one of which is that conceptualisations should be grounded in philosophical and theological thinking, and should not ignore the global resurgence of religion. Critical review. The Pesut principle privileges theology, disregarding other disciplines which theorize religion. Arguably, it privileges specifically Christian theology, the history of which suggests a politics of orthodoxy and an epistemology of authority and obedience. The global resurgence of religion is not, in fact, global, as the industrialised countries have experienced a marked shift towards secular-rational values; and the postindustrial phase of development is associated with self-expression values, which represent a challenge not merely to religious institutions (arguably an affirmation of 'spirituality') but to traditional elites and structures of all kinds. Finally, religion 'resurgent' is not an attractive model for health care, since many of its most obvious manifestations are incompatible with the ideology of health professionals. In the secular societies of Europe, if not North America, there should be no expectation that nurses provide spiritual care. It is a requirement of the great separation between civil order and religion that the health services, as a

  14. Review: Mohamed Saliou Camara, Political History of Guinea since World War Two (2014)

    Carole Ammann; University of Basel


    Review of the monograph:Mohamed Saliou Camara, Political History of Guinea since World War Two, New York: Peter Lang, 2014, ISBN 9781433122439, 531 pp. Besprechung der Monographie:Mohamed Saliou Camara, Political History of Guinea since World War Two, New York: Peter Lang, 2014, ISBN 9781433122439, 531 Seiten

  15. The Politics of "P" and "F": A Linguistic History of Nation-Building in the Philippines

    Tupas, Ruanni


    This paper maps out the linguistic history of nation-building in the Philippines through the politics of "p" and "f" in the country. This politics concerns the various strategic acts of naming the national language at different periods of the country's history that have shaped its fate as the most hegemonic indigenous…

  16. Conceptualising spirituality and religion for healthcare.

    Pesut, Barbara; Fowler, Marsha; Taylor, Elizabeth J; Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl; Sawatzky, Richard


    To discuss some of the challenges of conceptualising spirituality and religion for healthcare practice. With the growing interest in spirituality in healthcare, has come the inevitable task of trying to conceptualise spirituality, a daunting task given the amorphous nature of spirituality, the changing understandings of spirituality among individuals and the diverse globalised society within which this task is taking place. Spirituality's relationship to religion is a particularly challenging point of debate. Critical review. Three social and historical conditions - located in the context of Western thought - have contributed to current conceptualisations of spirituality and religion: the diminishment of the social authority of religion as a result of the Enlightenment focus on reason, the rise of a postmodern spirituality emphasising spiritual experience and current tensions over the ideological and political roles of religion in society. The trend to minimise the social influence of religion is a particular Western bias that seems to ignore the global megatrend of the resurgence of religion. Current conceptualisations are critiqued on the following grounds: that they tend to be ungrounded from a rich history of theological and philosophical thought, that a particular form of elitist spirituality is emerging and that the individualistic emphasis in recent conceptualisations of spirituality diminishes the potential for societal critique and transformation while opening the door for economic and political self interest. Constructing adequate conceptualisations of spirituality and religion for clinical practice entails grounding them in the wealth of centuries of philosophical and theological thinking, ensuring that they represent the diverse society that nursing serves and anchoring them within a moral view of practice.


    Nur Syam


    Religion is a human phenomenon which often determines human behaviour. Apart from the divinity, religion is related to man and humanity. But man often differentiate between themselves on religious grounds and come into conflict in the name of religion although the root cause of such conflicts is social misunderstanding, crime or politics. This article examines the religious conflicts in Indonesia during the last two decades as had erupted in Poso, Ambon and Sambas and argues how religion had ...

  18. Digital Image Collections for Asian Religion and Art History in a Small-Sized Liberal Arts College

    May Chang


    Full Text Available


    This paper reviews the establishment of a digital image library from 35mm slides to support faculty and student needs in a small-sized liberal arts college. The framework consists of central local resources, distributed faculty collections, and external resources. Standards and guidelines for digital preservation and access are also discussed. The pilot collections were multi-disciplinary resources in Middle East art and architecture and faculty slide collections in East Asian religions and Asian art history. Technical and management issues of integrating digital technology in the traditional slide library are also discussed.

  19. Identities of the political theory: among science, normativity and history

    Ricardo Silva


    Full Text Available This article aims to present a brief overview of the evolving debates on the problem of the identity of political theory, mainly in the Anglophone academic context since the end of the 1950’s. At least three ways of identifying the nature of political theory have shaped those de-bates: the scientistic, the normative and the historical.

  20. Media, Religion and Public Space

    Gheorghe FALCĂ


    Full Text Available Relations between religion and politics are complex and paradoxical. Both strive to achieve and maintain power. Both politics and religion involve control over social relations and emphasiye social integration (politics in its concern for order in society, and religion in its concern for observance of order and obligations within the congregation. But they differ in respect of specific goals, the values ​​that ascribe to power and differences in their conceptions of the nature and source of power. In the modern world, power, embodied in political institutions, is secular; in the past, its association with religion created a transcendental relationship, causing the possession of power to be of different quality, to come from another world. But, while politics is focused on interpersonal relationships, religion is more oriented towards relations between humans and gods or other spiritual forces.

  1. Laborde’s religion

    Lægaard, Sune


    Cécile Laborde’s Liberalism’s Religion proposes liberal principles to address political controversies over religion. One is the public reason requirement that reasons for state policies should be accessible. Another is the civic inclusiveness requirement according to which symbolic religious...... establishment is wrong when it communicates that religious identity is a component of civic identity. A third is the claim that liberal states have meta-jurisdictional authority to settle the boundary between what counts as religion and what counts as non-religion. The article considers whether Laborde has...... managed to articulate these three principles in a way that is operationalisable and can serve to provide solutions to practical controversies over religion. It is argued that Laborde’s formulations leave important issues open, and some ways of settling these issues are considered....

  2. A masquerade is not watched from one spot: reassessing the study of African religions

    Umar Habila Dadem Danfulani


    Full Text Available The search for an adequate methodological approach to the study of African Religions in their multiformity has been a fervent one. In this paper, approaches to the study of African Religions today are proposed. These are polymethodic and multidimentional approaches, the contextual study of African Religions, the historical approaches (demonstrated in the art of masquerading, the need to balance synchronic and diachronic approaches, the use of art and iconography in the study and female studies. The fifth focuses on studying African Religions as insider. The author also examines the problems of the "insider" and the politics of doing research in history of religions in a Nigerian university.The conclusion strongly recommends a multidisciplinary approach for studying African Religions.

  3. the french nuclear bet: political history of the main decisions

    Taccoen, L.


    The double french nuclear bet was an ultimate political choice of an old nation which did not wanted to renounce its glamour. but the world had changed. Is it always possible to conceive a national energy policy, knowing that the french military nuclear strategy is opposed to the rules of the next International Penal Court? (A.L.B.)

  4. A Political History of the USA: One Nation Under God

    Kuklick, B.


    nhoud: Introduction -- pt. 1. Making a state. The European impact in America, 1494-1676 -- North American colonies, 1632-1732 -- The colonies in the Empire, 1651-1774 -- War and order, 1775-1787 -- pt. 2. Consolidating the power of the state. The culture of politics, 1788-1826 --- From coexistence

  5. History, origins, recovery : Michelangelo and the politics of art

    Keizer, Joost Pieter


    My dissertation considers the origins of High Renaissance art as a response to the volatile political and cultural change that marked the years around 1500 in Florence. It serves to bridge a diaspora that marks High Renaissance studies as a whole since the days of Heinrich Wölfflin, one that

  6. Ein Ende, das zum Anfang wurde: die Zeitschrift für Religionspsychologie, 1907-1913: zur (Vor)Geschichte der IAPR (1/4) - The end that turned into a new beginning: the journal for the psychology of religion, 1907-1913: on the (pre)history of the International Association for the Psychology of Religion

    Belzen, J.A.


    In 2014, the International Association for the Psychology of Religion (IAPR) will have its centennial, and so will its scientific journal, the present Archive for the Psychology of Religion [Archiv für Religionspsychologie, ARp]. This first article on IAPR’s (pre)history analyses the fate of the

  7. Modernization and gender regimes, life histories of the wives of Turkish political leaders

    Yelsali Parmaksiz, Pinar Melis


    This work is a close look at the life histories of the top Turkish political leaders with the aim of analyzing changes in gender role and gender identity and tensions between the two in the history of Turkish modernization vis-à-vis with contemporaneous debates on gender. The main objective is to

  8. An ethic for a politic of history in a democratic setting

    Warring, Anette Elisabeth


    The article argues that the point of departure for the societal role of historians and of the science of history should be an ethic for a politic of history in a democratic setting designed to increase the individual's autonomous power to take action. The article discusses what this implies...

  9. Religion in a global vortex

    Telebaković Boško


    Full Text Available Religions have been separated from a state, but they could have never been kept apart from the sphere of politics. They cannot be hidden from globalisation too, and are present in different forms. Only some world's religions actively participate in globalisation and try to make their believers part of their globalisation projects. The Roman Catholic Chuch and Islam are strong enough to make an attempt to shape themselves as global religions and political forces, but obstacles are so big that they cannot reach their goal in the near future. Does the USA take multireligious approach and disturb all monoreligious globalisation? Can globalisation developing a multireligious approach be the most penetrating? What can be achieved by fuzzy religion being formed in the Western Europe? Localisation in the Balkans, serving globalisation, is taking place with religious communities participating in the process. The use of religion in globalisation easily causes political concussions.

  10. 'I am reading the history of religion': a contribution to the knowledge of Freud's building of a theory.

    Cotti, Patricia


    Could Reinach's Cultes, mythes et religions (1908) have served as a model for the theory of religion that Freud was later to put forward in Totem and Taboo (1913)? This hypothesis has been tested by examining Freud's marginalia in his personal copy of Cultes, mythes et religions. In this way it is possible to reconstitute the line of thinking that led Freud to declare, in late summer 1911, that he had found an answer to the question of the origins of tragic guilt and religious sentiment. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. History of UK contribution to astronautics: Politics and government

    Hicks CB, Colin


    In all developed countries, once it emerged from the amateur era, Space (and especially rocketry) moved on the public agenda because of its potential significance for both the civil and military policies of governments (coupled with its appetite for new money). In the UK the policy treatment of Space broadly paralleled that in other countries until the post-Empire trauma, the burn-out of the White-Hot Technological revolution of Harold Wilson, and the financial crises of the 1970s exhausted the public appetite for large scale publicly funded projects in high technology. The culmination for Space of these pressures came in 1986-1987 when the UK rejected the emerging international consensus and, almost alone, stayed outside the manned space commitments which developed into the International Space Station. In this paper, Colin Hicks will review the UK political developments which led up to the 1986-1987 decision and how the politics and organisation of UK space activity have developed since then to the point where in 2008 a major government review of the UK involvement in manned space was commissioned.

  12. From pesticides to genetically modified plants : history, economics and politics

    Zadoks, J.C.; Waibel, H.


    Two technologies of crop protection are compared, crop protection by pesticides and by Genetically Modified Plants (GMPs). The history of pesticides provides lessons relevant to the future of GMPs; (1) high pesticide usage is counter-productive, (2) the technology requires intensive regulation and

  13. Kinesisk Religion

    Andreasen, Esben; Nielsen, Klaus Bo

    Bogen Kinesisk Religion omhandler kongfuzianisme, daoisme, buddhisme, maoisme, folkereligion og nye religioner i ind- og udland. Den indeholder klassiske myter og magiske ritualer, historiske milepæle og moderne udfordringer, politisk religion og levende folkereligiøsitet. Bogen henvender sig...

  14. Rituals between religion and politics: the case of VHP’s 2001-2002 Ayodhya-campaign

    Erik Reenberg Sand


    Full Text Available The present paper deals with rituals in a political discourse, namely the rituals employed by the right wing, Hindu nationalist movement, Vishwa Hindu Parishad (VHP, in its campaign for a Rama temple in the north Indian town of Ayodhya. As is probably well-known, VHP is part of a group of organizations known as the Sangh Parivar, or sangh family, which also includes the presently ruling Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP, and the ultranationalistic organization Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, or RSS. The rituals of VHP are instruments of the construction of an ideal Hindu society and part of an encounter between Hindu-nationalist tenets and the secular, political establishment. However, the rituals employed by VHP can not be said to represent a separate ritual genre, since they are not different from similar, traditional Hindu rituals. What makes them different is their context and their motives, the fact that they do not serve ordinary material, eschatological, or soteriological aims, but rather political aims, as well as the fact that the ritual agents in this case do not seem to have a satisfactory juridical legitimacy to perform the rituals.

  15. A Political and Social History of HIV in South Africa.

    Simelela, Nono; Venter, W D Francois; Pillay, Yogan; Barron, Peter


    For the past 25 years, South Africa has had to deal with the inexorable and monumental rise of HIV. From one or two isolated cases, in the late 1980s, South Africa now has an estimated 6.4 million people infected with HIV, with high rates of concomitant tuberculosis, which will profoundly affect the country for decades to come. For nearly 10 years, the South African government's response to the HIV epidemic was described as denialist, which was estimated to have resulted in the deaths of 330,000 people because lifesaving antiretroviral therapy (ART) was not provided (Chigwedere et al. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 49:410-15, 2008; Heywood 2004). However, the story of the HIV and AIDS response in South Africa over the past 5 years is one of great progress after almost a decade of complex and tragic denialism that united civil society in a way not seen since the opposition to apartheid. Today, South Africa can boast of close to 3 million people on ART, by far the largest number in the world. Prevention efforts appear to be yielding results but there continues to be large numbers of new infections, with a profound peak in incidence in young women aged 15 to 24 years. In addition, infections occur across the gender spectrum in older age groups. As a result of the massive increase in access to ART after 2004 and particularly after 2008 as political will towards the HIV ART programme improved, there has been a marked increase in life expectancy, from 56 to 61 years in the period 2009-2012 alone; the aggressive expansion of the prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) to HIV-positive pregnant women has been accompanied by dramatic decrease in HIV transmission to infants; and a 25 % decrease in child and infant mortality rates in the period 2009-2012. This progress in access is significantly due to a civil society movement that was prepared to pose a rights-based challenge to a governing party in denial and to brave health officials, politicians and clinicians

  16. Indiana Studies: Hoosier History, Government, and People. Unit III: From Sectional Division to Political Unity.

    Barger, Harry D.; And Others

    Unit 3 of a six-unit series on Indiana state history designed to be taught in Indiana secondary schools tells the story of Indiana from 1829 to 1908. Chapter 1 discusses national issues in an Indiana context. The effects of social movements such as Abolition, the underground railroad, and the Fugitive Slave Law on Indiana politics are examined.…

  17. Citation Behavior of Undergraduate Students: A Study of History, Political Science, and Sociology Papers

    Hendley, Michelle


    The goal of this analysis was to obtain local citation behavior data on undergraduates researching history, political science, and sociology papers. The study found that students cited books and journals even with the availability of web sources; however, usage varied by subject. References to specific websites' domains also varied across subject…

  18. Native Americans in Cold War Public Diplomacy: Indian Politics, American History, and the US Information Agency

    Denson, Andrew


    This essay examines the depiction of Native Americans by the US Information Agency (USIA), the bureau charged with explaining American politics to the international public during the Cold War. In the 1950s and 1960s, the USIA broadcast the message that Americans had begun to acknowledge their nation's history of conquest and were working to…

  19. Academic Politics and the History of Criminal Justice Education. Contributions in Criminology and Penology, No. 46.

    Morn, Frank

    This book reviews the history of academic criminal justice--the studying and teaching of crime, police, law and legal processes, and corrections--from 1870 to the present. The nine chapters have the following titles: (1) "Introduction: Academic Politics and Professionalism, 1870-1930"; (2) "Progressivism and Police Education,…

  20. Visual objects and universal meanings: AIDS posters and the politics of globalisation and history.

    Stein, Claudia; Cooter, Roger


    Drawing on recent visual and spatial turns in history writing, this paper considers AIDS posters from the perspective of their museum 'afterlife' as collected material objects. Museum spaces serve changing political and epistemological projects, and the visual objects they house are not immune from them. A recent globally themed exhibition of AIDS posters at an arts and crafts museum in Hamburg is cited in illustration. The exhibition also serves to draw attention to institutional continuities in collecting agendas. Revealed, contrary to postmodernist expectations, is how today's application of aesthetic display for the purpose of making 'global connections' does not radically break with the virtues and morals attached to the visual at the end of the nineteenth century. The historicisation of such objects needs to take into account this complicated mix of change and continuity in aesthetic concepts and political inscriptions. Otherwise, historians fall prey to seductive aesthetics without being aware of the politics of them. This article submits that aesthetics is politics.

  1. The Politics of Rewriting History: New History Textbooks and Curriculum Materials in Russia

    Zajda, Joseph; Zajda, Rea


    The collapse of communism in Russia in 1991 necessitated, among other things, the rewriting of school history textbooks, which had been dominated by Marxist-Leninist interpretations of historical events. The aim of this article is to evaluate the new postcommunist history taught in upper secondary schools, giving particular attention to how the models for Russian identity presented in the new textbooks redefine legitimate culture for students. Attention will also be given to the multiple perspectives on history that textbooks and other curriculum materials emphasize; these new methods contrast with the grand narrative that dominated the study of history before 1991.

  2. Kosovar Society through Secularism and Religion

    MSc. Dritero Arifi; Dr.Sc. Ylber Sela


    This paper will analyze the importance and the effects of religion, in Kosovar society. A great part of the paper, will analyze the social and the political relations in Post-War Kosovo. Initially it will elaborate religion and secularism, especially in theoreticall aspect, what impact have these definitions in modern societies. In order to explain what the importance of the religion in Kosovo is, we will focus on analyzing ethnical, social and political relations within Kosovo society. A...

  3. Moral politics

    Rapp, Carolin; Traunmüller, Richard; Freitag, Markus


    This article combines the research strands of moral politics and political behavior by focusing on the effect of individual and contextual religiosity on individual vote decisions in popular initiatives and public referenda concerning morally charged issues. We rely on a total of 13 surveys with 1...... American research on moral politics, direct democracies, and the public role of religion....

  4. School History as a Method of Formation of Political Consciousness in Contemporary France

    Nikolay V. Litvak


    Full Text Available The article discusses the attitude of the ruling elite in modern France to the school teaching of history, as the primary method of formation of political consciousness and outlook of the new generations. To achieve these purposes the complex of scientific and political methods is created. The programs are constantly changing, reflecting the general political struggle in French society, whose protagonists seek the arguments in support of their positions in history. In this context, the school programs are periodically in focus of urgent debates, and each their change is a compromise. The political approach is to form a state point of view of history, recorded in the programs required to study in schools. Those programs include a carefully selected set of topics, facts and personalities to be studied. In addition, the internal political struggle is coming not just about the form but the content too. In particular, for a number of years in the program a separate theme "Islam"is included, but not, for example, the theme "Christianity." However, supporters of the preservation of study of the Christian contribution to the history and the culture of France retain extensive relevant material included in a number of various subjects not directly devoted to Christianity. Informational approach to education is that the resources of the psyche and student's instructional time are very limited. The freedom of school teachers to refer to historical sources and even to interpret them within the broad framework is formally proclaimed. However, a program and a limited time to study it in conjunction with the responsibility of teachers for the results of their work, checked in exams, in fact does not leave them enough time to study an other point of view that goes beyond the official program.

  5. Fiktionsbaseret religion

    Davidsen, Markus


    Jediismen er en ny religion, der bygger på George Lucas' Star Wars-film. Kernen i jediismen er medlemmernes identifikation med jedi-ridderne fra Star Wars, troen på, at Kraften eksisterer uden for det fiktive univers, samt rituel interaktion med Kraften. På baggrund af en analyse af syv jediistiske...... gruppers hjemmesider skitserer artiklen jediismens selvforståelse med fokus på selv-identifikation, læren om Kraften, praksis og etik samt forhandlingen af forholdet til Star Wars. Endvidere argumenteres for, hvorfor jediismen må fortolkes som en religion og ikke blot som et fanfænomen. Endelig foreslås...... kategorien 'fiktionsbaseret religion' introduceret i religionsvidenskaben som betegnelse for en række nye religioner baseret på 'fiktive religioner' indlejret i fiktionstekster....

  6. The role of philosophy in the academic study of religion in Indian

    Sonia SIKKA


    Full Text Available Joseph T. O’Connell drew attention to the relative scarcity of academic work on religion in South Asia, and offered as a plausible explanation for this state of affairs the tension between secular and religio‑political communal interests. This paper explores the potential role of philosophy as an established academic discipline within this situation, in the context of India. It argues that objective study, including evaluation, of the truth claims of various religious traditions is an important aspect of academic as opposed to confessional engagement with religion, and that philosophy in India is especially well suited to undertake such reflection and to provide corresponding education. Unlike Western countries, philosophy and religion were never clearly separated in India and did not evolve in tension with one another. The history of Indian philosophy therefore includes and is included within the history of its ‘religions’, in a way that makes philosophical examination of the truth claims of Indian religions internal to those religions themselves. By tracing this history, the discipline of philosophy can help to unsettle the idea of religion as a matter of fixed dogma. It can also continue the procedure of interpreting and evaluating metaphysical and epistemological theses that has been an intrinsic component of Indian religious thought for most of its history.

  7. The origin and mission of material religion

    Meyer, B.; Morgan, D.; Paine, C.; Plate, S.B.


    Beginning its sixth year of publication, Material Religion is an interdisciplinary journal that seeks to gather the best work from around the world engaged in materializing the study of religions. The editors welcome original scholarship on any religion and from any period in human history that

  8. Rethinking the Space for Religion

    What happens to people’s sense of belonging when globalization meets with proclaimed regional identities resting heavily on conceptions of religion and ethnicity? Who are the actors stressing cultural heritage and authenticity as tools for self-understanding? In Rethinking the Space for Religion...... as a political and cultural argument. The approach makes a nuanced and fresh survey for researchers and other initiated readers to engage in....

  9. Computing Religion

    Nielbo, Kristoffer Laigaard; Braxton, Donald M.; Upal, Afzal


    The computational approach has become an invaluable tool in many fields that are directly relevant to research in religious phenomena. Yet the use of computational tools is almost absent in the study of religion. Given that religion is a cluster of interrelated phenomena and that research...... concerning these phenomena should strive for multilevel analysis, this article argues that the computational approach offers new methodological and theoretical opportunities to the study of religion. We argue that the computational approach offers 1.) an intermediary step between any theoretical construct...... and its targeted empirical space and 2.) a new kind of data which allows the researcher to observe abstract constructs, estimate likely outcomes, and optimize empirical designs. Because sophisticated mulitilevel research is a collaborative project we also seek to introduce to scholars of religion some...

  10. Beyond identity politics: the making of an oral history of Hong Kong women who love women.

    Wong, Day


    Oral history has long been an important resource for lesbian and other underprivileged groups in advancing identity politics. While there is an increased awareness of social construction of identity and the impact of race and class on the experiences of sexual identities, oral historians have yet to rethink their task in view of poststructuralists' and queer theorists' critique of identity. This paper examines the "Oral History Project of Hong Kong Women Who Love Women" as an attempt to construct histories that respect difference and minimize normalization. It discusses the project's significance in terms of its subversion of the heterosexual/homosexual binary and its queering of the notions of identity, community and coming out. The critique unfolded is one of anti-assimilation and anti-minoritization. doi:10.1300/J155v10n03_03.

  11. History of Slaves in Qatar: Social Reality and Contemporary Political Vision

    Mariam Ibrahim Al-Mulla


    Full Text Available Museums today play vital roles in the Arabian Peninsula in general and Qatar in particular. These functions vary between the social, economic and political. Recently, Qatar museums’ practices have focused on a political role. To highlight this role, I will take the recently opened slavery museum Bin Jelmood House (BJH as a case study in this article. This paper aims to discuss and analyse the use of BJH in a comprehensive ‘soft power’ strategy to deflect international criticism of Qatar following the decision to award the 2022 World Cup to the country. Analysing BJH’s narrative was problematic, as the museum chooses to display a particular history which has been politicized to fit directly into Qatar’s international politics. The central questions this paper focuses on are as follows: Why was this specific social history chosen? What purpose does BJH serve? Why is Qatar trying to portray itself as liberating and open? To find the answers, I first interviewed the museum’s researchers, who talked about the process of collecting that specific narrative of the museum and the audience’s reaction. Second, analysing the museum’s narrative shows that museum practice today creates a different starting point than it used to, such as new ideas, strategies and policies. That conveyance the museum’s desire to become more open and liberal compared to previous practices.

  12. Visual Objects and Universal Meanings: AIDS Posters and the Politics of Globalisation and History



    Drawing on recent visual and spatial turns in history writing, this paper considers AIDS posters from the perspective of their museum ‘afterlife’ as collected material objects. Museum spaces serve changing political and epistemological projects, and the visual objects they house are not immune from them. A recent globally themed exhibition of AIDS posters at an arts and crafts museum in Hamburg is cited in illustration. The exhibition also serves to draw attention to institutional continuities in collecting agendas. Revealed, contrary to postmodernist expectations, is how today’s application of aesthetic display for the purpose of making ‘global connections’ does not radically break with the virtues and morals attached to the visual at the end of the nineteenth century. The historicisation of such objects needs to take into account this complicated mix of change and continuity in aesthetic concepts and political inscriptions. Otherwise, historians fall prey to seductive aesthetics without being aware of the politics of them. This article submits that aesthetics is politics. PMID:23752866

  13. Y. Laberge on Raphael-Hernadez and Steen’s AfroAsian encounters: Culture, History, Politics.


    Full Text Available Heike Raphael-Hernadez and Shannon Steen,  Eds. AfroAsian encounters: Culture, History, Politics. New York: New York University Press, 2006.  xxiii + 342 p. An overlooked, interdisciplinary, often innovative book, Afroasian encounters: Culture, History, Politics offers a collection of seventeen new essays related to the African-Asian intersections, cosmopolitanism and cross-cultural theories. In terms of emerging disciplines, we already had Atlantic studies (or "Trans-Atlantic studies", an i...

  14. "Modern medical science and the divine providence of god": rethinking the place of religion in postwar U.S. medical history.

    Golden, Janet; Abel, Emily K


    Drawing on a large cache of letters to John and Frances Gunther after the death of their son as well as memoirs and fiction by bereaved parents, this essay challenges the assumptions of secularization that infuse histories of twentieth-century American medicine. Many parents who experienced the death of children during the postwar period relied heavily on religion to help make sense of the tragedies medicine could not prevent. Parental accounts included expression of belief in divine intervention and the power of prayer, gratitude for God's role in minimizing suffering, confidence in the existence of an afterlife, and acceptance of the will of God. Historians seeking to understand how parents and families understood both the delivery of medical care and the cultural authority of medical science must integrate an understanding of religious experiences and faith into their work. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  15. Acid rain science and politics in Japan: a history of knowledge and action toward sustainability

    Ken Wilkening


    This is a pioneering work in environmental and Asian history as well as an in-depth analysis of the influence of science on domestic and international environmental politics. The book is composed of the following chapters. Chapter 2 introduces the general set of concepts used to analyze the science-politics nexus. These concepts are employed in the remainder of the book to track and explain the relationship between science and policy related to the acid deposition problem in Japan. Chapter 3 discusses nature, culture, and the acid deposition problem in Japan. It begins with a brief introduction to the acid deposition problem in general. It continues with an overview of elements of Japan's natural environment and culture that are relevant to its acid deposition problems. This is followed by a quick sketch of the history of science in Japan, which in turn serves as a preamble for describing in the final section the environmental and acid deposition chronologies used to organize analysis of Japan's acid deposition history. The swath of history between 1868 and the present (circa 2000) is divided into five environmental eras and six acid deposition periods. Chapters 4-9 discuss in detail each of the six acid deposition periods. Chapter 10 synthesizes and summarizes what was learned in the process of analyzing Japan's acid deposition history, and draws lessons that might be applied to the challenge of creating sustainable societies in Japan, Asia, and the rest of the world. An appendix describes the present state of acid deposition science in Japan.

  16. Writers into Intellectuals, Culture into Politics: Grappling with History in the NRF, 1920-1940

    Martyn CORNICK


    Full Text Available It is now commonplace to view the end of the Great War in 1918 as representing the beginnings of a new world order. The human losses, the vanished empires, the Bolshevik revolution and its lasting consequences, the collapse of the intellectual certainties of the pre-war order, all ensured the irruption of History and Politics into cultural spaces within the European public sphere. The politicisation of cultural spaces was inevitable, given that purveyors of culture—writers and intellectuals—w...

  17. Science and Religion in Liberal Democracy

    Jønch-Clausen, Karin

    The dissertation explores the role of scientific rationality and religious reasoning in democratic law and policymaking. How does legitimate law and policymaking proceed in light of disagreements on science and religion? This question is addressed within the framework of public reason. Roughly pu...... concerning the role science and religion in political deliberation challenge the public reason framework as viable vehicle for pursuing democratic legitimacy? The dissertation discusses these and other questions related to the special role of science and religion in liberal democracy....

  18. Exploring similarities between the German and the Dutch ‘ethical’ traditions: Possibilities of the history of religion for a theological approach to Old Testament studies in South Africa

    Jan H. Vorster


    Full Text Available This article shows how dialectic theology caused a loss of interest in the history of religion, which was seen as out of touch with the current world. The distinction between theology and the history of religion became increasingly vague. The article focuses on the contribution of Rainier Albertz in his two-volume Religionsgeschichte Israels in alttestamentlicher Zeit (History of Israelite religion in the Old Testament period, 1992. Albertz proposed that the history of religion should be restored to serve as the ‘more sensible discipline for abridging the Old Testament’. This article points out several advantages to this approach, namely a different kind of Old Testament theology, starting from current theological problems and searching through the thematic segments of Israel’s religious history and that of early Christianity for analogous insights relevant to the problems in question. This article develops the argument that Albertz’s suggestions open up possibilities for establishing a vibrant theological environment in South Africa, where theologians from a diverse society can start from different perspectives on current problems, consider the Bible as part of a uniquely defined set of relevant factors and present a kaleidoscope of cross-balancing ‘African’ theological perspectives. The aim of this approach is to enhance the possibilities of Albertz’s suggestions by relating them, in context, to insights from ethical theology in the hope of reviving the debate regarding repositioning the history of religion in a different kind of theological approach. This debate is long in coming: it may already have lost close to 20 years in deserved attention.

  19. The history of transdisciplinary race classification: methods, politics and institutions, 1840s-1940s.

    McMahon, Richard


    A recently blossoming historiographical literature recognizes that physical anthropologists allied with scholars of diverse aspects of society and history to racially classify European peoples over a period of about a hundred years. They created three successive race classification coalitions - ethnology, from around 1840; anthropology, from the 1850s; and interwar raciology - each of which successively disintegrated. The present genealogical study argues that representing these coalitions as 'transdisciplinary' can enrich our understanding of challenges to disciplinary specialization. This is especially the case for the less well-studied nineteenth century, when disciplines and challenges to disciplinary specialization were both gradually emerging. Like Marxism or structuralism, race classification was a holistic interpretive framework, which, at its most ambitious, aimed to structure the human sciences as a whole. It resisted the organization of academia and knowledge into disciplines with separate organizational institutions and research practices. However, the 'transdisciplinarity' of this nationalistic project also bridged emerging borderlines between science and politics. I ascribe race classification's simultaneous longevity and instability to its complex and intricately entwined processes of political and interdisciplinary coalition building. Race classification's politically useful conclusions helped secure public support for institutionalizing the coalition's component disciplines. Institutionalization in turn stimulated disciplines to professionalize. They emphasized disciplinary boundaries and insisted on apolitical science, thus ultimately undermining the 'transdisciplinary' project.

  20. Teaching Religion, Teaching Truth: Theoretical and Empirical Perspectives. Religion, Education and Values. Volume 1

    Astley, Jeff, Ed.; Francis, Leslie J., Ed.; Robbins, Mandy, Ed.; Selcuk, Mualla, Ed.


    Religious educators today are called upon to enable young people to develop as fully-rounded human beings in a multicultural and multi-faith world. It is no longer sufficient to teach about the history of religions: religion is not relegated to the past. It is no longer sufficient to teach about the observable outward phenomena of religions:…

  1. Sex after Fascism. Sexualitätsgeschichte als Politikgeschichte? Sex after Fascism—The History of Sexuality as Political History?

    Pascal Eitler


    Full Text Available Dagmar Herzog bietet mit der vorliegenden Untersuchung einen ersten und in diesem Sinne beachtenswerten, körper- und geschlechtergeschichtlich aber grundsätzlich ergänzungsbedürftigen Überblick zur Geschichte der Sexualität in Deutschland im 20. Jahrhundert. Im Zentrum der Studie steht das sich wandelnde Verhältnis zwischen Sexualität und Vergangenheitspolitik in der Bundesrepublik, insbesondere die Politisierung der Sexualität um ‚1968‘. Eher rückblickend geraten die Adenauerära und der Nationalsozialismus in den Blick. Der Titel der amerikanischen Originalausgabe bringt diesen Themenschwerpunkt deutlich zum Ausdruck: Sex after Fascism.Dagmar Herzog’s study offers a first and therefore noteworthy overview of the history of sexuality in twentieth-century Germany from the perspective of the history of the body and gender, a study that, however, is in need of supplementation. The central focus of the study is the changing relationship between sexuality and the politics of confronting the past in the Federal Republic of Germany. The book pays particular attention to the politicization of sexuality around 1968. The Adenauer-Era and National Socialism are, for the most part, attended to merely in retrospective. The title of the American original edition expresses this focus clearly: Sex after Fascism.

  2. European Religious Education and European Civil Religion

    Gearon, Liam


    This paper challenges a foundational conjecture of the Religion in Education Dialogue or Conflict (REDCo) project, that increased interest in religion in public and political life as manifested particularly in education is evidence of counter-secularisation. The paper argues that rather than representing counter-secularisation, such developments…

  3. [Thomas Bartholin, theological anatomy in the 17th century --religion and science in Danish history of medicine].

    Mønster-Kjaer, Inge


    It is commonly accepted, that the Reformation heavily influenced scientific thinking in Europe. But in many historical accounts, this effect is presented as a fundamental break at the beginning of the 16th century with previous ideas and methods. In this view, scientists turned their back on explanations based on religion and began deliberately and determinedly to pull society away from the church. After studying Bartholin's writings, particularly some of the less well known texts such as his treatises on biblical medicine, I have come to the conclusion, that he in fact saw himself primarily as a theologian. For him anatomy was merely a tool, and so it had been for scientist all over Europe from its gradual evolvement as a field of study from Antiquity to the Renaissance. It had been a tool to illustrate the greatness and perfection of God's Creation in artistic ways, a tool to prove sanctity, a tool to establish causes of death in both judicial and medical contexts etc.

  4. State, religion and toleration

    Huggler, Jørgen


    Contribution to Religion and State - From separation to cooperation? Legal-philosophical reflections for a de-secularized world. (IVR Cracow Special Workshop). Eds. Bart. C. Labuschagne & Ari M. Solon. Abstract: Toleration is indeed a complex phenomenon. A discussion of the concept will have...... to underline not only the broadmindedness and liberty of individuals or of groups, but also the relevant distinctions and arguments in political philosophy, epistemology, philosophy of religion and philosophical anthropology and their connection with educational issues. Through a discussion of these relations......, the essay argues three theses: (1) Toleration is not reducible to an ethics of spiritual freedom. (2) Toleration is not neutral to fanatism. (3) Toleration involves esteem for the person....

  5. Diffused Religion and Prayer

    Roberto Cipriani


    Full Text Available It is quite likely that the origins of prayer are to be found in ancient mourning and bereavement rites. Primeval ritual prayer was codified and handed down socially to become a deep-rooted feature of people’s cultural behavior, so much so, that it may surface again several years later, in the face of death, danger, need, even in the case of relapse from faith and religious practice. Modes of prayer depend on religious experience, on relations between personal prayer and political action, between prayer and forgiveness, and between prayer and approaches to religions. Various forms of prayer exist, from the covert-hidden to the overt-manifest kind. How can they be investigated? How can one, for instance, explore mental prayer? These issues regard the canon of diffused religion and, therefore, of diffused prayer.

  6. Journal for the Study of Religion: Submissions

    Foucault, Michel 1977. Discipline and Punish. Trans. by A. Sheridan. New York: Pantheon. Chapter in an edited book. Smart, N. 1985. “The history of religions and its conversation partners.” In The History of Religions, Retrospect and Prospect, pp. 73-85. Edited by J. M. Kitagawa. New York: Macmillan. Encyclopaedia article

  7. Predicting Religion

    Revell, Lynn


    This article reviews the influence of liberal ideas on the capacity for Religious Education (RE) to consider religions critically in a climate of increasing government intervention in education. It finds that criticality in some areas of RE is absent or limited but that in key areas criticality is evident if not always deeply embedded. It…

  8. Indigenous religions

    Geertz, Armin W.


    Dette essay diskuterer en publikation af James L. Cox med titlen From Primitive to Indigenous (2007). Bogen analyserer forskellige forfatteres holdninger til studiet af indfødte kulturers religioner. Cox's analyser tages op i dette essay og de problematiseres i forhold til mit eget arbejde....

  9. Rethinking Religion in Music Education

    Hoffman, Adria R.


    A great deal of discussion of religious music in schools has been generated in our field. As we become increasingly sensitive to the diverse interests of the multiple stakeholders in public schools, issues of political correctness and pedagogical goals are raised. The author poses questions about religion and music education. To generate a…

  10. Sport and politics in Croatia - Athletes as National Icons in History Textbooks

    Ivan Hrstić


    Full Text Available Strong relationship between sport and politics in everyday life is evident. Research on this topic has usually been concentrated on the relation between sport and nations. Despite that, research on the process of national identity (reconstruction is still relatively rare. Therefore, as one aspect of that process, we have decided to do a research on the role of representation of sport in history textbooks. History textbooks represent an important tool in the construction and dissemination process of „official“ historical narratives in all states and societies, because the nation-states impose themselves as representatives of general public interest and they seek to retain control over school curriculum in order to validate the current system. When it comes to nation-states, one of the main goals of education is (reconstruction of national identity among the youngest members of society. That was one of our initial theses in our analysis of the representation of sport in Croatian history textbooks for the final grades of primary and secondary schools in the period from 1918 to 2014. Our aim was to define the role of athletes and sport in general – both in the process of (reconstruction of national identity and in the context of the process of modernization.

  11. The Hour of God? : People in Guatemala Confronting Political Evangelicalism and Counterinsurgency (1976-1990)

    Melander, Veronica


    This dissertation is focused on one of many aspects of religion and politics in Guatemala in recent history (1976-1990). This period is characterized by unequal wealth distribution, ethnic divisions, civil war, and U.S. influence. It is a contemporary mission history examining missionary efforts directed from the United States, Guatemalan responses, and indigenous initiatives. The problem concerns a movement within Protestant evangelicalism, which in this study is called Political Evangelical...

  12. [Civic religion, civil religion, secular religion. a historiographical investigation].

    Boucheron, Patrick


    Because of its conceptual plasiticity, the term civic religion is now widely used by historians, particularly historians of the Middle Ages. Yet, as this article suggests, historians would do well to interrogate the relationships (which can be hidden) that this term bears to similar concepts such as Greek Roman civic religion, Enlightenment civil religion or even the secular religion that emerged in the work of 20(th) century thinkers.

  13. Authority, Religion, and Women Writers in the Italian Counter-Reformation: Teaching Diodata Malvasia’s Histories

    Shannon McHugh


    Full Text Available Recent decades have seen the rediscovery of a significant number of texts authored by Italian women between 1560 and 1630. And yet the commonplace that the Counter-Reformation silenced women writers has persisted. One figure useful for teaching a more nuanced vision of post-Tridentine Italy is the Bolognese nun Diodata Malvasia (c. 1532–post-1617. She authored a pair of histories recounting her convent’s efforts to maintain their way of life amidst an era of convent reform, employing strategies that capitalized on their education, familial and civic connections, and position of spiritual privilege. Malvasia’s writings demonstrate the ways in which women not only published in this period but began to speak with increasing authority. I offer some possibilities for how Malvasia’s chronicles can be used to teach students about women writers’ agency in post-Tridentine Italy, as well as the complex thinking with which one must approach a regime like the Counter-Reformation.

  14. Holocaust Education in the "Black Hole of Europe": Slovakia's Identity Politics and History Textbooks Pre- and Post-1989

    Michaels, Deborah L.


    Holocaust education in Slovakia stands at the confluence of diverse discourses of state and supra-national legitimation. Principles of national self-determination, minority rights, and political ideologies inform and lend credence to how Slovaks' national and state identities are narrated in Slovak history textbooks. For small nation-states with…

  15. Dialogue, Eurocentrism, and Comparative Political Theory: A View from Cross-Cultural Intellectual History.

    Shogimen, Takashi


    Comparative political theory is an emerging sub-field of political theory; it is a response to the dissatisfaction with the prevalent Eurocentric mode of political theorizing in the age of globalization. A methodological characteristic of comparative political theory is cross-cultural engagement through dialogue with foreign political ideas. The present paper argues that the dialogical mode of cross-cultural engagement is distinctively European. While the dialogical engagement with foreign worldviews constitutes a mainstream of the European literary tradition, it is largely absent, for example, from the Japanese counterpart. Despite its anti-Eurocentric motivations, comparative political theory is methodologically rooted in the European tradition.

  16. Energy - politics - history. National and international energy politics since 1945; Energie - Politik - Geschichte. Nationale und internationle Energiepolitik seit 1945

    Hohensee, J. [ed.; Salewski, M. [ed.


    All articles focus on historical aspects of the development of energy politics in the Federal Republic of Germany (energy enconomy and industry, hard coal, nuclear energy). Some articles also look at international developments (oil boycott, Saudia Arabias`s oil policies, International Energy Agency). (UA) [Deutsch] Im Vordergrund der Beitraege stehen historische Aspekte der Entwicklung der Energiepolitik in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (Energiewirtschaft, Steinkohle, Kernenergie), einige Arbeiten werfen auch einen Blick auf internationale Entwicklungen (Oelboykott, Erdoelpolitik Saudi-Arabiens, Internationale Energie-Agentur). (UA)

  17. Robert Bellah, religion og menneskelig evolution

    Jensen, Hans Jørgen Lundager


    in the middle of 1st mill. BC, where new radical and intellectual ideas and practices, sceptial or world renouncing, appeared in China, India and Greece. Hopefully, Bellah's book will be a standard reference work in the academic study of religion and an inspiration for the history of religion in the future...

  18. History and structure of the constitution of cooperative enterprise. Political changes of a social relationship

    Devi Sacchetto


    Full Text Available In its long development the Italian cooperative movement went through slow and steady transformations, that have generally sheltered it from radical discontinuities. The different trends and political traditions that have become intertwined with the history of the cooperative movement highlight the flexibility of the cooperative principles which have been adapted on the basis of different situations, without being modified in their abstract outlines. In this paper we argue that the Italian cooperative movement on the one hand seems to have absorbed the principles of market economy through the adoption of organization of productions and functional structures similar to those of many capitalist companies. On the other hand Italian cooperative movement have developed a peculiar form of social action based on the institutionalization of postulates such as the mutual aid and solidarity.In short the cooperative form has historically constituted and continues to be shaped as a peculiar pattern in which undercapitalization requires a wider-ranging fluidity of the working relationships. These have been raised to the ranks of moral values in social action.

  19. Vietnam war literature: reflections of the sustained tension between politics, history, morality and the effect of war on human nature.


    Vietnam War literature is a reflection of a sustained tension between politics and history on the one hand and morality and the effect of the war on human nature on the other hand. Although the authors under discussion urge the reader to forget the political, moral and historical milieu of the Vietnam War, it is impossible to separate the war from those three factors and by extension, the literature that stems from it. I have chosen Philip Caputo’s A Rumor of War (1977) and Robert Mason’s Chi...

  20. Political Essay on the Kingdom of New Spain: Humboldt and the history of Mexico

    Luiz Estevam O. Fernandes


    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper we discuss how Alexander von Humboldt conceived a past to New Spain in his Political Essay on New Spain (1811 and how this text was, in turn, appropriated by the Mexican historiography during the 19th century. In order to do so, we analyze how the Prussian drew from American sources, particularly from the text of the Jesuit Francisco Javier Clavijero, written shortly before. We also study Humboldt’s conceptions of text and of history, highlighting the place of the indigenous in the composition of his reasoning. Finally, we give examples of how the Mexican nationalist historiography read and reinterpreted the Political Essay. Resumen En este artículo se discute cómo Alexander von Humboldt concibió un pasado a la Nueva España en su Ensayo político sobre el reino de la Nueva España (1811 y cómo este texto, a su vez, fue apropiado por la historiografía mexicana durante el siglo XIX. Para ello, se analiza cómo el prusiano se ha valido de fuentes americanas, sobre todo a partir del texto del jesuita Francisco Javier Clavijero, escrito poco antes. También estudiamos las concepciones de texto y de la historia de Humboldt, destacando el lugar de los indígenas en la composición de su razonamiento. Por último, damos ejemplos de cómo la historiografía nacionalista mexicana leyó y reinterpretó el Ensayo político. Résumé Cet article explique comment Alexander von Humboldt a conçu une passé pour la Nouvelle-Espagne dans son Essai politique sur le royaume de la Nouvelle-Espagne (1811 et la façon que ce texte, à son tour, a été approprié par l’historiographie mexicaine au cours du XIXe siècle. Ainsi, nous analysons comment le prussien a utilisé des sources américaines, en particulier le texte du jésuite Francisco Javier Clavijero, écrit un peu de temps avant. Nous étudions également les conceptions de texte et de l’histoire de Humboldt, en soulignant la place des indigènes dans la composition de son

  1. Science, society, and flagship species: social and political history as keys to conservation outcomes in the Gulf of California

    Andrés M. Cisneros-Montemayor


    Full Text Available Socio-political issues are important in environmental policy outcomes but are often overlooked in conservation planning. We analyze the effects of historical social, political, and ecological contexts on conservation policy outcomes as applied to the Upper Gulf of California and Colorado River Delta Biosphere Reserve. A rushed implementation, perhaps necessary for the protection of endangered totoaba (Totoaba macdonaldi and vaquita (Phocoena sinus, occurred with little community consultation, resulting in enduring disgruntlement among stakeholders that undermined its effectiveness. Overfishing and habitat degradation continue both inside and outside the reserve, and totoaba and vaquita remain Critically Endangered, with the latter's population estimated at approximately 90 individuals. Marine reserves can be useful, but when top-down enforcement is unfeasible, effective environmental policy requires full recognition and integration of political history and social structures and needs, and open discussion on trade-offs when win-win situations are not possible.

  2. Reign and Religion in Palestine

    Lykke, Anne

    and the political messages they wished to communicate. As religion was a highly complex aspect of the Jewish interrelations with other cultures, the utilization of sacred iconography is not only a precise indicator of cultural-religious affiliation, but also of cultural-religious changes occurring in the Jewish...... political messages. Accordingly, the visual appearance of the coinage was subject to continuous alterations. In this book, the iconography of the Jewish coinage as a whole and especially its sacred content is examined in order to shed light on the identities of the issuing authorities, their motivation...

  3. Early Mongols – the Ethno-Political History to the 13th Century

    Nenad Vidaković


    Full Text Available The paper examines the etnogenesis of the Mongol tribes from the period of the Rouran and Shiwei tribal alliances to the unification in the early 13th century under Genghis Khan’s leadership. The initial period of the ethnogenesis of medieval Mongols’ ancestors is associated with Rouran and Shiwei tribal alliances while news about them are written in Chinese dynastic chronicles. Within the Shiwei association there was the Mengwu tribe that inhabited forest expanses of north-western Manchuria, and the Argun river basin is considered to be the original homeland of the Mongols. The directions and time of migration processes which played an important role in the transformation of part of Mongol tribes from forest hunters to steppe nomads have been further investigated. The ethnic history of the Mongol tribes is closely associated with the Turkic and Tungus-Manchurian tribes. The Turkic tribes, that inhabited the steppes of Mongolia today, had a crucial importance in the development of Mongol nomadic tribes, while the Tungus-Manchu and northern Mongol tribes shared forest expanses of Manchuria and Trans-Baikal. The following text describes the events in the Turkic khaganates and kingdoms in the north of China, which influenced the historical development of the Mongol tribes. The period of the Qidan Liao dynasty (10th ‒ 12th century is of great importance because the core of the Mongol nomadic tribes was formed at that time in the northeastern Mongolia, that were gradually spreading over the steps to the west. During the Jurchen Jin dynasty (12th ‒ 13th century the importance of the Mongol tribes in the steppe increased. The attempts of political unification of the Mongols appeared during that period – for the first time in the mid-12th century, during the reign of Khabul Khan. The final part of the paper describes the struggle of Temujin (Temüjin, the future Genghis Khan, for the unification of the Mongol-Turkic tribes. After victory over

  4. Language Politics in the Republic of Kazakhstan: History, Problems and Prospect

    Zhumanova, Aiman Z.; Dosova, Bibigul A.; Imanbetov, Amanbek N.; Zhumashev, Rymbek M.


    The research aims at global analysis of language politics in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Using comparative historical method and method of actualization, the authors examine achievements and shortcomings of the language politics of the Soviet state in order to understand the modern language situation in the Republic. The results show that one of…

  5. Reconstruction of Ethiopia's Collective Memory by Rewriting its History : The Politics of Islam

    Nega Angore, T.


    The dynamics of constructing collective memory in relation to the politics of Muslim identity form the subject matter of this research. It explores how the state and the Muslim activists agitate and reinforce a meta-political narrative among Ethiopian Muslim communities to harness collective memory.

  6. Wedding Pedagogy and Politics: Oral Histories of Black Women Teachers and the Struggle against Apartheid.

    Wieder, Alan


    Presents the stories of three black, female, activist teachers who combined teaching and politics to help fight South Africa's apartheid regime. They promoted alternative curricula and worked against apartheid oppression. Each believed in the struggle and, although they believed in nonracialism, they identified as black, a political construction…

  7. Religion in Public Spaces in Contemporary Southeast Asia

    Afrianty, Dina


    Religion is among the most overlooked factors in the development of nation-states in Southeast Asia. Some reasons for this include a bias emphasizing religious ideology in the study of anti-colonial organizations that dates to the origins of the politics of state formation; the influence of many ideas on the patterns of modern elite formations that stress the need for religion to shape national constitutions, and the fact that religion is difficult to neglect in shaping the behavior of...

  8. Religion, morality, evolution.

    Bloom, Paul


    How did religion evolve? What effect does religion have on our moral beliefs and moral actions? These questions are related, as some scholars propose that religion has evolved to enhance altruistic behavior toward members of one's group. I review here data from survey studies (both within and across countries), priming experiments, and correlational studies of the effects of religion on racial prejudice. I conclude that religion has powerfully good moral effects and powerfully bad moral effects, but these are due to aspects of religion that are shared by other human practices. There is surprisingly little evidence for a moral effect of specifically religious beliefs.

  9. Religion and bioethics: toward an expanded understanding.

    Brody, Howard; Macdonald, Arlene


    Before asking what U.S. bioethics might learn from a more comprehensive and more nuanced understanding of Islamic religion, history, and culture, a prior question is, how should bioethics think about religion? Two sets of commonly held assumptions impede further progress and insight. The first involves what "religion" means and how one should study it. The second is a prominent philosophical view of the role of religion in a diverse, democratic society. To move beyond these assumptions, it helps to view religion as lived experience as well as a body of doctrine and to see that religious differences and controversies should be welcomed in the public square of a diverse democratic society rather than merely tolerated.

  10. Kosovar Society through Secularism and Religion

    MSc. Dritero Arifi


    Full Text Available This paper will analyze the importance and the effects of religion, in Kosovar society. A great part of the paper, will analyze the social and the political relations in Post-War Kosovo. Initially it will elaborate religion and secularism, especially in theoreticall aspect, what impact have these definitions in modern societies. In order to explain what the importance of the religion in Kosovo is, we will focus on analyzing ethnical, social and political relations within Kosovo society. A considerable component of the paper is also, the elaboration of secularism in Kosovo conditions. This implies that the formulation of the problem and the objective of this research, are the substance of the paper’s theme, which is, religion in Kosovo; its definition and the outlook of the Kosovar society on religion. Is Kosovo post-war society more or less religious? That means the elements of Religions and Secularism will be part of the analysis of developments in post-war Kosovo.

  11. 29 CFR 34.4 - Specific discriminatory actions prohibited on the ground of race, color, religion, sex, national...


    ... race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, political affiliation or belief, citizenship, or..., religion, sex, national origin, age, political affiliation or belief, citizenship, or participation in JTPA. (a) For the purposes of this section, prohibited ground means race, color, religion, sex, national...

  12. Teaching World Religions without Teaching "World Religions"

    Locklin, Reid B.; Tiemeier, Tracy; Vento, Johann M.


    Tomoko Masuzawa and a number of other contemporary scholars have recently problematized the categories of "religion" and "world religions" and, in some cases, called for its abandonment altogether as a discipline of scholarly study. In this collaborative essay, we respond to this critique by highlighting three attempts to teach…

  13. New Religions and Globalization

    Bogen er en antologi af bidrag fra en konference under Research Network on New Religions (RENNER). Med bidrag fra specialister i nye religioner og globalisering fra hele verden introduceres empiriske resultater samt teoretiske og metodiske reflektioner over emnet....

  14. [The history of Chagas' disease in Argentina: conceptual, institutional, and political evolution].

    Zabala, Juan Pablo


    In the one hundred years since the identification of Chagas disease, major changes have occurred in its scientific conception, institutional recognition, and political weight. From a medical perspective, it was seen as the cause of goiter, next its acute effects were emphasized, and then its effects on cardiac health received greater attention. In similar fashion, sanitary policy first downplayed the disease's importance, then elevated it to the role of a national cause, and gradually relegated it to the bottom of the agenda. The article briefly presents the key points of this historical trajectory in Argentina, exploring the cognitive, political, and institutional underpinnings of the disease as both a social and biological fact.

  15. Intersections of Spirituality, Religion and Gender in Children's Literature

    Trousdale, Ann M.


    This paper explores the intersections of spirituality, religion and gender in contemporary children's books published in the United States. Background for the discussion includes a history of religion in children's literature and the history of women's roles in the Christian tradition. Representative works of realistic fiction--historical and…

  16. Religion and cognition

    Geertz, Armin W.


    This is an introductory article in a special issue of a bulletin for researchers and teachers in religion in the USA. The article sketches the main positions and recent trends in the cognitive science of religion, and it attempts to attract scholars of religion to this field. It also profiles...

  17. Danish Regulation of Religion

    Christoffersen, Lisbet; Vinding, Niels-Valdemar

    Presentation and analysis of current and upcoming conflicts in relations between religion and family; labour market; religion in the public sphere and state support to religion. Part of a comparative European analysis in the context of based on 18 Danish elite interviews...

  18. Geology and religion in Portugal

    Carneiro, Ana; Simoes, Ana; Diogo, Maria Paula; Mota, Teresa Salomé


    This paper addresses the relationship between geology and religion in Portugal by focusing on three case studies of naturalists who produced original research and lived in different historical periods, from the eighteenth to the twentieth century. Whereas in non-peripheral European countries religious themes and even controversies between science and religion were dealt with by scientists and discussed in scientific communities, in Portugal the absence of a debate between science and religion within scientific and intellectual circles is particularly striking. From the historiographic point of view, in a country such as Portugal, where Roman Catholicism is part of the religious and cultural tradition, the influence of religion in all aspects of life has been either taken for granted by those less familiar with the national context or dismissed by local intellectuals, who do not see it as relevant to science. The situation is more complex than these dichotomies, rendering the study of this question particularly appealing from the historiographic point of view, geology being by its very nature a well-suited point from which to approach the theme. We argue that there is a long tradition of independence between science and religion, agnosticism and even atheism among local elites. Especially from the eighteenth century onwards, they are usually portrayed as enlightened minds who struggled against religious and political obscurantism. Religion—or, to be more precise, the Roman Catholic Church and its institutions—was usually identified with backwardness, whereas science was seen as the path to progress; consequently men of science usually dissociated their scientific production from religious belief.

  19. Popüler Kültür, Politika ve Din: Prime-Time ya da Selfie Dindarlığı/Popular Culture, Politics and Religion: Prime-Time or Selfie Religiosity

    Ekmel Geçer


    Full Text Available Bu Popüler kültürü tanımlaması açısından anlamlı olan prime-time (altın saatler ve selfie (özçekim bağlamında, daha çok Türkiye örneğinde, dinin kitle iletişim mecralarındaki ve politik alandaki görünürlüğünü teorik bir değerlendirme vasıtasıyla ele alan bu çalışma; (a televizyon ekranlarında artan dindarlaşmanın sosyo-politik nedenlerini, (b popüler kültür ve reyting (izlenme oranı öğesi olarak din unsurunun etiğini, (c kamusal alanda sıklıkla kullanılan dini sembol ve söylemin davranışsal boyutunu ve (d “sosyal medya dindarlığı” olarak nitelendirilebilecek mobil iletişimdeki dindarlık biçimlerini analiz etmeyi amaçlamaktadır. Çalışmanın ilk sonuçları ve çözümlemeler, dini sembol ve söylemin, politik arena ve medya (yeni ve geleneksel mecralarında bir gösteri unsuru olarak kullanıldığını ve dinin popüler kültüre ait tüketilen bir öğeye dönüştüğüne işaret etmektedir. / This study, mostly in Turkish context, handling the religious scenes in mass communication and political sphere within the framework of two meaningful popular culture terms (prime-time and selfie, in theoretical terms and through unstructured observations, aims to analyse (a the socio-political reasons of increasing religiosity on television screens, (b the ethics of religious coverage as a popular culture or rating entry, (c the behavioural dimension of religious symbol or discourse that are much-applied in the public sphere and (d the forms of devotedness in mobile technologies which can be called as social media religiosity. The preliminary outcomes and the analysis of the article suggest that religious symbols and discourse have been used as a show-business in political arena and media courses (new and traditional and that religion has changed into a consumption item belonged to popular culture.

  20. Global Halal: Meat, Money, and Religion

    Mukherjee, S.


    The following article deconstructs (and demystifies) Halal with a view to unraveling how the religious, racial, economic, and ethico-political are articulated in and around material technologies of meat production and bodily techniques of religious consumption/the consumption of religion. It, thus, attempts to rethink the nexus of food, politics, and contesting visions of the sacred and the profane, from within the folds of the global and global Islam. Halal emerges as a terrain replete with ...

  1. National holidays. Civic religions and political rituals in the liberal Europe of the «long Nineteenth Century» | Las fiestas nacionales. Religiones de la patria y rituales políticos en la Europa liberal del «largo siglo XIX»

    Maurizio Ridolfi


    Full Text Available In nineteenth-century Europe, the symbolic conflicts involved in the construction of the so-called «civic religions» took place in a public sphere in which rituals from the past were performed with a double aim: that of representing the new bourgeois hierarchies and legitimising liberal institutions in the name of a new national sentiment. With regard to the devising of a calendar of public holidays and with reference to traditional religious rituals in Europe and America, two main patterns were established: these were the French and the North American models, which were conflicting but at the same time shared many common features. A comparative study of the civic religions of southern European countries has produced a classification based on the degree of interaction (or even conflict between traditional religion and the State, as well as the longevity of the nation State and its ability to influence the patriotic education of the ruling classes. Whereas in countries with more firmly established State institutions and a «glorious» imperial past –the case of Spain and Portugal–, a sense of national integration nourished by a return to historical-cultural tradition arose at the onset of decadence, in recently formed nation States – like Greece and Italy - political-military memories of the heroic phase of the fight for national independence acquired considerable importance. On more than one occasion, however, in Spain and Italy for example, the two mythical-symbolic factors (cultural and military combined to represent the national sentiment. In general, the adaptation of dynastic ceremonies to public holidays in the various nation States gave a new definition to political liturgies on different planes, with a complex transition, in some cases even contamination, between the various known models of political festivals: royal under the Ancien Régime, Caesarian under the Second French Empire, and civil and patriotic under the liberal

  2. iPod therefore I am: Using PC Videos to Aid the Teaching of the History of Political Philosophy

    Woodcock, Pete; Duckworth, Glenn


    This article outlines our experiences at the University of Huddersfield of\\ud (a) producing and using mini-lectures on the history of political philosophy\\ud that were available to students as MP4 and progressive download PC video\\ud files (and MP3 audio files), and (b) the student feedback on these files\\ud which will help future development. This article largely avoids pedagogical\\ud issues regarding the use of technology in teaching and focuses more on\\ud student feedback and use of these ...

  3. Political significance of the CTBT (History, status, relationship with the Pelindaba Treaty, etc.)

    Onanga-Anyanga, P.


    This presentation deals with historical overview, negotiations on CTBT and its adoption, status and verification system of the Treaty, political significance of CTBT and its significance for States signatories in Africa. Separate chapters are devoted to the African region, CTBT Pelindaba Treaty and cooperative prospects and relevance of the CTBT for Africa

  4. A History of Black and Brown: Chicana/o-African American Cultural and Political Relations

    Alvarez, Luis; Widener, Daniel


    Rather than assume that ethnicity or race necessarily marks the edges of one's culture or politics, the contributors to this dossier highlight the messy, blurry, and often contradictory relationships that arise when Chicana/os and African Americans engage one another. The essays explore the complicated mix of cooperation and conflict that…

  5. Patriotism, Multiculturalism and Belonging: Political Discourse and the Teaching of History

    Osler, Audrey


    This paper examines the British Labour government's developing political discourse on patriotism, citizenship and multiculturalism since 1997, particularly following the 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States and the 2005 London bombings. It focuses on the speeches of key government figures, notably Prime Ministers Tony Blair and Gordon…

  6. Windows on Empire: Perspectives from History, Culture and Political Economy (roundtable discussion

    Alex Colas


    Full Text Available At the start of the new century notions of Empire and imperialism had all but disappeared from the lexicon of western humanities. Washington’s ‘war on terror’ and the accompanying invasion ofAfghanistan and Iraq, coupled with the publishing sensation that was Hardt and Negri’s Empire suddenly reversed this neglect. Questions of political hierarchy, military competition and socioeconomicdomination which had apparently disappeared from the world stage with the end of the Cold War have returned with a vengeance. In recent years, the most innovative scholarship and trenchant political interventions in the humanities have arguably emerged from engagements with such questions, offering a fresh range of concepts, analyses and interpretations on the place of Empire and imperialism in our world today. Sanjay Seth is Professor in the department of politics at Goldsmiths, University of London. Leo Panitch is Distinguished Research Professor of Political Science at York University. Saskia Sassen is Professor of Sociology at Columbia University and the London School of Economics. She is also a member of the Committee on Global Thought. Christian Marazzi is Professor and Director of Socio-Economic Research at the Scuola Universitaria della Svizzera Italiana. The roundtable is chaired by Alex Colás, who is Senior Lecturer in International Relations at Birkbeck, University of London.

  7. Political Imprisonment and Adult Functioning: A Life Event History Analysis of Palestinians.

    McNeely, Clea; Barber, Brian K; Spellings, Carolyn; Belli, Robert; Giacaman, Rita; Arafat, Cairo; Daher, Mahmoud; El Sarraj, Eyad; Mallouh, Mohammed Abu


    Political imprisonment is a traumatic event, often accompanied by torture and deprivation. This study explores the association of political imprisonment between 1987 and 2011 with political, economic, community, psychological, physical, and family functioning in a population-based sample of Palestinian men ages 32-43 years (N = 884) derived from a dataset collected in 2011. Twenty-six percent (n = 233) had been politically imprisoned. Men imprisoned between 1987 and 2005 reported functioning as well as never-imprisoned men in most domains, suggesting that men imprisoned as youth have moved forward with their lives in ways similar to their nonimprisoned counterparts. In an exception to this pattern, men imprisoned during the Oslo Accords period (1994-1999) reported higher levels of trauma-related stress (B = 0.24, p = .027) compared to never-imprisoned men. Men imprisoned since 2006 reported lower functioning in multiple domains: human insecurity (B = 0.33, p = .023), freedom of public expression (B = -0.48, p = .017), perceived government stability (B = -0.38, p = .009), feeling broken or destroyed (B = 0.59, p = .001), physical limitations (B = 0.55, p = .002), and community belonging (B = -0.33, p = .048). Findings pointed to the value of examining the effects of imprisonment on functioning in multiple domains. © 2015 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  8. Kichwa or Quichua? Competing Alphabets, Political Histories, and Complicated Reading in Indigenous Languages

    Limerick, Nicholas


    Over the past century, missionary educators, nation-state and academic planners, and literacy development workers have used alphabets for political ends for traditionally marginalized languages, and Native peoples have contested such planning with other alphabet proposals. Yet literacy work now often overlooks that there are multiple alphabets…

  9. The history of happiness.

    Stearns, Peter N


    In the 18th century, the Enlightenment ushered in the notion that happiness was the attainment of a worthy life. Since then the pursuit of happiness has spread to every aspect of behavior, from religion and politics to work and parenting. Today the happiness imperative creates pressures that, paradoxically, can make us miserable. Sadness is often mistaken for a pathology. Understanding the cultural commitment to good cheer as an artifact of modern history, not as an inherent feature of the human condition, opens new opportunities for understanding key facets of our social and personal experience.

  10. Howard's End: A Narrative Memoir of Political Contrivance, Neoconservative Ideology and the Australian History Curriculum

    Taylor, Tony


    In August 2006, Australia's conservative prime minister John Howard convened a history summit in Canberra. The purported goal of the summit was the framing of a nationally-acceptable curriculum in Australian history. However, as this article suggests, Howard's hidden intention was to use the summit as a device for introducing a narrowly…

  11. Sultanov T.I. Historiography of the Ethnic and Political History of the Jochid and Chaghataid Uluses

    T.I. Sultanov


    Full Text Available Objective: The article is dedicated to basic stages of ethnic and political development of two heirs of the Mongol Empire – uluses of Jochi (Golden Horde and Chaghatai (in Central Asia and their own successors in the 13th–18th cc. Research materials: The sources mainly used in this study are historical works of contemporary Islamic authors: Jamal Qarshi, Rashid al-Din, Wassaf (turn of the 13th–14th cc., al-Omari and Hamdallah Qazwini (14th c., Mirza Muhammad Haydar, Seyfi Çelebi, Amin b. Ahmad Razi (16th c., Abu-l-Ghazi, Mahmud b. Wali, Hajji Khalifa (17th c. and others. Also opinions of leading Soviet and post-Soviet as well as foreign specialists on ethnical and political history of Central Asia (V. Barthold, A. Samoilovich, S. Ibragimov, A. Mokeev, B. Karmysheva, Sh. Ando, B.F. Manz, etc. have been taken into consideration in this study. Results and novelty of the research: The “reference point” of this article is epoch of Mongol invasions and establishment of the Mongol Empire. During this time earlier political and ethnical realities were crushed. Disintegration of the Empire and creation of independent Chinggisid states initiated new turn of ethno- and politogenesis continued until the fall of these states at the beginning of the 16th c. Thus, ethnical and political development of the Central Eurasia was a long-term process, and firstly the terms, which are used as ethnonyms today, reflected political and social but not a national characteristics of their holders. Only after disintegration of Chinggisid uluses of imperial type and appearance of new states (Kazakh khanate, Shibanid states on the territory of Chaghataid ulus, Moghulistan and Moghulia-Kashgaria in the Eastern Turkestan we could talk about formation of ethnical formations, which became a basis for the modern peoples of the Central Asia. Author pays attention to hypothetical nature of many conclusions of specialist in the ethnical history of Eurasia although they

  12. Fictional and real-world revolutionary heroes in the history of psychiatric politics.

    Zimmermann, Martina


    This article analyzes, firstly, how the representation of the psychiatric institution in Ken Kesey's One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest pioneered criticism regarding asylum politics during the 1950s and, secondly, how the reactions of R.D. Laing, an influential psychiatrist-critic of the time, impacted changes of asylum politics, as seen through his autobiographical considerations in Wisdom, Madness and Folly that were published in 1985. The key aim of this work is to compare the ability of a satirizing, fictional piece of writing and a medically focused, nonfictional work of criticism to influence a movement that extended during the 1960s and the 1970s, indeed shaping health care policies in the 1980s and the 1990s as well as our present-day view on institutional management.

  13. Eating One’s Way Through History: Food and Politics in Manuka Wijesinghe’s Monsoons and Potholes

    Isabel Alonso Breto


    Full Text Available This paper consists of an analysis of Monsoons and Potholes (2006, the first novel by Sri Lankan playwright Manuka Wijesinghe. Attention is paid to the ways in which the text articulates relations between personal stories, food, history and politics. Food plays a central role in some novels published in the last years by Sri Lankan authors, as is the case, for instance, with Yasmine Gooneratne’s A Change of Skies (1984 and Mary Ann Mohanraj’s Bodies in Motion (2005. Both these works elaborate metaphors of identity through the dominant trope of food-encompassing cooking and the rituals of consumption. In Monsoons and Potholes, food accompanies and illustrates the autobiographical account of a Sri Lankan youngster born in the early 1960s, and revisits the first twenty years in her life together with the socio-political up and downs in her country. While it is a novel which to a great extent draws on metaphors of myth and history, scenes of food and eating appear consistently throughout the narration, which contribute in providing a down-to-earth (and highly satirical version of the life of the Sinhala upper-middle classes during the period. These images of food (and the sets of rituals, beliefs and constrictions around it are exploited by the author with the aim to explore, understand and denounce the historical process which precipitated Sri Lanka, at the beginning of the 1980s, “on the road to nowhere”.

  14. 500-year periodicity of political instability in the history of ancient Egypt and China. Androgens at work?

    Páles, Emil; Mikulecký, Miroslav


    DISCOVERY: A periodicity of 500 years has been discovered in the political history of ancient Egypt and documented by means of inferential statistics. Periods of chaos and waning of central power (some of them called "intermediate periods") recurred every 500 years. Input for the computation is the mean duration of ruling dynasties calculated per each half century. Fisher's periodogram analysis and Halberg's cosinor regression have been used. A highly significant (p god Nergal. The same periodicity has been described by the Chinese philosopher Mencius in the 3rd century B.C. and attributed to the will of tian (heaven). Egyptians elevated their war god Seth every 500 years and European kings assumed masculine nicknames. This recurring cultural pattern of aggressiveness and strife resembles overall traits of male psyche or mid-life crisis. We suggest to look for an unknown cosmophysical factor impacting the neuroendocrine system of man by raising the levels of androgens periodically. EXPLANATION HYPOTHESES: Sun impacts global weather on Earth, but there is no known significant periodicity of 500 years in solar activity. The Wheeler weather cycle almost fits the cycle of Egyptian political history. But his cold-dry periods seem to lag behind the periods of social destabilization and hence can not cause them. An alternative view (based on idealistic rather than materialistic presuppositions) is, that periodic long-term shifts of archetypes take place within the collective unconscious of mankind independently of external environment.

  15. A history of the science and politics of climate change: the role of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

    Bolin, B. [University of Stockholm, Stockholm (Sweden)


    In response to growing concern about human-induced global climate change, the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was formed in 1988. Written by its first Chairman, this book is a unique overview of the history of the IPCC. It describes and evaluates the intricate interplay between key factors in the science and politics of climate change, the strategy that has been followed, and the regretfully slow pace in getting to grips with the uncertainties that have prevented earlier action being taken. The book also highlights the emerging conflict between establishing a sustainable global energy system and preventing a serious change in global climate. Contents are: Part I. The Early History of the Climate Change Issue: 1. Nineteenth century discoveries; 2. The natural carbon cycle and life on earth; 3. Global research initiatives in meteorology and climatology; 4. Early international assessments of climate change; Part II. The Climate Change Issue Becomes One of Global Concern: 5. Setting the stage; 6. The scientific basis for a climate convention; 7. Serving the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee; 8. The Second IPP Assessment Report; 9. In the aftermath of the IPCC Second Assessment; 10. The Kyoto Protocol is agreed and a third assessment begun; 11. A decade of hesitance and slow progress; Part III. A Turning Point in Addressing Climate Change?: 12. Key scientific finding of prime political relevance; 13. Climate change and the future global energy supply system; Concluding remarks. 9 figs.

  16. Shared Cultural History as a Predictor of Political and Economic Changes among Nation States.

    Luke J Matthews

    Full Text Available Political and economic risks arise from social phenomena that spread within and across countries. Regime changes, protest movements, and stock market and default shocks can have ramifications across the globe. Quantitative models have made great strides at predicting these events in recent decades but incorporate few explicitly measured cultural variables. However, in recent years cultural evolutionary theory has emerged as a major paradigm to understand the inheritance and diffusion of human cultural variation. Here, we combine these two strands of research by proposing that measures of socio-linguistic affiliation derived from language phylogenies track variation in cultural norms that influence how political and economic changes diffuse across the globe. First, we show that changes over time in a country's democratic or autocratic character correlate with simultaneous changes among their socio-linguistic affiliations more than with changes of spatially proximate countries. Second, we find that models of changes in sovereign default status favor including socio-linguistic affiliations in addition to spatial data. These findings suggest that better measurement of cultural networks could be profoundly useful to policy makers who wish to diversify commercial, social, and other forms of investment across political and economic risks on an international scale.

  17. Shared Cultural History as a Predictor of Political and Economic Changes among Nation States.

    Matthews, Luke J; Passmore, Sam; Richard, Paul M; Gray, Russell D; Atkinson, Quentin D


    Political and economic risks arise from social phenomena that spread within and across countries. Regime changes, protest movements, and stock market and default shocks can have ramifications across the globe. Quantitative models have made great strides at predicting these events in recent decades but incorporate few explicitly measured cultural variables. However, in recent years cultural evolutionary theory has emerged as a major paradigm to understand the inheritance and diffusion of human cultural variation. Here, we combine these two strands of research by proposing that measures of socio-linguistic affiliation derived from language phylogenies track variation in cultural norms that influence how political and economic changes diffuse across the globe. First, we show that changes over time in a country's democratic or autocratic character correlate with simultaneous changes among their socio-linguistic affiliations more than with changes of spatially proximate countries. Second, we find that models of changes in sovereign default status favor including socio-linguistic affiliations in addition to spatial data. These findings suggest that better measurement of cultural networks could be profoundly useful to policy makers who wish to diversify commercial, social, and other forms of investment across political and economic risks on an international scale.

  18. Utilidad de las películas para debatir temas complejos: política, religión y ciencia en Ágora Usefulness of movies for discussing complex topics: politics, religion and science in Ágora

    José Aramburu


    Full Text Available Introducción. Las películas comerciales han constituido un método docente de demostrada eficacia en entornos educativos de ciencias de la salud. En el presente artículo se describe la utilidad de Ágora para presentar las complejas relaciones entre ciencia, política y religión, las cuales afectan a diversas situaciones biomédicas en la actualidad. Materiales y métodos. La actividad consistió en la proyección de la película y posterior debate, al final del cual los estudiantes cumplimentaron, de forma anónima y voluntaria, un cuestionario de diez preguntas sobre los temas tratados y los vinculados con los objetivos educativos preestablecidos. Después se les solicitó que enviaran voluntariamente un informe personal sobre los aspectos más relevantes de la película. Resultados. Cincuenta y dos estudiantes (96,3% de los asistentes respondieron el cuestionario de evaluación. Consideraron que Ágora tenía un interés notable para describir un ejemplo de conflicto entre ciencia y poderes sociales, y manifestaron que tales situaciones aún podían persistir hoy. En los informes personales realizados por 49 estudiantes (90,7% destacaron la consideración de tales conflictos, las barreras impuestas al conocimiento nuevo, la discriminación de la mujer en la sociedad y en la ciencia, así como las dificultades que entraña el respeto por el pensamiento individual. Conclusiones. Ágora puede ser una película de interés para analizar y debatir las difíciles relaciones entre ciencia, religión y política. A pesar de su ambientación clásica, plantea situaciones aún identificables en nuestra sociedad y que los estudiantes deberían conocer.Introduction. Popular movies have turned out to be useful educational tools able to introduce complex issues to students of health sciences. The present paper describes the usefulness of Ágora to discuss the conflicts that might appear when science is faced with religion or politics. Materials and

  19. Beyond denial and exclusion: The history of relations between Christians and Muslims in the Cape Colony during the 17th–18th centuries with lessons for a post-colonial theology of religions

    Jaco Beyers


    Full Text Available Learning from the past prepares one for being able to cope with the future. History is made up of strings of relationships. This article follows a historical line from colonialism, through apartheid to post-colonialism in order to illustrate inter-religious relations in South-Africa and how each context determines these relations. Social cohesion is enhanced by a post-colonial theology of religions based on the current context. By describing the relationship between Christians and Muslims during the 17th–18th centuries in the Cape Colony, lessons can be deduced to guide inter-religious relations in a post-colonial era in South Africa. One of the most prominent Muslim leaders during the 17th century in the Cape Colony was Sheik Yusuf al-Makassari. His influence determined the future face of Islam in the Cape Colony and here, during the 18th century, ethics started playing a crucial role in determining the relationship between Christians and Muslims. The ethical guidance of the Imams formed the Muslim communities whilst ethical decline was apparent amongst the Christian colonists during the same period. The place of ethics as determinative of future inter-religious dialogue is emphasised. Denial and exclusion characterised relationships between Christians and Muslims. According to a post-colonial understanding of inter-religious contact the equality and dignity of non-Christian religions are to be acknowledged. In the postcolonial and postapartheid struggle for equality, also of religions, prof Graham Duncan, to whom this article is dedicated, contributed to the process of acknowledging the plurality of the religious reality in South Africa.

  20. Methodological remarks on studying prehistoric Greek religion

    Petra Pakkanen


    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodological approach to the study of Greek religion of the period which lacks written documents, i.e. prehistory. The assumptions and interpretations of religion of that time have to be based on archaeological material. How do we define religion and cultic activity on the basis of primary archaeological material from this period, and which are the methodological tools for this difficult task? By asking questions on the nature and definition of religion and culture scholars of religion have provided us with some methodological apparatus to approach religion of the past in general, but there are models developed by archaeologists as well. Critical combination of these methodological tools leads to the best possible result. Archaeology studies the material culture of the past. History of religion studies the spiritual culture of the past. In the background the two have important theoretical and even philosophical speculations since they both deal with meanings (of things or practices and with interpretation.

  1. History, Politics and Ideology in the Centennial Celebration of Mexico’s Independence

    Tomás Pérez Vejo


    Full Text Available In Mexico, the celebration of the independence’s hundredth anniversary was accompanied  by a complex historical-political-ideological  debate on the nature  of the nation,  the balance of a hundred years of independent life, and the problems and challenges for the future. This work analyzes, mainly through journalistic sources, this debate’s characteristics,  as well as its interpretative keys and its relevance within the process of Mexican national construction.

  2. The liabilities of amnesia: Why a course in the "History of political science"?

    Saxonhouse, Arlene


    Psychology departments seldom take their students back to the thicket of Freud’s Collected Works. Medical schools turn to Hippocrates mostly for his oath, not for his skills at analyzing the pathologies of female hysteria. Those learning to study the universe today do not work through the elliptical paths of the stars and planets that Ptolemy developed so that he might keep the earth at the center of things. So, why should the discipline of political science be any different? Why should we te...

  3. Psyche, Nightmare and Religion: Precursors of Colonial Conquest in Ahmed Yerima’s Attahiru

    Taiwo A. Stanley Osanyemi


    Full Text Available This paper is premised on the connection between history and drama in order to profile the historical characters or heroes and explicate the socio-political predicament in their society. Existing studies on historical plays have focused on the celebration and chronicling of the heroic deeds of the historical characters, sometimes ignoring the artistic techniques the playwright employed. This study, therefore, examines psyche, nightmare and religion as the stylistic techniques for establishing the sources of disintegration in an imperial environment. This is with a view to investigating the link between the conflicts of the protagonist and the predicaments of his society. The study is based on psychoanalysis that allows for the investigation of characters’ unconscious motives and collective archetypes. The text, Attahiru is subjected to critical textual analysis in both content and form to analyse the paradigmatic use of history, dream and religion to account for the colonial conquest of an African society. Various patterns of unconscious archetypes such as psyche, nightmare, daydream and religion were discovered to serve as techniques of foreshadowing and flashback to the physical and psychological conflicts in the play. They serve as signifiers of the protagonist’s traumas. These unconscious archetypes, therefore, have become the catalysts for disintegration and veritable strategy in Ahmed Yerima’s account of imperial history.

  4. Debating Modernity as Secular Religion: Hans Kelsen’s futile exchange with Eric Voegelin

    Thomassen, Bjørn


    This article reviews the mysterious and recently published last book by Hans Kelsen, “Secular Religion. A Polemic Against the Misinterpretation of Modern Social Philosophy, Science and Politics as ‘New Religions’”, contextualizing it with reference to the little known dialogue between Hans Kelsen...... and Eric Voegelin. The confrontation between Kelsen and Voegelin, two of the most illustrious émigré scholars who found in America their new home, is important to revisit because it touches upon several axes of debate of crucial importance to postwar intellectual history: the religion/secularity debate......, the positivist/anti-positivist debates, and the controversy that also led to the famous Voegelin/Arendt debate: how to read the horrors of totalitarianism into a historical trajectory of modernity. Although the Kelsen/Voegelin exchange ended in failure and bitterness its substance matter goes to the heart...

  5. Political Perspectives in the Classroom. Results of Video Analyses in History and Civic Education

    Beatrice Buergler


    Full Text Available Civic education is not taught as a separate subject at Swiss schools. In this context, it is of great interest to look for specific characteristics of how civic education can be observed as a cross-disciplinary subject in schools through video recordings. The empirical analysis is based on classroom observation in ninth grade classes in various Swiss cantons (Aargau, Bern, and Zurich from 2003 to 2007. Criteria that allow the identification of elements of civic education in various school subjects are developed, the concept of “political perspective”. The analysis provides useful hints for planning and running classes where civic education is used as an overarching, cross-disciplinary approach. The concept of “political perspective” should not be taken as substitute for institutional knowledge. But the concept can rise above the function of an analytical tool and become a tool that serves the planning and designing of lessons. The perspective could as such be related to the postulate for epistemological knowledge.

  6. Incomplete Histories: Steve Biko, the Politics of Self-Writing and the ...

    That problematic, I argue, names the encounter between self-writing and an apparatus of reading. The paper stages the encounter as a way to make explicit the text's postcolonial interests and to mark the onset of an incomplete history. This, I argue incidentally, is where the postcolonial critic may set to work to finish the ...

  7. Ford: Not a Lincoln but a Hayes? A Lesson in History and Political Science

    Donnangelo, John A.


    History or social studies teachers are constantly striving to make the past come alive for their students and to help them see that not only does the past relate to the present, but it can also give insights into the future. The recent passing of former President Gerald R. Ford provides social studies teachers with just such an opportunity. Ford's…

  8. Reconfiguring the Shipping News: Maritime's Hidden Histories and the Politics of Gender Display

    Meecham, Pam


    This paper discusses the book "Hello Sailor! The Hidden History of Gay Life at Sea" published in 2003 by Paul Baker and Jo Stanley, re-interpreted as a landmark temporary exhibition "Hello Sailor! Gay Life on the Ocean Wave" at the Merseyside Maritime Museum, Liverpool from where it travelled in 2007 to other maritime museums. Based largely on…

  9. Teachers/Political Prisoners: Oral Histories from the Struggle against Apartheid.

    Wieder, Alan


    Tells the stories of two South African teachers who spent years in Robben Island prison because of their anti-apartheid work, offering a contextual history of apartheid in South Africa, describing education on Robben Island and the teachers' efforts at improvement through education, and reflecting on the meaning and value of such stories in…

  10. The sexual history of the global South: sexual politics in Africa, Asia and Latin America

    Wieringa, S.; Sívori, H.


    The Sexual History of the Global South explores the gap between sexuality studies and post-colonial cultural critique. Featuring twelve case studies, based on original historical and ethnographic research from countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, the book examines the sexual investments

  11. Jaina Religion and Psychiatry*

    Gada, Manilal


    Jaina religion has existed for thousands of years. Lord Mahavir was the last of the 24 Tirthankaras, 23 having preceded him. The principals of Jaina religion teach us: (1) Self-control, which includes: (a) Control over physiological instinct of hunger and sex; (b) control over desires; (c) control over emotions; (2) meditation; (3) introspection; (4) concentration; and (5) healthy interpersonal relationship. The principles of Jaina Religion can contribute to Positive Mental Health.

  12. Adapting to social and political transitions - the influence of history on health policy formation in the Republic of the Union of Myanmar (Burma).

    Grundy, John; Annear, Peter; Ahmed, Shakil; Biggs, Beverley-Ann


    The Republic of the Union of Myanmar (Burma) has a long and complex history characterized by internal conflict and tense international relations. Post-independence, the health sector has gradually evolved, but with health service development and indicators lagging well behind regional expectations. In recent years, the country has initiated political reforms and a reorientation of development policy towards social sector investment. In this study, from a systems and historical perspective, we used publicly available data sources and grey literature to describe and analyze links between health policy and history from the post-independence period up until 2012. Three major periods are discernable in post war health system development and political history in Myanmar. The first post-independence period was associated with the development of the primary health care system extending up to the 1988 political events. The second period is from 1988 to 2005, when the country launched a free market economic model and was arguably experiencing its highest levels of international isolation as well as very low levels of national health investment. The third period (2005-2012) represents the first attempts at health reform and recovery, linked to emerging trends in national political reform and international politics. Based on the most recent period of macro-political reform, the central state is set to transition from a direct implementer of a command and control management system, towards stewardship of a significantly more complex and decentralized administrative order. Historical analysis demonstrates the extent to which these periodic shifts in the macro-political and economic order acts to reset the parameters for health policy making. This case demonstrates important lessons for other countries in transition by highlighting the extent to which analysis of political history can be instructive for determination of more feasible boundaries for future health policy action

  13. The return of religion

    S. Griffioen


    Full Text Available Religion is back in Philosophy as a respectable subject. Part 1 first charts what MacIntyre, Taylor and Derrida have meant in this regard. Subsequently, it turns to the Enlightenment to determine what constituted the breakthrough. It is found that even where the Enlightenment gave maximum room to religion i.e. as a civic religion and as “religion of the heart” it still excluded a constitutive relation to a transcendent revelation. Part 2 centres on the religion-faith distinction in reformational philosophy. Similar to the Enlightenment, religion is understood as part of human nature. However, human nature itself is conceived as intrinsically religious and depending for its light on revelation. Secondly, “religion” in this context also encompasses idols and religious substitutes. Thus, it directs attention to shopping malls, football stadiums, health policy, et cetera, as possible contexts of a return of religion. Examples show that this has become a popular approach. However, most of the publications surveyed fail to distinguish between an “analogical” and a “pistically qualified” use of religion, and are open to exaggerations (the shopping mall and football stadiums as temples, etc.. At this junction, the relevance is shown of the religion-faith distinction as well as of Elaine Botha’s theory of metaphors. The epilogue offers an integration of parts one and two.

  14. Windscale: a case history in the political art of muddling through

    Wynne, B.


    This chapter concentrates mainly upon those factors which preceded and eventually led to the Windscale Inquiry (into the BNFL proposal to construct a plant to reprocess spent nuclear fuel from reactors using oxide fuels). This will help to illustrate some of the many covert themes which permeated the Inquiry as an exercise in conflict-management, and hopefully should assist in the understanding of the limitations of this form of decision-making process. The chapter will conclude with a comment upon the role of the Inquiry in the wider political context of the British energy 'debate' and upon the likely implications of the Inquiry for future decision-making ventures on similar technological developments. (author)

  15. Byzantine history and the discourse of the Russian political/intellectual underground

    Dmitry Shlapentokh


    In the view of the producer, the Byzantine Empire was strong when it followed its autocratic tradition and was attached to Orthodoxy. The movie generated extensive discussions, including among those who belong to Russia's political and intellectual fringe. Quite a few of them were neo-pagans; for them, Christianity, including Orthodox Christianity, was Russia's curse. For them, it was an Asian creed foreign to Aryan Russians. The fact that it was accepted by Russians implied that Russians had been subjugated by an alien, Asiatic, force. Many of these neo-pagans were quite pessimistic in regard to the country's future; and, indeed, their response indicates the deep alienation of quite a few Russians, which hardly bodes well for the country's future.

  16. Poison politics: a contentious history of consumer protection against dangerous household chemicals in the United States.

    Jones, Marian Moser; Benrubi, Isidore Daniel


    The history of consumer protection against household poisons presents a key case study of the uniquely American struggle to balance public health and safety with the interests of business. By the late 19th century, package designs, warning labels, and state statutes had formed an uneven patchwork of protective mechanisms against accidental poisonings. As household chemicals proliferated in the early 20th century, physicians concerned with childhood poisonings pressured the federal government to enact legislation mandating warning labels on packaging for these substances. Manufacturers of household chemicals agreed to labeling requirements for caustic poisons but resisted broader regulation. Accidental poisonings of children continued to increase until the enactment of broad labeling and packaging legislation in the 1960s and 1970s. This history suggests that voluntary agreements between government agencies and manufacturers are inadequate to protect consumers against household poisonings and that, in the United States, protective household chemical regulation proceeds in a reactive rather than a precautionary manner.

  17. How the past weighs on the present: social representations of history and their role in identity politics.

    Liu, James H; Hilton, Denis J


    Socially shared representations of history have been important in creating, maintaining and changing a people's identity. Their management and negotiation are central to interethnic and international relations. We present a narrative framework to represent how collectively significant events become (selectively) incorporated in social representations that enable positioning of ethnic, national and supranational identities. This perspective creates diachronic (temporal) links between the functional (e.g. realistic conflict theory), social identity, and cognitive perspectives on intergroup relations. The charters embedded in these representations condition nations with similar interests to adopt different political stances in dealing with current events, and can influence the perceived stability and legitimacy of social orders. They are also instrumental in determining social identity strategies for reacting to negative social comparisons, and can influence the relationships between national and ethnic identities.

  18. The politics of reproductive hazards in the workplace: class, gender, and the history of occupational lead exposure.

    Morello-Frosch, R A


    Over the past two decades, several U.S. companies have sought to bar women from jobs that expose them to potential reproductive hazards, justifying these exclusionary policies by their professed concerns for the well-being of unborn children and potential liability. Although recent court cases have stimulated academic interest in this issue, a historical review of the public health and medical literature reveals that this debate is not new. To understand the logic behind the emergence of "fetal protection" policies, one must examine the scientific history of occupational teratogens and the socio-political and economic forces that have driven scientific research in this field. Using lead as an example, the author argues that research on the reproductive hazards of employment has historically emphasized the risks to women and downplayed the risks to men. This results in environmental health policies that do not uphold the ultimate goal of occupational safety for all workers, but rather reinforce the systemic segregation of men and women in the workplace. Although the political struggle over exclusionary policies has a feminist orientation, it also has important class dimensions and ultimately must be viewed within the broader context of American capitalist production.

  19. The Politics of Prevention: Lessons from the Neglected History of US HIV/AIDS Policy.

    Padamsee, Tasleem J


    The history of government action on HIV/AIDS has much to teach us about the dynamics and possibilities of US public health policy, but it has been insufficiently studied by social scientists of the epidemic. This article draws on a large set of original interviews with policy makers, thousands of news articles, and extensive documentation to reconstruct the history of three areas of debate and decision making about HIV prevention since 1990: needle exchange, HIV testing, and sex education for at-risk groups. These histories illuminate three key lessons. First, scientific evidence has less power to drive public health policy in the United States than in the United Kingdom, which is used as a comparison case to contextualize US choices within a broader range of options. Second, moral concerns weigh so heavily in the United States that a publicly articulated moral argument can countermand the dictates of solid scientific evidence, the voices of experts, and practical considerations to push public health policy in entirely oppositional directions. Third, having the ear of the presidential administration is usually a necessary-although not always sufficient-condition for the success of advocates trying to move US policy in the public health-indicated direction. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.

  20. Predicting civil religion at a cross-cultural level

    Lavrič Miran


    Full Text Available The concept of civil religion has caught major attention among scholars studying the junction of religion and politics (J.-J. Rousseau, E. Durkheim, R. Bellah. The notion focuses on the phenomenon of cultural contents sacralizing and ritualizing the ruling political institutions of a society, extending support to the integration of the political and social system at a cultural level. The notion of civil religion has recently been operationalized crossculturally, but light has not been shed upon its predictors. In this paper authoritarianism is tested as a predictor of civil religion cross-culturally. Four student samples of Bosnian, Serbian, Slovenian and US students were analyzed. Very strong, significant associations between authoritarianism, as operationalized by a modified Lane scale, and civil religion were found in all cases. Moreover, upon introducing femininity, anxiety and gender into the analysis, a strong, dominant and significant impact on the part of authoritarianism was still found when civil religion was observed crossculturally. When the same predictors were applied to explaining general religiosity, authoritarianism fell short of being a significant predictor in most of the environments observed. Such results suggest an especially close link between civil religion and authoritarianism.

  1. Studying Religion and Language Teaching and Learning: Building a Subfield

    Han, Huamei


    The historical reversal over the course of several centuries in the West is striking: while language has become much "more" central to public life and "more" politically contentious, religion has become "less" central to public life and "less" politically contentious, notwithstanding the resurgence of public…

  2. Law, religion and the covenanted community: the impact of the ...

    The Zurich Reformation was actively supported by the Dutch East India Company in its care for the religious, political and legal needs of the early Cape settlement. Not only the promotion of the Reformed religion by the Classis of Amsterdam but also the political and legal interests of the settlement were advanced on the ...

  3. Modernidade, Cultura e Religião na Ordem Política e Social do Japão (Modernity, Culture and Religion in the Political and Social Order of Japan - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2011v9n23p799

    Domingos Salgado de Sousa


    ítica da nação. Ser um membro fiel desta ordem e contribuir para a preservação da sua harmonia adquire um caráter quase sagrado. Aqui reside o núcleo essencial da religiosidade do povo japonês, frequentemente designada por Niponismo. Foi esta matriz cultural e religiosa de natureza etnocêntrica que permitiu ao Japão adotar muitos elementos da cultura ocidental para modernizar o país e manter, ao mesmo tempo, a sua própria identidade cultural. Palavras-chave: Japão, Religião, Cultura, Coletividade Social, Niponismo   Abstract It is probably difficult to find a country that was so greatly influenced by other cultures and civilizations as Japan has been. In fact, the great changes that took place in Japanese history were the result of the encounter with other civilizations and cultures. The influences received, however, were never able to put into question the basic premises of Japanese culture. A value system that lacked a clear transcendental and universalistic orientation remained dominant. While in the west the transcendental dimension of Christianity exerted a strong influence in the creation of universal values in the light of which the sociopolitical reality was shaped, in Japan, Buddhism―the dominant religion throughout the feudal period―was never able to attain such hegemony and offer normative and universal values for the political and social order. In Japan the supreme value to which everything should be subjected is the political and social order of the nation. To be a faithful member of the social collectivity and contribute to the preservation of its harmony acquires a quasi-sacred value. Here resides the core essence of the religiosity of the Japanese people, often referred to as Nipponism. It was this cultural and religious matrix of an ethnocentric nature that enabled Japan to adopt many elements of western culture in order to modernize the nation and at the same time maintain its own cultural identity. Key words: Japan, Religion, Culture

  4. Religion, Politics, and Paris Hilton: Case Study

    Rogers, Michael


    This article was sent into a column of "Library Journal" entitled "How Do You Manage?" Submissions to this column, are based on actual events in libraries across the United States and Canada. This particular piece describes a conversation between two library employees, where one, following a recovery from a devastating auto accident found…



    religion specifically x-rays the role religion play in nation-building. Since ... been found to be positively neglected to such organizational characteristics, as ... However, the power of religion to perform its function in any society depends on.

  6. Evangelical Religion and Evangelical Democracy: Lincoln’s Legacy

    David Goldfield


    Full Text Available Evangelical religion and evangelical democracy reinforced each other in nineteenth-century America. The spread of evangelical Christianity and democracy across a continent justified the wars against Native Americans and Mexico, and provided the moral framework for the fight against slavery which many Americans came to see as incompatible with Protestant Christianity and democratic government. The problem with mixing religion and politics in this manner was that political issues became moral issues and, therefore, more difficult to deal with in the political process.

  7. Gotelind Müller (ed.), Designing History in East Asian Textbooks: Identity politics and transnational aspirations

    Russell, Yves


    When the twentieth century dawned with the echoes of boots and guns, it became apparent that the national stories told in textbooks meant for innocent school children, with pronounced distinctions between indigenous “us” and foreign “them,” could further stoke unfolding conflicts. Very soon it was realised that school textbooks – especially of history and geography – could be the source of and subject to conflicts, on the one hand by presenting a Manichean vision of national “us” and foreign ...

  8. South-South cooperation in health: bringing in theory, politics, history, and social justice.

    Birn, Anne-Emanuelle; Muntaner, Carles; Afzal, Zabia


    Since the mid-2000s, the practice of South-South cooperation in health (SSC) has attracted growing attention among policymakers, health and foreign affairs ministries, global health agencies, and scholars from a range of fields. But the South-South label elucidates little about the actual content of the cooperation and conflates the "where" with the "who, what, how, and why". While there have been some attempts to theorize global health diplomacy and South-South cooperation generally, these efforts do not sufficiently distinguish among the different kinds of practices and political values that fall under the South-South rubric, ranging from economic and geopolitical interests to social justice forms of solidarity. In the spirit of deepening theoretical, historical, and social justice analyses of SSC, this article: (1) critically revisits international relations theories that seek to explain SSC, exploring Marxian and other heterodox theories ignored in the mainstream literature; (2) traces the historical provenance of a variety of forms of SSC; and (3) introduces the concept of social justice-oriented South-South.

  9. Woodland restoration in Scotland: ecology, history, culture, economics, politics and change.

    Hobbs, Richard


    In the latter half of the 20th century, native pine woodlands in Scotland were restricted to small remnant areas within which there was little regeneration. These woodlands are important from a conservation perspective and are habitat for numerous species of conservation concern. Recent developments have seen a large increase in interest in woodland restoration and a dramatic increase in regeneration and woodland spread. The proximate factor enabling this regeneration is a reduction in grazing pressure from sheep and, particularly, deer. However, this has only been possible as a result of a complex interplay between ecological, political and socio-economic factors. We are currently seeing the decline of land management practices instituted 150-200 years ago, changes in land ownership patterns, cultural revival, and changes in societal perceptions of the Scottish landscape. These all feed into the current move to return large areas of the Scottish Highlands to tree cover. I emphasize the need to consider restoration in a multidisciplinary framework which accounts not just for the ecology involved but also the historical and cultural context.

  10. Needham at the crossroads: history, politics and international science in wartime China (1942-1946).

    Mougey, Thomas


    In 1946, the British biochemist Joseph Needham returned from a four-year stay in China. Needham scholars have considered this visit as a revelatory period that paved the way for his famous book series Science and Civilization in China (SCC). Surprisingly, however, Needham's actual time in China has remained largely unstudied over the last seventy years. As director of the Sino-British Scientific Cooperation Office, Needham travelled throughout Free China to promote cooperation between British and Chinese scientists to contain the Japanese invasion during the Second World War. By rediscovering Needham's peregrinations, this paper re-examines the origins of his fascination for China. First, it contests the widely held idea that this Chinese episode is quite separate and different from Needham's first half-life as a leftist scientist. Second, it demonstrates how the political and philosophical commitments he inherited from the social relations of science movement, and his biochemical research, shaped his interest in China's past. Finally, this paper recounts these forgotten years to reveal their implications for his later pursuits as historian of science and as director of the natural-science division of UNESCO. It highlights how, while in China, Needham co-constituted the philosophical tenets of his scientific programme at UNESCO and the conceptual foundations of his SCC.

  11. Religion 2.0

    Pedersen, René Dybdal

    17 artikler som hver især fremviser og diskuterer aktuelle temaer i forhold til religion i Danmark i dag......17 artikler som hver især fremviser og diskuterer aktuelle temaer i forhold til religion i Danmark i dag...

  12. Suicide and religion.

    Cook, Christopher C H


    Much of the evidence that religion provides a protective factor against completed suicide comes from cross-sectional studies. This issue of the Journal includes a report of a new prospective study. An understanding of the relationship between spirituality, religion and suicide is important in assessing and caring for those at risk.

  13. Overview of religions.

    Brooks, Nicky


    This article provides a brief overview of 9 religions: Christianity, Judaism, Jehovah's Witnesses, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, Christian Science, Islam, Hinduism, Sikhism, and Buddhism. Basic information on the origins, language, naming practices, diet, personal hygiene, and dress requirements is provided. For additional information, Web sites for each of these religions are also provided.

  14. Religion til Hverdag

    Christensen, Dorthe Refslund


    Live rollespil er ikke religion men rollespillet bruges ofte hvor man ellers ville bruge religionens univers fx til mytologisering og ritualisering Udgivelsesdato: september......Live rollespil er ikke religion men rollespillet bruges ofte hvor man ellers ville bruge religionens univers fx til mytologisering og ritualisering Udgivelsesdato: september...

  15. Religion and finance

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Spaenjers, C.; Baker, H.K.; Nofsinger, J.R.


    Individuals' economic attitudes are frequently observed to vary in a systematic manner with religious affiliation or religiosity. As a consequence, religion is also correlated with a range of financial-economic outcomes. Research has established the importance of religion at the macro-economic


    Mádson Ottoni de Almeida Rodrigues 


    Full Text Available This article highlights the mystical content that involves the exercise of political power. In analyzing the link between sovereignty and religion, religion’s strong influence reveals itself, particularly of Christianity, on the political and state functions, including the adjudicative function. The formation of the Christian conscience has strengthened the bond that unites sovereignty and divinity, and the modern state’s formation observed largely the Catholic Church’s structure. The problem that arises lies not in dogmatic religion discussion, but in the question of the religion’s morality, understood from the perspective of the behavior of people towards politics. The aim is to reflect on the real need to link politics and beliefs in certain pattern of religiosity, since the commitment to human values are not dependent of that belief. Furthermore, the objective is to demonstrate how religion influences the sacredness sense of justice, impregnating the judicial courts of a false aura of divinity.

  17. 389 The Role of Religion in Human Development Uchenna M ...

    Europe, Arab and numerous countries of the world. It also contributed to ... Religion laid the foundation for the sanctity of human life, ... favourable attitude to work. .... no other, this is because organized religion, on the balance sheet of history ...

  18. Ideologies of Religion and Diversity in Australian Public Schools

    Byrne, Catherine


    In many multicultural democracies, education has a Christian history. However, teaching religion has ideological variation. Progressives teach about many religions, while conservatives favor (often exclusive) instruction into one tradition. Australian secular education controversially prioritizes faith-forming instruction (mostly Christian). In…

  19. "Convivencia," Abrahamic Religions and Study Abroad in Spain

    McCoy, Mitchell A.; Holt, Sally


    As a point of departure for understanding the complexities of Spanish national and individual identities, it is incumbent that a student begin by investigating Spanish iterations of the three Abrahamic religions. This presupposition of religion's centrality in the pursuit of better informed understandings of the Spanish nation, people, history and…

  20. Sekularisering og religion

    Andersen, Kirsten Margrethe


    Sammendrag: Sekularisering og religion: En studie i fortællingens nøglerolle i folkeskolens religionsundervisning Kirsten M. Andersen Ph.d. afhandling, indleveret ved institut for Uddannelse og Pædagogik, Aarhus Universitet, d. 23. oktober 2014 Indledning Afhandlingens sigte er at bidrage til en...... fortsat udvikling af religionsundervisningen i skolen ud fra en almen pædagogisk interesse. Skolen har sit eget formål og derfor må religion ombrydes, så den gøres pædagogisk. Religionshistorisk, religionssociologisk og antropologisk opfattes religion og kultur i et kontinuum. Det betyder, at religion...... fænomenologiske overvejelser over, hvorfor filosofien har behov for at formulere en religionshermeneutik med henblik på en almen pædagogisk begrundelse for skolens religionsundervisning. I Del: Kap. 2: Afhandlingen indledes med at indkredse og definere både religion og sekularisering som kulturelle og kollektive...

  1. Spiritual Politics

    Frédéric Rambeau


    Full Text Available According to Foucault, the uprising of the Iranian people in the seventies reveals how much the political force of Islam is due precisely to the fact that it is not principally located in the field of politics, but in that of ethics. Religion (Shiite Islam appears as the guarantee of real change in the very mode of existence. This spiritual politics is marginalized by Marxism, where it is understood as a discontinuity in relation to proper politics, given that the latter is necessarily linked to a strategic rationalization. By indicating, at this juncture of what is intolerable, the living source and the critical impulse of the Foucauldian ethics, this spiritual politics also leads to recognize in the concept of “subjectivation” a dimension that might escape the circle of freedom as determined by a total immanence to power. This conceptual possibility is highly present in the aporias of the Foucauldian concept of the “relation to oneself”, both as a first condition of governmentality and the ultimate point of resistance against any governmentality. It thus reveals the difficulties in relating political to ethical subjectivation.


    Putra Astomo


    Full Text Available Human thought about the country laws developed in various situations the history of human civilization. Although the concept of State law is regarded as a universal concept and are recognized by civilized nations, but at the level of implementation turns out to have a diverse character and traits. This happens because the influence of the historical situation in addition to the influence of the philosophy of the nation, schools of philosophy and the political ideology of a country. One of the substance of the State of law is the guarantee of the protection of human rights (human rights. Therefore, the context of the freedom of religion cannot be separated from the HAM as it is a human right that belongs to every citizen to embrace a religion according their respective beliefs. By understanding the existence of Nomokrasi Islam as the country's law that put the norms of Islamic law (Sharia in the Organization of the Government of a country, then the right of religious freedom also need to be protected

  3. Personal and political histories in the designing of health reform policy in Bolivia.

    Bernstein, Alissa


    While health policies are a major focus in disciplines such as public health and public policy, there is a dearth of work on the histories, social contexts, and personalities behind the development of these policies. This article takes an anthropological approach to the study of a health policy's origins, based on ethnographic research conducted in Bolivia between 2010 and 2012. Bolivia began a process of health care reform in 2006, following the election of Evo Morales Ayma, the country's first indigenous president, and leader of the Movement Toward Socialism (Movimiento al Socialism). Brought into power through the momentum of indigenous social movements, the MAS government platform addressed racism, colonialism, and human rights in a number of major reforms, with a focus on cultural identity and indigeneity. One of the MAS's projects was the design of a new national health policy in 2008 called The Family Community Intercultural Health Policy (Salud Familiar Comunitaria Intercultural). This policy aimed to address major health inequities through primary care in a country that is over 60% indigenous. Methods used were interviews with Bolivian policymakers and other stakeholders, participant observation at health policy conferences and in rural community health programs that served as models for aspects of the policy, and document analysis to identify core premises and ideological areas. I argue that health policies are historical both in their relationship to national contexts and events on a timeline, but also because of the ways they intertwine with participants' personal histories, theoretical frameworks, and reflections on national historical events. By studying the Bolivian policymaking process, and particularly those who helped design the policy, it is possible to understand how and why particular progressive ideas were able to translate into policy. More broadly, this work also suggests how a uniquely anthropological approach to the study of health policy

  4. Political History of the Ulus of Jochi in 1256–1263 »

    Zh.M. Sabitov


    Full Text Available The article examines a number of issues of the Golden Horde political development in 1256–1263. In particular, the author considers the circumstances of the Sartaq’s death and presents his own position regarding the death of Borakchin khatun. The author assumes the stance over the death of Ulagchi in the summer of 1259, around the same time as the death of kaghan Möngke. As a result, Berke came to power. On the kurultai, Berke was able to defeat Tuda-Mengu, a candidate supported by Borakchin khatun. The author presents his own identification of the “Tatar tsar Kutluby” mentioned in Russian chronicles in 1259–1262. The article contains a clarification of the chronology of the Berke’s coming to power in the Golden Horde. The author suggested that the two grandsons of Chagatai (Baiju and Suntay served Berke because of his confrontation with Algu. The author identifies four reasons that influenced the Hulagu’s decision to start a war against Berke. The first reason was the Kublai’s promise to convey all conquered lands to Hulagu and his offspring. The second reason was allied relations with Algu, the ruler of Chaghataid ulus, who was inclined to military action against Berke and Arik-Boke. The third reason was Berke’s requirements regarding his share in the conquered lands. The fourth reason was potential support of the Hulagu’s claims to the Golden Horde throne by the side of Borakchin. Hulagu started a war against Berke, but the war between Algu and Arik-Boke as well as exposure and punishment of Borakchin, led to the Hulagu’s defeat in the war. Starting with 1260, the Egyptian rulers tried to establish diplomatic relations with Berke, but Berke sent the first letter to the Egyptian authorities only in May 1263, 5 months after the victory over Hulagu. This was due to the Berke’s fear of remaining alone against the coalition of Mongol uluses. The author also proposes his own identitication of Berke’s associates

  5. Review: Derek R. Peterson, Kodzo Gavua, and Ciraj Rassool (eds, The Politics of Heritage in Africa: Economies, Histories, and Infrastructures (2015

    Reinhart Kößler


    Full Text Available Review of the edited volume:Derek R. Peterson, Kodzo Gavua, and Ciraj Rassool (eds, The Politics of Heritage in Africa: Economies, Histories, and Infrastructures, London: International African Institute; New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2015, ISBN 9781107094857, 291 pages

  6. Traditional African Religion: A Resource Unit.

    Garland, William E.

    This resource unit is based on research conducted by Lynn Mitchell and Ernest Valenzuela, experienced classroom teachers of African history and culture. The unit consists of an introduction by Mr. Garland and two major parts. Part I is an annotated bibliography of selected sources on various aspects of traditional African Religion useful in…

  7. Israeli and Palestinian Teachers' Self-Reported Motivations for Teaching Religion: An Exploratory Case Study

    Gilheany, Terence


    The teaching of religion raises opportunities to reduce prejudicial beliefs and attitudes among students. In this study, 30 religion, history, and civics teachers in Israel, East Jerusalem, and the Palestinian Territories were interviewed about their motivations for teaching religion. This study found that teachers expressed a variety of…

  8. The development of early psychology of religion: a Dutch falsification of the received view

    van Belzen, J.A.


    This article takes issue with the received view of the history of the psychology of religion. Contrary to the presentation of the psychology of religion by Beit-Hallahmi in JHBS (1974) as declining after 1913, this article (1) states that the psychology of religion has never been a homogeneous

  9. Religion, theology and cosmology

    John T. Fitzgerald


    Full Text Available Cosmology is one of the predominant research areas of the contemporary world. Advances in modern cosmology have prompted renewed interest in the intersections between religion, theology and cosmology. This article, which is intended as a brief introduction to the series of studies on theological cosmology in this journal, identifies three general areas of theological interest stemming from the modern scientific study of cosmology: contemporary theology and ethics; cosmology and world religions; and ancient cosmologies. These intersections raise important questions about the relationship of religion and cosmology, which has recently been addressed by William Scott Green and is the focus of the final portion of the article.

  10. Appropriating religion: understanding religion as an object of science

    Donald Wiebe


    In this paper, the author focuses on the study of religion as a scientific project, for it is the scientific interest in religion which has constituted the grounds for admitting the study of religion into the curriculum of the modern Western university. Despite that academic legitimation, however, the study of religion in the setting of the modern research university is not held in high esteem relative to the other sciences. It if the scientific study of religion is to be legitimately ensconc...

  11. Material Religion - Hinduism

    Aktor, Mikael


    Comprehensive bibliography on material religion in Hinduism. Monographs, anthologies, anthology chapters, journal articles, web articles, documentation on cultic elements of the landscape (mountains, rivers, trees, stones), three- and two-dimensional cultic artefacts, textiles, ritual accessories...

  12. [Political psychology].

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás


    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  13. Counter-Memory, Heterochronia, and “History Painting” (After Géricault: Dierk Schmidt’s SIEV-X—On a Case of Intensified Refugee Politics

    Veronica Tello


    Full Text Available This essay examines the disruption of linear time in experimental forms of “history painting” as represented by Dierk Schmidt’s SIEV-X—On a Case of Intensified Refugee Politics (2001-2005. It analyses how the aesthetics of heterochronoia—multiple temporalities—play a crucial role in the development of a new understanding of the politics of “history painting.” As Schmidt’s work reveals, a radical conception of history exists outside the “singular moment,” and in dialogue with heterogenous visual cultures (news media, art history, advertising. In attempting to understand the import of Schmidt’s work, this essay considers his methodologies for creating a heterochronous mode of history painting, particularly his anachronistic engagement with the work of Theodore Géricault and the iconic history painting, The Raft of the Medusa. Unlike previous critical responses to Schmidt’s work, this paper argues that (after Géricault the artist’s use of investigative “journalistic” methodologies for SIEV-X—On a Case of Intensified Refugee Politics do not generate an aesthetics of exposé but rather an aesthetics of “fictionalization.” This aesthetic is defined by the recalibration of documentary and speculative data as a means to reconceive the landscape of the perceptual. The findings of this research demonstrate that the use of disparate fragments—or data—to visualize otherwise diminishing historical events underpins contemporary history painting’s capacity for advancing a distinct economy of affect that circumvents the limitations of the news media and its “monopoly on reality.”


    Kuznetsov, Oleg


    The author traces the ethnogenesis of the Armenian people and analyzes its content to demonstrate how organized national and religious extremism, political terror, and terrorism affected the vector and intensity of social modernization of Armenian ethnicity between the last quarter of the nineteenth and the late twentieth century.

  15. Creativity, Religiosity, and Political Attitudes

    Zysberg, Leehu; Schenk, Tal


    Although theoretically proposed in the literature, the direct associations between political attitudes, religion, and creativity have been scarcely explored. A convenience sample of 123 adults working in Israel filled out questionnaires assessing political-social attitudes, religiosity, and background factors (e.g., age, gender, education, and…

  16. O MOBON, a política e a imprensa: notas sobre religião e política em Minas Gerais (The MOBON, the politics and the press: comments on religion and politics in Minas Gerais - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2009v7n14p170

    Fabrício Roberto Costa Oliveira


    the support of a bishop that can be seen as distant by the population, what does not happen in the popular organization which is performed in the everyday politics. Therefore, we will present comments on the missionary work and the way it is building and obtaining political repercussion. Key-words: Religion; Press; Politics.

  17. De religione: How Christianity Became a Religion

    Denisa Červenková


    Full Text Available Following the findings of contemporary theological and religious studies research, the present interdisciplinary study attempts to trace the process of adopting the originally Roman category of “religion” for referring to Christianity. The text notes, in particular, the socio-political role of religio in classical culture and the transformations that the relationship of the society of classical antiquity and the Christian community went through in the first centuries AD, especially the first Christian attempts at communication with the late classical Latin culture and the administrative structures of the Roman Empire. The adaptation of the category is traced back to Tertullian, whose conception appears to have fundamentally influenced later generations of Christians; the second part of the study therefore devotes considerable attention to his works. It is here that justified use of the category of “religion” in connection with the Christian tradition is first encountered, as an expression encompassing the doctrinal and philosophical, as well as ethical and liturgical aspects of Christianity. Analysis of the text of Tertullian’s Apologeticum shows how the apologetic literature of the second century AD conveys the Christian message in an exemplary and highly elaborate form, which serves the dual purpose of providing an adequate definition of the Christian religious identity and preserving it, as well as making it available to recipients of diverse contemporary cultural environments. De religione: Jak se křesťanství stalo náboženstvím Předkládaná interdisciplinární studie se v návaznosti na poznatky současného teologického a religionistického bádání snaží vystopovat proces převzetí původně římské kategorie „náboženství“ pro označení křesťanství. V textu se připomíná zejm. sociopolitická role religio v antické kultuře a proměny, jimiž procházel vztah antické společnosti a k

  18. Religion and morality.

    McKay, Ryan; Whitehouse, Harvey


    The relationship between religion and morality has long been hotly debated. Does religion make us more moral? Is it necessary for morality? Do moral inclinations emerge independently of religious intuitions? These debates, which nowadays rumble on in scientific journals as well as in public life, have frequently been marred by a series of conceptual confusions and limitations. Many scientific investigations have failed to decompose "religion" and "morality" into theoretically grounded elements; have adopted parochial conceptions of key concepts-in particular, sanitized conceptions of "prosocial" behavior; and have neglected to consider the complex interplay between cognition and culture. We argue that to make progress, the categories "religion" and "morality" must be fractionated into a set of biologically and psychologically cogent traits, revealing the cognitive foundations that shape and constrain relevant cultural variants. We adopt this fractionating strategy, setting out an encompassing evolutionary framework within which to situate and evaluate relevant evidence. Our goals are twofold: to produce a detailed picture of the current state of the field, and to provide a road map for future research on the relationship between religion and morality. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. History and Historians in the Soviet Political and Ideological Structure in 1930s – early 1940s (case study: the Siberian Region

    Dmitry V. Khaminov


    Full Text Available In paper deals with the issues of a place and a role of historical knowledge and historians as a special professional community (university professors, researchers and students of the history departments in the political and ideological structure of the Soviet state in the 1930s – early 1940s. The article restores politics of Communist Party and Soviet government in relation to historians on the example of a unique Siberian small region. The Author made an attempt, on the basis of party and government documents as well as archive materials, some of which were for the first time introduced in scientific circles, give a balanced assessment of these processes in the conditions of the most tragic and controversial periods in the Russian history.

  20. Future Legacy of the Russian Revolution. Participatory Political Economies

    Hrubec, Marek


    Roč. 7, č. 4 (2017), s. 565-580 ISSN 2159-8282 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : revolution * participation * political economy * Russian revolution Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion OBOR OECD: Political science

  1. Religion and family planning.

    Pinter, Bojana; Hakim, Marwan; Seidman, Daniel S; Kubba, Ali; Kishen, Meera; Di Carlo, Costantino


    Religion is embedded in the culture of all societies. It influences matters of morality, ideology and decision making, which concern every human being at some point in their life. Although the different religions often lack a united view on matters such contraception and abortion, there is sometimes some dogmatic overlap when general religious principles are subject to the influence of local customs. Immigration and population flow add further complexities to societal views on reproductive issues. For example, present day Europe has recently faced a dramatic increase in refugee influx, which raises questions about the health care of immigrants and the effects of cultural and religious differences on reproductive health. Religious beliefs on family planning in, for example, Christianity, Judaism, Islam and Hinduism have grown from different backgrounds and perspectives. Understanding these differences may result in more culturally competent delivery of care by health care providers. This paper presents the teachings of the most widespread religions in Europe with regard to contraception and reproduction.

  2. 'Grounded' Politics

    Schmidt, Garbi


    play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements....... The article further describes how national political debates over the Muslim presence in Denmark affect identity political manifestations within Nørrebro. By using Duncan Bell’s concept of mythscape (Bell, 2003), the article shows how some political actors idealize Nørrebro’s past to contest the present...... ethnic and religious diversity of the neighbourhood and, further, to frame what they see as the deterioration of genuine Danish identity....

  3. Reclaiming Religion: New Historiographic Challenges in the Relationship of Religion and American Higher Education.

    Eisenmann, Linda


    Extends F. Michael Perko's literature review "Religious Higher Education in America: An Historiographic Survey" by discussing recent developments in the history of religion and U.S. higher education. Explores issues in secularization, the influence of Richard Hofstadter, the work of Julie Reuben, Douglas Sloan, George Marsden, and…

  4. Truth, body and religion

    Jarl-Thure Eriksson


    Full Text Available This paper is based on the words of welcome to the symposium on Religion and the Body on 16 June 2010. In a religious context ‘truth’ is like a mantra, a certain imperative to believe in sacred things. The concept of truth and falseness arises, when we as humans compare reality, as we experience it through our senses, with the representation we have in our memory, a comparison of new information with stored information. If we look for the truth, we have to search in the human mind. There we will also find religion.

  5. Religion and Culture

    Sabih, Joshua

    group breaks totally with the existing Arabic Bible translations that they were in the habit of using. In this translation, the previously strenuous relationship between culture and religion is flattened in a binary sets of oppositions between an unaltered Devine message preserved in ancient Bible...... translation of the Holy Scriptures, and address how an originally-American Christian group re-constructs the relationship of religion –universality of one truth and its embodiment in one community of faith – and culture; and specifically, Arabic culture. Culture, in its manifold forms -Jehovah’s witnesses...

  6. Understanding the anatomy of religion as basis for religion in ...

    This article sprung from previous structural analyses of religion as onticity, but went somewhat further by placing more emphasis on encounters with the numinous as the core of religion, as well as on the dynamic character of religion. In doing so, this analysis methodologically transcended the limitations of a structuralist ...

  7. Ethnic vs. Evangelical Religions: Beyond Teaching the World Religion Approach.

    Tishken, Joel E.


    Offers background information on the formation of comparative religion. Demonstrates that the world religion approach is inadequate by examining case studies of Mithraism, Santeria, Mormonism, and Baha'i to illustrate the shortcomings of this approach. Advocates the use of an ethnic versus evangelical religion approach to teaching global…

  8. jo adetolu-ft 3 2 2014-religion postmodernism and postmodern


    Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions ..... on the side of African political leaders and elites that globalization is “in essence ... religious worldview and the lived experiences of the Africans (NKWOKA 2007,.

  9. Political psychology.

    Stone, Susanna; Johnson, Kate M; Beall, Erica; Meindl, Peter; Smith, Benjamin; Graham, Jesse


    Political psychology is a dynamic field of research that offers a unique blend of approaches and methods in the social and cognitive sciences. Political psychologists explore the interactions between macrolevel political structures and microlevel factors such as decision-making processes, motivations, and perceptions. In this article, we provide a broad overview of the field, beginning with a brief history of political psychology research and a summary of the primary methodological approaches in the field. We then give a more detailed account of research on ideology and social justice, two topics experiencing a resurgence of interest in current political psychology. Finally, we cover research on political persuasion and voting behavior. By summarizing these major areas of political psychology research, we hope to highlight the wide variety of theoretical and methodological approaches of cognitive scientists working at the intersection of psychology and political science. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:373-385. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1293 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. NVMEN, the Academic Study of Religion, and the IAHR

    Jensen, Tim; Geertz, Armin W.


    This special volume of articles is compiled to celebrate the occasion of the 60th anniversary of NVMEN: International Review for the History of Religions in 2014. The articles in this volume have been selected under the auspices of the International Association for the History of Religions (IAHR)...

  11. Storby og religion

    Christiansen, Connie Carøe


    Det kan diskuteres, hvor bogstavelig man skal tage forudsigelsen om sekularisering eller religionens forsvindende betydning, men i dag kan en nærmere undersøgelse af livet og infrastrukturen i storbyerne bekræfte, at religion som sådan ikke er forsvundet fra byernes offentlige rum. Kan København på...

  12. Religion og kognition

    Geertz, Armin W.


    Artiklen indleder et temanummer som er resultat af et udviklingskursus om kognition for religionslærerne arrangeret af Afdeling for Religionsvidenskab i samarbejde med Religionslærerforeningen. Artiklen indtroducerer emnet religion og kognition således at lærerne får indsigt i emnets væsentligste...

  13. Naturalisms and religion

    Drees, Willem


    Such terms as materialism, naturalism, and near synonyms evoke strong negative reactions among many believers. However, the notion of naturalism has various meanings; implications for religion differ for the several varieties of naturalism. In this paper I analyze epistemological and ontological

  14. The mediatisation of religion

    Hjarvard, Stig


    Drawing on recent advances in mediatisation theory, the article presents a theoretical framework for understanding the increased interplay between religion and media. The media have become an important, if not primary, source of information about religious issues, and religious information and ex...... encourage secular practices and beliefs and invite religious imaginations typically of a more subjectivised nature....

  15. The religion of thinness

    Michelle Lelwica


    Full Text Available This paper examines the almost religious-like devotion of especially women in pursuing the goal of a thinner body. The quest for a slender body is analysed as a ‘cultural religion’, which the author calls the ‘Religion of Thinness’. The analysis revolves around four observations. The first is that for many women in the US today, the quest for a slender body serves what has historically been a ‘religious’ function: providing a sense of purpose that orients and gives meaning to their lives, especially in times of suffering and uncertainty. Second, this quest has many features in common with traditional religions, including beliefs, myths, rituals, moral codes, and sacred images—all of which encourage women to find ‘salvation’ (i.e., happiness and well-being through the pursuit of a ‘better’ (i.e., thinner body.Third, this secular faith draws so many adherents in large part because it appeals to and addresses what might be referred to as spiritual needs—including the need for a sense of purpose, inspiration, security, virtue, love, and well-being—even though it shortchanges these needs, and, in the long run, fails to deliver the salvation it promises. Fourth, a number of traditional religious ideas, paradigms and motifs tacit­ly inform and support the Religion of Thinness. More specifically, its soteri­ology resurrects and recycles the misogynist, anti-body, other-worldly, and exclusivist aspects of patriarchal religion. Ultimately, the analysis is not only critical of the Religion of Thinness; it also raises suspicions about any clear-cut divisions between ‘religion’, ‘culture’, and ‘the body’. In fact, examining the functions, features, and ideologies embedded in this secular devotion gives us insight into the constitutive role of the body in the production and apprehension of religious and cultural meanings.

  16. Human Rights and Religion in the English Secondary RE Curriculum

    Bowie, Robert


    The relationship between religion and human rights is an ambiguous and complex one, but there are academic, moral and political arguments for the inclusion of human rights in religious education (RE). The Universal Declaration of Human Rights advocates education in human rights and the English school curriculum aims to encourage a commitment to…

  17. Embodiment, Meaning and the Anthropology of Religion | Pillay ...


    Since the events of September 11, 2001, the role of religion in modern political life, and its implication with “terrorism”, has come under scrutiny. In particular, this discussion has relied on a distinction between Islam and a secular modern West. This article revisits an important debate between two eminent anthropologists of ...

  18. State formation, religion, and land tenure in Cameroon

    Schilder, K.; African Studies Centre, Leiden


    The purpose of this analytical bibliography is to provide an overview of the recently published social science literature on State formation, religion, and land tenure in Cameroon. The 800 entries have been arranged under the following subject headings: The Cameroon State (nation building, political

  19. Past, Present, and Future in the Scientific Study of Religion

    Mccorkle, William W.; Xygalatas, Dimitris


    The study of religion is by its nature and by its history multi-disciplinary, incorporating diverse research paradigms ranging from historiography to experimental approaches and from scientific positivism to postmodern reflection. At a conference on the Past, Present, and Future in the Scientific...... in the humani- ties. The Laboratory for the Experimental Research of Religion in Brno, who hosted this conference, is the product of these developments...

  20. Friedrich Heiler and the Psychology of Religion

    Tatiana Samarina


    Full Text Available The author examines the work of the celebrated German religious researcher Friedrich Heiler in relation to the problematic surrounding the psychology of religion. Heiler himself subtitled his first classic work, Prayer , with the words a study of religious-history and of religious-psychology . This presumably meant that he considered himself a student of the psychology of religion. The author contrasts Heiler’s ideas on this subject with those put forward by his contemporaries, all of whom studied the psychology of religion: William James, Evelyn Underhill, and Sigmund Freud. The author’s analysis reveals that Heiler was very familiar with the studies produced by several early students of the psychology of religion: Leub, Starbuck, and Sabbate. He often employs them to glean examples for his own research but does not take any of them seriously. James’ division of religious believers into the twice-born and the once-born has similarities with Heiler’s own types of mystic and prophetic religiosity. There are also many similarities between the theory of mystical ascension proposed by Evelyn Underhill and the examples of religious mysticism proposed by Heiler. While analyzing the phenomenon of matrimonial mysticism, Heiler often refers to elements of Freud’s psychoanalysis, thinking it adequate to explain certain erotic elements inherent in religious reflection, but at the same time, unable to explain the religious phenomenon on the whole.

  1. Appropriating religion: understanding religion as an object of science

    Donald Wiebe


    Full Text Available In this paper, the author focuses on the study of religion as a scientific project, for it is the scientific interest in religion which has constituted the grounds for admitting the study of religion into the curriculum of the modern Western university. Despite that academic legitimation, however, the study of religion in the setting of the modern research university is not held in high esteem relative to the other sciences. It if the scientific study of religion is to be legitimately ensconced in the modern research university, the notion of religion will have to be wholly appropriated by science; only then will we be able to establish a conceptual foundation from which to make valid knowledge claims about religion on a level commensurate with the pronouncements of the natural and social sciences. Indeed, to go one step further, given the hold on the concept of religion by those committed to the humanistic study of religion, we might need to talk here not of the appropriation but of expropriation of religion by science—that is, of wresting ownership of the concept from the humanists by using it solely as a taxonomic device to differentiate and explain a peculiar range of human behaviour demonstrated in religious practices.

  2. Fantasy som religion

    Davidsen, Markus


    Artiklen redegør for George Lucas' religionspædagogiske projekt med Star Wars og jediismens brug af Star Wars som religiøs tekst i en fantasybaseret religion. Afslutningsvist gives en række forslag til hvordan man kan anvende Star Wars og jediismen i folkeskolens religionsundervisning.......Artiklen redegør for George Lucas' religionspædagogiske projekt med Star Wars og jediismens brug af Star Wars som religiøs tekst i en fantasybaseret religion. Afslutningsvist gives en række forslag til hvordan man kan anvende Star Wars og jediismen i folkeskolens religionsundervisning....

  3. Religion and Social Entrepreneurship

    Spear, Roger


    This chapter is concerned with the role of religion in social entrepreneurship. It takes an institutional perspective and examines the way religious institutions and actors have supported social entrepreneurship. Weber has argued for the role of (protestant) religion in motivating people to take....../organisations) and local religious leaders to catalyse entrepreneurial activity. Thus these three dimensions of religious institutions (ideological discourse, networks, and leadership) will be examined in relation to social entrepreneurship. For the sake of simplifying the empirical base of this study, the field of social...... entrepreneurship will be limited to social enterprise which are co-operatives, mutuals and trading voluntary organisations (or non-profits), since there is a good evidence base of religious involvement in entrepreneurship in this sector, from which a number of cases will be drawn using secondary sources. However...

  4. Religion, migration og integration

    Borup, Jørn


    Sammenhængen mellem religion og integration har de sidste år været genstand for debat. Artiklen kommer ind på begreber og sammenhænge relateret til området (migration, diaspora, assimilation, etnicitet, kultur) og ser på religionens mulige rolle som negativ eller positiv ressource i integrationss......Sammenhængen mellem religion og integration har de sidste år været genstand for debat. Artiklen kommer ind på begreber og sammenhænge relateret til området (migration, diaspora, assimilation, etnicitet, kultur) og ser på religionens mulige rolle som negativ eller positiv ressource i...

  5. Religion og film

    Hvithamar, Annika; Eskjær, Mikkel Fugl


    Artiklen søger at stipulere en ramme for analyse af religion og film. Dels ved at række ud over den blotte konstatering af tilstedeværelse af religiøse elementer i film, dels ved at anslå en række temaer, der kan anvendes til analyse af sådanne film (individualisering, (de-)sekularisering, banal...

  6. Segregation in Religion Networks

    Hu, Jiantao; Zhang, Qian-Ming; Zhou, Tao


    Religious beliefs could facilitate human cooperation [1-6], promote civic engagement [7-10], improve life satisfaction [11-13] and even boom economic development [14-16]. On the other side, some aspects of religion may lead to regional violence, intergroup conflict and moral prejudice against atheists [17-23]. Analogous to the separation of races [24], the religious segregation is a major ingredient resulting in increasing alienation, misunderstanding, cultural conflict and even violence amon...

  7. Religion and Lunar Exploration

    Pop, V.

    1969: The Eagle lands on the Moon. A moment that would not only mark the highest scientific achievement of all times, but would also have significant religious impli- cations. While the island of Bali lodges a protest at the United Nations against the US for desecrating a sacred place, Hopi Indians celebrate the fulfilment of an ancient prophecy that would reveal the "truth of the Sacred Ways". The plaque fastened to the Eagle - "We Came in Peace for All Mankind" would have contained the words "under God" as directed by the US president, if not for an assistant administrator at NASA that did not want to offend any religion. In the same time, Buzz Aldrin takes the Holy Communion on the Moon, and a Bible is left there by another Apollo mission - not long after the crew of Apollo 8 reads a passage from Genesis while circling the Moon. 1998: Navajo Indians lodge a protest with NASA for placing human ashes aboard the Lunar Prospector, as the Moon is a sacred place in their religion. Past, present and fu- ture exploration of the Moon has significant religious and spiritual implications that, while not widely known, are nonetheless important. Is lunar exploration a divine duty, or a sacrilege? This article will feature and thoroughly analyse the examples quoted above, as well as other facts, as for instance the plans of establishing lunar cemeteries - welcomed by some religions, and opposed by others.

  8. La religione come tecnica difensiva dell'identità soggettiva

    Sergio Fabio Berardini


    Full Text Available Religion as a Defensive Technique for Subjective Identity - From a naturalistic perspective, the study of religion immediately leads to a problematic point: if religion is so widespread, to the extent that it seems to be a trait inscribed in human nature, then it should have adaptive advantages or, at the very least, it should not have disadvantages that would stand in the way of the survival of those who practice religion. In the former case, we need to understand the function of religion, viz. a utility it confers that may justify its persistence across human history. Against the backdrop of an anthropological model that considers subjectivity identity to be characterized by ontological fragility, this article will offer a special version of the claim that religion, viewed as a byproduct, has a positive function: we will make the hypothesis that it contributes to the defense of the unity of self-consciousness. Thus our focus will be on religion construed as a repertoire of strategies designed to protect the self.

  9. Images of American Indians in Environmental Education: Anthropological Reflections on the Politics and History of Cultural Representation

    Willow, Anna J.


    For hundreds of years, North America's colonizers worked systematically to eradicate the indigenous cultural practices, religious beliefs, and autonomous political systems many venerate. This article illustrates that imperialist nostalgia underlies and directs portrayals of American Indians in environmental education today. Whether unconsciously…

  10. Enhancing Teachers' Awareness About Relations Between Science and Religion. The Debate Between Steady State and Big Bang Theories

    Bagdonas, Alexandre; Silva, Cibelle Celestino


    Educators advocate that science education can help the development of more responsible worldviews when students learn not only scientific concepts, but also about science, or "nature of science". Cosmology can help the formation of worldviews because this topic is embedded in socio-cultural and religious issues. Indeed, during the Cold War period, the cosmological controversy between Big Bang and Steady State theory was tied up with political and religious arguments. The present paper discusses a didactic sequence developed for and applied in a pre-service science teacher-training course on history of science. After studying the historical case, pre-service science teachers discussed how to deal with possible conflicts between scientific views and students' personal worldviews related to religion. The course focused on the study of primary and secondary sources about cosmology and religion written by cosmologists such as Georges Lemaître, Fred Hoyle and the Pope Pius XII. We used didactic strategies such as short seminars given by groups of pre-service teachers, videos, computer simulations, role-play, debates and preparation of written essays. Along the course, most pre-service teachers emphasized differences between science and religion and pointed out that they do not feel prepared to conduct classroom discussions about this topic. Discussing the relations between science and religion using the history of cosmology turned into an effective way to teach not only science concepts but also to stimulate reflections about nature of science. This topic may contribute to increasing students' critical stance on controversial issues, without the need to explicitly defend certain positions, or disapprove students' cultural traditions. Moreover, pre-service teachers practiced didactic strategies to deal with this kind of unusual content.

  11. Pedagogy, Politics and the Profession: A Practical Perusal of Past, Present and Future Developments in Teaching History in Australian Schools

    Burley, Stephanie


    History curriculum reform proposals and debates are a persistent feature of the contemporary educational landscape in England and, very probably, a "sign of the times" that can reveal a great deal about contemporary predicaments and concerns. History curriculum controversy is also a global phenomenon and one that can fruitfully--and,…

  12. Presentation: Twentieth-century Dictatorships and Religion

    Jan Nelis


    Full Text Available Este dossier agrupa trabajos que cubren una amplia zona geográfica, ofreciendo diferentes puntos de vista sobre aspectos concernientes a la relación entre políticas dictatoriales y religión. El resultado final es ocho artículos que abordan la cuestión en cuatro continentes: Asia, África, América y Europa. Por la diversidad de enfoques, los artículos tratan, desde perspectivas diferentes, las actitudes “pragmáticas” coloniales y postcoloniales hacia la religión en África (Grandhomme y Kroubo Dagnini, la identidad religiosa africana (Chande, el uso de la religión como una fuente de moral y ética en Argentina (Cousins y Francia (Stevens, el punto de tensión entre la religión y política tradicionales y el mito en China (Lee e Italia (Nelis, y las actitudes de la dictadura hacia la identidad religiosa en España (Beck.____________________ABSTRACT:This dossier contains essays that cover a broad geographic area, offering different points of view on various aspects concerning the relation between dictatorship policies and religion. The final result are eight articles, which deal with the situation on four continents: Asia, Africa, America and Europe. Presenting a great variety of approaches, the articles show different views on the “pragmatic” colonial and post-colonial attitudes towards religion in Africa (Grandhomme and Kroubo Dagnini, African religious identity (Chande, the use of religion as a source of morals and ethics in Argentina (Cousins and France (Stevens, the point of tension between traditional religion and politics and the myth in China (Lee and Italy (Nelis and the dictatorship’s attitude towards the religious identity in Spain (Beck.

  13. "The Private Is Becoming Political"—Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Autobiographical Writing in the Horizon of the Culture of Remembering and Contemporary History

    Carsten Heinze


    Full Text Available This essay focuses on autobiographical life-writing as a part of commemorative culture, i.e. in East and West Germany. It looks at the literary genre from a sociological point of view. Whereas in literature studies autobiography is seen as a blurred genre, it can be asserted that it functions in public discourse. Hence, autobiographies are an important medium in political and contemporary historical context and are seen to be effective within that context. This essay assumes that published autobiographies are an intentional form of social communication, within the context of and affected by the public culture of remembering. The autobiographies themselves influence these cultures of remembering from the subjective point of view. In this regard, life-writing is not an individual or autonomous act of narrating one's life but rather a social communicative act of writing and narrating life stories in public contexts. Therefore life-writing is a public form of self and contemporary history representation and is politically charged. In other words, "the private becomes political" by addressing it to the public. URN:

  14. Political intersections between HIV/AIDS, sexuality and human rights: a history of resistance to the anti-sodomy law in India.

    Ramasubban, R


    The HIV/AIDS epidemic in India has posed unprecedented challenges to both state and society, to question prevailing constructions of patriarchal gender relations and heteronormativity. Response to the challenge has come not from the political and social mainstream but from the criminalised "margins": people of alternative sexualities, who have launched a struggle for reform of the anti-sodomy law, Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code. This article documents the history of this movement, and identifies the multiple national and global-level cultural, political, and economic strands, shaping it. The legal reform movement has been invaluable as a tool to mobilise disparate alternative sexualities groups around a common strategy, thereby forging them into a tenuous national-level "community". Going beyond legal reform in the direction of sexual rights, however, requires a broader coalition of groups, and a broad-based political agenda of sexual rights for all. This agenda must critique patriarchy, dominant masculinity, and sexual violence; forces that together govern both the subordination of women and repression of alternative sexualities.

  15. Disaggregating Corporate Freedom of Religion

    Lægaard, Sune


    The paper investigates arguments for the idea in recent American Supreme Court jurisprudence that freedom of religion should not simply be understood as an ordinary legal right within the framework of liberal constitutionalism but as an expression of deference by the state and its legal system...... to religion as a separate and independent jurisdiction with its own system of law over which religious groups are sovereign. I discuss the relationship between, on the one hand, ordinary rights of freedom of association and freedom of religion and, on the other hand, this idea of corporate freedom of religion...

  16. Nietzsche – Psychologist of Religion

    Remedios Ávila Crespo


    Full Text Available The aim of the following article is to fight some common misconceptions with respect to Nietzsche’s views on religion, and to show that these views are considerbly complex. Starting from the close relation between the human experience of suffering and the need for religion, as pointed out by Eliade, Freud and Schopenhauer, this essay focuses on the continuity between psychology and genealogy in Nietzsche’s analyses of religion and morality, it then responds to the questions about the essence, kinds and limits of the fact of religion, and ends by pointing out the different ontological status of Nietzsche’s principal philosophical positions.

  17. [Business, politics, science, and visa versa: an institutional history of Brazilian medical journalism between 1827 and 1843].

    Ferreira, Luiz Otávio


    This analysis of Brazil's first medical newspapers - Propagador das Ciências Médicas (1827-28); Semanário de Saúde Pública (1831-33); Diário de Saúde (1835-36); Revista Médica Fluminense (1835-41); Revista Médica Brasileira (1841-43) - shows how Rio de Janeiro's socio-cultural context made it possible for this type of publication to emerge within the city's dynamic, troubled environment of the 1820s and 30s. I argue that the distinguishing feature of Brazil's early medical journalism was a symbiosis between business (local publishing houses' commercial interests), politics (struggles for political hegemony during the consolidation of the Imperial State), and science (the movement to institutionalize medicine and affirm it as a science).

  18. The Revolutionary Movement in the Evaluation of F.M. Dostoevsky: To Understand Conservatism in the Political History of Russia

    Konstantin A. Lotarev


    Full Text Available The article attempts to show the features of the conservative worldview of F. M. Dostoevsky through the prism of his assessments of the revolutionary movement and socialist ideas in Russia. The main focus is on the analysis of artistic creativity, and journalism, especially "Diary of a Writer". This allowed us to identify the political views of F. M. Dostoevsky and the possibility of their practical implementation. It is concluded that the main cause of the political turmoil in the 1860s – early 1880s, the spread of revolutionary ideas the writer felt a deep moral crisis afflicting Russian society. Therefore, the cause of the crisis he saw not in reforming state institutions, and in fundamental moral renewal of Russian life on the basis of Christian Orthodox values.

  19. On the history of “Turkish Orthodox Church” appearing: a political project or luckless national autocephality

    Bochkov Pavel Vladimirovich


    Full Text Available The article covers a little-known story of non-canonic Orthodox jurisdiction called “Turkish Orthodox Church” that appeared in 1920s as a schismatic organisation with strongly pronounced Turkish nationalism and extreme intolerance to the canonic Constantinopolitan Orthodox Church. A historical link between the orthodox citizens of Turkey with Greece stirred up ill-feeling in pro-Turkish nationalists. That caused raft of attempts to capture church property from the canonic churches. Despite uproars and big words schismatic didn’t attract many orthodox and remained as uninteresting issue for Turkish politicians. Without any governmental support non-canonic “Turkish Orthodox Church” gradually turned into socio-political group of devoted nationalists that are mainly the relatives of priest Paul Karakissadiris, the founder of this religious organization. Today “Turkish Orthodox Church” being mostly a political project has liberal elements and denies canonic division of Orthodox Church of schismatic community.

  20. Atomic complex. Political history of nuclear energy. Le complexe atomique. Histoire politique de l'energie nucleaire

    Goldschmidt, B


    The political aspects of the growth of the two facets of the atomic complex have been dealt with in a distinct manner. Hence, this treatise is divided into two parts -two historical accounts- the first 'The explosion' dealing with the arm and the second 'The combustion' linked to the first part and devoted to the production of recoverable energy. Each part seeks to give an overall view of the unfolding of this extraordinary adventure whilst reserving a special destiny to the French aspects.

  1. History and political cultures: the legal conceptions evoked by the military governments while score of getting legitimacy

    Márcia Pereira da Silva


    Full Text Available This article proposes to analyse the period of brazilian military governments (1964-1985 under the view of lawfulness culture. We intend to show how the take of political power in 1964, far of being considered just the invest of the force and of the will, it was based into a juridical effort engagement, made upon a determined theory of constitutional right with emphasis in the thought of Carl Schmitt and Hans Kelsen.

  2. The Logical Structures of Comparison: Its Forms, Styles, Problems, and the Role of History in Social and Political Research

    Fabio de Nardis


    Full Text Available All political sciences share the same logic and methods as the empirical social sciences and therefore produce perceptive knowledge. Empirical knowledge is based on a specific kind of observation driven by a set of theoretically developed concepts related to clearly observable social phenomena. Not all the concepts, however, are readily amenable to observational terms. We usually need to proceed to their operationalization. The formulation and the operational definition of the empirical concepts does not exhaust the analytic process. It is also necessary to observe how the phenomenon occurs in the reality, proceeding to classification or typological constructions and, sometimes, to the production of multi-dimensional models. Only after this process will the formulation of hypotheses be possible. They will later be verified through the use of methods of empirical control. The most frequently used activity in political sociology is comparison, which is the main method of any social science according to most scholars. Comparison can be carried out both among a certain number of cases or within a single case by comparing it in its historical development. The temporal dimension becomes crucial when one wishes to produce historically rooted generalizations and theories, therefore confined to a spatial and temporal dimension. Before proceeding with the comparison we must make sure that the cases selected are actually comparable and that they possess at least one property in common. The objective of this paper is therefore to describe forms and styles of comparison within the logic of social and political sciences

  3. Lesbians, gays and religion.

    Newmanxy, Bernie Sue


    SUMMARY This study measured the effects of religious affiliation and gender on attitudes about lesbians and gay men among 2,846 college graduates who were beginning graduate study in social work or counseling. Males were more negative than females in their attitudes toward both lesbians and gay men. Conservative Protestants were the most negative in their attitudes toward lesbians and gay men, while those who were Atheist, Agnostic, Jewish or claimed no religion were most positive. Beliefs that the Bible forbids homosexuality are discussed and readings and arguments challenging this belief that can be used as class content are presented.

  4. The Politics of Identity: History, Nationalism, and the Prospect for Peace in Post-Cold War East Asia

    Jager, Sheila M


    ... of memory, identity, and nationalism. The potential for violent military clashes in the Taiwan Strait and the Korean peninsula largely involve disputes over history and territory, linked as they are to the unresolved legacies of the Cold War...

  5. Behind the Battle Lines of History as Politics: An International and Intergenerational Methodology for Testing the Social Identity Thesis of History Education

    Taylor, Tony; Collins, Sue


    This article critiques popular assumptions that underlie the ongoing politicisation of school history curriculum as an agent of social identity and behaviour. It raises some key research questions which need further investigation and suggests a potential methodology for establishing evidence-based understanding of the relationship between history…

  6. Understanding the anatomy of religion as basis for religion in ...


    Jul 4, 2011 ... My aim is to approach the problem of religion in and/or education from a different viewpoint. I contend that the ... religion that I proffer to the test by applying it to the South .... Modern humanism is the faith that through science humankind can know the ..... This will be detrimental to their mastering of their.

  7. Ethics, religion and humanity: Rethinking religion in 21 st century ...

    Thus, there is a relationship between religion, ethics and humanity. However, more often than not, religion is alleged for being a root cause of all human predicaments; that it provides viable and abundant fuel for conflict such that in every continent of the world, there are troubled spots rooted in religious conflicts. Although ...

  8. Rȇver au temps des guerres de Religion (Dreaming in the Times of Wars of Religion

    David El Kenz


    Full Text Available The dream is a delicate subject of history. Between the pitfall of rhetorical pattern or, conversely, the psychological over-interpretation, this study aims at examining a few dreams as related by both captains during the Wars of Religion, in the late sixteenth century. Blaise de Montluc, lieutenant general in Guyenne, recounts the nightmares about the king’s death. This terror reflects the fragility of his political situation. The Protestant propaganda exploits this prophetic dream to denounce the iniquity of Valois. Agrippa d’Aubigné shows, meanwhile, the ambiguity of a humanist facing the dream. On the one hand, he makes fun of the credulity of those who see omens, on the other, he draws inspiration from it to write about the biblical prophets. The dream thus reflects the religious turmoils in the inner selves and in the partisan fight. The vision which Ravaillac, the regicide had about a bloody religious wafer refers to dangerous imagination. A negative view of what shall be called dream emerges.

  9. Culture (and religion in constitutional adjudication

    C Rautenbach


    Full Text Available The faculty of law of the Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education in corroboration with the Konrad-Adenauer-Stifttung embarked on a study on Politics, Socio-Economic Issues and Culture in Constitutional Adjudication. The aim of the project is twofold. The first aim is to analyse the influence of political, socio-economic and cultural considerations on the constitutional court’s interpretation and application of the Bill of Rights. The second aim is to develop practical guidelines (based on the findings during the analysing process for South African courts confronted with issues of a political, socio-economic and cultural nature. This article is concerned with initiating discussions of the decisions of the constitutional court with regard to cultural and religious rights.Before we can explore the role of political, socio-economic and cultural (and religious rights in the decisions of the constitutional court it is important to discuss a few preliminary issues. In this article the meaning of culture and religion within the South African context receives some attention. Secondly, some preliminary comments regarding constitutional protection of culturally and religiously based rights will be made.We are well aware that this is a daunting task, not only in view of the seemingly abysmal gap between the applicable constitutional rights and values enshrined in the 1996 Constitution that, in some instances over centuries, brought about customs and practices within “traditional” communities which, seemingly, infringe on certain constitutional values and rights.

  10. Geographies of displacement: Latina/os, oral history, and the politics of gentrification in San Francisco's Mission District.

    Mirabal, Nancy Raquel


    During the 1990s and early 2000s, working-class and poor neighborhoods in San Francisco underwent dramatic economic and racial changes. One of the most heavily gentrified neighborhoods was the Mission District. As a result of local politics, housing and rental policies, real estate speculation, and development, thousands of Latina/o families were displaced. Using oral historical and ethnographic methodologies, print media, archival sources, and policy papers, this article traces the gentrification of the Mission District from the perspective of the Latina/o community. It also examines how gentrification was articulated as a positive turn within the larger public discourse on space and access.

  11. The Distinction Between the Essence and Reality of Religion: Resolving an Ambiguity in the Method of Phenomenology of Religion

    Mojtaba Zarvani


    Full Text Available During recent centuries, under the influence of modern and postmodern ideas, religious studies have been exposed to new approaches and views. On the one hand, these approaches are not an extension of theology in the traditional sense and on the other hand, they give a remarkable role to method in religious studies. The importance of phenomenology and the eyes it has caught as a "method" in study of religion, as well as in such disciplines as philosophy of religion, sociology of religion, psychology of religion, history of religion  and so on,‌ have been due to the compatibility of this method or approach with different religions and as a result due to preparing the ground for comparative studies of religions, on the one hand, and because of being descriptive and non-judicative about beliefs and thoughts, on the other. Historically speaking, this method or approach is a product of the mixture of two intellectual currents in the nineteenth century west. These two currents comprise scientific research of religion and the philosophical phenomenology of the German philosopher, "Edmund Husserl". As compared to philosophical phenomenology, phenomenology of religion has undergone through dramatic changes in all its aspects. But we can't understand phenomenology of religion, particularly in the twentieth century, apart from philosophical phenomenology, specifically Husserl's phenomenology and its important concepts. However, there are two challenging problems in phenomenology of religion both historically and regarding its essential complexity as such: first, the existing variety of phenomenologies of religion in Rudolf Otto, Mircea Eliade, Max scheler, C. Jouco bleeker, Ninian Smart, Gerardus van der Leeuw and many others works has hardened the process of understanding of this method and thus it seems necessary to outline the underlying characteristics of this method. The second and more significant point is that the works of early phenomenologists

  12. The Distinction Between the Essence and Reality of Religion: Resolving an Ambiguity in the Method of Phenomenology of Religion

    Mohammadreza Ghaeminik


    Full Text Available During recent centuries, under the influence of modern and postmodern ideas, religious studies have been exposed to new approaches and views. On the one hand, these approaches are not an extension of theology in the traditional sense and on the other hand, they give a remarkable role to method in religious studies. The importance of phenomenology and the eyes it has caught as a "method" in study of religion, as well as in such disciplines as philosophy of religion, sociology of religion, psychology of religion, history of religion  and so on,‌ have been due to the compatibility of this method or approach with different religions and as a result due to preparing the ground for comparative studies of religions, on the one hand, and because of being descriptive and non-judicative about beliefs and thoughts, on the other. Historically speaking, this method or approach is a product of the mixture of two intellectual currents in the nineteenth century west. These two currents comprise scientific research of religion and the philosophical phenomenology of the German philosopher, "Edmund Husserl". As compared to philosophical phenomenology, phenomenology of religion has undergone through dramatic changes in all its aspects. But we can't understand phenomenology of religion, particularly in the twentieth century, apart from philosophical phenomenology, specifically Husserl's phenomenology and its important concepts. However, there are two challenging problems in phenomenology of religion both historically and regarding its essential complexity as such: first, the existing variety of phenomenologies of religion in Rudolf Otto, Mircea Eliade, Max scheler, C. Jouco bleeker, Ninian Smart, Gerardus van der Leeuw and many others works has hardened the process of understanding of this method and thus it seems necessary to outline the underlying characteristics of this method. The second and more significant point is that the works of early phenomenologists

  13. Immigration and Religion in Denmark

    Christoffersen, Lisbet


    An overview over legal framework for immigration into Denmark, special clauses on religion as a parameter for residence permit and asylum in churches......An overview over legal framework for immigration into Denmark, special clauses on religion as a parameter for residence permit and asylum in churches...

  14. Spirituality, Religion, and Peace Education

    Brantmeier, Edward J., Ed.; Lin, Jing, Ed.; Miller, John P., Ed.


    "Spirituality, Religion, and Peace Education" attempts to deeply explore the universal and particular dimensions of education for inner and communal peace. This co-edited book contains fifteen chapters on world spiritual traditions, religions, and their connections and relevance to peacebuilding and peacemaking. This book examines the…

  15. Religion in the Labour Market

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    overview over case law in Denmark regarding religion on the labour market. From pragmatism to ideological secularisation and confessionalisation as result of politisation......overview over case law in Denmark regarding religion on the labour market. From pragmatism to ideological secularisation and confessionalisation as result of politisation...

  16. Teaching Religion and Material Culture

    Carp, Richard M.


    Because religions discipline and interpret bodies; create and define sacred spaces; generate, adore and study images in all media; regulate the intake of food; structure temporal experience; and in general interpenetrate and are permeated by the cultural landscapes in which they exist, religious studies must engage material religion and religious…

  17. Iconic Religion in Urban Space

    Meyer, B.; Knott, Kim; Krech, Volkhard


    In order to understand current dynamics of religious diversity, a focus on the tangible presence of religion and the co-existence of new and longstanding religious buildings, sites and artifacts in urban spaces is a fruitful starting point. Launching the notion of iconic religion, this introduction

  18. Crime fiction and mediatized religion

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    Scandinavian media where religion has become mediatized. Consumers of popular culture no longer endorse confidence in institutionalized religion, but that does not mean that people are losing faith: Faith only seems to adjust itself and tiptoe into popular media and popular fiction. Hence, this paper seeks...

  19. Religion in Scandinavian Crime Fiction

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    Scandinavian media where religion has become mediatized. Consumers of popular culture no longer endorse confidence in institutionalized religion, but that does not mean that people are losing faith: Faith only seem to adjust itself and tiptoe into popular media and popular fiction. Hence, this paper seeks...

  20. Teaching Justice and Teaching Justly: Reflections on Teaching World Religions at a Jesuit Liberal Arts College

    Schmalz, Mathew N.


    This paper examines how the teaching of world religions at Catholic Christians institutions can contribute to teaching justice and teaching justly. The paper compares central issues engaged by History of Religions as a discipline with those addressed within the Jesuit tradition of higher education as it developed in the wake of the Second Vatican…

  1. What is religion? an African understanding

    Beyers, Jaco


    Western thought has influenced the way that religion is understood. Western philosophy supported the separation between the sacred and the profane. Modernism, focusing on human rationality, reduced religion to a set of correctly formulated dogmas and doctrines. Western thought, dominated by Christianity, created a hierarchical structure of world religions through a theology of religions. Can an African understanding of religion make a contribution to the understanding of what religion is? Suc...

  2. The cultural evolution of prosocial religions.

    Norenzayan, Ara; Shariff, Azim F; Gervais, Will M; Willard, Aiyana K; McNamara, Rita A; Slingerland, Edward; Henrich, Joseph


    We develop a cultural evolutionary theory of the origins of prosocial religions and apply it to resolve two puzzles in human psychology and cultural history: (1) the rise of large-scale cooperation among strangers and, simultaneously, (2) the spread of prosocial religions in the last 10-12 millennia. We argue that these two developments were importantly linked and mutually energizing. We explain how a package of culturally evolved religious beliefs and practices characterized by increasingly potent, moralizing, supernatural agents, credible displays of faith, and other psychologically active elements conducive to social solidarity promoted high fertility rates and large-scale cooperation with co-religionists, often contributing to success in intergroup competition and conflict. In turn, prosocial religious beliefs and practices spread and aggregated as these successful groups expanded, or were copied by less successful groups. This synthesis is grounded in the idea that although religious beliefs and practices originally arose as nonadaptive by-products of innate cognitive functions, particular cultural variants were then selected for their prosocial effects in a long-term, cultural evolutionary process. This framework (1) reconciles key aspects of the adaptationist and by-product approaches to the origins of religion, (2) explains a variety of empirical observations that have not received adequate attention, and (3) generates novel predictions. Converging lines of evidence drawn from diverse disciplines provide empirical support while at the same time encouraging new research directions and opening up new questions for exploration and debate.

  3. The Holy and Dirty Money of Faith: Shapes of Religion in Contemporary Society

    Adrián Slavkovský


    Full Text Available A phenomenon, which is generally referred to as religion, has been present in various shapes throughout the whole history of humankind. Only the last centuries have brought a mass expansion of atheism. When many assumed that religion would successively expire, something else happened. At the end of the second millennium a new bloom of religion happened in many forms. But this is not a simple comeback of the good old times of religion, especially not of traditional religious communities and institutions.

  4. Mourning, Memorials, and Religion: A Psychoanalytic Perspective on the Park51 Controversy

    Nathan Carlin


    Full Text Available This article summarizes a version of the “mourning religion” thesis—derived from the work of Peter Homans and further developed and advanced by William Parsons, Diane Jonte-Pace, and Susan Henking—and then demonstrates how this thesis can shed light on the Park51 controversy. We argue that the Park51 controversy represents a case of incomplete cultural mourning of an aspect of American civil religion that manifests itself in melancholic rage by means of protests, threats to burn the Qur’an (as well as actual burnings of the Qur’an, and vandalism of mosques around the United States. We explore various losses—military, economic, and symbolic—and note that these losses remain ambiguous, therefore preventing closure and productive mourning. The fact that a permanent memorial still has not been built at Ground Zero reflects, and perhaps exacerbates, this incomplete cultural mourning. Also, the fact that Freedom Tower, the building to replace the Twin Towers, is to be 1776 feet tall reflects that the losses related to 9/11 are connected to American civil religion, as 1776 is a sacred year in American history. Setting aside the ethics and the politics related to this controversy, we attempt here to understand this controversy from a psychoanalytic perspective.

  5. FAITH, INTOLERANCE, VIOLENCE AND BIGOTRY: Legal and Constitutional Issues of Freedom of Religion in Indonesia

    Adam J. Fenton


    Full Text Available Religious intolerance and bigotry indeed is a contri­buting factor in social and political conflict including manifestations of terrorist violence. While freedom of religion is enshrined in Indonesia’s Constitution, social practices and governmental regulations fall short of constitutional and international law guarantees, allowing institutionalised bias in the treatment of religious minorities. Such bias inhibits Indonesia’s transition to a fully-functioning pluralistic democracy and sacrifices democratic ideals of personal liberty and freedom of expression for the stated goals of religious and social harmony. The Ahok case precisely confirms that. The paper examines the constitutional bases of freedom of religion, Indonesia’s Blasphemy Law and takes account of the history and tenets of Pancasila which dictate a belief in God as the first principle of state ideology. The paper argues that the Indonesian state’s failure to recognise the legitimacy of alternate theological positions is a major obstacle to Indonesia recognising the ultimate ideal, enshrined in the national motto, of unity in diversity.

  6. Soviet psyhology of religion in 1960–1970s: marginalia

    Elena Orel


    Full Text Available This brief outline deals with the history of development of psychology of religion in the USSR. The author concentrates on the analysis of the historical, social, ideological context, i. e. the analysis of those particular circumstances of the early 1960s when Russian thinkers in the domain of the Humanities turned to the subject of psychology of religion. Particular emphasis is given to the importance of the so-called Khrushchev’s thaw in the formation and development of this research area. The key metaphor of the study is seeing the psychology of religion as an opening in the austere ice of Soviet dictatorship. The author gives a description of the main trends and topics that were raised in discussions on psychology of religion in the 1960–1970s. Ideological interpretation of the position and role of psychology of religion in Soviet science draws on studies by D. Ugrinovich, one of the most infl uential authors of the period in question. The paper suggests that the change of the ideological background in the early 1970s naturally effected the refusal of most of the authors to carry out research in this area and their “switch” to problems of sociology of religion.

  7. Hamlet’s Religions

    Peter Iver Kaufman


    Full Text Available Pastoral challenges prompted pietists among Elizabethan Catholics and Calvinists to commend what historians now call an inward turn whereby the faithful, in a sense, become their own confessors. This article suggests that spiritual exercises or soliloquies Shakespeare scripted for his Hamlet (and, less so, for Angelo in Measure for Measure compare favorably with the devotional literature that underscored the importance of self-analysis, intra-psychic conflict, and contrition. The argument here is not that the playwright’s piety resembled his Hamlet’s but that the latter reflected efforts to structure desire in the religions of the time struggling for survival and recognition. References to passages in Shakespeare plays (act, scene appear parenthetically in the text. Unless otherwise indicated in the bibliography appended to this article, all early printed material is accessible at the Early English Books database,, verified June 1, 2011.

  8. The Politics of Identity: History, Nationalism, and the Prospect for Peace in Post-Cold War East Asia


    Gerow, “Fantasies of War and Nation in Recent Japanese Cinema ,” Japan Focus, accessed at products/details/1707J, p. 5. In his...about their country’s remarkable economic resurgence after the Korean War. President Bush was referring to the recent anti- Japanese protests in...interests, the emotional debates surrounding 3 the history of World War II and Japanese colonialism are treated as mere shibboleths of competing elites

  9. Religions without God? Hans Kelsen, Anthropologist of Modernity

    Paolo Di Lucia


    Full Text Available In 2012 an unpublished book by the Austrian legal philosopher Hans Kelsen, Secular Religion, has been posthumously published. This book, written by Kelsen between 1952 and 1964 in the United States, severely criticizes those theories of politics and culture that misinterpret modern social philosophy, science and politics as new religions, mainly adopting the controversial concept of “secular religión.” In the first part of the paper, we reconstruct the genesis of the book and the complex events that led to its final version, and we underline the motives that led Kelsen to write this vehement polemic in defense of the spirit of modernity, and eventually to withdraw it. In the second part of the paper, we investigate some of the main methodological and theoretical contributions that this work, albeit its critical tenor, is able to give to an anthropology of modernity.

  10. Religion, Gender and Citizenship

    van den Brandt, H.P.


    In this review essay, I discuss interdisciplinary and comparative research that is taking place in the fields of religious, gender, and sexuality studies. I make a case for the academic and political relevance of research projects that are interdisciplinary – and that therefore generate

  11. Cognitive Evolution and Religion: Cognition and Religious Evolution

    Harvey Whitehouse


    Full Text Available This paper presents contemporary cognitive approaches to the evolution of religious beliefs. Arguments are put forward that different types of beliefs, or ‘modes of religiosity’, occur as a result of a number of evolutionary factors (biological, cultural, socio-political etc. At the same time, religions across the world retain a significant level of common and shared elements, also explained in evolutionary terms.

  12. Nuclear power in the Baltic Sea region: the history of emergence and the political and economic features of its development

    Kretinin Gennady


    Full Text Available This article focuses on the development of peaceful nuclear power. The author draws attention to the fact that nuclear power is a rather young branch of national economy. However, over recent decades, it has already seen rises and falls, and a number of states have had tragic experiences of nuclear emergencies. Nevertheless, many countries — including the three Baltic States of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania — express a strong interest in development, generation, and application of nuclear power. In the Baltic States, nuclear power dates back to the Soviet times, but its development was suspended pursuant to the EU regulations (the Ignalina NPP. Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia have been striving for energy independence from Russia — the principal supplier of energy carriers to these countries. For a long time, the three Baltic States have been proclaiming their unanimity on the general European path of development. However, the reality proved to be different. The touchstone for achieving common goals was the idea of constructing a new NPP at the site of the closed Ignalina NPP. The author concludes that the joint construction of a new NPP is quite questionable. When it comes to politics, each of the three Baltic States is ready to build its own NPP. Thus, the development of nuclear power in the Baltic Sea region requires joint coordinated actions independent of any bloc-inspired interests of the states involved. Moreover, this success may prove sustainable if the actions are based on innovative decisions and modern technologies.

  13. Global Halal: Meat, Money, and Religion

    S. Romi Mukherjee


    Full Text Available The following article deconstructs (and demystifies Halal with a view to unraveling how the religious, racial, economic, and ethico-political are articulated in and around material technologies of meat production and bodily techniques of religious consumption/the consumption of religion. It, thus, attempts to rethink the nexus of food, politics, and contesting visions of the sacred and the profane, from within the folds of the global and global Islam. Halal emerges as a terrain replete with paradigmatic juridical and political questions about the impasses of social and culinary conviviality and cosmopolitanism. Although there is certainly nothing new about religious taboos on food on the body, Halal is far from being a personal or strictly communal set of strictures and practices. On the contrary, global Halal emerges as a new agonistic field typified by charged debates concerning the place of secularism, recognition, and “food diversity” in the global marketplace. This paper offers a cartography, both phenomenological and social scientific, of this multi-tiered site of meat, power, and belief.

  14. When did religion, cognition and culture emerge?

    Geertz, Armin W.


    Et bidrag om religion, kognition og kultur i evolutionistisk perspektiv ved en Engelsberg konference om "Religion" afholdt i Avesta, Sverige i 2014.......Et bidrag om religion, kognition og kultur i evolutionistisk perspektiv ved en Engelsberg konference om "Religion" afholdt i Avesta, Sverige i 2014....

  15. Television: The New State Religion?

    Gerbner, George


    Outlines the special characteristics of television that make it a formula-bound, ritualistic, repetitive, and nonselectively used system; concludes that television's social symbolic functions resemble preindustrial religions more than they do the media that preceded it. (GT)

  16. Religion, civil society and conflict: What is it that religion does for ...

    Worldviews are socially created and determine human behaviour and, as such, most often find expression in religion. The discussion of conflict and the role of religion in civil society take place within the discourse of the sociology of religion. Religion is socially determined. Peter Berger's insight into the sociology of religion ...

  17. La religione una risorsa formativa?

    Carlo Nanni


    Full Text Available The text aims to show how religion can contribute to the achievement of the human person. Religion, connected to the social and cultural framework, joins the individual world in its complexity. Is godlinesses a possible teaching resource? Yes, when read according to a pedagogical perspective, which support human advancement, historical and cultural being. The dialogue, good practice for any learning, it poses as a means to fight the life fragmentation in the discovery of common traces to all humanity.

  18. Holy sci-fi! where science fiction and religion intersect

    Nahin, Paul J


    Can a computer have a soul? Are religion and science mutually exclusive? Is there really such a thing as free will? If you could time travel to visit Jesus, would you (and should you)? For hundreds of years, philosophers, scientists, and science fiction writers have pondered these questions and many more. In Holy Sci-Fi!, popular writer Paul Nahin explores the fertile and sometimes uneasy relationship between science fiction and religion. With a scope spanning the history of religion, philosophy, and literature, Nahin follows religious themes in science fiction from Feynman to Foucault, and from Asimov to Aristotle. An intriguing journey through popular and well-loved books and stories, Holy Sci-Fi! shows how sci-fi has informed humanity's attitudes towards our faiths, our future, and ourselves.


    Ahmet YILDIRIM


    Full Text Available Individuals in terms of the economy in which we live is one of the most important phenomenon of the century. This phenomenon present itself as the only determinant of people's lives by entering almost makes itself felt. The mo st obvious objective needs of the economy by triggering motive is to induce people to consume . Consumer culture pervades all aspects of the situation are people . Therefore, these people have the blessing of culture , beauty and value all in the name of w hatever is consumed. This is way out of the siege of moral and religious values we have is to go back again . Referred by local cultural and religious values, based on today increasingly come to the fore and the Muslim way of life appears to be close to th e plain / lean preferred by many people life has been a way of life. Even the simple life , a way of life in the Western world , a conception of life , a philosophy, a movement as it has become widely accepted. Here in determining the Muslim way of life Pr ophet. Prophet (sa lived the kind of life a very important model, sample, and determining which direction is known. Religious values, which is the carrier of the prophets, sent to the society they have always been examples and models. Because every aspect of human life, his life style and the surrounding area has a feature. We also value his life that he has unknowingly and without learning and skills and to understand it is not possible to live our religion . We also our presentation, we mainly of Islam o utlook on life and predicted life - style, including the Prophet of Islam 's (sa simple life to scrutinize and lifestyle issues related to reveal , in short Islam's how life has embraced and the Prophet. Prophet's will try to find answers to questions reg arding how to live.

  20. The Politics and Anti-Politics of Social Movements

    This book explores the nature, significance and consequences of the religious activism surrounding AIDS in Africa. While African religion was relatively marginal in inspiring or contributing to AIDS activism during the early days of the epidemic, this situation has changed dramatically. In order...... to account for these changes, contributors provide answers to pressing questions. How does the entrance of religion into public debates about AIDS affect policymaking and implementation, church-state relations, and religion itself? How do religious actors draw on and reconfigure forms of transnational...... connectivity? How do resource flows from development and humanitarian aid that religious actors may access then affect relationships of power and authority in African societies? How does religious mobilization on AIDS reflect contestation over identity, cultural membership, theology, political participation...

  1. Islam, religiosity, and immigrant political action in Western Europe.

    Just, Aida; Sandovici, Maria Elena; Listhaug, Ola


    The issues of migration and immigrant political integration in western democracies have become increasingly intertwined with debates on religion, particularly Islam. To date, however, we have surprisingly little systematic research on how religious beliefs are related to immigrants' political engagement. In this study, we argue that religion has a capacity to mobilize immigrants politically but the strength of this relationship depends on immigrant generation, religiosity, and the type of religion. Using survey data collected as part of the European Social Survey (ESS) 2002-2010 in 18 West European democracies, our analyses reveal that religion is indeed linked to political engagement of immigrants in a complex way: while belonging to a religion is generally associated with less political participation, exposure to religious institutions appears to have the opposite effect. Moreover, we find that, compared to foreign-born Muslims, second-generation Muslim immigrants are not only more religious and more politically dissatisfied with their host countries, but also that religiosity is more strongly linked to their political engagement. This relationship, however, is limited to uninstitutionalized political action. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Survey of the Origin and Evolution of Religion from the Points of View Edward Tylor and James Frazer

    Alireza khajegir


    As a universal human phenomenon, religion is rooted in human nature, and human beings instinctively require a superior and supreme power. Besides this internal need for religion, attention to the meaning, function, and interpretation of religion has always been prevalent in the history of human thought from West to East, and scholars have always tried to comment on and analyze this fundamental issue of human life .  From among the approaches that arose about the interpretation and ex...

  3. Alternative Constructions of Treason in the Angevin Political World: Traïson in the History of William Marshal

    Stephen D. WHITE


    Full Text Available After some nobles and other fighting men surrendered Rochester castle to King John in 1215, John wanted to hang the nobles but refrained from doing so on the advice of one of his military captains. Would hanging the nobles for making war on the king have been lawful? This question about the law of treason has provoked inconclusive debate among historians who have sought to determine whether, in this period, making war against the English king was legally classified as lèse-majesté (crimen laesae majestatis, proditio or infidelitas. This article, however, asks whether the nobles whom John wanted to hang were guilty of traïson, as this vernacular term was used in the History of William Marshal (c. 1230. On this basis, the paper concludes that in all probability, the nobles who held Rochester against the king would not have been condemned as traitors, at least by their aristocratic peers.Cuando en 1215 ciertos nobles y otros combatientes se rindieron y entregaron el castillo de Rochester al rey Juan éste quiso colgarles, pero el consejo de uno de sus nobles le hizo absternerse. ¿Habría sido legítimo condenar a la horca a los que habían guerreado contra el rey? Cuestiones relativas al derecho de traición al intentar determinar si la guerra contra el rey de Inglaterra fue considerada en la época un crimen laesae majestatis, proditio, o infidelitas, según la definición que dan a estos términos las fuentes latinas, han suscitado debates interminables entre los historiadores. Este artículo, por el contrario, se pregunta si los nobles que el rey Juan deseaba colgar eran o no culpables de traición, en el sentido vernáculo del término que es usado en L’histoire de Guillaume le Maréchal (hacia 1230. Sobre esta base, la conclusión del artículo es que los nobles que ocuparon el castillo de Rochester, casi con total seguridad, no habrían sido condenados como traidores, al menos por sus pares.

  4. Religion and Globalization in Laos Religion und Globalisierung in Laos

    Boike Rehbein


    Full Text Available According to Eurocentric sociology, modernization is supposed to make religion secular, a functional system, or a private matter. A closer analysis of the impact of contemporary globalization on religion in Laos shows that these tendencies can only be observed in certain social groups and in certain realms of religion. Some social groups preserve or reinvent religious traditions, others construct a new identity, and some do tend towards secularism or differentiation. The paper investigates these tendencies, referring to an empirical case study. It proposes to explain them within a conceptual framework adapted to societies of the global South which focuses on the concepts of social structure, division of work, socioculture, and institution. On the basis of these concepts, the paper proposes to distinguish between different religious realms, namely, belief, performance, and knowledge. In each of these three realms, different tendencies and social distributions can be observed. Der eurozentrischen Soziologie zufolge wird Religion im Zuge der Modernisierung entweder säkularisiert oder privatisiert oder in ein funktionales System verwandelt. Eine genauere Analyse des Einflusses, den die gegenwärtige Globalisierung auf die Religion in Laos ausübt, zeigt jedoch, dass diese Tendenzen auf bestimmte soziale Gruppen und Aspekte der Religion beschränkt sind. Einige soziale Gruppen bewahren oder rekonstruieren religiöse Traditionen, andere konstruieren eine neue Identität und wieder andere tendieren zu Säkularisierung oder funktionaler Differenzierung. Der Aufsatz analysiert diese Phänomene am Beispiel einer Fallstudie auf der Basis eines an den globalen Süden angepassten Begriffsapparats, der um die Begriffe Sozialstruktur, Tätigkeitsteilung, Soziokultur und Institution kreist. Der Aufsatz schlägt vor, zwischen den religiösen Sphären des Glaubens, der Performanz und des Wissens zu unterscheiden. In jeder Sphäre lassen sich unterschiedliche

  5. The effects of social media on political party perception and voting behavior

    Riezebos, Peter; de Vries, Sjoerd A.; de Vries, Pieter Walter; de Zeeuw, Erik


    This study sought to determine to what extent social media influences political party perception (PPP) and political voting behavior. Based on literature a conceptual model was developed which measures political interest, political trust, religion and the use of social media and their effects on PPP

  6. Estudos sobre religião e saúde mental realizados no Brasil: histórico e perspectivas atuais Brazilian studies on religion and mental health: history and current perspectives

    Paulo Dalgalarrondo


    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Há mais de um século, vários pesquisadores brasileiros têm estudado as relações entre religiosidade e transtornos mentais, mas estes trabalhos são pouco conhecidos atualmente. OBJETIVOS: apresentar um panorama e uma análise crítica da produção sobre saúde mental e religião no Brasil. MÉTODOS: análise das pesquisas de relevância histórica, assim como investigações contemporâneas sobre o tema saúde mental e religião no Brasil. RESULTADOS: os trabalhos históricos foram iniciados no final do século XIX e muitos deles dedicam-se ao tema do messianismo e de formas coletivas de "loucura religiosa". Os trabalhos contemporâneos tratam de temas como religião, uso de álcool e drogas, assim como de uma variedade de condições clínicas, como esquizofrenia e suicídio. Falta a esta linha de pesquisa uma melhor articulação entre investigação empírica e análise teórica dos dados, assim como um diálogo mais próximo com ciências sociais, como a antropologia e a sociologia da religião. CONCLUSÕES: há uma rica multiplicidade metodológica e de temas abordados nestes estudos sobre religiosidade e saúde mental. A busca de teorias para nortear as pesquisas empíricas e uma maior articulação com as ciências sociais poderão contribuir para uma maior avanço nesta área.BACKGROUND: Several Brazilian scientists have been studying the relationship between religiousness and mental disorders for more than one century. However, currently, those works are poorly known. OBJECTIVES: to present an overview of past and current Brazilian studies on mental health and religion. METHODS: Analysis of historically important research, as well as current investigation on mental health and religion in Brazil. RESULTS: These studies started in Brazil by the end of XIX Century usually focusing on messianism and collective forms of "religious insanity". Current studies deal with topics like religion and alcohol or drug use, as well as

  7. Displacements: Religion, Gender, and the Catachrestic Demands of Postcoloniality

    Sîan Melvill Hawthorne


    Full Text Available In this paper I examine the uneasy intersection between ‘religion’, ‘gender’ and ‘postcoloniality’ as it is staged in the sub-field of religion and gender within religious studies and theology. Noting the lack of sustained attention in this field to those postcolonial challenges that might question the prioritization of gender as the site from which critique should be originated, and suggesting that this neglect might compromise the assumption that, because of its alignment with the politics of the marginal, it is comparatively less implicated in colonial knowledge formations, I argue that scholars of religion and gender risk perpetuating imperialist figurations found elsewhere in the academic study of religions. I propose the figure of the catachresis, as theorized by Gayatri Spivak, as a potential step towards displacing those European concept-metaphors and value-codings that both derive from imperialist ideologies and sustain the fiction operational within much, though not all, religion and gender scholarship of a generalizable or normative epistemic subjectivity. I suggest these ideologies ultimately prevent an encounter with the women and men who exist beyond this mode of production and whose priorities may be configured entirely differently to those that seem currently to inform and produce the intellectual itineraries of the field.

  8. Markets, religion, regulation

    Fischer, Johan


    Most recent scholarship on moral economies or religious markets argues for the compatibility of economies/markets and religious practices in particular national or regional contexts. However, over the last couple of decades or so religious markets have entered a new phase characterized by new forms...... of regulation, certification and standardization on a global scale. Building on research on global kosher (a Hebrew term meaning “fit” or “proper”), halal (an Arabic word that literally means “permissible” or “lawful”) and Hindu vegetarianism this paper argues that these economies or markets to a large extent...... are conditioned by and themselves condition forms of transnational governmentality, that is, new and often overlapping practices of government and grassroots politics. I explore religious economies and markets at three interrelated levels of the social scale: state and non-state regulation, the marketplace...

  9. Riflessioni antropologiche sulla religione - Some anthropological reflections on religion

    Antonino Colajanni


    criticize and put on discussion the same religious system existing within the culture of the student of religious ideas and actions. A sort of “religious relativism” appears then to be necessary. In the case of Christianity in particular, it appears necessary to reconstruct carefully the ancient and recent history of Christian religion, with all its transformations, in order to get a sufficient distance from the implicit influences of that very complex cultural-religious system, which could produce a sort of deformation in the process of understanding and interpretation of the religious ideas of the others. The last part of the essay is dedicated to a presentation of an extended text on religious ideas and shamanism, collected among the Shuar Indians of Ecuadorian Amazon, to which the general and methodological suggestions and the reflections presented above have been applied.

  10. Astronomy and Politics

    Steele, John M.

    The relationship between astronomy and politics is a complex but important part of understanding the practice of astronomy throughout history. This chapter explores some of the ways that astronomy, astrology, and politics have interacted, placing particular focus on the way that astronomy and astrology have been used for political purposes by both people in power and people who wish to influence a ruler's policy. Also discussed are the effects that politics has had on the development of astronomy and, in particular, upon the recording and preservation of astronomical knowledge.

  11. Zora’s Politics: A Brief Introduction

    Ernest Julius Mitchell II


    Full Text Available In his introduction to reading Zora Neale Hurston’s politics, Mitchell argues that contemporary scholarship has misread Hurston in significant ways, distorting Hurston’s work and reputation to serve contesting political agendas; thus, in recent years, she has been associated with “a bewildering array of affiliations: republican, libertarian, radical democrat, reactionary conservative, black cultural nationalist, anti-authoritarian feminist, and woman-hating protofascist.” Recuperating Hurston from this impossible political melee of labels, Mitchell argues, requires a careful reading of Hurston’s work dating from her earliest pieces in the late 1920s, as well as surveying her many yet to be published manuscripts and letters; it requires recognition of the transnational and comparative lens through which she reported on political maneuvers and military histories, as well as reading not only her strong criticisms but also her silences, ironic phrasings, and nuanced critiques in her writings on global colonial enterprises. Mitchell’s introduction to the two Hurston essays here reprinted, “I Saw Negro Votes Peddled” (1950 and “Why the Negro Won’t Buy Communism” (1951—courtesy of the American Legion Magazine—is set in the larger frame of his assertion that Hurston’s work should be read with a deep appreciation of her staunch anticolonialism. Tracing her political philosophy through her views of how race and religion are used to valorize an international culture of violence that serves imperialistic and colonial ends, Mitchell takes his reader on a tour of Hurston’s transnational commentary—from the US occupation of Haiti, to the Spanish and British on the Florida peninsula; from Communist Russia and China, to election practices in the US—to set the stage for our encounters with these rarely read Hurston essays. Reading Mitchell’s “Zora’s Politics: A Brief Introduction” provides a firm foundation for a more

  12. ethics, religion and humanity: rethinking religion in 21 century africa.


    cause of all human predicaments; that it provides viable and abundant fuel for ... have its older roots in Marx and Lenin, however, the condemnation it has received in recent times is ... beings, it is not out of place to say that his .... religion functions in the culture of a people; ..... zombies and robots having no freedom and.

  13. The Politics of Physical Education

    Claxton, David


    This paper, which was given as the Dudley Allen Sargent lecture at the 2012 conference of the National Association for Kinesiology and Physical Education in Higher Education, discusses the politics of physical education. It examines how both national politics and local/campus politics affect the discipline. Drawing from the history of national…

  14. Grænser for religion

    Lüchau, Peter


    Paper om hvor og under hvilke betingelser danskerne finder religion acceptabel og/eller passende......Paper om hvor og under hvilke betingelser danskerne finder religion acceptabel og/eller passende...

  15. Religion, Psychology and Globalisation Process: Attitudinal ...

    A key consequence of globalisation is the integrative approach to reality whereby emphasis is ... between psychology and religion has revolutionised the field of psychology of religion ..... paranormal or abnormal. In this wise, one is able to ...

  16. Gender, religion, and adolescent patterns of self-disclosure in the divided society of Northern Ireland.

    Hargie, O D; Tourish, D; Curtis, L


    Adolescence is a period when levels of self-disclosure are often lowest. While studies have revealed a clear preference for female targets of disclosure, little research has been carried out on the effects of religion upon disclosure. The impact of religion was of importance in this investigation, given that it was conducted in Northern Ireland, where religion affects almost every aspect of social life. The aim was to ascertain the effects of gender and religious affiliation on adolescent disclosure to friends and strangers. Results revealed that while females were significantly higher disclosers than were males, religion per se did not play a key role. This suggests that even in a highly polarized society, gender is the central determinant of disclosure and is even more important than political identity. The implications of these findings are discussed, particularly with regard to the difficulty young males have in terms of revealing personal information.

  17. The reformasi of Ayu Utami; Attacking the monopoly of the great religions

    Karel Steenbrink


    Full Text Available In eight novels, Ayu Utami has presented critical attacks on doctrines and practices of the major religions in Indonesia. The two books, that describe the spiritual struggle of the Catholic priest Saman (1998–2002, call for a religion that is more active in the political arena, but leaves sexual rules to the individual people. The novel Bilangan Fu (2008 condemns the monopoly of the great religions in favour of local and individual spirituality. This is developed in a series of novels of which two more have already appeared. A third cycle of three more or less autobiographic novels (2003–2013 sketch her personal quest from atheism towards a critical but positive spirituality condemning a clerical and monopolist trend in Catholicism. Utami’s criticism of the great religions is external (more players in the field should be recognised and internal (religious leaders should have more modest claims towards their faithful and leave more space for personal choice.

  18. Limits to expression on religion in France

    Janssen, E.


    During the last decade conflicts about expression on religion have increased globally. Generally, these conflicts are regarded as a conflict between freedom of speech and freedom of thought, conscience and religion. In France there are many active religious interest groups that aim to protect a certain religion in society. They often initiate judicial proceedings seeking to prohibit certain kinds of speech on their religion. This practice has resulted in a rich case law on the limits of expre...

  19. Research Approaches in the Study of Religion

    Szocik Konrad


    Full Text Available Despite development of secular ideas and concepts in the Western world, we can observe increasing interest in the study of religion. However, this popularity of the study of religion and different research approaches has caused that in some sense scholars that were studying religion came to a dead point. Here I show that the most optimal research approach in the study of religion is pluralistic, integral paradigm which connects old traditional methods with naturalistic, cognitive and sometimes experimental approach.

  20. Faithless: The politics of new atheism

    Steven Kettell


    Full Text Available The emergence of ‘new atheism’ during the course of the last decade helped fuel an upsurge of interest in issues around religion. But scholarly analysis of new atheism, particularly its political dimensions, remains embryonic. This paper addresses this lacuna by examining the politics of new atheism across a variety of themes related to politics. These include the causal factors underpinning its emergence and development, its organisational structure and composition, the political strategies pursued by its proponents, and the various internal tensions and conflicts that these dynamics have produced.

  1. Religion, Convention, and Paternal Involvement.

    Wilcox, W. Bradford


    Examines the influence of religious affiliation and attendance on the involvement of residential fathers in one-on-one activities, dinner with their families, and youth activities and found religious effects for each of these three measures. The study indicates that religion is related to paternal involvement in all three areas that were examined.…

  2. How to Talk about Religion

    Kunzman, Robert


    Given the prevalence of religion talk in today's world, another form of fluency is needed. Civic multilingualism is the ability to converse across different religious and ethical perspectives in search of understanding, compromise, and common ground. According to the author, this may represent the greatest social challenge of the 21st century.…

  3. World Religions for the Classroom.

    Dixon, Dorothy Arnett

    This teaching and resource guide contains ideas appropriate for teaching junior and senior high school students about the following religions: Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Shintoism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Individual sections discuss general approaches to teaching the religious philosophies and rituals, and exemplary…

  4. Corporate religion og Paulus' breve

    Nielsen, Jesper Tang


    , analyseres grundigt. Af undersøgelsen fremgår det, at Kundes opfattelse af religion svarer til Clifford Geertz’ klassiske kulturantropologiske religionsdefinition. Ydermere fremdrages en række paralleller til Paulus’ breve, der godtgør, at Kundes forståelse og brug af religiøse forestillinger kan ses som en...

  5. Religion in Scandinavian Crime Fiction

    Hansen, Kim Toft


    connect this with what has been dubbed mediatized religion and a more general, philosophical explanation of why we see this development: The project of modernity is, as a result of cultural changes, at the moment transgressing its own epistemological boundaries opening up into what has been called...

  6. How Teachers Can Still Teach about Religion

    Marshall, Joanne M.


    The line between public and private expression of religion requires balancing the constitutional guarantee of the free exercise of religion and the constitutional prohibition against the establishment of religion. Public schools, as government entities, and the teachers in them are allowed neither to inhibit the free exercise of religious…

  7. The "Make Your Own Religion" Project

    Bauman, Chad M.; Hege, Brent A. R.; Kleckley, Russell; Willsky-Ciollo, Lydia; Lopez, Davina C.


    The "Make Your Own Religion" class project was designed to address a perceived need to introduce more theoretical thinking about religion into a typical religion survey course, and to do so in such a way that students would experience the wonder of theoretical discovery, and through or because of that discovery hopefully both better…

  8. Clinical psychology of religion. A training model

    Uden, M.H.F. van; Pieper, J.Z.T.


    In this paper we will show you a part of a course "Clinical Psychology of Religion" that has been developed in the Netherlands for introducing mental health professionals in the field of clinical psychology of religion. Clinical psychology of religion applies insights from general psychology of

  9. Journal for the Study of Religion

    Journal for the Study of Religion is published twice a year in March and September by the Association for the Study of Religion in Southern Africa as a forum for scholarly contributions of up to 6000 words on topics of contemporary significance in the academic study of religion, in the form of articles, responses to articles, ...

  10. Life Interpretation and Religion among Icelandic Teenagers

    Gunnarsson, Gunnar J.


    Does religion play any specific part in Icelandic teenagers' life interpretation? This paper examines Icelandic teenagers' talk about religion and presents some of the findings in interviews with teenagers in a qualitative research project. The focus is especially on how three individuals express themselves about the influence of religion on their…

  11. Religion and gender inequality: The status of women in the societies of world religions

    Klingorová Kamila


    Full Text Available The status of women in society is very diverse worldwide. Among many important traits associated with the differentiation of gender inequality is religion, which itself must be regarded as a fluid concept with interpretations and practices ‘embedded’ and thus varying with respect to cultural and historical relations. Admitting the complexity of the issues, some religious norms and traditions can contribute to the formation of gender inequalities and to subordinate the role of women in society. Using an exploratory quantitative analysis, the influence of religiosity on gender inequality in social, economic and political spheres is examined. Three categories of states have emerged from the analysis: (a states where the majority of inhabitants are without religious affiliation, which display the lowest levels of gender inequality; (b Christian and Buddhist societies, with average levels of gender inequality; and (c states with the highest levels of gender inequality across the observed variables, whose inhabitants adhere to Islam and Hinduism.

  12. Political history of modern Egypt

    MA. Islam Islami


    Gamal Abdel Nasser was the one who established the Republic of Egypt and ended the monarchy rule in Egypt following the Egyptian revolution in 1952. Egypt was ruled autocratically by three presidents over the following six decades, by Nasser from 1954 until his death in 1970, by Anwar Sadat from 1971 until his assassination 1981, and by Hosni Mubarak from 1981 until his resignation in the face of the 2011 Egyptian revolution.


    Sumanto Al Qurtuby


    Full Text Available This article discusses the role of Catholics, Muslims, and civic associations in the global politics of the Philippines and Indonesia. The two countries have shared in common with regard to the geographical feature (both are archipelagic countries, the diversity of societies and cultures, and the history of colonialism, dictatorship, ethno-religious violence, and political movement, to name but a few. In addition to their similarities, both countries also have significant differences in particular pertaining to religious dominance (the Philippines dominated by Catholicism, while Indonesia by Islam and the structure of their societies: while the Philippines is a class-stratified society, Indonesia has long been ideologized by colonial and post-colonial religious and political powers. Apart from their parallels and distinctions, religion—both Catholicism and Islam—has marvellous role, negatively or positively, in global politics and public cultures, indicating its vigor and survival in global political domains. This comparative paper, more specifically, examines the historical dynamics of the interplay between religion, civil society, and political activism by using the Philippines and Indonesia as a case study and point of analysis.[Artikel ini mendiskusikan peran Katolik, Muslim dan asosiasi warga dalam politik global di dua negara; Indonesia dan Filipina. Kedua negara tersebut memiliki kesamaan, baik dalam hal ciri geografis sebagai negara kepulauan, keragaman masyarakat dan budayanya, sejarah kolonialisme, pemerintahan diktator, kekerasan etnik-agama, serta gerakan keagamaan. Terlepas dari kesamaan tersebut, keduanya memiliki perbedaan, utamanya menyangkut agama dominan (di Filipina didominasi oleh Katolik, sementara di Indonesia oleh Islam dan struktur masyarakatnya (Filipina ditandai dengan stratifikasi masyarakat berdasarkan klas sosial, sementara di Indonesia ditandai dengan ideologi agama kolonial, paska-kolonial, politik. Terlepas

  14. Thompson e Gramsci: história, política e processos de formação Thompson and Gramsci: history, politics and educational processes

    Carlos Eduardo Vieira


    Full Text Available Pretende-se apresentar e explorar as conexões entre as ideias de dois destacados pensadores sociais do século xx, o italiano Antonio Gramsci e o inglês Edward Thompson. O intuito é refletir sobre a centralidade conferida pelas obras desses intelectuais à política, à cultura e à formação humana. Considerando que uma das fontes do pensamento historiográfico de Thompson é a obra de Gramsci, pretendemos dimensionar os pontos de contato entre as duas obras com o fim de pensar nas possibilidades heurísticas que este diálogo poderá ensejar no campo educacional. Concluímos demonstrando que as reflexões de Thompson e de Gramsci convergem em três aspectos principais: a ênfase na história das classes subalternas, a opção pela abordagem historicista do conhecimento e a problematização das concepções de cultura e de formação.This paper investigates the connections between the ideas of two prominent twentieth century's social thinkers, the Italian Antonio Gramsci and the English Edward Thompson. It sets a discussion on the importance these intellectuals granted to politics, culture and human education to highlight similar aspects in both works yet considering that one of the main sources of Thompson's historiographic thought is Gramsci's work. It then reflects on the heuristic possibilities this dialogue may bring to the field of education. It concludes that Gramsci and Thompson's reflections converge on three main aspects: the emphasis on working class history, the option for a historical approach of knowledge and the discussion on the conceptions of culture and education.

  15. Portraits of Religion in Introductory American Government Textbooks: Images of Tolerance or Intolerance

    Eisenstein, Marie A.; Clark, April K.


    The link between religion and political tolerance in the United States, which has focused predominantly on Christianity, is replete with unfavorable images. Often, religious adherents (largely Evangelicals or the Christian right) are characterized as uneducated, poor, and white, suggesting that members of these groups may act in an intolerant…

  16. Islamic criminal law in northern Nigeria: politics, religion, judicial practice

    Weimann, G.J.


    In 2000 and 2001, twelve northern states of the Federal Republic of Nigeria introduced Islamic criminal law as one of a number of measures aiming at "reintroducing the shari'a." Immediately after its adoption, defendants were sentenced to death by stoning or to amputation of the hand. Apart from a

  17. Religion and politics in multicultural Europe / Alar Kilp, Andres Saumets

    Kilp, Alar, 1969-


    Multikultuurilise ühiskonna teoreetilised käsitlused, tsivilisatsiooni, kultuuri ja religiooni mitmekesisuse arengust keskajast Euroopa Liidu laienemiseni, postsotsialistlike ja Lääne-Euroopa riikide võrdlus

  18. The Practices of Happiness : Political Economy, Religion and Wellbeing

    Steedmand , Ian; Atherton, John R.; Graham, Elaine


    There is growing evidence that rising levels of prosperity in Western economies since 1945 have not been matched by greater incidences of reported well-being and happiness. Indeed, material affluence is often accompanied instead by greater social and individual distress. A growing literature within the humanities and social sciences is increasingly concerned to chart not only the underlying trends in recorded levels of happiness, but to consider what factors, if any, contribute to positive an...

  19. Historical intersections of psychology, religion, and politics in national contexts

    Belzen, J.A.; Kugelmann, R.


    Various types of psychology have come into existence in and have been interacting with a plurality of contexts, contexts that have been radically varying in different states or nations. One important factor in the development of psychology has been the multiple relationships to the Christian

  20. Religion and Politics: Philosophical Implications of 9/11

    Grube, D.M.


    In my introduction, I situate the issue under discussion in a broad context, comparing its treatment in Europe with its treatment in the U.S. In the first part, I argue that in European Protestant Christianity, trans-individual issues, such as that of economic justice, dominate the religious agenda.

  1. China Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs, No. 413


    country, Taoism has had over 1,700 years of history, Islamism has had over 1,300 years of history while Catholicism and Christianity have developed...beliefs. The major religions that are practiced in the areas inhabited by minority nationalities are Buddhism, Islamism , Christianity, Catholicism...Shamanism, the East Pakistan religion, Taoism and the Orthodox Eastern Church. Among them, Buddhism has enjoyed nearly 2,000 years of history in our

  2. Religions and extraterrestrial life how will we deal with it?

    Weintraub, David A


    In the twenty-first century, the debate about life on other worlds is quickly changing from the realm of speculation to the domain of hard science. Within a few years, as a consequence of the rapid discovery by astronomers of planets around other stars, astronomers very likely will have discovered clear evidence of life beyond the Earth. Such a discovery of extraterrestrial life will change everything.  Knowing the answer as to whether humanity has company in the universe will trigger one of the greatest intellectual revolutions in history, not the least of which will be a challenge for at least some terrestrial religions. Which religions will handle the discovery of extraterrestrial life with ease and which will struggle to assimilate this new knowledge about our place in the universe? Some religions as currently practiced appear to only be viable on Earth. Other religions could be practiced on distant worlds but nevertheless identify both Earth as a place and humankind as a species of singular spiritual re...

  3. On the Origin of Ethics: is Ethics Dependent on Religion?

    Mindaugas Briedis


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the historical and intellectual linkage between two fundamental spheres of culture – religion and ethics. The theistic ethical perspective and its most radical “supranaturalistic” form are explored. On the other hand, the atheistic position is also revised and the notion of anti-theism is introduced. After that critical analysis is presented on a substantial question concerning the kind of relation between religion and ethics: subordination, assimilation, complementarity or opposition. This question, in turn, demands a careful observance of various religious and secular perspectives, concerning the sources of morality, and poses the problem of faith and knowledge in a new light. Ethical norms constitute crucial part of various religious doctrines and to a certain degree correlate with major shifts in the history of secular culture. However, are these historical and theoretical testimonies sufficient for maintaining that ethics depends on religion and if so, what kind of dependence is it? In the last part of the paper the author formulates a sketch of an answer to a major theoretical concern on the way of reconciling religion and ethics beyond subordination or assimilation. 


    Kirill M. Tovbin


    Full Text Available Aim of the study is to describe the phenomenon of post-religion as a specific spiritual sphere of the Post-modernity. Methodology. In the introduction analyzed a variety of methodological approaches, opening his inadequacy applied to the spiritual sphere of Post-modernity: «classic» religious studies, religious studies of traditional spiritual movements and the post-modern religious studies, partly produced Traditionalist school, could - according to the author's hypothesis - become a methodological basis for the most complete analysis of post-religion. Scientific novelty. In the main part of the article crystallized the authorized concept of post-religion, its relation with traditional and religious spiritual realms. Post-religion is positioned as the top of secularism enshrined in the departure from the straight and aggressive secularism of the Modernity, but without recourse to Tradition. Post-religion a simulation spirituality, skillfully imitating the outer areas of traditional spirituality and creates a planar religiosity, radically preventing attached to the vertical line of Traditions. In this regard, are the main artificially selected parameters of post-religion: deconstruction, splitting, virtualization, and collage. Deconstruction is a transformation of spirituality in semiotic set for egocentric selectivity of modern believer. Post-religion’s splitting is deprivation of spirituality center, destruction of sacral Center and the transformation of spirituality in the plane on which the intellectual and sensual wandering post-believer from one semiotic island to another. Virtualization is a displacement field of spiritual tension in a completely virtual area, isolated from the natural conditions of existence and created as his replacement, network discussion sites and galleries. Collage is an arbitrary combination of different semiotic pieces of Tradition with the aim of creating a believable picture of tradition; it is collage leads

  5. Political Socialization as a Sphere of Being of Homo Politicus

    И А Щеглов


    Full Text Available Political socialization means something more than political context of socialization. Study in political socialization must be oriented on political socialization as special science category with own history, opening by the logic of Homo politicus being content of political socialization. Homo politicus, rationalized and ideologized in its version, means technological view on the problem of political socialization.

  6. Political Socialization as a Sphere of Being of Homo Politicus

    И А Щеглов


    Political socialization means something more than political context of socialization. Study in political socialization must be oriented on political socialization as special science category with own history, opening by the logic of Homo politicus being content of political socialization. Homo politicus, rationalized and ideologized in its version, means technological view on the problem of political socialization.

  7. Political electricity

    Price, Terence.


    This book is a non-technical exploration of the political and policy issues that have influenced the development of nuclear power. Part One describes the successes, failures, horse-trading, and infighting that make up nuclear power's history, taking nine counties as examples. Part Two reviews the main problems that now confront us, as seen in mid-June 1990; like all contemporary accounts, the book is unavoidably incomplete. However, by then it was possible to make provisional judgements about two very important recent influences: the political consequences of Chernobyl, and concerns about the greenhouse effect. The story that emerges is of a nuclear industry that has rarely been guilty of dereliction of duty, though it was undeniably complacent in not addressing sooner the causes of the public's entirely reasonable anxieties. The anti-nuclear lobby has been skilled in debate, and sometimes extraordinarily percipient; but less than fair in failing to acknowledge the industry's achievements and its willingness to learn from past mistakes. As for the politicians, the book contains many examples that show how the flames of controversy can be deliberately fanned when there are votes to be gained. The story has few heroes, but within the industry fewer villains than the public has been led to believe. (author)

  8. Street Politics

    Michael J. Shapiro


    Full Text Available I write from Prague, where, unlike in most urban formations, the main city street plays an iconic role; it references a history of political protest. However, before elaborating on the protest iconography of the Prague street, Vaclavske nam, I want to locate the ways in which the design of urban space is actualized in everyday life in the cities of the world. Three functions stand out; the first involves dwelling, the second seeing, and the third moving. With respect to the first function – dwelling – the design partitions and coordinates residential, commercial and leisure functions. At times these are organized to segregate different classes (Robert Moses’ redesign of much of New York stands out with respect to the segregation function. With respect to the second function – seeing – the design of urban space is allegiance-inspiring; it involves sight lines that afford urban dwellers and visitors views of iconic buildings and statues, which reference key founding moments in the past and/or authoritative political functions in the present (Here, L’Enfants design for Washington DC stands out as exemplary. Its manifest intention was to make the buildings housing executive, legislative and judicial functions visible from many vantage points. Rarely are the streets themselves iconic. Their dominant role is involved with the effectuation of movement. As for this third function: As Lewis Mumford famously points out, streets were once part of an asterisk design, radiating out from an exemplary, often spiritual center...

  9. [Psychotherapy and Religion: A Representative Survey Among Psychotherapists in Southern Germany].

    Marquardt, Michael; Demling, Joachim Heinrich


    Objective: Religion and spirituality play an appreciable role as a problem area or as a resource for patients with mental disorders. It is therefore of interest what attitudes psychotherapists assume towards this complex range of issues in their work, but also in their personal lives. The majority of empirical studies on this subject originate from the USA, with little data being available from Europe and Germany. Our own survey among practising psychotherapists was designed to elucidate these questions. Method and Study Population: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the form of a written survey of all accessible practising psychotherapists in the area of Northern Bavaria (Franconian administrative districts; n=1 081, return rate 65%). Results: Around two-thirds of the therapists consider religion to be an important subject in psychotherapy, but only one-fifth of them routinely take a history of the patients' religious beliefs. The therapists' own closeness to religion correlates positively with the tendency to incorporate religion in their therapy. In around one-third of the therapists, religion holds an important place within their own world view, although significantly fewer psychotherapists than the general population of Franconia are bound to a specific confession. Around one-quarter had at least once consulted a pastor due to a patient, while each seventh therapist had at least once actively mediated contact to a pastor. Conclusions: Religion is a subject that is relevant for therapeutic practice, but a history of religious beliefs is rarely taken on a routine basis. The incorporation of religion into psychotherapy correlates with religious characteristics of the therapists ("personal bias"). There appears to be a "religiosity gap" between psychotherapists and the general population. Advanced training on the subject of "religion/spirituality" and increased consideration in supervision may counteract the danger of religious needs and religion

  10. The triumph of politics over wilderness science

    Craig W. Allin


    The National Wilderness Preservation System reflects the triumph of politics over science. The history of wilderness allocation has reflected political rather than scientific sensibilities. The preeminence of politics over science extends to wilderness management as well and is illustrated here by representative examples from the modern history of Yellowstone National...

  11. Statistical dynamics of religion evolutions

    Ausloos, M.; Petroni, F.


    A religion affiliation can be considered as a “degree of freedom” of an agent on the human genre network. A brief review is given on the state of the art in data analysis and modelization of religious “questions” in order to suggest and if possible initiate further research, after using a “statistical physics filter”. We present a discussion of the evolution of 18 so-called religions, as measured through their number of adherents between 1900 and 2000. Some emphasis is made on a few cases presenting a minimum or a maximum in the investigated time range-thereby suggesting a competitive ingredient to be considered, besides the well accepted “at birth” attachment effect. The importance of the “external field” is still stressed through an Avrami late stage crystal growth-like parameter. The observed features and some intuitive interpretations point to opinion based models with vector, rather than scalar, like agents.

  12. Evolution, religions and global Bioethics

    Perbal, Laurence


    Creationist theories are still present in the United States and in Europe. The Darwinian theory of evolution is often considered as the starting point of important debates between religions and evolutionists. In this paper, we are principally interested in evolutionary creationism (or theistic evolutionism). The existence of a divine design in nature, the spiritual status of human beings and the emergence of human species as the purpose of evolution are some of those debates. The post-Darwini...

  13. Does Science Rule out Religion?

    Blythe, Kim


    In the author's opinion, if teachers do not bridge the boundaries between science and religion in the primary school, then many children are going to find it difficult to think about questions on topics such as "how Earth came to be" once they are in secondary schools, where they appear to be required to think in subject boxes for most of the day.…

  14. Libertà di religione e libertà dalla religione in Marocco: la revisione interpretativa sull’apostasia

    Fabio Franceschi


    ABSTRACT: The essay analyzes a recent step taken by the Kingdom’s Ulama that distances from the traditional meaning of apostasy and of the penalty given for this offense. According to this document, Murtadd would not be the one who leaves Islam for another religion, but the one who betrays the group he belongs to. Apostasy was therefore political, not doctrinal. In this sense, the document represents an essential progress for the qualification of religious freedom in Morocco (on the same way already indicated by the Marrakesh Declaration.

  15. Lived religion in a plural society: a resource or liability

    Ashok Kaul


    Full Text Available Recently there is a renewed academic interest in religion bringing it back on the global political agenda. Religion in the post modern global order is fast emerging as a new organizing principle in the face of multi-polarity, trans-nationality and sweeping pluralisation of peoples. Contrary to the secularist self believe, the modern has failed to take over the tradition including religion. Rather a logical opposite seems to be happening, questioning the very presumptions of the modernity project. The present paper is a narrative on this creative tension in the religious modern and post modern. The paper is crafted into four sections. First section seeks to pin down the genesis of “religious” in the search for social order and consciousness beyond the material world. Second section deals with the unfolding of enlightenment project and its manifest consequence with the birth of secularism master theory. Third section delves deep into the immediate Indian religious lived experiences under foreign rule up to the sweeping spell of globalisation. Fourth and last part of the essay makes a case for universality of a multicultural world and religious secularism.

  16. Globalization and Religion in Historical Perspective: A Paradoxical Relationship

    Luke M. Herrington


    Full Text Available Religion has long been a driving force in the process of globalization. This idea is not controversial or novel thinking, nor is it meant to be. However, the dominant reasoning on the subject of globalization, expressed by authors like Thomas Friedman, places economics at the center of analysis, skewing focus from the ideational factors at work in this process. By expanding the definition of globalization to accommodate ideational factors and cultural exchange, religion’s agency in the process can be enabled. Interestingly, the story of religion and globalization is in some ways the history of globalization, but it is riddled with paradoxes, including the agent-opponent paradox, the subject of this article. Religion and globalization have a co-constitutive relationship, but religious actors are both agents of globalization and principals in its backlash. While some actors might benefit from a mutually reinforcing relationship with globalization, others are marginalized in some way or another, so it is necessary to expose the links and wedges that allow for such a paradox. To that end, the concepts of globalization and religious actors must be defined, and the history of the agent-opponent paradox, from the Buddhists of the Silk Road to the Jubilee campaign of 2000, must be elucidated.


    Sumanto Al Qurtuby


    Full Text Available Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia, with more than six hundred million populations, is home to millions of Buddhists, Muslims, Confucians, Protestants, Catholics, and now Pentecostals, as well as many followers of local religions and spiritual beliefs. Notwithstanding its great historical, political, cultural legacies, however, the region has long been neglected as a site for religious studies in the Western academia. Aiming at filling the gap in Asian and religious studies as well as exploring the richness of Southeast Asian cultures, this article discusses the dynamics, diversity, and complexity of Southeast Asian societies in their response to the region’s richly political, cultural, and religious traditions spanning from pre-modern era to modern one. The article also examines the “integrative revolutions” that shaped and reshaped warfare, state organization and economics of Southeast Asia, particularly in the pre-European colonial era. In addition, the work discusses the wave of Islamization, particularly since the nineteenth century, as well as the upsurge of religious resurgence that shift the nature of religiosity and the formation of religious groupings in the area. The advent of Islam, with some interventions of political regimes, had been an important cause for the decline of Hindu-Buddhist traditions in some areas of Southeast Asia, especially Indonesia, the coming of Pentecostalism has challenged the well-established mainstream Protestantism and Catholicism, especially in Indonesia and the Philippines. Keywords: history, modernity, religious change, Southeast Asia

  18. Religion is natural, atheism is not

    Geertz, Armin W.; Markússon, Gudmundur Ingi


    After discussing evidence of irreligion and the rise of the so called "New Atheism", the authors refute the claim that this poses a problem for the cognitive science of religion and its hypothesis that religion is natural. The "naturalness hypothesis" is not deterministic but probabilistic and thus...... leaves room for atheism. This, the authors maintain, is true of both the by-product and adaptationist stances within the cognitive science of religion. In this context the authors also discuss the memetic or "unnaturalness" hypothesis, i.e. that religion is a "virus of the mind". The authors criticize...... accounts of atheism offered by cognitive scientists of religion as being based on unfounded assumptions about the psychology of atheists, and object to the notion that the natural aspects of religion by corollary make atheism unnatural. By considering human cognition in a semiotic framework and emphasizing...

  19. Religion and stock price crash risk: Evidence

    Wenfei Li


    Full Text Available This paper investigates whether religious traditions influence firm-specific crash risk in China. Using a sample of A-share listed firms from 2003 to 2013, we provide evidence that the more intense the religious environment, the lower the stock price crash risk, implying that religion plays an important role in Chinese corporate governance. Further, we find that (1 religion affects stock price crash risk by reducing earnings management and the management perk problem; (2 different religions have different effects, and Taoism, in particular, is unrelated to crash risk; and (3 the effects of religion are more pronounced with higher quality corporate governance and a stronger legal environment. Religion constrains the management agency problem, thus reducing stock price crash risk in China. Our paper enriches the literature on stock price crash risk and religion, and on new economic geography.

  20. Cognitive dissonance of science and religion in pre-service elementary school teachers

    Malloy, Robert Earl, Sr.

    Throughout history science and religion have been in conflict. Many of the theories of science do not agree with the religious beliefs of pre-service teachers. Those teachers who will be teaching in the science classroom, must be able to present science without prejudice of personal religious beliefs. Are pre-service teachers prepared for science/religion conflicts? How much conflict do pre-service teachers have between science and religion? This study suggests that pre-service teachers may have a high degree of conflict between science and religion, and that they have received no educational experience on how to deal with this conflict. Such conflict poses a potential problem when presenting science in the classroom, in that non-science information may not be separated from the science presented.

  1. The Body Politic in Pain.

    Linker, Beth


    In his 2015 book Pain: A Political History, Keith Wailoo demonstrates how a medicalized condition became central to defining party politics in the United States from World War II down to the present. Drawing on sources ranging from postwar Congressional hearings concerning the veteran welfare state to debates surrounding Rush Limbaugh's OxyContin addiction, Wailoo offers a fresh analysis of both U.S. political history and medical history, showing how today's highly polarized party system emerged in part from debates surrounding the existence and worth of pain, as well as its management.

  2. Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus and Religion

    Hansen, Stig Børsen


    This paper explores the relevance of Wittgenstein’s early work for treatments of religion. The first section briefly outlines some different interpretive possibilities with respect to early Wittgenstein’s thinking. The following section explores the idea that what is important about early...... play a role in treatments of religion. This they do either by exhibiting parallels between themes in theology and themes in logic, or they do so by playing a role in assessing cosmological arguments in the philosophy of religion....

  3. Religion as a solvent: a lecture

    Antônio Flávio Pierucci

    Full Text Available Contrary to Durkheim, for whom the role of religion is to reconnect the individual with the society to which he belongs, this essay argues that nowadays religion's social power lies in its capacity to dissolve old religious bonds and lineages. Taking Max Weber's work as its base, the text maintains that the universal religion of individual salvation, the religious form that tends to predominate above all others, works as a device that disconnects people from their mother-culture.

  4. The Promised Savior in Pre-Islamic Great Religions

    Mahin Arab


    Christian taking of the Promised is unique in its kind and has no equivalent in other religions.    But in the second form which promises the return of Jesus to help people to reach their perfection (Mathew, 37: 24-27; Luke, 18: 69 & 22: 18. Then the Promised in this sense aims at universal spiritual flourishing and is a person but a divine person.    The third manifestation of the Promised which has been described as "the spirit of honesty" and the "source of consolation" is the Holy Spirit, according to the Christians, who leads the church in its quest for righteousness in the absence of Christ.    Typologically speaking, Christian taking of the Promised has a spiritual character. It is universal and pro-millennium.    Hinduism: Hindu taking of the Promised is built upon a figure called Kalki who emerges at the Last Day when darkness devours the whole universe and evil minds take the helm. By the end of this dark period the tenth and final incarnation (avatar of Vishnu which is named Kalki, riding a white horse with a castrated sword and like a falling star rises to uproot the evil and wickedness and establish justice and virtue.    Bhagavata Purana indicates that: "his empire will be universal and his mission will be the resurrection of dharma (law and justice and truth". Thus the Hindu promised Messiah is personal and divine and actually his mission is social and spiritual, so he is not ethnically motivated but is universal.    Buddhism: Promised Savior in Buddhism is explained by the concept of "Maitreya" which is a Sanskrit word meaning "loving-kindness". In Buddhist theology he is known as the fifth and the last ground Buddha who is yet to come but he will come to save all mankind. In Buddhism symbolism he is in shape of a sitting man who is ready to get up which is the symbol of his preparation to arise. In Mahavastu, a text book of sub sect Hinayana that is about history of Sri Lanka, chronology of events of Maitreya uprising is clearly mentioned

  5. The Promised Savior in Pre-Islamic Great Religions

    Mahin Arab


    Christian taking of the Promised is unique in its kind and has no equivalent in other religions.    But in the second form which promises the return of Jesus to help people to reach their perfection (Mathew, 37: 24-27; Luke, 18: 69 & 22: 18. Then the Promised in this sense aims at universal spiritual flourishing and is a person but a divine person.    The third manifestation of the Promised which has been described as "the spirit of honesty" and the "source of consolation" is the Holy Spirit, according to the Christians, who leads the church in its quest for righteousness in the absence of Christ.    Typologically speaking, Christian taking of the Promised has a spiritual character. It is universal and pro-millennium.    Hinduism: Hindu taking of the Promised is built upon a figure called Kalki who emerges at the Last Day when darkness devours the whole universe and evil minds take the helm. By the end of this dark period the tenth and final incarnation (avatar of Vishnu which is named Kalki, riding a white horse with a castrated sword and like a falling star rises to uproot the evil and wickedness and establish justice and virtue.    Bhagavata Purana indicates that: "his empire will be universal and his mission will be the resurrection of dharma (law and justice and truth". Thus the Hindu promised Messiah is personal and divine and actually his mission is social and spiritual, so he is not ethnically motivated but is universal.    Buddhism: Promised Savior in Buddhism is explained by the concept of "Maitreya" which is a Sanskrit word meaning "loving-kindness". In Buddhist theology he is known as the fifth and the last ground Buddha who is yet to come but he will come to save all mankind. In Buddhism symbolism he is in shape of a sitting man who is ready to get up which is the symbol of his preparation to arise. In Mahavastu, a text book of sub sect Hinayana that is about history of Sri Lanka, chronology of events of Maitreya uprising is clearly mentioned

  6. H R Trevor-Roper vs. Arnold Toynbee: A post-Christian Religion and a new Messiah in an age of reconciliation?

    Frederick Hale


    Full Text Available That the twentieth century witnessed massive secularisation in Europe and certain other parts of the world is beyond dispute, as is the fact that the general phenomenon of religion and its role as a factor shaping history remain potent on a broad, international scale. There is no consensus, however, about the future place or status of Western Christian civilisation or �Christendom� in a shrinking and pluralistic world also struggling with the challenge of reconciliation. During the 1950s two controversial giants of� British historiography, Arnold Toynbee and HR Trevor-Roper clashed on this issue. Their severe differences of opinion were conditioned in part by the Cold War, general retreat of imperialism from Africa and Asia, and the growth of the economic, military, and political power of previously colonised or otherwise subjugated nations.

  7. Religion, civil society and conflict: What is it that religion does for and to society?

    Jaco Beyers


    Human consciousness instinctively tries to make sense of reality. Different human interpretations of reality lead to a world consisting of multiple realities. Conflict occurs when differing realities (worldviews) encounter one another. Worldviews are socially created and determine human behaviour and, as such, most often find expression in religion. The discussion of conflict and the role of religion in civil society take place within the discourse of the sociology of religion. Religion is so...

  8. Increased affluence explains the emergence of ascetic wisdoms and moralizing religions.

    Baumard, Nicolas; Hyafil, Alexandre; Morris, Ian; Boyer, Pascal


    Between roughly 500 BCE and 300 BCE, three distinct regions, the Yangtze and Yellow River Valleys, the Eastern Mediterranean, and the Ganges Valley, saw the emergence of highly similar religious traditions with an unprecedented emphasis on self-discipline and asceticism and with "otherworldly," often moralizing, doctrines, including Buddhism, Jainism, Brahmanism, Daoism, Second Temple Judaism, and Stoicism, with later offshoots, such as Christianity, Manichaeism, and Islam. This cultural convergence, often called the "Axial Age," presents a puzzle: why did this emerge at the same time as distinct moralizing religions, with highly similar features in different civilizations? The puzzle may be solved by quantitative historical evidence that demonstrates an exceptional uptake in energy capture (a proxy for general prosperity) just before the Axial Age in these three regions. Statistical modeling confirms that economic development, not political complexity or population size, accounts for the timing of the Axial Age. We discussed several possible causal pathways, including the development of literacy and urban life, and put forward the idea, inspired by life history theory, that absolute affluence would have impacted human motivation and reward systems, nudging people away from short-term strategies (resource acquisition and coercive interactions) and promoting long-term strategies (self-control techniques and cooperative interactions). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cultural legacies and political preferences

    Siroky, David S.; Mueller, Sean; Hechter, Michael


    crucial in explaining the decision to secede, but not in a conventional pocketbook manner. To examine this theory, we analyze the 2013 referendum on the secession of the Jura Bernois region from the Canton of Berne in Switzerland, using municipal level census and referendum data. The results lend support......, ecological constraints such as geography and topography affect social interaction with like-minded individuals. On the basis of both these political preferences and ecological constraints, individuals then make rational choices about the desirability of secession. Instrumental considerations are therefore...... to the theory and suggest one way in which the politics of identity, based on factors like language and religion, can be fused with the politics of interest (preferences for more or less state intervention into the polity and economy) to better understand group behavior....

  10. Fictionalized History: Signifying Changes to the Malaysian Nation and Identity

    Sim Chee Cheang


    Full Text Available As one of the cornerstones of fiction, writers often use and confront history in their claim to “reality” and “identity” in their writing. Linda Hutcheon’s claim for “a postmodern concern for the multiplicity and dispersion of truth(s; truth(s relative to the specificity of place and culture” (1988, p. 108 is relevant to the use of history in recent Malaysian literature. The multiple and varied claims of truth(s as reflected through the fictionalizing of Malaysian history is the focus of the analysis in this article, which aims to expose the social, economic, and political implications of the Malaysian identity. The analysis of three current works of fictionalized Malaysian history from the different fictional genres of comic series, children’s history, and occidental history, represents a cross section of genres that challenge the supremacy of history’s ontological claim over identity. The deliberate contestation of received Malaysian history in fictional modes acknowledges the peripheral identity structures of race, religion, and economics that are sensitive in a multiracial country such as Malaysia.

  11. Beyond Freud in psychoanalytic psychology of religion? On the discussion of religion as projection

    Belzen, J.A.


    In 1907, Sigmund Freud initiated the psychoanalytic psychology of religion, until the present day the most important contributor to the psychology of religion literature in general, and the branch of psychological critique of religion best known outside of psychology circles (having drawn attention

  12. Kant and Demystification of Ethics and Religion

    Qodratullah Qorbani


    Full Text Available Kant's demystification is meant to put away any metaphysical and revealed elements from ethics and religion. Kant, fulfilling this, first argues that metaphysical questions of reason, from theoretical aspect, have no certain answers. In practical reason, he establishes his moral foundations, based on own human being without any referring to metaphysical bases. In fact, Kant places human being as the base, legislator and finally the end of ethics, so that the totality of morality is depended on itself him/her and there is no moral reality out of our humanly understanding. Kant, then, by confirming the necessity of rational religion, believes that the age of revealed religions have been expired, since they were belonged to the childhood age of human being’s reason, while in Kant’s rational religion, this is human being’s subjective intellect that defines the nature and function of God. Therefore, for Kant’s moral and rational religion, there is no credibility for affairs like miracles, blessings and prayers, since they indicate religious misguidance. In Kant’s rational pure religion, the religion is relied on human being’s pure reason in which his/her reason is the only criterion of religious beliefs. Therefore, for Kant, religion means recognizing our duties as divine judgments, and that such religion pertains to our mundane life not for worshiping God in order to get his satisfaction or benefitting his grace. In short, Kant’s religion and morality are totally depended on our humanly and earthy rationality and understanding, and that there is no mystery out of our humanly willing. So the mysteries that are claimed by revealed religions are meaningless, since our reason, itself, determines the nature, function and virtues of God, moral axioms and religious beliefs.

  13. Political innovations

    Sørensen, Eva


    are mainly interested in assessing and promoting innovations in public service delivery, but have paid little or no attention to the need for innovations in polity, politics and policy. This article develops a research agenda for studying innovations in political institutions, in the political process...... and in policy outputs. It proposes a number of research themes related to political innovations that call for scholarly attention, and identifies push and pull factors influencing the likelihood that these themes will be addressed in future research....

  14. Office Politics

    Storm, Paula; Kelly, Robert; deVries, Susann


    People and organizations are inherently political. Library workplace environments have zones of tension and dynamics just like any corporation, often leading to the formation of political camps. These different cliques influence productivity and work-related issues and, at worst, give meetings the feel of the Camp David negotiations. Politics are…

  15. [Religion and brain functioning (part 1): are our mental structures designed for religion?].

    Kornreich, C; Neu, D


    Religions are seen everywhere in the world. Two main theories are competing to explain this phenomenon. The first one is based on the assumption that our cognitive structures are predisposing us to nurture religious beliefs. Religion would then be a by-product of mental functions useful for survival. Examples of these mental functions are children credulity, anthropomorphism and teleology. The second one hypothesizes that religion is maintained trough direct adaptation benefits occurring in cooperation exchanges. In particular, religion could function as an insurance mechanism given by the religious group. It is likely that both theories are complementary and useful to explain why religion is a universal phenomenon in the human species.

  16. Health Care between Medicine and Religion : The Case of Catholic Western Germany around 1800

    Bruchhausen, Walter


    Full Text Available The current revision of the relationship between religion and medicine in the ‘post-secular’ or ‘desecularised’ society invites a new look on their function for each other at the beginning of the modern era, i.e. the political and economic secularisation during the dissolution of the Ancient Empires in Europe. Exemplified by the Prince-Archbishoprics of Western Germany, the consequences of the church’s change from state power to mere pastoral care are demonstrated for the three groups of Catholic physicians in academic medicine, priests in rural health care and nuns in nursing. During the turn from the enlightenment idea of religion serving medicine to the romantic concept of medicine contributing to religion their activities shifted dramatically: Whereas more members of religious congregations entered nursing than before, priests had to give up any medical work and Christian doctors were forced to cope with the separation between academic medicine and the religious world view.

  17. Votives, Places and Rituals in Etruscan Religion

    Etruscans were deemed “the most religious of men” by their Roman successors and it is hardly surprising that the topic of Etruscan religion has been explored for some time now. This volume offers a contribution to the continued study of Etruscan religion and daily life, by focusing on the less...

  18. Freedom of Religion and the Public Schools.

    Williams, Mary Louise


    Presents activities for teaching high school students about the freedom of religion. Includes student handouts that explain basic constitutional principles and summarize leading U.S. Supreme Court cases concerning religious liberty. Encourages teachers to invite students to speculate on the future relationship of religion and public education. (SG)

  19. Critical Exchange: Religion and Schooling in Conversation

    Stern, Julian


    Given the complex and messy contexts of schooling, conversations between religion and schooling can be "admitted" as examples of the sort of situated conversation that goes beyond the "false necessity" of universal state-controlled school-based education. There are distinct claims to be made about religion and schooling in…

  20. Criminalising defamation of religion and belief

    van Noorloos, L.A.


    This article deals with the role of criminal law in dealing with defamatory expressions about religion or belief. Defamation of religion and belief is a form of indirect defamation ‘via identification’ which, as the discussion about the Dutch group defamation law shows, stretches up the notion of

  1. Psychology of religion: perspectives from cultural psychology

    Belzen, J.A.


    After a brief introduction, this paper tries to establish what type of psychology the psychology of religion is. Having introduced cultural psychology in general, some theories applicable in research on religion are presented, and some examples of cultural psychological research of religious

  2. Special issue on evolutionary theories of religion

    McKay, Ryan

    Redaktionen af et temanummer i Journal for the Cognitive Science of Religion 4 (1) 2016: 1-90 med en række bidrag som respons til en targetartikel skrevet af Jonathan H. Turner med titlen "Using Neurosociology and Evolutionary Sociology to Explain the Origin and Evolution of Religions". Der er ko...

  3. Religion, Democratic Community, and Education: Two Questions

    D'Souza, Mario Osbert


    This paper examines the mediating role that education plays between religion and democratic community. The paper is situated in the Canadian context and examines this mediation through two questions: First, what is the relationship between religion and education and what is the contribution of this relationship to and within a pluralist society?…

  4. Religion as a Source of Evil

    Jonkers, Peter


    The starting point is that there is a structural, although not necessary link between religion and two important expressions of religious evil, religious intolerance and violence. The origin of this link lies in the radicalism that is inherent in all religions. Although this radicalism often has

  5. Limits to expression on religion in France

    Janssen, E.


    During the last decade conflicts about expression on religion have increased globally. Generally, these conflicts are regarded as a conflict between freedom of speech and freedom of thought, conscience and religion. In France there are many active religious interest groups that aim to protect a

  6. Religion and violence in a globalised world

    Wolfgang Huber


    Full Text Available Violent religious extremism is seen as one of the mega-problems of the 21st century. This article � based on a key lecture at the conference on �Violence in a democratic South Africa� at the University of Pretoria and the David de Villiers memorial lecture at the University of Stellenbosch, both held during August 2010 � critically discussed the interaction between religion and violence in our present-day, globalised world. Three different propositions on the relationship between religion and violence were scrutinised. In countering the proposition that religion, or more specifically monotheism, necessarily leads to violence, it was argued that violence is not an inherent, but rather an acquired or even an ascribed quality of religion. The second proposition that religion leads to non-violence was affirmed to the extent that religions do provide a strong impulse to overcome violence. However, they also tend to accept violence as an inevitable part of reality and even justify the use of violence on religious grounds. The third proposition was regarded as the most convincing, for it argues that the link between religion and violence is contingent. Some situations do seem to make the use of violence inevitable; however, religions should refrain from justifying the use of violence and maintain a preferential option for nonviolence.

  7. Religion, Heuristics, and Intergenerational Risk Management

    Rupert Read; Nassim Nicholas Taleb


    Religions come with risk-​managing interdicts and heuristics, and they carry such interdicts and heuristics across generations. We remark on such facets of religion in relation to a propensity among some decision scientists and others to regard practices that they cannot understand as being irrational, biased, and so on.

  8. "World Religions" in Introductory Sociology Textbooks

    Carroll, Michael P.


    A section on "world religions" (WRs) is now routinely included in the religion chapters of introductory sociology textbooks. Looking carefully at these WR sections, however, two things seem puzzling. The first is that the criteria for defining a WR varies considerably from textbook to textbook; the second is that these WRs sections…

  9. Inadvertent Evangalisms (Or Not): Teachers' Views on Religion, Religious Beliefs, Positionality and Presence and Their Influence on Their Curricular Choices in the Classroom

    Lipmen, Sara-Jean


    There has been very limited research on the possible role religion has in its influence on teacher choices, especially within a Social Science classroom. The purpose of this study was to examine how secondary Social Studies teachers explicitly and implicitly treat religion as a factor in the teaching of history and how their own affinity with/to a…

  10. Space, politics, and the political

    dikec , mustafa


    International audience; Introduction Geography and politics'', Gottmann wrote in 1980, ``have long been in search of each other'' (page 11). Debates in the literature suggest not only that they have found each other, but also that the encounter has instigated, notably in the last decade or so, a body of literature seeking to think space politically, and to think politics spatially. This is not to suggest that previous work on space was apolitical, nor to suggest that previous work on politics...

  11. International Religion Indexes: Government Regulation, Government Favoritism, and Social Regulation of Religion*

    Grim, Brian J.; Finke, Roger


    The study of religion is severely handicapped by a lack of adequate cross-national data. Despite the prominence of religion in international events and recent theoretical models pointing to the consequences of regulating religion, cross-national research on religion has been lacking. We strive to fill this void by developing measurement models and indexes for government regulation, government favoritism, and social regulation of religion. The indexes rely on data from an extensive coding of the 2003 International Religious Freedom Report for 196 countries and territories. Using a series of tests to evaluate the new data and indexes, we find that the measures developed are highly reliable and valid. The three indexes will allow researchers and others to measure the government’s subsidy and regulation of religion as well as the restrictions placed on religion by social and cultural forces beyond the state. PMID:25484633

  12. Religion and Suicide Risk: A Systematic Review.

    Lawrence, Ryan E; Oquendo, Maria A; Stanley, Barbara


    Although religion is reported to be protective against suicide, the empirical evidence is inconsistent. Research is complicated by the fact that there are many dimensions to religion (affiliation, participation, doctrine) and suicide (ideation, attempt, completion). We systematically reviewed the literature on religion and suicide over the last 10 years (89 articles) with a goal of identifying what specific dimensions of religion are associated with specific aspects of suicide. We found that religious affiliation does not necessarily protect against suicidal ideation, but does protect against suicide attempts. Whether religious affiliation protects against suicide attempts may depend on the culture-specific implications of affiliating with a particular religion, since minority religious groups can feel socially isolated. After adjusting for social support measures, religious service attendance is not especially protective against suicidal ideation, but does protect against suicide attempts, and possibly protects against suicide. Future qualitative studies might further clarify these associations.


    Mukrimin Mukrimin


    Full Text Available This article aimed to examine the essence of religion by using Sigmund Freud’ psychoanalysis. It looks at the Freud’s theories: “the ontogenic” and “the phylogenenic”. The origins of religious and belief traditions, as Freud had mapped, are neurosis, precarious future, and religion’s masculine roots. Freud’s realist approach on religion brought a controversy on the study of religion, i.e., by associating his patients and order cultural phenomena (art, literature, and philosophy. His falsification over religion mad Freud as the most controversial man in his time. For Freud, the truth-value of religious doctrines does not lie within the scope of the present enquiry. It is enough for us, as Freud asserts that we have recognized them as being, in their psychological nature, illusions. Key Words: religion, Freud, philosophy, psycho-analysis.

  14. Performing Politics

    Troy R. E. Paddock


    Full Text Available Walter Benjamin’s observation that fascism turns politics into aesthetics is, by now, a well-worn idea. This article argues that Benjamin’s critique of politics can apply just as much to the modern democratic politics of the United States. Borrowing from Benjamin, Jürgen Habermas, and Carl Schmitt, this article suggests that modern political discourse in the United States does not follow the classical liberal ideal of rational discourse in the marketplace of ideas within the public sphere. Instead, contemporary politics has become spectacle where images and slogans replace thought and debate in a 24/7 news cycle and political infotainment programs. The result is that progressives and conservatives have their own political “ecospheres” which enable them to have their own perspective reinforced, and debate is replaced by straw man arguments and personal attacks.


    Azam Khodashenas Pelko


    Full Text Available The Jainism emphasizes three major teachings about the purification of the soul (jiva, Ahimsa, Aparigrapha and anekantwad. Jainism, The focus of this religion has been purification of the soul by means of right conduct, right faith and right knowledge. The ultimate goal of Hinduism is Moksha or liberation (total freedom. In Hinduism, purification of the soul is a goal that one must work to attain. The Buddhism is the science of pursuing the aim of making the human mind perfect, and of purifying the human soul. The knowledge of purifying of the soul and softening of the hearts is as essential for human. They having the correct motivations means purifying our souls from hypocrisy, caprice, and heedlessness. The primary goal of Taoism may be described as the mystical intuition of the Tao, which is the way, the undivided unity, and the ultimate Reality. According to the Christianity access to truth cannot be conceived without purity of the soul

  16. Rastafari: Alternative Religion and Resistance against “White” Christianity

    Jérémie Koubo Dagnini


    Full Text Available Depuis le début du seizième siècle, l’histoire de la Jamaïque a successivement été associée à l’esclavage, l’évangélisation, la colonisation et le néo-colonialisme, ce qui a engendré de nombreuses révolutions, émeutes et autres formes d’agitation sociale. Les Jamaïcains noirs ont toujours vécu dans un état de résistance, une mentalité qui a donné naissance, au début des années 1930, à une religion jamaïcaine appelée rastafari. Le but de cet article n’est pas seulement d’étudier les origines et le symbolisme de rastafari, mais également de définir le mouvement rasta comme une religion née en réponse légitime à l’oppression et l’évangélisation. En d’autres termes, cette étude analyse rastafari comme une version panafricaine et afrocentrique du christianisme « blanc ».  Since the early sixteenth century, the history of Jamaica has been associated successively with slavery, Christian Evangelization, colonialism and neocolonialism, which gave rise to numerous revolutions, riots and various other forms of social unrest. Black Jamaicans have always lived in a constant state of resistance, a mentality that gave birth, in the early thirties, to a Jamaican religion called Rastafari. Besides studying the roots and symbolism of Rastafari, my paper is aimed at defining the Rasta movement as a religion born as a legitimate response to oppression and Christian Evangelization. In other words, my work examines Rastafari as a Pan-African and Afrocentric version of “White” Christianity.

  17. Hunter-Gatherers and the Origins of Religion.

    Peoples, Hervey C; Duda, Pavel; Marlowe, Frank W


    Recent studies of the evolution of religion have revealed the cognitive underpinnings of belief in supernatural agents, the role of ritual in promoting cooperation, and the contribution of morally punishing high gods to the growth and stabilization of human society. The universality of religion across human society points to a deep evolutionary past. However, specific traits of nascent religiosity, and the sequence in which they emerged, have remained unknown. Here we reconstruct the evolution of religious beliefs and behaviors in early modern humans using a global sample of hunter-gatherers and seven traits describing hunter-gatherer religiosity: animism, belief in an afterlife, shamanism, ancestor worship, high gods, and worship of ancestors or high gods who are active in human affairs. We reconstruct ancestral character states using a time-calibrated supertree based on published phylogenetic trees and linguistic classification and then test for correlated evolution between the characters and for the direction of cultural change. Results indicate that the oldest trait of religion, present in the most recent common ancestor of present-day hunter-gatherers, was animism, in agreement with long-standing beliefs about the fundamental role of this trait. Belief in an afterlife emerged, followed by shamanism and ancestor worship. Ancestor spirits or high gods who are active in human affairs were absent in early humans, suggesting a deep history for the egalitarian nature of hunter-gatherer societies. There is a significant positive relationship between most characters investigated, but the trait "high gods" stands apart, suggesting that belief in a single creator deity can emerge in a society regardless of other aspects of its religion.

  18. By What Authority Are You Doing These Things? A Brief History of the Bible in English Political Discourse from Margaret Thatcher to Jeremy Corbyn

    Crossley, James


    This article looks at how the Bible has been understood and constructed in English political discourse over the past forty years. It looks at how emerging neoliberalism and the social changes of the 1960s contributed to Margaret Thatcher's influential construction of the Bible as a source of authority for her brand of economics. This laid the template for dominant understandings of the Bible which were aided (often unintentionally) through pop cultural trends. Tony Blair added social liberali...

  19. The relation between religion and state in Islam and Christianity in the rise of ISIS

    Timothy A. van Aarde


    Full Text Available The recent development of the Islamic State (ISIS 2010–2014 and IS 2014 is a radicalisation of the relation between religion and state in Islam. The relation of religion and state to Christianity has been shaped by the philosophy of dualism and Greek thought in the West. The relation of religion and state in Islam, however, has been shaped by a completely different tradition and conflicting view than Western thought and is based on the codified system of Shari’a law in Arabic thought. One of the most debated topics in Islamic studies is the inseparable nature of religion and state in Islam and the role of Shari’a law to the state. In the West the historical debate concerns the indiscriminate blending of church and state and the separation of church and state as indispensable to democracy and the modern question of the relation of Christian morality and public law. Islamic fundamentalism is a political and religious reform movement that indiscriminately blends the political and religious.

  20. Re-envisioning the sites and sights of the late twentieth century study of religion

    Rosalind I. J. Hackett


    Full Text Available In this paper the author shares some of the findings, observations, and stimulating insights from colleagues and students gathered during visits to various parts of the world.The academic study of religion must now encompass more than it has done until now the effects of modern media and communications technologies, global consumption patterns, cultural mobility, and changing geo-political configurations. Scholars of religion are are being outpaced by these developments, whether because of the limitations of vision, or the shortsightedness of theoretical lenses.' The argument is that sites such as art, the media, Internet, outer space, diasporas, global culture, nature, and the public space deserve critical attention - not just for reasons of content, but because these new or neglected sites offer a potential challenge to our categories and concepts. Focus has to be shifted increasingly from bounded local cultures to transnational cultural flows and the significance of place has to be reexamined. This paper has suggests a number of pathways that are deserving of more exploration by scholars of religion. What we choose to include or exclude from our gaze affects the nature of our discourse(s through and through. The whole business of "seeing" is integral to both the academic enterprise as well as the political economy of the academic study of religion. This paper highlights some of the exciting new areas that face us as students of religious ideas and phenomena, and point to their methodological implications.

  1. Approaches to the study of religion in Pierre Bourdieu’s social theory

    A V Sitnikov


    Full Text Available The article considers Pierre Bourdieu’s approaches to the study of religion: the author analyzes basic concepts of Bourdieu’s sociology of religion and identifies religious spheres and traditions to which his ideas can be applied. The methods developed by Bourdieu, despite their limitations, successfully work in the contemporary studies. Bourdieu’s theory of religion became the starting point for some new approaches, in particular, for the study of ritual practices. His concept of religious habitus allows to analyze the mechanisms by which the religion generates certain practices, conventions, life styles, meanings and values according to its doctrine and experience. Representatives of one denomination usually not only follow the same rules and rituals, but also have a similar taste, life style and perception of religious leaders. The habitus embodies traditions and history of a denomination; it is a means of keeping up practices and their transfer to next generations. At the same time, Bourdieu’s approaches to the study of religion have some weaknesses: his theoretical model is too dependent on the French context and describes mainly the catholic church; his techniques aim to analyze the relationship between the state and the dominant church with its hierarchical structure. Another limitation of Bourdieu’s approach is that he attributes economic logic of supply and demand to the religious activities, and defines religion as determined exclusively to legalize and reproduce unequal and unjust social order. Bourdieu believed that the church was always linked with the mechanisms of social domination, exercise of power and consecration of the ruling classes’ privileges, i.e. with the merits of maintaining social order and legitimizing the power. Thus, Bourdieu credits the producers of religious capital with too much power and capabilities, which they do not really have. In Bourdieu’s theory, religion is an instrument of the struggle

  2. The Effect of Religion on Candidate Preference in the 2008 and 2012 Republican Presidential Primaries.

    Bradberry, Leigh A


    Thanks to the work of politics and religion scholars, we now know a lot about the relationship between religion and voting in American presidential general elections. However, we know less about the influence of religion on individual vote choice in presidential primaries. This article fills that gap by exploring the relationship between religion and candidate preference in the 2008 and 2012 Republican primaries. Using pre-Super Tuesday surveys conducted by the Pew Research Center, I find that the Republican candidate who most explicitly appealed to religious voters (Mike Huckabee in 2008 and Rick Santorum in 2012) was the preferred candidate of Republican respondents who attended religious services at the highest levels, and that as attendance increased, so did the likelihood of preferring that candidate. I also find that identification as a born again Christian mattered to candidate preference. Specifically, born again Christians were more likely than non-born again Christians to prefer Huckabee to Mitt Romney, John McCain and Ron Paul in 2008, and Santorum to Romney in 2012. Although ideology was not the primary subject of this article, I find that ideology was also a statistically significant predictor of Republican candidate preference in both 2008 and 2012. This robust finding reinforces scholars' prior work on the importance of ideology in explaining presidential primary vote choice. The overall findings of the paper provide evidence that religion variables can add to our understanding of why voters prefer one candidate over another in presidential primaries.

  3. Sexual health and religion: a primer for the sexual health clinician (CME).

    Kellogg Spadt, Susan; Rosenbaum, Talli Y; Dweck, Alyssa; Millheiser, Leah; Pillai-Friedman, Sabitha; Krychman, Michael


    Sexual health is an integral part of the multifaceted human experience that is driven both by biological factors and psychological facets. Religion may provide a moral code of conduct or a sexual compass as to sexual norms and behaviors. The aim of this study was to summarize the integration of sexuality and religion. A review of published literature and religious texts was conducted. The integration of religion with country or state politics and laws is a complicated dilemma and will not be discussed in the scope of this article. The extent to which an individual incorporates their religious doctrine into their sexual life is a personal and individualized choice. The sexual medicine health professional will likely encounter a diverse patient population of distinct religious backgrounds, and a primer on religion and sexuality is a much needed adjunctive tool for the clinician. Because religion can influence sexuality and dictate, in part, the behavioral and medical treatments for sexual complaints, the clinician should be familiar with religious guidelines regarding sexuality, and treatment should be customized and individualized. Failure to do so can impact compliance with the therapeutic interventions. Religious awareness also solidifies the therapeutic alliance between clinician and patient as it demonstrates respect and acknowledgment for patient's beliefs and autonomy. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.


    James Drane


    Full Text Available The basic philosophical vision and ethical principles of Catholic Natural Law claim universality. Natural Law thinking aspires to objectivity and universality and at the same time is open to the continuing influence from history and politics. The background principles of positive law historically go by the name of Natural Law. Suffering and injustice contribute to a vision both of the structure of human existence and of what we mean by humane law and ethics. When we confront a cultural crisis, Natural Law, looks not to the past but to the future. Few people today talk of the ethical dimensions of social realities in terms of Natural Law. This is true both in the Church and in the State. In bioethics, the principles rooted in the universal structure of human life have to provide direction and regulations on the playing field of contemporary life and medicine. A liberal Catholic perspective tries to keep in play the universal and the particular aspects of Natural Law reasoningLa visión filosófica básica y los principios éticos de la Ley Natural Católica demandan universalidad. El pensamiento de la Ley Natural aspira a la objetividad y universalidad y, al mismo tiempo, está abierto a la continua influencia de la historia y la política. Los principios que yacen en la base de la ley positiva históricamente reciben el nombre de Ley Natural. El sufrimiento y la injusticia contribuyen a una visión, tanto de la estructura de la existencia humana como de lo que entendemos por una ley y una ética humanas. Cuando enfrentamos una crisis cultural, la Ley Natural no mira hacia el pasado sino que hacia el futuro. Es poca la gente que hoy en día habla de las dimensiones éticas de las realidades sociales en términos de Ley Natural. Esto vale tanto para la Iglesia como para el Estado. En bioética, los principios enraizados en la estructura universal de la vida humana tienen que proporcionar dirección y regulación en el campo de juego de la vida y

  5. The changing face of American compassion: ethnicity, religion, and worldview conflicts

    J. Hexham


    Full Text Available When Barack Obama announced his support for “Faith Based Initiatives” in August 2008 many people were shocked. Others saw it as a political ploy because they regarded the policy as one of the Bush Administration’s more unpopular programmes. In fact, the idea of “Faith Based Initiatives” was first proposed during the Clinton Presidency with support from such liberals as Senator Joe Liebermann. In this article popular misunderstandings of the role of religion in the USA will be discussed to show that the issue is far more complex than the media and a host of critical authors want us to believe and that the attack on “Faith Based Initiatives” has far-reaching implications for the relationship between Christianity and politics in both America and the rest of the world. It also raises issues about ethnicity, religion and the conflict of worldviews.

  6. Secular Feminisms and Attitudes towards Religion in the Context of a West-European Society – Flanders, Belgium

    van den Brandt, H.P.


    Ideologies and politics of humanism and secularism in Western Europe historically have a tensioned relationship with religion as well as with feminism and the women's movement. In this article, I aim to demonstrate the multiplicity and complexity of several recent secular feminist responses to

  7. Religion, Intersectionality, and Epistemic Habits of Academic Feminism. Perspectives from Global Feminist Theology

    Elina Vuola


    Full Text Available This article pays critical attention to the ways in which academic feminism has regarded religion. Issues related to religion and gender have by and large either been ignored or treated quite stereotypically. I have called this phenomenon a simultaneous under- and overestimation of religion. The phenomenon is not global. Feminists of the global south tend to pay much more and more multi-faceted attention to religion than scholars from the global north. I will illustrate this problem through a close reading of intersectionality in feminist research in religion, especially feminist theology. My argument – which can be supported by evidence from historical records – is that what has been called intersectionality since Kimberlé Crenshaw, has in fact been explicitly present in early feminist theology (1970s-. The reason why feminist liberation theologians stressed the interstructuring of gender, class, and race/ethnicity lies in their practical and theoretical cooperation with liberation and feminist theologians from the global south, for example through the Ecumenical Association of Third World Theologians (EATWOT. My article is a critical re-reading of the history of feminist theorizing from the perspective of religious feminists, academic feminist theologians and liberation theologians from both the global north and south (including black and womanist theologians from the USA, Latin America and Africa. My aim is to correct a long-held understanding of the history of feminist theorizing as purely “secular”.



    infringement upon the fundamental human rights of the people of third world. This has ... guarantee the safety of a country, people, thing of value etc. Security .... through manufacturing, saving, and growth of its capital base e.g equipment / or .... where laws are made to shield corrupt and criminal driven political class such.


    Mukrimin Mukrimin


    Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between religion and the state in Indonesia by exploring how Islam is used by political parties to shape the politics. The study shows that Islamic politics is a complementary in both nationhood and statehood in Indonesia. From the early days of the new-born nation-state, Muslims in Indonesia had played significant role in shaping the nation; nonetheless, they have never dominated the political power. Fragmentation among Muslims themselves and internal political parties is among the reason why religious (Islamic parties failed in bringing religious identity to the state arena. Political subordination-inclusion-ignorance-confrontation is the circular game that features Islamic politics in Indonesia. The debatable issue on shari‘ah law, which is frequently used by Islamic parties, always becomes the core problem of the relation between Islam and the state. Even though Islam has played an important role in colouring the Indonesian politics, its existence remains complementary.

  10. Religion and Social Hidden Curriculum--The Educative Influences of Christianity and Islam in Women

    Llorent-Bedmar, Vincente; Llorent, Vicente J.


    In this paper we highlight the similarities and differences between Christianity and Islam, on the social functions of women based on the sacred texts of both, references to a hidden social curriculum in the history. Faced with the growing religious pluralism in contemporary societies, we believe that the debate on how the two main religions in…

  11. Beyond Evolution: Addressing Broad Interactions between Science and Religion in Science Teacher Education

    Shane, Joseph W.; Binns, Ian C.; Meadows, Lee; Hermann, Ronald S.; Benus, Matthew J.


    Science and religion are two indisputably profound and durable cultural forces with a complex history of interaction. As ASTE members are aware, these interactions often manifest themselves in classrooms and in the surrounding communities. In this essay, we encourage science teacher educators to broaden their perspectives of science-religion…

  12. Political Campaigns

    Lilleker, Darren


    Political campaigns are orchestrated attempts by political organizations to garner public support through persuasive communication in order to influence public policy in their favor. This broad definition encapsulates all forms of campaigns from those of neighborhood organizations seeking to influence local politicians to the campaigns of political parties and candidates who seek election to office in order to shape policy themselves. In pluralist democracies, campaigns are crucial for repres...

  13. Political CSR

    Jeppesen, Søren; Morsing, Mette

    We engage a discussion of political CSR in SMEs in an African context. Based on critical observations on Western MNC CSR action in emerging economies that holds counterproductive implications for social development, political economists have argued that business profit far more than society...... development in local African communities. Our findings extend political CSR research by directing attention to how the corporate influence in developing economies does not only emerge from MNCs but is also established and retained by SMEs CSR work....

  14. History of Great Ideas: An Honors Seminar.

    Terrill, Marty; And Others

    The History of Great Ideas is an interdisciplinary seminar course for sophomore honor students at North Arkansas Community Technical College that teaches the intellectual history of western civilization. Each semester, students study 14 ideas from science, philosophy, history, religion, sociology, and economics to discover how philosophical…

  15. Health as the religion of our time

    Stenbak Larsen, Christian

    This paper sees health as religion through the lens of social theory, starting with classical sociology. The common point being that religion is about the social bond ('relgio' in Latin), to be a society we keep something sacred. Since classical sociology the breaking down of religion has continued...... uses the vocabulary of discourse analysis and calls health a hegemon. Pointing out that it is not a consensus but a sedimentation that prevent us from being against health. But this cannot only be seen as a limitation of personal freedom, but also - through the lens of social theory - as a historical...

  16. Later Wittgenstein and the Philosophy of Religion

    Hansen, Stig Børsen


    This article sets out by distinguishing Wittgenstein’s own views in the philosophy of religion from a school of thought in the philosophy of religion that relies on later Wittgenstein’s philosophy of language. After a survey of distinguishing features of Wittgenstein’s later philosophy, the third...... section explores Wittgenstein’s treatment of Frazer’s account of magic among primitive peoples. The following section offers an account of Wittgensteinian philosophy of religion, including the use of the notions of a language game and superstition. I conclude by criticizing a very influential argument...

  17. The role of visual appearance in Punch’s early-Victorian satires on religion

    Janes, Dominic


    Satires on various aspects of contemporary religion can frequently be found in the early Victorian editions of Punch. The more strident forms of Protestant evangelicalism, in the earlier 1840s, and Roman Catholic revivalism, around 1850, came in for particular attack. This pattern was partly the result of a drift in the editorial policy of the publication towards a less radical social and political position. However, Catholicism, in both its Roman and Anglican varieties, was particularly vuln...

  18. Religion and priests in the Real Academia de Ciencias Morales y Políticas

    Pablo Ramírez Jerez


    Full Text Available The Royal Academy of Moral and Political Sciences, founded in Madrid in 1857, is a multidisciplinary institution where theological and religious studies have been widely dealt about, for more than twenty of its members have been priests or members of the Church hierarchy, so both their incorporation speeches and their academic interventions deal with religion. This article aims to analyze their academic figure as well as their bibliographical production within the Academy.

  19. Politics: An Islamic Perspective

    Abdul Rashid Moten


    Full Text Available Muslim societies in all of their social and cultural variety are, as Donald E. Smith points out, ‘organic’ societies characterized by organic religious systems. In these societies, religion tends to permeate all institutions rather than to be differentiated and/or autonomous. The vast body of literature produced since the departure of the colonialists from the Muslim lands suggests, however, either the implicit existence of the dichotomy or at least the feasibility and advisability of radical separation between the spiritual and temporal realms. The seriousness of the issue, evidenced by an outpouring of studies, calls for an examination of the linkage between the two realms through textual (Qur’an and Hadith, intellectual (ideas of Muslim thinkers and historical evidence. Only in such a manner can the dynamics of the relationship between Islam and politics be understood and a determination made of what has changed and what has remained unchanged. This entails, first, an understanding of the meaning and nature of politics from the Western perspective to facilitate a comparison...

  20. Book Review: Odintsov, M. I. Confessional Policy in the Soviet Union during the Great Patriotic War in 1941-1945 [Text] / M. I. Odintsov, A. S. Kochetova. – M. : Scientific & Political Book : Political Encyclopedia, 2014. – 317 p. – (History of Stalinism

    Vadim N. Yakunin


    Full Text Available The book contains the information about the status and activities of churches and religious groups in the Soviet Union before and during the Great Patriotic War in 1941–1945. The causes which led to the change in the policy of the Soviet government against the religious organizations are identified, the analysis of the activities of the Soviet state on creating a new system of state-church relations, the main stages of its development are represented. The activity of the newly created authorities on “Religious Affairs” – the Council for Russian Orthodox Church and the Religious Affairs Council is revealed. The authors show a response to the change in the statechurch relations in the center and different strata of Soviet society and also the ratio of official policy and propaganda with a specific embodiment of the state church policy. M.I. Odintsov and A.S. Kochetova analyze the situation and activity of religious organizations in the occupied territories of the USSR. The plans and main directions of the Nazi policy towards religion and religious organizations in the occupied territories of the USSR, directives of the political and military leadership of Nazi Germany are studied. The authors compare the religious policies of Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union and show their similarities and differences, emphasizing that the last ones were most clearly expressed from the beginning of the Great Patriotic War. The book features a wide source base. The documentation of 6 major Russian archives was used for solving the research problem.

  1. Religion in Education in South Africa: Was Social Justice Served?

    van der Walt, Johannes L.


    The promulgation of South African policy regarding the place of religion in public education was delayed until 2003, after a lively debate. The National Policy on Religion in Education effectively banned confessional, sectarian religion from public schools, but allowed for the teaching of Religion Studies as an academic subject and for religious…

  2. Mapping the Curriculum-Making Landscape of Religion Education ...

    Together with other scholars, Roux, a scholar-activist, has played a seminal role in conceptualising religion in the curriculum as religion in education (RiE) and more recently, religion and education (RaE). In disrupting the boundaries of religion, she has also made human rights the departure point for engagement with RaE.

  3. Religions in Fiction for Junior and Senior High Students.

    Knafle, June D.


    Examines current adolescent fiction of award-winning and widely read authors according to religious themes concerning Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Native American religions, African spirit religions, and the occult, supernatural, and New Age. Finds that the portrayal of religions and its adherents is very mixed, depending upon the religion.…

  4. The School and Religion: Do They Need One Another?

    Anisimova, R. A.


    Asserts that certain issues that are connected in some way to religion continue to endure. Reports on a study of 227 Russian teachers regarding their views toward religion, atheism, and religion's role in society. Concludes that Russian educators should define their attitudes toward churches and use religion to help improve society. (CFR)

  5. Teaching Women's History.

    Fain, George


    Argues that women's history should stress the broad sociological view of women's roles not only in politics but in mundane, day-to-day life throughout all of history, rather that reducing women's history to a few token figures. Notes that many college and secondary texts and testing materials have recognized the trend toward the inclusion of…

  6. Journal of Religion and Human Relations

    The Journal of Religion and Human Relations (JORAHR) is an academic journal with focus ... The impact of philosophy in the interpretation of African values with particular ... Judeo - Igbo traditional religious conception of sin: socio – religious ...

  7. Religion's relationship with social boundaries surrounding gender ...

    Religion's relationship with social boundaries surrounding gender. ... is associated with segregation, marginalization and differentiation between men and women. ... are necessary in the society it should not be mistaken for gender inequality.



    Oct 24, 2009 ... To characterise African Traditional Religion as a separate ... come from various perspectives, ranging from the psychological, sociological and anthropological to the ...... Christian mission and ministry, PhD thesis, University of.

  9. Digital Religion, Social Media and Culture

    Contributions on religion and computer-mediated communication cohere around the question: how will core religious understandings of identity, community and authority shape and be (re)shaped by the communicative possibilities of Web 2.0?...

  10. The religion under the rule of aesthetics

    Alberto da Silva Moreira


    Full Text Available This article examines the modern process of aestheticization of culture and religion as consequent unfolding of the expansion of market rationality to the subjective life and the libidinal sphere of subjects. Its main objective is to inquire about the future of religion under the impact of sensation seeking culture and the inflation of aesthetics. Firstly, with the help of Türcke, Welsch, Foucault and Schultze´s investigate the aestheticization process of of social life, its causes and characteristics; Secondly, following Dufour, Türcke Leiss, Kline, Jhally e Welsch, it asks how the dynamics of aesthetical impacts the daily life and the bio-psychic economy of people; thirdly, it applies the results obtained to the analysis of what is happening with religion under the regime of aesthetics and sensational culture. Finally, it asks about the possible emancipatory potential of aestheticized own religious experience and tries to draw some further consequences for religion in the aesthetic field.

  11. Religion, civil society and conflict: What is it that religion does for and to society?

    Jaco Beyers


    Full Text Available Human consciousness instinctively tries to make sense of reality. Different human interpretations of reality lead to a world consisting of multiple realities. Conflict occurs when differing realities (worldviews encounter one another. Worldviews are socially created and determine human behaviour and, as such, most often find expression in religion. The discussion of conflict and the role of religion in civil society take place within the discourse of the sociology of religion. Religion is socially determined. Peter Berger’s insight into the sociology of religion therefore plays an important role in establishing the relationship between religion and civil society as one that takes on different forms. Thus, a clear definition of both civil society and religion was needed to understand the nature of these relationships. The role of religion in civil society with regard to the presence of conflict in society was further investigated in this article. The conditions under which conflict in society occurs were discussed, as were the conditions for tolerance in society, for religion ultimately becomes the provider of moral discernment when conflict occurs in civil society.

  12. Fundar, gobernar y rezar: Una aproximación a los vínculos entre sociedad, política y religión en el Jujuy colonial (1656-1776 Fundar, governar e rezar: Uma aproximacão aos vinculos entre a sociedade, politica e religião da Jujuy colonial (1656-1776 To Fund, to Govern and to Pray: An Aproximation to the Links Between Society, Politics and Religion in Colonial Jujuy (1656-1776

    Dolores Estruch


    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se propone analizar las relaciones entre religión, política y sociedad colonial, explorando la naturaleza de estos vínculos a partir de las prácticas concretas de los miembros de la cofradía del Santísimo Sacramento en el Jujuy colonial. Nos interesa, en particular, hacer foco en el proceso de construcción y legitimación del poder desde una perspectiva que contemple el entrelazamiento entre las dimensiones sociopolíticas y religiosas, propio de estas sociedades.O presente trabalho se propõe analisar as relações entre religião, política y sociedade colonial, explorando (pesquisando a natureza destas ligações (vinculações a partir das praticas concretas dos integrantes da cofraria do Santíssimo Sacramento no Jujuy colonial. Nós estamos interessados, em especial, fazer foco no processo de construção e legitimação do poder desde uma perspectiva que contemple este entrelaçamento entre as dimensões sociopolíticas e religiosas.This article analyzes the links between religion, politics and colonial society, and explores the nature of these relations in the concrete practices of the members of the Santísimo Sacramento brotherhood of colonial Jujuy. We focus on the process of construction and legitimation of power, from a perspective that takes into account the interconnections between the sociopolitical and religious dimensions.

  13. Tuskegee as Sacred Rhetoric: Focal Point for the Emergent Field of African American Religion and Health.

    Laws, Terri


    Scholars in African American religion engage the Tuskegee Syphilis Study as the focal point of the African American experience in institutional medicine. Seeking a way forward from this history and its intentional evil, the author proposes to position Tuskegee as a form of Lynch's culturally contextual sacred rhetoric to make use of its metaphoric value in the emerging field of African American religion and health. In this broader meaning-making frame, Tuskegee serves as a reminder that African American religious sensibility has long been an agential resource that counters abuse of the Black body. It also acknowledges the complex decisions facing African American clinical trial participants.

  14. Grænser for religion

    Lüchau, Peter


    Analyse af danskernes holdning til religion i det private og offentlige rum med fokus på en distinktion mellem religiøs autoritetsudøvelse og religiøs selvudfoldelse.......Analyse af danskernes holdning til religion i det private og offentlige rum med fokus på en distinktion mellem religiøs autoritetsudøvelse og religiøs selvudfoldelse....

  15. DSM-III-R and religion.

    Post, S G


    The interpretation of religion in DSM-III-R contains considerable negative bias and contributes to unfair stereotypes of religious persons. Particularly new religious movements and religious conversion are unfairly interpreted under the DSM-III-R heading, 'Dissociative Disorder Not Otherwise Specified'. It is suggested that a more balanced and respectful interpretation of religion is needed in DSM-III-R, since psychiatry through its official nomenclature should not contribute to social intolerance of religious nonconformity.

  16. American religion: diaspora and syncretism from Old World to New

    Aisha Khan


    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Nation Dance: Religion, Identity, and Cultural Difference in the Caribbean. PATRICK TAYLOR (ed.. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2001. x +220 pp. (Paper US$ 19.95 Translating Kali 's Feast: The Goddess in Indo-Caribbean Ritual and Fiction. STEPHANOS STEPHANIDES with KARNA SINGH. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2000. xii + 200 pp. (Paper US$ 19.00 Between Babel and Pentecost: Transnational Pentecostalism in Africa and Latin America. ANDRÉ CORTEN & RUTH MARSHALL-FRATANI (eds.. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2001. 270 pp. (Paper US$ 22.95 Encyclopedia of African and African-American Religions. STEPHEN D. GLAZIER (ed.. New York: Routledge, 2001. xx + 452 pp. (Cloth US$ 125.00 As paradigms and perspectives change within and across academie disciplines, certain motifs remain at the crux of our inquiries. Evident in these four new works on African and New World African and South Asian religions are two motifs that have long defined the Caribbean: the relationship between cultural transformation and cultural continuity, and that between cultural diversity and cultural commonality. In approaching religion from such revisionist sites as poststructuralism, diaspora, hybridity, and creolization, however, the works reviewed here attempt to move toward new and more productive ways of thinking about cultures and histories in the Americas. In the process, other questions arise. Particularly, can what are essentially redirected language and methodologies in the spirit of postmodern interventions teil us more about local interpretation, experience, and agency among Caribbean, African American, and African peoples than can more traditional approaches? While it is up to individual readers to decide this for themselves, my own feeling is that it is altogether a good thing that these works still echo long-standing conundrums: the Herskovits/Frazier debate over cultural origins, the tensions of assimilation in "plural societies," and the

  17. Plurality of religion, plurality of justice : exploring the role of religion in disputing processes in Gorongosa, Central Mozambique

    Jacobs, C.


    Religion is alive, especially - and increasingly - in the global South. What impact does religion have in everyday life as provider of normative orientations? This research investigates the role of religion in disputing processes in Gorongosa, Mozambique, where both traditional religion and

  18. Combatant Commander Challenges and the Role of Religion and History


    this most divisive issue--left unaddressed in the Constitution by the Founders —created the tinder that allowed the flames of war to ignite, and...higher power for comfort and direction, and thus began a relationship with God that he would continue to nurture 12 during the war, first as...emancipation itself. The trope required to fully understand emancipation is neither progress nor waiting, but prudence.”41 Lincoln’s relationship


    Zuly Qodir


    Full Text Available This article provides a description of the ethnographical and political issues of the minority group located in South Sulawesi, i.e. the believers of Towani Tolotang that still exist there even in the national political scene as they have representatives in the legislature. The community seems to be playing the politics of Towani Tolotang accommodating and making use of the will of the political regime of Muslims and Hindus, where both of them are scrambling for mutual acknowledgment and entering into the tradition of the religion: Islam or Hinduism. As a minority group, the Towani Tolotang community has a variety of strategies to survive and fight in various kinds of interest. Economic and political gain, and commodification of ethnicity and religion are rampant in the area due to decentralization. This article is based on field library and research on the minority people who have been dealing with political suppression and discriminatory treatment. Keywords: Towani, Tolotang and minority, political rights.

  20. Politics of Uranium



    Uranium is the most political of all the elements, the material for the production of both the large amounts of electricity and the most destructive weapons in the world. The problems that its dual potential creates are only now beginning to become evident. Author Norman Moss looks at this situation and sheds light on many of the questions that emerge. The nuclear issue always comes back to how much uranium there is, what can be done with it, and which countries have it. Starting with a concise history of uranium and explaining its technology in terms the nonspecialist can understand, The Politics of Uranium considers the political issues that technical arguments obscure. It tells the little-known story of the international uranium cartel, explains the entanglements of governments with the uranium trade, and describes the consequences of wrong decisions and blunders-especially the problems of nuclear waste. It also examines the intellectual and emotional roots of the anti-nuclear movement