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Sample records for histamine fish poisoning

  1. Histamine fish poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nosić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Histamine fish poisoning is a chemical intoxication associated with intake of fishes with high histamine content. Histamine is developed in fish tissue post mortem due to bacterial decarboxilation of free amino-acid histidine. This paper deals with causes of histamine development in fish meat and with histamine influence on human health. Prevention of histamine fish poisoning would also be discussed. The case histories of histamine food poisoning in our country and in the world would be described. Histamine levels used in Regulation would be presented.

  2. Photobacterium phosphoreum caused a histamine fish poisoning incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanki, Masashi; Yoda, Tomoko; Ishibashi, Masanori; Tsukamoto, Teizo

    2004-04-01

    An incident of histamine fish poisoning (HFP) occurred due to the consumption of iwashi maruboshi (dried sardine) in Osaka, Japan in March 2002. A histamine-producing bacterial strain, YS4-7, was isolated from iwashi maruboshi that contained 1700 mg of histamine per kilogram. This strain was identified as Photobacterium phosphoreum by biochemical examinations and partial sequencing of 16S rDNA. P. phosphoreum YS4-7 showed greater capability as a histamine producer at 4 and 12 degrees C than Morganella morganii JCM 1672. Strain YS4-7 produced 546 mg of histamine per kilogram in a sardine homogenate stored for 12 h at 20 degrees C. M. morganii, Raoultella planticola and Hafnia alvei have been isolated from fish implicated in HFP incidents, whereas this is the first report of P. phosphoreum being the causative bacterium in a sporadic case of histamine food poisoning.

  3. Histamine poisoning and control measures in fish and fishery products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierina eVisciano

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Histamine poisoning is one of the most common form of intoxication caused by the ingestion of fish and fishery products. Cooking, canning or freezing cannot reduce the levels of histamine because this compound is heat stable. All humans are susceptible to histamine and its effects can be described as intolerance or intoxication depending on the severity of the symptoms. The amount of histamine in food, the individual sensitivity and the detoxification activity in human organism represent the main factors affecting the toxicological response in consumers. Histamine is the only biogenic amine with regulatory limits set by European Legislation, up to a maximum of 200 mg/kg in fresh fish and 400 mg/kg in fishery products treated by enzyme maturation in brine.

  4. Histamine poisoning from ingestion of fish or scombroid syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortorella, Vincenzo; Masciari, Peppino; Pezzi, Mario; Mola, Assunta; Tiburzi, Simona Paola; Zinzi, Maria Concetta; Scozzafava, Annamaria; Verre, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The scombroid poisoning is due to the ingestion of poorly preserved fish (especially tuna, sardines, and mackerel) out of the cold chain. Under the influence of the proliferation of gram negative bacteria that occurs for heating, the histidine content in the muscle of the fish is converted into histamine, by the action of the enzyme histidine decarboxylase. If the histamine is ingested in large quantities, it causes an anaphylactoid reaction with a variety of symptoms from moderate to severe to life-threating. We will describe two cases that came under our observation after consuming a meal of bluefin tuna. The diagnosis of scombroid syndrome was made on the basis of the anamnestic data and the clinical one. The rapid resolution of the signs and symptoms after treatment with histamines H1-H2 receptor blockers confirmed the suspected diagnosis.

  5. Histamine Poisoning from Ingestion of Fish or Scombroid Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Tortorella

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The scombroid poisoning is due to the ingestion of poorly preserved fish (especially tuna, sardines, and mackerel out of the cold chain. Under the influence of the proliferation of gram negative bacteria that occurs for heating, the histidine content in the muscle of the fish is converted into histamine, by the action of the enzyme histidine decarboxylase. If the histamine is ingested in large quantities, it causes an anaphylactoid reaction with a variety of symptoms from moderate to severe to life-threating. We will describe two cases that came under our observation after consuming a meal of bluefin tuna. The diagnosis of scombroid syndrome was made on the basis of the anamnestic data and the clinical one. The rapid resolution of the signs and symptoms after treatment with histamines H1-H2 receptor blockers confirmed the suspected diagnosis.

  6. Evidence that histamine is the causative toxin of scombroid-fish poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, J D; Margolies, G R; Rowland, J; Roberts, L J

    1991-03-14

    The highest morbidity worldwide from fish poisoning results from the ingestion of spoiled scombroid fish, such as tuna and mackerel, and its cause is not clear. Histamine could be responsible, because spoiled scombroid fish contain large quantities of histamine. Whether histamine is the causative toxin, however, has remained in question. To address this issue, we investigated whether histamine homeostasis is altered in poisoned people. The urinary excretion of histamine and its metabolite, N-methylhistamine, was measured in three persons who had scombroid-fish poisoning (scombrotoxism) after the ingestion of marlin. We measured 9 alpha, 11 beta-dihydroxy-15-oxo-2,3,18,19-tetranorprost-5-ene-1,20-dioic acid (PGD-M), the principal metabolite of prostaglandin D2, a mast-cell secretory product, to assess whether mast cells had been activated to release histamine. The fish contained high levels of histamine (842 to 2503 mumol per 100 g of tissue). Symptoms of scombrotoxism--flushing and headache--began 10 to 30 minutes after the ingestion of fish. In urine samples collected one to four hours after fish ingestion, the levels of histamine and N-methylhistamine were 9 to 20 times and 15 to 20 times the normal mean, respectively. During the subsequent 24 hours, the levels fell to 4 to 15 times and 4 to 11 times the normal values. Levels of both were normal 14 days later. PGD-M excretion was not increased at any time. Two persons treated with diphenhydramine had prompt amelioration of symptoms. Scombroid-fish poisoning is associated with urinary excretion of histamine in quantities far exceeding those required to produce toxicity. The histamine is most likely derived from the spoiled fish. These results identify histamine as the toxin responsible for scombroid-fish poisoning.

  7. Formation of histamine and biogenic amines in cold-smoked tuna: An investigation of psychrotolerant bacteria from samples implicated in cases of histamine fish poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emborg, Jette; Dalgaard, Paw

    2006-01-01

    Two outbreaks and a single case of histamine fish poisoning associated with cold-smoked tuna (CST) were reported in Denmark during 2004. The bacteria most likely responsible for histamine formation in CST implicated in histamine fish poisoning was identified for the first time in this study...

  8. Histamine Food Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirone, Maria; Visciano, Pierina; Tofalo, Rosanna; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of food containing high amounts of histamine and other biogenic amines can cause food poisoning with different symptoms linked to the individual sensitivity and the detoxification activity. Histamine is the only biogenic amine with regulatory limits set by the European Commission in fish and fishery products, because it can lead to a fatal outcome. However, also fermented foods can be involved in outbreaks and sporadic cases of intoxication. The factors affecting the presence of histamine in food are variable and product specific including the availability of the precursor amino acid, the presence of microorganisms producing decarboxylases, and the conditions allowing their growth and enzyme production. Generally, the good quality of raw material and hygienic practices during food processing as well as the use of histidine decarboxylase-negative starter cultures can minimize the occurrence of histamine. Further studies are necessary to estimate the human exposure and the relationship between the total amount of the biogenic amines ingested with food and health effects.

  9. Formation of histamine and biogenic amines in cold-smoked tuna: an investigation of psychrotolerant bacteria from samples implicated in cases of histamine fish poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emborg, Jette; Dalgaard, Paw

    2006-04-01

    Two outbreaks and a single case of histamine fish poisoning associated with cold-smoked tuna (CST) were reported in Denmark during 2004. The bacteria most likely responsible for histamine formation in CST implicated in histamine fish poisoning was identified for the first time in this study. Product characteristics and profiles of biogenic amines in the implicated products were also recorded. In the single poisoning case, psychrotolerant Morganella morganii-like bacteria most likely was responsible for the histamine production in CST with 2.2% +/- 0.6% NaCl in the water phase (WPS). In outbreak 1, Photobacterium phosphoreum most likely formed the histamine in CST with 1.3% +/- 0.1% WPS. In outbreak 2, which involved 10 persons, the bacteria responsible for histamine formation could not be determined. The measured concentrations of WPS were very low compared with those of randomly collected commercial samples of CST and cold-smoked blue marlin (4.1 to 12.7% WPS). Challenge tests at 5 degrees C with psychrotolerant M. morganii and P. phosphoreum in CST with 4.4% WPS revealed growth and toxic histamine formation by the psychrotolerant M. morganii-like bacteria but not by P. phosphoreum. In a storage trial with naturally contaminated CST containing 6.9% WPS, lactic acid bacteria dominated the microbiota, and no significant histamine formation was observed during the shelf life of about 40 days at 5 degrees C and of about 16 days at 10 degrees C. To prevent toxic histamine formation, CST should be produced with >5% WPS and distributed with a declared 5 degrees C shelf life of 3 to 4 weeks or less.

  10. [Histamine food poisonings in Japan and other countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Miou; Yamamoto, Miyako; Uneyama, Chikako; Morikawa, Kaoru

    2009-01-01

    Histamine food poisonings are allergy-like food poisonings caused by the ingestion of spoiled fish containing markedly elevated histamine levels. We examined histamine food poisonings in Japan from 1998 to 2008. In average 8 food poisonings and 150 cases were reported annually and there was no fatality case. In more than 80% of remaining food samples, histamine content exceeded 20 mg/100 g. These poisonings were caused by tuna, billfish (marlin) and mackerel, which contained higher level of histamine than other fishes in histamine food poisonings in Japan. Cooking methods of these fishes were mainly "broiled". We also studied histamine food poisonings in other countries. Tuna was the main fish in histamine food poisonings reported to Centers for the Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the US and Ozfoodnet in Australia from 2000 to 2006. In the US, histamine food poisonings were also caused by mahimahi and escolar fish. Our review will be useful for in taking measures to reduce risk of histamine food poisonings.

  11. OCCURANCE OF HISTAMINE IN FISH PRODUCTS ON MARKET

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mancusi, R; Bini, R.M; Cecchini, M; Delle Donne, G; Rosmini, R; Trevisani, M

    2012-01-01

    Histamine fish poisoning is quite common and occur in consequence of microbial decarboxylase whose activity begin early in the post-mortem but are triggered in consequence of abuse in the shelf life of fish products...

  12. Detection of Histamine in Fish and Fishery Products in Osaka Prefecture (Fiscal 2015 Report).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awazu, Kaoru; Takatori, Satoshi; Kakimoto, Sachiko; Nomura, Chie; Masayama, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Mizuka; Kakimoto, You; Kajimura, Keiji

    2017-01-01

    Histamine food poisoning is caused by ingestion of spoiled fish containing high levels of histamine. This paper reports cases in which histamine was detected in Osaka prefecture in fiscal year 2015 in a survey of fish and fishery products on the market and the food poisoning. A suspected case of histamine food poisoning was also evaluated to investigate the cause and minimize further problems. Histamine in food was separated on SPE cartridge columns, and analyzed after derivatization with fluorescamine by means of HPLC-FL. Histamine was detected in some fishery products on the market and in food that had caused poisoning. The samples in which histamine was detected were semi-dried whole round herring (Urumeiwashi-maruboshi), mackerel (Saba) and sardine dumpling (Iwashi-tsumire). These foods were the main causes of histamine food poisoning according to the report of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Government of Japan.

  13. [Histamine formation in Japanese marine fish species and the effect of frozen storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Ryota; Kobayashi, Naoki; Kato, Noboru; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko; Araki, Emiko

    2013-01-01

    To investigate histamine formation in Japanese marine fish, model samples were made from fish meat mixed with intestines of commercial 73 fish species. After the samples were stored at 25℃ for 12 hr, histamine was detected in 35 fish species at 50 mg/kg or more. These fish species might potentially be related to histamine poisoning. In addition, the effect of frozen storage at -45℃ on histamine formation was examined. Although histamine was formed in some fish species, and Photobacterium damselae and Photobacterium iliopiscarium were isolated from the frozen samples, the amount of histamine formed in the model samples was reduced in all tested fish species after frozen storage. Therefore frozen storage of fish may be effective to control histamine formation, even though histamine forming bacteria survived under these conditions.

  14. OCCURANCE OF HISTAMINE IN FISH PRODUCTS ON MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mancusi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Histamine fish poisoning is quite common and occur in consequence of microbial decarboxylase whose activity begin early in the post-mortem but are triggered in consequence of abuse in the shelf life of fish products. In this study forty-eight samples of tuna, mackerel, anchovies, sardines, fresh or processed were sampled from fish shops and supermarkets in the City of Bologna in the period from January to July 2010. Concentration of histamine was assessed using ELISA quantitative test and presence of psicrotrophic histamine forming bacteria was searched using a modified Niven agar medium which allow detection of suspect colonies that were confirmed by PCR for detecting the presence of the histidine decarboxylase genes in their DNA. The positive colonies were then identified on the basis of their morphology, Gram reaction and biochemical characteristics with API20E. The differential capability of the Niven agar was found to be low and approximately one fifth of the suspect colonies were confirmed by the PCR test, which however included both strong and weak histamine producing strains. The presence of Morganella morganii was associated with concentration of histamine 460 mg∙kg-1 above the allowed limit in a sample of tuna sampled from a fish shop. The same bacterium was found in samples of Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus. High histamine concentration (between 258 and > 300 mg∙kg-1 were observed in salted European pilchard and European anchovy (228 mg∙kg-1 sold loose in supermarkets. Because temperature abuse could occur when Tuna (fresh/defrozen are hold on chopping board to sell fresh cuts and during shelf life of salted pilchard and pickled anchovies held in opened cans in chilled display cabinets for extended period, which might results in very high histamine concentration, controls on time and temperature at the retail, in addition to those done during the harvest and processing are needed. The studies aiming at

  15. Determination of histamine in milkfish stick implicated in food-borne poisoning

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    Yi-Chen Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An incident of food-borne poisoning causing illness in 37 victims due to ingestion of fried fish sticks occurred in September 2014, in Tainan city, southern Taiwan. Leftovers of the victims' fried fish sticks and 16 other raw fish stick samples from retail stores were collected and tested to determine the occurrence of histamine and histamine-forming bacteria. Two suspected fried fish samples contained 86.6 mg/100 g and 235.0 mg/100 g histamine; levels that are greater than the potential hazard action level (50 mg/100 g in most illness cases. Given the allergy-like symptoms of the victims and the high histamine content in the suspected fried fish samples, this food-borne poisoning was strongly suspected to be caused by histamine intoxication. Moreover, the fish species of suspected samples was identified as milkfish (Chanos chanos, using polymerase chain reaction direct sequence analysis. In addition, four of the 16 commercial raw milkfish stick samples (25% had histamine levels greater than the US Food & Drug Administration guideline of 5.0 mg/100 g for scombroid fish and/or products. Ten histamine-producing bacterial strains, capable of producing 373–1261 ppm of histamine in trypticase soy broth supplemented with 1.0% L-histidine, were identified as Enterobacter aerogenes (4 strains, Enterobacter cloacae (1 strain, Morganella morganii (2 strains, Serratia marcescens (1 strain, Hafnia alvei (1 strain, and Raoultella orithinolytica (1 strain, by 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing with polymerase chain reaction amplification.

  16. Determination and frying loss of histamine in striped marlin fillets implicated in a foodborne poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Chen; Lin, Chia-Min; Huang, Chun-Yung; Huang, Ya-Ling; Chen, Hwi-Chang; Huang, Tzou-Chi; Tsai, Yung-Hsiang

    2013-05-01

    An incident of foodborne poisoning causing illness in 67 victims due to ingestion of fried fish fillets occurred in June 2011, in southern Taiwan. Of the five suspected fish fillets, one fried sample contained 62.0 mg/100 g and one raw sample contained 89.6 mg/100 g histamine, levels which are greater than the potential hazard action level (50 mg/100 g) in most illness cases. Given the allergy-like symptoms of the victims and the high histamine content in the suspected fish samples, this foodborne poisoning was strongly suspected to be caused by histamine intoxication. Five histamine-producing bacterial strains capable of producing 59 to 562 ppm of histamine in Trypticase soy broth supplemented with 1.0% L-histidine were identified as Enterobacter aerogenes (two strains), Raoultella ornithinolytica (two strains), and Morganella morganii (one strain). The degradation loss of histamine in suspected raw fillets was 28% after they were fried at 170°C for 5 min.

  17. [Seafood poisonings. Part II. Fish poisonings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciszowski, Krzysztof; Mietka-Ciszowska, Aneta

    2012-01-01

    Fish plays a significant role in human life, mainly as part of a balanced healthy diet and a good source of many of nutrients. However, contact with fish may be harmful or even life-threatening to man. Toxic effects, that fish exerts toward men (ichthyotoxism), result from envenomations by poison. ous fish equipped in venom apparatus (ichthyoacanthotoxism), direct contact with venom produced by skin glandules (ichthyocrinotoxism), or consuming fish containing toxins for nutritional purposes (ichthyosarcotoxism). In the present review, different fish-borne food poisonings are presented including their etiology, pathogenesis, symptomatology and treatment. In fact, the majority of fish poisonings are intoxications with toxins primary produced by bacteria, cyanobacteria and algae. These are consumed and accumulated in the food chain by herbivorous and predatory fish, that in turn may be a cause of poisonings in humans.

  18. Puffer fish poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Field, J

    1998-01-01

    Regarded by many as a delicacy, puffer fish (Lagocephalus scleratus) is a lethal source of food poisoning with a high mortality. It contains tetrodotoxin which can cause death by muscular paralysis, respiratory depression, and circulatory failure. A case of mild intoxication is reported and the literature reviewed.

  19. [Ciguatera fish poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Erwan; Bouchut, Jérémie

    2014-09-01

    Ciguatera, an ichtyosarcotoxism linked to the consumption of usually healthy coral fish is a common poisoning in the Pacific, Caribbean and Indian Ocean where it is endemic. However, increased tourism and commercial transportation of tropical fish for consumption make it an unexceptional intoxication in countries away from its endemic area. Environmental stresses such as climate changes also contribute to the expansion of its geographical area. The non-specific clinical symptomatology is characterized by the occurrence of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, nervous and general signs few hours after eating a ciguatoxic fish. The diagnosis is clinical and relatively easy in endemic areas but much less for physicians who are rarely confronted with, which is a source of prolonged diagnostic delays and a significant increase in spending. Treatment of ciguatera is symptomatic but new treatments, still experimental, give a real hope for the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Degradation of histamine by Bacillus polymyxa isolated from salted fish products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chen Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Histamine is the causative agent of scombroid poisoning, a foodborne chemical hazard. Histamine is degraded by the oxidative deamination activity of certain microorganisms. In this study, eight histamine-degrading bacteria isolated from salted fish products were identified as Rummeliibacillus stabekisii (1 isolate, Agrobacterium tumefaciens (1 isolate, Bacillus cereus (2 isolates, Bacillus polymyxa (1 isolate, Bacillus licheniformis (1 isolate, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (1 isolate, and Bacillus subtilis (1 isolate. Among them, B. polymyxa exhibited the highest activity in degrading histamine than the other isolates. The ranges of temperature, pH, and salt concentration for growth and histamine degradation of B. polymyxa were 25–37°C, pH 5–9, and 0.5–5% NaCl, respectively. B. polymyxa exhibited optimal growth and histamine-degrading activity at 30°C, pH 7, and 0.5% NaCl in histamine broth for 24 hours of incubation. The histamine-degrading isolate, B. polymyxa, might be used as a starter culture in inhibiting histamine accumulation during salted fish product fermentation.

  1. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... poisonings are heat stable, so no amount of cooking will prevent you from becoming poisoned if you ... R. Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Disease, Updated Edition . 8th ...

  2. DETERMINATION OF HISTAMINE IN FISH USING ELISA TECHNIQUE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KRUGER, C; SEWING, U; STENGEL, G; KEMA, [No Value; WESTERMANN, J; MANZ, B

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of histamine in fish and fish products via competitive ELISA is described. The advantages of this method are easy sample preparation and handling, screening capabilities, and low costs. Automation enables the performance of the assay with higher series of samples. The Histamine-ELISA is

  3. The histamine content of dried flying fish products in Taiwan and the isolation of halotolerant histamine-forming bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Feng Kung

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty dried flying fish products were purchased from fishing village stores in Taiwan and tested to detect the presence of histamine and histamine-forming bacteria. Except for histamine and cadaverine, the average content of various biogenic amines in the tested samples was less than 3.5 mg/100 g. Eight (26.6% dried flying fish samples had histamine levels greater than the United States Food and Drug Administration guideline of 5 mg/100 g for scombroid fish and/or scombroid products, whereas four (13.3% samples contained more than the hazard action level of 50 mg/100 g. One histamine-producing bacterial isolate was identified as Staphylococcus xylosus by 16S rDNA sequencing with polymerase chain reaction amplification. This isolate was capable of producing 507.8 ppm of histamine in trypticase soy broth supplemented with 1.0% l-histidine (TSBH. The S. xylosus isolate was a halotolerant bacterium that had a consistent ability to produce more than 300 ppm of histamine at 3% sodium chloride concentration in TSBH medium after 72 hours.

  4. Quality control of the analysis of histamine in fish by proficiency test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Warlley P.; Tette, Patrícia A. S.; Gloria, Maria Beatriz A.

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of histamine is required by the European Union for the importation of tuna and other Scombroid fish. The aim of this study was to investigate the quality of the analysis of histamine in fish, by means of reference material (RM) and of proficiency test (PT). Sample analysis carried out using RM provided 89.4% recovery. During the proficiency test, the histamine content of the sample was 311.9 mg/kg and the z-score was zero. These results assure the good performance of the laboratory in the analysis of histamine in fish, asuring reliability of results to clients.

  5. A Case Report of Puffer Fish Poisoning in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Yong, Y. S.; Quek, L. S.; Lim, E. K.; Ngo, A.

    2013-01-01

    Although many Asians regard puffer fish as a delicacy since ancient times, puffer fish (Lageocephalus scitalleratus) is also a well-known source of possibly lethal food poisoning. The fish is gaining popularity in Singapore and can be found in quite a few restaurants now. Puffer fish contains tetrodotoxin (TTX), a potent poison affecting the neural pathway. Puffer fish poisoning may cause a constellation of symptoms, such as giddiness, numbness and tingling sensation of the mouth, paresthesia...

  6. Preliminary study of Histamine in Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss samples from fish markets in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Mashak

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Histidine is one of non-protein nitrogen extractives which found in fish such as Salmonidae family (trout is belonged this family.Members of this family has high amounts of Histidine compared to other foods. Some Salmon microbial flora can decarboxylated Histidine to Histamine and this metabolite is a hazard component for human. Evaluation of Histamine levels in Salmon via a fast and accurate method can be useful for decreasing the intensity of these hazards. In this study evaluated psychrophilic and mesophilic aerobic bacteria and also histamine level in purchased salmon samples from fish markets in Tehran by ELISA method (Rida Screen Histamine Kits. A total of 60 samples of Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss purchased from fish markets and assayed for Histamine by using Rida Screen Histamine ELISA Kits. Bacterial enumeration was performed on 10-fold diluted samples at 25°C and 35°C for mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria, respectively. The range of Histamine content was 4 to 28mg/100g (14.18mg/100g. 12.50 percent of samples had Histamine content above the international standard level (20mg/100g. Data achieved by bacterial enumeration and ELISA test were analyzed by Pearson correlation test indicated that direct relationship between histamine and the number of bacteria in fish samples is established (p

  7. Determination of histamine in fish by Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy using silver colloid SERS substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janči, Tibor; Valinger, Davor; Gajdoš Kljusurić, Jasenka; Mikac, Lara; Vidaček, Sanja; Ivanda, Mile

    2017-06-01

    This study was focused on development of a rapid and sensitive method for histamine determination in fish based on Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) using simple and widely available silver colloid SERS substrate. Extraction of histamine with 0.4M perchloric acid and purification with 1-butanol significantly shortened sample preparation (30min) and provided clear SERS spectra with characteristic Raman bands of histamine. Principal component analysis effectively distinguished SERS spectra of fish samples with different histamine content. Partial least square (PLS) regression models confirmed reliability of detection and spectral analysis of histamine with SERS. In histamine concentration range 0-200mgkg-1, significant in legislative and fish quality control aspects, PLS regression model based on spectral range 1139.9-1643.7cm-1 showed linear trend with R2pred=0.962, RPD=7.250. Presented protocol for histamine extraction and purification followed by SERS analysis coupled with chemometric approach, enabled development of rapid and inexpensive method for histamine determination in fish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pathology of selenium poisoning in fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Dennis Lemly

    1998-01-01

    Selenium presents an interesting paradox in the field of aquatic toxicology because it is both a nutrient and a poison. As a nutrient, it is required in the diet of fish at concentrations of about 0. 1 to 0. 5 Fg/g dry weight. Selenium is necessary for proper formation and functioning of glutathione peroxidase, which is a major cellular antioxidant enzyme. This enzyme...

  9. Determination of biogenic amines in fish implicated in food poisoning by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, S C; Chou, S S; Chang, P C; Hwang, D F

    2000-12-01

    A micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC) method for the simultaneous determination of seven biogenic amines in fish was developed. The peaks of all components were successfully separated within 11.5 min. MECC was performed with 0.06 M sodium deoxycholate in 0.02 M borate buffer (pH 9.2)-methanol (95:5, v/v) solvent. The average recoveries for all components ranged from 84.4 to 100.3%. The application of this method to detect amines in fried marlin fillet implicated in a food poisoning incident indicated that a high level (56.24 mg/100 g) of histamine was present in the sample. Another 10 fish samples collected from markets were also analyzed and did not contain detectable levels of histamine (<2.5 mg/100 g).

  10. Paralytic complications of puffer fish (tetrodotoxin) poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahasan, H A M N; Mamun, A A; Karim, S R; Bakar, M A; Gazi, E A; Bala, C S

    2004-02-01

    Puffer fish is available in Bangladesh and is occasionally eaten by some people. Ignorance regarding its proper cooking process may lead to serious health hazards, including fatality. An unusual catastrophic event happened recently in Khulna, Bangladesh that drew nationwide attention. Eight families were affected. Thirty-seven patients were admitted with a history of consumption of puffer fish. Peri-oral paraesthesia (24), weakness of both lower limbs (22), paraesthesia all over the body (18), headache (15), difficulty in respiration (14), nausea and vomiting (8), blurring of vision (7), and vertigo (6) were common clinical presentations. Twenty-two patients developed ascending paralysis of limbs and involved the respiratory muscles in 17 patients. Eight patients died due to respiratory failure while the rest improved. Health personnel should have sufficient knowledge regarding the clinical manifestations, complications and management of puffer fish poisoning. During its preparation, organs that contain the highest level of tetrodotoxin should be removed. Since there is no specific treatment, people should be made aware of the potential risk of eating puffer fish, about the warning symptoms and signs of puffer fish poisoning, and when to seek medical help.

  11. An updated checklist of poisonous fishes of Turkish Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Bayhan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The current status of marine poisonous fish species ranging in the Aegean Sea coastline in Turkey were introduced. Turkey is a peninsula surrounded by seas with different ecological features on three sides. The total length of shoreline is 8 333 km including the islands. The total number of fish species in Turkish seas is 512, of which 449 live in the Aegean Sea followed by the Mediterranean Sea (441 species, the Marmara Sea (257 species and the Black Sea (154species. On the Aegean Sea coasts, the richest sea regarding fish diversity, the number of poisonous fish species is also high. This mini-review revealed 51 poisonous fish species belonging to 14 families in the Turkish Aegean Sea. On the Aegean Sea coasts poisonous fish species can be categorized into three groups: (i Fish that contain venomous spines on the tail or on the operculum (ii Fish that carry poisonous bite and (iii Fish having poisonous flesh or liver. Poisoning fish that contain venomous spines on the tail or on the operculum mostly are dangerous because of their poisonous thorns whereas the passive poisonous fish species poison when they are eaten. These toxins can cause morbidity and rarely, mortality in humans. Apart from these, swallowing the blood of species such as European eel Anguilla anguilla and European conger Conger conger might also cause poisoning. Besides, as there has been an invasion of puffer fish especially on the Turkish Mediterranean and Aegean coasts in recent years, there is a danger in question. Thus, it is very important to particularly draw attention to these fish on the Turkish coasts.

  12. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: Treatment, Prevention and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Reich

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world, and it causes substantial physical and functional impact. It produces a myriad of gastrointestinal, neurologic and/or cardiovascular symptoms which last days to weeks, or even months. Although there are reports of symptom amelioration with some interventions (e.g. IV mannitol, the appropriate treatment for CFP remains unclear to many physicians. We review the literature on the treatments for CFP, including randomized controlled studies and anecdotal reports. The article is intended to clarify treatment options, and provide information about management and prevention of CFP, for emergency room physicians, poison control information providers, other health care providers, and patients.

  13. A Case Report of Puffer Fish Poisoning in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. S. Yong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although many Asians regard puffer fish as a delicacy since ancient times, puffer fish (Lageocephalus scitalleratus is also a well-known source of possibly lethal food poisoning. The fish is gaining popularity in Singapore and can be found in quite a few restaurants now. Puffer fish contains tetrodotoxin (TTX, a potent poison affecting the neural pathway. Puffer fish poisoning may cause a constellation of symptoms, such as giddiness, numbness and tingling sensation of the mouth, paresthesia, and muscle weakness. Severe cases may present with respiratory depression, circulatory failure, and death. TTX poisonings have been reported in Japan, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Bangladesh, and the United States (Haque et al. 2008. We report a case of mild poisoning and suggest observation for such cases.

  14. Determination of histamine in fresh and smoked fish commercially available in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawul-Gruba Marzena

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection was used for the study. The histamine was detected in 14.6% and 17.8% of the samples of fresh and smoked fish respectively. The highest concentrations of the compound were found in smoked herring and smoked sprat (17.7 mg/kg and 24.1 mg/kg respectively. Histamine concentration in fresh and smoked fish did not exceed the allowable limit, indicating that they are safe for consumers.

  15. Role of histamine in the regulation of intestinal immunity in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Villegas, Jorge; Garcia-Garcia, Erick; Mulero, Victoriano

    2016-11-01

    In mammals, during the acute inflammatory response, the complex interrelationship and cross-talk among histamine and the immune system has been fairly well characterized. There is a substantial body of information on its structure, metabolism, receptors, signal transduction, physiologic and pathologic effects. However, for early vertebrates, there is little such knowledge. In the case of teleost fish, this lack of knowledge has been due to the widely held belief that histamine is not present in this phylogenetic group. However, it has been recently demonstrated, that granules of mast cells in perciforms contain biologically active histamine. More importantly, the inflammatory response was clearly demonstrated to be regulated by the direct action of histamine on professional phagocytes. Nevertheless, the molecular basis and exact role of this biogenic amine in perciforms is still a matter of speculation. Therefore, this review intends to summarize recent experimental evidence regarding fish mast cells and correlate the same with their mammalian counterparts to establish the possible role of histamine in the fish intestinal inflammatory response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of analytical methods for the determination of histamine in reference canned fish samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakšić, S.; Baloš, M. Ž.; Mihaljev, Ž.; Prodanov Radulović, J.; Nešić, K.

    2017-09-01

    Two screening methods for histamine in canned fish, an enzymatic test and a competitive direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CD-ELISA), were compared with the reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) standard method. For enzymatic and CD-ELISA methods, determination was conducted according to producers’ manuals. For RP-HPLC, histamine was derivatized with dansyl-chloride, followed by RP-HPLC and diode array detection. Results of analysis of canned fish, supplied as reference samples for proficiency testing, showed good agreement when histamine was present at higher concentrations (above 100 mg kg-1). At a lower level (16.95 mg kg-1), the enzymatic test produced some higher results. Generally, analysis of four reference samples according to CD-ELISA and RP-HPLC showed good agreement for histamine determination (r=0.977 in concentration range 16.95-216 mg kg-1) The results show that the applied enzymatic test and CD-ELISA appeared to be suitable screening methods for the determination of histamine in canned fish.

  17. Histopathology of fish. II. The salmon-poisoning fluk

    Science.gov (United States)

    1956-01-01

    THE SALMON-POISONING FLUKE is misnamed as far as the fish culturist is concerned, for the disease affects dogs, not fish. There is considerable evidence, however, that fish may also suffer from the complex chain of events leading from snail to dying dog. Histological studies indicate that young salmon and trout may be severely damaged by the encysted stage of the fluke.

  18. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of biogenic amines in fish implicated in food poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, D F; Chang, S H; Shiua, C Y; Chai, T

    1997-05-23

    A rapid, sensitive and reproducible high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure for the determination of nine biogenic amines in fish by improved benzoylation with benzoyl chloride was developed. The benzoylation of amines with benzoyl chloride at 30 degrees C for 40 min was the optimal condition to eliminate the influence of interfering peaks during analysis. The calibration curve for each amine was linear within the range of 0.02-4 microg. The amine recovery from fish meat was better by extraction with 6% trichloroacetic acid than with 1 M HClO4. The application of this method to detect amines in a fried marlin fillet implicated in a food poisoning incident indicated that a high level (84.1 mg/100 g) of histamine was present in the sample.

  19. Determination of histamine and identification of histamine-producing bacteria in frozen Longtail tuna (Thunnus tonggol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Koohdar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Fish is considered as highly perishable food which spoils soon after death if not preserved properly. Consumption of spoiled fish results in the outbreaks of food poisoning such as histamine poisoning. Biogenic amines are the causative agents of histamine poisoning which are produced by various bacterial species. The aim of this study was to determine the amount of histamine and to identify the histamine-producing bacteria onfrozen Longtail tuna (Thunnus tonggol hunted from south of Iran. Microbial examinations and measurement of histamine were performed on the muscles around the gills of twenty five frozen samples. The results indicated that the mean ± SE Log CFU/g for total microbial and psychotrophic counts were 4.81 ± 0.26 and 4.66 ± 0.25, respectively. Different bacterial isolates were identified as histamine-producing bacteria i.e., Clostridium perfringens (24.4% followed by Proteus spp. (23.0%, Klebsiella spp. (13.9%, and Enterobacter spp. (11.1%. Histamine content in 65.0% of the samples was more than the maximum acceptable level of 50 ppm. Therefore, there is a seafood safety risk in the current harvesting and post harvesting methods used in Longtail tuna industry.

  20. Evaluation of the Histamine Content and Potential Toxicity of Some of Consumable food

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    M Zarei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background & aim: Consuming high amounts of histamine with food causes histamine poisoning among its consumers. Much information about the content of histamine in various food products is not available in the country. In the present study, the amount of histamine in food samples consumed in human diet which are based on existing data sources can contain histamine were measured. Methods: In the present study, 240 samples of 16 different types of food consumed in the human diet were examined. Histamine was extracted with 75 % ethanol- 0.4 N HCl in fresh and canned fish samples and extracted in other samples with  0.1 N HCl. After passing the extracts through ion exchange chromatography, the fluorescence derivative of histamine which was generated by O-phthaldialdehyde and the amount of fluorescent light was measured at excitation wavelength of 350 nm and emission wavelength of 444 nm respectively. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: Spinach, fresh fish, canned fish and aubergine samples showed the high level of histamine with the mean levels of 5.04, 3.83, 2.77 and 2.64 mg/100g respectively. All samples tested contains histamine but 53.3, 20.0, 13.3 and 13.3 percent of the samples of these foods contains higher amounts histamine (5mg/100gr  respectively.Low levels of histamine was observed in a number of samples including tomato, pickles, nuts, bananas, oranges, melons, cheese, curd, yogurt and dough but no detectable histamine was found  olive and tea. Conclusion: In addition to confirming the fact that fish and seafood products have a high risk of histamine poisoning, but it showed that the risk of histamine poisoning in humans after consumption of fish and its products will not be less than spinach and aubergine.

  1. CIGUATERA POISONING: PACIFIC DISEASE, FOODBORNE POISONING FROM FISH IN WARM SEAS AND OCEANS. Review

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    Snezha Zlateva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The review is provoked because of lack of awareness of the medical practitioners in Bulgaria concerning of the ethnology, pathogenesis, clinical symptoms and treatment of the ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP. This can be a source of prolonged diagnostic delays, as some cases reporting in another country in Europe, for example Germany, Spain and UK. Varna is the sea town with many sailor crews returning from tropical and subtropical regions, or CFP can affect people who travel to the Pacific and Caribbean or ate exotic fish from supermarket. The information of this fish food-borne poisoning is part of student’s education in discipline “Marine medicine” in Medical University, Varna. Materials and methods: To present better information from different authors and last scientific data, we made review of published materials of 58 issues to construct definition, history, etiology, pathogenesis (toxins and mechanisms of action, clinical symptoms, treatment and prevention of the Ciguatera or ichtyosarcotoxicosis, a wide spread food-born poisoning. Results: Ciguatera poisoning is ichtyosarcotoxicosis, a wide-spread foodborne poisoning in people after consumption of flesh of different kinds of fishes in which toxins produced by poisonous microorganisms (Dinoflagellates have accumulated. The poisoning develops by accumulating toxins higher up the food chain starting with toxin producing dinoflagellates (species: Gambierdiscus toxicus, Prorocentrum concavum, Pr. lima, Ostreoposis lenticularis, Ostr. Siamensis and others, continuing with the poisoned algae (species: Portieria, Halymenia, Turbinaria, Sargassum, and after that involving small crustacea and small fishes to greater fishes (vector fishes, genus Herbivores and Carnivores, in which the toxins have been stored in amount, great enough to cause foodborne poisoning in humans. This poisoning is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions, but because of its delayed toxic effects, lasting

  2. Evaluation and identification of histamine-forming bacteria on fish products of middle Adriatic Sea

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    Rocco Mancusi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Regulation EU 2073/2005 sets maximum concentration for histamine in fish and products thereof. To meet these criteria, manufacturers have to define performance objectives, such as the maximum allowed prevalence and number/activity of histamine-producing bacteria at relevant stage of production. In order to assess the presence and decarboxylase activity of contaminant bacteria we examined 51 samples of blue fish caught and processed in Emilia Romagna region. We collected 50 gr of fish (skin and gills or the entire product from 10 sample units from every lot. Analytical samples were cultured in Trypticase Soy Broth supplemented with histidine and pyridoxal HCl. Histamine was measured with an electrochemical biosensor after incubation at both 37°C for 24 h and 18-22°C for 48 h. Enrichments that showed relevant enzymatic activity were seeded on Niven agar to isolate suspected colonies and DNA extracts from these bacteria were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR for detecting specific sequences of the gene encoding pyridoxaldependent histidine decarboxylase (HDC. Overall, 29.4% samples showed relevant production of histamine in broth cultures (above a cut-off value set at 250 ng/mL and 53.3% of them (8 out of 15 samples allowed detection of HDC positive strains. All of them were typed as Morganella, which appears to be the most common of fish caught in middle Adriatic sea. Ten out of the twelve positive samples with enrichment cultures incubated at both 37 and 18-22°C (83% showed higher decarboxylase activity at room temperature, suggesting the presence of psychrotolerant strains. In addition, the prevalence of histamine-producing bacteria was higher at retail than at production level, probably as a consequence of manipulations and cross-contamination. The risk correlated to development of histamine-producing psychrotolerans bacteria cannot be controlled only with storage temperature: it is necessary for the food business operators to

  3. Puffer fish poisoning: summary of case reports from Thailand

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    Beuy Joob

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Puffer fish poisoning is a common seafood poisoning. The problem is due to tetradotoxin in puffy fish meat. It can be seen in many countries with seacoasts. The problem is resulted from tetradotoxin (TTX in puffer fish meat. This toxin is an important natural toxin. Here, the authors report summary of case reports from Thailand. The authors use standard search engines (PubMed and Thai Index Medicus for searching on the reports on puffer fish poisoning from Thailand. According to this work, there are at least 3 reports on 55 cases of puffer fish poisoning. All cases visit to the physician within 30 min. Focusing on severity, stage 1, 2, 3 and 4 can be seen in 16%, 8%, 4% and 72%, respectively. In the present report, the summary of the cases presenting to the physician at hospital is shown. Of interest, most patients have severe intoxication and the respirator failure is an important problem to be managed. It is clearly shown in the present report that if good respiratory support is done, the full recovery without problem can be derived. It is no doubt that there is no death case in the present series since the present report focuses on the cases that are successfully delivered to the hospital for management.

  4. Phytochemical analysis of Tephrosia vogelii (fish poison bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work was carried out to determine the chemical constituents of Tephrosia vogelii (Fish poison bean), in order to test the extracts of the plant for use as fish tranquilizer. Fresh samples of T. vogelii were collected separately, air-dried for 21 days and oven-dried at 60o C for 3-4 hours to constant weight. The dried samples ...

  5. A large outbreak of scombroid fish poisoning associated with eating yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) at a military mass catering in Dakar, Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoncheaux, J-P; Michel, R; Mazenot, C; Duflos, G; Iacini, C; de Laval, F; Delaval, F; Saware, E M; Renard, J-C

    2012-06-01

    On 26 November 2010, an outbreak of scombroid fish poisoning occurred in the French Armed Forces in Dakar, Senegal. This chemical intoxication, due to high histamine concentration in fish, is often mistaken for an allergic reaction. A case-control study was undertaken including the 71 cases and 78 randomly selected controls among lunch attendees. The usual symptoms for scombroid fish poisoning were observed in cases, i.e. flushing (85.9%), headache (83.1%), rapid/weak pulse (59.1%) and diarrhoea (47.9%). Symptoms occurred from within a few minutes to up to 3 h following the meal. Most patients quickly recovered with antihistamine and/or symptomatic treatment. Tuna was the only food item positively associated with illness (odds ratio 36.3, 95% confidence interval 6.3-210.0), with the risk of illness increasing with the quantity of fish consumed. No bacterial contamination was found in leftover food, but histamine concentration in tuna was found to be 4900 mg/kg, almost 50-fold higher than the concentration allowed by European regulations. This report is unique because of the large size of the case series - to our knowledge, the largest event of scombroid fish poisoning ever reported - and the chemical and bacteriological analyses results obtained on leftover food.

  6. Electrodiagnosis in puffer fish poisoning--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Nguyen Huu; Tuan, Le Tu Quoc

    2006-09-01

    To report the electrodiagnostic features in a patient with severe intoxication caused by ingesting puffer fish. case report. Our patient was among 6 people in a family affected by puffer fish poisoning, 5 of whom suffered acute flaccid paralysis and respiratory failure. Four of them died several hours after ingestion. One of the two surviving patients was admitted to our hospital with intubation and mechanical ventilation. Clinical examination showed a deep comatose-like state. One day after poisoning, no compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) or sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs) were noted The insertional activity was normal but no motor unit action potentials (MUAPs) were found EEG showed posterior dominant alpha waves which were replaced transiently by beta activities with light stimulation. The patient was treated in an intensive care unit, taken off the respirator 3 days later, then completely recovered without any sequelae. The patient assured caregivers that he had been conscious during the first day, when EEG and EMG were performed. Electrodiagnostic examination 5 days after the poisoning showed nearly normal amplitudes of CMAPs and SNAPs with nearly normal motor and sensory velocities. The lack of abnormal needle EMG signs suggested axonal sparing. Our study results suggest that in severe puffer fish poisoning the toxin (tetrodotoxin) has a complete conduction block effect on myelinated nerve fibers and spares axons, and it appears that the toxin has no effect on the CNS. The toxin effects were rapidly and completely reversed over the course of intensive care.

  7. Validation of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method for quantitative analysis of histamine in fish and fishery products

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    B.K.K.K. Jinadasa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A high-performance liquid chromatography method is described for quantitative determination and validation of histamine in fish and fishery product samples. Histamine is extracted from fish/fishery products by homogenizing with tri-chloro acetic acid, separated with Amberlite CG-50 resin and C18-ODS Hypersil reversed phase column at ambient temperature (25°C. Linear standard curves with high correlation coefficients were obtained. An isocratic elution program was used; the total elution time was 10 min. The method was validated by assessing the following aspects; specificity, repeatability, reproducibility, linearity, recovery, limits of detection, limit of quantification and uncertainty. The validated parameters are in good agreement with method and it is a useful tool for determining histamine in fish and fishery products.

  8. Extended-gate organic field-effect transistor for the detection of histamine in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamiki, Tsukuru; Minami, Tsuyoshi; Yokoyama, Daisuke; Fukuda, Kenjiro; Kumaki, Daisuke; Tokito, Shizuo

    2015-04-01

    As part of our ongoing research program to develop health care sensors based on organic field-effect transistor (OFET) devices, we have attempted to detect histamine using an extended-gate OFET. Histamine is found in spoiled or decayed fish, and causes foodborne illness known as scombroid food poisoning. The new OFET device possesses an extended gate functionalized by carboxyalkanethiol that can interact with histamine. As a result, we have succeeded in detecting histamine in water through a shift in OFET threshold voltage. This result indicates the potential utility of the designed OFET devices in food freshness sensing.

  9. Emerging tropical diseases in Australia. Part 2. Ciguatera fish poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, I; Lewis, R J; Eaglesham, G K; Graham, G C; Poole, S; Craig, S B

    2010-10-01

    Ciguatera poisoning is a food-borne neuro-intoxication caused by consumption of finfish that have accumulated ciguatoxins in their tissues. Ciguatera is a distressing and sometimes disabling condition that presents with a self-limiting though occasionally severe gastro-intestinal illness, progressing to a suite of aberrant sensory symptoms. Recovery can take from days to years; second and subsequent attacks may manifest in a more severe illness. Ciguatera remains largely a pan-tropical disease, although tourism and export fish markets facilitate increased presentation in temperate latitudes. While ciguatera poisoning in the South Pacific was recognised and eloquently described by seafarers in the 18th Century, it remains a public-health challenge in the 21st Century because there is neither a confirmatory diagnostic test nor a reliable, low-cost screening method to ascertain the safety of suspect fish prior to consumption. A specific antidote is not available, so treatment is largely supportive. The most promising pharmacotherapy of recent decades, intravenous mannitol, has experienced a relative decline in acceptance after a randomized, double-blind trial failed to confirm its efficacy. Some questions remain unanswered, however, and the use of mannitol for the treatment of acute ciguatera poisoning arguably deserves revisiting. The immunotoxicology of ciguatera is poorly understood, and some aspects of the epidemiology and symptomatology of ciguatera warrant further enquiry.

  10. Histamine Formation in a Dry Salted Twaite Shad ( Alosa fallax lacustris ) Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconi, Mauro; Bellagamba, Federica; Bernardi, Cristian; Martino, Piera Anna; Moretti, Vittorio Maria

    2017-01-01

    Landlocked shad is a freshwater clupeid fish ( Alosa fallax lacustris ) whose consumption is associated with the risk of scombrotoxin poisoning. Traditionally, fresh shad are subjected to an artisanal processing procedure, consisting of dry salting and maturation under pressure, to give a fish product named missoltino , which is stored in large metallic barrels and is sold to local consumers and restaurants. In recent years, the introduction of modern food packaging technologies has enabled this product to also be distributed in shops and supermarkets. Consequently, the determination of the safety of this product is an urgent issue. The aims of the present research were to measure histamine levels and histamine-forming bacteria in shad products collected at different phases of preparation and ripening, in order to minimize poison hazards, to provide technical information about risk, and to standardize the production process. One hundred twenty-six samples of shad (21 fresh fish and 105 dried) at different phases of preparation and ripening were collected from seven producers and were analyzed for chemical composition, histamine content, and microbiological properties. After 130 days of ripening, samples from three producers presented unacceptable amounts of histamine (>200 mg/kg), according to European Union legislation. A moderate negative correlation was found between histamine levels and salt content (r =-0.504, P histamine levels and water phase salt content (r =-0.415, P histamine. The most effective preventive measures for histamine formation and accumulation in salted shad were strictly related to fish handling and storage conditions during processing.

  11. DNA-based identification of fish species implicated in Puffer fish poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Taro; Masayama, Atsushi; Ki, Masami; Yamano, Tetsuo; Simizu, Mituru

    2011-01-01

    A method for identification of fish species using three different mitochondrial DNA regions, 16S rRNA, cytochrome b and cytochrome c gene fragments, was investigated. The combined use of all three regions enabled reliable species identification in not only raw fish, but also dried, seasoned and boiled fish, products. Furthermore, the method was applicable even to vomitus from a patient involved in a puffer fish poisoning incident. However, further improvement is necessary to discriminate between closely related species such as Takifugu rubripes and T. chinensis, because they showed close similarity in the nucleotide sequences in the three gene fragments analyzed in this study.

  12. Human poisoning after ingestion of puffer fish caught from Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamandi, Suheil Chucrallah; Kallab, Kamal; Mattar, Hanna; Nader, Elie

    2009-06-01

    Puffer fish poisoning is due to a powerful neurotoxin produced by bacteria living in this kind of fish. Though the sea of Lebanon (Mediterranean) is not endemic of puffer fish and incidence of its serious poisoning is rare, yet occasional incidences do occur. The purpose of this presentation is to raise the awareness of fishermen, fish-restaurant frequenters, public health organizations and the Ministry of Health, of its serious symptomology and to seek medical help as soon as possible.

  13. Development of a real-time PCR method coupled with a selective pre-enrichment step for quantification of Morganella morganii and Morganella psychrotolerans in fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podeur, Gaetan; Dalgaard, Paw; Leroi, Francoise

    2015-01-01

    Histamine fish poisoning is common and due to toxic concentrations of histamine often produced by Gram-negative bacteria in fin-fish products with a high content of the free amino acid histidine. The genus Morganella includes two species previously reported to cause incidents of histamine fish...... poisoning. Morganella morganii and Morganella psychrotolerans are both strong producer of histamine. However, little is known about the occurrence and critical stages for fish contamination with these bacteria. To elucidate contamination routes of Morganella, specific real-time quantitative PCR (RTi q...... purified DNA from 23 other histamine producing bacteria and 26 isolates with no or limited histamine production. The efficiency of the qPCR reactions on artificially contaminated fish samples were 100.8% and 96.3% respectively. The limit of quantification (LOQ) without enrichment was 4 log CFU...

  14. Tuneable surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy hyphenated to chemically derivatized thin-layer chromatography plates for screening histamine in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhengjun; Wang, Yang; Chen, Yisheng; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Ding, Yunlian; Yang, Na; Wu, Fengfeng

    2017-09-01

    Reliable screening of histamine in fish was of urgent importance for food safety. This work presented a highly selective surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) method mediated by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), which was tailored for identification and quantitation of histamine. Following separation and derivatization with fluram, plates were assayed with SERS, jointly using silver nanoparticle and NaCl. The latter dramatically suppressed the masking effect caused by excessive fluram throughout the plate, thus offering clear baseline and intensive Raman fingerprints specific to the analyte. Under optimized conditions, the usability of this method was validated by identifying the structural fingerprints of both targeted and unknown compounds in fish samples. Meanwhile, the quantitative results of this method agreed with those by an HPLC method officially suggested by EU for histamine determination. Showing remarkable cost-efficiency and user-friendliness, this facile TLC-SERS method was indeed screening-oriented and may be more attractive to controlling laboratories of limited resource. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sensory and histamine assessment of the freshness of Sardine (Sardine sindensis during different storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Hassan Khan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Storage of fish under refrigerated conditions from the time it is caught until when it is consumed has been found to be very important in reducing outbreaks of histamine poisoning. Methods: Low temperatures control bacterial histamine formation during fish processing. The shelf life of sardine (sardine sindensis during storage at ambient temperature (33°C, ice box temperature (0°C and freezing temperature (-7°C were studied in terms of sensory and histamine production. The sensory acceptability limit was up to one day at ambient temperature and 11 days at ice storage condition. However, freezing storage had a good preserving effect on sensory acceptability at the end of experiment. The formation of histamine was determined at day 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 11, 14, 16 and 18 of experiment using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC fluorometeric method. Results: Histamine development had not exceeded the permissible level (200 mg/kg recommended by the FAO (2012 during storage condition at -7°C throughout the experiment. At 0°C, histamine concentration was lower than safe level for up to 16 days (135 mg/kg. At ambient temperature, the sardine was spoiled on 3rd day and histamine concentration was found 500.48 mg/kg which was above the FAO recommended level for histamine. Conclusion: Freezing storage condition has a good preserving effect on sensory acceptability and histamine production and seems the best means of storage.

  16. The diversity and origins of toxins in ciguatera fish poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosteson, T R

    1995-06-01

    The source of the diversity of phytotoxins found in the marine food web is not well understood. It is not clear what roles these secondary metabolites might have in the phytoplankton that produce them. The phytotoxins do not appear to be deterrents of predation, although the production of antibiotics by marine macroalgae might be considered in this light (86). It is equally doubtful that the production and/or presence of these toxins confers a selective advantage on the phytoplankton producers, when in fact the diversity of naturally occurring phytoplankton species may well be maintained by lytic viral infections (22,64). On the other hand, these multiple, diverse toxins may be the products of the different adaptations and interactions that take place between microalgal vectors and the highly variable spectrum of their microbial symbionts. We do not know what selective signals these toxic products may be providing in the maintenance of the symbiont-host consortia in which they are produced, however, their diversity most likely reflects the diversity of symbiotic interactions that exist in these consortia. Woven into the very fabric of the traditional marine food web is an invisible empire of marine micro-organisms, that by its very existence may determine the intense diversity of toxins found in marine biota. Marine bacteria are very likely the most abundant organisms in the sea and to a large degree maintain a food web of their own, often referred to as the microbial loop (64). This microbial web sustains the biogeochemical cycles in the sea. Much of the food produced by phytoplankton and cyanobacteria is consumed by bacteria in the microbial loop and may never enter the food web of larger invertebrates and fishes. Traditionally, the marine food web has been viewed, so to speak, from the top, however, it is now clear that there is an enormous marine microbial food web from which the food web of larger invertebrates and fishes emanates (Figure 13). In many respects

  17. Ciguatera fish poisoning in the Pacific Islands (1998 to 2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P Skinner

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ciguatera is a type of fish poisoning that occurs throughout the tropics, particularly in vulnerable island communities such as the developing Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs. After consuming ciguatoxin-contaminated fish, people report a range of acute neurologic, gastrointestinal, and cardiac symptoms, with some experiencing chronic neurologic symptoms lasting weeks to months. Unfortunately, the true extent of illness and its impact on human communities and ecosystem health are still poorly understood. METHODS: A questionnaire was emailed to the Health and Fisheries Authorities of the PICTs to quantify the extent of ciguatera. The data were analyzed using t-test, incidence rate ratios, ranked correlation, and regression analysis. RESULTS: There were 39,677 reported cases from 17 PICTs, with a mean annual incidence of 194 cases per 100,000 people across the region from 1998-2008 compared to the reported annual incidence of 104/100,000 from 1973-1983. There has been a 60% increase in the annual incidence of ciguatera between the two time periods based on PICTs that reported for both time periods. Taking into account under-reporting, in the last 35 years an estimated 500,000 Pacific islanders might have suffered from ciguatera. CONCLUSIONS: This level of incidence exceeds prior ciguatera estimates locally and globally, and raises the status of ciguatera to an acute and chronic illness with major public health significance. To address this significant public health problem, which is expected to increase in parallel with environmental change, well-funded multidisciplinary research teams are needed to translate research advances into practical management solutions.

  18. Histidine decarboxylases and their role in accumulation of histamine in tuna and dried saury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanki, Masashi; Yoda, Tomoko; Tsukamoto, Teizo; Baba, Eiichiroh

    2007-03-01

    Histamine-producing bacteria (HPB) such as Photobacterium phosphoreum and Raoultella planticola possess histidine decarboxylase (HDC), which converts histidine into histamine. Histamine fish poisoning (HFP) is attributable to the ingestion of fish containing high levels of histamine produced by HPB. Because freezing greatly decreases the histamine-producing ability of HPB, especially of P. phosphoreum, it has been speculated that HFP is caused by HDC itself from HPB cells autolyzing during frozen storage, even when HPB survive frozen storage. Here we constructed recombinant HDCs of P. phosphoreum, Photobacterium damselae, R. planticola, and Morganella morganii and investigated the ability of HDCs to produce sufficient histamine to cause HFP. To elucidate the character of these HDCs, we examined the specific activity of each recombinant HDC at various temperatures, pH levels, and NaCl concentrations. Further, we also investigated the stability of each HDC under different conditions (in reaction buffer, tuna, and dried saury) at various temperatures. P. damselae HDC readily produced sufficient histamine to cause HFP in fish samples. We consider that if HDC is implicated as an independent cause of HFP in frozen-thawed fish, the most likely causative agent is HDC of P. damselae.

  19. Histidine Decarboxylases and Their Role in Accumulation of Histamine in Tuna and Dried Saury▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanki, Masashi; Yoda, Tomoko; Tsukamoto, Teizo; Baba, Eiichiroh

    2007-01-01

    Histamine-producing bacteria (HPB) such as Photobacterium phosphoreum and Raoultella planticola possess histidine decarboxylase (HDC), which converts histidine into histamine. Histamine fish poisoning (HFP) is attributable to the ingestion of fish containing high levels of histamine produced by HPB. Because freezing greatly decreases the histamine-producing ability of HPB, especially of P. phosphoreum, it has been speculated that HFP is caused by HDC itself from HPB cells autolyzing during frozen storage, even when HPB survive frozen storage. Here we constructed recombinant HDCs of P. phosphoreum, Photobacterium damselae, R. planticola, and Morganella morganii and investigated the ability of HDCs to produce sufficient histamine to cause HFP. To elucidate the character of these HDCs, we examined the specific activity of each recombinant HDC at various temperatures, pH levels, and NaCl concentrations. Further, we also investigated the stability of each HDC under different conditions (in reaction buffer, tuna, and dried saury) at various temperatures. P. damselae HDC readily produced sufficient histamine to cause HFP in fish samples. We consider that if HDC is implicated as an independent cause of HFP in frozen-thawed fish, the most likely causative agent is HDC of P. damselae. PMID:17220267

  20. [Fatal poisoning caused by puffer fish (Tetrodontidae): report of a case involving a child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana Neto, Pedro de Lima; Aquino, Elisabeth Cristina Moreira de; Silva, José Afrânio da; Amorim, Maria Lucineide Porto; Oliveira Júnior, Américo Ernesto de; Haddad Júnior, Vidal

    2010-01-01

    A case of poisoning resulting from ingestion of viscera from a spotted puffer fish (Sphoeroides testudineus) by a two-year-old child is described. The child presented cold sweating, progressive muscle weakness, cardiorespiratory arrest and death. The risks of consuming the meat and viscera of puffer fish, which is a common occurrence in certain regions of Brazil, are discussed.

  1. Reduction of histamine and biogenic amines during salted fish fermentation by Bacillus polymyxa as a starter culture

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    Yi-Chen Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus polymyxa D05-1, isolated from salted fish product and possessing amine degrading activity, was used as a starter culture in salted fish fermentation in this study. Fermentation was held at 35°C for 120 days. The water activity in control samples (without starter culture and inoculated samples (inoculated with B. polymyxa D05-1 remained constant throughout fermentation, whereas the pH value rose slightly during fermentation. Salt contents in both samples were constant in the range of 17.5–17.8% during the first 60 days of fermentation and thereafter increased slowly. The inoculated samples had considerably lower levels of total volatile basic nitrogen (p < 0.05 than control samples at each sampling time during 120 days of fermentation. Aerobic bacterial counts in inoculated samples were retarded during the first 60 days of fermentation and thereafter increased slowly, whereas those of control samples increased rapidly with increased fermentation time. However, the aerobic bacterial counts of control samples were significantly higher (p < 0.05 than those of inoculated samples after 40 days of fermentation. In general, overall biogenic amine contents (including histamine, putrescine, cadaverine, and tyramine in the control samples were markedly higher (p < 0.05 than those of the inoculated samples throughout fermentation. After 120 days of fermentation, the histamine and overall biogenic amine contents in the inoculated samples were reduced by 34.0% and 30.0%, respectively, compared to control samples. These results emphasize that the application of starter culture with amines degrading activity in salted fish products was effective in reducing biogenic amine accumulation.

  2. Puffer fish poisoning in Bangladesh: clinical and toxicological results from large outbreaks in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Q T; Razzak, M A; Islam, M A; Bari, M I; Basher, A; Chowdhury, F R; Sayeduzzaman, A B M; Ahasan, H A M N; Faiz, M A; Arakawa, O; Yotsu-Yamashita, M; Kuch, U; Mebs, D

    2011-02-01

    Poisoning after eating puffer fish containing highly lethal tetrodotoxin (TTX) is widespread in Asia. In 2008, naïve inland populations in Bangladesh were exposed to cheap puffer fish sold on markets. In three outbreaks, 141 patients with history of puffer fish consumption were hospitalized. Symptoms of poisoning included perioral paraesthesia, tingling over the entire body, nausea and vomiting, dizziness, headache, abdominal pain and muscular paralysis of the limbs. Seventeen patients (12%) died from rapidly developing respiratory arrest. Blood and urine samples from 38 patients were analyzed using a TTX-specific enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Medium to high TTX levels were detected (1.7-13.7 ng/ml) in the blood of 27 patients. TTX was below detection level (puffer fish by post-column liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. To prevent future instances of puffer fish poisoning of this magnitude, measures should be implemented to increase awareness, to control markets and to establish toxicological testing. To improve the management of this and other poisoning in Bangladesh, facilities for life-saving assisted ventilation and related training of healthcare personnel are urgently needed at all levels of the health system. Copyright © 2010 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Semiquantitative mercury determination in fish: a tool for poisoning prevention

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    YALLOUZ ALLEGRA V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure to mercury intoxication through contaminated fish ingestion has been well studied, mainly among Japanese population. The Brazilian population, particulaly in the Amazon region, is now in focus due to findings of fish contamination. Major health impacts caused by mercury affect mostly people who have a regular fish diet. A continuous checking for mercury content in the most consumed fish could prevent human intoxication. A simple, non-instrumental method to allow a continuous checking of the mercury content in fish was developed. Based on this method, we are proposing a prevention action where community agents can be trained to perform fish analysis. Technical Schools and Universities located nearby the affected areas would be in charge of quality control programs for the fish analysis as well as for the selection, training and update for operators.

  4. Detection and Characterization of Histamine-Producing Strains of Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae Isolated from Mullets

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    Marcello Trevisani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae (Pdd is considered to be an emerging pathogen of marine fish and has also been implicated in cases of histamine food poisoning. In this study, eight strains isolated from mullets of the genera Mugil and Liza captured in the Ligurian Sea were characterized, and a method to detect histamine-producing Pdd from fish samples was developed. The histamine-producing potential of the strains was evaluated in culture media (TSB+ using a histamine biosensor. Subsequently, two strains were used to contaminate mackerel fillets (4 or 40 CFU/g, simulating a cross-contamination on the selling fish stalls. Sample homogenates were enriched in TSB+. The cultures were then inoculated on thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose agar (TCBS and the dark green colonies were cultured on Niven agar. The violet isolates were characterized using specific biochemical and PCR based tests. All Pdd strains were histamine producers, yielding concentration varying from 167 and 8977 µg/mL in TSB+ cultures incubated at 30 °C for 24 h. Pdd colonies were detected from the inoculated mackerel samples and their histidine decarboxylase gene was amplified using species-specific primer pairs designed for this study. The results indicate that mullets can be source of Pdd and the fish retailers needs to evaluate the risk posed by cross-contamination on the selling fish stalls.

  5. Public health response to puffer fish (Tetrodotoxin) poisoning from mislabeled product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Nicole J; Deeds, Jonathan R; Wong, Eugene S; Hanner, Robert H; Yancy, Haile F; White, Kevin D; Thompson, Trevonne M; Wahl, Michael; Pham, Tu D; Guichard, Frances M; Huh, In; Austin, Connie; Dizikes, George; Gerber, Susan I

    2009-04-01

    Tetrodotoxin is a neurotoxin that occurs in select species of the family Tetraodontidae (puffer fish). It causes paralysis and potentially death if ingested in sufficient quantities. In 2007, two individuals developed symptoms consistent with tetrodotoxin poisoning after ingesting home-cooked puffer fish purchased in Chicago. Both the Chicago retailer and the California supplier denied having sold or imported puffer fish but claimed the product was monkfish. However, genetic analysis and visual inspection determined that the ingested fish and others from the implicated lot retrieved from the supplier belonged to the family Tetraodontidae. Tetrodotoxin was detected at high levels in both remnants of the ingested meal and fish retrieved from the implicated lot. The investigation led to a voluntary recall of monkfish distributed by the supplier in three states and placement of the supplier on the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Import Alert for species misbranding. This case of tetrodotoxin poisoning highlights the need for continued stringent regulation of puffer fish importation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, education of the public regarding the dangers of puffer fish consumption, and raising awareness among medical providers of the diagnosis and management of foodborne toxin ingestions and the need for reporting to public health agencies.

  6. NWHL Final Report 1983-84 Lead Poisoning Monitoring Program Upper Mississippi River National Fish and Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Exposure of waterfowl to lead vas detected at the Potters Marsh Unit of the Upper Mississippi National Wildlife Refuge during the 1983-84 Lead Poisoning Monitoring...

  7. Epidemiology and Clinical Features of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Hong Kong

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    Thomas Y. K. Chan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present review, the main objective was to describe the epidemiology and clinical features of ciguatera fish poisoning in Hong Kong. From 1989 to 2008, the annual incidence of ciguatera varied between 3.3 and 64.9 (median 10.2 per million people. The groupers have replaced the snappers as the most important cause of ciguatera. Pacific-ciguatoxins (CTX are most commonly present in reef fish samples implicated in ciguatera outbreaks. In affected subjects, the gastrointestinal symptoms often subside within days, whereas the neurological symptoms can persist for weeks or even months. Bradycardia and hypotension, which can be life-threatening, are common. Treatment of ciguatera is primarily supportive and symptomatic. Intravenous mannitol (1 g/kg has also been suggested. To prevent ciguatera outbreaks, the public should be educated to avoid eating large coral reef fishes, especially the CTX-rich parts. A Code of Practice on Import and Sale of Live Marine Fish for Human Consumption for Prevention and Control of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning was introduced from 2004 to 2013. The Food Safety Ordinance with a tracing mechanism came into full effect in February 2012. The Government would be able to trace the sources of the fishes more effectively and take prompt action when dealing with ciguatera incidents.

  8. Epidemiology and clinical features of ciguatera fish poisoning in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2014-10-20

    In the present review, the main objective was to describe the epidemiology and clinical features of ciguatera fish poisoning in Hong Kong. From 1989 to 2008, the annual incidence of ciguatera varied between 3.3 and 64.9 (median 10.2) per million people. The groupers have replaced the snappers as the most important cause of ciguatera. Pacific-ciguatoxins (CTX) are most commonly present in reef fish samples implicated in ciguatera outbreaks. In affected subjects, the gastrointestinal symptoms often subside within days, whereas the neurological symptoms can persist for weeks or even months. Bradycardia and hypotension, which can be life-threatening, are common. Treatment of ciguatera is primarily supportive and symptomatic. Intravenous mannitol (1 g/kg) has also been suggested. To prevent ciguatera outbreaks, the public should be educated to avoid eating large coral reef fishes, especially the CTX-rich parts. A Code of Practice on Import and Sale of Live Marine Fish for Human Consumption for Prevention and Control of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning was introduced from 2004 to 2013. The Food Safety Ordinance with a tracing mechanism came into full effect in February 2012. The Government would be able to trace the sources of the fishes more effectively and take prompt action when dealing with ciguatera incidents.

  9. Is mannitol the treatment of choice for patients with ciguatera fish poisoning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Michael E; Hoffman, Robert S

    2017-11-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning arises primarily from consumption of carnivorous reef fish caught in tropical and sub-tropical waters. Ciguatoxins, a class of tasteless, heat-stable, polycyclic toxins produced by dinoflagellates, accumulate through the food chain and concentrate in various carnivorous fish, such as groupers, barracudas, wrasses, amberjack, kingfishes, and eels. Characteristics of ciguatera fish poisoning include early nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea in the first one to two days post ingestion, followed by the appearance of sensory disturbances. The classic dysaesthesia is cold allodynia, often described as reversal of hot and cold sensation, but a more accurate description is burning pain on exposure to cold. To discuss and appraise the evidence regarding the use of mannitol or other drugs in treating ciguatera framed in the historical context of the last four decades. We searched PubMed and Embase for all years from 1966 to March 31, 2017 with search terms "ciguatera", "mannitol", and "treatment". These searches identified 85 articles, of which 36 were relevant to the review question. We searched Google Scholar to supplement the primary search and reviewed the references of articles for sources overlooked in the original searches. These secondary searches identified another 23 references. We excluded six clinical reports (two case series and four case reports) which did not clearly describe ciguatera or which lacked information on treatment or outcome. Fifty-three clinical articles remained for review. We searched PubMed using "ciguatera" AND "treatment" NOT "mannitol" to better identify reports describing other treatments. The search identified 128 articles, of which nine described specific pharmacological treatments and their outcomes. We combined our findings into a consensus review of the evidence both for and against the use of mannitol or other medications for ciguatera fish poisoning. Early human evidence of effectiveness of mannitol: A 1988 report

  10. Tetrodotoxin poisoning caused by Goby fish consumption in southeast China: a retrospective case series analysis

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    Jie You

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate an unusual outbreak of tetrodotoxin poisoning in Leizhou, southeast China, a case series analysis was conducted to identify the source of illness. METHODS: A total of 22 individuals experienced symptoms of poisoning, including tongue numbness, dizziness, nausea and limb numbness and weakness. Two toxic species, Amoya caninus and Yongeichthys nebulosus, were morphologically identified from the batches of gobies consumed by the patients. Tetrodotoxin levels in the blood and Goby fish samples were detected using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: The tetrodotoxin levels in the remaining cooked Goby fish were determined to be 2090.12 µg/kg. For Amoya caninus, the toxicity levels were 1858.29 µg/kg in the muscle and 1997.19 µg/kg in the viscera and for Yongeichthys nebulosus, they were 2783.00 µg/kg in the muscle and 2966.21 µg/kg in the viscera. CONCLUSION: This outbreak demonstrates an underestimation of the risk of Goby fish poisoning. Furthermore, the relationships among the toxic species, climates and marine algae present should be clarified in the future.

  11. Histamine, as a biomarker of freshness in Barred mackerel (Scomberomorus commerrson

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    Samira Gudarzi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scombroid syndrome is one of the most important food poisoning with symptoms similar to seafood allergy, that caused by biogenic amines. Histamine is produced by decarboxylation of the amino acid histidine in fish, by histidine decarboxylase enzyme. The histamine levels in fish and its products is one of the most important biomarkers to assess the freshness or corruption of the fish. One of objectives of this study was determination of histamine levels in Barred mackerel  (Scomberomorus commerrson, by HPLC method, in different conditions of keeping. Material and Methods: There were evaluated the histamine contents, in 21 Barred mackerel  samples trapped in the Bushehr coasts (Iran, after TCA extraction method, at different periods of the first, tenth (keeping at 4°C and 30th days (keeping at -20 °C by HPLC with FLD detector in wavelengths λx: 320 and λe: 450 nm. Results: The Mean ± SD of histamine in samples in revealed days were respectively the values of 12.96±0.29, 17.02±0.53 and 17.7±0.56 ppm. The highest levels of histamine in all samples in first, tenth and thirty days were respectively, ND, 2.77 and 7.77 ppm; and maximum levels were respectively 40.86, 40.75 and 40.07 ppm. Conclusion: Although the detection of histamine in 90% of samples, there was no sample above maximum Tolerable level (MTL assigned by Institute of Standard and Industrial Research of Iran (50 ppm. However, the histamine levels in 27.87% of samples were exceeded the maximum levels set in the FDA (20ppm.

  12. Synthesis of chitosan based magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers for selective separation and spectrophotometric determination of histamine in tuna fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Mahdi; Nazari, Zahra; Noshirvani, Nooshin

    2017-12-01

    A novel chitosan molecularly imprinted polymers (CHI/MIPs) coated on Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) for selective solid phase extraction (SPE) of histamine (His) was synthesized by cross-linking of CHI with (3-Glycidyloxypropyl) trimethoxysilane (GPTMS) in the presence of His as the template molecule, and GPTMS/MNPS. Synthesized sorbent was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, FT-IR and via adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherms. The application of this sorbent was investigated in preconcentration and spectrophotometric determination of His by charge transfer complexation. The method is based on the adsorption of His on CHI/MMIPs and subsequent reaction of desorbed His with 2,3-Dichloro 5,6-dicyano-p-benzoquinone (DDQ) reagent for final spectrophotometric detection. The experimental parameters affecting separation efficiency and spectrophotometric determination were optimized. Under optimum conditions and at an analytical wavelength of 468nm, the calibration plot is linear in the 5.0-160.0ngmL-1 concentration range, and the limit of detection (estimated at S/N=3) is 1.5ngmL-1. The intra-day and inter-day precisions are in the range from 2.9 to 4.1%. The method was successfully applied for determination of His in spiked tuna fish samples where it gave recoveries ranging from 94.3 to 107.0%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of standardized methodology for identifying toxins in clinical samples and fish species associated with tetrodotoxin-borne poisoning incidents

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    Tai-Yuan Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetrodotoxin (TTX is a naturally occurring toxin in food, especially in puffer fish. TTX poisoning is observed frequently in South East Asian regions. In TTX-derived food poisoning outbreaks, the amount of TTX recovered from suspicious fish samples or leftovers, and residual levels from biological fluids of victims are typically trace. However, liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry methods have been demonstrated to qualitatively and quantitatively determine TTX in clinical samples from victims. Identification and validation of the TTX-originating seafood species responsible for a food poisoning incident is needed. A polymerase chain reaction-based method on mitochondrial DNA analysis is useful for identification of fish species. This review aims to collect pertinent information available on TTX-borne food poisoning incidents with a special emphasis on the analytical methods employed for TTX detection in clinical laboratories as well as for the identification of TTX-bearing species.

  14. Degradation of Histamine by Lactobacillus plantarum Isolated from Miso Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Hsien-Feng; Lee, Yi-Chen; Huang, Ya-Ling; Huang, Yu-Ru; Su, Yi-Cheng; Tsai, Yung-Hsiang

    2017-10-01

    Histamine is a toxic chemical and is the causative agent of food poisoning. This foodborne toxin may be degraded by the oxidative deamination activity of certain microorganisms. In this study, we isolated four histamine-degrading Lactobacillus plantarum bacteria from miso products. Among them, L. plantarum D-103 exhibited 100% degradation of histamine in de Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) broth containing 50 ppm of histamine after 24 h of incubation at 30°C. The optimal growth, histamine oxidase, and histamine-degrading activity of L. plantarum D-103 were observed in histamine MRS broth at pH 7.0, 3% NaCl, and 30°C. It also exhibited tolerance to broad ranges of pH (4 to 10) and salt concentrations (0 to 12%) in histamine MRS broth. Therefore, the histamine-degrading L. plantarum D-103 might be used as an additive culture to prevent histamine accumulation in miso products during fermentation.

  15. Ciguatera fish poisoning in East Asia and southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2015-06-02

    In the coastal countries of East Asia and Southeast Asia, ciguatera should be common because of the extensive tropical and subtropical coral reefs along the coasts and in the neighboring seas with ciguatoxic fishes. An extensive search of journal databases, the Internet and the government websites was performed to identify all reports of ciguatera from the regions. Based on the official data and large published case series, the incidence of ciguatera was higher in the coastal cities (Hong Kong, Foshan, Zhongshan) of southern China than in Japan (Okinawa Prefecture). In Singapore, ciguatera appeared to be almost unknown. In other countries, only isolated cases or small case series were reported, but under-reporting was assumed to be common. Ciguatera may cause severe acute illness and prolonged neurological symptoms. Ciguatera represents an important public health issue for endemic regions, with significant socio-economic impact. Coordinated strategies to improve risk assessment, risk management and risk communication are required. The systematic collection of accurate data on the incidence and epidemiology of ciguatera should enable better assessment and management of its risk. Much more work needs to be done to define the size threshold for important coral reef fish species from different regions, above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases.

  16. Tetrodotoxin poisoning outbreak from imported dried puffer fish--Minneapolis, Minnesota, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jon B; Heegaard, William G; Deeds, Jonathan R; McGrath, Sara C; Handy, Sara M

    2015-01-02

    On June 13, 2014, two patients went to the Hennepin County Medical Center Emergency Department in Minneapolis, Minnesota, with symptoms suggestive of tetrodotoxin poisoning (i.e., oral paresthesias, weakness, and dyspnea) after consuming dried puffer fish (also known as globefish) purchased during a recent visit to New York City. The patients said two friends who consumed the same fish had similar, although less pronounced, symptoms and had not sought care. The Minnesota Department of Health conducted an investigation to determine the source of the product and samples were sent to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition for chemical and genetic analysis. Genetic analysis identified the product as puffer fish (Lagocephalus lunaris) and chemical analysis determined it was contaminated with high levels of tetrodotoxin. A traceback investigation was unable to determine the original source of the product. Tetrodotoxin is a deadly, potent poison; the minimum lethal dose in an adult human is estimated to be 2-3 mg. Tetrodotoxin is a heat-stable and acid-stable, nonprotein, alkaloid toxin found in many species of the fish family Tetraodontidae (puffer fish) as well as in certain gobies, amphibians, invertebrates, and the blue-ringed octopus. Tetrodotoxin exerts its effects by blocking voltage-activated sodium channels, terminating nerve conduction and muscle action potentials, leading to progressive paralysis and, in extreme cases, to death from respiratory failure. Because these fish were reportedly purchased in the United States, they pose a substantial U.S. public health hazard given the potency of the toxin and the high levels of toxin found in the fish.

  17. Kounis syndrome following canned tuna fish ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gennaro, Luisa; Brunetti, Natale Daniele; Locuratolo, Nicola; Ruggiero, Massimo; Resta, Manuela; Diaferia, Giuseppe; Rana, Michele; Caldarola, Pasquale

    2017-04-01

    Kounis syndrome (KS) is a complex of cardiovascular symptoms and signs following either allergy or hypersensitivity and anaphylactic or anaphylactoid insults. We report the case of 57-year-old man, with hypertension and history of allergy, referred for facial rash and palpitations appeared after consumption of canned tuna fish. Suddenly, the patient collapsed: electrocardiogram showed ST-elevation in inferior leads. The patient was transferred from the spoke emergency room for coronary angio, which did not show any sign of coronary atherosclerosis. A transient coronary spasm was therefore hypothesized and the final diagnosis was KS. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the first cases of KS following the ingestion of tuna fish. KS secondary to food allergy has also been reported, and shellfish ingestion has been considered as one of the most active KS inducer foods. Canned tuna fish too is well known as an allergy inducer. Tuna fish allergy should be considered, however, within the context of scombroid food poisoning, also called histamine fish poisoning. Fish with high levels of free histidine, the enzyme substrate converted to histamine by bacterial histidine decarboxylase, are those most often implicated in scombroid poisoning. Inflammatory mediators such as histamine constitute the pathophysiologic basis of Kounis hypersensitivity-associated acute coronary syndrome. Patients with coronary risk factors, allergic reaction after food ingestion, and suspected scombroid poisoning should be therefore carefully monitored for a prompt diagnosis of possible coronary complications.

  18. Scombroid Poisoning from Canned Tuna Ingestion

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    Thanjira Jiranantakan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fish allergy is well recognized, however scombroid poisoning or histamine fish poisoning, which exhibits identical clinical manifestations, is rarely diagnosed. We report the case of a 28-year-old female who, after eating tuna spaghetti, experienced a flushed face, generalized erythema, angioedema, shock and tachypnea requiring adrenaline, chlorpheniramine, ranitidine, and hydrocortisone injections. Her symptoms completely resolved within 3 hours. Her condition was diagnosed as scombroid poisoning based on temporality, normal serum tryptase levels (2.7 ng/mL at 2.5 hours and at her baseline (2.5 ng/mL, 60 hours, as well as negative results on skin-prick test and re-challenging one can of the same branded-tuna orally. The revelant public health authorities were notified and a restaurant-visit was made, although the tuna can from which the patient’s dish was prepared had been discarded, hence a histamine analysis of the tuna was unavailable. This case underscores the need for awareness of scombroid poisoning and public interventions regarding food safety.

  19. The persistent problem of lead poisoning in birds from ammunition and fishing tackle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haig, Susan M.; D'Elia, Jesse; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Fair, Jeanne M.; Gervais, Jennifer; Herring, Garth; Rivers, James W.; Schulz, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a metabolic poison that can negatively influence biological processes, leading to illness and mortality across a large spectrum of North American avifauna (>120 species) and other organisms. Pb poisoning can result from numerous sources, including ingestion of bullet fragments and shot pellets left in animal carcasses, spent ammunition left in the field, lost fishing tackle, Pb-based paints, large-scale mining, and Pb smelting activities. Although Pb shot has been banned for waterfowl hunting in the United States (since 1991) and Canada (since 1999), Pb exposure remains a problem for many avian species. Despite a large body of scientific literature on exposure to Pb and its toxicological effects on birds, controversy still exists regarding its impacts at a population level. We explore these issues and highlight areas in need of investigation: (1) variation in sensitivity to Pb exposure among bird species; (2) spatial extent and sources of Pb contamination in habitats in relation to bird exposure in those same locations; and (3) interactions between avian Pb exposure and other landscape-level stressors that synergistically affect bird demography. We explore multiple paths taken to reduce Pb exposure in birds that (1) recognize common ground among a range of affected interests; (2) have been applied at local to national scales; and (3) engage governmental agencies, interest groups, and professional societies to communicate the impacts of Pb ammunition and fishing tackle, and to describe approaches for reducing their availability to birds. As they have in previous times, users of fish and wildlife will play a key role in resolving the Pb poisoning issue.

  20. The effects of natural disturbances, reef state, and herbivorous fish densities on ciguatera poisoning in Rarotonga, southern Cook Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongo, Teina; van Woesik, Robert

    2013-03-15

    Ciguatera poisoning is a critical public-health issue among Pacific island nations. Accurately predicting ciguatera outbreaks has become a priority, particularly in Rarotonga in the southern Cook Islands, which has reported the highest incidence of ciguatera poisoning globally. Since 2006, however, cases of ciguatera poisoning have declined, and in 2011 ciguatera cases were the lowest in nearly 20 years. Here we examined the relationships between cases of ciguatera poisoning, from 1994 to 2011, and: (i) coral cover, used as a proxy of reef state, (ii) the densities of herbivorous fishes, and (iii) reef disturbances. We found that coral cover was not a good predictor of cases of ciguatera poisoning, but high densities of the herbivorous fish Ctenochaetus striatus and reef disturbances were both strong predictors of ciguatera poisoning. Yet these two predictors were correlated, because the densities of C. striatus increased only after major cyclones had disturbed the reefs. Since 2006, the number of cyclones has decreased considerably in Rarotonga, because of the climatic shift toward the negative phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. We suggest that fewer cyclones have led to decreases in both the densities of C. striatus and of the number of reported cases of ciguatera poisoning in Rarotonga. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ciguatera fish poisoning in la Habana, Cuba: a study of local social-ecological resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Karen; Aguiar Prieto, Pablo; Castro Domínguez, Arnaldo; Waltner-Toews, David; Fitzgibbon, John

    2008-09-01

    Following the collapse of the Cuban economy in the early 1990s, epidemiologists in the Cuban Ministry of Health noticed dramatic increases in reported outbreaks of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) in some coastal communities. This article summarizes the results of a comparative case study which applied an ecosystem approach to human health to investigate this issue. Situated learning and complexity theories were used to interpret the results of the investigation. CFP outbreaks are influenced by a complex set of interactions between ecological and socioeconomic processes. This study found that the level of organization of the local sports fishing community and the degree of degradation of the local nearshore marine ecosystem appear to be key factors influencing the diverging levels of CFP outbreaks recorded in the 1990s in the communities studied.

  2. Clinical and epidemiological study of 27 poisonings caused by ingesting puffer fish (Tetrodontidae) in the states of Santa Catarina and Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Claudia Carvalho Pestana; Zannin, Marlene; Rodrigues, Daisy Schwab; Santos, Claudia Regina dos; Correa, Ieda Ana; Haddad Junior, Vidal

    2010-01-01

    Puffer fish can be poisonous due to the presence of the potent neurotoxins such as Tetrodotoxin (TTX) and Saxitoxin (STX) found in its tissues. The authors report 27 human poisonings from ingestion of puffer fish in patients treated at Toxicology Centers in the states of Santa Catarina and Bahia, Brazil, between 1984 and January 2009. Poisonings were classified as moderate (52%) and severe (33%), two deaths were observed. Early diagnosis is very important to ensure respiratory support.

  3. Histamine immunocytochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobi, H H; Johansson, O; Liang, Y

    2000-01-01

    We report that basophils in peripheral blood can be stained using histamine immunocytochemistry. The staining is based on the fixation of leucocytes with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (CDI) and the subsequent incubation of these cells with antisera raised against histamine...... conjugated to different carrier proteins using CDI. The staining appears to be specific for basophils and stained cells can be examined using both fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. In addition, histamine immunocytochemistry can be combined with conventional immunocytochemistry by incubating...... leucocytes with antibodies to cell surface antigens prior to or following fixation of the cells with CDI. Thus, histamine immunocytochemistry may be a valuable tool in future studies of human basophils....

  4. Mercury Poisoning in a Fisherman Working on a Pelagic Fishing Vessel Due to Excessive Tuna Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ji-Sung; Wook Kang, Kyung; Kang, Won-Yang; Lim, Hyeong-Min; Cho, Seunghyeon; Moon, Jai-Dong; Park, Won-Ju

    2017-11-01

    To report the case of a fisherman who developed chronic mercury poisoning due to excessive consumption of tuna while working on a pelagic fishing vessel. A 48-year-old male deep-sea fisherman developed paresthesia and pain in both legs while working at sea. He continued working for over 4 months on a pelagic fishing vessel but was eventually unable to function normally as his condition deteriorated. Upon arrival on land, he received specialist treatment, including imaging studies, for 2 months; however, the cause of the symptoms was not identified. An examination of his occupational history revealed that he had worked as a crew member on a pelagic fishing vessel catching tuna for the last 2 years and consumed tuna for two or more meals per day, every day. Two months after discontinuation of tuna consumption, he was tested for mercury. The result showed an elevated blood mercury level (BML) of 21.79 μg/L. Based on the half-life of mercury, the BML was evaluated as 38.70-53.20 μg/L when he was on board. Four months after discontinuing tuna consumption, his BML decreased to 14.18 μg/L, and the symptoms were almost ameliorated. The person responsible for preparing meals on a pelagic fishing ship should be aware that fish may contain high levels of heavy metals and should prepare meals for crew members according to the recommended levels. Crew members should also be aware that fish and shellfish may contain mercury, and hence, they should consume only an appropriate amount.

  5. Saxitoxin puffer fish poisoning in the United States, with the first report of Pyrodinium bahamense as the putative toxin source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberg, Jan H; Hall, Sherwood; Johannessen, Jan N; White, Kevin D; Conrad, Stephen M; Abbott, Jay P; Flewelling, Leanne J; Richardson, R William; Dickey, Robert W; Jester, Edward L E; Etheridge, Stacey M; Deeds, Jonathan R; Van Dolah, Frances M; Leighfield, Tod A; Zou, Yinglin; Beaudry, Clarke G; Benner, Ronald A; Rogers, Patricia L; Scott, Paula S; Kawabata, Kenji; Wolny, Jennifer L; Steidinger, Karen A

    2006-10-01

    From January 2002 to May 2004, 28 puffer fish poisoning (PFP) cases in Florida, New Jersey, Virginia, and New York were linked to the Indian River Lagoon (IRL) in Florida. Saxitoxins (STXs) of unknown source were first identified in fillet remnants from a New Jersey PFP case in 2002. We used the standard mouse bioassay (MBA), receptor binding assay (RBA), mouse neuroblastoma cytotoxicity assay (MNCA), Ridascreen ELISA, MIST Alert assay, HPLC, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to determine the presence of STX, decarbamoyl STX (dc-STX), and N-sulfocarbamoyl (B1) toxin in puffer fish tissues, clonal cultures, and natural bloom samples of Pyrodinium bahamense from the IRL. We found STXs in 516 IRL southern (Sphoeroides nephelus), checkered (Sphoeroides testudineus), and bandtail (Sphoeroides spengleri) puffer fish. During 36 months of monitoring, we detected STXs in skin, muscle, and viscera, with concentrations up to 22,104 microg STX equivalents (eq)/100 g tissue (action level, 80 microg STX eq/100 g tissue) in ovaries. Puffer fish tissues, clonal cultures, and natural bloom samples of P. bahamense from the IRL tested toxic in the MBA, RBA, MNCA, Ridascreen ELISA, and MIST Alert assay and positive for STX, dc-STX, and B1 toxin by HPLC and LC-MS. Skin mucus of IRL southern puffer fish captive for 1-year was highly toxic compared to Florida Gulf coast puffer fish. Therefore, we confirm puffer fish to be a hazardous reservoir of STXs in Florida's marine waters and implicate the dinoflagellate P. bahamense as the putative toxin source. Associated with fatal paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in the Pacific but not known to be toxic in the western Atlantic, P. bahamense is an emerging public health threat. We propose characterizing this food poisoning syndrome as saxitoxin puffer fish poisoning (SPFP) to distinguish it from PFP, which is traditionally associated with tetrodotoxin, and from PSP caused by STXs in shellfish.

  6. Significant histamine formation in tuna (Thunnus albacares) at 2 degrees C--effect of vacuum- and modified atmosphere-packaging on psychrotolerant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emborg, Jette; Laursen, Birgit Groth; Dalgaard, Paw

    2005-06-15

    Occurrence and importance of psychrotolerant histamine producing bacteria in chilled fresh tuna were demonstrated in the present study. The objective was to evaluate microbial formation of histamine and biogenic amines in chilled fresh tuna from the Indian Ocean and stored either vacuum-packed (VP) or modified atmosphere-packed (MAP). Firstly, biogenic amines and the dominating microbiota were determined in VP tuna involved in an outbreak of histamine fish poisoning in Denmark. Secondly, the microbiota of fresh MAP tuna was evaluated at the time of processing in Sri Lanka and chemical, microbial and sensory changes were evaluated during storage at 1-3 degrees C. To explain the results obtained with naturally contaminated tuna the effect of VP and MAP on biogenic amine formation by psychrotolerant bacteria was evaluated in challenge tests at 2 degrees C and 10 degrees C. The VP tuna that caused histamine fish poisoning had a histamine concentration of >7000 mg/kg and this high concentration was most likely produced by psychrotolerant Morganella morganii-like bacteria or by Photobacterium phosphoreum. Similar psychrotolerant M. morganii-like bacteria dominated the spoilage microbiota of fresh MAP tuna with 60% CO2/40% N2 and formed >5000 mg/kg of histamine after 24 days at 1.7 degrees C. These psychrotolerant bacteria were biochemically similar to M. morganii subsp. morganii and their 16S rDNA (1495 bp) showed >98% sequence similarity to the type strain of this species. Toxic concentrations of histamine were produced at 2.1 degrees C in inoculated VP tuna by both the psychrotolerant M. morganii-like bacteria (7400+/-1050 mg/kg) and P. phosphoreum (4250+/-2050 mg/kg). Interestingly, MAP with 40% CO2/60% O2, in challenge tests, had a strong inhibitory effect on growth and histamine formation by both the psychrotolerant M. morganii-like bacteria and P. phosphoreum. In agreement with this, no formation of histamine was found in naturally contaminated fresh MAP tuna with

  7. A phylogenetic re-analysis of groupers with applications for ciguatera fish poisoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Schoelinck

    Full Text Available Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP is a significant public health problem due to dinoflagellates. It is responsible for one of the highest reported incidence of seafood-borne illness and Groupers are commonly reported as a source of CFP due to their position in the food chain. With the role of recent climate change on harmful algal blooms, CFP cases might become more frequent and more geographically widespread. Since there is no appropriate treatment for CFP, the most efficient solution is to regulate fish consumption. Such a strategy can only work if the fish sold are correctly identified, and it has been repeatedly shown that misidentifications and species substitutions occur in fish markets.We provide here both a DNA-barcoding reference for groupers, and a new phylogenetic reconstruction based on five genes and a comprehensive taxonomical sampling. We analyse the correlation between geographic range of species and their susceptibility to ciguatera accumulation, and the co-occurrence of ciguatoxins in closely related species, using both character mapping and statistical methods.Misidentifications were encountered in public databases, precluding accurate species identifications. Epinephelinae now includes only twelve genera (vs. 15 previously. Comparisons with the ciguatera incidences show that in some genera most species are ciguateric, but statistical tests display only a moderate correlation with the phylogeny. Atlantic species were rarely contaminated, with ciguatera occurrences being restricted to the South Pacific.The recent changes in classification based on the reanalyses of the relationships within Epinephelidae have an impact on the interpretation of the ciguatera distribution in the genera. In this context and to improve the monitoring of fish trade and safety, we need to obtain extensive data on contamination at the species level. Accurate species identifications through DNA barcoding are thus an essential tool in controlling CFP since

  8. Invasive Lionfish (Pterois volitans): A Potential Human Health Threat for Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Tropical Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Alison; Garcia, Ana C.; Flores Quintana, Harold A.; Smith, Tyler B.; Castillo, Bernard F.; Reale-Munroe, Kynoch; Gulli, Joseph A.; Olsen, David A.; Hooe-Rollman, Jennifer I.; Jester, Edward L. E.; Klimek, Brian J.; Plakas, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans) have rapidly expanded in the Western Atlantic over the past decade and have had a significant negative impact on reef fish biodiversity, habitat, and community structure, with lionfish out-competing native predators for resources. In an effort to reduce this population explosion, lionfish have been promoted for human consumption in the greater Caribbean region. This study examined whether the geographical expansion of the lionfish into a known ciguatera-endemic region can pose a human health threat for ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). More than 180 lionfish were collected from waters surrounding the US Virgin Islands throughout 2010 and 2011. Ciguatoxin testing included an in vitro neuroblastoma cytotoxicity assay for composite toxicity assessment of sodium-channel toxins combined with confirmatory liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A 12% prevalence rate of ciguatoxic lionfish exceeding the FDA guidance level of 0.1 µg/kg C-CTX-1 equivalents was identified in fish from the U.S. Virgin Islands, highlighting a potential consumption risk in this region. This study presents the first evidence that the invasive lionfish, pose a direct human health risk for CFP and highlights the need for awareness and research on this food safety hazard in known endemic areas. PMID:24378919

  9. Invasive Lionfish (Pterois volitans: A Potential Human Health Threat for Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Tropical Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Robertson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans have rapidly expanded in the Western Atlantic over the past decade and have had a significant negative impact on reef fish biodiversity, habitat, and community structure, with lionfish out-competing native predators for resources. In an effort to reduce this population explosion, lionfish have been promoted for human consumption in the greater Caribbean region. This study examined whether the geographical expansion of the lionfish into a known ciguatera-endemic region can pose a human health threat for ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP. More than 180 lionfish were collected from waters surrounding the US Virgin Islands throughout 2010 and 2011. Ciguatoxin testing included an in vitro neuroblastoma cytotoxicity assay for composite toxicity assessment of sodium-channel toxins combined with confirmatory liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A 12% prevalence rate of ciguatoxic lionfish exceeding the FDA guidance level of 0.1 µg/kg C-CTX-1 equivalents was identified in fish from the U.S. Virgin Islands, highlighting a potential consumption risk in this region. This study presents the first evidence that the invasive lionfish, pose a direct human health risk for CFP and highlights the need for awareness and research on this food safety hazard in known endemic areas.

  10. Determination of trans- and cis-urocanic acid in relation to histamine, putrescine, and cadaverine contents in tuna (Auxis Thazard) at different storage temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Davood; Muhammad, Kharidah; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Ghazali, H M

    2015-02-01

    Scombroid fish poisoning is usually associated with consumption of fish containing high levels of histamine. However, reports indicate that some cases have responded to antihistamine therapy while ingested histamine levels in these cases were low. Potentiation of histamine toxicity by some biogenic amines, and release of endogenous histamine by other compounds such as cis-urocanic acid (UCA) are some hypotheses that have been put forth to explain this anomaly. Very little is known about the effects of storage conditions on the production of both UCA isomers and biogenic amines in tuna. Thus, the production of trans- and cis-UCA, histamine, putrescine, and cadaverine in tuna during 15 d of storage at 0, 3, and 10 °C and 2 d storage at ambient temperature were monitored. The initial trans- and cis-UCA contents in fresh tuna were 2.90 and 1.47 mg/kg, respectively, whereas the levels of putrescine and cadaverine were less than 2 mg/kg, and histamine was not detected. The highest levels of trans- and cis-UCA were obtained during 15 d storage at 3 °C (23.74 and 21.79 mg/kg, respectively) while the highest concentrations of histamine (2796 mg/kg), putrescine (220.32 mg/kg) and cadaverine (1045.20 mg/kg) were obtained during storage at room temperature, 10 and 10 °C, respectively. Histamine content increased considerably during storage at 10 °C whereas trans- and cis-UCA contents changed slightly. The initial trans-UCA content decreased during storage at ambient temperature. Thus, unlike histamine, concentrations of trans- and cis-UCA did not result in elevated levels during storage of tuna. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Ciguatera fish poisoning and sea surface temperatures in the Caribbean Sea and the West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tester, Patricia A; Feldman, Rebecca L; Nau, Amy W; Kibler, Steven R; Wayne Litaker, R

    2010-10-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a circumtropical disease caused by ingestion of a variety of reef fish that bioaccumulate algal toxins. Distribution and abundance of the organisms that produce these toxins, chiefly dinoflagellates of the genus Gambierdiscus, are reported to correlate positively with water temperature. Consequently, there is growing concern that increasing temperatures associated with climate change could increase the incidence of CFP. This concern prompted experiments on the growth rates of six Gambierdiscus species at temperatures between 18 degrees C and 33 degrees C and the examination of sea surface temperatures in the Caribbean and West Indies for areas that could sustain rapid Gambierdiscus growth rates year-round. The thermal optimum for five of six Gambierdiscus species tested was >/=29 degrees C. Long-term SST data from the southern Gulf of Mexico indicate the number of days with sea surface temperatures >/=29 degrees C has nearly doubled (44 to 86) in the last three decades. To determine how the sea surface temperatures and Gambierdiscus growth data correlate with CFP incidences in the Caribbean, a literature review and a uniform, region-wide survey (1996-2006) of CFP cases were conducted. The highest CFP incidence rates were in the eastern Caribbean where water temperatures are warmest and least variable. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. An Updated Review of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: Clinical, Epidemiological, Environmental, and Public Health Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Melissa A; Fernandez, Mercedes; Backer, Lorraine C; Dickey, Robert W; Bernstein, Jeffrey; Schrank, Kathleen; Kibler, Steven; Stephan, Wendy; Gribble, Matthew O; Bienfang, Paul; Bowen, Robert E; Degrasse, Stacey; Flores Quintana, Harold A; Loeffler, Christopher R; Weisman, Richard; Blythe, Donna; Berdalet, Elisa; Ayyar, Ram; Clarkson-Townsend, Danielle; Swajian, Karen; Benner, Ronald; Brewer, Tom; Fleming, Lora E

    2017-03-14

    Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world. It causes substantial human health, social, and economic impacts. The illness produces a complex array of gastrointestinal, neurological and neuropsychological, and cardiovascular symptoms, which may last days, weeks, or months. This paper is a general review of CFP including the human health effects of exposure to ciguatoxins (CTXs), diagnosis, human pathophysiology of CFP, treatment, detection of CTXs in fish, epidemiology of the illness, global dimensions, prevention, future directions, and recommendations for clinicians and patients. It updates and expands upon the previous review of CFP published by Friedman et al. (2008) and addresses new insights and relevant emerging global themes such as climate and environmental change, international market issues, and socioeconomic impacts of CFP. It also provides a proposed universal case definition for CFP designed to account for the variability in symptom presentation across different geographic regions. Information that is important but unchanged since the previous review has been reiterated. This article is intended for a broad audience, including resource and fishery managers, commercial and recreational fishers, public health officials, medical professionals, and other interested parties.

  13. An Updated Review of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: Clinical, Epidemiological, Environmental, and Public Health Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A. Friedman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world. It causes substantial human health, social, and economic impacts. The illness produces a complex array of gastrointestinal, neurological and neuropsychological, and cardiovascular symptoms, which may last days, weeks, or months. This paper is a general review of CFP including the human health effects of exposure to ciguatoxins (CTXs, diagnosis, human pathophysiology of CFP, treatment, detection of CTXs in fish, epidemiology of the illness, global dimensions, prevention, future directions, and recommendations for clinicians and patients. It updates and expands upon the previous review of CFP published by Friedman et al. (2008 and addresses new insights and relevant emerging global themes such as climate and environmental change, international market issues, and socioeconomic impacts of CFP. It also provides a proposed universal case definition for CFP designed to account for the variability in symptom presentation across different geographic regions. Information that is important but unchanged since the previous review has been reiterated. This article is intended for a broad audience, including resource and fishery managers, commercial and recreational fishers, public health officials, medical professionals, and other interested parties.

  14. Ciguatera fish poisoning: a double-blind randomized trial of mannitol therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnorf, Hans; Taurarii, M; Cundy, T

    2002-03-26

    Ciguatera poisoning (CP) is worldwide the most common fish-borne illness and one of the most common forms of nonbacterial food poisoning. IV mannitol is considered the treatment of choice for CP but has not been evaluated in a double-blind randomized trial. A prospective clinical study of 50 patients with CP on Rarotonga, Cook Islands, was conducted to better define the neurologic picture of CP and to study the effect of mannitol or normal saline under double-blind randomized conditions over a 24-hour period. The neurologic presentation of CP was that of a predominantly sensory, length-dependent polyneuropathy, with preferential small-fiber involvement. Motor paresis, cranial nerve dysfunction, and CNS abnormalities were absent but for a rare mild transitory cerebellar syndrome. At 24 hours, 96% of mannitol-treated patients and 92% of normal saline-treated patients had some improvement of symptoms (p = 1.0), whereas 12% and 24% of patients in each group were asymptomatic (p = 0.46). By 24 hours, the prevalence of the various polyneuropathic symptoms and signs was reduced roughly by half in both groups. Discomfort or pain along the vein used for infusion was more frequent in the mannitol group (84%) than in the normal saline group (36%) (p = 0.0015). Mannitol was not superior to normal saline in relieving symptoms and signs of CP at 24 hours in this study population but had more side effects. These results do not support single-dose mannitol as standard treatment for CP.

  15. Identification on Histamine Content and Histamin-Forming Bacteria of Boiled Badeng Slender Tuna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliana Syalviana Fatuni

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Pindang is a semi-dried product which relatively short lasting products. Due to the rapid formation of histamine and bacterial enzyme activities contained in the fish, it is necessary to study and identify the histamine levels either on fresh tuna or in its pindang. This study aims to analyze histamine and histamine-forming bacteria in processed pindang tuna (A. rochei. Fresh tuna (A. rochei was obtained from TPI Cisolok Palabuhanratu. The fish was processed according to pindang badeng method (20% salt added, boiled for 8 hours. The product then stored at room temperature and observed for 0,8,16,24 and 32 hours. Analysis were conducted through chemical (histamine and TVB and microbiological test (TPC, identification of bacteria, histamine levels in bacteria. The results showed that the stored pindang for 32 hours can reactivate the production of histamine and increase their levels significantly. This is consistent with the increase on the value of TVB and TPC in pindang products. Six types of histamine-forming bacteria found on pindang tuna that are P. vulgaris, H. alvei, M. Morganii, E. aerogenes, K. oxytoca, K. pneumoniae. Activity test results showed that K. pneumoniae and H. alvei form the highest and the lowest levels of histamine formation respectively.Keywords: Histamine, bacterial, boiled tuna (Auxis rochei

  16. Saxitoxin Puffer Fish Poisoning in the United States, with the First Report of Pyrodinium bahamense as the Putative Toxin Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberg, Jan H.; Hall, Sherwood; Johannessen, Jan N.; White, Kevin D.; Conrad, Stephen M.; Abbott, Jay P.; Flewelling, Leanne J.; Richardson, R. William; Dickey, Robert W.; Jester, Edward L.E.; Etheridge, Stacey M.; Deeds, Jonathan R.; Van Dolah, Frances M.; Leighfield, Tod A.; Zou, Yinglin; Beaudry, Clarke G.; Benner, Ronald A.; Rogers, Patricia L.; Scott, Paula S.; Kawabata, Kenji; Wolny, Jennifer L.; Steidinger, Karen A.

    2006-01-01

    Background From January 2002 to May 2004, 28 puffer fish poisoning (PFP) cases in Florida, New Jersey, Virginia, and New York were linked to the Indian River Lagoon (IRL) in Florida. Saxitoxins (STXs) of unknown source were first identified in fillet remnants from a New Jersey PFP case in 2002. Methods We used the standard mouse bioassay (MBA), receptor binding assay (RBA), mouse neuroblastoma cytotoxicity assay (MNCA), Ridascreen ELISA, MIST Alert assay, HPLC, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to determine the presence of STX, decarbamoyl STX (dc-STX), and N-sulfocarbamoyl (B1) toxin in puffer fish tissues, clonal cultures, and natural bloom samples of Pyrodinium bahamense from the IRL. Results We found STXs in 516 IRL southern (Sphoeroides nephelus), checkered (Sphoeroides testudineus), and bandtail (Sphoeroides spengleri) puffer fish. During 36 months of monitoring, we detected STXs in skin, muscle, and viscera, with concentrations up to 22,104 μg STX equivalents (eq)/100 g tissue (action level, 80 μg STX eq/100 g tissue) in ovaries. Puffer fish tissues, clonal cultures, and natural bloom samples of P. bahamense from the IRL tested toxic in the MBA, RBA, MNCA, Ridascreen ELISA, and MIST Alert assay and positive for STX, dc-STX, and B1 toxin by HPLC and LC-MS. Skin mucus of IRL southern puffer fish captive for 1-year was highly toxic compared to Florida Gulf coast puffer fish. Therefore, we confirm puffer fish to be a hazardous reservoir of STXs in Florida’s marine waters and implicate the dinoflagellate P. bahamense as the putative toxin source. Conclusions Associated with fatal paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in the Pacific but not known to be toxic in the western Atlantic, P. bahamense is an emerging public health threat. We propose characterizing this food poisoning syndrome as saxitoxin puffer fish poisoning (SPFP) to distinguish it from PFP, which is traditionally associated with tetrodotoxin, and from PSP caused by STXs in

  17. Ciguatera fish poisoning: a first epidemic in Germany highlights an increasing risk for European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, César; Vetter, Irina; Eisenblätter, Anneka; Krock, Bernd; Ebbecke, Martin; Desel, Herbert; Zimmermann, Katharina

    2014-12-01

    Toxin-producing microalgae are thriving worldwide due to coral reef destruction and global warming with major consequences on ecosystems, international trade and human health. Microalgae belonging to the family of flagellate protists, in particular dinoflagellates, secrete a variety of high-molecular-weight polyether toxins that accumulate through the marine food chain to cause disease in humans by acting as sodium channel activator toxins; ciguatera is the most frequent seafood-borne illness worldwide with 50,000 to 500,000 global incidences per annum and is usually limited to endemic areas located between 35° northern and 35° southern latitude. The rising global incidence frequency renders it a major human health problem, because no curative treatment is available yet and reliable detection assays are lacking. During the last decade ciguatera has increasingly become endemic in previously unaffected areas for two reasons: first global warming has contributed to the emergence of dinoflagellate species in subtropical and even temperate regions that previously had been constrained to tropical areas and second: in Europe globalization of fishing industry and tourism has led to a progressive increase in the number of ciguatera cases and a lack of awareness among medical personnel contributes to under-reporting. We review, through a recent ciguatera outbreak in Germany, the risk for ciguatera poisoning in Europe and highlight characteristic symptoms, current knowledge about disease pathomechanisms and treatment options.

  18. Significant histamine formation in tuna ( Thunnus albacares ) at 2 degrees C - effect of vacuum- and modified atmosphere-packaging on psychrotolerant bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emborg, Jette; Laursen, B. G.; Dalgaard, Paw

    2005-01-01

    Occurrence and importance of psychrotolerant histamine producing bacteria in chilled fresh tuna were demonstrated in the present study. The objective was to evaluate microbial formation of histamine and biogenic amines in chilled fresh tuna from the Indian Ocean and stored either vacuum-packed (VP......) or modified atmosphere-packed (MAP). Firstly, biogenic amines and the dominating microbiota were determined in VP tuna involved in an outbreak of histamine fish poisoning in Denmark. Secondly, the microbiota of fresh MAP tuna was evaluated at the time of processing in Sri Lanka and chemical, microbial...... and sensory changes were evaluated during storage at 1-3 degrees C. To explain the results obtained with naturally contaminated tuna the effect of VP and MAP on biogenic amine formation by psychrotolerant bacteria was evaluated in challenge tests at 2 degrees C and 10 degrees C. The VP tuna that caused...

  19. Rapid screening of tetrodotoxin in urine and plasma of patients with puffer fish poisoning by HPLC with creatinine correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chung-Him; Yu, Chun-Fai; Tam, Sidney; Yu, Peter Hoi-Fu

    2010-01-01

    A rapid and simple detection method for tetrodotoxin (TTX) in urine and plasma of patients with puffer fish poisoning was developed using commercially pre-packed solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges (C18 and weak cation exchange columns) and subsequent analyses by HPLC with UV detection. The detection limit of the standard TTX, TTX-spiked urine and plasma samples were all 10 ng/ml and the average TTX recovery in urine and plasma samples after SPE were 90.3 +/- 4.0 and 87.1 +/- 2.9%, respectively. It was noticed that the creatinine-adjusted urinary TTX levels obtained within the first 24 h of presentation apparently correlated much better with the severity of poisoning than the urinary TTX concentration without adjusting for variations in concomitant creatinine excretion.

  20. The prevalence of benthic dinoflagellates associated with ciguatera fish poisoning in the central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Catania, Daniela

    2017-09-09

    This study confirms the presence of the toxigenic benthic dinoflagellates Gambierdiscus belizeanus and Ostreopsis spp. in the central Red Sea. To our knowledge, this is also the first report of these taxa in coastal waters of Saudi Arabia, indicating the potential occurrence of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) in that region. During field investigations carried out in 2012 and 2013, a total of 100 Turbinaria and Halimeda macroalgae samples were collected from coral reefs off the Saudi Arabian coast and examined for the presence of Gambierdiscus and Ostreopsis, two toxigenic dinoflagellate genera commonly observed in coral reef communities around the world. Both Gambierdiscus and Ostreopsis spp. were observed at low densities (<200 cells g−1 wet weight algae). Cell densities of Ostreopsis spp. were significantly higher than Gambierdiscus spp. at most of the sampling sites, and abundances of both genera were negatively correlated with seawater salinity. To assess the potential for ciguatoxicity in this region, several Gambierdiscus isolates were established in culture and examined for species identity and toxicity. All isolates were morphologically and molecularly identified as Gambierdiscus belizeanus. Toxicity analysis of two isolates using the mouse neuroblastoma cell-based assay for ciguatoxins (CTX) confirmed G. belizeanus as a CTX producer, with a maximum toxin content of 6.50±1.14×10−5pg P-CTX-1 eq. cell−1. Compared to Gambierdiscus isolates from other locations, these were low toxicity strains. The low Gambierdiscus densities observed along with their comparatively low toxin contents may explain why CFP is unidentified and unreported in this region. Nevertheless, the presence of these potentially toxigenic dinoflagellate species at multiple sites in the central Red Sea warrants future study on their possible effects on marine food webs and human health in this region.

  1. Is Validation of Indigenous Ecological Knowledge a Disrespectful Process? A Case Study of Traditional Fishing Poisons and Invasive Fish Management from the Wet Tropics, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Gratani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growing recognition of the contribution that indigenous ecological knowledge (IEK can make to contemporary 'western' science-based natural resource management (NRM, integration of the two knowledge systems has not reached its full potential in Australia. One explanation is that there is an implicit requirement for IEK to be validated by western scientific knowledge (SK, which has stalled its application and perpetuated the primacy of SK over IEK. Consequently, there is little experience of IEK validation, indigenous peoples' perspectives of the process, and no formal frameworks to achieve mutual and equitable validation of both IEK and SK. In this paper we assess the opportunities and limitations of validation processes using a case study of traditional fishing poisons for invasive fish management in the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area of Australia. The study was conducted within a coresearch approach between the Aboriginal holders of the IEK, who are among the paper's authors, and science-based biologists. We jointly carried out scientific laboratory trials that demonstrated that fishing poisons are effective at immobilizing invasive tilapia. Retrospective interviews with indigenous coresearchers showed that they did not find the experience of validation disrespectful, but instead empowering and necessary for their IEK to be understood and appreciated by scientists and included in NRM. Based on our experiences and knowledge of socialization theory we present a framework for the potential future design of collaborative validation processes to facilitate the integration of IEK into mainstream NRM, and the acceptance of SK within indigenous communities in Australia.

  2. Photobacterium angustum and Photobacterium kishitanii, Psychrotrophic High-Level Histamine-Producing Bacteria Indigenous to Tuna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornsdottir-Butler, K; McCarthy, S A; Dunlap, P V; Benner, R A

    2016-01-29

    Scombrotoxin fish poisoning (SFP) remains the main contributor of fish poisoning incidents in the United States, despite efforts to control its spread. Psychrotrophic histamine-producing bacteria (HPB) indigenous to scombrotoxin-forming fish may contribute to the incidence of SFP. We examined the gills, skin, and anal vents of yellowfin (n = 3), skipjack (n = 1), and albacore (n = 6) tuna for the presence of indigenous HPB. Thirteen HPB strains were isolated from the anal vent samples from albacore (n = 3) and yellowfin (n = 2) tuna. Four of these isolates were identified as Photobacterium kishitanii and nine isolates as Photobacterium angustum; these isolates produced 560 to 603 and 1,582 to 2,338 ppm histamine in marine broth containing 1% histidine (25°C for 48 h), respectively. The optimum growth temperatures and salt concentrations were 26 to 27°C and 1% salt for P. kishitanii and 30 to 32°C and 2% salt for P. angustum in Luria 70% seawater (LSW-70). The optimum activity of the HDC enzyme was at 15 to 30°C for both species. At 5°C, P. kishitanii and P. angustum had growth rates of 0.1 and 0.2 h(-1), respectively, and the activities of histidine decarboxylase (HDC) enzymes were 71% and 63%, respectively. These results show that indigenous HPB in tuna are capable of growing at elevated and refrigeration temperatures. These findings demonstrate the need to examine the relationships between the rate of histamine production at refrigeration temperatures, seafood shelf life, and regulatory limits. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Simple and rapid determination of histamine in food using a new histamine dehydrogenase from Rhizobium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tsuneo; Horiuchi, Tatsuo; Nishimura, Ikuko

    2005-11-15

    A colorimetric enzyme assay for the quantitative analysis of histamine in food has been developed using a new histamine dehydrogenase (HDH) from Rhizobium sp. The HDH specifically catalyzes the oxidation of histamine but not other biogenic amines such as putrescine and cadaverine. The principle of our photometric assay is as follows. The HDH catalyzes the oxidative deamination of histamine in the presence of 1-methoxy PMS (electron carrier), which converts WST-8 (tetrazolium salt) to a formazan. This product is measured in the visible range at 460 nm. The correlation between the histamine level and absorbance was acceptable, ranging from 0 to 96 microM with histamine standard solutions, corresponding to 0 to 30 microM of the reaction solution (r = 1.000, CV = 1.0% or less). Assays of canned tuna (in oil and soup) and raw tuna with 45-675 micromol/kg histamine added showed good recoveries of 96-113, 98-108, and 100-106%. The histamine contents of a commercial canned tuna and fish meal containing histamine at high concentrations were determined using the new method and other reference methods (HPLC method, Association of Official Analytical Chemists official method, and two commercial enzyme immunoassay test kits). This simple and rapid enzymatic method is as reliable as the conventional methods.

  4. A facile molecularly imprinted polymer-based fluorometric assay for detection of histamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Xiaotong; Ashley, Jon; Zhou, Tongchang

    2018-01-01

    Histamine is a biogenic amine naturally present in many body cells. It is also a contaminant that is mostly found in spoiled food. The consumption of foods containing high levels of histamine may lead to an allergy-like food poisoning. Analytical methods that can routinely screen histamine are thus...... urgently needed. In this paper, we developed a facile and cost-effective molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP)-based fluorometric assay to directly quantify histamine. Histamine-specific MIP nanoparticles (nanoMIPs) were synthesized using a modified solid-phase synthesis method. They were then immobilized...

  5. Changes in urocanic acid, histamine, putrescine and cadaverine levels in Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) during storage at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Davood; Muhammad, Kharidah; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Ghazali, H M

    2013-08-15

    Histamine, putrescine cadaverine and cis-urocanic acid (UCA) have all been implicated or suggested in scombroid fish poisoning. However, there is little information on UCA especially during storage. Changes in their contents during storage of whole Indian mackerel at 0, 3±1, 10±1 for up to 15 days and 23±2°C for up to 2 days were monitored. Fresh muscles contained 14.83 mg/kg trans-UCA, 2.23 mg/kg cis-UCA and 1.86 mg/kg cadaverine. Histamine and putrescine were not detected. After 15 days at 0 and 3°C, trans-UCA content increased to 52.83 and 189.51 mg/kg, respectively, and decreased to putrescine and cadaverine levels increased significantly (P value<0.05) at all temperatures especially at 23°C. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Vascular Effects of Histamine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Ackad and Brody, 1975). Also, coronary arteries of some patients with coronary artery disease have been reported to be hyperresponsive to histamine and to contain significantly higher concentrations of histamine (Kalsner and Richards, 1984). Mast cells present in post capillary venules also secrete histamine which induce ...

  7. EDITORIAL POISONING PATTERN Human poisoning with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pharm-chem

    Bioaccumulation of methylmercury then occurred in fish which were eventually eaten by humans. Thallium poisoning is characterized by alopecia often seen one to two weeks later when the patient is about to be discharged from hospital. Thus, in chronic poisoning, it is difficult to establish definitive cause-effect relationship.

  8. PENINGKATAN KADAR HISTAMIN PADA IKAN LAUT YANG SUDAH DIOLAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djarismawati Djarismawati

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available  It was very difficult to recover the condition of people·s nutntion especially among the children during the economic crisis, even though that problem could be overcome by consuming protein especially from sea-fish. But handling food originated from sea-fish was very difficult, because sea-fish could be easily contaminated by toxins. In this study the histamine contents in fresh and processed sea-fish will be analized. The objective of the study was to test the best way of fish cooking to minimize the histamine content. The limiting time of the fish remain fresh after taken from the market was also studied. The result showed that the time taken to bring the fish from the sampling points to the laboratory and the way of fish cooking would influence the histamine content in cooked fish. We also found that cooking fish with coconut milk has resulted the lowest histamine content as compared with frying or roasting. Keywords: histamine, sea fish, nutrition

  9. Histamine and Histamine Receptors in Allergic Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Seike, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter we will first introduce the pathophysiological process of several skin diseases including allergic dermatitis, a common skin disease, including chronic allergic contact dermatitis (CACD), and atopic dermatitis (AD). In CACD and AD patients, repeated skin exposure to antigens contributes to the development of chronic eczematous lesions. Repeated application of haptens on mice allows emulation of the development of CACD in humans. Further, we will focus on H1, H2, and H4 histamine receptors and their effects on CACD and AD. Histamine-deficient mice, with a knockout histidine decarboxylase (HDC) gene, were used to investigate the role of histamine in CACD and AD. Histamine induces infiltration of inflammatory cells, including mast cells and eosinophils, and elevates Th2 cytokine levels in CACD. Histamine promotes the development of eczematous lesions, elevates IgE serum levels, and induces scratching behavior in CACD. The administration of H1 or H4 receptor antagonists was effective to ameliorate these symptoms in murine CACD models. The combination of H1 and H4 receptor antagonists is a potential therapeutic target for chronic inflammatory skin diseases such as CACD and AD, since combined therapy proved to be more effective than monotherapy.

  10. Puffer fish (Tetrodotoxin) poisoning: an analysis and outcome of six cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Fazle Rabbi; Ahasan, H A M Nazmul; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Rashid, A K M Mamunur; Al Mahboob, Abdullah

    2007-10-01

    On 24 July 2005, six members of a single family were admitted to the Medicine and Pediatrics Department of Khulna Medical College Hospital, Khulna, Bangladesh, with a history of ingestion of puffer fish. All patients developed toxic manifestations. The cases were clinically analysed with successful outcomes.

  11. Histamine and the striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolam, J Paul; Ellender, Tommas J

    2016-07-01

    The neuromodulator histamine is released throughout the brain during periods of wakefulness. Combined with an abundant expression of histamine receptors, this suggests potential widespread histaminergic control of neural circuit activity. However, the effect of histamine on many of these circuits is unknown. In this review we will discuss recent evidence for histaminergic modulation of the basal ganglia circuitry, and specifically its main input nucleus; the striatum. Furthermore, we will discuss recent findings of histaminergic dysfunction in several basal ganglia disorders, including in Parkinson's disease and most prominently, in Tourette's syndrome, which has led to a resurgence of interest in this neuromodulator. Combined, these recent observations not only suggest a central role for histamine in modulating basal ganglia activity and behaviour, but also as a possible target in treating basal ganglia disorders. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Histamine Receptors'. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Teratogenic effects and monetary cost of selenium poisoning of fish in Lake Sutton, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Dennis. Lemly

    2014-01-01

    Selenium pollution from coal ash waste water was investigated in Lake Sutton, NC. This lake has been continuously used as a cooling pond for a coal-fired power plant since 1972. Historic and recent levels of contamination in fish tissues (14–105 µg Se/g dry weight in liver, 24–127 in eggs, 4–23 in muscle,7–38 in whole-body) exceeded toxic thresholds and teratogenic...

  13. Histamine modulates microglia function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Histamine is commonly acknowledged as an inflammatory mediator in peripheral tissues, leaving its role in brain immune responses scarcely studied. Therefore, our aim was to uncover the cellular and molecular mechanisms elicited by this molecule and its receptors in microglia-induced inflammation by evaluating cell migration and inflammatory mediator release. Methods Firstly, we detected the expression of all known histamine receptor subtypes (H1R, H2R, H3R and H4R), using a murine microglial cell line and primary microglia cell cultures from rat cortex, by real-time PCR analysis, immunocytochemistry and Western blotting. Then, we evaluated the role of histamine in microglial cell motility by performing scratch wound assays. Results were further confirmed using murine cortex explants. Finally, interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels were evaluated by ELISA measurements to determine the role of histamine on the release of these inflammatory mediators. Results After 12 h of treatment, 100 μM histamine and 10 μg/ml histamine-loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles significantly stimulated microglia motility via H4R activation. In addition, migration involves α5β1 integrins, and p38 and Akt signaling pathways. Migration of microglial cells was also enhanced in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 ng/ml), used as a positive control. Importantly, histamine inhibited LPS-stimulated migration via H4R activation. Histamine or H4R agonist also inhibited LPS-induced IL-1β release in both N9 microglia cell line and hippocampal organotypic slice cultures. Conclusions To our knowledge, we are the first to show a dual role of histamine in the modulation of microglial inflammatory responses. Altogether, our data suggest that histamine per se triggers microglia motility, whereas histamine impedes LPS-induced microglia migration and IL-1β release. This last datum assigns a new putative anti-inflammatory role for

  14. Hydrogen sulfide gas poisoning in fish garbage room: A report of a fisherman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Sadaf; Baig, Muhammad Akbar; Ali, Noman; Khan, NadeemUllah

    2017-07-01

    We report the case of a fisherman who was exposed to high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas from the fish garbage room. The patient survived and was discharged with full recovery from the hospital. H2S is a colourless, foul smelling and highly toxic gas next to carbon monoxide, which causes inhalation death. It is a by-product of various industrial processes particularly involves exposure from agriculture, petrochemical industry and organic matter decomposition from sewage processing. It is a by-product of H2S has been referred as the "knock down gas" because inhalation of high concentrations can cause immediate loss of consciousness and death. Although early use of amyl nitrate and hyperbaric oxygen shows some benefit in literature, supportive care remains the mainstay of treatment. Emergency physicians and pre-hospital care personnel are not very familiar with such exposure due to its rarity. This becomes more relevant in the developing world settings where there are rising concerns about the unsafe exposure to hazardous chemicals and its impact on human health. Emergency physicians working in Pakistan should be aware of this entity especially in regard to fishermen presenting to the Emergency Department with such a clinical presentation and its toxic manifestations. This incident also illustrates the need of enforcement of health and safety regulations in the fishing industry.

  15. Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Food Poisoning KidsHealth / For Kids / Food Poisoning What's in ... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ...

  16. On histamine and appetites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando eTorrealba

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Brain histamine may influence a variety of different behavioral and physiological functions, but its responsibility in waking up has casted a long shadow on other important functions of this neurotransmitter. Here we review evidence indicating a central role of brain histamine in motivation, emphasizing its differential involvement in the appetitive and consummatory phases of motivated behaviors. We discuss the inputs that control the histaminergic neurons of the tuberomamillary nucleus of the hypothalamus, which determine the distinct role of these neurons in appetitive behavior, sleep/wake cycles and in food anticipatory activity. We review evidence supporting a dysfunction of histamine neurons and its cortical input in certain forms of decreased motivation (apathy. We finally discuss the relationship between the histamine system and drug addiction as a dysfunction of motivation.

  17. Allergy, Histamine and Antihistamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Martin K

    2017-01-01

    This chapter concentrates on the role in allergic disease of histamine acting on H1-receptors. It is clear that allergy has its roots in the primary parasite rejection response in which mast cell-derived histamine creates an immediate hostile environment and eosinophils are recruited for killing. This pattern is seen in allergic rhinitis where the early events of mucus production and nasal itching are primarily histamine mediated whereas nasal blockage is secondary to eosinophil infiltration and activation. In asthma, the role of histamine is less clear. Urticaria is characterized by mast cell driven pruritic wheal and flare-type skin reactions that usually persist for less than 24 h. Although the events leading to mast cell degranulation have been unclear for many years, it is now becoming evident that urticaria has an autoimmune basis. Finally, the properties of first- and second-generation H1-antihistamines and their role in allergic is discussed.

  18. HISTAMINE IN CANNED SARDINES HISTAMINA EM CONSERVAS DE SARDINHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fancislene Bernardes Tebalti do Carmo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the presence of histamine in 122 samples of canned sardines produced with three different species by three industries located in the municipalities of Sao Goncalo and Niteroi was evaluated. The samples were divided into five lots with copies of sardines from Venezuela (Sardinella aurita, Morocco (S. pilchardus and Brazil (S. brasiliensis. The initial quality of raw material was evaluated by sensorial parameters and by the histamine level using a semi-quantitative method of thin-layer chromatography. The results of the samples from Venezuela and Morocco showed values below 5 mg/100g, and the national samples showed values similar or greater than 10 mg/100g. It follows that there is need for greater control and monitoring of temperature from capture to processing, to guarantee good quality to the final product, and to avoid risk of poisoning to the consumer.

    KEY WORDS: Canned fish, histamine, quality, sardines.

    O presente estudo avaliou a presença de histamina em 122 amostras de sardinha em conserva, produzidas com três diferentes espécies, por três indústrias, localizadas nos municípios de São Gonçalo e Niterói. As amostras foram divididas em cinco lotes com exemplares de sardinhas provenientes da Venezuela (Sardinella aurita, Marrocos (S. pilchardus e do Brasil (S. brasiliensis. Avaliou-se a qualidade inicial da matéria-prima por meio de parâmetros sensoriais e pelo teor de histamina utilizando-se o método de cromatografia em camada delgada. As amostras oriundas da Venezuela e Marrocos apresentaram valores abaixo de 5 mg/100 g e as nacionais, valores semelhantes ou superiores a 10 mg/100g. Conclui-se que há necessidade de um maior controle e monitorização da temperatura da sardinha desde a captura até o processamento, para que o produto final apresente boa qualidade e não represente perigo de intoxicação ao consumidor.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Conserva, histamina, qualidade, sardinha.

  19. TEORES DE HISTAMINA E QUALIDADE FÍSICO-QUÍMICA E SENSORIAL DE FILÉ DE PEIXE CONGELADO HISTAMINE LEVELS AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND SENSORY QUALITY OF FROZEN FISH FILLET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria F. M. SOARES

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade de 120 amostras de diferentes tipos de filé de peixe congelado foi avaliada com relação às características sensoriais, pH, teores de bases voláteis totais e histamina e presença de gás sulfídrico. Os resultados da análise sensorial indicaram boa qualidade dos peixes com valores médios de 5,52 (CV £ 13% tanto para odor quanto para aspecto geral. Com relação a bases voláteis totais (BVT, teores médios de 62,71 mg N/100 g foram encontrados, com valores significativamente maiores (> 80 mg N/100 g para namorado (Pseudopercis numida e cação (famílias Carcharhinidae e Squalidae e menores que 68 mg N/100 g para os demais tipos de peixe. Os valores médios de pH variaram de 6,11 em abrótea (Urophycis brasiliensis a 7,49 em castanha (Umbrina sp.. Baseado nestes resultados, 79, 39 e 62% das amostras não atenderiam aos limites estipulados pela legislação vigente para BVT, pH e gás sulfídrico, respectivamente. Histamina foi encontrada em 37% das amostras com teores médios de 0,00 para linguado (Paralichthys sp. e Pleuronectes sp. a 0,50 mg/100 g para namorado. A presença de histamina não foi detectada em abrótea. Foram observadas diferenças significativa entre os valores de BVT, pH e histamina das amostras de peixe agrupadas por famílias. Para uma melhor avaliação do potencial de utilização e estabelecimento de limites críticos para estes parâmetros como critério de qualidade, sugere-se que amostras sejam monitoradas desde o momento da captura. Os teores de histamina detectados nas amostras não seriam, por si só, capazes de causar intoxicação.The quality of 120 samples of different types of frozen fish fillet was evaluated with respect to sensory characteristics, pH, levels of total volatile basis, histamine and presence of sulfidric gas. The results from the sensory evaluation indicated good quality with scores of 5.52 (CV £ 13% for both odor and general aspects. With respect to total volatile bases

  20. Histamine and astrocyte function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurič, Damijana M; Kržan, Mojca; Lipnik-Stangelj, Metoda

    2016-09-01

    Astrocytes support the brain through numerous functional interactions in health and disease. The recent advances in our knowledge of astrocyte involvement in various neurological disorders raised up several questions about their role and functioning in the central nervous system. From the evidence discussed in this review, we show that histamine importantly influences the main astrocytic activities such as ion homeostasis, energy metabolism, neurotransmitter clearance, neurotrophic activity and immune response. These processes are mediated through at least three histamine receptor subtypes, H1, H2 and H3, expressed on the astrocyte surface. Thus, we recognize histamine as an important player in the modulation of astrocytic functions that deserves further considerations in exploring involvement of astrocytes in neurological disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Envenenamento fatal por baiacu (Tetrodontidae: relato de um caso em criança Fatal poisoning caused by puffer fish (Tetrodontidae: report of a case involving a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro de Lima Santana Neto

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available É descrito um envenenamento pela ingestão de vísceras de um baiacu-pintado (Sphoeroides testudineus por uma criança de dois anos, que apresentou sudorese fria, fraqueza muscular progressiva, parada cardiorrespiratória e morte. São discutidos os riscos do consumo da carne e vísceras de baiacus, fato comum em certas regiões do Brasil.A case of poisoning resulting from ingestion of viscera from a spotted puffer fish (Sphoeroides testudineus by a two-year-old child is described. The child presented cold sweating, progressive muscle weakness, cardiorespiratory arrest and death. The risks of consuming the meat and viscera of puffer fish, which is a common occurrence in certain regions of Brazil, are discussed.

  2. The Epiphytic Genus Gambierdiscus (Dinophyceae in the Kermadec Islands and Zealandia Regions of the Southwestern Pacific and the Associated Risk of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley L. Rhodes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Species in the genus Gambierdiscus produce ciguatoxins (CTXs and/or maitotoxins (MTXs, which may cause ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP in humans if contaminated fish are consumed. Species of Gambierdiscus have previously been isolated from macroalgae at Rangitahua (Raoul Island and North Meyer Islands, northern Kermadec Islands, and the opportunity was taken to sample for Gambierdiscus at the more southerly Macauley Island during an expedition in 2016. Gambierdiscus cells were isolated, cultured, and DNA extracted and sequenced to determine the species present. Bulk cultures were tested for CTXs and MTXs by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. The species isolated were G. australes, which produced MTX-1 (ranging from 3 to 36 pg/cell, and G. polynesiensis, which produced neither MTX-1 nor, unusually, any known CTXs. Isolates of both species produced putative MTX-3. The risk of fish, particularly herbivorous fish, causing CFP in the Zealandia and Kermadec Islands region is real, although in mainland New Zealand the risk is currently low. Both Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa have been recorded in the sub-tropical northern region of New Zealand, and so the risk may increase with warming seas and shift in the distribution of Gambierdiscus species.

  3. Modification and Single-Laboratory Validation of AOAC Official Method 977.13 for Histamine in Seafood to Improve Sample Throughput.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornsdottir-Butler, Kristin; Bencsath, F Aladar; Benner, Ronald A

    2015-01-01

    Histamine is the main causative agent in scombrotoxin fish poisoning, the most frequently reported illness related to fish consumption. The AOAC official method for histamine determination in fish is the fluorometric method AOAC 977.13, which is sensitive and reproducible but somewhat labor intensive and time consuming. We investigated multiple modifications to this method in an attempt to reduce assay time and increase sample throughput while maintaining the performance of the original method. Some of the attempted modifications negatively affected the performance characteristics of the method. However, omitting the heating step during extraction and replacing the cuvette style fluorometer with a microplate reader retained method performance while increasing sample throughput. Therefore, we adopted these modifications and conducted a single-laboratory validation. The recovery, precision (RSD), and LOD of the modified method assessed by the single-laboratory validation ranged from 92 to 105%, 1 to 3%, and 0.2 to 0.5 ppm, respectively, in tuna, mahi-mahi, and Spanish mackerel samples. We conclude that the AOAC 977.13 fluorometric method, modified as described, will improve assay time and sample throughput efficiency cumulatively, as the number of sample units analyzed increases. We anticipate that this modified method could be used by regulatory agencies and other laboratories following successful multilaboratory validation.

  4. Histamine, histamine receptors and antihistamines: new concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado, Paulo Ricardo; Criado, Roberta Fachini Jardim; Maruta, Celina W; Machado Filho, Carlos d'Apparecida

    2010-01-01

    Drugs with antihistamine action are the most commonly prescribed medication in daily dermatologic practice, both to adults and children. This article addresses new concepts of the role of histamine receptors (H1 receptors) and discusses the anti-inflammatory effects of these drugs. Second generation antihistamines differs from first generation because of their high specificity and affinity for peripheral H1-receptors. Second generation antihistamines are also less likely to produce sedation because they have less effect on the central nervous system. Although the efficacy of the various H1-antihistamines in the treatment of allergic patients is similar, even when comparing first- and second-generation drugs, these drugs are still very different in terms of their chemical structure, pharmacology and toxic properties. Consequently, knowledge of their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics is essential for a better medical care, especially that offered to pregnant women, children, the elderly, and patients with comorbidities.

  5. Sensory responses of human skin to synthetic histamine analogues and histamine.

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, M.G.; Greaves, M W

    1980-01-01

    The potential for itch production in human skin of the synthetic analogues of histamine, 2-methyl histamine (an H1-receptor agonist) and 4-methyl histamine and dimaprit (H2-receptor agonists) has been studied in vivo and compared with histamine. Itch thresholds for 2-methyl histamine were consistently much higher than for histamine (P < 0.001). The H1-receptor antagonist chlorpheniramine raised the itch thresholds to 2-methyl histamine and histamine significantly (P < 0.001). Pruritus was not...

  6. Inhibition of in vivo histamine metabolism in rats by foodborne and pharmacologic inhibitors of diamine oxidase, histamine N-methyltransferase, and monoamine oxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, J.Y.; Taylor, S.L.

    1985-11-01

    When (/sup 14/C)histamine was administered orally to rats, an average of 80% of the administered radioactivity was recovered in the urine at the end of 24 hr. About 10% of the total dose was excreted via the feces. Analysis of 4-hr urine samples found imidazoleacetic acid to be the predominant metabolite (60.6%), with N tau-methylimidazoleacetic acid (8.6%), N tau-methylhistamine (7.3%), and N-acetylhistamine (4.5%) to be the minor metabolites. Histamine metabolism was inhibited by simultaneous oral administration of aminoguanidine, isoniazid, quinacrine, cadaverine, putrescine, tyramine, and beta-phenylethylamine. The administration of inhibitors resulted in an increased amount of unmetabolized histamine and a decreased amount of metabolites reaching the urine. Pharmacologic inhibitors were found to be more potent and have a longer duration of action than foodborne ones. The inhibitors could potentiate food poisoning caused by histamine by inhibiting its metabolism.

  7. Storage Time and Temperature Effects on Histamine Production in Tuna Salad Preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Susan; Bjornsdottir-Butler, Kristin; Benner, Ronald

    2015-07-01

    Scombrotoxin fish poisoning (SFP), also known as histamine (Hst) poisoning, has been associated with consumption of scombroid-type fish, including tuna and tuna fish products. Preparation of commercial tuna salad contaminated with Hstproducing bacteria (HPB), combined with time-temperature abuse, can present a food safety hazard. A potential source of HPB is raw ingredients, such as celery and onions. The objectives of this study were to determine whether raw ingredients can be a source of HPB and to ascertain the effects of storage time (up to 4 days or 4 weeks) and temperature (4, 10, 18, 25, 30°C) on growth and Hst production by high-HPB (>1,000 ppm of Hst) in tuna salad preparations. Pantoea-Erwinia, Erwinia persicinus, Erwinia spp., and Enterobacter pyrinus isolated from celery in this study were used to inoculate tuna salad and tuna salad with celery or onion. HPB numbers were 0.7 to 4.3 log most probable number per g higher in the presence of celery or onion versus plain tuna salad (3:1 tuna:mayonnaise). E. pyrinus-inoculated plain tuna salad and tuna salad with celery and onion had >500 ppm of Hst after 2 days at 30°C and 4 days at 25°C. E. pyrinus-inoculated salad with celery and onion had >500 ppm of Hst after 4 days at 18°C and 2 weeks at 10°C. Raw celery can introduce HPB into tuna salad, which can cause SFP if the product is time-temperature abused. Tuna salad products must be refrigerated at ≤4°C to prevent growth and Hst production by the HPB used in this study, to protect consumers from potential SFP.

  8. [Mercury poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensefa-Colas, L; Andujar, P; Descatha, A

    2011-07-01

    Mercury is a widespread heavy metal with potential severe impacts on human health. Exposure conditions to mercury and profile of toxicity among humans depend on the chemical forms of the mercury: elemental or metallic mercury, inorganic or organic mercury compounds. This article aims to reviewing and synthesizing the main knowledge of the mercury toxicity and its organic compounds that clinicians should know. Acute inhalation of metallic or inorganic mercury vapours mainly induces pulmonary diseases, whereas chronic inhalation rather induces neurological or renal disorders (encephalopathy and interstitial or glomerular nephritis). Methylmercury poisonings from intoxicated food occurred among some populations resulting in neurological disorders and developmental troubles for children exposed in utero. Treatment using chelating agents is recommended in case of symptomatic acute mercury intoxication; sometimes it improves the clinical effects of chronic mercury poisoning. Although it is currently rare to encounter situations of severe intoxication, efforts remain necessary to decrease the mercury concentration in the environment and to reduce risk on human health due to low level exposure (dental amalgam, fish contamination by organic mercury compounds…). In case of occupational exposure to mercury and its compounds, some disorders could be compensated in France. Clinicians should work with toxicologists for the diagnosis and treatment of mercury intoxication. Copyright © 2010 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Food poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David T; Dobmeier, Stephen G; Bechtel, Laura K; Holstege, Christopher P

    2007-05-01

    Food poisoning is encountered throughout the world. Many of the toxins responsible for specific food poisoning syndromes are no longer limited to isolated geographic locations. With increased travel and the ease of transporting food products, it is likely that a patient may present to any emergency department with the clinical effects of food poisoning. Recognizing specific food poisoning syndromes allows emergency health care providers not only to initiate appropriate treatment rapidly but also to notify health departments early and thereby prevent further poisoning cases. This article reviews several potential food-borne poisons and describes each agent's mechanism of toxicity, expected clinical presentation, and currently accepted treatment.

  10. Ethanol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002644.htm Ethanol poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Ethanol poisoning is caused by drinking too much alcohol. ...

  11. Alcohol Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... unconscious or can't be awakened is at risk of dying. Alcohol poisoning is an emergency If you suspect that ... a short period of time, the greater your risk of alcohol poisoning. One drink is defined as: 12 ounces ( ...

  12. Poison Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Safety & Prevention Immunizations All Around At Home At Play On ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Poison Prevention Page Content Article Body Post the Poison Help ...

  13. Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH POISONOUS PLANTS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Photo courtesy ... U.S. Department of Agriculture Many native and exotic plants are poisonous to humans when ingested or if ...

  14. Starch poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooking starch poisoning; Laundry starch poisoning ... Cooking and laundry starch are both made from vegetable products, most commonly: Corn Potatoes Rice Wheat Both are usually considered nonpoisonous (nontoxic), but ...

  15. Cologne poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ingredients in cologne can be poisonous: Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) Isopropyl alcohol (isopropanol) There may be other poisonous ... D, Hovda KE. Methanol, ethylene glycol, and other toxic alcohols. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, ...

  16. Methanol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reverse the effect of the poison (fomepizole or ethanol) Tube through the nose to remove remaining poison, ... Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2015:chap 29. White SR. Toxic alcohols. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, ...

  17. Copper poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 75. Holland MG. Pulmonary toxicology. ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 9. Jones AL, Dargan PI. ...

  18. Insecticide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 76. Borron SW. Pyrethins, repellants, ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 77. Cannon RD, Ruha A- ...

  19. Histamine production by Enterobacter aerogenes in chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus at various storage temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu ZOU

    Full Text Available Abstract Growth of Enterobacter aerogenes and accumulation of histamine in chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus were investigated through measuring bacterial count, histidine decarboxylase (HDC activity and histamine content in fish samples stored at various temperatures from 4 to 37 °C. Results showed that bacterial count and HDC activity rapidly increased in chub mackerel inoculated with E. aerogenes at storage temperature above 20 °C and reached the highest values (8.64 log CFU/g and 31.68 U/g at 37 °C. Meanwhile, fish samples stored at 25 and 37 °C for 18 h, formed histamine at above 50 mg/100 g of the potential hazard level. In contrast, bacterial growth and histamine formation were controlled for 36 h by cold storage at low temperature (4 °C. Therefore, strict temperature control was necessary for preservation and processing of chub mackerel in order to assure this marine fish safety.

  20. Histamine production by Enterobacter aerogenes in chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus at various storage temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu ZOU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Growth of Enterobacter aerogenes and accumulation of histamine in chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus were investigated through measuring bacterial count, histidine decarboxylase (HDC activity and histamine content in fish samples stored at various temperatures from 4 to 37 °C. Results showed that bacterial count and HDC activity rapidly increased in chub mackerel inoculated with E. aerogenes at storage temperature above 20 °C and reached the highest values (8.64 log CFU/g and 31.68 U/g at 37 °C. Meanwhile, fish samples stored at 25 and 37 °C for 18 h, formed histamine at above 50 mg/100 g of the potential hazard level. In contrast, bacterial growth and histamine formation were controlled for 36 h by cold storage at low temperature (4 °C. Therefore, strict temperature control was necessary for preservation and processing of chub mackerel in order to assure this marine fish safety.

  1. Comparison of methods for intestinal histamine application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, S; Søondergaard, I; Poulsen, L K

    1991-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate whether introduction of histamine in enterosoluble capsules produced the same amount of urinary histamine metabolites as that found after application of histamine through a duodeno-jejunal tube. Secondly, to examine whether a histamine-restrictive or a fast ...

  2. Comparison of histamine concentration in Katsuwonus pelamis muscles (White and dark and canned from Hormozgan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askary Sary, A. Askary Sary, A.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fish and other marine products are valuable source of protein for human. This research was conducted to determine histamine concentration in fresh and canned muscles (White and dark of Katsuwonus pelamis. For this purpose 9 samples of Katsuwonus pelamis and 15 samples of canned fish were prepared. After biometric evaluations, dark and light muscles were separated. Histamine content was measured with Thin Layer Chromatography method. The results showed that the average content of histamine in dark and white muscles were 154.3±52.46 and 124.4±47.05 µg/g, respectively. Moreover, the average concentration of histamine in canned was 160.52±87.59 µg/g. Although the histamine concentration between white muscle and canned fish was statistically significant, results revealed no significant difference between dark muscles with canned samples. Histamine cconcentration in all samples was lower than FDA standard (20 mg/100g, therefore Katsuwonus pelamis and canned fish would not cause allergic reactions in the consumers.

  3. Histamine 50-Skin-Prick Test: A Tool to Diagnose Histamine Intolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Lukas Kofler; Hanno Ulmer; Heinz Kofler

    2011-01-01

    Background. Histamine intolerance results from an imbalance between histamine intake and degradation. In healthy persons, dietary histamine can be sufficiently metabolized by amine oxidases, whereas persons with low amine oxidase activity are at risk of histamine toxicity. Diamine oxidase (DAO) is the key enzyme in degradation. Histamine elicits a wide range of effects. Histamine intolerance displays symptoms, such as rhinitis, headache, gastrointestinal symptoms, palpitations, urticaria and ...

  4. In vivo histamine optical nanosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Kevin J; Clark, Heather A

    2012-01-01

    In this communication we discuss the development of ionophore based nanosensors for the detection and monitoring of histamine levels in vivo. This approach is based on the use of an amine-reactive, broad spectrum ionophore which is capable of recognizing and binding to histamine. We pair this ionophore with our already established nanosensor platform, and demonstrate in vitro and in vivo monitoring of histamine levels. This approach enables capturing rapid kinetics of histamine after injection, which are more difficult to measure with standard approaches such as blood sampling, especially on small research models. The coupling together of in vivo nanosensors with ionophores such as nonactin provide a way to generate nanosensors for novel targets without the difficult process of designing and synthesizing novel ionophores.

  5. Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-16

    enterotoxemia and other bacterial enterotoxemias due to contamination of food by preformed toxins, botulism, mushroom poisoning and "other poisons of...Preformed Toxins of Bacterial Origin Enterotoxemia Protein toxins produced during the growth of Staphylococcal aureus in food cause the most common...NUMBER 2. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (and Subttl*e) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Food Poisoning AD A 1 2 A- S

  6. Rapid screening and multi-toxin profile confirmation of tetrodotoxins and analogues in human body fluids derived from a puffer fish poisoning incident in New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambla-Alegre, Maria; Leonardo, Sandra; Barguil, Yann; Flores, Cintia; Caixach, Josep; Campbell, Katrina; Elliott, Christopher T; Maillaud, Claude; Boundy, Michael J; Harwood, D Tim; Campàs, Mònica; Diogène, Jorge

    2018-02-01

    In August 2014, a puffer fish poisoning incidence resulting in one fatality was reported in New Caledonia. Although tetrodotoxin (TTX) intoxication was established from the patients' signs and symptoms, the determination of TTX in the patient's urine, serum or plasma is essential to confirm the clinical diagnosis. To provide a simple cost-effective rapid screening tool for clinical analysis, a maleimide-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (mELISA) adapted for the determination of TTX contents in human body fluids was assessed. The mELISA was applied to the analysis of urine samples from two patients and a response for the presence of TTX and/or structurally similar analogues was detected in all samples. The analysis by LC-MS/MS confirmed the presence of TTX but also TTX analogues (4-epiTTX, 4,9-anhydroTTX and 5,6,11-trideoxyTTX) in the urine. A change in the multi-toxin profile in the urine based on time following consumption was observed. LC-MS/MS analysis of serum and plasma samples also revealed the presence of TTX (32.9 ng/mL) and 5,6,11-trideoxyTTX (374.6 ng/mL) in the post-mortem plasma. The results provide for the first time the TTX multi-toxin profile of human samples from a puffer fish intoxication and clearly demonstrate the implication of TTX as the causative agent of the reported intoxication case. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ability of certain plant extracts traditionally used to treat ciguatera fish poisoning to inhibit nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar-Roiné, Shilpa; Matsui, Mariko; Reybier, Karine; Darius, Hélène Taiana; Chinain, Mireille; Pauillac, Serge; Laurent, Dominique

    2009-06-25

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is an intertropical ichthyosarcotoxism that manifests in complex assortment of symptoms in humans. Ciguatoxins (CTXs), issued from Gambierdicus spp., are causative agents of this intoxication. We have recently demonstrated that a Pacific CTX (P-CTX-1B) strongly modulated iNOS expression, leading to overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. NO produced in large amounts is involved in a wide range of pathophysiological processes. Many traditional remedies are commonly used in the Pacific against CFP. In this context, bioassay-guided screening was carried out to study NO inhibiting capacity of 28 selected plant extracts. We prepared aqueous extracts of plants used in New Caledonia in the treatment of CFP and screened their NO inhibitory activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Among 28 plants tested, Euphorbia hirta (Euphorbiaceae), Syzygium malaccense (Myrtaceae), Schinus terebenthifolius (Anacardiaceae), Punica granatum (Punicaceae), Cerbera manghas (Apocynaceae), Vitex trifolia (Labiateae) and Ximenia americana (Olacaceae) showed inhibitory activity, validating their use as traditional remedies in CFP, and the potential for use in the treatment of conditions accompanied by NO overproduction. These plants are promising candidates for further screening of their active compounds through activity-guided fractionation.

  8. Histamine-producing Lactobacillus parabuchneri strains isolated from grated cheese can form biofilms on stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Maria; Del Rio, Beatriz; Sanchez-Llana, Esther; Ladero, Victor; Redruello, Begoña; Fernández, María; Martin, M Cruz; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2016-10-01

    The consumption of food containing large amounts of histamine can lead to histamine poisoning. Cheese is one of the most frequently involved foods. Histamine, one of the biogenic amines (BAs) exhibiting the highest safety risk, accumulates in food contaminated by microorganisms with histidine decarboxylase activity. The origin of these microorganisms may be very diverse with contamination likely occurring during post-ripening processing, but the microorganisms involved during this manufacturing step have never been identified. The present work reports the isolation of 21 histamine-producing Lactobacillus parabuchneri strains from a histamine-containing grated cheese. PCR revealed that every isolate carried the histidine decarboxylase gene (hdcA). Eight lineages were identified based on the results of genome PFGE restriction analysis plus endonuclease restriction profile analysis of the carried plasmids. Members of all lineages were able to form biofilms on polystyrene and stainless steel surfaces. L. parabuchneri is therefore an undesirable species in the dairy industry; the biofilms it can produce on food processing equipment represent a reservoir of histamine-producing bacteria and thus a source of contamination of post-ripening-processed cheeses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogada, Darcy L

    2014-08-01

    Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  10. Mushroom poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erguven, M; Yilmaz, O; Deveci, M; Aksu, N; Dursun, F; Pelit, M; Cebeci, N

    2007-09-01

    We aimed to review characteristics of mushrooms and mushroom poisoning and compare clinical picture, laboratory data, treatment modalities and prognostic factors in children with amanita intoxication and non-amanita mushroom poisoning. We analyzed 39 pediatric patients through 1994-2004, retrospectively from the patient files and evaluated the patients in two groups as patients with amanita intoxication and patients with non-amanita mushroom poisoning. All of the cases were admitted to the hospital in autumn. Twenty three (59%) of the patients were female and 16 (41%) were male. Mean age of the patients was 8.05 +/- 2.10 years. Amanita phalloides toxin was detected in the serum in 8 patients. Eleven (28%) of the cases were strongly suggestive of amanita poisoning but alpha amanitin level could not be studied. The average time of appearance of symptoms after mushroom consumption, duration of symptoms, hospital stay, serum AST, ALT, PT and creatinine levels were significantly higher in patients with amanita poisoning (pamanita poisoning (30%), totally 7 patients died of hepatic coma. The average time of admission to hospital, mean AST, ALT, creatinine and PT values at 3rd day were significantly higher in patients who died of hepatic coma. Prognosis was better in case of early admittance to hospital in patients with amanita poisoning. Early diagnosis and treatment in mushroom poisoning can be life saving. Public awareness is very important in prevention of intoxication as well as encouraging early admission to hospitals.

  11. Histamine determination in Koopeh cheese in West-Azerbaijan province by HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M Razavi Rohani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Histamine as a primary heterocyclic amine has an important role in human physiology particularly in nervous system as a chemical mediator and neurotransmitter that was found in many foods such as cheese, milk, meat, fish, beer, wine and vegetables. Increasing of histamine concentration in foods is often related to low quality of raw materials, contamination, improper food processing or storage. Therefore, the amount of histamine content is used as a good indicator of hygienic quality in foods and the degree of freshness or spoilage of foods. Histamine can cause symptoms in sensitive consumers such as: redness of face, sweating, palpitations, headache, oral burning and bright red rashes. Cheese provides an ideal environment for the production of proteolytic releases of free amino acids and biogenic amines such as histamine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of histamine in Koopeh cheese as one of the most popular types of traditional cheeses made from raw sheep milk or sometimes cow milk in West-Azerbaijan province, Iran. Experiments conducted by HPLC method on 70 samples of traditional Koopeh cheese revealed that the least amount of histamine was 2.43 ppm and the highest value was estimated at 1102.24 ppm. The average amount of histamine in cheese samples was 304.23 ± 150.89 ppm. Histamine production in cheese and other foods is based on the presence and growth of decarboxylase-positive microorganisms. Therefore, providing guidelines that reduce the population of these types of microorganisms will be effective on decreasing the amount of biogenic amines and histamine in particular.

  12. Histamine and mast cell activator compound 48/80 are safe but inefficient systemic adjuvants for gilthead seabream vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez González, N E; Cabas, I; Montero, J; García Alcázar, A; Mulero, V; García Ayala, A

    2017-07-01

    Histamine has a key role in the regulation of inflammatory and innate immune responses in vertebrates. Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.), a marine hermaphrodite teleost of great commercial value, was the first fish species shown to possess histamine-containing mast cells (MCs) at mucosal tissues. MCs are highly abundant in the peritoneal exudate of gilthead seabream and compound 48/80 (Co 48/80), often used to promote MC activation and histamine release, is able to promote histamine release from gilthead seabream MCs in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of histamine and Co 48/80 on the immune responses of gilthead seabream. For this purpose, histamine and Co 48/80 were intraperitoneally injected alone or combined with 109 heat-killed Vibrio anguillarum cells and their effects on head kidney and peritoneal exudate were analyzed. The results indicated that although histamine and Co 48/80 were both able to alter the percentage of peritoneal exudate and head kidney immune cell types, only Co 48/80 increased reactive oxygen species production by peritoneal leukocytes. In addition, histamine, but not Co 48/80, was able to slightly impair the humoral adaptive immune response, i.e. production of specific IgM to V. anguillarum. Notably, both histamine and Co 48/80 reduced the expression of the gene encoding histamine receptor H2 in peritoneal exudate leukocytes. These results show for the first time in fish that although systemic administration of histamine and Co 48/80 is safe, neither compound can be regarded as an efficient adjuvant for gilthead seabream vaccination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Histamine 2 blocker potentiates the effects of histamine 1 blocker in suppressing histamine-induced wheal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanya N

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Histamine is responsible for the wheal and flare reaction in various allergic conditions. Classical antihistamines are the drugs which block the H 1 receptors and are widely used in various allergic conditions, whereas H 2 blockers are mainly used for acid peptic disease. Although H 1 receptor-mediated actions of histamine are primarily responsible for vasodilatation, vasopermeability, and itching, it has been observed that combined blocking of both H 1 and H 2 receptors may provide better relief. Aim: To compare the efficacy of levocetirizine (H 1 blocker versus levocetirizine and ranitidine (H 2 blocker in suppressing histamine-induced wheal. Methods: Fifteen volunteers were given a single dose of levocetirizine 5 mg on day 1 and a single dose of levocetirizine 5 mg with ranitidine 150 mg twice a day on day 7. A pretest was performed by intradermal histamine prick test. After administration of the drugs, the prick test was repeated at 1 hour, 2, 3, 6, and 24 hours, and the size of the wheal measured and statistically analyzed. Results: At 1 hour, there was no statistically significant difference in the wheal size between levocetirizine alone and the combination of levocetirizine and ranitidine. Levocetirizine with ranitidine resulted in statistically significant reduction of wheal size at 2, 3, 6, and 24 hours when compared with levocetirizine alone. Conclusion: H2 blocker potentiates the effects of an H1 blocker in suppressing histamine-induced wheal.

  14. Menthol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menthol is used to add peppermint flavor to candy and other products. It is also used in certain skin lotions and ointments. This article discusses menthol poisoning from swallowing pure menthol. This article is ...

  15. Chlorine poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorine is a chemical that prevents bacteria from growing. Chlorine poisoning occurs when someone swallows or breathes in (inhales) chlorine. This article is for information only. Do NOT use it to ...

  16. Acetone poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002480.htm Acetone poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acetone is a chemical used in many household products. ...

  17. Paradichlorobenzene poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... amounts are usually swallowed. References Holland MG. Occupational toxicology. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. ... and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Pesticides Read more Poisoning Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine ...

  18. Gasoline poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002806.htm Gasoline poisoning To use the sharing features on this ... This article discusses the harmful effects from swallowing gasoline or breathing in its fumes. This article is ...

  19. Detergent poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acids, including benzalkonium chloride Simple soap Symptoms Detergent poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. BLOOD Severe change in acid level of blood (pH balance), which leads to damage in all of the body organs ...

  20. Refrigerant poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Severe abdominal pain Vomiting Burns of the food pipe (esophagus) Vomiting blood Blood in the stool HEART ... effect of the poison Washing of the skin (irrigation), perhaps every few hours for several days Skin ...

  1. Yew poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... poison is in most parts of the yew plant, but the highest amount is in the seeds. ... or irregular or fast heartbeat Blue-colored lips Breathing difficulty ... Muscle weakness Nausea and vomiting Stomach pain Diarrhea

  2. Muscle relaxants and histamine release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, J

    1995-01-01

    Many anaesthetic drugs and adjuvants can cause the release of histamine by chemical (anaphylactoid) or immunologic (anaphylactic) mechanisms. While both types of reactions can be clinically indistinguishable, they are mechanistically different. In anaphylactoid reactions, only preformed mediators are released, of which histamine may be the most clinically important. In true immunologic reactions, mast cell degranulation occurs, and many vasoactive substances (including histamine) are released. Clinical signs and symptoms of both classes of reactions include hypotension (most common), tachycardia, bronchospasm, or cutaneous manifestations. Anaphylactoid reactions may occur commonly under anaesthesia in response to many drugs, including induction agents, some opiates, plasma expanders, and curariform relaxants. Anaphylactic reactions are far less common than anaphylactoid reactions, but they nevertheless represent more than half of the life-threatening reactions that occur in anaesthetic practice. Muscle relaxants are the most frequently implicated class of drugs; suxamethonium is the most common agent implicated in anaphylactic reactions during anaesthesia, but even drugs without apparent chemical histamine release (i.e., vecuronium) are frequently implicated in anaphylactic reactions.

  3. Linking ciguatera poisoning to spatial ecology of fish: a novel approach to examining the distribution of biotoxin levels in the great barracuda by combining non-lethal blood sampling and biotelemetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Amanda C; Dechraoui Bottein, Marie-Yasmine; Danylchuk, Andy J; Ramsdell, John S; Cooke, Steven J

    2012-06-15

    Ciguatera in humans is typically caused by the consumption of reef fish that have accumulated Ciguatoxins (CTXs) in their flesh. Over a six month period, we captured 38 wild adult great barracuda (Sphyraena barracuda), a species commonly associated with ciguatera in The Bahamas. We sampled three tissues (i.e., muscle, liver, and blood) and analysed them for the presence of ciguatoxins using a functional in vitro N2A bioassay. Detectable concentrations of ciguatoxins found in the three tissue types ranged from 2.51 to 211.74pg C-CTX-1 equivalents/g. Blood and liver toxin concentrations were positively correlated (ρ=0.86, P=0.003), indicating that, for the first time, blood sampling provides a non-lethal method of detecting ciguatoxin in wild fish. Non-lethal blood sampling also presents opportunities to couple this approach with biotelemetry and biologging techniques that enable the study of fish distribution and movement. To demonstrate the potential for linking ciguatoxin occurrence with barracuda spatial ecology, we also present a proof-of-concept case study where blood samples were obtained from 20 fish before releasing them with acoustic transmitters and tracking them in the coastal waters using a fixed acoustic telemetry array covering 44km(2). Fish that tested positive for CTX may have smaller home ranges than non-toxic fish (median distance travelled, U=2.21, P=0.03). Results presented from this study may help identify high risk areas and source-sink dynamics of toxins, potentially reducing the incidence and human health risk of ciguatera fish poisoning. Moreover, development of the non-lethal sampling approach and measurement of ciguatera from blood provide future opportunities to understand the mechanistic relationship between toxins and the spatial ecology of a broad range of marine fish species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Inhibitory effect of bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria against histamine-forming bacteria isolated from Myeolchi-jeot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Seo Lim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objectives of this study were to identify the histamine-forming bacteria and bacteriocin- producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB isolated from Myeolchi-jeot according to sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, to evaluate the inhibitory effects of the bacteriocin on the growth and histamine accumulation of histamine-forming bacteria, and to assess the physico-chemical properties of the bacteriocin. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, histamine-forming bacteria were identified as Bacillus licheniformis MCH01, Serratia marcescens MCH02, Staphylococcus xylosus MCH03, Aeromonas hydrophila MCH04, and Morganella morganii MCH05. The five LAB strains identified as Pediococcus acidilactici MCL11, Leuconostoc mesenteroides MCL12, Enterococcus faecium MCL13, Lactobacillus sakei MCL14, and Lactobacillus acidophilus MCL15 were found to produce an antibacterial compound with inhibitory activity against the tested histamine-producing bacteria. The inhibitory activity of these bacteriocins obtained from the five LAB remained stable after incubation at pH 4.0–8.0 and heating for 10 min at 80 °C; however, the bacteriocin activity was destroyed after treatment with papain, pepsin, proteinase K, α-chymotrypsin, or trypsin. Meanwhile, these bacteriocins produced by the tested LAB strains also exhibited histamine-degradation ability. Therefore, these antimicrobial substances may play a role in inhibiting histamine formation in the fermented fish products and preventing seafood-related food-borne disease caused by bacterially generated histamine.

  5. A ROIC for Mn(TPP)Cl-DOP-THF-Polyhema PVC membrane modified n-channel Si3N4 ISFET sensitive to histamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samah, N L M A; Lee, Khuan Y; Sulaiman, S A; Jarmin, R

    2017-07-01

    Intolerance of histamine could lead to scombroid poisoning with fatal consequences. Current detection methods for histamine are wet laboratory techniques which employ expensive equipment that depends on skills of seasoned technicians and produces delayed test analysis result. Previous works from our group has established that ISFETs can be adapted for detecting histamine with the use of a novel membrane. However, work to integrate ISFETs with a readout interfacing circuit (ROIC) circuit to display the histamine concentration has not been reported so far. This paper concerns the development of a ROIC specifically to integrate with a Mn(TPP)Cl-DOP-THF-Polyhema PVC membrane modified n-channel Si3N4 ISFET to display the histamine concentration. It embodies the design of constant voltage constant current (CVCC) circuit, amplification circuit and micro-controller based display circuit. A DC millivolt source is used to substitute the membrane modified ISFET as preliminary work. Input is histamine concentration corresponding to the safety level designated by the Food and Drugs Administration (FDA). Results show the CVCC circuit makes the output follows the input and keeps VDS constant. The amplification circuit amplifies the output from the CVCC circuit to the range 2.406-4.888V to integrate with the microcontroller, which is programmed to classify and display the histamine safety level and its corresponding voltage on a LCD panel. The ROIC could be used to produce direct output voltages corresponding to histamine concentrations, for in-situ applications.

  6. Cysteinyl leukotrienes mediate histamine hypersensitivity ex vivo by increasing histamine receptor numbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pynaert, G.; Grooten, J.; van Deventer, S. J.; Peppelenbosch, M. P.

    1999-01-01

    Hyperresponsiveness to histamine is a key feature of a variety of pathological conditions, including bronchial asthma, food allergy, colitis ulcerosa, and topical allergic disorders. Cells isolated from hyperresponsive individuals do not display exaggerated histamine responses ex vivo and thus the

  7. Histamine and Tyramine in Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    CATALOG NUMBER AFIT/CI/NR 85-62T ___ _ 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Histamine and Tyramine in Food THESIS /D/ -y)j49 S...Tyramine from Theobroma Cacoa. Phytochemistry . 16:1602. (78) Udenfriend, S., W. Lovenberg and A. Sjoerdsma. 1959. Physiologically Active Amines in Common...Polyphenols Isolated from the Leaves. Phytochemistry , 6:417-422. (89) Wheaton, T. A. and I. Stewart. 1970. The Distribution of Tyramine, N-methyltyrauine

  8. Histaminuria from histamine-rich foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, J M

    1983-11-01

    Using a highly specific and sensitive assay, the histamine content of foodstuffs and the effect of ingesting these foodstuffs on urinary histamine excretion were measured. Certain vegetables (spinach, eggplant), cheeses (Parmesan, blue, Roquefort), and red wines (Chianti and Burgundy) had a high content of histamine. Although only 0.21% of the ingested histamine was excreted unchanged in the urine, the histamine content of some of the foods was so high (Parmesan cheese, 185 micrograms/g; spinach, 60 micrograms/g; baked eggplant, 26 micrograms/g) that they caused histaminuria. Patients collecting urine for analysis for 24-hour histamine excretion for diagnosis of systemic mastocytosis or carcinoid syndrome should avoid intake of these foods and beverages on the day of the urine collection.

  9. Effects of olopatadine hydrochloride, a histamine h(1) receptor antagonist, on histamine-induced skin responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Takashi; Ishii, Norito; Hamada, Takahiro; Dainichi, Teruki; Karashima, Tadashi; Nakama, Takekuni; Yasumoto, Shinichiro

    2010-01-01

    Effects of olopatadine hydrochloride, a histamine H(1) receptor antagonist, on histamine-induced skin responses were evaluated in 10 healthy subjects in comparison with placebo, fexofenadine hydrochloride, and bepotastine besilate. Olopatadine significantly suppressed histamine-induced wheal, flare, and itch, starting 30 minutes after oral administration. Olopatadine was more effective than fexofenadine and bepotastine. None of the drugs studied impaired performance of word processing tasks. These results suggest that olopatadine can suppress skin symptoms caused by histamine soon after administration.

  10. Effects of Olopatadine Hydrochloride, a Histamine H1 Receptor Antagonist, on Histamine-Induced Skin Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Takashi; Ishii, Norito; Hamada, Takahiro; Dainichi, Teruki; Karashima, Tadashi; Nakama, Takekuni; Yasumoto, Shinichiro

    2010-01-01

    Effects of olopatadine hydrochloride, a histamine H1 receptor antagonist, on histamine-induced skin responses were evaluated in 10 healthy subjects in comparison with placebo, fexofenadine hydrochloride, and bepotastine besilate. Olopatadine significantly suppressed histamine-induced wheal, flare, and itch, starting 30 minutes after oral administration. Olopatadine was more effective than fexofenadine and bepotastine. None of the drugs studied impaired performance of word processing tasks. These results suggest that olopatadine can suppress skin symptoms caused by histamine soon after administration. PMID:20886023

  11. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) attenuates in vitro mast cell and peripheral blood mononucleocyte cell histamine release induced by N-acetylcysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson, James; Thompson, John Paul

    2010-02-01

    The treatment of acute paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is frequently complicated by an anaphylactoid reaction to the antidote. The mechanism that underlies this reaction is unclear. We used the human mast cell line 1 (HMC-1) and human peripheral blood mononucleocytes (PBMCs) to investigate the effects of NAC and paracetamol on histamine secretion in vitro. HMC-1 and human PBMCs were incubated in the presence of increasing concentrations of NAC +/- paracetamol. Cell viability was determined by the Trypan Blue Assay, and histamine secretion was measured by ELISA. NAC was toxic to HMC-1 cells at 100 mg/mL and to PBMCs at 67 mg/mL. NAC increased HMC-1 and PBMC histamine secretion at concentrations of NAC from 20 to 50 mg/mL and 2.5 to 100 mg/mL, respectively. NAC-induced histamine secretion by both cell types was reduced by co-incubation with 2.5 mg/mL of paracetamol. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is capable of modifying histamine secretion in vitro. This may explain the clinical observation of a lower incidence of adverse reactions to NAC in vivo when higher concentrations of paracetamol are present than when paracetamol concentrations are low. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) attenuates in vitro mast cell and PBMC cell histamine release induced by NAC.

  12. Histamine regulates murine primary dendritic cell functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Heiko; Neumann, Detlef; Kloth, Christina

    2016-10-01

    The modulation of antigen uptake and activation of dendritic cells (DCs) by histamine may function as a regulator of inflammation. Therefore, we sought to determine the impact of histamine on antigen uptake by and activation of murine DCs. DCs from spleen and lung were either identified by flow cytometry or were immunomagnetically enriched. Cells were stimulated with histamine, and the regulation of MHC-II and co-stimulatory molecule expression (CD80, CD86, and ICOS-L) and antigen uptake were quantified by flow cytometry. Individual contributions of the histamine receptor subtypes were determined by using the antagonists mepyramine (histamine H1-receptor: H1R), famotidine (H2R), and JNJ 7777120 (H4R). Histamine accelerated the uptake of soluble antigen via the H1R, H2R, and H4R in splenic DCs. Co-stimulatory molecule expression was enhanced already by enrichment procedures, thus, the analyses were performed in unseparated cell populations. Histamine enhanced the expression of CD86 and ICOS-L while expression of CD80 was unaffected. Antagonism at H1R, H2R, and H4R and at H1R and H4R reduced the histamine-induced enhanced expression of CD86 and ICOS-L, respectively. Histamine contributes to the regulation of the immunological synapse by stimulation of antigen uptake and activation of DCs via H1R, H2R, and H4R.

  13. NWHL Final Report 1983-84 Lead Poisoning Monitoring Program Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Lead poisoning was demonstrated to occur in Canada geese using Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge during the 1983-84 Lead Poisoning Monitoring Program. Necropsies...

  14. Persistent Histamine Excitation of Glutamatergic Preoptic Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabarean, Iustin V.

    2012-01-01

    Thermoregulatory neurons of the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) represent a target at which histamine modulates body temperature. The mechanism by which histamine excites a population of MnPO neurons is not known. In this study it was found that histamine activated a cationic inward current and increased the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, actions that had a transient component as well as a sustained one that lasted for tens of minutes after removal of the agonist. The sustained component was blocked by TRPC channel blockers. Single-cell reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed expression of TRPC1, TRPC5 and TRPC7 subunits in neurons excited by histamine. These studies also established the presence of transcripts for the glutamatergic marker Vglut2 and for the H1 histamine receptor in neurons excited by histamine. Intracellular application of antibodies directed against cytoplasmic sites of the TRPC1 or TRPC5 channel subunits decreased the histamine-induced inward current. The persistent inward current and elevation in intracellular Ca2+ concentration could be reversed by activating the PKA pathway. This data reveal a novel mechanism by which histamine induces persistent excitation and sustained intracellular Ca2+ elevation in glutamatergic MnPO neurons. PMID:23082195

  15. Fluorometric determination of histamine in cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, T L; Staruszkiewicz, W F

    1978-09-01

    Thirty-one samples of cheese obtained from retail outlets were analyzed for histamine, using an official AOAC fluorometric method. The types of cheese analyzed and the ranges of histamine found were: colby, 0.3--2.8; camembert, 0.4--4.2; cheddar, 1.2--5.8; gouda, 1.3--2.4; provolone, 2.0--23.5; roquefort, 1.0--16.8; mozzarella 1.6--5.0; and swiss, 0.4--250 mg histamine/100 g. Ten of the 12 samples of swiss cheese contained less than 16 mg histamine/100 g. The remaining 2 samples which contained 116 and 250 mg histamine/100 g were judged organoleptically to be of poor quality. An investigation of one processing facility showed that the production of histamine in swiss cheese may have been a result of a hydrogen peroxide/low temperature treatment of the milk supply. Recovery of histamine added to methanol extracts of cheese ranged from 93 to 105%. Histamine content was confirmed by high pressure liquid chromatographic analysis of the methanol extracts.

  16. Plastic casting resin poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epoxy poisoning; Resin poisoning ... Epoxy and resin can be poisonous if they are swallowed or their fumes are breathed in. ... Plastic casting resins are found in various plastic casting resin products.

  17. Poison Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1222 immediately. Name State American Association of Poison Control Centers Address AAPCC Central Office NOT A POISON ... not for emergency use. Arkansas ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center Address 1717 S. Philo Road, Suite 36 Urbana, ...

  18. Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIOSH NIOSH Fast Facts: Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants Language: English Español (Spanish) Kreyol Haitien (Hatian Creole) ... outdoors is at risk of exposure to poisonous plants, such as poison ivy, poison oak, and poison ...

  19. Symptoms of pseudoallergy and histamine metabolism disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kacik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Histamine intolerance is a poorly investigated type of hypersensitivity responsible for a number of often serious symptoms, erroneously interpreted as food allergy. Endogenous histamine originates from the histidine amino acid with the help of the histidine decarboxylase enzyme. Apart from the endogenous production histamine may be supplied to the body with food. Slow-maturing and fermenting products are characterised by particularly high levels of histamine. Some food products stimulate excessive release of histamine from stores in the body as well as containing significant amounts of it. These products include spices, herbs, dried fruits and a large group of food additives. Histamine intolerance is considered to be a condition in which the amount of histamine in the body exceeds its tolerance threshold, which leads to the development of adverse reactions. These reactions primarily include skin symptoms (pruritus, urticaria, skin reddening, acne lesions, angioedema, respiratory symptoms (nasal obstruction and watery discharge, sneezing, coughing, wheezing, gastrointestinal symptoms (abdominal cramps, diarrhoea, bloating, nervous system symptoms (headaches, fatigue, irritability, anxiety, panic attacks, cardiovascular symptoms (tachycardia, hypotension, chest pain, primary dysmenorrhoea and many more. It is estimated that nearly 1% of society is susceptible to histamine intolerance. The diagnosis of this disorder is based on observing at least two characteristic symptoms and their disappearance or improvement following histamine-free diet. A new, although not easily accessible diagnostic tool is assay for serum diamine oxidase activity, which correlates to a significant extent with symptoms of histamine intolerance. Normal activity of diamine oxidase is considered to be the amount of >80 HDU/mL, decreased activity – 40–80 HDU/mL and severely decreased activity – <40 HDU/mL. Currently the option of diamine oxidase supplementation is

  20. Determination of histamine in Iranian cheese using enzyme-linked ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histamine is a simple chemical substance created during processing of the amine acid histidine. Histamine is also an agent in inflammation and the increased presence of histamine causes allergic reaction. Histamine may play a role in the increased prevalence of food intolerances. The objective of this study was to ...

  1. Analytical Methods for the Quantification of Histamine and Histamine Metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bähre, Heike; Kaever, Volkhard

    2017-01-01

    The endogenous metabolite histamine (HA) is synthesized in various mammalian cells but can also be ingested from exogenous sources. It is involved in a plethora of physiological and pathophysiological processes. So far, four different HA receptors (H1R-H4R) have been described and numerous HAR antagonists have been developed. Contemporary investigations regarding the various roles of HA and its main metabolites have been hampered by the lack of highly specific and sensitive analytic methods for all of these analytes. Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is the method of choice for identification and sensitive quantification of many low-molecular weight endogenous metabolites. In this chapter, different methodological aspects of HA quantification as well as recommendations for LC-MS/MS methods suitable for analysis of HA and its main metabolites are summarized.

  2. Histamine Release from Mast Cells and Basophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borriello, Francesco; Iannone, Raffaella; Marone, Gianni

    2017-01-01

    Mast cells and basophils represent the most relevant source of histamine in the immune system. Histamine is stored in cytoplasmic granules along with other amines (e.g., serotonin), proteases, proteoglycans, cytokines/chemokines, and angiogenic factors and rapidly released upon triggering with a variety of stimuli. Moreover, mast cell and basophil histamine release is regulated by several activating and inhibitory receptors. The engagement of different receptors can trigger different modalities of histamine release and degranulation. Histamine released from mast cells and basophils exerts its biological activities by activating four G protein-coupled receptors, namely H1R, H2R, H3R (expressed mainly in the brain), and the recently identified H4R. While H1R and H2R activation accounts mainly for some mast cell- and basophil-mediated allergic disorders, the selective expression of H4R on immune cells is uncovering new roles for histamine (possibly derived from mast cells and basophils) in allergic, inflammatory, and autoimmune disorders. Thus, the in-depth knowledge of mast cell and basophil histamine release and its biologic effects is poised to uncover new therapeutic avenues for a wide spectrum of disorders.

  3. The effect of vacuum packaging on histamine changes of milkfish sticks at various storage temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Feng Kung

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of polyethylene packaging (PEP (in air and vacuum packaging (VP on the histamine related quality of milkfish sticks stored at different temperatures (−20°C, 4°C, 15°C, and 25°C were studied. The results showed that the aerobic plate count (APC, pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN, and histamine contents increased as storage time increased when the PEP and VP samples were stored at 25°C. At below 15°C, the APC, TVBN, pH, and histamine levels in PEP and VP samples were retarded, but the VP samples had considerably lower levels of APC, TVBN, and histamine than PEP samples. Once the frozen fish samples stored at −20°C for 2 months were thawed and stored at 25°C, VP retarded the increase of histamine in milkfish sticks as compared to PEP. In summary, this result suggested the milkfish sticks packed with VP and stored below 4°C could prevent deterioration of product quality and extend shelf-life.

  4. The effect of vacuum packaging on histamine changes of milkfish sticks at various storage temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Hsien-Feng; Lee, Yi-Chen; Lin, Chiang-Wei; Huang, Yu-Ru; Cheng, Chao-An; Lin, Chia-Min; Tsai, Yung-Hsiang

    2017-10-01

    The effects of polyethylene packaging (PEP) (in air) and vacuum packaging (VP) on the histamine related quality of milkfish sticks stored at different temperatures (-20°C, 4°C, 15°C, and 25°C) were studied. The results showed that the aerobic plate count (APC), pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN), and histamine contents increased as storage time increased when the PEP and VP samples were stored at 25°C. At below 15°C, the APC, TVBN, pH, and histamine levels in PEP and VP samples were retarded, but the VP samples had considerably lower levels of APC, TVBN, and histamine than PEP samples. Once the frozen fish samples stored at -20°C for 2 months were thawed and stored at 25°C, VP retarded the increase of histamine in milkfish sticks as compared to PEP. In summary, this result suggested the milkfish sticks packed with VP and stored below 4°C could prevent deterioration of product quality and extend shelf-life. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Effects of Olopatadine Hydrochloride, a Histamine H 1 Receptor Antagonist, on Histamine-Induced Skin Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi Hashimoto; Norito Ishii; Takahiro Hamada; Teruki Dainichi; Tadashi Karashima; Takekuni Nakama; Shinichiro Yasumoto

    2010-01-01

    Effects of olopatadine hydrochloride, a histamine H1 receptor antagonist, on histamine-induced skin responses were evaluated in 10 healthy subjects in comparison with placebo, fexofenadine hydrochloride, and bepotastine besilate. Olopatadine significantly suppressed histamine-induced wheal, flare, and itch, starting 30 minutes after oral administration. Olopatadine was more effective than fexofenadine and bepotastine. None of the drugs studied impaired performance of word processing tasks. Th...

  6. Aconite poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2009-04-01

    Aconitine and related alkaloids found in the Aconitum species are highly toxic cardiotoxins and neurotoxins. The wild plant (especially the roots and root tubers) is extremely toxic. Severe aconite poisoning can occur after accidental ingestion of the wild plant or consumption of an herbal decoction made from aconite roots. In traditional Chinese medicine, aconite roots are used only after processing to reduce the toxic alkaloid content. Soaking and boiling during processing or decoction preparation will hydrolyze aconite alkaloids into less toxic and non-toxic derivatives. However, the use of a larger than recommended dose and inadequate processing increases the risk of poisoning. A Medline search (1963-February 2009) was conducted. Key articles with information on the use of aconite roots in traditional medicine, active (toxic) ingredients, mechanisms of toxicity, toxicokinetics of Aconitum alkaloids, and clinical features and management of aconite poisoning were reviewed. The cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity of aconitine and related alkaloids are due to their actions on the voltage-sensitive sodium channels of the cell membranes of excitable tissues, including the myocardium, nerves, and muscles. Aconitine and mesaconitine bind with high affinity to the open state of the voltage-sensitive sodium channels at site 2, thereby causing a persistent activation of the sodium channels, which become refractory to excitation. The electrophysiological mechanism of arrhythmia induction is triggered activity due to delayed after-depolarization and early after-depolarization. The arrhythmogenic properties of aconitine are in part due to its cholinolytic (anticholinergic) effects mediated by the vagus nerve. Aconitine has a positive inotropic effect by prolonging sodium influx during the action potential. It has hypotensive and bradycardic actions due to activation of the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus. Through its action on voltage-sensitive sodium channels in the

  7. Histamine production by Raoultella ornithinolytica in mahi-mahi meat at various storage temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Saint Lin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mahi-mahi meat was inoculated with Raoultella ornithinolytica at 5.0 log CFU/g and stored at −20°C, 4°C, 15°C, 25°C, or 37°C to investigate bacterial growth and formation of total volatile base nitrogen and histamine in mahi-mahi meat. R. ornithinolytica grew rapidly in samples stored at temperature above 15°C. The histamine contents quickly increased to higher than 50 mg/100 g in samples stored at 25°C and 37°C within 12 hours as well as those stored at 15°C within 48 hours. The total volatile base nitrogen contents increased to higher than the index level (30 mg/100 g for fish decomposition at 25°C within 48 hours and 37°C within 24 hours. However, bacterial growth and histamine formation were controlled by cold storage of the samples at 4°C or below. Once the frozen mahi-mahi samples stored at −20°C for 2 months were thawed and stored at 25°C after 24 hours, histamine started to accumulate rapidly (>50 mg/100 g of fish.

  8. Effect of carnosine on the immunosuppressive effect of histamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpan, Yu. V.

    1985-04-01

    This paper studies the ability of carnosine (beta-imidazole-lactate) to affect histamine-induced immunosuppression of proliferative activity of various lymphocyte subpopulations and the realization of this effect through surface histamine receptors of the cells. The experiments were carried out on mice; lymphocytes were incubated with tritium-labeled thymidine for 4 h, after which their radioactivity was determined on a scintillation counter. The results show that histamine has an inhibitory action on antigen-induced proliferation of T suppressor lymphocytes through H-2 histamine receptors, for this effect was considerably inhibited by the H-2 histamine blockers metiamide, but not by the H-1 histamine blocker mepyramine.

  9. Neurotoxic Syndromes in Marine Poisonings a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Hossein Mohebbi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Marine neurotoxins as of Marine biotoxins are natural toxins that produced mainly by dinoflagellates, diatoms and several species of invertebrates and fish. Marine poisoning results from the ingestion of marine animals contain these toxins and causes considerable adverse effects. Materials and methods: This review provides some facts about the structures of marine neurotoxins, their molecular target and pharmacology, analytical methods for their detection and quantitation, diagnosis and laboratory testing, clinical manifestations, as well as prevention and treatment, if were obtainable. Furthermore, we focus on marine poisoning and various associated neurological syndromes like ciguatera, tetrodotoxin poisoning, and paralytic shellfish poisoning, after ingestion of the common marine toxins. Results: A number of neurotoxins that prescribed according to their potency (LD50 are: Maitotoxin, Ciguatoxins and Palytoxin, Tetrodotoxin and Saxitoxin, Brevetoxins, Azaspiracid, Yessotoxin, Cooliatoxin, Domoic acid and Conotoxins, Respectively. The primary target of most marine neurotoxins is voltage gated sodium channels and the resulting block of ion conductance through these channels. Moreover, these compounds interact with voltage-gated potassium and calcium channels and modulate the flux of stated ions into many cell types. As well, the target recognized for palytoxin is the Na+- K+ /ATPase. Conclusion: Results of reviewed studies revealed that, the Ciguatera is the commonest syndrome of marine poisoning, but is rarely lethal. Puffer fish poisoning results from the ingestion of fish containing tetrodotoxin and paralytic shellfish poisoning are less common, but have a higher fatality rate than ciguatera. Despite their high toxicity, no much research has been done on some of the toxins, like maitotoxin. In addition, there have remained unknown the pharmacological effects, mechanism of action and molecular target of some toxins such as

  10. [Venomous and poisonous animals. IV. Envenomations by venomous aquatic vertebrates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédry, R; De Haro, L

    2007-04-01

    Epidemiological information on marine envenomation is generally less extensive in Europe than in tropical regions where these injuries are more severe and the need for medical advice is more frequent. For these reasons use of regional Poison Control Centers in the area where the injury occurs must be encouraged. The purpose of this review is to describe envenomation by bony fish (lion fish, stone fish, and catfish), cartilaginous fish (stingrays and poisonous sharks), or other venomous aquatic vertebrates (moray-eels and marine snakes). Understanding of these envenomation syndromes is important not only in tropical areas but also in Europe where importation of dangerous species has increased in recent years.

  11. Histamine Clearance Through Polyspecific Transporters in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Takeo; Yanai, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Histamine plays an important role as a neurotransmitter in diverse brain functions, and clearance of histamine is essential to avoid excessive histaminergic neuronal activity. Histamine N-methyltransferase, which is an enzyme in the central nervous system that metabolizes histamine, is localized to the cytosol. This suggests that a histamine transport process is essential to inactivate histamine. Previous reports have shown the importance of astrocytes for histamine transport, although neuronal histamine transport could not be ruled out. High-affinity and selective histamine transporters have not yet been discovered, although it has been reported that the following three polyspecific transporters transport histamine: organic cation transporter (OCT) 2, OCT3, and plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT). The K m values of human OCT2, OCT3, and PMAT are 0.54, 0.64, and 4.4 mM, respectively. The three transporters are expressed in the brain, and their regional distribution is different. Recent studies revealed the contribution of OCT3 and PMAT to histamine transport by primary human astrocytes. Several investigations using mice supported the importance of OCT3 for histamine clearance in the brain. However, further studies are required to elucidate the detailed mechanism of histamine transport in the brain.

  12. Association of myasthenia gravis with polymorphisms in the gene of histamine N-methyltransferase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kellermayer, Blanka; Polgar, Noemi; Pal, Jozsef

    2013-01-01

    Histamine N-methyltransferase (HNMT) is the main metabolizing enzyme of histamine. Histamine modulates immune responses and plays a role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders.......Histamine N-methyltransferase (HNMT) is the main metabolizing enzyme of histamine. Histamine modulates immune responses and plays a role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders....

  13. Rhubarb leaves poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002876.htm Rhubarb leaves poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Rhubarb leaves poisoning occurs when someone eats pieces of leaves ...

  14. Bubble bath soap poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002762.htm Bubble bath soap poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bubble bath soap poisoning occurs when someone swallows bubble bath soap. ...

  15. Poisoning first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... containers, even if they are labeled. Most nonfood substances are poisonous if taken in large doses. If you are concerned that industrial poisons might be polluting nearby land or water, report your concerns to ...

  16. Hair dye poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002703.htm Hair dye poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair dye poisoning occurs when someone swallows dye or tint ...

  17. Plant fertilizer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant fertilizers and household plant foods are used to improve plant growth. Poisoning can occur if someone swallows these products. Plant fertilizers are mildly poisonous if small amounts are swallowed. ...

  18. Bug spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that mosquitos spread. Some of these are malaria, dengue fever, and West Nile virus. Other less effective ... you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does NOT need to be an emergency. ...

  19. Lead Poisoning (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Needs a Kidney Transplant Vision Facts and Myths Lead Poisoning KidsHealth > For Parents > Lead Poisoning Print A ... Family en español La intoxicación por plomo About Lead Poisoning If you have young kids, it's important ...

  20. Poison Ivy Rash

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leaves and can grow as a bush or tree. Unlike poison ivy and poison oak, it doesn't grow in a three-leaf-per-stem pattern. Poison ivy rash is a type of allergic contact dermatitis caused by an oily resin called urushiol. It's found in the leaves, stems ...

  1. Lead Poisoning in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueschel, Siegfried M., Ed.; Linakis, James G., Ed.; Anderson, Angela C., Ed.

    The magnitude of childhood lead poisoning has been inexplicably neglected by modern medicine and by legislators. However, since the 1970s, increased attention has been focused on lead poisoning, and advances have been made in several areas, including understanding of the neurodevelopmental and behavioral ramifications of lead poisoning, and…

  2. Lead poisoning: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendel, Neil

    1993-01-01

    A problem that should be of great concern to all of us is the lead poisoning of children. First, I would like to present a short overview concerning the reasons everyone should care about lead poisoning, then discuss the history of lead poisoning, what is happening today across the country, and the future.

  3. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, A. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Early symptoms of lead poisoning in children are often overlooked. Lead poisoning has its greatest effects on the brain and nervous system. The obvious long-term solution to the lead poisoning problem is removal of harmful forms of the metal from the environment. (JN)

  4. Histamine and Skin Barrier: Are Histamine Antagonists Useful for the Prevention or Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna De Benedetto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Atopic Dermatitis (AD, the most common chronic inflammatory skin disease, is characterized by an overactive immune response to a host of environmental allergens and dry, itchy skin. Over the past decade important discoveries have demonstrated that AD develops in part from genetic and/or acquired defects in the skin barrier. Histamine is an aminergic neurotransmitter involved in physiologic and pathologic processes such as pruritus, inflammation, and vascular leak. Enhanced histamine release has been observed in the skin of patients with AD and antihistamines are often prescribed for their sedating and anti-itch properties. Recent evidence suggests that histamine also inhibits the terminal differentiation of keratinocytes and impairs the skin barrier, raising the question whether histamine might play a role in AD barrier impairment. This, coupled with the notion that histamine’s effects mediated through the recently identified histamine receptor H4R, may be important in allergic inflammation, has renewed interest in this mediator in allergic diseases. In this paper we summarize the current knowledge on histamine and histamine receptor antagonists in AD and skin barrier function.

  5. Inhibitory effect of furosemide on histamine release from human basophils

    OpenAIRE

    貴谷, 光; 草浦, 康浩; 本家, 尚子; 谷水, 将邦; 光延, 文裕; 御舩, 尚志; 岡崎, 守宏; 谷崎, 勝朗

    1992-01-01

    Inhibitory effect of furosemide on histamine release from basophils induced by anti-IgE was examined in 4 healthy subjects and 8 patients with atopic asthma. The experiments of basophil histamine release were carried out by using whole blood method. The mean values of histamine release after 15 min preincubation with furosemide atvarious concentrations were not significantly decreased, in both healthy and asthmatic subjects compared to those of histamine release without furosemide. The result...

  6. Histamine type 1-receptor activation by low dose of histamine undermines human glomerular slit diaphragm integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veglia, Eleonora; Pini, Alessandro; Moggio, Aldo; Grange, Cristina; Premoselli, Federica; Miglio, Gianluca; Tiligada, Katerina; Fantozzi, Roberto; Chazot, Paul L; Rosa, Arianna Carolina

    2016-12-01

    Histamine has been reported to decrease the ultrafiltration coefficient, which inversely correlates with glomerular permselectivity, however the mechanism(s) underling this effect have never been investigated. This study aimed to assess whether histamine could exert a direct detrimental effect on podocyte permeability and the possible involvement of two key proteins for the glomerular slit diaphragm (SD) integrity, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and P-cadherin. The effect of histamine (100 pM-1000nM) on coloured podocytes junctional integrity was evaluated functionally by a transwell assay of monolayer permeability and morphologically by electron microscopy. Histamine receptor (H1-4R) presence was evaluated at both mRNA (RT-PCR) and protein (immunofluorescence) levels. The Kd and Bmax values for [3H]mepyramine were determined by saturation binding analysis; IP1 and cAMP production evoked by histamine were measured by TR-FRET. ZO-1, P-cadherin and vimentin expression was assessed by qRT-PCR and quantitative immunoblotting. Histamine elicited a time- and sigmoidal dose-dependent (maximum effect at 8h, 10nM) increase in podocyte paracellular permeability widening the paracellular spaces. Only H1R was predominantly localised to the podocyte membrane. Consistently, histamine elicited a sigmoidal dose-dependent increase in IP1, but not in cAMP. Histamine exposure evoked a concentration-dependent reduction in both ZO-1 and P-cadherin and a parallel induction of vimentin mRNA expression with a maximum effect after 6h, and protein expression with a maximum effect after 8h. These effects were prevented by the selective H1R antagonist chlorpheniramine. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that histamine, via the H1R, modifies SD morphological and functional integrity, in part, by decreasing the expression of ZO-1 and P-cadherin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cu@Pd core-shell nanostructures for highly sensitive and selective amperometric analysis of histamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajjala, Rajendra Kumar Reddy; Palathedath, Suresh Kumar

    2018-04-15

    We demonstrate a facile and rapid methodology for preparation of Cu@Pd core-shell nanostructures on a cost-effective pencil graphite substrate. Galvanic replacement reaction was carried out for palladium modification on template electrodeposited copper nanostructures on pencil graphite substrate. The nanostructures are shown to be very stable with excellent electrocatalytic activities. Under optimised conditions, they could be used for histamine sensing at a very low oxidation potential of +0.55V vs. Ag/AgCl. The low oxidation potential enabled sensitive and selective analysis of histamine using chronoamperometry without any interference from oxygen evolution reactions. We have demonstrated that the sensor shows excellent selectivity towards histamine even in the presence of many of the common interfering biogenic amines. The sensor exhibited a sensitivity of 0.082 μ A/μ M/cm 2 with a limit of detection as low as 3.2 ± 0.1nM. The oxidation potential and limit of detection obtained using this sensor are much superior to the results reported so far in the literature. Practical feasibility of the developed sensor was manifested by histamine analysis in canned tuna fish samples, where the chronoamperometric estimation was also validated by conventional HPLC analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Histamine and the regulation of body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Emilie A; Knigge, Ulrich; Warberg, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    Energy intake and expenditure is regulated by a complex interplay between peripheral and central factors. An exhaustive list of peptides and neurotransmitters taking part in this complex regulation of body weight exists. Among these is histamine, which acts as a central neurotransmitter. In the p......Energy intake and expenditure is regulated by a complex interplay between peripheral and central factors. An exhaustive list of peptides and neurotransmitters taking part in this complex regulation of body weight exists. Among these is histamine, which acts as a central neurotransmitter...... lipolysis. Based on the current evidence of the involvement of histamine in the regulation of body weight, the histaminergic system is an obvious target for the development of pharmacological agents to control obesity. At present, H(3) receptor antagonists that stimulate the histaminergic system may...

  9. Gas phase equilibrium structure of histamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, Denis S; Rykov, Anatolii N; Grikina, Olga E; Khaikin, Leonid S

    2016-02-17

    The first gas electron diffraction (GED) experiment for histamine was carried out. The equilibrium structure of histamine in the gas phase was determined on the basis of the data obtained. The refinement was also supported by the rotational constants obtained in previous studies [B. Vogelsanger, et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1991, 113, 7864-7869; P. Godfrey, et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1998, 120, 10724-10732] and quantum chemical calculations. The proposed mechanism of tautomerization by simultaneous intermolecular transfer of hydrogens in a histamine dimer helps to explain the distribution of tautomers in different experiments. The estimations of the conformational interconversion times provided the explanation for the absence of some conformers in the rotational spectroscopy experiments.

  10. Changes in Histidine Decarboxylase, Histamine N-Methyltransferase and Histamine Receptors in Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shan, Ling; Bao, Ai-Min; Swaab, Dick F

    2017-01-01

    Compared to other monoamine neurotransmitters, information on the association between the histaminergic system and neuropsychiatric disorders is scarce, resulting in a lack of histamine-related treatment for these disorders. The current chapter tries to combine information obtained from genetic

  11. Regulation of the Cardiovascular System by Histamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yuichi; Hattori, Kohshi; Matsuda, Naoyuki

    2017-01-01

    Histamine mediates a wide range of cellular responses, including allergic and inflammatory reactions, gastric acid secretion, and neurotransmission in the central nervous system. Histamine also exerts a series of actions upon the cardiovascular system but may not normally play a significant role in regulating cardiovascular function. During tissue injury, inflammation, and allergic responses, mast cells (or non-mast cells) within the tissues can release large amounts of histamine that leads to noticeable cardiovascular effects. Owing to intensive research during several decades, the distribution, function, and pathophysiological role of cardiovascular H1- and H2-receptors has become recognized adequately. Besides the recognized H1- and H2-receptor-mediated cardiovascular responses, novel roles of H3- and H4-receptors in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology have been identified over the last decade. In this review, we describe recent advances in our understanding of cardiovascular function and dysfunction mediated by histamine receptors, including H3- and H4-receptors, their potential mechanisms of action, and their pathological significance.

  12. Histamine and histamine type-2 receptor antagonists in psoriasis. Mechanisms and speculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    1991-01-01

    The findings that the immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA) improves psoriasis raise the possibility that cellular immune processes may play a major role in the pathogenesis of this disease. It is broadly agreed that histamine released by mast cells is one of the molecules involved in the pathog......The findings that the immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA) improves psoriasis raise the possibility that cellular immune processes may play a major role in the pathogenesis of this disease. It is broadly agreed that histamine released by mast cells is one of the molecules involved...... in the pathogenesis. This is supported by the findings that CsA and methotrexate (Mxt) reduce formation and release of histamine. However, the well known side-effects of CsA and Mxt may argue potential use of other agents acting on formation and action of histamine. Such agents may be the histamine-2 receptor...... antagonists, previously reported to have a clinical effect on psoriasis. But randomised short-term studies have disclosed that these drugs have no beneficial or even an aggravating effect on the disease. This article reports on recent findings of improvement in psoriasis using high doses of the histamine-2...

  13. Histamine in diabetes: Is it time to reconsider?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pini, Alessandro; Obara, Ilona; Battell, Emma; Chazot, Paul L; Rosa, Arianna Carolina

    2016-09-01

    The first studies of histamine and diabetes date back to the 1950s. Since that time the involvement of histamine in diabetes was related to its well known vasoactive properties and permeability leakage effects. In particular, the first evidence for a correlation between histamine and diabetes arose in 1989 when an increase in plasma and leucocyte histamine content was observed. Limited independent evidence followed in the subsequent two decades, focusing on both histamine glyceamic control and macro- and microvascular complications of diabetes. However, recent observations have sparked the question whether it is time to reconsider the functional contribution of histamine in diabetes. We reveal an interesting upsurge in the field which provides scope for new insights into the role of histamine in diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Time-dependent histamine release from stored human blood products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Edvardsen, L; Vangsgaard, K

    1996-01-01

    Perioperative transfusion of whole blood has been shown to amplify trauma-induced immunosuppression, which could be attenuated by perioperative administration of histamine2 receptor antagonists. Supernatants from different blood products were, therefore, analysed for histamine content during...... storage. Whole blood (six units), plasma-reduced whole blood (six units), and plasma- and buffy coat-reduced (saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol) (SAGM) blood (six units) from unpaid healthy donors were stored in the blood bank for 35 days at 4 degrees C. Plasma histamine and total cell-bound histamine...... content at donation, and histamine concentration in samples drawn from the units on days 0, 2, 5, 9, 14, 21, 28 and 35 were analysed with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Median plasma histamine concentration was 4.8 (range 1.9-14.3) nmol/l (n = 18). Median total cell-bound histamine content was 417...

  15. Clinical and epidemiological study of 27 poisonings caused by ingesting puffer fish (Tetrodontidae in the states of Santa Catarina and Bahia, Brazil Estudo clinico-epidemiológico de 27 envenenamentos causados pela ingestão de baiacus (Tetrodontidae nos estados de Santa Catarina e Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Carvalho Pestana Silva

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Puffer fish can be poisonous due to the presence of the potent neurotoxins such as Tetrodotoxin (TTX and Saxitoxin (STX found in its tissues. The authors report 27 human poisonings from ingestion of puffer fish in patients treated at Toxicology Centers in the states of Santa Catarina and Bahia, Brazil, between 1984 and January 2009. Poisonings were classified as moderate (52% and severe (33%, two deaths were observed. Early diagnosis is very important to ensure respiratory support.Os baiacus ou peixes-bola podem ser venenosos devido à presença em seus tecidos corporais de Tetrodotoxina e/ou Saxitoxina, ambas potentes neurotoxinas. Os autores relatam 27 envenenamentos por ingestão da carne de baiacus. Os pacientes foram atendidos nos Centros de Toxicologia de Santa Catarina e da Bahia de 1984 a 2009. Os acidentes foram classificados em moderados (52% e graves (33%, havendo dois óbitos. O diagnóstico precoce é fundamental no sentido de garantir suporte ventilatório aos pacientes.

  16. EDITORIAL POISONING PATTERN Human poisoning with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pharm-chem

    Thus, in chronic poisoning, it is difficult to establish definitive cause-effect ... This is the most stressful period when young people are trying to come into terms ... Typical examples of "Police cases" include suicide, suspected homicide, death.

  17. Lead Poisoning in Wild Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahner, Lesanna L.; Franson, J. Christian

    2009-01-01

    Lead in its various forms has been used for thousands of years, originally in cooking utensils and glazes and more recently in many industrial and commercial applications. However, lead is a potent, potentially deadly toxin that damages many organs in the body and can affect all animals, including humans. By the mid 1990s, lead had been removed from many products in the United States, such as paint and fuel, but it is still commonly used in ammunition for hunting upland game birds, small mammals, and large game animals, as well as in fishing tackle. Wild birds, such as mourning doves, bald eagles, California condors, and loons, can die from the ingestion of one lead shot, bullet fragment, or sinker. According to a recent study on loon mortality, nearly half of adult loons found sick or dead during the breeding season in New England were diagnosed with confirmed or suspected lead poisoning from ingestion of lead fishing weights. Recent regulations in some states have restricted the use of lead ammunition on certain upland game hunting areas, as well as lead fishing tackle in areas frequented by common loons and trumpeter swans. A variety of alternatives to lead are available for use in hunting, shooting sports, and fishing activities.

  18. In vitro study of histamine and histamine receptor ligands influence on the adhesion of purified human eosinophils to endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosicki, Marek; Wójcik, Tomasz; Chlopicki, Stefan; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2016-04-15

    It is a well-known fact that histamine is involved in eosinophil-dependent inflammatory responses including cellular chemotaxis and migration. Nevertheless, the relative role of histamine receptors in the mechanisms of eosinophils adhesion to endothelial cells is not known. Therefore the aim of presented study was to examine the effect of selective histamine receptors ligands on eosinophils adhesion to endothelium. For that purpose the highly purified human eosinophils have been isolated from the peripheral blood. The viability and functional integrity of isolated eosinophils have been validated in several tests. Histamine as well as 4-methylhistamine (selective H4 agonist) in concentration-dependent manner significantly increased number of eosinophils that adhere to endothelium. Among the selective histamine receptors antagonist or H1 inverse agonist only JNJ7777120 (histamine H4 antagonist) and thioperamide (dual histamine H3/H4 antagonist) had direct effect on eosinophils adhesion to endothelial cells. Antagonists of H1 (diphenhydramine, mepyramine) H2 (ranitidine and famotidine) and H3 (pitolisant) histamine receptors were ineffective. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that histamine receptor H4 plays a dominant role in histamine-induced eosinophils adhesion to endothelium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Histamine, antihistamines, and the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Histamine is a central nervous system (CNS) neurotransmitter. It acts in the brain via three receptors, H(1), H(2), and H(3). It is a mediator of "wakefulness" and its activity is necessary to maintain wakefulness, alertness, and reaction time. These activities can be impaired by H(1)-antagonists (reverse agonists) capable of penetrating the blood-brain barrier. By blocking the homeostatic effects of histamine in the CNS, drowsiness and functional impairment with or without drowsiness can occur. Several tests have been designed to assess the effects of antihistamines on the CNS. These include subjective measurements of drowsiness and more objective measurements of impairment. Second-generation antihistamines have been designed to minimize blood-brain barrier penetration by reducing lipophilicity and increasing the affinity for P-aminnoglycoprotein.

  20. Sickle erythrocytes enhance phenylephrine and histamine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    for phenylephrine (PE) and histamine (H) contractions in control carotid arterial rings were 5.1. (±1.4) x10-6 (n=7) and .... CO2 gas mixture. The rings were given an initial load of 2g, at 37oC and pH 7.4 and were allowed to equilibrate for 60 minutes. Protocol. The rings were first contracted with 80mM K+, to induce reference ...

  1. Aconite poisoning in camouflage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, W T; Lai, C K; Ching, C K; Tse, K Y; So, Y C; Chan, Y C; Hau, L M; Mak, T W L; Chan, A Y W

    2006-12-01

    The Toxicology Reference Laboratory has confirmed 10 cases of aconite poisoning from March 2004 to May 2006. In four of these 10 cases, the aconite herb was not listed in the written prescription. We report these four cases to highlight the problem of 'hidden' aconite poisoning.

  2. DRUG POISONING IN SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar

    2008-01-01

    Poisoning by drugs for the nervous system, particularly benzodiazepines, is the most commonform of poisoning by drugs in Slovenia. It would be necessary to report all acutelypoisoned patients to the Register of Intoxications, since we need data about all poisoningin Slovenia to improve their prophylaxis and treatment

  3. Poison ivy - oak - sumac

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Poison ivy, oak, or sumac poisoning is an allergic reaction that results from touching the sap of these plants. The sap may be on the plant, in the ashes of burned plants, on an animal, or on other objects that came in contact ...

  4. Growth, inactivation and histamine formation of Morganella psychrotolerans and Morganella morganii - development and evaluation of predictive models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emborg, Jette; Dalgaard, Paw

    2008-12-10

    .8 degrees C, Topt of 26.0 to 27.0 degrees C vs. 35.9 to 37.2 degrees C and Tmax 32.0 to 33.3 degrees C vs. 44.0 to 47.4 degrees C, D(50 degrees C) of 5.3 min vs. 13.1 min and z-values of 6.8 degrees C and 7.2 degrees C. At temperatures above approximately 15 degrees C M. morganii grew faster than M. psychrotolerans. Bias- and accuracy factor-values of 1.41 and 2.44 (n=93) showed the predicted growth of M. morganii to be faster than previously observed in fresh fish and broth. In agreement with this, predicted times to formation of critical histamine concentrations by M. morganii were on average shorter than observed in fresh fish. A combined model was suggested to predict histamine formation by both psychrotolerant and mesophilic Morganella during storage of fresh fish between 0 degrees C and 37 degrees C.

  5. Sensitization of the histamine H1 receptor by increased ligand affinity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemers, S.M.; Verheule, S.; Peppelenbosch, M.P.; Smit, M.J.; Tertoolen, L.G.J.; de Laat, S.

    1998-01-01

    Histamine regulates a variety of physiological processes including inflammation, gastric acid secretion, and neurotransmission. The cellular response to histamine is subject to dynamic control, and exaggerated histamine reactivity in response to cysteinyl leukotrienes and other stimuli is important

  6. Smoking influences salivary histamine levels in periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertl, K; Haririan, H; Laky, M; Matejka, M; Andrukhov, O; Rausch-Fan, X

    2012-05-01

    Histamine, a potent vasoactive amine, is increased in saliva of periodontitis patients. The present study aimed to further investigate the diagnostic potential of histamine for periodontal disease and assessed smoking, a major risk factor of periodontitis, as a possible influencing factor. Salivary and serum samples of 106 participants (60 periodontitis patients, 46 controls) were collected. Salivary histamine was determined by a commercially available ELISA kit, and serum C-reactive protein was measured by a routine laboratory test. Cigarettes per day and packyears were assessed as smoking exposure parameters. Statistically significantly increased levels of salivary histamine and serum C-reactive protein were detected between the patient and control group (P = 0.022 and P = 0.001). Salivary histamine levels were significantly higher in smoking compared with non-smoking patients (P smoking exposure parameters (P Smoking, an established and common risk factor of periodontitis, was assessed as a possible influencing factor for salivary histamine. Most interestingly, salivary histamine differed highly significantly between smoking and non-smoking periodontitis patients. Our results suggest a possible involvement of histamine in tobacco-exacerbated periodontal disease, but do not suggest salivary histamine as a reliable diagnostic marker for periodontitis. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Role of Histamine and Its Receptors in Cerebral Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Histamine is recognized as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the brain, and it plays a major role in the pathogenic progression after cerebral ischemia. Extracellular histamine increases gradually after ischemia, and this may come from histaminergic neurons or mast cells. Histamine alleviates neuronal damage and infarct volume, and it promotes recovery of neurological function after ischemia; the H1, H2, and H3 receptors are all involved. Further studies suggest that histamine alleviates excitotoxicity, suppresses the release of glutamate and dopamine, and inhibits inflammation and glial scar formation. Histamine may also affect cerebral blood flow by targeting to vascular smooth muscle cells, and promote neurogenesis. Moreover, endogenous histamine is an essential mediator in the cerebral ischemic tolerance. Due to its multiple actions, affecting neurons, glia, vascular cells, and inflammatory cells, histamine is likely to be an important target in cerebral ischemia. But due to its low penetration of the blood-brain barrier and its wide actions in the periphery, histamine-related agents, like H3 antagonists and carnosine, show potential for cerebral ischemia therapy. However, important questions about the molecular aspects and pathophysiology of histamine and related agents in cerebral ischemia remain to be answered to form a solid scientific basis for therapeutic application. PMID:22860191

  8. Histamine and histamine type-2 receptor antagonists in psoriasis. Mechanisms and speculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    1991-01-01

    The findings that the immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA) improves psoriasis raise the possibility that cellular immune processes may play a major role in the pathogenesis of this disease. It is broadly agreed that histamine released by mast cells is one of the molecules involved...... antagonists, previously reported to have a clinical effect on psoriasis. But randomised short-term studies have disclosed that these drugs have no beneficial or even an aggravating effect on the disease. This article reports on recent findings of improvement in psoriasis using high doses of the histamine-2...

  9. Histamine H4 receptor antagonists are superior to traditional antihistamines in the attenuation of experimental pruritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Paul J; Williams, Kacy N; Desai, Pragnya J; Karlsson, Lars; McQueen, Daniel; Thurmond, Robin L

    2007-01-01

    Histamine is a potent mediator of itch in humans, yet histamine H(1) receptor antagonists have been shown to be of limited use in the treatment of certain chronic pruritic diseases. The histamine H(4) receptor is a recently described histamine receptor, expressed on hematopoietic cells, linked to the pathology of allergy and asthma. The contribution of the novel histamine H(4) receptor to histaminergic and allergic pruritus was investigated. Histamine and a selective histamine H(4) receptor agonist caused scratching responses in mice, which were almost completely attenuated in histamine H(4) receptor knockout mice or by pretreatment with the selective histamine H(4) receptor antagonist, JNJ 7777120. Pruritus induced by allergic mechanisms was also potently inhibited with histamine H(4) receptor antagonist treatment or in histamine H(4) receptor knockout mice. In all cases, the inhibitory effect of histamine H(4) receptor antagonist was greater than those observed with histamine H(1) receptor antagonists. The histamine H(4) receptor-mediated pruritus was shown to be independent of mast cells or other hematopoietic cells and may result from actions on peripheral neurons. These results demonstrate that the histamine H(4) receptor is involved in pruritic responses in mice to a greater extent than the histamine H(1) receptor. Histamine H(4) receptor antagonists may have therapeutic utility for treating chronic pruritic diseases in humans where histamine H(1) receptor antagonists are not effective.

  10. Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and cannot further spread the rash. Tips for Prevention Learn what poison ivy, oak, and sumac plants ... View FDA photos on Flickr FDA Archive Combination Products Advisory ... Popular Content Home Latest Recalls Report an Adverse Event MedWatch Safety Alerts News ...

  11. Histamine intolerance in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebenhaar, F; Melde, A; Magerl, M; Zuberbier, T; Church, M K; Maurer, M

    2016-10-01

    Histamine intolerance and pseudoallergy to foods have been suggested to be causes of chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) with some patients reporting exacerbation with histamine-rich foods. The study aim was to identify the rate of histamine-intolerant CSU patients and to characterize the relevance of histamine intolerance as an underlying cause of CSU. A cohort of 157 of moderate to severe CSU patients (UAS7 ≥ 10) was asked to provide a detailed clinical history, particularly in relation to symptom development after eating histamine-rich foods. They subsequently undertook a histamine-free pseudoallergen-low diet followed by a double-blind, placebo-controlled oral histamine provocation (75 mg). One third of patients (34%) had a positive history of histamine intolerance. There was no statistical difference between the mean UAS7 scores of patients with positive and negative histories (22.4 ± 1.0 vs. 22.7 ± 0.8). When kept on diet, 46% of patients responded with reduced CSU activity (UAS7 reduction of ≥7). Following double-blind, placebo-controlled oral histamine provocation, 17% of patients gave a positive weal response. There appeared to be little relationship between patient history, response to diet and the weal response to oral histamine provocation. First, the history-positive and -negative groups contained similar proportions of diet and histamine provocation weal-positive patients. Second, the diet-positive and -negative groups contained similar proportions of history-positive and histamine provocation weal-positive patients. Third, the histamine provocation weal-positive and -negative groups had similar rates of history- and diet-positive patients. Finally, only 2 of the 157 patients were positive in all three domains. CSU due to histamine intolerance appears to be rare and cannot be diagnosed based on the history. The study confirms that avoidance diets low in pseudoallergens can improve urticaria symptoms, this is probably not due to the absence of

  12. Serum diamine oxidase activity in patients with histamine intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzotti, G; Breda, D; Di Gioacchino, M; Burastero, S E

    2016-03-01

    Intolerance to various foods, excluding bona fide coeliac disease and lactose intolerance, represents a growing cause of patient visits to allergy clinics.Histamine intolerance is a long-known, multifaceted clinical condition triggered by histamine-rich foods and alcohol and/or by drugs that liberate histamine or block diamine oxidase (DAO), the main enzyme involved in the metabolism of ingested histamine. Histamine limitation diets impose complex, non-standardized restrictions that may severely impact the quality of life of patients. We retrospectively evaluated 14 patients who visited allergy outpatient facilities in northern Italy with a negative diagnosis for IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity, coeliac disease, conditions related to gastric hypersecretion, and systemic nickel hypersensitivity, and who previously underwent a histamine limitation diet with benefits for their main symptoms. Serum diamine oxidase levels and the clinical response to diamine oxidase supplementation were investigated. We found that 10 out of 14 patients had serum DAO activityintolerance. Moreover, 13 out of 14 patients subjectively reported a benefit in at least one of the disturbances related to food intolerances following diamine oxidase supplementation. The mean value (±SD) of diamine oxidase activity in the cohort of patients with histamine intolerance symptoms was 7.04±6.90 U/mL compared to 39.50±18.16 U/mL in 34 healthy controls (P=0.0031). In patients with symptoms triggered by histamine-rich food, measuring the serum diamine oxidase activity can help identify subjects who can benefit from a histamine limitation diet and/or diamine oxidase supplementation.Properly designed, controlled studies investigating histamine intolerance that include histamine provocation are indispensable for providing insights into the area of food intolerances, which are currently primarily managed with non-scientific approaches in Italy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Biogenic amine content, histamine-forming bacteria, and adulteration of pork in tuna sausage products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Hsien-Feng; Tsai, Yung-Hsiang; Chang, Shih-Chih; Hong, Tang-Yao

    2012-10-01

    Twenty-five tuna sausage products were purchased from retail markets in Taiwan. The rates of occurrence of biogenic amines, histamine-forming bacteria, and adulteration by pork and poultry were determined. The average content of various biogenic amines in all tested samples was less than 2.0 mg/100 g (fish species in the tuna sausage samples were identified as Thunnus albacares for 22 samples (88%), Thunnus alalunga for 1 sample (4%), and Thunnus thynnus for 1 sample (4%), whereas the remaining sample was identified as Makaira nigricans (blue marlin).

  14. Histamine and histamine receptors in Tourette syndrome and other neuropsychiatric conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapanelli, Maximiliano; Pittenger, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    The potential contributions of dysregulation of the brain's histaminergic modulatory system to neuropsychiatric disease, and the potential of histamine-targeting medications as therapeutic agents, are gradually coming into focus. The H3R receptor, which is expressed primarily in the central nervous system, is a promising pharmacotherapeutic target. Recent evidence for a contribution of histamine dysregulation to Tourette syndrome and tic disorders is particularly strong; although specific mutations in histamine-associated genes are rare, they have led to informative studies in animal models that may pave the way for therapeutic advances. A controlled study of an H3R antagonist in Tourette syndrome is ongoing. Preclinical studies of H3R antagonists in schizophrenia, attention deficit disorder, and narcolepsy have all shown promise. Recently reported controlled studies have been disappointing in schizophrenia and attention deficit disorder, but the H3R antagonist pitolisant shows promise in the treatment of narcolepsy and excessive daytime sleepiness and is currently under regulatory review for these conditions. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Histamine Receptors'. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Histamine and antihistamines in atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddenkotte, Jörg; Maurer, Marcus; Steinhoff, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Itching (pruritus) is perhaps the most common symptom associated with inflammatory skin diseases and can be a lead symptom ofextracutaneous disease (e.g., malignancy, infection, metabolic disorders). In atopic dermatitis itching sensations constitute one of the most prominent and distressing features. The most characteristic response to itching is the scratch reflex: a more or less voluntary, often sub-conscious motor activity, to counteract the itch by slightly painful stimuli. The benefit of a short-termed relieve from itching through this scratch reflex though is counteracted by a simultaneous damage of the epidermal layer of the skin which leads to increased transepidermal water loss and drying, which in turn results in a cycle of more itching and more scratching. A wide range of peripheral itch-inducing stimuli generated within or administered to the skin are able to trigger pruritus, one of them being histamine. Based on early experiments, histamine has been suggested to may play a key role in the pathogenesis ofAD. This is reflected by a history for antihistamines in the therapeutic medication of AD patients. Antihistamines are believed to share a common antipruritic effect and therefore are prescribed to the vast majority of AD patient suffering from itch to act alleviating. The level of evidence in support of the benefits of antihistamine treatment, however, is low. To assess the benefit of antihistamines in the treatment of AD in a better way, their mechanisms and specific effects need to be understood more precisely. In particular their precise indication is crucial for successful use. This book chapter will therefore summarize and assess the role of histamine in AD and the efficacy of antihistamines in its treatment based on results of basic research and clinical studies.

  16. HISTAMINE PRESENCE IN SARDINIAN CHEESES: A RISK ASSESSMENT CONTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mele

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels of histamine in Sardinian cheeses (Pecorino Sardo dolce, Pecorino Sardo maturo, Pecorino Romano, Fiore Sardo e Casizolu del Montiferru were determined. The histamine values detected were lower respect to levels reported in the literature (500-1000 ppm.

  17. [Histamine intolerance - are the criteria of an adverse reaction met?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Imke

    2016-06-01

    Searching the internet for an explaination of recurring symptoms, many people come across the so-called histamine intolerance disorder. Also many practitioners like to diagnose this disorder without making sure that reproducibility, a prerequisite for an adverse reaction, is present. Consequently, presumably affected persons are often advised to follow a low-histamine diet. Depending on the source of information, these diets often avoid a huge variety of foods containing more or less histamine, which has a considerable impact on patient quality of life. While most persons benefit from such a diet in the beginning - this might be due to the change in dietary habits or the expectation of symptom improvement by dieting - in the long run the expected loss of symptoms will not happen. Underlying a diminished capacity for histamine degradation, the lack of partial or complete symptom improvement might be due to the fact that endogenous histamine release is responsible for reactions. The role of ingested histamine is discussed controversially. However, it is more than obvious that the histamine content of a certain food alone is not enough to predict its tolerance.If histamine intolerance is suspected, an individual diagnostic and therapeutic procedure is mandatory in order to minimize avoidance and to preserve a high quality of life. Ideally this is done in a close cooperation between allergologists and nutritionists/dieticians.

  18. Association of polymorphisms of two histamine-metabolizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Histamine released from mast cells and basophils plays a key role in the development of allergic diseases such as allergic asthma, rhinitis or anaphylaxis. Histamine-metabolizing enzymes: N-methyltransferase (HNMT) and amiloride binding protein 1(ABP) are involved in allergic inflammation.

  19. Molecular and biochemical pharmacology of the histamine H4 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leurs, Rob; Chazot, Paul L; Shenton, Fiona C; Lim, Herman D; de Esch, Iwan J P

    2009-05-01

    The elucidation of the human genome has had a major impact on histamine receptor research. The identification of the human H4 receptor by several groups has been instrumental for a new appreciation of the role of histamine in the modulation of immune function. In this review, we summarize the historical developments and the molecular and biochemical pharmacology of the H4 receptor.

  20. Activation of the canonical beta-catenin pathway by histamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diks, Sander H.; Hardwick, James C.; Diab, Remco M.; van Santen, Marije M.; Versteeg, Henri H.; van Deventer, Sander J. H.; Richel, Dick J.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.

    2003-01-01

    Histamine signaling is a principal regulator in a variety of pathophysiological processes including inflammation, gastric acid secretion, neurotransmission, and tumor growth. We report that histamine stimulation causes transactivation of a T cell factor/beta-catenin-responsive construct in HeLa

  1. Review: Vascular Effects of Histamine | Ebeigbe | Nigerian Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four subtypes of receptors (HFour subtypes of receptors (H1, H2, H3 and H4) mediate the actions of histamine. In the vascular wall, the effects of histamine are mediated via H1 and H2 receptors and the actions are modulated by H3 receptor subtype located on presynaptic neurones. Alterations in vascular responses to ...

  2. The Intriguing Role of Histamine in Exercise Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttrell, Meredith J; Halliwill, John R

    2017-01-01

    In humans, histamine is a molecular transducer of physical activity responses, and antihistamines modify more than 25% of the genes responding to exercise. Although the upstream signal that results in release of histamine within exercising skeletal muscle remains to be identified, it is likely a fundamental exercise response and not an allergic reaction.

  3. Photographic fixative poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photographic fixatives are chemicals used to develop photographs. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing such chemicals. This article is for information only. DO NOT use it to treat or manage an ...

  4. Asphalt cement poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... petroleum material that hardens when it cools. Asphalt cement poisoning occurs when someone swallows asphalt. If hot ... found in: Road paving materials Roofing materials Tile cements Asphalt may also be used for other purposes.

  5. Overview of Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Newspaper Paint (water color or water-based) Perfumes Petroleum jelly Plant food (household) Polyethylene glycols, such as ... reduces the severity of poisonings, particularly with acetaminophen , aspirin , or ibuprofen . The identifying marks printed on pills ...

  6. Cold wave lotion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002693.htm Cold wave lotion poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cold wave lotion is a hair care product used ...

  7. Cedar leaf oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedar leaf oil is made from some types of cedar trees. Cedar leaf oil poisoning occurs when someone swallows this substance. ... The substance in cedar leaf oil that can be harmful is thujone (a hydrocarbon).

  8. Nail polish poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002722.htm Nail polish poisoning To use the sharing features on this ... is from swallowing or breathing in (inhaling) nail polish. This article is for information only. DO NOT ...

  9. Metal cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metal cleaners are very strong chemical products that contain acids. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or ... Metal cleaners contain organic compounds called hydrocarbons, including: 1,2-butylene oxide Boric acid Cocoyl sarcosine Dicarboxylic ...

  10. Bracken fern poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) has worldwide distribution and in some areas dominated plant communities replacing desirable forages. Poisoning is identified as enzootic hematuria, bright blindness, and bracken staggers. This chapter reviews updates new information on the plant, the various poi...

  11. Pine oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. ... Saunders; 2014:chap 147. Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. ...

  12. NWIL Final Report 1983-84 Lead Poisoning Monitoring Program White River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Evidence of lead poisoning at White River National Wildlife Refuge was demonstrated by examination of tissues from hunter-killed and trapped waterfowl. Elevated...

  13. NWHL final report 1984 [ to ] 1985 lead poisoning monitoring program Modoc National Wildlife Refuge California

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Twelve carcasses were submitted for necropsy from Modoc National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) during the 1984-85 Lead Poisoning Monitoring Program; one Canada goose was...

  14. NWHL Final Report 1983-84 Lead Poisoning Monitoring Program Desoto National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Evidence of lead exposure, but no evidence of lead poisoning mortality, was demonstrated in waterfowl using Desoto National Wildlife Refuge by examination of tissues...

  15. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Dolan, Michael C.

    1985-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is a significant cause of illness and death. Its protean symptoms probably lead to a gross underestimation of its true incidence. Low levels of carbon monoxide aggravate chronic cardiopulmonary problems, and high levels are associated with cardiac arrhythmias and cerebral edema. Patients who survive acute poisoning are at risk of delayed neurologic sequelae. The measurement of carboxyhemoglobin levels does not reveal the tissue levels of carbon monoxide but is useful...

  16. Hydroxocobalamin in cyanide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John P; Marrs, Timothy C

    2012-12-01

    On theoretical grounds, hydroxocobalamin is an attractive antidote for cyanide poisoning as cobalt compounds have the ability to bind and detoxify cyanide. This paper reviews the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects of hydroxocobalamin, its efficacy in human cyanide poisoning and its adverse effects. PubMed was searched for the period 1952 to April 2012. A total of 71 papers were identified in this way; and none was excluded. PHARMACOKINETICS AND PHARMACODYNAMICS: Pharmacokinetic studies in dogs and humans suggest a two-compartment model, with first order elimination kinetics. Pharmacodynamic studies in animals suggest that hydroxocobalamin would be a satisfactory antidote for human cyanide poisoning. EFFICACY IN HUMAN POISONING: There is limited evidence that hydroxocobalamin alone is effective in severe poisoning by cyanide salts. The evidence for the efficacy of hydroxocobalamin in smoke inhalation is complicated by lack of evidence for the importance of cyanide exposure in fires and the effects of other chemicals as well as confounding effects of other therapeutic measures, including hyperbaric oxygen. Evidence that hydroxocobalamin is effective in poisoning due to hydrogen cyanide alone is lacking; extrapolation of efficacy from poisoning by ingested cyanide salts may not be valid. The rate of absorption may be greater with inhaled hydrogen cyanide and the recommended slow intravenous administration of hydroxocobalamin may severely limit its clinical effectiveness in these circumstances. Both animal and human data suggest that hydroxocobalamin is lacking in clinically significant adverse effects. However, in one human volunteer study, delayed but prolonged rashes were observed in one-sixth of subjects, appearing 7 to 25 days after administration of 5 g or more of hydroxocobalamin. Rare adverse effects have included dyspnoea, facial oedema, and urticaria. Limited data on human poisonings with cyanide salts suggest that hydroxocobalamin is an effective

  17. Carbon monoxide poisoning (acute)

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Kent; Smollin, Craig

    2008-01-01

    The main symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning are non-specific in nature and relate to effects on the brain and heart. The symptoms correlate poorly with serum carboxyhaemoglobin levels. People with comorbidity, the elderly or very young, and pregnant women are most susceptible.Carbon monoxide is produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon fuels, including inadequately ventilated heaters and car exhausts, or from chemicals such as methylene chloride paint stripper.Poisoning is conside...

  18. Carbon monoxide poisoning (acute)

    OpenAIRE

    Smollin, Craig; Olson, Kent

    2010-01-01

    The main symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning are non-specific in nature and relate to effects on the brain and heart. The symptoms correlate poorly with serum carboxyhaemoglobin levels. People with comorbidity, elderly or very young people, and pregnant women are most susceptible.Carbon monoxide is produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon fuels, including inadequately ventilated heaters and car exhausts, or from chemicals such as methylene chloride paint stripper.Poisoning is cons...

  19. Human Melia azedarach poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, Dong Haur; Tsai, Wei-Jen; Ger, Jiin; Deng, Jou-Fang; Yang, Chen-Chang

    2008-12-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine, Melia azedarach (Ku-lian) is used orally and topically as an antiparasitic and antifungal agent. Although toxicity of this plant has been widely described in veterinary literature, human poisoning is rarely reported. We describe five patients with M. azedarach poisoning who recovered with supportive care. Five patients were identified retrospectively from the database of the Taiwan National Poison Center at the Taipei Veterans General Hospital. Three cases were on-site patients, and two were telephone consultations from outside hospitals. Neurological symptoms were the major manifestation in four cases: weakness, myalgia, numbness, and ptosis. Treatment was symptomatic and supportive; all patients recovered without sequelae. It is not known which limonoids are responsible for human toxicity. In the Chinese medical literature, human M. azedarach poisoning is said to occur if six to nine fruits, 30 to 40 seeds, or 400 g of the bark is consumed. Onset of symptoms typically occurs within 4-6 h, but as short as 0.5 h had been documented. In our patients, the onset of M. azedarach poisoning was variable, ranging from a few hours to up to 3 weeks after consumption of the herb. M. azedarach poisoning may result in gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, respiratory, or neurological effects, and death in severe cases.

  20. Histamine induces NF-κB controlled cytokine secretion by orbital fibroblasts via histamine receptor type-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Virakul (Sita); T. Phetsuksiri (Tanachaporn); C. van Holten-Neelen; B. Schrijver (Benjamin); L. van Steensel (Leendert); V.A.S.H. Dalm (Virgil); A.D.A. Paridaens (Dion); W.A. van den Bosch (Willem); P.M. van Hagen (Martin); W.A. Dik (Willem)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractMast cells and their products are likely to be involved in regulating orbital fibroblast activity in Graves' Ophthalmopathy (GO). Histamine is abundantly present in granules of mast cells and is released upon mast cell activation. However, the effect of histamine on orbital fibroblasts

  1. 43 CFR 15.7 - Fishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fishing. 15.7 Section 15.7 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.7 Fishing. (a) Spear fishing within the boundaries or confines of this Preserve is prohibited. (b) The use of poisons, electric...

  2. POISONS AND POISONING IN THE REPUBLIC OF DUBROVNIK

    OpenAIRE

    Šundrica, Zdravko

    2000-01-01

    Dubrovnik authorities occasionally resorted to poisoning as a means of resolving state affairs. A number of the Republic’s enemies and undesirable prisoners were removed or suspected to have been eliminated by poisoning. Poison was used as a protective measure in times of war, when the Ragusans contaminated the water tanks in the area. Dubrovnik archives reveal a variety of poisoning cases among Ragusan citizens over the centuries, only to prove that, if uncommon, this method was not looked u...

  3. The role of histamine in opening blood-tumor barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zeng; Cai, Xin-Jun; Qin, Jing; Xie, Fa-Jun; Han, Na; Lu, Hong-Yang

    2016-05-24

    Blood-tumor barrier (BTB) reduce the permeability for drugs into tumor tissues. We found that histamine might serve as an essential regulator of BTB function. Further, we aim to determine the role of H2 receptor expression in BTB permeability, and elucidate the underlying mechanisms thereof. Transmission electron microscopy showed that histamine disrupted the integrity of tight junctions (TJ) and increased the number of pinosomes in the cytoplasm. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and trans-endothelial resistance detection (TEER) assays revealed that histamine could open BTB and this action was inhibited by cimetidine. Western blot and immunofluorescence assays showed that histamine decreased the expression of tight junction proteins zonula occluden-1(ZO-1), occludin, and claudin-5. Further, quantitative RT-PCR assay showed that the expression of H2 receptor could represent and predicted histamine-induced BTB permeability. In conclusion, histamine opened BTB by down-regulating the TJ-associated proteins. The levels of H2 receptor expression was correlated with the histamine-induced BTB permeability.

  4. Histamine Potentiates Cyclosomatostatin-Induced Catalepsy in Old Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The decreased level of somatostatin and increased level of histamine are detected in the Parkinsonian brain. In old Wistar rats, the brain somatostatin deficiency can initiate catalepsy that suggests the pathogenic significance of this abnormality in Parkinson’s disease (PD. The ability of histamine to affect the somatostatin deficiency action is not studied. Objectives The current study aimed to examine if histamine alters the cataleptogenic activity of the brain somatostatin deficiency in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods The animals used in the study were 100 - 110 and 736 - 767 days old. Catalepsy was evaluated by the bar test. The inhibition of the brain somatostatin activity was simulated by I.C.V. administration of cyclosomatostatin (cycloSOM, a somatostatin receptor antagonist. Results CycloSOM (0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 µg and histamine (1.0 and 10.0 µg alone were ineffective in both young and old animals. In combination, however, cycloSOM and histamine initiated cataleptic response in old rats. Effect of the combination was inhibited by H1 and H2 but not H3 antagonists. Conclusions CycloSOM and histamine synergistically exert catalepsy in old rats. In light of these data, the combination of the decreased brain level of somatostatin and increased brain level of histamine may be of pathogenic relevance for extrapyramidal signs in PD.

  5. In vivo histamine voltammetry in the mouse premammillary nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaranayake, Srimal; Abdalla, Aya; Robke, Rhiannon; Wood, Kevin M; Zeqja, Anisa; Hashemi, Parastoo

    2015-06-07

    Histamine plays a major role in the mediation of allergic reactions such as peripheral inflammation. This classical monoamine is also a neurotransmitter involved in the central nervous system but its role in this context is poorly understood. Studying histamine neurotransmission is important due to its implications in many neurological disorders. The sensitivity, selectivity and high temporal resolution of fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) offer many advantages for studying electroactive neurotransmitters. Histamine has previously been studied with FSCV; however, the lack of a robust Faradaic electrochemical signal makes it difficult to selectively identify histamine in complex media, as found in vivo. In this work, we optimize an electrochemical waveform that provides a stimulation-locked and unique electrochemical signal towards histamine. We describe in vitro waveform optimization and a novel in vivo physiological model for stimulating histamine release in the mouse premammillary nucleus via stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle. We demonstrate that a robust signal can be used to effectively identify histamine and characterize its in vivo kinetics.

  6. Benzodiazepine poisoning in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukcević, Natasa Perković; Ercegović, Gordana Vuković; Segrt, Zoran; Djordjević, Snezana; Stosić, Jasmina Jović

    2016-03-01

    Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently ingested drugs in self-poisonings. Elderly may be at greater risk compared with younger individuals due to impaired metabolism and increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity of benzodiazepines in elderly attempted suicide. A retrospective study of consecutive presentations to hospital after self-poisoning with benzodiazepines was done. Collected data consisted of patient's characteristics (age, gender), benzodiazepine ingested with its blood concentrations at admission, clinical findings including vital signs and Glasgow coma score, routine blood chemistry, complications of poisoning, details of management, length of hospital stay and outcome. According the age, patients are classified as young (15-40-year old), middle aged (41-65-year old) and elderly (older than 65). During a 2-year observational period 387 patients were admitted because of pure benzodiazepine poisoning. The most frequently ingested drug was bromazepam, the second was diazepam. The incidence of coma was significantly higher, and the length of hospital stay significantly longer in elderly. Respiratory failure and aspiration pneumonia occurred more frequently in old age. Also, flumazenil was more frequently required in the group of elderly patients. Massive benzodiazepines overdose in elderly may be associated with a significant morbidity, including deep coma with aspiration pneumonia, respiratory failure, and even death. Flumazenil is indicated more often to reduce CNS depression and prevent complications of prolonged unconsciousness, but supportive treatment and proper airway management of comatose patients is the mainstay of the treatment of acute benzodiazepine poisoning.

  7. [Poisonings with Amanita phalloides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferenc, Tomasz; Lukasiewicz, Beata; Ciećwierz, Julita; Kowalczyk, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Amanita phalloides is the most dangerous, poisonous mushroom species in our climatic conditions. It is the cause of 90-95% of all deaths due to mushroom poisoning, a-Amanitin, a polymerase RNA II inhibitor, is mainly responsible for the Amanita phalloides toxic property. Inhibition of polymerase RNA II functioning in a transcription process is connected with inhibition biosynthesis of structural and enzymatic proteins in cells. A lethal dose of a-amanitin is 0.1 mg/kg b.w. for humans. One of the medical problems in Amanita phalloides poisonings is a relatively prolonged latency period (8-24 h) from mushroom ingestion, at the same time the cytotropic action of absorbed toxins is revealed. In severe cases, multi organ failure, renal and hepatitis failure can occur. Deaths in a-amanitin poising cases follows between 6-16 days after intoxication. Mortality in this group of patients is still high and amounts to approximately 20-30% in adults and exceeds 50% in children. If mushroom poisoning occurs, it is best treated with pharmacological agents, extracorporeal methods for toxin removal and liver transplantation. Recent high expectations concerning liver albumin dialysis (based on MARS) should support liver regeneration and will also help with possible liver transplantation. In a medical community it is generally believed that every suspected Amanita phalloides poisoning should be referred to a specialized health center.

  8. Radioprotective potential of histamine on rat small intestine and uterus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabajal, E.; Massari, N.; Croci, M.; Martinel Lamas, D.; Prestifilippo, J.P.; Ciraolo, P.; Bergoc, R.M.; Rivera, E.S.; Medina, V.A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve knowledge about histamine radioprotective potential investigating its effect on reducing ionising radiation-induced injury and genotoxic damage on the rat small intestine and uterus. Forty 10-week-old male and 40 female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups. Histamine and histamine-5Gy groups received a daily subcutaneous histamine injection (0.1 mg/kg) starting 24 h before irradiation. Histamine-5Gy and untreated-5Gy groups were irradiated with a dose of whole-body Cesium-137 irradiation. Three days after irradiation animals were sacrificed and tissues were removed, fixed, and stained with haematoxylin and eosin, and histological characteristics were evaluated. Proliferation, apoptosis and oxidative DNA markers were studied by immunohistochemistry, while micronucleus assay was performed to evaluate chromosomal damage. Histamine treatment reduced radiation-induced mucosal atrophy, oedema and vascular damage produced by ionising radiation, increasing the number of crypts per circumference (239±12 vs 160±10; Phistamine decreased the frequency of micronuclei formation and also significantly attenuated 8-OHdG immunoreactivity, a marker of DNA oxidative damage. Furthermore, radiation induced flattening of the endometrial surface, depletion of deep glands and reduced mitosis, effects that were completely blocked by histamine treatment. The expression of a proliferation marker in uterine luminal and glandular cells was markedly stimulated in histamine treated and irradiated rats. The obtained evidences indicate that histamine is a potential candidate as a safe radio-protective agent that might increase the therapeutic index of radiotherapy for intra-abdominal and pelvic cancers. However, its efficacy needs to be carefully investigated in prospective clinical trials. PMID:23361244

  9. Extracorporeal treatment for thallium poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Nolin, Thomas D; Goldfarb, David S

    2012-01-01

    The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in poisoning. To test and validate its methods, the workgroup reviewed data for thallium (Tl)....

  10. Circadian profiling reveals higher histamine plasma levels and lower diamine oxidase serum activities in 24% of patients with suspected histamine intolerance compared to food allergy and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzer, T C; Tietz, E; Waldmann, E; Schink, M; Neurath, M F; Zopf, Y

    2017-11-20

    Histamine intolerance is thought to trigger manifold clinical symptoms after ingesting histamine-rich food due to reduced activity of diamine oxidase (DAO). No study has hitherto systematically assessed daily fluctuations of histamine levels and DAO activities in symptomatic patients. The aim of the study was to investigate the presence of histamine intolerance, to therefore establish day profiles of histamine levels and DAO activities, and to compare the results between patients with suspected histamine intolerance, food allergy and healthy controls. We determined day profiles of histamine plasma levels and DAO serum activities in 33 patients with suspected histamine intolerance, in 21 patients with proven food allergy and in 10 healthy control patients. Clinical symptoms, food intolerances and further clinical and laboratory chemical parameters were evaluated. Twenty-four percent (8 of 33) suspected histamine-intolerant patients showed elevated histamine levels during the day. That might be caused by constantly and significantly reduced DAO activities in these patients compared to food-allergic and control patients. The remaining 25 patients presented normal histamine levels and DAO activities, but an increased prevalence of multiple food intolerances compared to the other subgroup of suspected histamine-intolerants. There was no correlation between subjective complaints and serological histamine parameters in patients with suspected histamine intolerance. We determined by daily profiling that decreased DAO activities correlated with elevated histamine levels in a subgroup of suspected histamine-intolerants. This finding discriminates these patients from food intolerant individuals with similar clinical symptoms and strongly suggests the presence of histamine intolerance. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  11. Multiple Targeting Approaches on Histamine H3 Receptor Antagonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad eKhanfar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With the very recent market approval of pitolisant (Wakix®, the interest in clinical applications of novel multifunctional histamine H3 receptor antagonists has clearly increased. Since histamine H3 receptor antagonists in clinical development have been tested for a variety of different indications, the combination of pharmacological properties in one molecule for improved pharmacological effects and reduced unwanted side-effects is rationally based on the increasing knowledge on the complex neurotransmitter regulations. The polypharmacological approaches on histamine H3 receptor antagonists on different G-protein coupled receptors, transporters, enzymes as well as on NO-signaling mechanism are described, supported with some lead structures.

  12. [Electronic poison information management system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabata, Piotr; Waldman, Wojciech; Kaletha, Krystian; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    We describe deployment of electronic toxicological information database in poison control center of Pomeranian Center of Toxicology. System was based on Google Apps technology, by Google Inc., using electronic, web-based forms and data tables. During first 6 months from system deployment, we used it to archive 1471 poisoning cases, prepare monthly poisoning reports and facilitate statistical analysis of data. Electronic database usage made Poison Center work much easier.

  13. Amitraz poisoning: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Alexander Molina-Bolaños

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Amitraz is an insecticide compound used worldwide for controlling pests, especially in agricultural and livestock areas. However, amitraz poisoning in Colombia is rare. This article reports the case of an 18-year-old female patient who was admitted in the emergency service 3 hours after the intake of an unknown amount of Triatox® (amitraz. The patient presented with a depressed level of consciousness, respiratory distress, hypotension, bradycardia, myosis and metabolic acidosis compensated with respiratory alkalosis. Initial treatment was provided using life support measures in the emergency ward, and subsequent transfer and support in the intensive care unit. She was discharged 24 hours after admission. This case considers the clinical similarity between amitraz poisoning and poisoning caused by other more frequent toxic compounds such as carbamates, organophosphates and opioids, which require different management.

  14. [Acute pesticide poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán-Nah, J J; Collí-Quintal, J

    2000-01-01

    To describe the epidemiologic pattern of acute pesticide poisoning (APP) in a general hospital in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico. From 1994 to 1998, 33 patients 13 years of age or older with diagnosis of APP were studied. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze information. Males were frequently affected (82%), specially those coming from rural areas (60%). The mean age of the group was 34 +/- 15.8 years. In 79% of the cases, pesticides were used to commit suicide and 33% of poisoning cases were due to organophospate pesticides. The mortality rate was 12%. In this small sample, acute poisoning from pesticides in the agricultural setting may be underestimated, since it was less frequent than in the general population. APP was more commonly used by indigent people to commit suicide.

  15. Black-spot poison ivy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, Sarah E; Willey, Andrea; Lee, Peter K; Bohjanen, Kimberly A; Warshaw, Erin M

    2008-01-01

    In black-spot poison ivy dermatitis, a black lacquerlike substance forms on the skin when poison ivy resin is exposed to air. Although the Toxicodendron group of plants is estimated to be the most common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in the United States, black-spot poison ivy dermatitis is relatively rare.

  16. Histamine induces NF-κB controlled cytokine secretion by orbital fibroblasts via histamine receptor type-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virakul, Sita; Phetsuksiri, Tanachaporn; van Holten-Neelen, Conny; Schrijver, Benjamin; van Steensel, Leendert; Dalm, Virgil A S H; Paridaens, Dion; van den Bosch, Willem A; van Hagen, P Martin; Dik, Willem A

    2016-06-01

    Mast cells and their products are likely to be involved in regulating orbital fibroblast activity in Graves' Ophthalmopathy (GO). Histamine is abundantly present in granules of mast cells and is released upon mast cell activation. However, the effect of histamine on orbital fibroblasts has not been examined so far. Orbital tissues from GO patients and controls were analyzed for the presence of mast cells using toluidine blue staining and immunohistochemical detection of CD117 (stem cell factor receptor). Orbital fibroblasts were cultured from GO patients and healthy controls, stimulated with histamine and cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, CCL2, CCL5, CCL7, CXCL10 and CXCL11) were measured in culture supernatants. Also hyaluronan levels were measured in culture supernatants and hyaluronan synthase (HAS) and hyaluronidase (HYAL) gene expression levels were determined. In addition, histamine receptor subtype gene expression levels were examined as well as the effect of the histamine receptor-1 (HRH1) antagonist loratadine and NF-κB inhibitor SC-514 on histamine-induced cytokine production. Mast cell numbers were increased in GO orbital tissues. Histamine stimulated the production of IL-6, IL-8 and CCL2 by orbital fibroblasts, while it had no effect on the production of CCL5, CCL7, CXCL10, CXCL11 and hyaluronan. Orbital fibroblasts expressed HRH1 and loratadine and SC-514 both blocked histamine-induced IL-6, IL-8 and CCL2 production by orbital fibroblasts. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that histamine can induce the production of NF-κB controlled-cytokines by orbital fibroblasts, which supports a role for mast cells in GO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Histamine Stimulates Hydrogen Peroxide Production by Bronchial Epithelial Cells via Histamine H1 Receptor and Dual Oxidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, Balázs; Boudreau, Howard E.; Park, Jonathan J.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. Besides granulocytes, the airway epithelium can produce large amounts of reactive oxygen species and can contribute to asthma-related oxidative stress. Histamine is a major inflammatory mediator present in large quantities in asthmatic airways. Whether histamine triggers epithelium-derived oxidative stress is unknown. We therefore aimed at characterizing human airway epithelial H2O2 production stimulated by histamine. We found that air–liquid interface cultures of primary human bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) and an immortalized BEC model (Cdk4/hTERT HBEC) produce H2O2 in response to histamine. The main source of airway epithelial H2O2 is an NADPH dual oxidase, Duox1. Out of the four histamine receptors (H1R–H4R), H1R has the highest expression in BECs and mediates the H2O2–producing effects of histamine. IL-4 induces Duox1 gene and protein expression levels and enhances histamine-induced H2O2 production by epithelial cells. Using HEK-293 cells expressing Duox1 or Duox2 and endogenous H1R, histamine triggers an immediate intracellular calcium signal and H2O2 release. Overexpression of H1R further increases the oxidative output of Duox-expressing HEK-293 cells. Our observations show that BECs respond to histamine with Duox-mediated H2O2 production. These findings reveal a mechanism that could be an important contributor to oxidative stress characteristic of asthmatic airways, suggesting novel therapeutic targets for treating asthmatic airway disease. PMID:23962049

  18. Histamine selectively potentiates acid-sensing ion channel 1a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaeva, Elina I; Tikhonova, Tatiana B; Magazanik, Lev G; Tikhonov, Denis B

    2016-10-06

    Although acid-sensitive ion channels (ASICs) play an important role in brain functions, the exact mechanism of their physiological activation remain unclear. A possible answer to the intriguing question is that some presently unknown endogenous ligand(s) positively modulate ASICs and enhance their responses to physiologically significant level. In the present work we found that histamine selectively potentiates ASIC1a homomers in CHO cells. Action of histamine was particularly pronounced at modest acidifications, which cause minor response. At these conditions micromolar concentrations of histamine have provided significant potentiation of ASIC1a response. We proposed that histamine and possibly some other endogenous amines can positively modulate ASICs functions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ligands of histamine receptors modulate acid-sensing ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shteinikov, V Y; Korosteleva, A S; Tikhonova, T B; Potapieva, N N; Tikhonov, D B

    2017-09-02

    Recently we found that synthetic compounds containing amino group linked to hydrophobic or aromatic moiety are potent modulators of the proton-gated channels (ASICs). These structures have clear similarity with ligands of histamine receptors. We have also demonstrated that histamine potentiates homomeric ASIC1a by shifting its activation dependence to less acidic conditions. In the present work the action of a series of histamine receptors ligands on recombinant ASIC1a and ASIC2a was characterized. Two types of action were found for ASIC1a. 1-methylhistamine, N-alpha-methylhistamine, dimaprit and thioperamide caused significant potentiation, which was pH-dependent and voltage-independent. The H4R antagonist A943931 caused inhibition, which is likely due to voltage-dependent pore block. ASIC2a were virtually insensitive to the drugs tested. We conclude that ligands of histamine receptors should also be considered as ASIC modulators. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. β-thalassemia minor, carbohydrate malabsorption and histamine intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnedl, Wolfgang J; Schenk, Michael; Lackner, Sonja; Holasek, Sandra J; Mangge, Harald

    2017-10-01

    Background: β-thalassemia minor is characterized by reduced β-haemoglobin chain synthesis and sometimes mild anaemia, although carriers of β-thalassemia minorare usually clinically asymptomatic.Nonspecific abdominal complaints may be caused by gastrointestinal carbohydrate malabsorption (lactose and fructose) and/or malabsorption of biogenic amines (histamine), or proteins (gluten). Objectives: We report on two patients with β-thalassemia minor suffering nonspecific abdominal symptoms due to a carbohydrate and histamine malabsorption. Design/methods: The diagnosis of β-thalassemia minorwas done with peripheral blood smear and cellulose acetate electrophoresis. Carbohydrate malabsorption was diagnosed with hydrogen breath tests and, histamine intolerance (HIT) with a serum diamine oxidase value diet free of symptom causing carbohydrates and histamine.

  1. In Vivo Histamine Optical Nanosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather A. Clark

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this communication we discuss the development of ionophore based nanosensors for the detection and monitoring of histamine levels in vivo. This approach is based on the use of an amine-reactive, broad spectrum ionophore which is capable of recognizing and binding to histamine. We pair this ionophore with our already established nanosensor platform, and demonstrate in vitro and in vivo monitoring of histamine levels. This approach enables capturing rapid kinetics of histamine after injection, which are more difficult to measure with standard approaches such as blood sampling, especially on small research models. The coupling together of in vivo nanosensors with ionophores such as nonactin provide a way to generate nanosensors for novel targets without the difficult process of designing and synthesizing novel ionophores.

  2. Chelation Therapy for Mercury Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Guan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chelation therapy has been the major treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Various chelating agents have been developed and tested for treatment of heavy metal intoxications, including mercury poisoning. It has been clearly shown that chelating agents could rescue the toxicity caused by heavy metal intoxication, but the potential preventive role of chelating agents against heavy metal poisoning has not been explored much. Recent paper by Siddiqi and colleagues has suggested a protective role of chelating agents against mercury poisoning, which provides a promising research direction for broader application of chelation therapy in prevention and treatment of mercury poisoning.

  3. Histamine-2 receptor antagonists as immunomodulators: new therapeutic views?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    1996-01-01

    Considerable evidence has emerged to suggest that histamine participates in the regulation of the inflammatory response, immune reaction, coagulation cascade, and cardiovascular function. Furthermore, histamine may play a major role in the growth of normal and malignant tissue as a regulator of p...... antagonists as adjuvant single drugs to reduce trauma-, blood transfusion- and sepsis-induced immunosuppression has led to research in combined treatment regimens in major surgery, particularly, of patients operated on for malignant diseases....

  4. Concentrations of biogenic amines in fish, squid and octopus and their changes during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue; Huang, Zhiyong; Li, Jian; Yang, Hong

    2012-12-15

    The concentrations of seven biogenic amines (BA) were simultaneously determined in 74 samples of fish, squid and octopus, by the method of HPLC coupled with pre-column derivatisation. The relationship between the formation of BA in aquatic products and the growth of microbial flora during storage was also investigated. Results showed that putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and tyramine were the dominant BA in the studied samples, but the concentrations of histamine and tyramine were mostly less than 50 and 100 mgkg(-1), respectively. Freezing can effectively prevent the formation of BA, but the levels of putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and tyramine significantly increased (poctopus strongly and positively correlated with the formation of amines (such as putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and tyramine) during storage, except for histamine in octopus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Drain opener poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drain opener poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. BLOOD Severe change in acid level of blood (pH balance), which leads to damage in all of the body organs EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Burns to the eyes, which ...

  6. Chlorinated lime poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorinated lime poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. BLOOD Severe change in the acid level in the blood (pH balance), which leads to damage in all of the body organs EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of vision Severe pain ...

  7. Poisoning with organophosphates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with alcohol: 42.4% of patients were poisoned with “agrochemicals”. The overall mortality was low at 1.4%. ... and respiratory tracts and significantly through the skin. Their key action is to inhibit acetylcholinesterase which .... and so would make the situation worse. A careful watch of respiratory function is essential when any ...

  8. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Animals can also be poisoned by carbon monoxide. People who have pets at home may notice that their animals become ... or unresponsive from carbon monoxide exposure. Often the pets will ... these conditions. This can lead to a delay in getting help.

  9. [Acute arsenic poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelescaut, Etienne; Vermeersch, Véronique; Commandeur, Diane; Huynh, Sophie; Danguy des Deserts, Marc; Sapin, Jeanne; Ould-Ahmed, Mehdi; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Acute arsenic poisoning is a rare cause of suicide attempt. It causes a multiple organs failure caused by cardiogenic shock. We report the case of a patient admitted twelve hours after an ingestion of trioxide arsenic having survived thanks to a premature treatment.

  10. Granule maturation in mast cells: histamine in control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Jenny; Gurish, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Mast cells are derived from committed progenitors that originate in the BM. They mature into histochemically distinguishable, metachromatic mast cells containing numerous cytoplasmic secretory granules. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that mast cell granule maturation is very tightly regulated by many factors including different granule components such as proteoglycans. In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology, Nakazawa et al. [Eur. J. Immunol. 2014. 44: 204-214] highlight a role for mast cell derived histamine as another factor critical for mast cell maturation. Using histidine decarboxylase (HDC) deficient mice that are unable to make histamine, they show poorly formed secretory granules and decreased secretory granule protease expression in peritoneal mast cells. Co-culturing BM-derived mast cells with fibroblasts normally drives granule maturation, but HDC-deficient BM-derived mast cells fail to do so. Exogenously provided histamine partly restores granule differentiation as evidenced by increased tryptase and chymase activity, and this is histamine receptor type H4 -dependent. However, H4 -deficient mice have intact granule formation in peritoneal mast cells, suggesting that when HDC is functional, the intrinsic histamine production is sufficient for most granule maturation processes and H4 is dispensable. This study highlights the role of histamine in the regulation of mast cell maturation, although the cytosolic target remains unknown. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Benzodiazepine poisoning in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perković-Vukčević Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently ingested drugs in self-poisonings. Elderly may be at greater risk compared with younger individuals due to impaired metabolism and increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity of benzodiazepines in elderly attempted suicide. Methods. A retrospective study of consecutive presentations to hospital after self-poisoning with benzodiazepines was done. Collected data consisted of patient's characteristics (age, gender, benzodiazepine ingested with its blood concentrations at admission, clinical findings including vital signs and Glasgow coma score, routine blood chemistry, complications of poisoning, details of management, length of hospital stay and outcome. According the age, patients are classified as young (15-40-year old, middle aged (41-65-year old and elderly (older than 65. Results. During a 2-year observational period 387 patients were admitted because of pure benzodiazepine poisoning. The most frequently ingested drug was bromazepam, the second was diazepam. The incidence of coma was significantly higher, and the length of hospital stay significantly longer in elderly. Respiratory failure and aspiration pneumonia occurred more frequently in old age. Also, flumazenil was more frequently required in the group of elderly patients. Conclusion. Massive benzodiazepines overdose in elderly may be associated with a significant morbidity, including deep coma with aspiration pneumonia, respiratory failure, and even death. Flumazenil is indicated more often to reduce CNS depression and prevent complications of prolonged unconsciousness, but supportive treatment and proper airway management of comatose patients is the mainstay of the treatment of acute benzodiazepine poisoning.

  12. Immunochemical cross-reactivity between albumin and solid-phase adsorbed histamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, L K; Nolte, H; Søndergaard, I

    1990-01-01

    For production of an antibody against histamine, this was coupled to human serum albumin (HSA) and used for immunization of rabbits. To test the antiserum, an immunoradiometric assay was developed comprising solid-phase bound histamine, antisera and radiolabelled protein A. Titration and inhibition...... experiments revealed that histamine adsorbed onto a solid-phase could bind the antiserum. However, neither free histamine nor histamine coupled to unrelated carriers could inhibit the binding of antiserum to the solid-phase histamine. Cross-reactivity was demonstrated between HSA and solid-phase bound...

  13. The future antihistamines: histamine H3 and H4 receptor ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fuqu; Bonaventure, Pascal; Thurmond, Robin L

    2010-01-01

    The field of histamine research has progressed far from a century ago when the first biological functions of histamine were identified. It is now known that histamine function is mediated by four histamine receptors, which belong to the G-protein-coupled receptor family. While antihistamines that target the first two receptors have enjoyed clinical and commercial success, efforts to find new antihistamines against the histamine H3 and H4 receptors are still in the early stages. Here we will review the therapeutic potential of targeting these new histamine receptors.

  14. Xuebijing for paraquat poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jin; Huo, Dongmei; Wu, Qiaoyuan; Zhu, Lin; Liao, Yunhua

    2013-07-29

    At present, there is a lack of effective treatments for paraquat poisoning. Xuebijing injection is a complex traditional Chinese prescription consisting of Flos Carthami, Radix Paeoniae Rubra, Rhizoma Chuanxiong, Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae and Radix Angelicae Sinensis. Although clinical experience suggests that Xuebijing injection might have potential in the management of paraquat poisoning, there is no conclusion on the effectiveness of this treatment. To assess the effects of Xuebijing injection in patients with paraquat poisoning. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group's Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (OvidSP), EMBASE (OvidSP), CINAHL (EBSCO), ISI Web of Science: Science Citation Index Expanded, ISI Web of Science: Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science, Chinese bio-medical literature and retrieval system (CBM), China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database (CNKI), and the Traditional Chinese Medicine Database. The search was run on the 29th May 2013. We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing Xuebijing injection combined with conventional care against conventional care alone. Two or three authors independently selected studies, assessed study quality and extracted data. We calculated the mortality risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Data on all-cause mortality at the end of follow-up were summarised in a meta-analysis. We identified two trials including 84 people. Although there were fewer deaths in people treated with Xuebijing injection, meta-analysis showed that it did not provide a statistically significant benefit in reducing all-cause mortality in people with paraquat poisoning as compared to control (RR 0.71; 95% CI 0.48 to 1.04; P = 0.08). Based on the findings of two small RCTs, Xuebijing injection did not have a statistically significant benefit on reducing all-cause mortality in people with paraquat poisoning. However, both

  15. Histamine and Immune Biomarkers in CNS Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Cacabelos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimmune dysregulation is a common phenomenon in different forms of central nervous system (CNS disorders. Cross-links between central and peripheral immune mechanisms appear to be disrupted as reflected by a series of immune markers (CD3, CD4, CD7, HLA-DR, CD25, CD28, and CD56 which show variability in brain disorders such as anxiety, depression, psychosis, stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, migraine, epilepsy, vascular dementia, mental retardation, cerebrovascular encephalopathy, multiple sclerosis, brain tumors, cranial nerve neuropathies, mental retardation, and posttraumatic brain injury. Histamine (HA is a pleiotropic monoamine involved in several neurophysiological functions, neuroimmune regulation, and CNS pathogenesis. Changes in brain HA show an age- and sex-related pattern, and alterations in brain HA levels are present in different CNS regions of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Brain HA in neuronal and nonneuronal compartments plays a dual role (neurotrophic versus neurotoxic in a tissue-specific manner. Pathogenic mechanisms associated with neuroimmune dysregulation in AD involve HA, interleukin-1β, and TNF-α, whose aberrant expression contributes to neuroinflammation as an aggravating factor for neurodegeneration and premature neuronal death.

  16. Blood histamine release: A new allergy blood test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faraj, B.A.; Gottlieb, G.R.; Camp, V.M.; Lollies, P.

    1985-05-01

    Allergen-mediated histamine release from human leukocytes represents an important model for in vitro studies of allergic reactions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the measurement of histamine released in allergic patients (pts) by radioenzymatic assay following mixing of their blood with common allergens represents a reliable index for diagnosis of atopic allergy. Three categories of allergies were used: (1) housedust and mite; (2) cat and dog dander; (3) trees and grasses and ragweed mixture. The presence of allergy was established by intradermal skin testing in the study group of 82 pts. Significant atopy was defined as greater than or equal to 3+ (overall range 0-4 +, negative to maximum) on skin testing. The test was carried out in tubes with 0.5 ml heparinized blood, 0.5 ml tris albumin buffer, and one of the allergens (60-100 PNU/ml). In 20 controls without allergy, there always was less than or equal to 4% histamine release (normal response). A significant allergen-mediated histamine release, ranging from 12 to 30% of the total blood histamine content, was observed in 96% of the pts with skin test sensitivity of greater than or equal to 3+. There was good agreement between skin testing and histamine release in terms of the allergen causing the response. Thus, measurement of histamine release in blood in response to allergen challenge represents a clinically useful in vitro test for the diagnosis of atopic allergy. Because data can be obtained from a single sample and are highly quantitative, this new method should have application to the longitudinal study of allergic pts and to the assessment of interventions.

  17. Histamine formation and the freshness of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares stored at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.K.K.K. Jinadasa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of storage temperatures on the shelf life of yellowfin tuna (YFT loins by studying of microbial, chemical and organoleptic changes. Shelf life of YFT was determined through changes in total aerobic bacterial plate counts (APC, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N trimethylamine (TMA, organoleptic properties and histamine development during storage at 0, 4 and 7°C. Based on TVB-N value indices, YFT maintained an acceptable shelf life for 21, 17 and 12 days at 0, 4 and 7°C, respectively. Nevertheless, YFT was rejected earlier by the sensory panellists than their TVB-N value indicated. Histamine development was found to be lower than the European Union safety level for 100 mg/kg fish during storage at 0 and 7°C for 21 and 17 days, respectively. Aerobic bacteria initially dominated the micro-flora on YFT; however, as storage time increased, aerobic bacteria became dominant at cold storage, but the numbers exceeded the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF limit of 107 cfu/g in storage at 7°C after 17 days. Therefore, it can be concluded that the storage of fresh YFT in below 4°C has good enough to the shelf life of products (two weeks.

  18. Calcium channel blocker poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium channel blockers act at L-type calcium channels in cardiac and vascular smooth muscles by preventing calcium influx into cells with resultant decrease in vascular tone and cardiac inotropy, chronotropy and dromotropy. Poisoning with calcium channel blockers results in reduced cardiac output, bradycardia, atrioventricular block, hypotension and shock. The findings of hypotension and bradycardia should suggest poisoning with calcium channel blockers.Conclusions: Treatment includes immediate gastric lavage and whole-bowel irrigation in case of ingestion of sustainedrelease products. All patients should receive an activated charcoal orally. Specific treatment includes calcium, glucagone and insulin, which proved especially useful in shocked patients. Supportive care including the use of catecholamines is not always effective. In the setting of failure of pharmacological therapy transvenous pacing, balloon pump and cardiopulmonary by-pass may be necessary.

  19. Small dose... big poison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braitberg, George; Oakley, Ed

    2010-11-01

    It is not possible to identify all toxic substances in a single journal article. However, there are some exposures that in small doses are potentially fatal. Many of these exposures are particularly toxic to children. Using data from poison control centres, it is possible to recognise this group of exposures. This article provides information to assist the general practitioner to identify potential toxic substance exposures in children. In this article the authors report the signs and symptoms of toxic exposures and identify the time of onset. Where clear recommendations on the period of observation and known fatal dose are available, these are provided. We do not discuss management or disposition, and advise readers to contact the Poison Information Service or a toxicologist for this advice.

  20. [Poisoning with oleander leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, G A; Mombelli, G

    1990-04-21

    After ingestion of seven leaves of oleander (Nerium oleander) in a suicide attempt, a 37-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with symptoms of digitalis intoxication. The serum digoxin level on arrival was 5.69 nmol/l. The course was uneventful. The usefulness of digoxin radioimmunoassay to demonstrate poisoning with oleander (but not to predict the degree of toxicity) and the potential use of digoxin-specific Fab-antibody fragments in this situation are discussed.

  1. [Toxic alcohol poisonings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulicki, Paweł; Głogowski, Tomasz

    Accidental or intentional poisonings with ethylene glycol or methanol constitute a serious toxicological problem in many countries. Both alcohols are quickly metabolized by alcohol dehydrogenase to toxic metabolites responsible for high anion gap severe metabolic acidosis and profound neurological, cardiopulmonary, renal disturbances and death. In the early period, the competing inhibition the alcohol dehydrogenase with ethanol or fomepizol may successfully prevent the formation of the toxic metabolites. Once severe acidosis develops an emergency hemodialysis is required.

  2. The prognosis following amphetamine poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horwitz, Henrik; Dalhoff, Kim P.; Klemp, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Aims: This study investigated the long-term mortality following poisoning by amphetamine or substituted amphetamines. Furthermore, we examined the social problems and somatic and psychiatric co-morbidity related to amphetamine poisoning, and their impact on the long-term survival. Methods: We...... identified amphetamine poisoned patients from the Danish Poison Information Centre database and correlated their personal identification numbers with seven Danish national registries related to different social and health aspects. For each case, we sampled 100 age and gender matched controls from...... the background population. Results: From August 2006 to December 2013 we identified 1444 patients (70% males) who experienced amphetamine poisoning; 52% of the cases were classified as mixed poisonings and the average age at first contact was 24.8 years (SD 8.6). The prevalence of psychiatric disorders, HIV...

  3. Methanol poisoning: characteristic MRI findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Nirdesh; Himanshu, Dandu; Verma, Shailendra Prasad; Parihar, Anit

    2013-01-01

    Acute methanol intoxication is not an unusual poisoning. It can have serious neurological sequelae. We emphasize how neuroimaging can help in distinguishing methanol poisoning from other causes of acute unconsciousness in alcoholic patients such as hypoglycemic brain damage and carbon monoxide poisoning or head injury, which are frequently observed in alcoholic patients and are also responsible for altered sensorium. The most important findings in MR brain imaging in methanol poisoning have been bilateral putaminal hemorrhagic necrosis. Other less common findings are subcortical and deep white matter lesions, cerebral and cerebellar cortical lesions, and midbrain lesions, cerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage, and even enhancement of necrotic lesions, we found almost the entire spectrum of MRI findings in this patient with methanol poisoning. Neurological sequelae can entail the course and prognosis in methanol poisoning. The patient died because of ventilator-associated pneumonia that developed in the course of prolonged hospitalization.

  4. Chelation Therapy for Mercury Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Rong Guan; Han Dai

    2009-01-01

    Chelation therapy has been the major treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Various chelating agents have been developed and tested for treatment of heavy metal intoxications, including mercury poisoning. It has been clearly shown that chelating agents could rescue the toxicity caused by heavy metal intoxication, but the potential preventive role of chelating agents against heavy metal poisoning has not been explored much. Recent paper by Siddiqi and colleagues has suggested a protective role o...

  5. Prallethrin poisoning: A diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka Chandra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrethroid insecticides are very widely used in agriculture and household due to their high effectiveness and low toxicity in humans. Despite their extensive worldwide use, there are a few reports of human pyrethroid poisoning. The poisoning has a varied presentation and its symptoms overlap with those of other compounds, which can lead to misdiagnosis. We present a case of poisoning with prallethrin, a pyrethroid compound, commonly available as All-Out.

  6. Prallethrin poisoning: A diagnostic dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    Alka Chandra; Dixit, Madhu B.; Banavaliker, Jayant N

    2013-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are very widely used in agriculture and household due to their high effectiveness and low toxicity in humans. Despite their extensive worldwide use, there are a few reports of human pyrethroid poisoning. The poisoning has a varied presentation and its symptoms overlap with those of other compounds, which can lead to misdiagnosis. We present a case of poisoning with prallethrin, a pyrethroid compound, commonly available as All-Out.

  7. The Histamine H4 Receptor: From Orphan to the Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin L. Thurmond

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The histamine H4 receptor (H4R was first noted as a sequence in genomic databases that had features of a G-protein coupled receptor. This putative receptor was found to bind histamine consistent with its homology to other histamine receptors and thus became the fourth member of the histamine receptor family. Due to the previous success of drugs that target the H1 and H2 receptors, an effort was made to understand the function of this receptor and determine if it represented a drug target. Taking advantage of the vast literature on histamine, a search for histamine activity that did not appear to be mediated by the other three histamine receptors was undertaken. From this asthma and pruritus emerged as areas of particular interest. Histamine has long been suspected to play a role in the pathogenesis of asthma, but antihistamines that target the H1 and H2 receptors have not been shown to be effective for this condition. The use of selective ligands in animal models of asthma has now potentially filled this gap by showing a role for the H4R in mediating lung function and inflammation. A similar story exists for chronic pruritus associated with conditions such as atopic dermatitis. Antihistamines that target the H1 receptor are effective in reducing acute pruritus, but are ineffective in pruritus experienced by patients with atopic dermatitis. As for asthma, animal models have now suggested a role for the H4R in mediating pruritic responses, with antagonists to the H4R reducing pruritus in a number of different conditions. The anti-pruritic effect of H4R antagonists has recently been shown in human clinical studies, validating the preclinical findings in the animal models. A selective H4R antagonist inhibited histamine-induced pruritus in health volunteers and reduced pruritus in patients with atopic dermatitis. The history to date of the H4R provides an excellent example of the deorphanization of a novel receptor and the translation of this into

  8. Neuronal histamine and cognitive symptoms in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlomuzica, Armin; Dere, Dorothea; Binder, Sonja; De Souza Silva, Maria Angelica; Huston, Joseph P; Dere, Ekrem

    2016-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by extracellular amyloid plaque deposits, mainly composed of amyloid-beta peptide and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles consisting of aggregated hyperphosphorylated tau protein. Amyloid-beta represents a neurotoxic proteolytic cleavage product of amyloid precursor protein. The progressive cognitive decline that is associated with Alzheimer's disease has been mainly attributed to a deficit in cholinergic neurotransmission due to the continuous degeneration of cholinergic neurons e.g. in the basal forebrain. There is evidence suggesting that other neurotransmitter systems including neuronal histamine also contribute to the development and maintenance of Alzheimer's disease-related cognitive deficits. Pathological changes in the neuronal histaminergic system of such patients are highly predictive of ensuing cognitive deficits. Furthermore, histamine-related drugs, including histamine 3 receptor antagonists, have been demonstrated to alleviate cognitive symptoms in Alzheimer's disease. This review summarizes findings from animal and clinical research on the relationship between the neuronal histaminergic system and cognitive deterioration in Alzheimer's disease. The significance of the neuronal histaminergic system as a promising target for the development of more effective drugs for the treatment of cognitive symptoms is discussed. Furthermore, the option to use histamine-related agents as neurogenesis-stimulating therapy that counteracts progressive brain atrophy in Alzheimer's disease is considered. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Histamine Receptors'. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Bacterial Microflora of Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Austin

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of numerous studies indicate that fish possess bacterial populations on or in their skin, gills, digestive tract, and light-emitting organs. In addition, the internal organs (kidney, liver, and spleen of healthy fish may contain bacteria, but there is debate on whether or not muscle is actually sterile. The numbers and taxonomic composition of the bacterial populations often reflect those of the surrounding water. The role of the bacteria includes the ability to degrade complex molecules (therefore exercising a potential benefit in nutrition, to produce vitamins and polymers, and to be responsible for the emission of light by the light-emitting organs of deep-sea fish. Taxa, including Pseudomonas, may contribute to spoilage by the production of histamines in fish tissue.

  10. Aspirin Augments IgE-Mediated Histamine Release from Human Peripheral Basophils via Syk Kinase Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Matsuo

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Aspirin enhanced histamine release from basophils via increased Syk kinase activation, and that the augmentation of histamine release by NSAIDs or FAs may be one possible cause of worsening symptoms in patients with chronic urticaria and FDEIA.

  11. An interesting case of suicidal poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Mohit Sharma; Satish Kumar; Aditi Prashar; Ashok Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Aconite is one of the most poisonous known herbs. It has been known to be used as a homicidal poison from long time in history. However this is rarely known to be used as suicidal poison. Poisoning with aconite is usually fatal and death commonly occurs due to arrhythmias and cardiotoxicity. We report a case of attempted suicidal poisoning by aconite where patient survived in spite of documented cardiotoxic effects of the poison.

  12. An interesting case of suicidal poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Sharma

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Aconite is one of the most poisonous known herbs. It has been known to be used as a homicidal poison from long time in history. However this is rarely known to be used as suicidal poison. Poisoning with aconite is usually fatal and death commonly occurs due to arrhythmias and cardiotoxicity. We report a case of attempted suicidal poisoning by aconite where patient survived in spite of documented cardiotoxic effects of the poison.

  13. Histamine Recycling Is Mediated by CarT, a Carcinine Transporter in Drosophila Photoreceptors.

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Xu; Futing An; Borycz, Jolanta A.; Janusz Borycz; Ian A Meinertzhagen; Tao Wang

    2015-01-01

    Histamine is an important chemical messenger that regulates multiple physiological processes in both vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Even so, how glial cells and neurons recycle histamine remains to be elucidated. Drosophila photoreceptor neurons use histamine as a neurotransmitter, and the released histamine is recycled through neighboring glia, where it is conjugated to ?-alanine to form carcinine. However, how carcinine is then returned to the photoreceptor remains unclear. In an mRNA...

  14. The poisons and narcotics of the Amazonian Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prance, G

    1999-01-01

    The indigenous tribes of the Amazonian rainforest have discovered a vast array of poisons and narcotics from the plant species which surround them. Examples are given from the author's personal experience of a variety of arrow poisons, fish poisons and narcotics used by six different tribes. There is a great variety of different plant species used for each category and no two tribes studied employ exactly the same array of plant species. This makes it important to survey a wide range of tribes and to document this information before it is too late as these people are fast losing their traditional culture. Several of the substances used by Amazonian Indians, such as curare and coca, have entered into western medicine and others such as rotenone, an ingredient of their fish poison, has become a useful insecticide. Further useful chemicals are likely to be discovered from ethnobotanical work among indigenous peoples and it is vital that any commercial gain from their knowledge be of direct benefit to these people in accordance with the rules of the Convention on Biological Diversity.

  15. ALA-D AS AN INDICATOR OF LEAD POISONING AMONG HUNTED BIRDS

    OpenAIRE

    Łukasz Jakub Binkowski; Bartłomiej Zyśk; Marek Guzik; Robert Stawarz; Tomasz Łaciak; Włodzimierz Wojtaś; Grzegorz Formicki; Agnieszka Greń

    2013-01-01

    The major causes of lead (Pb) poisoning in waterbirds (mostly Anseriformes) are lead pellets from ammunition sources and fishing sinkers which may be ingested by the mistake by birds during foraging. They are being dissolved and got into the bloodstream causing a poisoning. To evaluate this exposition of particular specimens, biomarkers as the activity of δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in blood can be used. These measurements may be done in blood samples taken from birds during the ringing...

  16. Histamine and tryptase in nasal lavage fluid after allergen challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobi, H H; Skov, P S; Poulsen, L K

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antihistamines (H1-receptor antagonists) act by competitive antagonism of histamine at H1-receptors. In addition, high concentrations of some antihistamines inhibit allergen-induced histamine release from mast cells in vitro. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine...... the effect of intranasal azelastine or systemic cetirizine (both potent antihistamines) on the allergen-induced release of mast-cell mediators from the human nasal mucosa in vivo. METHODS: Patients allergic to birch pollen (n = 11) and control subjects not allergic to birch pollen (n = 5) were included......, nasal allergen challenges were performed, and the number of sneezes were counted. In addition, nasal lavage fluid was collected, and the levels of mast-cell mediators (histamine and tryptase) were measured. RESULTS: The allergen challenge of patients allergic to pollen produced sneezing...

  17. Time-dependent histamine release from stored human blood products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Edvardsen, L; Vangsgaard, K

    1996-01-01

    storage. Whole blood (six units), plasma-reduced whole blood (six units), and plasma- and buffy coat-reduced (saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol) (SAGM) blood (six units) from unpaid healthy donors were stored in the blood bank for 35 days at 4 degrees C. Plasma histamine and total cell-bound histamine.......0 (range 176.0-910.0) nmol/l in whole blood and 475.0 (range 360.0-1560.0) nmol/l in plasma-reduced whole blood, while it was undetectable in SAGM blood. Spontaneous histamine release increased in a time-dependent manner from a median of 6.7 (range 2.2-17.4) nmol/l at the time of storage to 175.0 (range 33...

  18. Histamine H4 receptor antagonists: the new antihistamines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung-Leung, Wai-Ping; Thurmond, Robin L; Ling, Ping; Karlsson, Lars

    2004-11-01

    Antihistamines (histamine H1 receptor antagonists) are a mainstay treatment for atopic allergy, yet they are only partially effective in relieving the symptoms of the disease. They also have very limited value for the treatment of asthma, despite the well-characterized bronchoconstrictory effects of histamine. The recent discovery of a fourth histamine receptor (H4), and the realization that it is exclusively expressed on hematopoietic cell types that are most implicated in the development and symptomatology of allergy and asthma, suggests that pharmacological targeting of the H4 receptor, either alone or in combination with H1 receptor antagonists, may prove useful for treating both allergy and asthma. Here we review the known biology associated with the H4 receptor, as well the effects of a highly selective H1 receptor antagonist.

  19. OCCUPATIONAL CARBAMATE POISONING IN THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongpoo, Achara; Sriapha, Charuwan; Wongvisawakorn, Sunun; Rittilert, Panee; Trakulsrichai, Satariya; Wananukul, Winai

    2015-07-01

    Carbamate insecticide is a leading cause of poisoning in Thailand. The objective of this study was to characterize the clinical manifestations and modes of occupational exposure in carbamate poisoning cases. We retrospectively studied all the cases of carbamate poisoning due to occupational exposure recorded in the Ramathibodi Poison Center Toxic Exposure Surveillance system during 2005 to 2010. Demographic data, clinical manifestations and severity were analyzed statistically. During the study period, 3,183 cases were identified, of which 170 (5.3%) were deemed to be due to occupational exposure. Ninety-six cases (56.5%) and 35 cases (20.6%) were poisoned by carbofuran and methomyl, respectively. Carbofuran is sold as a 3% grain and applied by sowing; methomyl is sold as a liquid and is applied by spraying. The majority of poisoned patients did not wear personal protective equipment (PPE) while applying the carbamates. The clinical manifestations of occupational carbofuran poisoning recorded were nausea and vomiting (82.3%), headaches (56.3%) and miosis (19.8%). The clinical manifestations of methomyl poisoning were nausea and vomiting (74.3%), headaches (57.1%) and palpitations (11.4%). Most patients in both groups had mild symptoms. Only one case in each group required endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation support. There were no deaths and the lengths of hospitalization ranged from 2 hours to 2 days. Occupational carbamate poisoning cases in our series were mostly mild and the patients recovered quickly. There were only rare cases of serious symptoms. Lack of knowledge and inadequate PPE were the major factors contributing to occupational poisoning. Educating agricultural workers about correct precautions and pesticide use could minimize this type of poisoning.

  20. Puffer fish tragedy in Bangladesh: an incident of Takifugu oblongus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Puffer fish poisoning that occurs occasionally among the rural poor in Bangladesh is mainly caused by freshwater species. A food poisoning incident resulting from the ingestion of the marine puffer Takifugu oblongus occurred at Degholia in the Khulna district of Bangladesh on 18 May 2002. A total of 36 victims, including ...

  1. An overview of anti-allergic drug therapy and the histamine-1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histamine is also secreted in the fundus of the stomach, where its function is to interact with histamine-2 (H2) receptors, and thereby stimulate the secretion of gastric acid by the stomach's parietal cells.1-3. Histamine is a particularly important mediator of the inflammatory process. This process, as a pathophysiological entity ...

  2. Rapid desensitization of the histamine H2 receptor on the human monocytic cell line U937

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M J; Leurs, R; Shukrula, S R; Bast, A; Timmerman, H

    1994-01-01

    In the present study we have subjected the histamine H2 receptor on the monocytic cell line U937 to a thorough pharmacological characterization using a series of selective histamine H1, H2 and H3 receptor agonists and antagonists. Recent reports have demonstrated the existence of a histamine H2

  3. REPEATED PROVOCATION TESTS IN ASTHMATIC-CHILDREN FOR TESTING TACHYPHYLAXIS TO HISTAMINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROORDA, RJ; GERRITSEN, J; VANAALDEREN, WMC; SCHOUTEN, JP; KNOL, K

    1991-01-01

    Tachyphylaxis to histamine was investigated in 16 children, aged 7-15 years, with mild asthma. Three consecutive histamine challenges were performed at intervals of 24 hours and 1 hour, respectively. No significant differences in IVC, FEV1, and PC20-histamine values between the three measurements

  4. Histamine H2 receptor - Involvement in gastric ulceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, P. A.; Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Brown, T. H.

    1976-01-01

    The involvement of the H1 and H2 receptors for histamine in the pathogenesis of gastric ulcers was investigated in rats. Metiamide, an H2 receptor antagonist, reliably reduced ulceration produced by stress alone or by a combination of stress and aspirin. In contrast, pyrilamine, which blocks only the H1 receptor, was without effect under these same conditions. The results support the hypothesis that histamine mediates both stress and stress plus aspirin induced ulceration by a mechanism involving the H2 receptor.

  5. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hsiun Cho

    2008-08-01

    Conclusion: Children with CO poisoning had good outcomes in this series. Although improperly vented exhaust from water heaters and house fires were the most common causes, intentional poisoning by parents through charcoal burning was also an important factor. Early identification of DNS risk factors might help to provide better care.

  6. Extracorporeal treatment for acetaminophen poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosselin, S; Juurlink, D N; Kielstein, J T

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning and the results are presented here for acetaminophen (APAP). METHODS: After a systematic review of the litera...

  7. Homicidal arsenic poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Andrew; Taylor, Andrew; Leese, Elizabeth; Allen, Sam; Morton, Jackie; McAdam, Julie

    2015-07-01

    The case of a 50-year-old man who died mysteriously after being admitted to hospital is reported. He had raised the possibility of being poisoned prior to his death. A Coroner's post-mortem did not reveal the cause of death but this was subsequently established by post-mortem trace element analysis of liver, urine, blood and hair all of which revealed very high arsenic concentrations. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  8. KOMBINASI BUMBU DAN ASAP CAIR DALAM MEMINIMALKAN PEMBENTUKAN HISTAMIN PADA IKAN KEMBUNG PEREMPUAN (Rastrelliger neglectus ASAP [Combination of Spice and Liquid Smoke in Minimizing Histamine Formation in the Smoked Mackerel (Rastrelliger neglectus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Bakar Tawali

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Four spices (clove, cinnamon, tamarind and ginger were combined and applied to produce smoked female mackerel. The use of liquid smoke was compared with redistilled liquid smoke. The result showed that there was lower histamine content in smoked fish treated with spices after the use of liquid smoke and redistilled liquid smoke at (1.00 – 1.20mg/100g compared with the raw material (1.55mg/100g. Histamine content in all treatments increased during storage from 0.96 – 1.13 mg/100g to 6.40 -20.29mg/100g. The phenol content decreased during storage from 2.19% - 2.44% to 0.72% - 0.84%. Using of liquid smoke in combination with spice as well as without spice,resulted in decreasing of the free fatty acid (FFA content until 20 days of storage then increased, whereas using redistilled liquid smoke, resulted decreased of FFA during 10 days storage before increased. Total psychrophilic microbe was not detectable at 0 and 10 days storage but then increased at 20 and 30 days storage to 6.5x103 – 10.1x103cfu/ml and 7.5x103 – 15.5x103cfu/ml, respectively. Overall, combination between clove-cinnamon and liquid smoke which was applied to female mackerel showed the best result i.e.: lower histamine content, lower FFA, lower total psychrophilic microbe and lower phenol content than other treatments. The acceptability of smoked fish treated with clove-cinnamon and liquid smoke after 30 days storage showed higher value than other treatments.

  9. Cleistanthus collinus poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anugrah Chrispal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cleistanthus collinus, a toxic shrub, is used for deliberate self-harm in rural South India. MEDLINE (PUBMED and Google were searched for published papers using the search/ MeSH terms "Cleistanthus collinus," "Euphorbiaceae," "Diphyllin," "Cleistanthin A," Cleistanthin B" and "Oduvanthalai." Non-indexed journals and abstracts were searched by tracing citations in published papers. The toxic principles in the leaf include arylnaphthalene lignan lactones - Diphyllin and its glycoside derivatives Cleistanthin A and B. Toxin effect in animal models demonstrate neuromuscular blockade with muscle weakness, distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA and type 2 respiratory failure with conflicting evidence of cardiac involvement. Studies suggest a likely inhibition of thiol/thiol enzymes by the lignan-lactones, depletion of glutathione and ATPases in tissues. V-type H+ ATPase inhibition in the renal tubule has been demonstrated. Mortality occurs in up to 40% of C. collinus poisonings. Human toxicity results in renal tubular dysfunction, commonly dRTA, with resultant hypokalemia and normal anion gap metabolic acidosis. Aggressive management of these metabolic derangements is crucial. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is seen in severe cases. Cardiac rhythm abnormalities have been demonstrated in a number of clinical studies, though the role of temporary cardiac pacemakers in reducing mortality is uncertain. Consumption of decoctions of C. collinus leaves, hypokalemia, renal failure, severe metabolic acidosis, ARDS and cardiac arrhythmias occur in severe poisonings and predict mortality. Further study is essential to delineate mechanisms of organ injury and interventions, including antidotes, which will reduce mortality.

  10. Histamine Induces Vascular Hyperpermeability by Increasing Blood Flow and Endothelial Barrier Disruption In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashina, Kohei; Tsubosaka, Yoshiki; Nakamura, Tatsuro; Omori, Keisuke; Kobayashi, Koji; Hori, Masatoshi; Ozaki, Hiroshi; Murata, Takahisa

    2015-01-01

    Histamine is a mediator of allergic inflammation released mainly from mast cells. Although histamine strongly increases vascular permeability, its precise mechanism under in vivo situation remains unknown. We here attempted to reveal how histamine induces vascular hyperpermeability focusing on the key regulators of vascular permeability, blood flow and endothelial barrier. Degranulation of mast cells by antigen-stimulation or histamine treatment induced vascular hyperpermeability and tissue swelling in mouse ears. These were abolished by histamine H1 receptor antagonism. Intravital imaging showed that histamine dilated vasculature, increased blood flow, while it induced hyperpermeability in venula. Whole-mount staining showed that histamine disrupted endothelial barrier formation of venula indicated by changes in vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) localization at endothelial cell junction. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis (NOS) by L-NAME or vasoconstriction by phenylephrine strongly inhibited the histamine-induced blood flow increase and hyperpermeability without changing the VE-cadherin localization. In vitro, measurements of trans-endothelial electrical resistance of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs) showed that histamine disrupted endothelial barrier. Inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) or Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK), NOS attenuated the histamine-induced barrier disruption. These observations suggested that histamine increases vascular permeability mainly by nitric oxide (NO)-dependent vascular dilation and subsequent blood flow increase and maybe partially by PKC/ROCK/NO-dependent endothelial barrier disruption. PMID:26158531

  11. Role of Histamine and Its Receptor Subtypes in Stimulation of Conjunctival Goblet Cell Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Densen; Li, Dayu; Hayashi, Chisato; Shatos, Marie; Hodges, Robin R.; Dartt, Darlene A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of histamine and its receptors on goblet cell secretion. Methods. Cultured rat and human goblet cells were grown in RPMI 1640. Goblet cell secretion of high molecular weight glycoconjugate was measured by an enzyme-linked lectin assay. Cultured rat goblet cells were homogenized and either RNA was isolated for RT-PCR or proteins were isolated for Western blot analysis for presence of histamine receptors subtypes H1 through H4. The localization of these receptors was determined in rat and human goblet cells by immunofluorescence microscopy. Results. Histamine stimulated goblet cell secretion in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. All four histamine receptors were present in cultured rat and human goblet cells. Use of agonists specific to individual histamine receptor subtypes indicated that the rank order of agonist stimulation was H1 = H3 > H4 > H2. Using antagonists specific to individual histamine receptor subtypes determined that H2 and H3, but not the H1 and H4, antagonists, inhibited histamine-stimulated conjunctival goblet cell secretion. Conclusions. Rat and human conjunctival goblet cells are a direct target of histamine, which induces secretion. All four histamine receptors are present in rat and human conjunctiva and are active in rat conjunctival goblet cells. These findings suggest that all four histamine receptor subtypes are important for conjunctival goblet cell secretion. Blockage of histamine receptor subtypes could prevent the excess mucus production associated with ocular allergy. PMID:22467574

  12. Determination of histamine in Iranian cheese using enzyme-linked ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    john

    African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 12(3), pp. 308-310, 16 January, 2013. Available online ... cheese were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method in Iran. In the two cheese samples of the 44 samples .... more histamine than fresh cheese (Numanoglu et al.,. 2008). This can be explained by the ...

  13. Effects of different monosaccharides on histamine-stimulated gastric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monosaccharides such as glucose, fructose and galactose have been established as the main energy source for physiological activities in the body. The current study was undertaken to investigate the effects of different monosaccarides on histamine-stimulated gastric acid secretion and also to investigate whether acute ...

  14. Influence of nitric oxide on histamine and carbachol – induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed to determine the influence of nitric oxide (NO) on the action of histamine and carbachol on acid secretion in the common African toad – Bufo regularis. Gastric acidity was determined by titration method. The acid secretion was determined when nitric oxide was absent following administration of NO synthase ...

  15. Histamine in hemorrhagic shock - A new approach with microdialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raum, M; Nagelschmidt, M; Rixen, D; Keiser, F; Gregor, S; Tiling, T; Bouillon, B; Neugebauer, E; Redl, H

    2005-01-01

    Microdialysis is a new approach for monitoring after hemorrhagic shock. The advantage of microdialysis is the local measurement of microcirculation and local changes of mediators. Until now this was mostly used in neuromonitoring. In this experiment we were focussed on the local changes of histamine

  16. Anti-histaminic potentials of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of ailments and diseases has gained acceptance both in the developed and developing countries. Mast cell is reportedly known as the source of inflammatory mediators including histamine and some other pro-inflammatory cytokines. This study attempts to establish the ...

  17. Expression of histamine receptors in the human endolymphatic sac

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, M Nue; Kirkeby, S; Vikeså, J.

    2016-01-01

    in 2012. This leaves betahistine (Betaserc) as the only drug for potential prevention of the incapacitating attacks of dizziness, tinnitus and hearing loss. However, the histamine receptors targeted by betahistine have never been demonstrated in the human ES. Accordingly, this study aims to investigate...

  18. Histamine receptors and antihistamines: from discovery to clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldi, Mauro; Borriello, Francesco; Granata, Francescopaolo; Annunziato, Lucio; Marone, Gianni

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis and the identification of histamine marked a milestone in both pharmacological and immunological research. Since Sir Henry Dale and Patrick Laidlaw described some of its physiological effects in vivo in 1910, histamine has been shown to play a key role in the control of gastric acid secretion and in allergic disorders. Using selective agonists and antagonists, as well as molecular biology tools, four histamine receptors (H1R, H2R, H3R and H4R) have been identified. The Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine was awarded to Daniel Bovet in 1957 for the discovery of antihistamines (anti-H1R) and to Sir James Black in 1988 for the identification of anti-H2R antagonists. Anti-H1R and anti-H2R histamine receptor antagonists have revolutionized the treatment of certain allergic disorders and gastric acid-related conditions, respectively. More recently, anti-H3R antagonists have entered early-phase clinical trials for possible application in obesity and a variety of neurologic disorders. The preferential expression of H4R by several immune cells and its involvement in the development of allergic inflammation provide the rationale for the use of anti-H4R antagonists in allergic and in other immune-related disorders. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Histamine and tyramine production by bacteria isolated from spoiled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Windows7

    2013-05-22

    May 22, 2013 ... Bacterial strains (32) from spoiled sardine were isolated and investigated for their ability to produce histamine ... spoilage because their precursor amino acids are decar- boxylated .... Ammonia and biogenic amine production by bacteria isolated from spoiled sardine in histidine decarboxylase broth (mg/L).

  20. Histamine is not released in acute thermal injury in human skin in vivo: a microdialysis study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars J; Pedersen, Juri L; Skov, Per S

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Animal models have shown histamine to be released from the skin during the acute phase of a burn injury. The role of histamine during the early phase of thermal injuries in humans remains unclear. PURPOSE: The objectives of this trial were to study histamine release in human skin during...... the acute phase of a standardized thermal injury in healthy volunteers. METHODS: Histamine concentrations in human skin were measured by skin microdialysis technique. Microdialysis fibers were inserted into the dermis in the lower leg in male healthy volunteers. A standardized superficial thermal injury...... was elicited by a heating thermode (49 degrees C) applied to the skin for 5 min. Histamine in dialysate was analyzed for up to 2 h after the injury using two different analytical methods. RESULTS: Spectrofluorometric assay of histamine showed no histamine release in separate studies using 2-min samples over 20...

  1. Consequences of the increasing prevalence of the poisonous Lagocephalus sceleratus in southern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beköz, Alev Banu; Beköz, Sera; Yilmaz, Elanur; Tüzün, Suna; Beköz, Uner

    2013-11-01

    The increasing Indo-Pacific migration has affected the biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea, and the prevalence of the puffer fish (Lagocephalus sceleratus), a well-known poisonous migrant, is increasing. The fish, which contains tetrodotoxin, is lethally poisonous when consumed. As its population increases it becomes more available in the markets of southern Turkey, but local people seem to be unaware of the danger. Probably because of the depressed stocks of the surrounding waters and demand on affordable seafood, local anglers are catching the fish. The situation constitutes an alert for the local emergency medicine organisation and is a public health issue. Local fishermen, fish sellers/dealers/brokers, buyers and emergency department physicians were interviewed about the fishery and consumption facts of the puffer fish in the region, the number of cases reported in the regional state run hospitals and the 112 Emergency Medical Response Service, and the knowledge and practice of the doctors in the emergency departments. General health organisations are unprepared for the serious health hazards caused by this fish, including fatalities. Health workers should have sufficient knowledge regarding the clinical manifestations, complications and management of puffer fish poisoning. Official authorities should make the public aware of the potential risk of consuming puffer fish.

  2. [Medical treatment during fish envenomation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satora, Leszek; Gawlikowski, Tomasz

    2009-01-01

    Expositions to fish venoms should be treated as a separate group of intoxications because of their different diagnostic procedure. Until now, there are over 220 venomous fish species described, but skin excretions are potentially toxic for humans. Cases of fish envenomations (37), consulted by Poison Information Centres in Poland, as well as described in literature and contained in Micromedex database were analyzed. The course of envenomation, medical management during exposition to venomous of Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes, freshwater and marine fishes were resolved. Injuries caused by venoms fishes were similarly treated, usually symptomatic. Specific antivenoms are available only for two fish species. Each patient exposed to sting or bite should be examined and observed. If characteristic sings and symptoms of envenomation are present, proper medical management should be proceed.

  3. [Mushroom poisoning in Portugal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, José Luís; Pinheiro, J; Pinho, D; Correia da Silva, D; Fernandes, E; Fragoso, G; Costa, M I; Silva, A

    2011-12-01

    The renewed interest in mycology has been reflected in growing use of wild mushrooms in culinary, driven by its nutritional, organoleptic and commercial value. However, the international scientific literature describes several syndromes of poisoning by mushrooms. We live, therefore, a paradigm conducive to an increase of mycetism, whose diagnosis requires a high level of suspicion and knowledge of clinical profiles. In Portugal, the real dimension of this problem is unknown. Although some mycetisms, such as the hepatotoxic syndrome, have high morbidity and mortality, their relative incidences are unknown. Add up to the shortage of international scientific literature, often outdated and inappropriate to clinical practice. In this context, this article provides an updated epidemiological and clinical perspective emphasizing a narrative and descriptive information on the forms of presentation, differential diagnosis and therapeutic approach, with the ultimate goal of the elaboration of a national diagram-oriented approach to decision-making diagnosis. We analyzed all the clinical records of patients admitted into ten hospitals between 1990 and 2008, notified with the code 988.1 of GDH (acute poisoning by mushrooms). There were registered demographic data, way of presentation, time between ingestion and onset of symptoms, the annual distribution, clinical profile, clinical and analytical treatment performed and complications. We identified 93 cases of acute poisoning by mushrooms, with equal gender distribution and inclusion of individuals of all age groups (from 1 to 85 years), but with greater representation from 21 to 50 years. There was a bimodal seasonal pattern, with a higher peak between September and December and a second in the spring. The hepatotoxic profile presentation corresponded to 63.4% and 31.7% of the cases to gastroenteritis syndrome. The mortality in cases of hepatotoxicity was 11.8%. The developmental profile of the rate of prothrombin time (PT

  4. Cisplatin Analogs Confer Protection against Cyanide Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Anjali K; Shi, Xu; Harrison, Devin L; Morningstar, Jordan E; Mahon, Sari; Chan, Adriano; Sips, Patrick; Lee, Jangwoen; MacRae, Calum A; Boss, Gerry R; Brenner, Matthew; Gerszten, Robert E; Peterson, Randall T

    2017-05-18

    Cisplatin holds an illustrious position in the history of chemistry most notably for its role in the virtual cure of testicular cancer. Here we describe a role for this small molecule in cyanide detoxification in vivo. Cyanide kills organisms as diverse as insects, fish, and humans within seconds to hours. Current antidotes exhibit limited efficacy and are not amenable to mass distribution requiring the development of new classes of antidotes. The binding affinity of the cyanide anion for the positively charged metal platinum is known to create an extremely stable complex in vitro. We therefore screened a panel of diverse cisplatin analogs and identified compounds that conferred protection from cyanide poisoning in zebrafish, mice, and rabbits. Cumulatively, this discovery pipeline begins to establish the characteristics of platinum ligands that influence their solubility, toxicity, and efficacy, and provides proof of concept that platinum-based complexes are effective antidotes for cyanide poisoning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Alcohol Withdrawal Mimicking Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezihat Rana Disel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphates, which can cause occupational poisoning due to inappropriate personal protective measures, are widely used insecticides in agricultural regions of southern Turkey. Therefore, the classical clinical findings of this cholinergic poisoning are myosis, excessive secretions, bradicardia and fasciculations are easy to be recognized by local medical stuff. Diseases and conditions related to alcoholism such as mental and social impairments, coma, toxicity, withdrawal, and delirium are frequent causes of emergency visits of chronic alcoholic patients. Here we present a case diagnosed and treated as organophosphate poisoning although it was an alcohol withdrawal in the beginning and became delirium tremens, due to similar symptoms.

  6. Using poison center exposure calls to predict methadone poisoning deaths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabarun Dasgupta

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: There are more drug overdose deaths in the Untied States than motor vehicle fatalities. Yet the US vital statistics reporting system is of limited value because the data are delayed by four years. Poison centers report data within an hour of the event, but previous studies suggested a small proportion of poisoning deaths are reported to poison centers (PC. In an era of improved electronic surveillance capabilities, exposure calls to PCs may be an alternate indicator of trends in overdose mortality. METHODS: We used PC call counts for methadone that were reported to the Researched Abuse, Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS® System in 2006 and 2007. US death certificate data were used to identify deaths due to methadone. Linear regression was used to quantify the relationship of deaths and poison center calls. RESULTS: Compared to decedents, poison center callers tended to be younger, more often female, at home and less likely to require medical attention. A strong association was found with PC calls and methadone mortality (b=0.88, se=0.42, t=9.5, df=1, p<0.0001, R(2 =0.77. These findings were robust to large changes in a sensitivity analysis assessing the impact of underreporting of methadone overdose deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that calls to poison centers for methadone are correlated with poisoning mortality as identified on death certificates. Calls received by poison centers may be used for timely surveillance of mortality due to methadone. In the midst of the prescription opioid overdose epidemic, electronic surveillance tools that report in real-time are powerful public health tools.

  7. Lead poisoning from Ayurvedic medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Rayji S; Van Schalkwyk, Johan; Spriggs, David

    2013-05-10

    A case of lead poisoning with established exposure to Ayurvedic medicines is presented. This patient migrated from India to New Zealand 8 years previously. He regularly visits India where he purchases "herbal remedies" for his wellbeing.

  8. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... tornadoes), using alternative sources of power can cause carbon monoxide (CO) to build up in a home and ...

  9. Oil-based paint poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. ... Saunders; 2014:chap 147. Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. ...

  10. Grass and weed killer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002838.htm Grass and weed killer poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Many weed killers contain dangerous chemicals that are harmful if ...

  11. Alcohol Poisoning Deaths PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-06

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.  Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/6/2015.

  12. PENGGUNAAN EKSTRAK TEH HIJAU (Camellia sinensis SEBAGAI PENGHAMBAT PEMBENTUKAN HISTAMIN PADA IKAN SEBELUM DIOLAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Sri Heruwati

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian penggunaan ekstrak teh hijau (Camellia sinensis sebagai penghambat pembentukan histamin pada ikan telah dilakukan. Ikan, terutama dari jenis skombroid, sangat rentan mengalami kerusakan karena terjadinya perubahan asam amino histidin yang terkandung dalam ikan menjadi senyawa histamin yang bersifat alergen, yang dikatalisasi oleh enzim histamin dekarboksilase (HDC. Teh hijau diketahui mengandung polifenol berupa senyawa epigalokatekingalat (EGCG yang merupakan penghambat enzim HDC, sehingga dekarboksilasi histidin menjadi histamin dapat dicegah. Perendaman ikan tongkol dalarn ekstrak teh hijau pada konsentrasi 0, 2, dan 4% dilakukan selama 30 menit, diikuti dengan pernindangan dalam larutan gararn 15% selama 30 menit diteruskan dengan penyimpanan ikan pindang pada suhu kamar. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan setiap hari selarna 4 hari penyimpanan untuk diamati perubahan mutu kimiawi (TVB dan kadar histarnin, mikrobiologi JPC dan bakteri pembentuk histamin, serta organoleptik (kenampakan, bau, tekstur, lendir, rasa. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ikan yang direndam dalam ekstrak teh 4% mempunyai kadar histamin 21,3 ppm, jauh lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan ikan yang direndam dalam ekstrak teh 2% dan 0% yang masing-masing mencapai 64,4 pprn dan 101,4 ppm. Penghambatan pembentukan histamin oleh ekstrak teh hijau masih terjadi selama penyimpanan, yang terlihat dari rendahnya jumlah bakteri pembentuk histarnin dan kadar histamin dibandingkan dengan kontrol. Pada penyimpanan hari ke-3, penghambatan pembentukan histamin oleh ekstrak teh hijau tidak efektif, kemungkinan karena terlalu tingginya jurnlah bakteri pembentuk histamin, yaitu mencapai 108 cfu/g.

  13. Gender Differences in Histamine-Induced Depolarization and Inward Currents in Vagal Ganglion Neurons in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-Nan; Qian, Zhao; Xu, Wen-Xiao; Xu, Bing; Lu, Xiao-Long; Yan, Zhen-Yu; Han, Li-Min; Liu, Yang; Yuan, Mei; Schild, John; Qiao, Guo-Fen; Li, Bai-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Evidence has shown gender differences regarding the critical roles of histamine in the prevalence of asthma, anaphylaxis, and angina pectoris. Histamine depolarizes unmyelinated C-type neurons without any effects on myelinated A-type vagal ganglion neurons (VGNs) in male rats. However, little is known if VGNs from females react to histamine in a similar manner. Membrane depolarization and inward currents were tested in VGNs isolated from adult rats using a whole-cell patch technique. Results from males were consistent with the literature. Surprisingly, histamine-induced depolarization and inward currents were observed in both unmyelinated C-type and myelinated A- and Ah-type VGNs from female rats. In Ah-type neurons, responses to 1.0 μM histamine were stronger in intact females than in males and significantly reduced in ovariectomized (OVX) females. In C-type neurons, histamine-induced events were significantly smaller (pA/pF) in intact females compared with males and this histamine-induced activity was dramatically increased by OVX. Female A-types responded to histamine, which was further increased following ovariectomy. Histamine at 300 nM depolarized Ah-types in females, but not Ah-types in OVX females. In contrast, the sensitivity of A- and C-types to histamine was upregulated by OVX. These data demonstrate gender differences in VGN chemosensitivity to histamine for the first time. Myelinated Ah-types showed the highest sensitivity to histamine across female populations, which was changed by OVX. These novel findings improve the understanding of gender differences in the prevalence of asthma, anaphylaxis, and pain. Changes in sensitivity to histamine by OVX may explain alterations in the prevalence of certain pathophysiological conditions when women reach a postmenopausal age. PMID:24339729

  14. Vasopeptidase-activated latent ligands of the histamine receptor-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gera, Lajos; Roy, Caroline; Charest-Morin, Xavier; Marceau, François

    2013-11-01

    Whether peptidases present in vascular cells can activate prodrugs active on vascular cells has been tested with 2 potential latent ligands of the histamine H1 receptor (H1R). First, a peptide consisting of the antihistamine cetirizine (CTZ) condensed at the N-terminus of ε-aminocaproyl-bradykinin (εACA-BK) was evaluated for an antihistamine activity that could be revealed by degradation of the peptide part of the molecule. CTZ-εACA-BK had a submicromolar affinity for the BK B2 receptor (B2R; IC50 of 590 nM, [(3)H]BK binding competition), but a non-negligible affinity for the human H1 receptor (H1R; IC50 of 11 μM for [(3)H]pyrilamine binding). In the human isolated umbilical vein, a system where both endogenous B2R and H1R mediate strong contractions, CTZ-εACA-BK exerted mild antagonist effects on histamine-induced contraction that were not modified by omapatrilat or by a B2R antagonist that prevents endocytosis of the BK conjugate. Cells expressing recombinant ACE or B2R incubated with CTZ-εACA-BK did not release a competitor of [(3)H]pyrilamine binding to H1Rs. Thus, there is no evidence that CTZ-εACA-BK can release free cetirizine in biological environments. The second prodrug was a blocked agonist, L-alanyl-histamine, potentially activated by aminopeptidase N (APN). This compound did not compete for [(3)H]pyrilamine binding to H1Rs. The human umbilical vein contractility assay responded to L-alanyl-histamine (EC50 54.7 μM), but the APN inhibitor amastatin massively (17-fold) reduced its apparent potency. Amastatin did not influence the potency of histamine as a contractile agent. One of the 2 tested latent H1R ligands, L-alanyl-histamine, supported the feasibility of pro-drug activation by vascular ectopeptidases. © 2013.

  15. Methemoglobinemia in aluminum phosphide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadnia, Shahin; Soltaninejad, Kambiz; Hassanian-Moghadam, Hossein; Sadeghi, Anahaita; Rahimzadeh, Hormat; Zamani, Nasim; Ghasemi-Toussi, Alireza; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2011-03-01

    Acute aluminum phosphide (AlP) poisoning is one of the most common causes of acute pesticide poisoning in Iran. Hydrogen phosphide or phosphine gas is produced following reaction of AlP with water even at ambient humidity. Methemoglobinemia is a rare finding following phosphine poisoning. In this paper, two cases of fatal AlP poisoning complicated by methemoglobinemia are reported. Two patients presented following suicidal ingestion of AlP tablets. In the Emergency Department (ED), they received gastric lavage with sodium bicarbonate and potassium permanganate. Both of them received supportive care. In each case, hematuria and hemolysis were significant events. The patients also showed a decrease in O(2) saturation in spite of high FIO(2). Methemoglobin levels of 40% and 30% were detected by co-oximetry. Neither patient responded to treatment (ascorbic acid in one case, methylene blue in the other). Both patients died due to systemic effects of phosphine poisoning. Hemolysis and methemoglobinemia may complicate the course of phosphine poisoning that seems resistant to methylene blue and ascorbic acid. Therefore, other treatments including hyperbaric oxygen therapy and exchange blood transfusion should be considered.

  16. [Mortality by poisoning in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Híjar, M; Blanco, J; Carrillo, C; Rascón, A

    1998-01-01

    To determine the standing of mortality by poisoning in children in the Mexican Republic, in the years from 1979-1994. Secondary sources were employed. Analyzed variables were: age, sex, year, external cause of trauma and poisoning according to the 9th International Classification of Diseases: E850-E858, E860-E869 and E905. Tendencies by specific causes were analyzed with a Poisson regression model and relative risk by age, sex and district were obtained. A total of 11,272 children under 15 years of age were recorded. The main causes were poisoning and toxic reactions caused by venomous plants or animals (E905); accidental poisoning by household gas or carbon monoxide (E868); and accidental poisoning by other drugs (E858). The relative risk was highest in age group Aguascalientes consistently presented the highest risk values and the state of Nuevo Leon, the lowest. Poisoning is an important cause of child mortality. Considering that most of these deaths can potentially be prevented since they occur at home it is recommended that responsible adults can build protection into their environment and into the way society operates. Prevention should involve a multidisciplinary approach since the phenomenon has multiple causes and possible solutions.

  17. Inhibition of basophil histamine release by gangliosides. Further studies on the significance of cell membrane sialic acid in the histamine release process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C; Norn, S; Thastrup, Ole

    1987-01-01

    Histamine release from human basophils was inhibited by preincubation of the cells with a glucolipid mixture containing sialic acid-containing gangliosides. This was true for histamine release induced by anti-IgE, Concanavalin A and the calcium ionophore A23187, whereas the release induced by S. ...

  18. A comparative study on basophil activation test, histamine release assay, and passive sensitization histamine release assay in the diagnosis of peanut allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, L. F.; Juel-Berg, N.; Hansen, K. S.; Clare Mills, E. N.; van Ree, R.; Poulsen, L. K.; Jensen, B. M.

    2018-01-01

    BackgroundAllergy can be diagnosed using basophil tests. Several methods measuring basophil activation are available. This study aimed at comparing basophil activation test (BAT), histamine release assay (HR), and passive sensitization histamine release assay (passive HR) in the diagnosis of peanut

  19. Study to investigate the difference in reaction to intracutaneously and orally administered histamine between suspected histamine-intolerant patients and healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Broeder E; Kortboyer JM; Koers WJ; Bruijnzeel-Koomen CAFM; de Haan-Brand A; Wolthers BG; Breukelman H; Meulenbelt J; NVIC; ARO; afdeling Dermatologie en Allergologie (Academisch Ziekenhuis Utrecht); afdeling KCSB (Academisch Ziekenhuis Groningen)

    1996-01-01

    In een dubbelblinde placebo gecontroleerde, vergelijkende studie werd aan 16 histamine intolerante patienten en aan 16 gezonde proefpersonen histamine toegediend. Het doel van de studie was het ontwikkelen van een relatief simpele en betrouwbare test voor het stellen van de diagnose

  20. Diversity of plasmids encoding histidine decarboxylase gene in Tetragenococcus spp. isolated from Japanese fish sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satomi, Masataka; Furushita, Manabu; Oikawa, Hiroshi; Yano, Yutaka

    2011-07-15

    Nineteen isolates of histamine producing halophilic bacteria were isolated from four fish sauce mashes, each mash accumulating over 1000 ppm of histamine. The complete sequences of the plasmids encoding the pyruvoyl dependent histidine decarboxylase gene (hdcA), which is harbored in histamine producing bacteria, were determined. In conjunction, the sequence regions adjacent to hdcA were analyzed to provide information regarding its genetic origin. As reference strains, Tetragenococcus halophilus H and T. muriaticus JCM10006(T) were also studied. Phenotypic and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses identified all isolates as T. halophilus, a predominant histamine producing bacteria present during fish sauce fermentation. Genetic analyses (PCR, Southern blot, and complete plasmid sequencing) of the histamine producing isolates confirmed that all the isolates harbored approximately 21-37 kbp plasmids encoding a single copy of the hdc cluster consisting of four genes related to histamine production. Analysis of hdc clusters, including spacer regions, indicated >99% sequence similarity among the isolates. All of the plasmids sequenced encoded traA, however genes related to plasmid conjugation, namely mob genes and oriT, were not identified. Two putative mobile genetic elements, ISLP1-like and IS200-like, respectively, were identified in the up- and downstream region of the hdc cluster of all plasmids. Most of the sequences, except hdc cluster and two adjacent IS elements, were diverse among plasmids, suggesting that each histamine producers harbored a different histamine-related plasmid. These results suggested that the hdc cluster was not spread by clonal dissemination depending on the specific plasmid and that the hdc cluster in tetragenococcal plasmid was likely encoded on transformable elements. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of high levels of dietary zinc oxide on ex vivo epithelial histamine response and investigations on histamine receptor action in the proximal colon of weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, S; Pieper, R; Aschenbach, J R; Martin, L; Liu, P; Rieger, J; Schwelberger, H G; Neumann, K; Zentek, J

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the effect of high dietary zinc oxide (ZnO) levels on the histamine-induced secretory-type response and histamine metabolism in the porcine proximal colon. After weaning at d 26, 3 diets with low (LZn), normal (NZn), and high (HZn) concentrations of zinc (57, 164, or 2,425 mg/kg) were fed to a total of 120 piglets. Digesta and tissue samples were taken from the ascending colon after 7 ± 1, 14 ± 1, 21 ± 1, and 28 ± 1 d. Partially stripped tissue was mounted in Ussing chambers, and histamine was applied either to the serosal or mucosal compartments. Tissue was pretreated with or without aminoguanidine and amodiaquine to block the histamine-degrading enzymes diamine oxidase (DAO) and histamine -methyltransferase (HMT), respectively. Gene expression and catalytic activity of DAO and HMT in the tissue were analyzed. The numbers of mast cells were determined in tissue samples, and histamine concentration was measured in the colon digesta. Colon tissue from another 12 piglets was used for functional studies on histamine H and H receptors by using the neuronal conduction blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX) and the H and H receptor blocker chloropyramine and famotidine, respectively. After serosal histamine application to colonic tissue in Ussing chambers, the change of short-circuit current (Δ) was not affected by pretreatment and was not different between Zn feeding groups. The Δ after mucosal histamine application was numerically lower ( = 0.168) in HZn compared to LZn and NZn pigs. Mast cell numbers increased from 32 to 46 d of life ( < 0.05). Further studies elucidated that the serosal histamine response was partly inhibited by chloropyramine or famotidine ( < 0.01). The response to mucosal histamine tended to be decreased when chloropyramine but not famotidine was applied from either the serosal or the mucosal side ( = 0.055). Tetrodotoxin alone or in combination with chloropyramine resulted in a similar reduction in the mucosal

  2. Poisoning due to pyrethroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradberry, Sally M; Cage, Sarah A; Proudfoot, Alex T; Vale, J Allister

    2005-01-01

    current') ensues which, if it is sufficiently large and/or long, lowers the action potential threshold and causes repetitive firing; this may be the mechanism causing paraesthesiae. At high pyrethroid concentrations, the sodium tail current may be sufficiently great to prevent further action potential generation and 'conduction block' ensues. Only low pyrethroid concentrations are necessary to modify sensory neurone function. Type II pyrethroids also decrease chloride currents through voltage-dependent chloride channels and this action probably contributes the most to the features of poisoning with type II pyrethroids. At relatively high concentrations, pyrethroids can also act on GABA-gated chloride channels, which may be responsible for the seizures seen with severe type II poisoning. Despite their extensive world-wide use, there are relatively few reports of human pyrethroid poisoning. Less than ten deaths have been reported from ingestion or following occupational exposure. Occupationally, the main route of pyrethroid absorption is through the skin. Inhalation is much less important but increases when pyrethroids are used in confined spaces. The main adverse effect of dermal exposure is paraesthesiae, presumably due to hyperactivity of cutaneous sensory nerve fibres. The face is affected most commonly and the paraesthesiae are exacerbated by sensory stimulation such as heat, sunlight, scratching, sweating or the application of water. Pyrethroid ingestion gives rise within minutes to a sore throat, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. There may be mouth ulceration, increased secretions and/or dysphagia. Systemic effects occur 4-48 hours after exposure. Dizziness, headache and fatigue are common, and palpitations, chest tightness and blurred vision less frequent. Coma and convulsions are the principal life-threatening features. Most patients recover within 6 days, although there were seven fatalities among 573 cases in one series and one among 48 cases in another

  3. Using Smart Packaging in Fish and Fish Based Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Tuğçe AKSUN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Food packaging have three main roles during protection, preservation and storage are still involved better continuance of food quality. Evolution of civilization and improvement of new kind of food stuffs, packaging industry must created new possibilities for preventation of food quality during shelf-life. The quality and safety of perishable food is related to microbial quality has got a significance role. Fish is a very perishable food product. It is a very low acidic food and thus is very liable to the expansion of food poisoning bacteria. Also decomposition of fish can be by reason of enzymatic spoilage, oxidation and/or bacterial spoilage. Fish is an important resource of polyunsaturated fatty acids stated to have defensive effects in opposition to heartconnected diseases. Some smart packaging mechanisms liable to determine this break down incident thought storage. In this review, smart packaging technologies that could be used to detect breakdown compounds from packed fish and fish products.

  4. Stereoselective synthesis of desloratadine derivatives as antagonist of histamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gai-Zhi; Xu, Hai-Wei; Chen, Guang-Wei; Wang, Peng; Wang, Ya-Na; Liu, Hong-Min; Yu, De-Quan

    2010-02-15

    A series of desloratadine derivatives were stereoselectively synthesized and evaluated for H(1) antihistamine activity. For the evaluation of H(1) antihistamine activity, the in vitro histamine-induced contraction of the guinea-pig ileum assay (HC) was used. The synthesized desloratadine derivatives 7, 8 and 9 are structurally related to rupatadine and were generated by replacement of the 5-methyl-3-pyridine group of rupatadine with gamma-alkylidene butenolide. Their H(1) antihistamine activities have shown a high dependence on the exact nature of the substituent in the lactone ring. Optimum structures 7, 8a and 8g display potent activity inhibiting histamine-induced effects. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Prick tests for histamine and cow milk in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, F J; Jiménez, A

    1995-01-01

    Three hundred and one children were evaluated in six different rural areas in Tlaxcala, State (México). Through skin prick tests which included histamine, glycerine, cow's milk antigen and a drop fulfill a registration form including: personal data; personal and family atopic background; degree and frequency of gastrointestinal, respiratory and cutaneous diseases, as well as the child temperament. Besides, feeding history (length and type of breast-feeding). Six cases were found positive to cow's milk antigen (1.9%) by Prick test but none of them had showed signology related to (83%) were breast-fed at least for the first month of life. Histamine wheal size increased progressively up to eight months of age and reached a plateau.

  6. Expansion of methylmercury poisoning outside of Minamata: An epidemiological study on chronic methylmercury poisoning outside of Minamata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninomiya, Tadashi [Yoron Hospital, Kagoshima (Japan); Ohmori, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Kiyomi [Kumamoto Univ. Medical School (Japan)] [and others

    1995-07-01

    The first methylmercury poisoning by consumption of fish arose in Minamata, Japan, in 1953. Methylmercury dispersed from Minamata to the to the Shiranui Sea until 1968. Mercury concentration in the hair of residents on the coast of the Shiranui Sea was 10 to 20 times higher than in nonpolluted people in Kumamoto Prefecture in 1960. People on the coast of the Shiranui Sea have consumed fish containing low-dose methylmercury without a ban over decades until 1968. We studied the effect of long-term consumption of methylmercury on those people 10 years later after the end of methylmercury dispersion. Our epidemiological study clarified that people in a fishing village (Ooura) on the coast of the Shiranui Sea showed a significantly higher frequency of neurological signs characteristics of methylmercury poisoning (hypoesthesia, ataxia, impairment of hearing, visual change, and dysarthria) in comparison with people in a nonpolluted fishing village (Ichiburi). The neurological disorders were still detected 10 years later in Ooura after the end of methylmercury dispersion from Minamata: hypoesthesia showed the highest frequency in Ooura. These results suggest that people on the coast of the Shiranui Sea were affected by long-term dietary exposure to methylmercury. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  7. Relation between Ocular Comfort, Arachidonic Acid Mediators, and Histamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudi, Simin; Zhao, Zhenjun; Willcox, Mark

    2017-06-01

    Contact lenses are associated with discomfort during wear. This may be the result of stimulation of the ocular surface and production of pro-inflammatory mediators which are then released into the tears. This study examined changes in the concentration in tears of arachidonic acid metabolites (AAM) prostaglandins, cysteinyl leukotrienes, and resolvin-D1, as well as histamine in a general contact lens population in the morning and evening. Tears were collected twice a day (morning and evening) for up to 10 days on two different occasions (with and without contact lens wear) from 30 experienced contact lens wearers for analysis of AAM and a separate group (N = 33) for analysis of histamine. Ocular comfort was rated subjectively on an ordinal scale at each time of tear collection. Tears were analyzed using commercial immunoassay-based kits. Statistical analysis was performed using linear mixed model test. Ocular comfort decreased from morning to evening with and without contact lenses (p = 0.001), and the difference in comfort in the evening was greater with contact lens wear (80.9 ± 16.2 vs. 75.5 ± 16.8; p = 0.008). The total concentration of PGs (10.7 ± 10.8 ng/ml), cysteinyl leukotrienes (8.7 ± 0.38 ng/ml), resolvin-D1 (1.6 ± 0.5 ng/ml), or histamine 13.8 ± 10.4 ng/ml) did not change during the day or during contact lens wear (p > 0.05). Prostaglandins, cysteinyl leukotrienes, resolvin-D1, or histamine concentrations did not alter in relation to changes in comfort of the eye during the day or during contact lens wear. These results suggest that release of these mediators is not responsible for contact lens discomfort.

  8. Effect of methylmercury on histamine release from rat mast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graevskaya, Elizabeth E.; Rubin, Andrew B. [Moscow State University, Biological Faculty, Department of Biophysics, 119899, Vorobjovy Gory, Moscow (Russian Federation); Yasutake, Akira; Aramaki, Ryoji [National Institute for Minamata Disease, 4058-18 Hama, Minamata, Kumamoto 867-0008 (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    Methylmercury chloride (MeHgCl) is well known as a significant environmental hazard, particularly as a modulator of the immune system. As it is acknowledged that the critical effector cells in the host response participating in various biological responses are mast cells, we tried to define the possible contribution of mast cells in the development of methylmercury-evoked effects. We investigated the effects of methylmercury on the rat mast cell degranulation induced by non-immunological stimuli (the selective liberator of histamine, compound 48/80, and calcium ionophore A23187) both in vivo and in vitro. Using the cells prepared from methylmercury-intoxicated rats through a 5-day treatment of MeHgCl (10 mg/kg/day), we observed the suppression of calcium ionophore A23187- and 48/80-induced histamine release, which was enhanced with time after treatment. Similar suppression was observed in the ionophore-stimulated release, when cells were prepared from rat with a single treatment of MeHgCl (20 mg/kg). It should be noted that when cells from the control rat were pre-incubated with methylmercury in vitro at a 10{sup -8} M concentration for 10 min, A23187 and compound 48/80-stimulated histamine release was significantly enhanced. However, when the pre-incubation period was prolonged to 30 min, the release was suppressed. An increase in the methylmercury concentration to 10{sup -6} M also suppressed the histamine release. These results show that methylmercury treatment can modify mast cell function depending on concentration and time, and might provide an insight into the role of mast cells in the development of methylmercury-stimulated effects. (orig.)

  9. Measuring histamine and cytokine release from basophils and mast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bettina M; Falkencrone, Sidsel; Skov, Per S

    2014-01-01

    Basophils and mast cells are known for their capability to release both preformed and newly synthesized inflammatory mediators. In this chapter we describe how to stimulate and detect histamine released from basophils in whole blood, purified basophils, in vitro cultured mast cells, and in situ s...... skin mast cells. We also give an example of an activation protocol for basophil and mast cell cytokine release and discuss approaches for cytokine detection....

  10. Sabatier Catalyst Poisoning Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallette, Tim; Perry, Jay; Abney, Morgan; Knox, Jim; Goldblatt, Loel

    2013-01-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the International Space Station (ISS) has been operational since 2010. The CRA uses a Sabatier reactor to produce water and methane by reaction of the metabolic CO2 scrubbed from the cabin air and the hydrogen byproduct from the water electrolysis system used for metabolic oxygen generation. Incorporating the CRA into the overall air revitalization system has facilitated life support system loop closure on the ISS reducing resupply logistics and thereby enhancing longer term missions. The CRA utilizes CO2 which has been adsorbed in a 5A molecular sieve within the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly, CDRA. There is a potential of compounds with molecular dimensions similar to, or less than CO2 to also be adsorbed. In this fashion trace contaminants may be concentrated within the CDRA and subsequently desorbed with the CO2 to the CRA. Currently, there is no provision to remove contaminants prior to entering the Sabatier catalyst bed. The risk associated with this is potential catalyst degradation due to trace organic contaminants in the CRA carbon dioxide feed acting as catalyst poisons. To better understand this risk, United Technologies Aerospace System (UTAS) has teamed with MSFC to investigate the impact of various trace contaminants on the CRA catalyst performance at relative ISS cabin air concentrations and at about 200/400 times of ISS concentrations, representative of the potential concentrating effect of the CDRA molecular sieve. This paper summarizes our initial assessment results.

  11. Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Hammond

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP is caused by consumption of molluscan shellfish contaminated with brevetoxins primarily produced by the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. Blooms of K. brevis, called Florida red tide, occur frequently along the Gulf of Mexico. Many shellfish beds in the US (and other nations are routinely monitored for presence of K. brevis and other brevetoxin-producing organisms. As a result, few NSP cases are reported annually from the US. However, infrequent larger outbreaks do occur. Cases are usually associated with recreationally-harvested shellfish collected during or post red tide blooms. Brevetoxins are neurotoxins which activate voltage-sensitive sodium channels causing sodium influx and nerve membrane depolarization. No fatalities have been reported, but hospitalizations occur. NSP involves a cluster of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms: nausea and vomiting, paresthesias of the mouth, lips and tongue as well as distal paresthesias, ataxia, slurred speech and dizziness. Neurological symptoms can progress to partial paralysis; respiratory distress has been recorded. Recent research has implicated new species of harmful algal bloom organisms which produce brevetoxins, identified additional marine species which accumulate brevetoxins, and has provided additional information on the toxicity and analysis of brevetoxins. A review of the known epidemiology and recommendations for improved NSP prevention are presented.

  12. Clinical Marine Toxicology: A European Perspective for Clinical Toxicologists and Poison Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc De Haro

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Clinical marine toxicology is a rapidly changing area. Many of the new discoveries reported every year in Europe involve ecological disturbances—including global warming—that have induced modifications in the chorology, behavior, and toxicity of many species of venomous or poisonous aquatic life including algae, ascidians, fish and shellfish. These changes have raised a number of public issues associated, e.g., poisoning after ingestion of contaminated seafood, envenomation by fish stings, and exposure to harmful microorganism blooms. The purpose of this review of medical and scientific literature in marine toxicology is to highlight the growing challenges induced by ecological disturbances that confront clinical toxicologists during the everyday job in the European Poison Centers.

  13. Studi Bakteri Pembentuk Histamin Pada Ikan Kembung Peda Selama Proses Pengolahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninoek Indriati

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Histamin merupakan salah satu senyawa biogenik amin yang dianggap sebagai penyebab utama keracunan makanan yang berasal dari ikan, terutama dari kelompok skombroid. Peda adalah produk fermentasi ikan yang umumnya dibuat dari ikan kembung yang merupakan kelompok ikan skombroid, yang diketahui banyak mengandung asam amino histidin bebas, sehingga potensial menimbulkan masalah keracunan histamin. Untuk mengetahui jenis‑jenis bakteri yang berperan pada pembentukan histamin pada ikan peda, telah diisolasi bakteri pembentuk histamin selama proses pengolahan peda, menggunakan media Niven yang sudah dimodifikasi. Isolat yang diperoleh diidentifikasi menggunakan BIOLOG Micro StationTm. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan terdapat 15 jenis bakteri pembentuk histamin pada bagian daging dan 11 jenis pada bagian isi perut. Selama proses fermentasi, saat histamin diproduksi secara intensif, bakteri pada ikan peda didominasi oleh Enterobacter spp. dan Staphylococcus spp. Enterobacter spp. sudah berada pada bahan baku, baik pada daging maupun pada isi perut, sedangkan Staphylococcus spp. merupakan bakteri yang mengkontaminasi selama proses pengolahan.

  14. Osthole inhibits histamine-dependent itch via modulating TRPV1 activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Niu-Niu; Shi, Hao; Yu, Guang; Wang, Chang-Ming; Zhu, Chan; Yang, Yan; Yuan, Xiao-Lin; Tang, Min; Wang, Zhong-li; Gegen, Tana; He, Qian; Tang, Kehua; Lan, Lei; Wu, Guan-Yi; Tang, Zong-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Osthole, an active coumarin isolated from Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cusson, has long been used in China as an antipruritic herbal medicine; however, the antipruitic mechanism of osthole is unknown. We studied the molecular mechanism of osthole in histamine-dependent itch by behavioral test, Ca2+ imaging, and electrophysiological experiments. First, osthole clearly remitted the scratching behaviors of mice induced with histamine, HTMT, and VUF8430. Second, in cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, osthole showed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect to histamine. On the same neurons, osthole also decreased the response to capsaicin and histamine. In further tests, the capsaicin-induced inward currents were inhibited by osthole. These results revealed that osthole inhibited histamine-dependent itch by modulating TRPV1 activity. This study will be helpful in understanding how osthole exerts anti-pruritus effects and suggests that osthole may be a useful treatment medicine for histamine-dependent itch. PMID:27160770

  15. Mast cell-derived histamine mediates cystitis pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles N Rudick

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells trigger inflammation that is associated with local pain, but the mechanisms mediating pain are unclear. Interstitial cystitis (IC is a bladder disease that causes debilitating pelvic pain of unknown origin and without consistent inflammation, but IC symptoms correlate with elevated bladder lamina propria mast cell counts. We hypothesized that mast cells mediate pelvic pain directly and examined pain behavior using a murine model that recapitulates key aspects of IC.Infection of mice with pseudorabies virus (PRV induces a neurogenic cystitis associated with lamina propria mast cell accumulation dependent upon tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF, TNF-mediated bladder barrier dysfunction, and pelvic pain behavior, but the molecular basis for pelvic pain is unknown. In this study, both PRV-induced pelvic pain and bladder pathophysiology were abrogated in mast cell-deficient mice but were restored by reconstitution with wild type bone marrow. Pelvic pain developed normally in TNF- and TNF receptor-deficient mice, while bladder pathophysiology was abrogated. Conversely, genetic or pharmacologic disruption of histamine receptor H1R or H2R attenuated pelvic pain without altering pathophysiology.These data demonstrate that mast cells promote cystitis pain and bladder pathophysiology through the separable actions of histamine and TNF, respectively. Therefore, pain is independent of pathology and inflammation, and histamine receptors represent direct therapeutic targets for pain in IC and other chronic pain conditions.

  16. Measurement of plasma histamine: description of an improved method and normal values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, J.; Warren, K.; Merlin, S.; Metcalfe, D.D.; Kaliner, M.

    1982-08-01

    The single isotopic-enzymatic assay of histamine was modified to increase its sensitivity and to facilitate measurement of plasma histamine levels. The modification involved extracting /sup 3/H-1-methylhistamine (generated by the enzyme N-methyltransferase acting on histamine in the presence of S-(methyl-/sup 3/H)-adenosyl-L-methionine) into chloroform and isolating the /sup 3/H-1-methylhistamine by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The TLC was developed in acetone:ammonium hydroxide (95:10), and the methylhistamine spot (Rf . 0.50) was identified with an o-phthalaldehyde spray, scraped from the plate, and assayed in a scintillation counter. The assay in plasma demonstrated a linear relationship from 200 to 5000 pg histamine/ml. Plasma always had higher readings than buffer, and dialysis of plasma returned these values to the same level as buffer, suggesting that the baseline elevations might be attributable to histamine. However, all histamine standard curves were run in dialyzed plasma to negate any additional influences plasma might exert on the assay. The arithmetic mean (+/- SEM) in normal plasma histamine was 318.4 +/- 25 pg/ml (n . 51), and the geometric mean was 280 +/- 35 pg/ml. Plasma histamine was significantly elevated by infusion of histamine at 0.05 to 1.0 micrograms/kg/min or by cold immersion of the hand of a cold-urticaria patient. Therefore this modified isotopic-enzymatic assay of histamine is extremely sensitive, capable of measuring fluctuations in plasma histamine levels within the normal range, and potentially useful in analysis of the role histamine plays in human physiology.

  17. Histamine suppresses epidermal keratinocyte differentiation and impairs skin barrier function in a human skin model

    OpenAIRE

    Gschwandtner, M; Mildner, M.; Mlitz, V; Gruber, F; Eckhart, L; Werfel, T.; Gutzmer, R.; Elias, P M; Tschachler, E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Defects in keratinocyte differentiation and skin barrier are important features of inflammatory skin diseases like atopic dermatitis. Mast cells and their main mediator histamine are abundant in inflamed skin and thus may contribute to disease pathogenesis. Methods Human primary keratinocytes were cultured under differentiation-promoting conditions in the presence and absence of histamine, histamine receptor agonists and antagonists. The expression of differentiation-associated gen...

  18. Possible role of histamine in pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases: implications for immunotherapy with histamine-2 receptor antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Hammer, J H

    1992-01-01

    the possibility, that histamine is one of the molecules involved in pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. T cell mediated regulation and suppression of autoreactive T cells seem to be ineffective in controlling the enhanced immune reaction in patients where the discrimination between self and non-self is changed....... A consequence of this may be induction of interferon-gamma (IFN-g) production and release by cytotoxic T cells, subsequently leading to expression of MHC II molecules on non-immune tissues. As immunotherapy may be of value in some autoimmune diseases the use of histamine-2 receptor antagonists should...... autoantigens and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II restriction molecules presented by non-immune, aberrant cells, subsequently leading to damage on healthy tissues. Psoriasis is suggested to be an autoimmune disease and in severe, uncontrollable psoriasis CsA and Mx are of value in reducing...

  19. Polyamines affect histamine synthesis during early stages of IL-3-induced bone marrow cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Faroldi, Gianni; Correa-Fiz, Florencia; Abrighach, Hicham; Berdasco, María; Fraga, Mario F; Esteller, Manel; Urdiales, José L; Sánchez-Jiménez, Francisca; Fajardo, Ignacio

    2009-09-01

    Mast cells synthesize and store histamine, a key immunomodulatory mediator. Polyamines are essential for every living cell. Previously, we detected an antagonistic relationship between the metabolisms of these amines in established mast cell and basophilic cell lines. Here, we used the IL-3-driven mouse bone marrow-derived mast cell (BMMC) culture system to further investigate this antagonism in a mast cell model of deeper physiological significance. Polyamines and histamine levels followed opposite profiles along the bone marrow cell cultures leading to BMMCs. alpha-Difluoromethylornithine (DFMO)-induced polyamine depletion resulted in an upregulation of histidine decarboxylase (HDC, the histamine-synthesizing enzyme) expression and activity, accompanied by increased histamine levels, specifically during early stages of these cell cultures, where an active histamine synthesis process occurs. In contrast, DFMO did not induce any effect in either HDC activity or histamine levels of differentiated BMMCs or C57.1 mast cells, that exhibit a nearly inactive histamine synthesis rate. Sequence-specific DNA methylation analysis revealed that the DFMO-induced HDC mRNA upregulation observed in early bone marrow cell cultures is not attributable to a demethylation of the gene promoter caused by the pharmacological polyamine depletion. Taken together, the results support an inverse relationship between histamine and polyamine metabolisms during the bone marrow cell cultures leading to BMMCs and, moreover, suggest that the regulation of the histamine synthesis occurring during the early stages of these cultures depends on the concentrations of polyamines. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Histamine: a new immunomodulatory player in the neuron-glia crosstalk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra M Rocha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Histamine is an amine acting as a major peripheral inflammatory mediator. In the brain, histamine was initially viewed as a neurotransmitter, but new evidences support its involvement in the modulation of innate immune responses. Recently, we showed that histamine modulates microglial migration and cytokine release. Its pleiotropic actions, ranging from neurotransmission to inflammation, highlight histamine as a key player in a vast array of brain physiologic activities and also in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases. Herein, we emphasize the role of histamine as a modulator of brain immune reactions, either by acting on invading peripheral immune cells and/or on resident microglial cells. We also unveil the putative involvement of histamine in the microglial-neuronal communication. We first show that histamine modulates the release of inflammatory mediators, namely nitric oxide, by microglia cells. Consequently, the microglia secretome released upon histamine stimulation fosters dopaminergic neuronal death. These data may reveal important new pharmacological applications on the use histamine and antihistamines, particularly in the context of Parkinson’s disease.

  1. Histamine-HisCl1 Receptor Axis Regulates Wake-Promoting Signals in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yangkyun; Jang, Donghoon; Sonn, Jun Young; Choe, Joonho

    2013-01-01

    Histamine and its two receptors, histamine-gated chloride channel subunit 1 (HisCl1) and ora transientless (Ort), are known to control photoreception and temperature sensing in Drosophila. However, histamine signaling in the context of neural circuitry for sleep-wake behaviors has not yet been examined in detail. Here, we obtained mutant flies with compromised or enhanced histamine signaling and tested their baseline sleep. Hypomorphic mutations in histidine decarboxylase (HDC), an enzyme catalyzing the conversion from histidine to histamine, caused an increase in sleep duration. Interestingly, hisCl1 mutants but not ort mutants showed long-sleep phenotypes similar to those in hdc mutants. Increased sleep duration in hisCl1 mutants was rescued by overexpressing hisCl1 in circadian pacemaker neurons expressing a neuropeptide pigment dispersing factor (PDF). Consistently, RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated depletion of hisCl1 in PDF neurons was sufficient to mimic hisCl1 mutant phenotypes, suggesting that PDF neurons are crucial for sleep regulation by the histamine-HisCl1 signaling. Finally, either hisCl1 mutation or genetic ablation of PDF neurons dampened wake-promoting effects of elevated histamine signaling via direct histamine administration. Taken together, these data clearly demonstrate that the histamine-HisCl1 receptor axis can activate and maintain the wake state in Drosophila and that wake-activating signals may travel via the PDF neurons. PMID:23844178

  2. Roles of histamine on the expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 in endometrioid adenocarcinoma cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Jiang, Yang; Ikeda, Jun-ichiro; Tian, Tian; Sato, Atsushi; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Morii, Eiichi

    2014-01-01

    Cancer-initiating cells (CICs) are a limited number of cells that are essential for maintenance, recurrence, and metastasis of tumors. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) has been recognized as a marker of CICs. We previously reported that ALDH1-high cases of uterine endometrioid adenocarcinoma showed poor prognosis, and that ALDH1 high population was more tumorigenic, invasive, and resistant to apoptosis than ALDH1 low population. Histamine plays a critical role in cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Here, we examined the effect of histamine on ALDH1 expression in endometrioid adenocarcinoma cell line. The addition of histamine increased ALDH1 high population, which was consistent with the result that histamine enhanced the invasive ability and the resistance to anticancer drug. Among 4 types of histamine receptors, histamine H1 and H2 receptor (H1R and H2R) were expressed in endometrioid adenocarcinoma cell line. The addition of H1R agonist but not H2R agonist increased ALDH1. The antagonist H1R but not H2R inhibited the effect of histamine on ALDH1 expression. These results indicated that histamine increased the expression of ALDH1 via H1R but not H2R. These findings may provide the evidence for exploring a new strategy to suppress CICs by inhibiting ALDH1 expression with histamine. PMID:25045085

  3. Arrhythmogenic effect of sympathetic histamine in mouse hearts subjected to acute ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Gonghao; Hu, Jing; Li, Teng; Ma, Xue; Meng, Jingru; Jia, Min; Lu, Jun; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Chen, Zhong; Luo, Xiaoxing

    2012-02-10

    The role of histamine as a newly recognized sympathetic neurotransmitter has been presented previously, and its postsynaptic effects greatly depended on the activities of sympathetic nerves. Cardiac sympathetic nerves become overactivated under acute myocardial ischemic conditions and release neurotransmitters in large amounts, inducing ventricular arrhythmia. Therefore, it is proposed that cardiac sympathetic histamine, in addition to norepinephrine, may have a significant arrhythmogenic effect. To test this hypothesis, we observed the release of cardiac sympathetic histamine and associated ventricular arrhythmogenesis that was induced by acute ischemia in isolated mouse hearts. Mast cell-deficient mice (MCDM) and histidine decarboxylase knockout (HDC(-/-)) mice were used to exclude the potential involvement of mast cells. Electrical field stimulation and acute ischemia-reperfusion evoked chemical sympathectomy-sensitive histamine release from the hearts of both MCDM and wild-type (WT) mice but not from HDC(-/-) mice. The release of histamine from the hearts of MCDM and WT mice was associated with the development of acute ischemia-induced ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. The incidence and duration of induced ventricular arrhythmias were found to decrease in the presence of the selective histamine H(2) receptor antagonist famotidine. Additionally, the released histamine facilitated the arrhythmogenic effect of simultaneously released norepinephrine. We conclude that, under acute ischemic conditions, cardiac sympathetic histamine released by overactive sympathetic nerve terminals plays a certain arrhythmogenic role via H(2) receptors. These findings provided novel insight into the pathophysiological roles of sympathetic histamine, which may be a new therapeutic target for acute ischemia-induced arrhythmias.

  4. Selective histamine uptake rescues photo- and mechanoreceptor function of histidine decarboxylase-deficient Drosophila mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzig, J; Burg, M; Gruhn, M; Pak, W L; Buchner, E

    1998-09-15

    In insects, histamine is found both in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and in the CNS and is known to function as a fast neurotransmitter in photoreceptors that have been shown to express selectively the hdc gene. This gene codes for histidine decarboxylase (HDC), the enzyme for histamine synthesis. Fast neurotransmission requires the efficient removal of the transmitter from the synaptic cleft. Here we identify in Drosophila photo- and mechanoreceptors a histamine uptake mechanism that can restore the function of these receptors in mutants unable to synthesize histamine. When apparent null mutants for the hdc gene imbibe aqueous histamine solution or are genetically "rescued" by a transgene ubiquitously expressing histidine decarboxylase under heat-shock control, sufficient amounts of histamine selectively accumulate in photo- and mechanoreceptors to generate near-normal electrical responses in second-order visual interneurons and qualitatively to restore wild-type visual and mechanosensory behavior. This strongly supports the proposal that histamine functions as a fast neurotransmitter also in a certain class of mechanoreceptors. A set of CNS-intrinsic neurons that in the wild type contain high concentrations of histamine apparently lacks this uptake mechanism. We therefore speculate that histamine of intrinsic neurons may function as a neuromodulator rather than as a fast transmitter.

  5. Medicine poisoning in suicidal pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljušic Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Investigations shows that on every realized suicide comes 8 to 25 non realized attempts. Individuals which tried suicide with medicine poisoning mostly quote that they have been overwhelmed with feelings and thoughts which was unbearable in that moment. They wished to escape from that unbearable situation or they lost self control. Between individuals whom tried suicide with medicine poisoning, desire to really die, to disappear was very rare. Mostly it was wish 'just to sleep a little, to take a rest, make pause'. Aim of work: to identified most frequently method for suicidal attempt in both sex and resources which was used in these purposes. Results: most frequently method for suicidal attempt for both sex in our investigation was medicine poisoning - 91,1%, veins cutting - 5,4% and jump from height - 3,6%. Mostly used medicines were anxiolytics - 55,4%, combination of different drugs - 25,0%, antidepressants - 8,9%, neuroleptics - 7,1%, drugs and alcohol - 3,6%. Most frequent method for suicidal attempt in both sex was medicine poisoning. From drugs most frequently used drugs were anxiolytics and in minimum percent combination of drugs and alcohol. After suicidal attempt 90% of individuals experienced relief because their suicidal attempt was unsuccessful. In 3% individuals there was new suicidal attempt on same way, medicine poisoning.

  6. Temperature moments vs poison moments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staebler, U.M.

    1947-05-19

    The excess reactivity available in an operating pile is absorbed in poison columns and horizontal rods. The temperature distribution of the pile is determined by the relative strengths and locations of the poison columns and the configuration of control rods used. A method for adjusting poison columns and rods to improve upon the pile`s temperature distribution is given in Document {number_sign}7-2654, ``Procedure for Improving Temperature Distribution via Rods and Columns,`` Wheeler and Menegus to Jordan, September 9, 1945. A relationship between poison moment (inhour lattice units) and temperature moments (per coat) was theoretically derived in the above document and has since been measured on several occasions on the basis of operating experience. A survey of recent operating data for the F Pile has been made by H. A. Gauper, Jr. with the intent of improving the method for obtaining the temperature and poison moments and relating changes in the two. This study was concerned with only the horizontal and vertical dipole moments. The results of Mr. Gauper`s investigation are summarized in this memorandum.

  7. [Seafood poisonings. Part I. Shellfish and crustacean poisonings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciszowski, Krzysztof; Mietka-Ciszowska, Aneta

    2012-01-01

    Seafood is a valuable source of nutrients, therefore, it constitutes an important part of diet in some geographical regions. The consumption of some shellfish and crustacean species may be a cause of food poisonings in humans, mainly due to simultaneous ingestion of biotoxins produced by algae, cyanobacteria, and bacteria. These toxins are accumulated in higher links of a food chain, i.e. mollusks and crustaceans, that consume toxins filtering phytoplankton. In the present paper the etiology, pathogenesis, symptomatology and treatment of some shellfish poisonings are presented.

  8. Some Lead Poisoning Tests May Be Faulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165668.html Some Lead Poisoning Tests May Be Faulty But the majority of ... More Health News on Children's Health Laboratory Tests Lead Poisoning Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Children's ...

  9. Organophosphorus pesticide poisoning : cases and developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardema, H.; Ligtenberg, J. J. M.; Peters-Polman, O. M.; Tulleken, J. E.; Zijlstra, J. G.; Meertens, John H. J. M.

    Self-poisoning with organophosphate pesticides is a major health problem world-wide. Through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, organophosphorus poisoning is characterised by the clinical picture of acute cholinergic crisis. Other manifestations are the intermediate neurotoxic syndrome and

  10. Chronic Arsenic Poisoning Following Ayurvedic Medication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pinto, Benzeeta; Goyal, Palvi; Flora, S J. S; Gill, K D; Singh, Surjit

    2014-01-01

    ... common. Chronic arsenic poisoning following the use of ayurvedic medication, though reported, is rare.We describe three patients who presented with features of chronic arsenic poisoning following prolonged ayurvedic medication use...

  11. SENSITIZATION SPREAD AND SKIN SENSITIVITY TO HISTAMINE IN CHILDREN OF SCHOOL AGE IN TOMSK AND TOMSK REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Kamaltynova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of sensitization spread is crucial to the understanding of formation mechanisms of allergic diseases symptoms and development of prevention programs. However, this parameter has been studied very insufficiently in Russia. The aim of this trial is to study spread of sensitization to allergens and skin sensitivity to histamine in the populations of urban and rural schoolchildren using the method of skin prick test. Methods: the authors examined 2,290 urban and rural schoolchildren (1-11 grades. Mixed allergens of house dust mites, cockroach, fish, birch pollen, mixed weeds and cat hair were used for the allergy test. Results: the authors revealed spread of sensitization to various allergens in various age-sex groups of urban and rural schoolchildren in Tomsk Region. Conclusion: the trial revealed that sensitization spread and skin sensitivity to histamine was higher in urban schoolchildren than in their rural peers (p<0.001. Lower sensitization spread index in rural schoolchildren may be caused the skin reactivity reduction.

  12. Extracorporeal Treatment in Phenytoin Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anseeuw, Kurt; Mowry, James B; Burdmann, Emmanuel A

    2016-01-01

    The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) Workgroup conducted a systematic literature review using a standardized process to develop evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in patients with phenytoin poisoning. The authors reviewed all articles...... criteria. Only case reports, case series, and pharmacokinetic studies were identified, yielding a very low quality of evidence. Clinical data from 31 patients and toxicokinetic grading from 46 patients were abstracted. The workgroup concluded that phenytoin is moderately dialyzable (level of evidence = C......) despite its high protein binding and made the following recommendations. ECTR would be reasonable in select cases of severe phenytoin poisoning (neutral recommendation, 3D). ECTR is suggested if prolonged coma is present or expected (graded 2D) and it would be reasonable if prolonged incapacitating ataxia...

  13. The Bacterial Microflora of Fish, Revised

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Austin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of numerous studies indicate that fish possess bacterial populations on or in their skin, gills, digestive tract, and light-emitting organs. In addition, the internal organs (kidney, liver, and spleen of healthy fish may contain bacteria, but there is debate about whether or not muscle is actually sterile. Using traditional culture-dependent techniques, the numbers and taxonomic composition of the bacterial populations generally reflect those of the surrounding water. More modern culture-independent approaches have permitted the recognition of previously uncultured bacteria. The role of the organisms includes the ability to degrade complex molecules (therefore exercising a potential benefit in nutrition, to produce vitamins and polymers, and to be responsible for the emission of light by the light-emitting organs of deep-sea fish. Taxa, including Pseudomonas, may contribute to spoilage by the production of histamines in fish tissue.

  14. 76 FR 9585 - Poison Control Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Poison Control Program AGENCY: Health... professionals. The centers also offer programs to help clinicians better manage poisoning and overdose cases.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Poison Control Program, Director, Elisa Gladstone via e-mail at...

  15. Is Your Child Safe from Lead Poisoning?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-02

    In this podcast, Dr. Mary Jean Brown, chief of CDC's Lead Poisoning and Prevention Program, discusses the importance of testing children for lead poisoning, who should be tested, and what parents can do to prevent lead poisoning.  Created: 10/2/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH).   Date Released: 10/2/2008.

  16. Is poisoning a problem in South Sudan?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-11-04

    Nov 4, 2011 ... (e.g. mesothelioma caused by contact with asbestos). Criminal act of poisoning: e.g. “spiking” of a drink at a party. Poisoning in uganda. When I was working in Uganda I saw several cases of poisoning with organophosphates and was horrified by the mortality. Almost ten years ago, we carried out a simple.

  17. Helping Parents Prevent Lead Poisoning. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, Helen J.; Ricks, Omar Benton

    Children are at greater risk than adults for lead poisoning because children absorb lead more readily than adults, and a small amount of lead in children's bodies can do a great deal of harm. Some of the causes and effects of childhood lead poisoning and suggests some lead poisoning prevention strategies that parent educators can share with…

  18. Lead Poisoning: A Need for Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipnickey, Susan Cross

    1981-01-01

    Each year approximately 200 children die of lead poisoning. Especially vulnerable to the toxic effects of lead poisoning are the nervous system, kidneys, and the bones. Physiological effects of lead on the school-age child, screening processes, and roles of school personnel in dealing with suspected victims of lead poisoning are discussed. (JN)

  19. Childhood Lead Poisoning: Blueprint for Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochow, K. W. James; Rapuano, Maria

    Current programs to deal with childhood lead poisoning, the primary environmental disease of U.S. children, screen individual children, treat those with serious cases of lead poisoning, and subsequently return children to hazardous environments. This approach has led to repeated diagnoses of lead poisoning. This handbook is designed to convince…

  20. Accidental Datura stramonium poisoning in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tostes, Raimundo A

    2002-02-01

    Datura stramonium is potentially poisonous to humans and livestock; however, there's little description of clinical and pathological findings in dogs naturally intoxicated. We report an accidental Datura stramonium poisoning in a dog emphasizing the importance of recognizing the classical signs of anticholinergic poisoning.

  1. Histamine transport and metabolism are deranged in salivary glands in Sjogren's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegaev, Vasily; Nies, Anne T; Porola, Pauliina; Mieliauskaite, Diana; Sánchez-Jiménez, Francisca; Urdiales, Jóse L; Sillat, Tarvo; Schwelberger, Hubert G; Chazot, Paul L; Katebe, Mwape; Mackiewicz, Zygmunt; Konttinen, Yrjö T; Nordström, Dan C E

    2013-09-01

    To study histamine transport and metabolism of salivary gland (SG) epithelial cells in healthy controls and SS patients. Enzymes and transporters involved in histamine metabolism were analysed in cultured human submandibular salivary gland (HSG) epithelial cells and tissue sections using quantitative real-time PCR and immunostaining. HSG cells were used to study [(3)H]histamine uptake [(±1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP)] and efflux by liquid scintillation counting. mRNA levels of l-histidine decarboxylase (HDC) and histamine-N-methyltransferase (HNMT) were similar in the control and SS glands, but diamine oxidase was not expressed at all. Organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3) in healthy SG was localized in the acinar and ductal cells, whereas OCT2 was restricted to the myoepithelial cells. Both transporters were significantly decreased in SS at mRNA and protein levels. OCT3-mRNA levels in HSG cells were significantly higher than those of the other studied transporters. Uptake of [(3)H]histamine was inhibited by MPP in a time-dependent manner, whereas [(3)H]histamine-preloaded HSG cells released it. Ductal epithelial cells are non-professional histamine-producing cells able to release histamine via OCTs at the resting state up to ∼100 nM, enough to excite H3R/H4R(+) epithelial cells, but not H1R, which requires burst release from mast cells. At the stimulated phase, 50-60 μM histamine passes from the interstitial fluid through the acinar cells to saliva, whereas uptake by ductal cells leads to intracellular degradation by HNMT. OCT3/histamine/H4R-mediated cell maintenance and down-regulation of high histamine levels fail in SS SGs.

  2. Histamine suppresses epidermal keratinocyte differentiation and impairs skin barrier function in a human skin model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwandtner, M; Mildner, M; Mlitz, V; Gruber, F; Eckhart, L; Werfel, T; Gutzmer, R; Elias, P M; Tschachler, E

    2013-01-01

    Background Defects in keratinocyte differentiation and skin barrier are important features of inflammatory skin diseases like atopic dermatitis. Mast cells and their main mediator histamine are abundant in inflamed skin and thus may contribute to disease pathogenesis. Methods Human primary keratinocytes were cultured under differentiation-promoting conditions in the presence and absence of histamine, histamine receptor agonists and antagonists. The expression of differentiation-associated genes and epidermal junction proteins was quantified by real-time PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence labeling. The barrier function of human skin models was tested by the application of biotin as tracer molecule. Results The addition of histamine to human keratinocyte cultures and organotypic skin models reduced the expression of the differentiation-associated proteins keratin 1/10, filaggrin, and loricrin by 80–95%. Moreover, the addition of histamine to skin models resulted in the loss of the granular layer and thinning of the epidermis and stratum corneum by 50%. The histamine receptor H1R agonist, 2-pyridylethylamine, suppressed keratinocyte differentiation to the same extent as did histamine. Correspondingly, cetirizine, an antagonist of H1R, virtually abrogated the effect of histamine. The expression of tight junction proteins zona occludens-1, occludin, claudin-1, and claudin-4, as well as that of desmosomal junction proteins corneodesmosin and desmoglein-1, was down-regulated by histamine. The tracer molecule biotin readily penetrated the tight junction barrier of skin cultures grown in the presence of histamine, while their diffusion was completely blocked in nontreated controls. Conclusions Our findings suggest a new mechanism by which mast cell activation and histamine release contribute to skin barrier defects in inflammatory skin diseases. PMID:23157658

  3. PUNISHING AND CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS OF INTRAVENOUS HISTAMINE IN RATS: PHARMACOLOGICAL SELECTIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlesnik, Christopher A.; Jimenez-Gomez, Corina

    2014-01-01

    Although drugs may serve as reinforcers or punishers of operant behavior, the punishing function has received much less experimental attention than the reinforcing function. A sensitive method for studying drug-induced punishment is to assess choice for a punished response over an unpunished response. In these experiments, rats chose between pressing one lever and receiving a sucrose pellet or pressing another lever and receiving a sucrose pellet plus an intravenous injection of histamine. When sucrose was delivered equally frequently for either the punished or the unpunished response, rats selected the unpunished lever consistently, but decreases in the punished response did not differ as a function of intravenous histamine dose (0.1–1 mg/kg/inj). Changing the procedure so that sucrose was delivered on the unpunished lever with p = .5 increased the rats’ responding on the punished lever with saline injections. In addition, the same range of histamine doses produced a much larger range of responses on the punished lever that was dose dependent. Using these procedures to assess the receptors mediating histamine’s effects, the histamine H1-receptor antagonists, pyrilamine and ketotifen, antagonized the punishing effect of histamine, but the histamine H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine did not. However, ranitidine pretreatments reduced histamine-induced heart-rate increases to a greater extent than did the histamine H1-receptor antagonists when administered at the same doses examined under conditions of histamine punishment. Overall, the present findings extend the general hypothesis that activation of histamine H1-receptors mediates the punishing effects of histamine. They also introduce methods for rapidly assessing pharmacological mechanisms underlying drug-induced punishment. PMID:23982898

  4. Mast cell degranulation and de novo histamine formation contribute to sustained postexercise vasodilation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Steven A; McCord, Jennifer L; Ely, Matthew R; Sieck, Dylan C; Buck, Tahisha M; Luttrell, Meredith J; MacLean, David A; Halliwill, John R

    2017-03-01

    In humans, acute aerobic exercise elicits a sustained postexercise vasodilation within previously active skeletal muscle. This response is dependent on activation of histamine H1 and H2 receptors, but the source of intramuscular histamine remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that interstitial histamine in skeletal muscle would be increased with exercise and would be dependent on de novo formation via the inducible enzyme histidine decarboxylase and/or mast cell degranulation. Subjects performed 1 h of unilateral dynamic knee-extension exercise or sham (seated rest). We measured the interstitial histamine concentration and local blood flow (ethanol washout) via skeletal muscle microdialysis of the vastus lateralis. In some probes, we infused either α-fluoromethylhistidine hydrochloride (α-FMH), a potent inhibitor of histidine decarboxylase, or histamine H1/H2-receptor blockers. We also measured interstitial tryptase concentrations, a biomarker of mast cell degranulation. Compared with preexercise, histamine was increased after exercise by a change (Δ) of 4.2 ± 1.8 ng/ml (P histamine in skeletal muscle increases with exercise and results from both de novo formation and mast cell degranulation. This suggests that exercise produces an anaphylactoid signal, which affects recovery, and may influence skeletal muscle blood flow during exercise.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Blood flow to previously active skeletal muscle remains elevated following an acute bout of aerobic exercise and is dependent on activation of histamine H1 and H2 receptors. The intramuscular source of histamine that drives this response to exercise has not been identified. Using intramuscular microdialysis in exercising humans, we show both mast cell degranulation and formation of histamine by histidine decarboxylase contributes to the histamine-mediated vasodilation that occurs following a bout of aerobic exercise. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Synergistic mucus secretion by histamine and IL-4 through TMEM16A in airway epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ju Wan; Lee, Yong Hyuk; Kang, Min Jeong; Lee, Hyun Jae; Oh, Ryung; Min, Hyun Jin; Namkung, Wan; Choi, Jae Young; Lee, Sang Nam; Kim, Chang-Hoon; Yoon, Joo-Heon; Cho, Hyung-Ju

    2017-09-01

    Histamine is an important mediator of allergic reactions, and mucus hypersecretion is a major allergic symptom. However, the direct effect of histamine on mucus secretion from airway mucosal epithelia has not been clearly demonstrated. TMEM16A is a Ca2+-activated chloride channel, and it is closely related to fluid secretion in airway mucosal epithelia. We investigated whether histamine directly induces fluid secretion from epithelial cells or submucosal glands (SMG) and mechanisms related, therewith, in allergic airway diseases. In pig airway tissues from the nose or trachea, histamine was a potent secretagogue that directly induced strong responses. However, gland secretion from human nasal tissue was not induced by histamine, even in allergic rhinitis patients. Histamine type 1 receptor (H1R) and histamine type 2 receptor (H2R) were not noted in SMG by in situ hybridization. Cultured primary human nasal epithelial (NHE) cells were used for the measurement of short-circuit current changes with the Ussing chamber. Histamine-induced slight responses of anion secretions under normal conditions. The response was enhanced by IL-4 stimulation through TMEM16A, which might be related to fluid hypersecretion in allergic rhinitis. Pretreatment with IL-4 augmented the histamine response that was suppressed by a TMEM16A inhibitor. TMEM16A expression was enhanced by 24-h treatment of IL-4 in human nasal epithelial cells. The expression of TMEM16A was significantly elevated in an allergic rhinitis group, compared with a control group. We elucidated histamine-induced fluid secretions in synergy with IL-4 through TMEM16A in the human airway epithelium. In addition, we observed species differences between pigs and humans in terms of gland secretion of histamine. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  6. A Rare but Potentially Fatal Poisoning; Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orkun Tolunay

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Phosphide, a very toxic gas, is used in our country as aluminium phosphide tablets impregnated in clay. It is widely used since it has a very high diffusion capacity, whereby it can eradicate all living creatures in any form of their life cycle and does not leave any remnants in agricultural products. Aluminum phosphide poisoning is among intoxications for which there are still no true antidotes. Mortality rate varies between 30% and 100%. This paper presents a case of aluminum phosphide poisoning caused by the uncompleted suicide attempt. A 14-year-old girl, who swallowed aluminum phosphate tablets, was brought to the emergency department with the complaints of nausea and vomiting. The patient was treated with gastric lavage and activated charcoal. Since the patient ingested a lethal amount of aluminum phosphide, she was referred to the pediatric intensive care unit. The patient was discharged in stable condition after supportive care and monitoring. Specific antidotes are life-saving in poisonings. However, this case was presented to show how general treatment principles and quick access to health services affect the result of treatment. Also, we aimed to highlight the uncontrolled selling of aluminum phosphate, which results in high mortality rates in case of poisoning.

  7. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teens a Voice in Health Care Decisions Fish Allergy KidsHealth > For Parents > Fish Allergy Print A A ... Home en español Alergia al pescado About Fish Allergy A fish allergy is not exactly the same ...

  8. Biosensor cell assay for measuring real-time aldosterone-induced release of histamine from mesenteric arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Emil G; Andersen, Kenneth; Svenningsen, Per

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: The aims were to develop a method for real-time detection of histamine release and to test if incubation with aldosterone induces histamine release from isolated, perfused mice mesenteric arteries. METHODS: Fura-2 loaded HEK-293 cells transfected with the histamine H1 receptor was used...... as a sensitive biosensor assay for histamine release from isolated mouse mesenteric arteries. Activation of the H1 receptor by histamine was measured as an increased number of intracellular Ca(2+) transient peaks using fluorescence imaging RESULTS: The developed biosensor was sensitive to histamine...... by the histamine H1 blocker pyrilamine. Mesenteric arteries from mast cell deficient SASH mice induced similar pyrilamine-sensitive Ca(2+) transient response in the biosensor cells. Mesenteric arteries from wild type and SASH mice expressed histamine decarboxylase mRNA, indicating that mast cells are not the only...

  9. Article Commentary: Chelation Therapy for Mercury Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Guan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chelation therapy has been the major treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Various chelating agents have been developed and tested for treatment of heavy metal intoxications, including mercury poisoning. It has been clearly shown that chelating agents could rescue the toxicity caused by heavy metal intoxication, but the potential preventive role of chelating agents against heavy metal poisoning has not been explored much. Recent paper by Siddiqi and colleagues has suggested a protective role of chelating agents against mercury poisoning, which provides a promising research direction for broader application of chelation therapy in prevention and treatment of mercury poisoning.

  10. Mast cell chymase potentiates histamine-induced wheal formation in the skin of ragweed-allergic dogs.

    OpenAIRE

    Rubinstein, I; Nadel, J A; Graf, P D; Caughey, G H

    1990-01-01

    Skin mast cells release the neutral protease chymase along with histamine during degranulation. To test the hypothesis that chymase modulates histamine-induced plasma extravasation, we measured wheal formation following intradermal injection of purified mast cell chymase and histamine into the skin of ragweed-allergic dogs. We found that chymase greatly augments histamine-induced wheal formation. The magnitude of the potentiating effect increases with increasing doses of chymase and becomes m...

  11. Spinal histamine in attenuation of mechanical hypersensitivity in the spinal nerve ligation-induced model of experimental neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hong; Viisanen, Hanna; You, Hao-Jun; Pertovaara, Antti

    2016-02-05

    Here we studied whether and through which mechanisms spinal administration of histamine dihydrochloride (histamine) attenuates pain behavior in neuropathic animals. Experiments were performed in rats with spinal nerve ligation-induced neuropathy and a chronic intrathecal catheter for spinal drug delivery. Mechanical hypersensitivity was assessed with monofilaments while radiant heat was used for assessing nociception. Ongoing neuropathic pain and its attenuation by histamine was assessed using conditioned place-preference test. Following spinal administration, histamine at doses 0.1-10µg produced a dose-related mechanical antihypersensitivity effect. With prolonged treatment (twice daily 10µg for five days), the antihypersensitivity effect of spinal histamine was reduced. In place-preference test, neuropathic animals preferred the chamber paired with histamine (10µg). Histamine (10µg) failed to influence heat nociception in neuropathic animals or mechanically induced pain behavior in a group of healthy control rats. Histamine-induced mechanical antihypersensitivity effect was prevented by spinal pretreatment with zolantidine (histamine H2 receptor antagonist), prazosine (α1-adrenoceptor antagonist) and bicuculline (γ-aminobutyric acid subtype A, GABA(A), receptor antagonist), but not by pyrilamine (histamine H1 receptor antagonist), atipamezole (α2-adrenoceptor antagonist), or raclopride (dopamine D2 receptor antagonist). A-960656, a histamine H3 receptor antagonist alone that presumably increased endogenous histamine levels reduced hypersensitivity. Additionally, histamine prevented central (presumably postsynaptically-induced) facilitation of hypersensitivity induced by N-methyl-d-aspartate. The results indicate that spinal histamine at the dose range of 0.1-10µg selectively attenuates mechanical hypersensitivity and ongoing pain in neuropathy. The spinal histamine-induced antihypersensitivity effect involves histamine H2 and GABA(A) receptors and

  12. Correlations between histamine-induced wheal, flare and itch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsow, U; Ring, J; Scharein, E; Bromm, B

    1996-07-01

    Correlations between the skin reactions wheal and flare and the subjectively reported degree of itch were investigated in response to 1% histamine, intradermally applied by standardized skin prick and by iontophoresis. Experiments were performed with 15 male volunteers using a threefold repeated measures design (skin prick, and iontophoresis with 0.13 mA for 10 s and with 2.0 mA for 10 s). Skin reactions (perpendicular diameters) were determined at the time of their maximum (10 min). Itch was rated on a computerized visual analogue scale which was anchored upon the individual scratch threshold. Most effective in producing itch was the skin prick which caused strong sensations markedly above the scratch threshold during the entire period of measurement (30 min), whereas iontophoresis induced only transient itch sensations. On the other hand, the largest wheals were generated by iontophoresis of both intensities (mean 10 or 14 mm vs 6 mm with skin prick). The higher current induced higher itch, wheal and flare responses, but after eliminating this effect of stimulus intensity, no correlations were found. In contrast, skin prick-induced flare reactions varied with the degree of itch above the scratch threshold (r = 0.56; P skin prick compared with iontophoresis. It is hypothesized that in iontophoresis the brief (10-s) histamine bolus passed the most superficial pruritoceptive C fibres too quickly to induce long-lasting itch sensations, whereas the skin prick caused a deposit at the dermal-epidermal junction releasing histamine during the entire time of measurement. Consequently, both the C fibre-mediated itch and the axon reflex flare were more pronounced with the skin prick, and the wheal resulting from a permeability increase in the postcapillary venule walls was an independent phenomenon.

  13. Clinical Development of Histamine H4 Receptor Antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurmond, Robin L; Venable, Jennifer; Savall, Brad; La, David; Snook, Sandra; Dunford, Paul J; Edwards, James P

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of the histamine H4 receptor (H4R) provided a new avenue for the exploration of the physiological role of histamine, as well as providing a new drug target for the development of novel antihistamines. The first step in this process was the identification of selective antagonists to help unravel the pharmacology of the H4R relative to other histamine receptors. The discovery of the selective H4R antagonist JNJ 7777120 was vital for showing a role for the H4R in inflammation and pruritus. While this compound has been very successful as a tool for understanding the function of the receptor, it has drawbacks, including a short in vivo half-life and hypoadrenocorticism toxicity in rats and dogs, that prevented advancing it into clinical studies. Further research let to the discovery of JNJ 39758979, which, similar to JNJ 7777120, was a potent and selective H4R antagonist and showed anti-inflammatory and anti-pruritic activity preclinically. JNJ 39758979 advanced into human clinical studies and showed efficacy in reducing experimental pruritus and in patients with atopic dermatitis. However, development of this compound was terminated due to the occurrence of drug-induced agranulocytosis. This was overcome by developing another H4R antagonist with a different chemical structure, toreforant, that does not appear to have this side effect. Toreforant has been tested in clinical studies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, or psoriasis. In conclusions there have been many H4R antagonists reported in the literature, but only a few have been studied in humans underscoring the difficulty in finding ligands with all of the properties necessary for testing in the clinic. Nevertheless, the clinical data to date suggests that H4R antagonists can be beneficial in treating atopic dermatitis and pruritus.

  14. An overview of anti-allergic drug therapy and the histamine-1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and corticosteroid medication (when indicated, and in most instances, used locally). The article provides an overview of the nature and the management of allergic disease and the histamine 1 antihistamines. Keywords: anti-allergic drug therapy, H1 antihistamines, histamine receptors, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, allergy ...

  15. En route to new blockbuster antihistamines:surveying the offspring of the expanding histamine receptor family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leurs, R.; Vischer, H.F.; Wijtmans, M.; De Esch, I.J.

    2011-01-01

    With the recognition of two new histamine receptors at the start of the new millennium, the field of histamine research has seen a clear revival. In the last 10 years, many academic and industrial groups have taken up the challenge to target these new members of the aminergic G-protein-coupled

  16. Allergic manifestations and cutaneous histamine responses in patients with McCune Albright syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Jill D; Turpin, Angela L; Sands, Scott A

    2013-05-01

    McCune Albright syndrome (MAS) is a rare disorder characterized by precocious puberty, café-au-lait spots, and fibrous dysplasia. Its cause is an activating mutation in the GNAS gene, encoding a subunit of the stimulatory G protein, Gsalpha (Gsα). The action of any mediator that signals via Gsα and cyclic AMP can be up regulated in MAS. We had observed gastritis, gastroesophageal reflux, and anaphylaxis in McCune Albright patients. As histamine is known to signal via histamine 1 (H1) and histamine 2 (H2) receptors, which couple with stimulatory G proteins, we attempted to mechanistically link histamine responsiveness to the activating GNAS mutation. We hypothesized that responsiveness to histamine skin testing would differ between MAS patients and healthy controls. After obtaining informed consent, we performed a systematic review of histamine responsiveness and allergic manifestations in 11 MAS patients and 11 sex-matched, Tanner-stage matched controls. We performed skin prick testing, quantifying the orthogonal diameters of wheals and erythema. We also quantitated G protein mRNA expression. The peak wheal and flare responses to histamine were significantly higher in MAS patients compared to controls. This study suggests that MAS patients may be at risk for exaggerated histamine responsiveness compared to unaffected controls.

  17. Epigallocatechin gallate-induced histamine release in patients with green tea-induced asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, T; Sato, A; Chida, K; Hayakawa, H; Akiyama, J; Iwata, M; Taniguchi, M; Reshad, K; Hara, Y

    1997-07-01

    Epigallocatechin gallate is the causative agent of green tea-induced asthma. To determine whether an IgE-mediated mechanism plays a pathogenetic role in this disorder, we measured histamine release after in vitro exposure to epigallocatechin gallate. Subjects included eight patients (four men and four women) with green tea-induced asthma, who had been diagnosed by skin test and inhalation challenge, and eight controls (four asthmatic subjects with no previous exposure tea dust and four healthy volunteers). Heparinized whole blood samples were taken and incubated with epigallocatechin gallate at various concentrations (final concentration range, 0.003 to 300 micrograms/mL) for 30 minutes at 37 degrees C. After centrifugation, histamine was measured in the cell-free supernatants by radioimmunoassay. Histamine release was expressed as a percentage of total histamine. A result higher than 10% was considered positive. In one of the tea-sensitive patients, epigallocatechin gallate did not cause histamine release. Five of the other seven patients (71%) demonstrated a positive, dose-dependent histamine release to epigallocatechin gallate. In asthmatic and normal controls, histamine release was not observed at any epigallocatechin gallate concentration. Furthermore, a significant correlation was noted between the maximum percentage histamine release and the threshold epigallocatechin gallate concentration for intradermal skin testing. These results indicate that an IgE-mediated response is the basis for green tea-induced asthma.

  18. Exploring polyamine regulation by nascent histamine in a human-transfected cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrighach, H; Fajardo, I; Sánchez-Jiménez, F; Urdiales, J L

    2010-02-01

    There are multiple lines of evidence suggesting interplay between histamine and polyamines in several mammalian cell types. However, the complex metabolic context makes it difficult to elucidate the mechanisms involved. Histamine's effects can be elicited after its binding to any of the four subtypes of G-protein coupled histamine membrane receptors. In addition, intracellular histamine can also interfere with polyamine metabolism, since there are several metabolic connections between the synthesis and degradation pathways of both types of amines. In order to dissect the metabolic effects of intracellular histamine on polyamine metabolism, we chose a well-known cell culture line, i.e., the human embryonic kidney 293 cells (HEK-293 cells). Initially, we show that HEK-293 cells lack a polyamine metabolic response to extracellular histamine, even over a wide range of histamine concentrations. HEK-293 cells were transfected with active and inactive versions of human histidine decarboxylase, and changes in many of the overlapping metabolic factors and limiting steps were tested. Overall, the results indicate a regulatory effect of histamine on the post-transcriptional expression of ornithine decarboxylase and suggest that this effect is primarily responsible for the decrease in polyamine synthesis and partial blockade of cell-cycle progression, which should affect cell proliferation rate.

  19. Histamine prevents polyamine accumulation in mouse C57.1 mast cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, I; Urdiales, J L; Paz, J C; Chavarría, T; Sánchez-Jiménez, F; Medina, M A

    2001-02-01

    The effects of histamine on polyamine uptake and metabolism was studied in a mouse mast cell line (C57.1), as a cell model in which both biogenic amines are important for maintaining cell function and viability. Results obtained after incubations with exogenous histamine indicated that histamine prevents polyamine accumulation by affecting polyamine uptake. A plasma membrane transport system for polyamines has been also studied in mast cells. It seems to be a Na(+)-dependent uptake with high affinity for both spermine and spermidine and lower affinity for putrescine and agmatine. Polyamine uptake was reduced in both cells treated with exogenous histamine and histamine-preloaded cells. However, ornithine decarboxylase activity and cell proliferation were not affected by histamine. Incubation with histamine enhanced the spermidine/spermine acetyl transferase induction caused by N(1)-ethyl-N(11)-[(cyclopropyl)methyl]-4,8-diazaundecane, suggesting that polyamine acetylation could be another mechanism by which histamine prevents polyamine accumulation in C57.1 mast cells.

  20. Effect of copper exposure on histamine concentrations in the marbled crayfish (Procambarus fallax forma virginalis).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soedarini, B.; Klaver, L.; Giesen, D.; Roessink, I.; Widianarko, B.; van Straalen, N.M.; van Gestel, C.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Crustaceans can store excess copper in the hepatopancreas, an organ playing a role in digestive activity as well as in neurosecretory control. Here, we studied the effect of copper exposure on the level of histamine, an indicator of food spoilage in edible crustaceans. Histamine is also a

  1. Inducible and titratable silencing of Caenorhabditis elegans neurons in vivo with histamine-gated chloride channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokala, Navin; Liu, Qiang; Gordus, Andrew; Bargmann, Cornelia I.

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in neuroscience has been facilitated by tools for neuronal activation and inactivation that are orthogonal to endogenous signaling systems. We describe here a chemical-genetic approach for inducible silencing of Caenorhabditis elegans neurons in intact animals, using the histamine-gated chloride channel HisCl1 from Drosophila and exogenous histamine. Administering histamine to freely moving C. elegans that express HisCl1 transgenes in neurons leads to rapid and potent inhibition of neural activity within minutes, as assessed by behavior, functional calcium imaging, and electrophysiology of neurons expressing HisCl1. C. elegans does not use histamine as an endogenous neurotransmitter, and exogenous histamine has little apparent effect on wild-type C. elegans behavior. HisCl1-histamine silencing of sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons leads to behavioral effects matching their known functions. In addition, the HisCl1-histamine system can be used to titrate the level of neural activity, revealing quantitative relationships between neural activity and behavioral output. We use these methods to dissect escape circuits, define interneurons that regulate locomotion speed (AVA, AIB) and escape-related omega turns (AIB), and demonstrate graded control of reversal length by AVA interneurons and DA/VA motor neurons. The histamine-HisCl1 system is effective, robust, compatible with standard behavioral assays, and easily combined with optogenetic tools, properties that should make it a useful addition to C. elegans neurotechnology. PMID:24550306

  2. Enhancement of ionizing radiation response by histamine in vitro and in vivo in human breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinel Lamas, Diego J; Cortina, Jorge E; Ventura, Clara; Sterle, Helena A; Valli, Eduardo; Balestrasse, Karina B; Blanco, Horacio; Cremaschi, Graciela A; Rivera, Elena S; Medina, Vanina A

    2015-01-01

    The radioprotective potential of histamine on healthy tissue has been previously demonstrated. The aims of this work were to investigate the combinatorial effect of histamine or its receptor ligands and gamma radiation in vitro on the radiobiological response of 2 breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7), to explore the potential molecular mechanisms of the radiosensitizing action and to evaluate the histamine-induced radiosensitization in vivo in a triple negative breast cancer model. Results indicate that histamine significantly increased the radiosensitivity of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. This effect was mimicked by the H1R agonist 2-(3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)histamine and the H4R agonists (Clobenpropit and VUF8430) in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells, respectively. Histamine and its agonists enhanced radiation-induced oxidative DNA damage, DNA double-strand breaks, apoptosis and senescence. These effects were associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species, which correlated with the inhibition of catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities in MDA-MB-231 cells. Histamine was able also to potentiate in vivo the anti-tumoral effect of radiation, increasing the exponential tumor doubling time. We conclude that histamine increased radiation response of breast cancer cells, suggesting that it could be used as a potential adjuvant to enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy. PMID:25482934

  3. Histamine inhibits the production of interleukin-12 through interaction with H2 receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pouw Kraan, T. C.; Snijders, A.; Boeije, L. C.; de Groot, E. R.; Alewijnse, A. E.; Leurs, R.; Aarden, L. A.

    1998-01-01

    IL-12 is essential for T helper 1 (Th1) development and inhibits the induction of Th2 responses. Atopic diseases, which are characterized by Th2 responses, are associated with the overproduction of histamine. Here we present evidence that histamine, at physiological concentrations, strongly inhibits

  4. Histamine release positive test associates with disease remission in chronic spontaneous urticaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berti, A; Yacoub, M R; Skov, Per Stahl

    2017-01-01

    Summary: Background. Histamine release (HR) test has previously been shown to predict the presence of endogenous histamine-releasing factors in chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU). Objectives and methods. Twenty CSU patients unresponsive to antihistamine treatment were enrolled in order to evaluate...

  5. Extracorporeal Treatment for Salicylate Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juurlink, David N; Gosselin, Sophie; Kielstein, Jan T

    2015-01-01

    in poisoning. We conducted a systematic literature review followed by data extraction and summarized findings, following a predetermined format. The entire work group voted by a 2-round modified Delphi method to reach consensus on voting statements, using a RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method to quantify...

  6. Hemodialysis in the Poisoned Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Boysen-Osborn

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This classic team based learning (cTBL didactic is aimed for emergency medicine residents and fourth year medical students entering emergency medicine. Introduction: Over one million visits per year to United States (US emergency departments (ED are related to poisonings.1 Extracorporeal treatment (ECTR, specifically hemodialysis (HD, is one potential method to enhance elimination of certain drugs and their toxic metabolites.2-12 While HD may be life-saving in certain poisonings, it may have no effect on others and it carries associated risks and costs. It is essential that emergency physicians know the indications for HD in the poisoned patient. This cTBL reviews many poisonings which may be managed by HD. Objectives: By the end of this cTBL, the learner will: 1 recognize laboratory abnormalities related to toxic alcohol ingestion; 2 calculate an anion gap and osmolal gap; 3 know the characteristics of drugs that are good candidates for HD; 4 discuss the management of patients with toxic alcohol ingestions; 5 discuss the management of patients with salicylate overdose; 6 know the indications for HD in patients with overdoses of antiepileptic drugs; 7 discuss the management of patients with lithium toxicity. Method: This didactic session is a cTBL (classic team based learning.

  7. Lead poisoning from souvenir earthenware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellström-Lindberg, Eva; Björklund, Andreas; Karlson-Stiber, Christine; Harper, Pauline; Seldén, Anders I

    2006-02-01

    A case of massive lead poisoning from juice contained in a Greek earthenware jug as well as six satellite cases of high lead exposure of similar origin is reported. The intoxicated patient was successfully treated with dimercaptosuccinic acid. Ceramic producers should adhere to the longstanding European legislation.

  8. Germination Conditions For Poison Ivy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan M. Schiff; Kristina F. Connor; Margaret S. Devall

    2004-01-01

    Several scarification and stratification treatments were tested to optimize germination conditions for poison ivy [Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kunst]. Fall-collected seeds soaked for 1 hour in water showed increasing germination with increasing stratification. Scarification with concentrated sulphuric acid for 30 minutes resulted in approximately 65...

  9. Acute arsenic poisoning diagnosed late.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumy, Farzana; Anam, Ahmad Mursel; Kamruzzaman, A K M; Amin, Md Robed; Chowdhury, M A Jalil

    2016-04-01

    Acute arsenicosis, although having a 'historical' background, is not common in our times. This report describes a case of acute arsenic poisoning, missed initially due to its gastroenteritis-like presentation, but suspected and confirmed much later, when the patient sought medical help for delayed complications after about 2 months. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. [Arsenic poisoning: a special gastroenteritis...].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganster, F; Kuteifan, K; Mootien, Y; Harry, P; Guiot, P

    2009-06-01

    Arsenic (As) intoxication is nowadays extremely rare. Two cases of acute and chronic As criminal poisoning leading to death of a couple of retired people, are reported. Clinical presentation was simulating a gastro-enteritidis with fast evolution to refractory shock. Toxicological analysis confirmed this diagnostic, with respectively blood As concentrations at 579 and 21 765 microg/l for our two patients.

  11. Lithium: poisonings and suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnon, F; Saïd, S; Lepine, J P

    2002-04-01

    This study concerns 81 cases of lithium poisoning and shows that deliberate intoxications are prevalent during the first 3 years of lithium treatment as well as in cases with a previous history of suicide attempt. Therapeutic intoxications could generally be avoided by education concerning hygiene and diet and careful monitoring in cases of intercurrent diseases.

  12. Extracorporeal Treatment for Lithium Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decker, Brian S; Goldfarb, David S; Dargan, Paul I

    2015-01-01

    treatment (1D), but continuous RRT is an acceptable alternative (1D). The workgroup supported the use of extracorporeal treatment in severe lithium poisoning. Clinical decisions on when to use extracorporeal treatment should take into account the [Li(+)], kidney function, pattern of lithium toxicity...

  13. Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or throat complains of chest tightness or difficulty breathing develops widespread redness or swelling was given a shot of epinephrine (EpiPen) Think Prevention! Teach kids what poison ivy/oak/sumac plants look like and how important they are to ...

  14. Signaling transduction pathways involved in basophil adhesion and histamine release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sha, Quan; Poulsen, Lars K.; Gerwien, Jens

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about basophil with respect to the different signaling transduction pathways involved in spontaneous, cytokine or anti-IgE induced adhesion and how this compares to IgE-dependent and IgE-independent mediator secretion. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the roles ...... of beta1 and beta2 integrins in basophil adhesion as well as hosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), src-kinases and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 in basophil adhesion and histamine release (HR)....

  15. Amitraz: a mimicker of organophosphate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhooria, Sahajal; Behera, Digambar; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2015-10-01

    Amitraz is used as an ectoparasiticide for dogs and cattle. Human poisoning due to amitraz may be misdiagnosed as organophosphate/carbamate (OPC) toxicity, since amitraz poisoning shares several clinical features (miosis, bradycardia and hypotension) encountered with OPC poisoning. A 19-year-old man with an alleged history of suicidal ingestion of a pesticide presented with drowsiness and was found to have constricted pupils, hypotension and bradycardia. He was diagnosed as a case of OPC poisoning and was treated with atropine and pralidoxime prior to presentation to our centre. Absence of a hypersecretory state, and the presence of hyperglycaemia and hypothermia along with a normal serum cholinesterase level suggested an alternate possibility. Retrieval of the poison container confirmed the diagnosis of amitraz poisoning. The patient made a rapid recovery with supportive management. Clinician awareness is key to successful management of this poisoning, which carries a good prognosis. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  16. TASK Channels on Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons Modulate Electrocortical Signatures of Arousal by Histamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Michael T.; Du, Guizhi; Bayliss, Douglas A.

    2015-01-01

    Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons are the main source of cortical acetylcholine, and their activation by histamine elicits cortical arousal. TWIK-like acid-sensitive K+ (TASK) channels modulate neuronal excitability and are expressed on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, but the role of TASK channels in the histamine-basal forebrain cholinergic arousal circuit is unknown. We first expressed TASK channel subunits and histamine Type 1 receptors in HEK cells. Application of histamine in vitro inhibited the acid-sensitive K+ current, indicating a functionally coupled signaling mechanism. We then studied the role of TASK channels in modulating electrocortical activity in vivo using freely behaving wild-type (n = 12) and ChAT-Cre:TASKf/f mice (n = 12), the latter lacking TASK-1/3 channels on cholinergic neurons. TASK channel deletion on cholinergic neurons significantly altered endogenous electroencephalogram oscillations in multiple frequency bands. We then identified the effect of TASK channel deletion during microperfusion of histamine into the basal forebrain. In non-rapid eye movement sleep, TASK channel deletion on cholinergic neurons significantly attenuated the histamine-induced increase in 30–50 Hz activity, consistent with TASK channels contributing to histamine action on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. In contrast, during active wakefulness, histamine significantly increased 30–50 Hz activity in ChAT-Cre:TASKf/f mice but not wild-type mice, showing that the histamine response depended upon the prevailing cortical arousal state. In summary, we identify TASK channel modulation in response to histamine receptor activation in vitro, as well as a role of TASK channels on cholinergic neurons in modulating endogenous oscillations in the electroencephalogram and the electrocortical response to histamine at the basal forebrain in vivo. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Attentive states and cognitive function are associated with the generation of γ EEG activity

  17. Infrared spectra of the protonated neurotransmitter histamine: competition between imidazolium and ammonium isomers in the gas phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagutschenkov, A.; Langer, J.; G. Berden,; Oomens, J.; Dopfer, O.

    2011-01-01

    The infrared (IR) spectrum of protonated histamine (histamineH(+)) was recorded in the 575-1900 cm(-1) fingerprint range by means of IR multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy. The IRMPD spectrum of mass-selected histamineH(+) ions was obtained in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron

  18. Histamine release induced from rat mast cells by the ionophore A23187 in the absence of extracellular calcium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Torben

    1980-01-01

    Isolated rat mast cells were used to study whether ionophore A23187 could induce histamine release by mobilizing cellular calcium. The histamine release was a slow process which was completed after about 20 min incubation with A23187. The A23187-induced histamine release was inhibited after...

  19. Mechanism of histamine release from rat mast cells induced by the ionophore A23187: effects of calcium and temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Torben

    1978-01-01

    1 The mechanism of histamine release from a pure population of rat mast cells induced by the lipid soluble antibiotic, A23187, has been studied and compared with data for anaphylactic histamine release reported in the literature. 2 Histamine release induced by A23187 in the presence of calcium 10...

  20. Effects of histamine and antihistamines on the kinetics of carbon dioxide in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, J.C.; Chambers, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of chlorpheniramine (an H1 histamine inhibitor) and metiamide (an H2 inhibitor) on response to 14C pulse-labeling of carbon dioxide in the rat in the presence and absence of histamine. Neither chlorpheniramine nor metiamide alone had any effect upon the gastric venous/arterial ratio (VG/A) or the peripheral venous/arterial ratio (Vp/A). As in the case with no drug present, Vp/A rose with time following pulse-labeling to a value of 1.15-1.20. The presence of a preexisting steady-state infusion of histamine caused no changes in the ratios in the presence or absence of the inhibitors. The inhibitors did completely abolish the oscillations of both VG/A and Vp/A caused by initiation of histamine infusion coincident with the pulse-labeling. The results suggest that the histamine effects are largely mediated through H1 receptors.

  1. Measurement of histamine release from human lung tissue ex vivo by microdialysis technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Dan; Petersen, Lars Jelstrup; Nolte, H

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Currently no method is available for measurement of mediator release from intact human lung. In this study, a microdialysis technique was used to measure histamine release from mast cells in human lung tissue ex vivo. MATERIAL: Microdialysis fibers of 216 microm were inserted...... responses were observed but data could be reproduced within individual donors. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, a potent basophil secretagogue, did not induce histamine release in lung tissue which indicated mast cells to be the histamine source. Substance P did not release histamine in the lung tissue....... CONCLUSIONS: The microdialysis technique allowed measurements of histamine release from mast cells in intact lung ex vivo. The method may prove useful since a number of experiments can be performed in a few hours in intact lung tissue without any dispersion or enzymatic treatment....

  2. Increased susceptibility to diet-induced obesity in histamine-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Emilie A; Vogelsang, Thomas W; Knigge, Ulrich

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: The neurotransmitter histamine is involved in the regulation of appetite and in the development of age-related obesity in mice. Furthermore, histamine is a mediator of the anorexigenic action of leptin. The aim of the present study was to investigate a possible role of histamine...... in the development of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. METHODS: Histamine-deficient histidine decarboxylase knock-out (HDC-KO) mice and C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice were given either a standard diet (STD) or HFD for 8 weeks. Body weight, 24-hour caloric intake, epididymal adipose tissue size, plasma leptin......-KO mice compared to STD-fed HDC-KO mice was observed, while no such difference was observed in WT mice. CONCLUSION: Based on our results, we conclude that histamine plays a role in the development of HFD-induced obesity....

  3. Leukotriene C4 and histamine in early allergic reaction in the nose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Robinson, C; Rømeling, F

    1988-01-01

    We have examined the measurements of LTC4 and histamine in nasal lavage fluids and blown secretions as a possible model of the early mediator events during nasal allergy. A nasal challenge with grass pollen extract was undertaken on two separate occasions in 20 patients with a history of seasonal......mTc-labelled albumin as an exogenous marker added to the fluid. The amounts of admixture in the nasal lavages did not correlate to the concentrations of LTC4 and histamine, indicating that the variable amounts of nasal secretion in nasal lavage do not constitute a confounding variable...... for measurements of LTC4 and histamine. In the pre-challenge lavages, the median concentrations, of LTC4 and histamine were 1.7 and 52 nmol/l respectively. Following allergen challenge neither LTC4 nor histamine measured in nasal lavage showed any significant change from pre-challenge baseline values. However...

  4. Comparative analysis of the in vitro cytotoxicity of the dietary biogenic amines tyramine and histamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Daniel M; del Rio, Beatriz; Redruello, Begoña; Ladero, Victor; Martin, M Cruz; Fernandez, Maria; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2016-04-15

    Tyramine and histamine, the most toxic biogenic amines (BA), are often found in high concentrations in certain foods. Prompted by the limited knowledge of BA toxicity, and increasing awareness of the risks associated with high intakes of dietary BA, the in vitro cytotoxicity of tyramine and histamine was investigated. Tyramine and histamine were toxic for HT29 intestinal cell cultures at concentrations commonly found in BA-rich food, as determined by real-time cell analysis. Surprisingly, tyramine had a stronger and more rapid cytotoxic effect than histamine. Their mode of action was also different, while tyramine caused cell necrosis, histamine induced apoptosis. To avoid health risks, the BA content of foods should be reduced and legal limits established for tyramine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of nitric oxide synthase inhibition on histamine induced headache and arterial dilatation in migraineurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, L H; Christiansen, I; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg

    2003-01-01

    , temporal and radial arteries. In a double blind crossover design 12 patients were randomized to receive pretreatment with L-NMMA (6 mg/kg) or placebo i.v. over 15 min followed on both study days by histamine (0.5 microg/kg/min) i.v. for 20 min. Headache scores, mean maximal blood velocity (Vmean......We have previously proposed that histamine causes migraine via increased NO production. To test this hypothesis, we here examined if the NOS inhibitor, L-NG methylarginine hydrochloride (L-NMMA:546C88), could block or attenuate histamine induced migraine attacks and responses of the middle cerebral...... the use of a NOS inhibitor in the highest possible dose did not block the histamine-induced headache response or arterial dilatation. Either the concentration of L-NMMA reaching the smooth muscle cell was insufficient or, histamine dilates arteries and causes headache via NO independent mechanisms. Our...

  6. Existence of carcinine, a histamine-related compound, in mammalian tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flancbaum, L.; Brotman, D.N.; Fitzpatrick, J.C.; Van Es, Theodorus; Kasziba, E.; Fisher, H. (Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Carcinine ({beta}-alanylhistamine) was synthesized in vitro from histamine and {beta}-alanine. It was detected quantitatively using an HPLC method previously described for the quantification of the related compounds histamine, histidine, carnosine and 3-methylhistamine. Carcinine was identified in several tissues of the rat, guinea pig, mouse and human, and was then shown to be metabolically related in vivo to histamine, histidine, carnosine and 3-methylhistamine through radioisotopic labeling. The results demonstrate that carcinine may be concurrently quantitated using the same HPLC method as that used to measure histamine, histidine, carnosine and 3-methylhistamine. These findings suggest a role for carcinine in the carnosine-histidine-histamine metabolic pathway and the mammalian physiologic response to stress.

  7. Basophil histamine release in the diagnosis of house dust mite and dander allergy of asthmatic children. Comparison between prick test, RAST, basophil histamine release and bronchial provocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostergaard, P A; Ebbesen, F; Nolte, H; Skov, P S

    1990-04-01

    The aim of the study is to compare the glass fibre-based basophil histamine release test with skin test (Phazet), RAST (Phadebas) and bronchial provocation test in children with allergic asthma. The study comprised 68 selected children with a case history of extrinsic allergic asthma to danders (cat and dog) and house-dust mite. Skin prick test, RAST, and histamine release were performed in all children and the bronchial provocation test was used as a reference of "true allergic asthma". A total of 81 allergen bronchial challenges were performed and 44 children experienced 49 positive provocations. In 2.9% (2/68) of the children histamine release could not be performed due to technical difficulties (low histamine release with anti-IgE). Concordances in the range 76-87% were observed with no significant difference between the tests. The highest concordance (87%) was found between histamine release and bronchial provocation test followed by skin prick test vs bronchial provocation (84%) and RAST vs bronchial provocation (80%). The sensitivity and specificity were calculated for each test. All tests showed sensitivities in the range 90-94% and no significant difference between them was observed. The specificity of histamine release, skin prick test, and RAST was 0.78, 0.69, and 0.63, respectively. The specificity of histamine release was better than RAST demonstrated by 95% confidence intervals. In conclusion, it was found that the histamine release test is a convenient diagnostic method and the study indicates a diagnostic value comparable to the common diagnostic methods in clinical allergy.

  8. Clinical analysis of 156 cases of multiple organ failure caused by fish bile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fa-huan Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Compared with the MOF caused by trauma and sepsis, the fish bile poisoning MOF has a much lower morality rate. However, patients with higher age, more underlying diseases, and more organ failure tended to have a worse prognosis.

  9. Strain-dependent induction of neutrophil histamine production and cell death by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiang; Zhang, Hong; Song, Yuanlin; Lynch, Susan V.; Lowell, Clifford A.; Wiener-Kronish, Jeanine P.; Caughey, George H.

    2012-01-01

    Airway diseases often feature persistent neutrophilic inflammation and infection. In cystic fibrosis bronchitis, for example, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is isolated frequently. Previously, this laboratory revealed that neutrophils become major sources of histamine in mice with tracheobronchitis caused by the wall-less bacterium Mycoplasma pulmonis. To test the hypothesis that more-broadly pathogenic P. aeruginosa (which expresses cell wall-associated LPS and novel toxins) has similar effects, we incubated naïve mouse neutrophils with two strains of P. aeruginosa. Strain PAO1 greatly increased neutrophil histamine content and secretion, whereas strain PA103 depressed histamine production by killing neutrophils. The histamine-stimulating capacity of PAO1, but not PA103-mediated toxicity, persisted in heat-killed organisms. In PAO1-infected mice, lung and neutrophil histamine content increased. However, PAO1 did not alter production by mast cells (classical histamine reservoirs), which also resisted PA103 toxicity. To explore mechanisms of neutrophil-selective induction, we measured changes in mRNA encoding histidine decarboxylase (rate-limiting for histamine synthesis), probed involvement of endotoxin-TLR pathways in Myd88-deficient neutrophils, and examined contributions of pyocyanin and exotoxins. Results revealed that PAO1 increased histamine production by up-regulating histidine decarboxylase mRNA via pathways largely independent of TLR, pyocyanin, and type III secretion system exotoxins. PAO1 also increased histidine decarboxylase mRNA in neutrophils purified from infected lung. Stimulation required direct contact with neutrophils and was blocked by phagocytosis inhibitor cytochalasin D. In summary, Pseudomonas-augmented histamine production by neutrophils is strain-dependent in vitro and likely mediated by up-regulation of histidine decarboxylase. These findings raise the possibility that Pseudomonas-stimulated neutrophils can enhance airway inflammation by

  10. Increased brain histamine H3 receptor expression during hibernation in golden-mantled ground squirrels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anichtchik Oleg V

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hibernation is a state of extremely reduced physiological functions and a deep depression of CNS activity. We have previously shown that the histamine levels increase in the brain during hibernation, as does the ratio between histamine and its first metabolite, suggesting increased histamine turnover during this state. The inhibitory histamine H3 receptor has both auto- and heteroreceptor function, rendering it the most likely histamine receptor to be involved in regulating the activity of histamine as well as other neurotransmitters during hibernation. In view of accumulating evidence that there is a global depression of transcription and translation during hibernation, of all but a few proteins that are important for this physiological condition, we reasoned that an increase in histamine H3 receptor expression would clearly indicate an important hibernation-related function for the receptor. Results In this study we show, using in situ hybridization, that histamine H3 receptor mRNA increases in the cortex, caudate nucleus and putamen during hibernation, an increase that is accompanied by elevated receptor binding in the cerebral cortex, globus pallidus and substantia nigra. These results indicate that there is a hibernation-related increase in H3 receptor expression in cortical neurons and in striatopallidal and striatonigral GABAergic neurons. GTP-γ-S binding autoradiography shows that the H3 receptors in the globus pallidus and substantia nigra can be stimulated by histamine throughout the hibernation cycle, suggesting that they are functionally active during hibernation. Conclusions These results show that the histamine H3 receptor gene is one of the few with a transcript that increases during hibernation, indicating an important role for the receptor in regulating this state. Moreover, the receptor is functionally active in the basal ganglia, suggesting a function for it in regulating e.g. dopaminergic transmission

  11. Aspirin augments IgE-mediated histamine release from human peripheral basophils via Syk kinase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Hiroaki; Yokooji, Tomoharu; Morita, Hironobu; Ooi, Mina; Urata, Kana; Ishii, Kaori; Takahagi, Shunsuke; Yanase, Yuhki; Hiragun, Takaaki; Mihara, Shoji; Hide, Michihiro

    2013-12-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), especially aspirin, and food additives (FAs) may exacerbate allergic symptoms in patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria and food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA). Augmentation of histamine release from human mast cells and basophils by those substances is speculated to be the cause of exacerbated allergic symptoms. We sought to investigate the mechanism of action of aspirin on IgE-mediated histamine release. The effects of NSAIDs, FAs or cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors on histamine release from human basophils concentrated by gravity separation were evaluated. Benzoate and tartrazine, which have no COX inhibitory activity, augmented histamine release from basophils similar to aspirin. In contrast, ibuprofen, meloxicam, FR122047 and NS-398, which have COX inhibitory activity, did not affect histamine release. These results indicate that the augmentation of histamine release by aspirin is not due to COX inhibition. It was observed that aspirin augmented histamine release from human basophils only when specifically activated by anti-IgE antibodies, but not by A23187 or formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. When the IgE receptor signaling pathway was activated, aspirin increased the phosphorylation of Syk. Moreover, patients with chronic urticaria and FDEIA tended to be more sensitive to aspirin as regards the augmentation of histamine release, compared with healthy controls. Aspirin enhanced histamine release from basophils via increased Syk kinase activation, and that the augmentation of histamine release by NSAIDs or FAs may be one possible cause of worsening symptoms in patients with chronic urticaria and FDEIA.

  12. Histamine and H1-antihistamines: celebrating a century of progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, F Estelle R; Simons, Keith J

    2011-12-01

    In this review we celebrate a century of progress since the initial description of the physiologic and pathologic roles of histamine and 70 years of progress since the introduction of H(1)-antihistamines for clinical use. We discuss histamine and clinically relevant information about the molecular mechanisms of action of H(1)-antihistamines as inverse agonists (not antagonists or blockers) with immunoregulatory effects. Unlike first (old)-generation H(1)-antihistamines introduced from 1942 to the mid-1980s, most of the second (new)-generation H(1)-antihistamines introduced subsequently have been investigated extensively with regard to clinical pharmacology, efficacy, and safety; moreover, they are relatively free from adverse effects and not causally linked with fatalities after overdose. Important advances include improved nasal and ophthalmic H(1)-antihistamines with rapid onset of action (in minutes) for allergic rhinitis and allergic conjunctivitis treatment, respectively, and effective and safe use of high (up to 4-fold) doses of oral second-generation H(1)-antihistamines for chronic urticaria treatment. New H(1)-antihistamines introduced for clinical use include oral formulations (bilastine and rupatadine), and ophthalmic formulations (alcaftadine and bepotastine). Clinical studies of H(3)-antihistamines with enhanced decongestant effects have been conducted in patients with allergic rhinitis. Additional novel compounds being studied include H(4)-antihistamines with anti-inflammatory effects in allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and other diseases. Antihistamines have a storied past and a promising future. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Phosphorescent nanosensors for in vivo tracking of histamine levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Kevin J.; Clark, Heather A.

    2013-01-01

    Continuously tracking bio-analytes in vivo will enable clinicians and researchers to profile normal physiology and monitor diseased states. Current in vivo monitoring system designs are limited by invasive implantation procedures and bio-fouling, limiting the utility of these tools for obtaining physiologic data. In this work, we demonstrate the first success in optically tracking histamine levels in vivo using a modular, injectable sensing platform based on a diamine oxidase and a phosphorescent oxygen nanosensor. Our new approach increases the range of measureable analytes by combining an enzymatic recognition element with a reversible nanosensor capable of measuring the effects of enzymatic activity. We use these enzyme nanosensors (EnzNS) to monitor the in vivo histamine dynamics as the concentration rapidly increases and decreases due to administration and clearance. The EnzNS system measured kinetics that match those reported from ex vivo measurements. This work establishes a modular approach to in vivo nanosensor design for measuring a broad range of potential target analytes. Simply replacing the recognition enzyme, or both the enzyme and nanosensor, can produce a new sensor system capable of measuring a wide range of specific analytical targets in vivo. PMID:23767828

  14. The poisoning women of Tiszazug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodó, B

    2002-01-01

    This article examines the social causes of the infamous Tiszazug murders (i.e., the poisoning of more than forty people, mainly men, by their female relatives) in interwar Hungary. First, it looks at those elements in peasant culture, such as the traditional neglect of the sick elderly and the disabled, which proved conducive to a violent solution of family problems. Then, the essay analyzes the changes in family structures and inheritance patterns and discusses the impact of political events such as the end of overseas migration, the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the autarchic policies of the "successor states" and the failure of land reform on peasants' lives. Finally, the article looks at the discovery of the murders and the peasants' interpretations of the poisonings.

  15. Datura stramonium poisoning in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegoke, S A; Alo, L A

    2013-01-01

    Although substance abuse is fairly common among adolescents, poisoning from Datura stramonium (a broadleaf annual erect herb with spine-covered seed capsule) is uncommon in children and has not been reported in our locality. We present the case of two children admitted at the Children Emergency Room of a teaching hospital following ingestion of extract of Datura stramonium. They developed neurotoxicity (confusion, agitation, mydriasis, and hallucination) and were managed symptomatically with good outcome. A high index of suspicion and early management of poison in children is imperative if a favorable outcome is expected. Early presentation and the presence of an eyewitness contributed to the very good outcome in these index cases. In this report, we discussed the symptomatology and management of Datura toxicity in children.

  16. Haemoperfusion in Amanita phalloides poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aji, D Y; Calişkan, S; Nayir, A; Mat, A; Can, B; Yaşar, Z; Ozşahin, H; Cullu, F; Sever, L

    1995-12-01

    Amanita phalloides is responsible for about 90 per cent of all fatal cases of mushroom intoxication. The amatoxins, the main toxic component of these fungi, are responsible for gastro-intestinal symptoms as well as hepatic and renal failure. Three brothers with Amanita phalloides poisoning were admitted with gastro-intestinal symptoms beginning 12 h after ingestion. Jaundice, hepatomegaly and neurological symptoms were not present, but liver enzymes were moderately increased. Alfa-amanitin was detected in sera of all patients. All patients underwent charcoal hemoperfusion and two of them had additional hemodialysis along with conservative therapy. Liver enzymes that showed a marked increase on the second day of therapy decreased to normal levels on the 28th day. All of our patients survived. This life saving role of early haemoperfusion in Amanita phalloides poisoning is emphasized.

  17. Extracorporeal treatment for carbamazepine poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Yates, Christopher; Galvao, Tais F

    2014-01-01

    in carbamazepine poisoning. METHODS: After a systematic literature search, the subgroup extracted the data and summarized the findings following a pre-determined format. The entire workgroup voted via a two-round modified Delphi method to reach a consensus on voting statements, using a RAND/UCLA Appropriateness......-vitro studies; two poor-quality observational studies were identified, yielding a very low quality of evidence for all recommendations. Data on 173 patients, including 6 fatalities, were reviewed. The workgroup concluded that carbamazepine is moderately dialyzable and made the following recommendations: ECTR...... is suggested in severe carbamazepine poisoning (2D). ECTR is recommended if multiple seizures occur and are refractory to treatment (1D), or if life-threatening dysrhythmias occur (1D). ECTR is suggested if prolonged coma or respiratory depression requiring mechanical ventilation are present (2D...

  18. Antitumor activity of platinum(II) complexes with histamine and radioiodinated histamine in a transplantable murine adenocarcinoma model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnuszek, Piotr [Department of Radiopharmaceuticals, National Medicines Institute, 00-725 Warsaw (Poland)], E-mail: pgarnuszek@il.waw.pl; Karczmarczyk, Urszula; Maurin, Michal [Department of Radiopharmaceuticals, National Medicines Institute, 00-725 Warsaw (Poland)

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: Antitumor activity of the dichloroplatinum(II)-histamine complexes labeled with I-125 or I-131 was investigated in a transplantable murine adenocarcinoma (MA) model. Methods: The tumor model was obtained in C3H/W female mice after subcutaneous inoculation of the tumor cells derived from the mice bearing a mammary tumor of spontaneous origin. Antitumor activities of the platinum-histamine complexes were investigated in three independent experiments, which differed in applied doses of preparations (PtCl{sub 2}Hist, PtCl{sub 2}[{sup 125}I]Hist, PtCl{sub 2}[{sup 131}I]Hist, PtCl{sub 2}Hist/PtCl{sub 2}[{sup 125}I]Hist and PtCl{sub 2}Hist/PtCl{sub 2}[{sup 131}I]Hist), treatment schedules as well as stages of the disease progress in the animals used. Experiment 1 included long-term, multidose treatment with low single doses (treatment duration 31-32 days; 8-10 doses of ca. 0.25{center_dot}MTD{sub Pt} each). Experiment 2 included short-term, multidose treatment with higher single doses (4xca. 0.5{center_dot}MTD{sub Pt} up to Day 13 of the treatment). Experiment 3 included long-term concomitant multidose treatment with higher single doses (9x0.9-0.4{center_dot}MTD{sub Pt} up to Day 33). Results: The long-term treatment with the platinum-histamine preparations revealed inhibiting activity on the tumor growth and size in comparison to control groups. The most intensive and significant antitumor effects were observed for the radioactive complexes. The tumor growth delay factors (GDFs) observed in Experiment 1 were 0.4, 0.7, and 1.2 for PtCl{sub 2}Hist, PtCl{sub 2}Hist/PtCl{sub 2}[{sup 131}I]Hist, and PtCl{sub 2}Hist/PtCl{sub 2}[{sup 125}I]Hist, respectively. Significant (P<.05) prolongations of median survivals (MS) were found in Experiment 2 following the treatment with higher single doses of PtCl{sub 2}Hist and PtCl{sub 2}His/PtCl{sub 2}[{sup 125}I]Hist (Ratio MS{sub tr}/MS{sub con} ca. 1.4). A slightly less potent activity was observed for PtCl{sub 2}Hist

  19. Involvement of histamine in endothelium-dependent relaxation of mesenteric lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamutdinova, Irina Tsoy; Maejima, Daisuke; Nagai, Takashi; Bridenbaugh, Eric; Thangaswamy, Sangeetha; Chatterjee, Victor; Meininger, Cynthia J; Gashev, Anatoliy A

    2014-10-01

    The knowledge of the basic principles of lymphatic function, still remains, to a large degree, rudimentary and will require significant research efforts. Recent studies of the physiology of the MLVs suggested the presence of an EDRF other than NO. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that lymphatic endothelium-derived histamine relaxes MLVs. We measured and analyzed parameters of lymphatic contractility in isolated and pressurized rat MLVs under control conditions and after pharmacological blockade of NO by L-NAME (100 μM) or/and histamine production by α-MHD (10 μM). Effectiveness of α-MHD was confirmed immunohistochemically. We also used immunohistochemical labeling and Western blot analysis of the histamine-producing enzyme, HDC. In addition, we blocked HDC protein expression in MLVs by transient transfection with vivo-morpholino oligos. We found that only combined pharmacological blockade of NO and histamine production completely eliminates flow-dependent relaxation of lymphatic vessels, thus confirming a role for histamine as an EDRF in MLVs. We also confirmed the presence of HDC and histamine inside lymphatic endothelial cells. This study supports a role for histamine as an EDRF in MLVs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Histamine skin reactivity increases with body mass index in Korean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ju Wan; Lee, Keun-Hwa; Hong, Seong-Chul; Lee, Hye-Sook; Lee, Jaechun; Kim, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Jeong Hong

    2015-02-01

    Histamine skin prick testing is most commonly used to diagnose immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic diseases, and histamine reactivity is used as a standardized positive control in the interpretation of a skin prick test. However, reactivity to histamine differs among individuals for reasons that are poorly understood. The present study aimed to evaluate the potential association between body mass index (BMI) and histamine skin reactivity in children. A total of 451 children (246 boys, 205 girls) aged 7-8 years were enrolled in this study. The skin prick test was performed with 26 aeroallergens commonly found in Korea. Other information was collected, including sex, age, BMI, parental allergy history, and parental smoking status. Multivariate analysis was used to confirm the association between histamine skin reactivity and BMI. The histamine wheal size was revealed to be associated with BMI (Spearman's Rho 0.161, pSkin responses to histamine were primarily correlated with increased BMI. Further studies are needed to understand the clinical implication of BMI when interpreting the results of skin prick test. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Allergen skin prick test should be adjusted by the histamine reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreborg, Sten

    2015-01-01

    Skin prick test results are mostly reported as mean wheal diameter obtained with one concentration of allergen. Differences in technique between personnel causes variation in wheal size. The research question was whether the influence of differences in skin prick test technique among assistants and centers can be reduced by relating the allergen wheal response to that of histamine. Two methods for estimating skin reactivity, the method of Nordic Guidelines using histamine as a reference and the method of Brighton et al. [Clin Allergy 1979;9:591-596] not using histamine as a reference, were applied to data from two biological standardization trials, using the same batch of freeze-dried timothy pollen preparation. The concentration defining the Nordic biological unit, defined as a concentration of allergen eliciting a wheal of the same size as that of histamine dihydrochloride 10 mg/ml, did not differ between the centers. When not using histamine as a reference, applying the method of Brighton et al., there was a 15-fold difference in the estimate of the biological activity between the trials that was eliminated by adjusting the allergen response to that of the histamine reference. To reduce the influence of differences in test technique among assistants and centers responses to allergen-induced skin prick tests should be compared to that of histamine. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Targeting of histamine producing cells by EGCG: a green dart against inflammation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgarejo, Esther; Medina, Miguel Angel; Sánchez-Jiménez, Francisca; Urdiales, José Luis

    2010-09-01

    The human body is made of some 250 different cell types. From them, only a small subset of cell types is able to produce histamine. They include some neurons, enterochromaffin-like cells, gastrin-containing cells, mast cells, basophils, and monocytes/macrophages, among others. In spite of the reduced number of these histamine-producing cell types, they are involved in very different physiological processes. Their deregulation is related with many highly prevalent, as well as emergent and rare diseases, mainly those described as inflammation-dependent pathologies, including mastocytosis, basophilic leukemia, gastric ulcer, Crohn disease, and other inflammatory bowel diseases. Furthermore, oncogenic transformation switches some non-histamine-producing cells to a histamine producing phenotype. This is the case of melanoma, small cell lung carcinoma, and several types of neuroendocrine tumors. The bioactive compound epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea, has been shown to target histamine-producing cells producing great alterations in their behavior, with relevant effects on their proliferative potential, as well as their adhesion, migration, and invasion potentials. In fact, EGCG has been shown to have potent anti-inflammatory, anti-tumoral, and anti-angiogenic effects and to be a potent inhibitor of the histamine-producing enzyme, histidine decarboxylase. Herein, we review the many specific effects of EGCG on concrete molecular targets of histamine-producing cells and discuss the relevance of these data to support the potential therapeutic interest of this compound to treat inflammation-dependent diseases.

  3. [Histamine metabolism disorder in pathogenesis of chronic pelvic pain in patients with external genital endometriosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orazov, M R; Radzinskiy, V Y; Khamoshina, M B; Nosenko, E N; Tokaeva, E S; Barsegyan, L K; Zakirova, Y R

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To study features of histamine metabolism in patients with chronic pelvic pain associated with external genital endometriosis. Methods. For quantitative assessment of histamine level in peripheral blood was taken from 100 patients which than was centrifuged. In blood serum histamine concentration was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method with reagents «Histamine ЕLISA» on the machine BAE-1000 Histamine (Labor Diagnostika Nord - LDN, Hermany). A pain syndrome was assessed by Visual Analog Scale (VAS), quality of life assessment - by Endometriosis Health Profile Questionnaire (EHR-30), level of anxiety was determined by Spielberger-Khanin questionnaire. The results. Showed statistically higher histamine level in patients with severe pain according to VAS. After assessment of results obtained from Spielberger-Khanin questionnaire 100% experimental group's women with external genital endometriosis (n = 60) were noted to be have high level of state and trait anxiety, then 40% women of control group (n = 16) have moderate level of anxiety. The incidence of depression in women with chronic pelvic pain was 58.3% (n = 35) and the main part (n = 20) were women with severe stage of pelvic pain according to VAS. Conclusions. Psycho emotional condition of women with external genital endometriosis associated pelvic pain characterized by higher depression and anxiety levels, with significant decrease quality of life. Direct relationship also was found between pain syndrome intensity and histamine level in peripheral blood in patients with external genital endometriosis.

  4. FT-Raman and QM/MM study of the interaction between histamine and DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Chica, A.J. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Soriano, A. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica/IcMol, Facultad de Quimicas, Universidad de Valencia, 46100 Burjassot Valencia (Spain); Tunon, I. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica/IcMol, Facultad de Quimicas, Universidad de Valencia, 46100 Burjassot Valencia (Spain); Sanchez-Jimenez, F.M. [Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Silla, E. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica/IcMol, Facultad de Quimicas, Universidad de Valencia, 46100 Burjassot Valencia (Spain); Ramirez, F.J. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain)], E-mail: ramirez@uma.es

    2006-05-31

    The interaction between histamine and highly polymerized calf-thymus DNA has been investigated using FT-Raman spectroscopy and the hybrid QM/MM (quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics) methodology. Raman spectra of solutions containing histamine and calf-thymus DNA, at different molar ratios, were recorded. Solutions were prepared at physiological settings of pH and ionic strength, using both natural and heavy water as the solvent. The analysis of the spectral changes on the DNA Raman spectra when adding different concentrations of histamine allowed us to identify the reactive sites of DNA and histamine, which were used to built two minor groove and one intercalated binding models. They were further used as starting points of the QM/MM theoretical study. However, minimal energy points were only reached for the two minor groove models. For each optimized structure, we calculated analytical force constants of histamine molecule in order to perform the vibrational dynamics. Normal mode descriptions allowed us to compare calculated wavenumbers for DNA-interacting histamine to those measured in the Raman spectra of DNA-histamine solutions.

  5. Effects of intranasal histamine on the cough reflex in subjects with allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plevkova, J; Brozmanova, M; Pecova, R; Tatar, M

    2005-09-01

    In the present study we investigated the effects of nasal histamine on the intensity of coughing and the effects of intensified nasal breathing following nasal histamine on cough sensitivity (CS) in 14 subjects with seasonal allergic rhinitis. The study consisted of two parts performed one week apart. First, baseline CS to capsaicin was determined, followed by intranasal histamine challenge (4 mg/ml, 0.1 ml) and the count of the number of coughs to inhaled capsaicin on the background of most intensive nasal symptoms (sneezing, itching, rhinorrhea, and nasal blockage) evoked by histamine. In the second part, CS was determined after intranasal histamine followed by 10 min of intensified nasal breathing through the nose or mouth in a randomized order at 2-day intervals. The number of coughs induced after intranasal histamine was significantly higher, compared with intranasal saline, [9 (7-12) vs. 4.5 (4-6), Pbreathing failed to cause any changes in CS. We conclude that stimulation of nasal mucosa with histamine enhanced the cough response in subjects with allergic rhinitis.

  6. Histamine H1 Receptor Gene Expression and Drug Action of Antihistamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Hiroyuki; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Nemoto, Hisao; Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Kashiwada, Yoshiki; Takeda, Noriaki

    2017-01-01

    The upregulation mechanism of histamine H1 receptor through the activation of protein kinase C-δ (PKCδ) and the receptor gene expression was discovered. Levels of histamine H1 receptor mRNA and IL-4 mRNA in nasal mucosa were elevated by the provocation of nasal hypersensitivity model rats. Pretreatment with antihistamines suppressed the elevation of mRNA levels. Scores of nasal symptoms were correlatively alleviated to the suppression level of mRNAs above. A correlation between scores of nasal symptoms and levels of histamine H1 receptor mRNA in the nasal mucosa was observed in patients with pollinosis. Both scores of nasal symptoms and the level of histamine H1 receptor mRNA were improved by prophylactic treatment of antihistamines. Similar to the antihistamines, pretreatment with antiallergic natural medicines showed alleviation of nasal symptoms with correlative suppression of gene expression in nasal hypersensitivity model rats through the suppression of PKCδ. Similar effects of antihistamines and antiallergic natural medicines support that histamine H1 receptor-mediated activation of histamine H1 receptor gene expression is an important signaling pathway for the symptoms of allergic diseases. Antihistamines with inverse agonist activity showed the suppression of constitutive histamine H1 receptor gene expression, suggesting the advantage of therapeutic effect.

  7. [Recent trends of mushroom poisoning in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaura, Yoshio

    2013-03-01

    The incidence of mushroom poisoning was studied statistically from 2001 to 2010 in Japan. The total incident of mushroom poisoning was 569 cases, which involved 1,920 patients and 10 deaths. The average incident was 56.9 cases per year, involving 192 patients and 1 death. On regional differences, the mushroom poisoning was more frequent in the northeastern part of Japan. The rate of total incidents for each type of poisoning, which were classified according to symptoms caused, 54.6% in the type of gastro-intestinal disorder, 11.6% in the type of neurological symptoms, and 2.4% in the type of intracellular disorder (violent vomiting, diarrhea and dehydration and hepato-nephrosis, or rhabdomyolysis, or erroneous perception, etc.), respectively. Two species of poisonous mushrooms with gastro-intestinal disorder, Lampteromyces japonicus and Rhodophyllus rhodopolius caused the majority (52%) of all poisonings in Japan.

  8. Childhood lead poisoning: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, K L; Fung, C K; Leung, A Kc

    2017-12-01

    Childhood lead poisoning is a major public health concern in many countries. In 2015, the Hong Kong SAR Government and its citizens faced a major public health crisis due to the presence of lead in the drinking water of a number of public housing estates. Fortunately, no child was diagnosed with lead poisoning that required treatment with chelation. Lead is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring material that exists in air, dust, soil, and water. It is also widely present in industrial products including petrol, paints, ceramics, food cans, candies, cosmetics, traditional remedies, batteries, solder, stained glass, crystal vessels, ammunition, ceramic glazes, jewellry, and toys. It can also be found in human milk. There is no safe blood lead level and it may be impossible to completely eliminate lead from any city. Hence routine measurement of blood lead levels is not considered useful. Acute poisoning, especially with encephalopathy, deserves immediate medical treatment in hospital. Chelation therapy is recommended if blood lead level is 45 μg/dL or higher. For blood levels between 20 and 45 μg/dL, treatment is indicated if the child is symptomatic. For blood levels below 20 μg/dL in otherwise asymptomatic children, the principle of treatment is to provide long-term neurodevelopmental follow-up and counselling. In all cases, immediate removal of the source of lead exposure is vital. Even low levels of lead exposure can significantly impair learning, educational attainment, and neurodevelopment.

  9. Pesticide Poisoning of Honeybees: A Review of Symptoms, Incident Classification, and Causes of Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Kiljanek Tomasz; Niewiadowska Alicja; Posyniak Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    During the 2000s, the problem of pesticide poisoning of honeybees seemed to be almost solved. The number of cases has decreased in comparison to the 1970s. The problem of acute honeybee poisoning, however, has not disappeared, but instead has transformed into a problem of poisoning from ‘traditional’ pesticides like organophosphorus pesticides or pyrethroids, to poisoning from additional sources of ‘modern’ systemic neonicotinoids and fipronil. In this article, the biological activity of pest...

  10. Personality traits in persons with manganese poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, A.A.

    1976-10-01

    Results of studies with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) in 3 groups of arc welders with various degrees of manganese poisoning (22 symptom-free, 23 with functional disturbances, 55 with organic symptoms) and 50 controls were discussed. There was a close relation between the severity of the poisoning and quantitative and qualitative personality changes. Personality tests are considered a useful addition to the clinical diagnosis of chronic manganese poisoning.

  11. Hemlock (Conium Maculatum) Poisoning In A Child

    OpenAIRE

    KONCA, Capan; Kahramaner, Zelal; Bosnak, Mehmet; Kocamaz, Halil

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) is a plant that is poisonous for humans and animals. Accidental ingestion of the plant may result in central nervous system depression, respiratory failure, acute rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure and even death. The main treatment of hemlock poisoning is supportive care. The case of a 6-year-old girl who was admitted to the emergency department with complaints of burning sensation in mouth, hypersalivation, tremor in hands and ataxia after ingestio...

  12. Hemlock (Conium Maculatum) Poisoning In A Child

    OpenAIRE

    KONCA, Capan; Kahramaner, Zelal; Bosnak, Mehmet; Kocamaz, Halil

    2014-01-01

    Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) is a plant that is poisonous for humans and animals. Accidental ingestion of the plant may result in central nervous system depression, respiratory failure, acute rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure and even death. The main treatment of hemlock poisoning is supportive care. The case of a 6-year-old girl who was admitted to the emergency department with complaints of burning sensation in mouth, hypersalivation, tremor in hands and ataxia after ingestion of poi...

  13. Childhood poisoning: a community hospital experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlbach, S H; Wall, J B

    1977-06-01

    We reviewed medical records of 53 children who ingested poison and were treated as inpatients and 107 who were treated as outpatients in a Southeastern community hospital. Findings included a much higher incidence of petroleum distillate poisoning than is found nationally, and a low frequency of aspirin ingestions. Data on packaging of the poisons indicate that one third was stored in food containers. Of the products encountered, 33% currently require safety packaging but were found in obsolete containers.

  14. Paraphenylenediamine Poisoning in Tunisia: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Dorra Amira; Ines Gana; Anouar Nouioui; Fathia Khlifi; Dorra Ben Salah; Wafa Masri; Ines Belwaer; Hayet Ghorbel; Abderrazzek Hedili

    2015-01-01

    Paraphenylenediamine (PPD) represents the main active substance in the color of hair dyes. In Tunisia, PPD poisoning is very common, especially in rural areas where the consequences linked to this toxic substance are still unknown. In this paper, we report a case of PPD poisoning and confirm the diagnosis by a qualitative method of analysis. We discuss the clinical manifestations and study the kinetics of biological parameters during the monitoring of the poisoning. The main complication was ...

  15. Hypotension in Severe Dimethoate Self-Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, James; Roberts, Darren; Eyer, Peter; Buckley, Nick; Eddleston, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Acute self-poisoning with the organophosphorus (OP) pesticide dimethoate has a human case fatality three-fold higher than poisoning with chlorpyrifos despite similar animal toxicity. The typical clinical presentation of severe dimethoate poisoning is quite distinct from that of chlorpyrifos and other OP pesticides: many patients present with hypotension that progresses to shock and death within 12?48 h post-ingestion. The pathophysiology of this syndrome is not clear. Case report...

  16. Histamine as a Radiosensitizer of Malignant Cell Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, E. S.; Medina, V.; Cricco, G.; Mohamed, N.; Croci, M.; Martin, G.; Nunez, M.; Bergoc, R. M.

    2004-07-01

    It has been established that the treatment with Histamine (Hi) produces a significant growth inhibition of different cell lines derived from human neoplasia. In a model of Knockout mice completely depleted of endogenous Hi, it was observed a significant delay in bone marroe repopulation after whole body irradiation. These results are in agreement with the hypothesis that histamine has a role in the regulation of haematopoiesis as well as an inhibitory effect on apoptosis. The objective of this paper was to study the possible effect of Hi as protector of normal cells and radiosensitizer of malignant ones. To study the effect of Hi on small-intestine and bone marrow, thirty made mice were randomly separeted into two groups: Control irradiated (C), and irradiated receiving Histamine (HI-group). All animals received a single dose of 10 Gy on whole-body employing a ''137Cs source of 189 TB{sub q} (Dose rate: 7.7 Gy/min) calibrated with TLD 700 dosimeter. Hi-group recieved a daily se injection (0.1 mg/kg) starting 20 hs before irradiation. Mice were sacrificed 5 days after irradiation. Histopathological analysis indicated that intestinal mucosae of C group showed important injury, whist mucosae of Hi-treated mice showed mild mucosal atrophy with conservation of villous projections and absence of vascular congestive changes. In order to investigate the effect of Hi on radiosensitivity of transformed cells, MDA-MB-231 (human breast carcinoma cells) were irradiated in vitro with doses ranging from 0 to 10 Gy. Results of radiobiological parameters indicate a significant increase on radiosensitivity of malignant cells. Employing specific fluorescent dyes and flow cytometric analysis we determined that the intracellular levels of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) are significant increased by Hi 10 {mu}M in control and also in irradiated MDA-MB-231 cells, while the levels of superoxide (SO{sub 2}) were not significantly modified by Hi-treatment. (Author) 9 refs.

  17. Membrane sialic acid influences basophil histamine release by interfering with calcium dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C; Norn, S; Skov, P S

    1987-01-01

    The influence of the cell membrane content of sialic acid on basophil histamine release was examined in vitro in allergic patients and normal controls. Enzymatical removal of sialic acid enhanced histamine release induced by allergen and anti-IgE, whereas an increase in membrane sialic acid content....... This difference, together with the previous finding that alterations in membrane sialic acid content is reflected in the cell sensitivity to extracellular calcium, suggest an interaction between membrane sialic acid and the calcium channels involved in basophil histamine release....

  18. Effects of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), nocodazole, and taxol on mast cell histamine secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, E H; Johansen, Torben

    1986-01-01

    Nocodazole depolymerized microtubules and increased the number of microfilaments, and dimethylsulfoxide increased the number of microfilaments. Both drugs inhibited compound 48/80-induced histamine release from rat mast cells. Taxol, which increased the number of microtubules, had no effect...... on histamine release. These observations support the view that microtubules may not be directly involved in secretion, but apparently an increased number of microfilaments is associated with a decreased capacity of the mast cells for histamine release. We suggest that microfilaments have to be depolymerized...

  19. A method for production and determination of histamine releasing activity from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampen, G T; Poulsen, L K; Reimert, C M

    1997-01-01

    Histamine releasing factors, i.e. cytokines capable of inducing histamine release from basophils or mast cells, have been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of, for example, allergic late-phase reactions. Here we describe a controlled method for production and determination of histamine...... releasing activity (HRA) from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNC). MNC were incubated with concanavalin A (Con A) for 2 h and cultured for another 40 h in fresh serum free medium. The culture supernatants were concentrated 19-25 fold by ultrafiltration (molecular weight cut-off: 3000 Da...

  20. Bacteria-induced histamine release from human bronchoalveolar cells and blood leukocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clementsen, P; Milman, N; Struve-Christensen, E

    1991-01-01

    Histamine release induced by Staphylococcus aureus was examined in cells obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in non-atopic individuals. Approximately half of the individuals responded with mediator release to the bacterium, and the release was found to be time- and concentration dependent. N......23187 resulted in histamine release. S. aureus-induced histamine release from basophils was examined in leukocyte suspensions obtained from the same individuals, and in all experiments release was found. The dose-response curves were similar to those obtained with BAL cells. The bacteria...

  1. The relationship between energy metabolism and the action of inhibitors of histamine release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garland, L G; Johansen, Torben

    1977-01-01

    1 Dextran-induced release of histamine from rat mast cells was inhibited equally in complete and glucose-free Tyrode solution by doxantrazole (0.03-3 micronmol/l), theophylline (0.1-3 mmol/l) and dicumarol (0.01-10 micronmol/litre). 2 Doxantrazole (3 micronmol/l), theophylline (3 mmol....... 4 These results suggest that dicumarol, like doxantrazole and theophylline, inhibits histamine release without affecting mast cell energy metabolism. In contrast, papaverine probably inhibits release by depleting ATP that is required for exocytosis. 5 Inhibition of histamine release by dibutyryl...

  2. Hemlock (Conium Maculatum) Poisoning In A Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konca, Capan; Kahramaner, Zelal; Bosnak, Mehmet; Kocamaz, Halil

    2014-03-01

    Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) is a plant that is poisonous for humans and animals. Accidental ingestion of the plant may result in central nervous system depression, respiratory failure, acute rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure and even death. The main treatment of hemlock poisoning is supportive care. The case of a 6-year-old girl who was admitted to the emergency department with complaints of burning sensation in mouth, hypersalivation, tremor in hands and ataxia after ingestion of poison hemlock is presented here with clinical and laboratory features. In this case, we aim to report that accidental ingestion of plants resembling vegetables that are consumed daily can lead to serious complications and even death.

  3. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. XCVIII. Histamine Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazot, Paul L.; Cowart, Marlon; Gutzmer, Ralf; Leurs, Rob; Liu, Wai L. S.; Stark, Holger; Thurmond, Robin L.; Haas, Helmut L.

    2015-01-01

    Histamine is a developmentally highly conserved autacoid found in most vertebrate tissues. Its physiological functions are mediated by four 7-transmembrane G protein–coupled receptors (H1R, H2R, H3R, H4R) that are all targets of pharmacological intervention. The receptors display molecular heterogeneity and constitutive activity. H1R antagonists are long known antiallergic and sedating drugs, whereas the H2R was identified in the 1970s and led to the development of H2R-antagonists that revolutionized stomach ulcer treatment. The crystal structure of ligand-bound H1R has rendered it possible to design new ligands with novel properties. The H3R is an autoreceptor and heteroreceptor providing negative feedback on histaminergic and inhibition on other neurons. A block of these actions promotes waking. The H4R occurs on immuncompetent cells and the development of anti-inflammatory drugs is anticipated. PMID:26084539

  4. Influence of iodinated contrast media on the activities of histamine inactivating enzymes diamine oxidase and histamine N-methyltransferase in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuefner, M A; Feurle, J; Petersen, J; Uder, M; Schwelberger, H G

    2014-01-01

    Iodinated contrast media can cause pseudoallergic reactions associated with histamine release in significant numbers of patients. To clarify whether these adverse reactions may be aggravated by a compromised histamine catabolism we asked if radiographic contrast agents in vitro inhibit the histamine inactivating enzymes diamine oxidase (DAO) and histamine N-methyltransferase (HMT). Nine iodinated contrast agents were tested in vitro. Following pre-incubation of purified porcine kidney DAO and recombinant human HMT with 0.1-10mM of the respective contrast medium (H2O and specific inhibitors of DAO and HMT as controls) enzyme activities were determined by using radiometric micro assays. None of the contrast media irrespective of their structure showed significant inhibition of the activities of DAO and HMT. Pre-incubation of the enzymes with specific inhibitors led to complete inhibition of the respective enzymatic activity. The iodinated contrast media tested in vitro did not exhibit inhibition of histamine converting enzymes at physiologically relevant concentrations. However due to the in vitro character of this study these results do not directly reflect the in vivo situation. Copyright © 2012 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Collective poisoning from sea turtle consumption in Mahajanga Madagascar, May 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasamimanana, N G; Andrianirina, Z Z; Razafilalaina, F M F; Rakotozanany, L M P; Andriamalala, N C; Andrianarimanana, D; Tiandaza, D O; Raveloson, N E

    2017-02-01

    Poisoning from eating sea turtles, medically known as chelonitoxism, is seen especially in coastal areas. It remains a public health problem in Madagascar, despite a ban on hunting these animals. The objective of this study was to describe its epidemiological and clinical aspects and outcome to improve knowledge and prevention of this type of poisoning. Chelonitoxism occurred in May 2014, affecting the population in Antsanitia, a fishing village in northwest Mahajanga, Madagascar. All patients came first to the CSB I basic health center in Antsanitia and were subsequently hospitalized at the Mahajanga CHU Pzaga, 51 in the adult emergency department and 25 in the pediatrics department. These 76 patients ranged in age from 3 months to 79 years. The predominant clinical signs were gastrointestinal and neurological disorders. ENT-oral signs characterized the poisoning. Ingestion of the turtle fat caused intermediate and severe disease forms in adults. Breastfeeding was a prognostic factor in children. Signs of severity appeared within 72 hours in adults. After intensive resuscitation, the signs of poisoning disappeared after 12 days. The severe form predominated in children; death was either early or delayed to the second to sixth day after consumption. It is essential to develop awareness of this danger among the entire coastal population of Madagascar to prevent this kind of poisoning.

  6. Tetrodotoxin Poisoning Due to Pufferfish and Gastropods, and Their Intoxication Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Tamao; Onuki, Kazue; Arakawa, Osamu

    2011-01-01

    Marine pufferfish generally contain a large amount of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in their skin and viscera, and have caused many incidences of food poisoning, especially in Japan. Edible species and body tissues of pufferfish, as well as their allowable fishing areas, are therefore clearly stipulated in Japan, but still 2 to 3 people die every year due to pufferfish poisoning. TTX is originally produced by marine bacteria, and pufferfish are intoxicated through the food chain that starts with the bacteria. Pufferfish become nontoxic when fed TTX-free diets in a closed environment in which there is no possible invasion of TTX-bearing organisms. On the other hand, TTX poisoning due to marine snails has recently spread through Japan, China, Taiwan, and Europe. In addition, TTX poisoning of dogs due to the ingestion of sea slugs was recently reported in New Zealand. TTX in these gastropods also seems to be exogenous; carnivorous large snails are intoxicated by eating toxic starfish, and necrophagous small-to-medium snails, the viscera of dead pufferfish after spawning. Close attention must be paid to the geographic expansion and/or diversification of TTX-bearing organisms, and to the sudden occurrence of other forms of TTX poisoning due to their ingestion. PMID:23724281

  7. 78 FR 18273 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Purchasing Reef Fish Species Associated With the Hazard of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 123 Draft Guidance for Industry on Purchasing...: Purchasing Reef Fish Species Associated With the Hazard of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning.'' The draft guidance, when finalized, will advise primary seafood processors who purchase reef fish how to minimize the risk...

  8. 78 FR 69992 - Guidance for Industry on Purchasing Reef Fish Species Associated With the Hazard of Ciguatera...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 123 Guidance for Industry on Purchasing Reef... announcing the availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Purchasing Reef Fish... primary seafood processors who purchase reef fish on how to minimize the risk of ciguatera fish poisoning...

  9. Ciguatera fish toxicity in French Polynesia : size does not always matter

    OpenAIRE

    Gaboriau, Matthias; Ponton, Dominique; Darius, H.T.; Chinain, M.

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of ciguatoxins (CTXs) in tropical reef fish tissues during their life is responsible of the most prevalent human seafood intoxication in the South Pacific called Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP). It has been assumed for a long time that CTXs are transferred and accumulated along the trophic food chain, and consequently that smaller individuals within a given fish species are safer to eat than larger ones. However, the relationship between toxicity and fish size has been studied for...

  10. Mast cell chymase potentiates histamine-induced wheal formation in the skin of ragweed-allergic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, I; Nadel, J A; Graf, P D; Caughey, G H

    1990-01-01

    Skin mast cells release the neutral protease chymase along with histamine during degranulation. To test the hypothesis that chymase modulates histamine-induced plasma extravasation, we measured wheal formation following intradermal injection of purified mast cell chymase and histamine into the skin of ragweed-allergic dogs. We found that chymase greatly augments histamine-induced wheal formation. The magnitude of the potentiating effect increases with increasing doses of chymase and becomes maximal approximately 30 min after administration. Injection of chymase without histamine does not evoke wheal formation. The chymase potentiation of histamine-induced skin responses is prevented completely by pretreatment with the H1-receptor antagonist pyrilamine, and is prevented by inactivation of chymase with soybean trypsin inhibitor, suggesting that both histamine and preserved catalytic activity are required for the effects of chymase. To examine the effects of histamine and chymase released in situ in further experiments, we measured wheal size following local degranulation of mast cells by intradermal injection of ragweed antigen or compound 48/80. We found that pretreatment with either soybean trypsin inhibitor or pyrilamine markedly reduces ragweed antigen- or 48/80-induced wheal formation, supporting the results obtained by injection of exogenous chymase and histamine. These findings suggest a novel and important proinflammatory role for chymase in modulating the effects of histamine on vascular permeability during mast cell activation. PMID:2384602

  11. Role of H1 receptors and P-selectin in histamine-induced leukocyte rolling and adhesion in postcapillary venules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asako, H; Kurose, I; Wolf, R; DeFrees, S; Zheng, Z L; Phillips, M L; Paulson, J C; Granger, D N

    1994-04-01

    The objective of this study was to define the nature, magnitude, and mechanisms of histamine-induced leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in postcapillary venules of the rat mesentery using intravital microscopic techniques. Superfusion of the mesentery with histamine (10(-7)-10(-5) M) resulted in a dose-related increase in the number of rolling leukocytes, a reduction in rolling velocity, and an increased clearance of FITC-labeled rat albumin from blood to superfusate. The histamine-induced recruitment of rolling leukocytes and increased albumin clearance were prevented by histamine H1 (hydroxyzine, diphenhydramine) but not H2 (cimetidine) receptor antagonists. Because histamine induces expression of the adhesion molecule P-selectin in cultured endothelial cells, a monoclonal antibody directed against rat P-selectin and soluble sialyl-LewisX oligosaccharide (the carbohydrate ligand to P-selectin) were also tested as inhibitors. Both were effective in preventing the histamine-induced recruitment of rolling leukocytes, but neither agent attenuated the increased albumin clearance. These observations suggest that (a) histamine recruits rolling leukocytes and increases albumin leakage in postcapillary venules via H1 receptor activation, (b) histamine-induced recruitment of rolling leukocytes is mediated in part by P-selectin expressed on the endothelial cell surface, and (c) the histamine-induced vascular albumin leakage is unrelated to leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion. Our results are consistent with the view that histamine may act as a mediator of acute inflammatory reactions.

  12. Possible role of histamine in pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases: implications for immunotherapy with histamine-2 receptor antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Hammer, J H

    1992-01-01

    The immunosuppressive chemical drugs cyclosporine A (CsA) and methotrexate (Mx) have recently been shown to be of benefit in several different diseases of autoimmune origin. Cellular immune responses may play a major role in autoimmunity as autoreactive T lymphocytes appear to recognize autoantig......The immunosuppressive chemical drugs cyclosporine A (CsA) and methotrexate (Mx) have recently been shown to be of benefit in several different diseases of autoimmune origin. Cellular immune responses may play a major role in autoimmunity as autoreactive T lymphocytes appear to recognize...... the possibility, that histamine is one of the molecules involved in pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. T cell mediated regulation and suppression of autoreactive T cells seem to be ineffective in controlling the enhanced immune reaction in patients where the discrimination between self and non-self is changed...

  13. The dietary biogenic amines tyramine and histamine show synergistic toxicity towards intestinal cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rio, Beatriz; Redruello, Begoña; Linares, Daniel M; Ladero, Victor; Fernandez, Maria; Martin, Maria Cruz; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2017-03-01

    Tyramine and histamine are the biogenic amines (BA) most commonly found at high concentrations in food; they may even appear together at toxic concentrations. The present work examines, via real-time cell analysis, whether histamine and tyramine show synergistic toxicity towards intestinal cell cultures. Employing a constant equipotency ratio, their interaction was examined via the combination index (CI) method of Chou & Talalay. Co-treatment with tyramine and histamine was associated with a stronger cytotoxic effect than was treatment with either BA or on its own. Indeed, a synergistic interaction (CIhistamine, at concentrations below the legal limit, increases the cytotoxicity of tyramine at concentrations frequently reached in some foods. The synergistic cytotoxicity of tyramine and histamine should be taken into account when establishing legal limits designed to ensure consumer safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bronchial histamine challenge. A combined interrupter-dosimeter method compared with a standard method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlovic, M; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Madsen, F

    1985-01-01

    We compared the provocative concentration (PC) values obtained by two different methods of performing bronchial histamine challenge. One test was done on an APTA, an apparatus which allows simultaneous provocation with histamine and measurement of airway resistance (Rtot) by the interrupter method...... of the histamine challenge done on the APTA. When the PC30-Rtot values were compared, a correlation coefficient of 0.56 (NS) was found. For the PC40- and PC50-Rtot values the correlation coefficients were 0.65 (P less than 0.05) and 0.70 (P less than 0.02) respectively. We conclude that the APTA is useful...... for routine bronchial histamine challenge when 40-50% increase in basal Rtot is used as endpoint....

  15. Brain Histamine -Methyltransferase as a Possible Target of Treatment for Methamphetamine Overdose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Kitanaka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stereotypical behaviors induced by methamphetamine (METH overdose are one of the overt symptoms of METH abuse, which can be easily assessed in animal models. Currently, there is no successful treatment for METH overdose. There is increasing evidence that elevated levels of brain histamine can attenuate METH-induced behavioral abnormalities, which might therefore constitute a novel therapeutic treatment for METH abuse and METH overdose. In mammals, histamine N -methyltransferase (HMT is the sole enzyme responsible for degrading histamine in the brain. Metoprine, one of the most potent HMT inhibitors, can cross the blood-brain barrier and increase brain histamine levels by inhibiting HMT. Consequently, this compound can be a candidate for a prototype of drugs for the treatment of METH overdose.

  16. The Chemical Nature of Mercury in Human Brain Following Poisoning or Environmental Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Methylmercury is among the most potentially toxic species to which human populations are exposed, both at high levels through poisonings and at lower levels through consumption of fish and other seafood. However, the molecular mechanisms of methylmercury toxicity in humans remain poorly understood. We used synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to study mercury chemical forms in human brain tissue. Individuals poisoned with high levels of methylmercury species showed elevated cortical selenium with significant proportions of nanoparticulate mercuric selenide plus some inorganic mercury and methylmercury bound to organic sulfur. Individuals with a lifetime of high fish consumption showed much lower levels of mercuric selenide and methylmercury cysteineate. Mercury exposure did not perturb organic selenium levels. These results elucidate a key detoxification pathway in the central nervous system and provide new insights into the appropriate methods for biological monitoring. PMID:22826746

  17. Histamine induces microglia activation and dopaminergic neuronal toxicity via H1 receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Sandra M; Saraiva, Tatiana; Cristóvão, Ana C; Ferreira, Raquel; Santos, Tiago; Esteves, Marta; Saraiva, Cláudia; Je, Goun; Cortes, Luísa; Valero, Jorge; Alves, Gilberto; Klibanov, Alexander; Kim, Yoon-Seong; Bernardino, Liliana

    2016-06-04

    Histamine is an amine widely known as a peripheral inflammatory mediator and as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Recently, it has been suggested that histamine acts as an innate modulator of microglial activity. Herein, we aimed to disclose the role of histamine in microglial phagocytic activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and to explore the consequences of histamine-induced neuroinflammation in dopaminergic (DA) neuronal survival. The effect of histamine on phagocytosis was assessed both in vitro by using a murine N9 microglial cell line and primary microglial cell cultures and in vivo. Cells were exposed to IgG-opsonized latex beads or phosphatidylserine (PS) liposomes to evaluate Fcγ or PS receptor-mediated microglial phagocytosis, respectively. ROS production and protein levels of NADPH oxidases and Rac1 were assessed as a measure of oxidative stress. DA neuronal survival was evaluated in vivo by counting the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) of mice. We found that histamine triggers microglial phagocytosis via histamine receptor 1 (H1R) activation and ROS production via H1R and H4R activation. By using apocynin, a broad NADPH oxidase (Nox) inhibitor, and Nox1 knockout mice, we found that the Nox1 signaling pathway is involved in both phagocytosis and ROS production induced by histamine in vitro. Interestingly, both apocynin and annexin V (used as inhibitor of PS-induced phagocytosis) fully abolished the DA neurotoxicity induced by the injection of histamine in the SN of adult mice in vivo. Blockade of H1R protected against histamine-induced Nox1 expression and death of DA neurons in vivo. Overall, our results highlight the relevance of histamine in the modulation of microglial activity that ultimately may interfere with neuronal survival in the context of Parkinson's disease (PD) and, eventually, other neurodegenerative diseases which are accompanied by microglia

  18. Osthole inhibits histamine-dependent itch via modulating TRPV1 activity

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Niu-Niu; Shi, Hao; Yu, Guang; Wang, Chang-Ming; Zhu, Chan; Yang, Yan; Yuan, Xiao-Lin; Tang, Min; Wang, Zhong-li; Gegen, Tana; He, Qian; Tang, Kehua; Lan, Lei; Wu, Guan-Yi; Tang, Zong-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Osthole, an active coumarin isolated from Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cusson, has long been used in China as an antipruritic herbal medicine; however, the antipruitic mechanism of osthole is unknown. We studied the molecular mechanism of osthole in histamine-dependent itch by behavioral test, Ca2+ imaging, and electrophysiological experiments. First, osthole clearly remitted the scratching behaviors of mice induced with histamine, HTMT, and VUF8430. Second, in cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) ne...

  19. Histamine chloramine reactivity with thiol compounds, ascorbate, and methionine and with intracellular glutathione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peskin, Alexander V; Winterbourn, Christine C

    2003-11-15

    Histamine is stored in granules of mast cells and basophils and released by inflammatory mediators. It has the potential to intercept some of the HOCl generated by the neutrophil enzyme, myeloperoxidase, to produce histamine chloramine. We have measured rate constants for reactions of histamine chloramine with methionine, ascorbate, and GSH at pH 7.4, of 91 M(-1)s(-1), 195 M(-1)s(-1), and 721 M(-1)s(-1), respectively. With low molecular weight thiols, the reaction was with the thiolate and rates increased exponentially with decreasing thiol group pK(a). Comparing rate constants for different chloramines reacting with ascorbate or a particular thiol anion, these were higher when there was less negative charge in the vicinity of the chloramine group. Histamine chloramine was the most reactive among biologically relevant chloramines. Consumption of histamine chloramine and oxidation of intracellular GSH were examined for human fibroblasts. At nontoxic doses, GSH loss over 10 min was slightly greater than that with HOCl, but the cellular uptake of histamine chloramine was 5-10-fold less. With histamine chloramine, GSSG was a minor product and most of the GSH was converted to mixed disulfides with proteins. HOCl gave a different profile of GSH oxidation products, with significantly less GSSG and mixed disulfide formation. There was irreversible oxidation and losses to the medium, as observed with HOCl and other cell types. Thus, histamine chloramine shows high preference for thiols both in isolation and in cells, and in this respect is more selective than HOCl.

  20. Functional pharmacology of H1 histamine receptors expressed in mouse preoptic/anterior hypothalamic neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabarean, I V

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Histamine H1 receptors are highly expressed in hypothalamic neurons and mediate histaminergic modulation of several brain-controlled physiological functions, such as sleep, feeding and thermoregulation. In spite of the fact that the mouse is used as an experimental model for studying histaminergic signalling, the pharmacological characteristics of mouse H1 receptors have not been studied. In particular, selective and potent H1 receptor agonists have not been identified. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Ca2+ imaging using fura-2 fluorescence signals and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were carried out in mouse preoptic/anterior hypothalamic neurons in culture. KEY RESULTS The H1 receptor antagonists mepyramine and trans-triprolidine potently antagonized the activation by histamine of these receptors with IC50 values of 0.02 and 0.2 μM respectively. All H1 receptor agonists studied had relatively low potency at the H1 receptors expressed by these neurons. Methylhistaprodifen and 2-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)histamine had full-agonist activity with potencies similar to that of histamine. In contrast, 2-pyridylethylamine and betahistine showed only partial agonist activity and lower potency than histamine. The histamine receptor agonist, 6-[2-(4-imidazolyl)ethylamino]-N-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)heptanecarboxamide (HTMT) had no agonist activity at the H1 receptors H1 receptors expressed by mouse preoptic/anterior hypothalamic neurons but displayed antagonist activity. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Methylhistaprodifen and 2-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)histamine were identified as full agonists of mouse H1 receptors. These results also indicated that histamine H1 receptors in mice exhibited a pharmacological profile in terms of agonism, significantly different from those of H1 receptors expressed in other species. PMID:23808378