WorldWideScience

Sample records for history regulatory solutions

  1. Institutional review board and regulatory solutions in the dental PBRN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, Gregg H; Qvist, Vibeke; Moore, Sheila D

    2010-01-01

    Effectively addressing regulatory and human participant protection issues with Institutional Review Boards (IRBs, or ethics committees) and grants administration entities is an important component of conducting research in large collaborative networks. A dental practice-based research network...

  2. Resilient Prosumer Scenario in a Changing Regulatory Environment—The UniRCon Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Sanduleac

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Technological developments are pushing for new solutions based upon massive integration of renewable electricity generation in networks already facing many challenges. This paper presents a novel approach to managing the energy transfer towards prosumers making use of smart management of local energy storage. The proposed design (including storage dimensioning is based on several operating scenarios in which the prosumer might operate as: (i a “load only” entity (from a grid perspective, thus exhibiting investment resiliency against regulatory changes and high energy efficiency; or (ii a prosumer, in case regulatory opportunistic profit might be available. This can be realized within a newly proposed Uni-directional Resilient Consumer (UniRCon architecture. The major aim of the proposed architecture is to achieve optimal self-consumption while avoiding curtailment even in a changing regulatory environment like, for example, the total lack of incentives for generation based on renewable energy sources (RES. One of the major advantages of the proposed architecture consists in the adaptability to changes in the regulatory and market environment. The term resilience is used with multiple meanings: (a the prosumer’s financial resilience against regulatory changes when investment calculations assume no-grid injections; (b the prosumer’s technical resilience, with electrical design based on standalone operation; (c the resilience of clusters of interconnected end-user installations with enabled community-level electricity exchange, independent of the existing main grid supply; (d the contribution to grid resilience, by enabling AC microgrid (MG operation in island mode when large portions of the grid are formed by clusters of UniRCon prosumers (the ease of islanding segmentation of the local grid in case of emergencies. For proof of concept, three use-cases are detailed: (i photovoltaic (PV installations connected behind the meter; (ii PV and

  3. [The history of regulatory system for plasma fractionation products in the United States].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuzawa, Manabu; Tsutani, Kiichiro

    2014-01-01

    In Japan, biologics have been described as special sorts of medicines in the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law and are regulated by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW). In contrast, in the United States, some of the regulatory laws for biologics are different from other medicines and the relevant regulatory agencies have been changed historically. We reviewed the histories of the laws and changes in regulatory agencies for biologics, especially focusing plasma fractionation products in the United States, which may give suggestions and advice for the regulation of biologics in Japan. In the earliest stage, biologics were regulated by the Biologics Control Act (BC Act) of 1902 and as parts of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act) of 1938. The effectiveness of these regulations was not equivalent to that of other drugs; therefore, Congress passed some amendments to the FD&C Act, in which biologics were treated in the same way as other drugs. In 1972, the authority for biologics control was transferred from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Thereafter, in order to achieve the most efficient regulation under the rapidly evolution of biologics, the biologics regulating sections in the FDA have changed several times. At present, some biologics that are used in ways similar to other drugs (e.g., cytokines, monoclonal antibodies and immunomodulators) are regulated by the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER), and other biologics (e.g., vaccines, blood products and cellular products) are regulated by the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) of the FDA.

  4. Regulatory skill as a resilience factor for adults with a history of foster care: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Angela J; Tottenham, Nim

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with a history of foster care (FC) are at elevated risk for emotion regulation-related mental illness. The purpose of the current study was to characterize regulatory function in a group of adults with a history of FC (N = 26) relative to those without a history of FC (N = 27) and how regulatory function moderates adverse caregiving-related outcomes (daily cortisol production and trait anxiety). Self-report items (anxiety, emotion regulation strategies, inhibitory control, caregiving history) were collected along with more objective measures (computerized task and salivary cortisol). Inhibitory control was assessed via self-report and a computerized task (emotional face go/nogo). Results showed that for adults with a history of FC, higher levels of inhibitory control were associated with higher accuracy on the emotional face go/nogo task and greater reported use of the emotion regulation strategy cognitive reappraisal. Greater use of cognitive reappraisal in turn was associated with healthier stress-related outcomes (decreased trait anxiety and steeper sloped cortisol production throughout the day). Dose-response associations were observed between self-reported regulatory skills and FC experiences (i.e., number of placements and age when exited foster care). These findings suggest that adverse caregiving can have long-term influences on mental health that extend into adulthood; however, individual differences in regulatory skills moderate these outcomes and may be an important target for intervention following caregiving adversity. © 2014 The Authors. Developmental Psychobiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Solution structure and dynamics of C-terminal regulatory domain of Vibrio vulnificus extracellular metalloprotease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Ji-Hye; Kim, Heeyoun [Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jung Eun [Department of Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Sup, E-mail: jsplee@mail.chosun.ac.kr [Department of Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Weontae, E-mail: wlee@spin.yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have determined solution structures of vEP C-terminal regulatory domain. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer vEP C-ter100 has a compact {beta}-barrel structure with eight anti-parallel {beta}-strands. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solution structure of vEP C-ter100 shares its molecular topology with that of the collagen-binding domain of collagenase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Residues in the {beta}3 region of vEP C-ter100 might be important in putative ligand/receptor binding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer vEP C-ter100 interacts strongly with iron ion. -- Abstract: An extracellular metalloprotease (vEP) secreted by Vibrio vulnificus ATCC29307 is a 45-kDa proteolytic enzyme that has prothrombin activation and fibrinolytic activities during bacterial infection. The action of vEP could result in clotting that could serve to protect the bacteria from the host defense machinery. Very recently, we showed that the C-terminal propeptide (C-ter100), which is unique to vEP, is involved in regulation of vEP activity. To understand the structural basis of this function of vEP C-ter100, we have determined the solution structure and backbone dynamics using multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The solution structure shows that vEP C-ter100 is composed of eight anti-parallel {beta}-strands with a unique fold that has a compact {beta}-barrel formation which stabilized by hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding networks. Protein dynamics shows that the overall structure, including loops, is very rigid and stabilized. By structural database analysis, we found that vEP C-ter100 shares its topology with that of the collagen-binding domain of collagenase, despite low sequence homology between the two domains. Fluorescence assay reveals that vEP C-ter100 interacts strongly with iron (Fe{sup 3+}). These findings suggest that vEP protease might recruit substrate molecules, such as collagen, by binding at C-ter100 and that vEP participates

  6. Rules implementing Sections 201 and 210 of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978: a regulatory history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danziger, R.N.; Caples, P.W.; Huning, J.R.

    1980-09-15

    An analysis is made of the rules implementing Sections 201 and 210 of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA). The act provides that utilities must purchase power from qualifying producers of electricity at nondiscriminatory rates, and it exempts private generators from virtually all state and Federal utility regulations. Most of the analysis presented is taken from the perspective of photovoltaics (PV) and solar thermal electric point-focusing distributed receivers (pfdr). It is felt, however, that the analysis is applicable both to cogeneration and other emerging technologies. Chapters presented are: The FERC Response to Oral Comments on the Proposed Rules Implementing Sections 201 and 210 of PURPA; Additional Changes Made or Not Made That Were Addressed in Other Than Oral Testimony; View on the Proposed Rules Implementing Sections 201 and 210 of PURPA; Response to Comments on the Proposed 201 and 210 Rules; and Summary Analysis of the Environmental Assessment of the Rules. Pertinent reference material is provided in the Appendices, including the text of the rules. (MCW)

  7. History of regulatory requirements for poultry biologics in the United States, 1970s to 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espeseth, David A; Lasher, Hiram

    2013-06-01

    biological products shipped in or from the United States met the same standards of purity, safety, potency, and efficacy. The development of new recombinant DNA (r-DNA) techniques for the production of vaccines required USDA to establish new procedures and rules for the review of these products prior to their release into the environment and eventual licensure. Compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act required the preparation of environmental risk assessments and public participation in the field testing and licensing of live r-DNA products. This article addresses some of the history of these and other changes in regulatory requirements for poultry products that took place in the 1970s to the 1990s, but space does not permit us to address all of the changes that have occurred. We have presented some of what we consider the most notable events in this process and leave it up to future historians to address events that may not have been included.

  8. Regulatory toxicology in the twenty-first century: challenges, perspectives and possible solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tralau, Tewes; Oelgeschläger, Michael; Gürtler, Rainer; Heinemeyer, Gerhard; Herzler, Matthias; Höfer, Thomas; Itter, Heike; Kuhl, Thomas; Lange, Nikola; Lorenz, Nicole; Müller-Graf, Christine; Pabel, Ulrike; Pirow, Ralph; Ritz, Vera; Schafft, Helmut; Schneider, Heiko; Schulz, Thomas; Schumacher, David; Zellmer, Sebastian; Fleur-Böl, Gaby; Greiner, Matthias; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Lampen, Alfonso; Luch, Andreas; Schönfelder, Gilbert; Solecki, Roland; Wittkowski, Reiner; Hensel, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    The advent of new testing systems and "omics"-technologies has left regulatory toxicology facing one of the biggest challenges for decades. That is the question whether and how these methods can be used for regulatory purposes. The new methods undoubtedly enable regulators to address important open questions of toxicology such as species-specific toxicity, mixture toxicity, low-dose effects, endocrine effects or nanotoxicology, while promising faster and more efficient toxicity testing with the use of less animals. Consequently, the respective assays, methods and testing strategies are subject of several research programs worldwide. On the other hand, the practical application of such tests for regulatory purposes is a matter of ongoing debate. This document summarizes key aspects of this debate in the light of the European "regulatory status quo", while elucidating new perspectives for regulatory toxicity testing.

  9. Terrorism Financing with Virtual Currencies: Can Regulatory Technology Solutions Combat This?

    OpenAIRE

    Salami, Iwa

    2017-01-01

    This article considers the terrorism financing risk associated with the growth of Financial Technology innovations and in particular, focuses on virtual currency products and services. The ease with which cross-border payments by virtual currencies are facilitated, the anonymity surrounding their usage, and their potential to be converted into the fiat financial system, make them ideal for terrorism financing and therefore calls for a coordinated global regulatory response. This article consi...

  10. An exact solution for the history-dependent material and delamination behavior of laminated plates subjected to cylindrical bending

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Todd O [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The exact solution for the history-dependent behavior of laminated plates subjected to cylindrical bending is presented. The solution represents the extension of Pagano's solution to consider arbitrary types of constitutive behaviors for the individual lamina as well as arbitrary types of cohesive zones models for delamination behavior. Examples of the possible types of material behavior are plasticity, viscoelasticity, viscoplasticity, and damaging. Examples of possible CZMs that can be considered are linear, nonlinear hardening, as well as nonlinear with softening. The resulting solution is intended as a benchmark solution for considering the predictive capabilities of different plate theories. Initial results are presented for several types of history-dependent material behaviors. It is shown that the plate response in the presence of history-dependent behaviors can differ dramatically from the elastic response. These results have strong implications for what constitutes an appropriate plate theory for modeling such behaviors.

  11. Historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jens Aage

    Historie i serien handler om læreplaner og læremidler og deres brug i skolefaget historie. Bogen indeholder nyttige redskaber til at analysere og vurdere læremidler......Historie i serien handler om læreplaner og læremidler og deres brug i skolefaget historie. Bogen indeholder nyttige redskaber til at analysere og vurdere læremidler...

  12. On-farm welfare assessment for regulatory purposes: Issues and possible solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jan Tind; Fraser, David

    2010-01-01

    solution. Issues 3 and 4 (fairness and efficiency) require scientific data on the precision, repeatability, independence, and cost-of-scoring for the various candidate criteria. A process is also needed to bring the scientific information into the deliberative process, either as formal recommendations and....../or through direct participation of scientists. If these issues can be resolved, the use of on-farm assessment could in principle generate widespread acceptance, be responsive to change, and lead to better welfare outcomes than regulations that merely stipulate features of the physical environment....

  13. Bacterial endotoxin testing: a report on the methods, background, data, and regulatory history of extraction recovery efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryans, Trabue D; Braithwaite, Carolyn; Broad, John; Cooper, James F; Darnell, Kimbrell R; Hitchins, Victoria M; Karren, Amy Jo; Lee, Peter S

    2004-01-01

    Since the mid-1970s the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay has been used to test medical devices for bacterial endotoxins. The Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) recently published a standard designated ANSI/AAMI ST 72: 2002, Bacterial Endotoxins--Test methodologies, routine monitoring, and alternatives to batch testing, which addresses LAL testing and associated issues. In order to perform the bacterial endotoxins test (BET), the test article must be extracted in an aqueous medium, with the extract being used as the test solution. In the early years of testing, and periodically throughout LAL test history, questions have arisen about validation of the extraction efficiency of endotoxins from medical devices. The AAMI Microbiological Methods Committee appointed a Task Group to thoroughly research the issue of extraction efficiency and to recommend whether validation of extraction efficiency is necessary for LAL testing of medical devices.

  14. Structural and dynamic characterization of eukaryotic gene regulatory protein domains in solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Andrew Loyd [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-05-01

    Solution NMR was primarily used to characterize structure and dynamics in two different eukaryotic protein systems: the δ-Al-ε activation domain from c-jun and the Drosophila RNA-binding protein Sex-lethal. The second system is the Drosophila Sex-lethal (Sxl) protein, an RNA-binding protein which is the ``master switch`` in sex determination. Sxl contains two adjacent RNA-binding domains (RBDs) of the RNP consensus-type. The NMR spectrum of the second RBD (Sxl-RBD2) was assigned using multidimensional heteronuclear NMR, and an intermediate-resolution family of structures was calculated from primarily NOE distance restraints. The overall fold was determined to be similar to other RBDs: a βαβ-βαβ pattern of secondary structure, with the two helices packed against a 4-stranded anti-parallel β-sheet. In addition 15N T1, T2, and 15N/1H NOE relaxation measurements were carried out to characterize the backbone dynamics of Sxl-RBD2 in solution. RNA corresponding to the polypyrimidine tract of transformer pre-mRNA was generated and titrated into 3 different Sxl-RBD protein constructs. Combining Sxl-RBD1+2 (bht RBDs) with this RNA formed a specific, high affinity protein/RNA complex that is amenable to further NMR characterization. The backbone 1H, 13C, and 15N resonances of Sxl-RBD1+2 were assigned using a triple-resonance approach, and 15N relaxation experiments were carried out to characterize the backbone dynamics of this complex. The changes in chemical shift in Sxl-RBD1+2 upon binding RNA are observed using Sxl-RBD2 as a substitute for unbound Sxl-RBD1+2. This allowed the binding interface to be qualitatively mapped for the second domain.

  15. History strategy instruction: problem-solution-effect analysis, timeline, and vocabulary instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinder, D; Bursuck, W

    1993-02-01

    This multiple baseline study investigated the effectiveness of history strategy instruction emphasizing the linkage of knowledge in teaching junior high students with behavior disorders. The intervention included 24 students and 3 teachers across three classes for 3-6 weeks. The strategy included a scripted curriculum involving brisk student-teacher interchanges; student note taking and constructing of timelines and vocabulary definitions; and reciprocal questioning, using a carefully selected history textbook. Results indicate that the history strategy was effective; students in each class showed immediate and educationally significant improvement compared with baseline instruction that employed traditional history instruction.

  16. Towards a solution of the plankton paradox : The importance of physiology and life history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, J.; Johansson, A.M.; Folmer, E.O.; Weissing, F.J.

    Phytoplankton communities reveal an astonishing biodiversity, whereas classical competition theory seems to suggest that only a few competing species can survive. Recently we suggested a new solution to this plankton paradox. In theory, at least, competition between multiple species can generate

  17. The Problems of Index in High School History Books and Solution on Three Examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Avni GÜLLÜ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This research inquires how much systemized the connections in the subjects of culture and civilization functions, evaluating the contents of the history books in High Schools. With the renewed approaching of curriculum, the books used in High Schools also have been changed in contents and styles. In this work, culture and civilization subjects which were behind and parallel to political subjects before, will be searched in new books. Making a connection will be tried over the examples between culture, civilization subjects and other subjects placed in before and after units

  18. Comparative Developmental Transcriptomics Reveals Rewiring of a Highly Conserved Gene Regulatory Network during a Major Life History Switch in the Sea Urchin Genus Heliocidaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer W Israel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The ecologically significant shift in developmental strategy from planktotrophic (feeding to lecithotrophic (nonfeeding development in the sea urchin genus Heliocidaris is one of the most comprehensively studied life history transitions in any animal. Although the evolution of lecithotrophy involved substantial changes to larval development and morphology, it is not known to what extent changes in gene expression underlie the developmental differences between species, nor do we understand how these changes evolved within the context of the well-defined gene regulatory network (GRN underlying sea urchin development. To address these questions, we used RNA-seq to measure expression dynamics across development in three species: the lecithotroph Heliocidaris erythrogramma, the closely related planktotroph H. tuberculata, and an outgroup planktotroph Lytechinus variegatus. Using well-established statistical methods, we developed a novel framework for identifying, quantifying, and polarizing evolutionary changes in gene expression profiles across the transcriptome and within the GRN. We found that major changes in gene expression profiles were more numerous during the evolution of lecithotrophy than during the persistence of planktotrophy, and that genes with derived expression profiles in the lecithotroph displayed specific characteristics as a group that are consistent with the dramatically altered developmental program in this species. Compared to the transcriptome, changes in gene expression profiles within the GRN were even more pronounced in the lecithotroph. We found evidence for conservation and likely divergence of particular GRN regulatory interactions in the lecithotroph, as well as significant changes in the expression of genes with known roles in larval skeletogenesis. We further use coexpression analysis to identify genes of unknown function that may contribute to both conserved and derived developmental traits between species

  19. Comparative Developmental Transcriptomics Reveals Rewiring of a Highly Conserved Gene Regulatory Network during a Major Life History Switch in the Sea Urchin Genus Heliocidaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Jennifer W; Martik, Megan L; Byrne, Maria; Raff, Elizabeth C; Raff, Rudolf A; McClay, David R; Wray, Gregory A

    2016-03-01

    The ecologically significant shift in developmental strategy from planktotrophic (feeding) to lecithotrophic (nonfeeding) development in the sea urchin genus Heliocidaris is one of the most comprehensively studied life history transitions in any animal. Although the evolution of lecithotrophy involved substantial changes to larval development and morphology, it is not known to what extent changes in gene expression underlie the developmental differences between species, nor do we understand how these changes evolved within the context of the well-defined gene regulatory network (GRN) underlying sea urchin development. To address these questions, we used RNA-seq to measure expression dynamics across development in three species: the lecithotroph Heliocidaris erythrogramma, the closely related planktotroph H. tuberculata, and an outgroup planktotroph Lytechinus variegatus. Using well-established statistical methods, we developed a novel framework for identifying, quantifying, and polarizing evolutionary changes in gene expression profiles across the transcriptome and within the GRN. We found that major changes in gene expression profiles were more numerous during the evolution of lecithotrophy than during the persistence of planktotrophy, and that genes with derived expression profiles in the lecithotroph displayed specific characteristics as a group that are consistent with the dramatically altered developmental program in this species. Compared to the transcriptome, changes in gene expression profiles within the GRN were even more pronounced in the lecithotroph. We found evidence for conservation and likely divergence of particular GRN regulatory interactions in the lecithotroph, as well as significant changes in the expression of genes with known roles in larval skeletogenesis. We further use coexpression analysis to identify genes of unknown function that may contribute to both conserved and derived developmental traits between species. Collectively, our results

  20. Does the history of food energy units suggest a solution to "Calorie confusion"?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hargrove James L

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Calorie (kcal of present U.S. food labels is similar to the original French definition of 1825. The original published source (now available on the internet defined the Calorie as the quantity of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water from 0 to 1°C. The Calorie originated in studies concerning fuel efficiency for the steam engine and had entered dictionaries by 1840. It was the only energy unit in English dictionaries available to W.O. Atwater in 1887 for his popular articles on food and tables of food composition. Therefore, the Calorie became the preferred unit of potential energy in nutrition science and dietetics, but was displaced when the joule, g-calorie and kcal were introduced. This article will explain the context in which Nicolas Clément-Desormes defined the original Calorie and the depth of his collaboration with Sadi Carnot. It will review the history of other energy units and show how the original Calorie was usurped during the period of international standardization. As a result, no form of the Calorie is recognized as an SI unit. It is untenable to continue to use the same word for different thermal units (g-calorie and kg-calorie and to use different words for the same unit (Calorie and kcal. The only valid use of the Calorie is in common speech and public nutrition education. To avoid ongoing confusion, scientists should complete the transition to the joule and cease using kcal in any context.

  1. History of knowledge and evolution of occupational health and regulatory aspects of asbestos exposure science: 1900-1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Christy A; Sahmel, Jennifer; Paustenbach, Dennis J; Henshaw, John L

    2017-04-01

    The understanding by industrial hygienists of the hazards of asbestos and appropriate ways to characterize and control exposure has evolved over the years. Here, a detailed analysis of the evolution of industrial hygiene practices regarding asbestos and its health risks, from the early 1900s until the advent of the national occupational health and safety regulatory structure currently in place in the US (early-to-mid 1970s) is presented. While industrial hygienists recognized in the early 1900s that chronic and high-level exposures to airborne concentrations of asbestos could pose a serious health hazard, it was not until the mid-1950s that the carcinogenic nature of asbestos began to be characterized and widespread concern followed. With the introduction of the membrane filter sampling method in the late 1960s and early 1970s, asbestos sampling and exposure assessment capabilities advanced to a degree which allowed industrial hygienists to more precisely characterize the exposure-response relationship. The ability of industrial hygienists, analytical chemists, toxicologists, and physicians to more accurately define this relationship was instrumental to the scientific community's ability to establish Occupational Exposure Levels (OELs) for asbestos. These early developments set the stage for decades of additional study on asbestos exposure potential and risk of disease. This was followed by the application of engineering controls and improved respiratory protection which, over the years, saved thousands of lives. This paper represents a state-of-the-art review of the knowledge of asbestos within the industrial hygiene community from about 1900 to 1975.

  2. SOLUTIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Hoyos Guajardo, Ph.D. Candidate, M.Sc., B.Eng.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The theory that is presented below aims to conceptualise how a group of undergraduate students tackle non-routine mathematical problems during a problem-solving course. The aim of the course is to allow students to experience mathematics as a creative process and to reflect on their own experience. During the course, students are required to produce a written ‘rubric’ of their work, i.e., to document their thoughts as they occur as well as their emotionsduring the process. These ‘rubrics’ were used as the main source of data.Students’ problem-solving processes can be explained as a three-stage process that has been called ‘solutioning’. This process is presented in the six sections below. The first three refer to a common area of concern that can be called‘generating knowledge’. In this way, generating knowledge also includes issues related to ‘key ideas’ and ‘gaining understanding’. The third and the fourth sections refer to ‘generating’ and ‘validating a solution’, respectively. Finally, once solutions are generated and validated, students usually try to improve them further before presenting them as final results. Thus, the last section deals with‘improving a solution’. Although not all students go through all of the stages, it may be said that ‘solutioning’ considers students’ main concerns as they tackle non-routine mathematical problems.

  3. Epinastine 0.05% ophthalmic solution in contact lens-wearing subjects with a history of allergic conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Kelly K; Morris, Scot; Gaddie, Ian B; Evans, David

    2009-01-01

    To assess the comfort and efficacy of epinastine 0.05% ophthalmic solution in contact lens wearers with a history of allergic conjunctivitis and contact lens intolerance during allergy season. One hundred forty-six subjects were enrolled in a multicenter, open-label study. Enrolled subjects instilled rewetting drops twice a day for a one-week run-in period, then were randomized to epinastine 0.05% twice a day plus rewetting drops as required (n = 75) or rewetting drops alone as required (minimum use twice a day) (n = 71). Subjects recorded the length of time that contact lens wear was comfortable, the total time of wear, ocular itch, overall comfort, and use of rewetting drops during the run-in period, at baseline, and on days 2 to 7 of the treatment period. Subjects averaged 34 years of age; 79% were female. No significant differences were shown at baseline between subjects treated with epinastine 0.05% twice a day plus rewetting drops and control subjects treated with rewetting drops alone. Averaged over the treatment period, epinastine provided significant increases in comfortable wearing time (1.33 +/- 2.89 vs. 0.43 +/- 2.28 hr, P=0.012) and total wearing time (0.35 +/- 1.87 vs. -0.32 +/- 1.81 hr, P=0.008) compared with controls. Epinastine users reported less frequent additional rewetting drop use on average by 0.56 uses per day, which was significantly different than controls (reduction of 0.06 uses per day; P=0.012). Epinastine provided significantly greater improvements from baseline in ocular itch and overall eye comfort compared with rewetting drops alone (Pcontact lens wearers.

  4. Diagnosing von Willebrand disease: a short history of laboratory milestones and innovations, plus current status, challenges, and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2014-07-01

    von Willebrand disease (VWD) is a disorder characterized by deficiency of, or defects in, von Willebrand factor (VWF). VWD was originally identified by Erik Adolf von Willebrand, who in early 1924 investigated a large family suffering from a bleeding disorder that seemed to differ from hemophilia. Erik von Willebrand undertook some initial laboratory investigations to conclude the involvement of a plasma factor, the lack of which prolonged the bleeding time, but failed to impair coagulation times and clot retraction. By the end of the 1960s, VWD was accepted as a combined deficiency of factor VIII (FVIII) and another plasma factor responsible for normal platelet adhesion. Just how these two functions were related to each other was less clear and the diagnostic tests available at the time were poorly reproducible, cumbersome, and unreliable; thus, VWD was poorly delineated from other coagulation and platelet disorders. The early 1970s saw a revolution in diagnostics when ristocetin was identified to induce platelet aggregation, and this formed the basis of the first consistent and reliable VWF "activity" test, permitting quantification of the platelet adhesive function missing in VWD. Concurrently, immunoprecipitating techniques specific for VWF were defined, and the application of such technologies permitted a clearer understanding of both VWF and VWD heterogeneity. Continued exploration of the structure and function of VWF contributed greatly to the understanding of platelet physiology, ligand receptor interaction and pathways of cellular interaction and activation. Recently, additional assays evaluating other functions of VWF, including collagen binding, platelet glycoprotein Ib binding, and FVIII binding, have improved the diagnosis of VWD. The purpose of this narrative review is to explore the history of phenotypic VWD diagnostics, with a focus on laboratory milestones from the past as well highlighting recent and ongoing innovations, and ongoing challenges and

  5. Regulatory agencies and regulatory risk

    OpenAIRE

    Knieps, Günter; Weiß, Hans-Jörg

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show that regulatory risk is due to the discretionary behaviour of regulatory agencies, caused by a too extensive regulatory mandate provided by the legislator. The normative point of reference and a behavioural model of regulatory agencies based on the positive theory of regulation are presented. Regulatory risk with regard to the future behaviour of regulatory agencies is modelled as the consequence of the ex ante uncertainty about the relative influence of inter...

  6. Impact of regulatory science on global public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghal Patel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory science plays a vital role in protecting and promoting global public health by providing the scientific basis for ensuring that food and medical products are safe, properly labeled, and effective. Regulatory science research was first developed for the determination of product safety in the early part of the 20th Century, and continues to support innovation of the processes needed for regulatory policy decisions. Historically, public health laws and regulations were enacted following public health tragedies, and often the research tools and techniques required to execute these laws lagged behind the public health needs. Throughout history, similar public health problems relating to food and pharmaceutical products have occurred in countries around the world, and have usually led to the development of equivalent solutions. For example, most countries require a demonstration of pharmaceutical safety and efficacy prior to marketing these products using approaches that are similar to those initiated in the United States. The globalization of food and medical products has created a shift in regulatory compliance such that gaps in food and medical product safety can generate international problems. Improvements in regulatory research can advance the regulatory paradigm toward a more preventative, proactive framework. These improvements will advance at a greater pace with international collaboration by providing additional resources and new perspectives for approaching and anticipating public health problems. The following is a review of how past public health disasters have shaped the current regulatory landscape, and where innovation can facilitate the shift from reactive policies to proactive policies.

  7. The history and pharmacology of fentanyl: relevance to a novel, long-acting transdermal fentanyl solution newly approved for use in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukanich, B; Clark, T P

    2012-08-01

    Fentanyl is a potent mu opioid receptor agonist that was discovered to identify an improved human health analgesic over morphine, an opioid frequently associated with histamine-release, bradycardia, hyper- or hypotension, and prolonged postoperative respiratory depression. Historically, the pharmacological features of fentanyl have been described primarily through the study of the human approved fentanyl citrate formulation. In conscious dogs, fentanyl has a wide margin of safety, possesses minimum effects on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, and is readily reversible. Other pharmacological features include sedation, mild reductions in body temperature, and dose-dependent reduction in food intake. The short duration of effect of available fentanyl citrate solutions has limited its clinical use to perioperative injections or constant rate infusions (CRIs). To extend the analgesic effect, additional fentanyl delivery technologies have been developed for human health including the fentanyl patch that has been used in an extra-label manner in dogs. Beyond the slow onset and variability in fentanyl delivery, several additional disadvantages have precluded common use of patches in dogs. The recent approval of long-acting transdermal fentanyl solution for dogs provides a new approach for sustained delivery of fentanyl for the control of postoperative pain in dogs. It has a rapid onset of action, prolonged duration, and mitigates the disadvantages of oral, parenteral, and patch-delivered opioids. The availability of a safe and effective approved opioid in dogs may allow further optimization of postoperative analgesia in this species. The objective of this review is to summarize the history and pharmacology of fentanyl and to integrate information about the newly approved long-acting transdermal fentanyl solution. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. [Chemical residues and contaminants in food of animal origin in Brazil: history, legislation and actions of sanitary surveillance and other regulatory systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spisso, Bernardete Ferraz; Nóbrega, Armi Wanderley de; Marques, Marlice Aparecida Sípoli

    2009-01-01

    Food safety became a relevant subject due to the increasing search for a better way of life and consciousness of the consumers to stand on one's rights to acquire healthy products. The use of substances in animals destined for human consumption requires from pharmacokinetics to residue depletion studies, with the establishment of limitative values so that do not constitute a risk to health. Beyond the substances used deliberately, others coming from environment contamination or contamination of feeding stuffs consumed by these animals may reach human through the diet. The aims of this paper are to collect and discuss the main federal acts covering chemical residues and contaminants in food of animal origin in Brazil, besides those on measures to control veterinary medicinal products and additives for use in animal nutrition. The chronological presentation of the legal basis intends to facilitate the interpretation of the acts inside respective political and economics scenarios. The actions proposed from the different agents involved into the regulatory systems are discussed from the public health point of view.

  9. Regulatory Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes the term “safety logics” to understand attempts within the European Union (EU) to harmonize member state legislation to ensure a safe and stable supply of human biological material for transplants and transfusions. With safety logics, I refer to assemblages of discourses, le...... they arise. In short, I expose the regulatory anatomy of the policy landscape....

  10. Radiology clinical synopsis: a simple solution for obtaining an adequate clinical history for the accurate reporting of imaging studies on patients in intensive care units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Mervyn D. [Riley Hospital for Children, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Alam, Khurshaid [Indiana University, School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2005-09-01

    Lack of clinical history on radiology requisitions is a universal problem. We describe a simple Web-based system that readily provides radiology-relevant clinical history to the radiologist reading radiographs of intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Along with the relevant history, which includes primary and secondary diagnoses, disease progression and complications, the system provides the patient's name, record number and hospital location. This information is immediately available to reporting radiologists. New clinical information is immediately entered on-line by the radiologists as they are reviewing images. After patient discharge, the data are stored and immediately available if the patient is readmitted. The system has been in routine clinical use in our hospital for nearly 2 years. (orig.)

  11. Regulatory Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Helen W.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Putcha, Lakshmi; Baker, Ellen; Smith, Scott M.; Stewart, Karen; Gretebeck, Randall; Nimmagudda, R. R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Davis-Street, Janis

    1999-01-01

    As noted elsewhere in this report, a central goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was to ensure that cardiovascular and muscle function were adequate to perform an emergency egress after 16 days of spaceflight. The goals of the Regulatory Physiology component of the EDOMP were to identify and subsequently ameliorate those biochemical and nutritional factors that deplete physiological reserves or increase risk for disease, and to facilitate the development of effective muscle, exercise, and cardiovascular countermeasures. The component investigations designed to meet these goals focused on biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrition and metabolism, the risk of renal (kidney) stone formation, gastrointestinal function, and sleep in space. Investigations involved both ground-based protocols to validate proposed methods and flight studies to test those methods. Two hardware tests were also completed.

  12. Regulatory Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators. The appli......Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators....... The application of bench-marking in regulation, however, requires specific steps in terms of data validation, model specification and outlier detection that are not systematically documented in open publications, leading to discussions about regulatory stability and economic feasibility of these techniques...

  13. Regulatory Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators. The appli......Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators....... The application of benchmarking in regulation, however, requires specific steps in terms of data validation, model specification and outlier detection that are not systematically documented in open publications, leading to discussions about regulatory stability and economic feasibility of these techniques...

  14. Regulatory pathways in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Manuela

    2011-01-01

    In principle, there are three defined procedures to obtain approval for a medicinal product in the European Union. As discussed in this overview of the procedures, the decision on which regulatory pathway to use will depend on the nature of the active substance, the target indication(s), the history of product and/or the marketing strategy.

  15. 3 CFR - Regulatory Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulatory Review Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of January 30, 2009 Regulatory Review Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies For well over two decades, the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA) at...

  16. What history tells us XXIII.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-03-14

    Mar 14, 2011 ... What history tells us XXIII. The genetic distance between humans and chimpanzees: What did Mary-Claire King and Allan Wilson really say in 1975? Michel Morange. Series Volume 36 Issue 1 ... Keywords. Chromosomal rearrangement; genetic distance; human evolution; neutralism; regulatory mutations ...

  17. Solution Culture Hydroponics: History and Inexpensive Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, David R.

    1994-01-01

    Describes historical accounts dating back to as early as 604-562 BC of the various uses of hydroponics. Throughout the article, diagrams and simple instructions are provided to aid in classroom use of hydroponics. (ZWH)

  18. Basque Nationalism: History, Roots and Possible Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-19

    of the Basque lifestyle, such as marriage, dowry, inheritance and even political appointments. 6 Jose Antonio Vaca de Osma, Los vascos en la historia ...Alianza Editorial, 1997), 82. 29 Fernando Garcia de Cortazar, El nacionalismo vasco, ( Historia 16, 1991), 142. 30 Basque Land and Freedom, also known as...alcazaba.unex.es/constitucion/tituloVIII.html#capitulo3 >; available in English from < http://www.congreso.es/ ingles /funciones/constitucion

  19. Supporting Biotechnology Regulatory Policy Processes in Southeast ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Supporting Biotechnology Regulatory Policy Processes in Southeast Asia. Biotechnology innovations or bio-innovations can provide solutions to problems associated with food security, poverty and environmental degradation. Innovations such as genetically engineered (GE) crops can increase food production and ...

  20. Regulatory Information By Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find environmental regulatory, compliance, & enforcement information for various business, industry and government sectors, listed by NAICS code. Sectors include agriculture, automotive, petroleum manufacturing, oil & gas extraction & other manufacturing

  1. Apprehending multicellularity: regulatory networks, genomics, and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravind, L; Anantharaman, Vivek; Venancio, Thiago M

    2009-06-01

    The genomic revolution has provided the first glimpses of the architecture of regulatory networks. Combined with evolutionary information, the "network view" of life processes leads to remarkable insights into how biological systems have been shaped by various forces. This understanding is critical because biological systems, including regulatory networks, are not products of engineering but of historical contingencies. In this light, we attempt a synthetic overview of the natural history of regulatory networks operating in the development and differentiation of multicellular organisms. We first introduce regulatory networks and their organizational principles as can be deduced using ideas from the graph theory. We then discuss findings from comparative genomics to illustrate the effects of lineage-specific expansions, gene-loss, and nonprotein-coding DNA on the architecture of networks. We consider the interaction between expansions of transcription factors, and cis regulatory and more general chromatin state stabilizing elements in the emergence of morphological complexity. Finally, we consider a case study of the Notch subnetwork, which is present throughout Metazoa, to examine how such a regulatory system has been pieced together in evolution from new innovations and pre-existing components that were originally functionally distinct.

  2. Apprehending multicellularity: regulatory networks, genomics and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravind, L.; Anantharaman, Vivek; Venancio, Thiago M.

    2009-01-01

    The genomic revolution has provided the first glimpses of the architecture of regulatory networks. Combined with evolutionary information, the “network view” of life processes leads to remarkable insights into how biological systems have been shaped by various forces. This understanding is critical because biological systems, including regulatory networks, are not products of engineering but of historical contingencies. In this light, we attempt a synthetic overview of the natural history of regulatory networks operating in the development and differentiation of multicellular organisms. We first introduce regulatory networks and their organizational principles as can be deduced using ideas from the graph theory. We then discuss findings from comparative genomics to illustrate the effects of lineage-specific expansions, gene-loss, and non-protein-coding DNA on the architecture of networks. We consider the interaction between expansions of transcription factors, and cis regulatory and more general chromatin state stabilizing elements in the emergence of morphological complexity. Finally, we consider a case study of the Notch sub-network, which is present throughout Metazoa, to examine how such a regulatory system has been pieced together in evolution from new innovations and pre-existing components that were originally functionally distinct. PMID:19530132

  3. Understanding History

    OpenAIRE

    Gorman, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Has any question about the historical past ever been finally answered? Of course there is much disagreement among professional historians about what happened in the past and how to explain it. But this incisive study goes one step further and brings into question the very ability of historians to gather and communicate genuine knowledge about the past. Understanding History applies this general question from the philosophy of history to economic history of American slaveholders. Do we unders...

  4. Financial History

    OpenAIRE

    Cassis, Y.; Cottrell, P. L

    2017-01-01

    The considerable renewal of interest in all aspects of financial history over recent years provided one motivation for this new venture. Yet, the foundations for our specialism, which draws from both History and the Social Sciences, especially economics, have been laid by many. Some would point to continuity in our interest from the publication in the 1930s of jubilee banking history volumes, such as those written for British institutions by Gregory, and by Crick and Wadsworth. Further schola...

  5. Conceptual History, Cultural History, Social History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Zhivov (†

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available V. M. Zhivov’s introduction to Studies in Historical Semantics of the Russian Language in the Early Modern Period (2009, translated here for the first time, offers a critical survey of the historiography on Begriffsgeschichte, the German school of conceptual history associated with the work of Reinhart Koselleck, as well as of its application to the study of Russian culture.  By situating Begriffsgeschichte in the context of late-nineteenth and early twentieth-century European philosophy, particularly hermeneutics and phenomenology, the author points out the important, and as yet unacknowledged, role that Russian linguists have played in the development of a native school of conceptual history.  In the process of outlining this alternative history of the discipline, Zhivov provides some specific examples of the way in which the study of “historical semantics” can be used to analyze the development of Russian modernity.

  6. Intellectual History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In the 5 Questions book series, this volume presents a range of leading scholars in Intellectual History and the History of Ideas through their answers to a brief questionnaire. Respondents include Michael Friedman, Jacques le Goff, Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht, Jonathan Israel, Phiip Pettit, John Pocock...

  7. Romerrigets historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik

    Romerrigets historie fra Roms legendariske grundlæggelse i 753 f.v.t. til Heraklios' tronbestigelse i 610 e.v.t.......Romerrigets historie fra Roms legendariske grundlæggelse i 753 f.v.t. til Heraklios' tronbestigelse i 610 e.v.t....

  8. The history of pathology informatics: A global perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung; Parwani, Anil V.; Aller, Raymond D.; Banach, Lech; Becich, Michael J.; Borkenfeld, Stephan; Carter, Alexis B.; Friedman, Bruce A.; Rojo, Marcial Garcia; Georgiou, Andrew; Kayser, Gian; Kayser, Klaus; Legg, Michael; Naugler, Christopher; Sawai, Takashi; Weiner, Hal; Winsten, Dennis; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2013-01-01

    Pathology informatics has evolved to varying levels around the world. The history of pathology informatics in different countries is a tale with many dimensions. At first glance, it is the familiar story of individuals solving problems that arise in their clinical practice to enhance efficiency, better manage (e.g., digitize) laboratory information, as well as exploit emerging information technologies. Under the surface, however, lie powerful resource, regulatory, and societal forces that helped shape our discipline into what it is today. In this monograph, for the first time in the history of our discipline, we collectively perform a global review of the field of pathology informatics. In doing so, we illustrate how general far-reaching trends such as the advent of computers, the Internet and digital imaging have affected pathology informatics in the world at large. Major drivers in the field included the need for pathologists to comply with national standards for health information technology and telepathology applications to meet the scarcity of pathology services and trained people in certain countries. Following trials by a multitude of investigators, not all of them successful, it is apparent that innovation alone did not assure the success of many informatics tools and solutions. Common, ongoing barriers to the widespread adoption of informatics devices include poor information technology infrastructure in undeveloped areas, the cost of technology, and regulatory issues. This review offers a deeper understanding of how pathology informatics historically developed and provides insights into what the promising future might hold. PMID:23869286

  9. Supporting Oral Histories in Islandora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Emmanuel Barnes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2014, the University of Toronto Scarborough Library’s Digital Scholarship Unit (DSU has been working on an Islandora-based solution for creating and stewarding oral histories (the Oral Histories solution pack. Although regular updates regarding the status of this work have been presented at Open Repositories conferences, this is the first article to describe the goals and features associated with this codebase, as well as the roadmap for development. An Islandora-based approach is appropriate for addressing the challenges of Oral History, an interdisciplinary methodology with complex notions of authorship and audience that both brings a corresponding complexity of use cases and roots Oral Histories projects in the ever-emergent technical and preservation challenges associated with multimedia and born digital assets. By leveraging Islandora, those embarking on Oral Histories projects benefit from existing community-supported code. By writing and maintaining the Oral Histories solution pack, the library seeks to build on common ground for those supporting Oral Histories projects and encourage a sustainable solution and feature set.

  10. 30 CFR 773.10 - Review of permit history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Review of permit history. 773.10 Section 773.10... REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMITS AND PERMIT PROCESSING § 773.10 Review of permit history. (a) We, the regulatory authority, will rely upon the permit history information you, the applicant, submit under § 778.12 of this...

  11. NRC regulatory initiatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, T.C. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission (United States)

    1989-11-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is addressing several low-level waste disposal issues that will be important to waste generators and to States and Compacts developing new disposal capacity. These issues include Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) waste, mixed waste, below regulatory concern (BRC) waste, and the low-level waste data base. This paper discusses these issues and their current status.

  12. Regulatory unbundling in telecommunications

    OpenAIRE

    Knieps, Günter

    2011-01-01

    Due to its dynamic nature, and the increasing importance of competitive sub-parts, the telecommunications sector provides particularly interesting insights for studying regulatory unbundling. Based on the theory of monopolistic bottle-necks the fallacies of overregulation by undue unbundling obligations are indicated. Neither the promotion of infrastructure competition by mandatory un-bundling of competitive subparts of telecommunications infrastructure, nor regulatory induced network fragmen...

  13. Canadian drug regulatory framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, L; Lazzaro, M; Petersen, C

    2007-03-01

    The role of regulatory drug submission evaluators in Canada is to critically assess both the data submitted and the sponsor's interpretation of the data in order to reach an evidence-, and context-based recommendation as to the potential benefits and potential harms (i.e., risks) associated with taking the drug under the proposed conditions of use. The purpose of this document is to outline the regulatory framework in which this assessment occurs, including: defining what "authorization to market a drug in Canada" means, in terms of the role of the sponsor, the responsibility of Health Canada in applying the Food and Drugs Act prior to and after marketing authorization, and the distinction between regulatory authorization versus physician authorization; highlighting organizational, process and legal factors within Health Canada related to authorization of clinical trials and authorization to market a drug; considerations during the review process, such as regulatory and scientific issues related to the drug, patient populations and trial designs; application of international guidelines, and decisions from other jurisdictions; regulatory realities regarding drug authorization, including the requirement for wording in the Product Monograph to accurately reflect the information currently available on the safe and effective use of a drug, and that hypothesis-confirming studies are essential to regulatory endorsement; current issues related to the review of therapies for dementia, such as assessing preventative treatments, and therapies that have symptomatic versus disease-modifying effects, statistical issues regarding missing data, and trial design issues.

  14. 78 FR 44279 - Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... July 23, 2013 Part XI Department of Justice Semiannual Regulatory Agenda #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol... CFR Ch. I 27 CFR Ch. II 28 CFR Ch. I, V Regulatory Agenda AGENCY: Department of Justice. ACTION: Semiannual regulatory agenda. SUMMARY: The Department of Justice is publishing its spring 2013 regulatory...

  15. 77 FR 8018 - Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... February 13, 2012 Part XVIII National Aeronautics and Space Administration Semiannual Regulatory Agenda #0... AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 14 CFR Ch. V Regulatory Agenda AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Semiannual regulatory agenda. SUMMARY: NASA's regulatory agenda describes those...

  16. 75 FR 79759 - Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... Energy ###Semiannual Regulatory Agenda### ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (DOE) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Semiannual Regulatory Agenda 10 CFR Chs. II, III, and X 48 CFR Ch. 9 Regulatory Agenda AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of semiannual regulatory agenda. SUMMARY: The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared and...

  17. 78 FR 1634 - Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... January 8, 2013 Part XVII National Aeronautics and Space Administration Semiannual Regulatory Agenda #0;#0... AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 14 CFR Ch. V Regulatory Agenda AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Semiannual regulatory agenda. SUMMARY: NASA's regulatory agenda describes those...

  18. 75 FR 79799 - Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... Justice ###Semiannual Regulatory Agenda### ] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (DOJ) DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 8 CFR Ch. V 21 CFR Ch. I 27 CFR Ch. II 28 CFR Ch. I, V Regulatory Agenda AGENCY: Department of Justice. ACTION: Semiannual regulatory agenda. SUMMARY: The Department of Justice is publishing its fall 2010 regulatory...

  19. 77 FR 7972 - Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... February 13, 2012 Part XI Department of Justice Semiannual Regulatory Agenda #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol... CFR Ch. I 27 CFR Ch. II 28 CFR Ch. I, V Regulatory Agenda AGENCY: Department of Justice. ACTION: Semiannual regulatory agenda. SUMMARY: The Department of Justice is publishing its fall 2011 regulatory...

  20. 78 FR 44329 - Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... July 23, 2013 Part XVIII National Aeronautics and Space Administration Semiannual Regulatory Agenda #0... AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 14 CFR Ch. V Regulatory Agenda AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Semiannual regulatory agenda. SUMMARY: NASA's regulatory agenda describes those...

  1. Matematikkens historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2009-01-01

    Matematikkens historie i syv kapitler: 1. Matematik i støbeskeen; 2. Matematikkens græske arv; 3. Den gyldne tidsalder for hinduer og arabere; 4. Matematik i Kina; 5. Renæssancens matematik; 6. Regning med infinitesimaler ser dagens lys; 7. Matematik i det tyvende århundrede.......Matematikkens historie i syv kapitler: 1. Matematik i støbeskeen; 2. Matematikkens græske arv; 3. Den gyldne tidsalder for hinduer og arabere; 4. Matematik i Kina; 5. Renæssancens matematik; 6. Regning med infinitesimaler ser dagens lys; 7. Matematik i det tyvende århundrede....

  2. Why the history of nephrology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2016-01-01

    Nephrology is a relatively new discipline that emerged at a time when the writing of the history of medicine was changing drastically. While the merits of medical history were valued since antiquity, it was only in the 18th century that the actual historiography of medicine began. It was nurtured, matured and appreciated enough that by the late 19th and early 20th centuries, medical history was incorporated into the medical curriculum and presented at national meetings. Unfortunately, the merits of medical history and its inclusion in medical education have come under increasing scrutiny over the past few decades. Ironically, the erosion began at about the same time that scholarly work on the history of medicine was flourishing whilst that of scientific discovery and innovation in medicine was accelerating. The demands of rigorous research into the history of medicine gradually led to the emergence of medical history as an independent discipline within academic departments of history. Simultaneously, the exponential growth of new information generated by medical research led to an overflow of medical knowledge in which the inclusion of medical history was contested and dismissed. That is just about the time that nephrology emerged in the 1960s. Whereas initially the quest for origins led renal journals to publish historical articles, the more recent quest to increase impact factors has led to the exclusion of historical articles from consideration for publication. This manuscript examines the reasons that brought about the separation of nephrology from its history and proposes potential solutions to their rapprochement.

  3. Cultural history as polyphonic history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burke, Peter

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This texts offers a reflection on the origins and actual development of the field of cultural history through a comparison with the term that has served as title for this seminar: “polyphonic history”. The author provides an overview of the themes that have structured the seminar (the history of representations, the history of the body and the cultural history of science with the aim of making explicit and clarifying this plurality of voices in the field of history as well as its pervasiveness in other research areas.

    En este texto se ofrece una reflexión sobre el origen y actual desarrollo del campo de la historia cultural a través de una comparación con el término que ha dado título a este seminario: “historia polifónica”. El autor propone un recorrido por las áreas temáticas que han conformado la estructura del seminario (la historia de las representaciones, la historia del cuerpo y la historia cultural de la ciencia con el objeto de explicitar y explicar esta pluralidad de voces en el campo de la historia, así como su repercusión en otras áreas del conocimiento.

  4. Potted history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, N.; Van Dijk, T.

    2010-01-01

    The Jordan Valley was once populated by a people, now almost forgotten by historians, with whom the pharaoh of Egypt sought favour. That is the conclusion reached by Niels Groot, the first researcher to take a PhD at the Delft-Leiden Centre for Archaeology, Art History and Science.

  5. LCA History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Owsianiak, Mikołaj; Molin, Christine

    2017-01-01

    The idea of LCA was conceived in the 1960s when environmental degradation and in particular the limited access to resources started becoming a concern. This chapter gives a brief summary of the history of LCA since then with a focus on the fields of methodological development, application...

  6. Impact of discretization of the decision variables in the search of optimized solutions for history matching and injection rate optimization; Impacto do uso de variaveis discretas na busca de solucoes otimizadas para o ajuste de historico e distribuicao de vazoes de injecao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Sergio H.G. de; Madeira, Marcelo G. [Halliburton Servicos Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In the classical operations research arena, there is the notion that the search for optimized solutions in continuous solution spaces is easier than on discrete solution spaces, even when the latter is a subset of the first. On the upstream oil industry, there is an additional complexity in the optimization problems because there usually are no analytical expressions for the objective function, which require some form of simulation in order to be evaluated. Thus, the use of meta heuristic optimizers like scatter search, tabu search and genetic algorithms is common. In this meta heuristic context, there are advantages in transforming continuous solution spaces in equivalent discrete ones; the goal to do so usually is to speed up the search for optimized solutions. However, these advantages can be masked when the problem has restrictions formed by linear combinations of its decision variables. In order to study these aspects of meta heuristic optimization, two optimization problems are proposed and solved with both continuous and discrete solution spaces: assisted history matching and injection rates optimization. Both cases operate on a model of the Wytch Farm onshore oil filed located in England. (author)

  7. Rationales for regulatory activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perhac, R.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The author provides an outline which touches on the types of concerns about risk evaluation which are addressed in the process of establishing regulatory guides. Broadly he says regulatory activity serves three broad constituents: (1) Paternalism (private risk); (2) Promotion of social welfare (public risks); (3) Protection of individual rights (public risks). He then discusses some of the major issues encountered in reaching a decision on what is an acceptable level of risk within each of these areas, and how one establishes such a level.

  8. Prediction of regulatory elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandelin, Albin

    2008-01-01

    Finding the regulatory mechanisms responsible for gene expression remains one of the most important challenges for biomedical research. A major focus in cellular biology is to find functional transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) responsible for the regulation of a downstream gene. As wet......-lab methods are time consuming and expensive, it is not realistic to identify TFBS for all uncharacterized genes in the genome by purely experimental means. Computational methods aimed at predicting potential regulatory regions can increase the efficiency of wet-lab experiments significantly. Here, methods...

  9. Business History as Cultural History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Jørgensen, Ida

    The paper engages with the larger question of how cultural heritage becomes taken for granted and offers a complimentary view to the anthropological ʻCopenhagen School’ of business history, one that draws attention to the way corporate wealth directly and indirectly influences the culture available...

  10. Sommerferiens historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Summer holiday is a pleasure which did not become available to many people until the 20th Century. The article describes the early mountain rambles of the bourgeoisie and their holidays in seaside boarding houses. Outdoor pursuits and stays in boarding houses at bathing resorts also became...... pattern. Finally, the history of the special holiday camps is told, which were established by American Jews because they were excluded from many hotels....

  11. Business History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that a cultural and narrative perspective can enrich the business history field, encourage new and different questions and answers, and provide new ways of thinking about methods and empirical material. It discusses what culture is and how it relates to narratives. Taking...... a cultural and narrative approach may affect questions, sources, and methodologies, as well as the status of our results. Finally, a narrative approach may contribute to our historical understanding of entrepreneurship and globalization....

  12. Analytical history

    OpenAIRE

    Bertrand M. Roehner

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to explain what is "analytical history", a modular and testable analysis of historical events introduced in a book published in 2002 (Roehner and Syme 2002). Broadly speaking, it is a comparative methodology for the analysis of historical events. Comparison is the keystone and hallmark of science. For instance, the extrasolar planets are crucial for understanding our own solar system. Until their discovery, astronomers could observe only one instance. Single instan...

  13. Viscosity Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Camilli, Fabio; Prados, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Viscosity solution is a notion of weak solution for a class of partial differential equations of Hamilton-Jacobi type. The range of applications of the notions of viscosity solution and Hamilton-Jacobi equations is enormous, including common class of partial differential equations such as evolutive problems and problems with boundary conditions, equations arising in optimal control theory, differential games, second-order equations arising in stochastic optimal control...

  14. Ildens historier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Henrik Roesgaard

    In December 2012 a manuscript entitled "Tællelyset" ['The Tallow Candle'] was discovered in an archive. The story was subsequently presented to the world as Hans Christian Andersen's first fairy tale and rather bombastically celebrated as such. In this book it is demonstrated that the text cannot...... have been written by Andersen. In several chapters the curiously forgotten history of fire-lighting technology is outlined, and it is demonstrated that "Tællelyset" is written by a person with a modern perspective on how to light a candle - among other things. The central argument in the book springs...

  15. Multi-Year Program Plan - Building Regulatory Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-10-01

    This document presents DOE’s multi-year plan for the three components of the Buildings Regulatory Program: Appliance and Equipment Efficiency Standards, ENERGY STAR, and the Building Energy Codes Program. This document summarizes the history of these programs, the mission and goals of the programs, pertinent statutory requirements, and DOE’s 5-year plan for moving forward.

  16. Functional footprinting of regulatory DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierstra, Jeff; Reik, Andreas; Chang, Kai-Hsin; Stehling-Sun, Sandra; Zhou, Yuanyue; Hinkley, Sarah J; Paschon, David E; Zhang, Lei; Psatha, Nikoletta; Bendana, Yuri R; O'Neil, Colleen M; Song, Alexander H; Mich, Andrea K; Liu, Pei-Qi; Lee, Gary; Bauer, Daniel E; Holmes, Michael C; Orkin, Stuart H; Papayannopoulou, Thalia; Stamatoyannopoulos, George; Rebar, Edward J; Gregory, Philip D; Urnov, Fyodor D; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A

    2015-10-01

    Regulatory regions harbor multiple transcription factor (TF) recognition sites; however, the contribution of individual sites to regulatory function remains challenging to define. We describe an approach that exploits the error-prone nature of genome editing-induced double-strand break repair to map functional elements within regulatory DNA at nucleotide resolution. We demonstrate the approach on a human erythroid enhancer, revealing single TF recognition sites that gate the majority of downstream regulatory function.

  17. 76 FR 3825 - Regulatory Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Memorandum of January 18, 2011 Regulatory Compliance Memorandum for the Heads of Executive... accessible to the public, information concerning their regulatory compliance and enforcement activities, such... enforcement actions). Greater disclosure of regulatory compliance information fosters fair and consistent...

  18. Characteristics of regulatory regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noralv Veggeland

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The overarching theme of this paper is institutional analysis of basic characteristics of regulatory regimes. The concepts of path dependence and administrative traditions are used throughout. Self-reinforcing or positive feedback processes in political systems represent a basic framework. The empirical point of departure is the EU public procurement directive linked to OECD data concerning use of outsourcing among member states. The question is asked: What has caused the Nordic countries, traditionally not belonging to the Anglo-Saxon market-centred administrative tradition, to be placed so high on the ranking as users of the Market-Type Mechanism (MTM of outsourcing in the public sector vs. in-house provision of services? A thesis is that the reason may be complex, but might be found in an innovative Scandinavian regulatory approach rooted in the Nordic model.

  19. Solution preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Reviewed in this statement are methods of preparing solutions to be used in laboratory experiments to examine technical issues related to the safe disposal of nuclear waste from power generation. Each approach currently used to prepare solutions has advantages and any one approach may be preferred over the others in particular situations, depending upon the goals of the experimental program. These advantages are highlighted herein for three approaches to solution preparation that are currently used most in studies of nuclear waste disposal. Discussion of the disadvantages of each approach is presented to help a user select a preparation method for his particular studies. Also presented in this statement are general observations regarding solution preparation. These observations are used as examples of the types of concerns that need to be addressed regarding solution preparation. As shown by these examples, prior to experimentation or chemical analyses, laboratory techniques based on scientific knowledge of solutions can be applied to solutions, often resulting in great improvement in the usefulness of results.

  20. Regulatory functions of microtubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliev, J M; Samoylov, V I

    2013-01-01

    This mini-review summarizes literature and original data about the role of microtubules in interphase animal cells. Recent data have shown that functioning of microtubules is essential for such diverse phenomena as directional cell movements, distribution of organelles in the cytoplasm, and neuronal memory in the central nervous system. It is suggested that microtubules can act as an important regulatory system in eukaryotic cells. Possible mechanisms of these functions are discussed.

  1. Net neutrality towards a co-regulatory solution

    CERN Document Server

    Marsden, Christopher T

    2010-01-01

    In considering market developments and policy responses to some of the most heated net-neutrality debates in Europe and the United States, Net Neutrality is the first, fully comprehensive overview of the subject. This book is also unique in providing readers with a supplementary outline of recommended policy prescriptives.

  2. Regulatory aspects on nanomedicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainz, Vanessa; Conniot, João; Matos, Ana I; Peres, Carina; Zupancic, Eva; Moura, Liane; Silva, Liana C; Florindo, Helena F; Gaspar, Rogério S

    2015-12-18

    Nanomedicines have been in the forefront of pharmaceutical research in the last decades, creating new challenges for research community, industry, and regulators. There is a strong demand for the fast development of scientific and technological tools to address unmet medical needs, thus improving human health care and life quality. Tremendous advances in the biomaterials and nanotechnology fields have prompted their use as promising tools to overcome important drawbacks, mostly associated to the non-specific effects of conventional therapeutic approaches. However, the wide range of application of nanomedicines demands a profound knowledge and characterization of these complex products. Their properties need to be extensively understood to avoid unpredicted effects on patients, such as potential immune reactivity. Research policy and alliances have been bringing together scientists, regulators, industry, and, more frequently in recent years, patient representatives and patient advocacy institutions. In order to successfully enhance the development of new technologies, improved strategies for research-based corporate organizations, more integrated research tools dealing with appropriate translational requirements aiming at clinical development, and proactive regulatory policies are essential in the near future. This review focuses on the most important aspects currently recognized as key factors for the regulation of nanomedicines, discussing the efforts under development by industry and regulatory agencies to promote their translation into the market. Regulatory Science aspects driving a faster and safer development of nanomedicines will be a central issue for the next years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Environmental history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawson, Eric; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2017-01-01

    risks”. These are exposed by environmental history’s focus on long-run analysis and its narrative form that identifies the stories that we tell ourselves about nature. How a better understanding of past environmental transformations helps to analyse society and agency, and what this can mean......Environmental history is an interdisciplinary pursuit that has developed as a form of conscience to counter an increasingly powerful, forward-looking liberal theory of the environment. It deals with the relations between environmental ideas and materialities, from the work of the geographers George...... Perkins Marsh, Carl Sauer, and Clarence Glacken, to more recent global-scale assessments of the impact of the “great acceleration” since 1950. Today’s “runaway world” paradoxically embraces risk management in an attempt to determine its own future whilst generating a whole new category of “manufactured...

  4. Public History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gouveia de Oliveira Rovai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como proposta apresentar o conceito e as práticas de História Pública como um novo posicionamento da ciência histórica em diálogo com profissionais da comunicação, no sentido de produzir e divulgar as experiências humanas. Para isso, discute-se a origem do conceito de História Pública e as diferentes formas de educação histórica que a utilização das novas tecnologias podem proporcionar (dentre elas a internet. Nesse sentido, convida-se o leitor para a reflexão sobre as possibilidades de publicização e de democratização do conhecimento histórico e da cultura, ampliando-se a oportunidade de produção, de divulgação e de acesso do público a diferentes formas experiências no tempo. O artigo também intenciona chamar atenção dos profissionais que lidam com a História e com a Comunicação para os perigos de produções exclusivamente submetidas ao mercado que transformam a popularização da História no reforço de estigmas culturais.   PALAVRAS-CHAVE: História Pública; Educação histórica e Comunicação; democratização e estigmatização.     ABSTRACT This article aims to present the concept and practices of Public History as a new positioning of historical science in dialogue with communication professionals, in the sense of producing and disseminating human experiences. For this, the origin of the concept of Public History and the different forms of historical education that the use of the new technologies can provide (among them the Internet is discussed. In this sense, the reader is invited to reflect on the possibilities of publicizing and democratizing historical knowledge and culture, expanding the opportunity for production, dissemination and public access to different forms of experience in time. The article also intends to draw attention from professionals dealing with History and Communication to the dangers of exclusively commercialized productions that transform the popularization

  5. Ras history

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Although the roots of Ras sprouted from the rich history of retrovirus research, it was the discovery of mutationally activated RAS genes in human cancer in 1982 that stimulated an intensive research effort to understand Ras protein structure, biochemistry and biology. While the ultimate goal has been developing anti-Ras drugs for cancer treatment, discoveries from Ras have laid the foundation for three broad areas of science. First, they focused studies on the origins of cancer to the molecular level, with the subsequent discovery of genes mutated in cancer that now number in the thousands. Second, elucidation of the biochemical mechanisms by which Ras facilitates signal transduction established many of our fundamental concepts of how a normal cell orchestrates responses to extracellular cues. Third, Ras proteins are also founding members of a large superfamily of small GTPases that regulate all key cellular processes and established the versatile role of small GTP-binding proteins in biology. We highlight some of the key findings of the last 28 years. PMID:21686117

  6. Wave Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Christov, Ivan C

    2012-01-01

    In classical continuum physics, a wave is a mechanical disturbance. Whether the disturbance is stationary or traveling and whether it is caused by the motion of atoms and molecules or the vibration of a lattice structure, a wave can be understood as a specific type of solution of an appropriate mathematical equation modeling the underlying physics. Typical models consist of partial differential equations that exhibit certain general properties, e.g., hyperbolicity. This, in turn, leads to the possibility of wave solutions. Various analytical techniques (integral transforms, complex variables, reduction to ordinary differential equations, etc.) are available to find wave solutions of linear partial differential equations. Furthermore, linear hyperbolic equations with higher-order derivatives provide the mathematical underpinning of the phenomenon of dispersion, i.e., the dependence of a wave's phase speed on its wavenumber. For systems of nonlinear first-order hyperbolic equations, there also exists a general ...

  7. Solution Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efeoglu, Arkin; Møller, Charles; Serie, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper outlines an artifact building and evaluation proposal. Design Science Research (DSR) studies usually consider encapsulated artifact that have relationships with other artifacts. The solution prototype as a composed artifact demands for a more comprehensive consideration in its systematic...... environment. The solution prototype that is composed from blending product and service prototype has particular impacts on the dualism of DSR’s “Build” and “Evaluate”. Since the mix between product and service prototyping can be varied, there is a demand for a more agile and iterative framework. Van de Ven...

  8. Regulatory Oversight Program, July 1, 1993--March 3, 1997. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    On July, 1993, a Regulatory Oversight (RO) organization was established within the US DOE, Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) to provide regulatory oversight of the DOE uranium enrichment facilities leased to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC). The purpose of the OR program was to ensure continued plant safety, safeguards and security while the plants were transitioned to regulatory oversight by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Volume 3 contains copies of two reports that document the DOE/ORO regulatory oversight inspection and enforcement history for each gaseous diffusion plant site. Each report provides a formal mechanism by which DOE/ORO could communicate the inspection and enforcement history to NRC. The reports encompass the inspection activities that occurred during July 1, 1993 through March 2, 1997.

  9. Meeting Regulatory Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Michael Fred

    2017-02-01

    The world is experiencing change at an unprecedented pace, as reflected in social, cultural, economic, political, and technological advances around the globe. Regulatory agencies, like the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), must also transform in response to and in preparation for these changes. In 2014, the NRC staff commenced Project Aim 2020 to transform the agency by enhancing efficiency, agility, and responsiveness, while accomplishing NRC's safety and security mission. Following Commission review and approval in 2015, the NRC began implementing the approved strategies, including strategic workforce planning to provide confidence that NRC will have employees with the right skills and talents at the right time to accomplish the agency's mission. Based on the work conducted so far, ensuring an adequate pipeline of radiation protection professionals is a significant need that NRC shares with states and other government agencies, private industry, academia, as well as international counterparts. NRC is working to ensure that sufficient radiation protection professionals will be available to fulfill its safety and security mission and leverage the work of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, the Health Physics Society, the Organization of Agreement States, the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Nuclear Energy Agency, and others.

  10. Regulatory elements in molecular networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doane, Ashley S; Elemento, Olivier

    2017-05-01

    Regulatory elements determine the connectivity of molecular networks and mediate a variety of regulatory processes ranging from DNA looping to transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and posttranslational regulation. This review highlights our current understanding of the different types of regulatory elements found in molecular networks with a focus on DNA regulatory elements. We highlight technical advances and current challenges for the mapping of regulatory elements at the genome-wide scale, and describe new computational methods to uncover these elements via reconstructing regulatory networks from large genomic datasets. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2017, 9:e1374. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1374 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Podcast solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Geoghegan, Michael W

    2005-01-01

    Podcasting is the art of recording radio show style audio tracks, then distributing them to listeners on the Web via podcasting software such as iPodder. From downloading podcasts to producing a track for fun or profit, ""Podcast Solutions"" covers the entire world of podcasting with insight, humor, and the unmatched wisdom of experience.

  12. Regulatory B cells in autoimmune diseases and mucosal immune homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, XIAOXIAO; BRAUN, JONATHAN; WEI, BO

    2013-01-01

    B lymphocytes contribute to physiological immunity through organogenesis of secondary lymphoid organs, presentation of antigen to T cells, production of antibodies, and secretion of cytokines. Their role in several autoimmune diseases, mainly as producers of pathogenic antibodies, is also well known. However, certain subsets of B cells are emerging as the important regulatory cell populations in both mouse and human. The regulatory functions of B cells have been demonstrated in a variety of mouse models of autoimmune diseases including collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), experiment autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), anterior chamber-associated immune deviation (ACAID), diabetes, contact hypersensitivity (CHS), and intestinal mucosal inflammation. Accumulating evidence from both mouse and human studies confirms the existence of regulatory B cells, and is beginning to define their mechanisms of action. In this article, we first review the history of B cells with regulatory function in autoimmune diseases, and summarize the current understanding about the characterizations of such B-cell subsets. We then discuss the possible regulatory mechanisms of B cells, and specifically define the role of regulatory B cells in immune homeostasis in the intestine. PMID:20701454

  13. History of entomopathogenic nematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poinar, G O; Grewal, P S

    2012-06-01

    The history of entomopathogenic nematology is briefly reviewed. Topic selections include early descriptions of members of Steinernema and Heterorhabditis, how only morphology was originally used to distinguish between the species; descriptions of the symbiotic bacteria and elucidating their role in the nematode- insect complex, including antibiotic properties, phase variants, and impeding host defense responses. Other topics include early solutions regarding production, storage, field applications and the first commercial sales of entomopathogenic nematodes in North America. Later studies centered on how the nematodes locate insect hosts, their effects on non-target organisms and susceptibility of the infective juveniles to soil microbes. While the goals of early workers was to increase the efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes for pest control, the increasing use of Heterorhabditis and Photorhabdus as genetic models in molecular biology is noted.

  14. 78 FR 62417 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... Part 324 RIN 3064-AD95 Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III... Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy, Transition Provisions...

  15. Regulatory mark; Marco regulatorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    This chapter is based on a work performed in distinct phases. The first phase consisted in of the analysis regulatory legislation existent in Brazil for the sugar-alcohol sector since the beginning of the X X century. This analysis allowed the identification of non existent points and legal devices related to the studied aspects, and that were considered as problematic for the sector expansion. In the second phase, related treaties and international agreements was studied and possible obstacles for the brazilian bio ethanol exportation for the international market. Initiatives were examined at European Union, United States of America, Caribbean and countries of the sub-Saharan Africa. In this phase, policies were identified related to the incentives and adoption of use of bio fuels added to the gasoline in countries or group of countries considered as key for the consolidation of bio ethanol as a world commodity.

  16. Regulatory considerations for biosimilars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjani Nellore

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently there is considerable interest in the legislative debate around generic biological drugs or "biosimilars" in the EU and US due to the large, lucrative market that it offers to the industry. While some countries have issued a few regulatory guidelines as well as product specific requirements, there is no general consensus as to a single, simple mechanism similar to the bioequivalence determination that leads to approval of generic small molecules all over the world. The inherent complex nature of the molecules, along with complicated manufacturing and analytical techniques to characterize them make it difficult to rely on a single human pharmacokinetic study for assurance of safety and efficacy. In general, the concept of comparability has been used for evaluation of the currently approved "similar" biological where a step by step assessment on the quality, preclinical and clinical aspects is made. In India, the focus is primarily on the availability and affordability of life-saving drugs. In this context every product needs to be evaluated on its own merit irrespective of the innovator brand. The formation of the National Biotechnology Regulatory Authority may provide a step in the right direction for regulation of these complex molecules. However, in order to have an efficient machinery for initial approval and ongoing oversight with a country-specific focus, cooperation with international authorities for granting approvals and continuous risk-benefit review is essential. Several steps are still needed for India to be perceived as a country that leads the world in providing quality biological products.

  17. Reconsidering Styles of Regulatory Enforcement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Peter J.; Winter, Søren

    2000-01-01

    This study addresses enforcement styles of regulatory inspectors, based on an examination of the municipal enforcement of agro-environmental policies in Denmark. Our findings make three contributions to the regulatory literature. One contribution is to add empirical support for theorizing about...

  18. Disclosure as a regulatory tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2006-01-01

    The chapter analyses how disclure can be used as a regulatory tool and analyses how it has been applied so far in the area of financial market law and consumer law.......The chapter analyses how disclure can be used as a regulatory tool and analyses how it has been applied so far in the area of financial market law and consumer law....

  19. Regulatory focus in groupt contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faddegon, Krispijn Johannes

    2009-01-01

    The thesis examines the influence of group processes on the regulatory focus of individual group members. It is demonstrated that the group situation can affect group members' regulatory focus both in a top-down fashion (via the identitiy of the group) and in a bottom-up fashion (emerging from the

  20. Reconsidering Styles of Regulatory Enforcement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    J. May, Peter; Winter, Søren

    2007-01-01

    This study addresses enforcement styles of regulatory inspectors based on an examination of the municipal enforcement of agro-environmental policies in Denmark. Our findings make three contributions to the regulatory literature. One contribution is to add empirical support for theorizing about...

  1. Regulatory aspects of fire toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, G L

    1987-12-01

    Fire creates a complex toxic environment involving flame, heat, oxygen depletion, smoke, and toxic gases. The nature of that environment is dependent upon not only the materials present but on the fire event, that is, the fire scenario. Materials have different toxic gas profiles under different conditions; therefore, toxic fire gas generation is not intrinsic to any one material. Large fires in buildings constitute a severe toxic threat regardless of the materials being burned. In the past, building codes in the United States included the phrase, "no more toxic than wood," in reference to fire gases from building materials. Such phrases have recently been deleted, because of the lack of either an accepted definition or test methodology to assess toxicity. While several states have attempted regulatory activity, the most recent approach (taken by the state of New York) has been the establishment of a data bank on toxic potency of building and furnishing materials. The utility of such a data bank without available hazard analysis methodology is open to discussion, since toxic potency data are not directly applicable to toxic hazard assessment. A number of small-scale animal exposure tests have been developed to assess the potency of the toxic combustion products from combustible materials. Criticism of these tests relates to the relevance of the combustion module (a smoke generation apparatus) and the appropriateness of the animal model, particularly for irritant gases. Recent data from more than 2000 fire fatality cases and carbon monoxide exposure cases are discussed in this paper to help put small-scale laboratory test results into perspective. Toxicity is only one of the several fire properties related to materials. All fire parameters are interrelated, that is, they are not independent variables. Thus, predicting the toxicity of burning materials is a problem without a comprehensive solution. Measures have been taken, however, to reduce the number of fires and

  2. Connecting Literature to History for Interdisciplinary Teaching: "Antigone" and Greek History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Patricia S.

    Recent research suggests that information must be made meaningful to students before they will comprehend and remember it. However, because so much curriculum is learned in isolation, many students miss the connections between such disciplines as literature and history. One solution is to connect the teaching of history and literature to a focal…

  3. Regulatory Streamlining and Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark A. Carl

    2006-07-11

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) engaged in numerous projects outlined under the scope of work discussed in the United States Department of Energy (DOE) grant number DE-FC26-04NT15456 awarded to the IOGCC. Numerous projects were completed that were extremely valuable to state oil and gas agencies as a result of work performed utilizing resources provided by the grant. There are numerous areas in which state agencies still need assistance. This additional assistance will need to be addressed under future scopes of work submitted annually to DOE's Project Officer for this grant. This report discusses the progress of the projects outlined under the grant scope of work for the 2005-2006 areas of interest, which are as follows: Area of Interest No. 1--Regulatory Streamlining and Improvement: This area of interest continues to support IOGCC's regulatory streamlining efforts that include the identification and elimination of unnecessary duplications of efforts between and among state and federal programs dealing with exploration and production on public lands. Area of Interest No. 2--Technology: This area of interest seeks to improve efficiency in states through the identification of technologies that can reduce costs. Area of Interest No. 3--Training and Education: This area of interest is vital to upgrading the skills of regulators and industry alike. Within the National Energy Policy, there are many appropriate training and education opportunities. Education was strongly endorsed by the President's National Energy Policy Development group. Acting through the governors offices, states are very effective conduits for the dissemination of energy education information. While the IOGCC favors the development of a comprehensive, long-term energy education plan, states are also supportive of immediate action on important concerns, such as energy prices, availability and conservation. Area of Interest No. 4--Resource Assessment and

  4. Popular history magazines and history education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Thorp

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that popular history magazines may be a welcome complement to other forms of historical media in history teaching. By outlining a theoretical framework that captures uses of history, the paper analyses popular history magazine articles from five European countries all dealing with the outbreak of World War I. The study finds that while the studied articles provide a rather heterogeneous view of the causes of the Great War, they can be used to discuss and analyse the importance of perspective in history, thus offering an opportunity to further a more disciplinary historical understanding.

  5. Regulatory component analysis: a semi-blind extraction approach to infer gene regulatory networks with imperfect biological knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Xuan, Jianhua; Shih, Ie-Ming; Clarke, Robert; Wang, Yue

    2012-08-01

    With the advent of high-throughput biotechnology capable of monitoring genomic signals, it becomes increasingly promising to understand molecular cellular mechanisms through systems biology approaches. One of the active research topics in systems biology is to infer gene transcriptional regulatory networks using various genomic data; this inference problem can be formulated as a linear model with latent signals associated with some regulatory proteins called transcription factors (TFs). As common statistical assumptions may not hold for genomic signals, typical latent variable algorithms such as independent component analysis (ICA) are incapable to reveal underlying true regulatory signals. Liao et al. [1] proposed to perform inference using an approach named network component analysis (NCA), the optimization of which is achieved by a least-squares fitting approach with biological knowledge constraints. However, the incompleteness of biological knowledge and its inconsistency with gene expression data are not considered in the original NCA solution, which could greatly affect the inference accuracy. To overcome these limitations, we propose a linear extraction scheme, namely regulatory component analysis (RCA), to infer underlying regulatory signals even with partial biological knowledge. Numerical simulations show a significant improvement of our proposed RCA over NCA, not only when signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) is low, but also when the given biological knowledge is incomplete and inconsistent to gene expression data. Furthermore, real biological experiments on E. coli are performed for regulatory network inference in comparison with several typical linear latent variable methods, which again demonstrates the effectiveness and improved performance of the proposed algorithm.

  6. Internationalization of regulatory requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juillet, Y

    2003-02-01

    The aim of harmonisation of medicines regulatory requirements is to allow the patient quicker access to new drugs and to avoid animal and human duplications. Harmonisation in the European Union (EU) is now completed, and has led to the submission of one dossier in one language study leading to European marketing authorizations, thanks in particular to efficacy guidelines published at the European level. With the benefit of the European experience since 1989, more than 40 guidelines have been harmonised amongst the EU, Japan and the USA through the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH). ICH is a unique process gathering regulators and industry experts from the three regions. Its activity is built on expertise and trust. The Common Technical Document (CTD), an agreed common format for application in the three regions, is a logical follow-up to the ICH first phase harmonising the content of the dossier. The CTD final implementation in July 2003 will have considerable influence on the review process and on the exchange of information in the three regions.

  7. Healthcare regulatory concepts in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Robson Rocha de; Elias, Paulo Eduardo Mangeon

    2012-06-01

    The healthcare regulatory concepts used in Brazilian scientific publications on healthcare management were reviewed. A typo-logical classification for regulatory concepts was developed from the most current ideas in five disciplines: life sciences, law, economics, sociology and political science. Four ideas stood out: control, balance, adaptation and direction, with greatest emphasis on the technical nature of regulation. The political nature of regulation was secondary. It was considered that dis-cussion of healthcare regulatory concepts was connected with comprehension of the role that the state plays in this sector. De-finition of the forms of state intervention is the key convergence point between the different ways of conceptualizing healthcare regulation.

  8. The Danish Regulatory Reform of Telecommunications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouby, Knud Erik

    1998-01-01

    An overview of the liberalisation process and regulatory reform of telecommunications in Denmark......An overview of the liberalisation process and regulatory reform of telecommunications in Denmark...

  9. Population pharmacokinetics. A regulatory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, H; Fadiran, E O; Jones, C D; Lesko, L; Huang, S M; Higgins, K; Hu, C; Machado, S; Maldonado, S; Williams, R; Hossain, M; Ette, E I

    1999-07-01

    The application of population approaches to drug development is recommended in several US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance documents. Population pharmacokinetic (and pharmacodynamic) techniques enable identification of the sources of inter- and intra-individual variability that impinge upon drug safety and efficacy. This article briefly discusses the 2-stage approach to the estimation of population pharmacokinetic parameters, which requires serial multiple measurements on each participant, and comprehensively reviews the nonlinear mixed-effects modelling approach, which can be applied in situations where extensive sampling is not done on all or any of the participants. Certain preliminary information, such as the compartment model used in describing the pharmacokinetics of the drug, is required for a population pharmacokinetic study. The practical design considerations of the location of sampling times, number of samples/participants and the need to sample an individual more than once should be borne in mind. Simulation may be useful for choosing the study design that will best meet study objectives. The objectives of the population pharmacokinetic study can be secondary to the objectives of the primary clinical study (in which case an add-on population pharmacokinetic protocol may be needed) or primary (when a stand-alone protocol is required). Having protocols for population pharmacokinetic studies is an integral part of 'good pharmacometric practice'. Real-time data assembly and analysis permit an ongoing evaluation of site compliance with the study protocol and provide the opportunity to correct violations of study procedures. Adequate policies and procedures should be in place for study blind maintenance. Real-time data assembly creates the opportunity for detecting and correcting errors in concentration-time data, drug administration history and covariate data. Population pharmacokinetic analyses may be undertaken in 3 interwoven steps: exploratory

  10. Regulatory uncertainty and the associated business risk for emerging technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerr, Robert A.

    2011-04-01

    An oversight system specifically concerned with nanomaterials should be flexible enough to take into account the unique aspects of individual novel materials and the settings in which they might be used, while recognizing that heretofore unrecognized safety issues may require future modifications. This article considers a question not explicitly considered by the project team: what is the risk that uncertainty over how regulatory oversight will be applied to nanomaterials will delay or block the development of this emerging technology, thereby depriving human health of potential and substantial benefits? An ambiguous regulatory environment could delay the availability of valuable new technology and therapeutics for human health by reducing access to investment capital. Venture capitalists list regulatory uncertainty as a major reason not to invest at all in certain areas. Uncertainty is far more difficult to evaluate than risk, which lends itself to quantitative models and can be factored into projections of return on possible investments. Loss of time has a large impact on investment return. An examination of regulatory case histories suggests that an increase in regulatory resting requirement, where the path is well-defined, is far less costly than a delay of a year or more in achieving product approval and market launch.

  11. Conceptual history and History of Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrad VILANOU I TORRANO

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available After noting the importance of linguistic turn in the field of historiography, the two leading currents in the field of conceptual history are identi- fied, the Cambridge school and Reinhart Koselleck’s Begriffsgeschichte. The paper focuses on the analysis of the latter trend in conceptual history, linked to the phi- losophical (Heidegger, Gadamer, political (Schmitt and historical (Dilthey tradi- tion within the German academic community. The paper then reviews the origin and nature of the History of Pedagogy, which arose as part of the classic History of Ideas and later gave rise, after the Second World War, to a Social History of Education. Finally, a conceptual History of Education is proposed that, in addi- tion to addressing the various conceptual strata included in the different terms, also takes into account the intellectual and cultural aspects through a return to discourses and pedadogic narratives.

  12. Policy and Regulatory Challenges in the Tourism Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne

    2017-01-01

    The choice of policy approach and regulatory framework in dealing with the collaborative economy rests on two fundamental factors—that government decisions should be based on good sound knowledge and that this knowledge should be above politics. In the newly emerging and rapidly growing...... collaborative economy, these conditions are difficult to meet. The dynamic restructuring of power relations, new stakeholders and information asymmetries can obscure what is really going on. Some authors offer valuable meso-level explorations of policy and regulatory issues in different sub...... and circulate in policy discussions about the collaborative economy at a macro-level. The rendering of the socio-political landscape as complex, dynamic and value-laden dictates that policy approaches and regulatory solutions are subjective and influenced by prevailing ideology, available knowledge and the path...

  13. Regulatory Snapshots: integrative mining of regulatory modules from expression time series and regulatory networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana P Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Explaining regulatory mechanisms is crucial to understand complex cellular responses leading to system perturbations. Some strategies reverse engineer regulatory interactions from experimental data, while others identify functional regulatory units (modules under the assumption that biological systems yield a modular organization. Most modular studies focus on network structure and static properties, ignoring that gene regulation is largely driven by stimulus-response behavior. Expression time series are key to gain insight into dynamics, but have been insufficiently explored by current methods, which often (1 apply generic algorithms unsuited for expression analysis over time, due to inability to maintain the chronology of events or incorporate time dependency; (2 ignore local patterns, abundant in most interesting cases of transcriptional activity; (3 neglect physical binding or lack automatic association of regulators, focusing mainly on expression patterns; or (4 limit the discovery to a predefined number of modules. We propose Regulatory Snapshots, an integrative mining approach to identify regulatory modules over time by combining transcriptional control with response, while overcoming the above challenges. Temporal biclustering is first used to reveal transcriptional modules composed of genes showing coherent expression profiles over time. Personalized ranking is then applied to prioritize prominent regulators targeting the modules at each time point using a network of documented regulatory associations and the expression data. Custom graphics are finally depicted to expose the regulatory activity in a module at consecutive time points (snapshots. Regulatory Snapshots successfully unraveled modules underlying yeast response to heat shock and human epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, based on regulations documented in the YEASTRACT and JASPAR databases, respectively, and available expression data. Regulatory players involved in

  14. Anti-regulatory T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Hald

    2017-01-01

    Our initial understanding of immune-regulatory cells was based on the discovery of suppressor cells that assure peripheral T-cell tolerance and promote immune homeostasis. Research has particularly focused on the importance of regulatory T cells (Tregs) for immune modulation, e.g. directing host...... responses to tumours or inhibiting autoimmunity development. However, recent studies report the discovery of self-reactive pro-inflammatory T cells—termed anti-regulatory T cells (anti-Tregs)—that target immune-suppressive cells. Thus, regulatory cells can now be defined as both cells that suppress immune......-reactive T cells that recognize such targets may be activated due to the strong activation signal given by their cognate targets. The current review describes the existing knowledge regarding these self-reactive anti-Tregs, providing examples of antigen-specific anti-Tregs and discussing their possible roles...

  15. Microforms and Sport History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Peter

    1986-01-01

    Explores the importance of sport history as it reflects the social and cultural history of the United States. Discussion covers the various sport history materials that are available in microform, including the Spalding Collection, twentieth-century microfilm sources, and sports and social history (Sports Periodicals microfilm series). (EJS)

  16. Kiropraktikkens historie i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Per

    Bogen er den første samlede, forskningsbaserede fremstilling om kiropraktikkens danske historie. Den har udblik til kiropraktikkens historie i USA.......Bogen er den første samlede, forskningsbaserede fremstilling om kiropraktikkens danske historie. Den har udblik til kiropraktikkens historie i USA....

  17. Reinventing Entrepreneurial History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadhwani, R. Daniel; Lubinski, Christina

    2017-01-01

    Research on entrepreneurship remains fragmented in business history. A lack of conceptual clarity inhibits comparisons between studies and dialogue among scholars. To address these issues, we propose to reinvent entrepreneurial history as a research field. We define “new entrepreneurial history...... and reconfiguring resources, and legitimizing novelty. The article elaborates on the historiography, premises, and potential contributions of new entrepreneurial history....

  18. Regulatory facility guide for Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, S.S.; Bock, R.E.; Francis, M.W.; Gove, R.M.; Johnson, P.E.; Kovac, F.M.; Mynatt, J.O. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rymer, A.C. [Transportation Consulting Services, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-02-28

    The Regulatory Facility Guide (RFG) has been developed for the DOE and contractor facilities located in the state of Ohio. It provides detailed compilations of international, federal, and state transportation-related regulations applicable to shipments originating at destined to Ohio facilities. This RFG was developed as an additional resource tool for use both by traffic managers who must ensure that transportation operations are in full compliance with all applicable regulatory requirements and by oversight personnel who must verify compliance activities.

  19. Rhadinoviral interferon regulatory factor homologues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Sandra; Schulz, Thomas F

    2017-07-26

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), or human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) is a gammaherpesvirus and the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman disease. The KSHV genome contains genes for a unique group of proteins with homology to cellular interferon regulatory factors, termed viral interferon regulatory factors (vIRFs). This review will give an overview over the oncogenic, antiapoptotic and immunomodulatory characteristics of KSHV and related vIRFs.

  20. Electronic Commerce Removing Regulatory Impediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    AD-A252 691 ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Removing Regulatory Impediments ~DuiG A% ELECTE I JUL1 8 1992 0 C D Daniel J. Drake John A. Ciucci ... - ""N ST AT KE...Management Institute 6400 Goldsboro Road Bethesda, Maryland 20817-5886 92 LMI Executive Summary ELECTRONIC COMMERCE : REMOVING REGULATORY IMPEDIMENTS... Electronic Commerce techniques, such as electronic mail and electronic data interchange (EDI), enable Government agencies to conduct business without the

  1. History Matching: Towards Geologically Reasonable Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melnikova, Yulia; Cordua, Knud Skou; Mosegaard, Klaus

    that measures similarity between statistics of a training image and statistics of any smooth model is introduced and its analytical gradient is computed. This allows us to apply any gradientbased method to history matching problem and guide a solution until it satisfies both production data and complexity......This work focuses on the development of a new method for history matching problem that through a deterministic search finds a geologically feasible solution. Complex geology is taken into account evaluating multiple point statistics from earth model prototypes - training images. Further a function...

  2. Alloy solution hardening with solute pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John W.

    1976-08-24

    Solution hardened alloys are formed by using at least two solutes which form associated solute pairs in the solvent metal lattice. Copper containing equal atomic percentages of aluminum and palladium is an example.

  3. A complete history of everything

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanclos, Kyle; Deich, William T. S.

    2012-09-01

    This paper discusses Lick Observatory's local solution for retaining a complete history of everything. Leveraging our existing deployment of a publish/subscribe communications model that is used to broadcast the state of all systems at Lick Observatory, a monitoring daemon runs on a dedicated server that subscribes to and records all published messages. Our success with this system is a testament to the power of simple, straightforward approaches to complex problems. The solution itself is written in Python, and the initial version required about a week of development time; the data are stored in PostgreSQL database tables using a distinctly simple schema. Over time, we addressed scaling issues as the data set grew, which involved reworking the PostgreSQL database schema on the back-end. We also duplicate the data in flat files to enable recovery or migration of the data from one server to another. This paper will cover both the initial design as well as the solutions to the subsequent deployment issues, the trade-offs that motivated those choices, and the integration of this history database with existing client applications.

  4. Learning regulatory programs that accurately predict differential expression with MEDUSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundaje, Anshul; Lianoglou, Steve; Li, Xuejing; Quigley, David; Arias, Marta; Wiggins, Chris H; Zhang, Li; Leslie, Christina

    2007-12-01

    Inferring gene regulatory networks from high-throughput genomic data is one of the central problems in computational biology. In this paper, we describe a predictive modeling approach for studying regulatory networks, based on a machine learning algorithm called MEDUSA. MEDUSA integrates promoter sequence, mRNA expression, and transcription factor occupancy data to learn gene regulatory programs that predict the differential expression of target genes. Instead of using clustering or correlation of expression profiles to infer regulatory relationships, MEDUSA determines condition-specific regulators and discovers regulatory motifs that mediate the regulation of target genes. In this way, MEDUSA meaningfully models biological mechanisms of transcriptional regulation. MEDUSA solves the problem of predicting the differential (up/down) expression of target genes by using boosting, a technique from statistical learning, which helps to avoid overfitting as the algorithm searches through the high-dimensional space of potential regulators and sequence motifs. Experimental results demonstrate that MEDUSA achieves high prediction accuracy on held-out experiments (test data), that is, data not seen in training. We also present context-specific analysis of MEDUSA regulatory programs for DNA damage and hypoxia, demonstrating that MEDUSA identifies key regulators and motifs in these processes. A central challenge in the field is the difficulty of validating reverse-engineered networks in the absence of a gold standard. Our approach of learning regulatory programs provides at least a partial solution for the problem: MEDUSA's prediction accuracy on held-out data gives a concrete and statistically sound way to validate how well the algorithm performs. With MEDUSA, statistical validation becomes a prerequisite for hypothesis generation and network building rather than a secondary consideration.

  5. History Circles: The Doing of Teaching History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sarah Drake

    2009-01-01

    Lesson planning is a critical task in the education of pre-service teachers, but the author has often questioned the extent to which traditional lesson plan formats truly contribute to the teaching and learning of history. Since current research in history education calls for an emphasis on building "historical thinking" skills and content…

  6. Economic analysis requirements in support of orbital debris regulatory policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Joel S.

    1996-10-01

    As the number of Earth orbiting objects increases so does the potential for generating orbital debris with the consequent increase in the likelihood of impacting and damaging operating satellites. Various debris remediation approaches are being considered that encompass both in-orbit and return-to-Earth schema and have varying degrees of operations, cost, international competitiveness, and safety implications. Because of the diversity of issues, concerns and long-term impacts, there is a clear need for the setting of government policies that will lead to an orderly abatement of the potential orbital debris hazards. These policies may require the establishment of a supportive regulatory regime. The Department of Transportation is likely to have regulatory responsibilities relating to orbital debris stemming from its charge to protect the public health and safety, safety of property, and national security interests and foreign policy interests of the United States. This paper describes DOT's potential regulatory role relating to orbital debris remediation, the myriad of issues concerning the need for establishing government policies relating to orbital debris remediation and their regulatory implications, the proposed technological solutions and their economic and safety implications. Particular emphasis is placed upon addressing cost-effectiveness and economic analyses as they relate to economic impact analysis in support of regulatory impact analysis.

  7. 76 FR 40200 - Semiannual Regulatory Flexibility Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... Semiannual Regulatory Flexibility Agenda AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION: Semiannual regulatory agenda. SUMMARY: The Board is issuing this agenda under the Regulatory Flexibility Act... rules the Board has selected for review under section 610(c) of the Regulatory Flexibility Act, and...

  8. Variable Renewable Energy: a Regulatory Roadmap (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-10-01

    There is not a one-size-fits-all approach to the regulation of variable renewable energy (VRE), but international experience reveals many approaches that are proving successful. Drawing upon research and experiences from various international contexts, the 21st Century Power Partnership in conjunction with the Clean Energy Solutions Center and Clean Energy Regulators Initiative identified key issues and ideas that have emerged as variable deployment has grown. The Power Partnership research, published in 2014, identified four broad categories of regulatory issues.

  9. Identification of regulatory modules in genome scale transcription regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qi; Grene, Ruth; Heath, Lenwood S; Li, Song

    2017-12-15

    In gene regulatory networks, transcription factors often function as co-regulators to synergistically induce or inhibit expression of their target genes. However, most existing module-finding algorithms can only identify densely connected genes but not co-regulators in regulatory networks. We have developed a new computational method, CoReg, to identify transcription co-regulators in large-scale regulatory networks. CoReg calculates gene similarities based on number of common neighbors of any two genes. Using simulated and real networks, we compared the performance of different similarity indices and existing module-finding algorithms and we found CoReg outperforms other published methods in identifying co-regulatory genes. We applied CoReg to a large-scale network of Arabidopsis with more than 2.8 million edges and we analyzed more than 2,300 published gene expression profiles to charaterize co-expression patterns of gene moduled identified by CoReg. We identified three types of modules in the Arabidopsis network: regulator modules, target modules and intermediate modules. Regulator modules include genes with more than 90% edges as out-going edges; Target modules include genes with more than 90% edges as incoming edges. Other modules are classified as intermediate modules. We found that genes in target modules tend to be highly co-expressed under abiotic stress conditions, suggesting this network struture is robust against perturbation. Our analysis shows that the CoReg is an accurate method in identifying co-regulatory genes in large-scale networks. We provide CoReg as an R package, which can be applied in finding co-regulators in any organisms with genome-scale regulatory network data.

  10. US regulatory system for genetically modified [genetically modified organism (GMO), rDNA or transgenic] crop cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHughen, Alan; Smyth, Stuart

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the history of the federal regulatory oversight of plant agricultural biotechnology in the USA, focusing on the scientific and political forces moulding the continually evolving regulatory structure in place today. Unlike most other jurisdictions, the USA decided to adapt pre-existing legislation to encompass products of biotechnology. In so doing, it established an overarching committee (Office of Science and Technology Policy) to study and distribute various regulatory responsibilities amongst relevant agencies: the Food and Drug Administration, Environmental Protection Agency and US Department of Agriculture. This paper reviews the history and procedures of each agency in the execution of its regulatory duties and investigates the advantages and disadvantages of the US regulatory strategy.

  11. Regulatory physiology discipline science plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The focus of the Regulatory Physiology discipline of the Space Physiology and Countermeasures Program is twofold. First, to determine and study how microgravity and associated factors of space flight affect the regulatory mechanisms by which humans adapt and achieve homeostasis and thereby regulate their ability to respond to internal and external signals; and, second, to study selected physiological systems that have been demonstrated to be influenced by gravity. The Regulatory Physiology discipline, as defined here, is composed of seven subdisciplines: (1) Circadian Rhythms, (2) Endocrinology, (3) Fluid and Electrolyte Regulation, (4) Hematology, (5) Immunology, (6) Metabolism and Nutrition, and (7) Temperature Regulation. The purpose of this Discipline Science Plan is to provide a conceptual strategy for NASA's Life Sciences Division research and development activities in the area of regulatory physiology. It covers the research areas critical to NASA's programmatic requirements for the Extended-Duration Orbiter, Space Station Freedom, and exploration mission science activities. These science activities include ground-based and flight; basic, applied, and operational; and animal and human research and development. This document summarizes the current status of the program, outlines available knowledge, establishes goals and objectives, identifies science priorities, and defines critical questions in regulatory physiology. It contains a general plan that will be used by both NASA Headquarters Program Offices and the field centers to review and plan basic, applied, and operational intramural and extramural research and development activities in this area.

  12. Anti-regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Mads Hald

    2017-04-01

    Our initial understanding of immune-regulatory cells was based on the discovery of suppressor cells that assure peripheral T-cell tolerance and promote immune homeostasis. Research has particularly focused on the importance of regulatory T cells (Tregs) for immune modulation, e.g. directing host responses to tumours or inhibiting autoimmunity development. However, recent studies report the discovery of self-reactive pro-inflammatory T cells-termed anti-regulatory T cells (anti-Tregs)-that target immune-suppressive cells. Thus, regulatory cells can now be defined as both cells that suppress immune reactions as well as effector cells that counteract the effects of suppressor cells and support immune reactions. Self-reactive anti-Tregs have been described that specifically recognize human leukocyte antigen-restricted epitopes derived from proteins that are normally expressed by regulatory immune cells, including indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), tryptophan 2,6-dioxygenase (TDO), programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), and forkhead box P3 (Foxp3). These proteins are highly expressed in professional antigen-presenting cells under various physiological conditions, such as inflammation and stress. Therefore, self-reactive T cells that recognize such targets may be activated due to the strong activation signal given by their cognate targets. The current review describes the existing knowledge regarding these self-reactive anti-Tregs, providing examples of antigen-specific anti-Tregs and discussing their possible roles in immune homeostasis and their potential future clinical applications.

  13. Regulatory focus and human values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keller Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article connects two approaches to the study of human motivation and behavior: The Schwartz model of human values and Higgins’ regulatory focus theory. Considering a prominent model of human motivation - the Rubicon Model of Action Phases - reveals that although both approaches refer to goals and standards as crucial constructs, human values are specifically relevant concerning the so-called deliberation and evaluation phases whereas selfregulatory orientations are specifically relevant concerning the volitional phases (i.e., planning and action. It may be due to the selective focus on specific aspects of human motivation that up to date hardly any (empirical work has tried to connect human values and selfregulatory orientations. The reported studies assessed the relation between the endorsement of values proposed in the Schwartz model of human values and individual differences in the two self-regulatory orientations (promotion and prevention proposed in regulatory focus theory. Findings reveal that prevention-focused self-regulation is positively related to conservation values (security, conformity and negatively related to values reflecting openness to change (stimulation, self-direction. Moreover, promotion-focused self-regulation was positively related to self-enhancement values (power, achievement and negatively related to values reflecting self-transcendence (universalism, benevolence. In addition, the observed relations were found using different instruments to measure human values and self-regulatory orientations. In combination, the observed findings support the proposed two-dimensional structure of the value system as well as fundamental assumptions of regulatory focus theory.

  14. Regulatory Expectations for Safety Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Su Jin; Oh, Jang Jin; Choi, Young Sung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The oversight of licensee's safety culture becomes an important issue that attracts great public and political concerns recently in Korea. Beginning from the intended violation of rules, a series of corruptions, documents forgery and disclosure of wrong-doings made the public think that the whole mindset of nuclear workers has been inadequate. Thus, they are demanding that safety culture shall be improved and that regulatory body shall play more roles and responsibilities for the improvements and oversight for them. This paper introduces, as an effort of regulatory side, recent changes in the role of regulators in safety culture, regulatory expectations on the desired status of licensee's safety culture, the pilot inspection program for safety culture and research activity for the development of oversight system. After the Fukushima accident in Japan 2011, many critics has searched for cultural factors that caused the unacceptable negligence pervaded in Japan nuclear society and the renewed emphasis has been placed on rebuilding safety culture by operators, regulators, and relevant institutions globally. Significant progress has been made in how to approach safety culture and led to a new perspective different from the existing normative assessment method both in operators and regulatory side. Regulatory expectations and oversight of them are based on such a new holistic concept for human, organizational and cultural elements to maintain and strengthen the integrity of defense in depth and consequently nuclear safety.

  15. Regulatory T cells in children undergoing rush venom immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajduk, Jakov; Turkalj, Mirjana; Gagro, Alenka

    2012-01-01

    Venom immunotherapy (VIT) induces immune tolerance to Hymenoptera venom but the underlying mechanisms are not clarified. Regulatory T cells are thought to play an important role in tolerance induction during specific immunotherapy. Our objective was to determine the effects of rush VIT on the percentage of regulatory T cells and immunosuppressive cytokines interleukin (IL)-10 and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) in children. Blood samples were collected from 18 children with a previous systemic allergic reaction to a Hymenoptera sting, with a positive skin test and positive specific IgE, before rush VIT, after 6 weeks and 6 months of rush VIT. Ten children with no history of venom allergy were studied as controls. Isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stained with specific markers for regulatory T cells and analyzed by flow cytometry. The percentage of regulatory T cells did not change during rush VIT in children. No change was noticed in the percentage of IL-10 and TGF-beta secreting cells after 6 weeks or 6 months of VIT. No difference in expression of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 on CD4(+)CD25(+high) was found. Rush VIT is a safe and effective treatment for patients allergic to Hymenoptera venom. Although regulatory T cells are considered to be responsible for this effect; no significant changes in the percentage of these cells or immunosuppressive cytokines were noticed during rush VIT in children. Additional investigations are needed to clarify the role of regulatory T cells in the induction of tolerance during rush VIT in children.

  16. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is Doing Blog: Public Health Matters Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min 38 sec) Watch Specific ...

  17. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is Doing Blog: Public Health Matters Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min 38 sec) Watch Specific ...

  18. "Hillary - en god historie"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2007-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Carl Bernsteins Hillary Rodham Clinton og Michael Ehrenreichs Hillary - En amerikansk historie Udgivelsesdato: 15. november......Anmeldelse af Carl Bernsteins Hillary Rodham Clinton og Michael Ehrenreichs Hillary - En amerikansk historie Udgivelsesdato: 15. november...

  19. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information Social Media Zombie Apocalypse What’s New Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... or can be used as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min ...

  20. Mere historie og kulturarv?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Marie Bonde; Brunbech, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Præsentation af HistorieLab og om folkeskolereformen og kulturinstitutionernes muligheder og udfordringer i samarbejdet med skolerne......Præsentation af HistorieLab og om folkeskolereformen og kulturinstitutionernes muligheder og udfordringer i samarbejdet med skolerne...

  1. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Social Media Zombie Apocalypse What’s New Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min 38 sec) Watch Specific ...

  2. History and Epic Poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Thomas N.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the use of epic poetry in a combined English/history humanities class. Concludes that epic poetry, the combination of history and verse, helps students understand the continuity and meaning of the Western tradition. (CFR)

  3. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CDC is Doing Blog: Public Health Matters Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... or can be used as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min ...

  4. Air pollution and global warming: history, science, and solutions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jacobson, Mark Z

    2012-01-01

    "New edition of full-color introductory textbook for students taking a course on air pollution or global warming, whatever their background"-- "This new edition of Mark Jacobson's textbook provides...

  5. 100 great problems of elementary mathematics their history and solution

    CERN Document Server

    Dorrie, Heinrich

    2013-01-01

    Problems that beset Archimedes, Newton, Euler, Cauchy, Gauss, Monge and other greats, ready to challenge today's would-be problem solvers. Among them: How is a sundial constructed? How can you calculate the logarithm of a given number without the use of logarithm table? No advanced math is required. Includes 100 problems with proofs.

  6. Canadian petroleum history bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2003-09-27

    The Petroleum History Bibliography includes a list of more than 2,000 publications that record the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. The list includes books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles, company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry, humour, and an author index. It was created over a period of several years to help with projects at the Petroleum History Society. It is an ongoing piece of work, and as such, invites comments and additions.

  7. Stormy Weather: 101 Solutions to Global Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauncey, Guy

    This document presents 101 solutions to global climate change. These solutions are actions that are well suited to every level of society. This book creates awareness about global climate change. The history of Earth and the greenhouse effect are discussed, and explanations and solutions to global climate change are provided including traveling…

  8. Diet History Questionnaire: Database Revision History

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following details all additions and revisions made to the DHQ nutrient and food database. This revision history is provided as a reference for investigators who may have performed analyses with a previous release of the database.

  9. Towards a European History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. van Dijk (Henk)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractAlthough historical writing is a profession with a long tradition, history as an academic discipline is strongly related to the development of the nation state in the nineteenth century. Notwithstanding specialisations like e.g. cultural history and social and economic history put less

  10. Mellem historie- og krigsvidenskab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen Schøning, Anna Sofie

    2016-01-01

    The article investigates how military history was taught as part of the Danish higher officer education from 1830 to 1920 and how the subject was affected by developments in academic history and the science of war. It argues that military history, as it was taught in the formal officer education...

  11. Subordinate regulatory mode and leader power: Interpersonal regulatory complementarity predicts task performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamstra, M.R.W.; Orehek, E.; Holleman, M.

    2014-01-01

    This research examines the implications of locomotion regulatory mode (orientation toward making progress on goals) and assessment regulatory mode (orientation toward critically evaluating alternatives) for employees' performance. Regulatory mode theory suggests that, although these are both

  12. 78 FR 54502 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of..., Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission... or manipulative motivation for the trading activity at issue.\\4\\ Specifically, proposed Supplementary...

  13. 77 FR 14454 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing and... From the Trade Reporting Obligation Under the Trade Reporting and Compliance Engine (``TRACE... Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission...

  14. Cyclodehydration reaction of polyhydrazides. III. Influence of the sample history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebben, B.; Rolevink, Hendrikus H.M.; Mulder, M.H.V.; Smolders, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of preparation history upon the thermal cyclodehydration reaction of polyhydrazide samples has been investigated. Solid polyhydrazide samples were prepared from DMSO solutions using the phase-inversion technique. Significant differences in conversion rates were observed between samples

  15. KSC History Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Patrick K.

    2003-01-01

    The 2003 NASA/ASEE KSC History Project focused on a series of six history initiatives designed to acquire, preserve, and interpret the history of Kennedy Space Center. These six projects included the completion of Voices From the Cape, historical work co-authored with NASA historian Roger Launius, the completion of a series of oral histories with key KSC personnel, expansion of monograph on Public Affairs into two comprehensive pieces on KSC press operations and KSC visitor operations, the expansion of KSC Historical Concept Maps (Cmap) for history knowledge preservation, the expansion of the KSC oral history program through the administration of an oral history workshop for KSC-based practitioners, and the continued collaborative relationships between Kennedy Space Center, the University of West Florida, the University of Central Florida and other institutions including the University of Louisiana at Lafayette.

  16. Portraying User Interface History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    2008-01-01

    The user interface is coming of age. Papers adressing UI history have appeared in fair amounts in the last 25 years. Most of them address particular aspects such as an in­novative interface paradigm or the contribution of a visionary or a research lab. Contrasting this, papers addres­sing UI...... history at large have been sparse. However, a small spate of publications appeared recently, so a reasonable number of papers are available. Hence this work-in-progress paints a portrait of the current history of user interfaces at large. The paper first describes a theoretical framework recruited from...... in that they largely address prevailing UI techno­logies, and thirdly history from above in that they focus on the great deeds of the visionaries. The paper then compares this state-of-art in UI history to the much more mature fields history of computing and history of technology. Based hereon, some speculations...

  17. Three concepts of history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Campillo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is twofold. On the one hand, I will outline the diverse usages that the concept of history has taken on throughout Western history. These different usages may be grouped together in three semantic fields (history as a way of knowing, as a way of being and as a way of doing, which correspond to three ways of understanding the Philosophy of History: as Epistemology of History, as Ontology of historicity and as ethical-political Critique of the present. On the other hand, I will show that these three concepts of history (and, accordingly, the three ways of understanding the Philosophy of History refer mutually to each other and, thus, are inseparable from each other.

  18. The Political Economy of Regulatory Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to explain the broader evolution of British merger control. To this end it outlines a novel critical political economy perspective on regulation and regulatory change which differs from established political economy approaches, such as the regulatory capitalism/state perspectives......, in three main ways: it places regulatory ideas at the heart of the analysis, it differentiates between different degrees of regulatory change, and it links regulatory change in delineated issue areas with changing power balances between fractions of capital and labor. The application of this perspective...... regulatory and ideational shift, was premised on the ascendancy of transnational capital....

  19. Private equity and regulatory capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongaerts, D.; Charlier, E.

    2009-01-01

    Regulatory capital requirements for European banks have been put forward in the Basel II Capital Framework and subsequently in the capital requirements directive (CRD) of the EU. We provide a detailed discussion of the capital requirements for private equity investments under different approaches.

  20. Radiation practices and regulatory control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The general principles to be observed in the regulatory control of ionizing radiation use and practices are specified in the guide. It also takes into account of additions and alterations needed for for compliance with the European Union (EU) directives that have not been mentioned in other STUK/ST-guides. (6 refs.).

  1. Creating a family health history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Family health history; Create a family health history; Family medical history ... include your: Genes Diet and exercise habits Environment Family members tend to share certain behaviors, genetic traits, ...

  2. Transcriptome sequencing from diverse human populations reveals differentiated regulatory architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia R Martin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale sequencing efforts have documented extensive genetic variation within the human genome. However, our understanding of the origins, global distribution, and functional consequences of this variation is far from complete. While regulatory variation influencing gene expression has been studied within a handful of populations, the breadth of transcriptome differences across diverse human populations has not been systematically analyzed. To better understand the spectrum of gene expression variation, alternative splicing, and the population genetics of regulatory variation in humans, we have sequenced the genomes, exomes, and transcriptomes of EBV transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from 45 individuals in the Human Genome Diversity Panel (HGDP. The populations sampled span the geographic breadth of human migration history and include Namibian San, Mbuti Pygmies of the Democratic Republic of Congo, Algerian Mozabites, Pathan of Pakistan, Cambodians of East Asia, Yakut of Siberia, and Mayans of Mexico. We discover that approximately 25.0% of the variation in gene expression found amongst individuals can be attributed to population differences. However, we find few genes that are systematically differentially expressed among populations. Of this population-specific variation, 75.5% is due to expression rather than splicing variability, and we find few genes with strong evidence for differential splicing across populations. Allelic expression analyses indicate that previously mapped common regulatory variants identified in eight populations from the International Haplotype Map Phase 3 project have similar effects in our seven sampled HGDP populations, suggesting that the cellular effects of common variants are shared across diverse populations. Together, these results provide a resource for studies analyzing functional differences across populations by estimating the degree of shared gene expression, alternative splicing, and

  3. The teaching of history through histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gabriela Calvas-Ojeda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The comic strips have been introduced into the world of history as a didactic resource for their learning; However, there are still shortcomings in their use by teachers, motivated on many occasions due to lack of knowledge and insufficient methodological preparation; The purpose of this work is to socialize knowledge related to these didactic resources to contribute to the didactic-methodological enrichment of the teacher, in order to change this attitude. The methodological strategy responds to the quantitative-qualitative paradigm; in the collection of the information a participant observation guide was used to the history classes and interview to a sample of 9 teachers of Third Degree of the schools of the city of Machala randomly selected. We recorded the observations of the knowledge acquired by the 98 students who received the classes mediated by comic strips, which allowed us to conclude that comics for the teaching and learning of History constitute a powerful didactic resource.

  4. Pollen Aquaporins: The Solute Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Di Giorgio, Juliana A; Soto, Gabriela C; Muschietti, Jorge P; Amodeo, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    In the recent years, the biophysical properties and presumed physiological role of aquaporins (AQPs) have been expanded to specialized cells where water and solute exchange are crucial traits. Complex but unique processes such as stomatal movement or pollen hydration and germination have been addressed not only by identifying the specific AQP involved but also by studying how these proteins integrate and coordinate cellular activities and functions. In this review, we referred specifically to pollen-specific AQPs and analyzed what has been assumed in terms of transport properties and what has been found in terms of their physiological role. Unlike that in many other cells, the AQP machinery in mature pollen lacks plasma membrane intrinsic proteins, which are extensively studied for their high water capacity exchange. Instead, a variety of TIPs and NIPs are expressed in pollen. These findings have altered the initial understanding of AQPs and water exchange to consider specific and diverse solutes that might be critical to sustaining pollen's success. The spatial and temporal distribution of the pollen AQPs also reflects a regulatory mechanism that allowing a properly adjusting water and solute exchange.

  5. Firms, regulatory uncertainty, and the natural environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcus, A.; Aragon-Correa, J.A.; Pinkse, J.

    2011-01-01

    This introduction presents a framework managers can use to deal with regulatory uncertainty and also introduces and summarizes how the papers in this special issue address what managers can expect, do, and gain from regulatory uncertainty.

  6. A Dual Egalitarian Solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, F.; Slikker, M.; Tijs, S.H.

    2000-01-01

    In this note we introduce an egalitarian solution, called the dual egalitarian solution, that is the natural counterpart of the egalitarian solution of Dutta and Ray (1989).We prove, among others, that for a convex game the egalitarian solution coincides with the dual egalitarian solution for its

  7. 76 FR 57791 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Instituting Proceedings To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... promoters and others intended to manipulate prices of Reverse Merger companies' securities higher to help... exciting growth companies from pursuing all available techniques to obtain the benefits of a public listed... commenter suggests Nasdaq review regulatory histories and financial arrangements with promoters, and refrain...

  8. Marine Environmental History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    This essay provides an overview of recent trends in the historiography of marine environmental history, a sub-field of environmental history which has grown tremendously in scope and size over the last c. 15 years. The object of marine environmental history is the changing relationship between...... human society and natural marine resources. Within this broad topic, several trends and objectives are discernable. The essay argue that the so-called material marine environmental history has its main focus on trying to reconstruct the presence, development and environmental impact of past fisheries...... and whaling operations. This ambition often entails a reconstruction also of how marine life has changed over time. The time frame rages from Paleolithicum to the present era. The field of marine environmental history also includes a more culturally oriented environmental history, which mainly has come...

  9. Medical marijuana 2010: it's time to fix the regulatory vacuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Peter J

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the history of assigning a banned status to medical marijuana; describes the politics of medical marijuana research; provides evidence of the scientifically demonstrated efficacy and safety of Cannabis for certain pathologic conditions; analyzes several vaguely worded state statutes governing the recommendation, distribution, and use of "medical marijuana" that render its use open to abuse; and recommends the development and enforcement of statutory and regulatory reforms that would bring state oversight of this drug into agreement with stringent federal regulation of other controlled substances with proven medical utility. © 2010 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  10. 76 FR 64043 - Iowa Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 915 Iowa Regulatory Program AGENCY...), are announcing receipt of a proposed amendment to the Iowa regulatory program (Iowa program) under the... regulatory program by updating its adoption by reference of applicable portions of the Code of Federal...

  11. Drug regulatory systems must foster innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, H.; Moors, E.H.M.; Leufkens, H.G.

    2011-01-01

    We support M.A. Hamburg’s plea for increased funding of regulatory science (“Advancing regulatory science,” Editorial, 25 February, p. 987). We also share her ambition to modernize the regulatory system and bring 21st-century science and technology to drug development and drug evaluations

  12. 78 FR 1708 - Regulatory Flexibility Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Ch. II Regulatory Flexibility Agenda AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION... rulemaking actions pursuant to the Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA) (Pub. L. 96-354, 94 Stat. 1164) (Sept. 19... of a Regulatory Flexibility Act analysis is required. The Commission's complete RFA agenda will be...

  13. 78 FR 44407 - Regulatory Flexibility Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Ch. II Regulatory Flexibility Agenda AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION... rulemaking actions pursuant to the Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA) (Pub. L. No. 96-354, 94 Stat. 1164) (Sep... of a Regulatory Flexibility Act analysis is required. The Commission's complete RFA agenda will be...

  14. 47 CFR 27.10 - Regulatory status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Regulatory status. 27.10 Section 27.10... COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 27.10 Regulatory status. The following rules apply concerning the regulatory status in the frequency bands specified in § 27.5. (a) Single authorization...

  15. 40 CFR 92.6 - Regulatory structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulatory structure. 92.6 Section 92... Regulations for Locomotives and Locomotive Engines § 92.6 Regulatory structure. This section provides an overview of the regulatory structure of this part. (a) The regulations of this part 92 are intended to...

  16. 40 CFR 94.6 - Regulatory structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulatory structure. 94.6 Section 94... for Compression-Ignition Marine Engines § 94.6 Regulatory structure. This section provides an overview of the regulatory structure of this part. (a) The regulations of this Part 94 are intended to control...

  17. Regulatory modules in the developing heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habets, Petra E. M. H.; Moorman, Antoon F. M.; Christoffels, Vincent M.

    2003-01-01

    Fragments of regulatory DNA of cardiac genes drive reporter gene expression in sometimes unexpected subdomains of the heart. These patterns have revealed that the regulatory DNA of genes consists of distinct subfragments (regulatory modules) that are active in different regions of the developing

  18. Family Health History and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diabetes Diabetes Risk Test Family Health History Quiz Family Health History Quiz Family health history is an ... health problems. Four Questions You Should Ask Your Family About Diabetes & Family Health History Knowing your family ...

  19. Ranking Economic History Journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    This study ranks - for the first time - 12 international academic journals that have economic history as their main topic. The ranking is based on data collected for the year 2007. Journals are ranked using standard citation analysis where we adjust for age, size and self-citation of journals. We...... also compare the leading economic history journals with the leading journals in economics in order to measure the influence on economics of economic history, and vice versa. With a few exceptions, our results confirm the general idea about what economic history journals are the most influential...

  20. Ranking economic history journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    2010-01-01

    This study ranks-for the first time-12 international academic journals that have economic history as their main topic. The ranking is based on data collected for the year 2007. Journals are ranked using standard citation analysis where we adjust for age, size and self-citation of journals. We also...... compare the leading economic history journals with the leading journals in economics in order to measure the influence on economics of economic history, and vice versa. With a few exceptions, our results confirm the general idea about what economic history journals are the most influential for economic...

  1. History: Hindrance to Unity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Robert J.

    1973-01-01

    Differing histories, racial compositions, economic interests, and present circumstances cut across the Mexican American people obliquely and work against a sense of ethnic identity or cultural nationalism. (Author)

  2. Public and popular history

    CERN Document Server

    De Groot, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    This interdisciplinary collection considers public and popular history within a global framework, seeking to understand considerations of local, domestic histories and the ways they interact with broader discourses. Grounded in particular local and national situations, the book addresses the issues associated with popular history in a globalised cultural world, such as: how the study of popular history might work in the future; new ways in which the terms 'popular' and 'public' might inform one another and nuance scholarship; transnational, intercultural models of 'pastness'; cultural translat

  3. Cooperative Station History Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  4. History matching through dynamic decision-making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina C B Cavalcante

    Full Text Available History matching is the process of modifying the uncertain attributes of a reservoir model to reproduce the real reservoir performance. It is a classical reservoir engineering problem and plays an important role in reservoir management since the resulting models are used to support decisions in other tasks such as economic analysis and production strategy. This work introduces a dynamic decision-making optimization framework for history matching problems in which new models are generated based on, and guided by, the dynamic analysis of the data of available solutions. The optimization framework follows a 'learning-from-data' approach, and includes two optimizer components that use machine learning techniques, such as unsupervised learning and statistical analysis, to uncover patterns of input attributes that lead to good output responses. These patterns are used to support the decision-making process while generating new, and better, history matched solutions. The proposed framework is applied to a benchmark model (UNISIM-I-H based on the Namorado field in Brazil. Results show the potential the dynamic decision-making optimization framework has for improving the quality of history matching solutions using a substantial smaller number of simulations when compared with a previous work on the same benchmark.

  5. Normative premises in regulatory theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuels, W.J.

    The concern of this article is to identify a ubiquitous problem (with a multiplicity of manifestations) inevitably encountered in the art of regulatory analysis. The problem is one of circularity; the analyst assumes something about the object to be determined that governs the determination. Thus, the first steps in analysis often carry commitments that significantly prefigure the decisional results. Typically, the assumption takes the form of an implicit antecedent normative premise embedded in a tool or concept. While normative premises are necessary and inevitable, the argument here is that they should be made as explicit as possible. This article attempts to answer two questions: (1) whater are we really doing when we use certain techniques of regulatory analysis; (2) in what ways do normative premises condition the conclusions reached. 33 references.

  6. Teaching Sport as History, History through Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Robert F.

    1978-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate history course based on two themes: sport as a reflection of society and sport as a socializing agent affecting society. The course focuses on sports and industrialization, traditional and modern sports, political and economic aspects of sport, and inequality and discrimination in sports. (Author/JK)

  7. Followers feel valued - When leaders' regulatory focus makes leaders exhibit behavior that fits followers' regulatory focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamstra, M.R.W.; Sassenberg, K.; van Yperen, N.W.; Wisse, B.

    2013-01-01

    When do followers feel valued by their leader? We propose that leaders' regulatory focus can make followers feel valued when leaders' regulatory focus is the same as followers' regulatory focus, that is, when there is regulatory fit between leaders and followers. We further propose that the reason

  8. 75 FR 17793 - Public Federal Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Hearing; Region III Regulatory Fairness Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... ADMINISTRATION Public Federal Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Hearing; Region III Regulatory Fairness Board.... Small Business Administration (SBA) Region III Regulatory Fairness Board and the SBA Office of the National Ombudsman will hold a National Regulatory Fairness Hearing on Tuesday, May 18, 2010, at 10 a.m...

  9. 78 FR 36011 - Region VII Regulatory Fairness Board; Federal Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... ADMINISTRATION Region VII Regulatory Fairness Board; Federal Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Hearing AGENCY: U.S... Business Regulatory Fairness Board. SUMMARY: The (SBA) Office of the National Ombudsman is issuing this notice to announce the location, date and time of the Regional Small Business Regulatory Fairness hearing...

  10. 75 FR 18245 - Public Federal Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Hearing Region IX Regulatory Fairness Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... ADMINISTRATION Public Federal Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Hearing Region IX Regulatory Fairness Board.... Small Business Administration (SBA) Region IX Regulatory Fairness Board and the SBA Office of the National Ombudsman will hold a National Regulatory Fairness Hearing on Monday, April 26, 2010, at 1:30 p.m...

  11. 78 FR 30384 - Federal Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Hearing; Region X Regulatory Fairness Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... ADMINISTRATION Federal Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Hearing; Region X Regulatory Fairness Board AGENCY: U.S... Business Regulatory Fairness Board. SUMMARY: The (SBA) Office of the National Ombudsman is issuing this notice to announce the location, date and time of the Regional Small Business Regulatory Fairness hearing...

  12. 75 FR 11166 - Joint Meeting of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Joint Meeting of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission; Notice of Joint Meeting of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the...

  13. Followers feel valued : When leaders' regulatory focus makes leaders exhibit behavior that fits followers' regulatory focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamstra, Melvyn; Sassenberg, K.; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Wisse, Barbara

    When do followers feel valued by their leader? We propose that leaders' regulatory focus can make followers feel valued when leaders' regulatory focus is the same as followers' regulatory focus, that is, when there is regulatory fit between leaders and followers. We further propose that the reason

  14. Technology competition and regulatory advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Boscheck, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    The importance of competition law as a policy lever to help the EU compete at the forefront of science and technology seems to have been overlooked by the Commission. As a consequence, the EU appears to be at a disadvantage to the USA in terms of the regulatory environment for intellectual property and licensing practices. This article examines these differences and explores the pros and cons of the European and American approaches to competition law, ultimately arguing in favour of regulator...

  15. Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The Keystone Center

    2005-06-15

    The Keystone Center convened and facilitated a year-long Dialogue on "Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions" to develop recommendations that will help address the difficult and contentious issues related to expansions of regional electric transmission systems that are needed for reliable and economic transmission of power within and across regions. This effort brought together a cross-section of affected stakeholders and thought leaders to address the problem with the collective wisdom of their experience and interests. Transmission owners sat at the table with consumer advocates and environmental organizations. Representatives from regional transmission organizations exchanged ideas with state and federal regulators. Generation developers explored common interests with public power suppliers. Together, the Dialogue participants developed consensus solutions about how to begin unraveling some of the more intractable issues surrounding identification of need, allocation of costs, and reaching consensus on siting issues that can frustrate the development of regional transmission infrastructure. The recommendations fall into three broad categories: 1. Recommendations on appropriate institutional arrangements and processes for achieving regional consensus on the need for new or expanded transmission infrastructure 2. Recommendations on the process for siting of transmission lines 3. Recommendations on the tools needed to support regional planning, cost allocation, and siting efforts. List of Dialogue participants: List of Dialogue Participants: American Electric Power American Transmission Company American Wind Energy Association California ISO Calpine Corporation Cinergy Edison Electric Institute Environmental Defense Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Great River Energy International Transmission Company ISO-New England Iowa Public Utility Board Kanner & Associates Midwest ISO National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners National Association

  16. Regulatory Myeloid Cells in Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosborough, Brian R.; Raïch-Regué, Dàlia; Turnquist, Heth R.; Thomson, Angus W.

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory myeloid cells (RMC) are emerging as novel targets for immunosuppressive (IS) agents and hold considerable promise as cellular therapeutic agents. Herein, we discuss the ability of regulatory macrophages (Mreg), regulatory dendritic cells (DCreg) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) to regulate alloimmunity, their potential as cellular therapeutic agents and the IS agents that target their function. We consider protocols for the generation of RMC and the selection of donor- or recipient-derived cells for adoptive cell therapy. Additionally, the issues of cell trafficking and antigen (Ag) specificity following RMC transfer are discussed. Improved understanding of the immunobiology of these cells has increased the possibility of moving RMC into the clinic to reduce the burden of current IS agents and promote Ag-specific tolerance. In the second half of this review, we discuss the influence of established and experimental IS agents on myeloid cell populations. IS agents believed historically to act primarily on T cell activation and proliferation are emerging as important regulators of RMC function. Better insights into the influence of IS agents on RMC will enhance our ability to develop cell therapy protocols to promote the function of these cells. Moreover, novel IS agents may be designed to target RMC in situ to promote Ag-specific immune regulation in transplantation and usher in a new era of immune modulation exploiting cells of myeloid origin. PMID:24092382

  17. Updated Regulatory Considerations for Nanomedicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subin, Sankarankutty; Vijayan, Venugopal; Kumar, Jaya Raja

    2017-06-14

    Nanomedicine is a branch which deals with medicinal products, devices, non-biological complex drugs and antibody-nanoparticle conjugates and general health products that are manufactured using nanotechnology. Nanomedicine provide the same efficacies as traditional medicines owing to their improved solubility and bioavailability with reduced dosages. However, there are currently safety concerns due to the difficulties related to nanomaterial characterization; this might be the reason for unawareness of such medicines among the patients. The absence of clear regulatory guidelines further complicates matters, as it makes the path to registering them with regulatory bodies difficult. However, some products have overcome these obstacles and have been registered. While there are many international initiatives to harmonize the regulatory requirements and helps the industry to determining the most important characteristics that influence in vivo product performance. This review focuses on the various types of nanopharmaceuticals, and developments process with strategies tailored to upcoming regulations may satisfy the patients' needs. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Navigation and history of science: Scurvy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The history of scurvy might be summarized in terms of mystery, death, tenacity and finally success. In this history three very important people deserve special mention, two of them were doctors, the other one was a famous navigator: Lind, Blane and Cook. The first one had the glory of having been the author of the first clinical trial, as we understand it nowadays, with all the criticisms that could be done at present. However, the joint effort of these three men led to the solution of something, which seemed to be an irresolvable mystery.

  19. Aggersborg through history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesdahl, Else

    2014-01-01

    Aggersborg's history from the time of the end of the circular fortress till the present day, with a focus on the late Viking Age and the Middle Ages......Aggersborg's history from the time of the end of the circular fortress till the present day, with a focus on the late Viking Age and the Middle Ages...

  20. HISTORY OF LEPROSY

    OpenAIRE

    Hanumanthayya; Manjunath; Anisha; Nida; Minakshi

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is one of the oldest and most dreaded diseases, which has tormented humans throughout history, leaving lasting impressions on religion, literature and art. If history is traced, evidence of leprosy is found in all the four Yugas of Hindu religion, quotes of Jesus in Bible of Christianity and verses of Prophet in Muslim religion.

  1. HISTORY OF LEPROSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanumanthayya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy is one of the oldest and most dreaded diseases, which has tormented humans throughout history, leaving lasting impressions on religion, literature and art. If history is traced, evidence of leprosy is found in all the four Yugas of Hindu religion, quotes of Jesus in Bible of Christianity and verses of Prophet in Muslim religion.

  2. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information Social Media Zombie Apocalypse What’s New Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This ... or can be used as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min ...

  3. History and Ecological Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, Abour H.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the main objectives of ecohistory and sources of information for this study. Details five themes that are important for students to know about the history of ecology including the history of Earth, fauna and flora, the human species, human civilization, and changes in the human environment. (CW)

  4. The Two World Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Ross E.

    2008-01-01

    In the arenas where the two world histories have taken shape, educators vigorously debate among themselves intellectual, pedagogical, and policy issues surrounding world history as a school subject. The people in each arena tend to share, despite internal disagreements, a common set of premises and assumptions for ordering the discussion of world…

  5. History of Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard; Gray, Jeremy

    Volume 1 in Theme on "History of Mathematics", in "Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), developed under the auspices of the UNESCO.......Volume 1 in Theme on "History of Mathematics", in "Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), developed under the auspices of the UNESCO....

  6. 75 FR 28073 - Draft Regulatory Guide: Issuance, Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Draft Regulatory Guide: Issuance, Availability AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of Issuance and Availability of Draft Regulatory Guide, DG-3039, ``Standard Format and Content for...

  7. Emerging hybridity: comparing UK healthcare regulatory arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnival, Joy; Walshe, Kieran; Boaden, Ruth

    2017-06-19

    Purpose Healthcare regulation is one means to address quality challenges in healthcare systems and is carried out using compliance, deterrence and/or improvement approaches. The four countries of the UK provide an opportunity to explore and compare different regulatory architecture and models. The purpose of this paper is to understand emerging regulatory models and associated tensions. Design/methodology/approach This paper uses qualitative methods to compare the regulatory architecture and models. Data were collected from documents, including board papers, inspection guidelines and from 48 interviewees representing a cross-section of roles from six organisational regulatory agencies. The data were analysed thematically using an a priori coding framework developed from the literature. Findings The findings show that regulatory agencies in the four countries of the UK have different approaches and methods of delivering their missions. This study finds that new hybrid regulatory models are developing which use improvement support interventions in parallel with deterrence and compliance approaches. The analysis highlights that effective regulatory oversight of quality is contingent on the ability of regulatory agencies to balance their requirements to assure and improve care. Nevertheless, they face common tensions in sustaining the balance in their requirements connected to their roles, relationships and resources. Originality/value The paper shows through its comparison of UK regulatory agencies that the development and implementation of hybrid models is complex. The paper contributes to research by identifying three tensions related to hybrid regulatory models; roles, resources and relationships which need to be managed to sustain hybrid regulatory models.

  8. The core regulatory network in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Man-Sun; Kim, Dongsan; Kang, Nam Sook; Kim, Jeong-Rae

    2017-03-04

    In order to discover the common characteristics of various cell types in the human body, many researches have been conducted to find the set of genes commonly expressed in various cell types and tissues. However, the functional characteristics of a cell is determined by the complex regulatory relationships among the genes rather than by expressed genes themselves. Therefore, it is more important to identify and analyze a core regulatory network where all regulatory relationship between genes are active across all cell types to uncover the common features of various cell types. Here, based on hundreds of tissue-specific gene regulatory networks constructed by recent genome-wide experimental data, we constructed the core regulatory network. Interestingly, we found that the core regulatory network is organized by simple cascade and has few complex regulations such as feedback or feed-forward loops. Moreover, we discovered that the regulatory links from genes in the core regulatory network to genes in the peripheral regulatory network are much more abundant than the reverse direction links. These results suggest that the core regulatory network locates at the top of regulatory network and plays a role as a 'hub' in terms of information flow, and the information that is common to all cells can be modified to achieve the tissue-specific characteristics through various types of feedback and feed-forward loops in the peripheral regulatory networks. We also found that the genes in the core regulatory network are evolutionary conserved, essential and non-disease, non-druggable genes compared to the peripheral genes. Overall, our study provides an insight into how all human cells share a common function and generate tissue-specific functional traits by transmitting and processing information through regulatory network. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The teaching of history through histories

    OpenAIRE

    María Gabriela Calvas-Ojeda; Enrique Espinoza-Freire

    2017-01-01

    The comic strips have been introduced into the world of history as a didactic resource for their learning; However, there are still shortcomings in their use by teachers, motivated on many occasions due to lack of knowledge and insufficient methodological preparation; The purpose of this work is to socialize knowledge related to these didactic resources to contribute to the didactic-methodological enrichment of the teacher, in order to change this attitude. The methodological strategy respond...

  10. Frequency of CD4+CD25high regulatory T cells in the peripheral blood of Egyptian children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Gehan A; Al Shehab, Abeer; Fouad, Nermeen R

    2010-03-01

    Autoimmunity may have a role in autism, although the origins of autoimmunity in autism are unknown. CD4( +)CD25(high) regulatory T cells play an important role in the establishment of immunological self-tolerance, thereby preventing autoimmunity. The authors are the first to study the frequency of CD4(+)CD25( high) regulatory T cells in the blood of 30 autistic and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy children. Patients with autism had significantly lower frequency of CD4(+)CD25(high) regulatory T cells than healthy children (P autism. Autistic patients with allergic manifestations (40%) and those with a family history of autoimmunity (53.3%) had a significantly lower frequency of CD4(+)CD25(high) regulatory T cells than those without (P autism. Deficiency of these cells may contribute to autoimmunity in a subgroup of children with autism. Consequently, CD4(+)CD25(high) regulatory T cells could be new potential therapeutic targets in these patients.

  11. Personal history, beyond narrative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster, Allan

    2017-01-01

    Narrative theories currently dominate our understanding of how selfhood is constituted and concretely individuated throughout personal history. Despite this success, the narrative perspective has recently been exposed to a range of critiques. Whilst these critiques have been effective in pointing...... out the shortcomings of narrative theories of selfhood, they have been less willing and able to suggest alternative ways of understanding personal history. In this article, I assess the criticisms and argue that an adequate phenomenology of personal history must also go beyond narrative. Drawing...

  12. Training related research and development conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    For a number of years Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has conducted a sizeable program of human factors research and development in support of the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The history of this effort has in many ways paralleled the growth of human factors R and D throughout the nuclear industry and the program has contributed to advances in the industry as well as to NRC regulatory and research programs. This paper reviews the major projects and products of the program relevant to training and concludes with an identification of future R and D needs.

  13. Regulatory Divergence between Parental Alleles Determines Gene Expression Patterns in Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Marie-Christine; Hueber, Yann; Dereeper, Alexis; Rialle, Stéphanie; Herrera, Juan-Carlos; Lashermes, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Both hybridization and allopolyploidization generate novel phenotypes by conciliating divergent genomes and regulatory networks in the same cellular context. To understand the rewiring of gene expression in hybrids, the total expression of 21,025 genes and the allele-specific expression of over 11,000 genes were quantified in interspecific hybrids and their parental species, Coffea canephora and Coffea eugenioides using RNA-seq technology. Between parental species, cis- and trans-regulatory divergences affected around 32% and 35% of analyzed genes, respectively, with nearly 17% of them showing both. The relative importance of trans-regulatory divergences between both species could be related to their low genetic divergence and perennial habit. In hybrids, among divergently expressed genes between parental species and hybrids, 77% was expressed like one parent (expression level dominance), including 65% like C. eugenioides. Gene expression was shown to result from the expression of both alleles affected by intertwined parental trans-regulatory factors. A strong impact of C. eugenioides trans-regulatory factors on the upregulation of C. canephora alleles was revealed. The gene expression patterns appeared determined by complex combinations of cis- and trans-regulatory divergences. In particular, the observed biased expression level dominance seemed to be derived from the asymmetric effects of trans-regulatory parental factors on regulation of alleles. More generally, this study illustrates the effects of divergent trans-regulatory parental factors on the gene expression pattern in hybrids. The characteristics of the transcriptional response to hybridization appear to be determined by the compatibility of gene regulatory networks and therefore depend on genetic divergences between the parental species and their evolutionary history. PMID:25819221

  14. Oral history database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Separately, each history provides an in depth view into the professional and personal lives of individual participants. Together, they have the power to illuminate...

  15. Water Level Station History

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Images contain station history information for 175 stations in the National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON). The NWLON is a network of long-term,...

  16. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be used as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min 38 sec) Watch Specific Segments of the Program Overview Anthrax Plague Smallpox Botulism Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers ...

  17. Personal history, beyond narrative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster, Allan

    2017-01-01

    Narrative theories currently dominate our understanding of how selfhood is constituted and concretely individuated throughout personal history. Despite this success, the narrative perspective has recently been exposed to a range of critiques. Whilst these critiques have been effective in pointing...... out the shortcomings of narrative theories of selfhood, they have been less willing and able to suggest alternative ways of understanding personal history. In this article, I assess the criticisms and argue that an adequate phenomenology of personal history must also go beyond narrative. Drawing...... on a distinction between history and narrative, I outline an account of historical becoming through a process of sedimentation and a rich notion of what I call historical selfhood on an embodied level. Five embodied existentials are suggested, sketching a preliminary understanding of how selves are concretely...

  18. Arizona transportation history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The Arizona transportation history project was conceived in anticipation of Arizonas centennial, which will be : celebrated in 2012. Following approval of the Arizona Centennial Plan in 2007, the Arizona Department of : Transportation (ADOT) recog...

  19. History of Lake Andes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Information about the history and management of Lake Andes is compiled in this report. It is intended to help future refuge managers become acquainted with the facts...

  20. GBM Accreting Pulsar Histories

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For each source we plot the history of pulse frequency and pulsed flux measured using the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) NaI detectors. For these measurements...

  1. History of entomopathogenic nematology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Poinar, Jr, G O; Grewal, P S

    2012-01-01

    The history of entomopathogenic nematology is briefly reviewed. Topic selections include early descriptions of members of Steinernema and Heterorhabditis, how only morphology was originally used to distinguish between the species...

  2. IUTAM a short history

    CERN Document Server

    Juhasz, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    This book presents extensive information related to the history of IUTAM. The initial chapters focus on IUTAM’s history and selected organizational aspects. Subsequent chapters provide extensive data and statistics, while the closing section showcases photos from all periods of the Union’s history. The history of IUTAM, the International Union on Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, began at a conference in 1922 in Innsbruck, Austria, where von Kármán put forward the idea of an international congress including the whole domain of applied mechanics. In 1946 IUTAM was then formally launched in Paris/France. IUTAM has since time organized more than 24 world congresses and 380 symposia, representing all fields of mechanics and highlighting advances by prominent international researchers. The efforts of IUTAM and its about 50 member countries serve to promote the mechanical sciences and the advancement of human society, addressing many key challenges. In this context, IUTAM preserves important traditions while...

  3. Revising History with Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Davis D.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a college-level United States history/ecology course which examined American attitudes toward the environment, environmental use and abuse, and the conservation movement. For journal availability, see SO 506 393. (Author/DB)

  4. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What CDC is Doing Blog: Public Health Matters Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This video describes the Category A diseases: smallpox, anthrax, botulism, ...

  5. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CDC A-Z SEARCH A B C D E F G H I J K L M ... Network (HAN) Laboratory Information Social Media Zombie Apocalypse What’s New Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on ...

  6. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min 38 sec) Watch ... Response," co-produced by the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), the Food and Drug ...

  7. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Preparedness What CDC is Doing Blog: Public Health Matters Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook ... Preparedness What CDC is Doing Blog: Public Health Matters File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  8. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min 38 sec) Watch Specific ... and Public Health Response," co-produced by the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), ...

  9. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min 38 sec) Watch ... Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the Centers for Disease Control ...

  10. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Laboratory Information Social Media Zombie Apocalypse What’s New Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This video describes the Category A diseases: smallpox, anthrax, botulism, ...

  11. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... yourself Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Situation Awareness Hurricanes Wildfire Flooding Earthquakes Volcanos Winter Weather Recent ... Risk Populations Health Alert Network (HAN) Laboratory Information Social Media Zombie Apocalypse What’s New Video: "The History ...

  12. Regulatory Issues Surrounding Merchant Interconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuijlaars, Kees-Jan; Zwart, Gijsbert [Office for Energy Regulation (DTe), The Hague (Netherlands)

    2003-11-01

    We discussed various issues concerning the regulatory perspective on private investment in interconnectors. One might claim that leaving investment in transmission infrastructure to competing market parties is more efficient than relying on regulated investment only (especially in the case of long (DC) lines connecting previously unconnected parts of the grids, so that externalities from e.g. loop flows do not play a significant role). We considered that some aspects of interconnection might reduce these market benefits. In particular, the large fixed costs of interconnection construction may lead to significant under investment (due to both first mover monopoly power and the fact that part of generation cost efficiencies realised by interconnection are not captured by the investor itself, and remain external to the investment decision). Second, merchant ownership restricts future opportunities for adaptation of regulation, as would be required e.g. for introduction of potentially more sophisticated methods of congestion management or market splitting. Some of the disadvantages of merchant investment may be mitigated however by a suitable regulatory framework, and we discussed some views in this direction. The issues we discussed are not intended to give a complete framework, and detailed regulation will certainly involve many more specific requirements. Areas we did not touch upon include e.g. the treatment of deep connection costs, rules for operation and maintenance of the line, and impact on availability of capacity on other interconnections.

  13. Knowledge management and history

    OpenAIRE

    Ermine, Jean-Louis; Pauget, Bertrand; Beretti, Annie; Tortorici, Gilbert

    2004-01-01

    International audience; Capitalisation of the history of a technology, a technique or a concept within an industrial company is relevant to historians. However it largely exceeds the historical problems from a Knowledge Management point of view. In this context, it can be the subject of specific approaches especially Knowledge Engineering. However, it faces two types of difficulties: - The techniques in History have few modelling tools, and are even rather reticent with the use of such tools....

  14. Transformation of History textbooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haue, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler danske og tyske lærebøger i historie over de seneste to århundreder med hensyn til deres vægtning af det nationale og det globale stof.......Artiklen omhandler danske og tyske lærebøger i historie over de seneste to århundreder med hensyn til deres vægtning af det nationale og det globale stof....

  15. Economics, History, and Causation

    OpenAIRE

    Randall Morck; Bernard Yeung

    2011-01-01

    Economics and history both strive to understand causation: economics using instrumental variables econometrics and history by weighing the plausibility of alternative narratives. Instrumental variables can lose value with repeated use because of an econometric tragedy of the commons bias: each successful use of an instrument potentially creates an additional latent variable bias problem for all other uses of that instrument - past and future. Economists should therefore consider historians' a...

  16. The regulatory contract and restructuring: A modest proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, R.S. [Cambridge Economics Inc., MA (United States); Tabors, R. [Tabors Caramanis and Associates, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-12-01

    History does not support the notion that the regulatory contract has treated utilities unfairly. But to the extent it is decided, for other reasons, that utilities should receive transition payments as the industry is pushed to a more competitive framework, there are four important principles to keep firmly in mind. To paraphrase the contemporary bumper sticker, `in the economic, social and/or romantic affairs of man and/or woman, unexpected events happen.` A more thoughtful interpretation of this notion would be that in economic and social interrelationships, individuals formulate behavioral plans based upon expectations about the state of the world and/or the behavior of other individuals. Should those expectations turn out to be incorrect, the individuals relying upon those expectations and their plans will be frustrated. The frustrated individuals may rail against their fate; they may accept their disappointment stoically. They may `take arms against a sea of troubles, and by opposing end them.` Alternatively and more likely in late twentieth century America, they may litigate (or threaten litigation) for breach of contract, claiming that some implicit or explicit, oral or written contract has been breached and that reliance upon that contract has consequently damaged them. The discussion of assets potentially stranded by the ongoing restructuring of the U.S. electric power industry has been characterized by the latter response. As some utilities have faced the possible economic obsolescence of particular generation assets in light of technological changes and altered regulatory rules, they have invoked the notion of a `regulatory contract` having governed their expectations, behavior and past capital investment. By implication, these utilities argue that they should be fully compensated for all cost incurred under good faith adherence to past regulatory processes and procedures.

  17. Global Summit on Regulatory Science 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Paul C; Tong, Weida; Weichold, Frank; Healy, Marion; Slikker, William

    2014-12-01

    Regulatory science has been defined as the science that is used to develop regulatory decisions by government bodies. Regulatory science encompasses many scientific disciplines that oversee many studies producing a wide array of data. These may include fundamental research into the cellular interaction or response to a particular chemical or substance, hazard-assessment and dose-response studies in animal species, neurophysiological or neurobehavioral studies, best practices for the generation and analysis of genomics data, bioinformatics approaches, and mathematical modeling of risk. The Global Summit on Regulatory Science is an international conference with a mission to explore emerging and innovative technologies, and provide a platform to enhance translation of basic science into regulatory applications. The Third Global Summit on Regulatory Science which focused on nanotechnology is discussed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. A Proposed Solution to the Scholarly Communications Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatzle, Chad

    2005-01-01

    After reviewing the history and parameters of the scholarly communications crisis, particularly in regard to skyrocketing prices for journals in the natural sciences, the author reviews and rejects previously attempted solutions. He then employs the principles of game theory in proposing a new solution to the crisis.

  19. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  20. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, November 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.

    1991-12-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  1. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, December 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlbert, L.M.; Langston, M.E. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA)); Nikbakht, A.; Salk, M.S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  2. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, October 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.

    1991-11-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  3. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, August 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, L.M., Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.

    1991-09-01

    This Environmental Regulatory Update Table (August 1991) provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  4. Environmental regulatory update table, March 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, L.; Langston, M.E.; Nikbakht, A.; Salk, M.S.

    1989-04-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  5. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.

    1991-10-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  6. Gradient descent optimization in gene regulatory pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Mouli; Mukhopadhyay, Subhasis; De, Rajat K

    2010-09-03

    Gene Regulatory Networks (GRNs) have become a major focus of interest in recent years. Elucidating the architecture and dynamics of large scale gene regulatory networks is an important goal in systems biology. The knowledge of the gene regulatory networks further gives insights about gene regulatory pathways. This information leads to many potential applications in medicine and molecular biology, examples of which are identification of metabolic pathways, complex genetic diseases, drug discovery and toxicology analysis. High-throughput technologies allow studying various aspects of gene regulatory networks on a genome-wide scale and we will discuss recent advances as well as limitations and future challenges for gene network modeling. Novel approaches are needed to both infer the causal genes and generate hypothesis on the underlying regulatory mechanisms. In the present article, we introduce a new method for identifying a set of optimal gene regulatory pathways by using structural equations as a tool for modeling gene regulatory networks. The method, first of all, generates data on reaction flows in a pathway. A set of constraints is formulated incorporating weighting coefficients. Finally the gene regulatory pathways are obtained through optimization of an objective function with respect to these weighting coefficients. The effectiveness of the present method is successfully tested on ten gene regulatory networks existing in the literature. A comparative study with the existing extreme pathway analysis also forms a part of this investigation. The results compare favorably with earlier experimental results. The validated pathways point to a combination of previously documented and novel findings. We show that our method can correctly identify the causal genes and effectively output experimentally verified pathways. The present method has been successful in deriving the optimal regulatory pathways for all the regulatory networks considered. The biological

  7. Environmental regulatory update table, July 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.

    1991-08-01

    This Environmental Regulatory Update Table (July 1991) provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  8. Gene Regulatory Network Reconstruction Using Conditional Mutual Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Wang

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The inference of gene regulatory network from expression data is an important area of research that provides insight to the inner workings of a biological system. The relevance-network-based approaches provide a simple and easily-scalable solution to the understanding of interaction between genes. Up until now, most works based on relevance network focus on the discovery of direct regulation using correlation coefficient or mutual information. However, some of the more complicated interactions such as interactive regulation and coregulation are not easily detected. In this work, we propose a relevance network model for gene regulatory network inference which employs both mutual information and conditional mutual information to determine the interactions between genes. For this purpose, we propose a conditional mutual information estimator based on adaptive partitioning which allows us to condition on both discrete and continuous random variables. We provide experimental results that demonstrate that the proposed regulatory network inference algorithm can provide better performance when the target network contains coregulated and interactively regulated genes.

  9. Regulatory Information by Topic: Emergency Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulatory information about emergencies, including chemical accident prevention, risk management plans (RMPs), chemical reporting, community right to know, and oil spills and hazardous substances releases.

  10. BRNI: Modular analysis of transcriptional regulatory programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachman Iftach

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcriptional responses often consist of regulatory modules – sets of genes with a shared expression pattern that are controlled by the same regulatory mechanisms. Previous methods allow dissecting regulatory modules from genomics data, such as expression profiles, protein-DNA binding, and promoter sequences. In cases where physical protein-DNA data are lacking, such methods are essential for the analysis of the underlying regulatory program. Results Here, we present a novel approach for the analysis of modular regulatory programs. Our method – Biochemical Regulatory Network Inference (BRNI – is based on an algorithm that learns from expression data a biochemically-motivated regulatory program. It describes the expression profiles of gene modules consisting of hundreds of genes using a small number of regulators and affinity parameters. We developed an ensemble learning algorithm that ensures the robustness of the learned model. We then use the topology of the learned regulatory program to guide the discovery of a library of cis-regulatory motifs, and determined the motif compositions associated with each module. We test our method on the cell cycle regulatory program of the fission yeast. We discovered 16 coherent modules, covering diverse processes from cell division to metabolism and associated them with 18 learned regulatory elements, including both known cell-cycle regulatory elements (MCB, Ace2, PCB, ACCCT box and novel ones, some of which are associated with G2 modules. We integrate the regulatory relations from the expression- and motif-based models into a single network, highlighting specific topologies that result in distinct dynamics of gene expression in the fission yeast cell cycle. Conclusion Our approach provides a biologically-driven, principled way for deconstructing a set of genes into meaningful transcriptional modules and identifying their associated cis-regulatory programs. Our analysis sheds

  11. 21 CFR 26.18 - Regulatory collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.18 Regulatory collaboration...

  12. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Regions. FERC is an independent agency that regulates the interstate transmission of electricity, natural gas, and oil....

  13. A coordination challenge among multiple regulatory objectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuisen, B.M.

    2010-01-01

    Do multiple regulatory objectives put network companies in a position to prioritize? New empirical insights show that intentional balancing of conflicts is far from assured in infrastructure operations.

  14. Regionalization as an approach to regulatory systems strengthening: a case study in CARICOM member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Charles; Chahal, Harinder S; Porrás, Analia; Cargill, Lucette; Hinds, Maryam; Olowokure, Babatunde; Cummings, Rudolph; Hospedales, James

    2016-05-01

    Improving basic capacities for regulation of medicines and health technologies through regulatory systems strengthening is particularly challenging in resource-constrained settings. "Regionalization"-an approach in which countries with common histories, cultural values, languages, and economic conditions work together to establish more efficient systems-may be one answer. This report describes the Caribbean Regulatory System (CRS), a regionalization initiative being implemented in the mostly small countries of the Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM). This initiative is an innovative effort to strengthen regulatory systems in the Caribbean, where capacity is limited compared to other subregions of the Americas. The initiative's concept and design includes a number of features and steps intended to enhance sustainability in resource-constrained contexts. The latter include 1) leveraging existing platforms for centralized cooperation, governance, and infrastructure; 2) strengthening regulatory capacities with the largest potential public health impact; 3) incorporating policies that promote reliance on reference authorities; 4) changing the system to encourage industry to market their products in CARICOM (e.g., using a centralized portal of entry to reduce regulatory burdens); and 5) building human resource capacity. If implemented properly, the CRS will be self-sustaining through user fees. The experience and lessons learned thus far in implementing this initiative, described in this report, can serve as a case study for the development of similar regulatory strengthening initiatives in resource-constrained environments.

  15. Is Hartmann's the solution?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    White S.A; Goldhill D.R

    1997-01-01

    As Hartmann's solution is commonly used by anaesthetists, we surveyed a group of Part III FRCA candidates to establish their knowledge of its constituents and the purpose and metabolism of the lactate in solution...

  16. Reconsidering Schwarzschild's original solution

    OpenAIRE

    Antoci, S; Liebscher, D. -E.

    2001-01-01

    We analyse the Schwarzschild solution in the context of the historical development of its present use, and explain the invariant definition of a singular surface at the Schwarzschild's radius, that can be applied to the Kerr-Newman solution too.

  17. PFP solution stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aftanas, B.L.

    1996-04-30

    This Functional Design Criteria (FDC) addresses remediation of the plutonium-bearing solutions currently in inventory at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The recommendation from the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is that the solutions be treated thermally and stabilized as a solid for long term storage. For solutions which are not discardable, the baseline plan is to utilize a denitration process to stabilize the solutions prior to packaging for storage.

  18. Making history critical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learmonth, Mark

    2017-08-21

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore a possible discursive history of National Health Service (NHS) "management" (with management, for reasons that will become evident, very much in scare quotes). Such a history is offered as a complement, as well as a counterpoint, to the more traditional approaches that have already been taken to the history of the issue. Design/methodology/approach Document analysis and interviews with UK NHS trust chief executives. Findings After explicating the assumptions of the method it suggests, through a range of empirical sources that the NHS has undergone an era of administration, an era of management and an era of leadership. Research limitations/implications The paper enables a recasting of the history of the NHS; in particular, the potential for such a discursive history to highlight the interests supported and denied by different representational practices. Practical implications Today's so-called leaders are leaders because of conventional representational practices - not because of some essence about what they really are. Social implications New ideas about the nature of management. Originality/value The value of thinking in terms of what language does - rather than what it might represent.

  19. European Television History Online: History And Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja de Leeuw

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly television heritage is being digitized and made accessible to non- industry user, enabling ‘the archival turn’: the study of online archives so as to revisit the dominant discourses in television historiography. This article discusses both conceptual and practical perspectives on online television heritage within a broader European frame- work. It starts from the notion of connectivity, pointing to the development of the archive as a network of connections and continues to address the dynamics involved in the trans- formation of the television archive into an online presentation including the most relevant actors. With the help of examples from Dutch and European television heritage projects the article discusses how the new archive is capable of mediating between the past and present, between history and memory, between curatorial perspectives and popular uses. It concludes on the challenges that (European online television heritage offers in the field of television historiography and theory.

  20. Discovery of regulatory elements is improved by a discriminatory approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eivind Valen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A major goal in post-genome biology is the complete mapping of the gene regulatory networks for every organism. Identification of regulatory elements is a prerequisite for realizing this ambitious goal. A common problem is finding regulatory patterns in promoters of a group of co-expressed genes, but contemporary methods are challenged by the size and diversity of regulatory regions in higher metazoans. Two key issues are the small amount of information contained in a pattern compared to the large promoter regions and the repetitive characteristics of genomic DNA, which both lead to "pattern drowning". We present a new computational method for identifying transcription factor binding sites in promoters using a discriminatory approach with a large negative set encompassing a significant sample of the promoters from the relevant genome. The sequences are described by a probabilistic model and the most discriminatory motifs are identified by maximizing the probability of the sets given the motif model and prior probabilities of motif occurrences in both sets. Due to the large number of promoters in the negative set, an enhanced suffix array is used to improve speed and performance. Using our method, we demonstrate higher accuracy than the best of contemporary methods, high robustness when extending the length of the input sequences and a strong correlation between our objective function and the correct solution. Using a large background set of real promoters instead of a simplified model leads to higher discriminatory power and markedly reduces the need for repeat masking; a common pre-processing step for other pattern finders.

  1. Multicapillary mixer of solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, G W; Bowman, R L

    1966-07-22

    A mixer made from a bundle of glass tubules can mix two solutions within 30 microseconds, with a total-solution flow rate of 1.33 milliliters per second. One solution passes through the interstices of the bundle; the other moves through the lumens of the tubes.

  2. 75 FR 2897 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... the Purpose of, and Statutory Basis for, the Proposed Rule Change 1. Purpose As part of the process of...-regulatory organization consents, the Commission will: (A) by order approve such proposed rule change, or (B... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of...

  3. 78 FR 49313 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of..., 2013, Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (``FINRA'') filed with the Securities and Exchange.... The inclusion of a rule in FINRA's MRVP does not minimize the importance of compliance with such rule...

  4. 78 FR 3925 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of... Revise the Public Arbitrator Definition January 11, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the Securities.... Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance of the Proposed Rule Change FINRA is...

  5. 77 FR 65434 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Amend the Definition of ``Money Market Instrument'' in.... \\3\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4(f)(6). ] I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance...

  6. 77 FR 76129 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Add the Term Chief Legal Officer to the Definition of... administration of the self-regulatory organization under Section 19(b)(3)(A)(iii) of the Act\\3\\ and Rule 19b-4(f...

  7. 76 FR 26333 - National Federal Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Hearing Region III Regulatory Fairness Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION National Federal Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Hearing Region III Regulatory Fairness Board... III) Small Business Regulatory Fairness Board. SUMMARY: The SBA, Office of the National Ombudsman is... Fairness Hearing. This hearing is open to the public. DATES: The hearing will be held on Tuesday, May 24...

  8. 76 FR 62128 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change to Amend Certain Trade Reporting and Compliance Rules September 30, 2011. Pursuant to... is hereby given that on September 22, 2011, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc...

  9. 77 FR 70515 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... statements in the fee chart to use a single term, ``display application,'' to describe uniformly a software... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing and... November 7, 2012, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') filed with the Securities...

  10. 77 FR 47470 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Withdrawal of Proposed Rule Change To Adopt FINRA Rule 2231 (Customer Account Statements) in the Consolidated FINRA Rulebook August 2, 2012. On April 22, 2009, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc...

  11. 75 FR 53998 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Amend the Security Futures Risk Disclosure Statement... Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on August 16, 2010, Financial Industry Regulatory...

  12. To betray art history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Emerling

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The work of Donald Preziosi represents one of the most sustained and often brilliant attempts to betray the modern discipline of art history by exposing its skillful shell game: precisely how and why it substitutes artifice, poetry, and representational schemes for putative facticity and objectivity (that desirous and yet ever elusive Kunstwissenschaft that art historians prattle on about. This attempt is inseparable from a sinuous, witty, involutive writing style that meanders between steely insight and coy suggestions of how art history could be performed otherwise. Preziosi’s writes art history. In doing so he betrays its disciplinary desires. It is this event of betrayal that has made his work so exciting to some, so troubling to others.

  13. History and Super Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Hawkey

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article looks at the perspectives on history amongst adolescent children of different backgrounds living in inner-cities in England and builds on previous research in this area. The current article presents exploratory research which focuses on the views of particular groups of adolescents, namely those from long established settled immigrant communities; those from more recently arrived migrant and immigrant communities; and those from white indigenous communities. An inclusive, perspectival and dynamic approach towards history education is outlined and the underlying view of knowledge and implications for pedagogy of this approach discussed alongside comparisons with other approaches towards the subject. The exploratory work and analysis is used to generate a research agenda through which history for a super diverse society can be developed. Although the research was conducted in the English context, the issues it raises are pertinent elsewhere.

  14. History of psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review The present review examines recent contributions to the evolving field of historical writing in psychiatry. Recent findings Interest in the history of psychiatry continues to grow, with an increasing emphasis on topics of current interest such as the history of psychopharmacology, electroconvulsive therapy, and the interplay between psychiatry and society. The scope of historical writing in psychiatry as of 2007 is as broad and varied as the discipline itself. Summary More than in other medical specialties such as cardiology or nephrology, treatment and diagnosis in psychiatry are affected by trends in the surrounding culture and society. Studying the history of the discipline provides insights into possible alternatives to the current crop of patent-protected remedies and trend-driven diagnoses. PMID:18852567

  15. History of echinostomes (Trematoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Rafael; Radev, Valentin; Kanev, Ivan; Gardner, Scott L; Fried, Bernard

    2014-10-01

    Echinostomatidae (Trematoda) is the largest family within the class Trematoda. Members of this family have been studied for many years in relation to their utility as basic research models in biodiversity and systematics and also as experimental models in parasitology since they offer many advantages. Echinostomes have contributed significantly to numerous developments in many areas studied by parasitologists and experimental biologists. In this review, we examine the history of the echinostomebased studies from the beginnings to the present. For this purpose, we have divided the history of echinostomes into four periods (i.e. 18(th) and 19(th) centuries, first half of the 20(th) century, second half of the 20(th) century and the late 20(th) and 21(th) century) according to the types of studies performed in each of them. Moreover, we also briefly review the history of echinostome infections in humans.

  16. User Interface History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms; Myers, Brad A

    2008-01-01

    User Interfaces have been around as long as computers have existed, even well before the field of Human-Computer Interaction was established. Over the years, some papers on the history of Human-Computer Interaction and User Interfaces have appeared, primarily focusing on the graphical interface era...... and early visionaries such as Bush, Engelbart and Kay. With the User Interface being a decisive factor in the proliferation of computers in society and since it has become a cultural phenomenon, it is time to paint a more comprehensive picture of its history. This SIG will investigate the possibilities...... of  launching a concerted effort towards creating a History of User Interfaces. ...

  17. Inhibition of Regulatory Volume Decrease Enhances the Cytocidal Effect of Hypotonic Shock in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudou, Michihiro; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Kosuga, Toshiyuki; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Konishi, Hirotaka; Morimura, Ryo; Komatsu, Shuhei; Ikoma, Hisashi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Okamoto, Kazuma; Hosogi, Shigekuni; Nakahari, Takashi; Marunaka, Yoshinori; Otsuji, Eigo

    2016-01-01

    Background : Hypotonic shock induces cytocidal effects through cell rupture, and cancer therapy based on this mechanism has been clinically administered to hepatocellular carcinoma patients. We herein investigated the effectiveness of hypotonic shock combined with the inhibition of regulatory volume decrease as cancer therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods : Morphological changes in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines were observed under a differential interference contrast microscope connected to a high-speed digital video camera. Cell volume changes under hypotonic shock with or without chloride, potassium, or water channel blockers were observed using a high-resolution flow cytometer. In order to investigate cytocidal effects, the number of surviving cells was compared after exposure to hypotonic solution with and without each channel blocker (re-incubation experiment). Results : Video recordings showed that cells exposed to distilled water rapidly swelled and then ruptured. Cell volume measurements revealed regulatory volume decrease under mild hypotonic shock, whereas severe hypotonic shock increased the number of broken fragments as a result of cell rupture. Moreover, regulatory volume decrease was inhibited in cells treated with each channel blocker. Re-incubation experiments showed the cytocidal effects of hypotonic shock in cells exposed to hypotonic solution, and additional treatments with each channel blocker enhanced these effects. Conclusion : The inhibition of regulatory volume decrease with chloride, potassium, or water channel blockers may enhance the cytocidal effects of hypotonic shock in hepatocellular carcinoma. Hypotonic shock combined with the inhibition of regulatory volume decrease was a more effective therapy than hypotonic shock alone.

  18. History and National Development | Oyeranmi | Journal of History ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Volumes of works have been written on the subject of the relevance of history to national development in Nigeria. To „.non historians.. history teaches no particular skill “since the primary focus of history is the past... Does history still serve any purpose especially in the 21st century? What are those values embedded in ...

  19. History, Memory and Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    In this paper I discuss history and memory from a theoretical and philosophical point of view and the non-fiction and fiction aspects of historical representation. I use Edgar Reitz’ monumental work Heimat 1-3 (and his recent film Die Andere Heimat) as examples of very different transformative...... historical narratives. In terms of narrative construction and aesthetic form the Heimat-project challenges the dominant forms of historical fiction. By combining personal memory, everyday life and collective memory and a more indirect way of representing factual history Reitz wants to transform our look...

  20. Solutions to Organizational Paradox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin; Worm, Verner; Peihong, Xie

    Organizations face all kinds of paradoxical problems. There exist various solutions to organizational paradoxes. We develop a typology that lists nine possible logical approaches to understanding the relationship between paradoxical opposites, out of which we identify five types of solutions...... to organizational paradox. Four of the five solutions are explicitly associated with four prominent philosophies. We show the relevance of the five solutions to the real world by applying our scheme to understand different solutions to the generic strategy paradox. Finally, we address the question whether...

  1. Transcriptional regulatory proteins as biosensing tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Kendrick; Joel, Smita; Feliciano, Jessika; Feltus, Agatha; Pasini, Patrizia; Wynn, Daniel; Dau, Peter; Dikici, Emre; Deo, Sapna K; Daunert, Sylvia

    2017-06-22

    We have developed sensing systems employing different classes of transcriptional regulatory proteins genetically and chemically modified to incorporate a fluorescent reporter molecule for detection of arsenic, hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs), and cyclic AMP (cAMP). These are the first examples of optical sensing systems based on transcriptional regulatory proteins.

  2. Street-level Bureaucrats and Regulatory Deterrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Søren C.; J. May, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This chapter considers the role of street-level bureaucrats in regulatory deterrence. The empirical foci are the degrees and ways with which regulatory inspectors shape regulated entities’ perceptions that noncompliance will be detected. These are examined using data about the enforcement of and ...

  3. m-government legal and regulatory framework

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wondwossen Mulugeta

    CURRENT E-GOVERNMENT. REGULATORY ELEMENTS. In an attempt to regulate the e-Government and. ICT related initiatives the Ethiopian government has been engaged in producing some regulatory and legal documents. These legal document include: e-Signature law, e-Commerce law, data protection act, value ...

  4. 12 CFR 233.7 - Regulatory enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulatory enforcement. 233.7 Section 233.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM PROHIBITION ON FUNDING OF UNLAWFUL INTERNET GAMBLING (REGULATION GG) § 233.7 Regulatory enforcement. The...

  5. Department of Interior Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... Part IX Department of the Interior Semiannual Regulatory Agenda ] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (DOI) DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary 25 CFR Ch. I 30 CFR Chs. II and VII 36 CFR Ch. I 43 CFR... the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Semiannual regulatory agenda. SUMMARY: This notice provides the...

  6. Regulatory Reform: Low Risk, High Promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanenbaum, Morris

    The press of telecommunication technologies and their progeny have undermined the natural monopoly basis for long distance telecommunications and customer premise products, forced open regulatory doors, toppled barriers to market entry, and led to the reshaping of regulatory philosophy as regulators have seen new, wider horizons for the industry.…

  7. 49 CFR 355.21 - Regulatory review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Regulatory review. 355.21 Section 355.21... AND REGULATIONS AFFECTING INTERSTATE MOTOR CARRIER OPERATIONS Requirements § 355.21 Regulatory review... review are provided in the appendix to this part. (b) Responsibility. The State agency designated as lead...

  8. Regulatory Hybridization in the Transnational Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybridization has become a defining feature of regulatory frameworks. The combined forces of globalization and privatization together with increased reliance on self-regulation have resulted in the emergence of a multitude of regulatory arrangements which combine elements from several legal orders...

  9. 77 FR 8072 - Semiannual Regulatory Flexibility Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    .... II Semiannual Regulatory Flexibility Agenda AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System... Flexibility Act and the Board's Statement of Policy Regarding Expanded Rulemaking Procedures. The Board... Regulatory Flexibility Act, and public comment is invited on those entries. The complete Unified Agenda will...

  10. 49 CFR 211.5 - Regulatory docket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Regulatory docket. 211.5 Section 211.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE General § 211.5 Regulatory docket. (a)(1) Records of the...

  11. 49 CFR 5.7 - Regulatory docket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Regulatory docket. 5.7 Section 5.7 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation RULEMAKING PROCEDURES General § 5.7 Regulatory docket. (a) Records of the Office of the Secretary of Transportation concerning rulemaking actions, including notices...

  12. 49 CFR 389.5 - Regulatory docket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Regulatory docket. 389.5 Section 389.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY...-FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS General § 389.5 Regulatory docket. (a) Information and data...

  13. 49 CFR 553.5 - Regulatory docket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Regulatory docket. 553.5 Section 553.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULEMAKING PROCEDURES General § 553.5 Regulatory docket. (a...

  14. 5 CFR 847.102 - Regulatory structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulatory structure. 847.102 Section 847.102 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... INSTRUMENTALITIES General Provisions § 847.102 Regulatory structure. (a)(1) Subpart A of this part contains...

  15. 5 CFR 880.102 - Regulatory structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulatory structure. 880.102 Section 880.102 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... Regulatory structure. (a) This part contains the following subparts: (1) Subpart A contains general...

  16. 5 CFR 838.102 - Regulatory structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulatory structure. 838.102 Section 838... (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Court Orders Generally Organization and Structure of Regulations on Court Orders § 838.102 Regulatory structure. (a) This part is organized as follows: (1) Subpart...

  17. Meditation and its regulatory role on sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra P. Nagendra

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Intense meditation practices help to achieve a harmony between body and mind. Meditation practices influence brain functions, induce various intrinsic neural plasticity events, modulate autonomic, metabolic, endocrine and immune functions and thus mediate global regulatory changes in various behavioural states including sleep. This brief review focuses on the effect of meditation as a self regulatory phenomenon on sleep.

  18. Collective action : a regulatory focus perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaal, Maarten Pieter

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation I investigate how individuals respond to collective disadvantage from the perspective of regulatory focus theory. Regulatory focus theory distinguishes between two motivational systems: promotion focus, the system in charge of the approach of positive end-states, and prevention

  19. Genomics in the land of regulatory science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Weida; Ostroff, Stephen; Blais, Burton; Silva, Primal; Dubuc, Martine; Healy, Marion; Slikker, William

    2015-06-01

    Genomics science has played a major role in the generation of new knowledge in the basic research arena, and currently question arises as to its potential to support regulatory processes. However, the integration of genomics in the regulatory decision-making process requires rigorous assessment and would benefit from consensus amongst international partners and research communities. To that end, the Global Coalition for Regulatory Science Research (GCRSR) hosted the fourth Global Summit on Regulatory Science (GSRS2014) to discuss the role of genomics in regulatory decision making, with a specific emphasis on applications in food safety and medical product development. Challenges and issues were discussed in the context of developing an international consensus for objective criteria in the analysis, interpretation and reporting of genomics data with an emphasis on transparency, traceability and "fitness for purpose" for the intended application. It was recognized that there is a need for a global path in the establishment of a regulatory bioinformatics framework for the development of transparent, reliable, reproducible and auditable processes in the management of food and medical product safety risks. It was also recognized that training is an important mechanism in achieving internationally consistent outcomes. GSRS2014 provided an effective venue for regulators andresearchers to meet, discuss common issues, and develop collaborations to address the challenges posed by the application of genomics to regulatory science, with the ultimate goal of wisely integrating novel technical innovations into regulatory decision-making. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Regulatory Hybridization in the Transnational Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybridization has become a defining feature of regulatory frameworks. The combined forces of globalization and privatization together with increased reliance on self-regulation have resulted in the emergence of a multitude of regulatory arrangements which combine elements from several legal order...... moresoft law vs. hard law; territorial vs. non-territorial, ‘top-down’ vs. ‘bottom-up’ globalization and national vs. global just as the implications of regulatory hybridization for the question of choice of court and conflict of laws are analyzed.......Hybridization has become a defining feature of regulatory frameworks. The combined forces of globalization and privatization together with increased reliance on self-regulation have resulted in the emergence of a multitude of regulatory arrangements which combine elements from several legal orders...

  1. Adaptive Dynamics of Regulatory Networks: Size Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinetz Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To accomplish adaptability, all living organisms are constructed of regulatory networks on different levels which are capable to differentially respond to a variety of environmental inputs. Structure of regulatory networks determines their phenotypical plasticity, that is, the degree of detail and appropriateness of regulatory replies to environmental or developmental challenges. This regulatory network structure is encoded within the genotype. Our conceptual simulation study investigates how network structure constrains the evolution of networks and their adaptive abilities. The focus is on the structural parameter network size. We show that small regulatory networks adapt fast, but not as good as larger networks in the longer perspective. Selection leads to an optimal network size dependent on heterogeneity of the environment and time pressure of adaptation. Optimal mutation rates are higher for smaller networks. We put special emphasis on discussing our simulation results on the background of functional observations from experimental and evolutionary biology.

  2. Regulatory Competition in Global Financial Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The decades-long discussion on the merits of regulatory competition appears in a new light on the global financial market. There are a number of strategies that market participants use to avoid the reach of regulation, in particular by virtue of shifting trading abroad or else relocating activities...... competition are a reality in today’s global financial market, and the financial sector is different from their traditional fields of application: the ease of arbitrage, the fragility of banking and the risks involved are exceptional. Most importantly, regulatory arbitrage does not or only rarely occurs...... or operations of financial institutions to other jurisdictions. Where this happens, such arbitrage can trigger regulatory competition between jurisdictions that may respond to the relocation of financial services (or threats to relocate) by moderating regulatory standards. Both arbitrage and regulatory...

  3. Regulatory Competition in Global Financial Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    or operations of financial institutions to other jurisdictions. Where this happens, such arbitrage can trigger regulatory competition between jurisdictions that may respond to the relocation of financial services (or threats to relocate) by moderating regulatory standards. Both arbitrage and regulatory......The decades-long discussion on the merits of regulatory competition appears in a new light on the global financial market. There are a number of strategies that market participants use to avoid the reach of regulation, in particular by virtue of shifting trading abroad or else relocating activities...... competition are a reality in today’s global financial market, and the financial sector is different from their traditional fields of application: the ease of arbitrage, the fragility of banking and the risks involved are exceptional. Most importantly, regulatory arbitrage does not or only rarely occurs...

  4. History. Annotated Bibliography of Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ. Test Collection.

    The 17 tests cited in this bibliography are used to assess students' knowledge of world history, western civilization, and Canadian history. United States history is not covered by these tests. Many of the tests measure acquired knowledge of geography, history, government, art, literature, and the customs of different world civilizations. The…

  5. A Church History of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten, Martin Schwarz

    A Church History of Denmark from the Missionary periode, through the Middle Ages, the Lutheran Reformation, the Ortodoxy, Pietisme, Enlightenment and det History of the 19. and 20. century......A Church History of Denmark from the Missionary periode, through the Middle Ages, the Lutheran Reformation, the Ortodoxy, Pietisme, Enlightenment and det History of the 19. and 20. century...

  6. History and Atopy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    co-workers, in their study, obtained evidence for genetic linkage of allergic conjunctivitis with chromosomes 5,16 and 17 [26]. In our study, majority of the patients with features of CAC who had a personal history of atopy had allergic rhinitis; this simply reinforces previous documentation that allergic eye disease and allergic.

  7. Vejhastighedens politiske historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siren, Anu Kristiina; Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard; Vinsteen, Iben

    2012-01-01

    den senere historie, at de partipolitiske skel i hastighedspolitikken bliver tydelige. Ikke desto mindre, kan man spore visse tendenser fra hele det historiske forløb. Tendensen er, at venstresiden er for lavere hastighedsgrænser, mens den borgerlige fløj er for højere hastigheder eller afskaffelse af...

  8. Big data in history

    CERN Document Server

    Manning, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Big Data in History introduces the project to create a world-historical archive, tracing the last four centuries of historical dynamics and change. Chapters address the archive's overall plan, how to interpret the past through a global archive, the missions of gathering records, linking local data into global patterns, and exploring the results.

  9. Historie og livsverden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grevy, Carlo

    Historie og livsverden henvender sig til alle, der interesserer sig for undervisning, fx lærere, lærerstuderende og forældre til børn i folkeskolen. Bogen beskæftiger sig med folkeskolen generelt. Der er forslag til innovative måder at tilrettelægge undervisningen på. Historiefaget bruges som omd...

  10. Colour: History and Advancements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The article traces briefly the history of dyes and pigments from the prehistoric times to modern times. Till the late 18th century, the colouring substances obtained from natural sources, i.e., earth, plants and animals, were used. From the middle of the 19th century, starting with Perkin's work, synthetic dyes were being made.

  11. History and Civility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Larry Schaefer's history of civility is a succinct summary of the implicit and evolving definitions of civility over 2500 years of civilization. Beginning with the Romans and the root word "civitas," meaning the rights and duties of citizenship, civility appears in classical literature as integral to the roots of democracy in the context…

  12. History of malware

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević, Nikola

    2013-01-01

    In past three decades almost everything has changed in the field of malware and malware analysis. From malware created as proof of some security concept and malware created for financial gain to malware created to sabotage infrastructure. In this work we will focus on history and evolution of malware and describe most important malwares.

  13. History of vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Plotkin, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Vaccines have a history that started late in the 18th century. From the late 19th century, vaccines could be developed in the laboratory. However, in the 20th century, it became possible to develop vaccines based on immunologic markers. In the 21st century, molecular biology permits vaccine development that was not possible before.

  14. History of vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, Stanley

    2014-08-26

    Vaccines have a history that started late in the 18th century. From the late 19th century, vaccines could be developed in the laboratory. However, in the 20th century, it became possible to develop vaccines based on immunologic markers. In the 21st century, molecular biology permits vaccine development that was not possible before.

  15. Life History and Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, William G.

    2013-01-01

    This article uses the life history method to chronicle the challenges of a low-income, first-generation student en route to college. The paper addresses three questions: how Manuel navigates college and related topics such as roommates, family, and money; how he creates social networks; and how he works with adults such as teachers and…

  16. CERN's Early History Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Schopper, Herwig Franz; Krige, Gerhard John

    2005-01-01

    As a member of the group of historians charged to write the history of the founding of CERN, John Krige particularly underlines the important role I.I. Rabi played. The first author, former Director General of CERN add a few comments. S.A. Khan gives precisions about the role played by E. Amaldi and P. Auger; then J. Krige replies

  17. Didactics of History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haue, Harry

    The book consits of five chapters about  formation and education in Denmark over the last two centuries. The developement of history teaching is especially stressed. The guiding concept for the upper secondary education has since 1850 been 'general character formation'. The book is an edited...

  18. Figuring Out Art History

    CERN Document Server

    Schich, Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    World population and the number of cultural artifacts are growing exponentially or faster, while cultural interaction approaches the fidelity of a global nervous system. Every day hundreds of millions of images are loaded into social networks by users all over the world. As this myriad of new artifacts veils the view into the past, like city lights covering the night sky, it is easy to forget that there is more than one Starry Night, the painting by Van Gogh. Like in ecology, where saving rare species may help us in treating disease, art and architectural history can reveal insights into the past, which may hold keys to our own future. With humanism under threat, facing the challenge of understanding the structure and dynamics of art and culture, both qualitatively and quantitatively, is more crucial now than it ever was. The purpose of this article is to provide perspective in the aim of figuring out the process of art history - not art history as a discipline, but the actual history of all made things, in t...

  19. Epistemology and history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chadarevian, Soraya

    2013-01-01

    The essay reviews Hans-Jörg Rheinberger's intensive engagement with French epistemology that has remained a constant throughout his career. It focuses especially on a set of recent writings by Rheinberger that all revolve around the question: how has epistemology become historical? This question is discussed in the context of Rheinberger's own move from philosophy to an embracement of history.

  20. Nanostructures-History

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Nanostructures-History. Inspiration to Nanotechnology-. The Japanese scientist Norio Taniguchi of the Tokyo University of Science was used the term "nano-technology" in a 1974 conference, to describe semiconductor processes such as thin film His definition was, ...

  1. Taarnborg: Becoming History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchetti, Emanuela; Dai, Zheng; Omarsson, Olafur

    Focus of this project is an inquiry in the materialisation of the historical heritage of Taarnborg (Ribe, Denmark) once a place related to local religious authorities, now a private home and museum, where visitors attend to musical events and lectures about history and theology. Following...

  2. American History (an introduction)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David Edwin

    I et letforståeligt engelsk giver professor David Nye en fængende præsentation af amerikansk historie fra den tidlige kolonisationsperiode til præsident Obama. Bogen giver et helhedsportræt af perioderne og inkluderer til hver periode en kortfattet præsentation af kultur- og litteraturhistorien....

  3. History in the Flesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bencard, Adam

    drevet af en historisering, en vilje til at placere historie hvor der før var biologi.   Denne afhandling undersøger denne interesse i kroppen gennem en analyse af hvad jeg kalder den historiserede krop som diskursiv figur. Den historiserede krop er ikke et klart aftegnet koncept eller en skarp afgrænset...

  4. What history tells us

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2005-05-27

    May 27, 2005 ... The history of science was long considered to be something peripheral to science itself. By supplying interesting stories and gossip, it seemed, at best, to provide material for enlivening lectures. In general, it was deemed a suitable activity for retired scientists. This view has been revised considerably in the ...

  5. Reconstructing Community History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Amy

    2004-01-01

    History is alive and well in Lebanon, Missouri. Students in this small town in the southwest region of the state went above and beyond the community's expectations on this special project. This article describes this historical journey which began when students in a summer mural class reconstructed a mural that was originally created by a…

  6. Colour: History and Advancements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 9. Colour: History and Advancements. Vinod R Kanetkar. General Article Volume 15 Issue 9 September 2010 pp 794-803. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/015/09/0794-0803 ...

  7. The Holocaust and History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Alan, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This theme based journal issue consists of articles and teaching ideas focusing on the Holocaust and history. This publication contains the following materials: (1) "Multiple Perspectives on the Holocaust?" (Alan Singer); (2) "Responses to 'Multiple Perspectives on the Holocaust'"; (3) "Escape to Cuba: Story of Laura Kahn,…

  8. Neurolinguistics, History of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eling, P.A.T.M.

    2015-01-01

    The history of neurolinguistics is described, starting with the modern period, beginning in the 1960s. Subsequently, an overview of studies and theories on the effects of brain lesions on language behavior is presented. Up to the nineteenth century, mainly single case descriptions have been

  9. Writing History in Exile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon; Berger, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    WRITING HISTORY IN EXILE * Stefan Berger and Antoon De Baets, Reflections on Exile Historiography 11 * Antoon De Baets, Plutarch’s Thesis : the Contribution of Refugee Historians to Historical Writing (1945-2015) 27 * Peter Burke, Silver Lining : on Some Intellectual Benefits of Exile 39 * Ragnar

  10. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Specific Groups Resources for Emergency Health Professionals Training & Education Social Media What’s New Preparation & Planning More on Preparedness What CDC is Doing Blog: Public Health Matters Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ...

  11. History of cosmetics

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhri S; Jain N

    2009-01-01

    Cosmetics have become part of our routine. Their use has increased significantly in recent years however the continuous use of cosmetics over prolonged time may result into various undesirable effects, which may be serious at times. This review is an attempt to trace out the history of cosmetics used by different civilizations over centuries

  12. Brazilian History through Journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaher, Celia Ribeiro; Varella, Maria Angelica

    This paper provides an overview of the beginnings of the newspaper in Brazil with information on the more significant titles and their role in the history of journalism and their impact on social change that occurred between the Imperial and Republican periods. Current collections at the National Library and legal deposit are discussed. It…

  13. What Is World History?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, survey courses in world history have been staples of school programs for almost a century. But no consensus has emerged on the exact goals toward which these courses should be directed. Nor is there agreement on what topics to include or in what order topics should be studied. This article introduces some of the reasons for…

  14. Understanding World Economic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaples, Robert

    2013-01-01

    One joy of studying history is discovering people living meaningful lives and behaving in unusual ways that are startling to the modern reader--young or old. Why did pre-modern people living hundreds or even thousands of years ago do things so differently than we do? Robert Whaples states that Economic historians conclude that the key difference…

  15. History of wood machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Koch

    1967-01-01

    The history of wood machining is closely tied to advanced in metallurgy and power sources. It has been strongly and continuously shaped by prevailing economic forces and the rise and decline of other contemporary industries. This paper sketches a few of the highlights, with emphasis on developments in North America.

  16. Atmospheric refraction : a history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehn, WH; van der Werf, S

    2005-01-01

    We trace the history of atmospheric refraction from the ancient Greeks up to the time of Kepler. The concept that the atmosphere could refract light entered Western science in the second century B.C. Ptolemy, 300 years later, produced the first clearly defined atmospheric model, containing air of

  17. Ancient Egypt: History 380.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Laraine D.

    "Ancient Egypt," an upper-division, non-required history course covering Egypt from pre-dynastic time through the Roman domination is described. General descriptive information is presented first, including the method of grading, expectation of student success rate, long-range course objectives, procedures for revising the course, major…

  18. African Journals Online: History

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lagos Historical Review. The Lagos Historical Review is an international and interdisciplinary journal publishing papers with a historical focus. The journal generates and participates in debates to advance the discipline of history and promote its relevance to development. The journal aims to serve the academic community ...

  19. Architecture of transcriptional regulatory circuits is knitted over the topology of bio-molecular interaction networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soberano de Oliveira, Ana Paula; Patil, Kiran Raosaheb; Nielsen, Jens

    2008-01-01

    is to use the topology of bio-molecular interaction networks in order to constrain the solution space. Such approaches systematically integrate the existing biological knowledge with the 'omics' data. Results: Here we introduce a hypothesis-driven method that integrates bio-molecular network topology...... Factors, Reporter Proteins and Reporter Complexes, and use this to decipher the logic of regulatory circuits playing a key role in yeast glucose repression and human diabetes. Conclusion: Reporter Features offer the opportunity to identify regulatory hot-spots in bio-molecular interaction networks...

  20. 77 FR 34379 - Notice of Joint Meeting of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Federal Energy Regulatory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Joint Meeting of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and the Nuclear Regulatory...

  1. Explorations between philosophy and history

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenz, Chris F.G.

    2013-01-01

    This introduction summarizes the basic ideas behind the articles collected in Przekraczanie granic: eseje z filozofii historii i teorii historiografii [Bordercrossings: essays on the philosophy of history and theory of historiography]. The first basic idea is the idea that the writing of history has a “border crossing” character, meaning that history writing involves border crossings, first, between history and philosophy and, second, between history and “politics” in a broad sense. The secon...

  2. Regulatory Science in Professional Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    In the field of pharmaceutical sciences, the subject of regulatory science (RS) includes pharmaceuticals, food, and living environments. For pharmaceuticals, considering the balance between efficacy and safety is a point required for public acceptance, and in that balance, more importance is given to efficacy in curing disease. For food, however, safety is the most important consideration for public acceptance because food should be essentially free of risk. To ensure food safety, first, any hazard that is an agent in food or condition of food with the potential to cause adverse health effects should be identified and characterized. Then the risk that it will affect public health is scientifically analyzed. This process is called risk assessment. Second, risk management should be conducted to reduce a risk that has the potential to affect public health found in a risk assessment. Furthermore, risk communication, which is the interactive exchange of information and opinions concerning risk and risk management among risk assessors, risk managers, consumers, and other interested parties, should be conducted. Food safety is ensured based on risk analysis consisting of the three components of risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication. RS in the field of food safety supports risk analysis, such as scientific research and development of test methods to evaluate food quality, efficacy, and safety. RS is also applied in the field of living environments because the safety of environmental chemical substances is ensured based on risk analysis, similar to that conducted for food.

  3. DMPD: Regulatory pathways in inflammation. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17967718 Regulatory pathways in inflammation. Mantovani A, Garlanda C, Locati M, Ro....html) (.csml) Show Regulatory pathways in inflammation. PubmedID 17967718 Title Regulatory pathways in inflamma

  4. Communication Regulatory Science: Mapping a New Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noar, Seth M; Cappella, Joseph N; Price, Simani

    2017-12-13

    Communication regulatory science is an emerging field that uses validated techniques, tools, and models to inform regulatory actions that promote optimal communication outcomes and benefit the public. In the opening article to this special issue on communication and tobacco regulatory science, we 1) describe Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation of tobacco products in the US; 2) introduce communication regulatory science and provide examples in the tobacco regulatory science realm; and 3) describe the special issue process and final set of articles. Communication research on tobacco regulatory science is a burgeoning area of inquiry, and this work advances communication science, informs and potentially guides the FDA, and may help to withstand legal challenges brought by the tobacco industry. This research has the potential to have a major impact on the tobacco epidemic and population health by helping implement the most effective communications to prevent tobacco initiation and increase cessation. This special issue provides an example of 10 studies that exemplify tobacco regulatory science and demonstrate how the health communication field can affect regulation and benefit public health.

  5. Regulatory analysis technical evaluation handbook. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this Handbook is to provide guidance to the regulatory analyst to promote preparation of quality regulatory analysis documents and to implement the policies of the Regulatory Analysis Guidelines of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NUREG/BR-0058 Rev. 2). This Handbook expands upon policy concepts included in the NRC Guidelines and translates the six steps in preparing regulatory analyses into implementable methodologies for the analyst. It provides standardized methods of preparation and presentation of regulatory analyses, with the inclusion of input that will satisfy all backfit requirements and requirements of NRC`s Committee to Review Generic Requirements. Information on the objectives of the safety goal evaluation process and potential data sources for preparing a safety goal evaluation is also included. Consistent application of the methods provided here will result in more directly comparable analyses, thus aiding decision-makers in evaluating and comparing various regulatory actions. The handbook is being issued in loose-leaf format to facilitate revisions. NRC intends to periodically revise the handbook as new and improved guidance, data, and methods become available.

  6. Regulatory compliance associated with contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Catherine M

    2005-01-01

    A basic understanding of the role of regulatory agencies in governing the healthcare environment and their influence over contrast media use is required of radiographers and imaging administrators to meet the many standards of compliance. In addition, radiology management teams must consider cost effectiveness, departmental efficiency, workplace safety, and compliance in choosing to implement new products. Regulatory agencies may be classified into 2 groups, voluntary and involuntary. Involuntary agencies are governmental agencies mandating regulatory compliance by local, state, or federal laws. Voluntary agencies are precisely that, those agencies an institution voluntarily chooses to participate with, to demonstrate the quality of care they provide. Failure to follow involuntary regulatory guidelines or to participate in voluntary best practice standards jeopardizes patient safety and the quality of care provided, and exposes the institution and the individual to liability risks. Severe penalties may result from a failure to maintain regulatory compliance, including the possibility of large fines, criminal indictments, and loss of third-party reimbursement. Achieving regulatory compliance is never an easy venture with the number of regulatory agencies and standards needing to be addressed. Combining regulatory compliance with the effects of doing business provides quite a challenge for today's imaging departments. A solid knowledge base in regulatory standards along with continuous investigation of new standards will allow departments to evaluate their own processes involved in providing patient care. Recognition of areas of high risk/high volume, including contrast media use, will assist in directing the departments' focus appropriately. A thorough evaluation of the products used and their respective handing and administration, in regard to patient and workplace safety, and appropriate documentation of workplace injuries due to contrast media packaging, will

  7. Regulatory bioinformatics for food and drug safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Marion J; Tong, Weida; Ostroff, Stephen; Eichler, Hans-Georg; Patak, Alex; Neuspiel, Margaret; Deluyker, Hubert; Slikker, William

    2016-10-01

    "Regulatory Bioinformatics" strives to develop and implement a standardized and transparent bioinformatic framework to support the implementation of existing and emerging technologies in regulatory decision-making. It has great potential to improve public health through the development and use of clinically important medical products and tools to manage the safety of the food supply. However, the application of regulatory bioinformatics also poses new challenges and requires new knowledge and skill sets. In the latest Global Coalition on Regulatory Science Research (GCRSR) governed conference, Global Summit on Regulatory Science (GSRS2015), regulatory bioinformatics principles were presented with respect to global trends, initiatives and case studies. The discussion revealed that datasets, analytical tools, skills and expertise are rapidly developing, in many cases via large international collaborative consortia. It also revealed that significant research is still required to realize the potential applications of regulatory bioinformatics. While there is significant excitement in the possibilities offered by precision medicine to enhance treatments of serious and/or complex diseases, there is a clear need for further development of mechanisms to securely store, curate and share data, integrate databases, and standardized quality control and data analysis procedures. A greater understanding of the biological significance of the data is also required to fully exploit vast datasets that are becoming available. The application of bioinformatics in the microbiological risk analysis paradigm is delivering clear benefits both for the investigation of food borne pathogens and for decision making on clinically important treatments. It is recognized that regulatory bioinformatics will have many beneficial applications by ensuring high quality data, validated tools and standardized processes, which will help inform the regulatory science community of the requirements

  8. Solution phase combinatorial chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, A T

    1998-06-01

    Combinatorial chemistry and parallel array synthesis techniques are now used extensively in the drug discovery process. Although published literature has been dominated by solid phase chemistry approaches, the use of solution phase techniques has also been widely explored. This review considers the advantages and disadvantages of choosing solution phase approaches in the various stages of drug discovery and optimisation, and assesses the practical issues related to these approaches. The uses of standard solution chemistry, the related liquid phase approach, and of supported materials to enhance solution phase chemistry are all illustrated by a comprehensive review of the published literature over the past three years.

  9. Issues and regulatory requirements for the connection of wind generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimenez Alvarez, J.M. [National University of San Juan (Argentina)], E-mail: jgimenez@unsj.edu.ar; Gomez Targarona, J.C. [National University of Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina). Electric Power Systems Protection Institute (IPSEP)], E-mail: jcgomez@ing.unrc.edu.ar

    2009-07-01

    Pollution problems such as greenhouse effect as well as the high value and volatility of fuel prices have forced and accelerated the development and use of renewable energy sources. In this work a complete revision of wind generation is presented. In the first part a brief history of the wind energy developments is detailed. Next, some commentaries related to the present and future state are made. Then, a revision of the modern structures of wind generation is realized. In fourth place it is included a brief comparison between small and big size turbines. Then, different types of energy storage are mentioned. Finally regulatory aspects are discussed, respect to the treatment of the technical problems. (author)

  10. On the Selection of Bistability in Genetic Regulatory Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghim, Cheol-Min; Almaas, Eivind

    2008-03-01

    Bistability is a defining character of switching and memory devices. Many regulatory circuits observed in cellular reaction networks contain ``bistability motifs'' that endow a cell with efficient and reliable switching between different physiological modes of operation. One of the best characterized system, the lac operon in E. coli, has been shown to display a saddle-node bifurcation when induced by nonmetabolizable lactose analogue inducers, such as isopropylthio-β-D-galactoside (IPTG) and thio-methyl-galactoside (TMG). Motivated by the absence of bifurcation in the same system with its natural inducer, lactose, we studied the conditions for bistability and rationalized its fitness effects in the light of evolution. Stochastic simulations as well as mean-field approach confirm that history-dependent behavior as well as nongenetic inheritance, being realized by bistability motifs, may be beneficial in fluctuating environments.

  11. Modeling regulatory networks with weight matrices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weaver, D.C.; Workman, Christopher; Stormo, Gary D.

    1999-01-01

    Systematic gene expression analyses provide comprehensive information about the transcriptional responseto different environmental and developmental conditions. With enough gene expression data points,computational biologists may eventually generate predictive computer models of transcription...... regulation.Such models will require computational methodologies consistent with the behavior of known biologicalsystems that remain tractable. We represent regulatory relationships between genes as linear coefficients orweights, with the "net" regulation influence on a gene's expression being...... the mathematical summation of theindependent regulatory inputs. Test regulatory networks generated with this approach display stable andcyclically stable gene expression levels, consistent with known biological systems. We include variables tomodel the effect of environmental conditions on transcription regulation...

  12. 78 FR 27169 - Regulatory Flexibility Act Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ...PHMSA seeks comments on the economic impacts of its Hazardous Materials Regulations on small entities. In accordance with section 610 of the Regulatory Flexibility Act and as published in the Unified Agenda and Regulatory Plan, PHMSA is reviewing and analyzing the regulations applicable to the Hazardous Materials Program Procedures to identify requirements which may have a significant impact on a substantial number of small entities. The Unified Agenda and Regulatory plan for the Department of Transportation can be found at the following URL: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-01-15/pdf/2013-00597.pdf.

  13. Who teaches History? Possibility of the history research in education in history

    OpenAIRE

    山田, 智

    2013-01-01

    Who teaches History? - Possibility of the history research in education in history Recent days, education has been actively. Above all, discussion on historical education has been deepened. Ryuichi Narita's "KINGENDAI-NIHONSHI TO REKISHIGAKU" is one of the most thought-provoking work in this field. In this paper, I re-consider his study and state my own view about this problem. Narita divides Japan's modern history research into three periods and points out that the Japanese history textbook ...

  14. My brief history

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    My Brief History recounts Stephen Hawking’s improbable journey, from his postwar London boyhood to his years of international acclaim and celebrity. Lavishly illustrated with rarely seen photographs, this concise, witty, and candid account introduces readers to a Hawking rarely glimpsed in previous books: the inquisitive schoolboy whose classmates nicknamed him Einstein; the jokester who once placed a bet with a colleague over the existence of a particular black hole; and the young husband and father struggling to gain a foothold in the world of physics and cosmology. Writing with characteristic humility and humor, Hawking opens up about the challenges that confronted him following his diagnosis of ALS at age twenty-one. Tracing his development as a thinker, he explains how the prospect of an early death urged him onward through numerous intellectual breakthroughs, and talks about the genesis of his masterpiece A Brief History of Time—one of the iconic books of the twentieth century.

  15. Life History Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2015-01-01

    of the social and the psychic, both in the interpretation procedure and in some main theoretical understandings of language, body and mind. My article will present the reflections on the use of life history based methodology in learning and education research as a kind of learning story of research work.......The article presents a development of biographical research in education and learning research, in which psycho-societal interpretations play a key role. The horizon of the approach is the lifelong subjective engagement in intended as well as unintended learning, in formal education as well...... as in everyday life. Life histories represent lived lives past, present and anticipated future. As such they are interpretations of individuals’ experiences of the way in which societal dynamics take place in the individual body and mind, either by the individual him/herself or by another biographer. The Life...

  16. Living in history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Norman R.; Lee, Peter J.; Krslak, Mirna

    2009-01-01

    Foreslår et paradigme - "Living in history" - til undersøgelse af forholdet mellem samtidshistorie og selvbiografisk hukommelse. Metoden spørger ikke direkte og altså ikke til den anknytning, man bevidst ville vælge at fremhæve, men undersøger indirekte, om der spontant associeres til samtidsbegi......Foreslår et paradigme - "Living in history" - til undersøgelse af forholdet mellem samtidshistorie og selvbiografisk hukommelse. Metoden spørger ikke direkte og altså ikke til den anknytning, man bevidst ville vælge at fremhæve, men undersøger indirekte, om der spontant associeres til...

  17. History of Korean Neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sung-nam

    2015-08-01

    The year 2012 was the 50th anniversary of the Korean Neurosurgical Society, and in 2013, the 15th World Congress of Neurosurgery took place in Seoul, Korea. Thus, it is an appropriate occasion to introduce the world to the history of the Korean Neurosurgical Society and the foundation, development, and growth of Korean neurosurgery. Historical materials and pictures were collected and reviewed from the history book and photo albums of the Korean Neurosurgical Society. During the last 50 years, the Korean Neurosurgical Society and Korean neurosurgery have developed and grown enormously not only in quantity but also in quality. In every aspect, the turning point from the old to the new era of the Korean Neurosurgical Society and Korean neurosurgery was the year 1980. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Marketing History from Below

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzkopf, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    narrow managerial perspectives and other “privileged” accounts of marketing. Originality/value – This paper makes two original contributions. First, it introduces historiographical innovations associated with “History from Below” (social history) into marketing historical scholarship. Second, it attempts......Purpose – The purpose of this article is to introduce the theme of this special issue. In doing so, the paper argues that marketing historical research is in need of a paradigmatic shift. Rather than privilege primary and secondary sources that preserve the perspectives and actions of corporate...... managers and of marketing academics, marketing historians need to open the historical narratives they construct much more than before to the experiences and voices of ordinary consumers, i.e. of those who actually shop and buy and choose. They also need to do more to incorporate into their narratives...

  19. A digital Jewish history?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smiatacz Carmen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available How can we teach Jewish history in a modern and effective way? In Hamburg, Germany, a school project called Geschichtomat tries to find an answer to that question. With the help of digital media, students explore their Jewish neighbourhood. This one-of-a-kind German program permits students to experience the Jewish past and present life in their hometown. During the project, students explore their neighbourhood to understand its historical figures, places, and events. This way they engage with Jewish life. Under the supervision of experts in the disciplines of history and media education, the students will: research, perform interviews with cultural authorities and contemporary witnesses, visit museums and archives, shoot and cut films, edit photos and write accompanying texts. Finally, their contributions are uploaded to the geschichtomat.de website. Little by little a digital map of Jewish life from the perspective of teenagers will take shape.

  20. [History of electric defibrillation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qing; Wan, Zhi

    2007-07-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is one of the most effective methods in rescuing those in critical situations. In recent decades, electric cardiac defibrillation has made the biggest advance in the field of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. It has been found that the rate of successful resuscitation with electric defibrillation is much higher than by bare-handed or drug resuscitations by which more lives have been saved, has become the most essential and most important means of first aid. The history of the development of electric defibrillation is a successful modality of multidisciplinary cooperation of physicians, biologists, physiologists, and engineers. Although "early defibrillation" has been recognized as an idea of standard therapy and a basic measure of life support by international organizations as American Heart Association, it is far from being perfect and has a long way to go. A review of the history may help to bring the technique of electric defibrillation into perfection, and to save more lives in the future.

  1. Delegation to Independent Regulatory Authorities in the Media Sector: A Paradigm Shift through the Lens of Regulatory Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Irion, K.; Radu, R.; Schultz, W.; Valcke, P.; Irion, K.

    2014-01-01

    Today, it seems that independent regulatory authorities have almost become a natural institutional form for regulatory governance. This trend has economic and political roots, and numerous normative arguments for creating independent regulatory authorities have been put forward in the international

  2. 75 FR 79049 - Final Regulatory Guide: Issuance, Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... shipping and receiving personnel to containers that were opened in transit. This guide also incorporates... Chief, Regulatory Guide Development Branch, Division of Engineering, Office of Nuclear Regulatory...

  3. History of insulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeste C. Quianzon

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The advancement of diabetes treatment has gone from crude extracts of insulin and accidental discovery of sulfa-like drugs in antibiotics to the development of drugs based on improved understanding of the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus. This article will review the history of the discovery and development of insulin. A companion focusing on non-insulin diabetes agents will follow in the next issue of JCHIMP.

  4. Leicester Cinema History

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Matthew; Chibnall, S.; Ercole, Pier; Porter, Laraine; Hanson, Stuart; Acciari, Monia

    2017-01-01

    This public exhibition, housed in the DMU Heritage Centre, ran from February to May 2017. It charted the development, decline and resurgence of Leicester's cinema culture through a large map displaying the cinemas within the city and panels dedicated to the various types of cinemas that have operated in the surrounding area. Produced collaboratively by members of the Cinema and Television History (CATH) Research Centre, the exhibition also featured objects and historical artefacts drawn from ...

  5. History and Character

    OpenAIRE

    Trencsenyi, Balazs

    2013-01-01

    THE EMERGENCE OF THE ROMANTIC PARADIGM OF NATIONAL SPECIFICITY As in most European cases, some aspects of the Romanian discourse of national peculiarity can be traced back to the humanist genre of “Descriptio” of the land, narrating the origins and political history of the respective people, a genre which in the Danubian Principalities reached its climax in the works of the erudite Moldavian prince-scholar Dimitrie Cantemir (1673–1723). The works rooted in the humanist chorographical paradigm...

  6. MUSLIM LIBRARIES IN HISTORY

    OpenAIRE

    Nurdin Laugu

    2005-01-01

    Secara historis, perpustakaan Islam telah memberikan banyak kontribusi dalam sejarah perkembangan peradaban dan ilmu pengetahuan, khususnya di kalangan ummat Islam. Isu perpustakaan Islam yang sangat menarik dan bahkan kontroversial dalam perjalanan sejarah Islam adalah,  misalnya, eksistensi dan kejayaan perpustakaan Bayt al-Hikma di Baghdad pada abad II Hijriyyah. Selain itu, perlu dicatat bahwa fenomena semacam ini banyak ditemukan dalam literatur-literatur wacana perpustakaan Islam. Isu y...

  7. Wireless radio a history

    CERN Document Server

    Coe, Lewis

    2006-01-01

    ""Informative...recommended""--Choice; ""interesting...a good read...well worth reading""--Contact Magazine. This history first looks at Marconi's wireless communications system and then explores its many applications, including marine radio, cellular telephones, police and military uses, television and radar. Radio collecting is also discussed, and brief biographies are provided for the major figures in the development and use of the wireless.

  8. Decoding Galactic Merger Histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric F. Bell

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Galaxy mergers are expected to influence galaxy properties, yet measurements of individual merger histories are lacking. Models predict that merger histories can be measured using stellar halos and that these halos can be quantified using observations of resolved stars along their minor axis. Such observations reveal that Milky Way-mass galaxies have a wide range of stellar halo properties and show a correlation between their stellar halo masses and metallicities. This correlation agrees with merger-driven models where stellar halos are formed by satellite galaxy disruption. In these models, the largest accreted satellite dominates the stellar halo properties. Consequently, the observed diversity in the stellar halos of Milky Way-mass galaxies implies a large range in the masses of their largest merger partners. In particular, the Milky Way’s low mass halo implies an unusually quiet merger history. We used these measurements to seek predicted correlations between the bulge and central black hole (BH mass and the mass of the largest merger partner. We found no significant correlations: while some galaxies with large bulges and BHs have large stellar halos and thus experienced a major or minor merger, half have small stellar halos and never experienced a significant merger event. These results indicate that bulge and BH growth is not solely driven by merger-related processes.

  9. The natural history of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C; Russell, W M

    1979-01-01

    In the past, human violence was associated with food shortage, but recently it has increased even in relatively well-fed societies. The reason appears from studies of monkeys under relaxed, spacious conditions and under crowding stress. Uncrowded monkeys have unaggressive leaders, rarely quarrel, and protect females and young. Crowded monkeys (even well-fed) have brutal bosses, often quarrel, and wound and kill each other, including females and young. Crowding has similar behaviour effects on other mammals, with physiological disturbances including greater susceptibility to infections. All this appears to be a regular response to overpopulation, reducing the population before it has depleted its natural resources. Human beings, like monkeys and other mammals, need ample space, and become more violent when crowded. Human history is marked by population cycles: population outgrows resources, the resulting violence, stress and disease mortality cuts down the population, leading to a relief period of social and cultural progress, till renewed population growth produces the next crisis. The modern population crisis is world-wide, and explains the increase of violence even in well-fed societies. The solution to the problem of violence is to substitute voluntary birth control for involuntary death control, and bring about relaxed conditions for a reduced world population. PMID:114662

  10. History, Narrative, and Meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Artigiani

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in the natural sciences make a renewed dialogue with the humanities possible. Previously, humanists resisted transferring scientific paradigms into fields like history, fearing materialism and determinism would deprive experience of its meaning and people of their freedom. At the same time, scientists were realizing that deterministic materialism made understanding phenomena like life virtually impossible. Scientists escaped the irony of describing a nature to which they did not belong by also discovering that their knowledge can never be complete and that descriptions of nature at the subatomic level were essentially random. These developments, as Monod said, weakened the “Modern” paradigm sufficiently to make life scientifically possible. To understand how life might actually exist, however, scientists had to move beyond laments about observations losing information and concentrate on how nature creates information. Nature creates information in the process of reducing thermodynamic gradients and stores created information in self-organized systems. Nature thus becomes historical, for it is defined by qualitative changes accumulating over time because of unpredictable contingencies. This paper will explore the possibility that the patterned processes by which nature changes apply in the human realm, where interactions can change people and created information can be stored in self-organized societies. Values, Ethics and Morals (VEMs are the qualitatively new information stored in social systems. VEMs script the actions structuring societies, demonstrating there is meaning in history and solving the problem of how sequences of events –“chronicles”–become narratives. Moreover, when societies compete, their system-structuring information is tested in the same way natural selection tests DNA. Thus, the succession of social systems suggests there is a meaning of history. The meaning of history need be no more

  11. Solute-solute interactions in intermetallic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Debashis; Murray, Ryan; Collins, Gary S., E-mail: collins@wsu.edu [Washington State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United States); Zacate, Matthew O. [Northern Kentucky University, Department of Physics and Geology (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Experiments were carried out on highly ordered GdAl{sub 2} samples containing extremely dilute mole fractions of{sup 111}In/Cd probe-atom solutes (about 10{sup −11}), intrinsic antisite atoms Al{sub Gd} having mole fractions of order 0-10{sup −2}, and doped with Ag solutes at mole fractions of order 10{sup −2}. Three types of defect interactions were investigated. (1) Quadrupole interactions caused by Ag-solute atoms neighboring{sup 111}In/Cd solute probe atoms were detected using the method of perturbed angular correlation of gamma rays (PAC). Three complexes of pairs of In-probes and Ag-solutes occupying neighboring positions on Gd- and Al-sublattices were identified by comparing site fractions in Gd-poor and Gd-rich GdAl{sub 2}(Ag) samples and from the symmetry of the quadrupole interactions. Interaction enthalpies between solute-atom pairs were determined from temperature dependences of observed site fractions. Repulsive interactions were observed for close-neighbor complexes In{sub Gd}+Ag{sub Gd} and In{sub Gd}+Ag{sub Al} pairs, whereas a slightly attractive interaction was observed for In{sub Al}+Ag{sub Al}. Interaction enthalpies were all small, in the range ±0.15 eV. (2) Quadrupole interactions caused by intrinsic antisite atoms Al{sub Gd} neighboring In{sub Gd} probes were also detected and site fractions measured as a function of temperature, as in previous work on samples not doped with Ag-solutes [Temperature- and composition-driven changes in site occupation of solutes in Gd{sub 1+3x}Al{sub 2−3x}, Zacate and Collins (Phys. Rev. B69, 174202 (1))]. However, the effective binding enthalpy between In{sub Gd} probe and Al{sub Gd} antisite was found to change sign from -0.12 eV (attractive interaction) in undoped samples to + 0.24 eV (repulsive) in Ag-doped samples. This may be attributed to an attractive interaction between Al{sub Gd} antisite atoms and Ag-dopants that competes with the attractive interaction between In{sub Gd} and Al{sub Gd

  12. The procedural egalitarian solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Bas; Borm, Peter; Hendrickx, Ruud

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we introduce and analyze the procedural egalitarian solution for transferable utility games. This new concept is based on the result of a coalitional bargaining procedure in which egalitarian considerations play a central role. The procedural egalitarian solution is the first

  13. The Procedural Egalitarian Solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Bas; Borm, Peter; Hendrickx, Ruud

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we introduce and analyze the procedural egalitarian solution for transferable utility games. This new concept is based on the result of a coalitional bargaining procedure in which egalitarian considerations play a central role. The procedural egalitarian solution is the first

  14. On Solutions of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaefer Philip W

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotationally symmetric solutions are derived for some nonlinear equations of the form in the title in terms of elementary functions. Under suitable assumptions, the nonexistence of entire solutions is also proved for the inequality in the title as well as some radial upper bounds are obtained. These results are the consequence of an appropriate differential inequality.

  15. Cromolyn Sodium Nasal Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromolyn comes as a solution to use with a special nasal applicator. It usually is inhaled three to six times a day to prevent allergy ... first time, read the instructions provided with the solution. Ask your doctor, pharmacist, or respiratory therapist to ...

  16. A Time-Domain Method to Generate Artificial Time History from a Given Reference Response Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangsig Shin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Seismic qualification by test is widely used as a way to show the integrity and functionality of equipment that is related to the overall safety of nuclear power plants. Another means of seismic qualification is by direct integration analysis. Both approaches require a series of time histories as an input. However, in most cases, the possibility of using real earthquake data is limited. Thus, artificial time histories are widely used instead. In many cases, however, response spectra are given. Thus, most of the artificial time histories are generated from the given response spectra. Obtaining the response spectrum from a given time history is straightforward. However, the procedure for generating artificial time histories from a given response spectrum is difficult and complex to understand. Thus, this paper presents a simple time-domain method for generating a time history from a given response spectrum; the method was shown to satisfy conditions derived from nuclear regulatory guidance.

  17. Evolutionary bioscience as regulatory systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Eric H

    2011-09-01

    At present several entirely different explanatory approaches compete to illuminate the mechanisms by which animal body plans have evolved. Their respective relevance is briefly considered here in the light of modern knowledge of genomes and the regulatory processes by which development is controlled. Just as development is a system property of the regulatory genome, causal explanation of evolutionary change in developmental process must be considered at a system level. Here I enumerate some mechanistic consequences that follow from the conclusion that evolution of the body plan has occurred by alteration of the structure of developmental gene regulatory networks. The hierarchy and multiple additional design features of these networks act to produce Boolean regulatory state specification functions at upstream phases of development of the body plan. These are created by the logic outputs of network subcircuits, and in modern animals these outputs are impervious to continuous adaptive variation unlike genes operating more peripherally in the network. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Regulatory Hybridization in the Transnational Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    . This book offers a conceptual framework as well as numerous empirical explorations capable of increasing our understanding of regulatory hybridization. A number of central dichotomies are deconstructed: national vs. transnational law; international vs. transnational law; convergence vs. divergence; … read...

  19. Mobile Source Emissions Regulatory Compliance Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Mobile Source Emissions Regulatory Compliance Data Inventory data asset contains measured summary compliance information on light-duty, heavy-duty, and non-road...

  20. 76 FR 40144 - Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... Certifications Application (ORCA) now collects this data centrally from interested A&E vendors at the time they... learning (i.e., HBCUs/MIs). This is a significant regulatory action and, therefore, was subject to review...

  1. Modernizing the Regulatory System for Biotechnology Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Web page describes the continuing effort to modernize the federal regulatory system for biotechnology products as well as clarify various roles of EPA, FDA and USDA in evaluating new biotechnology products.

  2. A study of bacterial gene regulatory mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sabine

    the different regulatory mechanisms affect system dynamics. We have designed a synthetic gene regulatory network (GRN) in bacterial cells that enables us to study the dynamics of GRNs. The results presented in this PhD thesis show that model equations based on the established mechanisms of action of each...... of a particular type of regulatory mechanism. The synthetic system presented in this thesis is, to our knowledge, the first of its kind to allow a direct comparison of the dynamic behaviors of gene regulatory networks that employ different mechanisms of regulation. In addition to studying the dynamic behavior...... of GRNs this thesis also provided the first evidence of the sensor histidine kinase VC1831 being an additional player in the Vibrio cholerae quorum sensing (QS) GRN. Bacteria use a process of cell-cell communication called QS which enable the bacterial cells to collectively control their gene expression...

  3. 77 FR 10351 - Regulatory Review Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... the Code of Federal Regulations and are also posted on the FHFA Internet Web site at http://www.fhfa... discernible regulatory burden or inefficiency; (3) Marketplace developments, technological evolution and...

  4. 75 FR 81112 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... shall begin after the last year of augmented seeding, fertilizing, irrigation, or other work, excluding... regulatory authority may approve selective husbandry practices, excluding augmented seeding, fertilization... is defined as a secondary seeding into established revegetation to improve composition, diversity or...

  5. 78 FR 1646 - Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    .../13 Regulatory Flexibility Analysis Required: Yes. Agency Contact: Deborah Erwin, Attorney-Advisor in..., Phone: 202 501-2164, Email: deborah.erwin@gsa.gov . RIN: 9000-AL82 416. FAR Case 2010-013, Privacy...

  6. 78 FR 44341 - Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    .../13 Regulatory Flexibility Analysis Required: Yes. Agency Contact: Deborah Erwin, Attorney-Advisor in..., Phone: 202 501-2164, Email: deborah.erwin@gsa.gov . RIN: 9000-AL82 279. Federal Acquisition Regulation...

  7. Regulatory Hybridization in the Transnational Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybridization has become a defining feature of regulatory frameworks. The combined forces of globalization and privatization together with increased reliance on self-regulation have resulted in the emergence of a multitude of regulatory arrangements which combine elements from several legal orders....... This book offers a conceptual framework as well as numerous empirical explorations capable of increasing our understanding of regulatory hybridization. A number of central dichotomies are deconstructed: national vs. transnational law; international vs. transnational law; convergence vs. divergence; … read...... moresoft law vs. hard law; territorial vs. non-territorial, ‘top-down’ vs. ‘bottom-up’ globalization and national vs. global just as the implications of regulatory hybridization for the question of choice of court and conflict of laws are analyzed....

  8. The Financial Crisis: Lessons from History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Grinder

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Financial crises have regularly afflicted economies throughout history and the United States has been no exception.  This paper examines the Panic of 1907, the Crash of 1929 and the Great Depression and the Great Recession of 2007-08 and discusses the responses of the government and regulators.  The short version of the story is that the while the government response has varied in terms of monetary and fiscal policy, the regulatory response has remained essentially the same.  The typical reactive regulation sounds good and gives the appearance of accomplishing something but, in fact, only serves to sow the seeds of future crises. The ineffective implementation of existing regulation has had a similar result. Indeed, several authors note that most financial innovation in recent years has its origins in circumventing new regulations. Likewise, government monetary and fiscal responses may or may not help the economy and often give the appearance of great arbitrariness.  Our conclusion is that there will be unforeseen financial crises in the future, sweeping regulation and promises of recent politicians notwithstanding.  Serious study of the unanticipated consequences of this regulation and the development of more robust risk management systems will help us mitigate the effects of future crises but will be of little assistance when it comes to avoiding them. Developing the analyses and risk management systems requires a detailed study of financial history keep both successes and failures fresh in our collective memory.

  9. The Financial Crisis: Lessons from History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Grinder

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Financial crises have regularly afflicted economies throughout history and the United States has been no exception.  This paper examines the Panic of 1907, the Crash of 1929 and the Great Depression and the Great Recession of 2007-08 and discusses the responses of the government and regulators.  The short version of the story is that the while the government response has varied in terms of monetary and fiscal policy, the regulatory response has remained essentially the same.  The typical reactive regulation sounds good and gives the appearance of accomplishing something but, in fact, only serves to sow the seeds of future crises. The ineffective implementation of existing regulation has had a similar result. Indeed, several authors note that most financial innovation in recent years has its origins in circumventing new regulations. Likewise, government monetary and fiscal responses may or may not help the economy and often give the appearance of great arbitrariness.  Our conclusion is that there will be unforeseen financial crises in the future, sweeping regulation and promises of recent politicians notwithstanding.  Serious study of the unanticipated consequences of this regulation and the development of more robust risk management systems will help us mitigate the effects of future crises but will be of little assistance when it comes to avoiding them. Developing the analyses and risk management systems requires a detailed study of financial history keep both successes and failures fresh in our collective memory.

  10. Is Hartmann's the solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S A; Goldhill, D R

    1997-05-01

    As Hartmann's solution is commonly used by anaesthetists, we surveyed a group of Part III FRCA candidates to establish their knowledge of its constituents and the purpose and metabolism of the lactate in solution. Of the 82 candidates surveyed only three (4%) accurately recorded the electrolytes and their concentrations in Hartmann's solution. Lactate was stated to be a source of bicarbonate by 52 (63%) and a source of glucose by 17 (21%). The descriptions of lactate metabolism were largely imprecise, none was complete and 24 (29%) of candidates offered no explanation. The constituents of Hartmann's solution and their concentrations are designed to match those of plasma, reducing ion and fluid shifts postinfusion. The lactate in Hartmann's solution is metabolised by both oxidation and gluconeogenesis, predominantly in the liver, and bicarbonate is generated by both processes over 1-2 h.

  11. Measuring Regulatory Restrictions in Logistics Services

    OpenAIRE

    Claire HOLLWEG; Marn-Heong WONG

    2009-01-01

    This study measures the extent of restrictions on trade in logistics services in the ASEAN+6 economies by constructing a logistics regulatory restrictiveness index for each economy that quantifies the extent of government regulations faced by logistics service providers. This is the first study of its kind to construct a regulatory index of the entire logistics sector, which includes the main modes of international transport and customs restrictions. The indices show that large differences ex...

  12. Mission Risk Reduction Regulatory Change Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scroggins, Sharon

    2007-01-01

    NASA Headquarters Environmental Management Division supports NASA's mission to pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery, and aeronautics research by integrating environmental considerations into programs and projects early-on, thereby proactively reducing NASA's exposure to institutional, programmatic and operational risk. As part of this effort, NASA established the Principal Center for Regulatory Risk Analysis and Communication (RRAC PC) as a resource for detecting, analyzing, and communicating environmental regulatory risks to the NASA stakeholder community. The RRAC PC focuses on detecting emerging environmental regulations and other operational change drivers that may pose risks to NASA programs and facilities, and effectively communicating the potential risks. For example, regulatory change may restrict how and where certain activities or operations may be conducted. Regulatory change can also directly affect the ability to use certain materials by mandating a production phase-out or restricting usage applications of certain materials. Regulatory change can result in significant adverse impacts to NASA programs and facilities due to NASA's stringent performance requirements for materials and components related to human-rated space vehicles. Even if a regulation does not directly affect NASA operations, U.S. and international regulations can pose program risks indirectly through requirements levied on manufacturers and vendors of components and materials. For example, manufacturers can change their formulations to comply with new regulatory requirements. Such changes can require time-consuming and costly requalification certification for use in human spaceflight programs. The RRAC PC has implemented a system for proactively managing regulatory change to minimize potential adverse impacts to NASA programs and facilities. This presentation highlights the process utilized by the RRACPC to communicate regulatory change and the associated

  13. Regulatory frameworks for mobile medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Censi, Federica; Mattei, Eugenio; Triventi, Michele; Calcagnini, Giovanni

    2015-05-01

    A mobile application (app) is a software program that runs on mobile communication devices such as a smartphone. The concept of a mobile medical app has gained popularity and diffusion but its reference regulatory context has raised discussion and concerns. Theoretically, a mobile app can be developed and uploaded easily by any person or entity. Thus, if an app can have some effects on the health of the users, it is mandatory to identify its reference regulatory context and the applicable prescriptions.

  14. A Regulatory RNA Inducing Transgenerationally Inherited Phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lea Møller

    . The variation in Arabidopsis enables different regulatory networks and mechanisms to shape the phenotypic characteristics. The thesis describes the identification of regulatory RNA encoded by an enzyme encoding gene. The RNA regulates by inducing transgenerationally inherited phenotypes. The function of the RNA...... is dependent on the genetic background illustrating that polymorphisms are found in either interactors or target genes of the RNA. Furthermore, the RNA provides a mechanistic link between accumulation of glucosinolate and onset of flowering....

  15. A unified architecture of transcriptional regulatory elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Robin; Sandelin, Albin Gustav; Danko, Charles G.

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression is precisely controlled in time and space through the integration of signals that act at gene promoters and gene-distal enhancers. Classically, promoters and enhancers are considered separate classes of regulatory elements, often distinguished by histone modifications. However...... and enhancers are considered a single class of functional element, with a unified architecture for transcription initiation. The context of interacting regulatory elements and the surrounding sequences determine local transcriptional output as well as the enhancer and promoter activities of individual elements....

  16. The History of Secondary Education in History of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Gary

    2012-01-01

    "History of Education" has published a steady stream of papers on the history of secondary education over the first 40 years of its existence. This corpus of research has been generated in the context of renewed interest in the history of secondary education that has been stimulated by developments in social and historical inquiry as…

  17. Teacher Candidates' Attitudes to Using Oral History in History Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demircioglu, Ebru

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the views of history teacher candidates towards an oral history project carried out in the Special Teaching Method Course of the history pedagogy program of the Fatih Faculty of Education (FFE) at Karadeniz Technical University in Turkey. An open-ended questionnaire and semi-structured interview were the…

  18. Functions of History Education: History Teacher Trainees' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinoglu, Orhan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate history teacher trainees' views and perceptions of the functions of history education. 36 teacher trainees participated in the study. All of the participants were registered to the History Education masters degree (without dissertation), within the Secondary Education Social Sciences discipline at…

  19. Disciplinary History and the Situation of History Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordham, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A growing consensus in the history education community supports the idea that the discipline of history provides the best opportunity for moving beyond a "nation-building" or "skills-based" approach to teaching about the past. The social and temporal characteristics of the discipline of history mean such conclusions have…

  20. Efficient reconstruction of contaminant release history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alezander, Francis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anghel, Marian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gulbahce, Natali [NON LANL; Tartakovsky, Daniel [NON LANL

    2009-01-01

    We present a generalized hybrid Monte Carlo (GHMC) method for fast, statistically optimal reconstruction of release histories of reactive contaminants. The approach is applicable to large-scale, strongly nonlinear systems with parametric uncertainties and data corrupted by measurement errors. The use of discrete adjoint equations facilitates numerical implementation of GHMC, without putting any restrictions on the degree of nonlinearity of advection-dispersion-reaction equations that are used to described contaminant transport in the subsurface. To demonstrate the salient features of the proposed algorithm, we identify the spatial extent of a distributed source of contamination from concentration measurements of a reactive solute.

  1. Regulatory volume increase in rat pancreatic beta-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miley, H E; Holden, D; Grint, R; Best, L; Brown, P D

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated regulatory volume increase (RVI) in rat pancreatic beta-cells. Volume changes in isolated beta-cells were measured by a video-imaging method. Cell shrinkage was induced by exposure to solutions made hypertonic by the addition of 100 mM mannitol. In HEPES-buffered solutions, beta-cells exhibited an RVI which was almost completely abolished by 10 microM bumetanide. These data indicate that Na+-2Cl--K+ cotransporters make a major contribution to RVI in beta-cells. In HCO3--buffered solutions, however, an RVI was observed in the presence of 10 microM bumetanide. This bumetanide-insensitive component of RVI was inhibited by 100 microM amiloride or 100 microM 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS). These data suggest that, in addition to the Na+-2Cl--K+ cotransporter, functionally coupled Na+-H+ exchangers and Cl--HCO3- exchangers may also contribute to RVI in pancreatic beta-cells.

  2. Dissemination and geovisualization of territorial entities' history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Plumejeaud

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an innovative solution for geovisualization of the demographic and administrative history of French municipalities, named "communes" in French. This solution allows for the open dissemination of such data. The challenge is to provide a web interface for unskilled users in order to help them understand complex information about the demographic evolution of French territories. Our approach combines interactive thematic, spatial, and temporal views. We describe our architecture, based on open-source technologies, and the organization of this imperfect geo-historical information in our spatiotemporal database. Our second contribution concerns the concept of an acquaintance graph that has been used to obtain an efficient design with good performance in our geovisualization website.

  3. KWOC (Key-Word-Out-of-Context) Index of US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide Series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, S.D.

    1990-04-01

    To meet the objectives of the program funded by the Department of Energy (DOE)-Nuclear Energy (NE) Technology Support Programs, the Performance Assurance Project Office (PAPO) administers a Performance Assurance Information Program that collects, compiles, and distributes program-related information, reports, and publications for the benefit of the DOE-NE program participants. THE KWOC Index of US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide Series'' is prepared as an aid in searching for specific topics in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Regulatory Guide Series.

  4. Enhanced Master Station History Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Enhanced Master Station History Report (EMSHR) is a compiled list of basic, historical information for every station in the station history database, beginning...

  5. [Neuro-Ophthalmological History Taking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Helmut

    2017-11-01

    Neuro-ophthalmological history may be very complex and difficult. This article provides 14 hints about how to construct history taking efficiently and how to avoid collecting unnecessary information. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Regulatory regimes and bank behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok Weon Lee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine how the risk-taking behavior differed between Korean regional banks and national banks for the two different regulatory regimes; a very loose regulation period (1994-1997 and a very tightened regulation period (1998-2005. From the panel analysis over the period 1994-2005, we found that regional banks took riskier strategies than national banks when banking regulations are loose. Moreover, their higher risk-taking contributed to higher profit under the period of loose regulation. However, after the banking regulations were tightened after financial crisis around the late 1990s, this phenomenon disappeared and the tendency of regional banks to take greater risk than national banks was not observed any more. Also, the positive relationship between risk-taking and profitability was not observed either after regulations were tightened. These empirical findings would have the following policy implications. When the economic conditions are good, and therefore, banking regulations are relatively loose, the greater risk-taking of regional banks could be profitable, because regional banks are in a better situation in terms of maintaining their market share based on the close ties with their regional clients, and can be protected from excessive competition with national banks. But, if the economic conditions get worse and financial crisis occurs, and therefore, banking regulations get tightened, regional banks are more adversely and sensitively affected by these shocks than national banks because their size is small and their assets are less diversified than national banks, especially being concentrated on loans to small and medium size business sector and real estate loans, which are very sensitive to the fluctuation of the economy. Furthermore, if these adverse economic and financial shocks continue long, the probability of regional banks to fail would be substantially higher and it can cause a serious damage to

  7. Financial history and financial economics

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, John D.

    2014-01-01

    This essay looks at the bidirectional relationship between financial history and financial economics. It begins by giving a brief history of financial economics by outlining the main topics of interest to financial economists. It then documents and explains the increasing influence of financial economics upon financial history, and warns of the dangers of applying financial economics unthinkingly to the study of financial history. The essay proceeds to highlight the many insights that financi...

  8. Mythologizing History in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Andronova, Larisa A.; Abrosimova, Ekaterina S.

    2015-01-01

    The South Korea as the any other country has some nationalistic influence in history interpretation. In the question of mythologizing history the Korean nationalism uses the standard myths which we can find in the official history of any country, for example in Russia history. Some Korea historical myths are enough famous especially among Korean studies scholars. This paper attempts to find out the most wide spreading historical myths, analyze them and show their influence on the day-by-day l...

  9. Use of oral history in the history lessons

    OpenAIRE

    Böhmová, Lucie

    2010-01-01

    This work describes the use of oral history in history classes in elementary schools. It is a combination of history didactics and methodology of oral history. This work should be the instruction for including oral history into the lessons. Its aim is to prove that this method can be used even with children under the age of sixteen years and it is beneficial for them. Work was based on delimitation of oral-historical sources which are primary and secondary. Segmentation is based on the availa...

  10. History or histories of socio-economic rights?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christian O.

    2016-01-01

    The German historian Reinhart Koselleck was once described as a partisan for histories in the plural (as opposed to history in the singular). His point was that history has many different layers, logics, and temporalities and that the modernist idea of one, overarching history with one direction...... (telos) – be it towards progress or decline – was inadequate for the multi-faceted geographies, rhythms and dynamics of life. In these reflections on a two-days research workshop in Paris, I argue that Koselleck’s point also applies to the field of the history of socio-economic rights. Instead of writing...

  11. History of Kawasaki disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Tomisaku; Naoe, Shiro

    2014-04-01

    We describe a short history of Kawasaki disease. In 1967, we published a paper entitled 'Infantile acute febrile mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome with specific desquamation of the fingers and toes. Clinical observation of 50 cases'; this was the first report on what is now called Kawasaki disease. Since then, many reports on cardiology, treatment, epidemiology, pathology and etiology of Kawasaki disease have been published. Furthermore, a recent Chapel Hill Consensus Statement on Kawasaki disease in the classification of vasculitis is given, along with a figure on the relationship and classification of childhood vasculitis by autopsy material.

  12. Philosophy and its History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos B. Gutiérrez

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Socratic irony already stated that philosophy did not progress because it always devoted itself to the same matters; philosophical knowledge, besieged by the question of legitimacy, shows its regenerative capacity by always going back to its historical-conceptual foundations. Hence, whoever tried to define the essence of philosophy leaving history aside will be in danger of narrow dogmatism. In its factical situation philosophical reflection deals with issues referred to previous knowledge and opinions which determine the limits to the rationality claims of its knowledge. Philosophical truth is temporal, like any other human truth.

  13. Atmospheric refraction: a history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehn, Waldemar H.; van der Werf, Siebren

    2005-09-01

    We trace the history of atmospheric refraction from the ancient Greeks up to the time of Kepler. The concept that the atmosphere could refract light entered Western science in the second century B.C. Ptolemy, 300 years later, produced the first clearly defined atmospheric model, containing air of uniform density up to a sharp upper transition to the ether, at which the refraction occurred. Alhazen and Witelo transmitted his knowledge to medieval Europe. The first accurate measurements were made by Tycho Brahe in the 16th century. Finally, Kepler, who was aware of unusually strong refractions, used the Ptolemaic model to explain the first documented and recognized mirage (the Novaya Zemlya effect).

  14. Coal. A human history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freese, B.

    2002-07-01

    Prized as 'the best stone in Britain' by Roman invaders who carved jewellery out of it, coal has transformed societies, powered navies, fueled economies, and expanded frontiers. Yet the mundane mineral that built our global economy and even today powers our electrical plants, has also caused death, disease, and environmental destruction. As early as 1306, King Edward I tried to ban coal (unsuccessfully) because its smoke became so obnoxious. Its recent identification as a primary cause of global warming has made it a cause celebre of a new kind. This book describes the history of coal, that began three hundred million years ago and spans the globe.

  15. Access and History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Erik Granly

    2012-01-01

    will present the historical broadcast archive from a cultural historical and media policy perspective, suggesting that the cultural heritage of state owned audio-visual archives remains a contested area not only due to the existing copyright laws but to aspects of historical contextualisation as well......Like many other major European media corporations the Danish Broadcasting Corporation (DR) has begun the digitisation of its audio-visual archives. This transformation from analogue to digital archives raises a number of questions regarding the archive specific character, history and content...

  16. Natural history of COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Lange, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The natural history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is usually described with a focus on change in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 ) over time as this allows for exploration of risk factors for an accelerated decline-and thus of developing COPD. From epidemiological studies we...... are gradually beginning to better link early life events to subsequent risk of disease in adulthood. Although more complicated, our current understanding of COPD has come a long way from being a simple image of smoking leading to poor lungs....

  17. Singular Perturbation Analysis and Gene Regulatory Networks with Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlykova, Irina; Ponosov, Arcady

    2009-09-01

    There are different ways of how to model gene regulatory networks. Differential equations allow for a detailed description of the network's dynamics and provide an explicit model of the gene concentration changes over time. Production and relative degradation rate functions used in such models depend on the vector of steeply sloped threshold functions which characterize the activity of genes. The most popular example of the threshold functions comes from the Boolean network approach, where the threshold functions are given by step functions. The system of differential equations becomes then piecewise linear. The dynamics of this system can be described very easily between the thresholds, but not in the switching domains. For instance this approach fails to analyze stationary points of the system and to define continuous solutions in the switching domains. These problems were studied in [2], [3], but the proposed model did not take into account a time delay in cellular systems. However, analysis of real gene expression data shows a considerable number of time-delayed interactions suggesting that time delay is essential in gene regulation. Therefore, delays may have a great effect on the dynamics of the system presenting one of the critical factors that should be considered in reconstruction of gene regulatory networks. The goal of this work is to apply the singular perturbation analysis to certain systems with delay and to obtain an analog of Tikhonov's theorem, which provides sufficient conditions for constracting the limit system in the delay case.

  18. Stability Testing of Herbal Drugs: Challenges, Regulatory Compliance and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Gulshan; Suthar, Nancy; Kaur, Jasmeen; Jain, Astha

    2016-07-01

    Stability testing is an important component of herbal drugs and products (HDPs) development process. Drugs regulatory agencies across the globe have recommended guidelines for the conduct of stability studies on HDPs, which require that stability data should be included in the product registration dossier. From the scientific viewpoint, numerous chemical constituents in an herbal drug are liable to varied chemical reactions under the influence of different conditions during its shelf life. These reactions can lead to altered chemical composition of HDP and consequently altered therapeutic profile. Many reports on stability testing of HDPs have appeared in literature since the last 10 years. A review of these reports reveals that there is wide variability in temperature (-80 to 100 °C), humidity (0-100%) and duration (a few hours-36 months) for stability assessment of HDPs. Of these, only 1% studies are conducted in compliance with the regulatory guidelines for stability testing. The present review is aimed at compiling all stability testing reports, understanding key challenges in stability testing of HDPs and suggesting possible solutions for these. The key challenges are classified as chemical complexity and biochemical composition variability in raw material, selection of marker(s) and influences of enzymes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. A self-regulatory approach to understanding boredom proneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struk, A A; Scholer, A A; Danckert, J

    2015-07-29

    We investigated the relationship between self-regulation and two types of boredom proneness (perceived lack of internal stimulation, perceived lack of external stimulation) using a variety of measures of self-regulation. These included a general measure of self-control, measures of both regulatory focus (i.e., promotion or a sensitivity to gains/non-gains vs. prevention or a sensitivity to losses/non-losses) and regulatory mode (i.e., assessment or the tendency to compare means and goals vs. locomotion or the tendency to initiate and maintain commitment to action), and measures of cognitive flexibility (i.e., a perceived sense of control and the tendency to seek alternative solutions). Results identified a unique set of factors related to each boredom proneness component. Trait self-control and prevention focus were associated with lower boredom propensity due to a lack of external stimulation. Locomotion and the tendency to seek alternatives were associated with lower boredom propensity due to a lack of internal stimulation. These findings suggest that effective goal pursuit is associated with reduced likelihood of experiencing boredom.

  20. Studying Russian and Soviet History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascher, Abraham, Ed.

    These essays were written to assist teachers in the task of making Russian history intelligible to young U.S. students. In "An Approach to Russian History," Edward Keenan proposes that students need to gain a better understanding of how Russians perceive themselves and their history. In "Pre-Petrine Russia," Andrzej S. Kaminski…

  1. The Controversy around Black History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitre, Abul; Ray, Ruth

    2002-01-01

    Controversy over black history began in 1926, when Carter G. Woodson introduced Negro history week, and has continued into the 21st century. Proponents of black history believe it promotes diversity, develops self-esteem, and corrects myths and stereotypes. Opponents argue it is dishonest, divisive, and lacks academic credibility and rigor.…

  2. Lesson Study and History Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Anne-Lise; Kesler Lund, Alisa

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the experiences of a group of fifth-grade teachers who used lesson study, a teacher-driven form of professional development, to teach history in a project supported by a Teaching American History Grant. The project addressed the following questions: What does a lesson study cycle for history education look like? What…

  3. Book History and Ideological Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilevko, Juris; Dali, Keren

    2006-01-01

    The evolving field of Book History has had difficulty in integrating the experiences of immigrant culture. In explaining the origins of print culture in North America, Book History has a tendency to associate lowbrow with immigrants and their struggles to establish a foothold in a new land. Book History therefore symbolically defines immigrant…

  4. William Faulkner as History Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, C. Ben

    1976-01-01

    William Faulkner's novel "Absalom, Absalom!" is described as a valuable teaching resource for an introduction to the philosophy of history. At least six ways of viewing history are presented in the book, which is useful and motivating in helping students understand the complex nature of history. (AV)

  5. Recasting History: The Public Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Beth

    2014-01-01

    If you ask Americans what is studied in history classrooms, many will answer "facts and dates." If you ask them what people can do with a history degree, they answer "teach." Yet those same Americans acknowledge the power and practical relevance of history as they flock to national parks, historic sites, museums, and cultural…

  6. Professional Hadoop solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Lublinsky, Boris; Yakubovich, Alexey

    2013-01-01

    The go-to guidebook for deploying Big Data solutions with Hadoop Today's enterprise architects need to understand how the Hadoop frameworks and APIs fit together, and how they can be integrated to deliver real-world solutions. This book is a practical, detailed guide to building and implementing those solutions, with code-level instruction in the popular Wrox tradition. It covers storing data with HDFS and Hbase, processing data with MapReduce, and automating data processing with Oozie. Hadoop security, running Hadoop with Amazon Web Services, best practices, and automating Hadoop processes i

  7. Environmental Education in Germany: Concepts, History, Projects, Visions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Ivan, Ed.; Blochmann, Georg, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document presents the history of environmental education in Germany and reports on the diversions and solutions in the search for sustainable education. Five sections include: (1) "Environmental Education: Learning with All One's Senses"; (2) "Sustainability as the New Model: Knowledge of a New Quality"; (3)…

  8. History Matching with Geostatistical Prior: A Smooth Formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melnikova, Yulia; Lange, Katrine; Zunino, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    We present a new method for solving the history matching problem by gradient-based optimization within a probabilistic framework. The focus is on minimizing the number of forward simulations and conserving geological realism of the solutions. Geological a priori information is taken into account...

  9. Creating Chicago History: Making Outreach Craft Activities Meaningful

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Madeline

    2012-01-01

    When it comes to having a traveling outreach activity for a museum, a craft can seem like the perfect solution. It can seemingly be all things at once--educational, quick and fun. But, if poorly constructed, crafts can also have serious fallbacks. Using the Chicago History Museum and the Millennium Park Family Fun Festival as a case study, this…

  10. Algebraic model checking for Boolean gene regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Quoc-Nam

    2011-01-01

    We present a computational method in which modular and Groebner bases (GB) computation in Boolean rings are used for solving problems in Boolean gene regulatory networks (BN). In contrast to other known algebraic approaches, the degree of intermediate polynomials during the calculation of Groebner bases using our method will never grow resulting in a significant improvement in running time and memory space consumption. We also show how calculation in temporal logic for model checking can be done by means of our direct and efficient Groebner basis computation in Boolean rings. We present our experimental results in finding attractors and control strategies of Boolean networks to illustrate our theoretical arguments. The results are promising. Our algebraic approach is more efficient than the state-of-the-art model checker NuSMV on BNs. More importantly, our approach finds all solutions for the BN problems.

  11. The Existing Regulatory Conditions for 'Energy Smart Water Utilities'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Ellen Margrethe

    2014-01-01

    . As the competences related to energy–smart water utilities are shared between the EU and its Member States, and as the relevant EU legislation is of a minimum harmonising nature, the Member States have an important role to play in the design of the legal conditions for the utilities in the EU. The importance......This chapter is focused on the legal conditions that exist for the energy–smart water utilities in the European Union (EU). In section 2 the interdependencies of water and energy services and the growing interest in solving these problems that may arise from this interdependence by regulatory...... initiatives are shortly described. One of the solutions needed is a reduction of energy use in the water utilities by their utilisation of renewable sources – acting as energy–smart water utilities. Such utilities are described in section 3. The policy and law regulating the water utilities are important...

  12. Design Principles of Regulatory Networks: Searching for the Molecular Algorithms of the Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wendell A.; Lee, Connie M.; Tang, Chao

    2013-01-01

    A challenge in biology is to understand how complex molecular networks in the cell execute sophisticated regulatory functions. Here we explore the idea that there are common and general principles that link network structures to biological functions, principles that constrain the design solutions that evolution can converge upon for accomplishing a given cellular task. We describe approaches for classifying networks based on abstract architectures and functions, rather than on the specific molecular components of the networks. For any common regulatory task, can we define the space of all possible molecular solutions? Such inverse approaches might ultimately allow the assembly of a design table of core molecular algorithms that could serve as a guide for building synthetic networks and modulating disease networks. PMID:23352241

  13. Design principles of regulatory networks: searching for the molecular algorithms of the cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wendell A; Lee, Connie M; Tang, Chao

    2013-01-24

    A challenge in biology is to understand how complex molecular networks in the cell execute sophisticated regulatory functions. Here we explore the idea that there are common and general principles that link network structures to biological functions, principles that constrain the design solutions that evolution can converge upon for accomplishing a given cellular task. We describe approaches for classifying networks based on abstract architectures and functions, rather than on the specific molecular components of the networks. For any common regulatory task, can we define the space of all possible molecular solutions? Such inverse approaches might ultimately allow the assembly of a design table of core molecular algorithms that could serve as a guide for building synthetic networks and modulating disease networks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Travels in Architectural History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Deriu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Travel is a powerful force in shaping the perception of the modern world and plays an ever-growing role within architectural and urban cultures. Inextricably linked to political and ideological issues, travel redefines places and landscapes through new transport infrastructures and buildings. Architecture, in turn, is reconstructed through visual and textual narratives produced by scores of modern travellers — including writers and artists along with architects themselves. In the age of the camera, travel is bound up with new kinds of imaginaries; private records and recollections often mingle with official, stereotyped views, as the value of architectural heritage increasingly rests on the mechanical reproduction of its images. Whilst students often learn about architectural history through image collections, the place of the journey in the formation of the architect itself shifts. No longer a lone and passionate antiquarian or an itinerant designer, the modern architect eagerly hops on buses, trains, and planes in pursuit of personal as well as professional interests. Increasingly built on a presumption of mobility, architectural culture integrates travel into cultural debates and design experiments. By addressing such issues from a variety of perspectives, this collection, a special 'Architectural Histories' issue on travel, prompts us to rethink the mobile conditions in which architecture has historically been produced and received.

  15. A history of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, Carl B

    1989-01-01

    "Boyer and Merzbach distill thousands of years of mathematics into this fascinating chronicle. From the Greeks to Godel, the mathematics is brilliant; the cast of characters is distinguished; the ebb and flow of ideas is everywhere evident. And, while tracing the development of European mathematics, the authors do not overlook the contributions of Chinese, Indian, and Arabic civilizations. Without doubt, this is--and will long remain--a classic one-volume history of mathematics and mathematicians who create it." --William Dunham Author, Journey Through Genius, The Great Theorems of Mathematics "When we read a book like A History of Mathematics, we get the picture of a mounting structure, ever taller and broader and more beautiful and magnificent--and with a foundation, moreover, that is as untainted and as functional now as it was when Thales worked out the first geometrical theorems nearly 26 centuries ago." --From the Foreword by Isaac Asimov "One of the most useful and comprehensive general introductions t...

  16. [Pierre Janet observes history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer-Homberger, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Janet, philosopher and physician, Freud's junior by three years, not only described traumatic dissociation and pathogenic subconscious ideas; he outlined a comprehensive system of psychology. Still, he considered his concepts to be mere linguistic tools, designed to grasp mental phenomena as precisely as possible. His prime interest was in observations - his own and those of others, whether his contemporaries at home and abroad or predecessors of all kinds. Janet never regarded himself as a historian, but his works as well as his way of thinking are most interesting from a historiographical point of view. His three-volume Médications psychologiques of 1919 contains a wealth of material about the history of psychotherapy. Furthermore, he dealt with his sources in a critical and historically reflexive manner. The later Janet considered any explanation and theory to be "inventions", more or less useful and basically open to change. By working with the notion of "narration", he described scientific statements as narratives, different from lies, fairy-tales or novels only in their claim to be verifiable. Every narration, however, is placed in a social context: narrators always wish to evoke a particular image of the real in their audience. Thus Janet established the link between scientific edifices and individual motivation, an unsettling link in terms of the history of science and certainly alien, if not positively abhorrent to Freud.

  17. 12 CFR 742.1 - Regulatory Flexibility Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulatory Flexibility Program. 742.1 Section 742.1 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS REGULATORY FLEXIBILITY PROGRAM § 742.1 Regulatory Flexibility Program. NCUA's Regulatory Flexibility Program...

  18. 76 FR 14108 - Notice of Issuance of Regulatory Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... implementing specific parts of the agency's regulations, techniques that the staff uses in evaluating specific... ``Regulatory Guides'' at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/ . The regulatory analysis may be found... COMMISSION Notice of Issuance of Regulatory Guide AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of...

  19. Thermal History Devices, Systems For Thermal History Detection, And Methods For Thermal History Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Caraveo Frescas, Jesus Alfonso

    2015-05-28

    Embodiments of the present disclosure include nanowire field-effect transistors, systems for temperature history detection, methods for thermal history detection, a matrix of field effect transistors, and the like.

  20. Convergent Aeronautics Solutions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Convergent Aeronautics Solutions (CAS) Project uses short-duration activities to establish early-stage concept and technology feasibility for high-potential...

  1. ERP SOLUTIONS FOR SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TUTUNEA MIHAELA FILOFTEIA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The integration of activities, the business processes as well as their optimization, bring the perspective of profitable growth and create significant and competitive advantages in any company. The adoption of some ERP integrated software solutions, from SMEs’ perspective, must be considered as a very important management decision in medium and long term. ERP solutions, along with the transparent and optimized management of all internal processes, also offer an intra and inter companies collaborative platform, which allows a rapid expansion of activities towards e- business and mobile-business environments. This material introduces ERP solutions for SMEs from commercial offer and open source perspective; the results of comparative analysis of the solutions on the specific market, can be an useful aid to the management of the companies, in making the decision to integrate business processes, using ERP as a support.

  2. The Conductivity of Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner-Canham, Geoff

    1993-01-01

    Presents historical background and modern explanations for the popular demonstration of showing conductivity of solutions through the insertion of a light-bulb conductivity tester into deionized water and water with salt in it. (PR)

  3. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliò, Renato; Rongala, Udaya Bhaskar; Camboni, Domenico; Milazzo, Mario; Stefanini, Cesare; de Petris, Gianluca; Oddo, Calogero Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art in piezoelectric energy harvesting. It presents the basics of piezoelectricity and discusses materials choice. The work places emphasis on material operating modes and device configurations, from resonant to non-resonant devices and also to rotational solutions. The reviewed literature is compared based on power density and bandwidth. Lastly, the question of power conversion is addressed by reviewing various circuit solutions. PMID:24618725

  4. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Caliò

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the state of the art in piezoelectric energy harvesting. It presents the basics of piezoelectricity and discusses materials choice. The work places emphasis on material operating modes and device configurations, from resonant to non-resonant devices and also to rotational solutions. The reviewed literature is compared based on power density and bandwidth. Lastly, the question of power conversion is addressed by reviewing various circuit solutions.

  5. Piezoelectric energy harvesting solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliò, Renato; Rongala, Udaya Bhaskar; Camboni, Domenico; Milazzo, Mario; Stefanini, Cesare; de Petris, Gianluca; Oddo, Calogero Maria

    2014-03-10

    This paper reviews the state of the art in piezoelectric energy harvesting. It presents the basics of piezoelectricity and discusses materials choice. The work places emphasis on material operating modes and device configurations, from resonant to non-resonant devices and also to rotational solutions. The reviewed literature is compared based on power density and bandwidth. Lastly, the question of power conversion is addressed by reviewing various circuit solutions.

  6. At the Interface: Academic History, School History and the Philosophy of History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retz, Tyson

    2016-01-01

    How history is learnt and taught must to some extent be shaped by conceptions of what history is. Historians tend to conceptualize what something is by investigating what it has been and what it has meant in different contexts. This article explains how a debate in the philosophy of history between positivism and intentionalism provided the…

  7. 78 FR 59391 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... equipment to receive the market data. It will allow the same low latency delivery to those unable to invest... regulatory requirement is unnecessary. Just as NASDAQ and its vendor invest heavily to offer CME data, NASDAQ... incrementally higher than fiber optics-based solutions due to the expense of the wireless equipment, cost of...

  8. 77 FR 77162 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... globalization of securities markets, cross-border coordination of trading and quotation halts is important to... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of... Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on December 20, 2012, Financial Industry...

  9. 77 FR 4065 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of... conducted in reliance on an available exemption from registration under the Securities Act'' (emphasis added... offering of securities conducted in reliance on an available exemption from registration under the...

  10. 76 FR 12769 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Relating to Correct Cross-References in the Customer Code March 2, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19...

  11. 77 FR 74712 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Amend the Customer and Industry Codes of Arbitration Procedure Relating to Subpoenas and to Arbitrator Authority To Direct...

  12. 76 FR 45883 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... and Regulatory Element programs via computer at testing centers operated by vendors under contract... forth in Section 4(c) of Schedule A to the FINRA By-Laws and all Regulatory Element programs. In... Change FINRA is proposing to amend Section 4(c) of Schedule A to the FINRA By-Laws to address...

  13. 76 FR 12390 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of... Structure and Governance March 2, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (``Act'') \\1\\ and Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on February 25, 2011, Financial...

  14. 76 FR 63969 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... (Customer Account Statements) in the Consolidated FINRA Rulebook (``Notice''). The Notice contained... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Amendment No. 1 to Proposed Rule Change To Adopt FINRA Rule 2231 (Customer Account Statements) in the...

  15. Fractal gene regulatory networks for robust locomotion control of modular robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahadat, Payam; Christensen, David Johan; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2010-01-01

    Designing controllers for modular robots is difficult due to the distributed and dynamic nature of the robots. In this paper fractal gene regulatory networks are evolved to control modular robots in a distributed way. Experiments with different morphologies of modular robot are performed...... and the results show good performance compared to previous results achieved using learning methods. Furthermore, some experiments are performed to investigate evolvability of the achieved solutions in the case of module failure and it is shown that the system is capable of come up with new effective solutions....

  16. Precipitation of neptunium dioxide from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, K E

    1999-12-01

    Tens of thousands of metric tons of highly radioactive, nuclear waste have been generated in the US. Currently, there is no treatment or disposal facility for these wastes. Of the radioactive elements in high-level nuclear waste, neptunium (Np) is of particular concern because it has a long half-life and may potentially be very mobile in groundwaters associated with a proposed underground disposal site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Aqueous Np concentrations observed in previous, short-term solubility experiments led to calculated potential doses exceeding proposed long-term regulatory limits. However, thermodynamic data for Np at 25 C showed that these observed aqueous Np concentrations were supersaturated with respect to crystalline NpO{sub 2}. It was hypothesized that NpO{sub 2} is the thermodynamically stable solid phase in aqueous solution, but it is slow to form in an aqueous solution of NpO{sub 2}{sup +} on the time scale of previous experiments. The precipitation of NpO{sub 2} would provide significantly lower aqueous Np concentrations leading to calculated doses below proposed regulatory limits. To test this hypothesis, solubility experiments were performed at elevated temperature to accelerate any slow precipitation kinetics. Ionic NpO{sub 2}{sup +} (aq) was introduced into very dilute aqueous solutions of NaCl with initial pH values ranging from 6 to 10. The reaction vessels were placed in an oven and allowed to react at 200 C until steady-state aqueous Np concentrations were observed. In all cases, aqueous Np concentrations decreased significantly from the initial value of 10{sup {minus}4} M. The solids that formed were analyzed by x-ray powder diffraction, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The solids were determined to be high-purity crystals of NpO{sub 2}. This is the first time that crystalline NpO{sub 2} has been observed to precipitate from NpO{sub 2}{sup +}(aq) in near-neutral aqueous solutions. The results obtained

  17. HYPNOTEACHING IN HISTORY LESSON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Budianto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Hypnoteaching in History Lesson. Historical learning is a science that can’t be separated in educating the younger generation. Through this lesson, teachers in secondary schools can provide the foundation of nationality through important events in the study of the social sciences. Many of the problems that occur in learning history, such as the boring and make sleepy. Everyone must have heard the term hypnosis, hypnotism, or hypnotherapy. Each person must also have a different view or understanding when hearing these terms. Hypnoteaching is one of the learning methods by using the art of communicating to influence learners. Hypnoteaching is a combination of five teaching-learning methods such as quantum learning, accelerate learning, power teaching, neuro-linguistic programming (NLP and hypnosis. Hypnoteaching can be done using informal hypnosis as well as formal hypnosis. Informal hypnosis is also called indirect hypnosis ie teachers can naturally make the Critical Area learners become no longer critical, through a very persuasive communication pattern. Here's what the teacher can do in Informal hypnosis: (1 get attention; (2 establishing Themes; (3 presenting the structure and regulations; (4 building relationships. If the learners are already comfortable and interested, the next step is to do a formal hypnosis before the lesson begins. Here are the steps that must be done: (1 Induction; (2 Deepening; (3 Deep level test; (4 Suggestion, and; (5 Termination.   Keywords: Historical learning, hypnoteaching, hypnosis, hypnotism, hypnotherapy, history Abstrak: Hipnoteaching dalam Pembelajaran Sejarah. Pelajaran sejarah tidak bisa dihilangkan dalam mendidik para generasi muda. Melalui pembelajaran ini, guru pada sekolah menengah pertama dapat memberikan pondasi rasa nasionalisme melalui peristiwa peristiwa penting dalam pelajaran ilmu pengetahuan social. Masalah yang sering muncul pada pembelajaran ini adalah kebosanan siswa dan

  18. Regulatory Incentives and Disincentives for Utility Investments in Grid Modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kihm, Steve [Seventhware, Madison, WI (United States); Beecher, Janice [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Inst. of Public Utilities; Lehr, Ronald L.

    2017-05-31

    changes require a better alignment of utility investment incentives with changes challenging the electricity sector, emerging grid modernization options and benefits, and public policies. For example, investor-owned utilities typically have an incentive to make capital investments, but rarely to employ expense-based solutions, since utilities do not earn profits on expenses. Further, Lehr cites a variety of factors that stand in the way of creating well targeted and well aligned utility incentives, including litigated regulatory processes. These may be a poor choice for finding the right balance among competing interests, establishing rules of prospective application, justifying demonstrations of new technologies and approaches to meeting emerging consumer demands, and keeping pace with rapid change.

  19. Safeguards inventory and process monitoring regulatory comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavaluzzi, Jack M. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Gibbs, Philip W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2013-06-27

    Detecting the theft or diversion of the relatively small amount of fissile material needed to make a nuclear weapon given the normal operating capacity of many of today’s running nuclear production facilities is a difficult task. As throughput increases, the ability of the Material Control and Accountability (MC&A) Program to detect the material loss decreases because the statistical measurement uncertainty also increases. The challenge faced is the ability of current accounting, measurement, and material control programs to detect small yet significant losses under some regulatory approaches can decrease to the point where it is extremely low if not practically non-existent at normal operating capacities. Adding concern to this topic is that there are variations among regulatory bodies as far as what is considered a Significant Quantity (SQ). Some research suggests that thresholds should be lower than those found in any current regulation which if adopted would make meeting detection goals even more difficult. This paper reviews and compares the current regulatory requirements for the MA elements related to physical inventory, uncertainty of the Inventory Difference (ID), and Process Monitoring (PM) in the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Rosatom of the Russian Federation and the Chinese Atomic Energy Agency (CAEA) of China. The comparison looks at how the regulatory requirements for the implementation of various MA elements perform across a range of operating capacities in example facilities.

  20. Regulatory principles governing Salmonella and Yersinia virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, Marc; Dersch, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Enteric pathogens such as Salmonella and Yersinia evolved numerous strategies to survive and proliferate in different environmental reservoirs and mammalian hosts. Deciphering common and pathogen-specific principles for how these bacteria adjust and coordinate spatiotemporal expression of virulence determinants, stress adaptation, and metabolic functions is fundamental to understand microbial pathogenesis. In order to manage sudden environmental changes, attacks by the host immune systems and microbial competition, the pathogens employ a plethora of transcriptional and post-transcriptional control elements, including transcription factors, sensory and regulatory RNAs, RNAses, and proteases, to fine-tune and control complex gene regulatory networks. Many of the contributing global regulators and the molecular mechanisms of regulation are frequently conserved between Yersinia and Salmonella. However, the interplay, arrangement, and composition of the control elements vary between these closely related enteric pathogens, which generate phenotypic differences leading to distinct pathogenic properties. In this overview we present common and different regulatory networks used by Salmonella and Yersinia to coordinate the expression of crucial motility, cell adhesion and invasion determinants, immune defense strategies, and metabolic adaptation processes. We highlight evolutionary changes of the gene regulatory circuits that result in different properties of the regulatory elements and how this influences the overall outcome of the infection process. PMID:26441883

  1. Phylogeny based discovery of regulatory elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Barak A

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Algorithms that locate evolutionarily conserved sequences have become powerful tools for finding functional DNA elements, including transcription factor binding sites; however, most methods do not take advantage of an explicit model for the constrained evolution of functional DNA sequences. Results We developed a probabilistic framework that combines an HKY85 model, which assigns probabilities to different base substitutions between species, and weight matrix models of transcription factor binding sites, which describe the probabilities of observing particular nucleotides at specific positions in the binding site. The method incorporates the phylogenies of the species under consideration and takes into account the position specific variation of transcription factor binding sites. Using our framework we assessed the suitability of alignments of genomic sequences from commonly used species as substrates for comparative genomic approaches to regulatory motif finding. We then applied this technique to Saccharomyces cerevisiae and related species by examining all possible six base pair DNA sequences (hexamers and identifying sequences that are conserved in a significant number of promoters. By combining similar conserved hexamers we reconstructed known cis-regulatory motifs and made predictions of previously unidentified motifs. We tested one prediction experimentally, finding it to be a regulatory element involved in the transcriptional response to glucose. Conclusion The experimental validation of a regulatory element prediction missed by other large-scale motif finding studies demonstrates that our approach is a useful addition to the current suite of tools for finding regulatory motifs.

  2. Functional characterization of variations on regulatory motifs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Lapidot

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Transcription factors (TFs regulate gene expression through specific interactions with short promoter elements. The same regulatory protein may recognize a variety of related sequences. Moreover, once they are detected it is hard to predict whether highly similar sequence motifs will be recognized by the same TF and regulate similar gene expression patterns, or serve as binding sites for distinct regulatory factors. We developed computational measures to assess the functional implications of variations on regulatory motifs and to compare the functions of related sites. We have developed computational means for estimating the functional outcome of substituting a single position within a binding site and applied them to a collection of putative regulatory motifs. We predict the effects of nucleotide variations within motifs on gene expression patterns. In cases where such predictions could be compared to suitable published experimental evidence, we found very good agreement. We further accumulated statistics from multiple substitutions across various binding sites in an attempt to deduce general properties that characterize nucleotide substitutions that are more likely to alter expression. We found that substitutions involving Adenine are more likely to retain the expression pattern and that substitutions involving Guanine are more likely to alter expression compared to the rest of the substitutions. Our results should facilitate the prediction of the expression outcomes of binding site variations. One typical important implication is expected to be the ability to predict the phenotypic effect of variation in regulatory motifs in promoters.

  3. Life-history interviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    2010-01-01

    My first encounter with life history research was during my Ph.D. research. This concerned a multi-method study of nomadic mobility in Senegal. One method stood out as yielding the most interesting and in-depth data: life story interviews using a time line. I made interviews with the head...... of the nomadic households and during these I came to understand the use of mobility in a complex context of continuity and change, identity and belonging in the Fulani community. Time line interviews became one of my favourite tool in the years to follow, a tool used both for my research in various settings...... of a time line for making life story interviews. I decided that the lack of authoritative literature should not omit me from teaching my students how to make a time line interview. After an introduction, they had to use the tool for making an interview each other concerning their learning journey to DPU...

  4. Taking a sexual history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presswell, N; Barton, D

    2000-06-01

    Significant social changes have resulted in increased exposure to sexual issues and greater tolerance of sexual behaviours such as premarital sex and homosexuality. These changes are not universal, however. We live in a multicultural society with widely varying sexual mores and frequent clashes of culture across generations. The media has contributed to unrealistic expectations about body image and sexual performance while at the same time increasing awareness of sexually transmitted diseases. Consequently, patients seek help with these issues and will discuss them freely if the general practitioner is comfortable in the area of sexual health. This article outlines an approach to sexual assessment and ways of addressing the barriers faced in taking a sexual history. All sexual disorders involve biological, psychological and social factors. General practice can provide a safe, non-judgmental environment for the patient to divulge sexual difficulties and have these dealt with holistically. However, this takes time, a significant obstacle in current practice.

  5. Some History of Nitrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnum, Dennis W.

    2003-12-01

    The history of saltpeter is an interesting combination of chemistry, world trade, technology, politics, and warfare. Originally it was obtained from the dirt floors of stables, sheep pens, pigeon houses, caverns, and even peasants' cottages; any place manure and refuse accumulated in soil under dry conditions. When these sources became inadequate to meet demand it was manufactured on saltpeter plantations, located in dry climates, where piles of dirt, limestone, and manure were allowed to stand for three to five years while soil microbes oxidized the nitrogen to nitrate—an example of early bioengineering. Extensive deposits of sodium nitrate were mined in the Atacama Desert in northern Chile from 1830 until the mid 1920s when the mines were displaced by the Haber Ostwald process.

  6. A history of kuru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpers, Michael P

    2007-01-01

    Kuru is placed in its geographic and linguistic setting in the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea. The epidemic of kuru has declined over the period 1957 to 2005 from more than 200 deaths a year to 1 or none. Since transmission of the kuru prion agent through the mortuary practice of transumption ceased by the early 1960s, the continuation of the epidemic into the present century demonstrates the long incubation periods that are possible in human prion diseases. Several histories of kuru are portrayed, from the different perspectives of the Fore people, of the scientists striving to elucidate the disease, of those engaged in research on prions, and of humans confronting the implications of kuru-like epidemics in the remote past. Kuru has connections to bovine spongiform encephalopathy through intraspecies recycling. The influence of host genetics on the incubation period in kuru may help to predict the shape of the still ongoing epidemic of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

  7. Histories of Hating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Shepherd

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This roundtable discussion presents a dialogue between digital culture scholars on the seemingly increased presence of hating and hate speech online. Revolving primarily around the recent #GamerGate campaign of intensely misogynistic discourse aimed at women in video games, the discussion suggests that the current moment for hate online needs to be situated historically. From the perspective of intersecting cultural histories of hate speech, discrimination, and networked communication, we interrogate the ontological specificity of online hating before going on to explore potential responses to the harmful consequences of hateful speech. Finally, a research agenda for furthering the historical understandings of contemporary online hating is suggested in order to address the urgent need for scholarly interventions into the exclusionary cultures of networked media.

  8. Family History Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Catharine; Sen, Ananda; Ruffin, Mack T.; Nease, Donald E.; Gramling, Robert; Acheson, Louise S.; O’Neill, Suzanne M.; Rubinstein, Wendy S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Family Healthware™, a tool developed by the CDC, is a self-administered web-based family history tool that assesses familial risk for six diseases (coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and colon, breast and ovarian cancers) and provides personalized prevention messages based on risk. The Family Healthware Impact Trial (FHITr) set out to examine the clinical utility of presenting personalized preventive messages tailored to family history risk for improving health behaviors. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of Family Healthware on modifying disease risk perceptions, particularly among those who initially underestimated their risk for certain diseases. Design A total of 3786 patients were enrolled in a cluster-randomized trial to evaluate the clinical utility of Family Healthware. Setting/participants Participants were recruited from 41 primary care practices among 13 states between 2005 and 2007. Main outcome measures Perceived risk for each disease was assessed at baseline and 6-month follow-up using a single-item comparative risk question. Analyses were completed in March 2012. Results Compared to controls, Family Healthware increased risk perceptions among those who underestimated their risk for heart disease (15% vs 9%, p<0.005); stroke (11% vs 8%, p<0.05); diabetes (18% vs 11%, p<0.05); and colon cancer (17% vs 10%, p=0.05); but not breast or ovarian cancers. The majority of underestimators did not shift in their disease risk perceptions. Conclusions Family Healthware was effective at increasing disease risk perceptions, particularly for metabolic conditions, among those who underestimated their risk. Results from this study also demonstrate the relatively resistant nature of risk perceptions. Trial registration This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov NCT00164658. PMID:22992357

  9. Passive House Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, I.; Joosten, L.; Boonstra, C. [DHV Sustainability Consultants, Eindhoiven (Netherlands)

    2006-05-15

    PEP stands for 'Promotion of European Passive Houses' and is a consortium of European partners, supported by the European Commission, Directorate General for Energy and Transport. In this working paper an overview is given of Passive House solutions. An inventory has been made of Passive House solutions for new build residences applied in each country. Based on this, the most common basic solutions have been identified and described in further detail, including the extent to which solutions are applied in common and best practice and expected barriers for the implementation in each country. An inventory per country is included in the appendix. The analysis of Passive House solutions in partner countries shows high priority with regard to the performance of the thermal envelope, such as high insulation of walls, roofs, floors and windows/ doors, thermal bridge-free construction and air tightness. Due to the required air tightness, special attention must be paid to indoor air quality through proper ventilation. Finally, efficient ((semi-)solar) heating systems for combined space and DHW heating still require a significant amount of attention in most partner countries. Other basic Passive House solutions show a smaller discrepancy with common practice and fewer barriers have been encountered in partner countries. In the next section, the general barriers in partner countries have been inventoried. For each type of barrier a suggested approach has been given. Most frequently encountered barriers in partner countries are: limited know-how; limited contractor skills; and acceptation of Passive Houses in the market. Based on the suggested approaches to overcoming barriers, this means that a great deal of attention must be paid to providing practical information and solutions to building professionals, providing practical training to installers and contractors and communication about the Passive House concept to the market.

  10. CD4-regulatory cells in COPD patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smyth, Lucy J C; Starkey, Cerys; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The numbers of airway CD8 and B lymphocytes are increased in COPD patients, suggesting an autoimmune process. CD4-regulatory T cells control autoimmunity but have not been studied in patients with COPD. OBJECTIVE: To compare T-regulatory cell numbers in the BAL from COPD patients......, smokers with normal lung function, and healthy nonsmokers (HNS). METHODS: BAL and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples were obtained from 26 COPD patients, 19 smokers, and 8 HNS. Flow cytometry was performed for regulatory phenotypic markers. RESULTS: COPD patients had increased BAL CD8...... numbers compared to smokers and HNS. CD4 numbers were similar between groups. There was increased BAL CD4CD25(bright) expression in smokers (median 28.8%) and COPD patients (median 23.1%) compared to HNS (median 0%). Increased FoxP3 expression was confirmed in BAL CD4CD25(bright) cells. BAL CD4CD25 cells...

  11. Evolutionary rewiring of bacterial regulatory networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany B. Taylor

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria have evolved complex regulatory networks that enable integration of multiple intracellular and extracellular signals to coordinate responses to environmental changes. However, our knowledge of how regulatory systems function and evolve is still relatively limited. There is often extensive homology between components of different networks, due to past cycles of gene duplication, divergence, and horizontal gene transfer, raising the possibility of cross-talk or redundancy. Consequently, evolutionary resilience is built into gene networks – homology between regulators can potentially allow rapid rescue of lost regulatory function across distant regions of the genome. In our recent study [Taylor, et al. Science (2015, 347(6225] we find that mutations that facilitate cross-talk between pathways can contribute to gene network evolution, but that such mutations come with severe pleiotropic costs. Arising from this work are a number of questions surrounding how this phenomenon occurs.

  12. Transcription regulatory networks analysis using CAGE

    KAUST Repository

    Tegnér, Jesper N.

    2009-10-01

    Mapping out cellular networks in general and transcriptional networks in particular has proved to be a bottle-neck hampering our understanding of biological processes. Integrative approaches fusing computational and experimental technologies for decoding transcriptional networks at a high level of resolution is therefore of uttermost importance. Yet, this is challenging since the control of gene expression in eukaryotes is a complex multi-level process influenced by several epigenetic factors and the fine interplay between regulatory proteins and the promoter structure governing the combinatorial regulation of gene expression. In this chapter we review how the CAGE data can be integrated with other measurements such as expression, physical interactions and computational prediction of regulatory motifs, which together can provide a genome-wide picture of eukaryotic transcriptional regulatory networks at a new level of resolution. © 2010 by Pan Stanford Publishing Pte. Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Targeting regulatory T cells in cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Byrne, William L

    2012-01-31

    Infiltration of tumors by regulatory T cells confers growth and metastatic advantages by inhibiting antitumor immunity and by production of receptor activator of NF-kappaB (RANK) ligand, which may directly stimulate metastatic propagation of RANK-expressing cancer cells. Modulation of regulatory T cells can enhance the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. Strategies include depletion, interference with function, inhibition of tumoral migration, and exploitation of T-cell plasticity. Problems with these strategies include a lack of specificity, resulting in depletion of antitumor effector T cells or global interruption of regulatory T cells, which may predispose to autoimmune diseases. Emerging technologies, such as RNA interference and tetramer-based targeting, may have the potential to improve selectivity and efficacy.

  14. Current status of developmental neurotoxicity: regulatory view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla

    2003-01-01

    The need for developmental neurotoxicity testing has been recognized for decades and guidelines are available, as the USEPA guideline and the OECD draft TG 426. Regulatory testing of industrial chemicals for developmental neurotoxicity is required to some extent, especially for pesticides in the US....... Until recently, however, developmental neurotoxicity testing of industrial chemicals has not been a clear regulatory requirement in EU, probably due to the lack of an accepted OECD TG. The revised EU Technical Guidance Document for Risk Assessment (EU-TGD) has now included the OECD draft TG 426...... in the testing strategy for new and existing substances, and biocides. Hopefully, this will lead to an improved database for risk assessment of potential developmental neurotoxicants. However, the regulatory authorities and toxicologists will also be faced with the challenge that decisions have to be made...

  15. Colorectal cancer family history assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patricia Paul

    2011-10-01

    This article describes family history assessment for colorectal cancer in three outpatient gastroenterology units and examines gastroenterology unit nurses' knowledge and attitudes about family history assessments. Eighty-eight colonoscopy records were surveyed, and 16 RNs were interviewed. The medical record documentation was surveyed using a researcher-developed tool to identify type of cancer, age at disease onset, family relationship, and number of family members with cancer. Gastroenterology unit nurses were interviewed to assess knowledge and attitudes about family history assessment regarding colorectal cancer. Findings indicate that limited family history documentation was present in the medical record and that important age-at-disease-onset information was missing in 95% of patients with a family history of colorectal cancer and in 85% of patients with a family history of Lynch syndrome-associated cancers. No documentation was found in any charts about the number of affected relatives within the same family. Inconsistencies in family history documentation within the same medical record were noted, and family history information was found in multiple chart forms. Gastroenterology nurses rated family history as very important but gave a lower rating to personal knowledge about and resources for family history assessment.

  16. Glaucoma history and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles W. McMonnies

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Apart from the risk of developing glaucoma there is also the risk that it is not detected and irreversible loss of vision ensues. Some studies of methods of glaucoma diagnosis have examined the results of instrument-based examinations with great if not complete reliance on objective findings in arriving at a diagnosis. The very valuable advances in glaucoma detection instrument technologies, and apparent increasing dependence on them, may have led to reduced consideration of information available from a patient history in those studies. Dependence on objective evidence of glaucomatous pathology may reduce the possibility of detecting glaucoma suspects or patients at risk for becoming glaucoma suspects. A valid positive family history of glaucoma is very valuable information. However, negative family histories can often be unreliable due to large numbers of glaucoma cases being undiagnosed. No evidence of family history is appropriate rather than no family history. In addition the unreliability of a negative family history is increased when patients with glaucoma fail to inform their family members. A finding of no family history can only be stated as no known family history. In examining the potential diagnostic contribution from a patient history, this review considers, age, frailty, race, type and degree of refractive error, systemic hyper- and hypotension, vasospasm, migraine, pigmentary dispersion syndrome, pseudoexfoliation syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, diabetes, medication interactions and side effects, the degree of exposure to intraocular and intracranial pressure elevations and fluctuations, smoking, and symptoms in addition to genetics and family history of the disease.

  17. Modeling gene regulatory network motifs using Statecharts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioravanti, Fabio; Helmer-Citterich, Manuela; Nardelli, Enrico

    2012-03-28

    Gene regulatory networks are widely used by biologists to describe the interactions among genes, proteins and other components at the intra-cellular level. Recently, a great effort has been devoted to give gene regulatory networks a formal semantics based on existing computational frameworks.For this purpose, we consider Statecharts, which are a modular, hierarchical and executable formal model widely used to represent software systems. We use Statecharts for modeling small and recurring patterns of interactions in gene regulatory networks, called motifs. We present an improved method for modeling gene regulatory network motifs using Statecharts and we describe the successful modeling of several motifs, including those which could not be modeled or whose models could not be distinguished using the method of a previous proposal.We model motifs in an easy and intuitive way by taking advantage of the visual features of Statecharts. Our modeling approach is able to simulate some interesting temporal properties of gene regulatory network motifs: the delay in the activation and the deactivation of the "output" gene in the coherent type-1 feedforward loop, the pulse in the incoherent type-1 feedforward loop, the bistability nature of double positive and double negative feedback loops, the oscillatory behavior of the negative feedback loop, and the "lock-in" effect of positive autoregulation. We present a Statecharts-based approach for the modeling of gene regulatory network motifs in biological systems. The basic motifs used to build more complex networks (that is, simple regulation, reciprocal regulation, feedback loop, feedforward loop, and autoregulation) can be faithfully described and their temporal dynamics can be analyzed.

  18. Regulatory issues in accreditation of toxicology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissell, Michael G

    2012-09-01

    Clinical toxicology laboratories and forensic toxicology laboratories operate in a highly regulated environment. This article outlines major US legal/regulatory issues and requirements relevant to accreditation of toxicology laboratories (state and local regulations are not covered in any depth). The most fundamental regulatory distinction involves the purposes for which the laboratory operates: clinical versus nonclinical. The applicable regulations and the requirements and options for operations depend most basically on this consideration, with clinical toxicology laboratories being directly subject to federal law including mandated options for accreditation and forensic toxicology laboratories being subject to degrees of voluntary or state government–required accreditation.

  19. The Regulatory Framework for Privacy and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Janine S.

    The internet enables the easy collection of massive amounts of personally identifiable information. Unregulated data collection causes distrust and conflicts with widely accepted principles of privacy. The regulatory framework in the United States for ensuring privacy and security in the online environment consists of federal, state, and self-regulatory elements. New laws have been passed to address technological and internet practices that conflict with privacy protecting policies. The United States and the European Union approaches to privacy differ significantly, and the global internet environment will likely cause regulators to face the challenge of balancing privacy interests with data collection for many years to come.

  20. Chromatin insulators: regulatory mechanisms and epigenetic inheritance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushey, Ashley M.; Dorman, Elizabeth R.; Corces, Victor G.

    2008-01-01

    Enhancer-blocking insulators are DNA elements that disrupt the communication between a regulatory sequence, such as an enhancer or a silencer, and a promoter. Insulators participate in both transcriptional regulation and global nuclear organization, two features of chromatin that are thought to be maintained from one generation to the next through epigenetic mechanisms. Furthermore, there are many regulatory mechanisms in place that enhance or hinder insulator activity. These modes of regulation could be used to establish cell-type specific insulator activity that is epigenetically inherited along a cell and/or organismal lineage. This review will discuss the evidence for epigenetic inheritance and regulation of insulator function. PMID:18851828

  1. Regulatory Aspects of Human Milk Oligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Seppo

    2017-01-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides are key components of human milk and appear in various compositions and concentrations in all human milks. In regulatory sense human milk oligosaccharides are classified as novel foods or novel food ingredients requiring safety assessment. In addition, if any health messages are intended to be used also health claim regulations apply. This chapter reviews the regulatory settings and studies human milk oligosaccharides are required to fulfill to be able to enter markets in European Union or United States or elsewhere. Examples include Lacto-N-neotetraose and 2-fucosyllactose with safety assessment in European Union and United States. © 2017 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Regulatory affairs for biomaterials and medical devices

    CERN Document Server

    Amato, Stephen F; Amato, B

    2015-01-01

    All biomaterials and medical devices are subject to a long list of regulatory practises and policies which must be adhered to in order to receive clearance. This book provides readers with information on the systems in place in the USA and the rest of the world. Chapters focus on a series of procedures and policies including topics such as commercialization, clinical development, general good practise manufacturing and post market surveillance.Addresses global regulations and regulatory issues surrounding biomaterials and medical devicesEspecially useful for smaller co

  3. The history of stereoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crone, R A

    1992-01-01

    Ptolemy (127-148 AD) studied physiological diplopia, correspondence and the horopter. He had all the data to build a theory of depth perception through disparity detection, but left that undone. Alhazen (1000 AD) associated depth perception with the sensation of binocular convergence, just as Kepler (1611) and Descartes (1637). With the development of the concept of retinal correspondence and the fusion of the retinal images in the brain (Huygens 1667, Newton 1704) a cerebral mechanism of disparity detection became thinkable. The rise of Empiricism (Molyneux' Premise, the case of Cheselden) postponed the solution of the problem, finally reached by Wheatstone (1838). Physiological proof of Wheatstone's theory came from the experiments of Barlow et al. (1967).

  4. The Case for Natural History

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Heather; Achiam, Marianne

    2017-03-01

    Fundamental knowledge of natural history is lacking in many western societies, as demonstrated by its absence in school science curricula. And yet, to meet local and global challenges such as environmental degradation, biodiversity loss and climate change, we need to better understand the living and non-living parts of the natural world. Many have argued passionately for an increased understanding of natural history; others have developed successful pedagogical programmes for applying knowledge of natural history in environmental initiatives. In joining wider calls, we choose here to focus on the educational value afforded by understanding the epistemological bases of natural history and its particular forms of reasoning. We also briefly discuss the ways in which an education in natural history provides the foundation for environmental and social justice efforts that directly affect the lives of young people and their communities. We end by highlighting the ease by which natural history may be incorporated in learning opportunities both in and outside of the classroom.

  5. The impact of regulatory perspectives and practices on professional innovation in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlke Wall, Sarah

    2017-07-05

    Since at least the 1970s in Canada, there have been calls for health system reforms based on innovative roles and expanded scopes of practice for nurses. Professional regulatory organizations, through legislation, define the standards and parameters of professional nursing practice. Nursing regulators emphasize public protection over the advancement of nursing; regulatory processes and decisions tend to be conservative and risk-averse. This study explored the impact that regulatory processes have on innovation in nursing roles. Nurses in a range of unique practice situations were interviewed, including nurses in non-traditional roles and/or settings, those with cross-jurisdictional career histories, and those working in interdisciplinary practices and educational settings. For these nurses, nursing practice was viewed through a traditional clinical lens, which did not fit for them. They experienced hassle, delay, and inconsistencies in regulatory practices. They felt mistreated and fearful of the regulator and lamented the ways in which ambitious, creative, capable nurses were stymied in attempting new applications for nursing knowledge. Nursing is constraining its own mandate to contribute to health care through stringent licensing processes. Healthcare reform provides an opportunity for nursing regulators to rethink their processes and provide the latitude for nurse-driven change. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Regulatory Fit Improves Fitness for People With Low Exercise Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Sophie A; Grimm, Lisa R

    2017-04-01

    Considering only 20.8% of American adults meet current physical activity recommendations, it is important to examine the psychological processes that affect exercise motivation and behavior. Drawing from regulatory fit theory, this study examined how manipulating regulatory focus and reward structures would affect exercise performance, with a specific interest in investigating whether exercise experience would moderate regulatory fit effects. We predicted that regulatory fit effects would appear only for participants with low exercise experience. One hundred and sixty-five young adults completed strength training exercise tasks (i.e., sit-ups, squats, plank, and wall-sit) in regulatory match or mismatch conditions. Consistent with predictions, only participants low in experience in regulatory match conditions exercised more compared with those in regulatory mismatch conditions. Although this is the first study manipulating regulatory fit in a controlled setting to examine exercise behavior, findings suggest that generating regulatory fit could positively influence those low in exercise experience.

  7. History of Antibiotics Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Kathrin I

    2016-01-01

    For thousands of years people were delivered helplessly to various kinds of infections, which often reached epidemic proportions and have cost the lives of millions of people. This is precisely the age since mankind has been thinking of infectious diseases and the question of their causes. However, due to a lack of knowledge, the search for strategies to fight, heal, and prevent the spread of communicable diseases was unsuccessful for a long time. It was not until the discovery of the healing effects of (antibiotic producing) molds, the first microscopic observations of microorganisms in the seventeenth century, the refutation of the abiogenesis theory, and the dissolution of the question "What is the nature of infectious diseases?" that the first milestones within the history of antibiotics research were set. Then new discoveries accelerated rapidly: Bacteria could be isolated and cultured and were identified as possible agents of diseases as well as producers of bioactive metabolites. At the same time the first synthetic antibiotics were developed and shortly thereafter, thousands of synthetic substances as well as millions of soil borne bacteria and fungi were screened for bioactivity within numerous microbial laboratories of pharmaceutical companies. New antibiotic classes with different targets were discovered as on assembly line production. With the beginning of the twentieth century, many of the diseases which reached epidemic proportions at the time-e.g., cholera, syphilis, plague, tuberculosis, or typhoid fever, just to name a few, could be combatted with new discovered antibiotics. It should be considered that hundred years ago the market launch of new antibiotics was significantly faster and less complicated than today (where it takes 10-12 years in average between the discovery of a new antibiotic until the launch). After the first euphoria it was quickly realized that bacteria are able to develop, acquire, and spread numerous resistance mechanisms

  8. Deconstructing graphite: graphenide solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pénicaud, Alain; Drummond, Carlos

    2013-01-15

    Growing interest in graphene over past few years has prompted researchers to find new routes for producing this material other than mechanical exfoliation or growth from silicon carbide. Chemical vapor deposition on metallic substrates now allows researchers to produce continuous graphene films over large areas. In parallel, researchers will need liquid, large scale, formulations of graphene to produce functional graphene materials that take advantage of graphene's mechanical, electrical, and barrier properties. In this Account, we describe methods for creating graphene solutions from graphite. Graphite provides a cheap source of carbon, but graphite is insoluble. With extensive sonication, it can be dispersed in organic solvents or water with adequate additives. Nevertheless, this process usually creates cracks and defects in the graphite. On the other hand, graphite intercalation compounds (GICs) provide a means to dissolve rather than disperse graphite. GICS can be obtained through the reaction of alkali metals with graphite. These compounds are a source of graphenide salts and also serve as an excellent electronic model of graphene due to the decoupling between graphene layers. The graphenide macroions, negatively charged graphene sheets, form supple two-dimensional polyelectrolytes that spontaneously dissolve in some organic solvents. The entropic gain from the dissolution of counterions and the increased degrees of freedom of graphene in solution drives this process. Notably, we can obtain graphenide solutions in easily processable solvents with low boiling points such as tetrahydrofuran or cyclopentylmethylether. We performed a statistical analysis of high resolution transmission electronic micrographs of graphene sheets deposited on grids from GICs solution to show that the dissolved material has been fully exfoliated. The thickness distribution peaks with single layers and includes a few double- or triple-layer objects. Light scattering analysis of the

  9. Microsoft big data solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Jorgensen, Adam; Welch, John; Clark, Dan; Price, Christopher; Mitchell, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Tap the power of Big Data with Microsoft technologies Big Data is here, and Microsoft's new Big Data platform is a valuable tool to help your company get the very most out of it. This timely book shows you how to use HDInsight along with HortonWorks Data Platform for Windows to store, manage, analyze, and share Big Data throughout the enterprise. Focusing primarily on Microsoft and HortonWorks technologies but also covering open source tools, Microsoft Big Data Solutions explains best practices, covers on-premises and cloud-based solutions, and features valuable case studies. Best of all,

  10. Calculus problems and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Ginzburg, Abraham

    2011-01-01

    Ideal for self-instruction as well as for classroom use, this text helps students improve their understanding and problem-solving skills in analysis, analytic geometry, and higher algebra. More than 1,200 problems appear in the text, with concise explanations of the basic notions and theorems to be used in their solution. Many are followed by complete answers; solutions for the others appear at the end of the book. Topics include sequences, functions of a single variable, limit of a function, differential calculus for functions of a single variable, fundamental theorems and applications of dif

  11. Analysis of safety-related regulatory actions by Japan's pharmaceutical regulatory agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, Chieko; Misu, Takashi; Iwasa, Eiko; Izawa, Tadashi

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the safety-related regulatory actions implemented by Japan's Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) in 2012. We analyzed serious safety issues appended to drug package inserts (PIs) in Japan in 2012. The issues were characterized according to drug class, adverse event, years since drug approval, initiator of regulatory actions, revised section of PI, and evidence source. We also quantified the durations from signal detection to tentative decision and from tentative decision to regulatory action. We identified 144 serious safety issues during the study period, and the majority of evidence originated from spontaneous reports (83.5%). The PMDA initiated regulatory actions for half of all safety issues, and the median duration from drug approval to regulatory action was 8 years (interquartile range [IQR], 3-26.5 years). The median duration was 49 days (IQR, 0-362 days) from signal detection to tentative decision and 84 days (IQR, 63-136 days) from tentative decision to regulatory action. Several safety issues involving older drugs and multiple products had protracted decision-making durations. Most safety issues led to prompt regulatory actions predominantly based on spontaneous reports. Some safety issues that were not easily detected by the spontaneous reporting system were identified years after approval. In addition, several safety issues required assessments of multiple drug products, which prolonged the decision-making process. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Regulatory T cells induced by B cells: a novel subpopulation of regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chien-Hui; Chiang, Bor-Luen

    2017-11-18

    Regulatory T cells play a crucial role in the homeostasis of the immune response. In addition to CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells, several subsets of Foxp3- regulatory T cells, such as T helper 3 (Th3) cells and type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cells, have been described in mice and human. Accumulating evidence shows that naïve B cells contribute to tolerance and are able to promote regulatory T cell differentiation. Naïve B cells can convert CD4+CD25- T cells into CD25+Foxp3- regulatory T cells, named Treg-of-B cells by our group. Treg-of-B cells express LAG3, ICOS, GITR, OX40, PD1, and CTLA4 and secrete IL-10. Intriguingly, B-T cell-cell contact but not IL-10 is essential for Treg-of-B cells induction. Moreover, Treg-of-B cells possess both IL-10-dependent and IL-10-independent inhibitory functions. Treg-of-B cells exert suppressive activities in antigen-specific and non-antigen-specific manners in vitro and in vivo. Here, we review the phenotype and function of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells, Th3 cells, Tr1 cells, and Treg-of-B cells.

  13. Rhetoric and History in Brian Friel’s Making History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfredi Bernardini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an analysis of the rhetorical devices of representation and recording of history, investigated and deconstructed by the so-called "history play" Making History, written by Brian Friel and performed by the Field Day Theatre Company in 1988. The play tells of the heroic deeds of Hugh O’ Neill, a Sixteenth century Ulster gaelic Lord, intertwining his personal facts with the crucial events in Irish History.Friel rediscovers a paradigmatic figure in Irish history, using the theatrical performance in order to dissect and thoroughly scrutinize the basis for the nationalist rhetoric which is at the root of contemporary conflicts in Northern Ireland.Starting from the theoretical contributions of seminal authors such as Hayden White, Paul Ricoeur, Walter Benjamin, Michel De Certeau, the northern Irish playwright challenges the supposedly scientific nature of History, that would decidedly mark it as different from other forms of narrative, such as literature. Hence History’s metalinguistic nature, based on specific rhetorical strategies, is uncovered. Therefore, on the one hand Friel questions the theoretical foundations of History, of its “grand narratives”,  giving ‘stories’ the chance to be part of official History’s discourse. On the other hand, he lifts the veil on the rhetorical (and in some ways ideological mechanisms involved in the process of History writing, through the character of archbishop Peter Lombard - O’ Neill’s biographer, storyteller and master in elocutio - and sheds light on how History is a form of rhetorical narrative, almost a patchwork of events collected (inventio and assembled (dispositio by the historian according to specific criteria of representation.By taking us inside the very nucleus of the rhetorical devices used by storiography, Friel unmasks the delicate processes of making and unmaking history, the ones that help give birth to identity as well as History.

  14. Supernovae Rates: A Cosmic History

    OpenAIRE

    Yungelson, L. R.; Livio, M.

    1999-01-01

    We discuss the cosmic history of supernovae on the basis of various assumptions and recent data on the star formation history. We show that supernova rates as a function of redshift can be used to place significant constraints on progenitor models, on the star formation history, and on the importance of dust obscuration. We demonstrate that it is unlikely that the current observational indications for the existence of a cosmological constant are merely an artifact of the dominance of differen...

  15. Self-regulatory gene: An exact solution for the gene gate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandecan, Yves; Blossey, Ralf

    2013-04-01

    The stochastic dynamics of gene expression is often described by highly abstract models involving only the key molecular actors DNA, RNA, and protein, neglecting all further details of the transcription and translation processes. One example of such models is the “gene gate model,” which contains a minimal set of actors and kinetic parameters, which allows us to describe the regulation of a gene by both repression and activation. Based on this approach, we formulate a master equation for the case of a single gene regulated by its own product—a transcription factor—and solve it exactly. The obtained gene product distributions display features of mono- and bimodality, depending on the choice of parameters. We discuss our model in the perspective of other models in the literature.

  16. 77 FR 48491 - Regulatory New Drug Review: Solutions for Study Data Exchange Standards; Notice of Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... Exchange Standards'' the purpose of which is to solicit input from industry, technology vendors, and other members of the public regarding the advantages and disadvantages of current and emerging open, consensus... technology. Moreover, it is not supported and maintained by an open, consensus-based standards development...

  17. A history of pediatric immunology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stiehm, E Richard; Johnston, Jr, Richard B

    2005-01-01

    Immunology has played a prominent role in the history of medicine. Pediatric immunologists have focused on immune aberrations in pediatric disorders, particularly those involving host defense mechanisms...

  18. History of rheumatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikant Deshpande

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the history and various milestones of rheumatology from ancient to modern times. The origin of rheumatology can be traced to ancient times. Diseases such as gout and osteoarthritis were prevalent in ancient people. Many ancient skeletons show signs of gout and osteoarthritis. The ancient book on Indian Medicine, Charaka Samhita, gives a vivid description of many variants of arthritis. Charaka, an eminent Ayurvedic physician, described rheumatoid arthritis (RA in Charaka Samhitha as "Vishkantha," meaning painful joints. The word rheumatology has its origin in the word "rheuma," which means flowing, and is mentioned in Hippocratic corpus. Hippocrates made several observations about gout, popularly known as "aphorisms of gout." Many famous paintings in the medieval era depict joint diseases. Hand lesions resembling those of RA are found in paintings of the Flemish school. "The virgin with canon van der paele," a painting by Jan Van Eyck (1436, shows thickened arteries in the temple, suggestive of temporal arthritis. The famous portrait of Federigo de Montefeltre, thought to have been painted by Joos (Justus van Gent, shows arthritis of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the left index finger. Rheumatology developed as a well-recognized specialty of medicine in the 20th century. American Physicians Bernard Comroe and Joseph Lee Hollander coined the term rheumatologist in 1940. Rheumatology has rapidly advanced during the last 50 years due to improved diagnosis as a result of progress in immunology, molecular biology, genetics and imaging.

  19. History of magnetorheological finishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Daniel C.

    2011-06-01

    Magnetorheological finishing (MRF) is a deterministic method for producing complex optics with figure accuracy businessman Lowell Mintz was invited to Minsk in 1990 to explore possibilities for technology transfer. Mintz was told of the potential for MRF, but did not understand whether it had value. Mintz was referred to Harvey Pollicove at the Center for Optics Manufacturing of the University of Rochester. As a result of their conversation, they sent Prof. Steve Jacobs to visit Minsk and evaluate MRF. From Jacobs' positive findings, and with support from Lowell Mintz, Kordonski and his colleagues were invited in 1993 to work at the Center for Optics Manufacturing with Jacobs and Don Golini to refine MRF technology. A "preprototype" finishing machine was operating by 1994. Prof. Greg Forbes and doctoral student Paul Dumas developed algorithms for deterministic control of MRF. In 1996, Golini recognized the commercial potential of MRF, secured investment capital from Lowell Mintz, and founded QED Technologies. The first commercial MRF machine was unveiled in 1998. It was followed by more advanced models and by groundbreaking subaperture stitching interferometers for metrology. In 2006, QED was acquired by and became a division of Cabot Microelectronics. This paper recounts the history of the development of MRF and the founding of QED Technologies.

  20. [History of strabismus surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy, C; Aracil, P

    1984-01-01

    The history of strabismus surgery starts from the end of the eighteenth century. The first surgical trials consisted of performing myotomies of the medial rectus. Although Taylor from Great Britain could be one of the first to be mentioned, it was Dieffenbach from Germany who accomplished the first official myotomy in 1839. He is followed by many authors as Roux, Velpeau in Paris, and Bonnet in Lyon, the latter performing tenotomy instead of myotomy. In 1849 Guerin performed muscular advancement. In 1883, de Wecker described the muscular pleating, and Blascowiczs the muscular resection. Thus, by the end of the nineteenth century, the surgical treatment of esodeviations was supported by methods aimed to weaken the medial rectus (tenotomies, myotomies) and to strengthen the lateral rectus (advancement, pleating and resection). During twentieth century, progress achieved in anesthesiology and the quality of suture material led Jameson (1922) to substitute tenotomy by muscular recession. Since then, the surgery of squint has never been modified basically up to 1970 when Cuppers created the retro-equatorial myopexy. Thus, two kinds of surgical technics are currently available to surgeons: classic surgery, recession, resection and their variants, dealing with the static component of the deviation angle, and the Faden Operation of Cuppers struggling against the dynamic or innervational component.