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Sample records for hippodamia variegata goeze

  1. Primer registro de Hippodamia variegata (Goeze 1777) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) en el Perú.

    OpenAIRE

    Bustamante-Navarrete, Abdhiel; Marquina-Montesinos, Edgar Luis; Elme-Tumpay, Araseli

    2017-01-01

    First report of Hippodamia variegata (Goeze 1777) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Peru. The first record of Hippodamia variegata (Goeze 1777) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Peru is reported, which also constitutes the highest record of the species. This introduced species is already established in the rest of the continent, but its presence in Peru is confirmed in this contribution. A distribution map and a key to distinguish the two species of this genus present in Peru are presented.

  2. Assessment of the biological control capability of Hippodamia variegata (Col.: Coccinellidae) using functional response experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madadi, Hossein; Parizi, Emad Mohajeri; Allahyari, Hossein

    2011-01-01

    Lady beetles are among the most successful predators of aphids in different environments. The functional responses of different life stages of Hippodamia variegata (Goeze) towards cotton aphidswere examined in two different set-ups, a two-dimensional Petri dish set-up with detached leaves and a t...

  3. Bauhinia variegata var. variegata lectin: isolation, characterization, and comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yau Sang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2015-01-01

    Bauhinia variegata var. variegata seeds are rich in proteins. Previously, one of the major storage proteins of the seeds was found to be a trypsin inhibitor that possessed various biological activities. By using another purification protocol, a glucoside- and galactoside-binding lectin that demonstrated some differences from the previously reported B. variegata lectin could be isolated from the seeds. It involved affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose and Mono Q, and also size exclusion chromatography on Superdex 75. The lectin was not retained on Affi-gel blue gel but interacted with Q-Sepharose. The lectin was a 64-kDa protein with two 32-kDa subunits. It had low thermostability (stable up to 50 °C) and moderate pH stability (stable in pH 3-10). It exhibited anti-proliferative activity on nasopharyngeal carcinoma HONE1 cells with an IC50 of 12.8 μM after treatment for 48 h. It also slightly inhibited the growth of hepatoma HepG2 cells. The lectin may have potential in aiding cancer treatments.

  4. Dudleya Variegata Translocation - San Diego [ds654

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — At Mission Trails Regional Park, a translocation project of Dudleya variegata was conducted in efforts to save the population from a private property undergoing...

  5. Phytochemical and Biological investigations of Erythrina Variegata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Mohammad Z.; Sultana, Shirin J.; Islam, Mohammad S.; Faruquee, Chowdhury F.; Ferdous, F.; Rahman, Mohammad S.; Rashid, Mohammad A.

    2007-01-01

    Five compounds were isolated from the n-hexane and chloroform soluble fractions of a methanol extract of the stem bark of Erythrina variegate. The structure of the isolated compounds were elucidated as alpinum isoflavone (1), epilupeol (2), 6-hydroxygenestein (3) 3-beta, 28-dihydroxylolean-12-ene (4) and stigmasterol (5) by extensive spectroscopic studies including high field NMR analyses. Different partitionates of the methanol extract exhibited mild to moderate antimicrobial activity and varying degrees of cytotoxicity. Although, alpinum isoflavone (1) has previously been reported from E. Variegata, this is the first report of isolation of compounds 2-4 and stigmasterol from this plant species. (author)

  6. Prey foraging movements by Hippodamia convergens in wheat are influenced by hunger and aphids

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated foraging movements by adult female convergent lady beetles, Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville, on English grain aphids, Sitobion avenae L., on wheat, Triticum aestivum L., growing in 1.8 x 1.8 m plantings in a greenhouse with a soil floor. The wheat was planted to simulate whea...

  7. Bauhinia variegata var. variegata trypsin inhibitor: From isolation to potential medicinal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Evandro Fei; Wong, Jack Ho [School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR (China); Bah, Clara Shui Fern [Department of Food Science, Division of Sciences, University of Otago (New Zealand); Lin, Peng [School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR (China); Tsao, Sai Wah [Department of Anatomy, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Sassoon Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR (China); Ng, Tzi Bun, E-mail: b021770@mailserv.cuhk.edu.hk [School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2010-06-11

    Here we report for the first time of a new Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor (termed BvvTI) from seeds of the Camel's foot tree, Bauhinia variegata var. variegata. BvvTI shares the same reactive site residues (Arg, Ser) and exhibits a homology of N-terminal amino acid sequence to other Bauhinia protease inhibitors. The trypsin inhibitory activity (K{sub i}, 0.1 x 10{sup -9} M) of BvvTI ranks the highest among them. Besides anti-HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity, BvvTI could significantly inhibit the proliferation of nasopharyngeal cancer CNE-1 cells in a selective way. This may partially be contributed by its induction of cytokines and apoptotic bodies. These results unveil potential medicinal applications of BvvTI.

  8. Bauhinia variegata var. variegata trypsin inhibitor: from isolation to potential medicinal applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Evandro Fei; Wong, Jack Ho; Bah, Clara Shui Fern; Lin, Peng; Tsao, Sai Wah; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2010-06-11

    Here we report for the first time of a new Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor (termed BvvTI) from seeds of the Camel's foot tree, Bauhinia variegata var. variegata. BvvTI shares the same reactive site residues (Arg, Ser) and exhibits a homology of N-terminal amino acid sequence to other Bauhinia protease inhibitors. The trypsin inhibitory activity (K(i), 0.1 x 10(-9)M) of BvvTI ranks the highest among them. Besides anti-HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity, BvvTI could significantly inhibit the proliferation of nasopharyngeal cancer CNE-1 cells in a selective way. This may partially be contributed by its induction of cytokines and apoptotic bodies. These results unveil potential medicinal applications of BvvTI. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Bauhinia variegata var. variegata trypsin inhibitor: From isolation to potential medicinal applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Evandro Fei; Wong, Jack Ho; Bah, Clara Shui Fern; Lin, Peng; Tsao, Sai Wah; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2010-01-01

    Here we report for the first time of a new Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor (termed BvvTI) from seeds of the Camel's foot tree, Bauhinia variegata var. variegata. BvvTI shares the same reactive site residues (Arg, Ser) and exhibits a homology of N-terminal amino acid sequence to other Bauhinia protease inhibitors. The trypsin inhibitory activity (K i , 0.1 x 10 -9 M) of BvvTI ranks the highest among them. Besides anti-HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity, BvvTI could significantly inhibit the proliferation of nasopharyngeal cancer CNE-1 cells in a selective way. This may partially be contributed by its induction of cytokines and apoptotic bodies. These results unveil potential medicinal applications of BvvTI.

  10. Molecular docking and analgesic studies of Erythrina variegata׳s derived phytochemicals with COX enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Mir Muhammad Nasir; Emran, Talha Bin; Mahib, Muhammad Mamunur Rashid; Dash, Raju

    2014-01-01

    Secondary metabolites from plants are a good source for the NSAID drug development. We studied the analgesic activity of ethanolic extract of Erythrina variegata L. (Fabaceae) followed by molecular docking analysis. The analgesic activity of Erythrina variegata L. is evaluated by various methods viz., acetic acid-induced writhing test, hot plate and tail immersion test. Subsequently, molecular docking analysis has been performed to identify compounds having activity against COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes by using GOLD docking fitness. The result of preliminary phytochemical screening revealed that the extract contains alkaloids and flavonoids. In analgesic activity tests, the extract at the doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) produced a increase in pain threshold in a dose dependent manner. In acetic acid induced writhing test, the inhibitory effect was similar to the reference drug diclofenac sodium. The extract showed 18.89% writhing inhibitory effect at the dose 200 mg/kg b.w., whereas diclofenac sodium showed 79.42% inhibition of writhing at a dose of 10 mg/kg b.w. The results of tail immersion and hot plate test also showed potential analgesic activity of the extract which is also comparable to the standard drug morphine (5 mg/kg b.w.). Docking studies shows that phaseollin of Erythrina variegata L. has the best fitness score against the COX-1 which is 56.64 and 59.63 for COX- 2 enzyme. Phaseollin of Erythrina variegata L. detected with significant fitness score and hydrogen bonding against COX-1 and COX-2 is reported for further validation.

  11. Reproductive biology of Corymbia citriodora subsp. variegata and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproductive biology of Corymbia citriodora subsp. variegata and effective pollination across its native range in Queensland, Australia. CFE Bacles, J Brooks, DJ Lee, PM Schenk, AJ Lowe, A Kremer ...

  12. Antioxidant activity and acute toxicity of Neoglaziovia variegata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The total phenolics content of the extracts was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Total flavonoid was also determined. The most ... of low toxicity. Keywords: Antioxidant activity, acute toxicity, Neoglaziovia variegata, Bromeliaceae ...

  13. Chromosome behaviour in Rhoeo spathacea var. variegata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y J

    1980-01-01

    Rhoeo spathacea var. variegata is unusual in that its twelve chromosomes are arranged in a ring at meiosis. The order of the chromosomes has been established, and each chromosome arm has been designated a letter in accordance with the segmental interchange theory. Chromosomes are often irregularly orientated at metaphase I. Chromosomes at anaphase I are generally distributed equally (6-6, 58.75%) although not necessarily balanced. Due to adjacent distribution, 7-5 distribution at anaphase I was frequently observed (24.17%), and due to lagging, 6-1-5 and 5-2-5 distributions were also observed (10.83% and 3.33% respectively). Three types of abnormal distribution, 8-4, 7-1-4 and 6-2-4 were observed very infrequently (2.92% total), and their possible origins are discussed. Irregularities, such as adjacent distribution and lagging, undoubtedly reduce the fertility of the plant because of the resulting unbalanced gametes.

  14. Characterization of caroa fiber (Neoglaziovia variegata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sales, J.C. de; Matos, C.F.; Miranda, C.S.; Guimaraes, D.H.; Goncalves, A.P.B.; Jose, N.M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of lignocellulosic fibers as reinforcement in polymeric materials to replace synthetic fibers, have been expanded, since several studies show that they have comparable mechanical, physical and chemical properties of the synthetic reinforcements. The caroa (Neoglaziovia variegata) is a plant in the bromeliad family (family Bromeliaceae), that occurs in semi-arid region. The fibers, which are extracted from its leaves are thin and bright and are used by people for making nets, bags and twine. This study aimed to characterize by SEM, DSC, TGA, XRD and density, caroa fibers in natura and treated with a solution of 5% sodium hydroxide for 1 h at room temperature. The mercerization promoted cleaning of the surface dirt, waxes and partial removal of hemicellulose and lignin. The thermal analysis showed characteristic events of the main constituents (lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose). The main event of decomposition occurs at a temperature around 330 ° C. (author)

  15. Evidence of an aggregation pheromone in the flea beetle,Phyllotreta Cruciferae (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, C; Weiss, M J

    1992-06-01

    Laboratory olfactometer bioassays and field trapping experiments showed that the flea beetle,Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze), was highly attracted by oilseed rape(Brassica napus L.) when flea beetles were on the plant. This attraction was mediated by a flea beetle-produced aggregation pheromone based upon: (1) Oilseed rape damaged mechanically, or byP. cruciferae, or by diamondback moth,Plutella xylostella (L.), did not attractP. cruciferae. (2) Contact with the plants or feeding was required for the production of aggregation pheromone because oilseed rape alone was not attractive when separated from flea beetles by a screen. (3) Equal numbers of males and females were attracted.

  16. Inhibition of initial adhesion of oral bacteria through a lectin from Bauhinia variegata L. var. variegata expressed in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klafke, G B; Borsuk, S; Gonçales, R A; Arruda, F V S; Carneiro, V A; Teixeira, E H; Coelho da Silva, A L; Cavada, B S; Dellagostin, O A; Pinto, L S

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the in vitro effect of native and recombinant Bauhinia variegata var. variegata lectins in inhibiting early adhesion of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus sobrinus to experimentally acquired pellicle. Native lectin from B. variegata (BVL) was purified by affinity chromatography of extract of seeds. The recombinant lectin (rBVL-I) was expressed in E. coli strain BL21 (DE3) from a genomic clone encoding the mature B. variegata lectin gene using the vector pAE-bvlI. Recombinant protein deposited in inclusion bodies was solubilized and subsequently purified by affinity chromatography. The rBVL-I was compared to BVL for agglutination of erythrocytes and initial adherence of oral bacteria on a saliva-coated surface. The results revealed that rBVL-I acts similarly to BVL for agglutination of erythrocytes. Both lectins showed adhesion inhibition effect on Step. sanguis, Step. mutans and Step. sobrinus. We report, for the first time, the inhibition of early adhesion of oral bacteria by a recombinant lectin. Our results support the proposed biotechnological application of lectins in a strategy to reduce development of dental caries by inhibiting the initial adhesion and biofilm formation. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. In vitro antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activities of Bauhinia variegata Linn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajani, G.P.; Ashok, Purnima

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Bauhinia variegata Linn. for in vitro antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activity. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the stem bark and root of B. variegata Linn. were prepared and assessed for in vitro antioxidant activity by various methods namely total reducing power, scavenging of various free radicals such as 1,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), super oxide, nitric oxide, and hydrogen peroxide. The percentage scavenging of various free radicals were compared with standard antioxidants such as ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA). The extracts were also evaluated for antihyperlipidemic activity in Triton WR-1339 (iso-octyl polyoxyethylene phenol)-induced hyperlipidemic albino rats by estimating serum triglyceride, very low density lipids (VLDL), cholesterol, low-density lipids (LDL), and high-density lipid (HDL) levels. Result: Significant antioxidant activity was observed in all the methods, (P < 0.01) for reducing power and (P < 0.001) for scavenging DPPH, super oxide, nitric oxide, and hydrogen peroxide radicals. The extracts showed significant reduction (P < 0.01) in cholesterol at 6 and 24 h and (P < 0.05) at 48 h. There was significant reduction (P < 0.01) in triglyceride level at 6, 24, and 48 h. The VLDL level was also significantly (P < 0.05) reduced from 24 h and maximum reduction (P < 0.01) was seen at 48 h. There was significant increase (P < 0.01) in HDL at 6, 24, and 48 h. Conclusion: From the results, it is evident that alcoholic and aqueous extracts of B. variegata Linn. can effectively decrease plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, and VLDL and increase plasma HDL levels. In addition, the alcoholic and aqueous extracts have shown significant antioxidant activity. By the virtue of its antioxidant activity, B. variegata Linn. may show antihyperlipidemic activity. PMID:20177495

  18. Initial growth of Bauhinia variegata trees under different colored shade nets and light conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Bachin Mazzini-Guedes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bauhinia variegata and B. variegata var. candida, commonly known as orchid trees, are small sized trees widely used for urban forestry and landscaping. Adult plants grow under full sun; in Brazil, however, seedlings are generally cultivated in commercial nurseries under natural half-shading. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different colored shade nets and light conditions on the initial growth of B. variegata and B. variegata var. candida. The influence of six light conditions (red net with 50% shading; blue net with 50% shading; black net with 70% shading; black net with 50% shading; black net with 30% shading; and full sun on the initial growth of B. variegata and B. variegata var. candida were evaluated along 160 days, and growth relationships were calculated. Seedlings showed more efficiency on the use of photoassimilated compounds when grown under full sun. Such condition is the most appropriate for seedling production of B. variegata and B. variegata var. candida, contradicting what has been performed in practice.

  19. Aphid facultative symbionts reduce survival of the predatory lady beetle Hippodamia convergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-essential facultative endosymbionts can provide their hosts with protection from parasites, pathogens, and predators. For example, two facultative bacterial symbionts of the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum), Serratia symbiotica and Hamiltonella defensa, protect their hosts from parasitism by two species of parasitoid wasp. Previous studies have not explored whether facultative symbionts also play a defensive role against predation in this system. We tested whether feeding on aphids harboring different facultative symbionts affected the fitness of an aphid predator, the lady beetle Hippodamia convergens. Results While these aphid faculative symbionts did not deter lady beetle feeding, they did decrease survival of lady beetle larvae. Lady beetle larvae fed a diet of aphids with facultative symbionts had significantly reduced survival from egg hatching to pupation and therefore had reduced survival to adult emergence. Additionally, lady beetle adults fed aphids with facultative symbionts were significantly heavier than those fed facultative symbiont-free aphids, though development time was not significantly different. Conclusions Aphids reproduce clonally and are often found in large groups. Thus, aphid symbionts, by reducing the fitness of the aphid predator H. convergens, may indirectly defend their hosts’ clonal descendants against predation. These findings highlight the often far-reaching effects that symbionts can have in ecological systems. PMID:24555501

  20. Development and Evaluation of Photoprotective O/W Emulsions Containing Hydroalcoholic Extract of Neoglaziovia variegata (Bromeliaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira-J?nior, Raimundo Gon?alves; Souza, Grasielly Rocha; Ferraz, Christiane Adrielly Alves; de Oliveira, Ana Paula; Ara?jo, Camila de Souza; de Lima-Saraiva, Sarah Raquel Gomes; Reis, Silvio Alan Gon?alves Bomfim; Gon?alves, Talita Mota; Rolim, Larissa Ara?jo; Rolim-Neto, Pedro Jos?; C?sar, Francine Celise Siqueira; Almeida, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Neoglaziovia variegata is a Bromeliaceae plant species widely found in Brazil with several pharmacological properties, including photoprotective activity. Although herbal-based active ingredients have been applied in cosmetic products, especially for skin treatment, its application in sunscreen formulations remains unexplored. The aim of this work is to evaluate the photoprotective effect of cosmetic formulations containing hydroalcoholic extract of N. variegata (Nv-HA). Initially, the phenol...

  1. Dioctophyma renale (Goeze, 1782) in the abdominal cavity of a capuchin monkey (Cebus apella), Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Mirian Naomi; Imbeloni, Aline Amaral; Muniz, José Augusto Pereira Carneiro; Scalercio, Sarah Raphaella Rocha de Azevedo; Benigno, Raimundo Nonato Moraes; Pereira, Washington Luiz Assunção; Cunha Lacreta Junior, Antonio Carlos

    2010-10-29

    This study reports a case of parasitism by Dioctophyma renale (Goeze, 1762) encysted in the abdominal cavity of a capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) coming from the Centro Nacional de Primatas, Brazil. The animal was sent to the Veterinary Clinic sector with an increase in abdominal volume and no occurrence of any other clinical signs. Upon palpation, a movable circular mass with a diameter of approximately 10 cm was found. Urinalysis, complete blood count and serum biochemistry were performed without revealing any alterations. The animal was then submitted to an abdominal ultrasound exam. The cyst was punctured and a surgical removal procedure was performed, revealing a brownish-colored cylindrical structure that was already deteriorated, making it impossible to perform morphological analysis and classification. In the sediment of the liquid found, eggs were encountered that had morphological characteristics compatible with D. renale. The objective of this paper is to report the first case of parasitism by D. renale in C. apella (Linnaeus, 1758). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The European lesser glow worm, Phosphaenus hemipterus (Goeze, in North America (Coleoptera, Lampyridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Majka

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Phosphaenus hemipterus (Goeze is a Palaearctic glow worm (Coleoptera: Lampyridae, previously been reported in North America on the basis of two specimens; one collected in 1947 in Yarmouth, Nova Scotia; the other in 1989 in Montreal, Quebec. The present study newly records it from three sites in Halifax, Nova Scotia. One hundred and twenty six adult males and larvae were collected in 2009 in disturbed urban grassland areas, similar to habitats in England and Belgium where the species has been investigated. Experiments confirm that larvae feed on earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris, consistent with observations in Europe. The habitat is described, including vegetation, potential predators, and prey. Although ballast-shipments have previously been proposed as a vector for the species’ introduction to North America, the present study suggests that the importation of agricultural and horticultural products, which has lead to the introduction of many earthworms to the continent, could also serve as a conduit for the introduction of obligate earthworm predators such as the larvae of P. hemipterus. Although an adventive species, possible conservation concerns are discussed for a species that is considered endangered in parts of its native range.

  3. Preliminary phytochemical screening and in vitro antibacterial activity of Bauhinia variegata Linn. against human pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonam Pandey

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial and phytochemical properties of hydromethanolic extracts of Bauhinia variegata Linn. (B. variegata (leaf, stem bark and flower to justify the traditional claim endowed upon this herbal drug as a rasayana in Ayurveda. This study thus can be further utilized to formulate the natural antioxidant which can be used as a dietary supplement to fight against several diseases such as cancer, ageing, arthrosclerosis, etc. Methods: The study showed that the number of different phytoconstituents present in the plant which makes it remarkable for its use by traditional practitioners. On the another set of experiment, the hydromethanolic extract of B. variegata (leaf, stem bark and flower were evaluated against Gram-positive and Gram-negative by using disk diffusion assay. Results: Phytochemical screening of all extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, phenolic compounds, tannins, saponin, carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids and organic acids. The antibacterial activity of all the extracts (leaf, stem bark and flower of B. variegata was determined by agar well diffusion method at four different concentrations i.e., 1 000 mg/mL, 750 mg/mL, 500 mg/mL and 250 mg/mL using Gram-positive Bacillus subtilius, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus epidermidis and Gram-negative Escherichia coli, Shegilla flexineria, Pseudomonas auriginosa bacteria. Conclusions: These studies show that hydromethanolic extracts of B. variegata (leaf, stem bark and flower inhibited the growth of microorganism ’s in dose dependently. B. variegata leaf, stem bark and flower extracts have several phytochemical constituents who possess the antimicrobial activity. A tiny amount of data is presented, as the preliminary antimicrobial properties of the B. variegata here accessed, under the urgent necessity of new antibiotics in the market and in face of the increased resistance of infectious microorganisms to antimicrobials.

  4. Chiasma failures and chromosome association in Rhoeo spathacea var. variegata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y J

    1982-01-01

    In Rhoeo spathacea var. variegata (2n = 2x = 12), the most frequent meiotic configuration was the chain-of-12 chromosomes (36%) and the second most frequent was the ring-of-12 chromosomes (25.6%). All six possible two-chain situations and eleven of the twelve possible three-chain situations were observed. A maximum of five chains was observed in four cells. The size of chains ranged from on through twelve chromosomes. The mean number of chiasma failures was 1.36 +/- 0.07 per cell and 0.1133 per pair of chromosome arms. Because the observed frequencies of various configurations agree with the expected, which were calculated under the assumption that chiasma failure is equally likely at each of the twelve positions around the ring, it was concluded that chiasma failures occurred at random among the arm-positions. Due to the lengths of arm-pairs in the ring vary considerably, the randomness may mean that chiasma formation was restricted to small terminal regions on all chromosomes.

  5. FORMULATION AND STABILITY EVALUATION OF BAUHINIA VARIEGATA EXTRACT TOPICAL EMULSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsin, Sabeeh; Akhtar, Naveed

    2017-05-01

    This study presents the results for the development of water in oil (W/O) emulsion containing 2 % Bauhinia variegata (BV) extract with good antioxidant potential for cosmetic application. Different ratios of surfactant, oil and water were investigated to optimize the ratio of ingredients. It was found that emulsifier and oil4ratio were important in improving the stability of emulsion. The formulation having 2.5% Abil EM90, 12% liquid paraffin, 83.5% distilled water and 2% BV extract was found to be most stable. Stability of the formulation was further evaluated by characterizing for organoleptic, sedimentation, microscopic and rheological properties at a range of storage conditions for a period of 12 weeks. Experimental findings showed stable formulation behavior with respect to color change, liquefaction and phase separation. Centrifugation test was carried out to predict the long term stability..The rheological parameters were evaluated from Power Law and the flow index value less than 1 suggested non-Newtonian behavior of the W/O emulsion. The mean droplet size of the internal phase of freshly prepared formulation was 4.06 ? 1.99 pm that did not change significantly (p > 0.05) during the storage. The newly developed formulation exhibited promising attributes over long term storage and open opportunities for the topical delivery of natural antioxidants for cosmetic and pharmaceutical objectives.

  6. Toxicity of Bauhinia variegata and Mimusops elengi with plant molluscicides against Lymnaea acuminata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchan Lata Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Molluscicidal activity of binary combination of Bauhinia variegata and Mimusops elengi with other plant molluscicides Saraca asoca and Thuja orientalis against snail Lymnaea acuminata have been studied. It was observed that toxicity of binary combinations of plant molluscicides with other plant molluscicides were toxic against fresh water snail L. acuminata. Among all combinations of toxicity Mimusops elengi leaf + Saraca asoca bark (24h LC50: 98.25 mg/l; 96h LC50: 40.40 mg/l and Bauhinia variegata leaf powder + Saraca asoca leaf (24h LC50: 123.98 mg/l; 96h LC50: 57.91 mg/l was more toxic than other binary combinations of plant molluscicides. Mimusops elengi leaf powder + Saraca asoca leaf powder and Bauhinia variegata leaf powder + Saraca asoca leaf powder are more potent molluscicides.

  7. Intraguild Predation Responses in Two Aphidophagous Coccinellids Identify Differences among Juvenile Stages and Aphid Densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondoni, Gabriele; Ielo, Fulvio; Ricci, Carlo; Conti, Eric

    2014-12-08

    (1) Intraguild predation (IGP) can occur among aphidophagous predators thus reducing their effectiveness in controlling crop pests. Among ladybirds, Coccinella septempunctata L. and Hippodamia variegata Goeze are the most effective predators upon Aphis gossypii Glov., which is an economically important pest of melon. Understanding their likelihood to engage in reciprocal predation is a key point for conservation of biological control. Here, we aim to investigate, under laboratory conditions, the level of IGP between the two above mentioned aphidophagous species. (2) Fourth-instars of the two species were isolated in petri dishes with combinations of different stages of the heterospecific ladybird and different densities of A. gossypii. The occurrence of IGP events was recorded after six hours. (3) C. septempunctata predated H. variegata at a higher rate than vice versa (70% vs. 43% overall). Higher density of the aphid or older juvenile stage of the IG-prey (22% of fourth instars vs. 74% of eggs and second instars) reduces the likelihood of predation. (4) To our knowledge, IGP between C. septempunctata and H. variegata was investigated for the first time. Results represent a baseline, necessary to predict the likelihood of IGP occurrence in the field.

  8. Germinação e sanidade de sementes de Bauhinia variegata Germination and sanity of seeds of Bauhinia variegata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Martinelli-Seneme

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available As bauínias são consideradas pioneiras tardias na escala de sucessão vegetal, pois têm crescimento moderadamente rápido. Podem ser utilizadas como planta forrageira, ornamental, para papel e celulose, madeira serrada e roliça e também para recuperação de áreas degradadas. Buscando-se alternativas por meio de métodos de escarificação, para uma germinação rápida e uniforme, sementes de Bauhinia variegata foram submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos pré-germinativos: escarificação mecânica com lixa 220; imersão em água quente a 80 ºC; imersão em água fria a 10 ºC durante 2 h; corte com tesoura na região oposta à micrópila; imersão em ácido sulfúrico concentrado por 5 min seguida de lavagem em água corrente; e imersão em ácido sulfúrico concentrado por 20 min, seguida de lavagem em água corrente. Em seguida, as sementes foram colocadas para germinar em caixas plásticas tipo gerbox em substrato de vermiculita sob temperatura constante de 30 ºC, com avaliações aos sete e 14 dias, e semeadas em bandejas de isopor em areia em casa de vegetação. Avaliaram-se, em casa de vegetação, a porcentagem final de emergência aos 32 dias após a semeadura e o índice de velocidade de emergência. Foi realizado, ainda, o teste de sanidade (Blotter Test com 400 sementes, pelo método de papel-filtro (Blotter test. Para o teste de germinação e índice de velocidade de emergência foram utilizadas cinco subamostras de 30 sementes de cada tratamento, sendo o experimento conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em comparação com as médias pelo teste de Tukey (P>0,05. Constatou-se que a escarificação mecânica (lixa e corte com tesoura e a imersão em água fria promoveram a germinação das sementes. No entanto, os valores foram semelhantes, estatisticamente, à testemunha; a velocidade de germinação em laboratório foi maior quando as sementes foram escarificadas com lixa ou imersas em água fria por 2 h; o

  9. Evaluation of effects of Bauhinia variegata stem bark extracts against milk-induced eosinophilia in mice

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    Ravindra G Mali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bauhinia variegata Linn (family: Caesalpiniaceae, popularly known as Rakta Kanchnar, is a medium-sized tree found throughout India. The stem bark of B. variegata (BV is used traditionally in the treatment of asthma, jaundice, tuberculosis, leprosy, and skin diseases. In the present study, we have investigated the role of aqueous (BVA and ethanol (BVE extracts of the plant against milk-induced leukocytosis and eosinophilia in albino mice. The results of the study revealed that pretreatment with both the extracts caused significant reduction in the total leukocyte and eosinophil counts in animals in dose-dependent manner. From these results, it can be concluded that the plant BV is having antieosinophilic activity.

  10. Bauhinia variegata leaf extracts exhibit considerable antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Amita; Sharma, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Shashank; Saxena, Ajit K; Pandey, Abhay K

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports the phytochemical profiling, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities of Bauhinia variegata leaf extracts. The reducing sugar, anthraquinone, and saponins were observed in polar extracts, while terpenoids and alkaloids were present in nonpolar and ethanol extracts. Total flavonoid contents in various extracts were found in the range of 11-222.67 mg QE/g. In disc diffusion assays, petroleum ether and chloroform fractions exhibited considerable inhibition against Klebsiella pneumoniae. Several other extracts also showed antibacterial activity against pathogenic strains of E. coli, Proteus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of potential extracts were found between 3.5 and 28.40 mg/mL. The lowest MBC (3.5 mg/mL) was recorded for ethanol extract against Pseudomonas spp. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was compared with standard antioxidants. Dose dependent response was observed in reducing power of extracts. Polar extracts demonstrated appreciable metal ion chelating activity at lower concentrations (10-40 μg/mL). Many extracts showed significant antioxidant response in beta carotene bleaching assay. AQ fraction of B. variegata showed pronounced cytotoxic effect against DU-145, HOP-62, IGR-OV-1, MCF-7, and THP-1 human cancer cell lines with 90-99% cell growth inhibitory activity. Ethyl acetate fraction also produced considerable cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and THP-1 cell lines. The study demonstrates notable antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities in B. variegata leaf extracts.

  11. Morphoanatomical and physiological changes in Bauhinia variegata L. as indicators of herbicide diuron action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Dêmily Andrômeda de; Müller, Caroline; Costa, Alan Carlos; Batista, Priscila Ferreira; Dalvi, Valdnéa Casagrande; Domingos, Marisa

    2017-07-01

    The wide use of the herbicide diuron has compromised surrounding uncultivated areas, resulting in acute and/or chronic damage to non-target plants. Thus, the aim of this research was to evaluate physiological and morphoanatomical responses in Bauhinia variegata L. plants to different doses of diuron. Seedlings of 90-day-old B. variegata were transplanted into 10liter pots. After an acclimation period (about 30 days), treatments consisting of different diuron doses were applied: 0 (control), 400, 800, 1600, and 2400g ai ha -1 . The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design in a 5×5 factorial scheme with five doses of diuron five evaluation times, and five replicates per treatment. Anatomical and physiological injuries were observed in leaves of Bauhina variegata 10h after diuron application. Disruption of waxes was observed on both sides of the leaves of plants exposed since the lowest dose. Plasmolysis in cells were observed in treated leaves; more severe damage was observed in plants exposed to higher doses, resulting in rupture of epidermis. The diuron herbicide also caused gradual reduction in the gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence variables. Among the morphoanatomical and physiological variables analyzed, the non-invasive ones (e.g., ETR, Y II , and F v /F m ) may be used as biomarkers of diuron action in association with visible symptoms. In addition, changes in leaf blade waxes and chlorophyll parenchyma damage may also be considered additional leaf biomarkers of diuron herbicide action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Non-Polar Natural Products from Bromelia laciniosa, Neoglaziovia variegata and Encholirium spectabile (Bromeliaceae

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    Ole Johan Juvik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Extensive regional droughts are already a major problem on all inhabited continents and severe regional droughts are expected to become an increasing and extended problem in the future. Consequently, extended use of available drought resistant food plants should be encouraged. Bromelia laciniosa, Neoglaziovia variegata and Encholirium spectabile are excellent candidates in that respect because they are established drought resistant edible plants from the semi-arid Caatinga region. From a food safety perspective, increased utilization of these plants would necessitate detailed knowledge about their chemical constituents. However, their chemical compositions have previously not been determined. For the first time, the non-polar constituents of B. laciniosa, N. variegata and E. spectabile have been identified. This is the first thorough report on natural products from N. variegata, E. spectabile, and B. laciniosa. Altogether, 20 non-polar natural products were characterized. The identifications were based on hyphenated gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS and supported by 1D and 2D Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR plant metabolomics.

  13. Bauhinia variegata Leaf Extracts Exhibit Considerable Antibacterial, Antioxidant, and Anticancer Activities

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    Amita Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the phytochemical profiling, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities of Bauhinia variegata leaf extracts. The reducing sugar, anthraquinone, and saponins were observed in polar extracts, while terpenoids and alkaloids were present in nonpolar and ethanol extracts. Total flavonoid contents in various extracts were found in the range of 11–222.67 mg QE/g. In disc diffusion assays, petroleum ether and chloroform fractions exhibited considerable inhibition against Klebsiella pneumoniae. Several other extracts also showed antibacterial activity against pathogenic strains of E. coli, Proteus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC values of potential extracts were found between 3.5 and 28.40 mg/mL. The lowest MBC (3.5 mg/mL was recorded for ethanol extract against Pseudomonas spp. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was compared with standard antioxidants. Dose dependent response was observed in reducing power of extracts. Polar extracts demonstrated appreciable metal ion chelating activity at lower concentrations (10–40 μg/mL. Many extracts showed significant antioxidant response in beta carotene bleaching assay. AQ fraction of B. variegata showed pronounced cytotoxic effect against DU-145, HOP-62, IGR-OV-1, MCF-7, and THP-1 human cancer cell lines with 90–99% cell growth inhibitory activity. Ethyl acetate fraction also produced considerable cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and THP-1 cell lines. The study demonstrates notable antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities in B. variegata leaf extracts.

  14. Characterization of the molluscicidal activity of Bauhinia variegata and Mimusops elengi plant extracts against the fasciola vector Lymnaea acuminata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kanchan Lata; Singh, D K; Singh, Vinay Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The molluscicidal activity of Bauhinia variegata leaf and Mimusops elengi bark was studied against vector snail Lymnaea acuminata. The toxicity of both plants was time and concentration-dependent. Among organic extracts, ethanol extracts of both plants were more toxic. Toxicity of B. variegata leaf ethanolic extract (96h LC50- 14.4 mg/L) was more pronounced than M. elengi bark ethanolic extract (96h LC50-15.0 mg/L). The 24h LC50 of column purified fraction of B. variegata and M. elengi bark were 20.3 mg/L and 18.3 mg/L, respectively. Saponin and quercetin were characterized and identified as active molluscicidal component. Co-migration of saponin (Rf 0.48) and quercetin (Rf 0.52) with column purified bark of M. elengi and leaf of B. variegata on thin layer chromatography demonstrate same Rf value i.e. 0.48 and 0.52, respectively. The present study clearly indicates the possibility of using M. elengi and/or B. variegata as potent molluscicide.

  15. In vitro behaviour of Aspasia variegata, an epiphytic orchid from the Brazilian Cerrado

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    Vespasiano Borges de Paiva Neto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspasia variegata occurs naturally in the savanna of the Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil and it has been widely collected for its beautiful flowers. Additionally, its habitat has been greatly reduced and little or no investigation of its spread has been performed. Aiming to establish a protocol to obtain seedlings of the orchid A. variegata, different compositions of culture medium were tested to identify which one provided better in vitro growth and development and to assess the influence of these media in seedling acclimatisation. Thus, seeds obtained from mature capsules were inoculated in Knudson culture medium for 120 days until the protocorm stage. They were transferred to different culture media formulations, including MS and Knudson with half or full formulation, and 3.0 and 6.0g L-1 activated charcoal were added to them or not. After 180 days of protocorm inoculation, seedlings were evaluated for length of roots and shoots, number of roots and leaves, and chlorophyll contents. After that, seedlings were transferred to trays containing a mixture of Plantmax® and coconut fibre (1:1 for acclimatisation. Best results for the in vitro growth of A. variegata were obtained with the use of MS medium supplemented with 6.0g L-1 activated charcoal. Higher levels of chlorophyll were obtained, however, in treatments containing MS salts without activated charcoal presence, and lower levels in media containing Knudson salts with the presence of activated charcoal. The seedlings originated by higher chlorophyll levels during in vitro cultivation presented the highest survival rates and better development in the acclimatisation phase.

  16. Análise morfoanatômica comparativa da folha de Bauhinia forficata Link e B. variegata Linn. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae Comparative morphogical and anatomycal analyses of Bauhinia forficata Link and B. variegata Linn. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae leaves

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    Makeli Garibotti Lusa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho foi desenvolvido com o propósito de subsidiar o controle de qualidade das espécies medicinais Bauhinia forficata Link e B. variegata Linn. Essas foram coletadas em jardins e terrenos baldios de Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil. As amostras do limbo, pecíolo e pulvino foram fixadas em F.A.A. 50 e conservadas em etanol 70%. O seccionamento do material foi feito em micrótomo de rotação (material incluído em historresina ou a mão livre e as lâminas foram montadas de forma permanente ou semipermanente. Foram realizadas análises em microscopia fotônica e eletrônica de varredura. A folha de B. forficata é alongada, com folíolos unidos em torno da metade do limbo, ápices agudos, superfície adaxial lisa e mucro entre os folíolos. Enquanto que, B. variegata possui folha mais larga que longa, com folíolos unidos na porção terminal do limbo e ápices obtusos. Nos pulvinos de B. variegata ocorrem camadas de colênquima, ausentes em B. forficata. O formato e a bainha de fibras dos pecíolos, em secção transversal, são distintos entre as espécies, assim como a distribuição dos estômatos e tricomas no limbo e a forma do bordo em secção transversal. B. variegata possui maior quantidade de idioblastos com drusas e compostos fenólicos. As características morfológicas e anatômicas de B. forficata e B. variegata contribuem para a identificação e diferenciação das espécies, sendo importantes para o controle de qualidade do material destinado à pesquisa e à indústria farmacêutica.This work has been developed with the purpose of helping the quality control of the medicinal species Bauhinia forficata Link and B. variegata Linn., which were collected in gardens and vacant lots in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. The samples of leaf blade, petiole and pulvinus were fixed in FAA 50 and preserved in alcohol 70. The sectioning of the material was made in rotational microtome (with the material included in historesine or manually and

  17. Nephroprotective effect of Bauhinia variegata (Linn.) whole stem extract against cisplatin-induced nephropathy in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Saumya R.; Mishra, Satyaranjan; Sahoo, Sabuj; Panda, Prasana K.

    2011-01-01

    The nephroprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of Bauhinia variegata (Linn.) whole stem against cisplatin-induced nephropathy was investigated by an in vivo method in rats. Acute nephrotoxicity was induced by i.p. injection of cisplatin (7 mg/kg of body weight (b.w.)). Administration of ethanol extract at dose levels of 400 and 200 mg/kg (b.w.) to cisplatin-intoxicated rats for 14 days attenuated the biochemical and histological signs of nephrotoxicity of cisplatin in a dose-dependent fashion. Ethanol extract at 400 mg/kg decreased the serum level of creatinine (0.65 ± 0.09; P<0.001) and urea (32.86 ± 5.88; P<0.001) associated with a significant increase in body weight (7.16 ± 1.10; P<0.001) and urine volume output (11.95 ± 0.79; P<0.05) as compared to the toxic control group. The ethanol extract of B. variegata at 400 mg/kg (b.w.) exhibited significant and comparable nephroprotective potential to that of the standard polyherbal drug cystone. The statistically (one-way-ANOVA followed by Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison) processed results suggested the protective action of B. variegate whole stem against cisplatin-induced nephropathy. PMID:21572659

  18. The Tropical Brown Alga Lobophora variegata: A Source of Antiprotozoal Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantillo-Ciau, Zulema; Moo-Puc, Rosa; Quijano, Leovigildo; Freile-Pelegrín, Yolanda

    2010-01-01

    Lobophora variegata, a brown alga collected from the coast of the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico, was studied for antiprotozoal activity against Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis. The whole extract showed the highest activity against T. vaginalis, with an IC50 value of 3.2 μg/mL. For the fractions, the best antiprotozoal activity was found in non-polar fractions. The chloroform fraction of the extract contained a major sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG), identified as 1-O-palmitoyl-2-O-myristoyl-3-O-(6‴-sulfo-α-d-quinovopyranosyl)-glycerol (1), together with small amounts of 1,2-di-O-palmitoyl-3-O-(6‴-sulfo-α-d-quinovopyranosyl)-glycerol (2) and a new compound identified as 1-O-palmitoyl-2-O-oleoyl-3-O-(6‴-sulfo-α-d-quinovopyranosyl)-glycerol (3). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis and careful analysis of FAB-MS and NMR spectroscopic data. This is the first report on the isolation of SQDGs from L. variegata. The mixture of 1–3 showed good activity against E. histolytica and moderate activity against T. vaginalis with IC50s of 3.9 and 8.0 μg/mL, respectively, however, the activity of 1–3 is not as effective as metronidazole. These results afford ground information for the potential use of the whole extract and fractions of this species in protozoal infections. PMID:20479979

  19. Feleucins: Novel Bombinin Precursor-Encoded Nonapeptide Amides from the Skin Secretion of Bombina variegata

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    Bing Bai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The first amphibian skin antimicrobial peptide (AMP to be identified was named bombinin, reflecting its origin from the skin of the European yellow-bellied toad (Bombina variegata. Bombinins and their related peptides, the bombinin Hs, were subsequently reported from other bombinid toads. Molecular cloning of bombinin-encoding cDNAs from skin found that bombinins and bombinin Hs were coencoded on the same precursor proteins. Here, we report the molecular cloning of two novel cDNAs from a skin secretion-derived cDNA library of B. variegata whose open-reading frames each encode a novel bombinin (GIGGALLNVGKVALKGLAKGLAEHFANamide and a C-terminally located single copy of a novel nonapeptide (FLGLLGGLLamide or FLGLIGSLLamide. These novel nonapeptides were named feleucin-BV1 and feleucin-BV2, respectively. The novel bombinin exhibited 89% identity to homologues from the toads, B. microdeladigitora and B. maxima. The feleucins exhibited no identity with any amphibian AMP archived in databases. Synthetic feleucins exhibited a weak activity against Staphylococcus aureus (128–256 mg/L but feleucin-BV1 exhibited a synergistic action with the novel bombinin. The present report clearly demonstrates that the skin secretions of bombinid toads continue to represent a source of peptides of novel structure that could provide templates for the design of therapeutics.

  20. Efficacy evaluation of Bauhinia variegata L. stem bark powder as adjunct therapy in chronic Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in goat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Jeevan Ranjan; Sar, Tapas Kumar; Samanta, Indranil; Pal, Subodh; Khan, Madhuchhanda; Patra, Nimai Charan; Sarkar, Uttam; Maji, Asit Kumar; Mandal, Tapan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to study the effect of Bauhinia variegata L. stem bark powder as adjunct therapy in chronic Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in goat. Materials and Methods: Mastitis was induced by intracisternal inoculation of coagulase positive S. aureus (J638) at the concentration of 2000 colony forming units. Group I animals were treated with repeated dose of ceftriaxone at 20 mg/kg intravenously, and Group II animals were treated with once daily oral administration of B. variegata L. stem bark powder at 6 g/kg for 7 days followed by maintenance dose at 3 g/kg for next 7 days along with repeated dose of the antibiotic at 20 mg/kg intravenously at 4 days interval. Results: No significant improvement in the clinical condition of the udder was noticed in the group treated with repeated dose of ceftriaxone alone. However, in the group treated with B. variegata L. stem bark powder along with repeated dose of ceftriaxone, no S. aureus colony was seen at 96 h and onwards in milk samples with a marked decrease in somatic cell count and milk alkaline phosphatase activity and increased lactoperoxidase activity. Further, plasma and milk concentration of ceftriaxone/ceftizoxime was increased, which indicated antibacterial, bioenhancing and antiinflammatory properties of the bark powder. The Group II animals also exhibited marked reduction in polymorphonuclear cells and fibrous tissue indicating antifibrotic property of B. variegata L. Conclusion: B. variegata L. stem bark powder can be considered as an effective adjunct therapy to intravenous ceftriaxone in S. aureus chronic mastitis in goat. PMID:25298668

  1. Aqueous Extracts of the Marine Brown Alga Lobophora variegata Inhibit HIV-1 Infection at the Level of Virus Entry into Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kremb, Stephan; Helfer, Markus; Kraus, Birgit; Wolff, Horst; Wild, Christian; Schneider, Martha; Voolstra, Christian R.; Brack-Werner, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    -infection. Anti-viral potency was related to ecological factors and showed clear differences depending on light exposition or epiphyte growth. Assays addressing early events of the HIV-1 replication cycle indicated that L. variegata extracts inhibited entry

  2. [Acute intermittent porphyria versus porphyria variegata: a diagnostic uncertainty (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancor León, P; García Ruiz, F; Font de Mora Turón, A; López Martínez, J; Schüller Pérez, A

    1980-01-25

    The authors study a case of acute porphyria in a young woman who was taking oral contraceptives and who began having abdominal pain and bilateral radial paralysis with neuropsychic disorders. The quantitative and chromatographic analyses of urine, feces, and liver porphyrins revealed a pattern of excretion compatible but not definite of porphyria variegata, making this an example of porphyria of difficult noslogic placement. The problems of classification, the action of the contraceptive drugs as probable triggering agents (of the clinical picture) by means of their action on the ALA-synthetase, the rare form of neuropathy, and the rarity of these types of porphyrias in our country are analyzed and discussed. The patient did not present the endocrine-metabolic disorders that are commonly evidenced in these cases.

  3. Bauhinia variegata (Caesalpiniaceae) leaf extract: An effective treatment option in type I and type II diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Yogesh A; Garud, Mayuresh S

    2016-10-01

    Among various metabolic disorders, diabetes mellitus is one of the most common disorder. Present study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of aqueous extract of Bauhinia variegata leaves (AE) in animal models of type I and type II diabetes. Type I diabetes was induced by streptozotocin at the dose of 55mg/kg (i.p.) in male Sprague Dawley rats while type II diabetes was induced by high fat diet and streptozotocin at the dose of 35mg/kg (i.p.). Diabetic animals were treated with AE at the dose of 250, 500 and 1000mg/kg. Glipizide (5mg/kg) was used as standard treatment drug. Treatment was given for 28days. Parameters evaluated were body weight, plasma glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total proteins, albumin, creatinine and bun urea nitrogen. In type II diabetes, high density lipoprotein levels in plasma and plasma insulin level were also evaluated. Histopathological study of pancreases were carried out in type I study. AE showed significant decrease in plasma glucose significantly. AE was also found to decrease cholesterol, triglyceride, creatinine and blood urea nitrogen level in both types of diabetes. AE did not show any significant effect on plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase. AE was found to increase the albumin and total protein levels. Histopathological study showed that AE decreases the necrotic changes in the pancreatic tissue. Aqueous extract of B. variegata leaves was found effective in treatment of both type I and type II diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Development and Evaluation of Photoprotective O/W Emulsions Containing Hydroalcoholic Extract of Neoglaziovia variegata (Bromeliaceae

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    Raimundo Gonçalves de Oliveira-Júnior

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neoglaziovia variegata is a Bromeliaceae plant species widely found in Brazil with several pharmacological properties, including photoprotective activity. Although herbal-based active ingredients have been applied in cosmetic products, especially for skin treatment, its application in sunscreen formulations remains unexplored. The aim of this work is to evaluate the photoprotective effect of cosmetic formulations containing hydroalcoholic extract of N. variegata (Nv-HA. Initially, the phenolic and flavonoid total content of Nv-HA were determined. The photoprotective activity of Nv-HA was subsequently assessed using a spectrophotometric method. Nv-HA was incorporated in O/W emulsions in the presence or absence of synthetic filters and their photoprotective efficacy was evaluated by spectrophotometric SPF determination. Finally, the stability study of the formulations was performed through the freezing/defrosting method. Nv-HA showed significant phenolic and flavonoids content (61.66±5.14 mg GAE/g and 90.27±5.03 mg CE/g, resp.. Nv-HA showed SPF values of 5.43±0.07 and 11.73±0.04 for the concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0% (v/v, respectively. It was verified that Nv-HA potentiated the photoprotective effect of formulations containing only synthetic filters. Furthermore, the formulations have remained stable at the end of the preliminary stability study. According to the results, it was concluded that Nv-HA can be used as a chemical filter in cosmetic formulations.

  5. Development and Evaluation of Photoprotective O/W Emulsions Containing Hydroalcoholic Extract of Neoglaziovia variegata (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira-Júnior, Raimundo Gonçalves; Souza, Grasielly Rocha; Ferraz, Christiane Adrielly Alves; de Oliveira, Ana Paula; Araújo, Camila de Souza; de Lima-Saraiva, Sarah Raquel Gomes; Reis, Silvio Alan Gonçalves Bomfim; Gonçalves, Talita Mota; Rolim, Larissa Araújo; Rolim-Neto, Pedro José; César, Francine Celise Siqueira; Almeida, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Neoglaziovia variegata is a Bromeliaceae plant species widely found in Brazil with several pharmacological properties, including photoprotective activity. Although herbal-based active ingredients have been applied in cosmetic products, especially for skin treatment, its application in sunscreen formulations remains unexplored. The aim of this work is to evaluate the photoprotective effect of cosmetic formulations containing hydroalcoholic extract of N. variegata (Nv-HA). Initially, the phenolic and flavonoid total content of Nv-HA were determined. The photoprotective activity of Nv-HA was subsequently assessed using a spectrophotometric method. Nv-HA was incorporated in O/W emulsions in the presence or absence of synthetic filters and their photoprotective efficacy was evaluated by spectrophotometric SPF determination. Finally, the stability study of the formulations was performed through the freezing/defrosting method. Nv-HA showed significant phenolic and flavonoids content (61.66 ± 5.14 mg GAE/g and 90.27 ± 5.03 mg CE/g, resp.). Nv-HA showed SPF values of 5.43 ± 0.07 and 11.73 ± 0.04 for the concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0% (v/v), respectively. It was verified that Nv-HA potentiated the photoprotective effect of formulations containing only synthetic filters. Furthermore, the formulations have remained stable at the end of the preliminary stability study. According to the results, it was concluded that Nv-HA can be used as a chemical filter in cosmetic formulations.

  6. The Tropical Brown Alga Lobophora variegata: A Source of Antiprotozoal Compounds

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    Zulema Cantillo-Ciau

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Lobophora variegata, a brown alga collected from the coast of the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico, was studied for antiprotozoal activity against Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis. The whole extract showed the highest activity against T. vaginalis, with an IC50 value of 3.2 mg/mL. For the fractions, the best antiprotozoal activity was found in non-polar fractions. The chloroform fraction of the extract contained a major sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG, identified as 1-O-palmitoyl-2-O-myristoyl-3-O-(6´´´-sulfo-a-D-quinovopyranosyl-glycerol (1, together with small amounts of 1,2-di-O-palmitoyl-3-O-(6´´´-sulfo-a-D-quinovopyranosyl-glycerol (2 and a new compound identified as 1-O-palmitoyl-2-O-oleoyl-3-O-(6´´´-sulfo-a-D-quinovopyranosyl-glycerol (3. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis and careful analysis of FAB-MS and NMR spectroscopic data. This is the first report on the isolation of SQDGs from L. variegata. The mixture of 1–3 showed good activity against E. histolytica and moderate activity against T. vaginalis with IC50s of 3.9 and 8.0 mg/mL, respectively, however, the activity of 1–3 is not as effective as metronidazole. These results afford ground information for the potential use of the whole extract and fractions of this species in protozoal infections.

  7. Phytochemical Profile of Erythrina variegata by Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Suriyavathana Muthukrishnan; Subha Palanisamy; Senthilkumar Subramanian; Sumathi Selvaraj; Kavitha Rani Mari; Ramalingam Kuppulingam

    2016-01-01

    Natural products derived from plant sources have been utilized to treat patients with numerous diseases. The phytochemical constituents present in ethanolic leaf extract of Erythrina variegata (ELEV) were identified by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analyses. Shade dried leaves were powdered and extracted with ethanol for analyses through HPLC to identify selected flavonoids and through GC-MS to identify other molecules. Th...

  8. Chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant activity of hydro-ethanolic extracts from Bauhinia forficata subsp. pruinosa and B. variegata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayago, Carla T M; Camargo, Vanessa B; Barbosa, F; Gularte, Cláudia; Pereira, Geovana; Miotto, Silvia; Cechinel Filho, V; Luiz Puntel, R; Folmer, V; Mendez, A

    2013-03-01

    Bauhinia species are known to have hypoglycemiant and antioxidant activities. Here, hydro-ethanolic leaf extracts from Bauhinia forficata subsp. pruinosa and Bauhinia variegata, collected in a Pampa biome region of Brazil, were investigated to characterize their chromatographic profile, flavonoid content and in vitro antioxidant activity (TBARS and DPH assays). The extracts were obtained from dried and fresh leaves. The total flavonoid content was assessed by spectrophotometric determination, and the results ranged between 572.08 and 1,102.99 μg mL-1. Moreover, flavonoids were more predominant in B. variegata than in B. forficata subsp. pruinosa. HPLC analysis detected a complex profile of phenolic compounds, being the flavonoid kaempferitrin founded B. forficata subsp. pruinosa; in addition, other kaempferol and quercetin derivatives were present. In vitro antioxidant assays demonstrated a different behavior depending on the species, leaf treatment and extract concentration. In general, B. variegata extracts obtained from fresh material presented higher antioxidant potential, which can be attributed to the predominance of flavonoids in their chemical composition.

  9. Can black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata) solve object permanence tasks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallavarapu, Suma; Perdue, Bonnie M; Stoinski, Tara S; Maple, Terry L

    2013-04-01

    We examined object permanence in black-and-white-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata) at Zoo Atlanta. A series of visible and invisible displacement tasks with suitable controls were presented to five adult subjects. Subjects performed significantly above chance on all regular tasks, except for the double invisible displacements. Subjects failed visible and invisible controls. Failure on the control trials did not appear to be because subjects used the "last box touched" strategy (subjects did not choose the last box touched significantly more than expected by chance). However, a substantial percentage of choices was made to the last box touched by the experimenter. There was no significant difference between this percentage, and the percentage of choices made to the baited box (on both visible and invisible controls), which indicates that subjects were drawn to both boxes which the experimenter visited/touched, and thus failed the controls. Based on the results from the present study, we believe that there is no evidence that black-and-white ruffed lemurs understand visible and invisible tasks in the traditional object permanence battery. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. KARAKTERISTIK MORFOLOGI SERTA PERKEMBANGAN FIG NYAWAI (Ficus variegata Blume DI KEBUN RAYA CIBODAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Astho Pramono

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nyawai (Ficus variegata Blume merupakan salah satu jenis pohon yang memiliki prospek yang baik untuk hutan tanaman. Informasi tentang aspek biologi reproduksinya masih terbatas. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui karakteristik morfologi bunga dan buah nyawai, serta tahapan perkembangan fig. Penelitian dilakukan di Kebun Raya Cibodas, Jawa Barat. Kegiatan penelitian meliputi: 1 pengamatan morfologi bunga dan buah, dan 2 pengamatan perkembangan fig. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa karakteristik morfologi fig nyawai yang dijumpai di Kebun Raya Cibodas, memiliki variasi yang tinggi dalam hal ukuran dan warna. Berdasarkan karakteristik morfologi bunga, secara individual ditemui dua tipe pohon yang mencirikan sebagai pohon menghasilkan bunga jantan dan penghasil bunga betina. Perbedaan antara tahap bunga, buah muda, dan buah matang tidak dapat dibakukan berdasarkan karakteristik morfologi eksternal dari fig. Tingkat kematangan buah nyawai dapat dilakukan dengan membelah fig. Nyawai tahap kuncup bunga berakhir sekitar 6-11 hari setelah munculya tunas fig, dan tahap bunga berakhir 11-26 hari. Perkembangan kuncup bunga menjadi buah yang matang memakan waktu sekitar 2-3 bulan. Hasil penelitian menyarankan untuk tidak mengumpulkan benih dari fig yang berukuran kecil, meskipun mereka memiliki karakteristik fisik fig yang matang.

  11. PENGGUNAAN MIKORIZA DAN PUPUK NPK DALAM PEMBIBITAN NYAWAI (Ficus variegata Blume

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    NFN Danu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Kebutuhan bahan baku  untuk industri pengolahan kayu dan serat dari tahun ke tahun semakin meningkat, sedangkan pasokan bahan baku dari hutan alam semakin menurun, akibatnya terjadi kelangkaan bahan baku industri pengolahan kayu dan pulp. Oleh karena itu perlu dilakukan pengembangan hutan tanaman yang memadai. Tanaman nyawai (Ficus variegata Blume  merupakan jenis alternatif prioritas dalam pembangunan hutan tanaman penghasil kayu. Salah satu faktor yang menentukan keberhasilan pengembangan hutan tanaman nyawai adalah penggunaan bibit bermutu, karena bibit yang berkualitas akan menghasilkan tegakan dengan tingkat produktivitas tinggi. Pengadaan bibit nyawai bermutu dapat melalui teknik perbanyakan generatif maupun vegetatif. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mendapatkan kombinasi pemupukan dan mikoriza yang tepat untuk menghasilkan bibit nyawai yang berkualitas. Buah nyawai dikumpulkan dari Kebun Raya Cibodas (Cianjur. Lokasi Penelitian di persemaian Nagrak. Perkecambahan dilakukan dengan menabur benih pada bak kecambah yang berisi media yang telah disterilkan. Media penyapihan menggunakan tanah sub soil ditambah mikoriza: tanpa mikoriza (C0, Glomus sp. (C1, Acaulospora sp. (C2 dan dosis NPK sebanyak : 0,0 g (P0, 0,5 g/polybag (P1, 1,0 g/poybag (P2. Pengadaan bibit nyawai dapat menggunakan campuran media tanah subsoil + 30 % serbuk sabut kelapa (coco peat +10 % arang sekam padi (v/v, CMA Glomus sp dan Acaulospora sp mampu berkolonisasi dengan akar bibit nyawai. Pemberian pupuk NPK 0,5 – 1,0 gram per polybag dapat meningkatkan serapan hara P.

  12. Caracterização química e bioquímica de sementes de Bauhinia variegata L. Chemical and biochemical characterization of Bauhinia variegata L. seeds

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    Luciano S. Pinto

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Sementes quiescentes de Bauhinia variegata foram submetidas a caracterização bioquímica, por meio de análise elementar, fracionamento de proteínas e atividade hemaglutinante. A análise elementar mostrou grande quantidade de proteína total e de lipídeos, com 29,41 e 14,89%, respectivamente. O ácido linoléico foi o mais encontrado na constituição lipídica das sementes e a composição mineral ficou dentro de níveis aceitáveis para o consumo humano. As diferentes frações protéicas (albuminas, globulinas, prolaminas, glutelinas ácidas e básicas apresentaram atividade hemaglutinante contra hemácias tratadas e não-tratadas com enzimas proteolíticas, mas a maior atividade hemaglutinante específica foi evidenciada na fração globulínica; já nas frações glutelinas ácidas e albuminas, esta atividade é maior quando se utilizam hemácias de coelho previamente tratadas com tripsina e papaína, respectivamente. Assim, por apresentarem alto valor energético, as sementes de Bauhinia variegata são uma possível fonte opcional na alimentação.Seeds of Bauhinia variegata were submitted to biochemical characterization through elementary analysis, protein fractioning and hemaglutinanting activity. The elementary analysis of seed showed high protein and lipid contents, with 29.41 and 14.89%, respectively. The linolenic acid was found in the lipidic constitution of the seeds and the mineral composition remained with in acceptable levels for the human consumption. The specific hemaglutinanting activity from different fractions of proteins (albumin, globulin, prolamin, glutelin acid and alkaline demonstrated hemaglutinanting activity against native and enzyme treated rabbit erythrocytes. However, the fraction globulins showed the largest specific hemaglutinanting activity. Acid glutelin and albumin had a larger specific hemaglutinanting activity against tripisin-treated and papain-treated rabbit erythrocytes, respectively. Thus, for

  13. Effect of the Lectin of Bauhinia variegata and Its Recombinant Isoform on Surgically Induced Skin Wounds in a Murine Model

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    Rodrigo Bainy Leal

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are a structurally heterogeneous group of highly specific carbohydrate-binding proteins. Due to their great biotechnological potential, lectins are widely used in biomedical research. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the healing potential of the lectin of Bauhinia variegata (nBVL and its recombinant isoform (rBVL-1. Following surgical creation of dorsal skin wounds, seven groups of mice were submitted to topical treatment for 12 days with lectin, D-galactose, BSA and saline. The animals were anesthetized and euthanized on POD 2, 7 and 12 in order to evaluate the healing potential of each treatment. The parameters considered included wound size, contraction rate, epithelialization rate and histopathological findings. Wound closure was fastest in animals treated with rBVL-1 (POD 7. nBVL was more effective than the controls. All skin layers were reconstructed and keratin deposition increased. Our findings indicate that the lectin of Bauhinia variegata possesses pro-healing properties and may be employed in the treatment of acute skin wounds.

  14. Novel synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Bauhinia variegata: a recent eco-friendly approach for mosquito control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Veerakumar, Kaliyan; Muthukumaran, Udaiyan; Hoti, S L; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Barnard, Donald R; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    Mosquito vectors are responsible for transmitting diseases such as malaria, dengue, chikungunya, Japanese encephalitis, dengue, and lymphatic filariasis. The use of synthetic insecticides to control mosquito vectors has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects, in addition to high operational cost. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles has been proposed as an alternative to traditional control tools. In the present study, green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous leaf extract of Bauhinia variegata by reduction of Ag(+) ions from silver nitrate solution has been investigated. The bioreduced silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV–visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Leaf extract and synthesized AgNPs were evaluated against the larvae of Anopheles subpictus, Aedes albopictus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Compared to aqueous extract, synthesized AgNPs showed higher toxicity against An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus with LC50 and LC90 values of 41.96, 46.16, and 51.92 μg/mL and 82.93, 89.42, and 97.12 μg/mL, respectively. Overall, this study proves that B. variegata is a potential bioresource for stable, reproducible nanoparticle synthesis and may be proposed as an efficient mosquito control agent.

  15. Effect of the lectin of Bauhinia variegata and its recombinant isoform on surgically induced skin wounds in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Luiz Gonzaga do Nascimento; Pinto, Luciano da Silva; Bastos, Rafaela Mesquita; Evaristo, Francisco Flávio Vasconcelos; Vasconcelos, Mayron Alves de; Carneiro, Victor Alves; Arruda, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa; Porto, Ana Lúcia Figueiredo; Leal, Rodrigo Bainy; Júnior, Valdemiro Amaro da Silva; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Teixeira, Edson Holanda

    2011-11-07

    Lectins are a structurally heterogeneous group of highly specific carbohydrate-binding proteins. Due to their great biotechnological potential, lectins are widely used in biomedical research. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the healing potential of the lectin of Bauhinia variegata (nBVL) and its recombinant isoform (rBVL-1). Following surgical creation of dorsal skin wounds, seven groups of mice were submitted to topical treatment for 12 days with lectin, D-galactose, BSA and saline. The animals were anesthetized and euthanized on POD 2, 7 and 12 in order to evaluate the healing potential of each treatment. The parameters considered included wound size, contraction rate, epithelialization rate and histopathological findings. Wound closure was fastest in animals treated with rBVL-1 (POD 7). nBVL was more effective than the controls. All skin layers were reconstructed and keratin deposition increased. Our findings indicate that the lectin of Bauhinia variegata possesses pro-healing properties and may be employed in the treatment of acute skin wounds.

  16. Synthesis of different-sized silver nanoparticles by simply varying reaction conditions with leaf extracts of Bauhinia variegata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V; Yadav, S K

    2012-03-01

    Green synthesis of nanoparticles is one of the crucial requirements in today's climate change scenario all over the world. In view of this, leaf extract (LE) of Bauhinia variegata L. possessing strong antidiabetic and antibacterial properties has been used to synthesise silver nanoparticles (SNP) in a controlled manner. Various-sized SNP (20-120 nm) were synthesised by varying incubation temperature, silver nitrate and LE concentrations. The rate of SNP synthesis and their size increased with increase in AgNO(3) concentration up to 4 mM. With increase in LE concentration, size and aggregation of SNP was increased. The size and aggregation of SNP were also increased at temperatures above and below 40°C. This has suggested that size and dispersion of SNP can be controlled by varying reaction components and conditions. Polarity-based fractionation of B. variegata LE has suggested that only water-soluble fraction is responsible for SNP synthesis. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis revealed the attachment of polyphenolic and carbohydrate moieties to SNP. The synthesised SNPs were found stable in double distilled water, BSA and phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). On the contrary, incubation of SNP with NaCl induced aggregation. This suggests the safe use of SNP for various in vivo applications.

  17. On the biosorption, by brown seaweed, Lobophora variegata, of Ni(II) from aqueous solutions: equilibrium and thermodynamic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basha, Shaik; Jaiswar, Santlal; Jha, Bhavanath

    2010-09-01

    The biosorption equilibrium isotherms of Ni(II) onto marine brown algae Lobophora variegata, which was chemically-modified by CaCl(2) were studied and modeled. To predict the biosorption isotherms and to determine the characteristic parameters for process design, twenty-three one-, two-, three-, four- and five-parameter isotherm models were applied to experimental data. The interaction among biosorbed molecules is attractive and biosorption is carried out on energetically different sites and is an endothermic process. The five-parameter Fritz-Schluender model gives the most accurate fit with high regression coefficient, R (2) (0.9911-0.9975) and F-ratio (118.03-179.96), and low standard error, SE (0.0902-0.0.1556) and the residual or sum of square error, SSE (0.0012-0.1789) values to all experimental data in comparison to other models. The biosorption isotherm models fitted the experimental data in the order: Fritz-Schluender (five-parameter) > Freundlich (two-parameter) > Langmuir (two-parameter) > Khan (three-parameter) > Fritz-Schluender (four-parameter). The thermodynamic parameters such as DeltaG (0), DeltaH (0) and DeltaS (0) have been determined, which indicates the sorption of Ni(II) onto L. variegata was spontaneous and endothermic in nature.

  18. Splenocyte proliferation, NK cell activation and cytokines production by extract of Scrophularia variegata; an in vitro study on mice spleen cells

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    A. Azadmehr

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives:Scrophularia variegata M. Beib. (Scrophulariaceae is a medicinal plant, used for various inflammatory diseases in Iranian Traditional Medicine. In the present study, we evaluated the immune modulation and antioxidant effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of S.  variegata. Methods: The splenocytes were harvested from the spleen of Balb/c mice and were cultured. The splenocyte proliferation, NK cell activity, cytokines production and antioxidant effects were evaluated by MTT assay, enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and DPPH assay, respectively. Results: The S. variegata extract significantly increased splenocyte proliferation. The results indicated that the extract increased NK cell cytotoxicity of Yac-1 tumor cells and at the concentration of 50-200 µg/mL significantly increased IFN-γ and IL-2 cytokines, although the level of IL-4 cytokine was significantly reduced. The antioxidant activity was observed in the extract with IC50 302.34±0.11 μg/mL.Conclusion: The increasing in the splenocyte proliferation, anti-tumor NK cell cytotoxicity and cytokine secretion were indicated as potent immunomodulatory effects. These results suggest that S. variegata could be considered in the treatment of immunopathological disorders such as allergy and cancer; however, future studies are necessary.

  19. Predators and Parasitoids of Cacopsylla pyri (L. (Hemiptera: Psyllidae in Serbia

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    Dušanka Jerinić Prodanović

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of C. pyri and its natural enemies was studied in both treated and untreated pear orchards in Serbia from 2005 to 2009. Five parasitoid and 21 predator species were identified as present on a considerable number of sites. The following parasitoid species were found: Prionomitus mitratus (Dalman,Psyllaephagus procerus Marcet,Syrphophagus ariantes (Walker,Syrphophagus taeniatus Förster and Tamarixia sp. In the study, the species Psyllaephagus procerus,Syrphophagus ariantes and Tamarixia sp. were forthe first time identified as parasitoids of C. pyri and as new species in the Serbian fauna.Among the parasitoids determined, Prionomitus mitratus predominated. Of the predators, the following species in four orders were registered: Dermaptera [Forficula auricularia Linnaeus (Forficulidae], Heteroptera [Anthocoris nemoralis(Fabricius, Anthocoris nemorum (Linnaeus, Orius (Heterorius minutus (Linnaeus, Orius (Heterorius nigerWolff (Anthocoridae, Campylomma verbasci (Mayer-Dür, Deraeocoris (Deraeocorisruber(Linnaeusand Deraeocoris(Knightocarsuslutescens (Schilling(Miridae],Neuroptera[Chrysopa pallens Rambur,Chrysoperla carnea(Stephens,Chrysopa sp.(Chrysopidae], and Coleoptera [Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus, Adalia bipunctata Linnaeus, Adalia decempunctata(Linnaeus, Hippodamia tredecimpunctata (Linnaeus,Hippodamia variegata(Goeze,Propylea quatuordecimpunctata (Linnaeus, Calvia (Anisocalvia quatuordecimguttata(Linnaeus(Coccinellidae, Cantharis rustica Fallén, Rhagonycha fulva (Scopoli and Rh. testacea(Linnaeus (Cantharidae]. Of the predators determined, 12 species were registered for the first time as predators of C. pyri in Serbia, while C. rustica, Rhagonycha fulva and Rh.testacea have so far been known neither in Serbia nor in the world as predators of pear suckers.

  20. Aqueous Extracts of the Marine Brown Alga Lobophora variegata Inhibit HIV-1 Infection at the Level of Virus Entry into Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kremb, Stephan

    2014-08-21

    In recent years, marine algae have emerged as a rich and promising source of molecules with potent activities against various human pathogens. The widely distributed brown alga Lobophora variegata that is often associated with tropical coral reefs exerts strong antibacterial and antiprotozoal effects, but so far has not been associated with specific anti-viral activities. This study investigated potential HIV-1 inhibitory activity of L. variegata collected from different geographical regions, using a cell-based full replication HIV-1 reporter assay. Aqueous L. variegata extracts showed strong inhibitory effects on several HIV-1 strains, including drug-resistant and primary HIV-1 isolates, and protected even primary cells (PBMC) from HIV-1-infection. Anti-viral potency was related to ecological factors and showed clear differences depending on light exposition or epiphyte growth. Assays addressing early events of the HIV-1 replication cycle indicated that L. variegata extracts inhibited entry of HIV-1 into cells at a pre-fusion step possibly by impeding mobility of virus particles. Further characterization of the aqueous extract demonstrated that even high doses had only moderate effects on viability of cultured and primary cells (PBMCs). Imaging-based techniques revealed extract effects on the plasma membrane and actin filaments as well as induction of apoptosis at concentrations exceeding EC50 of anti-HIV-1 activity by more than 400 fold. In summary, we show for the first time that L. variegata extracts inhibit HIV-1 entry, thereby suggesting this alga as promising source for the development of novel HIV-1 inhibitors.

  1. Comparative evaluation of Bacillus licheniformis 5A5 and Aloe variegata milk-clotting enzymes

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    S. A. Ahmed

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The properties of a milk clotting enzyme (MCE produced by bacteria (Bacillus licheniformis 5A5 were investigated and compared to those of rennet extracted from a plant (Aloe variegata. Production of MCE by B. licheniformis 5A5 was better in static than in shaken cultures. Maximum activity (98.3 and 160.3 U/ml of clotting was obtained at 75ºC and 80ºC with bacterial and plant rennet, respectively. In the absence of substrate, the clotting activity of Aloe MCE was found to be less sensitive to heat inactivation up to 80ºC for 75 min, retaining 63.8% of its activity, while bacterial MCE was completely inhibited. CaCl2 stimulated milk clotting activity (MCA up to 2% and 1.5% for bacterial and plant enzymes. NaCl inhibited MCA for both enzymes, even at low concentration (1%. Plant MCE was more sensitive to NaCl at 3% concentration it retained 30.2% of its activity, whereas bacterial MCE retained 64.1%. Increasing skim milk concentration caused a significant increase in MCA up to 6% for both enzymes. Mn2+ stimulated the activity of bacterial and plant enzymes to 158.6 and 177.9%, respectively. EDTA and PMSF increased the activity of plant MCE by 34.4 and 41.1%, respectively, which is higher than those for the bacterial MCE (19.1 and 20.9%. Some natural materials activated MCE, the highest activation of bacterial MCE (128.1% was obtained in the presence of Fenugreek (with acid extraction. However Lupine Giza 1 (with neutral extraction gave the highest activation of plant MCE (137.9%. All extracts from Neem plant increased MCA at range from 105.6% to 136.4%. Plant MCE exhibited much better stability when stored at room temperature (25-30ºC for 30 days, retaining 51.2% of its activity. Bacterial MCE was highly stabile when stored under freezing (-18ºC, retaining 100% of its activity after 30 days. Moreover, bacterial MCE was highly tolerant to repeated freezing and thawing without loss of activity for 8 months.

  2. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition starting from extracts of Bauhinia variegata L., Bauhinia var. candida (Aiton) Buch.-Ham., and Bauhinia ungulata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Kamilla Monteiro dos; Gonçalves, Priscila Sant'Ana; Paiva, Maria José Nunes de; Lacerda, Guilherme Araújo

    2011-01-01

    A treatment to the Alzheimer's disease consists inhibition of the acetylcholinesterase, which is responsible for the acetylcholine control in the synapses. We have investigated the potential of inhibition of the acetylcholinesterase produced by hexane extracts of leaves, branches, and flowers from three Bauhinia specimens, which is based on the technique of thin layer chromatography and on identifying the organ of the plant that possesses larger concentration of inhibitors. Retention factor analysis shows values of 0.31aA, 0.31aA, and 0.46aB for flowers B. variegata, B. var. candida, and B. ungulata, respectively. The flower extract of B. ungulata is the most suitable for further studies on this inhibition.

  3. Structure predictions of two Bauhinia variegata lectins reveal patterns of C-terminal properties in single chain legume lectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Gustavo M S G; Conceição, Fabricio R; McBride, Alan J A; Pinto, Luciano da S

    2013-01-01

    Bauhinia variegata lectins (BVL-I and BVL-II) are single chain lectins isolated from the plant Bauhinia variegata. Single chain lectins undergo post-translational processing on its N-terminal and C-terminal regions, which determines their physiological targeting, carbohydrate binding activity and pattern of quaternary association. These two lectins are isoforms, BVL-I being highly glycosylated, and thus far, it has not been possible to determine their structures. The present study used prediction and validation algorithms to elucidate the likely structures of BVL-I and -II. The program Bhageerath-H was chosen from among three different structure prediction programs due to its better overall reliability. In order to predict the C-terminal region cleavage sites, other lectins known to have this modification were analysed and three rules were created: (1) the first amino acid of the excised peptide is small or hydrophobic; (2) the cleavage occurs after an acid, polar, or hydrophobic residue, but not after a basic one; and (3) the cleavage spot is located 5-8 residues after a conserved Leu amino acid. These rules predicted that BVL-I and -II would have fifteen C-terminal residues cleaved, and this was confirmed experimentally by Edman degradation sequencing of BVL-I. Furthermore, the C-terminal analyses predicted that only BVL-II underwent α-helical folding in this region, similar to that seen in SBA and DBL. Conversely, BVL-I and -II contained four conserved regions of a GS-I association, providing evidence of a previously undescribed X4+unusual oligomerisation between the truncated BVL-I and the intact BVL-II. This is the first report on the structural analysis of lectins from Bauhinia spp. and therefore is important for the characterisation C-terminal cleavage and patterns of quaternary association of single chain lectins.

  4. Lectin I from Bauhinia variegata (BVL-I) expressed by Pichia pastoris inhibits initial adhesion of oral bacteria in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klafke, Gabriel Baracy; Moreira, Gustavo Marçal Schmidt Garcia; Pereira, Juliano Lacava; Oliveira, Patrícia Diaz; Conceição, Fabricio Rochedo; Lund, Rafael Guerra; Grassmann, André Alex; Dellagostin, Odir Antonio; da Silva Pinto, Luciano

    2016-12-01

    Lectins are non-immune proteins that reversibly bind to carbohydrates in a specific manner. Bauhinia variegata lectin I (BVL-I) is a Gal/GalNAc-specific, single-chain lectin isolated from Bauhinia variegata seeds that has been implicated in the inhibition of bacterial adhesion and the healing of damaged skin. Since the source of the native protein (nBVL) is limited, this study aimed to produce recombinant BVL-I in Pichia pastoris (rBVL-Ip). The coding sequence for BVL-I containing preferential codons for P. pastoris was cloned into the pPICZαB plasmid. A single expressing clone was selected and fermented, resulting in the secretion and glycosylation of the protein. Fed-batch fermentation in 7L-scale was performed, and the recombinant lectin was purified from culture supernatant, resulting in a yield of 1.5mg/L culture. Further, rBVL-Ip was compared to nBVL and its recombinant version expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) (rBVL-Ie). Although it was expressed as a monomer, rBVL-Ip retained its biological activity since it was able to impair the initial adhesion of Streptococcus mutans and S. sanguinis in an in vitro model of biofilm formation and bacterial adhesion. In summary, rBVL-Ip produced in Pichia pastoris represents a viable alternative to large-scale production, encouraging further biological application studies with this lectin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Taxonomic revision of the Australian arid zone lizards Gehyra variegata and G. montium (Squamata, Gekkonidae) with description of three new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Mark N; Sistrom, Mark J; Donnellan, Stephen C; Hutchinson, Rhonda G

    2014-06-09

    The taxonomy of central Australian populations of geckos of the genus Gehyra has been uncertain since chromosomal studies carried out in the 1970s and 1980s revealed considerable heterogeneity and apparently independent patterns of morphological and karyotypic diversity. Following detailed molecular genetic studies, species boundaries in this complex have become clearer and we here re-set the boundaries of the three named species involved, G. variegata (Duméril & Bibron, 1836), G. montium Storr, 1982, and G. nana King, 1982, and describe three new species. Two of the new species, G. moritzi and G. pulingka, include populations formerly assigned to either G. montium or G. nana Storr, 1982, while the third, G. versicolor, includes all of the eastern Australian populations formerly assigned to G. variegata.

  6. Estudios sobre semilla de Hypochaeris variegata L. (Baker: aceite seminal y harina residual de extracción

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    Nolasco, S. M.

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Seeds from Hypochaeris variegata L. (Baker harvested at Olavarría (Buenos Aires, Argentine were defatted with hexane and the raw oil obtained with a yield of 24,7% dry basis. The crude oil was examined in their physicochemical characteristics had refractive index of 1,4637 (at 25ºC, iodine value of 125,2, saponification index of 188,4, unsaponifiable matter of 8,5 % and free fatty acid content of 9,7 (mg KOH/g. Gas chromatographic analysis of the oil revealed high levels of linoleic acid (66,2%, appreciable amount of linolenic and erucic acids. The residual seed meal contained 35,49% of crude protein and 35,1% of crude fiber. Total and phytic acid phosphorous, calcium, ash, sugar and polisaccharides (non presence of starch contents are reported.Semillas de Hypochaeris variegata L. (Baker cosechadas en Olavarría (prov. de Buenos Aires, Argentina se extrajeron con hexano (soxhlet obteniéndose el aceite crudo con un rendimiento del 24,7 % (b.s. y la harina residual de extracción. El aceite crudo se examinó en sus características fisicoquímicas (Indice de refracción: 1.4637 (a 25ºC, Indice de iodo: 125,2, Indice de saponificación: 188,4, insaponificable: 8,5%, Indice de acidez: 9,7 (mgKOH/g y composición acídica. El análisis por cromatografía gaseosa de los ésteres metílicos revela un alto porcentaje de ácido linoleico (66,2%, cantidades apreciables de ácido linolénico y erúcico. La harina residual de extracción presentó un 35,49% b.s. de proteína cruda y 35,1% b.s. de fibra cruda. Se informan valores de fósforo total y de ácido fítico, cenizas, calcio e hidratos de carbono.

  7. Phytochemical Profile of Erythrina variegata by Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukrishnan, Suriyavathana; Palanisamy, Subha; Subramanian, Senthilkumar; Selvaraj, Sumathi; Mari, Kavitha Rani; Kuppulingam, Ramalingam

    2016-08-01

    Natural products derived from plant sources have been utilized to treat patients with numerous diseases. The phytochemical constituents present in ethanolic leaf extract of Erythrina variegata (ELEV) were identified by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analyses. Shade dried leaves were powdered and extracted with ethanol for analyses through HPLC to identify selected flavonoids and through GC-MS to identify other molecules. The HPLC analysis of ELEV showed the presence of gallic and caffeic acids as the major components at concentrations of 2.0 ppm and 0.1 ppm, respectively, as well as other components. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 3-eicosyne; 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol; butanoic acid, 3-methyl-3,7-dimethyl-6-octenyl ester; phytol; 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, diundecyl ester; 1-octanol, 2-butyl-; squalene; and 2H-pyran, 2-(7-heptadecynyloxy) tetrahydro-derivative. Because pharmacopuncture is a new evolving natural mode that uses herbal extracts for treating patients with various ailments with minimum pain and maximum effect, the results of this study are particularly important and show that ELEV possesses a wide range of phytochemical constituents, as indicated above, as effective active principle molecules that can be used individually or in combination to treat patients with various diseases. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Sample limited characterization of a novel disulfide-rich venom peptide toxin from terebrid marine snail Terebra variegata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi Anand

    Full Text Available Disulfide-rich peptide toxins found in the secretions of venomous organisms such as snakes, spiders, scorpions, leeches, and marine snails are highly efficient and effective tools for novel therapeutic drug development. Venom peptide toxins have been used extensively to characterize ion channels in the nervous system and platelet aggregation in haemostatic systems. A significant hurdle in characterizing disulfide-rich peptide toxins from venomous animals is obtaining significant quantities needed for sequence and structural analyses. Presented here is a strategy for the structural characterization of venom peptide toxins from sample limited (4 ng specimens via direct mass spectrometry sequencing, chemical synthesis and NMR structure elucidation. Using this integrated approach, venom peptide Tv1 from Terebra variegata was discovered. Tv1 displays a unique fold not witnessed in prior snail neuropeptides. The novel structural features found for Tv1 suggest that the terebrid pool of peptide toxins may target different neuronal agents with varying specificities compared to previously characterized snail neuropeptides.

  9. Allelopathy in the tropical alga Lobophora variegata (Phaeophyceae): mechanistic basis for a phase shift on mesophotic coral reefs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Marc; Lesser, Michael P

    2014-06-01

    Macroalgal phase shifts on Caribbean reefs have been reported with increasing frequency, and recent reports of these changes on mesophotic coral reefs have raised questions regarding the mechanistic processes behind algal population expansions to deeper depths. The brown alga Lobophora variegata is a dominant species on many shallow and deep coral reefs of the Caribbean and Pacific, and it increased in percent cover (>50%) up to 61 m on Bahamian reefs following the invasion of the lionfish Pterois volitans. We examined the physiological and ecological constraints contributing to the spread of Lobophora on Bahamian reefs across a mesophotic depth gradient from 30 to 61 m, pre- and post-lionfish invasion. Results indicate that there were no physiological limitations to the depth distribution of Lobophora within this range prior to the lionfish invasion. Herbivory by acanthurids and scarids in algal recruitment plots at mesophotic depths was higher prior to the lionfish invasion, and Lobophora chemical defenses were ineffective against an omnivorous fish species. In contrast, Lobophora exhibited significant allelopathic activity against the coral Montastraea cavernosa and the sponge Agelas clathrodes in laboratory assays. These data indicate that when lionfish predation on herbivorous fish released Lobophora from grazing pressure at depth, Lobophora expanded its benthic cover to a depth of 61 m, where it replaced the dominant coral and sponge species. Our results suggest that this chemically defended alga may out-compete these species in situ, and that mesophotic reefs may be further impacted in the near future as Lobophora continues to expand to its compensation point. © 2013 Phycological Society of America.

  10. Seasonal variation of leaf ecophysiological traits of Iris variegata observed in two consecutive years in natural habitats with contrasting light conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Uroš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The amount and pattern of individual phenotypic responses to seasonal changes in environmental conditions were determined in clones of Iris variegata growing in differing light habitats. For the purpose of the study, 97 clonal plants of the rhizomatous herb I. variegata that experienced different light conditions in their two native habitats were selected: one along the top and slope of sand dunes and one in woodland understories. Two fully expanded leaves that had developed during spring, summer and fall in two consecutive years were sampled from each of these clones. Six leaf traits affecting the photosynthetic rate of a plant − morphological (specific leaf area, anatomical (stomatal density and physiological (total chlorophyll concentration, chlorophyll a/chlorophyll b ratio, carotenoid concentration, chlorophyll a/carotenoid ratio exhibited significant plastic responses in the two different light habitats. To test whether these traits differ between exposed and shaded habitats as well as during different vegetation periods, we used the repeated model analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results of the repeated ANOVA revealed statistically significant effects of year, habitat and period of vegetation season. Patterns of changes during growing seasons were year-specific for almost all analyzed traits. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 173025: Evolution in heterogeneous environments: mechanisms of adaptation, biomonitoring and conservation of biodiversity

  11. PENGARUH RUANG TUMBUH TERHADAP RESPON PERTUMBUHAN DAN PERKEMBANGAN TANAMAN MERANTI MERAH (Shorea pauciflora King. DAN NYAWAI (Ficus variegata Blum.

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    Adistina Fitriani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The results showed that the arrangement of growing space T1, T2 and T1 + T2 combinations, each of which can increase the high growth 143.7% (172.30 cm, 37.1% (96.9 cm and 105.7 % (145.40 cm, stem diameter width of 110.0% (18.30 mm, 34.7% (11.0 mm and 123.3% (18.29 mm and 142.6% canopy ( 181, 45 cm, 36.9% (102.4 cm and 106.6% (154.55 cm than the control (T0 to plant the meranti merah (Shorea stenoptera Burk.. The space to grow this type of Meranti merah (Shorea stenoptera King Age 5 years have shown that treatment with a combination of vertical and horizontal (T3 showed best in order to enhance the growth of stem diameter, equal 118.2% (3.0 cm than in the control (T0. The height of the plants in T1 and T2, and T3 have shown increased 55.6% growth, respectively at 133.3% and 66.7% compared to control (T0. Bandwidth test vintage Meranti merah (Shorea selanica Bl cultivation of clippings from shoots in the treatment of broad lines of 2 m, 3 m and 4 m is still the original data (0 months show a consistent altitude is 45.5 cm, 6 cm and 46, 47.7 cm. Growing requirements nyawai (Ficus variegata Blum. In KHDTK Kintap in some areas with B-type, red soil climate yellow podzólicos (FA, the texture of sandy clay with drain if - so, solum shallow soil ( 1 m, the pH of 4 to 5.5 soil with an elevation of 50 metres on the level of the sea - 433 meters of altitude in the Valley and the slope (flat topography - tracks (> 45% on the State of the type of vegetation in the mix rare density (natural vegetation. Tree species associated with nyawai (Duabanga moluccana, Macaranga spp, Shorea spp, Trema sp., and Anthocephalus cadamba. Related plant species are under cylindica grass, vines, shrubs, narrow leaved (leaves ribbon, among others, ferns, nettles and some types of grass. Keywords : growing space, growth, meranti merah,  nyawai

  12. Peptide IC-20, encoded by skin kininogen-1 of the European yellow-bellied toad, Bombina variegata, antagonizes bradykinin-induced arterial smooth muscle relaxation

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    Mu Yang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objectives were to determine if the skin secretion of the European yellow-bellied toad (Bombina variegata, in common with other related species, contains a bradykinin inhibitor peptide and to isolate and structurally characterize this peptide. Materials and Methods: Lyophilized skin secretion obtained from this toad was subjected to reverse phase HPLC fractionation with subsequent bioassay of fractions for antagonism of the bradykinin activity using an isolated rat tail artery smooth muscle preparation. Subsequently, the primary structure of the peptide was established by a combination of microsequencing, mass spectroscopy, and molecular cloning, following which a synthetic replicate was chemically synthesised for bioassay. Results: A single peptide of molecular mass 2300.92 Da was resolved in HPLC fractions of skin secretion and its primary structure determined as IYNAIWP-KH-NK-KPGLL-. Database interrogation with this sequence indicated that this peptide was encoded by skin kininogen-1 previously cloned from B. variegata. The blank cycles were occupied by cysteinyl (C residues and the peptide was located toward the C-terminus of the skin kininogen, and flanked N-terminally by a classical -KR- propeptide convertase processing site. The peptide was named IC-20 in accordance (I = N-terminal isoleucine, C = C-terminal cysteine, 20 = number of residues. Like the natural peptide, its synthetic replicate displayed an antagonism of bradykinin-induced arterial smooth muscle relaxation. Conclusion: IC-20 represents a novel bradykinin antagonizing peptide from amphibian skin secretions and is the third such peptide found to be co-encoded with bradykinins within skin kininogens.

  13. Soil-applied imidacloprid translocates to ornamental flowers and reduces survival of adult Coleomegilla maculata, Harmonia axyridis, and Hippodamia convergens lady beetles, and larval Danaus plexippus and Vanessa cardui butterflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Krischik

    Full Text Available Integrated Pest Management (IPM is a decision making process used to manage pests that relies on many tactics, including cultural and biological control, which are practices that conserve beneficial insects and mites, and when needed, the use of conventional insecticides. However, systemic, soil-applied neonicotinoid insecticides are translocated to pollen and nectar of flowers, often for months, and may reduce survival of flower-feeding beneficial insects. Imidacloprid seed-treated crops (0.05 mg AI (active ingredient /canola seed and 1.2 mg AI/corn seed translocate less than 10 ppb to pollen and nectar. However, higher rates of soil-applied imidacloprid are used in nurseries and urban landscapes, such as 300 mg AI/10 L (3 gallon pot and 69 g AI applied to the soil under a 61 (24 in cm diam. tree. Translocation of imidacloprid from soil (300 mg AI to flowers of Asclepias curassavica resulted in 6,030 ppb in 1X and 10,400 ppb in 2X treatments, which are similar to imidacloprid residues found in another plant species we studied. A second imidacloprid soil application 7 months later resulted in 21,000 ppb in 1X and 45,000 ppb in 2X treatments. Consequently, greenhouse/nursery use of imidacloprid applied to flowering plants can result in 793 to 1,368 times higher concentration compared to an imidacloprid seed treatment (7.6 ppb pollen in seed- treated canola, where most research has focused. These higher imidacloprid levels caused significant mortality in both 1X and 2X treatments in 3 lady beetle species, Coleomegilla maculata, Harmonia axyridis, and Hippodamia convergens, but not a fourth species, Coccinella septempunctata. Adult survival were not reduced for monarch, Danaus plexippus and painted lady, Vanessa cardui, butterflies, but larval survival was significantly reduced. The use of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid at greenhouse/nursery rates reduced survival of beneficial insects feeding on pollen and nectar and is incompatible with the

  14. Soil-applied imidacloprid translocates to ornamental flowers and reduces survival of adult Coleomegilla maculata, Harmonia axyridis, and Hippodamia convergens lady beetles, and larval Danaus plexippus and Vanessa cardui butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krischik, Vera; Rogers, Mary; Gupta, Garima; Varshney, Aruna

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a decision making process used to manage pests that relies on many tactics, including cultural and biological control, which are practices that conserve beneficial insects and mites, and when needed, the use of conventional insecticides. However, systemic, soil-applied neonicotinoid insecticides are translocated to pollen and nectar of flowers, often for months, and may reduce survival of flower-feeding beneficial insects. Imidacloprid seed-treated crops (0.05 mg AI (active ingredient) /canola seed and 1.2 mg AI/corn seed) translocate less than 10 ppb to pollen and nectar. However, higher rates of soil-applied imidacloprid are used in nurseries and urban landscapes, such as 300 mg AI/10 L (3 gallon) pot and 69 g AI applied to the soil under a 61 (24 in) cm diam. tree. Translocation of imidacloprid from soil (300 mg AI) to flowers of Asclepias curassavica resulted in 6,030 ppb in 1X and 10,400 ppb in 2X treatments, which are similar to imidacloprid residues found in another plant species we studied. A second imidacloprid soil application 7 months later resulted in 21,000 ppb in 1X and 45,000 ppb in 2X treatments. Consequently, greenhouse/nursery use of imidacloprid applied to flowering plants can result in 793 to 1,368 times higher concentration compared to an imidacloprid seed treatment (7.6 ppb pollen in seed- treated canola), where most research has focused. These higher imidacloprid levels caused significant mortality in both 1X and 2X treatments in 3 lady beetle species, Coleomegilla maculata, Harmonia axyridis, and Hippodamia convergens, but not a fourth species, Coccinella septempunctata. Adult survival were not reduced for monarch, Danaus plexippus and painted lady, Vanessa cardui, butterflies, but larval survival was significantly reduced. The use of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid at greenhouse/nursery rates reduced survival of beneficial insects feeding on pollen and nectar and is incompatible with the principles of IPM.

  15. Soil-Applied Imidacloprid Translocates to Ornamental Flowers and Reduces Survival of Adult Coleomegilla maculata, Harmonia axyridis, and Hippodamia convergens Lady Beetles, and Larval Danaus plexippus and Vanessa cardui Butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krischik, Vera; Rogers, Mary; Gupta, Garima; Varshney, Aruna

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a decision making process used to manage pests that relies on many tactics, including cultural and biological control, which are practices that conserve beneficial insects and mites, and when needed, the use of conventional insecticides. However, systemic, soil-applied neonicotinoid insecticides are translocated to pollen and nectar of flowers, often for months, and may reduce survival of flower-feeding beneficial insects. Imidacloprid seed-treated crops (0.05 mg AI (active ingredient) /canola seed and 1.2 mg AI/corn seed) translocate less than 10 ppb to pollen and nectar. However, higher rates of soil-applied imidacloprid are used in nurseries and urban landscapes, such as 300 mg AI/10 L (3 gallon) pot and 69 g AI applied to the soil under a 61 (24 in) cm diam. tree. Translocation of imidacloprid from soil (300 mg AI) to flowers of Asclepias curassavica resulted in 6,030 ppb in 1X and 10,400 ppb in 2X treatments, which are similar to imidacloprid residues found in another plant species we studied. A second imidacloprid soil application 7 months later resulted in 21,000 ppb in 1X and 45,000 ppb in 2X treatments. Consequently, greenhouse/nursery use of imidacloprid applied to flowering plants can result in 793 to 1,368 times higher concentration compared to an imidacloprid seed treatment (7.6 ppb pollen in seed- treated canola), where most research has focused. These higher imidacloprid levels caused significant mortality in both 1X and 2X treatments in 3 lady beetle species, Coleomegilla maculata, Harmonia axyridis, and Hippodamia convergens, but not a fourth species, Coccinella septempunctata. Adult survival were not reduced for monarch, Danaus plexippus and painted lady, Vanessa cardui, butterflies, but larval survival was significantly reduced. The use of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid at greenhouse/nursery rates reduced survival of beneficial insects feeding on pollen and nectar and is incompatible with the principles of IPM

  16. Bauhinia variegata candida Fraction Induces Tumor Cell Death by Activation of Caspase-3, RIP, and TNF-R1 and Inhibits Cell Migration and Invasion In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Santos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis remains the most common cause of death in cancer patients. Inhibition of metalloproteinases (MMPs is an interesting approach to cancer therapy because of their role in the degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM, cell-cell, and cell-ECM interactions, modulating key events in cell migration and invasion. Herein, we show the cytotoxic and antimetastatic effects of the third fraction (FR3 from Bauhinia variegata candida (Bvc stem on human cervical tumor cells (HeLa and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. FR3 inhibited MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity, indicated by zymogram. This fraction was cytotoxic to HeLa cells and noncytotoxic to PBMCs and decreased HeLa cell migration and invasion. FR3 is believed to stimulate extrinsic apoptosis together with necroptosis, assessed by western blotting. FR3 inhibited MMP-2 activity in the HeLa supernatant, differently from the control. The atomic mass spectrometry (ESI-MS characterization suggested the presence of glucopyranosides, D-pinitol, fatty acids, and phenolic acid. These findings provide insight suggesting that FR3 contains components with potential tumor-selective cytotoxic action in addition to the action on the migration of tumor cells, which may be due to inhibition of MMPs.

  17. The influence of electron beam radiation in the nutritional value, chemical composition and bioactivities of edible flowers of Bauhinia variegata L. var. candida alba Buch.-Ham from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villavicencio, Anna L C H; Heleno, Sandrina A; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2018-02-15

    As edible flowers are highly perishable, irradiation technology can be applied to increase their shelf life, as also for phytosanitary purposes. Herein, flowers of Bauhinia variegata L. var. candida alba Buch.-Ham were submitted to electron beam irradiation at the doses of 0.5, 0.8 and 1kGy, to study the effects in the nutritional and chemical profiles, and also in antioxidant, cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activities. The petals of white flowers revealed interesting bioactive properties being kaempferol derivatives the most abundant compounds, especially kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside. The applied irradiation doses did not highly affect the nutritional profile. No changes were produced in cytotoxicity, but the anti-inflammatory activity slightly decreased. However, the antioxidant activity was increased, especially in the dose of 0.5kGy, in agreement with the higher content in phenolic compounds found at this dose. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. nduced hyperlipidemic rats. Methods: Column chromatographic fractionation of butanol fraction of total methanol extract of leaves of Bauhinia variegata (Linn. yields four sub-fractions (sub-fraction A-D. All sub-fractions tested for their anti-hyperlipidemic activity. Sub-fractions administered at a dose of 65 mg/kg (oral to the Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats and total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL and VLDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Kumar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect and evaluation of Anti-hyperlipidemic activity guided subfraction isolated from total methanolic extract of Bauhinia variegata (Linn. leaves on Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats. Methods: Column chromatographic fractionation of butanol fraction of total methanol extract of leaves of Bauhinia variegata (Linn. yields four subfractions (sub-fraction A-D. All sub-fractions tested for their anti-hyperlipidemic activity. Subfractions administered at a dose of 65 mg/kg (oral to the Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats and total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL and VLDL level in the blood were checked. Results: Sub-fraction D showed significant reduction (P<0.05 among four sub-fraction in comparison with standard drug fenofibrate. Conclusions: From the above study it could be concluded that butanol sub-fraction D of Bauhinia variegata (Linn. not only have resulted in significant reduction in cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, VLDL level but also increases the HDL level at a reduced dose level.

  19. Acute oral Toxicity and Antioxidant Activity of Neoglaziovia variegata

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fisiologia

    2012-09-18

    Sep 18, 2012 ... In the acute toxicity of Nv-EtOH, behavioral and physiological alterations were not observed neither animal's death in the doses of 2.0 g/kg intraperitoneally and 5.0 g/kg orally, respectively indicating low toxicity of the extract. In this experiment, it was observed that the. Nv-EtOH has LD50 > 5000 mg/kg.

  20. Dioctophyma renale (Goeze, 1782) Infection in a Domestic Dog from Hamedan, Western Iran

    OpenAIRE

    ZOLHAVARIEH, Seyed Masoud; NORIAN, Alireza; YAVARI, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Dioctophyma renale infection is found in a wide range of mammalian species, typically in temperate areas of the world. Here, we report for the first time, the parasitism of a domestic dog by D. renale in Hamedan, Iran, a mountainous cold region, lacking significant amounts of rainfall, high humidity and temperature. A 2.5 yr old male mixed breed dog was presented with a two months history of progressive hematuria and muscle weakness. Complete blood count and serum biochemistry were performed ...

  1. Dioctophyme renale Goeze, 1782 in a cat with a supernumerary kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pedrassani

    Full Text Available This study reports a case of parasitism by Dioctophyme renale in a supernumerary kidney and abdominal cavity of a female cat in Brazil. The three-year-old cat of indeterminate breed presented abdominal distension and was taken to the University of Contestado Veterinary Hospital in Canoinhas, state of Santa Catarina, since the owner suspected pregnancy. An ultrasound scan did not confirm pregnancy but revealed parasitism in the kidney. This case is worth reporting because domestic cats are rarely hosts of this nematode species.

  2. Dioctophyma renale (Goeze, 1782) Infection in a Domestic Dog from Hamedan, Western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolhavarieh, Seyed Masoud; Norian, Alireza; Yavari, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Dioctophyma renale infection is found in a wide range of mammalian species, typically in temperate areas of the world. Here, we report for the first time, the parasitism of a domestic dog by D. renale in Hamedan, Iran, a mountainous cold region, lacking significant amounts of rainfall, high humidity and temperature. A 2.5 yr old male mixed breed dog was presented with a two months history of progressive hematuria and muscle weakness. Complete blood count and serum biochemistry were performed with results indicating impaired renal function. Urinalysis, showed hematuria as well as parasitic eggs, suggestive of D. renale infection. Urinary system ultrasonography revealed a hypoecogenic tubular structure in the right kidney. The animal was treated with fenbendazole (45 mg/kg, PO, QD - five days) and ivermectin (0.02 mg/kg, SC, single dose). One week later, repeated laboratory examination confirmed presence of at least one alive worm in the affected kidney. A unilateral nephrectomy was performed; one female (60 × 5 cm) and one male (30 × 3.8 cm) live worm were taken out of the extremely thin walled right kidney. One month later, due to failure of the remained kidney and poor condition, the patient deceased. We conclude that dioctophymosis can be found in cold and or relatively dry area. Moreover, the results showed that the worm was not affected with common anthelmintic drugs.

  3. Impact of agrochemicals on non-target species: Calathus fuscipes Goeze 1777 (Coleoptera: Carabidae) as model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglio, Anita; Cavaliere, Francesco; Giulianini, Piero Giulio; Mazzei, Antonio; Talarico, Federica; Vommaro, Maria Luigia; Brandmayr, Pietro

    2017-08-01

    Carabid beetles are important in the biological control of arable crop pests. Agricultural practices can produce over time a delayed toxic effect at the organismal and population levels and can compromise the survival on these species. In this research, we quantified the cumulative sublethal effect on body size, Malpighian tubules and immune responses in Calathus fuscipes adults living in the potato field and exposed to lambda-cyhalothrin and cymoxanil-based commercial formulates. Reductions of morphological parameters such as body, pronotum and elytron in both males and females from the potato field indicated that the pre-imaginal stages (larvae and pupae) suffer the sublethal effects of exposure to the larvicide control action of lambda-cyhalothrin. Ultrastructural alterations recorded in Malpighian tubules at the level of plasma membrane, mitochondria and nucleus indicated the reduction of the detoxification capability. The basal phenoloxidase and lysozyme-like enzyme activities have measured as markers of immune competence. Spectrophometric analyses showed that the chronic exposure in field causes an increase of basal phenoloxidase enzyme activity, while the lytic activity of haemolymph was not affected. As a result, the use of larvicides and fungicides have a harmful effect on beneficial species such C. fuscipes living in the soil of potato fields. These morphological and physiological results recorded at the organismal level can provide useful information of effects at the population and community levels to preserve the biodiversity of agroecosystem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. New data in France on the trematode Alaria alata (Goeze, 1792) obtained during Trichinella inspections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portier, J.; Jouet, D.; Ferté, H.; Gibout, O.; Heckmann, A.; Boireau, P.; Vallée, I.

    2011-01-01

    The trematode Alaria alata is a cosmopolite parasite found in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), the main definitive host in Europe. In contrast only few data are reported in wild boars (Sus scrofa), a paratenic host. The aim of this paper is to describe the importance and distribution of Alaria alata mesocercariae in wild boars, information is given by findings of these larvae during Trichinella mandatory meat inspection on wild boars’ carcasses aimed for human consumption. More than a hundred cases of mesocercariae positive animals are found every year in the East of France. First investigations on the parasite’s resistance to deep-freezing in meat are presented in this work. PMID:21894269

  5. Dioctophyma renale (Goeze, 1782 Infection in a Domestic Dog from Hamedan, Western Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Masoud ZOLHAVARIEH

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dioctophyma renale infection is found in a wide range of mammalian species, typically in temperate areas of the world. Here, we report for the first time, the parasitism of a domestic dog by D. renale in Hamedan, Iran, a mountainous cold region, lacking significant amounts of rainfall, high humidity and temperature. A 2.5 yr old male mixed breed dog was presented with a two months history of progressive hematuria and muscle weakness. Complete blood count and serum biochemistry were performed with results indicating impaired renal function. Urinalysis, showed hematuria as well as parasitic eggs, suggestive of D. renale infection. Urinary system ultrasonography revealed a hypoecogenic tubular structure in the right kidney. The animal was treated with fenbendazole (45 mg/kg, PO, QD - five days and ivermectin (0.02 mg/kg, SC, single dose. One week later, repeated laboratory examination confirmed presence of at least one alive worm in the affected kidney. A unilateral nephrectomy was performed; one female (60 x 5 cm and one male (30 x 3.8 cm live worm were taken out of the extremely thin walled right kidney. One month later, due to failure of the remained kidney and poor condition, the patient deceased. We conclude that dioctophymosis can be found in cold and or relatively dry area. Moreover, the results showed that the worm was not affected with common anthelmintic drugs.

  6. Centrarchid fish as paratenic hosts of the giant kidney worm, Dioctophyma renale (Goeze, 1782), in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measures, L N; Anderson, R C

    1985-01-01

    Infective larvae of Dioctophyma renale were found in the hypaxial musculature of pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus L.) from three lakes in Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario, Canada. This represents the first report of D. renale in centrarchid fish. In the three lakes surveyed prevalence and mean intensity ranged from 5 to 23% and one to two larvae respectively. Larvae elicited a mild granulomatous reaction in pumpkinseed. Two ferrets were each given five larvae from pumpkinseed. Adult D. renale were recovered from the right kidney capsule of ferrets 108 and 134 days post-infection. An opening in the ventral surface of the right kidney capsule was present in one ferret. Chronic peritonitis was associated with eggs of D. renale and cellular debris which probably entered the abdominal cavity from the right kidney capsule.

  7. Taenia saginata Goeze, 1872 (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda: Taeniidae en un indígena de Tierra del Fuego, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo I. Faúndez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Se entrega el primer registro del céstodo Taenia saginata en un indígena de Tierra del Fuego (Patagonia chilena, correspondiente al año 1902. Se discute la importancia del registro y se entregan ilustraciones del ejemplar.

  8. The ultrastructure of chloroplasts in variegata irregulare mutants of garden petunias (Petunia hybrida hort. superbissima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Muszyński

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructure of mutated chloroplasts in tetraploid garden petunias (Petunia hybrida hort. superbissima was analyzed by electron microscopy. The formation of grana structure is inhibited after secondary thylacoids start forming. Rapid dezintegration of the structure is observed. It is suggested that a substance responsible for photostabilization of grana structure is lacking.

  9. Third-stage larvae of the enoplid nematode Dioctophyme renale (Goeze, 1782) in the freshwater turtle Trachemys dorbigni from southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, C S; Müller, G

    2015-09-01

    The giant kidney worm Dioctophyme renale is normally found in wild carnivores and domestic dogs, with aquatic oligochaetes acting as intermediate hosts. In the present study a prevalence of 50% of third-stage larvae of D. renale was recorded in 60 specimens of the freshwater turtle Trachemys dorbigni from southern Brazil. Larvae were encysted in muscles, the coelomic cavity and mesentery, the serous lining of the stomach and on the surfaces of the lung, heart, liver, pancreas, spleen and intestines. There are no previous records of reptiles being part of the life cycle of D. renale, although fish and amphibians normally act as paratenic hosts. This is the first report of third-stage D. renale larvae in the freshwater turtle, T. dorbigni.

  10. Nuclear and mitochondrial phylogeography of the European fire-bellied toads Bombina bombina and Bombina variegata supports their independent histories

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fijarczyk, A.; Nadachowska, K.; Hofman, S.; Litvinchuk, S.N.; Babik, W.; Stuglik, M.; Gollmann, G.; Choleva, Lukáš; Cogalniceanu, D.; Vukov, T.; Dzukic, G.; Szymura, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 16 (2011), s. 3381-3398 ISSN 0962-1083 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Bombina * isolation with migration * nuclear and mitochondrial markers Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 5.522, year: 2011

  11. Determinación del ciclo biológico de Hippodamia convergens Guerin - Meneville,1842 (Coleoptera: coccinellidae) y su capacidad predadora de áfidos (Aphis sp.) en condiciones de laboratorio

    OpenAIRE

    Mallama Goyes, Ana Julia; Eraso Gómez, Ronald Fernán

    2016-01-01

    Tesis (Maestría en Desarrollo Sostenible y Medio Ambiente). Universidad de Manizales. Facultad de Ciencias Contables Económicas y Administrativas, 2015 La importancia de la vegetación urbana radica en los beneficios que genera al medio ambiente, a la salud y a la calidad de vida de los seres humanos, debido a que disminuyen diferentes tipos de contaminación; es por ello, que se hace necesario mantener un adecuado estado sanitario sin recurrir a la utilización de tratamientos fitosanitarios...

  12. Para-allopatry in hybridizing fire-bellied toads (Bombina bombina and B. variegata): Inference from transcriptome-wide coalescence analyses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nürnberger, Beate; Fijarczyk, A.; Lohse, K.; Szymura, J. M.; Blaxter, M. L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 8 (2016), s. 1803-1818 ISSN 0014-3820 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : ecological speciation * genome-wide coalescence * hybrid zone * introgression * RNA-seq. Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.201, year: 2016

  13. The types of Palaearctic species of the families Apionidae, Rhynchitidae, Attelabidae and Curculionidae in the collection of Étienne Louis Geoffroy (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso-Zarazaga, M. A.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of 131 more or less complete Curculionoid specimens of the collection Étienne Louis Geoffroy, conserved in the Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris (Entomologie has permitted the identification of several nominal species that were nomina dubia and the establishment of several new synonymies and combinations, and, in some cases, the reversion of precedence following Art. 23.9 of the Code, declaring nomina protecta and nomina oblita. New synonymies are (the first term is the valid name: Lixus filiformis (Fabricius, 1781 = Curculio longus Gmelin, 1790; Lasiorhynchites cavifrons (Gyllenhal, 1833 nom. protectum = Rhinomacer viridis Geoffroy, 1785, nom. oblitum; Byctiscus betulae (Linnaeus, 1758 = Rhinomacer auratus Geoffroy, 1785; Neocoenorrhinus pauxillus (Germar, 1824 nom. protectum = Rhinomacer caeruleus Geoffroy, 1785, nom. oblitum; Deporaus betulae (Linnaeus, 1758 = Curculio nigrostriatus Goeze, 1777 = Rhinomacer niger Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio fuliginosus Gmelin, 1790; Coniocleonus hollbergii (F√•hraeus, 1842 = Curculio sulcatus Goeze, 1777 = Curculio sulcatus Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio sulcatus Gmelin, 1790; Larinus iaceae (Fabricius, 1775 = Curculio carduelis Goeze, 1777; Hypera postica (Gyllenhal, 1813, nom. protectum = Curculio fasciolatus Geoffroy, 1785, nom. oblitum; Charagmus griseus (Fabricius, 1775 = Curculio cupreosquamosus Goeze, 1777 = Curculio intersectus Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio squamosus Gmelin, 1790; Sitona hispidulus (Fabricius, 1777 = Curculio griseus Goeze, 1777 = Curculio modestus Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio geoffroaei Gmelin, 1790; Aulacobaris cuprirostris (Fabricius, 1787 = Curculio viridisericeus Goeze, 1777; Cleopomiarus plantarum (Germar, 1824, nom. protectum =

  14. Vrchlického Hippodamie a její dobová recepce

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čadková, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 136, 3-4 (2013), s. 415-441 ISSN 0024-4457 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : J. Vrchlický * Hippodamia * stage melodrama * National Theatre * classical tradition * Greek myth Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision

  15. Parasites of Harmonia axyridis: current research and perspectives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haelewaters, D.; Zhao, S. Y.; Clusella-Trullas, S.; Cottrell, T. E.; De Kesel, A.; Fiedler, L.; Herz, A.; Hesketh, H.; Hui, C.; Kleespies, R. G.; Losey, J. E.; Minnaar, I. A.; Murray, K. M.; Nedvěd, Oldřich; Pfliegler, W. P.; Raak-van den Berg, C. L.; Riddick, E. W.; Shapiro-Ilan, D. I.; Smyth, R. R.; Steenberg, T.; van Wielink, P. S.; Viglášová, S.; Zhao, Z.; Ceryngier, P.; Roy, H. E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 3 (2017), s. 355-371 ISSN 1386-6141 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Coccipolipus hippodamiae * enemy release hypothesis * Harmonia axyridis Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Other biological topics Impact factor: 1.918, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10526-016-9766-8

  16. Separation, identification and quantification of photosynthetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty one photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls, carotenoids and degradation products) from the seaweeds, Codium dwarkense, (Chlorophyta), , Laurencia obtusa , (Rhodophyta) and , Lobophora variegata, (Phaeophyta), were separated in a single-step procedure by reversed phase high-performance liquid ...

  17. Disease, food and reproduction of the maned wolf: Chrysocyon Brachyurus (Illiger) (Carnivora, Canidae) in southeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Cory T. de; Vasconcellos, Luiz E. M.

    1995-01-01

    The most frequent endoparasite of the Maned wolf - Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815) is the giant kidney-worm. Dioctophyma renale (Goeze, 1782). It has heen responsible for the majority of deaths of captive animals. Twenty-six marked wolves have been followed in the field with ear-tags and radio-collar tagged (Tab. II) to investigate their interactions with the environment, their diurnal shelters, movements and habits, and their delivery sites. Ten years of life history data have heen gat...

  18. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-11-25

    Nov 25, 2015 ... García-Goez JF, Linares L, Benito N, Cervera C, Cofán F et al. Tuberculosis in solid organ transplant recipients at a tertiary hospital in the last 20 years in Barcelona, Spain. Transplant. Proc. 2009 ;41 (6) :2268-70. PubMed | Google Scholar. 4. Apaydin S, Altiparmak MR, Szrdengec K, Ataman R, Oztûrk R et.

  19. Influence of ambient sulphur dioxide on chlorophyll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahare, C.B.; Varshney, C.K.

    1995-01-01

    For the evaluation of the injury due to SO 2 from Indraprashtha (IP) Thermal Power Plant, eight species of trees were selected. Experiment was divided in two sections. Section one include transplanted tree saplings of Bauhinia variegata, Delonix regia, Flcus benghalensis, Putranjiwa roxburghii, Morus indica, Polyalthia longifolia, Leucaena leucocephala and Tabernaemontana coronaria. Here one set of plants was transplanted to polluted site of IP and other set was maintained at non polluted site of Jawaharlal Nehru University (Ecological Nursery). Second section of the study have naturally growing trees of the same species in the vicinity of the transplanted plants. Findings of the present study show that tree species were not safe at polluted site. Maximum chlorophyll reduction occurred in Bauhinia variegata, that is 32.05% (transplanted saplings). In naturally growing trees up to 35.70% reduction was seen in B. variegata. (author). 11 refs., 2 tabs

  20. DNA fingerprinting, biological and chemical investigation of certain Yucca species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hawary, Seham; El Sayed, Abeer; Helmy, Maged W; El Naggar, El Moataz Bellah; Marzouk, Hanan S; Bassam, Samar M

    2018-01-05

    Yucca aloifolia, Y. aloifolia variegata, Y. elephantipes and Y. filamentosa were investigated. DNA sequencing was performed for the four plants and a genomic DNA fingerprint was obtained and provided. The cytotoxic activities against four human cancer cell lines were investigated. The ethanolic extracts of leaves of Y. aloifolia variegata prevailed, especially against liver cancer HepG-2 and breast cancer MCF-7. In vivo assessment of hepatoprotective activity in rats also revealed the hepatoprotective potential of the ethanolic extracts of the four plants against CCl 4 - induced rats' liver damage. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the flavonoid and phenolic content of the promising species was performed using HPLC. The analysis identified and quantified 18 flavonoids and 19 phenolic acids in the different fractions of Y. aloifolia variegata, among which the major flavonoids were hesperidin and kaemp-3-(2-p-coumaroyl) glucose and the major phenolic acids were gallic acid and protocatechuic acid.

  1. Ocorrência de Dioctophyma renale em Galictis cuja

    OpenAIRE

    Zabott, Marivone V.; Pinto, Simone B.; Viott, Aline M.; Tostes, Raimundo A.; Bittencourt, Laura H.F.B.; Konell, Aline L.; Gruchouskei, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    A dioctofimose é uma parasitose causada pelo Dioctophyma renale (Goeze, 1782) de ocorrência mundial e acomete animais domésticos e silvestres. Em março de 2010, um exemplar adulto (macho) de Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782), encontrado morto por atropelamento no município de Guaíra, Paraná foi encaminhado ao laboratório de Patologia Veterinária de Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR), Campus Palotina, para a realização da necropsia. O cadáver apresentava bom estado nutricional e autólise moderad...

  2. [On the occurrence of the nematode Oswaldocruzia filiformis (Strongylida: Molineidae) in Karelia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novokhatskaia, O V

    2008-01-01

    Contents of the intestines of the viper Vipera berus (L., 1758) from Kizhi archipelago (Lake Onego) was examined. Helminth fauna of the viper was found to include single nematode species, Oswaldocruzia filiformis Goeze, 1782 (Strongylida: Molineidae). Prevalence of the invasion was 60%, intensity of the invasion was 1-8 specimens per host, index of abundance was 1.92 specimens. Measurements and pictures of the parasite are given. Morphometric data on the nematode from viper are compared with those from other host species.

  3. Some triterpenic compounds in extracts of Cecropia and Bauhinia species for different sampling years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Emilia Pietra Schmidt

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this paper is to provide an overview on the chemical composition of triterpenes in widespread used folk medicine species, through the development and validation of eleven compounds using HPLC-UV detection. The compounds were separated using isocratic elution, on a reverse phase column (Kinetex C18, 250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 µm with mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile:tetrahydrofuran (90:10, v/v, flow-rate of 0.5 ml/min and detection in 210 nm. Diverse validation parameters were successfully evaluated. The samples of Bauhinia variegata L., B. variegata var. candida Voigt, Fabaceae, Cecropia palmata Willd. and C. obtusa Trécul, Urticaceae, collected in 2012, 2013 and 2014 from Amazon were treated with two different solvents (ethyl acetate and chloroform and analyzed by the proposed method. Stigmasterol, lupeol, β-sitosterol, β-amirin and α-amirin were found in all the studied plants. Highlighting the presence of oleanolic acid, maslinic acid in C. obtusa and C. palmata extracts, erythrodiol only in C. palmata, stigmasteol in B. variegata and α-amirin in B. variegata var. candida. Overall, ethyl acetate showed better performance as the extractor solvent than chloroform. Moreover, it could be used for the quality control of medicinal plants and to assess potential marker compounds.

  4. A novel FKRP-related muscular dystrophy founder mutation in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    porphyria variegata, familial hypercholesterolaemia, Gaucher's dis- ease and autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease.[7-11]. FKRP founder mutations have been described in a number of populations around the world, for example the c.826C>A. (p.Leu276Ile) FKRP mutation in 20 LGMD German patients[12].

  5. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Odir A Dellagostin. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 33 Issue 3 September 2008 pp 355-363 Articles. Purification and molecular cloning of a new galactose-specific lectin from Bauhinia variegata seeds · Luciano S Pinto Celso S Nagano Taianá M Oliveira Tales R ...

  6. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SDS-PAGE showed that the lectin, named BVL, has a pattern similar to other lectins isolated from the same genus, Bauhinia purpurea agglutinin (BPA). The molecular mass of BVL subunit is 32 871 Da, determined by MALDI-TOF spectrometry. DNA extracted from B. variegata young leaves and primers designed according ...

  7. Seaweed community response to a massive CO2 input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangil, Carlos; Clemente, Sabrina; Brito, Alberto; Rodríguez, Adriana; Balsalobre, Marc; Mendoza, José Carlos; Martínez, David; Hernández, José Carlos

    2016-09-01

    Changes in the structure of seaweed communities were examined following a massive CO2 input caused by a submarine eruption near the coast of El Hierro island (Canary Islands, Spain). The event lasted almost five months (October 2011-March 2012) and created a significant pH gradient. Specifically, we compared three different zones: highly affected with extreme low pH (6.7-7.3), affected with low pH (7.6-7.8), and unaffected ambient pH zone (∼8.1) according to the pH gradient generated by the predominate currents and waves in the south of the island. Studies were carried out before, during and after the CO2 input event in each zone. We found community-wide effects on seaweed communities during the eruption; these included changes in species abundance and changes in the diversity. However, changes in all these community traits were only evident in the highly affected zone, where there were major shifts in the seaweed community, with a replacement of Lobophora variegata by ephemeral seaweeds. Lobophora variegata dropped in cover from 87-94 to 27% while ephemeral seaweeds increased 6-10 to 29%. When the impact ended Lobophora variegata began to recover reaching a cover higher than 60%. In the moderate affected area the Lobophora variegata canopies maintained their integrity avoiding phase shifts to turfs. Here the only significant changes were the reduction of the cover of the crustose and geniculate coralline algae.

  8. make up.contents pg

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Of the 19 species of seabirds nesting off the coast of. Peru, the guanay cormorant Phalacrocorax bougainvillii, the Peruvian booby Sula variegata and the Peruvian pelican Pelecanus thagus, hereafter referred to as guano birds, have been the most abundant (Duffy et al. 1984). From historical times the guanay cormorant.

  9. 77 FR 38652 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    .... Species: Ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) Black and white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata) Cottontop tamarin (Saguinus oedipus) Snow leopard (Uncia uncia) Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) Golden parakeet (Guarouba guarouba) Hooded crane (Grus monacha) Jackass...

  10. Genetic variation in growth and wood-quality traits of Corymbia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten growth or wood-quality traits were assessed in three nearby Corymbia citriodora subsp. variegata (CCV) open-pollinated family-within-provenance trials (18 provenances represented by a total of 374 families) to provide information for the development of a breeding program targeting both pulp and solid-wood products.

  11. Comparative demography of the exotic Harmonia axyridis with other aphidophagous coccinellids reared on artificial diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne Milléo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to compare biological aspects and life table parameters of the coccinellids Harmonia axyridis, Cycloneda sanguinea and Hippodamia convergens. Insects were fed eggs of Anagasta kuehniella, and reared at 24.5±1ºC, 70±10% relative humidity, with a 12 hour photophase. Hippodamia convergens took about 1.6 day to complete development, longer than H. axyridis, and 2.4 day longer than C. sanguinea. At immature stages, H. axyridis exhibited the highest survival percentage (49.2%, in comparison to the other coccinellids. For mean adult longevity, H. convergens was deficient, in comparison with the other species. Mean period of pre oviposition was the longest in C. sanguinea; the longest oviposition time occurred for H. axyridis; and the post oviposition period was similar between the coccinellids. Considering the reproductive parameters, H. axyridis showed the best performance in all aspects. For life table, the values of H. convergens were higher than, although close, to those of H. axyridis. Nevertheless, the high net reproductive rate of H. axyridis showed this species potential to increase population size. The biological characteristics of the exotic H. axyridis favors its invasion and establishment in Brazil, corroborating results noticed in other countries.

  12. The genus Callophyllis (Kallymeniaceae, Rhodophyta from the central-south Chilean coast (33° to 41° S, with the description of two new species El género Callophyllis (Kallymeniaceae, Rhodophyta de la costa central y sur de Chile (33° a 41° S, con la descripción de dos nuevas especies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NATALIA ARAKAKI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomic status of the species in the genus Callophyllis Kützing (Kallymeniaceae, Rhodophyta from central-south Chile (33° to 41° S is examined on the basis of morphological and molecular evidence. Of the four species originally cited for central Chile, C. variegata, C. pinnata, C. atrosanguinea and C. laciniata, only the presence of C. variegata has been confirmed in this study. C. pinnata reported from Chile is found to be different from C. pinnata described from California, and it is here newly described as C. concepcionensis sp. nov. C. atrosanguinea from southern Chile (including C. linguata from the Antarctic Peninsula is distinct from the species called C. atrosanguinea from central-south Chile, the latter which is here described as C. macrostiolata sp. nov. C. variegata, C. concepcionensis and C. macrostiolata are distinguished from one another by their external habit, the nature and distribution of their cystocarps, and the female reproductive morphology. Comparative rbcL sequence analysis corroborates the distinction of these taxa from central-south Chile and their relationships to other species worldwide.Se examina el estatus taxonómico de las especies del género Callophyllis Kützing (Kallymeniaceae, Rhodophyta de la costa centro-sur de Chile (33° a 41° S en base a caracteres morfológicos y moleculares. De las cuatro especies citadas para Chile central, C. variegata, C. pinnata, C. atrosanguinea y C. laciniata, solo la presencia de C. variegata ha sido confirmada en este estudio. C. pinnata de Chile muestra diferencias con C. pinnata descrita para California y con el resto de las especies de Callophyllis hasta ahora conocidas, constituyendo así una nueva especie, C. concepcionensis sp. nov. C. atrosanguinea del sur de Chile (incluyendo C. linguata de la Península Antártica muestra diferencias con la especie llamada C. atrosanguinea de la costa centro-sur de Chile, esta última especie es descrita como C. macrostiolata

  13. Grasshoppers, crickets (Orthoptera and earwigs (Dermaptera of Tovačov gravel pit (central Moravia, Czech Republic: New locality for several thermophilous species in anthropogenic secondary habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trnka Filip

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Study of Orthoptera and earwigs was conducted in Tovačov gravel pit in 2014. We have recorded 18 species of Orthoptera and 3 species of earwigs. The most significant recorded species are Cepero’s ground-hopper (Tetrix ceperoi, pygmy mole cricket (Xya variegata, Italian tree cricket (Oecanthus pellucens and riparian earwig (Labidura riparia. Tovačov gravel pit poses the northernmost locality of T. ceperoi and X. variegata in the Czech Republic and the northernmost known locality in Moravia for O. pellucens. For the L. riparia, we present a founding from Tovačov together with another finding from Olomouc vicinity, which is currently the northernmost locality within Moravia. Our findings display recent spatial expansion of some thermophilous species. Moreover, we emphasize importance of (post-industrial areas as secondary habitats for specialised endangered species.

  14. ANTIBACTERIAL POTENTIAL OF NATIVE PLANTS FROM THE CAATINGA BIOME AGAINST Staphylococcus spp. ISOLATES FROM SMALL RUMINANTS WITH MASTITIS

    OpenAIRE

    PEIXOTO, RODOLFO DE MORAES; SILVA, WELLINGTON ERASMO LIMA E; ALMEIDA, JACKSON ROBERTO GUEDES SILVA; BRANCO, ALEXSANDRO; COSTA, MATEUS MATIUZZI DA

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of the present study is to assess the antibacterial potential of plants from the Caatinga biome of the semi-arid region of Pernambuco, against Staphylococcus spp. isolates from cases of subclinical mastitis in small ruminants, such as goats and ewes. Ethanolic extracts of the following plants from the Caatinga biome were used: Encholirium spectabile Mart., Bromelia laciniosa Mart., Neoglaziovia variegata Mez., Amburana cearensis (Fr. Allem.) A. C. Smith, Hymenaea martiana Hay...

  15. Disease, food and reproduction of the maned wolf: Chrysocyon Brachyurus (Illiger (Carnivora, Canidae in southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory T. de Carvalho

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available The most frequent endoparasite of the Maned wolf - Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815 is the giant kidney-worm. Dioctophyma renale (Goeze, 1782. It has heen responsible for the majority of deaths of captive animals. Twenty-six marked wolves have been followed in the field with ear-tags and radio-collar tagged (Tab. II to investigate their interactions with the environment, their diurnal shelters, movements and habits, and their delivery sites. Ten years of life history data have heen gathered. They are territorial and monogamous, and give birth to two or three young once a year, after a 63 days gestation, on average. Maned wolves inhabit the open areas and have omnivorous feeding habits.

  16. Germinación simbiótica y asimbiótica en semillas de orquídeas epifitas Symbiotic vs. asymbiotic seed germination in epiphytic orchids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Tupac Otero Ospina

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Se compara el crecimiento de plántulas de la orquídeas epifita Tolumnia variegata en medios de agar con y sin hongos micorrízicos. Los métodos de germinación simbiótica produjeron embriones de T. variegata más desarrollados que los métodos de germinación asimbiótica y las diferencias fueron estadísticamente significativas. Las semillas en los controles en medio de celulosa sin hongos micorrízicos no germinaron. Las semillas de Epidendrum ramosum, Lepanthes rupestris y Psychilis monensis no mostraron diferencias significativas en germinación entre métodos simbiótica y asimbiótica utilizando hongos aislados de raíces de T. variegata, incluso algunos aislados del grupo Rhizoctonia parasitaron las semillas. Los resultados sugieren que las semillas de orquídeas epifitas y sus hongos micorrízicos son más específicos de lo que anteriormente se había creído y por tanto es necesario utilizar los hongos específicos para cada especie de orquídea. Además, se sugiere que los cultivadores de orquídeas podrían obtener mejores resultados en la propagación de orquídeas epifitas si utilizan metodologías de germinación simbiótica apropiados.We compared seedling growth of the epiphytic orchid, Tolumnia variegata in agar media with and without inoculated mycorrhizal fungi. Symbiotic germination produced more-developed embryos than asymbiotic germination. Differences were highly significant, although some isolates of Rhizoctonia-like fungi were parasitic on seeds. Control seeds in a cellulose medium without Rhizoctonia-like fungi did not germinate. Seeds of Epidendrum ramosum, Lepanthes rupestris and Psychilis monensis showed no significant differences between asymbiotic and symbiotic germination using mycorrhizal fungi isolated from T. variegata roots, suggesting high mycorrhizal specificity. Our data suggest that the relationship between epiphytic orchids and the mycorrhizal fungi is more specific than previously thought. The use of

  17. Incorporating a Sorghum Habitat for Enhancing Lady Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae in Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Tillman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae prey on insect pests in cotton. The objective of this 2 yr on-farm study was to document the impact of a grain sorghum trap crop on the density of Coccinellidae on nearby cotton. Scymnus spp., Coccinella septempunctata (L., Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, Coleomegilla maculata (De Geer, Cycloneda munda (Say, and Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant were found in sorghum over both years. Lady beetle compositions in sorghum and cotton and in yellow pyramidal traps were similar. For both years, density of lady beetles generally was higher on cotton with sorghum than on control cotton. Our results indicate that sorghum was a source of lady beetles in cotton, and thus incorporation of a sorghum habitat in farmscapes with cotton has great potential to enhance biocontrol of insect pests in cotton.

  18. ROLE OF ABIOTIC AND BIOTIC FACTORS IN RESEARCH OF VARIETES OF WEIGELA (WEIGELA THUNB., CAPRIFOLIACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Savenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The success of the introduction of plants depends on their vitality and adaptation to the new conditions of existence. The aim of our study is to identify environmental characteristics of varieties of Weigela to extend the range of ornamental plants under urban ecosystem of Krasnodar. We have analyzed the tolerance of varieties of Weigela to the temperature regime in the introduction region, we explored the complex biotic factors influencing the growth and development of these plants, and also studied the morphological characteristics of pollen and pollen productivity of Weigela flowers.Methods. Evaluation of resistance of varieties of Weigela to a complex of abiotic and biotic factors has been conducted in the field and in the laboratory, taking into account recommendations for ornamental shrubs.Results. Studied Weigela varieties have enough ecological valence to the force of impact of the maximum and minimum air temperatures in the area of the introduction. The most resistant to the complex of summer stress factors are the following varieties of Weigela: 'Candida', 'Nana Variegata', 'Olimpik Flame', 'Red Rrince'. The most heat-resistant varieties are 'Nana Variegata' and 'Olimpik Flame'. The most winter-hardy varieties are 'Candida' and 'Red Rrince', less winter-hardy variety is 'Nana Purpurea'. The most cold-resistant variety is 'Candida'. 'Nana Variegata' produces the highest number of fertile pollen grains. The smallest amount of fertile pollen is formed by 'Nana Purpurea'.Main conclusion. These studies allow us to conclude that all the studied varieties of Weigela are characterized by a high degree of adaptation and deserve widespread use in gardens and parks of the city of Krasnodar.

  19. Evaluation of Relationships between Growth Rate, Tree Size, Lignocellulose Composition, and Enzymatic Saccharification in Interspecific Corymbia Hybrids and Parental Taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Adam L; Lee, David J; Lupoi, Jason S; Papa, Gabriella; Guenther, Joel M; Corno, Luca; Adani, Fabrizio; Singh, Seema; Simmons, Blake A; Henry, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    In order for a lignocellulosic bioenergy feedstock to be considered sustainable, it must possess a high rate of growth to supply biomass for conversion. Despite the desirability of a fast growth rate for industrial application, it is unclear what effect growth rate has on biomass composition or saccharification. We characterized Klason lignin, glucan, and xylan content with response to growth in Corymbia interspecific F1 hybrid families (HF) and parental species Corymbia torelliana and C. citriodora subspecies variegata and measured the effects on enzymatic hydrolysis from hydrothermally pretreated biomass. Analysis of biomass composition within Corymbia populations found similar amounts of Klason lignin content (19.7-21.3%) among parental and hybrid populations, whereas glucan content was clearly distinguished within C. citriodora subspecies variegata (52%) and HF148 (60%) as compared to other populations (28-38%). Multiple linear regression indicates that biomass composition is significantly impacted by tree size measured at the same age, with Klason lignin content increasing with diameter breast height (DBH) (+0.12% per cm DBH increase), and glucan and xylan typically decreasing per DBH cm increase (-0.7 and -0.3%, respectively). Polysaccharide content within C. citriodora subspecies variegata and HF-148 were not significantly affected by tree size. High-throughput enzymatic saccharification of hydrothermally pretreated biomass found significant differences among Corymbia populations for total glucose production from biomass, with parental Corymbia torelliana and hybrids HF-148 and HF-51 generating the highest amounts of glucose (~180 mg/g biomass, respectively), with HF-51 undergoing the most efficient glucan-to-glucose conversion (74%). Based on growth rate, biomass composition, and further optimization of enzymatic saccharification yield, high production Corymbia hybrid trees are potentially suitable for fast-rotation bioenergy or biomaterial production.

  20. Germinación simbiótica y asimbiótica en semillas de orquídeas epifitas

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    Joel Tupac Otero Ospina

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Se compara el crecimiento de plántulas de la orquídeas epifita Tolumnia variegata en medios de agar con y sin hongos micorrízicos. Los métodos de germinación simbiótica produjeron embriones de T. variegata más desarrollados que los métodos de germinación asimbiótica y las diferencias fueron estadísticamente significativas. Las semillas en los controles en medio de celulosa sin hongos micorrízicos no germinaron. Las semillas de Epidendrum ramosum, Lepanthes rupestris y Psychilis monensis no mostraron diferencias significativas en germinación entre métodos simbiótica y asimbiótica utilizando hongos aislados de raíces de T. variegata, incluso algunos aislados del grupo Rhizoctonia parasitaron las semillas. Los resultados sugieren que las semillas de orquídeas epifitas y sus hongos micorrízicos son más específicos de lo que anteriormente se había creído y por tanto es necesario utilizar los hongos específicos para cada especie de orquídea. Además, se sugiere que los cultivadores de orquídeas podrían obtener mejores resultados en la propagación de orquídeas epifitas si utilizan metodologías de germinación simbiótica apropiados.

  1. Germinación simbiótica y asimbiótica en semillas de orquídeas epifitas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayman Paul

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se compara el crecimiento de plántulas de la orquídeas epifita Tolumnia variegata en medios de agar con y sin hongos micorrízicos. Los métodos de germinación simbiótica produjeron embriones de T. variegata más desarrollados que los métodos de germinación asimbiótica y las diferencias fueron estadísticamente significativas. Las semillas en los controles en medio de celulosa sin hongos micorrízicos no germinaron. Las semillas de Epidendrum ramosum, Lepanthes rupestris y Psychilis monensis no mostraron diferencias significativas en germinación entre métodos simbiótica y asimbiótica utilizando hongos aislados de raíces de T. variegata, incluso algunos aislados del grupo Rhizoctonia parasitaron las semillas. Los resultados sugieren que las semillas de orquídeas epifitas y sus hongos micorrízicos son más específicos de lo que anteriormente se había creído y por tanto es necesario utilizar los hongos específicos para cada especie de orquídea. Además, se sugiere que los cultivadores de orquídeas podrían obtener mejores resultados en la propagación de orquídeas epifitas si utilizan metodologías de germinación simbiótica apropiados.

  2. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13747-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Simonyella variegata isolate AFTOL... 146 5e-34 DQ986817_1( DQ986817 |pid:none) Lecanora...chinus voucher TSJ... 141 1e-32 DQ782829_1( DQ782829 |pid:none) Lecanora hybocarpa isolate AFTOL-I... 141 1e...DQ447888_1( DQ447888 |pid:none) Cheimonophyllum candidissimum isol... 140 3e-32 EF105431_1( EF105431 |pid:none) Lecanora...2_1( EF105432 |pid:none) Lecanora sulphurea RNA polymerase ... 136 6e-31 AF389538_1( AF389538 |pid:none) Ino

  3. Evaluación de la degradabilidad in situ en bovinos suplementados con cuatro especies arbóreas

    OpenAIRE

    Roa V, María; Muñoz M, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo. Evaluar degradabilidad in situ en rumen de cuatro especies forrajeras: Acacia Roja (Delonix regia), pízamo (Eritryna glauca), Cratilia (Cratylia argentea) y casco de vaca (Bahuinia variegata), para determinar su calidad nutricional. Materiales y métodos. Cuatro hembras rumino-fistuladas en un diseño de sobrecambio simple, pastoreando en Brachiaria decumbens, suplementadas en la mañana con tres kg de hojas deshidratadas de las cuatro especies mencionadas, de un año de establecidas y ...

  4. Portar via per condurre altrove: suggestioni e annotazioni metodologiche sull'orizzonte di senso di una blogoclasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Robert Formiconi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Un articolo scritto in stile ibrido, fra il paper scientifico e il saggio, per descrivere le necessità€ e le suggestioni che hanno dato vita ad un nuovo tipo di corso su temi attinenti alla “digital literacy” insieme ai risultati ottenuti su una vasta e variegata popolazione studentesca nel corso degli ultimi quattro semestri.Si descrivono le caratteristiche di una nuova “classe a pareti sottili”, che abbiamo definito blogoclasse e si discutono le affinità fra una blogoclasse ed una comunità di pratica.

  5. A snake in paradise: Dusturbance of plant reproduction following extirpation of bird flower-visitors on Guam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Hanne Skovgaard; Dupont, Yoko; Olesen, Jens Mogens

    2008-01-01

    native plant species in Guam. We investigated flower visitation, seed set and germination in two native plants, the mangrove tree Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and the forest tree Erythrina variegata var. orientalis. Both species are bird-pollinated. Studies were conducted on two Mariana islands, Guam (with high...... mutualistic interactions, which may, in turn, result in a lower recruitment of native plants. Thus, the treesnake affects not only potential prey species, but its effects cascade through the entire ecosystem on Guam. Conservation actions should be directed towards an improved recruitment (artificial...... pollination, planting) of the affected plant species....

  6. Mortandad de aves marinas durante "El Niño 1997-98" en el litoral sur de San Juan de Marcona, Ica -Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Apaza; Aída Figari

    2014-01-01

    Entre agosto de 1997 y abril de 1998, se evaluó, al sur de la punta guanera de San Juan de Marcona, la mortandad de las poblaciones de aves marinas. Especies de alimentación exclusivamente pelágica y de distribución restringida al ámbito de la Corriente Peruana, como las aves guaneras Pelecanus thagus, Sula variegata y Phalacrocorax bougainvillii, el pingüino Spheniscus humboldti y el zarcillo Larosterna inca, mostraron una correlación significativa en el comportamiento mensual, relacionados ...

  7. Dioctophymosis occurrence in two dogs in Guarapuava city - Parana State/ Ocorrência da dioctofimose em dois cães no município de Guarapuava - PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Aurélio Laidane Filho

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Dioctophyma renale (GOEZE, 1782 is a worldwide nematode that infects the kidneys and could be found in peritoneal cavity and other organs of dog and another species of domestic and wild animals, includes human species. The life cycle envolves one intermediate and often one paratenic host. In mustelids and in wild and domestic carnivores (DH, the adult parasite is usually located in the right kidney, like this the eggs can be eliminated with the urine. In the environment the eggs request an incubation period in half aquatic, needing to be ingested by IH (an annelid oligochaetes parasite of fish for if they turn infectantes (L3, that it can be ingested by a host paratênico (fish, crab or for HD. This paper reports the occurence of D. renale in two dogs assisted in the Veterinary Hospital in the Guarapuava city, PR.Dioctophyma renale (GOEZE, 1782 é um nematóide de ocorrência mundial que parasita os rins, podendo ser encontrado na cavidade peritoneal e outros órgãos do cão e outras espécies de animais domésticos e silvestres, inclusive o homem. O ciclo deste parasita é indireto, tendo como hospedeiro definitivo (HD os mustelídeos e canídeos; como hospedeiro intermediário (HI, um anelídeo oligoqueta parasita de brânquias de peixe. No HD, o parasita adulto localiza-se geralmente no rim direito, assim os ovos podem ser eliminados com a urina. No meio ambiente os ovos requerem um período de incubação em meio aquático, necessitando ser ingeridos pelo HI para se tornarem infectantes (L3, que pode ser ingerido por um hospedeiro paratênico (peixe, caranguejo ou pelo HD. O presente trabalho relata a ocorrência de D. renale em dois cães atendidos no Hospital Veterinário da Escola Superior de Ciências Agrárias de Guarapuava, PR.

  8. Phytochemical, antioxidant and antidiabetic evaluation of eight Bauhinia L. species from Egypt using UHPLC-PDA-qTOF-MS and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Mohamed A; Sakna, Sarah T; El-Fiky, Nabaweya M; Shabana, Marawan M; Wessjohann, Ludger A

    2015-11-01

    Bauhinia L. (Fabaceae) comprises ca. 300-350 plant species, many of which are traditionally used in folk medicine for their antidiabetic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Bauhinia s.l. recently has been subdivided into 9 genera based on phylogenetic data: Bauhinia s.str., Barklya, Brenierea, Gigasiphon, Lysiphyllum, Phanera, Piliostigma, Schnella (American Phanera) and Tylosema. The aerial parts of 8 species corresponding to 5 genera were analyzed: Bauhinia forficata, Bauhinia variegata, B. variegata var. candida, Bauhinia galpinii, Schnella glabra, Piliostigma racemosa, Phanera vahlii and Lysiphyllum hookeri. Leaves and shoots were subjected to metabolite profiling via UHPLC-PDA-qTOF-MS coupled to multivariate data analyzes to identify compound compositional differences. A total of 90 metabolites were identified including polyphenols and fatty acids; flavonoid conjugates accounted for most of the metabolite variation observed. This study provides a comprehensive map of polyphenol composition in Bauhinia and phytochemical species aggregations are consistent with recent Bauhinia genus taxonomic relationship derived from phylogenetic studies. DPPH radical scavenging and α-glucosidase inhibitory assays were also performed to assess selected aspects of the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential for the examined species with respect to metabolite profiles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. El género Bauhinia (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae, Cercideae en la península de Yucatán (México, Belice y Guatemala The genus Bauhinia (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae, Cercideae in Yucatán Peninsula (Mexico, Belice and Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Torres-Colín

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta información del género Bauhinia, tribu Cercideae en la provincia biótica de la península de Yucatán. Se reconocen 5 especies nativas: Bauhinia divaricata L., B. erythrocalyx Wunderlin, B. jenningsii P. Wilson, B. herrerae (Britton et Rose Standl. et Steyerm. y B. ungulata L., así como 2 introducidas: B. monandra Kurz y B. variegata L. Se presenta una clave para identificación, descripciones morfológicas, mapas de distribución, fotografías de las especies e información de los nombres comunes y uso en la región.General information about the genus Bauhinia in the Yucatán Peninsula Biotic Province is presented. Five native species, B. divaricata L, B. erythrocalyx Wunderlin, B. jenningsii P. Wilson, B. herrerae (Britton et Rose Standl. et Steyerm., B. ungulata L. and 2 exotic species, B. monandra Kurz and B. variegata L., are recognized. Species identification key, morphological descriptions, distribution maps, and photographs are presented. Additional information of common names and uses in the region is included.

  10. Role of thin-layer chromatography in ascertaining Kashaya Rasa (astringent taste) in medicinal plants on the concept of Samana and Vichitra Pratyayarabdha principles of Ayurveda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolhe, Rasika H; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Shukla, Vinay J

    2014-04-01

    Pharmacodynamics, in Ayurveda has been described in terms of Rasadipanchaka. Rasa, on one side indicates the Bhautika composition of the drug and on the other side predicts the action. Different analytical techniques, pharmaceutical processes are being used in Ayurveda for the purpose of standardization of raw drugs. In this study an attempt has been made to apply chromatographic technique in determination of Kashaya (astringent) Rasa (taste). Two important Kashaya dominant drugs Kulattha (Dolichos biflorus Linn.) and Kanchanara (Bauhinia variegata Linn.), falling under Vichitra and Samana Pratyayarabdha category respectively, were subjected to physicochemical parameters and qualitative tests followed by High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography (HPTLC). In light of chromatographic fingerprinting; sample preparation protocol is modified to incorporate taste threshold in correlation. Column chromatography is used for first-level discrimination technique followed by HPTLC. Kashaya Rasa Dominant Zone (KsRDZ) was separated and subjected to TLC fingerprinting. The KsRDZ fraction was designated as Botanical Reference Material (BRM) in further analysis. Ash value, Alcohol and water soluble extract value were more in B variegata as compared to D biflorus. Presence of tannin in both the samples was confirmed through qualitative test. The KsRDZ fraction separated at Rf 0.46 and 0.48 for Kulattha and Kanchanara respectively. The results showed that the planner chromatography technique seems very useful when BRM hypothesis was adjunct to method that explains the categorization according to traditional Rasa domain classification method.

  11. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis neurona, and Encephalitozoon cuniculi in three species of lemurs from St. Catherines Island, GA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabsley, Michael J; Jordan, Carly N; Mitchell, Sheila M; Norton, Terry M; Lindsay, David S

    2007-03-15

    In the current study, we determined the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis neurona, and Encephalitozoon cuniculi in three species of lemurs from St. Catherines Island, Georgia. Serum samples were tested from 52 ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), six blue-eyed black lemurs (Eulemur macaco flavifrons), and four black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) using an agglutination assay. Three ring-tailed lemurs (5.8%) were positive for T. gondii (titer of 1:50); one ring-tailed lemur (1.9%) and one black and white ruffed lemur (25%) were positive for S. neurona (titers of 1:1000); and one ring-tailed lemur (1.9%) was positive for E. cuniculi (titer of 1:400). All blue-eyed black lemurs were negative for antibodies to T. gondii, S. neurona, and E. cuniculi. This is the first detection of antibodies to T. gondii in ring-tailed lemurs and antibodies to S. neurona and E. cuniculi in any species of prosimian.

  12. Action of plant proteinase inhibitors on enzymes of physiopathological importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza V. Oliva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Obtained from leguminous seeds, various plant proteins inhibit animal proteinases, including human, and can be considered for the development of compounds with biological activity. Inhibitors from the Bowman-Birk and plant Kunitz-type family have been characterized by proteinase specificity, primary structure and reactive site. Our group mostly studies the genus Bauhinia, mainly the species bauhinioides, rufa, ungulata and variegata. In some species, more than one inhibitor was characterized, exhibiting different properties. Although proteins from this group share high structural similarity, they present differences in proteinase inhibition, explored in studies using diverse biological models.Obtidas de sementes leguminosas, várias proteínas inibem proteinases de origem animal, incluindo humanas, e podem ser consideradas para o desenvolvimento de compostos com atividade biológica. Inibidores da família Bowman-Birk e da família Kunitz vegetal tem sido caracterizados em relação a especificidade para proteinase, estrutura primária e sitio reativo. O nosso grupo majoritariamente vem estudando o gênero Bauhinia, principalmente as espécies bauhinioides, rufa, ungulatae variegata. Em algumas espécies, mais de um inibidor com propriedades diferentes foi caracterizado. Embora tais proteínas apresentem alta similaridade estrutural, diferem quanto à inibição de proteinases, e foram exploradas em estudos utilizando diversos modelos biológicos.

  13. A Comparison of the Human Buccal Cell Assay and the Pollen Abortion Assay in Assessing Genotoxicity in an Urban-Rural Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan da Silveira Fleck

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is exacerbated near heavy traffic roads in cities. Air pollution concentration and composition vary by region and depend on urban-rural gradients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of air pollution in areas of varying population densities and to compare plant biomonitoring with an established biomarker of human exposure to traffic-related air pollution in children. The areas of study were selected near a major street in 3 different regions. Areas A, B and C represent high, intermediate and low population densities, respectively. Micronucleus assay, an established biomarker of human exposure, was performed in children from these areas. For a plant biomonitoring assay, the pollen abortion assay was performed on Bauhinia variegata in these areas. NO2 and O3 concentrations were determined by passive sampling. We report here that the pollen abortion frequency in Bauhinia variegata is correlated with NO2 concentration (P = 0.004 and is strongly associated with vehicular flow and population density in the studied areas. Micronuclei frequency in buccal cells of children was higher in the regions with more degree of urbanization (P < 0.001 following the same pattern of O3 concentrations (P = 0.030. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that high concentrations of air pollutants in Porto Alegre are related to both human and plant genotoxicity. Areas with different concentration of pollutants demonstrated to have an urbanization gradient dependent pattern which also reflected on genotoxic damage among these areas.

  14. Impact of the newly arrived seed-predating beetle Specularius impressithorax (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) in Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, A.C.; Von Allmen, E.; Fukada, M.; Samuelson, A.; Lau, T.

    2008-01-01

    Prior to 2001, seed predation was virtually absent in the endemic Wiliwili Erythrina sandwicensis (Fabaceae: Degener), dominant tree species of lower-elevation Hawaiian dryland forests. The African bruchine chrysomelid Specularius impressithorax (Pic) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) was first detected in Hawai'i in 2001 and became established on all main islands within the next two years. The mode of entry for this invasive Erythrina seed predator into Hawai'i is unknown, but likely occurred with the importation of trinket jewelry from Africa containing characteristically brightly-colored Erythrina seeds. The initial establishment of this insect likely occurred on a non-native host, the widely cultivated coral tree E. variegata. Within three years of its first record, S. impressithorax accounted for 77.4% mean seed crop loss in 12 populations of Wiliwili on six main Hawaiian islands. Specularius impressithorax, dispersed through international commerce and established via E. variegata, has become a threat to a unique Hawaiian forest type and may threaten other Erythrina, especially New World representatives.

  15. Ciclo biológico e predação de três espécies de coccinelídeos (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae sobre o pulgão-gigante-do-pinus Cinara atlantica (Wilson (Hemiptera, Aphididae Biological cycle and predation of three coccinellid species (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae on giant conifer aphid Cinara atlantica (Wilson (Hemiptera, Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Cristina de Oliveira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Afídeos do gênero Cinara Curtis são importantes pragas de coníferas em vários países. No Brasil Cinara atlantica (Wilson, 1919 tem causado danos em plantações comerciais de Pinus spp. e o controle biológico com predadores pode ser uma opção melhor que o controle químico. Este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar a biologia e a capacidade de predação dos coccinelídeos Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, 1842, Cycloneda sanguinea (Linnaeus, 1763 e Eriopis connexa (German, 1824 (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae sobre ninfas de C. atlantica. O estudo foi conduzido sob condições controladas (temperatura: 23 ± 1ºC, UR: 70 ± 10% e fotofase: 14 h.. Foi verificado que ninfas de C. atlantica são adequadas como alimento para as três espécies de coccinelídeos, assegurando seu desenvolvimento e reprodução. H. convergens e C. sanguinea apresentaram maior longevidade e capacidade de reprodução e também maior capacidade de predação (3832 e 3633 ninfas de C. atlantica em comparação a 2735 ninfas consumidas por E. connexa durante o ciclo completo, respectivamente para as espécies. Estas espécies de predadores podem contribuir para a redução da população de Cinara no campo.The aphids of the genus Cinara Curtis are important pests of conifers in several countries. In Brazil, Cinara atlantica (Wilson, 1919 has damaged commercial plantations of Pinus spp. and biological control with predators can be a better option than chemical control. The objective of this work was to study biology and predation potential of coccinellids Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, 1842, Cycloneda sanguinea (Linnaeus, 1763 and Eriopis connexa (German, 1824 (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae on nymphs of C. atlantica. The study was carried out under controlled conditions (temperature: 23 ± 1ºC, RH: 70 ± 10% and fotophase: 14 h. It was verified that C. atlantica nymphs are adequate as food for the three coccinellid species, assuring their development and

  16. Development of a meridic diet for Hylobius transversovittatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and the role of carbohydrates in feeding, growth, and survival of larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomic-Carruthers, Nada

    2007-08-01

    The root-feeding weevil Hylobius transversovittatus Goeze (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is used for biological control of the invasive plant purple loosestrife, Luthrum salicaria L. (Lythraceae). A simple rearing system for this weevil was developed with the goals of improving production techniques and increasing the availability of insects for field introduction. Additionally, the dietary effects of digestible and indigestible carbohydrates were explored. A meridic diet for rearing H. transversovittatus was formulated through nutritional alterations of a boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, diet. Diet attractiveness was evaluated on two levels: first, by recording the incidence of initial tunneling, and second, by estimating the larval establishment rate. The performance of test diet formulations was further assessed by measuring developmental and survival rates of H. transversovittatus. Sucrose, starch, and three types of indigestible carbohydrates were tested as components to improve diet performance. Physical properties of the diet, modified by fillers in test formulations, produced major effects on the initial tunneling of hatchlings. The establishment of hatchlings was affected by chemical properties of the diet. Increases in sucrose concentration decreased larval establishment, decreased the rate of larval development, and decreased larval survival. However, omitting sucrose from the diet, or replacing it with starch, increased mortality of first instars. In advanced stages of larval development, omitting sucrose from the diet did not significantly affect larval survival. The developmental rate of larvae was increased when the amount of digestible carbohydrate was reduced. To date, seven generations of the univoltine H. transversovittatus have been successfully produced on this new meridic diet.

  17. Changes in the viability of the eggs of Ascaris suum under the influence of flavourings and source materials approved for use in and on foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Boyko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common parasitic diseases of pigs globally is ascariasis. It is caused by the nematode Ascaris suum Goeze, 1782 (Nematoda, Ascaridata, which parasitises the small intestine of pigs in its mature form and the respiratory system at the larval stage. This helminthiasis causes immense damage to swine-rearing. Control of the ascariasis pathogen in the host’s organism and in the environment is essential for the health of the animals and successful swine-rearing. The results of studying the effect of flavourings and source materials approved for use in and on foods – cinnamaldehyde (0656 Codex Alimentarius, benzoic acid (Е210 Codex Alimentarius and methylparaben (Е218 Codex Alimentarius , on the viability of invasive eggs of A. suum are useful for determining the minimum concentration of solution of these substances for use against eggs of A. suum (10 g/l. The lowest efficiency against invasive eggs of A. suum was obtained for methylparaben (LD50 = 3850 ± 2130 mg/l, the highest was obtained with cinnamaldehyde (LD50 = 2437 ± 864 mg/l, and benzoic acid (LD50 = 1240 ± 680 mg/l.

  18. Ocorrência de Dioctophyma renale em Galictis cuja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marivone V. Zabott

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A dioctofimose é uma parasitose causada pelo Dioctophyma renale (Goeze, 1782 de ocorrência mundial e acomete animais domésticos e silvestres. Em março de 2010, um exemplar adulto (macho de Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782, encontrado morto por atropelamento no município de Guaíra, Paraná foi encaminhado ao laboratório de Patologia Veterinária de Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR, Campus Palotina, para a realização da necropsia. O cadáver apresentava bom estado nutricional e autólise moderada. Foram observados três exemplares de parasitos na cavidade abdominal, mas os rins encontravam-se preservados. Os parasitos foram fixados em formol acético e encaminhados ao laboratório de Parasitologia Veterinária da UFPR para identificação. Os exemplares coletados foram identificados como Dioctophyma renale, sendo duas fêmeas, uma com 39cm de comprimento por 4mm de largura e a outra com 16cm de comprimento por 4mm de largura e, um macho com 16cm de comprimento por 3mm de largura. O presente trabalho relata a ocorrência de parasitismo por D. renale em G. cuja na região oeste do estado do Paraná.

  19. Is trace element concentration correlated to parasite abundance? A case study in a population of the green frog Pelophylax synkl. hispanicus from the Neto River (Calabria, southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Donato, Carlo; Barca, Donatella; Milazzo, Concetta; Santoro, Raffaella; Giglio, Gianni; Tripepi, Sandro; Sperone, Emilio

    2017-06-01

    Bioaccumulation of 13 trace elements in the livers of 38 Pelophylax sinkl. hispanicus (Ranidae) and its helminth communities were studied and compared among three sites, each with a different degree of pollution along River Neto (south Italy) during September, 2014. Trace element concentrations in water and liver were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. For most elements, the highest concentration was recorded in the frogs inhabiting the third site, the one with the highest degree of pollution. The trend of trace element concentration in the liver can be represented as follows: Cu > Zn > Mn > Se > Cr. Concentrations of some elements in water and liver samples were significantly different among the three sites and this is evidenced by the bioaccumulation in the frogs. Four species of helminths, all belonging to Nematoda, were found: Rhabdias sp., Oswaldocruzia filiformis (Goeze, 1782), Cosmocerca ornata (Dujarden, 1845), Seuratascaris numidica (Seurat, 1917). The parasite survey presents an important difference of prevalence and average number of helminths in frogs between the three sites. Correlating parasitological and ecotoxicological data showed a strong positive correlation between prevalence and number of parasites with some trace elements such as Mn, Co, Ni, As, Se, and Cd.

  20. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 August 2011-30 September 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A'Hara, S W; Amouroux, P; Argo, Emily E; Avand-Faghih, A; Barat, Ashoktaru; Barbieri, Luiz; Bert, Theresa M; Blatrix, R; Blin, Aurélie; Bouktila, D; Broome, A; Burban, C; Capdevielle-Dulac, C; Casse, N; Chandra, Suresh; Cho, Kyung Jin; Cottrell, J E; Crawford, Charles R; Davis, Michelle C; Delatte, H; Desneux, Nicolas; Djieto-Lordon, C; Dubois, M P; El-Mergawy, R A A M; Gallardo-Escárate, C; Garcia, M; Gardiner, Mary M; Guillemaud, Thomas; Haye, P A; Hellemans, B; Hinrichsen, P; Jeon, Ji Hyun; Kerdelhué, C; Kharrat, I; Kim, Ki Hwan; Kim, Yong Yul; Kwan, Ye-Seul; Labbe, Ellen M; LaHood, Eric; Lee, Kyung Mi; Lee, Wan-Ok; Lee, Yat-Hung; Legoff, Isabelle; Li, H; Lin, Chung-Ping; Liu, S S; Liu, Y G; Long, D; Maes, G E; Magnoux, E; Mahanta, Prabin Chandra; Makni, H; Makni, M; Malausa, Thibaut; Matura, Rakesh; McKey, D; McMillen-Jackson, Anne L; Méndez, M A; Mezghani-Khemakhem, M; Michel, Andy P; Paul, Moran; Muriel-Cunha, Janice; Nibouche, S; Normand, F; Palkovacs, Eric P; Pande, Veena; Parmentier, K; Peccoud, J; Piatscheck, F; Puchulutegui, Cecilia; Ramos, R; Ravest, G; Richner, Heinz; Robbens, J; Rochat, D; Rousselet, J; Saladin, Verena; Sauve, M; Schlei, Ora; Schultz, Thomas F; Scobie, A R; Segovia, N I; Seyoum, Seifu; Silvain, J-F; Tabone, Elisabeth; Van Houdt, J K J; Vandamme, S G; Volckaert, F A M; Wenburg, John; Willis, Theodore V; Won, Yong-Jin; Ye, N H; Zhang, W; Zhang, Y X

    2012-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 299 microsatellite marker loci and nine pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) EPIC primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources (MER) Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alosa pseudoharengus, Alosa aestivalis, Aphis spiraecola, Argopecten purpuratus, Coreoleuciscus splendidus, Garra gotyla, Hippodamia convergens, Linnaea borealis, Menippe mercenaria, Menippe adina, Parus major, Pinus densiflora, Portunus trituberculatus, Procontarinia mangiferae, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, Schizothorax richardsonii, Scophthalmus rhombus, Tetraponera aethiops, Thaumetopoea pityocampa, Tuta absoluta and Ugni molinae. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Barilius bendelisis, Chiromantes haematocheir, Eriocheir sinensis, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus cladocalix, Eucalyptus globulus, Garra litaninsis vishwanath, Garra para lissorhynchus, Guindilla trinervis, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, Luma chequen. Guayaba, Myrceugenia colchagüensis, Myrceugenia correifolia, Myrceugenia exsucca, Parasesarma plicatum, Parus major, Portunus pelagicus, Psidium guayaba, Schizothorax richardsonii, Scophthalmus maximus, Tetraponera latifrons, Thaumetopoea bonjeani, Thaumetopoea ispartensis, Thaumetopoea libanotica, Thaumetopoea pinivora, Thaumetopoea pityocampa ena clade, Thaumetopoea solitaria, Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni and Tor putitora. This article also documents the addition of nine EPIC primer pairs for Euphaea decorata, Euphaea formosa, Euphaea ornata and Euphaea yayeyamana. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Atomic force microscopy as nano-stethoscope to study living organisms, insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Igor; Dokukin, Maxim; Guz, Nataliia

    2012-02-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a known method to study various surfaces. Here we report on the use of AFM to study surface oscillations (coming from the work of internal organs) of living organisms, like insects. As an example, ladybird beetles (Hippodamia convergens) measured in different parts of the insect at picometer level. This allows us to record a much broader spectral range of possible surface vibrations (up to several kHz) than the previously studied oscillations due to breathing, heartbeat cycles, coelopulses, etc. (up to 5 -10 Hz). The used here AFM method allows collecting signal from the area as small as ˜100nm2 (0.0001μm2) with an example of noise level of (2±0.2)x10-3 nm r.m.s. at the range of frequencies >50Hz (potentially, up to a MHz). Application of this method to humans is discussed. The method, being a relatively non-invasive technique providing a new type of information, may be useful in developing of what could be called ``nanophysiology.''

  2. Seasonal Abundance of Aphids and Aphidophagous Insects in Pecan

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    Ghulam Abbas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal occurrence of aphids and aphidophagous insects was monitored for six years (2006–2011 from full leaf expansion in May to leaf fall in October in “Desirable” variety pecan trees that were not treated with insecticides. Aphid outbreaks occurred two times per season, once in the spring and again in the late summer. Yellow pecan and blackmargined aphids exceeded the recommended treatment thresholds one time and black pecan aphids exceeded the recommended treatment levels three times over the six seasons. Increases in aphidophagous insect abundance coincided with aphid outbreaks in five of the six seasons. Among aphidophagous insects Harmonia axyridis and Olla v-nigrum were frequently collected in both the tree canopy and at the ground level, whereas, Coccinella septempunctata, Hippodamia convergens were rarely found in the tree canopy and commonly found at the ground level. Green lacewing abundance was higher in the ground level than in the tree canopy. Brown lacewings were more abundant in the tree canopy than at the ground level. Dolichopodid and syrphid fly abundance, at the ground level increased during peak aphid abundance in the tree canopy. Application of an aqueous solution of fermenting molasses to the pecan foliage during an aphid outbreak significantly increased the abundance of ladybeetles and lacewings and significantly reduced the abundance of yellow pecan, blackmargined and black pecan aphids.

  3. Trap Height Affects Capture of Lady Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Pecan Orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, T E

    2017-04-01

    There is scarce information regarding the vertical stratification of predaceous Coccinellidae in tall trees. Although numerous studies have been done in orchards and forests, very few studies have assessed the occurrence of predaceous Coccinellidae high in tree canopies. The objective of this study was to examine the abundance of Coccinellidae at different heights in mature pecan, Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch, orchards with tall trees. From spring through late fall during 2013 and 2014, yellow pyramidal Tedders traps were suspended in the pecan canopy at 6.1 and 12.2 m, in addition to being placed on the ground (0 m). The exotic species Harmonia axyridis and Coccinella septempunctata accounted for a high percentage of trap capture during this study. Except for Olla v-nigrum, low numbers of native species (Hippodamia convergens, Coleomegilla maculata, Cycloneda munda, Scymnus spp., and Hyperaspis spp.) were captured. However, significantly more were captured in ground traps rather than in canopy traps with the exception of O. v-nigrum. Similar to most native species, significantly more C. septempunctata were captured in ground traps than canopy traps. This contrasts sharply with H. axyridis captured similarly at all trap heights. The ability to exploit resources across vertical strata, unlike many intraguild predators, may be an underestimated factor helping to explain the invasiveness of H. axyridis. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by a US Government employee and is in the public domain in the US.

  4. Seasonal Abundance of Aphids and Aphidophagous Insects in Pecan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutcher, James D.; Karar, Haider; Abbas, Ghulam

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal occurrence of aphids and aphidophagous insects was monitored for six years (2006–2011) from full leaf expansion in May to leaf fall in October in “Desirable” variety pecan trees that were not treated with insecticides. Aphid outbreaks occurred two times per season, once in the spring and again in the late summer. Yellow pecan and blackmargined aphids exceeded the recommended treatment thresholds one time and black pecan aphids exceeded the recommended treatment levels three times over the six seasons. Increases in aphidophagous insect abundance coincided with aphid outbreaks in five of the six seasons. Among aphidophagous insects Harmonia axyridis and Olla v-nigrum were frequently collected in both the tree canopy and at the ground level, whereas, Coccinella septempunctata, Hippodamia convergens were rarely found in the tree canopy and commonly found at the ground level. Green lacewing abundance was higher in the ground level than in the tree canopy. Brown lacewings were more abundant in the tree canopy than at the ground level. Dolichopodid and syrphid fly abundance, at the ground level increased during peak aphid abundance in the tree canopy. Application of an aqueous solution of fermenting molasses to the pecan foliage during an aphid outbreak significantly increased the abundance of ladybeetles and lacewings and significantly reduced the abundance of yellow pecan, blackmargined and black pecan aphids. PMID:26466738

  5. Aphid secondary symbionts do not affect prey attractiveness to two species of predatory lady beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Kovacs

    Full Text Available Heritable symbionts have been found to mediate interactions between host species and their natural enemies in a variety of organisms. Aphids, their facultative symbionts, and their potential fitness effects have been particularly well-studied. For example, the aphid facultative symbiont Regiella can protect its host from infection from a fungal pathogen, and aphids with Hamiltonella are less likely to be parasitized by parasitic wasps. Recent work has also found there to be negative fitness effects for the larvae of two species of aphidophagous lady beetles that consumed aphids with facultative symbionts. In both species, larvae that consumed aphids with secondary symbionts were significantly less likely to survive to adulthood. In this study we tested whether adult Harmonia axyridis and Hippodamia convergens lady beetles avoided aphids with symbionts in a series of choice experiments. Adults of both lady beetle species were as likely to choose aphids with symbionts as those without, despite the potential negative fitness effects associated with consuming aphids with facultative symbionts. This may suggest that under natural conditions aphid secondary symbionts are not a significant source of selection for predatory lady beetles.

  6. Towards nano-physiology of insects with atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokukin, M E; Guz, N V; Sokolov, I

    2011-02-01

    Little study of insects with modern nanotechnology tools has been done so far. Here we use one of such tool, atomic force microscopy (AFM) to study surface oscillations of the ladybird beetles (Hippodamia convergens) measured in different parts of the insect at picometer level. This allows us to record a much broader spectral range of possible surface vibrations (up to several kHz) than the previously studied oscillations due to breathing, heartbeat cycles, coelopulses, etc. (up to 5-10Hz). Here we demonstrate three different ways with which one can identify the origins of the observed peaks - by physical positioning the probe near a specific organ, and by using biological or chemical stimuli. We report on identification of high frequency peaks associated with H. convergens heart, spiracular closer muscles, and oscillations associated with muscles activated while drinking. The method, being a relatively non-invasive technique providing a new type of information, may be useful in developing "nanophysiology" of insects. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Relative toxicity and residual activity of insecticides used in blueberry pest management: mortality of natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubos, Craig R; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Holdcraft, Robert; Mason, Keith S; Isaacs, Rufus

    2014-02-01

    A series of bioassays were conducted to determine the relative toxicities and residual activities of insecticides labeled for use in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) on natural enemies, to identify products with low toxicity or short duration effects on biological control agents. In total, 14 insecticides were evaluated using treated petri dishes and four commercially available natural enemies (Aphidius colemani Viereck, Orius insidiosus [Say], Chrysoperla rufilabris [Burmeister], and Hippodamia convergens [Guérin-Menéville]). Dishes were aged under greenhouse conditions for 0, 3, 7, or 14 d before introducing insects to test residual activity. Acute effects (combined mortality and knockdown) varied by insecticide, residue age, and natural enemy species. Broad-spectrum insecticides caused high mortality to all biocontrol agents, whereas products approved for use in organic agriculture had little effect. The reduced-risk insecticide acetamiprid consistently caused significant acute effects, even after aging for 14 d. Methoxyfenozide, novaluron, and chlorantraniliprole, which also are classified as reduced-risk insecticides, had low toxicity, and along with the organic products could be compatible with biological control. This study provides information to guide blueberry growers in their selection of insecticides. Further research will be needed to determine whether adoption of a pest management program based on the use of more selective insecticides will result in higher levels of biological control in blueberry.

  8. Foraging behavior and prey interactions by a guild of predators on various lifestages of Bemisia tabaci

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    James R. Hagler

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius is fed on by a wide variety of generalist predators, but there is little information on these predator-prey interactions. A laboratory investigation was conducted to quantify the foraging behavior of the adults of five common whitefly predators presented with a surfeit of whitefly eggs, nymphs, and adults. The beetles, Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville and Collops vittatus (Say fed mostly on whitefly eggs, but readily and rapidly preyed on all of the whitefly lifestages. The true bugs, Geocoris punctipes (Say and Orius tristicolor (Say preyed almost exclusively on adult whiteflies, while Lygus hesperus Knight preyed almost exclusively on nymphs. The true bugs had much longer prey handling times than the beetles and spent much more of their time feeding (35-42% than the beetles (6-7%. These results indicate that generalist predators vary significantly in their interaction with this host, and that foraging behavior should be considered during development of a predator-based biological control program for B. tabaci.

  9. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in zoo animals in selected zoos in the midwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Camps, Silvia; Dubey, J P; Saville, W J A

    2008-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infections in zoo animals are of interest because many captive animals die of clinical toxoplasmosis and because of the potential risk of exposure of children and elderly to T. gondii oocysts excreted by cats in the zoos. Seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies in wild zoo felids, highly susceptible zoo species, and feral cats from 8 zoos of the midwestern United States was determined by using the modified agglutination test (MAT). A titer of 1:25 was considered indicative of T. gondii exposure. Among wild felids, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 6 (27.3%) of 22 cheetahs (Acynonyx jubatus jubatus), 2 of 4 African lynx (Caracal caracal), 1 of 7 clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa), 1 of 5 Pallas cats (Otocolobus manul), 12 (54.5%) of 22 African lions (Panthera leo), 1 of 1 jaguar (Panthera onca), 1 of 1 Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis), 1 of 1 Persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor), 5 (27.8%) of 18 Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica), 1 of 4 fishing cats (Prionailurus viverrinus), 3 of 6 pumas (Puma concolor), 2 of 2 Texas pumas (Puma concolor stanleyana), and 5 (35.7%) of 14 snow leopards (Uncia uncia). Antibodies were found in 10 of 34 feral domestic cats (Felis domesticus) trapped in 3 zoos. Toxoplasma gondii oocysts were not found in any of the 78 fecal samples from wild and domestic cats. Among the macropods, antibodies were detected in 1 of 3 Dama wallabies (Macropus eugenii), 1 of 1 western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus), 1 of 2 wallaroos (Macropus robustus), 6 of 8 Bennett's wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus), 21 (61.8%) of 34 red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), and 1 of 1 dusky pademelon (Thylogale brunii). Among prosimians, antibodies were detected in 1 of 3 blue-eyed black lemurs (Eulemur macaco flavifrons), 1 of 21 ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), 2 of 9 red-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata rubra), and 2 of 4 black- and white-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata). Among the avian species tested, 2 of 3 bald

  10. Diversidad taxonómica y denso-actividad de solífugos (Arachnida: Solifugae asociados a un ecosistema desértico costero del centro norte de Chile Taxonomic diversity and density-activity of solpugids (Arachnida: Solifugae in a coastal desert ecosystem in the northern centre of Chile

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    Daniel E. Valdivia

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En Chile, el orden Solifugae está representado por 14 especies agrupadas en 10 géneros, distribuidos en las tres familias descritas en Sudamérica: Ammotrechidae, Mummuciidae y Daesiidae. En el presente trabajo se documenta la composición genérica y/o específica de solífugos asociados a un ecosistema desértico costero del centro norte de Chile, y se muestran las variaciones de su denso-actividad. El estudio se realizó en el sector costero de Punta de Choros (29°21'S, 71°10'O; 17 msnm, durante los meses de junio, agosto, octubre y noviembre de 2005. Entre los 249 ejemplares capturados, se reconoció la presencia de tres familias, cuatro géneros y cinco especies. Éstas fueron Procleobis sp., Sedna pirata Muma (Ammotrechidae, Mummucia sp., Mummucia variegata (Gervais (Mummuciidae y Ammotrechelis goetschi Roewer (Daesiidae. La mayor denso-actividad de solífugos se registró en los meses de octubre, 5 especies (ca 30 % del total capturado; y noviembre, 3 especies (ca 41 % del total capturado. Mientras que algunas especies se mostraron activas durante todo el período de estudio (e.g., Ammotrechelis goetschi, otras presentaron actividad parcial. Por ejemplo, Mummucia variegata manifestó actividad entre agosto y noviembre; Sedna pirata entre octubre y noviembre y tanto Procleobis sp. como Mummucia sp. estuvieron activas sólo en octubre. La diversidad y la denso-actividad de Solifugae estarían determinadas por factores biológicos y ecológicos.In Chile the order Solifugae is represented by 14 species arranged in 10 genera distributed among the three families described for South America: Ammotrechidae, Mummuciidae and Daesiidae. The present work documents the taxonomic composition of solpugids in a desert coastal ecosystem of the northern centre of Chile and describes variation in their density-activity. The study was carried out in the coastal sector of Punta de Choros (29°21'S, 71°10'W; 17 masl during June, August, October and

  11. Current knowledge on biotechnological interesting seaweeds from the Magellan Region, Chile

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    Andrés Mansilla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a compilation of data from investigations made with marine benthic algae from the Magellan Region that have biotechnological utilization in human consumption or medicine or as a source of phycolloids or food supplements or animal feed. The most important Rhodophyta species are: Ahnfeltia plicata (Hudson E.M. Fries for agarose production, Gigartina skottsbergii Setchell & N.L.Gardner for carrageenan production, and Callophyllis variegata (Bory de Saint-Vincent Kützing for human consumption. The most important Heterokontophyta species are: Macrocystis pyrifera (L. C. Agardh, and Durvillaea antarctica (Chamisso Hariot for human consumption, alginate production, and as biofertilizer for agricultural crops. M. pyrifera is also used as a food supplement for salmon, chickens, quails, sheep and bovines and for biofuel production.

  12. Current knowledge on biotechnological interesting seaweeds from the Magellan Region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Mansilla

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a compilation of data from investigations made with marine benthic algae from the Magellan Region that have biotechnological utilization in human consumption or medicine or as a source of phycolloids or food supplements or animal feed. The most important Rhodophyta species are: Ahnfeltia plicata (Hudson E.M. Fries for agarose production, Gigartina skottsbergii Setchell & N.L.Gardner for carrageenan production, and Callophyllis variegata (Bory de Saint-Vincent Kützing for human consumption. The most important Heterokontophyta species are: Macrocystis pyrifera (L. C. Agardh, and Durvillaea antarctica (Chamisso Hariot for human consumption, alginate production, and as biofertilizer for agricultural crops. M. pyrifera is also used as a food supplement for salmon, chickens, quails, sheep and bovines and for biofuel production.

  13. Spatial distribution of Madeira Island Laurisilva endemic spiders (Arachnida: Araneae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Madeira island presents a unique spider diversity with a high number of endemic species, many of which are still poorly known. A recent biodiversity survey on the terrestrial arthropods of the native forest, Laurisilva, provided a large set of standardized samples from various patches throughout the island. Out of the fifty two species recorded, approximately 33.3% are Madeiran endemics, many of which had not been collected since their original description. Two new species to science are reported – Ceratinopsis n. sp. and Theridion n. sp. – and the first records of Poeciloneta variegata (Blackwall, 1841) and Tetragnatha intermedia Kulczynski, 1891 are reported for the first time for Madeira island. Considerations on species richness and abundance from different Laurisilva locations are presented, together with distribution maps for endemic species. These results contribute to a better understanding of spider diversity patterns and endemic species distribution in the native forest of Madeira island. PMID:24855443

  14. Perspectives on screening winter-flood-tolerant woody species in the riparian protection forests of the three gorges reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Wang, Yong; Chan, Zhulong

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of riparian protection forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is an ideal measure to cope with the eco-environmental problems of the water-level fluctuation zone (WLFZ). Thus, the information for screening winter-flood-tolerant woody plant species is useful for the recovery and re-establishment of the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ. Therefore, we discussed the possibilities of constructing and popularizing riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ from several aspects, including the woody plant species distribution in the WLFZ, the survival rate analyses of suitable candidate woody species under controlled flooding conditions, the survival rate investigation of some woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, and the physiological responses of some woody plant species during the recovery stage after winter floods. The results of woody species investigation showed that most woody plant species that existed as annual seedlings in the TGR WLFZ are not suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests. However, arbor species (e.g., Salix matsudana, Populus×canadensis, Morus alba, Pterocarya stenoptera, Taxodium ascendens, and Metasequoia glyptostroboides) and shrub species (e.g., Salix variegata, Distylium chinensis, Lycium chinense, Myricaria laxiflora, and Rosa multiflora) might be considered suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ by survival rate analyses under controlled winter flooding conditions, and survival rate investigations of woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, respectively. Physiological analyses showed that P.×canadensis, M. alba, L. chinense, and S. variegata could develop specific self-repairing mechanisms to stimulate biomass accumulation and carbohydrate synthesis via the increases in chlorophyll pigments and photosynthesis during recovery after winter floods. Our results suggested these woody plant species could endure the winter flooding stress and recover well

  15. Perspectives on screening winter-flood-tolerant woody species in the riparian protection forests of the three gorges reservoir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang

    Full Text Available The establishment of riparian protection forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR is an ideal measure to cope with the eco-environmental problems of the water-level fluctuation zone (WLFZ. Thus, the information for screening winter-flood-tolerant woody plant species is useful for the recovery and re-establishment of the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ. Therefore, we discussed the possibilities of constructing and popularizing riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ from several aspects, including the woody plant species distribution in the WLFZ, the survival rate analyses of suitable candidate woody species under controlled flooding conditions, the survival rate investigation of some woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, and the physiological responses of some woody plant species during the recovery stage after winter floods. The results of woody species investigation showed that most woody plant species that existed as annual seedlings in the TGR WLFZ are not suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests. However, arbor species (e.g., Salix matsudana, Populus×canadensis, Morus alba, Pterocarya stenoptera, Taxodium ascendens, and Metasequoia glyptostroboides and shrub species (e.g., Salix variegata, Distylium chinensis, Lycium chinense, Myricaria laxiflora, and Rosa multiflora might be considered suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ by survival rate analyses under controlled winter flooding conditions, and survival rate investigations of woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, respectively. Physiological analyses showed that P.×canadensis, M. alba, L. chinense, and S. variegata could develop specific self-repairing mechanisms to stimulate biomass accumulation and carbohydrate synthesis via the increases in chlorophyll pigments and photosynthesis during recovery after winter floods. Our results suggested these woody plant species could endure the winter flooding stress

  16. Reproductive cycles in tropical intertidal gastropods are timed around tidal amplitude cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Rachel; Kerr, Kecia; Contolini, Gina; Ochoa, Isis

    2017-08-01

    Reproduction in iteroparous marine organisms is often timed with abiotic cycles and may follow lunar, tidal amplitude, or daily cycles. Among intertidal marine invertebrates, decapods are well known to time larval release to coincide with large amplitude nighttime tides, which minimizes the risk of predation. Such bimonthly cycles have been reported for few other intertidal invertebrates. We documented the reproduction of 6 gastropod species from Panama to determine whether they demonstrate reproductive cycles, whether these cycles follow a 2-week cycle, and whether cycles are timed so that larval release occurs during large amplitude tides. Two of the species ( Crepidula cf. marginalis and Nerita scabricosta ) showed nonuniform reproduction, but without clear peaks in timing relative to tidal or lunar cycles. The other 4 species show clear peaks in reproduction occurring every 2 weeks. In 3 of these species ( Cerithideopsis carlifornica var. valida, Littoraria variegata , and Natica chemnitzi ), hatching occurred within 4 days of the maximum amplitude tides. Siphonaria palmata exhibit strong cycles, but reproduction occurred during the neap tides. Strong differences in the intensity of reproduction of Cerithideopsis carlifornica , and in particular, Littoraria variegata , between the larger and smaller spring tides of a lunar month indicate that these species time reproduction with the tidal amplitude cycle rather than the lunar cycle. For those species that reproduce during both the wet and dry seasons, we found that reproductive timing did not differ between seasons despite strong differences in temperature and precipitation. Overall, we found that most (4/6) species have strong reproductive cycles synchronized with the tidal amplitude cycle and that seasonal differences in abiotic factors do not alter these cycles.

  17. Variabilidade genética de populações naturais de caroá por meio de marcadores RAPD Genetic variability estimated among caroá populations through RAPD markers

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    Daniela Garcia Silveira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar a variabilidade genética entre e dentro de populações de caroá (Neoglaziovia variegata, por meio de marcadores "random amplified polymorphic DNA" (RAPD. Foram analisados 180 genótipos de caroá, provenientes dos municípios de Guanambi, Juazeiro e Valente, no Estado da Bahia. Foi observado elevado polimorfismo entre as populações de caroá. As dissimilaridades genéticas entre os genótipos variaram de 0,08 a 0,95, com média de 0,44.Avariância molecular mostrou que 56% da variação total foi explicada pelas diferenças entre indivíduos dentro de locais. As diferenças entre municípios explicaram 17% da variação total, enquanto as diferenças entre locais dentro dos municípios explicaram 26% da variação.The objective of this work was to quantify the genetic variability within and among populations of caroá (Neoglaziovia variegata using random amplified polymorphic DNA(RAPD markers. One hundred eighty caroá genotypes from Guanambi, Juazeiro and Valente counties in the state of Bahia, Brazil, were analyzed. A high polymorphism was observed among the caroá populations. The genetic dissimilarities among all genotypes ranged from 0.08 to 0.95 with an average of 0.44. The molecular variance showed that 56% of the total variation was explained by the differences among individuals with in locations.The differences among counties explained 17% of the total variation, while the differences among places within counties explained 26% of the variation.

  18. Life history tactics shape amphibians' demographic responses to the North Atlantic Oscillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayuela, Hugo; Joly, Pierre; Schmidt, Benedikt R; Pichenot, Julian; Bonnaire, Eric; Priol, Pauline; Peyronel, Olivier; Laville, Mathias; Besnard, Aurélien

    2017-11-01

    Over the last three decades, climate abnormalities have been reported to be involved in biodiversity decline by affecting population dynamics. A growing number of studies have shown that the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) influences the demographic parameters of a wide range of plant and animal taxa in different ways. Life history theory could help to understand these different demographic responses to the NAO. Indeed, theory states that the impact of weather variation on a species' demographic traits should depend on its position along the fast-slow continuum. In particular, it is expected that NAO would have a higher impact on recruitment than on adult survival in slow species, while the opposite pattern is expected occur in fast species. To test these predictions, we used long-term capture-recapture datasets (more than 15,000 individuals marked from 1965 to 2015) on different surveyed populations of three amphibian species in Western Europe: Triturus cristatus, Bombina variegata, and Salamandra salamandra. Despite substantial intraspecific variation, our study revealed that these three species differ in their position on a slow-fast gradient of pace of life. Our results also suggest that the differences in life history tactics influence amphibian responses to NAO fluctuations: Adult survival was most affected by the NAO in the species with the fastest pace of life (T. cristatus), whereas recruitment was most impacted in species with a slower pace of life (B. variegata and S. salamandra). In the context of climate change, our findings suggest that the capacity of organisms to deal with future changes in NAO values could be closely linked to their position on the fast-slow continuum. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. SURVEY, IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION OF INSECT INJURIES IN ORNAMENTAL TREES IN THE URBAN AREA OF GOIÂNIA, GOIÁS STATE, BRASIL LEVANTAMENTO, IDENTIFICAÇÃO E AVALIAÇÃO DOS DANOS DE INSETOS EM ÁRVORES ORNAMENTAIS NA ÁREA URBANA DE GOIÂNIA (GO

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    Antônio Henrique Garcia

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    From 1800 ornamental trees sampled in Goiânia urban area, Paquira aquatica represented 62,7 %, Cesalpinia sp. 15,3 %, Bauhinia variegata 10 %, Sapthodea campanulata 6 %, Terminalia catappa 3,2 %, Acacia sp. 1,2%, Ponciana sp. 1,0 %, and other species 1 %. The most frequent insect species observed in P. aquatica were Psylla floccosa ( 92,3%, Steirastoma breve (76,7%, Palindia detracta (63,4%, Phelypera shuppeli (43,4% and Euchroma gigantea (23,7%. The most severe injuries to plants are caused by S. breve, which desiccates trunk and stems, and E. gigantea. Its larvae destroy the whole root system and cause the fall of the tree. Orthezia praelonga was observed in 84,6 % of the sampled B. variegata; in 30 trees 20% died after three years and 40% at the of the fourth year; from 50 seedlings 36% were desiccated after one year and 58% 36 months later. O. praelonga was observed in 94,6% of S. campanulata; in 32 trees 8% were desiccated in one year, 18% in the second and the remaining at the end of the third year. Icerya purchasi was observed in 84,7% of Cesalpinia sp.; from 48 trees 5% were desiccated after six, 16 % two years later and 30% at the end of the fourth year; from 50 seedlings of this species, under intense attack, 78% were desiccated in 15 days. Quesadas gigas e Dorisiana sp. were observed in Acacia sp. In Ponciana sp. it was observed the presence of some species of Scolytidae, Platipodidae and Rhinotermitidae, and no injuries were observed in Terminalia catappa.

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  20. Dioctophyma renale in maned wolf in the geoeconomic region of Jatai, GO, Brazil - Case report

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    Valcinir Aloisio Scalla Vulcani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Vulcani V.A.S., Franzo V.S., de Araújo D.P., Vicentin F.R., da Costa O.M., Rangel A.S. & Gomes L.A. [Dioctophyma renale in maned wolf in the geoeconomic region of Jatai, GO, Brazil - Case report.] Dioctophyma renale em Lobo-Guará na região geoeconômica de Jataí, GO, Brasil - Relato de caso. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(2:149-152, 2015. Laboratório de Anatomia, Curso de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Campus de Jataí, BR 364 Km 192, 3800, Setor Industrial, Jataí, GO 75801-615, Brasil. E-mail: aloisiosv@hotmail.com The maned Wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815 is the largest animal that represents the canidae species at the South America. The Dioctophyme renale (Goeze, 1782 known as the giant kidney-worm, because it is used to lodges mostly this organs, and it has been also responsible for the majority of captive animals deaths. A maned wolf necropsy was done at the animal anatomy laboratory of the Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG - Campus Jataí and showed a nematode in the right kidney of the wild dog. This is the second confirmed case report of maned wolf that have free life in the city of Jataí and in State of Goiás, that suggests that is a common parasitism in this region of the country.

  1. Analysis of the accuracy and precision of the McMaster method in detection of the eggs of Toxocara and Trichuris species (Nematoda) in dog faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanowski, Maciej; Dabrowska, Joanna; Karamon, Jacek; Cencek, Tomasz; Osiński, Zbigniew

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy and precision of McMaster method with Raynaud's modification in the detection of the eggs of the nematodes Toxocara canis (Werner, 1782) and Trichuris ovis (Abildgaard, 1795) in faeces of dogs. Four variants of McMaster method were used for counting: in one grid, two grids, the whole McMaster chamber and flotation in the tube. One hundred sixty samples were prepared from dog faeces (20 repetitions for each egg quantity) containing 15, 25, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 eggs of T. canis and T. ovis in 1 g of faeces. To compare the influence of kind of faeces on the results, samples of dog faeces were enriched at the same levels with the eggs of another nematode, Ascaris suum Goeze, 1782. In addition, 160 samples of pig faeces were prepared and enriched only with A. suum eggs in the same way. The highest limit of detection (the lowest level of eggs that were detected in at least 50% of repetitions) in all McMaster chamber variants were obtained for T. canis eggs (25-250 eggs/g faeces). In the variant with flotation in the tube, the highest limit of detection was obtained for T. ovis eggs (100 eggs/g). The best results of the limit of detection, sensitivity and the lowest coefficients of variation were obtained with the use of the whole McMaster chamber variant. There was no significant impact of properties of faeces on the obtained results. Multiplication factors for the whole chamber were calculated on the basis of the transformed equation of the regression line, illustrating the relationship between the number of detected eggs and that of the eggs added to the'sample. Multiplication factors calculated for T. canis and T. ovis eggs were higher than those expected using McMaster method with Raynaud modification.

  2. Taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae with description of three new aviculariine genera01

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    Caroline Sayuri Fukushima

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 is revised and all species are rediagnosed. The type species, described as Aranea avicularia Linnaeus, 1758, is the oldest mygalomorph species described and its taxonomic history is extensive and confusing. Cladistic analyses using both equal and implied weights were carried out with a matrix of 46 taxa from seven theraphosid subfamilies, and 71 morphological and ecological characters. The optimal cladogram found with Piwe and concavity = 6 suggests Avicularia and Aviculariinae are monophyletic. Subfamily Aviculariinae includes Avicularia Lamarck, 1818, Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850, Tapinauchenius Ausserer, 1871, Stromatopelma Karsch, 1881, Ephebopus Simon, 1892, Psalmopoeus Pocock, 1895, Heteroscodra Pocock, 1899, Iridopelma Pocock, 1901, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901, Ybyrapora gen. n., Caribena gen. n., and Antillena gen. n. The clade is supported by well-developed scopulae on tarsi and metatarsi, greatly extended laterally. Avicularia synapomorphies are juveniles bearing black tarsi contrasting with other lighter articles; spermathecae with an accentuated outwards curvature medially, and male palpal bulb with embolus medial portion and tegulum’s margin form an acute angle in retrolateral view. Avicularia is composed of twelve species, including three new species: Avicularia avicularia (Linnaeus, 1818, Avicularia glauca Simon, 1891, Avicularia variegata (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896 stat. n., A. minatrix Pocock, 1903, Avicularia taunayi (Mello-Leitão, 1920, Avicularia juruensis Mello-Leitão, 1923, Avicularia rufa Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1945, Avicularia purpurea Kirk, 1990, A. hirschii Bullmer et al. 2006, Avicularia merianae sp. n., A. lynnae sp. n., and A. caei sp. n.. Avicularia species are distributed throughout Mexico, Costa Rica, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil. Three new genera are erected to accommodate former

  3. Taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae) with description of three new aviculariine genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Caroline Sayuri; Bertani, Rogério

    2017-01-01

    The genus Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 is revised and all species are rediagnosed. The type species, described as Aranea avicularia Linnaeus, 1758, is the oldest mygalomorph species described and its taxonomic history is extensive and confusing. Cladistic analyses using both equal and implied weights were carried out with a matrix of 46 taxa from seven theraphosid subfamilies, and 71 morphological and ecological characters. The optimal cladogram found with Piwe and concavity = 6 suggests Avicularia and Aviculariinae are monophyletic. Subfamily Aviculariinae includes Avicularia Lamarck, 1818, Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850, Tapinauchenius Ausserer, 1871, Stromatopelma Karsch, 1881, Ephebopus Simon, 1892, Psalmopoeus Pocock, 1895, Heteroscodra Pocock, 1899, Iridopelma Pocock, 1901, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901, Ybyrapora gen. n. , Caribena gen. n. , and Antillena gen. n. The clade is supported by well-developed scopulae on tarsi and metatarsi, greatly extended laterally. Avicularia synapomorphies are juveniles bearing black tarsi contrasting with other lighter articles; spermathecae with an accentuated outwards curvature medially, and male palpal bulb with embolus medial portion and tegulum's margin form an acute angle in retrolateral view. Avicularia is composed of twelve species, including three new species: Avicularia avicularia (Linnaeus, 1818), Avicularia glauca Simon, 1891, Avicularia variegata (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896) stat. n., Avicularia minatrix Pocock, 1903, Avicularia taunayi (Mello-Leitão, 1920), Avicularia juruensis Mello-Leitão, 1923, Avicularia rufa Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1945, Avicularia purpurea Kirk, 1990, Avicularia hirschii Bullmer et al. 2006, Avicularia merianae sp. n. , Avicularia lynnae sp. n. , and Avicularia caei sp. n. . Avicularia species are distributed throughout Mexico, Costa Rica, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil. Three new genera are erected to

  4. Generic revision and species classification of the Microdontinae (Diptera, Syrphidae

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    Menno Reemer

    2013-04-01

    and secondary junior homonyms: Microdon shirakii nom. n. (= Microdon tuberculatus Shiraki, 1968, primary homonym of Microdon tuberculatus de Meijere, 1913, Paramixogaster brunettii nom. n. (= Mixogaster vespiformis Brunetti, 1913, secondary homonym of Microdon vespiformis de Meijere, 1908, Paramixogaster sacki nom. n. (= Myxogaster variegata Sack, 1922, secondary homonym of Ceratophya variegata Walker, 1852. An attempt is made to classify all available species names into (subgenera and species groups. The resulting classification comprises 454 valid species and 98 synonyms (excluding misspellings, of which 17 valid names and three synonyms are left unplaced. The paper concludes with a discussion on diagnostic characters of Microdontinae.

  5. Species composition and abundance of solpugids (Arachnida: Solifugae in ecotopes of the transitional coastal desert of Chile Composición de especies y abundancia de solífugos (Arachnida: Solifugae en ecotopos del desierto costero transicional de Chile

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    Daniel Eugenio Valdivia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Using pitfall traps, the species composition and abundance of solpugids were studied in several ecotopes of Chile's transitional coastal desert. The study was conducted in the area around Punta de Choros (29°15'S, 71°26'W and in Los Choros Archipelago (29°32'S, 67°61'W, in 2005 and 2006. Five species were recorded: Procleobis sp.; Sedna pirata Muma, 1971 (Ammotrechidae; Mummucia sp.; Mummucia variegata (Gervais, 1849 (Mummuciidae; and Ammotrechelis goetschi Roewer, 1934 (Daesiidae. Solpugid abundance was higher on the continent (65% than on the islands (35%. The ANOSIM used to evaluate any difference in species richness between ecotopes revealed no significant differences (R= 0.097, p= 0.13. The similarity dendrogram obtained from the Bray-Curtis matrix indicates that there are 3 groups of ecotopes: steppe, dune, and a miscellaneous group. From the data it is inferred that the diversity and abundance of solpugids in the ecotopes studied may be related to plant structure and to the pedological conditions of the habitat.Mediante trampas de intercepción se estudió la composición específica y la abundancia de solífugos en diversos ecotopos del desierto costero transicional de Chile. El trabajo se llevó a cabo tanto en el sector de Punta de Choros (29°15'S, 71°26'O como en el archipiélago de Los Choros (29°32'S, 67°61'O, durante los años 2005 y 2006. Se registró la presencia de 5 especies: Procleobis sp.; Sedna pirata Muma, 1971 (Ammotrechidae, Mummucia sp.; Mummucia variegata (Gervais, 1849 (Mummuciidae y Ammotrechelis goetschi Roewer, 1934 (Daesiidae. En el sector continental se observó mayor abundancia que en el sector insular (65% y 35%, respectivamente. El ANOSIM aplicado para evaluar la diferencia en la riqueza especifica entre ecotopos, no mostró diferencias significativas (R= 0.097; p= 0.13. El dendrograma de similitud generado a partir de la matriz Bray-Curtis mostró 3 agrupaciones de ecotopos: estepario, dunario y

  6. Bothriocephalus pearsei n. sp. (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea) from cenote fishes of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, T; Vargas-Vázquez, J; Moravec, F

    1996-10-01

    The cestode Bothriocephalus pearsei n. sp. is described from the intestine of the cichlid Cichlasoma urophthalmus (Günther) from cenote (= sinkhole) Zaci near Valladolid, Yucatan, Mexico. The pimelodid catfish Rhamdia guatemalensis Günther, which also harbored conspecific cestodes, seems to represent accidental or postcyclic host of B. pearsei. The new species differs from congeners mainly by the morphology of the scolex, which is clavate, with the maximum width in its middle part, has a distinct but weakly muscular apical disc; 2 short and wide bothria distinctly demarcated in their anterior part, becoming indistinct posteriorly in the middle part of the scolex, and 2 elongate, lateral grooves. In addition to the scolex morphology, the new species can be differentiated from Bothriocephalus species parasitizing North American freshwater fishes as follows: B. claviceps (Goeze, 1782), a specific parasite of eels in the Holarctic, B. cuspidatus Cooper, 1917, occurring mostly in perciform fishes in North America, B. musculosus Baer, 1937 found in the cichlid Cichlasoma biocellata (Regan) (= C. octofasciatum (Regan)), and B. texomensis Self, 1954, described from Hiodon alosoides (Rafinesque), are much larger, with strobilae consisting of relatively short and very wide proglottids versus small-sized strobila (length 26-32 mm) composed of about 70 proglottids, which are only slightly wider than they are long (ratio 1:1-3), rectangular, or even longer than wide in the last proglottids in B. pearsei. Bothriocephalus formosus Mueller and Van Cleave, 1932, described from Percopsis omiscomaycus (Walbaum) in the USA, can be distinguished from B. pearsei, besides the different shape of the scolex, by the distribution of vitelline follicles, which are not separated into 2 lateral fields and are present along the midline of proglottids in the former species. Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, a widely distributed parasite of fishes of many families, in particular of cyprinids

  7. Il gioco le leggi naturali governano il caso

    CERN Document Server

    Eigen, Manfred

    1986-01-01

    Manfred Eigen, Premio Nobel per la chimica nel 1967, e la sua collaboratrice Ruthild Winkler hanno voluto con questo libro uscire allo scoperto, esponendo in una trattazione complessa ma comprensibile per ogni lettore veramente interessato una teoria molto audace, basata su ricerche e scoperte di Eigen stesso e di altri (come per esempio Thom e Prigogine) che in questi ultimi anni sono al centro dell’attenzione degli scienziati, anche se non sempre sono filtrate al di fuori della loro cerchia. Questa teoria ha come perno la nozione di gioco: e non già in una o più delle innumerevoli accezioni della parola, ma in tutte, con l’aggiunta di una ulteriore accezione che sottende tutte le altre: il gioco come struttura intelligibile emergente dal divenire caotico, quindi come fenomeno «che ha guidato fin dall’inizio il corso dell’Universo». Gioco, in questo libro, è dunque un «fenomeno naturale», non specificamente umano. I giochi che noi tutti giochiamo sono soltanto la schiuma variegata di un flutto...

  8. No evidence for effects of infection with the amphibian chytrid fungus on populations of yellow-bellied toads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Norman; Neubeck, Claus; Guicking, Daniela; Finke, Lennart; Wittich, Martin; Weising, Kurt; Geske, Christian; Veith, Michael

    2017-02-08

    The parasitic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) can cause the lethal disease chytridiomycosis in amphibians and therefore may play a role in population declines. The yellow-bellied toad Bombina variegata suffered strong declines throughout western and northwestern parts of its range and is therefore listed as highly endangered for Germany and the federal state of Hesse. Whether chytridiomycosis may play a role in the observed local declines of this strictly protected anuran species has never been tested. We investigated 19 Hessian yellow-bellied toad populations for Bd infection rates, conducted capture-mark-recapture studies in 4 of them over 2 to 3 yr, examined survival histories of recaptured infected individuals, and tested whether multi-locus heterozygosity of individuals as well as expected heterozygosity and different environmental variables of populations affect probabilities of Bd infection. Our results show high prevalence of Bd infection in Hessian yellow-bellied toad populations, but although significant decreases in 2 populations could be observed, no causative link to Bd as the reason for this can be established. Mass mortalities or obvious signs of disease in individuals were not observed. Conversely, we show that growth of Bd-infected populations is possible under favorable habitat conditions and that most infected individuals could be recaptured with improved body indices. Neither genetic diversity nor environmental variables appeared to affect Bd infection probabilities. Hence, genetically diverse amphibian specimens and populations may not automatically be less susceptible for Bd infection.

  9. Species composition of forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) through space and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremdt, Heike; Amendt, Jens

    2014-03-01

    Weekly monitoring of forensically important flight-active blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) was performed using small baited traps. Sampling took place in two rural, one suburban and two urban habitats in and around Frankfurt (Main), Germany, lasting two years and eight months. Highest values for species richness and Chao-Shen entropy estimator for Shannon's index in both families were found at the urban sites, peaking during summer. Space-time interaction was tested and found to be significant, demonstrating the value of a statistical approach recently developed for community surveys in ecology. K-means partitioning and analysis of indicator species gave significant temporal and habitat associations of particular taxa. Calliphora vicina was an indicator species for lower temperatures without being associated with a particular habitat. Lucilia sericata was an indicator for urban sites, whereas Lucilia ampullacea and Lucilia caesar were indicators for rural sites, supplemented by the less frequent species Calliphora vomitoria. Sarcophagidae were observed during a clearly shorter period of year. Sarcophaga subvicina+Sarcophaga variegata was found to be an indicator for urban habitats during summer as well as Sarcophaga albiceps for rural habitats. A significant association of Sarcophaga caerulescens to rural habitats as well as one of Sarcophaga similis to urban habitats was observed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. First report of canine ocular thelaziosis by Thelazia callipaeda in Portugal

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    Vieira Lisete

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Thelazia callipaeda eyeworms are transmitted by the non-biting insect vector Phortica variegata in Europe and infest the conjunctiva(s of several mammalians, including dogs and humans. Infested hosts might remain asymptomatic or display clinical manifestations characterized by variable degrees of severity. Methods From July to November 2011, nine dogs were detected with eyeworms at two veterinary clinics in Chaves and Bragança (North of Portugal. Nematodes collected from dogs were morphologically and molecularly characterized at species level. Results Nematodes were identified as T. callipaeda. The number of worms collected from each dog ranged from three to 76 (average = 17.9 ± 26.8 and was not associated with the severity of clinical signs. Ocular discharge and conjunctivitis were observed in all dogs and ocular pruritus occurred in six of them. Polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of a portion of target cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene further identified all nematodes as haplotype 1. Conclusions This is the first report of T. callipaeda and associated ocular disease in dogs from Portugal, suggesting that thelaziosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of canine ocular affections. The risk of the infestation spreading from Spain and France to Portugal, through domestic dogs or wild mammals, is realistic.

  11. Ecology of Syllidae (Annelida: Polychaeta from shallow rocky environments in the Cantabrian Sea (South Bay of Biscay

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    Alberto Serrano

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The syllids inhabiting 12 hard bottom macrobenthic habitats were studied. A total of 38 species belonging to 19 genera were identified. Differences in density, species richness, and diversity among habitats were analysed, as well as the relationships between these ecological parameters and depth range, slope and in-bay/out-bay gradient. The effect of environmental variables on syllid distribution was studied using canonical ordination. A high faunistic homogeneity has been found, since all biotopes were dominated by a low number of eurytopic species (Syllis armillaris, S. gracilis and S. variegata. Habitat complexity, determined by physical disturbance, is the main structuring factor in syllid populations. Biotopes with the highest structural complexity displayed a high number of companion species increasing ecological indices and denoting a well-structured habitat. On the other hand, communities such as in upper intertidal habitats, mainly controlled by physical environmental variables, showed a poorer syllid fauna, dominated by ubiquitious species and a few stenotopic species well-adapted to those environments. However, this is not the case in some other intertidal biotopes, such as in Corallina, whose tangled structure prevents drying and provides shelter from predation, allowing a richer and more diverse syllid fauna.

  12. Natural dyes as photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Sancun; Wu, Jihuai; Huang, Yunfang; Lin, Jianming [Institute of Materials Physical Chemistry, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362021 (China)

    2006-02-15

    The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) were assembled by using natural dyes extracted from black rice, capsicum, erythrina variegata flower, rosa xanthina, and kelp as sensitizers. The I{sub SC} from 1.142mA to 0.225mA, the V{sub OC} from 0.551V to 0.412V, the fill factor from 0.52 to 0.63, and P{sub max} from 58{mu}W to 327{mu}W were obtained from the DSC sensitized with natural dye extracts. In the extracts of natural fruit, leaves and flower chosen, the black rice extract performed the best photosensitized effect, which was due to the better interaction between the carbonyl and hydroxyl groups of anthocyanin molecule on black rice extract and the surface of TiO{sub 2} porous film. The blue-shift of absorption wavelength of the black rice extract in ethanol solution on TiO{sub 2} film and the blue-shift phenomenon from absorption spectrum to photoaction spectrum of DSC sensitized with black rice extract are discussed in the paper. Because of the simple preparation technique, widely available and low cheap cost natural dye as an alternative sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cell is promising. (author)

  13. Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida: Thelaziidae): first report in Greece and a case of canine infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakou, Anastasia; Di Cesare, Angela; Tzimoulia, Stavroula; Tzimoulias, Ioannis; Traversa, Donato

    2015-07-01

    The eyeworm Thelazia callipaeda has been reported in different European countries, i.e. Italy, France, Germany, Switzerland, Spain, Portugal, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Romania. The present article describes the first autochthonous case of ocular thelaziosis in a dog from Greece, thus revealing a new spot of infection in Europe. The dog in this case report, most likely infected at the northern borders of Greece, was referred to a private veterinary practice with conjunctivitis, oedema, keratitis, epiphora and mucoid discharge in both eyes. Seventy-seven nematodes were removed from both eyes, and the dog was treated with two subcutaneous injections of ivermectin 14 days apart, in combination with a topical antimicrobial medication. The parasites were morphologically and molecularly identified as T. callipaeda. Although in Greece there is no information about the presence and distribution of the fruit fly Phortica variegata, i.e. the intermediate host of T. callipaeda, the location where the dog was infected is environmentally suitable for its development. The present report of this zoonotic parasitosis indicates that in Greece, along with endemic areas in Spain and Italy, T. callipaeda is currently reaching its southernmost distribution limit in Europe.

  14. Taxonomic notes on some Polyglyptini: descriptions of new genus and new species (Homoptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino M. Sakakibara

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic notes on some Polyglyptini; descriptions of new genus and new species (Homoptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae. The genera Hemiptycha Germar, Metheisa Fowler, Maturnaria Metcalf, Aphetea Fowler, Dioclophara Kirkaldy, and Phormophora Stål, are redescribed; Creonus, gen.n. (type species: Maturna lloydi Funkhouser, 1914, and Aphetea robustula, sp.n. (from Bolivia, are described. Some nomenclatural changes are introduced, as follow: - Hemiptycha Germar, 1833 = Polyrhyssa Stål, 1869, syn.n.: - Hemiptycha cultrata (Coquebert, 1801, comb.n., = Polyglyptodes flavocostatus Haviland, 1925, syn.n., = Polyrhyssa cultrata maculata Fonseca, 1942, syn.n. - Hemiptycha obtecta (Fabricius, 1803 = Hille herbicola Haviland, 1925, syn.n. - Maturnaria ephippigera (Fairmaire, 1846 = Publilia tumulata Buckton, 1903, syn.n., = Metheisa fowleri Funkhouser, 1927, syn.n. - Creonus lloydi (Funkhouser, 1914, comb.n. - Aphetea parvula (Fabricius, 1803, comb.n., = Aphetea affinis Haviland, 1925, syn.n. - Dioclophara Kirkaldy, 1904 = lncolea Goding, 1926, syn.n. - Dioclophara viridula (Fairmaire, 1846 = Maturna multilineata Fonseca, 1942, syn.n. - Dioclophara variegata (Goding, 1926, comb.n. = lncolea viridis Goding, 1926, syn.n. - Phormophora maura (Fabricius, 1803 = Darnis dorsata Fabricius, 1803, syn.n.

  15. Feleucin-BO1: a novel antimicrobial non-apeptide amide from the skin secretion of the toad, Bombina orientalis, and design of a potent broad-spectrum synthetic analogue, feleucin-K3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiaojuan; Du, Qiang; Li, Renjie; Zhou, Mei; Wang, Hui; Wang, Lei; Guo, Can; Chen, Tianbao; Shaw, Chris

    2015-03-01

    Feleucins-BV1 and -BV2 are recently described prototypes of a novel antimicrobial non-apeptide (AMP) family identified in the skin secretion of the bombinid toad, Bombina variegata. They are encoded on different precursors that also encode a novel bombinin. Here we describe the identification of feleucin-BO1 (FLGLLGSLLamide) which is co-encoded with a different novel bombinin, named feleucin precursor-associated bombinin (FPA-bombinin-BO), from the skin secretion of Bombina orientalis. Synthetic feleucin-BO1 displayed activity against a reference Gram-positive bacterium. Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 34 μm) but was inactive (> 250 μm) against the Gram-negative bacterium, Escherichia coli, and the yeast, Candida albicans. This pattern of activity was similar to that of the prototypes. Design and synthesis of a cationicity-enhanced analogue, feleucin-K3 (F-K3), in which the amino acid residues at positions 3 (G), 6 (G) and 7 (S) of feleucin-BO1 were substituted with Lys (K) residues, resulted in a peptide with significantly enhanced potency and spectrum of activity. The MICs of F-K3 against the reference micro-organisms were 7 μm (S. aureus), 14 μm (E. coli) and 7 μm (C. albicans). These data indicate that the skin secretions of amphibians can continue to provide novel peptide templates for the rational design of analogues with possible therapeutic utility. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Radiation therapy of psoriasis and parapsoriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiskemann, A.

    1982-01-01

    Selective UV-Phototherapy with lambda 300-320 nm (SUP) as well as oral photochemotherapy with 8-methoxy-psoralen plus UVA-radiation (PUVA intern) are very effective in clearing the lesions of the generalized psoriasis and those of the chronic forms of parapsoriasis. Being treated with 4 suberythemal doses per week psoriasis patients are free or nearly free of symptoms after averagely 6.3 weeks of SUP-therapy or after 5.3 weeks of PUVA orally. The PUVA-therapy is mainly indicated in pustular, inverse and erythrodermic psoriasis as well as in parapsoriasis en plaques and variegata. In all other forms of psoriasis and in pityriasis lichenoides-chronica, we prefer the SUP-therapy because of less acute or chronic side effects, and because of its better practicability. X-rays are indicated in psoriais of nails, grenz-rays in superficial psoriatic lesions of the face, the armpits, the genitals and the anal region. (orig.) [de

  17. Spatial Distribution and a Retrospective Analysis of the Herpetofauna in the City of Plovdiv, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivelin A. Mollov

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents the contemporary status and distribution of theamphibians and reptiles in the city of Plovdiv. To track changes in the status ofamphibians and reptiles in the research area through time, a retrospective analysis wasmade based on available literary data. During the past 100 years four species ofamphibians (Triturus karelinii, Lissotriton vulgaris, Bombina bombina, B. variegata and fourspecies of reptiles (Coronella austriaca, Zamenis longissimus, Elaphe sauromates, Viperaammodytes probably have disappeared from the study area; one amphibian species (Bufobufo and one reptile (Natrix natrix have not changed their status, one amphibian(Pelobates syriacus and two reptile species (Ablepharus kitaibelii, Podarcis muralis havereduced their localities and four amphibian species (Epidalea viridis, Rana dalmatina,Pelophylax ridibundus, Hyla arborea and seven species of reptiles (Mediodactylus kotschyi,Lacerta trilineata, Lacerta viridis, Podarcis tauricus, Emys orbicularis, Dolichophis caspius,Natrix tessellata have increased their localities and frequency of occurrence. The recordsof the two tortoise species (Testudo hermanni and T. graeca in the city, and the presence ofthe Red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans should be considered as accidental.Important Herpetological Areas (IHA in the study region are also identified.

  18. 'Emerging' mycobacteria in South Africa : review article

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    P.D. Van Helden

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Disease can be caused by various species of the genus Mycobacterium. A number of reports, both published and unpublished, of rarely reported mycobacteria have surfaced in South Africa in the last few years. Some unusual hosts have also been involved, causing concern in some quarters.These include reports on Mycobacterium goodii in a spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta, M. xenopi in a ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata, M. intracellulare in wild-caught chacma baboons (Papio ursinus, the 'dassie bacillus' in free ranging rock hyrax (dassies; Procavia capensis the 'oryx bacillus' from free-ranging buffalo (Syncerus caffer and M. tuberculosis in suricates (Suricata suricatta, a domestic dog and in baboons. In this article it has been attempted to put these in context and show how improved surveillance and technologies have allowed mycobacteria to be identified to species level more easily. Most of the unusual mycobacterial species have most likely been present in the region for many years and have probably caused disease episodes before, but have been misdiagnosed. Each case must be evaluated carefully with respect to the animal species involved, the environment in which the host is found and the mycobacterial species, and operational decisions made accordingly.

  19. Caracterización bromatológica de seis especies forrajeras en el Valle del Cauto, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danis M. Verdecia Acosta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron seis experimentos simultáneos para determinar la composición bromatológica de leguminosas forrajeras en las condiciones edafoclimáticas del Valle del Cauto, Cuba. Se empleó un diseño en bloques al azar con seis réplicas y los tratamientos fueron las edades de rebrote de 60, 120 y 180 días para los árboles y arbustos ( Leucaena leucocephala, Tithonia diversifolia, Gliricidia sepium y Eritrina varie - gata y de 30, 45, 60, 75 y 90 días para las leguminosas rastreras ( Neonotonia wightii y Te - ramnus labialis , en los periodos lluvioso y poco lluvioso. Se determinaron MS, PB, Ca, P, Mg, Si, FND, FAD, LAD, celulosa, hemicelulosa, contenido celular, ceniza, MO, DIVMS, DV, DISMS, DMO, DFND, DFAD y DPB. Se realizaron análisis de conglomerados para agrupar las especies con características simila - res. Durante el periodo lluvioso se encontraron seis grupos y en el poco lluvioso siete grupos; con los mejores resultados, de forma integral, para la Neonotonia wightii, Teramnus labialis, Gliricidia sepium y Tithonia diversifolia , en el periodo lluvioso; y en el poco lluvioso, para Tithonia diversifolia, Gliricidia sepium y Erythri - na variegata a edades tempranas. Se concluye que la edad presentó un marcado efecto en la composición bromatológica al disminuir la calidad en la medida que la madurez avanza.

  20. Botanicals to Control Soft Rot Bacteria of Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from eleven different plant species such as jute (Corchorus capsularis L., cheerota (Swertia chiraita Ham., chatim (Alstonia scholaris L., mander (Erythrina variegata, bael (Aegle marmelos L., marigold (Tagetes erecta, onion (Allium cepa, garlic (Allium sativum L., neem (Azadiracta indica, lime (Citrus aurantifolia, and turmeric (Curcuma longa L. were tested for antibacterial activity against potato soft rot bacteria, E. carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc P-138, under in vitro and storage conditions. Previously, Ecc P-138 was identified as the most aggressive soft rot bacterium in Bangladeshi potatoes. Of the 11 different plant extracts, only extracts from dried jute leaves and cheerota significantly inhibited growth of Ecc P-138 in vitro. Finally, both plant extracts were tested to control the soft rot disease of potato tuber under storage conditions. In a 22-week storage condition, the treated potatoes were significantly more protected against the soft rot infection than those of untreated samples in terms of infection rate and weight loss. The jute leaf extracts showed more pronounced inhibitory effects on Ecc-138 growth both in in vitro and storage experiments.

  1. Orobanchaceae in the

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foley, Michael J.Y.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new Orobanche taxa are described: O. austrohispanica MJ.Y. Foley, and O. crinita Viv. var. occidentalis MJ.Y. Foley. Thirty-one species or subspecies of Orobanche and one species of Cistanche have been confirmed as being present within the Flora iberica área but some others previously recorded appear to have been so erroneously. In addition, Lathraea phelypaea L. {Cistanche phelypaea (L. Cout.] and nine species of Orobanche (O. caryophyllacea Sm., O. cernua Loefl., O. elatior Sutton, O. gracilis Sm., O. ramose L., O. reticulate Wallr., O. rosmarina Beck, O. schultzii Mutel y O. variegata Wallr. are typified.Se describen una especie y una variedad nuevas de Orobanche: O. austrohispanica M J.Y. Foley y O. crinita Viv. var. occidentalis MJ.Y. Foley. Del estudio del material de herbario disponible se concluye que las Orobanchaceae están representadas en el área de Flora iberica por una especie de Cistanche y 31 de Orobanche. Se discuten las citas de varias especies de ambos géneros que han de ser consideradas erróneas o dudosas. Además se tipifican Lathraea phelypaea L. [Cistanche phelypaea (L. Cout.] y nueve especies de Orobanche (O. caryophyllacea Sm., O. cernua Loefl., O. elatior Sutton, O. gracilis Sm., O. ramose L., O. reticulate Wallr., O. rosmarina Beck, O. schultzii Mutel y O. variegate Wallr..

  2. The kinetochore of the Lepidoptera, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeki, Kodo

    1980-01-01

    The chromosomes of Graphium Sarpedon (n, 20) and Eumeta variegata were examined by the acetoorcein squash method. In the equatorial plate of M-2 metaphase, two sister chromatids (rod-type) appeared in linear arrangement. The spindle fibers then gathered to the chromosomal part toward the cell pole, which condensed longwise on the other side. In the second anaphase, the two sister chromatids moved to the opposite poles, they appeared to move toward the pole ends-first. The M-2 metaphase and anaphase were identified only for the chromosomes equipped with the diffuse kinetochore structure. The male larvae of Graphium Sarpedon at the last-instar were irradiated with 800, 1000, 1500 or 2000 R of 60 Co to induce chromosome fragmentation, and killed 18, 21, 24, 27 and 30 hrs after the irradiation. The chromosomal aberration at the meitotic stage after the irradiation of 1500 R and 2000 R was pronounced. Although the normal haploid chromosome number of G. sarpedon is 20, it was found that the irradiated larvae had 21 or 19 chromosomes at the M-1 metaphase. The aberration resulted from chromosomal fusion as well as from fragmentation during meiosis. It was suggested that the induced fragment chromosomes each carry kinetochore. In general, it is considered that the chromosomes of lepidopteran insects were characterized by holokinetic organization. (Kaihara, S.)

  3. Photoinhibition in common atlantic macroalgae measured on site in Gran Canaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häder, D.-P.; Porst, M.; Lebert, M.

    2001-03-01

    The photosynthetic quantum yield was analysed in four common atlantic macroalgae, the Rhodophytes Gelidium arbuscula and Halopithys incurvus and the Phaeophytes Halopteris scoparia and Lobophora variegata in Gran Canaria, Canary Islands at their growth site. The fluorescence parameters were measured using a portable pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometer (PAM 2000) instrument and a diving PAM under water without removing the thalli from their growth sites. Solar radiation was monitored continuously above and under water during the whole experimental period using two three-channel dosimeters (European light dosimeter network; ELDONET) (Real Time Computer, Möhrendorf, Germany). These instruments measure solar radiation in three wavelength ranges, ultraviolet (UV)-A, UV-B and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). In all four algae the effective photosynthetic quantum yield decreased significantly from the optimal values measured after dark adaptation due to exposure to 15 min solar radiation, but at least partially recovered subsequently in the shade within several hours. Increasing the exposure period to 30 min intensified the photoinhibition. In some algae no recovery was observed after this treatment and in others no significant recovery could be detected. Exposure to unfiltered solar radiation caused a significantly higher photoinhibition than PAR-only radiation or PAR plus UV-A. A substantial inhibition was found in all algae at their growth sites in the water column when the sun was at high angles, as measured with the diving PAM.

  4. Patterns of gut bacterial colonization in three primate species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin A McKenney

    Full Text Available Host fitness is impacted by trillions of bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract that facilitate development and are inextricably tied to life history. During development, microbial colonization primes the gut metabolism and physiology, thereby setting the stage for adult nutrition and health. However, the ecological rules governing microbial succession are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the relationship between host lineage, captive diet, and life stage and gut microbiota characteristics in three primate species (infraorder, Lemuriformes. Fecal samples were collected from captive lemur mothers and their infants, from birth to weaning. Microbial DNA was extracted and the v4 region of 16S rDNA was sequenced on the Illumina platform using protocols from the Earth Microbiome Project. Here, we show that colonization proceeds along different successional trajectories in developing infants from species with differing dietary regimes and ecological profiles: frugivorous (fruit-eating Varecia variegata, generalist Lemur catta, and folivorous (leaf-eating Propithecus coquereli. Our analyses reveal community membership and succession patterns consistent with previous studies of human infants, suggesting that lemurs may serve as a useful model of microbial ecology in the primate gut. Each lemur species exhibits distinct species-specific bacterial diversity signatures correlating to life stages and life history traits, implying that gut microbial community assembly primes developing infants at species-specific rates for their respective adult feeding strategies.

  5. Mortandad de aves marinas durante "El Niño 1997-98" en el litoral sur de San Juan de Marcona, Ica -Perú

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    Manuel Apaza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Entre agosto de 1997 y abril de 1998, se evaluó, al sur de la punta guanera de San Juan de Marcona, la mortandad de las poblaciones de aves marinas. Especies de alimentación exclusivamente pelágica y de distribución restringida al ámbito de la Corriente Peruana, como las aves guaneras Pelecanus thagus, Sula variegata y Phalacrocorax bougainvillii, el pingüino Spheniscus humboldti y el zarcillo Larosterna inca, mostraron una correlación significativa en el comportamiento mensual, relacionados con la temperatura superficial del mar y con la ausencia del recurso anchoveta Engraulis ringens durante el evento "El Niño". Otras especies consideradas en el análisis presentaron una mortandad diferente, como la gaviota de Franklin Larus pipixcan y la gaviota gris Larus modestus, en ambos casos, las especies se alimentaron de recursos alternativos, como Calosoma sp. y Emeríta analoga, respectivamente.

  6. Flower garden trees' ability to absorb solar radiation heat for local heat reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulana, Muhammad Ilham; Syuhada, Ahmad; Hamdani

    2017-06-01

    Banda Aceh as an urban area tends to have a high air temperature than its rural surroundings. A simple way to cool Banda Aceh city is by planting urban vegetation such as home gardens or parks. In addition to aesthetics, urban vegetation plays an important role as a reducer of air pollution, oxygen producer, and reducer of the heat of the environment. To create an ideal combination of plants, knowledge about the ability of plants to absorb solar radiation heat is necessary. In this study, some types of flowers commonly grown by communities around the house, such as Michelia Champaka, Saraca Asoka, Oliander, Adenium, Codiaeum Variegatum, Jas Minum Sambac, Pisonia Alba, Variegata, Apium Graveolens, Elephantopus Scaber, Randia, Cordylin.Sp, Hibiscus Rosasinensis, Agave, Lili, Amarilis, and Sesamum Indicum, were examined. The expected benefit of this research is to provide information for people, especially in Banda Aceh, on the ability of each plant relationship in absorbing heat for thermal comfort in residential environments. The flower plant which absorbs most of the sun's heat energy is Hibiscus Rosasinensis (kembang sepatu) 6.2 Joule, Elephantopus Scaber.L (tapak leman) 4.l Joule. On the other hand, the lowest heat absorption is Oliander (sakura) 0.9 Joule.

  7. Response of different populations of seven lady beetle species to lambda-cyhalothrin with record of resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Agna R S; Spindola, Aline F; Torres, Jorge B; Siqueira, Herbert A A; Colares, Felipe

    2013-10-01

    Simultaneous use of biological and chemical controls is a valued and historic goal of integrated pest management, but has rarely been achieved. One explanation for this failure may be the inadequate documentation of field populations of natural enemies for insecticide tolerance or resistance because natural enemies surviving insecticide application do not create problems like resistant pest species. Therefore, this study investigated 31 populations of lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) regarding their susceptibility to lambda-cyhalothrin, a pyrethroid insecticide that is widely used in cotton and other crops to control lepidopteran and coleopteran pests that are not targeted as prey by lady beetles. The study focused on seven coccinellid species common in cotton fields Coleomegilla maculata De Geer, Cycloneda sanguinea (L.), Eriopis connexa Germar, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant), and Brumoides foudrasi (Mulsant) and one lady beetle species [Curinus coeruleus Mulsant] from a non-cotton ecosystem for comparisons. Dose-mortality curves were estimated after topical treatment of adult lady beetles with lambda-cyhalothrin. Statistically significant variations in lady beetle susceptibility were observed between species and between populations of a given species. Seven and eighteen populations of lady beetles exhibited greater values of LD50 and LD90, respectively, than the highest recommended field rate of lambda-cyhalothrin (20g a.i./hectare≈0.2g a.i./L) for cotton fields in Brazil. Furthermore, based on LD50 values, 29 out of 30 tested populations of lady beetles exhibited ratios of relative tolerance varying from 2- to 215-fold compared to the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin to the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boh. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Four populations of E. connexa were 10.5-37.7 times more tolerant than the most susceptible population and thus were considered to be resistant to lambda

  8. Diversidad y abundancia de moluscos de la epifauna en la comunidad sublitoral de Punta Patilla,Venezuela

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    Antulio Prieto A

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la diversidad de una comunidad malacológica sublitoral en Punta Patilla, Estado Sucre, Venezuela, desde septiembre 1990 hasta septiembre 1991. Se identificaron 25 especies, 14 bivalvos y 11 gasterópodos. Los parámetros de diversidad total en número de la comunidad fueron H´=3.41 bits/ind., J´=0.74 y 1-D =0.85. Las máximas diversidades mensuales se observaron en marzo 1991 (3.12 bits/ind., junio 1991 (2.88 bits/ind y septiembre 1991 (2.95 bits/ind. y la mínima ocurrió en agosto 1991 (1.20 bits/ind.. Los datos del número de individuos conforman una línea recta ajustada por la serie logarítmica con un índice alfa =4.56 y alfa =3.11 para los de biomasa. Las especies más abundantes fueron Chione cancellata, Antigona listeri, Chione granulata y Arca zebra entre los bivalvos, y Chicoreus brevifrons, Turritella variegata y Phyllonotus pomum entre los gasterópodos, estos presentaron las máximas biomasas individuales. La biomasa total promedio de la comunidad (56.80 g/m² es baja cuando se compara con otros reportes de áreas tropicales. Los moluscos habitaron fondos de grava y arenofangoso cubiertos por praderas de Thalasia testudinumDiversity and abundance of mollusks in the sublittoral epifaunal community of Punta Patilla, Venezuela. The diversity of a sublittoral epifaunal mollusk community of Punta Patilla, Sucre State, Venezuela, was studied from September 1990 to September 1991. We identified 25 species (14 bivalves and 11 gastropods of mollusks that inhabit gravel, soft sand and bottoms covered by Thalassia testudinum.Total diversity indices were H´= 3.42, J´= 0.74 and 1-D = 0.85. Monthly diversity reached its maximum in March 1991 (3.12 bits/ ind., June 1991 (2.88 bits/ind. and September 1991 (2.95 bits/ind.; minimum diversity was recorded in August 1991 (1.20 bits/ind..A log series model showed a diversity index alpha = 4.56 for species abundance data and alpha = 3.11 for biomass data. The more abundant species were

  9. Iron ore particles on four seaweed species from Camburi Beach (Espírito Santo state, Brazil

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    Cristina Aparecida Gomes Nassar

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study estimated the iron-ore concentration found on four species of seaweed. The species tested grow on a site heavily contaminated by this ore, in the city of Vitória, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Under natural conditions, the iron ore reached a temperature 5.0ºC higher than the sand on a sunny day. All the species had iron ore adhered to their fronds. Udotea cyathiformis was the species with the highest iron-ore concentration varing from 0.07 to 0.90 g wet weight, followed by Lobophora variegata (from 0.07 to 0.62 g wet weight, Padina gymnospora (from 0.08 to 0.55 g wet weight and Ulva fasciata (from 0.05 to 0.25 g wet weight. Even after four changes of water over a 12-hour period, the fronds still had particles adhered to their outside cell wall. All the species showed similar tendencies to release the iron, with the highest percentage of particles (40 to 60% released in the first change of water.Minério de ferro particulado sobre quatro macroalgas da Praia de Camburi (Estado do Espírito Santo-Brasil. O presente trabalho determinou a concentração de minério de ferro presente em quatro macroalgas. As espécies testadas ocorrem em um local extremamente contaminado por este particulado, na cidade de Vitória, Estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil. Sob condições naturais, o minério de ferro alcançou um temperatura de até 5,0ºC acima da temperatura da areia em um dia ensolarado.Todas as espécies estudadas apresentavam minério em suas paredes externas. A espécie Udotea cyathiformis apresentou a maior concentração de minério em sua fronde variando de 0,07 a 0,90 g massa úmida, seguida por Lobophora variegata (de 0,07 a 0,62 g massa úmida, Padina gymnospora (de 0,08 a 0,55 g massa úmida e Ulva fasciata (de 0,05 a 0,25 g massa úmida. Mesmo após sucessivas trocas de água, as frondes ainda apresentavam partículas aderidas às suas paredes celulares externas. As espécies apresentaram a mesma tendência de libera

  10. Reliability of different mark-recapture methods for population size estimation tested against reference population sizes constructed from field data.

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    Annegret Grimm

    Full Text Available Reliable estimates of population size are fundamental in many ecological studies and biodiversity conservation. Selecting appropriate methods to estimate abundance is often very difficult, especially if data are scarce. Most studies concerning the reliability of different estimators used simulation data based on assumptions about capture variability that do not necessarily reflect conditions in natural populations. Here, we used data from an intensively studied closed population of the arboreal gecko Gehyra variegata to construct reference population sizes for assessing twelve different population size estimators in terms of bias, precision, accuracy, and their 95%-confidence intervals. Two of the reference populations reflect natural biological entities, whereas the other reference populations reflect artificial subsets of the population. Since individual heterogeneity was assumed, we tested modifications of the Lincoln-Petersen estimator, a set of models in programs MARK and CARE-2, and a truncated geometric distribution. Ranking of methods was similar across criteria. Models accounting for individual heterogeneity performed best in all assessment criteria. For populations from heterogeneous habitats without obvious covariates explaining individual heterogeneity, we recommend using the moment estimator or the interpolated jackknife estimator (both implemented in CAPTURE/MARK. If data for capture frequencies are substantial, we recommend the sample coverage or the estimating equation (both models implemented in CARE-2. Depending on the distribution of catchabilities, our proposed multiple Lincoln-Petersen and a truncated geometric distribution obtained comparably good results. The former usually resulted in a minimum population size and the latter can be recommended when there is a long tail of low capture probabilities. Models with covariates and mixture models performed poorly. Our approach identified suitable methods and extended options to

  11. Assessing the herbivore role of the sea-urchin Echinometra viridis: Keys to determine the structure of communities in disturbed coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangil, Carlos; Guzman, Hector M

    2016-09-01

    Echinometra viridis previously was considered a cryptic species unable to control the development and growth of macroalgae on coral reefs. Its role as a herbivore was seen as minor compared to other grazers present on the reef. However, the present disturbed state of some reefs has highlighted the role played by this sea-urchin. Combining field data with experiments on the Caribbean coast of Panama, we demonstrate that the current community organization on disturbed coral reefs in the Mesoamerican Caribbean is largely due to the action of E. viridis. It is the most abundant sea-urchin species, together with two others (Diadema antillarum and Echinometra lucunter). Field data also indicate that the relationship between its density and the abundance of macroalgae is stronger and it is more negative in impact than those of the other two. However, the niche this urchin exploits most efficiently is confined to leeward reefs with low levels of sedimentation. Outside these habitats, their populations are not decisive in controlling macroalgal growth. Grazing experiments showed that E. viridis consumes more fresh macroalgae per day and per weight of sea-urchin, and is a more effective grazer than D. antillarum or E. lucunter. E. viridis showed food preferences for early-successional turf macroalgae (Acanthophora spicifera), avoiding the less palatable late-successional and fleshy macroalgae (Lobophora variegata, Halimeda opuntia). However, it becomes a generalist herbivore feeding on all varieties of macroalgae when resources are scarce. H. opuntia is the macroalga that most resists E. viridis activity, which may explain its wide distribution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sight or scent: lemur sensory reliance in detecting food quality varies with feeding ecology.

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    Julie Rushmore

    Full Text Available Visual and olfactory cues provide important information to foragers, yet we know little about species differences in sensory reliance during food selection. In a series of experimental foraging studies, we examined the relative reliance on vision versus olfaction in three diurnal, primate species with diverse feeding ecologies, including folivorous Coquerel's sifakas (Propithecus coquereli, frugivorous ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata spp, and generalist ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta. We used animals with known color-vision status and foods for which different maturation stages (and hence quality produce distinct visual and olfactory cues (the latter determined chemically. We first showed that lemurs preferentially selected high-quality foods over low-quality foods when visual and olfactory cues were simultaneously available for both food types. Next, using a novel apparatus in a series of discrimination trials, we either manipulated food quality (while holding sensory cues constant or manipulated sensory cues (while holding food quality constant. Among our study subjects that showed relatively strong preferences for high-quality foods, folivores required both sensory cues combined to reliably identify their preferred foods, whereas generalists could identify their preferred foods using either cue alone, and frugivores could identify their preferred foods using olfactory, but not visual, cues alone. Moreover, when only high-quality foods were available, folivores and generalists used visual rather than olfactory cues to select food, whereas frugivores used both cue types equally. Lastly, individuals in all three of the study species predominantly relied on sight when choosing between low-quality foods, but species differed in the strength of their sensory biases. Our results generally emphasize visual over olfactory reliance in foraging lemurs, but we suggest that the relative sensory reliance of animals may vary with their feeding ecology.

  13. Evaluation of relationships between growth rate, tree size, lignocellulose composition and enzymatic saccharification in interspecific Corymbia hybrids and parental taxa.

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    Adam L Healey

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In order for a lignocellulosic bioenergy feedstock to be considered sustainable, it must possess a high rate of growth to supply biomass for conversion. Despite the desirability of a fast growth rate for industrial application, it is unclear what effect growth rate has on biomass composition or saccharification. We characterized Klason lignin, glucan, and xylan content with response to growth in Corymbia interspecific F1 hybrid families (HF and parental species C. torelliana (CT and C. citriodora subspecies variegata (CCV and measured the effects on enzymatic hydrolysis from hydrothermally pretreated biomass. Analysis of biomass composition within Corymbia populations found similar amounts of Klason lignin content (19.7-21.3% among parental and hybrid populations, whereas glucan content was clearly distinguished within CCV (52% and HF148 (60% as compared to other populations (28-38%. Multiple linear regression indicates that biomass composition is significantly impacted by tree size measured at the same age, with Klason lignin content increasing with diameter breast height (DBH (+0.12% per cm DBH increase, and glucan and xylan typically decreasing per DBH cm increase (-0.7% and -0.3%, respectively. Polysaccharide content within CCV and HF-148 were not significantly affected by tree size. High-throughput enzymatic saccharification of hydrothermally pretreated biomass found significant differences among Corymbia populations for total glucose production from biomass, with parental CT and hybrids HF-148 and HF-51 generating the highest amounts of glucose (~180 mg/g biomass, respectively, with HF-51 undergoing the most efficient glucan-to-glucose conversion (74%. Based on growth rate, biomass composition, and further optimization of enzymatic saccharification yield, high production Corymbia hybrid trees are potentially suitable for fast-rotation bioenergy or biomaterial production.

  14. Atividade antimicrobiana in vitro de extratos de plantas do bioma caatinga em isolados de Escherichia coli de suínos

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    A.W.C FERNANDES

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A suinocultura é uma atividade pecuária bem consolidada no Brasil. Por outro lado a colibacilose neonatal, cujo patógeno é Escherichia coli, pode diminuir a produtividade nas granjas e causar prejuízos aos produtores. O tratamento baseia-se na utilização de drogas antimicrobianas. Todavia, o uso indiscriminado dessas substâncias tem levado a seleção de cepas resistentes. Diante disso, a busca por alternativas terapêuticas, como as plantas medicinais, tem se tornado cada vez mais comum. Dessa maneira, objetivou-se determinar a atividade antimicrobiana de cinco extratos etanólicos de plantas do bioma caatinga: Amburana cearensis (Fr. Allem A.C. Smith, Encholirium spectabile Mart., Hymenaea courbaril L, Neoglaziovia variegata Mez e Selaginella convoluta Spring frente a 43 isolados de Eschericha coli coletados de suínos. Para o teste de sensibilidade in vitro foi realizada a técnica da Concentração Bactericida Mínima (CBM pelo método da microdiluição em microplaca. Os extratos apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana nas seguintes médias 138,75 175,28, 128,36, 127,71 e 129,33 μg/mL, respectivamente. Essa atividade antibacteriana pode estar relacionada a ação de metabólitos secundários presentes nos extratos dessas plantas. Dessa forma, nosso estudo pode contribuir para o desenvolvimento de alternativas terapêuticas no tratamento de infecções, como a colibacilose neonatal em suíno, bem como para o conhecimento acerca das plantas medicinais da Caatinga.

  15. Doom and boom on a resilient reef: climate change, algal overgrowth and coral recovery.

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    Guillermo Diaz-Pulido

    Full Text Available Coral reefs around the world are experiencing large-scale degradation, largely due to global climate change, overfishing, diseases and eutrophication. Climate change models suggest increasing frequency and severity of warming-induced coral bleaching events, with consequent increases in coral mortality and algal overgrowth. Critically, the recovery of damaged reefs will depend on the reversibility of seaweed blooms, generally considered to depend on grazing of the seaweed, and replenishment of corals by larvae that successfully recruit to damaged reefs. These processes usually take years to decades to bring a reef back to coral dominance.In 2006, mass bleaching of corals on inshore reefs of the Great Barrier Reef caused high coral mortality. Here we show that this coral mortality was followed by an unprecedented bloom of a single species of unpalatable seaweed (Lobophora variegata, colonizing dead coral skeletons, but that corals on these reefs recovered dramatically, in less than a year. Unexpectedly, this rapid reversal did not involve reestablishment of corals by recruitment of coral larvae, as often assumed, but depended on several ecological mechanisms previously underestimated.These mechanisms of ecological recovery included rapid regeneration rates of remnant coral tissue, very high competitive ability of the corals allowing them to out-compete the seaweed, a natural seasonal decline in the particular species of dominant seaweed, and an effective marine protected area system. Our study provides a key example of the doom and boom of a highly resilient reef, and new insights into the variability and mechanisms of reef resilience under rapid climate change.

  16. Use of social information in seabirds: compass rafts indicate the heading of food patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimerskirch, Henri; Bertrand, Sophie; Silva, Jaime; Marques, Jose Carlos; Goya, Elisa

    2010-03-29

    Ward and Zahavi suggested in 1973 that colonies could serve as information centres, through a transfer of information on the location of food resources between unrelated individuals (Information Centre Hypothesis). Using GPS tracking and observations on group movements, we studied the search strategy and information transfer in two of the most colonial seabirds, Guanay cormorants (Phalacrocorax bougainvillii) and Peruvian boobies (Sula variegata). Both species breed together and feed on the same prey. They do return to the same feeding zone from one trip to the next indicating high unpredictability in the location of food resources. We found that the Guanay cormorants use social information to select their bearing when departing the colony. They form a raft at the sea surface whose position is continuously adjusted to the bearing of the largest returning columns of cormorants. As such, the raft serves as a compass signal that gives an indication on the location of the food patches. Conversely, Peruvian boobies rely mainly on personal information based on memory to take heading at departure. They search for food patches solitarily or in small groups through network foraging by detecting the white plumage of congeners visible at long distance. Our results show that information transfer does occur and we propose a new mechanism of information transfer based on the use of rafts off colonies. The use of rafts for information transfer may be common in central place foraging colonial seabirds that exploit short lasting and/or unpredictably distributed food patches. Over the past decades Guanay cormorants have declined ten times whereas Peruvian boobies have remained relatively stable. We suggest that the decline of the cormorants could be related to reduced social information opportunities and that social behaviour and search strategies have the potential to play an important role in the population dynamics of colonial animals.

  17. Use of social information in seabirds: compass rafts indicate the heading of food patches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Weimerskirch

    Full Text Available Ward and Zahavi suggested in 1973 that colonies could serve as information centres, through a transfer of information on the location of food resources between unrelated individuals (Information Centre Hypothesis. Using GPS tracking and observations on group movements, we studied the search strategy and information transfer in two of the most colonial seabirds, Guanay cormorants (Phalacrocorax bougainvillii and Peruvian boobies (Sula variegata. Both species breed together and feed on the same prey. They do return to the same feeding zone from one trip to the next indicating high unpredictability in the location of food resources. We found that the Guanay cormorants use social information to select their bearing when departing the colony. They form a raft at the sea surface whose position is continuously adjusted to the bearing of the largest returning columns of cormorants. As such, the raft serves as a compass signal that gives an indication on the location of the food patches. Conversely, Peruvian boobies rely mainly on personal information based on memory to take heading at departure. They search for food patches solitarily or in small groups through network foraging by detecting the white plumage of congeners visible at long distance. Our results show that information transfer does occur and we propose a new mechanism of information transfer based on the use of rafts off colonies. The use of rafts for information transfer may be common in central place foraging colonial seabirds that exploit short lasting and/or unpredictably distributed food patches. Over the past decades Guanay cormorants have declined ten times whereas Peruvian boobies have remained relatively stable. We suggest that the decline of the cormorants could be related to reduced social information opportunities and that social behaviour and search strategies have the potential to play an important role in the population dynamics of colonial animals.

  18. Illegal captive lemurs in Madagascar: Comparing the use of online and in-person data collection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Kim E; Schaefer, Melissa S

    2017-11-01

    Although it is illegal to capture, sell, and trade lemurs, the live capture of lemurs in Madagascar is ongoing and may have impacted over 28,000 lemurs between 2010 and 2013. Only one study has examined this trade and did so using in-person interviews in northern Madagascar. The current study sought to expand this existing dataset and examine the comparability of online surveys to more traditional on-location data collection methods. In this study, we collected data through a web-based survey resulting in 302 sightings of 685 captive lemurs. We also collected data from 171 hotel and 43 restaurant websites and social media profiles. Survey submissions included sightings of 30 species from 10 genera, nearly twice as many species as identified via the in-person interviews. Lemur catta, Varecia variegata, and Eulemur fulvus were the most common species sighted in captivity. Captive lemurs were reported in 19 of Madagascar's 22 administrative regions and most were seen in urban areas near their habitat ranges. This represents a wider geographic distribution of captive lemurs than previously found through in-person interviews. The online survey results were broadly similar to those of the in-person surveys though greater in species and geographic diversity demonstrating advantages to the use of online surveys. The online research methods were low in cost (USD $100) compared to on-location data collection (USD $12,000). Identified disadvantages included sample bias; most of the respondents to the online survey were researchers and many captive sightings were near study sites. The results illustrate the benefits of incorporating a social science approach using online surveys as a complement to traditional fieldwork. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22541, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Antimicrobial potential of ethanol extracts of plants against gramnegative bacilli isolated from cervicovaginal mucosa of sheep bred in the region of Petrolina-PE

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    Valdenice Félix da Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive tract infections are the main causes of losses from the low reproductive efficiency of sheep. Gram negative bacilli belonging to the normal flora of the genital region can trigger diseases. The pathogenicity of these agents is expressed when females are with weakened immune system, either by food or stress management. Flaws in and concern about antibiotic residues in animal production have prompted research regarding alternatives for the treatment of diseases. The herbal medicine hás been considered in this context is the subject of numerous studies. This study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial potential of ethanol extracts of plants belonging to the flora of the Northeast against gram negative bacilli isolated from cervical-vaginal mucosa of sheep. Six plants were selected from Caatinga biome: Encholirium spectabile, Bromelia laciniosa, Neoglaziovia variegata, Amburana cearensis Hymenaea martiana and Selaginella convoluta. The plant material was processed to obtain the crude extract. This was tested by microdilution plate and determining the minimum bactericidal concentration, the second document of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI and the extracts diluted in water and alcohol. We used 43 gram negative isolates, as follows: 14 E. coli, 10 Enterobacter spp., 10 Acinetobacter spp. 9 and Klebsiella spp. In the aqueous dilution Klebsiella spp. showed response only to species B. laciniosa, S. convoluta and H. martiana. All tested extracts showed antibacterial activity against Acinetobacter spp and no activity against E. coli and Enterobacter spp. Among the extracts diluted in water H. martiana showed the highest antibacterial activity. In all dilution alcoholic extracts showed inhibitory activity against all bacterial genera, but no statistical difference between them.

  20. Mercury in aquatic forage of large herbivores: impact of environmental conditions, assessment of health threats, and implications for transfer across ecosystem compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Brenda Gail; Bump, Joseph K

    2014-05-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a leading contaminant across U.S. water bodies, warranting concern for wildlife species that depend upon food from aquatic systems. The risk of Hg toxicity to large herbivores is little understood, even though some large herbivores consume aquatic vascular plants (macrophytes) that may hyper-accumulate Hg. We investigated whether total Hg and methylmercury (MeHg) in aquatic forage may be of concern to moose (Alces alces) and beaver (Castor canadensis) by measuring total Hg and MeHg concentrations, calculating sediment-water bioconcentration factors for macrophyte species these herbivores consume, and estimating herbivore daily Hg consumption. Abiotic factors impacting macrophyte Hg were assessed, as was the difference in Hg concentrations of macrophytes from glacial lakes and those created or expanded by beaver damming. The amount of aquatic-derived Hg that moose move from aquatic to terrestrial systems was calculated, in order to investigate the potential for movement of Hg across ecosystem compartments by large herbivores. Results indicate that the Hg exposure of generalist herbivores may be affected by macrophyte community composition more so than by many abiotic factors in the aquatic environment. Mercury concentrations varied greatly between macrophyte species, with relatively high concentrations in Utricularia vulgaris (>80 ng g(-1) in some sites), and negligible concentrations in Nuphar variegata (~6 ng g(-1)). Macrophyte total Hg concentration was correlated with water pH in predictable ways, but not with other variables generally associated with aquatic Hg concentrations, such as dissolved organic carbon. Moose estimated daily consumption of MeHg is equivalent to or below human reference levels, and far below wildlife reference levels. However, estimated beaver Hg consumption exceeds reference doses for humans, indicating the potential for sub-lethal nervous impairment. In regions of high moose density, moose may be ecologically important

  1. Is thermoregulation really unimportant for tropical reptiles? Comparative study of four sympatric snake species from Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiselli, Luca; Akani, Godfrey C.

    2002-05-01

    Most of the studies concerning the thermal and reproductive relationships of snakes have been conducted in temperate regions, whereas very few data are available for African tropical species. In the present study, aspects of the comparative thermal and reproductive ecology of four sympatric freshwater snakes from tropical Africa (the colubrids Natriciteres fuliginoides, N. variegata, Afronatrix anoscopus, and Grayia smythii) are studied with emphasis on exploring whether their thermal ecology relations with reproduction biology may indicate a substantial influence of thermoregulation on their life-history traits (as shown in several studies from temperate-zone reptiles), or whether thermoregulatory biology is less important in tropical reptiles (as suggested in some recent experimental studies). The present study showed that, with minor species-specific differences, thermoregulation certainly has some relevance for the activity and life-history attributes of the studied species, as (i) the females tended to show body temperatures inversely related to their size (snout-vent length), and (ii) gravid specimens tended to maintain higher body temperatures than non-gravid specimens. However, other sets of our data (e.g., the high and constant Tb exhibited during night-time) strongly indicate that these four species of tropical water snakes can maintain high and stable Tb with little overt thermoregulatory behaviour. As is the rule in most of the other snake species studied to date, the maternal size of the females strongly influenced the number of eggs produced, and testifies that reproductive biology models linking reproductive performance to thermal ecology, highlighted in other snakes from temperate and cool regions, may well apply at least to some extent also to these Afrotropical species.

  2. Screening of potential medicinal plants from District Sawat specific for controlling women diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwat, A.; Shinwari, Z.K.; Ahmad, N.

    2012-01-01

    Ethnobotany provides a scientific rationale to identify medicinally important plant species, especially for finding new drugs that play vital role in the treatment of different diseases. This ethnobotanical survey of Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) was carried out to identify medicinally important plant species that are traditionally used to treat gynecological disorders and infectious diseases, and to study their antimicrobial potential against pathogens that cause infections in females. The antimicrobial activities were investigated using the well diffusion method against four different bacterial strains and one fungal strain. Results showed that out of 12 plants studied, seven plants exhibited inhibitory effects against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Woodfordia fruticosa, Quercus dilatata, Erythrina variegata, Ficus religiosa and Berberis lycium showed high antifungal activity against C. albicans with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 2.5, 1.25, 0.625, 1.25, 0.3125 mg/ml and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of 5, 2.5, 1.25, 2.5, 0.625 mg/ml, respectively. Both Woodfordia fruticosa and Quercus dilatata showed antimicrobial potential against E. coli and K. pneumoniae with similar MIC values of 2.5 mg/ml and MBC values of 5 mg/ml. Plants exhibiting inhibitory potential against S. aureus were Woodfordia fruticosa, Quercus dilatata, Azadirachta indica and Curcuma longa and all of them possessed similar MIC values of 5 mg/ml and MBC values of 2.5 mg/ml, respectively. None of the plants showed antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Proximate analysis showed that in comparative assessment of the various species, Zanthoxylum alatum had the highest fat and energy values. (author)

  3. Demographic responses to weather fluctuations are context dependent in a long-lived amphibian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayuela, Hugo; Arsovski, Dragan; Thirion, Jean-Marc; Bonnaire, Eric; Pichenot, Julian; Boitaud, Sylvain; Miaud, Claude; Joly, Pierre; Besnard, Aurélien

    2016-08-01

    Weather fluctuations have been demonstrated to affect demographic traits in many species. In long-lived organisms, their impact on adult survival might be buffered by the evolution of traits that reduce variation in interannual adult survival. For example, skipping breeding is an effective behavioral mechanism that may limit yearly variation in adult survival when harsh weather conditions occur; however, this in turn would likely lead to strong variation in recruitment. Yet, only a few studies to date have examined the impact of weather variation on survival, recruitment and breeding probability simultaneously in different populations of the same species. To fill this gap, we studied the impact of spring temperatures and spring rainfall on survival, on reproductive skipping behavior and on recruitment in five populations of a long-lived amphibian, the yellow-bellied toad (Bombina variegata). Based on capture-recapture data, our findings demonstrate that survival depends on interactions between age, population and weather variation. Varying weather conditions in the spring result in strong variation in the survival of immature toads, whereas they have little effect on adult toads. Breeding probability depends on both the individual's previous reproductive status and on the weather conditions during the current breeding season, leading to high interannual variation in recruitment. Crucially, we found that the impact of weather variation on demographic traits is largely context dependent and may thus differ sharply between populations. Our results suggest that studies predicting the impact of climate change on population dynamics should be taken with caution when the relationship between climate and demographic traits is established using only one population or few populations. We therefore highly recommend further research that includes surveys replicated in a substantial number of populations to account for context-dependent variation in demographic processes.

  4. Single-limb force data for two lemur species while vertically clinging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Laura E; Hanna, Jandy; Schmitt, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Vertical clinging and climbing have been integral to hypotheses about primate origins, yet little is known about how an animal with nails instead of claws resists gravity while on large, vertical, and cylindrical substrates. Here we test models of how force is applied to maintain posture, predicting (1) the shear component force (Fs ) at the hands will be higher than the feet; (2) the normal component force (Fn ) at the feet will be relatively high compared to the hands; (3) the component force resisting gravity (Fg ) at the feet will be relatively high compared to the hands; (4) species with a high frequency of vertical clinging postures will have low Fg at the hands due to relatively short forelimbs. Using a novel instrumented support, single-limb force data were collected during clinging postures for the hands and feet and compared across limbs and species for Propithecus verreauxi (N = 2), a habitual vertical clinger and leaper, and Varecia variegata (N = 3), a habitual above-branch arboreal quadruped. For both species, hand Fs were significantly higher than at the feet and Fn and Fg at the feet were significantly higher than at the hands. Between species, P. verreauxi has relatively low Fg at the hands and Fn at the feet than V. vareigata. These results support previous models and show that hindlimb loading dominance, characteristic of primate locomotion, is found during clinging behaviors and may allow the forelimbs to be used for foraging while clinging. These findings provide insight into selective pressures on force distribution in primates and primate locomotor evolution. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Non-human primates avoid the detrimental effects of prenatal androgen exposure in mixed-sex litters: combined demographic, behavioral, and genetic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Brenda J; Snowdon, Charles T; McGrew, William C; Lawler, Richard R; Guevara, Elaine E; McIntosh, Annick; O'Connor, Timothy

    2016-12-01

    Producing single versus multiple births has important life history trade-offs, including the potential benefits and risks of sharing a common in utero environment. Sex hormones can diffuse through amniotic fluid and fetal membranes, and females with male littermates risk exposure to high levels of fetal testosterone, which are shown to have masculinizing effects and negative fitness consequences in many mammals. Whereas most primates give birth to single offspring, several New World monkey and strepsirrhine species regularly give birth to small litters. We examined whether neonatal testosterone exposure might be detrimental to females in mixed-sex litters by compiling data from long-term breeding records for seven primate species (Saguinus oedipus; Varecia variegata, Varecia rubra, Microcebus murinis, Mirza coquereli, Cheirogaleus medius, Galago moholi). Litter sex ratios did not differ from the expected 1:2:1 (MM:MF:FF for twins) and 1:2:2:1 (MMM:MMF:MFF:FFF for triplets). Measures of reproductive success, including female survivorship, offspring-survivorship, and inter-birth interval, did not differ between females born in mixed-sex versus all-female litters, indicating that litter-producing non-human primates, unlike humans and rodents, show no signs of detrimental effects from androgen exposure in mixed sex litters. Although we found no evidence for CYP19A1 gene duplications-a hypothesized mechanism for coping with androgen exposure-aromatase protein evolution shows patterns of convergence among litter-producing taxa. That some primates have effectively found a way to circumvent a major cost of multiple births has implications for understanding variation in litter size and life history strategies across mammals. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. PAROLE, LINGUE E ALFABETI NELLA CLASSE MULTICULTURALE

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    Graziella Favaro

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Il bilinguismo è soprattutto un’opportunità e una ricchezza perché la padronanza di due lingue amplia le frontiere delle possibilità e il mondo si allarga di conseguenza. Ma che cosa succede quando in epoche diverse della vita – nella prima infanzia, nell’infanzia o nell’adolescenza – a causa del viaggio di migrazione, una nuova lingua entra a far parte del patrimonio linguistico dei bambini? Quali rapporti profondi  di concorrenza, conflitto, complementarietà, integrazione  si stabiliscono tra i due codici, tra i diversi significati e i significanti? E se la lingua madre diventa improvvisamente muta e una nuova lingua sostituisce quella originaria, quali cambiamenti e perdite si verificano nella vita emotiva dei bambini venuti da lontano? Sono queste alcune delle domande a cui il contributo si propone di rispondere, analizzando la condizione bilingue  variegata e molteplice  degli alunni stranieri in Italia e presentando alcuni progetti significativi e materiali innovativi per valorizzare la pluralità linguistica della classe.WORDS, LANGUAGES AND ALPHABETS IN THE MULTICULTURAL CLASSROOMBilingualism is above all an opportunity and a richness, since mastering two languages creates greater possibilities and the world expands as a consequence. But what happens in different stages of life- in childhood or adolescence- due to migration, when a new language becomes part of a child’s heritage? What profound relationships –competition, conflict, complementarity, integration- are established between the two codes, between different meanings and signifiers? And if the new language renders the mother tongue mute, what changes and losses take place in the emotional sphere of migrant children? These are a few of the questions which the paper attempts to answer, by analyzing the varied and multifaceted bilingual condition of foreign students in Italy. The paper presents a few important projects and innovative materials to give

  7. Plant Extract Synthesized PLA Nanoparticles for Controlled and Sustained Release of Quercetin: A Green Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Background Green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) has been extensively carried out by using plant extracts (PEs) which have property of stabilizers/ emulsifiers. To our knowledge, there is no comprehensive study on applying a green approach using PEs for fabrication of biodegradable PLA NPs. Conventional methods rely on molecules like polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol, D-alpha-tocopheryl poly(ethylene glycol 1000) succinate as stabilizers/emulsifiers for the synthesis of such biodegradable NPs which are known to be toxic. So, there is urgent need to look for stabilizers which are biogenic and non-toxic. The present study investigated use of PEs as stabilizers/emulsifiers for the fabrication of stable PLA NPs. Synthesized PLA NPs through this green process were explored for controlled release of the well known antioxidant molecule quercetin. Methodology/Principal Findings Stable PLA NPs were synthesized using leaf extracts of medicinally important plants like Syzygium cumini (1), Bauhinia variegata (2), Cedrus deodara (3), Lonicera japonica (4) and Eleaocarpus sphaericus (5). Small and uniformly distributed NPs in the size range 70±30 nm to 143±36 nm were formed with these PEs. To explore such NPs for drugs/ small molecules delivery, we have successfully encapsulated quercetin a lipophilic molecule on a most uniformly distributed PLA-4 NPs synthesized using Lonicera japonica leaf extract. Quercetin loaded PLA-4 NPs were observed for slow and sustained release of quercetin molecule. Conclusions This green approach based on PEs mediated synthesis of stable PLA NPs pave the way for encapsulating drug/small molecules, nutraceuticals and other bioactive ingredients for safer cellular uptake, biodistribution and targeted delivery. Hence, such PEs synthesized PLA NPs would be useful to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of encapsulated small molecules/drugs. Furthermore, different types of plants can be explored for the synthesis of PLA as well as other

  8. Influence of cover crops on insect pests and predators in conservation tillage cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Glynn; Schomberg, Harry; Phatak, Sharad; Mullinix, Benjamin; Lachnicht, Sharon; Timper, Patricia; Olson, Dawn

    2004-08-01

    In fall 2000, an on-farm sustainable agricultural research project was established for cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., in Tift County, Georgia. The objective of our 2-yr research project was to determine the impact of several cover crops on pest and predator insects in cotton. The five cover crop treatments included 1) cereal rye, Secale cereale L., a standard grass cover crop; 2) crimson clover, Trifolium incarnatum L., a standard legume cover crop; 3) a legume mixture of balansa clover, Trifolium michelianum Savi; crimson clover; and hairy vetch, Vicia villosa Roth; 4) a legume mixture + rye combination; and 5) no cover crop in conventionally tilled fields. Three main groups or species of pests were collected in cover crops and cotton: 1) the heliothines Heliothis virescens (F.) and Helicoverpa zea (Boddie); 2) the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois); and 3) stink bugs. The main stink bugs collected were the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.); the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say); and the green stink bug, Acrosternum hilare (Say). Cotton aphids, Aphis gossypii Glover, were collected only on cotton. For both years of the study, the heliothines were the only pests that exceeded their economic threshold in cotton, and the number of times this threshold was exceeded in cotton was higher in control cotton than in crimson clover and rye cotton. Heliothine predators and aphidophagous lady beetles occurred in cover crops and cotton during both years of the experiment. Geocoris punctipes (Say), Orius insidiosus (Say), and red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren were relatively the most abundant heliothine predators observed. Lady beetles included the convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville; the sevenspotted lady beetle, Coccinella septempunctata L.; spotted lady beetle, Coleomegilla maculata (DeGeer); and the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas). Density of G. punctipes was

  9. Algal growth and species composition under experimental control of herbivory, phosphorus and coral abundance in Glovers Reef, Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClanahan, T R; Cokos, B A; Sala, E

    2002-06-01

    The proliferation of algae on disturbed coral reefs has often been attributed to (1) a loss of large-bodied herbivorous fishes, (2) increases in sea water nutrient concentrations, particularly phosphorus, and (3) a loss of hard coral cover or a combination of these and other factors. We performed replicated small-scale caging experiments in the offshore lagoon of Glovers Reef atoll, Belize where three treatments had closed-top (no large-bodied herbivores) and one treatment had open-top cages (grazing by large-bodied herbivores). Closed-top treatments simulated a reduced-herbivory situation, excluding large fishes but including small herbivorous fishes such as damselfishes and small parrotfishes. Treatments in the closed-top cages included the addition of high phosphorus fertilizer, live branches of Acropora cervicornis and a third unmanipulated control treatment. Colonization, algal biomass and species composition on dead A. palmata "plates" were studied weekly for 50 days in each of the four treatments. Fertilization doubled the concentration of phosphorus from 0.35 to 0.77 microM. Closed-top cages, particularly the fertilizer and A. cervicornis additions, attracted more small-bodied parrotfish and damselfish than the open-top cages such that there was moderate levels of herbivory in closed-top cages. The open-top cages did, however, have a higher abundance of the chemically and morphologically defended erect algal species including Caulerpa cupressoides, Laurencia obtusa, Dictyota menstrualis and Lobophora variegata. The most herbivore-resistant calcareous green algae (i.e. Halimeda) were, however, uncommon in all treatments. Algal biomass increased and fluctuated simultaneously in all treatments over time, but algal biomass, as measured by wet, dry and decalcified weight, did not differ greatly between the treatments with only marginally higher biomass (p reefs except for creating space. In contrast, A. cervicornis appears to attract aggressive damselfish that

  10. Ethnomedicinal values, phenolic contents and antioxidant properties of wild culinary vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Shah, Munir H; Li, Tong; Fu, Xiong; Guo, Xinbo; Liu, Rui Hai

    2015-03-13

    Traditional medicines comprise a variety of health practices, approaches, knowledge, and beliefs. Documentation of traditional knowledge, estimation of total phenolics and antioxidant properties of plant species used as wild vegetables and in traditional medicines by the local communities of Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan are targeted. Interviews, questionnaires, and focus group conversation with local informants were carried out to record ethno-medicinal values. Used value, percentage of people who have traditional knowledge, preference ranking and informant consensus factors were also measured. Standard analytical methods were applied to estimate phenolic contents and antioxidant properties in water and acetone extracts. A total of 39 plant species used as culinary vegetables and to treat 44 different health disorders are investigated. Significant levels of use value (0.571) and preference ranking (58% PPK, PR-5) are calculated for Ficus palmata, Ficus carica and Solanum nigrum. Elevated levels of total phenolics (144.5 mg GAE/100 g, FW), and flavonoid contents (142.5 mgRtE/100 g, FW) were measured in the water extracts of Origanum vulgare, while Ficus palmata exhibits the highest flavonol contents (142.7 mg RtE/100 g, FW). Maximum DPPH activity is noted in the flowering buds of Bauhinia variegata (85.34%). However, highest values for OH(-) radical scavenging activity (75.12%), Fe(3+) reducing antioxidant power (54.50 µM GAE/100 g, FW), and total antioxidant capacity (180.8 µM AAE/100 g, FW) were measured in the water extracts of Origanum vulgare. Lesser Himalayas is a rich source of traditional cultural heritage, and plant biodiversity, which are under threat and necessitate urgent documentation. Present study is focused on the plant species used in traditional medicines and culinary vegetables as well. Preliminary determinations of phenoloic contents and antioxidant properties of various plant species were carried out. Present work will introduce new resource of

  11. L’impatto del cinema sul turismo: il fenomeno del cineturismo / The impact of cinema on tourism: the phenomenon of cine-tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Pellicano

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available “Un film è sempre l’inizio di un viaggio”, così il fenomeno del cineturismo ci porta per mano a scoprire le location dei film e le emozioni che si celano dietro la più grande macchina dei sogni: il cinema. Spesso decidere la giusta destinazione per le proprie ferie è difficile, dal momento che esistono vari fattori, dal tempo, all’età, alle esigenze economiche e ai gusti, e luoghi che sono più speciali e più interessanti per trascorrervi le vacanze. Spesso ad influenzare ci pensano oggi film, documentari o fiction, diventati il mezzo potenzialmente migliore per trasmettere i valori, le tradizioni e la cultura di un territorio, in quanto l’attenzione con cui le persone seguono i film e il coinvolgimento emotivo sono irripetibili con altri strumenti di comunicazione. Il cineturismo è dunque un’emergente motivazione al viaggio, che si aggiunge alla già variegata domanda turistica. L’Italia ha cominciato ad elaborare un proprio concetto di cineturismo nel 2003. Delle migliaia di location utilizzate da film e serie tv, solo poche decine tuttavia entrano a far parte del circuito legato al cineturismo. “A film is always the beginning of a journey”, so the phenomenon of movie-induced tourism takes us by the hand to discover the location of the film and the emotions that lie behind the biggest dream machine: the cinema. Choosing the right destination for holidays is difficult, since there are various factors, such as time, age, economic needs and tastes, and places that are more special and more interesting to spend the holidays. Often, we think movies, documentaries or fiction, as means that potentially convey the values, traditions and culture of an area, as the attention that people follow the film and the emotional involvement are unique with other communication tools. Movie-induced tourism is therefore an emerging motivation for travel, which adds to the already varied tourist demand. Italy has begun to develop

  12. Documentation and quantitative analysis of the local knowledge on medicinal plants in Kalrayan hills of Villupuram district, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, S; Vijayakumar, S; Yabesh, J E Morvin; Ravichandran, K; Sakthivel, B

    2014-11-18

    The aim of the present study was to document the medicinal plants by the traditional medical practitioners from Kalrayan hills of Villupuram district in Tamil Nadu, India. Quantitatively analyses of the data were made to acquire some useful leads for further studies. Successive free listing was the method adopted for the interview. In this study, 54 traditional healer medical practitioners were included and their knowledge on medicinal plants was gathered. The data were assessed with the help of two indices viz., informant consensus factor (Fic) and Informant Agreement on Remedies (IAR). The present survey is in accordance with some of the aspects of our previous surveys. Regarding the demography of the informants, it exhibited unevenness in male-female ratio and majority of the informants were poorly educated. Practicing this system of medicine as part time job by majority of the informants might indicate the reduced social status of this medicinal system. The present study had recorded the usage of 81 species, which in turn yielded 1073 use reports. The major illness category 'aphrodisiac, hair care and endocrinal disorders' hold a high Fic values. Among the other illness categories, gastro-intestinal ailments, genito-urinary ailments and dermatological infection ailments have a high percentage of use reports. Eye ailments, general health, kapha ailments, psychological ailments and skeleton muscular system ailments were the other illness categories with high Fic values. Some of the claims viz., Argyrolobium roseum (aphrodisiac ailments), Rosa brunonii (eye ailments) Hibiscus surattensis (dermatological infections ailments), Bauhinia variegata (neurology Ailments), Cotinus coggygria (circulatory system/cardiovascular ailments) and Uvaria narum (gastro-intestinal ailments) which have relatively high consensus can be taken up for further biomedical studies, since no substantial studies have been conducted on them. Based on the results of our present study, we have

  13. Predictive modelling of habitat selection by marine predators with respect to the abundance and depth distribution of pelagic prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Charlotte; Castillo, Ramiro; Hunt, George L; Punt, André E; VanBlaricom, Glenn R; Weimerskirch, Henri; Bertrand, Sophie

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the ecological processes that underpin species distribution patterns is a fundamental goal in spatial ecology. However, developing predictive models of habitat use is challenging for species that forage in marine environments, as both predators and prey are often highly mobile and difficult to monitor. Consequently, few studies have developed resource selection functions for marine predators based directly on the abundance and distribution of their prey. We analysed contemporaneous data on the diving locations of two seabird species, the shallow-diving Peruvian Booby (Sula variegata) and deeper diving Guanay Cormorant (Phalacrocorax bougainvilliorum), and the abundance and depth distribution of their main prey, Peruvian anchoveta (Engraulis ringens). Based on this unique data set, we developed resource selection functions to test the hypothesis that the probability of seabird diving behaviour at a given location is a function of the relative abundance of prey in the upper water column. For both species, we show that the probability of diving behaviour is mostly explained by the distribution of prey at shallow depths. While the probability of diving behaviour increases sharply with prey abundance at relatively low levels of abundance, support for including abundance in addition to the depth distribution of prey is weak, suggesting that prey abundance was not a major factor determining the location of diving behaviour during the study period. The study thus highlights the importance of the depth distribution of prey for two species of seabird with different diving capabilities. The results complement previous research that points towards the importance of oceanographic processes that enhance the accessibility of prey to seabirds. The implications are that locations where prey is predictably found at accessible depths may be more important for surface foragers, such as seabirds, than locations where prey is predictably abundant. Analysis of the relative

  14. Espaços públicos arborizados enquanto elemento potencializador de saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariel Stenia Vanina Vianna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A crescente expansão urbana vem interferindo significativamente na distribuição de áreas verdes nas cidades; essas têm a função de aprimorar a saúde, melhorando a qualidade de vida das pessoas. Objetivo: caracterizar as áreas verdes existentes na zona urbana do município e identificar potencialidades, enquanto ambiente para promoção da saúde. Método: estudo quali-quantitativo e descritivo, realizado na cidade de Santo Ângelo/RS. Foram caracterizadas cada uma das áreas verdes públicas urbanas (praças existentes no município, através de levantamento da vegetação arbórea, além de investigar a existência de plantas medicinais. Para a classificação dos vegetais, foram utilizadas bibliografias já existentes. Quanto à constatação das plantas autorizadas pelo SUS, realizou-se uma busca no site da Secretaria Nacional da Saúde, para a posterior verificação. Resultados e Considerações Finais: constatou-se que, na cidade de Santo Ângelo/RS, existem 8 (oito áreas verdes públicas, onde observou-se a existência de um número menor de espécies nativas em relação às exóticas. O número total de espécies existentes em cada praça varia de 14 a 26; para as espécies nativas, este número encontra-se entre 4 a 15, enquanto que para as espécies exóticas oscila de 8 a 14. Ainda foram encontradas diversas espécies arbóreas que apresentam potencial medicinal, sendo estes os mais variados. Dentre as 58 espécies encontradas algumas estão citadas na lista de plantas medicinais de interesse do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS, como é o caso da Bahuinia Variegata, Eugenia uniflora, Persea americana e Psidium guajava, que auxiliam na promoção da saúde.

  15. Evaluación de la degradabilidad in situ en bovinos suplementados con cuatro especies arbóreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Roa V.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar degradabilidad in situ en rumen de cuatro especies forrajeras: Acacia Roja (Delonix regia, pízamo (Eritryna glauca, Cratilia (Cratylia argentea y casco de vaca (Bahuinia variegata, para determinar su calidad nutricional. Materiales y métodos. Cuatro hembras rumino-fistuladas en un diseño de sobrecambio simple, pastoreando en Brachiaria decumbens, suplementadas en la mañana con tres kg de hojas deshidratadas de las cuatro especies mencionadas, de un año de establecidas y podadas cada 3 meses. En las pruebas in situ se utilizaron bolsas de nylon, adicionando 5 g de MS de cada arbórea/bolsa, incluyendo braquiaria, en diferentes horas (6, 12, 24, 48 y 72. Se evaluó la degradabilidad de la materia seca (DMS, fibra detergente neutro (DFDN fibra detergente ácido (DFDA, nitrógeno total (DNT y nitrógeno adherido a FDN (DNFDN. En el líquido ruminal se midió nitrógeno amoniacal a las 0, 4, 8 y 12 y pH a las 0, 3, 6, 9 y 12 horas. Resultados. La DMS fue mayor (p>0.05 para casco de vaca (53.3% y acacia roja (56.1% con relación a pízamo y cratilia. La DMS de braquiaria fue mayor (p>0.05 en 18.6% suplementando con casco de vaca con relación a las otras arbóreas. La DFDN potencial fue menor (p>0.05 para pízamo (7.6% en comparación con cratilia. La DFDN de braquiaria fue similar en todas las forrajeras. Conclusiones. Algunos componentes de las arbóreas tienen efecto asociativo en la cinética de la tasa de degradación de MS y FDA del pasto, siendo superiores (p>0.05 cuando se suplementó con casco de vaca.

  16. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinally important shrubs and trees of Himalayan region of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Sofia; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Zafar, Muhammad; Sultana, Shazia; Ayub, Muhammad; Khan, Mir Ajab; Yaseen, Ghulam

    2015-05-26

    =100%) was expressed by Abies pindrow, Adhatoda vasica, Bauhinia variegata and Cedrela serrata. Based on use value Juglans regia (0.88) was found most significant species followed by Acacia nilotica (0.83), Phyllanthus emblica (0.81), Pinus roxburghii (0.75) and Punica granatum (0.71). The area has a rich diversity of medicinally important shrub and tree species. The tradition of using plants for medicinal purposes is still alive in the local community but recently this tradition is gradually declining in new generation. Therefore awareness is needed to be raised among the local people on sustainable use and conservation of local flora. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. In vitro antibacterial activity of crude extracts of 9 selected medicinal plants against UTI causing MDR bacteria

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    Monali P. Mishra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI has become a more grievous problem today, due to multidrug resistance of infecting Gram-positive (GP and Gram-negative (GN bacteria, sometimes even with multiple infections. This study examines effectivity of 9 tropical flowering plants (Anogeissus acuminata, Azadirachta indica, Bauhinia variegata, Boerhaavia diffusa, Punica granatum, Soymida febrifuga, Terminalia chebula, Tinospora cordifolia and Tribulus terrestris for possible use as source of antimicrobials for multidrug resistant (MDR bacteria, along with main-stream antibiotics. Pathogenic bacteria were isolated from urine samples of patients attending and admitted in the hospital. Antibiograms of 11 isolated bacteria (GPs, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus; and GNs, Acinetobacter baumannii, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were ascertained by the disc-diffusion method, and antibacterial effectivity of plant extracts was monitored by the agar-well diffusion method. Isolated bacteria were floridly MDR to most antibiotics of the day. Methanol extracts of 9 plants were used, and extracts of 3 plants, A. acuminata, P. granatum and S. febrifuga at least caused 25–29 mm as the maximum size of zone of inhibition on bacterial lawns. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC values of methanol extracts of 9 plants were recorded. The methanol extract of A. acuminata had 0.29 mg/ml as the lowest MIC value and 0.67 mg/ml as the lowest MBC value, against MDR S. aureus, signifying effectivity; but, it had the highest MIC value of 3.41 mg/ml. and the highest MBC value of 4.27 mg/ml for most other MDR bacteria including E. coli. Qualitative phytochemical analysis was done for these 9 plants and information on leading phytochemicals was presented retrieved from PubChem database. Thus

  18. Il territorio delle Lipari tra ambiente, cinema e turismo / The territory of Lipari between environment, cinema and tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Di Blasi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fino agli anni ’50 le Lipari (dette anche Eolie, sfavorite dall’insularità e con un’economia di sussistenza, basata su attività tradizionali, erano dominate da povertà ed emigrazione. Tutto mutò nel 1949, quando una troupe cinematografica, guidata da Rossellini, girò Stromboli, interpretato da Ingrid Bergman: tra i due era nata una storia d’amore. Poco dopo, un’altra troupe utilizzò Vulcano come location dell’omonimo film, con Anna Magnani, ex fiamma di Rossellini. Questi cult passarono alla storia del cinema come la guerra dei vulcani. I due film, con gli scoop legati alle vicende sentimentali dei protagonisti, hanno innescato un nuovo percorso per le Eolie, fuori dall’atavico letargo, che ha determinato un vero e proprio “boom turistico”. Indagando la variegata realtà delle Lipari, lo scopo del presente articolo è quello di dimostrare come, attraverso un’analisi storica del mercato turistico, l’arrivo del cinema nel territorio eoliano abbia innescato importanti processi di sviluppo economico e cambiamento sociale. Questa ricerca vuole, inoltre, evidenziare il rapporto privilegiato tra insularità e cineturismo. Till the late 50s the Aeolian Islands, plagued by insularity and characterized by a subsistence economy based on traditional activities, had been dominated by poverty and emigration. All changed in 1949 when Rossellini shot Stromboli featuring Ingrid Bergman, his new love. Soon after a crew shot in Volcano the homonymous film starring Anna Magnani, Rossellini’s old flame. The two films, gone down in history as the war of volcanoes, and the scoops about the love scandal have drawn a new path for the Aeolian Islands that has taken them to a tourist boom. The present paper aims to show by means of a historical analysis of the local tourist market how the coming of the film industry have triggered processes of economic growth and social change in the Aeolian Islands. This paper also aims to point out the

  19. The antimicrobial, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory activity and cytotoxicity of different fractions of four South African Bauhinia species used traditionally to treat diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Aroke S; Elgorashi, Esameldin E; Moodley, Nivan; McGaw, Lyndy J; Naidoo, Vinasan; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2012-10-11

    Many Bauhinia species, including those indigenous to South Africa, are used in traditional medicine across the world for treating ailments such as gastrointestinal tract (GIT) disorders, diabetes, infectious diseases and inflammation. Several relevant aspects of different fractions of leaf extracts of Bauhinia bowkeri (BAB), Bauhinia galpinii (BAG), Bauhinia petersiana (BAP), and Bauhinia variegata (BAV) used in South African traditional medicine to alleviate diarrhoea related symptoms were evaluated. The antioxidative activities of the extracts were determined using the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2, 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS(+)) radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. In vitro antimicrobial activities of the extracts were determined against bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis) and clinical isolates of the opportunistic fungal strains (Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, and Cryptococcus neoformans) using a serial dilution microplate method. The polyphenolic contents were quantified using standard methods, and anti-inflammatory activities of the crude extracts were determined using the cyclooxygenase and soybean 15-lipoxygenase enzyme inhibitory assays. The safety of the extracts was evaluated by determining the cytotoxicity against Vero cell lines. The acidified 70% acetone crude extract and their fractions had good antiradical potency against the DPPH and ABTS radicals. The methanol soluble portions of the butanol fractions were more potent (EC(50) ranges from 0.64 ± 0.05 to 1.51 ± 0.07 and 0.88 ± 0.18 to 1.49 ± 0.09 μg/ml against DPPH and ABTS radical respectively) compared to the standard, trolox and ascorbic acid (EC(50) ranges from 1.47 ± 0.24 to 1.70 ± 0.27 μg/ml) for both DPPH and ABTS. The crude extracts contained variable quantities of phenolic content. The crude extracts and their fractions

  20. Differential bioaccumulation of "1"3"4Cs in tropical marine organisms and the relative importance of exposure pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metian, Marc; Pouil, Simon; Hédouin, Laetitia; Oberhänsli, François; Teyssié, Jean-Louis; Bustamante, Paco; Warnau, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Bioaccumulation of "1"3"4Cs was determined in 5 tropical marine species: three bivalves (the oysters Isognomon isognomum and Malleus regula, and the clam Gafrarium pectinatum), one decapod (shrimp Penaeus stylirostris) and one alga (Lobophora variegata). Marine organisms were exposed to the radionuclides via different pathways: seawater (all of them), food (shrimp and bivalves) and sediment (bivalves). Our results indicate that the studied tropical species accumulate Cs similarly than species from temperate regions whereas retention capacities seems to be greater in the tropical species. Bioaccumulation capacities of the two oysters were similar for all the exposure pathways. The alga, and to a lesser extent the shrimp, concentrated dissolved Cs more efficiently than the bivalves (approx. 14 and 7 times higher, respectively). Assimilation efficiencies of Cs in bivalves and shrimp after a single feeding with radiolabelled food were comprised between 7.0 ± 0.4 and 40.7 ± 4.3%, with a variable retention time (half-life –T_b_1_/_2– ranging from 16 ± 3 to 89 ± 55 d). Although the clam lives buried in the sediment, this exposure pathway resulted in low bioaccumulation efficiency for sediment-bound Cs (mean transfer factor: 0.020 ± 0.001) that was lower than the two oyster species, which are not used to live in this media (0.084 ± 0.003 and 0.080 ± 0.005). Nonetheless, Cs accumulated from sediment was similarly absorbed (61.6 ± 9.7 to 79.2 ± 2.3%) and retained (T_b_1_/_2: 37 ± 2 to 58 ± 25 d) for the three bivalves species. Despite the poor transfer efficiency of Cs from food, the use of a global bioaccumulation model indicated that the trophic pathways was the main uptake route of Cs in the bivalves and shrimp. In shelled organisms, shells played a non-negligible role in Cs uptake, and their composition and structure might play a major role in this process. Indeed, most of the Cs taken up from seawater and sediment was principally

  1. Avaliação dos efeitos da acetilação nas propriedades das fibras de caroá Evaluation of the effects of acetylation surface treatments on ‘caroá’ fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda F. M. Lopes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As fibras de vegetais são altamente higroscópicas, característica que se apresenta como um dos principais problemas em sua aplicabilidade na produção de fibrocimentos, induzindo a variações dimensionais sob a influência da umidade, deposição dos produtos da matriz em seus poros e a degradação. Visando encontrar alternativas para minimizar os impasses gerados nos compósitos cimentíceos com relação às fibras de caroá objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar a aplicação do tratamento de acetilação em diferentes níveis. Sua eficiência foi determinada considerando-se a redução da hidrofilicidade, a manutenção do desempenho mecânico das fibras e as modificações na composição química, avaliadas por meio de ensaios de determinação das propriedades físicas, químicas, mecânicas e térmicas. Os tratamentos de acetilação conduzidos a 120 °C e/ou por 3 h, apresentaram reduções de 42 a 47% na hidrofilicidade. Na acetilação a 120 °C, durante 1 h o incremento nas propriedades mecânicas foi superior a 110%. O tratamento também promoveu modificações na composição das fibras com a implantação de grupos acetil, aumentou a estabilidade térmica e reduziu consideravelmente a cristalinidade da celulose, sem gerar degradações que comprometessem sua superfície de adesão.Fiber plants are highly hygroscopic and this feature appears as a major problem in its applicability to production of cement composites, inducing dimensional changes under the moisture influence, deposition of the matrix products and degradation. To find alternatives to minimize the problems in cementitious composites with respect to Neoglaziovia variegata fibers, it was aimed in this study to evaluate the application of the treatment of acetylation at different levels. Their efficiency was determined by reduction of hydrophilicity, maintaining the mechanical performance of fibers, and changes in chemical composition, measured through the physical

  2. α-, β-caroteno e α-tocoferol em algas marinhas in natura α- and β-carotene, and α-tocopherol in fresh seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Barbosa de Sousa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de 32 espécies de algas marinhas das divisões Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta e Phaeophyta como fontes de α- e β-caroteno e α-tocoferol. Todas as clorofíceas analisadas apresentaram α- e β-caroteno. Os teores máximo e mínimo de α-caroteno foram detectados nas espécies do gênero Caulerpa e em Codium decorticatum, respectivamente; e β-caroteno foi mais baixo em Caulerpa mexicana e mais elevado em Ulva fasciata. Dentre as rodofíceas, 11 espécies apresentaram α-caroteno, com máximo em Botryocladia occidentalis. β-caroteno foi encontrado em todas as algas vermelhas analisadas com teores mínimo e máximo em Gracilaria caudata e Bryothamnion triquetrum, respectivamente. As feofíceas apresentaram apenas β-caroteno, com mínimo e máximo em Dictyopteris delicatula e Padina gymnospora, respectivamente. Na divisão Chlorophyta, α-tocoferol, foi máximo em Codium decorticatum e mínimo em Caulerpa prolifera. Na Rhodophyta, 12 espécies apresentaram α-tocoferol com teor máximo em Enantiocladia duperreyi. Na Phaeophyta, α-tocoferol foi encontrado com valores mínimo e máximo em Lobophora variegata e Dictyota dichotoma, respectivamente.The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of 32 marine macro algae species, members of Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta and Phaeophyta, as sources of a-carotene, b-carotene and a-tocopherol. Both b-carotene and a-carotene were found in all species of green macroalgae analyzed. The maximum content of a-carotene was detected in algae belonging to Caulerpa genus and the minimum in Codium decorticatum. The amount of b-carotene found was minimum in Caulerpa mexicana and maximum in Ulva fasciata. Among the Rhodophyta species, eleven contain a-carotene, the maximum content was found in Botryocladia occidentalis. b-Carotene was found in all red macroalgae analyzed presenting the lowest and highest values in Gracilaria caudata and Bryothamnion triquetrum, respectively