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Sample records for hippocampus-derived neural stem

  1. Flexibility of neural stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eumorphia eRemboutsika

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic cortical neural stem cells are self-renewing progenitors that can differentiate into neurons and glia. We generated neurospheres from the developing cerebral cortex using a mouse genetic model that allows for lineage selection and found that the self-renewing neural stem cells are restricted to Sox2 expressing cells. Under normal conditions, embryonic cortical neurospheres are heterogeneous with regard to Sox2 expression and contain astrocytes, neural stem cells and neural progenitor cells sufficiently plastic to give rise to neural crest cells when transplanted into the hindbrain of E1.5 chick and E8 mouse embryos. However, when neurospheres are maintained under lineage selection, such that all cells express Sox2, neural stem cells maintain their Pax6+ cortical radial glia identity and exhibit a more restricted fate in vitro and after transplantation. These data demonstrate that Sox2 preserves the cortical identity and regulates the plasticity of self-renewing Pax6+ radial glia cells.

  2. Culture of Mouse Neural Stem Cell Precursors

    OpenAIRE

    Currle, D. Spencer; Hu, Jia Sheng; Kolski-Andreaco, Aaron; Monuki, Edwin S.

    2007-01-01

    Primary neural stem cell cultures are useful for studying the mechanisms underlying central nervous system development. Stem cell research will increase our understanding of the nervous system and may allow us to develop treatments for currently incurable brain diseases and injuries. In addition, stem cells should be used for stem cell research aimed at the detailed study of mechanisms of neural differentiation and transdifferentiation and the genetic and environmental signals that direct the...

  3. Adult Mammalian Neural Stem Cells and Neurogenesis: Five Decades Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Allison M.; Ming, Guo-li; Song, Hongjun

    2015-01-01

    Summary Adult somatic stem cells in various organs maintain homeostatic tissue regeneration and enhance plasticity. Since its initial discovery five decades ago, investigations of adult neurogenesis and neural stem cells have led to an established and expanding field that has significantly influenced many facets of neuroscience, developmental biology and regenerative medicine. Here we review recent progress and focus on questions related to adult mammalian neural stem cells that also apply to other somatic stem cells. We further discuss emerging topics that are guiding the field toward better understanding adult neural stem cells and ultimately applying these principles to improve human health. PMID:26431181

  4. Applicability of tooth derived stem cells in neural regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovica Parisi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the nervous system, regeneration is limited, and this is due to the small amount of neural stem cells, the inhibitory origin of the stem cell niche and often to the development of a scar which constitutes a mechanical barrier for the regeneration. Regarding these aspects, many efforts have been done in the research of a cell component that combined with scaffolds and growth factors could be suitable for nervous regeneration in regenerative medicine approaches. Autologous mesenchymal stem cells represent nowadays the ideal candidate for this aim, thank to their multipotency and to their amount inside adult tissues. However, issues in their harvesting, through the use of invasive techniques, and problems involved in their ageing, require the research of new autologous sources. To this purpose, the recent discovery of a stem cells component in teeth, and which derive from neural crest cells, has came to the light the possibility of using dental stem cells in nervous system regeneration. In this work, in order to give guidelines on the use of dental stem cells for neural regeneration, we briefly introduce the concepts of regeneration and regenerative medicine, we then focus the attention on odontogenesis, which involves the formation and the presence of a stem component in different parts of teeth, and finally we describe some experimental approaches which are exploiting dental stem cells for neural studies.

  5. Applicability of tooth derived stem cells in neural regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Ludovica; Manfredi, Edoardo

    2016-11-01

    Within the nervous system, regeneration is limited, and this is due to the small amount of neural stem cells, the inhibitory origin of the stem cell niche and often to the development of a scar which constitutes a mechanical barrier for the regeneration. Regarding these aspects, many efforts have been done in the research of a cell component that combined with scaffolds and growth factors could be suitable for nervous regeneration in regenerative medicine approaches. Autologous mesenchymal stem cells represent nowadays the ideal candidate for this aim, thank to their multipotency and to their amount inside adult tissues. However, issues in their harvesting, through the use of invasive techniques, and problems involved in their ageing, require the research of new autologous sources. To this purpose, the recent discovery of a stem cells component in teeth, and which derive from neural crest cells, has came to the light the possibility of using dental stem cells in nervous system regeneration. In this work, in order to give guidelines on the use of dental stem cells for neural regeneration, we briefly introduce the concepts of regeneration and regenerative medicine, we then focus the attention on odontogenesis, which involves the formation and the presence of a stem component in different parts of teeth, and finally we describe some experimental approaches which are exploiting dental stem cells for neural studies.

  6. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: His.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. File list: Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Neural_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. File list: Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. File list: Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Neural_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  2. File list: Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Neural_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Neural_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: His.Neu.50.AllAg.Neural_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Neural_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: His.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: His.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. File list: His.Neu.50.AllAg.Neural_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Neural_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. File list: Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_Stem_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. Similarity on neural stem cells and brain tumor stem cells in transgenic brain tumor mouse models

    OpenAIRE

    Qiao, Guanqun; Li, Qingquan; Peng, Gang; Ma, Jun; Fan, Hongwei; Li, Yingbin

    2013-01-01

    Although it is believed that glioma is derived from brain tumor stem cells, the source and molecular signal pathways of these cells are still unclear. In this study, we used stable doxycycline-inducible transgenic mouse brain tumor models (c-myc+/SV40Tag+/Tet-on+) to explore the malignant trans-formation potential of neural stem cells by observing the differences of neural stem cells and brain tumor stem cells in the tumor models. Results showed that chromosome instability occurred in brain t...

  20. Isolation and characterization of adult neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebzehnrubl, Florian A; Vedam-Mai, Vinata; Azari, Hassan; Reynolds, Brent A; Deleyrolle, Loic P

    2011-01-01

    It has been thought for a long time that the adult brain is incapable of generating new neurons, or that neurons cannot be added to its complex circuitry. However, recent technology has resulted in an explosion of research demonstrating that neurogenesis, or the birth of new neurons from adult stem cells constitutively occurs in two specific regions of the mammalian brain; namely the subventricular zone and hippocampal dentate gyrus. Adult CNS stem cells exhibit three main characteristics: (1) they are "self-renewing," i.e., they possess a theoretically unlimited ability to produce progeny indistinguishable from themselves, (2) they are proliferative (undergoing mitosis) and (3) they are multipotent for the different neuroectodermal lineages of the CNS, including the different neuronal, and glial subtypes. CNS stem cells and all progenitor cell types are broadly termed "precursors." In this chapter, we describe methods to identify, isolate and experimentally manipulate stem cells of the adult brain. We outline how to prepare a precursor cell culture from naive brain tissue and how to test the "stemness" potential of different cell types present in that culture, which is achieved in a three-step paradigm. Following their isolation, stem/progenitor cells are expanded in neurosphere culture. Single cells obtained from these neurospheres are sorted for the expression of surface markers by flow cytometry. Finally, putative stem cells from cell sorting will be subjected to the so-called neural colony-forming cell assay, which allows discrimination between stem and progenitor cells. At the end of this chapter we will also describe how to identify neural stem cells in vivo.

  1. Neural Crest Stem Cells from Dental Tissues: A New Hope for Dental and Neural Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaskon Ibarretxe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several stem cell sources persist in the adult human body, which opens the doors to both allogeneic and autologous cell therapies. Tooth tissues have proven to be a surprisingly rich and accessible source of neural crest-derived ectomesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs, which may be employed to repair disease-affected oral tissues in advanced regenerative dentistry. Additionally, one area of medicine that demands intensive research on new sources of stem cells is nervous system regeneration, since this constitutes a therapeutic hope for patients affected by highly invalidating conditions such as spinal cord injury, stroke, or neurodegenerative diseases. However, endogenous adult sources of neural stem cells present major drawbacks, such as their scarcity and complicated obtention. In this context, EMSCs from dental tissues emerge as good alternative candidates, since they are preserved in adult human individuals, and retain both high proliferation ability and a neural-like phenotype in vitro. In this paper, we discuss some important aspects of tissue regeneration by cell therapy and point out some advantages that EMSCs provide for dental and neural regeneration. We will finally review some of the latest research featuring experimental approaches and benefits of dental stem cell therapy.

  2. Enteric neurospheres are not specific to neural crest cultures : Implications for neural stem cell therapies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binder, E. (Ellen); D. Natarajan (Dipa); J.E. Cooper (Julie E.); Kronfli, R. (Rania); Cananzi, M. (Mara); J.-M. Delalande (Jean-Marie); C. Mccann; A.J. Burns (Alan); N. Thapar (Nikhil)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractObjectives Enteric neural stem cells provide hope of curative treatment for enteric neuropathies. Current protocols for their harvesting from humans focus on the generation of 'neurospheres' from cultures of dissociated gut tissue. The study aims to better understand the derivation,

  3. Pig Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neural Rosettes Developmentally Mimic Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Neural Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos-Cárdenas, Amalia; Webb, Robin; Jordan, Erin; West, Rachel; West, Franklin D; Yang, Jeong-Yeh; Wang, Kai; Stice, Steven L

    2015-08-15

    For diseases of the brain, the pig (Sus scrofa) is increasingly being used as a model organism that shares many anatomical and biological similarities with humans. We report that pig induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) can recapitulate events in early mammalian neural development. Pig iPSC line (POU5F1(high)/SSEA4(low)) had a higher potential to form neural rosettes (NR) containing neuroepithelial cells than either POU5F1(low)/SSEA4(low) or POU5F1(low)/SSEA4(high) lines. Thus, POU5F1 and SSEA4 pluripotency marker profiles in starting porcine iPSC populations can predict their propensity to form more robust NR populations in culture. The NR were isolated and expanded in vitro, retaining their NR morphology and neuroepithelial molecular properties. These cells expressed anterior central nervous system fate markers OTX2 and GBX2 through at least seven passages, and responded to retinoic acid, promoting a more posterior fate (HOXB4+, OTX2-, and GBX2-). These findings offer insight into pig iPSC development, which parallels the human iPSC in both anterior and posterior neural cell fates. These in vitro similarities in early neural differentiation processes support the use of pig iPSC and differentiated neural cells as a cell therapy in allogeneic porcine neural injury and degeneration models, providing relevant translational data for eventual human neural cell therapies.

  4. Predicting fir trees stem diameters using Artificial Neural Network ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper is to examine the applicability of Artificial Neural Network models (ANNs), in the prediction of fir trees stem over bark diameters at 5.3, 9.3, 13.3, 17.3, 21.3, 25.3, 29.3 and 33.3 meters above ground. The values of these diameters are necessary for an efficient estimation of a single tree volume using the ...

  5. Control of neural stem cell survival by electroactive polymer substrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Lundin

    Full Text Available Stem cell function is regulated by intrinsic as well as microenvironmental factors, including chemical and mechanical signals. Conducting polymer-based cell culture substrates provide a powerful tool to control both chemical and physical stimuli sensed by stem cells. Here we show that polypyrrole (PPy, a commonly used conducting polymer, can be tailored to modulate survival and maintenance of rat fetal neural stem cells (NSCs. NSCs cultured on PPy substrates containing different counter ions, dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBS, tosylate (TsO, perchlorate (ClO(4 and chloride (Cl, showed a distinct correlation between PPy counter ion and cell viability. Specifically, NSC viability was high on PPy(DBS but low on PPy containing TsO, ClO(4 and Cl. On PPy(DBS, NSC proliferation and differentiation was comparable to standard NSC culture on tissue culture polystyrene. Electrical reduction of PPy(DBS created a switch for neural stem cell viability, with widespread cell death upon polymer reduction. Coating the PPy(DBS films with a gel layer composed of a basement membrane matrix efficiently prevented loss of cell viability upon polymer reduction. Here we have defined conditions for the biocompatibility of PPy substrates with NSC culture, critical for the development of devices based on conducting polymers interfacing with NSCs.

  6. Recombinant spider silk matrices for neural stem cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicka, Michalina; Hermanson, Ola; Rising, Anna U

    2012-11-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) have the capacity to differentiate into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Accordingly, NSCs hold great promise in drug screening and treatment of several common diseases. However, a major obstacle in applied stem cell research is the limitation of synthetic matrices for culturing stem cells. The objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability of recombinant spider silk (4RepCT) matrices for growth of NSCs. NSCs isolated from the cerebral cortices of mid-gestation rat embryos were cultured on either 4RepCT matrices or conventional poly-L-ornithine and fibronectin (P + F) coated polystyrene plates. From 48 h of culture, no significant differences in cell proliferation or viability were detected in NSC cultures on 4RepCT compared to control matrices (polystyrene plates coated with P + F). The NSCs retained an undifferentiated state, displaying low or no staining for markers of differentiated cells. Upon stimulation NSCs grown on 4RepCT differentiated efficiently into neuronal and astrocytic cells to virtually the same degree as control cultures, but a slightly less efficient oligodendrocyte differentiation was noted. We suggest that recombinant spider silk matrices provide a functional microenvironment and represent a useful tool for the development of new strategies in neural stem cell research. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Mir-29b Mediates the Neural Tube versus Neural Crest Fate Decision during Embryonic Stem Cell Neural Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Jiajie; Wu, Yukang; Li, Guoping; Ma, Li; Feng, Ke; Guo, Xudong; Jia, Wenwen; Wang, Guiying; Yang, Guang; Li, Ping; Kang, Jiuhong

    2017-08-08

    During gastrulation, the neuroectoderm cells form the neural tube and neural crest. The nervous system contains significantly more microRNAs than other tissues, but the role of microRNAs in controlling the differentiation of neuroectodermal cells into neural tube epithelial (NTE) cells and neural crest cells (NCCs) remains unknown. Using embryonic stem cell (ESC) neural differentiation systems, we found that miR-29b was upregulated in NTE cells and downregulated in NCCs. MiR-29b promoted the differentiation of ESCs into NTE cells and inhibited their differentiation into NCCs. Accordingly, the inhibition of miR-29b significantly inhibited the differentiation of NTE cells. A mechanistic study revealed that miR-29b targets DNA methyltransferase 3a (Dnmt3a) to regulate neural differentiation. Moreover, miR-29b mediated the function of Pou3f1, a critical neural transcription factor. Therefore, our study showed that the Pou3f1-miR-29b-Dnmt3a regulatory axis was active at the initial stage of neural differentiation and regulated the determination of cell fate. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Low immunogenicity of mouse induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem/progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itakura, Go; Ozaki, Masahiro; Nagoshi, Narihito; Kawabata, Soya; Nishiyama, Yuichiro; Sugai, Keiko; Iida, Tsuyoshi; Kashiwagi, Rei; Ookubo, Toshiki; Yastake, Kaori; Matsubayashi, Kohei; Kohyama, Jun; Iwanami, Akio; Matsumoto, Morio; Nakamura, Masaya; Okano, Hideyuki

    2017-10-11

    Resolving the immunogenicity of cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) remains an important challenge for cell transplant strategies that use banked allogeneic cells. Thus, we evaluated the immunogenicity of mouse fetal neural stem/progenitor cells (fetus-NSPCs) and iPSC-derived neural stem/progenitor cells (iPSC-NSPCs) both in vitro and in vivo. Flow cytometry revealed the low expression of immunological surface antigens, and these cells survived in all mice when transplanted syngeneically into subcutaneous tissue and the spinal cord. In contrast, an allogeneic transplantation into subcutaneous tissue was rejected in all mice, and allogeneic cells transplanted into intact and injured spinal cords survived for 3 months in approximately 20% of mice. In addition, cell survival was increased after co-treatment with an immunosuppressive agent. Thus, the immunogenicity and post-transplantation immunological dynamics of iPSC-NSPCs resemble those of fetus-NSPCs.

  9. Identification and characterization of secondary neural tube-derived embryonic neural stem cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Mohammed R; Kim, Joo Yeon; Kim, Hyun; Sun, Woong

    2015-05-15

    Secondary neurulation is an embryonic progress that gives rise to the secondary neural tube, the precursor of the lower spinal cord region. The secondary neural tube is derived from aggregated Sox2-expressing neural cells at the dorsal region of the tail bud, which eventually forms rosette or tube-like structures to give rise to neural tissues in the tail bud. We addressed whether the embryonic tail contains neural stem cells (NSCs), namely secondary NSCs (sNSCs), with the potential for self-renewal in vitro. Using in vitro neurosphere assays, neurospheres readily formed at the rosette and neural-tube levels, but less frequently at the tail bud tip level. Furthermore, we identified that sNSC-generated neurospheres were significantly smaller in size compared with cortical neurospheres. Interestingly, various cell cycle analyses revealed that this difference was not due to a reduction in the proliferation rate of NSCs, but rather the neuronal commitment of sNSCs, as sNSC-derived neurospheres contain more committed neuronal progenitor cells, even in the presence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). These results suggest that the higher tendency for sNSCs to spontaneously differentiate into progenitor cells may explain the limited expansion of the secondary neural tube during embryonic development.

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  2. miR-381 Regulates Neural Stem Cell Proliferation and Differentiation via Regulating Hes1 Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Shi

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells are self-renewing, multipotent and undifferentiated precursors that retain the capacity for differentiation into both glial (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes and neuronal lineages. Neural stem cells offer cell-based therapies for neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease and spinal cord injuries. However, their cellular behavior is poorly understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small noncoding RNAs involved in cell development, proliferation and differentiation through regulating gene expression at post-transcriptional level. The role of miR-381 in the development of neural stem cells remains unknown. In this study, we showed that overexpression of miR-381 promoted neural stem cells proliferation. It induced the neural stem cells differentiation to neurons and inhibited their differentiation to astrocytes. Furthermore, we identified HES1 as a direct target of miR-381 in neural stem cells. Moreover, re-expression of HES1 impaired miR-381-induced promotion of neural stem cells proliferation and induce neural stem cells differentiation to neurons. In conclusion, miR-381 played important role in neural stem cells proliferation and differentiation.

  3. Transplantation of erythropoietin gene-modified neural stem cells improves the repair of injured spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-fei Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The protective effects of erythropoietin on spinal cord injury have not been well described. Here, the eukaryotic expression plasmid pcDNA3.1 human erythropoietin was transfected into rat neural stem cells cultured in vitro. A rat model of spinal cord injury was established using a free falling object. In the human erythropoietin-neural stem cells group, transfected neural stem cells were injected into the rat subarachnoid cavity, while the neural stem cells group was injected with non-transfected neural stem cells. Dulbecco′s modified Eagle′s medium/F12 medium was injected into the rats in the spinal cord injury group as a control. At 1-4 weeks post injury, the motor function in the rat lower limbs was best in the human erythropoietin-neural stem cells group, followed by the neural stem cells group, and lastly the spinal cord injury group. At 72 hours, compared with the spinal cord injury group, the apoptotic index and Caspase-3 gene and protein expressions were apparently decreased, and the bcl-2 gene and protein expressions were noticeably increased, in the tissues surrounding the injured region in the human erythropoietin-neural stem cells group. At 4 weeks, the cavities were clearly smaller and the motor and somatosensory evoked potential latencies were remarkably shorter in the human erythropoietin-neural stem cells group and neural stem cells group than those in the spinal cord injury group. These differences were particularly obvious in the human erythropoietin-neural stem cells group. More CM-Dil-positive cells and horseradish peroxidase-positive nerve fibers and larger amplitude motor and somatosensory evoked potentials were found in the human erythropoietin-neural stem cells group and neural stem cells group than in the spinal cord injury group. Again, these differences were particularly obvious in the human erythropoietin-neural stem cells group. These data indicate that transplantation of erythropoietin gene-modified neural stem

  4. Transplantation of erythropoietin gene-modified neural stem cells improves the repair of injured spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min-Fei; Zhang, Shu-Quan; Gu, Rui; Liu, Jia-Bei; Li, Ye; Zhu, Qing-San

    2015-09-01

    The protective effects of erythropoietin on spinal cord injury have not been well described. Here, the eukaryotic expression plasmid pcDNA3.1 human erythropoietin was transfected into rat neural stem cells cultured in vitro. A rat model of spinal cord injury was established using a free falling object. In the human erythropoietin-neural stem cells group, transfected neural stem cells were injected into the rat subarachnoid cavity, while the neural stem cells group was injected with non-transfected neural stem cells. Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/F12 medium was injected into the rats in the spinal cord injury group as a control. At 1-4 weeks post injury, the motor function in the rat lower limbs was best in the human erythropoietin-neural stem cells group, followed by the neural stem cells group, and lastly the spinal cord injury group. At 72 hours, compared with the spinal cord injury group, the apoptotic index and Caspase-3 gene and protein expressions were apparently decreased, and the bcl-2 gene and protein expressions were noticeably increased, in the tissues surrounding the injured region in the human erythropoietin-neural stem cells group. At 4 weeks, the cavities were clearly smaller and the motor and somatosensory evoked potential latencies were remarkably shorter in the human erythropoietin-neural stem cells group and neural stem cells group than those in the spinal cord injury group. These differences were particularly obvious in the human erythropoietin-neural stem cells group. More CM-Dil-positive cells and horseradish peroxidase-positive nerve fibers and larger amplitude motor and somatosensory evoked potentials were found in the human erythropoietin-neural stem cells group and neural stem cells group than in the spinal cord injury group. Again, these differences were particularly obvious in the human erythropoietin-neural stem cells group. These data indicate that transplantation of erythropoietin gene-modified neural stem cells into the

  5. Human pluripotent stem cell-derived neural constructs for predicting neural toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Michael P; Hou, Zhonggang; Propson, Nicholas E; Zhang, Jue; Engstrom, Collin J; Santos Costa, Vitor; Jiang, Peng; Nguyen, Bao Kim; Bolin, Jennifer M; Daly, William; Wang, Yu; Stewart, Ron; Page, C David; Murphy, William L; Thomson, James A

    2015-10-06

    Human pluripotent stem cell-based in vitro models that reflect human physiology have the potential to reduce the number of drug failures in clinical trials and offer a cost-effective approach for assessing chemical safety. Here, human embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived neural progenitor cells, endothelial cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and microglia/macrophage precursors were combined on chemically defined polyethylene glycol hydrogels and cultured in serum-free medium to model cellular interactions within the developing brain. The precursors self-assembled into 3D neural constructs with diverse neuronal and glial populations, interconnected vascular networks, and ramified microglia. Replicate constructs were reproducible by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) and expressed neurogenesis, vasculature development, and microglia genes. Linear support vector machines were used to construct a predictive model from RNA-Seq data for 240 neural constructs treated with 34 toxic and 26 nontoxic chemicals. The predictive model was evaluated using two standard hold-out testing methods: a nearly unbiased leave-one-out cross-validation for the 60 training compounds and an unbiased blinded trial using a single hold-out set of 10 additional chemicals. The linear support vector produced an estimate for future data of 0.91 in the cross-validation experiment and correctly classified 9 of 10 chemicals in the blinded trial.

  6. Impact of Lipid Nutrition on Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Sakayori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The neural system originates from neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs. Embryonic NSPCs first proliferate to increase their numbers and then produce neurons and glial cells that compose the complex neural circuits in the brain. New neurons are continually produced even after birth from adult NSPCs in the inner wall of the lateral ventricle and in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. These adult-born neurons are involved in various brain functions, including olfaction-related functions, learning and memory, pattern separation, and mood control. NSPCs are regulated by various intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Diet is one of such important extrinsic factors. Of dietary nutrients, lipids are important because they constitute the cell membrane, are a source of energy, and function as signaling molecules. Metabolites of some lipids can be strong lipid mediators that also regulate various biological activities. Recent findings have revealed that lipids are important regulators of both embryonic and adult NSPCs. We and other groups have shown that lipid signals including fat, fatty acids, their metabolites and intracellular carriers, cholesterol, and vitamins affect proliferation and differentiation of embryonic and adult NSPCs. A better understanding of the NSPCs regulation by lipids may provide important insight into the neural development and brain function.

  7. Passaging protocols for mammalian neural stem cells in suspension bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Arindom; Kallos, Michael S; Behie, Leo A

    2002-01-01

    Mammalian neural stem cells (NSC) offer great promise as therapeutic agents for the treatment of central nervous system disorders. As a consequence of the large numbers of cells that will be needed for drug testing and transplantation studies, it is necessary to develop protocols for the large-scale expansion of mammalian NSC. Neural stem cells and early progenitor cells can be expanded in vitro as aggregates in controlled bioreactors using carefully designed media. The first objective of this study was to determine if it is possible to maintain a population of murine neural stem and progenitor cells as aggregates in suspension culture bioreactors over extended periods of time. We discovered that serial passaging of a mixture of aggregates sizes resulted in high viabilities, high viable cell densities, and good control of aggregate diameter. When the NSC aggregates were serially subcultured three times without mechanical dissociation, a total multiplication ratio of 2.9 x 10(3) was achieved over a period of 12 days, whereas the aggregate size was controlled (mean diameter less than 150 microm) below levels at which necrosis would occur. Moreover, cell densities of 1.0 x 10(6) cells/mL were repeatedly achieved in batch culture with viabilities exceeding 80%. The second objective was to examine the proliferative potential of single cells shed from the surface of these aggregates. We found that the single cells, when subcultured, retained the capacity to generate new aggregates, gave rise to cultures with high viable cell densities and were able to differentiate into all of the primary cell phenotypes in the central nervous system.

  8. In vivo neural stem cell imaging: current modalities and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gera, Atul; Steinberg, Gary K; Guzman, Raphael

    2010-01-01

    Neural stem cells have been proposed as a promising therapy for treating a wide variety of neuropathologies. While several studies have demonstrated the therapeutic benefits of neural stem cells, the exact mechanism remains elusive. In order to facilitate research efforts to understand these mechanisms, and before neural stem cell-based therapies can be utilized in a clinical context, we must develop means of monitoring these cells in vivo. However, because of tissue depth and the blood-brain barrier, in vivo imaging of neural stem cells in the brain has unique challenges that do not apply to stem cells for other purposes. In this paper, we review contemporary methods for in vivo neural stem cell imaging, including MRI, PET and optical imaging techniques.

  9. Integrating Biomaterials and Stem Cells for Neural Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Francesca L; Rodriguez, Alexandra L; Parish, Clare L; Williams, Richard J; Nisbet, David R

    2016-02-01

    The central nervous system has a limited capacity to regenerate, and thus, traumatic injuries or diseases often have devastating consequences. Therefore, there is a distinct need to develop alternative treatments that can achieve functional recovery without side effects currently observed with some pharmacological treatments. Combining biomaterials with pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), either embryonic or induced, has the potential to revolutionize the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and traumatic injuries. Biomaterials can mimic the extracellular matrix and present a myriad of relevant biochemical cues through rational design or further functionalization. Biomaterials such as nanofibers and hydrogels, including self-assembling peptide (SAP) hydrogels can provide a superior cell culture environment. When these materials are then combined with PSCs, more accurate drug screening and disease modeling could be developed, and the generation of large number of cells with the appropriate phenotype can be achieved, for subsequent use in vitro. Biomaterials have also been shown to support endogenous cell growth after implantation, and, in particular, hydrogels and SAPs have effectively acted as cell delivery vehicles, increasing cell survival after transplantation. Few studies are yet to fully exploit the combination of PSCs and innovative biomaterials; however, initial studies with neural stem cells, for example, are promising, and, hence, such a combination for use in vitro and in vivo is an exciting new direction for the field of neural regeneration.

  10. Neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside Rg1-induced neural stem cell transplantation on hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying-Bo; Wang, Yan; Tang, Ji-Ping; Chen, Di; Wang, Sha-Li

    2015-05-01

    Ginsenoside Rg1 is the major pharmacologically active component of ginseng, and is reported to have various therapeutic actions. To determine whether it induces the differentiation of neural stem cells, and whether neural stem cell transplantation after induction has therapeutic effects on hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, we cultured neural stem cells in 10-80 μM ginsenoside Rg1. Immunohistochemistry revealed that of the concentrations tested, 20 mM ginsenoside Rg1 had the greatest differentiation-inducing effect and was the concentration used for subsequent experiments. Whole-cell patch clamp showed that neural stem cells induced by 20 μM ginsenoside Rg1 were more mature than non-induced cells. We then established neonatal rat models of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy using the suture method, and ginsenoside Rg1-induced neural stem cells were transplanted via intracerebroventricular injection. These tests confirmed that neural stem cells induced by ginsenoside had fewer pathological lesions and had a significantly better behavioral capacity than model rats that received saline. Transplanted neural stem cells expressed neuron-specific enolase, and were mainly distributed in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. The present data suggest that ginsenoside Rg1-induced neural stem cells can promote the partial recovery of complicated brain functions in models of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

  11. Neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside Rg1-induced neural stem cell transplantation on hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-bo Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginsenoside Rg1 is the major pharmacologically active component of ginseng, and is reported to have various therapeutic actions. To determine whether it induces the differentiation of neural stem cells, and whether neural stem cell transplantation after induction has therapeutic effects on hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, we cultured neural stem cells in 10-80 µM ginsenoside Rg1. Immunohistochemistry revealed that of the concentrations tested, 20 mM ginsenoside Rg1 had the greatest differentiation-inducing effect and was the concentration used for subsequent experiments. Whole-cell patch clamp showed that neural stem cells induced by 20 µM ginsenoside Rg1 were more mature than non-induced cells. We then established neonatal rat models of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy using the suture method, and ginsenoside Rg1-induced neural stem cells were transplanted via intracerebroventricular injection. These tests confirmed that neural stem cells induced by ginsenoside had fewer pathological lesions and had a significantly better behavioral capacity than model rats that received saline. Transplanted neural stem cells expressed neuron-specific enolase, and were mainly distributed in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. The present data suggest that ginsenoside Rg1-induced neural stem cells can promote the partial recovery of complicated brain functions in models of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

  12. Roles of neural stem cells in the repair of peripheral nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, researchers are using neural stem cell transplantation to promote regeneration after peripheral nerve injury, as neural stem cells play an important role in peripheral nerve injury repair. This article reviews recent research progress of the role of neural stem cells in the repair of peripheral nerve injury. Neural stem cells can not only differentiate into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, but can also differentiate into Schwann-like cells, which promote neurite outgrowth around the injury. Transplanted neural stem cells can differentiate into motor neurons that innervate muscles and promote the recovery of neurological function. To promote the repair of peripheral nerve injury, neural stem cells secrete various neurotrophic factors, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor, fibroblast growth factor, nerve growth factor, insulin-like growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor. In addition, neural stem cells also promote regeneration of the axonal myelin sheath, angiogenesis, and immune regulation. It can be concluded that neural stem cells promote the repair of peripheral nerve injury through a variety of ways.

  13. Reversible neural stem cell niche dysfunction in a model of multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Stine; Imitola, Jaime; Ayuso-Sacido, Angel

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The subventricular zone (SVZ) of the brain constitutes a niche for neural stem and progenitor cells that can initiate repair after central nervous system (CNS) injury. In a relapsing-remitting model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the neural stem cells (NSCs) become...

  14. Ezh2 Expression in Astrocytes Induces Their Dedifferentiation Toward Neural Stem Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sher, Falak; Boddeke, Erik; Copray, Sjef

    Recently, we have demonstrated the expression of the polycomb group protein Ezh2 in embryonic and adult neural stem cells. Although Ezh2 remained highly expressed when neural stem cells differentiate into oligodendrocyte precursor cells, it is downregulated during the differentiation into neurons or

  15. YAP/TAZ enhance mammalian embryonic neural stem cell characteristics in a Tead-dependent manner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Dasol; Byun, Sung-Hyun; Park, Soojeong; Kim, Juwan; Kim, Inhee; Ha, Soobong; Kwon, Mookwang; Yoon, Keejung, E-mail: keejung@skku.edu

    2015-02-27

    Mammalian brain development is regulated by multiple signaling pathways controlling cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. Here we show that YAP/TAZ enhance embryonic neural stem cell characteristics in a cell autonomous fashion using diverse experimental approaches. Introduction of retroviral vectors expressing YAP or TAZ into the mouse embryonic brain induced cell localization in the ventricular zone (VZ), which is the embryonic neural stem cell niche. This change in cell distribution in the cortical layer is due to the increased stemness of infected cells; YAP-expressing cells were colabeled with Sox2, a neural stem cell marker, and YAP/TAZ increased the frequency and size of neurospheres, indicating enhanced self-renewal- and proliferative ability of neural stem cells. These effects appear to be TEA domain family transcription factor (Tead)–dependent; a Tead binding-defective YAP mutant lost the ability to promote neural stem cell characteristics. Consistently, in utero gene transfer of a constitutively active form of Tead2 (Tead2-VP16) recapitulated all the features of YAP/TAZ overexpression, and dominant negative Tead2-EnR resulted in marked cell exit from the VZ toward outer cortical layers. Taken together, these results indicate that the Tead-dependent YAP/TAZ signaling pathway plays important roles in neural stem cell maintenance by enhancing stemness of neural stem cells during mammalian brain development. - Highlights: • Roles of YAP and Tead in vivo during mammalian brain development are clarified. • Expression of YAP promotes embryonic neural stem cell characteristics in vivo in a cell autonomous fashion. • Enhancement of neural stem cell characteristics by YAP depends on Tead. • Transcriptionally active form of Tead alone can recapitulate the effects of YAP. • Transcriptionally repressive form of Tead severely reduces stem cell characteristics.

  16. Spirulina Promotes Stem Cell Genesis and Protects against LPS Induced Declines in Neural Stem Cell Proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachstetter, Adam D.; Jernberg, Jennifer; Schlunk, Andrea; Vila, Jennifer L.; Hudson, Charles; Cole, Michael J.; Shytle, R. Douglas; Tan, Jun; Sanberg, Paul R.; Sanberg, Cyndy D.; Borlongan, Cesario; Kaneko, Yuji; Tajiri, Naoki; Gemma, Carmelina; Bickford, Paula C.

    2010-01-01

    Adult stem cells are present in many tissues including, skin, muscle, adipose, bone marrow, and in the brain. Neuroinflammation has been shown to be a potent negative regulator of stem cell and progenitor cell proliferation in the neurogenic regions of the brain. Recently we demonstrated that decreasing a key neuroinflammatory cytokine IL-1β in the hippocampus of aged rats reversed the age-related cognitive decline and increased neurogenesis in the age rats. We also have found that nutraceuticals have the potential to reduce neuroinflammation, and decrease oxidative stress. The objectives of this study were to determine if spirulina could protect the proliferative potential of hippocampal neural progenitor cells from an acute systemic inflammatory insult of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To this end, young rats were fed for 30 days a control diet or a diet supplemented with 0.1% spirulina. On day 28 the rats were given a single i.p. injection of LPS (1 mg/kg). The following day the rats were injected with BrdU (50 mg/kg b.i.d. i.p.) and were sacrificed 24 hours after the first injection of BrdU. Quantification of the BrdU positive cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus demonstrated a decrease in proliferation of the stem/progenitor cells in the hippocampus as a result of the LPS insult. Furthermore, the diet supplemented with spirulina was able to negate the LPS induced decrease in stem/progenitor cell proliferation. In a second set of studies we examined the effects of spirulina either alone or in combination with a proprietary formulation (NT-020) of blueberry, green tea, vitamin D3 and carnosine on the function of bone marrow and CD34+ cells in vitro. Spirulina had small effects on its own and more than additive effects in combination with NT-020 to promote mitochondrial respiration and/or proliferation of these cells in culture. When examined on neural stem cells in culture spirulina increased proliferation at baseline and protected against the negative

  17. Spirulina promotes stem cell genesis and protects against LPS induced declines in neural stem cell proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam D Bachstetter

    Full Text Available Adult stem cells are present in many tissues including, skin, muscle, adipose, bone marrow, and in the brain. Neuroinflammation has been shown to be a potent negative regulator of stem cell and progenitor cell proliferation in the neurogenic regions of the brain. Recently we demonstrated that decreasing a key neuroinflammatory cytokine IL-1beta in the hippocampus of aged rats reversed the age-related cognitive decline and increased neurogenesis in the age rats. We also have found that nutraceuticals have the potential to reduce neuroinflammation, and decrease oxidative stress. The objectives of this study were to determine if spirulina could protect the proliferative potential of hippocampal neural progenitor cells from an acute systemic inflammatory insult of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. To this end, young rats were fed for 30 days a control diet or a diet supplemented with 0.1% spirulina. On day 28 the rats were given a single i.p. injection of LPS (1 mg/kg. The following day the rats were injected with BrdU (50 mg/kg b.i.d. i.p. and were sacrificed 24 hours after the first injection of BrdU. Quantification of the BrdU positive cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus demonstrated a decrease in proliferation of the stem/progenitor cells in the hippocampus as a result of the LPS insult. Furthermore, the diet supplemented with spirulina was able to negate the LPS induced decrease in stem/progenitor cell proliferation. In a second set of studies we examined the effects of spirulina either alone or in combination with a proprietary formulation (NT-020 of blueberry, green tea, vitamin D3 and carnosine on the function of bone marrow and CD34+ cells in vitro. Spirulina had small effects on its own and more than additive effects in combination with NT-020 to promote mitochondrial respiration and/or proliferation of these cells in culture. When examined on neural stem cells in culture spirulina increased proliferation at baseline and protected

  18. Neural stem cell biology in vertebrates and invertebrates: more alike than different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Andrea H; Livesey, Frederick J

    2011-05-26

    Many of the regulatory mechanisms controlling neural stem cell behavior are proving to be conserved between organisms as diverse as worms and man. Common principles are emerging with respect to the regulation of neural stem cell division and the specification of distinct stem and progenitor cell types. Great progress has been made in recent years in identifying the cellular mechanisms underpinning these processes, thanks in large part to the cross-fertilization of research on different model systems. We review here recent findings that highlight hitherto unappreciated similarities in the cell and molecular biology of neural stem cell self-renewal and differentiation between invertebrates and vertebrates. As well as underscoring the possible conservation of stem cell mechanisms across phyla, these similarities are proving to be practically useful in studying neural stem cell biology in health and disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Role of ciliary neurotrophic factor in the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jun; He, Zhili; Ruan, Juan; Ma, Zilong; Liu, Ying; Gong, Chengxin; Iqbal, Khalid; Sun, Shenggang; Chen, Honghui

    2013-01-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that has been fully studied for its structure, receptor, and signaling pathways and its multiplex effects on neural system, skeletal muscle, and weight control. Recent research demonstrates that CNTF also plays an important role in neurogenesis and the differentiation of neural stem cells. In this article, we summarize the general characteristics of CNTF and its function on neural stem cells, which could be a valuable therapeutic strategy in treating neurological disorders.

  20. Alternative Routes to Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Revealed by Reprogramming of the Neural Lineage

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Steven A.; Zachariah P.G. Olufs; Tran, Khoa A.; Zaidan, Nur Zafirah; Sridharan, Rupa

    2016-01-01

    Summary During the reprogramming of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) to induced pluripotent stem cells, the activation of pluripotency genes such as NANOG occurs after the mesenchymal to epithelial transition. Here we report that both adult stem cells (neural stem cells) and differentiated cells (astrocytes) of the neural lineage can activate NANOG in the absence of cadherin expression during reprogramming. Gene expression analysis revealed that only the NANOG+E-cadherin+ populations expres...

  1. Prospect of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neural Crest Stem Cells in Clinical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural crest stem cells (NCSCs represent a transient and multipotent cell population that contributes to numerous anatomical structures such as peripheral nervous system, teeth, and cornea. NCSC maldevelopment is related to various human diseases including pigmentation abnormalities, disorders affecting autonomic nervous system, and malformations of teeth, eyes, and hearts. As human pluripotent stem cells including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs can serve as an unlimited cell source to generate NCSCs, hESC/hiPSC-derived NCSCs can be a valuable tool to study the underlying mechanisms of NCSC-associated diseases, which paves the way for future therapies for these abnormalities. In addition, hESC/hiPSC-derived NCSCs with the capability of differentiating to various cell types are highly promising for clinical organ repair and regeneration. In this review, we first discuss NCSC generation methods from human pluripotent stem cells and differentiation mechanism of NCSCs. Then we focus on the clinical application potential of hESC/hiPSC-derived NCSCs on peripheral nerve injuries, corneal blindness, tooth regeneration, pathological melanogenesis, Hirschsprung disease, and cardiac repair and regeneration.

  2. Stage-specific control of neural crest stem cell proliferation by the small rho GTPases Cdc42 and Rac1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, Sebastian; Herzog, Dominik; Sumara, Grzegorz

    2009-01-01

    The neural crest (NC) generates a variety of neural and non-neural tissues during vertebrate development. Both migratory NC cells and their target structures contain cells with stem cell features. Here we show that these populations of neural crest-derived stem cells (NCSCs) are differentially re...

  3. Transplantation of placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cell-induced neural stem cells to treat spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Zhao, Wei; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Ye; Jia, Jingqiao; Yang, Lifeng

    2014-12-15

    Because of their strong proliferative capacity and multi-potency, placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells have gained interest as a cell source in the field of nerve damage repair. In the present study, human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells were induced to differentiate into neural stem cells, which were then transplanted into the spinal cord after local spinal cord injury in rats. The motor functional recovery and pathological changes in the injured spinal cord were observed for 3 successive weeks. The results showed that human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into neuron-like cells and that induced neural stem cells contribute to the restoration of injured spinal cord without causing transplant rejection. Thus, these cells promote the recovery of motor and sensory functions in a rat model of spinal cord injury. Therefore, human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells may be useful as seed cells during the repair of spinal cord injury.

  4. Axonal Control of the Adult Neural Stem Cell Niche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Cheuk Ka; Chen, Jiadong; Cebrián-Silla, Arantxa; Mirzadeh, Zaman; Obernier, Kirsten; Guinto, Cristina D.; Tecott, Laurence H.; García-Verdugo, Jose Manuel; Kriegstein, Arnold; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) is an extensive germinal niche containing neural stem cells (NSC) in the walls of the lateral ventricles of the adult brain. How the adult brain’s neural activity influences the behavior of adult NSCs remains largely unknown. We show that serotonergic (5HT) axons originating from a small group of neurons in the raphe form an extensive plexus on most of the ventricular walls. Electron microscopy revealed intimate contacts between 5HT axons and NSCs (B1) or ependymal cells (E1) and these cells were labeled by a transsynaptic viral tracer injected into the raphe. B1 cells express the 5HT receptors 2C and 5A. Electrophysiology showed that activation of these receptors in B1 cells induced small inward currents. Intraventricular infusion of 5HT2C agonist or antagonist increased or decreased V-SVZ proliferation, respectively. These results indicate that supraependymal 5HT axons directly interact with NSCs to regulate neurogenesis via 5HT2C. PMID:24561083

  5. Copine1 regulates neural stem cell functions during brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hwan; Sung, Soo-Eun; Cheal Yoo, Jae; Park, Jae-Yong; Yi, Gwan-Su; Heo, Jun Young; Lee, Jae-Ran; Kim, Nam-Soon; Lee, Da Yong

    2018-01-01

    Copine 1 (CPNE1) is a well-known phospholipid binding protein in plasma membrane of various cell types. In brain cells, CPNE1 is closely associated with AKT signaling pathway, which is important for neural stem cell (NSC) functions during brain development. Here, we investigated the role of CPNE1 in the regulation of brain NSC functions during brain development and determined its underlying mechanism. In this study, abundant expression of CPNE1 was observed in neural lineage cells including NSCs and immature neurons in human. With mouse brain tissues in various developmental stages, we found that CPNE1 expression was higher at early embryonic stages compared to postnatal and adult stages. To model developing brain in vitro, we used primary NSCs derived from mouse embryonic hippocampus. Our in vitro study shows decreased proliferation and multi-lineage differentiation potential in CPNE1 deficient NSCs. Finally, we found that the deficiency of CPNE1 downregulated mTOR signaling in embryonic NSCs. These data demonstrate that CPNE1 plays a key role in the regulation of NSC functions through the activation of AKT-mTOR signaling pathway during brain development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Angiogenic factors stimulate growth of adult neural stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Androutsellis-Theotokis

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The ability to grow a uniform cell type from the adult central nervous system (CNS is valuable for developing cell therapies and new strategies for drug discovery. The adult mammalian brain is a source of neural stem cells (NSC found in both neurogenic and non-neurogenic zones but difficulties in culturing these hinders their use as research tools.Here we show that NSCs can be efficiently grown in adherent cell cultures when angiogenic signals are included in the medium. These signals include both anti-angiogenic factors (the soluble form of the Notch receptor ligand, Dll4 and pro-angiogenic factors (the Tie-2 receptor ligand, Angiopoietin 2. These treatments support the self renewal state of cultured NSCs and expression of the transcription factor Hes3, which also identifies the cancer stem cell population in human tumors. In an organotypic slice model, angiogenic factors maintain vascular structure and increase the density of dopamine neuron processes.We demonstrate new properties of adult NSCs and a method to generate efficient adult NSC cultures from various central nervous system areas. These findings will help establish cellular models relevant to cancer and regeneration.

  7. Generation and properties of a new human ventral mesencephalic neural stem cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Ana; Liste, Isabel; Courtois, Elise T

    2009-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are powerful research tools for the design and discovery of new approaches to cell therapy in neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's disease. Several epigenetic and genetic strategies have been tested for long-term maintenance and expansion of these cells in vitro....... Here we report the generation of a new stable cell line of human neural stem cells derived from ventral mesencephalon (hVM1) based on v-myc immortalization. The cells expressed neural stem cell and radial glia markers like nestin, vimentin and 3CB2 under proliferation conditions. After withdrawal...

  8. The Future Vocation of Neural Stem Cells: Lineage Commitment in Brain Development and Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Tadashi; Gotoh, Hitoshi; Ono, Katsuhiko

    2017-08-24

    Understanding the fate commitment of neural stem cells is critical to identify the regulatory mechanisms in developing brains. Genetic lineage-tracing has provided a powerful strategy to unveil the heterogeneous nature of stem cells and their descendants. However, recent studies have reported controversial data regarding the heterogeneity of neural stem cells in the developing mouse neocortex, which prevents a decisive conclusion on this issue. Here, we review the progress that has been made using lineage-tracing analyses of the developing neocortex and discuss stem cell heterogeneity from the viewpoint of comparative and evolutionary biology.

  9. Structural Analysis of Three-dimensional Human Neural Tissue derived from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terrence Brooks, Patrick; Rasmussen, Mikkel Aabech; Hyttel, Poul

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed at establishing a method for production of a three-dimensional (3D) human neural tissue derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and analyzing the outcome by a combination of tissue ultrastructure and expression of neural markers. Methods: A two......-step cell culture procedure was implemented by subjecting human iPSCs to a 3D scaffoldbased neural differentiation protocol. First, neural fate-inducing small molecules were used to create a neuroepithelial monolayer. Second, the monolayer was trypsinized into single cells and seeded into a porous...... polystyrene scaffold and further cultured to produce a 3D neural tissue. The neural tissue was characterized by a combination of immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results: iPSCs developed into a 3D neural tissue expressing markers for neural progenitor cells, early neural...

  10. Expression of Neural Markers by Undifferentiated Mesenchymal-Like Stem Cells from Different Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Foudah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The spontaneous expression of neural markers, already demonstrated in bone marrow (BM mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, has been considered as evidence of the MSCs’ predisposition to differentiate toward neural lineages, supporting their use in stem cell-based therapy for neural repair. In this study we have evaluated, by immunocytochemistry, immunoblotting, and flow cytometry experiments, the expression of neural markers in undifferentiated MSCs from different sources: human adipose stem cells (hASCs, human skin-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hS-MSCs, human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs, and human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs. Our results demonstrate that the neuronal markers βIII-tubulin and NeuN, unlike other evaluated markers, are spontaneously expressed by a very high percentage of undifferentiated hASCs, hS-MSCs, hPDLSCs, and hDPSCs. Conversely, the neural progenitor marker nestin is expressed only by a high percentage of undifferentiated hPDLSCs and hDPSCs. Our results suggest that the expression of βIII-tubulin and NeuN could be a common feature of stem cells and not exclusive to neuronal cells. This could result in a reassessment of the use of βIII-tubulin and NeuN as the only evidence proving neuronal differentiation. Further studies will be necessary to elucidate the relevance of the spontaneous expression of these markers in stem cells.

  11. Embryonic stem cell-derived neural stem cells fuse with microglia and mature neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusulin, Carlo; Monni, Emanuela; Ahlenius, Henrik; Wood, James; Brune, Jan Claas; Lindvall, Olle; Kokaia, Zaal

    2012-12-01

    Transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) is a novel strategy to restore function in the diseased brain, acting through multiple mechanisms, for example, neuronal replacement, neuroprotection, and modulation of inflammation. Whether transplanted NSCs can operate by fusing with microglial cells or mature neurons is largely unknown. Here, we have studied the interaction of a mouse embryonic stem cell-derived neural stem (NS) cell line with rat and mouse microglia and neurons in vitro and in vivo. We show that NS cells spontaneously fuse with cocultured cortical neurons, and that this process requires the presence of microglia. Our in vitro data indicate that the NS cells can first fuse with microglia and then with neurons. The fused NS/microglial cells express markers and retain genetic and functional characteristics of both parental cell types, being able to respond to microglia-specific stimuli (LPS and IL-4/IL-13) and to differentiate to neurons and astrocytes. The NS cells fuse with microglia, at least partly, through interaction between phosphatidylserine exposed on the surface of NS cells and CD36 receptor on microglia. Transplantation of NS cells into rodent cortex results in fusion with mature pyramidal neurons, which often carry two nuclei, a process probably mediated by microglia. The fusogenic role of microglia could be even more important after NSC transplantation into brains affected by neurodegenerative diseases associated with microglia activation. It remains to be elucidated how the occurrence of the fused cells will influence the functional outcome after NSC transplantation in the diseased brain. Copyright © 2012 AlphaMed Press.

  12. Perlecan is required for FGF-2 signaling in the neural stem cell niche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelien Kerever

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the adult subventricular zone (neurogenic niche, neural stem cells double-positive for two markers of subsets of neural stem cells in the adult central nervous system, glial fibrillary acidic protein and CD133, lie in proximity to fractones and to blood vessel basement membranes, which contain the heparan sulfate proteoglycan perlecan. Here, we demonstrate that perlecan deficiency reduces the number of both GFAP/CD133-positive neural stem cells in the subventricular zone and new neurons integrating into the olfactory bulb. We also show that FGF-2 treatment induces the expression of cyclin D2 through the activation of the Akt and Erk1/2 pathways and promotes neurosphere formation in vitro. However, in the absence of perlecan, FGF-2 fails to promote neurosphere formation. These results suggest that perlecan is a component of the neurogenic niche that regulates FGF-2 signaling and acts by promoting neural stem cell self-renewal and neurogenesis.

  13. The novel steroidal alkaloids dendrogenin A and B promote proliferation of adult neural stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalifa, Shaden A.M., E-mail: shaden.khalifa@ki.se [Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Medina, Philippe de [Affichem, Toulouse (France); INSERM UMR 1037, Team “Sterol Metabolism and Therapeutic Innovations in Oncology”, Cancer Research Center of Toulouse, F-31052 Toulouse (France); Erlandsson, Anna [Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); El-Seedi, Hesham R. [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Biomedical Centre, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Silvente-Poirot, Sandrine [INSERM UMR 1037, Team “Sterol Metabolism and Therapeutic Innovations in Oncology”, Cancer Research Center of Toulouse, F-31052 Toulouse (France); University of Toulouse III, Toulouse (France); Institut Claudius Regaud, Toulouse (France); Poirot, Marc, E-mail: marc.poirot@inserm.fr [INSERM UMR 1037, Team “Sterol Metabolism and Therapeutic Innovations in Oncology”, Cancer Research Center of Toulouse, F-31052 Toulouse (France); University of Toulouse III, Toulouse (France); Institut Claudius Regaud, Toulouse (France)

    2014-04-11

    Highlights: • Dendrogenin A and B are new aminoalkyl oxysterols. • Dendrogenins stimulated neural stem cells proliferation. • Dendrogenins induce neuronal outgrowth from neurospheres. • Dendrogenins provide new therapeutic options for neurodegenerative disorders. - Abstract: Dendrogenin A (DDA) and dendrogenin B (DDB) are new aminoalkyl oxysterols which display re-differentiation of tumor cells of neuronal origin at nanomolar concentrations. We analyzed the influence of dendrogenins on adult mice neural stem cell proliferation, sphere formation and differentiation. DDA and DDB were found to have potent proliferative effects in neural stem cells. Additionally, they induce neuronal outgrowth from neurospheres during in vitro cultivation. Taken together, our results demonstrate a novel role for dendrogenins A and B in neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation which further increases their likely importance to compensate for neuronal cell loss in the brain.

  14. Epigenetic regulation of adult neural stem cells: implications for Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fitzsimons, C.P.; van Bodegraven, E.; Schouten, M.; Lardenoije, R.; Kompotis, K.; Kenis, G.; van den Hurk, M.; Boks, M.P.; Biojone, C.; Joca, S.; Steinbusch, H.W.; Lunnon, K.; Mastroeni, D.F.; Mill, J.; Lucassen, P.J.; Coleman, P.D.; Van den Hove, D.L.; Rutten, B.P.F.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental evidence has demonstrated that several aspects of adult neural stem cells (NSCs), including their quiescence, proliferation, fate specification and differentiation, are regulated by epigenetic mechanisms. These control the expression of specific sets of genes, often including those

  15. An avian model for the reversal of neurobehavioral teratogenicity with neural stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Dotan, Sharon; Pinkas, Adi; Slotkin, Theodore A.; Yanai, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    A fast and simple model which uses lower animals on the evolutionary scale is beneficial for developing procedures for the reversal of neurobehavioral teratogenicity with neural stem cells. Here, we established a procedure for the derivation of chick neural stem cells, establishing embryonic day (E) 10 as optimal for progression to neuronal phenotypes. Cells were obtained from the embryonic cerebral hemispheres and incubated for 5–7 days in enriched medium containing epidermal growth factor (...

  16. Stem Cell Bioprinting: Functional 3D Neural Mini-Tissues from Printed Gel-Based Bioink and Human Neural Stem Cells (Adv. Healthcare Mater. 12/2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qi; Tomaskovic-Crook, Eva; Lozano, Rodrigo; Chen, Yu; Kapsa, Robert M; Zhou, Qi; Wallace, Gordon G; Crook, Jeremy M

    2016-06-01

    On page 1429 G. G. Wallace, J. M. Crook, and co-workers report the first example of fabricating neural tissue by 3D bioprinting human neural stem cells. A novel polysaccharide based bioink preserves stem cell viability and function within the printed construct, enabling self-renewal and differentiation to neurons and supporting neuroglia. Neurons are predominantly GABAergic, establish networks, are spontaneously active, and show a bicuculline induced increased calcium response. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Enhanced expression of FNDC5 in human embryonic stem cell-derived neural cells along with relevant embryonic neural tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahrizjani, Fatemeh Ahmadi; Ghaedi, Kamran; Salamian, Ahmad; Tanhaei, Somayeh; Nejati, Alireza Shoaraye; Salehi, Hossein; Nabiuni, Mohammad; Baharvand, Hossein; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-02-25

    Availability of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) has enhanced the capability of basic and clinical research in the context of human neural differentiation. Derivation of neural progenitor (NP) cells from hESCs facilitates the process of human embryonic development through the generation of neuronal subtypes. We have recently indicated that fibronectin type III domain containing 5 protein (FNDC5) expression is required for appropriate neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Bioinformatics analyses have shown the presence of three isoforms for human FNDC5 mRNA. To differentiate which isoform of FNDC5 is involved in the process of human neural differentiation, we have used hESCs as an in vitro model for neural differentiation by retinoic acid (RA) induction. The hESC line, Royan H5, was differentiated into a neural lineage in defined adherent culture treated by RA and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). We collected all cell types that included hESCs, rosette structures, and neural cells in an attempt to assess the expression of FNDC5 isoforms. There was a contiguous increase in all three FNDC5 isoforms during the neural differentiation process. Furthermore, the highest level of expression of the isoforms was significantly observed in neural cells compared to hESCs and the rosette structures known as neural precursor cells (NPCs). High expression levels of FNDC5 in human fetal brain and spinal cord tissues have suggested the involvement of this gene in neural tube development. Additional research is necessary to determine the major function of FDNC5 in this process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Maintenance of neural stem cell regional identity in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Ryan N; Lu, Changqing; Lim, Daniel A

    2016-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are distributed throughout the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) in the adult mouse brain. NSCs located in spatially distinct regions of the V-SVZ generate different types of olfactory bulb (OB) neurons, and the regional expression of specific transcription factors correlates with these differences in NSC developmental potential. In a recent article, we show that Nkx2.1-expressing embryonic precursors give rise to NKX2.1+ NSCs located in the ventral V-SVZ of adult mice. Here we characterize a V-SVZ monolayer culture system that retains regional gene expression and neurogenic potential of NSCs from the dorsal and ventral V-SVZ. In particular, we find that Nkx2.1-lineage V-SVZ NSCs maintain Nkx2.1 expression through serial passage and can generate new neurons in vitro. Thus, V-SVZ NSCs retain key aspects of their in vivo regional identity in culture, providing new experimental opportunities for understanding how such developmental patterns are established and maintained during development.

  19. Secretome analysis of human oligodendrocytes derived from neural stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Kyung Kim

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the secretome of human oligodendrocytes (F3.Olig2 cells generated from human neural stem cells by transduction with the gene encoding the Olig2 transcription factor. Using mRNA sequencing and protein cytokine arrays, we identified a number of biologically important secretory proteins whose expression has not been previously reported in oligodendrocytes. We found that F3.Olig2 cells secrete IL-6, PDGF-AA, GRO, GM-CSF, and M-CSF, and showed prominent expression of their corresponding receptors. Co-expression of ligands and receptors suggests that autocrine signaling loops may play important roles in both differentiation and maintenance of oligodendrocytes. We also found that F3.Olig2 cells secrete matrix metalloproteinases and matrix metalloproteinase-associated proteins associated with functional competence of oligodendrocytes. The results of our secretome analysis provide insights into the functional and molecular details of human oligodendrocytes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic analysis of the secretome of oligodendrocytes.

  20. Highly Efficient Neural Conversion of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells in Adherent and Animal-Free Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukovic, Dunja; Diez Lloret, Andrea; Stojkovic, Petra; Rodríguez-Martínez, Daniel; Perez Arago, Maria Amparo; Rodriguez-Jimenez, Francisco Javier; González-Rodríguez, Patricia; López-Barneo, José; Sykova, Eva; Jendelova, Pavla; Kostic, Jelena; Moreno-Manzano, Victoria; Stojkovic, Miodrag; Bhattacharya, Shomi S; Erceg, Slaven

    2017-04-01

    Neural differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) can produce a valuable and robust source of human neural cell subtypes, holding great promise for the study of neurogenesis and development, and for treating neurological diseases. However, current hESCs and hiPSCs neural differentiation protocols require either animal factors or embryoid body formation, which decreases efficiency and yield, and strongly limits medical applications. Here we develop a simple, animal-free protocol for neural conversion of both hESCs and hiPSCs in adherent culture conditions. A simple medium formula including insulin induces the direct conversion of >98% of hESCs and hiPSCs into expandable, transplantable, and functional neural progenitors with neural rosette characteristics. Further differentiation of neural progenitors into dopaminergic and spinal motoneurons as well as astrocytes and oligodendrocytes indicates that these neural progenitors retain responsiveness to instructive cues revealing the robust applicability of the protocol in the treatment of different neurodegenerative diseases. The fact that this protocol includes animal-free medium and human extracellular matrix components avoiding embryoid bodies makes this protocol suitable for the use in clinic. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:1217-1226. © 2017 The Authors Stem Cells Translational Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  1. A cell junction pathology of neural stem cells leads to abnormal neurogenesis and hydrocephalus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez, Esteban M; Guerra, María M; Vío, Karin; González, César; Ortloff, Alexander; Bátiz, Luis F; Rodríguez, Sara; Jara, María C; Muñoz, Rosa I; Ortega, Eduardo; Jaque, Jaime; Guerra, Francisco; Sival, Deborah A; den Dunnen, Wilfred F A; Jiménez, Antonio J; Domínguez-Pinos, María D; Pérez-Fígares, José M; McAllister, James P; Johanson, Conrad

    2012-01-01

    Most cells of the developing mammalian brain derive from the ventricular (VZ) and the subventricular (SVZ) zones. The VZ is formed by the multipotent radial glia/neural stem cells (NSCs) while the SVZ harbors the rapidly proliferative neural precursor cells (NPCs). Evidence from human and animal

  2. Human dental follicle cells express embryonic, mesenchymal and neural stem cells markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Rodrigo Lopes; Holanda-Afonso, Rosenilde Carvalho; Moura-Neto, Vivaldo; Bolognese, Ana Maria; DosSantos, Marcos Fabio; Souza, Margareth Maria

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify and characterize dental follicle stem cells (DFSCs) by analyzing expression of embryonic, mesenchymal and neural stem cells surface markers. Design Dental follicle cells (DFCs) were evaluated by immunocytochemistry using embryonic stem cells markers (OCT4 and SOX2), mesenchmal stem cells (MSCs) markers (Notch1, active Notch1, STRO, CD44, HLA-ABC, CD90), neural stem cells markers (Nestin and β-III-tubulin), neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) markers (p75 and HNK1) and a glial cells marker (GFAP). RT-PCR was performed to identify the expression of OCT4 and NANOG in DFCs and dental follicle tissue. Immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR analysis revealed that a significant proportion of the DFCs evaluated expressed human embryonic stem cells marker OCT4 (75%) whereas NANOG was weakly expressed. A considerable amount of MSCs (90%) expressed Notch1, STRO, CD44 and HLA-ABC. However, they were weakly positive for CD90. Moreover, it was possible to demonstrate that dental follicle contains a significant proportion of neural stem/progenitors cells, expressing β-III-tubulin (90%) and nestin (70%). Interestingly, immunocytochemistry showed DFCs positive for p75 (50%), HNK1 (cells. This is the first study reporting the presence of NCSCs and glial-like cells in the dental follicle. The results of the present study suggest the occurrence of heterogeneous populations of stem cells, particularly neural stem/progenitor cells, in the dental follicle, Therefore, the human dental follicle might be a promising source of adult stem cells for regenerative purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Differentiation of Neural Stem Cells into Oligodendrocytes : Involvement of the Polycomb Group Protein Ezh2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sher, Falak; Rossler, Reinhard; Brouwer, Nieske; Balasubramaniyan, Veerakumar; Boddeke, Erik; Copray, Sjef

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the regulation of neural stem cell (NSC) renewal and maintenance of their multipotency are still not completely understood. Self-renewal of stem cells in general implies repression of genes that encode for cell lineage differentiation. Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (Ezh2) is

  4. Nano-Biosensor for Monitoring the Neural Differentiation of Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ho Lee

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, monitoring the status of stem cell differentiation is crucial to verify therapeutic efficacy and optimize treatment procedures. However, traditional methods, such as cell staining and sorting, are labor-intensive and may damage the cells. Therefore, the development of noninvasive methods to monitor the differentiation status in situ is highly desirable and can be of great benefit to stem cell-based therapies. Toward this end, nanotechnology has been applied to develop highly-sensitive biosensors to noninvasively monitor the neural differentiation of stem cells. Herein, this article reviews the development of noninvasive nano-biosensor systems to monitor the neural differentiation of stem cells, mainly focusing on optical (plasmonic and eletrochemical methods. The findings in this review suggest that novel nano-biosensors capable of monitoring stem cell differentiation are a promising type of technology that can accelerate the development of stem cell therapies, including regenerative medicine.

  5. Multiple phenotypes in Huntington disease mouse neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritch, James J; Valencia, Antonio; Alexander, Jonathan; Sapp, Ellen; Gatune, Leah; Sangrey, Gavin R; Sinha, Saurabh; Scherber, Cally M; Zeitlin, Scott; Sadri-Vakili, Ghazaleh; Irimia, Daniel; Difiglia, Marian; Kegel, Kimberly B

    2012-05-01

    Neural stem (NS) cells are a limitless resource, and thus superior to primary neurons for drug discovery provided they exhibit appropriate disease phenotypes. Here we established NS cells for cellular studies of Huntington's disease (HD). HD is a heritable neurodegenerative disease caused by a mutation resulting in an increased number of glutamines (Q) within a polyglutamine tract in Huntingtin (Htt). NS cells were isolated from embryonic wild-type (Htt(7Q/7Q)) and "knock-in" HD (Htt(140Q/140Q)) mice expressing full-length endogenous normal or mutant Htt. NS cells were also developed from mouse embryonic stem cells that were devoid of Htt (Htt(-/-)), or knock-in cells containing human exon1 with an N-terminal FLAG epitope tag and with 7Q or 140Q inserted into one of the mouse alleles (Htt(F7Q/7Q) and Htt(F140Q/7Q)). Compared to Htt(7Q/7Q) NS cells, HD Htt(140Q/140Q) NS cells showed significantly reduced levels of cholesterol, increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and impaired motility. The heterozygous Htt(F140Q/7Q) NS cells had increased ROS and decreased motility compared to Htt(F7Q/7Q). These phenotypes of HD NS cells replicate those seen in HD patients or in primary cell or in vivo models of HD. Huntingtin "knock-out" NS cells (Htt(-/-)) also had impaired motility, but in contrast to HD cells had increased cholesterol. In addition, Htt(140Q/140Q) NS cells had higher phospho-AKT/AKT ratios than Htt(7Q/7Q) NS cells in resting conditions and after BDNF stimulation, suggesting mutant htt affects AKT dependent growth factor signaling. Upon differentiation, the Htt(7Q/7Q) and Htt(140Q/140Q) generated numerous Beta(III)-Tubulin- and GABA-positive neurons; however, after 15 days the cellular architecture of the differentiated Htt(140Q/140Q) cultures changed compared to Htt(7Q/7Q) cultures and included a marked increase of GFAP-positive cells. Our findings suggest that NS cells expressing endogenous mutant Htt will be useful for study of mechanisms of HD

  6. An Overview of Protocols for the Neural Induction of Dental and Oral Stem Cells In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Boon Chin; Lim, Lee Wei; Wu, Wutian; Zhang, Chengfei

    2016-06-01

    To date, various adult stem cells have been identified within the oral cavity, including dental pulp stem cells, dental follicle stem cells, stem cells from apical papilla, stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth, periodontal ligament stem cells, and mesenchymal stem cells from the gingiva. All of these possess neurogenic potential due to their common developmental origin from the embryonic neural crest. Besides the relative ease of isolation of these adult stem cells from readily available biological waste routinely produced during dental treatment, these cells also possess the advantage of immune compatibility in autologous transplantation. In recent years, much interest has been focused on the derivation of neural lineages from these adult stem cells for therapeutic applications in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerve regeneration. In addition, there are also promising nontherapeutic applications of stem cell-derived neurons in pharmacological and toxicological screening of neuroactive drugs, and for in vitro modeling of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases. Hence, this review will critically examine the diverse array of in vitro neural induction protocols that have been devised for dental and oral-derived stem cells. These protocols are defined not only by the culture milieu comprising the basal medium plus growth factors, small molecules, and other culture supplements but also by the substrata/surface coatings utilized, the presence of multiple culture stages, the total culture duration, the initial seeding density, and whether the spheroid/neurosphere formation is being utilized to recapitulate the three-dimensional neural differentiation microenvironment that is naturally present physiologically in vivo.

  7. Neurogenic and non neurogenic functions of endogenous neural stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica eButti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis is a lifelong process that occurs in two main neurogenic niches of the brain, namely in the subventricular zone (SVZ of the lateral ventricles and in the subgranular zone (SGZ of the dentate gyrus (DG in the hippocampus. In the 1960s, studies on adult neurogenesis have been hampered by the lack of established phenotypic markers. The precise tracing of neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs was therefore, not properly feasible. After the (partial identification of those markers, it was the lack of specific tools that hindered a proper experimental elimination and tracing of those cells to demonstrate their terminal fate and commitment. Nowadays, irradia-tion, cytotoxic drugs as well as genetic tracing/ablation procedures have moved the field forward and increased our understanding of neurogenesis processes in both physiological and pathological conditions. Newly formed NPC progeny from the SVZ can replace granule cells in the olfactory bulbs of rodents, thus contributing to orchestrate sophisticated odour behaviour. SGZ-derived new granule cells, instead, integrate within the DG where they play an essential role in memory functions. Furthermore, converging evidence claim that endogenous NPCs not only exert neurogenic functions, but might also have non-neurogenic homeostatic functions by the release of different types of neuroprotective molecules. Remarkably, these non-neurogenic homeostatic functions seem to be necessary, both in healthy and diseased conditions, for example for preventing or limiting tissue damage. In this review, we will discuss the neurogenic and the non-neurogenic functions of adult NPCs both in physiological and pathological conditions.

  8. Physiological Plasticity of Neural-Crest-Derived Stem Cells in the Adult Mammalian Carotid Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Annese

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Adult stem cell plasticity, or the ability of somatic stem cells to cross boundaries and differentiate into unrelated cell types, has been a matter of debate in the last decade. Neural-crest-derived stem cells (NCSCs display a remarkable plasticity during development. Whether adult populations of NCSCs retain this plasticity is largely unknown. Herein, we describe that neural-crest-derived adult carotid body stem cells (CBSCs are able to undergo endothelial differentiation in addition to their reported role in neurogenesis, contributing to both neurogenic and angiogenic processes taking place in the organ during acclimatization to hypoxia. Moreover, CBSC conversion into vascular cell types is hypoxia inducible factor (HIF dependent and sensitive to hypoxia-released vascular cytokines such as erythropoietin. Our data highlight a remarkable physiological plasticity in an adult population of tissue-specific stem cells and could have impact on the use of these cells for cell therapy.

  9. Comparison of 2D and 3D neural induction methods for the generation of neural progenitor cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chandrasekaran, Abinaya; Avci, Hasan; Ochalek, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are frequently induced using 3D culture methodologies however, it is unknown whether spheroid-based (3D) neural induction is actually superior to monolayer (2D) neural induction. Our aim was to compare the efficiency...

  10. Elastic modulus affects the growth and differentiation of neural stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-feng Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It remains poorly understood if carrier hardness, elastic modulus, and contact area affect neural stem cell growth and differentiation. Tensile tests show that the elastic moduli of Tiansu and SMI silicone membranes are lower than that of an ordinary dish, while the elastic modulus of SMI silicone membrane is lower than that of Tiansu silicone membrane. Neural stem cells from the cerebral cortex of embryonic day 16 Sprague-Dawley rats were seeded onto ordinary dishes as well as Tiansu silicone membrane and SMI silicone membrane. Light microscopy showed that neural stem cells on all three carriers show improved adherence. After 7 days of differentiation, neuron specific enolase, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and myelin basic protein expression was detected by immunofluorescence. Moreover, flow cytometry revealed a higher rate of neural stem cell differentiation into astrocytes on Tiansu and SMI silicone membranes than on the ordinary dish, which was also higher on the SMI than the Tiansu silicone membrane. These findings confirm that all three cell carrier types have good biocompatibility, while SMI and Tiansu silicone membranes exhibit good mechanical homogenization. Thus, elastic modulus affects neural stem cell differentiation into various nerve cells. Within a certain range, a smaller elastic modulus results in a more obvious trend of cell differentiation into astrocytes.

  11. Identification and classification of human neural stem cells by infrared spectroscopic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, G.; Küchler, S.; Koch, E.; Salzer, R.; Schackert, G.; Kirsch, M.

    2009-02-01

    Human neural stem were cultivated and characterized using infrared spectroscopic imaging. A classification algorithm based on linear discriminate analysis was developed to distinguish the differentiation of the stem cells to neurons, astrocytes and stem cells without labeling. The classification is based upon spectral features which mainly arise from proteins, nucleic acids. A spectral training set was formed with spectra from cells which were identified by a subsequently staining according to a standard histological protocol. Differentiated cells could be classified with a high accuracy whereas not differentiated stem cells did exhibit some misclassifications

  12. Donor-derived brain tumor following neural stem cell transplantation in an ataxia telangiectasia patient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninette Amariglio

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neural stem cells are currently being investigated as potential therapies for neurodegenerative diseases, stroke, and trauma. However, concerns have been raised over the safety of this experimental therapeutic approach, including, for example, whether there is the potential for tumors to develop from transplanted stem cells. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A boy with ataxia telangiectasia (AT was treated with intracerebellar and intrathecal injection of human fetal neural stem cells. Four years after the first treatment he was diagnosed with a multifocal brain tumor. The biopsied tumor was diagnosed as a glioneuronal neoplasm. We compared the tumor cells and the patient's peripheral blood cells by fluorescent in situ hybridization using X and Y chromosome probes, by PCR for the amelogenin gene X- and Y-specific alleles, by MassArray for the ATM patient specific mutation and for several SNPs, by PCR for polymorphic microsatellites, and by human leukocyte antigen (HLA typing. Molecular and cytogenetic studies showed that the tumor was of nonhost origin suggesting it was derived from the transplanted neural stem cells. Microsatellite and HLA analysis demonstrated that the tumor is derived from at least two donors. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of a human brain tumor complicating neural stem cell therapy. The findings here suggest that neuronal stem/progenitor cells may be involved in gliomagenesis and provide the first example of a donor-derived brain tumor. Further work is urgently needed to assess the safety of these therapies.

  13. Review of transplantation of neural stem/progenitor cells for spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothe, Andrea J; Tator, Charles H

    2013-11-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a debilitating condition often resulting in paralysis, yet currently there is no effective treatment. Stem cell transplantation is a promising therapeutic strategy for promoting tissue repair after SCI. Stem cells offer a renewable source of cells with inherent plasticity for tissue regeneration. Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) are multipotent cells that self-renew and are committed to the neural lineage, and thus, they are especially suited to SCI repair. NSPCs may differentiate into neural cells after transplantation into the injured spinal cord, replacing lost or damaged cells, providing trophic support, restoring connectivity, and facilitating regeneration. Here, we review experimental studies and considerations for clinical translation of NSPC transplantation for SCI. Copyright © 2013 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Crosslinking of extracellular matrix scaffolds derived from pluripotent stem cell aggregates modulates neural differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sart, Sébastien; Yan, Yuanwei; Li, Yan; Lochner, Eric; Zeng, Changchun; Ma, Teng; Li, Yan

    2016-01-01

    At various developmental stages, pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) and their progeny secrete a large amount of extracellular matrices (ECMs) which could interact with regulatory growth factors to modulate stem cell lineage commitment. ECMs derived from PSC can be used as unique scaffolds that provide broad signaling capacities to mediate cellular differentiation. However, the rapid degradation of ECMs can impact their applications as the scaffolds for in vitro cell expansion and in vivo transplantation. To address this issue, this study investigated the effects of crosslinking on the ECMs derived from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and the regulatory capacity of the crosslinked ECMs on the proliferation and differentiation of reseeded ESC-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs). To create different biological cues, undifferentiated aggregates, spontaneous embryoid bodies, and ESC-derived NPC aggregates were decellularized. The derived ECMs were crosslinked using genipin or glutaraldehyde to enhance the scaffold stability. ESC-derived NPC aggregates were reseeded on different ECM scaffolds and differential cellular compositions of neural progenitors, neurons, and glial cells were observed. The results indicate that ESC-derived ECM scaffolds affect neural differentiation through intrinsic biological cues and biophysical properties. These scaffolds have potential for in vitro cell culture and in vivo tissue regeneration study. Dynamic interactions of acellular extracellular matrices and stem cells are critical for lineage-specific commitment and tissue regeneration. Understanding the synergistic effects of biochemical, biological, and biophysical properties of acellular matrices would facilitate scaffold design and the functional regulation of stem cells. The present study assessed the influence of crosslinked embryonic stem cell-derived extracellular matrix on neural differentiation and revealed the synergistic interactions of various matrix properties. While embryonic stem

  15. Efficient and Fast Differentiation of Human Neural Stem Cells from Human Embryonic Stem Cells for Cell Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell-based therapies have been used for repairing damaged brain tissue and helping functional recovery after brain injury. Aberrance neurogenesis is related with brain injury, and multipotential neural stem cells from human embryonic stem (hES cells provide a great promise for cell replacement therapies. Optimized protocols for neural differentiation are necessary to produce functional human neural stem cells (hNSCs for cell therapy. However, the qualified procedure is scarce and detailed features of hNSCs originated from hES cells are still unclear. In this study, we developed a method to obtain hNSCs from hES cells, by which we could harvest abundant hNSCs in a relatively short time. Then, we examined the expression of pluripotent and multipotent marker genes through immunostaining and confirmed differentiation potential of the differentiated hNSCs. Furthermore, we analyzed the mitotic activity of these hNSCs. In this report, we provided comprehensive features of hNSCs and delivered the knowledge about how to obtain more high-quality hNSCs from hES cells which may help to accelerate the NSC-based therapies in brain injury treatment.

  16. Transplantation of neural stem cells clonally derived from embryonic stem cells promotes recovery after murine spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salewski, Ryan P; Mitchell, Robert A; Shen, Carl; Fehlings, Michael G

    2015-01-01

    The pathology of spinal cord injury (SCI) makes it appropriate for cell-based therapies. Treatments using neural stem cells (NSCs) in animal models of SCI have shown positive outcomes, although uncertainty remains regarding the optimal cell source. Pluripotent cell sources such as embryonic stem cells (ESCs) provide a limitless supply of therapeutic cells. NSCs derived using embryoid bodies (EB) from ESCs have shown tumorigenic potential. Clonal neurosphere generation is an alternative method to generate safer and more clinically relevant NSCs without the use of an EB stage for use in cell-based therapies. We generated clonally derived definitive NSCs (dNSCs) from ESC. These cells were transplanted into a mouse thoracic SCI model. Embryonic stem cell-derived definitive neural stem cell (ES-dNSC)-transplanted mice were compared with controls using behavioral measures and histopathological analysis of tissue. In addition, the role of remyelination in injury recovery was investigated using transmission electron microscopy. The SCI group that received ES-dNSC transplantation showed significant improvements in locomotor function compared with controls in open field and gait analysis. The cell treatment group had a significant enhancement of spared neural tissue. Immunohistological assessments showed that dNSCs differentiated primarily to oligodendrocytes. These cells were shown to express myelin basic protein, associate with axons, and support nodal architecture as well as display proper compact, multilayer myelination in electron microscopic analysis. This study provides strong evidence that dNSCs clonally derived from pluripotent cells using the default pathway of neuralization improve motor function after SCI and enhance sparing of neural tissue, while remaining safe and clinically relevant.

  17. Transplantation of Neural Stem Cells Cultured in Alginate Scaffold for Spinal Cord Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Mojtaba; Sharafkhah, Ali; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, Omid; Semsar-Kazerooni, Maryam

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of transplantation of alginate encapsulated neural stem cells (NSCs) on spinal cord injury in Sprague-Dawley male rats. The neurological functions were assessed for 6 weeks after transplantation along with a histological study and measurement of caspase-3 levels. The aim of this study was to discover whether NSCs cultured in alginate transplantation improve recovery from spinal cord injury. Spinal cord injury is one of the leading causes of disability and it has no effective treatment. Spinal cord injury can also cause sensory impairment. With an impetus on using stem cells therapy in various central nervous system settings, there is an interest in using stem cells for addressing spinal cord injury. Neural stem cell is one type of stem cells that is able to differentiate to all three neural lineages and it shows promise in spinal injury treatment. Furthermore, a number of studies have shown that culturing NSCs in three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds like alginate could enhance neural differentiation. The NSCs were isolated from 14-day-old rat embryos. The isolated NSCs were cultured in growth media containing basic fibroblast growth factor and endothelial growth factor. The cells were characterized by differentiating to three neural lineages and they were cultured in an alginate scaffold. After 7 days the cells were encapsulated and transplanted in a rat model of spinal cord injury. Our data showed that culturing in an alginate 3D scaffold and transplantation of the NSCs could improve neurological outcome in a rat model of spinal cord injury. The inflammation scores and lesion sizes and also the activity of caspase-3 (for apoptosis evaluation) were less in encapsulated neural stem cell transplantation cases. Transplantation of NSCs that were cultured in an alginate scaffold led to a better clinical and histological outcome for recovery from spinal cord injury in a rat model.

  18. Proteome-wide analysis of neural stem cell differentiation to facilitate transition to cell replacement therapies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žižková, Martina; Suchá, Rita; Tylečková, Jiřina; Jarkovská, Karla; Mairychová, Kateřina; Kotrčová, Eva; Marsala, M.; Gadher, S. J.; Kovářová, Hana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 1 (2015), s. 83-95 ISSN 1478-9450 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124; GA TA ČR(CZ) TA01011466 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : cell therapy * immunomodulation * neural stem cell differentiation * neural subpopulation * neurodegenerative disease Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.465, year: 2015

  19. A cross-disciplinary approach to understanding neural stem cells in development and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrique, Domingos; Bally-Cuif, Laure

    2010-06-01

    The Company of Biologists recently launched a new series of workshops aimed at bringing together scientists with different backgrounds to discuss cutting edge research in emerging and cross-disciplinary areas of biology. The first workshop was held at Wilton Park, Sussex, UK, and the chosen theme was 'Neural Stem Cells in Development and Disease', which is indeed a hot topic, not only because of the potential use of neural stem cells in cell replacement therapies to treat neurodegenerative diseases, but also because alterations in their behaviour can, in certain cases, lie at the origin of brain tumours and other diseases.

  20. Treatment of spinal cord injury: a review of engineering using neural and mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Martin M; Harmon, Olivia A; Adeeb, Nimer; Deep, Aman; Tubbs, R Shane

    2015-01-01

    Over time, various treatment modalities for spinal cord injury have been trialed, including pharmacological and nonpharmacological methods. Among these, replacement of the injured neural and paraneural tissues via cellular transplantation of neural and mesenchymal stem cells has been the most attractive. Extensive experimental studies have been done to identify the safety and effectiveness of this transplantation in animal and human models. Herein, we review the literature for studies conducted, with a focus on the human-related studies, recruitment, isolation, and transplantation, of these multipotent stem cells, and associated outcomes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Functional Stem Cell Integration into Neural Networks Assessed by Organotypic Slice Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, David; Thonabulsombat, Charoensri; Jäderstad, Johan; Jäderstad, Linda Maria; Olivius, Petri; Herlenius, Eric

    2017-08-14

    Re-formation or preservation of functional, electrically active neural networks has been proffered as one of the goals of stem cell-mediated neural therapeutics. A primary issue for a cell therapy approach is the formation of functional contacts between the implanted cells and the host tissue. Therefore, it is of fundamental interest to establish protocols that allow us to delineate a detailed time course of grafted stem cell survival, migration, differentiation, integration, and functional interaction with the host. One option for in vitro studies is to examine the integration of exogenous stem cells into an existing active neural network in ex vivo organotypic cultures. Organotypic cultures leave the structural integrity essentially intact while still allowing the microenvironment to be carefully controlled. This allows detailed studies over time of cellular responses and cell-cell interactions, which are not readily performed in vivo. This unit describes procedures for using organotypic slice cultures as ex vivo model systems for studying neural stem cell and embryonic stem cell engraftment and communication with CNS host tissue. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  2. Functional integration of grafted neural stem cell-derived dopaminergic neurons monitored by optogenetics in an in vitro Parkinson model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Jan; Parish, Clare L; Sørensen, Andreas T

    2011-01-01

    Intrastriatal grafts of stem cell-derived dopamine (DA) neurons induce behavioral recovery in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD), but how they functionally integrate in host neural circuitries is poorly understood. Here, Wnt5a-overexpressing neural stem cells derived from embryonic ventral...

  3. Identifying endogenous neural stem cells in the adult brain in vitro and in vivo: novel approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueger, Maria Adele; Androutsellis-Theotokis, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    In the 1960s, Joseph Altman reported that the adult mammalian brain is capable of generating new neurons. Today it is understood that some of these neurons are derived from uncommitted cells in the subventricular zone lining the lateral ventricles, and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. The first area generates new neuroblasts which migrate to the olfactory bulb, whereas hippocampal neurogenesis seems to play roles in particular types of learning and memory. A part of these uncommitted (immature) cells is able to divide and their progeny can generate all three major cell types of the nervous system: neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes; these properties define such cells as neural stem cells. Although the roles of these cells are not yet clear, it is accepted that they affect functions including olfaction and learning/memory. Experiments with insults to the central nervous system also show that neural stem cells are quickly mobilized due to injury and in various disorders by proliferating, and migrating to injury sites. This suggests a role of endogenous neural stem cells in disease. New pools of stem cells are being discovered, suggesting an even more important role for these cells. To understand these cells and to coax them to contribute to tissue repair it would be very useful to be able to image them in the living organism. Here we discuss advances in imaging approaches as well as new concepts that emerge from stem cell biology with emphasis on the interface between imaging and stem cells.

  4. Human Embryonic Stem Cells: A Model for the Study of Neural Development and Neurological Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piya Prajumwongs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the mechanism of neurogenesis has been well documented in other organisms, there might be fundamental differences between human and those species referring to species-specific context. Based on principles learned from other systems, it is found that the signaling pathways required for neural induction and specification of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs recapitulated those in the early embryo development in vivo at certain degree. This underscores the usefulness of hESCs in understanding early human neural development and reinforces the need to integrate the principles of developmental biology and hESC biology for an efficient neural differentiation.

  5. Methods for Derivation of Multipotent Neural Crest Cells Derived from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, John; Dalton, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Multipotent, neural crest cells (NCCs) produce a wide range of cell types during embryonic development. This includes melanocytes, peripheral neurons, smooth muscle cells, osteocytes, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. The protocol described here allows for highly efficient differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells to a neural crest fate within 15 days. This is accomplished under feeder-free conditions, using chemically defined medium supplemented with two small molecule inhibitors that block glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) and bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signaling. This technology is well suited as a platform to understand in greater detail the pathogenesis of human disease associated with impaired neural crest development/migration.

  6. Isolation and characterization of neural crest-derived stem cells from dental pulp of neonatal mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajohnkiart Janebodin

    Full Text Available Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs are shown to reside within the tooth and play an important role in dentin regeneration. DPSCs were first isolated and characterized from human teeth and most studies have focused on using this adult stem cell for clinical applications. However, mouse DPSCs have not been well characterized and their origin(s have not yet been elucidated. Herein we examined if murine DPSCs are neural crest derived and determined their in vitro and in vivo capacity. DPSCs from neonatal murine tooth pulp expressed embryonic stem cell and neural crest related genes, but lacked expression of mesodermal genes. Cells isolated from the Wnt1-Cre/R26R-LacZ model, a reporter of neural crest-derived tissues, indicated that DPSCs were Wnt1-marked and therefore of neural crest origin. Clonal DPSCs showed multi-differentiation in neural crest lineage for odontoblasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes, neurons, and smooth muscles. Following in vivo subcutaneous transplantation with hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate, based on tissue/cell morphology and specific antibody staining, the clones differentiated into odontoblast-like cells and produced dentin-like structure. Conversely, bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs gave rise to osteoblast-like cells and generated bone-like structure. Interestingly, the capillary distribution in the DPSC transplants showed close proximity to odontoblasts whereas in the BMSC transplants bone condensations were distant to capillaries resembling dentinogenesis in the former vs. osteogenesis in the latter. Thus we demonstrate the existence of neural crest-derived DPSCs with differentiation capacity into cranial mesenchymal tissues and other neural crest-derived tissues. In turn, DPSCs hold promise as a source for regenerating cranial mesenchyme and other neural crest derived tissues.

  7. Isolation and Characterization of Neural Crest-Derived Stem Cells from Dental Pulp of Neonatal Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janebodin, Kajohnkiart; Horst, Orapin V.; Ieronimakis, Nicholas; Balasundaram, Gayathri; Reesukumal, Kanit; Pratumvinit, Busadee; Reyes, Morayma

    2011-01-01

    Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are shown to reside within the tooth and play an important role in dentin regeneration. DPSCs were first isolated and characterized from human teeth and most studies have focused on using this adult stem cell for clinical applications. However, mouse DPSCs have not been well characterized and their origin(s) have not yet been elucidated. Herein we examined if murine DPSCs are neural crest derived and determined their in vitro and in vivo capacity. DPSCs from neonatal murine tooth pulp expressed embryonic stem cell and neural crest related genes, but lacked expression of mesodermal genes. Cells isolated from the Wnt1-Cre/R26R-LacZ model, a reporter of neural crest-derived tissues, indicated that DPSCs were Wnt1-marked and therefore of neural crest origin. Clonal DPSCs showed multi-differentiation in neural crest lineage for odontoblasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes, neurons, and smooth muscles. Following in vivo subcutaneous transplantation with hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate, based on tissue/cell morphology and specific antibody staining, the clones differentiated into odontoblast-like cells and produced dentin-like structure. Conversely, bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) gave rise to osteoblast-like cells and generated bone-like structure. Interestingly, the capillary distribution in the DPSC transplants showed close proximity to odontoblasts whereas in the BMSC transplants bone condensations were distant to capillaries resembling dentinogenesis in the former vs. osteogenesis in the latter. Thus we demonstrate the existence of neural crest-derived DPSCs with differentiation capacity into cranial mesenchymal tissues and other neural crest-derived tissues. In turn, DPSCs hold promise as a source for regenerating cranial mesenchyme and other neural crest derived tissues. PMID:22087335

  8. VEGF-mediated angiogenesis stimulates neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation in the premature brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jinqiao, E-mail: jinqiao1977@163.com [Institute of Pediatrics, Children' s Hospital of Fudan University (China); Sha, Bin [Department of Neonatology, Children' s Hospital of Fudan University, 399 Wanyuan Road, Shanghai 201102 (China); Zhou, Wenhao, E-mail: zhou_wenhao@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Neonatology, Children' s Hospital of Fudan University, 399 Wanyuan Road, Shanghai 201102 (China); Yang, Yi [Institute of Pediatrics, Children' s Hospital of Fudan University (China)

    2010-03-26

    This study investigated the effects of angiogenesis on the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in the premature brain. We observed the changes in neurogenesis that followed the stimulation and inhibition of angiogenesis by altering vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in a 3-day-old rat model. VEGF expression was overexpressed by adenovirus transfection and down-regulated by siRNA interference. Using immunofluorescence assays, Western blot analysis, and real-time PCR methods, we observed angiogenesis and the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells. Immunofluorescence assays showed that the number of vWF-positive areas peaked at day 7, and they were highest in the VEGF up-regulation group and lowest in the VEGF down-regulation group at every time point. The number of neural stem cells, neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes in the subventricular zone gradually increased over time in the VEGF up-regulation group. Among the three groups, the number of these cells was highest in the VEGF up-regulation group and lowest in the VEGF down-regulation group at the same time point. Western blot analysis and real-time PCR confirmed these results. These data suggest that angiogenesis may stimulate the proliferation of neural stem cells and differentiation into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes in the premature brain.

  9. Bioluminescence Imaging of Olig2-Neural Stem Cells Reveals Improved Engraftment in a Demyelination Mouse Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sher, Falak; van Dam, Go; Boddeke, Erik; Copray, Sjef

    2009-01-01

    A major issue in the potential application of neural stem cell (NSC)-based cell replacement therapy for demyelinating diseases is the question of the survival, functional behavior, and stability of implanted NSC-derived oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) over an extended period. To address this

  10. Transient expression of Olig1 initiates the differentiation of neural stem cells into oligodendrocyte progenitor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balasubramaniyan, [No Value; Timmer, N; Kust, B; Boddeke, E; Copray, S

    2004-01-01

    In order to develop an efficient strategy to induce the in vitro differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) into oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), NSCs were isolated from E14 mice and grown in medium containing epidermal growth factor and fibroblast growth factor (FGF). Besides supplementing

  11. Monosialoganglioside 1 may alleviate neurotoxicity induced by propofol combined with remifentanil in neural stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Monosialoganglioside 1 (GM1 is the main ganglioside subtype and has neuroprotective properties in the central nervous system. In this study, we aimed to determine whether GM1 alleviates neurotoxicity induced by moderate and high concentrations of propofol combined with remifentanil in the immature central nervous system. Hippocampal neural stem cells were isolated from newborn Sprague-Dawley rats and treated with remifentanil (5, 10, 20 ng/mL and propofol (1.0, 2.5, 5.0 μg/mL, and/or GM1 (12.5, 25, 50 μg/mL. GM1 reversed combined propofol and remifentanil-induced decreases in the percentage of 5-bromodeoxyuridine(+ cells and also reversed the increase in apoptotic cell percentage during neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation. However, GM1 with combined propofol and remifentanil did not affect β-tubulin(+ or glial fibrillary acidic protein(+ cell percentage during neural stem cell differentiation. In conclusion, we show that GM1 alleviates the damaging effects of propofol combined with remifentanil at moderate and high exposure concentrations in neural stem cells in vitro, and exerts protective effects on the immature central nervous system.

  12. Functionally deficient neuronal differentiation of mouse embryonic neural stem cells in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balasubramaniyan, [No Value; de Haas, AH; Bakels, R; Koper, A; Boddeke, HWGM; Copray, JM

    Embryonic mouse neural stem cells (NSCs) were isolated from E14 mice, multiplied in medium containing epidermal growth factor (EGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and plated in laminin-coated wells in basic serum-free neurobasal medium. After 7 days in vitro, approximately 20% of the

  13. Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived models to investigate human cytomegalovirus infection in neural cells.

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    Leonardo D'Aiuto

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV infection is one of the leading prenatal causes of congenital mental retardation and deformities world-wide. Access to cultured human neuronal lineages, necessary to understand the species specific pathogenic effects of HCMV, has been limited by difficulties in sustaining primary human neuronal cultures. Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells now provide an opportunity for such research. We derived iPS cells from human adult fibroblasts and induced neural lineages to investigate their susceptibility to infection with HCMV strain Ad169. Analysis of iPS cells, iPS-derived neural stem cells (NSCs, neural progenitor cells (NPCs and neurons suggests that (i iPS cells are not permissive to HCMV infection, i.e., they do not permit a full viral replication cycle; (ii Neural stem cells have impaired differentiation when infected by HCMV; (iii NPCs are fully permissive for HCMV infection; altered expression of genes related to neural metabolism or neuronal differentiation is also observed; (iv most iPS-derived neurons are not permissive to HCMV infection; and (v infected neurons have impaired calcium influx in response to glutamate.

  14. Dopaminergic differentiation of human neural stem cells mediated by co-cultured rat striatal brain slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anwar, Mohammad Raffaqat; Andreasen, Christian Maaløv; Lippert, Solvej Kølvraa

    2008-01-01

    differentiation, we co-cultured cells from a human neural forebrain-derived stem cell line (hNS1) with rat striatal brain slices. In brief, coronal slices of neonatal rat striatum were cultured on semiporous membrane inserts placed in six-well trays overlying monolayers of hNS1 cells. After 12 days of co......Properly committed neural stem cells constitute a promising source of cells for transplantation in Parkinson's disease, but a protocol for controlled dopaminergic differentiation is not yet available. To establish a setting for identification of secreted neural compounds promoting dopaminergic......-culture, large numbers of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive, catecholaminergic cells could be found underneath individual striatal slices. Cell counting revealed that up to 25.3% (average 16.1%) of the total number of cells in these areas were TH-positive, contrasting a few TH-positive cells (

  15. Knockdown of tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase impairs neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermer, Vanessa; Ritter, Mathias; Albuquerque, Boris; Leib, Christoph; Stanke, Matthias; Zimmermann, Herbert

    2010-11-26

    In the adult mammalian brain the subependymal layer of the lateral ventricles houses neural stem cells giving rise to young neurons migrating towards the olfactory bulb. The molecular cues controlling essential functions within the neurogenesis pathway such as proliferation, short and long distance migration, differentiation and functional integration are poorly understood. Neural progenitors in situ express the tissue nonspecific form of alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), a cell surface-located nonspecific phosphomonoesterase capable of hydrolyzing extracellular nucleotides. To gain insight into the functional role of TNAP in cultured multipotent neural stem cells we applied a knockdown protocol using RNA interference with shRNA and retroviral infection. We show that TNAP knockdown reduces cell proliferation and differentiation into neurons or oligodendrocytes. This effect is abrogated by addition of alkaline phosphatase to the culture medium. Our results suggest that TNAP is essential for NSC proliferation and differentiation in vitro and possibly also in vivo. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Stem profile description in plantations for different species using artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bráulio Pizziôlo Furtado Campos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the ability of an artificial neural network (ANN to describe the stem profile of trees of different genera and species in different growing conditions. For comparative purposes, equations were fit, using regression analysis to describe the stem profile. For neural network as well as for the regression equations, evaluation of accuracy was based on correlation coefficient between observed and estimated diameters along the stem, square root of the mean square percentage error (RMSE and graphical analysis. Artificial intelligence methods, especially ANN, can be effective in describing trees bole profile of different species in different growth conditions using only one ANN with similar efficiency as regression models traditionally employed by forestry companies.

  17. Role of astrocytes as neural stem cells in the adult brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Perez, Oscar; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    In the adult mammalian brain, bona fide neural stem cells were discovered in the subventricular zone (SVZ), the largest neurogenic niche lining the striatal wall of the lateral ventricles of the brain. In this region resides a subpopulation of astrocytes that express the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), nestin and LeX. Astonishingly, these GFAP-expressing progenitors display stem-cell-like features both in vivo and in vitro. Throughout life SVZ astrocytes give rise to interneurons and oligodendrocyte precursors, which populate the olfactory bulb and the white matter, respectively. The role of the progenies of SVZ astrocytes has not been fully elucidated, but some evidence indicates that the new neurons play a role in olfactory discrimination, whereas oligodendrocytes contribute to myelinate white matter tracts. In this chapter, we describe the astrocytic nature of adult neural stem cells, their organization into the SVZ and some of their molecular and genetic characteristics. PMID:23619383

  18. An avian model for the reversal of neurobehavioral teratogenicity with neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotan, Sharon; Pinkas, Adi; Slotkin, Theodore A; Yanai, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    A fast and simple model which uses lower animals on the evolutionary scale is beneficial for developing procedures for the reversal of neurobehavioral teratogenicity with neural stem cells. Here, we established a procedure for the derivation of chick neural stem cells, establishing embryonic day (E) 10 as optimal for progression to neuronal phenotypes. Cells were obtained from the embryonic cerebral hemispheres and incubated for 5-7 days in enriched medium containing epidermal growth factor (EGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) according to a procedure originally developed for mice. A small percentage of the cells survived, proliferated and formed nestin-positive neurospheres. After removal of the growth factors to allow differentiation (5 days), 74% of the cells differentiated into all major lineages of the nervous system, including neurons (Beta III tubulin-positive, 54% of the total number of differentiated cells), astrocytes (GFAP-positive, 26%), and oligodendrocytes (O4-positive, 20%). These findings demonstrate that the cells were indeed neural stem cells. Next, the cells were transplanted in two allograft chick models; (1) direct cerebral transplantation to 24-h-old chicks, followed by post-transplantation cell tracking at 24 h, 6 days and 14 days, and (2) intravenous transplantation to chick embryos on E13, followed by cell tracking on E19. With both methods, transplanted cells were found in the brain. The chick embryo provides a convenient, precisely-timed and unlimited supply of neural progenitors for therapy by transplantation, as well as constituting a fast and simple model in which to evaluate the ability of neural stem cell transplantation to repair neural damage, steps that are critical for progress toward therapeutic applications. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The in vivo developmental potential of porcine skin-derived progenitors and neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming-Tao; Yang, Xiaoyu; Lee, Kiho; Mao, Jiude; Teson, Jennifer M; Whitworth, Kristin M; Samuel, Melissa S; Spate, Lee D; Murphy, Clifton N; Prather, Randall S

    2012-09-20

    Multipotent skin-derived progenitors (SKPs) can be traced back to embryonic neural crest cells and are able to differentiate into both neural and mesodermal progeny in vitro. Neural stem cells (NSCs) are capable of self-renewing and can contribute to neuron and glia in the nervous system. Recently, we derived porcine SKPs and NSCs from the same enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgenic fetuses and demonstrated that SKPs could contribute to neural and mesodermal lineages in vivo. However, it remains unclear whether porcine SKPs and NSCs can generate ectoderm and mesoderm lineages or other germ layers in vivo. Embryonic chimeras are a well-established tool for investigating cell lineage determination and cell potency through normal embryonic development. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the in vivo developmental potential of porcine SKPs and fetal brain-derived NSCs by chimera production. Porcine SKPs, NSCs, and fibroblasts were injected into precompact in vitro fertilized embryos (IVF) and then transferred into corresponding surrogates 24 h postinjection. We found that porcine SKPs could incorporate into the early embryos and contribute to various somatic tissues of the 3 germ layers in postnatal chimera, and especially have an endodermal potency. However, this developmental potential is compromised when they differentiate into fibroblasts. In addition, porcine NSCs fail to incorporate into host embryos and contribute to chimeric piglets. Therefore, neural crest-derived SKPs may represent a more primitive state than their counterpart neural stem cells in terms of their contributions to multiple cell lineages.

  20. Neural Progenitor Cells Derived from Human Embryonic Stem Cells as an Origin of Dopaminergic Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parinya Noisa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs are able to proliferate in vitro indefinitely without losing their ability to differentiate into multiple cell types upon exposure to appropriate signals. Particularly, the ability of hESCs to differentiate into neuronal subtypes is fundamental to develop cell-based therapies for several neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease. In this study, we differentiated hESCs to dopaminergic neurons via an intermediate stage, neural progenitor cells (NPCs. hESCs were induced to neural progenitor cells by Dorsomorphin, a small molecule that inhibits BMP signalling. The resulting neural progenitor cells exhibited neural bipolarity with high expression of neural progenitor genes and possessed multipotential differentiation ability. CBF1 and bFGF responsiveness of these hES-NP cells suggested their similarity to embryonic neural progenitor cells. A substantial number of dopaminergic neurons were derived from hES-NP cells upon supplementation of FGF8 and SHH, key dopaminergic neuron inducers. Importantly, multiple markers of midbrain neurons were detected, including NURR1, PITX3, and EN1, suggesting that hESC-derived dopaminergic neurons attained the midbrain identity. Altogether, this work underscored the generation of neural progenitor cells that retain the properties of embryonic neural progenitor cells. These cells will serve as an unlimited source for the derivation of dopaminergic neurons, which might be applicable for treating patients with Parkinson’s disease.

  1. Lingo-1 shRNA and Notch signaling inhibitor DAPT promote differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells into neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jue; Ye, Zhizhong; Zheng, Shuhui; Chen, Luming; Wan, Yong; Deng, Yubin; Yang, Ruirui

    2016-03-01

    Determination of the exogenous factors that regulate differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells into neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes is an important step in the clinical therapy of spinal cord injury (SCI). The Notch pathway inhibits the differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells and Lingo-1 is a strong negative regulator for myelination and axon growth. While Lingo-1 shRNA and N-[N-(3, 5-difluorophenacetyl)-1-alanyl]-S-Phenylglycinet-butylester (DAPT), a Notch pathway inhibitor, have been used separately to help repair SCI, the results have been unsatisfactory. Here we investigated and elucidated the preliminary mechanism for the effect of Lingo-1 shRNA and DAPT on neural stem/progenitor cells differentiation. We found that neural stem/progenitor cells from E14 rat embryos expressed Nestin, Sox-2 and Lingo-1, and we optimized the transduction of neural stem/progenitor cells using lentiviral vectors encoding Lingo-1 shRNA. The addition of DAPT decreased the expression of Notch intracellular domain (NICD) as well as the downstream genes Hes1 and Hes5. Expression of NeuN, CNPase and GFAP in DAPT treated cells and expression of NeuN in Lingo-1 shRNA treated cells confirmed differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells into neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. These results revealed that while Lingo-1 shRNA and Notch signaling inhibitor DAPT both promoted differentiation of neural stem cells into neurons, only DAPT was capable of driving neural stem/progenitor cells differentiation into oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. Since we were able to show that both Lingo-1 shRNA and DAPT could drive neural stem/progenitor cells differentiation, our data might aid the development of more effective SCI therapies using Lingo-1 shRNA and DAPT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Establishment of Human Neural Progenitor Cells from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells with Diverse Tissue Origins

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    Hayato Fukusumi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs have previously been generated from limited numbers of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC clones. Here, 21 hiPSC clones derived from human dermal fibroblasts, cord blood cells, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were differentiated using two neural induction methods, an embryoid body (EB formation-based method and an EB formation method using dual SMAD inhibitors (dSMADi. Our results showed that expandable hNPCs could be generated from hiPSC clones with diverse somatic tissue origins. The established hNPCs exhibited a mid/hindbrain-type neural identity and uniform expression of neural progenitor genes.

  3. Differentiation of reprogrammed human adipose mesenchymal stem cells toward neural cells with defined transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xinjian; Liu, Tianqing; Song, Kedong; Li, Xiangqin; Ge, Dan

    2013-10-04

    Somatic cell reprogramming may become a powerful approach to generate specific human cell types for cell-fate determination studies and potential transplantation therapies of neurological diseases. Here we report a reprogramming methodology with which human adipose stem cells (hADSCs) can be differentiated into neural cells. After being reprogrammed with polycistronic plasmid carrying defined factor OCT3/4, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC, and further treated with neural induce medium, the hADSCs switched to differentiate toward neural cell lineages. The generated cells had normal karyotypes and exogenous vector sequences were not inserted in the genomes. Therefore, this cell lineage conversion methodology bypasses the risk of mutation and gene instability, and provides a novel strategy to obtain patient-specific neural cells for basic research and therapeutic application. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Two major gate-keepers in the self-renewal of neural stem cells: Erk1/2 and PLCγ1 in FGFR signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jin-A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neural stem cells are undifferentiated precursor cells that proliferate, self-renew, and give rise to neuronal and glial lineages. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying their self-renewal is an important aspect in neural stem cell biology. The regulation mechanisms governing self-renewal of neural stem cells and the signaling pathways responsible for the proliferation and maintenance of adult stem cells remain largely unknown. In this issue of Molecular Brain [Ma DK et al. Molecular genetic analysis of FGFR1 signaling reveals distinct roles of MAPK and PLCγ1 activation for self-renewal of adult neural stem cells. Molecular Brain 2009, 2:16], characterized the different roles of MAPK and PLCγ1 in FGFR1 signaling in the self-renewal of neural stem cells. These novel findings provide insights into basic neural stem cell biology and clinical applications of potential stem-cell-based therapy.

  5. Planar cell polarity-mediated induction of neural stem cell expansion during axolotl spinal cord regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Fabian; Nowoshilow, Sergej; Chara, Osvaldo; Tanaka, Elly M

    2015-01-01

    Axolotls are uniquely able to mobilize neural stem cells to regenerate all missing regions of the spinal cord. How a neural stem cell under homeostasis converts after injury to a highly regenerative cell remains unknown. Here, we show that during regeneration, axolotl neural stem cells repress neurogenic genes and reactivate a transcriptional program similar to embryonic neuroepithelial cells. This dedifferentiation includes the acquisition of rapid cell cycles, the switch from neurogenic to proliferative divisions, and the re-expression of planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway components. We show that PCP induction is essential to reorient mitotic spindles along the anterior-posterior axis of elongation, and orthogonal to the cell apical-basal axis. Disruption of this property results in premature neurogenesis and halts regeneration. Our findings reveal a key role for PCP in coordinating the morphogenesis of spinal cord outgrowth with the switch from a homeostatic to a regenerative stem cell that restores missing tissue. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10230.001 PMID:26568310

  6. Wnt/Yes-Associated Protein Interactions During Neural Tissue Patterning of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejoy, Julie; Song, Liqing; Zhou, Yi; Li, Yan

    2017-08-31

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have special ability to self-assemble into neural spheroids or mini-brain-like structures. During the self-assembly process, Wnt signaling plays an important role in regional patterning and establishing positional identity of hiPSC-derived neural progenitors. Recently, the role of Wnt signaling in regulating Yes-associated protein (YAP) expression (nuclear or cytoplasmic), the pivotal regulator during organ growth and tissue generation, has attracted increasing interests. However, the interactions between Wnt and YAP expression for neural lineage commitment of hiPSCs remain poorly explored. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of Wnt signaling and YAP expression on the cellular population in three-dimensional (3D) neural spheroids derived from hiPSCs. In this study, Wnt signaling was activated using CHIR99021 for 3D neural spheroids derived from human iPSK3 cells through embryoid body formation. Our results indicate that Wnt activation induces nuclear localization of YAP and upregulates the expression of HOXB4, the marker for hindbrain/spinal cord. By contrast, the cells exhibit more rostral forebrain neural identity (expression of TBR1) without Wnt activation. Cytochalasin D was then used to induce cytoplasmic YAP and the results showed the decreased HOXB4 expression. In addition, the incorporation of microparticles in the neural spheroids was investigated for the perturbation of neural patterning. This study may indicate the bidirectional interactions of Wnt signaling and YAP expression during neural tissue patterning, which have the significance in neurological disease modeling, drug screening, and neural tissue regeneration.

  7. Evaluation of neural gene expression in serum treated embryonic stem cells in Alzheimer′s patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Dehghani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies confirmed that neural gene expression in embryonic stem cells (ESC could influence by chemical compounds through stimulating apoptotic pathway. We aimed to use ESCs-derived neural cells by embryoid body formation as an in vitro model for determination of neural gene expression changes in groups that treated by sera from Alzheimer′s patients and compare with healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: ESC line which was derived from the C57BL/6 mouse strain was used throughout this study. ESC-derived neural cells were treated with serum from Alzheimer′s patient and healthy individual. Neural gene expression was assessed in both groups by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. The data was analyzed by SPSS Software (version 18. Results: Morphologically, the reducing in neurite out-growth was observed in neural cells in group, which treated by serum from Alzheimer′s patient, while neurite growth was natural in appearance in control group. Microtubule-associated protein 2 and glial fibrillary acidic protein expression significantly reduced in the Alzheimer′s patient group compared with the control group. Nestin expression did not significantly differ among the groups. Conclusion: Neural gene expression could be reduced in serum treated ESC in Alzheimer′s patients.

  8. The role of microRNAs in human neural stem cells, neuronal differentiation and subtype specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stappert, Laura; Roese-Koerner, Beate; Brüstle, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The impressive neuronal diversity found within the nervous system emerges from a limited pool of neural progenitor cells that proceed through different gene expression programs to acquire distinct cell fates. Here, we review recent evidence indicating that microRNAs (miRNAs) are critically involved in conferring neural cell identities during neural induction, neuronal differentiation and subtype specification. Several studies have shown that miRNAs act in concert with other gene regulatory factors and genetic switches to regulate the spatial and temporal expression profiles of important cell fate determinants. So far, most studies addressing the role of miRNAs during neurogenesis were conducted using animal models. With the advent of human pluripotent stem cells and the possibility to differentiate these into neural stem cells, we now have the opportunity to study miRNAs in a human context. More insight into the impact of miRNA-based regulation during neural fate choice could in the end be exploited to develop new strategies for the generation of distinct human neuronal cell types.

  9. Improved biocompatibility and efficient labeling of neural stem cells with poly(L-lysine-coated maghemite nanoparticles

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    Igor M. Pongrac

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cell tracking is a powerful tool to understand cellular migration, dynamics, homing and function of stem cell transplants. Nanoparticles represent possible stem cell tracers, but they differ in cellular uptake and side effects. Their properties can be modified by coating with different biocompatible polymers. To test if a coating polymer, poly(L-lysine, can improve the biocompatibility of nanoparticles applied to neural stem cells, poly(L-lysine-coated maghemite nanoparticles were prepared and characterized. We evaluated their cellular uptake, the mechanism of internalization, cytotoxicity, viability and proliferation of neural stem cells, and compared them to the commercially available dextran-coated nanomag®-D-spio nanoparticles.Results: Light microscopy of Prussian blue staining revealed a concentration-dependent intracellular uptake of iron oxide in neural stem cells. The methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay and the calcein acetoxymethyl ester/propidium iodide assay demonstrated that poly(L-lysine-coated maghemite nanoparticles scored better than nanomag®-D-spio in cell labeling efficiency, viability and proliferation of neural stem cells. Cytochalasine D blocked the cellular uptake of nanoparticles indicating an actin-dependent process, such as macropinocytosis, to be the internalization mechanism for both nanoparticle types. Finally, immunocytochemistry analysis of neural stem cells after treatment with poly(L-lysine-coated maghemite and nanomag®-D-spio nanoparticles showed that they preserve their identity as neural stem cells and their potential to differentiate into all three major neural cell types (neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes.Conclusion: Improved biocompatibility and efficient cell labeling makes poly(L-lysine-coated maghemite nanoparticles appropriate candidates for future neural stem cell in vivo tracking studies.

  10. Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous tooth exhibit stromal-derived inducing activity and lead to generation of neural crest cells from human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbalaie, Khadijeh; Tanhaei, Somayyeh; Rabiei, Farzaneh; Kiani-Esfahani, Abbas; Masoudi, Najmeh Sadat; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein; Baharvand, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    The neural crest is a transient structure of early vertebrate embryos that generates neural crest cells (NCCs). These cells can migrate throughout the body and produce a diverse array of mature tissue types. Due to the ethical and technical problems surrounding the isolation of these early human embryo cells, researchers have focused on in vitro studies to produce NCCs and increase their knowledge of neural crest development. In this experimental study, we cultured human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) on stromal stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) for a two-week period. We used different approaches to characterize these differentiated cells as neural precursor cells (NPCs) and NCCs. In the first co-culture week, hESCs appeared as crater-like structures with marginal rosettes. NPCs derived from these structures expressed the early neural crest marker p75 in addition to numerous other genes associated with neural crest induction such as SNAIL, SLUG, PTX3 and SOX9. Flow cytometry analysis showed 70% of the cells were AP2/P75 positive. Moreover, the cells were able to self-renew, sustain multipotent differentiation potential, and readily form neurospheres in suspension culture. SHED, as an adult stem cell with a neural crest origin, has stromal-derived inducing activity (SDIA) and can be used as an NCC inducer from hESCs. These cells provide an invaluable resource to study neural crest differentiation in both normal and disordered human neural crest development.

  11. Glioblastoma-Initiating Cells: Relationship with Neural Stem Cells and the Micro-Environment

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    Goffart, Nicolas [Laboratory of Developmental Neurobiology, GIGA-Neurosciences Research Center, University of Liège, Liège 4000 (Belgium); Kroonen, Jérôme [Human Genetics, CHU and University of Liège, Liège 4000 (Belgium); The T& P Bohnenn Laboratory for Neuro-Oncology, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, UMC Utrecht, Utrecht 3556 (Netherlands); Rogister, Bernard, E-mail: Bernard.Register@ulg.ac.be [Laboratory of Developmental Neurobiology, GIGA-Neurosciences Research Center, University of Liège, Liège 4000 (Belgium); Department of Neurology, CHU and University of Liège, Liège 4000 (Belgium); GIGA-Development, Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine, University of Liège, Liège 4000 (Belgium)

    2013-08-14

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, WHO grade IV) is the most common and lethal subtype of primary brain tumor with a median overall survival of 15 months from the time of diagnosis. The presence in GBM of a cancer population displaying neural stem cell (NSC) properties as well as tumor-initiating abilities and resistance to current therapies suggests that these glioblastoma-initiating cells (GICs) play a central role in tumor development and are closely related to NSCs. However, it is nowadays still unclear whether GICs derive from NSCs, neural progenitor cells or differentiated cells such as astrocytes or oligodendrocytes. On the other hand, NSCs are located in specific regions of the adult brain called neurogenic niches that have been shown to control critical stem cell properties, to nourish NSCs and to support their self-renewal. This “seed-and-soil” relationship has also been adapted to cancer stem cell research as GICs also require a specific micro-environment to maintain their “stem cell” properties. In this review, we will discuss the controversies surrounding the origin and the identification of GBM stem cells and highlight the micro-environment impact on their biology.

  12. Glioblastoma-Initiating Cells: Relationship with Neural Stem Cells and the Micro-Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Goffart

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, WHO grade IV is the most common and lethal subtype of primary brain tumor with a median overall survival of 15 months from the time of diagnosis. The presence in GBM of a cancer population displaying neural stem cell (NSC properties as well as tumor-initiating abilities and resistance to current therapies suggests that these glioblastoma-initiating cells (GICs play a central role in tumor development and are closely related to NSCs. However, it is nowadays still unclear whether GICs derive from NSCs, neural progenitor cells or differentiated cells such as astrocytes or oligodendrocytes. On the other hand, NSCs are located in specific regions of the adult brain called neurogenic niches that have been shown to control critical stem cell properties, to nourish NSCs and to support their self-renewal. This “seed-and-soil” relationship has also been adapted to cancer stem cell research as GICs also require a specific micro-environment to maintain their “stem cell” properties. In this review, we will discuss the controversies surrounding the origin and the identification of GBM stem cells and highlight the micro-environment impact on their biology.

  13. Physiological Plasticity of Neural-Crest-Derived Stem Cells in the Adult Mammalian Carotid Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annese, Valentina; Navarro-Guerrero, Elena; Rodríguez-Prieto, Ismael; Pardal, Ricardo

    2017-04-18

    Adult stem cell plasticity, or the ability of somatic stem cells to cross boundaries and differentiate into unrelated cell types, has been a matter of debate in the last decade. Neural-crest-derived stem cells (NCSCs) display a remarkable plasticity during development. Whether adult populations of NCSCs retain this plasticity is largely unknown. Herein, we describe that neural-crest-derived adult carotid body stem cells (CBSCs) are able to undergo endothelial differentiation in addition to their reported role in neurogenesis, contributing to both neurogenic and angiogenic processes taking place in the organ during acclimatization to hypoxia. Moreover, CBSC conversion into vascular cell types is hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) dependent and sensitive to hypoxia-released vascular cytokines such as erythropoietin. Our data highlight a remarkable physiological plasticity in an adult population of tissue-specific stem cells and could have impact on the use of these cells for cell therapy. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Genetic ablation of caveolin-1 increases neural stem cell proliferation in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the adult mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmin, Jean-François; Yang, Ming; Iacovitti, Lorraine; Lisanti, Michael P

    2009-12-01

    Adult neural stem cells are self-renewing multipotent cells that have the potential to replace dysfunctional and/or dying neuronal cells at the site of brain injury or degeneration. Caveolins are well-known tumor-suppressor genes that were recently found to be involved in the regulation of stem cell proliferation. For instance, ablation of the caveolin-1 (Cav-1) gene in mice markedly increases the proliferation of intestinal and mammary stem cells. However, the roles of caveolins in the proliferation of adult neural stem cells still remain unknown. In this study, dual-label immunofluorescence analysis of the proliferation marker, Ki67, and the stem cell markers, nestin and Sox2, was performed on brains of 8 week-old wild-type (WT) and Cav-1 knockout (KO) mice. Our results demonstrate an increased number of Ki67-positive nuclei in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of Cav-1 KO brains. Importantly, our dual-label immunofluorescence analyses demonstrate increased co-localization of Ki67 with both nestin and Sox2 in the SVZ of Cav-1 KO brains. Remarkably similar results were also obtained with Cav-2 and Cav-3 KO mouse brains as well, with increased proliferation of adult neural stem cells. Thus, the SVZ of caveolin KO mouse brains displays an increased proliferation of adult neural stem cells. Caveolin proteins might represent new crucial regulators of adult neural stem cell proliferation.

  15. SSEA4-positive pig induced pluripotent stem cells are primed for differentiation into neural cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jeong-Yeh; Mumaw, Jennifer L; Liu, Yubing; Stice, Steve L; West, Franklin D

    2013-01-01

    Neural cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have the potential for autologous cell therapies in treating patients with severe neurological disorders or injury. However, further study of efficacy and safety are needed in large animal preclinical models that have similar neural anatomy and physiology to humans such as the pig. The pig model for pluripotent stem cell therapy has been made possible for the first time with the development of pig iPSCs (piPSCs) capable of in vitro and in vivo differentiation into tissues of all three germ layers. Still, the question remains if piPSCs are capable of undergoing robust neural differentiation using a system similar to those being used with human iPSCs. In this study, we generated a new line of piPSCs from fibroblast cells that expressed pluripotency markers and were capable of embryoid body differentiation into all three germ layers. piPSCs demonstrated robust neural differentiation forming βIII-TUB/MAP2+ neurons, GFAP+ astrocytes, and O4+ oligodendrocytes and demonstrated strong upregulation of neural cell genes representative of all three major neural lineages of the central nervous system. In the presence of motor neuron signaling factors, piPSC-derived neurons showed expression of transcription factors associated with motor neuron differentiation (HB9 and ISLET1). Our findings demonstrate that SSEA4 expression is required for piPSCs to differentiate into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes and furthermore develop specific neuronal subtypes. This indicates that the pigs can fill the need for a powerful model to study autologous neural iPSC therapies in a system similar to humans.

  16. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neural Stem Cell Therapy Enhances Recovery in an Ischemic Stroke Pig Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Emily W; Platt, Simon R; Lau, Vivian W; Grace, Harrison E; Holmes, Shannon P; Wang, Liya; Duberstein, Kylee Jo; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Kinder, Holly A; Stice, Steve L; Hess, David C; Mao, Hui; West, Franklin D

    2017-08-30

    Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem cells (iNSCs) have significant potential as an autologous, multifunctional cell therapy for stroke, which is the primary cause of long term disability in the United States and the second leading cause of death worldwide. Here we show that iNSC transplantation improves recovery through neuroprotective, regenerative, and cell replacement mechanisms in a novel ischemic pig stroke model. Longitudinal multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) following iNSC therapy demonstrated reduced changes in white matter integrity, cerebral blood perfusion, and brain metabolism in the infarcted tissue. The observed tissue level recovery strongly correlated with decreased immune response, enhanced neuronal protection, and increased neurogenesis. iNSCs differentiated into neurons and oligodendrocytes with indication of long term integration. The robust recovery response to iNSC therapy in a translational pig stroke model with increased predictive potential strongly supports that iNSCs may be the critically needed therapeutic for human stroke patients.

  17. Transforming Growth Factor-Beta Signaling in the Neural Stem Cell Niche: A Therapeutic Target for Huntington's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Kandasamy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The neural stem cell niches possess the regenerative capacity to generate new functional neurons in the adult brain, suggesting the possibility of endogenous neuronal replacement after injury or disease. Huntington disease (HD is a neurodegenerative disease and characterized by neuronal loss in the basal ganglia, leading to motor, cognitive, and psychological disabilities. Apparently, in order to make use of the neural stem cell niche as a therapeutic concept for repair strategies in HD, it is important to understand the cellular and molecular composition of the neural stem cell niche under such neurodegenerative conditions. This paper mainly discusses the current knowledge on the regulation of the hippocampal neural stem cell niche in the adult brain and by which mechanism it might be compromised in the case of HD.

  18. Transcriptomic concentration-response evaluation of valproic acid, cyproconazole, and hexaconazole in the neural embryonic stem cell test (ESTn)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, P.; Robinson, J.F.; Pennings, J.L.A.; de Jong, E.; Claessen, S.M.H.; Kleinjans, J.C.S.; Piersma, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    Alternative developmental toxicity assays are urgently needed to reduce animal use in regulatory developmental toxicology. We previously designed an in vitro murine neural embryonic stem cell test (ESTn) as a model for neurodevelopmental toxicity testing (Theunissen et al., 2010). Toxicogenomic

  19. Efficient derivation of multipotent neural stem/progenitor cells from non-human primate embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Shimada

    Full Text Available The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus is a small New World primate that has been used as a non-human primate model for various biomedical studies. We previously demonstrated that transplantation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PCs derived from mouse and human embryonic stem cells (ESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs promote functional locomotor recovery of mouse spinal cord injury models. However, for the clinical application of such a therapeutic approach, we need to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pluripotent stem cell-derived NS/PCs not only by xenotransplantation, but also allotransplantation using non-human primate models to assess immunological rejection and tumorigenicity. In the present study, we established a culture method to efficiently derive NS/PCs as neurospheres from common marmoset ESCs. Marmoset ESC-derived neurospheres could be passaged repeatedly and showed sequential generation of neurons and astrocytes, similar to that of mouse ESC-derived NS/PCs, and gave rise to functional neurons as indicated by calcium imaging. Although marmoset ESC-derived NS/PCs could not differentiate into oligodendrocytes under default culture conditions, these cells could abundantly generate oligodendrocytes by incorporating additional signals that recapitulate in vivo neural development. Moreover, principal component analysis of microarray data demonstrated that marmoset ESC-derived NS/PCs acquired similar gene expression profiles to those of fetal brain-derived NS/PCs by repeated passaging. Therefore, marmoset ESC-derived NS/PCs may be useful not only for accurate evaluation by allotransplantation of NS/PCs into non-human primate models, but are also applicable to analysis of iPSCs established from transgenic disease model marmosets.

  20. Microinjection of membrane-impermeable molecules into single neural stem cells in brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Fong Kuan; Haffner, Christiane; Huttner, Wieland B; Taverna, Elena

    2014-05-01

    This microinjection protocol allows the manipulation and tracking of neural stem and progenitor cells in tissue at single-cell resolution. We demonstrate how to apply microinjection to organotypic brain slices obtained from mice and ferrets; however, our technique is not limited to mouse and ferret embryos, but provides a means of introducing a wide variety of membrane-impermeable molecules (e.g., nucleic acids, proteins, hydrophilic compounds) into neural stem and progenitor cells of any developing mammalian brain. Microinjection experiments are conducted by using a phase-contrast microscope equipped with epifluorescence, a transjector and a micromanipulator. The procedure normally takes ∼2 h for an experienced researcher, and the entire protocol, including tissue processing, can be performed within 1 week. Thus, microinjection is a unique and versatile method for changing and tracking the fate of a cell in organotypic slice culture.

  1. Expression of Pluripotency Markers in Nonpluripotent Human Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, P.; Benedikz, Eirikur; Uhlén, Per

    2017-01-01

    cells (CD133+/CD24lo), the capacity of sphere formation, or high cell proliferation rates. The rate of cell death among NPCs expressing pluripotency-associated genes was also similar to that of other NPCs. Live cell imaging showed that NANOG- and REX1-expressing NPCs continuously changed morphology......Nonpluripotent neural progenitor cells (NPCs) derived from the human fetal central nervous system were found to express a number of messenger RNA (mRNA) species associated with pluripotency, such as NANOG, REX1, and OCT4. The expression was restricted to small subpopulations of NPCs. In contrast...... to pluripotent stem cells, there was no coexpression of the pluripotency-associated genes studied. Although the expression of these genes rapidly declined during the in vitro differentiation of NPCs, we found no evidence that the discrete expression was associated with the markers of multipotent neural stem...

  2. Isolation and culture of porcine neural progenitor cells from embryos and pluripotent stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Aabech; Hall, Vanessa Jane; Hyttel, Poul

    2013-01-01

    The isolation and culture of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) from pluripotent stem cells has facilitated in vitro mechanistic studies of diseases related to the nervous system, as well as discovery of new medicine. In addition, NPCs are envisioned to play a crucial role in future cell replacement...... therapy. The pig has become recognized as an important large animal model and establishment of in vitro-derived porcine NPCs would allow for preclinical safety testing by transplantation in a porcine biomedical model. In this chapter, a detailed method for isolation and in vitro culture of porcine NPCs...... from porcine embryos or induced pluripotent stem cells is presented. The neural induction is performed in coculture and the isolation of rosette structures is carried out manually to ensure a homogenous population of NPCs. Using this method, multipotent NPCs can be obtained in approximately 1 month...

  3. Genome-wide copy number profiling of mouse neural stem cells during differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Fischer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that gene amplifications were present in neural stem and progenitor cells during differentiation. We used array-CGH to discover copy number changes including gene amplifications and deletions during differentiation of mouse neural stem cells using TGF-ß and FCS for differentiation induction. Array data were deposited in GEO (Gene Expression Omnibus, NCBI under accession number GSE35523. Here, we describe in detail the cell culture features and our TaqMan qPCR-experiments to validate the array-CGH analysis. Interpretation of array-CGH experiments regarding gene amplifications in mouse and further detailed analysis of amplified chromosome regions associated with these experiments were published by Fischer and colleagues in Oncotarget (Fischer et al., 2015. We provide additional information on deleted chromosome regions during differentiation and give an impressive overview on copy number changes during differentiation induction at a time line.

  4. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 3 Controls Neural Stem Cell Activation in Mice and Humans

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    Jinah Han

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells (NSCs continuously produce new neurons within the adult mammalian hippocampus. NSCs are typically quiescent but activated to self-renew or differentiate into neural progenitor cells. The molecular mechanisms of NSC activation remain poorly understood. Here, we show that adult hippocampal NSCs express vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR 3 and its ligand VEGF-C, which activates quiescent NSCs to enter the cell cycle and generate progenitor cells. Hippocampal NSC activation and neurogenesis are impaired by conditional deletion of Vegfr3 in NSCs. Functionally, this is associated with compromised NSC activation in response to VEGF-C and physical activity. In NSCs derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs, VEGF-C/VEGFR3 mediates intracellular activation of AKT and ERK pathways that control cell fate and proliferation. These findings identify VEGF-C/VEGFR3 signaling as a specific regulator of NSC activation and neurogenesis in mammals.

  5. Astrocytic Calcium Waves Signal Brain Injury to Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells

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    Anna Kraft

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Brain injuries, such as stroke or trauma, induce neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ to a neurogenic response. Very little is known about the molecular cues that signal tissue damage, even over large distances, to the SVZ. Based on our analysis of gene expression patterns in the SVZ, 48 hr after an ischemic lesion caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion, we hypothesized that the presence of an injury might be transmitted by an astrocytic traveling calcium wave rather than by diffusible factors or hypoxia. Using a newly established in vitro system we show that calcium waves induced in an astrocytic monolayer spread to neural stem and progenitor cells and increase their self-renewal as well as migratory behavior. These changes are due to an upregulation of the Notch signaling pathway. This introduces the concept of propagating astrocytic calcium waves transmitting brain injury signals over long distances.

  6. Physics strategies for sparing neural stem cells during whole-brain radiation treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Neil; Chuang, Cynthia; Pouliot, Jean; Hwang, Andrew; Barani, Igor J

    2011-10-01

    Currently, there are no successful long-term treatments or preventive strategies for radiation-induced cognitive impairments, and only a few possibilities have been suggested. One such approach involves reducing the dose to neural stem cell compartments (within and outside of the hippocampus) during whole-brain radiation treatments for brain metastases. This study investigates the fundamental physics issues associated with the sparing of neural stem cells during photon radiotherapy for brain metastases. Several factors influence the stem cell dose: intracranial scattering, collimator leakage, beam energy, and total number of beams. The relative importance of these factors is investigated through a set of radiation therapy plans, which are all variations of an initial 6 MV intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan designed to simultaneously deliver a whole-brain dose of 30 Gy and maximally reduce stem cell compartment dose. Additionally, an in-house leaf segmentation algorithm was developed that utilizes jaw motion to minimize the collimator leakage. The plans are all normalized such that 50% of the PTV receives 30 Gy. For the initial 6 MV IMRT plan, 50% of the stem cells receive a dose greater than 6.3 Gy. Calculations indicate that 3.6 Gy of this dose originates from intracranial scattering. The jaw-tracking segmentation algorithm, used in conjunction with direct machine parameter optimization, reduces the 50% stem cell dose to 4.3 and 3.7 Gy for 6 and 10 MV treatment beams, respectively. Intracranial scattering alone is responsible for a large dose contribution to the stem cell compartment. It is, therefore, important to minimize other contributing factors, particularly the collimator leakage, to maximally reduce dose to these critical structures. The use of collimator jaw tracking in conjunction with modern collimators can minimize this leakage.

  7. Physics strategies for sparing neural stem cells during whole-brain radiation treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, Neil; Chuang, Cynthia; Pouliot, Jean; Hwang, Andrew; Barani, Igor J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143-1708 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: Currently, there are no successful long-term treatments or preventive strategies for radiation-induced cognitive impairments, and only a few possibilities have been suggested. One such approach involves reducing the dose to neural stem cell compartments (within and outside of the hippocampus) during whole-brain radiation treatments for brain metastases. This study investigates the fundamental physics issues associated with the sparing of neural stem cells during photon radiotherapy for brain metastases. Methods: Several factors influence the stem cell dose: intracranial scattering, collimator leakage, beam energy, and total number of beams. The relative importance of these factors is investigated through a set of radiation therapy plans, which are all variations of an initial 6 MV intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan designed to simultaneously deliver a whole-brain dose of 30 Gy and maximally reduce stem cell compartment dose. Additionally, an in-house leaf segmentation algorithm was developed that utilizes jaw motion to minimize the collimator leakage. Results: The plans are all normalized such that 50% of the PTV receives 30 Gy. For the initial 6 MV IMRT plan, 50% of the stem cells receive a dose greater than 6.3 Gy. Calculations indicate that 3.6 Gy of this dose originates from intracranial scattering. The jaw-tracking segmentation algorithm, used in conjunction with direct machine parameter optimization, reduces the 50% stem cell dose to 4.3 and 3.7 Gy for 6 and 10 MV treatment beams, respectively. Conclusions: Intracranial scattering alone is responsible for a large dose contribution to the stem cell compartment. It is, therefore, important to minimize other contributing factors, particularly the collimator leakage, to maximally reduce dose to these critical structures. The use of collimator jaw tracking in conjunction with modern collimators can minimize this leakage.

  8. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neural Cells Survive and Mature in the Nonhuman Primate Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina E. Emborg

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs opens up the possibility for personalized cell therapy. Here, we show that transplanted autologous rhesus monkey iPSC-derived neural progenitors survive for up to 6 months and differentiate into neurons, astrocytes, and myelinating oligodendrocytes in the brains of MPTP-induced hemiparkinsonian rhesus monkeys with a minimal presence of inflammatory cells and reactive glia. This finding represents a significant step toward personalized regenerative therapies.

  9. Three-dimensional extracellular matrix-mediated neural stem cell differentiation in a microfluidic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sewoon; Yang, Kisuk; Shin, Yoojin; Lee, Jung Seung; Kamm, Roger D; Chung, Seok; Cho, Seung-Woo

    2012-07-07

    Here, we report a unique method to quantify the effects of in vivo-like extracellular matrix (ECM) for guiding differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) in three-dimensional (3D) microenvironments using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). We successfully monitored and quantified differentiation of NSCs in small volume ECMs and found that differentiation of NSCs, especially those differentiating towards neuronal and oligodendrocytic lineages, is significantly enhanced by 3D microenvironments reconstituted in the microfluidic channels.

  10. Glioblastoma-Initiating Cells: Relationship with Neural Stem Cells and the Micro-Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Goffart, Nicolas; KROONEN, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, WHO grade IV) is the most common and lethal subtype of primary brain tumor with a median overall survival of 15 months from the time of diagnosis. The presence in GBM of a cancer population displaying neural stem cell (NSC) properties as well as tumor-initiating abilities and resistance to current therapies suggests that these glioblastoma-initiating cells (GICs) play a central role in tumor development and are closely related to NSCs. However, it is nowadays sti...

  11. Directed Migration of Embryonic Stem Cell-derived Neural Cells In An Applied Electric Field

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yongchao; Weiss, Mark; Yao, Li

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord injury or diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, can cause the loss of motor neurons and therefore results in the paralysis of muscles. Stem cells may improve functional recovery by promoting endogenous regeneration, or by directly replacing neurons. Effective directional migration of grafted neural cells to reconstruct functional connections is crucial in the process. Steady direct current electric fields (EFs) play an important role in the development of the central ne...

  12. Control of obesity and glucose intolerance via building neural stem cells in the hypothalamus

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Juxue; Tang, Yizhe; Purkayastha, Sudarshana; Yan, Jingqi; Cai, DongSheng

    2014-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) were recently revealed to exist in the hypothalamus of adult mice. Here, following our observation showing that a partial loss of hypothalamic NSCs caused weight gain and glucose intolerance, we studied if NSCs-based cell therapy could be developed to control these disorders. While hypothalamus-implanted NSCs failed to survive in mice with obesity, NF-κB inhibition induced survival and neurogenesis of these cells, leading to effects in counteracting obesity and glucos...

  13. Differential development of neuronal physiological responsiveness in two human neural stem cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Patel Sara; Pollock Kenneth; Aouabdi Sihem; Hines Susan J; Miljan Erik A; Donato Roberta; Edwards Frances A; Sinden John D

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Neural stem cells (NSCs) are powerful research tools for the design and discovery of new approaches to neurodegenerative disease. Overexpression of the myc family transcription factors in human primary cells from developing cortex and mesencephalon has produced two stable multipotential NSC lines (ReNcell VM and CX) that can be continuously expanded in monolayer culture. Results In the undifferentiated state, both ReNcell VM and CX are nestin positive and have resting memb...

  14. Large-Scale Nanoelectrode Arrays to Monitor the Dopaminergic Differentiation of Human Neural Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hyung; Yea, Cheol-Heon; Chueng, Sy-Tsong Dean; Yin, Perry To-Tien; Conley, Brian; Dardir, Kholud; Pak, Yusin; Jung, Gun Young; Choi, Jeong-Woo; Lee, Ki-Bum

    2015-11-04

    A novel cell-based biosensing platform is developed using a combination of sequential laser interference lithography and electrochemical deposition methods. This enables the sensitive discrimination of dopaminergic cells from other types of neural cells in a completely nondestructive manner. This platform and detection strategy may become an effective noninvasive in situ monitoring tool that can be used to determine stem cell fate for various regenerative applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Neural Stem Cell Grafting Counteracts Hippocampal Injury-Mediated Impairments in Mood, Memory, and Neurogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Hattiangady, Bharathi; Shetty, Ashok K.

    2012-01-01

    Hippocampal injury typically leads to mood and memory impairments associated with reduced and aberrant neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. This study examined whether subventricular zone-neural stem cell (SVZ-NSC) grafting after hippocampal injury would counteract impairments in mood, memory, and neurogenesis. Analyses through forced swim, water maze, and novel object recognition tests revealed significant impairments in mood and memory function in animals that underwent injury and sham-grafti...

  16. Factors Influencing the Differentiation of Dopaminergic Traits in Transplanted Neural Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ming; Donaldson, Angela E.; Jiang, Yubao; Iacovitti, Lorraine

    2003-01-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that when neural stem cells (NSCs) of the C17.2 clonal line are transplanted into the intact or 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesioned rat striatum, in most, but not all grafts, cells spontaneously express the dopamine (DA) biosynthetic enzymes, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (Yang, M., Stull, N. D., Snyder, E. Y., Berk, M. A., and Iacovitti, L. (2002). Exp. Neurol.).These results suggested that there were certain conditions w...

  17. Differentiation of neurons from neural precursors generated in floating spheres from embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forrester Jeff

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neural differentiation of embryonic stem (ES cells is usually achieved by induction of ectoderm in embryoid bodies followed by the enrichment of neuronal progenitors using a variety of factors. Obtaining reproducible percentages of neural cells is difficult and the methods are time consuming. Results Neural progenitors were produced from murine ES cells by a combination of nonadherent conditions and serum starvation. Conversion to neural progenitors was accompanied by downregulation of Oct4 and NANOG and increased expression of nestin. ES cells containing a GFP gene under the control of the Sox1 regulatory regions became fluorescent upon differentiation to neural progenitors, and ES cells with a tau-GFP fusion protein became fluorescent upon further differentiation to neurons. Neurons produced from these cells upregulated mature neuronal markers, or differentiated to glial and oligodendrocyte fates. The neurons gave rise to action potentials that could be recorded after application of fixed currents. Conclusion Neural progenitors were produced from murine ES cells by a novel method that induced neuroectoderm cells by a combination of nonadherent conditions and serum starvation, in contrast to the embryoid body method in which neuroectoderm cells must be selected after formation of all three germ layers.

  18. Plasmid-based generation of induced neural stem cells from adult human fibroblasts

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    Philipp Capetian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Direct reprogramming from somatic to neural cell types has become an alternative to induced pluripotent stem cells. Most protocols employ viral expression systems, posing the risk of random genomic integration. Recent developments led to plasmid-based protocols, lowering this risk. However, these protocols either relied on continuous presence of a variety of small molecules or were only able to reprogram murine cells. We therefore established a reprogramming protocol based on vectors containing the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-derived oriP/EBNA1 as well as the defined expression factors Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, L-myc, Lin28, and a small hairpin directed against p53. We employed a defined neural medium in combination with the neurotrophins bFGF, EGF and FGF4 for cultivation without the addition of small molecules. After reprogramming, cells demonstrated a temporary increase in the expression of endogenous Oct3/4. We obtained induced neural stem cells (iNSC 30 days after transfection. In contrast to previous results, plasmid vectors as well as a residual expression of reprogramming factors remained detectable in all cell lines. Cells showed a robust differentiation into neuronal (72% and glial cells (9% astrocytes, 6% oligodendrocytes. Despite the temporary increase of pluripotency-associated Oct3/4 expression during reprogramming, we did not detect pluripotent stem cells or non-neural cells in culture (except occasional residual fibroblasts. Neurons showed electrical activity and functional glutamatergic synapses. Our results demonstrate that reprogramming adult human fibroblasts to iNSC by plasmid vectors and basic neural medium without small molecules is possible and feasible. However, a full set of pluripotency-associated transcription factors may indeed result in the acquisition of a transient (at least partial pluripotent intermediate during reprogramming. In contrast to previous reports, the EBV-based plasmid system remained present and active inside

  19. Neural Conversion and Patterning of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells: A Developmental Perspective

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    Alexandra Zirra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the reprogramming of adult human terminally differentiated somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs became a reality in 2007, only eight years have passed. Yet over this relatively short period, myriad experiments have revolutionized previous stem cell dogmata. The tremendous promise of hiPSC technology for regenerative medicine has fuelled rising expectations from both the public and scientific communities alike. In order to effectively harness hiPSCs to uncover fundamental mechanisms of disease, it is imperative to first understand the developmental neurobiology underpinning their lineage restriction choices in order to predictably manipulate cell fate to desired derivatives. Significant progress in developmental biology provides an invaluable resource for rationalising directed differentiation of hiPSCs to cellular derivatives of the nervous system. In this paper we begin by reviewing core developmental concepts underlying neural induction in order to provide context for how such insights have guided reductionist in vitro models of neural conversion from hiPSCs. We then discuss early factors relevant in neural patterning, again drawing upon crucial knowledge gained from developmental neurobiological studies. We conclude by discussing open questions relating to these concepts and how their resolution might serve to strengthen the promise of pluripotent stem cells in regenerative medicine.

  20. Generation and properties of a new human ventral mesencephalic neural stem cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa, Ana; Liste, Isabel; Courtois, Elise T.; Seiz, Emma G.; Ramos, Milagros [Center of Molecular Biology ' Severo Ochoa' , Autonomous University of Madrid-C.S.I.C., Campus Cantoblanco 28049-Madrid (Spain); Meyer, Morten [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Institute of Medical Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Winslowparken 21,st, DK-500, Odense C (Denmark); Juliusson, Bengt; Kusk, Philip [NsGene A/S, Ballerup (Denmark); Martinez-Serrano, Alberto, E-mail: amserrano@cbm.uam.es [Center of Molecular Biology ' Severo Ochoa' , Autonomous University of Madrid-C.S.I.C., Campus Cantoblanco 28049-Madrid (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are powerful research tools for the design and discovery of new approaches to cell therapy in neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's disease. Several epigenetic and genetic strategies have been tested for long-term maintenance and expansion of these cells in vitro. Here we report the generation of a new stable cell line of human neural stem cells derived from ventral mesencephalon (hVM1) based on v-myc immortalization. The cells expressed neural stem cell and radial glia markers like nestin, vimentin and 3CB2 under proliferation conditions. After withdrawal of growth factors, proliferation and expression of v-myc were dramatically reduced and the cells differentiated into astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and neurons. hVM1 cells yield a large number of dopaminergic neurons (about 12% of total cells are TH{sup +}) after differentiation, which also produce dopamine. In addition to proneural genes (NGN2, MASH1), differentiated cells show expression of several genuine mesencephalic dopaminergic markers such as: LMX1A, LMX1B, GIRK2, ADH2, NURR1, PITX3, VMAT2 and DAT, indicating that they retain their regional identity. Our data indicate that this cell line and its clonal derivatives may constitute good candidates for the study of development and physiology of human dopaminergic neurons in vitro, and to develop tools for Parkinson's disease cell replacement preclinical research and drug testing.

  1. Functional evaluation of neural stem cell differentiation by single cell calcium imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiriz, Maria Francisca; Grade, Sofia; Rosa, Alexandra; Xapelli, Sara; Bernardino, Liliana; Agasse, Fabienne; Malva, João O

    2011-09-01

    Neurogenesis in the adult mammalian brain occurs in two specific brain areas, the subventricular zone (SVZ) bordering the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus. Although these regions are prone to produce new neurons, cultured cells from these neurogenic niches tend to be mixed cultures, containing both neurons and glial cells. Several reports highlight the potential of the self-healing capacity of the brain following injury. Even though much knowledge has been produced on the neurogenesis itself, brain repairing strategies are still far away from patients cure. Here we review general concepts in the neurogenesis field, also addressing the methods available to study neural stem cell differentiation. A major problem faced by research groups and companies dedicated to brain regenerative medicine resides on the lack of good methods to functionally identify neural stem cell differentiation and novel drug targets. To address this issue, we developed a unique single cell calcium imaging-based method to functionally discriminate different cell types derived from SVZ neural stem cell cultures. The unique functional profile of each SVZ cell type was correlated at the single cell level with the immunodetection of specific phenotypic markers. This platform was raised on the basis of the functional response of neurons, oligodendrocytes and immature cells to depolarising agents, to thrombin and to histamine, respectively. We also outline key studies in which our new platform was extremely relevant in the context of drug discovery and development in the area of brain regenerative medicine.

  2. Comparative transcriptome analysis in induced neural stem cells reveals defined neural cell identities in vitro and after transplantation into the adult rodent brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Lena Hallmann

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Reprogramming technology enables the production of neural progenitor cells (NPCs from somatic cells by direct transdifferentiation. However, little is known on how neural programs in these induced neural stem cells (iNSCs differ from those of alternative stem cell populations in vitro and in vivo. Here, we performed transcriptome analyses on murine iNSCs in comparison to brain-derived neural stem cells (NSCs and pluripotent stem cell-derived NPCs, which revealed distinct global, neural, metabolic and cell cycle-associated marks in these populations. iNSCs carried a hindbrain/posterior cell identity, which could be shifted towards caudal, partially to rostral but not towards ventral fates in vitro. iNSCs survived after transplantation into the rodent brain and exhibited in vivo-characteristics, neural and metabolic programs similar to transplanted NSCs. However, iNSCs vastly retained caudal identities demonstrating cell-autonomy of regional programs in vivo. These data could have significant implications for a variety of in vitro- and in vivo-applications using iNSCs.

  3. In vivo evaluation of a neural stem cell-seeded prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, E. K.; Seymour, J. P.; Yandamuri, S.; Kipke, D. R.

    2009-04-01

    Neural prosthetics capable of recording or stimulating neuronal activity may restore function for patients with motor and sensory deficits resulting from injury or degenerative disease. However, overcoming inconsistent recording quality and stability in chronic applications remains a significant challenge. A likely reason for this is the reactive tissue response to the devices following implantation into the brain, which is characterized by neuronal loss and glial encapsulation. We have developed a neural stem cell-seeded probe to facilitate integration of a synthetic prosthesis with the surrounding brain tissue. We fabricated parylene devices that include an open well seeded with neural stem cells encapsulated in an alginate hydrogel scaffold. Quantitative and qualitative data describing the distribution of neuronal, glial, and progenitor cells surrounding seeded and control devices are reported over four time points spanning 3 months. Neuronal loss and glial encapsulation associated with cell-seeded probes were mitigated during the initial week of implantation and exacerbated by 6 weeks post-insertion compared to control conditions. We hypothesize that graft cells secrete neuroprotective and neurotrophic factors that effect the desired healing response early in the study, with subsequent cell death and scaffold degradation accounting for a reversal of these results later. Applications of this biohybrid technology include future long-term neural recording and sensing studies.

  4. Applications of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Neural Crest Cells in Craniofacial Skeletal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Morikawa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Craniofacial skeletal tissues are composed of tooth and bone, together with nerves and blood vessels. This composite material is mainly derived from neural crest cells (NCCs. The neural crest is transient embryonic tissue present during neural tube formation whose cells have high potential for migration and differentiation. Thus, NCCs are promising candidates for craniofacial tissue regeneration; however, the clinical application of NCCs is hindered by their limited accessibility. In contrast, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are easily accessible in adults, have similar potential for self-renewal, and can differentiate into skeletal tissues, including bones and cartilage. Therefore, MSCs may represent good sources of stem cells for clinical use. MSCs are classically identified under adherent culture conditions, leading to contamination with other cell lineages. Previous studies have identified mouse- and human-specific MSC subsets using cell surface markers. Additionally, some studies have shown that a subset of MSCs is closely related to neural crest derivatives and endothelial cells. These MSCs may be promising candidates for regeneration of craniofacial tissues from the perspective of developmental fate. Here, we review the fundamental biology of MSCs in craniofacial research.

  5. Neural stem cell isolation and culture from C57BL/6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Koirala

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION A widely used in vitro culture, the neurosphere assay (NSA has provided a means to retrospectively identify neural progenitor cells as well as to determine both their selfrenewal capacity. Objective of study was to isolate and compare growth of the embryonic neuronal stem cell and adult neuronal stem cells in presence of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF and Fibroblastic Growth Factor (FGF2. MATERIALS AND METHODS Embryonic neuronal stem cell were collected from cortical plate of dorsal telencephalon of fifteen C57BL/6 transgenic mice using stereoscopic microscope on 11th gestational day (GD. Adult mammalian neuronal stem cells taken from subventricular zone (SVZ of the lateral ventricles and subgranular layer of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus were cultured. The growth for the neurosphere was then observed in interval of 24 and 72 hours. RESULT The adult stem cell culture showed few intact cells with high amount of debris and 9% heterogeneous sphere after 24 hours while only 20 % was observed at the end of 72 hours. Higher proliferation rate was observed in embryonic neurospheres than the adult stem cell culture. CONCLUSION Presence of EGF and basic FGF2 is essential for culture of neurospheres.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v10i2.12946 Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2014, Vol.10(2; 1-3

  6. Maintenance of neural progenitor cell stemness in 3D hydrogels requires matrix remodelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madl, Christopher M.; Lesavage, Bauer L.; Dewi, Ruby E.; Dinh, Cong B.; Stowers, Ryan S.; Khariton, Margarita; Lampe, Kyle J.; Nguyen, Duong; Chaudhuri, Ovijit; Enejder, Annika; Heilshorn, Sarah C.

    2017-12-01

    Neural progenitor cell (NPC) culture within three-dimensional (3D) hydrogels is an attractive strategy for expanding a therapeutically relevant number of stem cells. However, relatively little is known about how 3D material properties such as stiffness and degradability affect the maintenance of NPC stemness in the absence of differentiation factors. Over a physiologically relevant range of stiffness from ~0.5 to 50 kPa, stemness maintenance did not correlate with initial hydrogel stiffness. In contrast, hydrogel degradation was both correlated with, and necessary for, maintenance of NPC stemness. This requirement for degradation was independent of cytoskeletal tension generation and presentation of engineered adhesive ligands, instead relying on matrix remodelling to facilitate cadherin-mediated cell-cell contact and promote β-catenin signalling. In two additional hydrogel systems, permitting NPC-mediated matrix remodelling proved to be a generalizable strategy for stemness maintenance in 3D. Our findings have identified matrix remodelling, in the absence of cytoskeletal tension generation, as a previously unknown strategy to maintain stemness in 3D.

  7. Neural stem cells and their role in the pathology and classification of central nervous system tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tihan, Tarik; Pekmezci, Melike; Karnezis, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Today, one of the most popular and controversial topics in medicine is undoubtedly the rapidly developing field of stem cell research. Some of the controversy in this field arises from lack of uniform terminology and different interpretation of concepts such as brain tumor stem cells. In addition, lack of reliable and universal markers that can identify stem cells and define precursor cells in a particular differentiation pathway further confounds the interpretation of results in many studies. Stem cells are undoubtedly critical in normal cellular development as well as tumor biology and better characterization of these cells is likely to have profound influence on the classification schemes of tumors. In this manuscript, we present the generally accepted definitions of key concepts in stem cell biology and review some of the related molecular pathways. In addition, we put forth our position on how progress in this field should be affecting the future classification schemes of central nervous system neoplasia. We strongly believe that the ever increasing knowledge in the field of neural and brain tumor stem cells should be influential in the subsequent attempts to classify brain tumors.

  8. Rescue of Brain Function Using Tunneling Nanotubes Between Neural Stem Cells and Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqing; Yu, Xiaowen; Xie, Chong; Tan, Zijian; Tian, Qi; Zhu, Desheng; Liu, Mingyuan; Guan, Yangtai

    2016-05-01

    Evidence indicates that neural stem cells (NSCs) can ameliorate cerebral ischemia in animal models. In this study, we investigated the mechanism underlying one of the neuroprotective effects of NSCs: tunneling nanotube (TNT) formation. We addressed whether the control of cell-to-cell communication processes between NSCs and brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) and, particularly, the control of TNT formation could influence the rescue function of stem cells. In an attempt to mimic the cellular microenvironment in vitro, a co-culture system consisting of terminally differentiated BMECs from mice in a distressed state and NSCs was constructed. Additionally, engraftment experiments with infarcted mouse brains revealed that control of TNT formation influenced the effects of stem cell transplantation in vivo. In conclusion, our findings provide the first evidence that TNTs exist between NSCs and BMECs and that regulation of TNT formation alters cell function.

  9. Derivation of Neural Progenitors and Retinal Pigment Epithelium from Common Marmoset and Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laughing Bear Torrez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs derived from mammalian species are valuable tools for modeling human disease, including retinal degenerative eye diseases that result in visual loss. Restoration of vision has focused on transplantation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs and retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE to the retina. Here we used transgenic common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus and human pluripotent stem cells carrying the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP reporter as a model system for retinal differentiation. Using suspension and subsequent adherent differentiation cultures, we observed spontaneous in vitro differentiation that included NPCs and cells with pigment granules characteristic of differentiated RPE. Retinal cells derived from human and common marmoset pluripotent stem cells provide potentially unlimited cell sources for testing safety and immune compatibility following autologous or allogeneic transplantation using nonhuman primates in early translational applications.

  10. Neural crest-derived cells with stem cell features can be traced back to multiple lineages in the adult skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.E. Wong (Christine); S. Paratore (Sabrina); M.T. Dours-Zimmermann (María); T. Rochat (Thierry); T. Pietri (Thomas); U. Suter (Ueli); D. Zimmermann (Dieter); S. Dufour (Sylvie); J.P. Thiery (Joachim); D.N. Meijer (Dies); C. Beermann (Christopher); Y. Barrandon (Yann); L. Sommer (Lukas)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractGiven their accessibility, multipotent skin-derived cells might be useful for future cell replacement therapies. We describe the isolation of multipotent stem cell-like cells from the adult trunk skin of mice and humans that express the neural crest stem cell markers p75 and Sox10 and

  11. Comparison of 2D and 3D neural induction methods for the generation of neural progenitor cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chandrasekaran, Abinaya; Avci, Hasan; Ochalek, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are frequently induced using 3D culture methodologies however, it is unknown whether spheroid-based (3D) neural induction is actually superior to monolayer (2D) neural induction. Our aim was to compare the efficiency......), cortical layer (TBR1, CUX1) and glial markers (SOX9, GFAP, AQP4). Electron microscopy demonstrated that both methods resulted in morphologically similar neural rosettes. However, quantification of NPCs derived from 3D neural induction exhibited an increase in the number of PAX6/NESTIN double positive cells...... and the derived neurons exhibited longer neurites. In contrast, 2D neural induction resulted in more SOX1 positive cells. While 2D monolayer induction resulted in slightly less mature neurons, at an early stage of differentiation, the patch clamp analysis failed to reveal any significant differences between...

  12. Feasibility Study of Canine Epidermal Neural Crest Stem Cell Transplantation in the Spinal Cords of Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahill, Barbara G; Spriet, Mathieu; Sisó, Sílvia; Manzer, Michael D; Mitchell, Gaela; McGee, Jeannine; Garcia, Tanya C; Borjesson, Dori L; Sieber-Blum, Maya; Nolta, Jan A; Sturges, Beverly K

    2015-10-01

    This pilot feasibility study aimed to determine the outcome of canine epidermal neural crest stem cell (cEPI-NCSC) grafts in the normal spinal cords of healthy bred-for-research dogs. This included developing novel protocols for (a) the ex vivo expansion of cEPI-NCSCs, (b) the delivery of cEPI-NCSCs into the spinal cord, and (c) the labeling of the cells and subsequent tracing of the graft in the live animal by magnetic resonance imaging. A total of four million cEPI-NCSCs were injected into the spinal cord divided in two locations. Differences in locomotion at baseline and post-treatment were evaluated by gait analysis and compared with neurological outcome and behavioral exams. Histopathological analyses of the spinal cords and cEPI-NCSC grafts were performed at 3 weeks post-transplantation. Neurological and gait parameters were minimally affected by the stem cell injection. cEPI-NCSCs survived in the canine spinal cord for the entire period of investigation and did not migrate or proliferate. Subsets of cEPI-NCSCs expressed the neural crest stem cell marker Sox10. There was no detectable expression of markers for glial cells or neurons. The tissue reaction to the cell graft was predominantly vascular in addition to a degree of reactive astrogliosis and microglial activation. In the present study, we demonstrated that cEPI-NCSC grafts survive in the spinal cords of healthy dogs without major adverse effects. They persist locally in the normal spinal cord, may promote angiogenesis and tissue remodeling, and elicit a tissue response that may be beneficial in patients with spinal cord injury. It has been established that mouse and human epidermal neural crest stem cells are somatic multipotent stem cells with proved innovative potential in a mouse model of spinal cord injury (SCI) offering promise of a valid treatment for SCI. Traumatic SCI is a common neurological problem in dogs with marked similarities, clinically and pathologically, to the syndrome in people

  13. Niche-dependent development of functional neuronal networks from embryonic stem cell-derived neural populations

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    Siebler Mario

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present work was performed to investigate the ability of two different embryonic stem (ES cell-derived neural precursor populations to generate functional neuronal networks in vitro. The first ES cell-derived neural precursor population was cultivated as free-floating neural aggregates which are known to form a developmental niche comprising different types of neural cells, including neural precursor cells (NPCs, progenitor cells and even further matured cells. This niche provides by itself a variety of different growth factors and extracellular matrix proteins that influence the proliferation and differentiation of neural precursor and progenitor cells. The second population was cultivated adherently in monolayer cultures to control most stringently the extracellular environment. This population comprises highly homogeneous NPCs which are supposed to represent an attractive way to provide well-defined neuronal progeny. However, the ability of these different ES cell-derived immature neural cell populations to generate functional neuronal networks has not been assessed so far. Results While both precursor populations were shown to differentiate into sufficient quantities of mature NeuN+ neurons that also express GABA or vesicular-glutamate-transporter-2 (vGlut2, only aggregate-derived neuronal populations exhibited a synchronously oscillating network activity 2–4 weeks after initiating the differentiation as detected by the microelectrode array technology. Neurons derived from homogeneous NPCs within monolayer cultures did merely show uncorrelated spiking activity even when differentiated for up to 12 weeks. We demonstrated that these neurons exhibited sparsely ramified neurites and an embryonic vGlut2 distribution suggesting an inhibited terminal neuronal maturation. In comparison, neurons derived from heterogeneous populations within neural aggregates appeared as fully mature with a dense neurite network and punctuated

  14. Extensive neuronal differentiation of human neural stem cell grafts in adult rat spinal cord.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yan

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Effective treatments for degenerative and traumatic diseases of the nervous system are not currently available. The support or replacement of injured neurons with neural grafts, already an established approach in experimental therapeutics, has been recently invigorated with the addition of neural and embryonic stem-derived precursors as inexhaustible, self-propagating alternatives to fetal tissues. The adult spinal cord, i.e., the site of common devastating injuries and motor neuron disease, has been an especially challenging target for stem cell therapies. In most cases, neural stem cell (NSC transplants have shown either poor differentiation or a preferential choice of glial lineages.In the present investigation, we grafted NSCs from human fetal spinal cord grown in monolayer into the lumbar cord of normal or injured adult nude rats and observed large-scale differentiation of these cells into neurons that formed axons and synapses and established extensive contacts with host motor neurons. Spinal cord microenvironment appeared to influence fate choice, with centrally located cells taking on a predominant neuronal path, and cells located under the pia membrane persisting as NSCs or presenting with astrocytic phenotypes. Slightly fewer than one-tenth of grafted neurons differentiated into oligodendrocytes. The presence of lesions increased the frequency of astrocytic phenotypes in the white matter.NSC grafts can show substantial neuronal differentiation in the normal and injured adult spinal cord with good potential of integration into host neural circuits. In view of recent similar findings from other laboratories, the extent of neuronal differentiation observed here disputes the notion of a spinal cord that is constitutively unfavorable to neuronal repair. Restoration of spinal cord circuitry in traumatic and degenerative diseases may be more realistic than previously thought, although major challenges remain, especially with respect to the

  15. Passaged neural stem cell-derived neuronal networks for a portable biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shaughnessy, Thomas J; Liu, Jinny L; Ma, Wu

    2009-04-15

    We have previously demonstrated a portable biosensor that utilizes networks of mammalian neurons on microelectrode arrays (MEAs) as the sensing element. These neuronal cultures on MEAs are derived from primary neuronal tissues and are short-lived. In order to extend the shelf life of neuronal networks for use in a fieldable sensor technology, a renewable source of networks is needed. Neural stem and progenitor cells are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into functional neuronal networks. The purpose of this study was to develop a strategy for growing passaged neural stem and progenitor cells on MEAs under controlled conditions to produce differentiated neurons and glia comprising functional neuronal networks. Primary and passaged neuroepithelial stem and progenitor cells dissociated from embryonic day 13 rat cortex were seeded on MEAs and maintained with serum-free medium containing basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) combined with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). These culture conditions lead to abundant neurons, with astrocytes as supportive cells, forming synaptically linked networks of neurons. Spontaneous action potentials were best recorded from networks derived from primary or passaged progenitor cells 4-5 weeks after initial culture. The passaged progenitor cell-derived networks on MEAs responded to the GABA(A) antagonist bicuculline, the NMDA glutamate inhibitor APV, and the non-NMDA glutamate antagonist CNQX indicating active synapses were present. Passaged neural stem and progenitor cell-derived networks on MEAs have properties similar to networks derived from primary neuronal cultures and can serve as a renewable supply of sensor elements for detection of environmental threats.

  16. Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Hair Follicle Bulge Neural Crest Stem Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Ming-San; Czepiel, Marcin; Krause, Tina; Schaefer, Karl-Herbert; Boddeke, Erik; Copray, Sjef

    2014-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are promising candidates for the study of disease models as well as for tissue engineering purposes. Part of a strategy to develop safe reprogramming technique is reducing the number of exogenous reprogramming factors. Some cells types are more prone to

  17. Presenilins are required for maintenance of neural stem cells in the developing brain

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    Kim Woo-Young

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The early embryonic lethality of mutant mice bearing germ-line deletions of both presenilin genes precluded the study of their functions in neural development. We therefore employed the Cre-loxP technology to generate presenilin conditional double knockout (PS cDKO mice, in which expression of both presenilins is inactivated in neural progenitor cells (NPC or neural stem cells and their derivative neurons and glia beginning at embryonic day 11 (E11. In PS cDKO mice, dividing NPCs labeled by BrdU are decreased in number beginning at E13.5. By E15.5, fewer than 20% of NPCs remain in PS cDKO mice. The depletion of NPCs is accompanied by severe morphological defects and hemorrhages in the PS cDKO embryonic brain. Interkinetic nuclear migration of NPCs is also disrupted in PS cDKO embryos, as evidenced by displacement of S-phase and M-phase nuclei in the ventricular zone of the telencephalon. Furthermore, the depletion of neural progenitor cells in PS cDKO embryos is due to NPCs exiting cell cycle and differentiating into neurons rather than reentering cell cycle between E13.5 and E14.5 following PS inactivation in most NPCs. The length of cell cycle, however, is unchanged in PS cDKO embryos. Expression of Notch target genes, Hes1 and Hes5, is significantly decreased in PS cDKO brains, whereas Dll1 expression is up-regulated, indicating that Notch signaling is effectively blocked by PS inactivation. These findings demonstrate that presenilins are essential for neural progenitor cells to re-enter cell cycle and thus ensure proper expansion of neural progenitor pool during embryonic neural development.

  18. Extended passaging increases the efficiency of neural differentiation from induced pluripotent stem cells

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    Koehler Karl R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs for the functional replacement of damaged neurons and in vitro disease modeling is of great clinical relevance. Unfortunately, the capacity of iPSC lines to differentiate into neurons is highly variable, prompting the need for a reliable means of assessing the differentiation capacity of newly derived iPSC cell lines. Extended passaging is emerging as a method of ensuring faithful reprogramming. We adapted an established and efficient embryonic stem cell (ESC neural induction protocol to test whether iPSCs (1 have the competence to give rise to functional neurons with similar efficiency as ESCs and (2 whether the extent of neural differentiation could be altered or enhanced by increased passaging. Results Our gene expression and morphological analyses revealed that neural conversion was temporally delayed in iPSC lines and some iPSC lines did not properly form embryoid bodies during the first stage of differentiation. Notably, these deficits were corrected by continual passaging in an iPSC clone. iPSCs with greater than 20 passages (late-passage iPSCs expressed higher expression levels of pluripotency markers and formed larger embryoid bodies than iPSCs with fewer than 10 passages (early-passage iPSCs. Moreover, late-passage iPSCs started to express neural marker genes sooner than early-passage iPSCs after the initiation of neural induction. Furthermore, late-passage iPSC-derived neurons exhibited notably greater excitability and larger voltage-gated currents than early-passage iPSC-derived neurons, although these cells were morphologically indistinguishable. Conclusions These findings strongly suggest that the efficiency neuronal conversion depends on the complete reprogramming of iPSCs via extensive passaging.

  19. Abnormal differentiation of Sandhoff disease model mouse-derived multipotent stem cells toward a neural lineage.

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    Yasuhiro Ogawa

    Full Text Available In Sandhoff disease (SD, the activity of the lysosomal hydrolytic enzyme, β-hexosaminidase (Hex, is lost due to a Hexb gene defect, which results in the abnormal accumulation of the substrate, GM2 ganglioside (GM2, in neuronal cells, causing neuronal loss, microglial activation, and astrogliosis. We established induced pluripotent stem cells from the cells of SD mice (SD-iPSCs. In the present study, we investigated the occurrence of abnormal differentiation and development of a neural lineage in the asymptomatic phase of SD in vitro using SD mouse fetus-derived neural stem cells (NSCs and SD-iPSCs. It was assumed that the number of SD mouse fetal brain-derived NSCs was reduced and differentiation was promoted, resulting in the inhibition of differentiation into neurons and enhancement of differentiation into astrocytes. The number of SD-iPSC-derived NSCs was also reduced, suggesting that the differentiation of NSCs was promoted, resulting in the inhibition of differentiation into neurons and enhancement of that into astrocytes. This abnormal differentiation of SD-iPSCs toward a neural lineage was reduced by the glucosylceramide synthase inhibitor, miglustat. Furthermore, abnormal differentiation toward a neural lineage was reduced in SD-iPSCs with Hexb gene transfection. Therefore, differentiation ability along the time axis appears to be altered in SD mice in which the differentiation ability of NSCs is promoted and differentiation into neurons is completed earlier, while the timing of differentiation into astrocytes is accelerated. These results clarified that the abnormal differentiation of SD-iPSCs toward a neural lineage in vitro was shown to reflect the pathology of SD.

  20. The uptake mechanism and biocompatibility of graphene quantum dots with human neural stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Weihu; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Mo; Fan, Zetan; Sun, Ying; Han, Mei; Fan, Louzhen

    2014-05-01

    Cellular imaging after transplantation may provide important information to determine the efficacy of stem cell therapy. We have reported that graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are a type of robust biological labeling agent for stem cells that demonstrate little cytotoxicity. In this study, we examined the interactions of GQDs on human neural stem cells (hNSCs) with the aim to investigate the uptake and biocompatibility of GQDs. We examined the mechanism of GQD uptake by hNSCs and investigated the effects of GQDs on the proliferation, metabolic activity, and differentiation potential of hNSCs. This information is critical to assess the suitability of GQDs for stem cell tracking. Our results indicated that GQDs were taken up into hNSCs in a concentration- and time-dependent manner via the endocytosis mechanism. Furthermore, no significant change was found in the viability, proliferation, metabolic activity, and differentiation potential of hNSCs after treatment with GQDs. Thus, these data open a promising avenue for labeling stem cells with GQDs and also offer a potential opportunity to develop GQDs for biomedical applications.

  1. Dynamic mass redistribution assay decodes differentiation of a neural progenitor stem cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Sadashiva; Verrier, Florence; Sun, Haiyan; Hu, Haibei; Ferrie, Ann M; Eshraghi, Azita; Fang, Ye

    2012-10-01

    Stem cells hold great potential in drug discovery and development. However, challenges remain to quantitatively measure the functions of stem cells and their differentiated products. Here, we applied fluorescent imaging, quantitative real-time PCR, and label-free dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) assays to characterize the differentiation process of the ReNcell VM human neural progenitor stem cell. Immunofluorescence imaging showed that after growth factor withdrawal, the neuroprogenitor stem cell was differentiated into dopaminergic neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, thus creating a neuronal cell system. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the differentiated cell system released dopamine upon depolarization with KCl. In conjunction with quantitative real-time PCR, DMR assays using a G-protein-coupled receptor agonist library revealed that a subset of receptors, including dopamine D(1) and D(4) receptors, underwent marked alterations in both receptor expression and signaling pathway during the differentiation process. These findings suggest that DMR assays can decode the differentiation process of stem cells at the cell system level.

  2. Proteome and Secretome Characterization of Glioblastoma-Derived Neural Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okawa, Satoshi; Gagrica, Sladjana; Blin, Carla; Ender, Christine; Pollard, Steven M; Krijgsveld, Jeroen

    2017-04-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) (grade IV astrocytoma) is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor. GBM consists of heterogeneous cell types including a subset of stem cell-like cells thought to sustain tumor growth. These tumor-initiating glioblastoma multiforme-derived neural stem (GNS) cells as well as their genetically normal neural stem (NS) counterparts can be propagated in culture as relatively pure populations. Here, we perform quantitative proteomics to globally characterize and compare total proteome plus the secreted proteome (secretome) between GNS cells and NS cells. Proteins and pathways that distinguish malignant cancer (GNS) stem cells from their genetically normal counterparts (NS cells) might have value as new biomarkers or therapeutic targets. Our analysis identified and quantified ∼7,500 proteins in the proteome and ∼2,000 in the secretome, 447 and 138 of which were differentially expressed, respectively. Notable tumor-associated processes identified using gene set enrichment analysis included: extracellular matrix interactions, focal adhesion, cell motility, and cell signaling. We focused on differentially expressed surface proteins, and identified 26 that participate in ligand-receptor pairs that play a prominent role in tumorigenesis. Immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting confirmed that CD9, a recently identified marker of adult subventricular zone NS cells, was consistently enriched across a larger set of primary GNS cell lines. CD9 may, therefore, have value as a GNS-specific surface marker and a candidate therapeutic target. Altogether, these findings support the notion that increased cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion molecules play a crucial role in promoting the tumor initiating and infiltrative properties of GNS cells. Stem Cells 2017;35:967-980. © 2016 AlphaMed Press.

  3. Huperzine A protects neural stem cells against Aβ-induced apoptosis in a neural stem cells and microglia co-culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ning; Lin, Jizong; Wang, Kewan; Wei, Meidan; Chen, Qingzhuang; Wang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore whether Huperzine A (HupA) could protect neural stem cells against amyloid beta-peptide Aβ induced apoptosis in a neural stem cells (NSCs) and microglia co-culture system. Rat NSCs and microglial cells were isolated, cultured and identified with immunofluorescence Assays (IFA). Co-culture systems of NSCs and microglial cells were employed using Transwell Permeable Supports. The effects of Aβ1-42 on NSCs were studied in 4 groups using co-culture systems: NSCs, Aβ+NSCs, co-culture and Aβ+co-culture groups. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and flow cytometry were utilized to assess the differences of proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of NSCs between the groups. LQ test was performed to assess the amounts of IL-6, TNF-α and MIP-α secreted, and flow cytometry and Western blotting were used to assess apoptosis of NSCs and the expressions of Bcl-2 and Bax in each group. IFA results showed that isolated rat NSCs were nestin-positive and microglial cells were CD11b/c-positive. Among all the groups, the Aβ+co-culture group has the lowest BrdU expression level, the lowest MAP2-positive, ChAT-positive cell counts and the highest NSC apoptosis rate. Smaller amounts of IL-6, TNF-α and MIP-α were being secreted by microglial cells in the HupA+Aβ+co-culture group compared with those in the Aβ+ co-culture group. Also the Bcl-2: Bax ratio was much higher in the HupA+Aβ+co-culture group than in the Aβ+co-culture group. HupA inhibits cell apoptosis through restraining microglia's inflammatory response induced by Aβ1-42.

  4. Neural Stem Cell Plasticity: Advantages in Therapy for the Injured Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottoboni, Linda; Merlini, Arianna; Martino, Gianvito

    2017-01-01

    The physiological and pathological properties of the neural germinal stem cell niche have been well-studied in the past 30 years, mainly in animals and within given limits in humans, and knowledge is available for the cyto-architectonic structure, the cellular components, the timing of development and the energetic maintenance of the niche, as well as for the therapeutic potential and the cross talk between neural and immune cells. In recent years we have gained detailed understanding of the potentiality of neural stem cells (NSCs), although we are only beginning to understand their molecular, metabolic, and epigenetic profile in physiopathology and, further, more can be invested to measure quantitatively the activity of those cells, to model in vitro their therapeutic responses or to predict interactions in silico . Information in this direction has been put forward for other organs but is still limited in the complex and very less accessible context of the brain. A comprehensive understanding of the behavior of endogenous NSCs will help to tune or model them toward a desired response in order to treat complex neurodegenerative diseases. NSCs have the ability to modulate multiple cellular functions and exploiting their plasticity might make them into potent and versatile cellular drugs.

  5. Generation of retinal pigment epithelial cells from human embryonic stem cell-derived spherical neural masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Myung Soo; Kim, Sang Jin; Ku, Seung-Yup; Park, Jung Hyun; Lee, Haksup; Yoo, Dae Hoon; Park, Un Chul; Song, Seul Ae; Choi, Young Min; Yu, Hyeong Gon

    2012-09-01

    Dysfunction and loss of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) are major pathologic changes observed in various retinal degenerative diseases such as aged-related macular degeneration. RPE generated from human pluripotent stem cells can be a good candidate for RPE replacement therapy. Here, we show the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) toward RPE with the generation of spherical neural masses (SNMs), which are pure masses of hESCs-derived neural precursors. During the early passaging of SNMs, cystic structures arising from opened neural tube-like structures showed pigmented epithelial morphology. These pigmented cells were differentiated into functional RPE by neuroectodermal induction and mechanical purification. Most of the differentiated cells showed typical RPE morphologies, such as a polygonal-shaped epithelial monolayer, and transmission electron microscopy revealed apical microvilli, pigment granules, and tight junctions. These cells also expressed molecular markers of RPE, including Mitf, ZO-1, RPE65, CRALBP, and bestrophin. The generated RPE also showed phagocytosis of isolated bovine photoreceptor outer segment and secreting pigment epithelium-derived factor and vascular endothelial growth factor. Functional RPE could be generated from SNM in our method. Because SNMs have several advantages, including the capability of expansion for long periods without loss of differentiation capability, easy storage and thawing, and no need for feeder cells, our method for RPE differentiation may be used as an efficient strategy for generating functional RPE cells for retinal regeneration therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects and mechanisms of melatonin on neural differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Tao; Wu, Tao; Pang, Mao; Liu, Chang; Wang, Xuan; Wang, Juan; Liu, Bin; Rong, Limin

    2016-06-03

    Melatonin, a lipophilic molecule mainly synthesized in the pineal gland, has properties of antioxidation, anti-inflammation, and antiapoptosis to improve neuroprotective functions. Here, we investigate effects and mechanisms of melatonin on neural differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). iPSCs were induced into neural stem cells (NSCs), then further differentiated into neurons in medium with or without melatonin, melatonin receptor antagonist (Luzindole) or Phosphatidylinositide 3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (LY294002). Melatonin significantly promoted the number of neurospheres and cell viability. In addition, Melatonin markedly up-regulated gene and protein expression of Nestin and MAP2. However, Luzindole or LY294002 attenuated these increase. The expression of pAKT/AKT were increased by Melatonin, while Luzindole or LY294002 declined these melatonin-induced increase. These results suggest that melatonin significantly increased neural differentiation of iPSCs via activating PI3K/AKT signaling pathway through melatonin receptor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Repair of spinal cord injury with neuronal relays: From fetal grafts to neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Joseph F; Steward, Oswald

    2015-09-04

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) disrupts the long axonal tracts of the spinal cord leading to devastating loss of function. Cell transplantation in the injured spinal cord has the potential to lead to recovery after SCI via a variety of mechanisms. One such strategy is the formation of neuronal relays between injured long tract axons and denervated neurons. The idea of creating a neuronal relay was first proposed over 25 years ago when fetal tissue was first successfully transplanted into the injured rodent spinal cord. Advances in labeling of grafted cells and the development of neural stem cell culturing techniques have improved the ability to create and refine such relays. Several recent studies have examined the ability to create a novel neuronal circuit between injured axons and denervated targets. This approach is an alternative to long-distance regeneration of damaged axons that may provide a meaningful degree of recovery without direct recreation of lost pathways. This brief review will examine the contribution of fetal grafting to current advances in neuronal grafting. Of particular interest will be the ability of transplanted neurons derived from fetal grafts, neural precursor cells and neural stem cells to reconnect long distance motor and sensory pathways of the injured spinal cord. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Spinal cord injury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation in the conductive PEDOT-HA/Cs/Gel scaffold for neural tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuping; Guan, Shui; Xu, Jianqiang; Li, Wenfang; Ge, Dan; Sun, Changkai; Liu, Tianqing; Ma, Xuehu

    2017-09-26

    Engineering scaffolds with excellent electro-activity is increasingly important in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Herein, conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with hyaluronic acid (PEDOT-HA) nanoparticles were firstly synthesized via chemical oxidant polymerization. A three-dimensional (3D) PEDOT-HA/Cs/Gel scaffold was then developed by introducing PEDOT-HA nanoparticles into a chitosan/gelatin (Cs/Gel) matrix. HA, as a bridge, not only was used as a dopant, but also combined PEDOT into the Cs/Gel via chemical crosslinking. The PEDOT-HA/Cs/Gel scaffold was used as a conductive substrate for neural stem cell (NSC) culture in vitro. The results demonstrated that the PEDOT-HA/Cs/Gel scaffold had excellent biocompatibility for NSC proliferation and differentiation. 3D confocal fluorescence images showed cells attached on the channel surface of Cs/Gel and PEDOT-HA/Cs/Gel scaffolds with a normal neuronal morphology. Compared to the Cs/Gel scaffold, the PEDOT-HA/Cs/Gel scaffold not only promoted NSC proliferation with up-regulated expression of Ki67, but also enhanced NSC differentiation into neurons and astrocytes with up-regulated expression of β tubulin-III and GFAP, respectively. It is expected that this electro-active and bio-active PEDOT-HA/Cs/Gel scaffold will be used as a conductive platform to regulate NSC behavior for neural tissue engineering.

  9. Neural Stem Cells and Its Derivatives as a New Material for Melanin Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Insik; Hong, Sunghoi

    2017-12-22

    The pigment molecule, melanin, is produced from melanosomes of melanocytes through melanogenesis, which is a complex process involving a combination of chemical and enzymatically catalyzed reactions. The synthesis of melanin is primarily influenced by tyrosinase (TYR), which has attracted interest as a target molecule for the regulation of pigmentation or depigmentation in skin. Thus, direct inhibitors of TYR activity have been sought from various natural and synthetic materials. However, due to issues with these inhibitors, such as weak or permanent ability for depigmentation, allergy, irritant dermatitis and rapid oxidation, in vitro and in vivo, the development of new materials that inhibit melanin production is essential. A conditioned medium (CM) derived from stem cells contains many cell-secreted factors, such as cytokines, chemokines, growth factors and extracellular vesicles including exosomes. In addition, the secreted factors could negatively regulate melanin production through stimulation of a microenvironment of skin tissue in a paracrine manner, which allows the neural stem cell CM to be explored as a new material for skin depigmentation. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge regulating depigmentation, and discuss the potential of neural stem cells and their derivatives, as a new material for skin depigmentation.

  10. Influence of neural stem cell transplantation on angiogenesis in rats with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z; Guo, G-H; Wang, G-S; Guan, C-X; Yue, L

    2014-08-07

    We examined the influence of neural stem cell transplantation on angiogenesis in rats with spinal cord injury. Sixty rats with spinal cord injury were divided into an experimental group and a control group and given neural stem cells or an equivalent amount of phosphate-buffered saline by intravenous transplantation, respectively. Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) motor function assessment was performed in rats at different times after transplantation, and von Willebrand factor (vWF) immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein were also performed. The BBB scores of rats in the 2 groups were both zero before transplantation. The BBB score gradually increased over time. The BBB score of the experimental group showed no significant difference compared with that of the control group (P > 0.05) 7 days after transplantation. The BBB score of the experimental group was significantly improved compared with that of the control group 14 days after transplantation (P cells and VEGF protein expression in the experimental group were significantly increased compared with those in the control group 7 and 14 days after transplantation, respectively (P stem cell transplantation may promote angiogenesis by inducing VEGF expression as well as improve functional recovery of limb movements.

  11. Prion replication occurs in endogenous adult neural stem cells and alters their neuronal fate: involvement of endogenous neural stem cells in prion diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroa Relaño-Ginès

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are irreversible progressive neurodegenerative diseases, leading to severe incapacity and death. They are characterized in the brain by prion amyloid deposits, vacuolisation, astrocytosis, neuronal degeneration, and by cognitive, behavioural and physical impairments. There is no treatment for these disorders and stem cell therapy therefore represents an interesting new approach. Gains could not only result from the cell transplantation, but also from the stimulation of endogenous neural stem cells (NSC or by the combination of both approaches. However, the development of such strategies requires a detailed knowledge of the pathology, particularly concerning the status of the adult neurogenesis and endogenous NSC during the development of the disease. During the past decade, several studies have consistently shown that NSC reside in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS and that adult neurogenesis occurs throughout the adulthood in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle or the Dentate Gyrus of the hippocampus. Adult NSC are believed to constitute a reservoir for neuronal replacement during normal cell turnover or after brain injury. However, the activation of this system does not fully compensate the neuronal loss that occurs during neurodegenerative diseases and could even contribute to the disease progression. We investigated here the status of these cells during the development of prion disorders. We were able to show that NSC accumulate and replicate prions. Importantly, this resulted in the alteration of their neuronal fate which then represents a new pathologic event that might underlie the rapid progression of the disease.

  12. P01.22GENERATION OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED INDUCED PLURIPOTENT STEM CELL-DERIVED NEURAL STEM CELLS WITHOUT USING VIRAL VECTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, T.; Kawaji, H.; Kamio, Y.; Amano, S.; Sameshima, T.; Sakai, N.; Tokuyama, T.; Namba, H.

    2014-01-01

    Suicide gene therapy using genetically engineered stem cells are is one of the most feasible and promising approaches for glioma therapy. Various stem cells, such as neural and mesenchymal stem cells, have been tested for their tumor tropic activity. We have tested stem cells transduced with the herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase gene (HSV-TK, suicide gene) encoding a viral thymidine kinase which phosphorylates prodrug ganciclovir (GCV) for experimental glioma in rodents, because the HSV-TK/GCV system generates a potent bystander effect. Recently we found that induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSs) also had tumor tropic activity under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. One of the major limitations of use of HSV-TK gene-trasnduced iPSs in clinical field is the use of virus vectors that randomly integrate into the host genome and are associated with the risk of malignant transformation due to insertional mutagenesis. In the present study, we present a non-viral transfection method for obtaining HSV-TK expressing iPS-derived neural stem cells to circumvent the concerns associated with use of viral vectors. Mouse iPS cells were generated from somatic cells by the plasmid vectors expressing Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc and Nanog-GFP-IRES-Puror. We differentiated the mouse iPS cells into neural stem cells and then transfected with the plasmid containing HSV-TK gene using electroporation method. In this way, we obtained HSV-TK gene-trasnduced iPSs-derived neural stem cells without using viral vectors for further pre-clinical expariments of glioma therapy.

  13. Transplantation of cerebellar neural stem cells improves motor coordination and neuropathology in Machado-Joseph disease mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Liliana S; Nóbrega, Clévio; Hirai, Hirokazu; Kaspar, Brian K; Pereira de Almeida, Luís

    2015-02-01

    Machado-Joseph disease is a neurodegenerative disease without effective treatment. Patients with Machado-Joseph disease exhibit significant motor impairments such as gait ataxia, associated with multiple neuropathological changes including mutant ATXN3 inclusions, marked neuronal loss and atrophy of the cerebellum. Thus, an effective treatment of symptomatic patients with Machado-Joseph disease may require cell replacement, which we investigated in this study. For this purpose, we injected cerebellar neural stem cells into the cerebellum of adult Machado-Joseph disease transgenic mice and assessed the effect on the neuropathology, neuroinflammation mediators and neurotrophic factor levels and motor coordination. We found that upon transplantation into the cerebellum of adult Machado-Joseph disease mice, cerebellar neural stem cells differentiate into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Importantly, cerebellar neural stem cell transplantation mediated a significant and robust alleviation of the motor behaviour impairments, which correlated with preservation from Machado-Joseph disease-associated neuropathology, namely reduction of Purkinje cell loss, reduction of cellular layer shrinkage and mutant ATXN3 aggregates. Additionally, a significant reduction of neuroinflammation and an increase of neurotrophic factors levels was observed, indicating that transplantation of cerebellar neural stem cells also triggers important neuroprotective effects. Thus, cerebellar neural stem cells have the potential to be used as a cell replacement and neuroprotective approach for Machado-Joseph disease therapy. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Ets Factors Regulate Neural Stem Cell Depletion and Gliogenesis in Ras Pathway Glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua J. Breunig

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As the list of putative driver mutations in glioma grows, we are just beginning to elucidate the effects of dysregulated developmental signaling pathways on the transformation of neural cells. We have employed a postnatal, mosaic, autochthonous glioma model that captures the first hours and days of gliomagenesis in more resolution than conventional genetically engineered mouse models of cancer. We provide evidence that disruption of the Nf1-Ras pathway in the ventricular zone at multiple signaling nodes uniformly results in rapid neural stem cell depletion, progenitor hyperproliferation, and gliogenic lineage restriction. Abolishing Ets subfamily activity, which is upregulated downstream of Ras, rescues these phenotypes and blocks glioma initiation. Thus, the Nf1-Ras-Ets axis might be one of the select molecular pathways that are perturbed for initiation and maintenance in glioma.

  15. The exon junction complex component Magoh controls brain size by regulating neural stem cell division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Debra L.; Watkins-Chow, Dawn E.; Schreck, Karisa C.; Pierfelice, Tarran J.; Larson, Denise M.; Burnetti, Anthony J.; Liaw, Hung-Jiun; Myung, Kyungjae; Walsh, Christopher A.; Gaiano, Nicholas; Pavan, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Brain structure and size requires precise division of neural stem cells (NSCs), which self-renew and generate intermediate neural progenitors (INPs) and neurons. The factors that regulate NSCs remain poorly understood, as do mechanistic explanations of how aberrant NSC division causes reduced brain size as seen in microcephaly. Here we demonstrate that Magoh, a component of the exon junction complex (EJC) that binds RNA, controls mouse cerebral cortical size by regulating NSC division. Magoh haploinsufficiency causes microcephaly due to INP depletion and neuronal apoptosis. Defective mitosis underlies these phenotypes as depletion of EJC components disrupts mitotic spindle orientation and integrity, chromosome number, and genomic stability. In utero rescue experiments revealed that a key function of Magoh is to control levels of the microcephaly-associated protein, LIS1, during neurogenesis. This study uncovers new requirements for the EJC in brain development, NSC maintenance, and mitosis, thus implicating this complex in the pathogenesis of microcephaly. PMID:20364144

  16. Development and function of human cerebral cortex neural networks from pluripotent stem cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, Peter; Turner-Bridger, Benita; Peter, Manuel; Momoh, Ayiba; Arambepola, Devika; Robinson, Hugh P C; Livesey, Frederick J

    2015-09-15

    A key aspect of nervous system development, including that of the cerebral cortex, is the formation of higher-order neural networks. Developing neural networks undergo several phases with distinct activity patterns in vivo, which are thought to prune and fine-tune network connectivity. We report here that human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived cerebral cortex neurons form large-scale networks that reflect those found in the developing cerebral cortex in vivo. Synchronised oscillatory networks develop in a highly stereotyped pattern over several weeks in culture. An initial phase of increasing frequency of oscillations is followed by a phase of decreasing frequency, before giving rise to non-synchronous, ordered activity patterns. hPSC-derived cortical neural networks are excitatory, driven by activation of AMPA- and NMDA-type glutamate receptors, and can undergo NMDA-receptor-mediated plasticity. Investigating single neuron connectivity within PSC-derived cultures, using rabies-based trans-synaptic tracing, we found two broad classes of neuronal connectivity: most neurons have small numbers (40). These data demonstrate that the formation of hPSC-derived cortical networks mimics in vivo cortical network development and function, demonstrating the utility of in vitro systems for mechanistic studies of human forebrain neural network biology. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Selective neuronal differentiation of neural stem cells induced by nanosecond microplasma agitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Xiong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An essential step for therapeutic and research applications of stem cells is their ability to differentiate into specific cell types. Neuronal cells are of great interest for medical treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and traumatic injuries of central nervous system (CNS, but efforts to produce these cells have been met with only modest success. In an attempt of finding new approaches, atmospheric-pressure room-temperature microplasma jets (MPJs are shown to effectively direct in vitro differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs predominantly into neuronal lineage. Murine neural stem cells (C17.2-NSCs treated with MPJs exhibit rapid proliferation and differentiation with longer neurites and cell bodies eventually forming neuronal networks. MPJs regulate ~75% of NSCs to differentiate into neurons, which is a higher efficiency compared to common protein- and growth factors-based differentiation. NSCs exposure to quantized and transient (~150 ns micro-plasma bullets up-regulates expression of different cell lineage markers as β-Tubulin III (for neurons and O4 (for oligodendrocytes, while the expression of GFAP (for astrocytes remains unchanged, as evidenced by quantitative PCR, immunofluorescence microscopy and Western Blot assay. It is shown that the plasma-increased nitric oxide (NO production is a factor in the fate choice and differentiation of NSCs followed by axonal growth. The differentiated NSC cells matured and produced mostly cholinergic and motor neuronal progeny. It is also demonstrated that exposure of primary rat NSCs to the microplasma leads to quite similar differentiation effects. This suggests that the observed effect may potentially be generic and applicable to other types of neural progenitor cells. The application of this new in vitro strategy to selectively differentiate NSCs into neurons represents a step towards reproducible and efficient production of the desired NSC derivatives.

  18. Local versus distal transplantation of human neural stem cells following chronic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ivan; Githens, Michael; Smith, Robert L; Johnston, Tyler R; Park, Don Y; Stauff, Michael P; Salari, Nima; Tileston, Kali R; Kharazi, Alexander I

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated functional recovery of rats with spinal cord contusions after transplantation of neural stem cells adjacent to the site of acute injury. The purpose of the study was to determine if the local or distal injection of neural stem cells can cause functional difference in recovery after chronic spinal cord injury. Twenty-four adult female Long-Evans hooded rats were randomized into four groups, with six animals in each group: two experimental and two control groups. Functional assessment was measured after injury and then weekly for 6 weeks using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan locomotor rating score. Data were analyzed using two-sample t test and linear mixed-effects model analysis. Posterior exposure and laminectomy at the T10 level was used. Moderate spinal cord contusion was induced by the Multicenter Animal Spinal Cord Injury Study Impactor with 10-g weight dropped from a height of 25 mm. Experimental subjects received either a subdural injection of human neural stem cells (hNSCs) locally at the injury site or intrathecal injection of hNSCs through a separate distal laminotomy 4 weeks after injury. Controls received control media injection either locally or distally. A statistically significant functional improvement in subjects that received hNSCs injected distally to the site of injury was observed when compared with the control (p=.042). The difference between subjects that received hNSCs locally and the control did not reach statistical significance (p=.085). The transplantation of hNSCs into the contused spinal cord of a rat led to significant functional recovery of the spinal cord when injected distally but not locally to the site of chronic spinal cord injury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Highly efficient differentiation of neural precursors from human embryonic stem cells and benefits of transplantation after ischemic stroke in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury-Stewart, Danielle; Song, Mingke; Mohamad, Osama; Guo, Ying; Gu, Xiaohuan; Chen, Dongdong; Wei, Ling

    2013-08-08

    Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of death and disability, but treatment options are severely limited. Cell therapy offers an attractive strategy for regenerating lost tissues and enhancing the endogenous healing process. In this study, we investigated the use of human embryonic stem cell-derived neural precursors as a cell therapy in a murine stroke model. Neural precursors were derived from human embryonic stem cells by using a fully adherent SMAD inhibition protocol employing small molecules. The efficiency of neural induction and the ability of these cells to further differentiate into neurons were assessed by using immunocytochemistry. Whole-cell patch-clamp recording was used to demonstrate the electrophysiological activity of human embryonic stem cell-derived neurons. Neural precursors were transplanted into the core and penumbra regions of a focal ischemic stroke in the barrel cortex of mice. Animals received injections of bromodeoxyuridine to track regeneration. Neural differentiation of the transplanted cells and regenerative markers were measured by using immunohistochemistry. The adhesive removal test was used to determine functional improvement after stroke and intervention. After 11 days of neural induction by using the small-molecule protocol, over 95% of human embryonic stem-derived cells expressed at least one neural marker. Further in vitro differentiation yielded cells that stained for mature neuronal markers and exhibited high-amplitude, repetitive action potentials in response to depolarization. Neuronal differentiation also occurred after transplantation into the ischemic cortex. A greater level of bromodeoxyuridine co-localization with neurons was observed in the penumbra region of animals receiving cell transplantation. Transplantation also improved sensory recovery in transplant animals over that in control animals. Human embryonic stem cell-derived neural precursors derived by using a highly efficient small-molecule SMAD inhibition

  20. Neural stem cell transplantation in an animal model of traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaidou, Dimitra

    2014-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) can be damaged by a wide range of conditions resulting in loss of specific populations of neurons and/or glial cells and in the development of defined psychiatric or neurological symptoms of varying severity. As the CNS has limited inherent capacity to regenerate lost tissue and self-repair, the development of therapeutic strategies for the treatment of CNS insults remains a serious scientific challenge with potential important clinical applications. In this context, strategies involving transplantation of specific cell populations, such as stem cells and neural stem cells (NSCs), to replace damaged cells offers an opportunity for the development of cell-based therapies. Along these lines, in this review we describe a protocol which involves transplantation of NPCs, genetically engineered to overexpress the neurogenic molecule Cend1 and have thus the potency to differentiate with higher frequency towards the neuronal lineage in a rodent model of stab wound cortical injury.

  1. Circumventricular organs: a novel site of neural stem cells in the adult brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Lori; Yang, Ming; Enikolopov, Grigori; Iacovitti, Lorraine

    2009-07-01

    Neurogenesis in the adult mammalian nervous system is now well established in the subventricular zone of the anterolateral ventricle and subgranular zone of the hippocampus. In these regions, neurons are thought to arise from neural stem cells, identified by their expression of specific intermediate filament proteins (nestin, vimentin, GFAP) and transcription factors (Sox2). In the present study, we show that in adult rat and mouse, the circumventricular organs (CVOs) are rich in nestin+, GFAP+, vimentin+ cells which express Sox2 and the cell cycle-regulating protein Ki67. In culture, these cells proliferate as neurospheres and express neuronal (doublecortin+, beta-tubulin III+) and glial (S100beta+, GFAP+, RIP+) phenotypic traits. Further, our in vivo studies using bromodeoxyuridine show that CVO cells proliferate and undergo constitutive neurogenesis and gliogenesis. These findings suggest that CVOs may constitute a heretofore unknown source of stem/progenitor cells, capable of giving rise to new neurons and/or glia in the adult brain.

  2. Effects of 900 MHz electromagnetic radiation on ultrastructure of rats’ hippocampal neural stem cells in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Hai-shui LUO; Wei-hua CHU; Zi-bing WAN; Sheng-li HU; Rong HU; Nan WU; Bo HU; Hua FENG; Gang ZHU

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of 900MHz electromagnetic radiation on the ultrastructure of rat hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs) in vitro in order to provide basic materials for studying the biological effects of electromagnetic wave on the central nervous system. Methods Rat NSCs were divided into sham group, Radi1 group and Radi2 group, and they were respectively exposed to 900 MHz electromagnetic wave at power density of 0, 1, and 3mW/cm2 in vitro. Cells in Radi1 group and Radi2 g...

  3. Three dimensional cellular microarray platform for human neural stem cell differentiation and toxicology

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Meli; Hélder S.C. Barbosa; Anne Marie Hickey; Leyla Gasimli; Gregory Nierode; Maria Margarida Diogo; Linhardt, Robert J.; Joaquim M S Cabral; Dordick, Jonathan S.

    2014-01-01

    We developed a three-dimensional (3D) cellular microarray platform for the high-throughput (HT) analysis of human neural stem cell (hNSC) growth and differentiation. The growth of an immortalized hNSC line, ReNcell VM, was evaluated on a miniaturized cell culture chip consisting of 60 nl spots of cells encapsulated in alginate, and compared to standard 2D well plate culture conditions. Using a live/dead cell viability assay, we demonstrated that the hNSCs are able to expand on-chip, albeit wi...

  4. Three Dimensional Cellular Microarray Platform for Human Neural Stem Cell Differentiation and Toxicology

    OpenAIRE

    Meli, Luciana; Hélder S.C. Barbosa; Hickey, Anne Marie; Gasimli, Leyla; Nierode, Gregory; Diogo, Maria Margarida; Linhardt, Robert J.; Joaquim M S Cabral; Dordick, Jonathan S.

    2014-01-01

    We developed a three-dimensional (3D) cellular microarray platform for the high-throughput (HT) analysis of human neural stem cell (hNSC) growth and differentiation. The growth of an immortalized hNSC line, ReNcell VM, was evaluated on a miniaturized cell culture chip consisting of 60 nl spots of cells encapsulated in alginate, and compared to standard 2D well plate culture conditions. Using a live/dead cell viability assay, we demonstrated that the hNSCs are able to expand on-chip, albeit wi...

  5. Overexpression of Wnt3a facilitates the proliferation and neural differentiation of neural stem cells in vitro and after transplantation into an injured rat retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi-Tao; Bi, Yong-Yan; Chen, Er-Tao; Feng, Dong-Fu

    2014-02-01

    Neural stem cell-based therapy is a promising option for repair after injury. However, poor stem cell proliferation and insufficient differentiation of the stem cells into neurons are still difficult problems. The present study investigated whether transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) genetically modified to express Wnt3a is a promising approach to overcome these difficulties. We explored the possibility that Wnt3a might contribute to the therapeutic effect of NSC transplantation in retinal repair. The relative promotion of proliferation and neural differentiation by modified NSCs was investigated in a rat model of optic nerve crush. A recombinant lentivirus (Lenti-Wnt3a) was engineered to express Wnt3a. NSCs infected with control lentivirus (Lenti-GFP) or Lenti-Wnt3a were transplanted into the subretinal space immediately after the optic nerve crush. The proliferation and neural differentiation activity of the NSCs were assessed in vitro and in vivo. Overexpression of Wnt3a in NSCs induced activation of Wnt signaling, promoted proliferation, and directed the differentiation of the NSCs into neurons both in vitro and in vivo. Our study suggests that Wnt3a can potentiate the therapeutic benefits of NSC-based therapy in the injured retina. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. An Integrated Miniature Bioprocessing for Personalized Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Expansion and Differentiation into Neural Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Haishuang; Li, Qiang; Lei, Yuguo

    2017-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are ideal cell sources for personalized cell therapies since they can be expanded to generate large numbers of cells and differentiated into presumably all the cell types of the human body in vitro. In addition, patient specific iPSC-derived cells induce minimal or no immune response in vivo. However, with current cell culture technologies and bioprocessing, the cost for biomanufacturing clinical-grade patient specific iPSCs and their derivatives are very high and not affordable for majority of patients. In this paper, we explored the use of closed and miniature cell culture device for biomanufacturing patient specific neural stem cells (NSCs) from iPSCs. We demonstrated that, with the assist of a thermoreversible hydrogel scaffold, the bioprocessing including iPSC expansion, iPSC differentiation into NSCs, the subsequent depletion of undifferentiated iPSCs from the NSCs, and concentrating and transporting the purified NSCs to the surgery room, could be integrated and completed within two closed 15 ml conical tubes. PMID:28057917

  7. Neural stem cells differentiated from iPS cells spontaneously regain pluripotency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun Woo; Kim, Jong Soo; Choi, Sol; Hong, Yean Ju; Kim, Min Jung; Seo, Han Geuk; Do, Jeong Tae

    2014-10-01

    Differentiated somatic cells can be reprogrammed into pluripotent stem cells by transduction of exogenous reprogramming factors. After induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are established, exogenous genes are silenced. In the pluripotent state, retroviral genes integrated in the host genome are kept inactive through epigenetic transcriptional regulation. In this study, we tried to determine whether exogenous genes remain silenced or are reactivated upon loss of pluripotency or on differentiation using an in vitro system. We induced differentiation of iPS cells into neural stem cells (NSCs) in vitro; the NSCs appeared morphologically indistinguishable from brain-derived NSCs and stained positive for the NSC markers Nestin and Sox2. These iPS cell-derived NSCs (iPS-NSCs) were also capable of differentiating into all three neural subtypes. Interestingly, iPS-NSCs spontaneously formed aggregates on long-term culture and showed reactivation of the Oct4-GFP marker, which was followed by the formation of embryonic stem cell-like colonies. The spontaneously reverted green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive (iPS-NSC-GFP(+) ) cells expressed high levels of pluripotency markers (Oct4 and Nanog) and formed germline chimeras, indicating that iPS-NSC-GFP(+) cells had the same pluripotency as the original iPS cells. The reactivation of silenced exogenous genes was tightly correlated with the downregulation of DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts) during differentiation of iPS cells. This phenomenon was not observed in doxycycline-inducible iPS cells, where the reactivation of exogenous genes could be induced only by doxycycline treatment. These results indicate that pluripotency can be regained through reactivation of exogenous genes, which is associated with dynamic change of Dnmt levels during differentiation of iPS cells. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  8. Image analysis of neural stem cell division patterns in the zebrafish brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupperger, Valerio; Buggenthin, Felix; Chapouton, Prisca; Marr, Carsten

    2017-11-10

    Proliferating stem cells in the adult body are the source of constant regeneration. In the brain, neural stem cells (NSCs) divide to maintain the stem cell population and generate neural progenitor cells that eventually replenish mature neurons and glial cells. How much spatial coordination of NSC division and differentiation is present in a functional brain is an open question. To quantify the patterns of stem cell divisions, one has to (i) identify the pool of NSCs that have the ability to divide, (ii) determine NSCs that divide within a given time window, and (iii) analyze the degree of spatial coordination. Here, we present a bioimage informatics pipeline that automatically identifies GFP expressing NSCs in three-dimensional image stacks of zebrafish brain from whole-mount preparations. We exploit the fact that NSCs in the zebrafish hemispheres are located on a two-dimensional surface and identify between 1,500 and 2,500 NSCs in six brain hemispheres. We then determine the position of dividing NSCs in the hemisphere by EdU incorporation into cells undergoing S-phase and calculate all pairwise NSC distances with three alternative metrics. Finally, we fit a probabilistic model to the observed spatial patterns that accounts for the non-homogeneous distribution of NSCs. We find a weak positive coordination between dividing NSCs irrespective of the metric and conclude that neither strong inhibitory nor strong attractive signals drive NSC divisions in the adult zebrafish brain. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  9. Are neural crest stem cells the missing link between hematopoietic and neurogenic niches?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile eCoste

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic niches are defined as cellular and molecular microenvironments that regulate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC function together with stem cell autonomous mechanisms. Many different cell types have been characterized as contributors to the formation of HSC niches, such as osteoblasts, endothelial cells, Schwann cells, and mesenchymal progenitors. These mesenchymal progenitors have themselves been classified as CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL12-abundant reticular (CAR cells, stem cell factor expressing cells, or nestin-positive mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, which have been recently identified as neural crest-derived cells (NCSCs. Together, these cells are spatially associated with HSCs and believed to provide appropriate microenvironments for HSC self-renewal, differentiation, mobilization and hibernation both by cell-to-cell contact and soluble factors. Interestingly, it appears that regulatory pathways governing the hematopoietic niche homeostasis are operating in the neurogenic niche as well. Therefore, this review paper aims to compare both the regulation of hematopoietic and neurogenic niches, in order to highlight the role of NCSCs and nervous system components in the development and the regulation of the hematopoietic system.

  10. The Effects of Topographical Patterns and Sizes on Neural Stem Cell Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Lin; Li, Ning; Huang, Rong; Song, Qin; Wang, Long; Zhang, Qi; Su, Ruigong; Kong, Tao; Tang, Mingliang; Cheng, Guosheng

    2013-01-01

    Engineered topographical manipulation, a paralleling approach with conventional biochemical cues, has recently attracted the growing interests in utilizations to control stem cell fate. In this study, effects of topological parameters, pattern and size are emphasized on the proliferation and differentiation of adult neural stem cells (ANSCs). We fabricate micro-scale topographical Si wafers with two different feature sizes. These topographical patterns present linear micro-pattern (LMP), circular micro-pattern (CMP) and dot micro-pattern (DMP). The results show that the three topography substrates are suitable for ANSC growth, while they all depress ANSC proliferation when compared to non-patterned substrates (control). Meanwhile, LMP and CMP with two feature sizes can both significantly enhance ANSC differentiation to neurons compared to control. The smaller the feature size is, the better upregulation applies to ANSC for the differentiated neurons. The underlying mechanisms of topography-enhanced neuronal differentiation are further revealed by directing suppression of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signaling-regulated kinase (MAPK/Erk) signaling pathway in ANSC using U0126, known to inhibit the activation of Erk. The statistical results suggest MAPK/Erk pathway is partially involved in topography-induced differentiation. These observations provide a better understanding on the different roles of topographical cues on stem cell behavior, especially on the selective differentiation, and facilitate to advance the field of stem cell therapy. PMID:23527077

  11. Neural stem cell sparing by linac based intensity modulated stereotactic radiotherapy in intracranial tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Julia; Brachwitz, Tim; Wendt, Thomas G; Banz, Nico; Walther, Mario; Wiezorek, Tilo

    2013-07-24

    Neurocognitive decline observed after radiotherapy (RT) for brain tumors in long time survivors is attributed to radiation exposure of the hippocampus and the subventricular zone (SVZ). The potential of sparing capabilities for both structures by optimized intensity modulated stereotactic radiotherapy (IMSRT) is investigated. Brain tumors were irradiated by stereotactic 3D conformal RT or IMSRT using m3 collimator optimized for PTV and for sparing of the conventional OARs (lens, retina, optic nerve, chiasm, cochlea, brain stem and the medulla oblongata). Retrospectively both hippocampi and SVZ were added to the list of OAR and their dose volume histograms were compared to those from two newly generated IMSRT plans using 7 or 14 beamlets (IMSRT-7, IMSRT-14) dedicated for optimized additional sparing of these structures. Conventional OAR constraints were kept constant. Impact of plan complexity and planning target volume (PTV) topography on sparing of both hippocampi and SVZ, conformity index (CI), the homogeneity index (HI) and quality of coverage (QoC) were analyzed. Limits of agreement were used to compare sparing of stem cell niches with either IMSRT-7 or IMSRT-14. The influence of treatment technique related to the topography ratio between PTV and OARs, realized in group A-D, was assessed by a mixed model. In 47 patients CI (p ≤  0.003) and HI (p  <  0.001) improved by IMSRT-7, IMSRT-14, QoC remained stable (p  ≥  0.50) indicating no compromise in radiotherapy. 90% of normal brain was exposed to a significantly higher dose using IMSRT. IMSRT-7 plans resulted in significantly lower biologically effective doses at all four neural stem cell structures, while contralateral neural stem cells are better spared compared to ipsilateral. A further increase of the number of beamlets (IMSRT-14) did not improve sparing significantly, so IMSRT-7 and IMSRT-14 can be used interchangeable. Patients with tumors contacting neither the subventricular zone nor the

  12. Neural differentiation of transplanted neural stem cells in a rat model of striatal lacunar infarction: light and electron microscopic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñetón-Gómez, Vilma C.; Doncel-Pérez, Ernesto; Fernandez, Ana P.; Serrano, Julia; Pozo-Rodrigálvarez, Andrea; Vellosillo-Huerta, Lara; Taylor, Julian S.; Cardona-Gómez, Gloria P.; Nieto-Sampedro, Manuel; Martínez-Murillo, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    The increased risk and prevalence of lacunar stroke and Parkinson's disease (PD) makes the search for better experimental models an important requirement for translational research. In this study we assess ischemic damage of the nigrostriatal pathway in a model of lacunar stroke evoked by damaging the perforating arteries in the territory of the substantia nigra (SN) of the rat after stereotaxic administration of endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent vasoconstrictor peptide. We hypothesized that transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) with the capacity of differentiating into diverse cell types such as neurons and glia, but with limited proliferation potential, would constitute an alternative and/or adjuvant therapy for lacunar stroke. These cells showed neuritogenic activity in vitro and a high potential for neural differentiation. Light and electron microscopy immunocytochemistry was used to characterize GFP-positive neurons derived from the transplants. 48 h after ET-1 injection, we characterized an area of selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons within the nigrostriatal pathway characterized with tissue necrosis and glial scar formation, with subsequent behavioral signs of Parkinsonism. Light microscopy showed that grafted cells within the striatal infarction zone differentiated with a high yield into mature glial cells (GFAP-positive) and neuron types present in the normal striatum. Electron microscopy revealed that NSCs-derived neurons integrated into the host circuitry establishing synaptic contacts, mostly of the asymmetric type. Astrocytes were closely associated with normal small-sized blood vessels in the area of infarct, suggesting a possible role in the regulation of the blood brain barrier and angiogenesis. Our results encourage the use of NSCs as a cell-replacement therapy for the treatment of human vascular Parkinsonism. PMID:22876219

  13. Expression of Pluripotency Markers in Nonpluripotent Human Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Per Henrik; Benedikz, Eirikur; Uhlén, Per; Hovatta, Outi; Sundström, Erik

    2017-06-15

    Nonpluripotent neural progenitor cells (NPCs) derived from the human fetal central nervous system were found to express a number of messenger RNA (mRNA) species associated with pluripotency, such as NANOG, REX1, and OCT4. The expression was restricted to small subpopulations of NPCs. In contrast to pluripotent stem cells, there was no coexpression of the pluripotency-associated genes studied. Although the expression of these genes rapidly declined during the in vitro differentiation of NPCs, we found no evidence that the discrete expression was associated with the markers of multipotent neural stem cells (CD133+/CD24lo), the capacity of sphere formation, or high cell proliferation rates. The rate of cell death among NPCs expressing pluripotency-associated genes was also similar to that of other NPCs. Live cell imaging showed that NANOG- and REX1-expressing NPCs continuously changed morphology, as did the nonexpressing cells. Depletion experiments showed that after the complete removal of the subpopulations of NANOG- and REX1-expressing NPCs, the expression of these genes appeared in other NPCs within a few days. The percentage of NANOG- and REX1-expressing cells returned to that observed before depletion. Our results are best explained by a model in which there is stochastic transient expression of pluripotency-associated genes in proliferating NPCs.

  14. In vivo Importance of Homologous Recombination DNA Repair for Mouse Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Laure; Etienne, Olivier; Roque, Telma; Desmaze, Chantal; Haton, Céline; Mouthon, Marc-André; Bernardino-Sgherri, Jacqueline; Essers, Jeroen; Kanaar, Roland; Boussin, François D.

    2012-01-01

    We characterized the in vivo importance of the homologous recombination factor RAD54 for the developing mouse brain cortex in normal conditions or after ionizing radiation exposure. Contrary to numerous homologous recombination genes, Rad54 disruption did not impact the cortical development without exogenous stress, but it dramatically enhanced the radiation sensitivity of neural stem and progenitor cells. This resulted in the death of all cells irradiated during S or G2, whereas the viability of cells irradiated in G1 or G0 was not affected by Rad54 disruption. Apoptosis occurred after long arrests at intra-S and G2/M checkpoints. This concerned every type of neural stem and progenitor cells, showing that the importance of Rad54 for radiation response was linked to the cell cycle phase at the time of irradiation and not to the differentiation state. In the developing brain, RAD54-dependent homologous recombination appeared absolutely required for the repair of damages induced by ionizing radiation during S and G2 phases, but not for the repair of endogenous damages in normal conditions. Altogether our data support the existence of RAD54-dependent and -independent homologous recombination pathways. PMID:22666344

  15. Enrichment and Schwann Cell Differentiation of Neural Crest-derived Dental Pulp Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zer, Heba; Apel, Christian; Heiland, Max; Friedrich, Reinhard E; Jung, Ole; Kroeger, Nadja; Eichhorn, Wolfgang; Smeets, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    As already described in previous studies, neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) can be found in adult human dental pulp. The present study investigated the methodology for enrichment and differentiation-induction of the above mentioned cells. Dental pulp was extracted from human wisdom teeth of four patients and subsequently cultured as explants on fibronectin-coated plates in neurobasal medium supplemented with B27, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin, l-glutamine and neuregulin-β1. The cells were then characterized by immunofluorescence, while their differentiation-potential was tested by the attempt to induce cells into different lineages, i.e. osteogenic, melanocytic and glial. The enriched cell population expressed nestin, CD271 and SOX10, which are well-known markers for NCSCs. Consequently, the cells were successfully induced to differentiate into osteoblasts, melanocytes and Schwann cells, expressing the corresponding differentiation markers. Human adult dental pulp contains a population of stem cells with neural crest ontogeny, which can thus be recruited for multiple regenerative therapies. Copyright © 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular Biomarkers for Embryonic and Adult Neural Stem Cell and Neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The procedure of neurogenesis has made numerous achievements in the past decades, during which various molecular biomarkers have been emerging and have been broadly utilized for the investigation of embryonic and adult neural stem cell (NSC). Nevertheless, there is not a consistent and systematic illustration to depict the functional characteristics of the specific markers expressed in distinct cell types during the different stages of neurogenesis. Here we gathered and generalized a series of NSC biomarkers emerging during the procedures of embryonic and adult neural stem cell, which may be used to identify the subpopulation cells with distinguishing characters in different timeframes of neurogenesis. The identifications of cell patterns will provide applications to the detailed investigations of diverse developmental cell stages and the extents of cell differentiation, which will facilitate the tracing of cell time-course and fate determination of specific cell types and promote the further and literal discoveries of embryonic and adult neurogenesis. Meanwhile, via the utilization of comprehensive applications under the aiding of the systematic knowledge framework, researchers may broaden their insights into the derivation and establishment of novel technologies to analyze the more detailed process of embryogenesis and adult neurogenesis. PMID:26421301

  17. Directed Migration of Embryonic Stem Cell-derived Neural Cells In An Applied Electric Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Mark; Yao, Li

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord injury or diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, can cause the loss of motor neurons and therefore results in the paralysis of muscles. Stem cells may improve functional recovery by promoting endogenous regeneration, or by directly replacing neurons. Effective directional migration of grafted neural cells to reconstruct functional connections is crucial in the process. Steady direct current electric fields (EFs) play an important role in the development of the central nervous system. A strong biological effect of EFs is the induction of directional cell migration. In this study, we investigated the guided migration of embryonic stem cell (ESC) derived presumptive motor neurons in an applied EF. The dissociated mouse ESC derived presumptive motor neurons or embryoid bodies were subjected to EFs stimulation and the cell migration was studied. We found that the migration of neural precursors from embryoid bodies was toward cathode pole of applied EFs. Single motor neurons migrated to the cathode of the EFs and reversal of EFs poles reversed their migration direction. The directedness and displacement of cathodal migration became more significant when the field strength was increased from 50 mV/mm to 100 mV/mm. EFs stimulation did not influence the cell migration velocity. Our work suggests that EFs may serve as a guidance cue to direct grafted cell migration in vivo. PMID:24804615

  18. Synergic Functions of miRNAs Determine Neuronal Fate of Adult Neural Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meritxell Pons-Espinal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis requires the precise control of neuronal versus astrocyte lineage determination in neural stem cells. While microRNAs (miRNAs are critically involved in this step during development, their actions in adult hippocampal neural stem cells (aNSCs has been unclear. As entry point to address that question we chose DICER, an endoribonuclease essential for miRNA biogenesis and other RNAi-related processes. By specific ablation of Dicer in aNSCs in vivo and in vitro, we demonstrate that miRNAs are required for the generation of new neurons, but not astrocytes, in the adult murine hippocampus. Moreover, we identify 11 miRNAs, of which 9 have not been previously characterized in neurogenesis, that determine neurogenic lineage fate choice of aNSCs at the expense of astrogliogenesis. Finally, we propose that the 11 miRNAs sustain adult hippocampal neurogenesis through synergistic modulation of 26 putative targets from different pathways.

  19. Developmental potential of defined neural progenitors derived from mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachta, Nicolas; Bibel, Miriam; Tucker, Kerry Lee; Barde, Yves-Alain

    2004-11-01

    The developmental potential of a uniform population of neural progenitors was tested by implanting them into chick embryos. These cells were generated from retinoic acid-treated mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, and were used to replace a segment of the neural tube. At the time of implantation, the progenitors expressed markers defining them as Pax6-positive radial glial (RG) cells, which have recently been shown to generate most pyramidal neurons in the developing cerebral cortex. Six days after implantation, the progenitors generated large numbers of neurons in the spinal cord, and differentiated into interneurons and motoneurons at appropriate locations. They also colonized the host dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and differentiated into neurons, but, unlike stem cell-derived motoneurons, they failed to elongate axons out of the DRG. In addition, they neither expressed the DRG marker Brn3a nor the Trk neurotrophin receptors. Control experiments with untreated ES cells indicated that when colonizing the DRG, these cells did elongate axons and expressed Brn3a, as well as Trk receptors. Our results thus indicate that ES cell-derived progenitors with RG characteristics generate neurons in the spinal cord and the DRG. They are able to respond appropriately to local cues in the spinal cord, but not in the DRG, indicating that they are restricted in their developmental potential.

  20. The experimental study of genetic engineering human neural stem cells mediated by lentivirus to express multigene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Pei-qiang; Tang, Xun; Lin, Yue-qiu; Martin, Oudega; Sun, Guang-yun; Xu, Lin; Yang, Yun-kang; Zhou, Tian-hua

    2006-02-01

    To explore the feasibility to construct genetic engineering human neural stem cells (hNSCs) mediated by lentivirus to express multigene in order to provide a graft source for further studies of spinal cord injury (SCI). Human neural stem cells from the brain cortex of human abortus were isolated and cultured, then gene was modified by lentivirus to express both green fluorescence protein (GFP) and rat neurotrophin-3 (NT-3); the transgenic expression was detected by the methods of fluorescence microscope, dorsal root ganglion of fetal rats and slot blot. Genetic engineering hNSCs were successfully constructed. All of the genetic engineering hNSCs which expressed bright green fluorescence were observed under the fluorescence microscope. The conditioned medium of transgenic hNSCs could induce neurite flourishing outgrowth from dorsal root ganglion (DRG). The genetic engineering hNSCs expressed high level NT-3 which could be detected by using slot blot. Genetic engineering hNSCs mediated by lentivirus can be constructed to express multigene successfully.

  1. Neural Stem Cell Differentiation Is Dictated by Distinct Actions of Nuclear Receptor Corepressors and Histone Deacetylases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalo Castelo-Branco

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Signaling factors including retinoic acid (RA and thyroid hormone (T3 promote neuronal, oligodendrocyte, and astrocyte differentiation of cortical neural stem cells (NSCs. However, the functional specificity of transcriptional repressor checkpoints controlling these differentiation programs remains unclear. Here, we show by genome-wide analysis that histone deacetylase (HDAC2 and HDAC3 show overlapping and distinct promoter occupancy at neuronal and oligodendrocyte-related genes in NSCs. The absence of HDAC3, but not HDAC2, initiated a neuronal differentiation pathway in NSCs. The ablation of the corepressor NCOR or HDAC2, in conjunction with T3 treatment, resulted in increased expression of oligodendrocyte genes, revealing a direct HDAC2-mediated repression of Sox8 and Sox10 expression. Interestingly, Sox10 was required also for maintaining the more differentiated state by repression of stem cell programming factors such as Sox2 and Sox9. Distinct and nonredundant actions of NCORs and HDACs are thus critical for control of lineage progression and differentiation programs in neural progenitors.

  2. 3D reconstitution of the patterned neural tube from embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt, Andrea; Eberle, Dominic; Tazaki, Akira; Ranga, Adrian; Niesche, Marco; Wilsch-Bräuninger, Michaela; Stec, Agnieszka; Schackert, Gabriele; Lutolf, Matthias; Tanaka, Elly M

    2014-12-09

    Inducing organogenesis in 3D culture is an important aspect of stem cell research. Anterior neural structures have been produced from large embryonic stem cell (ESC) aggregates, but the steps involved in patterning such complex structures have been ill defined, as embryoid bodies typically contained many cell types. Here we show that single mouse ESCs directly embedded in Matrigel or defined synthetic matrices under neural induction conditions can clonally form neuroepithelial cysts containing a single lumen in 3D. Untreated cysts were uniformly dorsal and could be ventralized to floor plate (FP). Retinoic acid posteriorized cysts to cervical levels and induced localize FP formation yielding full patterning along the dorsal/ventral (DV) axis. Correct spatial organization of motor neurons, interneurons, and dorsal interneurons along the DV axis was observed. This system serves as a valuable tool for studying morphogen action in 3D and as a source of patterned spinal cord tissue. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Astrocytic Calcium Waves Signal Brain Injury to Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Anna; Jubal, Eduardo Rosales; von Laer, Ruth; Döring, Claudia; Rocha, Adriana; Grebbin, Moyo; Zenke, Martin; Kettenmann, Helmut; Stroh, Albrecht; Momma, Stefan

    2017-03-14

    Brain injuries, such as stroke or trauma, induce neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) to a neurogenic response. Very little is known about the molecular cues that signal tissue damage, even over large distances, to the SVZ. Based on our analysis of gene expression patterns in the SVZ, 48 hr after an ischemic lesion caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion, we hypothesized that the presence of an injury might be transmitted by an astrocytic traveling calcium wave rather than by diffusible factors or hypoxia. Using a newly established in vitro system we show that calcium waves induced in an astrocytic monolayer spread to neural stem and progenitor cells and increase their self-renewal as well as migratory behavior. These changes are due to an upregulation of the Notch signaling pathway. This introduces the concept of propagating astrocytic calcium waves transmitting brain injury signals over long distances. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of halobenzoquinone and haloacetic acid water disinfection byproducts on human neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Katherine Z; Li, Jinhua; Vemula, Sai; Moe, Birget; Li, Xing-Fang

    2017-08-01

    Human neural stem cells (hNSCs) are a useful tool to assess the developmental effects of various environmental contaminants; however, the application of hNSCs to evaluate water disinfection byproducts (DBPs) is scarce. Comprehensive toxicological results are essential to the prioritization of DBPs for further testing and regulation. Therefore, this study examines the effects of DBPs on the proliferation and differentiation of hNSCs. Prior to DBP treatment, characteristic protein markers of hNSCs from passages 3 to 6 were carefully examined and it was determined that hNSCs passaged 3 or 4 times maintained stem cell characteristics and can be used for DBP analysis. Two regulated DBPs, monobromoacetic acid (BAA) and monochloroacetic acid (CAA), and two emerging DBPs, 2,6-dibromo-1,4-benzoquinone (2,6-DBBQ) and 2,6-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone (2,6-DCBQ), were chosen for hNSC treatment. Both 2,6-DBBQ and 2,6-DCBQ induced cell cycle arrest at S-phase at concentrations up to 1μmol/L. Comparatively, BAA and CAA at 0.5μmol/L affected neural differentiation. These results suggest DBP-dependent effects on hNSC proliferation and differentiation. The DBP-induced cell cycle arrest and inhibition of normal hNSC differentiation demonstrate the need to assess the developmental neurotoxicity of DBPs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Endoscopic delivery of enteric neural stem cells to treat Hirschsprung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L S; Hotta, R; Graham, H K; Nagy, N; Goldstein, A M; Belkind-Gerson, J

    2015-10-01

    Transplantation of enteric neural stem cells (ENSC) holds promise as a potential therapy for enteric neuropathies, including Hirschsprung disease. Delivery of transplantable cells via laparotomy has been described, but we propose a novel, minimally invasive endoscopic method of cell delivery. Enteric neural stem cells for transplantation were cultured from dissociated gut of postnatal donor mice. Twelve recipient mice, including Ednrb(-/-) mice with distal colonic aganglionosis, underwent colonoscopic injection of ENSC under direct vision using a 30-gauge Hamilton needle passed through a rigid cystoureteroscope. Cell engraftment, survival, and neuroglial differentiation were studied 1-4 weeks after the procedure. All recipient mice tolerated the procedure without complications and survived to sacrifice. Transplanted cells were found within the colonic wall in 9 of 12 recipient mice with differentiation into enteric neurons and glia. Endoscopic injection of ENSC is a safe and reliable method for cell delivery, and can be used to deliver a large number of cells to a specific area of disease. This minimally invasive endoscopic approach may prove beneficial to future human applications of cell therapy for neurointestinal disease. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Directed migration of embryonic stem cell-derived neural cells in an applied electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongchao; Weiss, Mark; Yao, Li

    2014-10-01

    Spinal cord injury or diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, can cause the loss of motor neurons and therefore results in the paralysis of muscles. Stem cells may improve functional recovery by promoting endogenous regeneration, or by directly replacing neurons. Effective directional migration of grafted neural cells to reconstruct functional connections is crucial in the process. Steady direct current electric fields (EFs) play an important role in the development of the central nervous system. A strong biological effect of EFs is the induction of directional cell migration. In this study, we investigated the guided migration of embryonic stem cell (ESC) derived presumptive motor neurons in an applied EF. The dissociated mouse ESC derived presumptive motor neurons or embryoid bodies were subjected to EFs stimulation and the cell migration was studied. We found that the migration of neural precursors from embryoid bodies was toward cathode pole of applied EFs. Single motor neurons migrated to the cathode of the EFs and reversal of EFs poles reversed their migration direction. The directedness and displacement of cathodal migration became more significant when the field strength was increased from 50 mV/mm to 100 mV/mm. EFs stimulation did not influence the cell migration velocity. Our work suggests that EFs may serve as a guidance cue to direct grafted cell migration in vivo.

  7. [Comprehensive regulation effect of traditional Chinese medicine on proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Jin; Li, Jing-Jing; Ke, Hui; Xu, Xiao-Yu

    2017-11-01

    Since the discovery of neural stem cells(NSCs) in embryonic and adult mammalian central nervous systems, new approaches for proliferation and differentiation of NSCs have been put forward. One of the approaches to promote the clinical application of NSCs is to search effective methods to regulate the proliferation and differentiation. This problem is urgently to be solved in the medical field. Previous studies have shown that traditional Chinese medicine could promote the proliferation and differentiation of NSCs by regulating the relevant signaling pathway in vivo and in vitro. Domestic and foreign literatures for regulating the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in recent 10 years and the reports for their target and signaling pathways were analyzed in this paper. Traditional Chinese medicine could regulate the proliferation and differentiation of NSCs through signaling pathways of Notch, PI3K/Akt, Wnt/β-catenin and GFs. However, studies about NSCs and traditional Chinese medicine should be further deepened; the mechanism of multiple targets and the comprehensive regulation function of traditional Chinese medicine should be clarified. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  8. Effects of radiofrequency exposure emitted from a GSM mobile phone on proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of neural stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Eghlidospour, Mahsa; Ghanbari, Amir; Mortazavi, Seyyed Mohammad Javad; Azari, Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Due to the importance of neural stem cells (NSCs) in plasticity of the nervous system and treating neurodegenerative diseases, the main goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of radiofrequency radiation emitted from a GSM 900-MHz mobile phone with different exposure duration on proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of adult murine NSCs in vitro. We used neurosphere assay to evaluate NSCs proliferation, and immunofluorescence assay of neural cell markers to examine NSCs differen...

  9. The effect of lithium on hematopoietic, mesenchymal and neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferensztajn-Rochowiak, Ewa; Rybakowski, Janusz K

    2016-04-01

    Lithium has been used in modern psychiatry for more than 65 years, constituting a cornerstone for the long-term treatment of bipolar disorder. A number of biological properties of lithium have been discovered, including its hematological, antiviral and neuroprotective effects. In this article, a systematic review of the effect of lithium on hematopoietic, mesenchymal and neural stem cells is presented. The beneficial effects of lithium on the level of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and growth factors have been reported since 1970s. Lithium improves homing of stem cells, the ability to form colonies and HSC self-renewal. Lithium also exerts a favorable influence on the proliferation and maintenance of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Studies on the effect of lithium on neurogenesis have indicated an increased proliferation of progenitor cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and enhanced mitotic activity of Schwann cells. This may be connected with the neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects of lithium, reflected in an improvement in synaptic plasticity promoting cell survival and inhibiting apoptosis. In clinical studies, lithium treatment increases cerebral gray matter, mainly in the frontal lobes, hippocampus and amygdala. Recent findings also suggest that lithium may reduce the risk of dementia and exert a beneficial effect in neurodegenerative diseases. The most important mediators and signaling pathways of lithium action are the glycogen synthase kinase-3 and Wnt/β-catenin pathways. Recently, to study of bipolar disorder pathogenesis and the mechanism of lithium action, the induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) obtained from bipolar patients have been used. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  10. In silico lineage tracing through single cell transcriptomics identifies a neural stem cell population in planarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinaro, Alyssa M; Pearson, Bret J

    2016-04-27

    The planarian Schmidtea mediterranea is a master regenerator with a large adult stem cell compartment. The lack of transgenic labeling techniques in this animal has hindered the study of lineage progression and has made understanding the mechanisms of tissue regeneration a challenge. However, recent advances in single-cell transcriptomics and analysis methods allow for the discovery of novel cell lineages as differentiation progresses from stem cell to terminally differentiated cell. Here we apply pseudotime analysis and single-cell transcriptomics to identify adult stem cells belonging to specific cellular lineages and identify novel candidate genes for future in vivo lineage studies. We purify 168 single stem and progeny cells from the planarian head, which were subjected to single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq). Pseudotime analysis with Waterfall and gene set enrichment analysis predicts a molecularly distinct neoblast sub-population with neural character (νNeoblasts) as well as a novel alternative lineage. Using the predicted νNeoblast markers, we demonstrate that a novel proliferative stem cell population exists adjacent to the brain. scRNAseq coupled with in silico lineage analysis offers a new approach for studying lineage progression in planarians. The lineages identified here are extracted from a highly heterogeneous dataset with minimal prior knowledge of planarian lineages, demonstrating that lineage purification by transgenic labeling is not a prerequisite for this approach. The identification of the νNeoblast lineage demonstrates the usefulness of the planarian system for computationally predicting cellular lineages in an adult context coupled with in vivo verification.

  11. Neural Differentiation of Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells Involves Activation of the Wnt5a/JNK Signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujeong Jang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells are a powerful resource for cell-based transplantation therapies, but understanding of stem cell differentiation at the molecular level is not clear yet. We hypothesized that the Wnt pathway controls stem cell maintenance and neural differentiation. We have characterized the transcriptional expression of Wnt during the neural differentiation of hADSCs. After neural induction, the expressions of Wnt2, Wnt4, and Wnt11 were decreased, but the expression of Wnt5a was increased compared with primary hADSCs in RT-PCR analysis. In addition, the expression levels of most Fzds and LRP5/6 ligand were decreased, but not Fzd3 and Fzd5. Furthermore, Dvl1 and RYK expression levels were downregulated in NI-hADSCs. There were no changes in the expression of ß-catenin and GSK3ß. Interestingly, Wnt5a expression was highly increased in NI-hADSCs by real time RT-PCR analysis and western blot. Wnt5a level was upregulated after neural differentiation and Wnt3, Dvl2, and Naked1 levels were downregulated. Finally, we found that the JNK expression was increased after neural induction and ERK level was decreased. Thus, this study shows for the first time how a single Wnt5a ligand can activate the neural differentiation pathway through the activation of Wnt5a/JNK pathway by binding Fzd3 and Fzd5 and directing Axin/GSK-3ß in hADSCs.

  12. The postischemic environment differentially impacts teratoma or tumor formation after transplantation of human embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seminatore, Christine; Polentes, Jerome; Ellman, Ditte

    2010-01-01

    Risk of tumorigenesis is a major obstacle to human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cell therapy. Likely linked to the stage of differentiation of the cells at the time of implantation, formation of teratoma/tumors can also be influenced by factors released by the host tissue. We have...... analyzed the relative effects of the stage of differentiation and the postischemic environment on the formation of adverse structures by transplanted human embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitors....

  13. Arctigenin protects against neuronal hearing loss by promoting neural stem cell survival and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinghua; Chen, Mo; Ding, Yan; Wang, Qin

    2017-03-01

    Neuronal hearing loss has become a prevalent health problem. This study focused on the function of arctigenin (ARC) in promoting survival and neuronal differentiation of mouse cochlear neural stem cells (NSCs), and its protection against gentamicin (GMC) induced neuronal hearing loss. Mouse cochlea was used to isolate NSCs, which were subsequently cultured in vitro. The effects of ARC on NSC survival, neurosphere formation, differentiation of NSCs, neurite outgrowth, and neural excitability in neuronal network in vitro were examined. Mechanotransduction ability demonstrated by intact cochlea, auditory brainstem response (ABR), and distortion product optoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) amplitude in mice were measured to evaluate effects of ARC on GMC-induced neuronal hearing loss. ARC increased survival, neurosphere formation, neuron differentiation of NSCs in mouse cochlear in vitro. ARC also promoted the outgrowth of neurites, as well as neural excitability of the NSC-differentiated neuron culture. Additionally, ARC rescued mechanotransduction capacity, restored the threshold shifts of ABR and DPOAE in our GMC ototoxicity murine model. This study supports the potential therapeutic role of ARC in promoting both NSCs proliferation and differentiation in vitro to functional neurons, thus supporting its protective function in the therapeutic treatment of neuropathic hearing loss in vivo. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Coseeded Schwann cells myelinate neurites from differentiated neural stem cells in neurotrophin-3-loaded PLGA carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yi; Zhu, Ji-Xiang; Fang, Zheng-Yu; Zeng, Cheng-Guang; Zhang, Chao; Qi, Guo-Long; Li, Man-Hui; Zhang, Wei; Quan, Da-Ping; Wan, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Biomaterials and neurotrophic factors represent promising guidance for neural repair. In this study, we combined poly-(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) conduits and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) to generate NT-3-loaded PLGA carriers in vitro. Bioactive NT-3 was released stably and constantly from PLGA conduits for up to 4 weeks. Neural stem cells (NSCs) and Schwann cells (SCs) were coseeded into an NT-releasing scaffold system and cultured for 14 days. Immunoreactivity against Map2 showed that most of the grafted cells (>80%) were differentiated toward neurons. Double-immunostaining for synaptogenesis and myelination revealed the formation of synaptic structures and myelin sheaths in the coculture, which was also observed under electron microscope. Furthermore, under depolarizing conditions, these synapses were excitable and capable of releasing synaptic vesicles labeled with FM1-43 or FM4-64. Taken together, coseeding NSCs and SCs into NT-3-loaded PLGA carriers increased the differentiation of NSCs into neurons, developed synaptic connections, exhibited synaptic activities, and myelination of neurites by the accompanying SCs. These results provide an experimental basis that supports transplantation of functional neural construction in spinal cord injury. PMID:22619535

  15. Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells to Regional Specific Neural Precursors in Chemically Defined Medium Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erceg, Slaven; Laínez, Sergio; Ronaghi, Mohammad; Stojkovic, Petra; Pérez-Aragó, Maria Amparo; Moreno-Manzano, Victoria; Moreno-Palanques, Rubén; Planells-Cases, Rosa; Stojkovic, Miodrag

    2008-01-01

    Background Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) provide a unique model to study early events in human development. The hESC-derived cells can potentially be used to replace or restore different tissues including neuronal that have been damaged by disease or injury. Methodology and Principal Findings The cells of two different hESC lines were converted to neural rosettes using adherent and chemically defined conditions. The progenitor cells were exposed to retinoic acid (RA) or to human recombinant basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in the late phase of the rosette formation. Exposing the progenitor cells to RA suppressed differentiation to rostral forebrain dopamine neural lineage and promoted that of spinal neural tissue including motor neurons. The functional characteristics of these differentiated neuronal precursors under both, rostral (bFGF) and caudalizing (RA) signals were confirmed by patch clamp analysis. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that our differentiation protocol has the capacity to generate region-specific and electrophysiologically active neurons under in vitro conditions without embryoid body formation, co-culture with stromal cells and without presence of cells of mesodermal or endodermal lineages. PMID:18461168

  16. Differentiation of human embryonic stem cells to regional specific neural precursors in chemically defined medium conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slaven Erceg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human embryonic stem cells (hESC provide a unique model to study early events in human development. The hESC-derived cells can potentially be used to replace or restore different tissues including neuronal that have been damaged by disease or injury. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The cells of two different hESC lines were converted to neural rosettes using adherent and chemically defined conditions. The progenitor cells were exposed to retinoic acid (RA or to human recombinant basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF in the late phase of the rosette formation. Exposing the progenitor cells to RA suppressed differentiation to rostral forebrain dopamine neural lineage and promoted that of spinal neural tissue including motor neurons. The functional characteristics of these differentiated neuronal precursors under both, rostral (bFGF and caudalizing (RA signals were confirmed by patch clamp analysis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that our differentiation protocol has the capacity to generate region-specific and electrophysiologically active neurons under in vitro conditions without embryoid body formation, co-culture with stromal cells and without presence of cells of mesodermal or endodermal lineages.

  17. The influence of immunosuppressive drugs on neural stem/progenitor cell fate in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skardelly, Marco, E-mail: Marco.Skardelly@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital, Leipzig (Germany); Translational Centre for Regenerative Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Glien, Anja; Groba, Claudia; Schlichting, Nadine [Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital, Leipzig (Germany); Kamprad, Manja [Institute of Clinical Immunology, Medical Faculty, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Meixensberger, Juergen [Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital, Leipzig (Germany); Milosevic, Javorina [Translational Centre for Regenerative Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany)

    2013-12-10

    In allogenic and xenogenic transplantation, adequate immunosuppression plays a major role in graft survival, especially over the long term. The effect of immunosuppressive drugs on neural stem/progenitor cell fate has not been sufficiently explored. The focus of this study is to systematically investigate the effects of the following four different immunotherapeutic strategies on human neural progenitor cell survival/death, proliferation, metabolic activity, differentiation and migration in vitro: (1) cyclosporine A (CsA), a calcineurin inhibitor; (2) everolimus (RAD001), an mTOR-inhibitor; (3) mycophenolic acid (MPA, mycophenolate), an inhibitor of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase and (4) prednisolone, a steroid. At the minimum effective concentration (MEC), we found a prominent decrease in hNPCs' proliferative capacity (BrdU incorporation), especially for CsA and MPA, and an alteration of the NAD(P)H-dependent metabolic activity. Cell death rate, neurogenesis, gliogenesis and cell migration remained mostly unaffected under these conditions for all four immunosuppressants, except for apoptotic cell death, which was significantly increased by MPA treatment. - Highlights: • Four immunosuppresants (ISs) were tested in human neural progenitor cells in vitro. • Cyclosporine A and mycophenolic acid showed a prominent anti-proliferative activity • Mycophenolic acid exhibited a significant pro-apoptotic effect. • NAD(P)H-dependent metabolic activity was occasionally induced by ISs. • Neuronal differentiation and migration potential remained unaffected by ISs treatment.

  18. A novel fluorescent reporter CDy1 enriches for neural stem cells derived from the murine brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Jana; Bedin, Anne-Sophie; Bartlett, Perry F; Osborne, Geoffrey W

    2013-08-15

    Neurogenesis occurs continuously in two brain regions of adult mammals, underpinned by a pool of resident neural stem cells (NSCs) that can differentiate into all neural cell types. To advance our understanding of NSC function and to develop therapeutic and diagnostic approaches, it is important to accurately identify and enrich for NSCs. There are no definitive markers for the identification and enrichment of NSCs present in the mouse brain. Recently, a fluorescent rosamine dye, CDy1, has been identified as a label for pluripotency in cultured human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. As similar cellular characteristics may enable the uptake and retention of CDy1 by other stem cell populations, we hypothesized that this dye may also enrich for primary NSCs from the mouse brain. Because the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the hippocampus represent brain regions that are highly enriched for NSCs in adult mammals, we sampled cells from these areas to test this hypothesis. These experiments revealed that CDy1 staining indeed allows for enrichment and selection of all neurosphere-forming cells from both the SVZ and the hippocampus. We next examined the effectiveness of CDy1 to select for NSCs derived from the SVZ of aged animals, where the total pool of NSCs present is significantly lower than in young animals. We found that CDy1 effectively labels the NSCs in adult and aged animals as assessed by the neurosphere assay and reflects the numbers of NSCs present in aged animals. CDy1, therefore, appears to be a novel marker for enrichment of NSCs in primary brain tissue preparations.

  19. Intermittent, low dose carbon monoxide exposure enhances survival and dopaminergic differentiation of human neural stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer-Andersen, Nanna; Almeida, Ana Sofia; Jensen, Pia; Kamand, Morad; Okarmus, Justyna; Rosenberg, Tine; Friis, Stig Düring; Martínez Serrano, Alberto; Blaabjerg, Morten; Kristensen, Bjarne Winther; Skrydstrup, Troels; Gramsbergen, Jan Bert; Vieira, Helena L. A.

    2018-01-01

    Exploratory studies using human fetal tissue have suggested that intrastriatal transplantation of dopaminergic neurons may become a future treatment for patients with Parkinson’s disease. However, the use of human fetal tissue is compromised by ethical, regulatory and practical concerns. Human stem cells constitute an alternative source of cells for transplantation in Parkinson’s disease, but efficient protocols for controlled dopaminergic differentiation need to be developed. Short-term, low-level carbon monoxide (CO) exposure has been shown to affect signaling in several tissues, resulting in both protection and generation of reactive oxygen species. The present study investigated the effect of CO produced by a novel CO-releasing molecule on dopaminergic differentiation of human neural stem cells. Short-term exposure to 25 ppm CO at days 0 and 4 significantly increased the relative content of β-tubulin III-immunoreactive immature neurons and tyrosine hydroxylase expressing catecholaminergic neurons, as assessed 6 days after differentiation. Also the number of microtubule associated protein 2-positive mature neurons had increased significantly. Moreover, the content of apoptotic cells (Caspase3) was reduced, whereas the expression of a cell proliferation marker (Ki67) was left unchanged. Increased expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cultures exposed to CO may suggest a mechanism involving mitochondrial alterations and generation of ROS. In conclusion, the present procedure using controlled, short-term CO exposure allows efficient dopaminergic differentiation of human neural stem cells at low cost and may as such be useful for derivation of cells for experimental studies and future development of donor cells for transplantation in Parkinson’s disease. PMID:29338033

  20. Isolation and characterization of neural stem cells from dystrophic mdx mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annese, Tiziana [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neurosciences and Sensory Organs, Section of Human Anatomy and Histology, University of Bari Medical School, Bari (Italy); Corsi, Patrizia [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neurosciences and Sensory Organs, Section of Physiology, University of Bari Medical School, Bari (Italy); Ruggieri, Simona; Tamma, Roberto; Marinaccio, Christian [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neurosciences and Sensory Organs, Section of Human Anatomy and Histology, University of Bari Medical School, Bari (Italy); Picocci, Sabrina [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neurosciences and Sensory Organs, Section of Physiology, University of Bari Medical School, Bari (Italy); Errede, Mariella [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neurosciences and Sensory Organs, Section of Human Anatomy and Histology, University of Bari Medical School, Bari (Italy); Specchia, Giorgina [Department of Emergency and Transplantation, Section of Hematology, University of Bari Medical School, Bari (Italy); De Luca, Annamaria [Department of Bioscience, Biotechnology and Pharmacological Sciences, Section of Pharmacology, University of Bari (Italy); Frassanito, Maria Antonia; Desantis, Vanessa; Vacca, Angelo [Department of Internal Medicine and Oncology, University of Bari Medical School, Bari (Italy); Ribatti, Domenico, E-mail: domenico.ribatti@uniba.it [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neurosciences and Sensory Organs, Section of Human Anatomy and Histology, University of Bari Medical School, Bari (Italy); National Cancer Institute “Giovanni Paolo II”, Bari (Italy); Nico, Beatrice, E-mail: beatrice.nico@uniba.it [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neurosciences and Sensory Organs, Section of Human Anatomy and Histology, University of Bari Medical School, Bari (Italy)

    2016-05-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is altered in mdx mouse, an animal model to study Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Our previous work demonstrated that perivascular glial endfeet control the selective exchanges between blood and neuropil as well as the BBB development and integrity; the alterations of dystrophin and dystrophin-associated protein complex (DAPs) in the glial cells of mdx mouse, parallel damages of the BBB and increase in vascular permeability. The aim of this study was to improve our knowledge about brain cellular components in the mdx mouse through the isolation, for the first time, of the adult neural stem cells (ANSCs). We characterized them by FACS, electron microscopy, confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, Real Time-PCR and western blotting, and we studied the expression of the DAPs aquaporin-4 (AQP4), potassium channel Kir4.1, α- and β-dystroglycan (αDG, βDG), α-syntrophin (αSyn), and short dystrophin isoform Dp71 proteins. The results showed that the mdx ANSCs expressed CD133 and Nestin receptor as the control ones, but showed a reduction in Notch receptor and altered cell proliferation with an increment in the apoptotic nuclei. Ultrastructurally, they appeared 50% size reduced compared to control ones, with a few cytoplasmic organelles. Moreover, the mdx ANSCs are devoid in full length dystrophin 427, and they expressed post-transcriptional reduction in the Dp71 in parallel with the ubiquitin proteasome activation, and decrement of DAPs proteins which appeared diffused in the cytoplasm and not polarized on the stem cells plasmamembrane, as prevalently observed in the controls. Overall, these results indicate that structural and molecular alterations affect the neural stem cells in the dystrophic brain, whose increased apoptosis and reduced Dp71 and DAPs proteins expression, together with loss in Dp427 dystrophin, could be responsible of the altered mdx glial maintenance and differentiation and consequent failure in the vessels barrier

  1. In vitro induction and differentiation of newborn guinea pig hippocampus neural stem cells into cells resembling inner hair cells, using artificial perilymph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Dong, M-M

    2011-08-01

    To investigate whether artificial perilymph can induce neural stem cells, derived from the hippocampus of newborn guinea pigs, to differentiate into inner ear hair cells, in vitro. Primary neural stem cells derived from the hippocampus of newborn guinea pigs were incubated in medium containing either 10 per cent fetal bovine serum or 5, 10 or 15 per cent artificial perilymph, for three weeks. Differentiated cells were identified using immunofluorescence, Western blot and scanning electron microscopy. Both fetal bovine serum and artificial perilymph induced the neural stem cells to differentiate into cells with hair-cell-specific antibodies. Neural stem cells can survive in both fetal bovine serum and artificial perilymph, and within these media can differentiate into cells with hair-cell-specific antibodies. This provides an experimental basis for transplantation of neural stem cells into the inner ear.

  2. Neural stem cell adhesion and proliferation on phospholipid bilayers functionalized with RGD peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthanarayanan, Badriprasad; Little, Lauren; Schaffer, David V; Healy, Kevin E; Tirrell, Matthew

    2010-11-01

    Peptide-functionalized materials show promise in controlling stem cell behavior by mimicking cell-matrix interactions. Supported lipid bilayers are an excellent platform for displaying peptides due to their ease of fabrication and low non-specific interactions with cells. In this paper, we report on the behavior of adult hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs) on phospholipid bilayers functionalized with different RGD-containing peptides: either GGGNGEPRGDTYRAY ('bsp-RGD(15)') or GRGDSP. Fluid supported bilayers were prepared on glass surfaces by adsorption and fusion of small lipid vesicles incorporating synthetic peptide amphiphiles. NSCs adhered to bilayers with either GRGDSP or bsp-RGD(15) peptide. After 5 days in culture, NSCs formed neurosphere-like aggregates on GRGDSP bilayers, whereas on bsp-RGD(15) bilayers a large fraction of single adhered cells were observed, comparable to monolayer growth seen on laminin controls. NSCs retained their ability to differentiate into neurons and astrocytes on both peptide surfaces. This work illustrates the utility of supported bilayers in displaying peptide ligands and demonstrates that RGD peptides may be useful in synthetic culture systems for stem cells. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Intracerebral neural stem cell transplantation improved the auditory of mice with presbycusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hongmiao; Chen, Jichuan; Wang, Yinan; Zhang, Shichang; Zhang, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell-based regenerative therapy is a potential cellular therapeutic strategy for patients with incurable brain diseases. Embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs) represent an attractive cell source in regenerative medicine strategies in the treatment of diseased brains. Here, we assess the capability of intracerebral embryonic NSCs transplantation for C57BL/6J mice with presbycusis in vivo. Morphology analyses revealed that the neuronal rate of apoptosis was lower in the aged group (10 months of age) but not in the young group (2 months of age) after NSCs transplantation, while the electrophysiological data suggest that the Auditory Brain Stem Response (ABR) threshold was significantly decreased in the aged group at 2 weeks and 3 weeks after transplantation. By contrast, there was no difference in the aged group at 4 weeks post-transplantation or in the young group at any time post-transplantation. Furthermore, immunofluorescence experiments showed that NSCs differentiated into neurons that engrafted and migrated to the brain, even to sites of lesions. Together, our results demonstrate that NSCs transplantation improve the auditory of C57BL/6J mice with presbycusis.

  4. Expandable and Rapidly Differentiating Human Induced Neural Stem Cell Lines for Multiple Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana M. Cairns

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Limited availability of human neurons poses a significant barrier to progress in biological and preclinical studies of the human nervous system. Current stem cell-based approaches of neuron generation are still hindered by prolonged culture requirements, protocol complexity, and variability in neuronal differentiation. Here we establish stable human induced neural stem cell (hiNSC lines through the direct reprogramming of neonatal fibroblasts and adult adipose-derived stem cells. These hiNSCs can be passaged indefinitely and cryopreserved as colonies. Independently of media composition, hiNSCs robustly differentiate into TUJ1-positive neurons within 4 days, making them ideal for innervated co-cultures. In vivo, hiNSCs migrate, engraft, and contribute to both central and peripheral nervous systems. Lastly, we demonstrate utility of hiNSCs in a 3D human brain model. This method provides a valuable interdisciplinary tool that could be used to develop drug screening applications as well as patient-specific disease models related to disorders of innervation and the brain.

  5. The Promotion of Human Neural Stem Cells Adhesion Using Bioinspired Poly(norepinephrine Nanoscale Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minah Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of versatile biomaterial interfaces that can facilitate cellular adhesion is crucial for elucidating the cellular processes that occur on biomaterial surfaces. Furthermore, biomaterial interfaces can provide physical or chemical cues that are capable of stimulating cellular behaviors by regulating intracellular signaling cascades. Herein, a method of creating a biomimetic functional biointerface was introduced to enhance human neural stem cell (hNSC adhesion. The hNSC-compatible biointerface was prepared by the oxidative polymerization of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine, which generates a nanoscale organic thin layer, termed poly(norepinephrine (pNE. Due to its adhesive property, pNE resulted in an adherent layer on various substrates, and pNE-coated biointerfaces provided a highly favorable microenvironment for hNSCs, with no observed cytotoxicity. Only a 2-hour incubation of hNSCs was required to firmly attach the stem cells, regardless of the type of substrate. Importantly, the adhesive properties of pNE interfaces led to micropatterns of cellular attachment, thereby demonstrating the ability of the interface to organize the stem cells. This highly facile surface-modification method using a biomimetic pNE thin layer can be applied to a number of suitable materials that were previously not compatible with hNSC technology.

  6. Neural stem cell transplantation in experimental contusive model of spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carelli, Stephana; Giallongo, Toniella; Gerace, Claudio; De Angelis, Anthea; Basso, Michele D; Di Giulio, Anna Maria; Gorio, Alfredo

    2014-12-17

    Spinal cord injury is a devastating clinical condition, characterized by a complex of neurological dysfunctions. Animal models of spinal cord injury can be used both to investigate the biological responses to injury and to test potential therapies. Contusion or compression injury delivered to the surgically exposed spinal cord are the most widely used models of the pathology. In this report the experimental contusion is performed by using the Infinite Horizon (IH) Impactor device, which allows the creation of a reproducible injury animal model through definition of specific injury parameters. Stem cell transplantation is commonly considered a potentially useful strategy for curing this debilitating condition. Numerous studies have evaluated the effects of transplanting a variety of stem cells. Here we demonstrate an adapted method for spinal cord injury followed by tail vein injection of cells in CD1 mice. In short, we provide procedures for: i) cell labeling with a vital tracer, ii) pre-operative care of mice, iii) execution of a contusive spinal cord injury, and iv) intravenous administration of post mortem neural precursors. This contusion model can be utilized to evaluate the efficacy and safety of stem cell transplantation in a regenerative medicine approach.

  7. Injury to the Spinal Cord Niche Alters the Engraftment Dynamics of Human Neural Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Sontag

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The microenvironment is a critical mediator of stem cell survival, proliferation, migration, and differentiation. The majority of preclinical studies involving transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs into the CNS have focused on injured or degenerating microenvironments, leaving a dearth of information as to how NSCs differentially respond to intact versus damaged CNS. Furthermore, single, terminal histological endpoints predominate, providing limited insight into the spatiotemporal dynamics of NSC engraftment and migration. We investigated the early and long-term engraftment dynamics of human CNS stem cells propagated as neurospheres (hCNS-SCns following transplantation into uninjured versus subacutely injured spinal cords of immunodeficient NOD-scid mice. We stereologically quantified engraftment, survival, proliferation, migration, and differentiation at 1, 7, 14, 28, and 98 days posttransplantation, and identified injury-dependent alterations. Notably, the injured microenvironment decreased hCNS-SCns survival, delayed and altered the location of proliferation, influenced both total and fate-specific migration, and promoted oligodendrocyte maturation.

  8. Neuroprotection of VEGF-expression neural stem cells in neonatal cerebral palsy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiang-Rong; Zhang, Shan-Shan; Yin, Fei; Tang, Jie-Lu; Yang, Yu-Jia; Wang, Xia; Zhong, Le

    2012-04-21

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a very common neural system development disorder that can cause physical disability in human. Here, we studied the neuroprotective effect of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-transfected neural stem cells (NSCs) in newborn rats with cerebral palsy (CP). Seven-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham operation (control group), PBS transplantation (PBS group), VEGF+NSCs transplantation (transgene NSCs group) and NSCs transplantation groups (NSCs group). PBS, Transgene NSCs and NSCs groups respectively received stereotactic injections of PBS, lentiviral vector (pGC-FU-VEGF) infected NSCs or a NSCs suspension in the left sensory-motor cortex 3 days after CP model was established. The NSCs activity, their impacts on neural cell growth and apoptosis, brain development and animal behaviors were examined on the animals up to age 35-days. As expected, unilateral carotid artery occlusion plus hypoxia (cerebral palsy model) resulted in severe neural developmental disorders, including slowed growth, increased in cortical neuron apoptosis, decreased cerebral cortex micro-vessel density and retarded behavior developments. Transplantation of NSCs not only resulted in increases in VEGF protein expression in rat brains, but also largely prevented the behavioral defects and brain tissue pathology that resulted from cerebral palsy procedure, with animals received VEGF transfected NSCs always being marginally better than these received un-transfected cells. In conclusion, NSCs transplantation can partially prevent/slow down the brain damages that are associated with CP in the newborn rats, suggesting a new possible strategy for CP treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Three dimensional cellular microarray platform for human neural stem cell differentiation and toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Meli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We developed a three-dimensional (3D cellular microarray platform for the high-throughput (HT analysis of human neural stem cell (hNSC growth and differentiation. The growth of an immortalized hNSC line, ReNcell VM, was evaluated on a miniaturized cell culture chip consisting of 60 nl spots of cells encapsulated in alginate, and compared to standard 2D well plate culture conditions. Using a live/dead cell viability assay, we demonstrated that the hNSCs are able to expand on-chip, albeit with lower proliferation rates and viabilities than in conventional 2D culture platforms. Using an in-cell, on-chip immunofluorescence assay, which provides quantitative information on cellular levels of proteins involved in neural fate, we demonstrated that ReNcell VM can preserve its multipotent state during on-chip expansion. Moreover, differentiation of the hNSCs into glial progeny was achieved both off- and on-chip six days after growth factor removal, accompanied by a decrease in the neural progenitor markers. The versatility of the platform was further demonstrated by complementing the cell culture chip with a chamber system that allowed us to screen for differential toxicity of small molecules to hNSCs. Using this approach, we showed differential toxicity when evaluating three neurotoxic compounds and one antiproliferative compound, and the null effect of a non-toxic compound at relevant concentrations. Thus, our 3D high-throughput microarray platform may help predict, in vitro, which compounds pose an increased threat to neural development and should therefore be prioritized for further screening and evaluation.

  10. Three dimensional cellular microarray platform for human neural stem cell differentiation and toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, Luciana; Barbosa, Hélder S C; Hickey, Anne Marie; Gasimli, Leyla; Nierode, Gregory; Diogo, Maria Margarida; Linhardt, Robert J; Cabral, Joaquim M S; Dordick, Jonathan S

    2014-07-01

    We developed a three-dimensional (3D) cellular microarray platform for the high-throughput (HT) analysis of human neural stem cell (hNSC) growth and differentiation. The growth of an immortalized hNSC line, ReNcell VM, was evaluated on a miniaturized cell culture chip consisting of 60nl spots of cells encapsulated in alginate, and compared to standard 2D well plate culture conditions. Using a live/dead cell viability assay, we demonstrated that the hNSCs are able to expand on-chip, albeit with lower proliferation rates and viabilities than in conventional 2D culture platforms. Using an in-cell, on-chip immunofluorescence assay, which provides quantitative information on cellular levels of proteins involved in neural fate, we demonstrated that ReNcell VM can preserve its multipotent state during on-chip expansion. Moreover, differentiation of the hNSCs into glial progeny was achieved both off- and on-chip six days after growth factor removal, accompanied by a decrease in the neural progenitor markers. The versatility of the platform was further demonstrated by complementing the cell culture chip with a chamber system that allowed us to screen for differential toxicity of small molecules to hNSCs. Using this approach, we showed differential toxicity when evaluating three neurotoxic compounds and one antiproliferative compound, and the null effect of a non-toxic compound at relevant concentrations. Thus, our 3D high-throughput microarray platform may help predict, in vitro, which compounds pose an increased threat to neural development and should therefore be prioritized for further screening and evaluation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Neurite extension and neuronal differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cell derived neural stem cells on polyethylene glycol hydrogels containing a continuous Young's Modulus gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Matthew C; Lim, Hyun Ju; Chen, Jing; Yang, Yueh-Hsun; Li, Shenglan; Liu, Ying; Smith Callahan, Laura A

    2017-03-01

    Mechanotransduction in neural cells involves multiple signaling pathways that are not fully understood. Differences in lineage and maturation state are suggested causes for conflicting reports on neural cell mechanosensitivity. To optimize matrices for use in stem cell therapy treatments transplanting human induced pluripotent stem cell derived neural stem cells (hNSC) into lesions after spinal cord injury, the effects of Young's Modulus changes on hNSC behavior must be understood. The present study utilizes polyethylene glycol hydrogels containing a continuous gradient in Young's modulus to examine changes in the Young's Modulus of the culture substrate on hNSC neurite extension and neural differentiation. Changes in the Young's Modulus of the polyethylene glycol hydrogels was found to affect neurite extension and cellular organization on the matrices. hNSC cultured on 907 Pa hydrogels were found to extend longer neurites than hNSC cultured on other tested Young's Moduli hydrogels. The gene expression of β tubulin III and microtubule-associated protein 2 in hNSC was affected by changes in the Young's Modulus of the hydrogel. The combinatory method approach used in the present study demonstrates that hNSC are mechanosensitive and the matrix Young's Modulus should be a design consideration for hNSC transplant applications. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 824-833, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Human conditionally immortalized neural stem cells improve locomotor function after spinal cord injury in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction A growing number of studies have highlighted the potential of stem cell and more-differentiated neural cell transplantation as intriguing therapeutic approaches for neural repair after spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods A conditionally immortalized neural stem cell line derived from human fetal spinal cord tissue (SPC-01) was used to treat a balloon-induced SCI. SPC-01 cells were implanted into the lesion 1 week after SCI. To determine the feasibility of tracking transplanted stem cells, a portion of the SPC-01 cells was labeled with poly-L-lysine-coated superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles, and the animals grafted with labeled cells underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Functional recovery was evaluated by using the BBB and plantar tests, and lesion morphology, endogenous axonal sprouting and graft survival, and differentiation were analyzed. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to evaluate the effect of transplanted SPC-01 cells on endogenous regenerative processes. Results Transplanted animals displayed significant motor and sensory improvement 2 months after SCI, when the cells robustly survived in the lesion and partially filled the lesion cavity. qPCR revealed the increased expression of rat and human neurotrophin and motor neuron genes. The grafted cells were immunohistologically positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP); however, we found 25% of the cells to be positive for Nkx6.1, an early motor neuron marker. Spared white matter and the robust sprouting of growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43)+ axons were found in the host tissue. Four months after SCI, the grafted cells matured into Islet2+ and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)+ neurons, and the graft was grown through with endogenous neurons. Grafted cells labeled with poly-L-lysine-coated superparamagnetic nanoparticles before transplantation were detected in the lesion on T2-weighted images as hypointense spots that correlated with histologic staining for

  13. The extracellular matrix niche microenvironment of neural and cancer stem cells in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, Jacqueline; Brösicke, Nicole; Theocharidis, Ursula; Faissner, Andreas

    2016-12-01

    Numerous studies demonstrated that neural stem cells and cancer stem cells (NSCs/CSCs) share several overlapping characteristics such as self-renewal, multipotency and a comparable molecular repertoire. In addition to the intrinsic cellular properties, NSCs/CSCs favor a similar environment to acquire and maintain their characteristics. In the present review, we highlight the shared properties of NSCs and CSCs in regard to their extracellular microenvironment called the NSC/CSC niche. Moreover, we point out that extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules and their complementary receptors influence the behavior of NSCs/CSCs as well as brain tumor progression. Here, we focus on the expression profile and functional importance of the ECM glycoprotein tenascin-C, the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan DSD-1-PG/phosphacan but also on other important glycoprotein/proteoglycan constituents. Within this review, we specifically concentrate on glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). GBM is the most common malignant brain tumor in adults and is associated with poor prognosis despite intense and aggressive surgical and therapeutic treatment. Recent studies indicate that GBM onset is driven by a subpopulation of CSCs that display self-renewal and recapitulate tumor heterogeneity. Based on the CSC hypothesis the cancer arises just from a small subpopulation of self-sustaining cancer cells with the exclusive ability to self-renew and maintain the tumor. Besides the fundamental stem cell properties of self-renewal and multipotency, GBM stem cells share further molecular characteristics with NSCs, which we would like to review in this article. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cell Junction Pathology of Neural Stem Cells Is Associated With Ventricular Zone Disruption, Hydrocephalus, and Abnormal Neurogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montserrat Guerra, Maria; Henzi, Roberto; Ortloff, Alexander; Lichtin, Nicole; Vio, Karin; Jimenez, Antonio J.; Dolores Dominguez-Pinos, Maria; Gonzalez, Cesar; Clara Jara, Maria; Hinostroza, Fernando; Rodriguez, Sara; Jara, Maryoris; Ortega, Eduardo; Guerra, Francisco; Sival, Deborah A.; den Dunnen, Wilfred F. A.; Perez-Figares, Jose M.; McAllister, James P.; Johanson, Conrad E.; Rodriguez, Esteban M.

    Fetal-onset hydrocephalus affects 1 to 3 per 1,000 live births. It is not only a disorder of cerebrospinal fluid dynamics but also a brain disorder that corrective surgery does not ameliorate. We hypothesized that cell junction abnormalities of neural stem cells (NSCs) lead to the inseparable

  15. CRISPR/Cas9-induced disruption of gene expression in mouse embryonic brain and single neural stem cells in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalebic, Nereo; Taverna, Elena; Tavano, Stefania; Wong, Fong Kuan; Suchold, Dana; Winkler, Sylke; Huttner, Wieland B; Sarov, Mihail

    2016-03-01

    We have applied the CRISPR/Cas9 system in vivo to disrupt gene expression in neural stem cells in the developing mammalian brain. Two days after in utero electroporation of a single plasmid encoding Cas9 and an appropriate guide RNA (gRNA) into the embryonic neocortex of Tis21::GFP knock-in mice, expression of GFP, which occurs specifically in neural stem cells committed to neurogenesis, was found to be nearly completely (≈ 90%) abolished in the progeny of the targeted cells. Importantly, upon in utero electroporation directly of recombinant Cas9/gRNA complex, near-maximal efficiency of disruption of GFP expression was achieved already after 24 h. Furthermore, by using microinjection of the Cas9 protein/gRNA complex into neural stem cells in organotypic slice culture, we obtained disruption of GFP expression within a single cell cycle. Finally, we used either Cas9 plasmid in utero electroporation or Cas9 protein complex microinjection to disrupt the expression of Eomes/Tbr2, a gene fundamental for neocortical neurogenesis. This resulted in a reduction in basal progenitors and an increase in neuronal differentiation. Thus, the present in vivo application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in neural stem cells provides a rapid, efficient and enduring disruption of expression of specific genes to dissect their role in mammalian brain development. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY NC ND 4.0 license.

  16. 3K3A-activated protein C stimulates postischemic neuronal repair by human neural stem cells in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yaoming; Zhao, Zhen; Rege, Sanket V

    2016-01-01

    profile in humans, 3K3A-APC has advanced to clinical trials as a neuroprotectant in ischemic stroke. Recently, 3K3A-APC has been shown to stimulate neuronal production by human neural stem and progenitor cells (NSCs) in vitro via a PAR1-PAR3-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor 1-Akt pathway, which suggests...

  17. An optimized gene set for transcriptomics based neurodevelopmental toxicity prediction in the neural embryonic stem cell test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.L.A.; Theunissen, P.T.; Piersma, A.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071276947

    2012-01-01

    The murine neural embryonic stem cell test (ESTn) is an in vitro model for neurodevelopmental toxicity testing. Recent studies have shown that application of transcriptomics analyses in the ESTn is useful for obtaining more accurate predictions as well as mechanistic insights. Gene expression

  18. A computational model incorporating neural stem cell dynamics reproduces glioma incidence across the lifespan in the human population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Bauer

    Full Text Available Glioma is the most common form of primary brain tumor. Demographically, the risk of occurrence increases until old age. Here we present a novel computational model to reproduce the probability of glioma incidence across the lifespan. Previous mathematical models explaining glioma incidence are framed in a rather abstract way, and do not directly relate to empirical findings. To decrease this gap between theory and experimental observations, we incorporate recent data on cellular and molecular factors underlying gliomagenesis. Since evidence implicates the adult neural stem cell as the likely cell-of-origin of glioma, we have incorporated empirically-determined estimates of neural stem cell number, cell division rate, mutation rate and oncogenic potential into our model. We demonstrate that our model yields results which match actual demographic data in the human population. In particular, this model accounts for the observed peak incidence of glioma at approximately 80 years of age, without the need to assert differential susceptibility throughout the population. Overall, our model supports the hypothesis that glioma is caused by randomly-occurring oncogenic mutations within the neural stem cell population. Based on this model, we assess the influence of the (experimentally indicated decrease in the number of neural stem cells and increase of cell division rate during aging. Our model provides multiple testable predictions, and suggests that different temporal sequences of oncogenic mutations can lead to tumorigenesis. Finally, we conclude that four or five oncogenic mutations are sufficient for the formation of glioma.

  19. Enhanced dopaminergic differentiation of human neural stem cells by synergistic effect of Bcl-xL and reduced oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbe, Christina; Courtois, Elise; Jensen, Pia

    2009-01-01

    Neural stem cells constitute a promising source of cells for transplantation in Parkinson's disease, but a protocol for controlled dopaminergic differentiation is not yet available. Here we investigated the effect of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-x(L) and oxygen tension on dopaminergic different...

  20. Alcohol-induced epigenetic alterations to developmentally crucial genes regulating neural stemness and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veazey, Kylee J; Carnahan, Mindy N; Muller, Daria; Miranda, Rajesh C; Golding, Michael C

    2013-07-01

    From studies using a diverse range of model organisms, we now acknowledge that epigenetic changes to chromatin structure provide a plausible link between environmental teratogens and alterations in gene expression leading to disease. Observations from a number of independent laboratories indicate that ethanol (EtOH) has the capacity to act as a powerful epigenetic disruptor and potentially derail the coordinated processes of cellular differentiation. In this study, we sought to examine whether primary neurospheres cultured under conditions maintaining stemness were susceptible to alcohol-induced alterations in the histone code. We focused our studies on trimethylated histone 3 lysine 4 and trimethylated histone 3 lysine 27, as these are 2 of the most prominent posttranslational histone modifications regulating stem cell maintenance and neural differentiation. Primary neurosphere cultures were maintained under conditions promoting the stem cell state and treated with EtOH for 5 days. Control and EtOH-treated cellular extracts were examined using a combination of quantitative RT-PCR and chromatin immunoprecipitation techniques. We find that the regulatory regions of genes controlling both neural precursor cell identity and processes of differentiation exhibited significant declines in the enrichment of the chromatin marks examined. Despite these widespread changes in chromatin structure, only a small subset of genes including Dlx2, Fabp7, Nestin, Olig2, and Pax6 displayed EtOH-induced alterations in transcription. Unexpectedly, the majority of chromatin-modifying enzymes examined including members of the Polycomb Repressive Complex displayed minimal changes in expression and localization. Only transcripts encoding Dnmt1, Uhrf1, Ehmt1, Ash2 l, Wdr5, and Kdm1b exhibited significant differences. Our results indicate that primary neurospheres maintained as stem cells in vitro are susceptible to alcohol-induced perturbation of the histone code and errors in the epigenetic

  1. Comparison of 2D and 3D neural induction methods for the generation of neural progenitor cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Abinaya; Avci, Hasan X; Ochalek, Anna; Rösingh, Lone N; Molnár, Kinga; László, Lajos; Bellák, Tamás; Téglási, Annamária; Pesti, Krisztina; Mike, Arpad; Phanthong, Phetcharat; Bíró, Orsolya; Hall, Vanessa; Kitiyanant, Narisorn; Krause, Karl-Heinz; Kobolák, Julianna; Dinnyés, András

    2017-12-01

    Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are frequently induced using 3D culture methodologies however, it is unknown whether spheroid-based (3D) neural induction is actually superior to monolayer (2D) neural induction. Our aim was to compare the efficiency of 2D induction with 3D induction method in their ability to generate NPCs, and subsequently neurons and astrocytes. Neural differentiation was analysed at the protein level qualitatively by immunocytochemistry and quantitatively by flow cytometry for NPC (SOX1, PAX6, NESTIN), neuronal (MAP2, TUBB3), cortical layer (TBR1, CUX1) and glial markers (SOX9, GFAP, AQP4). Electron microscopy demonstrated that both methods resulted in morphologically similar neural rosettes. However, quantification of NPCs derived from 3D neural induction exhibited an increase in the number of PAX6/NESTIN double positive cells and the derived neurons exhibited longer neurites. In contrast, 2D neural induction resulted in more SOX1 positive cells. While 2D monolayer induction resulted in slightly less mature neurons, at an early stage of differentiation, the patch clamp analysis failed to reveal any significant differences between the electrophysiological properties between the two induction methods. In conclusion, 3D neural induction increases the yield of PAX6+/NESTIN+ cells and gives rise to neurons with longer neurites, which might be an advantage for the production of forebrain cortical neurons, highlighting the potential of 3D neural induction, independent of iPSCs' genetic background. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Neural stem cells sustain natural killer cells that dictate recovery from brain inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Sanai, Nader; Jin, Wei-Na; La Cava, Antonio; Van Kaer, Luc; Shi, Fu-Dong

    2017-01-01

    Recovery from organ-specific autoimmune diseases largely relies on the mobilization of endogenous repair mechanisms and local factors that control them. Natural killer (NK) cells are swiftly mobilized to organs targeted by autoimmunity and typically undergo numerical contraction when inflammation wanes. We report the unexpected finding that NK cells are retained in the brain subventricular zone (SVZ) during the chronic phase of multiple sclerosis in humans and its animal model in mice. These NK cells were found preferentially in close proximity to SVZ neural stem cells (NSCs) that produce interleukin-15 and sustain functionally competent NK cells. Moreover, NK cells limited the reparative capacity of NSCs following brain inflammation. These findings reveal that reciprocal interactions between NSCs and NK cells regulate neurorepair. PMID:26752157

  3. Brain Tumor Tropism of Transplanted Human Neural Stem Cells Is Induced by Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Ole Schmidt

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs offers a new potential therapeutic approach as a cell-based delivery system for gene therapy in brain tumors. This is based on the unique capacity of NSCs to migrate throughout the brain and to target invading tumor cells. However, the signals controlling the targeted migration of transplanted NSCs are poorly defined. We analyzed the in vitro and in vivo effects of angiogenic growth factors and protein extracts from surgical specimens of brain tumor patients on NSC migration. Here, we demonstrate that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is able to induce a long-range attraction of transplanted human NSCs from distant sites in the adult brain. Our results indicate that tumorupregulated VEGF and angiogenic-activated microvasculature are relevant guidance signals for NSC tropism toward brain tumors.

  4. Static stretch affects neural stem cell differentiation in an extracellular matrix-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulmoli, Janahan; Pathak, Medha M; McDonnell, Lisa P; Nourse, Jamison L; Tombola, Francesco; Earthman, James C; Flanagan, Lisa A

    2015-02-17

    Neural stem and progenitor cell (NSPC) fate is strongly influenced by mechanotransduction as modulation of substrate stiffness affects lineage choice. Other types of mechanical stimuli, such as stretch (tensile strain), occur during CNS development and trauma, but their consequences for NSPC differentiation have not been reported. We delivered a 10% static equibiaxial stretch to NSPCs and examined effects on differentiation. We found static stretch specifically impacts NSPC differentiation into oligodendrocytes, but not neurons or astrocytes, and this effect is dependent on particular extracellular matrix (ECM)-integrin linkages. Generation of oligodendrocytes from NSPCs was reduced on laminin, an outcome likely mediated by the α6 laminin-binding integrin, whereas similar effects were not observed for NSPCs on fibronectin. Our data demonstrate a direct role for tensile strain in dictating the lineage choice of NSPCs and indicate the dependence of this phenomenon on specific substrate materials, which should be taken into account for the design of biomaterials for NSPC transplantation.

  5. Long-Range GABAergic Inputs Regulate Neural Stem Cell Quiescence and Control Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Hechen; Asrican, Brent; Li, Weidong; Gu, Bin; Wen, Zhexing; Lim, Szu-Aun; Haniff, Issac; Ramakrishnan, Charu; Deisseroth, Karl; Philpot, Benjamin; Song, Juan

    2017-11-02

    The quiescence of adult neural stem cells (NSCs) is regulated by local parvalbumin (PV) interneurons within the dentate gyrus (DG). Little is known about how local PV interneurons communicate with distal brain regions to regulate NSCs and hippocampal neurogenesis. Here, we identify GABAergic projection neurons from the medial septum (MS) as the major afferents to dentate PV interneurons. Surprisingly, dentate PV interneurons are depolarized by GABA signaling, which is in sharp contrast to most mature neurons hyperpolarized by GABA. Functionally, these long-range GABAergic inputs are necessary and sufficient to maintain adult NSC quiescence and ablating them leads to NSC activation and subsequent depletion of the NSC pool. Taken together, these findings delineate a GABAergic network involving long-range GABAergic projection neurons and local PV interneurons that couples dynamic brain activity to the neurogenic niche in controlling NSC quiescence and hippocampal neurogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Functional studies of microRNAs in neural stem cells: problems and perspectives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin eÅkerblom

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In adult mammals, neural stem cells (NSCs are found in two niches of the brain; the subventricular zone at the lateral ventricle and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus. Neurogenesis is a complex process that is tightly controlled on a molecular level. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs have been implicated to play a central role in the regulation of NCSs. miRNAs are small, endogenously expressed RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. However, functional studies of miRNAs are complicated due to current technical limitations. In this review we describe recent findings about miRNAs in NSCs looking closely at miR-124, miR-9 and let-7. We also highlight technical strategies used to investigate miRNA function, accentuating limitations and potentials.

  7. A CREB-Sirt1-Hes1 Circuitry Mediates Neural Stem Cell Response to Glucose Availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Fusco

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis plays increasingly recognized roles in brain homeostasis and repair and is profoundly affected by energy balance and nutrients. We found that the expression of Hes-1 (hairy and enhancer of split 1 is modulated in neural stem and progenitor cells (NSCs by extracellular glucose through the coordinated action of CREB (cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein and Sirt-1 (Sirtuin 1, two cellular nutrient sensors. Excess glucose reduced CREB-activated Hes-1 expression and results in impaired cell proliferation. CREB-deficient NSCs expanded poorly in vitro and did not respond to glucose availability. Elevated glucose also promoted Sirt-1-dependent repression of the Hes-1 promoter. Conversely, in low glucose, CREB replaced Sirt-1 on the chromatin associated with the Hes-1 promoter enhancing Hes-1 expression and cell proliferation. Thus, the glucose-regulated antagonism between CREB and Sirt-1 for Hes-1 transcription participates in the metabolic regulation of neurogenesis.

  8. Integrin-associated protein promotes neuronal differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Fujimura

    Full Text Available Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs proliferate and differentiate depending on their intrinsic properties and local environment. During the development of the mammalian nervous system, NSPCs generate neurons and glia sequentially. However, little is known about the mechanism that determines the timing of switch from neurogenesis to gliogenesis. In this study, we established a culture system in which the neurogenic potential of NSPCs is decreased in a time-dependent manner, so that short-term-cultured NSPCs differentiate into more neurons compared with long-term-cultured NSPCs. We found that short-term-cultured NSPCs express high levels of integrin-associated protein form 2 (IAP2; so-called CD47 mRNA using differential display analysis. Moreover, IAP2 overexpression in NSPCs induced neuronal differentiation of NSPCs. These findings reveal a novel mechanism by which IAP2 induces neuronal differentiation of NSPCs.

  9. PPARs Expression in Adult Mouse Neural Stem Cells: Modulation of PPARs during Astroglial Differentiaton of NSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cimini

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available PPAR isotypes are involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, death, and differentiation, with different roles and mechanisms depending on the specific isotype and ligand and on the differentiated, undifferentiated, or transformed status of the cell. Differentiation stimuli are integrated by key transcription factors which regulate specific sets of specialized genes to allow proliferative cells to exit the cell cycle and acquire specialized functions. The main differentiation programs known to be controlled by PPARs both during development and in the adult are placental differentiation, adipogenesis, osteoblast differentiation, skin differentiation, and gut differentiation. PPARs may also be involved in the differentiation of macrophages, brain, and breast. However, their functions in this cell type and organs still awaits further elucidation. PPARs may be involved in cell proliferation and differentiation processes of neural stem cells (NSC. To this aim, in this work the expression of the three PPAR isotypes and RXRs in NSC has been investigated.

  10. Nestin-positive mesenchymal stem cells favour the astroglial lineage in neural progenitors and stem cells by releasing active BMP4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leprince Pierre

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spontaneous repair is limited after CNS injury or degeneration because neurogenesis and axonal regrowth rarely occur in the adult brain. As a result, cell transplantation has raised much interest as potential treatment for patients with CNS lesions. Several types of cells have been considered as candidates for such cell transplantation and replacement therapies. Foetal brain tissue has already been shown to have significant effects in patients with Parkinson's disease. Clinical use of the foetal brain tissue is, however, limited by ethical and technical problems as it requires high numbers of grafted foetal cells and immunosuppression. Alternatively, several reports suggested that mesenchymal stem cells, isolated from adult bone marrow, are multipotent cells and could be used in autograft approach for replacement therapies. Results In this study, we addressed the question of the possible influence of mesenchymal stem cells on neural stem cell fate. We have previously reported that adult rat mesenchymal stem cells are able to express nestin in defined culture conditions (in the absence of serum and after 25 cell population doublings and we report here that nestin-positive (but not nestin-negative mesenchymal stem cells are able to favour the astroglial lineage in neural progenitors and stem cells cultivated from embryonic striatum. The increase of the number of GFAP-positive cells is associated with a significant decrease of the number of Tuj1- and O4-positive cells. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we demonstrate that mesenchymal stem cells express LIF, CNTF, BMP2 and BMP4 mRNAs, four cytokines known to play a role in astroglial fate decision. In this model, BMP4 is responsible for the astroglial stimulation and oligodendroglial inhibition, as 1 this cytokine is present in a biologically-active form only in nestin-positive mesenchymal stem cells conditioned medium and 2 anti-BMP4 antibodies inhibit the nestin-positive mesenchymal

  11. Neural stem/progenitor cell transplantation for spinal cord injury treatment; A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefifard, M; Rahimi-Movaghar, V; Nasirinezhad, F; Baikpour, M; Safari, S; Saadat, S; Moghadas Jafari, A; Asady, H; Razavi Tousi, S M T; Hosseini, M

    2016-05-13

    Despite the vast improvements of cell therapy in spinal cord injury treatment, no optimum protocol has been developed for application of neural stem/progenitor cells. In this regard, the present meta-analysis showed that the efficacy of the neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) transplantation depends mainly on injury model, intervention phase, transplanted cell count, immunosuppressive use, and probably stem cell source. Improved functional recovery post NSPC transplantation was found to be higher in transection and contusion models. Moreover, NSPC transplantation in acute phase of spinal injury was found to have better functional recovery. Higher doses (>3×10(6)cell/kg) were also shown to be optimum for transplantation, but immunosuppressive agent administration negatively affected the motor function recovery. Scaffold use in NSPC transplantation could also effectively raise functional recovery. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Neutralization of LINGO-1 during in vitro differentiation of neural stem cells results in proliferation of immature neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Lööv

    Full Text Available Identifying external factors that can be used to control neural stem cells division and their differentiation to neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes is of high scientific and clinical interest. Here we show that the Nogo-66 receptor interacting protein LINGO-1 is a potent regulator of neural stem cell maturation to neurons. LINGO-1 is expressed by cortical neural stem cells from E14 mouse embryos and inhibition of LINGO-1 during the first days of neural stem cell differentiation results in decreased neuronal maturation. Compared to neurons in control cultures, which after 6 days of differentiation have long extending neurites, neurons in cultures treated with anti-LINGO-1 antibodies retain an immature, round phenotype with only very short processes. Furthermore, neutralization of LINGO-1 results in a threefold increase in βIII tubulin-positive cells compared to untreated control cultures. By using BrdU incorporation assays we show that the immature neurons in LINGO-1 neutralized cultures are dividing neuroblasts. In contrast to control cultures, in which no cells were double positive for βIII tubulin and BrdU, 36% of the neurons in cultures treated with anti-LINGO-1 antibodies were proliferating after three days of differentiation. TUNEL assays revealed that the amount of cells going through apoptosis during the early phase of differentiation was significantly decreased in cultures treated with anti-LINGO-1 antibodies compared to untreated control cultures. Taken together, our results demonstrate a novel role for LINGO-1 in neural stem cell differentiation to neurons and suggest a possibility to use LINGO-1 inhibitors to compensate for neuronal cell loss in the injured brain.

  13. Neutralization of LINGO-1 during in vitro differentiation of neural stem cells results in proliferation of immature neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lööv, Camilla; Fernqvist, Maria; Walmsley, Adrian; Marklund, Niklas; Erlandsson, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Identifying external factors that can be used to control neural stem cells division and their differentiation to neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes is of high scientific and clinical interest. Here we show that the Nogo-66 receptor interacting protein LINGO-1 is a potent regulator of neural stem cell maturation to neurons. LINGO-1 is expressed by cortical neural stem cells from E14 mouse embryos and inhibition of LINGO-1 during the first days of neural stem cell differentiation results in decreased neuronal maturation. Compared to neurons in control cultures, which after 6 days of differentiation have long extending neurites, neurons in cultures treated with anti-LINGO-1 antibodies retain an immature, round phenotype with only very short processes. Furthermore, neutralization of LINGO-1 results in a threefold increase in βIII tubulin-positive cells compared to untreated control cultures. By using BrdU incorporation assays we show that the immature neurons in LINGO-1 neutralized cultures are dividing neuroblasts. In contrast to control cultures, in which no cells were double positive for βIII tubulin and BrdU, 36% of the neurons in cultures treated with anti-LINGO-1 antibodies were proliferating after three days of differentiation. TUNEL assays revealed that the amount of cells going through apoptosis during the early phase of differentiation was significantly decreased in cultures treated with anti-LINGO-1 antibodies compared to untreated control cultures. Taken together, our results demonstrate a novel role for LINGO-1 in neural stem cell differentiation to neurons and suggest a possibility to use LINGO-1 inhibitors to compensate for neuronal cell loss in the injured brain.

  14. Cell surface glycan engineering of neural stem cells augments neurotropism and improves recovery in a murine model of multiple sclerosis

    KAUST Repository

    Merzaban, Jasmeen S.

    2015-09-13

    Neural stem cell (NSC)-based therapies offer potential for neural repair in central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory and degenerative disorders. Typically, these conditions present with multifocal CNS lesions making it impractical to inject NSCs locally, thus mandating optimization of vascular delivery of the cells to involved sites. Here, we analyzed NSCs for expression of molecular effectors of cell migration and found that these cells are natively devoid of E-selectin ligands. Using glycosyltransferase-programmed stereosubstitution (GPS), we glycan engineered the cell surface of NSCs ("GPS-NSCs") with resultant enforced expression of the potent E-selectin ligand HCELL (hematopoietic cell E-/L-selectin ligand) and of an E-selectin-binding glycoform of neural cell adhesion molecule ("NCAM-E"). Following intravenous (i.v.) injection, short-term homing studies demonstrated that, compared with buffer-treated (control) NSCs, GPS-NSCs showed greater neurotropism. Administration of GPS-NSC significantly attenuated the clinical course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), with markedly decreased inflammation and improved oligodendroglial and axonal integrity, but without evidence of long-term stem cell engraftment. Notably, this effect of NSC is not a universal property of adult stem cells, as administration of GPS-engineered mouse hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells did not improve EAE clinical course. These findings highlight the utility of cell surface glycan engineering to boost stem cell delivery in neuroinflammatory conditions and indicate that, despite the use of a neural tissue-specific progenitor cell population, neural repair in EAE results from endogenous repair and not from direct, NSC-derived cell replacement.

  15. Persistent oxidative stress in human neural stem cells exposed to low fluences of charged particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet E. Baulch

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to the space radiation environment poses risks for a range of deleterious health effects due to the unique types of radiation encountered. Galactic cosmic rays are comprised of a spectrum of highly energetic nuclei that deposit densely ionizing tracks of damage along the particle trajectory. These tracks are distinct from those generated by the more sparsely ionizing terrestrial radiations, and define the geometric distribution of the complex cellular damage that results when charged particles traverse the tissues of the body. The exquisite radiosensitivity of multipotent neural stem and progenitor cells found within the neurogenic regions of the brain predispose the central nervous system to elevated risks for radiation induced sequelae. Here we show that human neural stem cells (hNSC exposed to different charged particles at space relevant fluences exhibit significant and persistent oxidative stress. Radiation induced oxidative stress was found to be most dependent on total dose rather than on the linear energy transfer of the incident particle. The use of redox sensitive fluorogenic dyes possessing relative specificity for hydroxyl radicals, peroxynitrite, nitric oxide (NO and mitochondrial superoxide confirmed that most irradiation paradigms elevated reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively in hNSC over a 1 week interval following exposure. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS was not the major source of elevated nitric oxides, as the use of NOS inhibitors had little effect on NO dependent fluorescence. Our data provide extensive evidence for the capability of low doses of charged particles to elicit marked changes in the metabolic profile of irradiated hNSC. Radiation induced changes in redox state may render the brain more susceptible to the development of neurocognitive deficits that could affect an astronaut’s ability to perform complex tasks during extended missions in deep space.

  16. Scaling up a chemically-defined aggregate-based suspension culture system for neural commitment of human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Cláudia C; Fernandes, Tiago G; Diogo, M Margarida; Cabral, Joaquim M S

    2016-12-01

    The demand of high cell numbers for applications in cellular therapies and drug screening requires the development of scalable platforms capable to generating highly pure populations of tissue-specific cells from human pluripotent stem cells. In this work, we describe the scaling-up of an aggregate-based culture system for neural induction of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) under chemically-defined conditions. A combination of non-enzymatic dissociation and rotary agitation was successfully used to produce homogeneous populations of hiPSC aggregates with an optimal (140 μm) and narrow distribution of diameters (coefficient of variation of 21.6%). Scalable neural commitment of hiPSCs as 3D aggregates was performed in 50 mL spinner flasks, and the process was optimized using a factorial design approach, involving parameters such as agitation rate and seeding density. We were able to produce neural progenitor cell cultures, that at the end of a 6-day neural induction process contained less than 3% of Oct4-positive cells and that, after replating, retained more than 60% of Pax6-positive neural cells. The results here presented should set the stage for the future generation of a clinically relevant number of human neural progenitors for transplantation and other biomedical applications using controlled, automated and reproducible large-scale bioreactor culture systems. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Pitx2 expression promotes p21 expression and cell cycle exit in neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldring, Nina; Joseph, Bertrand; Hermanson, Ola; Kioussi, Chrissa

    2012-11-01

    Cortical development is a complex process that involves many events including proliferation, cell cycle exit and differentiation that need to be appropriately synchronized. Neural stem cells (NSCs) isolated from embryonic cortex are characterized by their ability of self-renewal under continued maintenance of multipotency. Cell cycle progression and arrest during development is regulated by numerous factors, including cyclins, cyclin dependent kinases and their inhibitors. In this study, we exogenously expressed the homeodomain transcription factor Pitx2, usually expressed in postmitotic progenitors and neurons of the embryonic cortex, in NSCs with low expression of endogenous Pitx2. We found that Pitx2 expression induced a rapid decrease in proliferation associated with an accumulation of NSCs in G1 phase. A search for potential cell cycle inhibitors responsible for such cell cycle exit of NSCs revealed that Pitx2 expression caused a rapid and dramatic (≉20-fold) increase in expression of the cell cycle inhibitor p21 (WAF1/Cip1). In addition, Pitx2 bound directly to the p21 promoter as assessed by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) in NSCs. Surprisingly, Pitx2 expression was not associated with an increase in differentiation markers, but instead the expression of nestin, associated with undifferentiated NSCs, was maintained. Our results suggest that Pitx2 promotes p21 expression and induces cell cycle exit in neural progenitors.

  18. Monitoring neural stem cell differentiation using PEDOT-PSS based MEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Yuriko; Shimada, Akiyoshi; Kato, Koichi; Iwata, Hiroo; Torimitsu, Keiichi

    2013-09-01

    Transplantation is one potential clinical application of neural stem cells (NSCs). However, it is very difficult to monitor/control NSCs after transplantation and so provide effective treatment. Electrical measurement using a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS) modified microelectrode array (MEA) is a biocompatible, non-invasive, non-destructive approach to understanding cell conditions. This property makes continuous monitoring available for the evaluation/assessment of the development of cells such as NSCs. A PEDOT-PSS modified MEA was used to monitor electrical signals during NSC development in a culture derived from rat embryo striatum in order to understand the NSC differentiation conditions. Electrical data indicated that NSCs with nerve growth factor (NGF) generate a cultured cortical neuron-like burst pattern while a random noise pattern was measured with epidermal growth factor (EGF) at 4days in vitro (DIV) and a burst pattern was observed in both cases at 11 DIV indicating the successful monitoring of differentiation differences and developmental changes. The electrical analysis of cell activity using a PEDOT-PSS modified MEA could indicate neural network formation by differentiated neurons. Changes in NSC differentiation could be monitored. The method is based on non-invasive continuous measurement and so could prove a useful tool for the primary/preliminary evaluation of a pharmaceutical analysis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Organic Bioelectronics-Novel Applications in Biomedicine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Endocrine Pancreas Development and Regeneration: Noncanonical Ideas From Neural Stem Cell Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masjkur, Jimmy; Poser, Steven W; Nikolakopoulou, Polyxeni; Chrousos, George; McKay, Ronald D; Bornstein, Stefan R; Jones, Peter M; Androutsellis-Theotokis, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Loss of insulin-producing pancreatic islet β-cells is a hallmark of type 1 diabetes. Several experimental paradigms demonstrate that these cells can, in principle, be regenerated from multiple endogenous sources using signaling pathways that are also used during pancreas development. A thorough understanding of these pathways will provide improved opportunities for therapeutic intervention. It is now appreciated that signaling pathways should not be seen as "on" or "off" but that the degree of activity may result in wildly different cellular outcomes. In addition to the degree of operation of a signaling pathway, noncanonical branches also play important roles. Thus, a pathway, once considered as "off" or "low" may actually be highly operational but may be using noncanonical branches. Such branches are only now revealing themselves as new tools to assay them are being generated. A formidable source of noncanonical signal transduction concepts is neural stem cells because these cells appear to have acquired unusual signaling interpretations to allow them to maintain their unique dual properties (self-renewal and multipotency). We discuss how such findings from the neural field can provide a blueprint for the identification of new molecular mechanisms regulating pancreatic biology, with a focus on Notch, Hes/Hey, and hedgehog pathways. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  20. Expression of GD2 and GD3 Gangliosides in Human Embryonic Neural Stem Cells

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    Makoto Yanagisawa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available NSCs (neural stem cells are undifferentiated neural cells endowed with a high potential for proliferation and a capacity for self-renewal with retention of multipotency to differentiate into neurons and glial cells. It has been recently reported that GD3, a b-series ganglioside, is a marker molecule for identifying and isolating mouse NSCs. However, the expression of gangliosides in human NSCs is largely unknown. In the present study, we analysed the expression of gangliosides, GD2 and GD3, in human NSCs that were isolated from human brains at gestational week 17 in the form of neurospheres, which are floating clonal aggregates formed by NSCs in vitro. Employing immunocytochemistry, we found that human NSCs were strongly reactive to anti-GD2 antibody and relatively weakly reactive to anti-GD3 antibody. Treatment of these cells with an organic solvent such as 100% methanol, which selectively removes glycolipids from plasma membrane, abolished the immunoreactivity with those antibodies, indicating that the reactivity was due to GD2 and GD3, but not to GD2-/GD3-like glycoproteins or proteoglycans. The immunoreactivity of human NSCs to antibody against SSEA-1 (stage-specific embryonic antigen-1, a well-known carbohydrate antigen of NSCs, was not decreased by the treatment with 100% methanol, indicating that SSEA-1 is mainly carried by glycoproteins and/or proteoglycans in human NSCs. Our study suggests that GD2 and GD3 can be marker gangliosides for identifying human NSCs.

  1. Ginkgo Biloba Extract Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in Mouse Cochlear Neural Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congpin; Wang, Bin

    2016-05-01

    In the organ or Corti, oxidative stress could result in damage to the hearing, and neural stem cells (NSCs) hold great therapeutic potential in treating hearing loss. Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) has been widely shown to exhibit anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic effects in treatments of neural damage and disorder. Using hydrogen peroxide to induced oxidative stress as a model, we investigated the anti-oxidative role of GBE in isolated mouse cochlear NSCs. GBE treatment was found to significantly promote viability of NSCs, by markedly attenuating hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative stress. In addition, this anti-oxidative function of GBE was also able to prevent mitochondrial depolarization and subsequent apoptosis. Moreover, the anti-apoptotic role of GBE was mediated by antagonizing the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, where GBE could reverse the changes in key intrinsic apoptosis pathway factors including Bcl-2, Bax, and Caspase-3. Our data provided the first report on the beneficial role of GBE in protecting cochlear NSCs, by attenuating oxidative stress triggered intrinsic apoptosis, therefore supporting the potential therapeutic value of GBE in preventing oxidative stress-related hearing loss. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Targeted activation of primitive neural stem cells in the mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Rachel L; Yammine, Samantha Z; DeVeale, Brian; van der Kooy, Derek

    2016-06-01

    Primitive neural stem cells (pNSCs) are the earliest NSCs to appear in the developing forebrain. They persist into the adult forebrain where they can generate all cells in the neural lineage and therefore hold great potential for brain regeneration. Thus, pNSCs are an ideal population to target to promote endogenous NSC activation. pNSCs can be isolated from the periventricular region as leukaemia inhibitory factor-responsive cells, and comprise a rare population in the adult mouse brain. We hypothesized that the pup periventricular region gives rise to more clonal pNSC-derived neurospheres but that pup-derived pNSCs are otherwise comparable to adult-derived pNSCs, and can be used to identify selective markers and activators of endogenous pNSCs. We tested the self-renewal ability, differentiation capacity and gene expression profile of pup-derived pNSCs and found them each to be comparable to adult-derived pNSCs, including being GFAP(-) , nestin(mid) , Oct4(+) . Next, we used pup pNSCs to test pharmacological compounds to activate pNSCs to promote endogenous brain repair. We hypothesized that pNSCs could be activated by targeting the cell surface proteins C-Kit and ErbB2, which were enriched in pNSCs relative to definitive NSCs (dNSCs) in an in vitro screen. C-Kit and ErbB2 signalling inhibition had distinct effects on pNSCs and dNSCs in vitro, and when infused directly into the adult brain in vivo. Targeted activation of pNSCs with C-Kit and ErbB2 modulation is a valuable strategy to activate the earliest cell in the neural lineage to contribute to endogenous brain regeneration. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. STAT3 modulation to enhance motor neuron differentiation in human neural stem cells.

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    Rajalaxmi Natarajan

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis damages spinal motor neurons and forms a glial scar, which prevents neural regeneration. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 plays a critical role in astrogliogenesis and scar formation, and thus a fine modulation of STAT3 signaling may help to control the excessive gliogenic environment and enhance neural repair. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of STAT3 inhibition on human neural stem cells (hNSCs. In vitro hNSCs primed with fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2 exhibited a lower level of phosphorylated STAT3 than cells primed by epidermal growth factor (EGF, which correlated with a higher number of motor neurons differentiated from FGF2-primed hNSCs. Treatment with STAT3 inhibitors, Stattic and Niclosamide, enhanced motor neuron differentiation only in FGF2-primed hNSCs, as shown by increased homeobox gene Hb9 mRNA levels as well as HB9+ and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2+ co-labeled cells. The increased motor neuron differentiation was accompanied by a decrease in the number of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP-positive astrocytes. Interestingly, Stattic and Niclosamide did not affect the level of STAT3 phosphorylation; rather, they perturbed the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated STAT3. In summary, we demonstrate that FGF2 is required for motor neuron differentiation from hNSCs and that inhibition of STAT3 further increases motor neuron differentiation at the expense of astrogliogenesis. Our study thus suggests a potential benefit of targeting the STAT3 pathway for neurotrauma or neurodegenerative diseases.

  4. Non-canonical features of the Golgi apparatus in bipolar epithelial neural stem cells.

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    Taverna, Elena; Mora-Bermúdez, Felipe; Strzyz, Paulina J; Florio, Marta; Icha, Jaroslav; Haffner, Christiane; Norden, Caren; Wilsch-Bräuninger, Michaela; Huttner, Wieland B

    2016-02-16

    Apical radial glia (aRG), the stem cells in developing neocortex, are unique bipolar epithelial cells, extending an apical process to the ventricle and a basal process to the basal lamina. Here, we report novel features of the Golgi apparatus, a central organelle for cell polarity, in mouse aRGs. The Golgi was confined to the apical process but not associated with apical centrosome(s). In contrast, in aRG-derived, delaminating basal progenitors that lose apical polarity, the Golgi became pericentrosomal. The aRG Golgi underwent evolutionarily conserved, accordion-like compression and extension concomitant with cell cycle-dependent nuclear migration. Importantly, in line with endoplasmic reticulum but not Golgi being present in the aRG basal process, its plasma membrane contained glycans lacking Golgi processing, consistent with direct ER-to-cell surface membrane traffic. Our study reveals hitherto unknown complexity of neural stem cell polarity, differential Golgi contribution to their specific architecture, and fundamental Golgi re-organization upon cell fate change.

  5. Differential Responses of Human Fetal Brain Neural Stem Cells to Zika Virus Infection

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    Erica L. McGrath

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV infection causes microcephaly in a subset of infants born to infected pregnant mothers. It is unknown whether human individual differences contribute to differential susceptibility of ZIKV-related neuropathology. Here, we use an Asian-lineage ZIKV strain, isolated from the 2015 Mexican outbreak (Mex1-7, to infect primary human neural stem cells (hNSCs originally derived from three individual fetal brains. All three strains of hNSCs exhibited similar rates of Mex1-7 infection and reduced proliferation. However, Mex1-7 decreased neuronal differentiation in only two of the three stem cell strains. Correspondingly, ZIKA-mediated transcriptome alterations were similar in these two strains but significantly different from that of the third strain with no ZIKV-induced neuronal reduction. This study thus confirms that an Asian-lineage ZIKV strain infects primary hNSCs and demonstrates a cell-strain-dependent response of hNSCs to ZIKV infection.

  6. Differential Responses of Human Fetal Brain Neural Stem Cells to Zika Virus Infection.

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    McGrath, Erica L; Rossi, Shannan L; Gao, Junling; Widen, Steven G; Grant, Auston C; Dunn, Tiffany J; Azar, Sasha R; Roundy, Christopher M; Xiong, Ying; Prusak, Deborah J; Loucas, Bradford D; Wood, Thomas G; Yu, Yongjia; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso; Weaver, Scott C; Vasilakis, Nikos; Wu, Ping

    2017-03-14

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection causes microcephaly in a subset of infants born to infected pregnant mothers. It is unknown whether human individual differences contribute to differential susceptibility of ZIKV-related neuropathology. Here, we use an Asian-lineage ZIKV strain, isolated from the 2015 Mexican outbreak (Mex1-7), to infect primary human neural stem cells (hNSCs) originally derived from three individual fetal brains. All three strains of hNSCs exhibited similar rates of Mex1-7 infection and reduced proliferation. However, Mex1-7 decreased neuronal differentiation in only two of the three stem cell strains. Correspondingly, ZIKA-mediated transcriptome alterations were similar in these two strains but significantly different from that of the third strain with no ZIKV-induced neuronal reduction. This study thus confirms that an Asian-lineage ZIKV strain infects primary hNSCs and demonstrates a cell-strain-dependent response of hNSCs to ZIKV infection. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. FoxO3 coordinates metabolic pathways to maintain redox balance in neural stem cells.

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    Yeo, Hyeonju; Lyssiotis, Costas A; Zhang, Yuqing; Ying, Haoqiang; Asara, John M; Cantley, Lewis C; Paik, Ji-Hye

    2013-10-02

    Forkhead Box O (FoxO) transcription factors act in adult stem cells to preserve their regenerative potential. Previously, we reported that FoxO maintains the long-term proliferative capacity of neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs), and that this occurs, in part, through the maintenance of redox homeostasis. Herein, we demonstrate that among the FoxO3-regulated genes in NPCs are a host of enzymes in central carbon metabolism that act to combat reactive oxygen species (ROS) by directing the flow of glucose and glutamine carbon into defined metabolic pathways. Characterization of the metabolic circuit observed upon loss of FoxO3 revealed a drop in glutaminolysis and filling of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Additionally, we found that glucose uptake, glucose metabolism and oxidative pentose phosphate pathway activity were similarly repressed in the absence of FoxO3. Finally, we demonstrate that impaired glucose and glutamine metabolism compromises the proliferative potential of NPCs and that this is exacerbated following FoxO3 loss. Collectively, our findings show that a FoxO3-dependent metabolic programme supports redox balance and the neurogenic potential of NPCs.

  8. Regionally-specified second trimester fetal neural stem cells reveals differential neurogenic programming.

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    Yiping Fan

    Full Text Available Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSC have the potential for treatment of a wide range of neurological diseases such as Parkinson Disease and multiple sclerosis. Currently, NSC have been isolated only from hippocampus and subventricular zone (SVZ of the adult brain. It is not known whether NSC can be found in all parts of the developing mid-trimester central nervous system (CNS when the brain undergoes massive transformation and growth. Multipotent NSC from the mid-trimester cerebra, thalamus, SVZ, hippocampus, thalamus, cerebellum, brain stem and spinal cord can be derived and propagated as clonal neurospheres with increasing frequencies with increasing gestations. These NSC can undergo multi-lineage differentiation both in vitro and in vivo, and engraft in a developmental murine model. Regionally-derived NSC are phenotypically distinct, with hippocampal NSC having a significantly higher neurogenic potential (53.6% over other sources (range of 0%-27.5%, p<0.004. Whole genome expression analysis showed differential gene expression between these regionally-derived NSC, which involved the Notch, epidermal growth factor as well as interleukin pathways. We have shown the presence of phenotypically-distinct regionally-derived NSC from the mid-trimester CNS, which may reflect the ontological differences occurring within the CNS. Aside from informing on the role of such cells during fetal growth, they may be useful for different cellular therapy applications.

  9. The Protective Effect of Melatonin on Neural Stem Cell against LPS-Induced Inflammation

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    Juhyun Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy for tissue regeneration has several limitations in the fact that transplanted cells could not survive for a long time. For solving these limitations, many studies have focused on the antioxidants to increase survival rate of neural stem cells (NSCs. Melatonin, an antioxidant synthesized in the pineal gland, plays multiple roles in various physiological mechanisms. Melatonin exerts neuroprotective effects in the central nervous system. To determine the effect of melatonin on NSCs which is in LPS-induced inflammatory stress state, we first investigated nitric oxide (NO production and cytotoxicity using Griess reagent assays, LDH assay, and neurosphere counting. Also, we investigated the effect of melatonin on NSCs by measuring the mRNA levels of SOX2, TLX, and FGFR-2. In addition, western blot analyses were performed to examine the activation of PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 signaling in LPS-treated NSCs. In the present study, we suggested that melatonin inhibits NO production and protects NSCs against LPS-induced inflammatory stress. In addition, melatonin promoted the expression of SOX2 and activated the PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 signaling under LPS-induced inflammation condition. Based on our results, we conclude that melatonin may be an important factor for the survival and proliferation of NSCs in neuroinflammatory diseases.

  10. Cell density-dependent differential proliferation of neural stem cells on omnidirectional nanopore-arrayed surface.

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    Cha, Kyoung Je; Kong, Sun-Young; Lee, Ji Soo; Kim, Hyung Woo; Shin, Jae-Yeon; La, Moonwoo; Han, Byung Woo; Kim, Dong Sung; Kim, Hyun-Jung

    2017-10-12

    Recently, the importance of surface nanotopography in the determination of stem cell fate and behavior has been revealed. In the current study, we generated polystyrene cell-culture dishes with an omnidirectional nanopore arrayed surface (ONAS) (diameter: 200 nm, depth: 500 nm, center-to-center distance: 500 nm) and investigated the effects of nanotopography on rat neural stem cells (NSCs). NSCs cultured on ONAS proliferated better than those on the flat surface when cell density was low and showed less spontaneous differentiation during proliferation in the presence of mitogens. Interestingly, NSCs cultured on ONAS at clonal density demonstrated a propensity to generate neurospheres, whereas those on the flat surface migrated out, proliferated as individuals, and spread out to attach to the surface. However, the differential patterns of proliferation were cell density-dependent since the distinct phenomena were lost when cell density was increased. ONAS modulated cytoskeletal reorganization and inhibited formation of focal adhesion, which is generally observed in NSCs grown on flat surfaces. ONAS appeared to reinforce NSC-NSC interaction, restricted individual cell migration and prohibited NSC attachment to the nanopore surface. These data demonstrate that ONAS maintains NSCs as undifferentiated while retaining multipotency and is a better topography for culturing low density NSCs.

  11. Chromatin-based epigenetics of adult subventricular zone neural stem cells

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    Gabriel eGonzales-Roybal

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In specific regions of the adult mammalian brain, neural stem cells (NSCs generate new neurons throughout life. Emerging evidence indicate that chromatin-based transcriptional regulation is a key epigenetic mechanism for the life-long function of adult NSCs. In the adult mouse brain, NSCs in the subventricular zone (SVZ retain the ability to produce both neurons and glia for the life of the animal. In this review, we discuss the origin and function of SVZ NSCs as they relate to key epigenetic concepts of development and potential underlying mechanism of chromatin-based transcriptional regulation. A central point of discussion is how SVZ NSCs – which possess many characteristics of mature, non-neurogenic astrocytes – maintain a youthful ability to produce both neuronal and glial lineages. In addition to reviewing data regarding the function of chromatin-modifying factors in SVZ neurogenesis, we incorporate our growing understanding that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs serve as an important element to chromatin-based transcriptional regulation, including that of SVZ NSCs. Discoveries regarding the epigenetic mechanisms of adult SVZ NSCs may provide key insights into fundamental principles of adult stem cell biology as well as the more complex and dynamic developmental environment of the embryonic brain.

  12. A new role for interferon gamma in neural stem/precursor cell dysregulation

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    Hartung Hans-Peter

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of factors that compromise neurogenesis is aimed at improving stem cell-based approaches in the field of regenerative medicine. Interferon gamma (IFNγ is a main pro-inflammatory cytokine and up-regulated during several neurological diseases. IFNγ is generally thought to beneficially enhance neurogenesis from fetal or adult neural stem/precursor cells (NSPCs. Results We now provide direct evidence to the contrary that IFNγ induces a dysfunctional stage in a substantial portion of NSPC-derived progeny in vitro characterized by simultaneous expression of glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP and neuronal markers, an abnormal gene expression and a functional phenotype neither typical for neurons nor for mature astrocytes. Dysfunctional development of NSPCs under the influence of IFNγ was finally demonstrated by applying the microelectrode array technology. IFNγ exposure of NSPCs during an initial 7-day proliferation period prevented the subsequent adequate differentiation and formation of functional neuronal networks. Conclusions Our results show that immunocytochemical analyses of NSPC-derived progeny are not necessarily indicating the correct cellular phenotype specifically under inflammatory conditions and that simultaneous expression of neuronal and glial markers rather point to cellular dysregulation. We hypothesize that inhibiting the impact of IFNγ on NSPCs during neurological diseases might contribute to effective neurogenesis and regeneration.

  13. The lysine acetyltransferase activator Brpf1 governs dentate gyrus development through neural stem cells and progenitors.

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    Linya You

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lysine acetylation has recently emerged as an important post-translational modification in diverse organisms, but relatively little is known about its roles in mammalian development and stem cells. Bromodomain- and PHD finger-containing protein 1 (BRPF1 is a multidomain histone binder and a master activator of three lysine acetyltransferases, MOZ, MORF and HBO1, which are also known as KAT6A, KAT6B and KAT7, respectively. While the MOZ and MORF genes are rearranged in leukemia, the MORF gene is also mutated in prostate and other cancers and in four genetic disorders with intellectual disability. Here we show that forebrain-specific inactivation of the mouse Brpf1 gene causes hypoplasia in the dentate gyrus, including underdevelopment of the suprapyramidal blade and complete loss of the infrapyramidal blade. We trace the developmental origin to compromised Sox2+ neural stem cells and Tbr2+ intermediate neuronal progenitors. We further demonstrate that Brpf1 loss deregulates neuronal migration, cell cycle progression and transcriptional control, thereby causing abnormal morphogenesis of the hippocampus. These results link histone binding and acetylation control to hippocampus development and identify an important epigenetic regulator for patterning the dentate gyrus, a brain structure critical for learning, memory and adult neurogenesis.

  14. Neural stem cell regulation, fibroblast growth factors, and the developmental origins of neuropsychiatric disorders

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    Hanna E Stevens

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing appreciation for the neurodevelopmental underpinnings of many psychiatric disorders. Disorders that begin in childhood such as autism, language disorders or mental retardation as well as adult-onset mental disorders may have origins early in neurodevelopment. Neural stem cells (NSCs can be defined as self-renewing, multipotent cells that are present in both the embryonic and adult brain. Several recent research findings demonstrate that psychiatric illness may begin with abnormal specification, growth, expansion and differentiation of embryonic NSCs. For example, candidate susceptibility genes for schizophrenia, autism and major depression include the signaling molecule Disrupted In Schizophrenia-1 (DISC-1, the homeodomain gene engrailed-2 (EN-2, and several receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs, including MET, brain-derived growth factor (BDNF and fibroblast growth factors (FGF, all of which have been shown to play important roles in NSCs or neuronal precursors. We will discuss here stem cell biology, signaling factors that affect these cells, and the potential contribution of these processes to the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. Hypotheses about how some of these factors relate to psychiatric disorders will be reviewed.

  15. Immunopharmacological intervention for successful neural stem cell therapy: New perspectives in CNS neurogenesis and repair.

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    Dooley, Dearbhaile; Vidal, Pia; Hendrix, Sven

    2014-01-01

    The pharmacological support and stimulation of endogenous and transplanted neural stem cells (NSCs) is a major challenge in brain repair. Trauma to the central nervous system (CNS) results in a distinct inflammatory response caused by local and infiltrating immune cells. This makes NSC-supported regeneration difficult due to the presence of inhibitory immune factors which are upregulated around the lesion site. The continual and dual role of the neuroinflammatory response leaves it difficult to decipher upon a single modulatory strategy. Therefore, understanding the influence of cytokines upon regulation of NSC self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation is crucial when designing therapies for CNS repair. There is a plethora of partially conflicting data in vitro and in vivo on the role of cytokines in modulating the stem cell niche and the milieu around NSC transplants. This is mainly due to the pleiotropic role of many factors. In order for cell-based therapy to thrive, treatment must be phase-specific to the injury and also be personalized for each patient, i.e. taking age, sex, neuroimmune and endocrine status as well as other key parameters into consideration. In this review, we will summarize the most relevant information concerning interleukin (IL)-1, IL-4, IL-10, IL-15, IFN-γ, the neuropoietic cytokine family and TNF-α in order to extract promising therapeutic approaches for further research. We will focus on the consequences of neuroinflammation on endogenous brain stem cells and the transplantation environment, the effects of the above cytokines on NSCs, as well as immunopharmacological manipulation of the microenvironment for potential therapeutic use. © 2013.

  16. A novel Fizzy/Cdc20-dependent mechanism suppresses necrosis in neural stem cells

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    Kuang, Chaoyuan; Golden, Krista L.; Simon, Claudio R.; Damrath, John; Buttitta, Laura; Gamble, Caitlin E.; Lee, Cheng-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Cancer stem cells likely survive chemotherapy or radiotherapy by acquiring mutations that inactivate the endogenous apoptotic machinery or by cycling slowly. Thus, knowledge about the mechanisms linking the activation of an alternative cell death modality and the cell cycle machinery could have a transformative impact on the development of new cancer therapies, but the mechanisms remain completely unknown. We investigated the regulation of alternative cell death in Drosophila larval brain neural stem cells (neuroblasts) in which apoptosis is normally repressed. From a screen, we identified two novel loss-of-function alleles of the Cdc20/fizzy (fzy) gene that lead to premature brain neuroblast loss without perturbing cell proliferation in other diploid cell types. Fzy is an evolutionarily conserved regulator of anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). Neuroblasts carrying the novel fzy allele or exhibiting reduced APC/C function display hallmarks of necrosis. By contrast, neuroblasts overexpressing the non-degradable form of canonical APC/C substrates required for cell cycle progression undergo mitotic catastrophe. These data strongly suggest that Fzy can elicit a novel pro-survival function of APC/C by suppressing necrosis. Neuroblasts experiencing catastrophic cellular stress, or overexpressing p53, lose Fzy expression and undergo necrosis. Co-expression of fzy suppresses the death of these neuroblasts. Consequently, attenuation of the Fzy-dependent survival mechanism functions downstream of catastrophic cellular stress and p53 to eliminate neuroblasts by necrosis. Strategies that target the Fzy-dependent survival mechanism might lead to the discovery of new treatments or complement the pre-existing therapies to eliminate apoptosis-resistant cancer stem cells by necrosis. PMID:24598157

  17. Transplantation of human fetal-derived neural stem cells improves cognitive function following cranial irradiation.

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    Acharya, Munjal M; Christie, Lori-Ann; Hazel, Thomas G; Johe, Karl K; Limoli, Charles L

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of central nervous system (CNS) malignancies typically involves radiotherapy to forestall tumor growth and recurrence following surgical resection. Despite the many benefits of cranial radiotherapy, survivors often suffer from a wide range of debilitating and progressive cognitive deficits. Thus, while patients afflicted with primary and secondary malignancies of the CNS now experience longer local regional control and progression-free survival, there remains no clinical recourse for the unintended neurocognitive sequelae associated with their cancer treatments. Multiple mechanisms contribute to disrupted cognition following irradiation, including the depletion of radiosensitive populations of stem and progenitor cells in the hippocampus. We have explored the potential of using intrahippocampal transplantation of human stem cells to ameliorate radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction. Past studies demonstrated the capability of cranially transplanted human embryonic (hESCs) and neural (hNSCs) stem cells to functionally restore cognition in rats 1 and 4 months after cranial irradiation. The present study employed an FDA-approved fetal-derived hNSC line capable of large scale-up under good manufacturing practice (GMP). Animals receiving cranial transplantation of these cells 1 month following irradiation showed improved hippocampal spatial memory and contextual fear conditioning performance compared to irradiated, sham surgery controls. Significant newly born (doublecortin positive) neurons and a smaller fraction of glial subtypes were observed within and nearby the transplantation core. Engrafted cells migrated and differentiated into neuronal and glial subtypes throughout the CA1 and CA3 subfields of the host hippocampus. These studies expand our prior findings to demonstrate that transplantation of fetal-derived hNSCs improves cognitive deficits in irradiated animals, as assessed by two separate cognitive tasks.

  18. Molecular Characterization of Down Syndrome Embryonic Stem Cells Reveals a Role for RUNX1 in Neural Differentiation

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    Tomer Halevy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Down syndrome (DS is the leading genetic cause of mental retardation and is caused by a third copy of human chromosome 21. The different pathologies of DS involve many tissues with a distinct array of neural phenotypes. Here we characterize embryonic stem cell lines with DS (DS-ESCs, and focus on the neural aspects of the disease. Our results show that neural progenitor cells (NPCs differentiated from five independent DS-ESC lines display increased apoptosis and downregulation of forehead developmental genes. Analysis of differentially expressed genes suggested RUNX1 as a key transcription regulator in DS-NPCs. Using genome editing we were able to disrupt all three copies of RUNX1 in DS-ESCs, leading to downregulation of several RUNX1 target developmental genes accompanied by reduced apoptosis and neuron migration. Our work sheds light on the role of RUNX1 and the importance of dosage balance in the development of neural phenotypes in DS.

  19. Generation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell‐Derived Bona Fide Neural Stem Cells for Ex Vivo Gene Therapy of Metachromatic Leukodystrophy

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    Meneghini, Vasco; Sala, Davide; De Cicco, Silvia; Luciani, Marco; Cavazzin, Chiara; Paulis, Marianna; Mentzen, Wieslawa; Morena, Francesco; Giannelli, Serena; Sanvito, Francesca; Villa, Anna; Bulfone, Alessandro; Broccoli, Vania; Martino, Sabata

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Allogeneic fetal‐derived human neural stem cells (hfNSCs) that are under clinical evaluation for several neurodegenerative diseases display a favorable safety profile, but require immunosuppression upon transplantation in patients. Neural progenitors derived from patient‐specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) may be relevant for autologous ex vivo gene‐therapy applications to treat genetic diseases with unmet medical need. In this scenario, obtaining iPSC‐derived neural stem cells (NSCs) showing a reliable “NSC signature” is mandatory. Here, we generated human iPSC (hiPSC) clones via reprogramming of skin fibroblasts derived from normal donors and patients affected by metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD), a fatal neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disease caused by genetic defects of the arylsulfatase A (ARSA) enzyme. We differentiated hiPSCs into NSCs (hiPS‐NSCs) sharing molecular, phenotypic, and functional identity with hfNSCs, which we used as a “gold standard” in a side‐by‐side comparison when validating the phenotype of hiPS‐NSCs and predicting their performance after intracerebral transplantation. Using lentiviral vectors, we efficiently transduced MLD hiPSCs, achieving supraphysiological ARSA activity that further increased upon neural differentiation. Intracerebral transplantation of hiPS‐NSCs into neonatal and adult immunodeficient MLD mice stably restored ARSA activity in the whole central nervous system. Importantly, we observed a significant decrease of sulfatide storage when ARSA‐overexpressing cells were used, with a clear advantage in those mice receiving neonatal as compared with adult intervention. Thus, we generated a renewable source of ARSA‐overexpressing iPSC‐derived bona fide hNSCs with improved features compared with clinically approved hfNSCs. Patient‐specific ARSA‐overexpressing hiPS‐NSCs may be used in autologous ex vivo gene therapy protocols to provide long‐lasting enzymatic

  20. LNGFR(+)THY-1(+) human pluripotent stem cell-derived neural crest-like cells have the potential to develop into mesenchymal stem cells.

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    Ouchi, Takehito; Morikawa, Satoru; Shibata, Shinsuke; Fukuda, Kimiko; Okuno, Hironobu; Fujimura, Takumi; Kuroda, Tatsuo; Ohyama, Manabu; Akamatsu, Wado; Nakagawa, Taneaki; Okano, Hideyuki

    2016-12-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are defined as non-hematopoietic, plastic-adherent, self-renewing cells that are capable of tri-lineage differentiation into bone, cartilage or fat in vitro. Thus, MSCs are promising candidates for cell-based medicine. However, classifications of MSCs have been defined retrospectively; moreover, this conventional criterion may be inaccurate due to contamination with other hematopoietic lineage cells. Human MSCs can be enriched by selection for LNGFR and THY-1, and this population may be analogous to murine PDGFRα(+)Sca-1(+) cells, which are developmentally derived from neural crest cells (NCCs). Murine NCCs were labeled by fluorescence, which provided definitive proof of neural crest lineage, however, technical considerations prevent the use of a similar approach to determine the origin of human LNGFR(+)THY-1(+) MSCs. To further clarify the origin of human MSCs, human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were used in this study. Under culture conditions required for the induction of neural crest cells, human ESCs and iPSCs-derived cells highly expressed LNGFR and THY-1. These LNGFR(+)THY-1(+) neural crest-like cells, designated as LT-NCLCs, showed a strong potential to differentiate into both mesenchymal and neural crest lineages. LT-NCLCs proliferated to form colonies and actively migrated in response to serum concentration. Furthermore, we transplanted LT-NCLCs into chick embryos, and traced their potential for survival, migration and differentiation in the host environment. These results suggest that LNGFR(+)THY-1(+) cells identified following NCLC induction from ESCs/iPSCs shared similar potentials with multipotent MSCs. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification of gene expression signatures across different types of neural stem cells with the Monte-Carlo feature selection method.

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    Chen, Lei; Li, JiaRui; Zhang, Yu-Hang; Feng, KaiYan; Wang, ShaoPeng; Zhang, YunHua; Huang, Tao; Kong, Xiangyin; Cai, Yu-Dong

    2017-11-11

    Adult neural stem cells (NSCs) are a group of multi-potent, self-renewing progenitor cells that contribute to the generation of new neurons and oligodendrocytes. Three subtypes of NSCs can be isolated based on the stages of the NSC lineage, including quiescent neural stem cells (qNSCs), activated neural stem cells (aNSCs) and neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Although it is widely accepted that these three groups of NSCs play different roles in the development of the nervous system, their molecular signatures are poorly understood. In this study, we applied the Monte-Carlo Feature Selection (MCFS) method to identify the gene expression signatures, which can yield a Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) value of 0.918 with a support vector machine evaluated by ten-fold cross-validation. In addition, some classification rules yielded by the MCFS program for distinguishing above three subtypes were reported. Our results not only demonstrate a high classification capacity and subtype-specific gene expression patterns but also quantitatively reflect the pattern of the gene expression levels across the NSC lineage, providing insight into deciphering the molecular basis of NSC differentiation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. 5-Azacytidine and BDNF enhance the maturation of neurons derived from EGF-generated neural stem cells.

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    Schinstine, M; Iacovitti, L

    1997-04-01

    EGF-generated neural stem cells can form astrocytes, neurons, and oligodendrocytes upon differentiation; however, the proportion of cells that actually form neurons is very small. In the present study, we have studied the effect that 5-azacytidine (5AzaC), a demethylation agent, and brain-derived growth factor (BDNF) have on the differentiation and maturation of neurons originating from EGF-generated neural stem cells. Stem cells were maintained under a variety of culture conditions using combinations of 5AzaC and BDNF either alone or together. More neurons, as determined by the number of beta-tubulin III-immunoreactive somata, were present in cultures maintained in BDNF medium (a nearly fourfold increase compared to control cultures). 5AzaC did not significantly affect neuronal number, regardless of the presence of BDNF. In addition to neuronal number, the effect of 5AzaC and BDNF on the distribution of the microtubule proteins MAP2 and Tau was analyzed. In most cultures, MAP2 and Tau were colocalized throughout the neuron. In contrast, neurons cotreated with 5AzaC and BDNF contained neurons that began to exhibit cytoskeletal segregation of MAP2 into the somatodendritic compartments. Tau remained dispersed within the somata and the axon. This effect was not produced when 5AzaC or BDNF was used individually. These results demonstrate that 5AzaC and BDNF cooperate to produce more mature neurons from EGF-generated neural stem cells then either molecule can alone.

  3. Prokaryotic expression, purification, and production of glutathione S-transferase-tagged neural stem cell specific peptides from phage display screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lei; Zhao, Wenxiu; Ma, Lan

    2013-02-01

    Combining stem cell with phage display to discover novel biomarkers is a new field in stem cell studies. Novel peptides obtained through phage display panning have been functionally identified and involved into initial applications as cell culture support or cell label. In the present study, we designed a glutathione S-transferase (GST)-tagged peptide complex to construct an easy and efficient prokaryotic expression and purification platform for peptides obtained from phage display panning. The purified GST-peptide protein could specifically bind to neural stem (NS) cells and could be flexibly used for GST pull down assay or NS cell labeling in future studies. The results of the present study would be useful for cell labeling and future investigations of special receptors on stem cell surface.

  4. All-trans retinoic acid promotes neural lineage entry by pluripotent embryonic stem cells via multiple pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Bo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All-trans retinoic acid (RA is one of the most important morphogens with pleiotropic actions. Its embryonic distribution correlates with neural differentiation in the developing central nervous system. To explore the precise effects of RA on neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs, we detected expression of RA nuclear receptors and RA-metabolizing enzymes in mouse ESCs and investigated the roles of RA in adherent monolayer culture. Results Upon addition of RA, cell differentiation was directed rapidly and exclusively into the neural lineage. Conversely, pharmacological interference with RA signaling suppressed this neural differentiation. Inhibition of fibroblast growth factor (FGF signaling did not suppress significantly neural differentiation in RA-treated cultures. Pharmacological interference with extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK pathway or activation of Wnt pathway effectively blocked the RA-promoted neural specification. ERK phosphorylation was enhanced in RA-treated cultures at the early stage of differentiation. Conclusion RA can promote neural lineage entry by ESCs in adherent monolayer culture systems. This effect depends on RA signaling and its crosstalk with the ERK and Wnt pathways.

  5. A cGMP-applicable expansion method for aggregates of human neural stem and progenitor cells derived from pluripotent stem cells or fetal brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, Brandon C; Gowing, Geneviève; Svendsen, Clive N

    2014-06-15

    A cell expansion technique to amass large numbers of cells from a single specimen for research experiments and clinical trials would greatly benefit the stem cell community. Many current expansion methods are laborious and costly, and those involving complete dissociation may cause several stem and progenitor cell types to undergo differentiation or early senescence. To overcome these problems, we have developed an automated mechanical passaging method referred to as "chopping" that is simple and inexpensive. This technique avoids chemical or enzymatic dissociation into single cells and instead allows for the large-scale expansion of suspended, spheroid cultures that maintain constant cell/cell contact. The chopping method has primarily been used for fetal brain-derived neural progenitor cells or neurospheres, and has recently been published for use with neural stem cells derived from embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. The procedure involves seeding neurospheres onto a tissue culture Petri dish and subsequently passing a sharp, sterile blade through the cells effectively automating the tedious process of manually mechanically dissociating each sphere. Suspending cells in culture provides a favorable surface area-to-volume ratio; as over 500,000 cells can be grown within a single neurosphere of less than 0.5 mm in diameter. In one T175 flask, over 50 million cells can grow in suspension cultures compared to only 15 million in adherent cultures. Importantly, the chopping procedure has been used under current good manufacturing practice (cGMP), permitting mass quantity production of clinical-grade cell products.

  6. Adult bone marrow neural crest stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells are not able to replace lost neurons in acute MPTP-lesioned mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Neirinckx

    Full Text Available Adult bone marrow stroma contains multipotent stem cells (BMSC that are a mixed population of mesenchymal and neural-crest derived stem cells. Both cells are endowed with in vitro multi-lineage differentiation abilities, then constituting an attractive and easy-available source of material for cell therapy in neurological disorders. Whereas the in vivo integration and differentiation of BMSC in neurons into the central nervous system is currently matter of debate, we report here that once injected into the striatum of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP-treated mice, pure populations of either bone marrow neural crest stem cells (NCSC or mesenchymal stem cells (MSC survived only transiently into the lesioned brain. Moreover, they do not migrate through the brain tissue, neither modify their initial phenotype, while no recovery of the dopaminergic system integrity was observed. Consequently, we tend to conclude that MSC/NCSC are not able to replace lost neurons in acute MPTP-lesioned dopaminergic system through a suitable integration and/or differentiation process. Altogether with recent data, it appears that neuroprotective, neurotrophic and anti-inflammatory features characterizing BMSC are of greater interest as regards CNS lesions management.

  7. Safe and efficient method for cryopreservation of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem and progenitor cells by a programmed freezer with a magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Yuichiro; Iwanami, Akio; Kohyama, Jun; Itakura, Go; Kawabata, Soya; Sugai, Keiko; Nishimura, Soraya; Kashiwagi, Rei; Yasutake, Kaori; Isoda, Miho; Matsumoto, Morio; Nakamura, Masaya; Okano, Hideyuki

    2016-06-01

    Stem cells represent a potential cellular resource in the development of regenerative medicine approaches to the treatment of pathologies in which specific cells are degenerated or damaged by genetic abnormality, disease, or injury. Securing sufficient supplies of cells suited to the demands of cell transplantation, however, remains challenging, and the establishment of safe and efficient cell banking procedures is an important goal. Cryopreservation allows the storage of stem cells for prolonged time periods while maintaining them in adequate condition for use in clinical settings. Conventional cryopreservation systems include slow-freezing and vitrification both have advantages and disadvantages in terms of cell viability and/or scalability. In the present study, we developed an advanced slow-freezing technique using a programmed freezer with a magnetic field called Cells Alive System (CAS) and examined its effectiveness on human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem/progenitor cells (hiPSC-NS/PCs). This system significantly increased cell viability after thawing and had less impact on cellular proliferation and differentiation. We further found that frozen-thawed hiPSC-NS/PCs were comparable with non-frozen ones at the transcriptome level. Given these findings, we suggest that the CAS is useful for hiPSC-NS/PCs banking for clinical uses involving neural disorders and may open new avenues for future regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Multipotent neural stem cells generate glial cells of the central complex through transit amplifying intermediate progenitors in Drosophila brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viktorin, Gudrun; Riebli, Nadia; Popkova, Anna; Giangrande, Angela; Reichert, Heinrich

    2011-08-15

    The neural stem cells that give rise to the neural lineages of the brain can generate their progeny directly or through transit amplifying intermediate neural progenitor cells (INPs). The INP-producing neural stem cells in Drosophila are called type II neuroblasts, and their neural progeny innervate the central complex, a prominent integrative brain center. Here we use genetic lineage tracing and clonal analysis to show that the INPs of these type II neuroblast lineages give rise to glial cells as well as neurons during postembryonic brain development. Our data indicate that two main types of INP lineages are generated, namely mixed neuronal/glial lineages and neuronal lineages. Genetic loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments show that the gcm gene is necessary and sufficient for gliogenesis in these lineages. The INP-derived glial cells, like the INP-derived neuronal cells, make major contributions to the central complex. In postembryonic development, these INP-derived glial cells surround the entire developing central complex neuropile, and once the major compartments of the central complex are formed, they also delimit each of these compartments. During this process, the number of these glial cells in the central complex is increased markedly through local proliferation based on glial cell mitosis. Taken together, these findings uncover a novel and complex form of neurogliogenesis in Drosophila involving transit amplifying intermediate progenitors. Moreover, they indicate that type II neuroblasts are remarkably multipotent neural stem cells that can generate both the neuronal and the glial progeny that make major contributions to one and the same complex brain structure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Wnt5a-treated midbrain neural stem cells improve dopamine cell replacement therapy in parkinsonian mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parish, Clare L; Castelo-Branco, Gonçalo; Rawal, Nina

    2008-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) cell replacement therapy in Parkinson disease (PD) can be achieved using human fetal mesencephalic tissue; however, limited tissue availability has hindered further developments. Embryonic stem cells provide a promising alternative, but poor survival and risk of teratoma formation h...... and functional integration of stem cell-derived DA neurons in vivo and define Wnt5a-treated neural stem cells as an efficient and safe source of DA neurons for cell replacement therapy in PD.......Dopamine (DA) cell replacement therapy in Parkinson disease (PD) can be achieved using human fetal mesencephalic tissue; however, limited tissue availability has hindered further developments. Embryonic stem cells provide a promising alternative, but poor survival and risk of teratoma formation...... have prevented their clinical application. We present here a method for generating large numbers of DA neurons based on expanding and differentiating ventral midbrain (VM) neural stem cells/progenitors in the presence of key signals necessary for VM DA neuron development. Mouse VM neurospheres (VMNs...

  10. Neural patterning of human induced pluripotent stem cells in 3-D cultures for studying biomolecule-directed differential cellular responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yuanwei; Bejoy, Julie; Xia, Junfei; Guan, Jingjiao; Zhou, Yi; Li, Yan

    2016-09-15

    Appropriate neural patterning of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) is critical to generate specific neural cells/tissues and even mini-brains that are physiologically relevant to model neurological diseases. However, the capacity of signaling factors that regulate 3-D neural tissue patterning in vitro and differential responses of the resulting neural populations to various biomolecules have not yet been fully understood. By tuning neural patterning of hiPSCs with small molecules targeting sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling, this study generated different 3-D neuronal cultures that were mainly comprised of either cortical glutamatergic neurons or motor neurons. Abundant glutamatergic neurons were observed following the treatment with an antagonist of SHH signaling, cyclopamine, while Islet-1 and HB9-expressing motor neurons were enriched by an SHH agonist, purmorphamine. In neurons derived with different neural patterning factors, whole-cell patch clamp recordings showed similar voltage-gated Na(+)/K(+) currents, depolarization-evoked action potentials and spontaneous excitatory post-synaptic currents. Moreover, these different neuronal populations exhibited differential responses to three classes of biomolecules, including (1) matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors that affect extracellular matrix remodeling; (2) N-methyl-d-aspartate that induces general neurotoxicity; and (3) amyloid β (1-42) oligomers that cause neuronal subtype-specific neurotoxicity. This study should advance our understanding of hiPSC self-organization and neural tissue development and provide a transformative approach to establish 3-D models for neurological disease modeling and drug discovery. Appropriate neural patterning of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) is critical to generate specific neural cells, tissues and even mini-brains that are physiologically relevant to model neurological diseases. However, the capability of sonic hedgehog-related small molecules to tune

  11. Injectable uncrosslinked biomimetic hydrogels as candidate scaffolds for neural stem cell delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Kurt; Joshi, Jyotsna; Kothapalli, Chandrasekhar R

    2017-03-01

    Mammalian central nervous system has a limited ability for self-repair under diseased or injury conditions. Repair strategies focused on exogenously delivering autologous neural stem cells (NSCs) to replace lost neuronal populations and axonal pathways in situ, and promote endogenous repair mechanisms are gaining traction. Successful outcomes are contingent on selecting an appropriate delivery vehicle for injecting cells that promotes cell retention and survival, elicits differentiation to desired lineages, and enhances axonal outgrowth upon integration into the host tissue. Hydrogels made of varying compositions of collagen, laminin, hyaluronic acid (HA), and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) were developed, with no external crosslinking agents, to mimic the native extracellular matrix composition. The physical (porosity, pore-size, gel integrity, swelling ratio, and enzymatic degradation), mechanical (viscosity, storage and loss moduli, Young's modulus, creep, and stress-relaxation), and biological (cell survival, differentiation, neurite outgrowth, and integrin expression) characteristics of these hydrogels were assessed. These hydrogels exhibited excellent injectability, retained gel integrity, and matched the mechanical moduli of native brain tissue, possibly due to natural collagen fibril polymerization and physical-crosslinking between HA molecules and collagen fibrils. Depending on the composition, these hydrogels promoted cell survival, neural differentiation, and neurite outgrowth, as evident from immunostaining and western blots. These cellular outcomes were facilitated by cellular binding via α6 , β1 , and CD44 surface integrins to these hydrogels. Results attest to the utility of uncrosslinked, ECM-mimicking hydrogels to deliver NSCs for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 790-805, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Isolation and Culture of Adult Neural Stem Cells from the Mouse Subcallosal Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joo Yeon; Lee, Ju-Hyun; Sun, Woong

    2016-12-15

    Adult neural stem cells (aNSCs) can be used for the regeneration of damaged brain tissue. NSCs have the potential for differentiation and proliferation into three types of cells: neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Identifying aNSC-derived regions and characterizing the aNSC properties are critical for the potential use of aNSCs and for the elucidation of their role in neural regeneration. The subcallosal zone (SCZ), located between white matter and the hippocampus, has recently been reported to contain aNSCs and continuously give rise to neuroblasts. A low percentage of aNSCs from the SCZ is differentiated into neurons; most cells are differentiated into glial cells, such as oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. These cells are suggested to have a therapeutic potential for traumatic cortical injury. This protocol describes in detail the process to generate SCZ-aNSCs from an adult mouse brain. A brain matrix with intervals of 1 mm is used to obtain the SCZ-containing coronal slices and to precisely dissect the SCZ from the whole brain. The SCZ sections are initially subjected to a neurosphere culture. A well-developed culture system allows for the verification of their characteristics and can increase research on NSCs. A neurosphere culture system provides a useful tool for determining proliferation and collecting the genuine NSCs. A monolayer culture is also an in vitro system to assay proliferation and differentiation. Significantly, this culture system provides a more homogenous environment for NSCs than the neurosphere culture system. Thus, using a discrete brain region, these culture systems will be helpful for expanding our knowledge about aNSCs and their applications for therapeutic uses.

  13. Study of brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene transgenic neural stem cells in the rat retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xue-mei; Yuan, Hui-ping; Wu, Dong-lai; Zhou, Xin-rong; Sun, Da-wei; Li, Hong-yi; Shao, Zheng-bo

    2009-07-20

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) transplantation and gene therapy have been widely investigated for treating the cerebullar and myelonic injuries, however, studies on the ophthalmology are rare. The aim of this study was to investigate the migration and differentiation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene transgenic NSCs transplanted into the normal rat retinas. NSCs were cultured and purified in vitro and infected with recombinant retrovirus pLXSN-BDNF and pLXSN respectively, to obtain the BDNF overexpressed NSCs (BDNF-NSCs) and control cells (p-NSCs). The expression of BDNF genes in two transgenic NSCs and untreated NSCs were measured by fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). BDNF-NSCs and NSCs were infected with adeno-associated viruses-enhanced green fluorescent protein (AAV-EGFP) to track them in vivo and served as donor cells for transplantation into the subretinal space of normal rat retinas, phosphated buffer solution (PBS) served as pseudo transplantation for a negative control. Survival, migration, and differentiation of donor cells in host retinas were observed and analyzed with Heidelberg retina angiograph (HRA) and immunohistochemistry, respectively. NSCs were purified successfully by limiting dilution assay. The expression of BDNF gene in BDNF-NSCs was the highest among three groups both at mRNA level tested by FQ-PCR (P neuron more efficiently compared with the control NSCs 2 months after transplantation. The seed cells of NSCs highly secreting BDNF were established. BDNF can promote NSCs to migrate and differentiate into neural cells in the normal host retinas.

  14. Insights in spatio-temporal characterization of human fetal neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Ibáñez, Raquel; Guardia, Inés; Pardo, Mónica; Herranz, Cristina; Zietlow, Rike; Vinh, Ngoc-Nga; Rosser, Anne; Canals, Josep M

    2017-05-01

    Primary human fetal cells have been used in clinical trials of cell replacement therapy for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington's disease (HD). However, human fetal primary cells are scarce and difficult to work with and so a renewable source of cells is sought. Human fetal neural stem cells (hfNSCs) can be generated from human fetal tissue, but little is known about the differences between hfNSCs obtained from different developmental stages and brain areas. In the present work we characterized hfNSCs, grown as neurospheres, obtained from three developmental stages: 4-5, 6-7 and 8-9weeks post conception (wpc) and four brain areas: forebrain, cortex, whole ganglionic eminence (WGE) and cerebellum. We observed that, as fetal brain development proceeds, the number of neural precursors is diminished and post-mitotic cells are increased. In turn, primary cells obtained from older embryos are more sensitive to the dissociation process, their viability is diminished and they present lower proliferation ratios compared to younger embryos. However, independently of the developmental stage of derivation proliferation ratios were very low in all cases. Improvements in the expansion rates were achieved by mechanical, instead of enzymatic, dissociation of neurospheres but not by changes in the seeding densities. Regardless of the developmental stage, neurosphere cultures presented large variability in the viability and proliferation rates during the initial 3-4 passages, but stabilized achieving significant expansion rates at passage 5 to 6. This was true also for all brain regions except cerebellar derived cultures that did not expand. Interestingly, the brain region of hfNSC derivation influences the expansion potential, being forebrain, cortex and WGE derived cells the most expandable compared to cerebellar. Short term expansion partially compromised the regional identity of cortical but not WGE cultures. Nevertheless, both expanded cultures were

  15. Effects of 900 MHz electromagnetic radiation on ultrastructure of rats’ hippocampal neural stem cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-shui LUO

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effect of 900MHz electromagnetic radiation on the ultrastructure of rat hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs in vitro in order to provide basic materials for studying the biological effects of electromagnetic wave on the central nervous system. Methods Rat NSCs were divided into sham group, Radi1 group and Radi2 group, and they were respectively exposed to 900 MHz electromagnetic wave at power density of 0, 1, and 3mW/cm2 in vitro. Cells in Radi1 group and Radi2 group were sub-grouped according to the way radiation was given: continuous irradiation, in which cells were exposed on the second day after culture for 2h per day for 6 consecutive days; single exposure to irradiation, in which cells were exposed for 12h on the sixth day after the culture. The ultrastructural changes on the surface of the cells were observed with atomic force microscope (AFM, whereas the ultrastructural changes in the cells were observed with transmission electron microscope (TEM. Results After 900 MHz electromagnetic radiation, when compared with the sham group (0mW/cm2, it was shown that the surface of neural stem cells in the exposure groups (1 and 3mW/cm2 became rough, and there were some changes such as "cavitation" and "fissure formation" in the membrane. The intracellular ultrastructure was found to have obviously disrupted in the exposure groups, such as homogenization of cytoplasm, obvious change organelle structure, morphological damage of structure of nucleus, nuclear membrane disappearance, and chromatin pyknosis, and the changes were more obvious in Radi2 group. Compared with the sham group, the surface roughness (Ra of cells in the exposure group was significantly intensified (P < 0.05, and it was higher in Radi2 group than that in Radi1 group (P < 0.05. Conclusion A 900MHz electromagnetic radiation may cause injury changes in NSCs membrane and ultrastructure in vitro, and the extent of injury may be related to the

  16. Effect of enzymatic and mechanical methods of dissociation on neural progenitor cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Lindsey D; Canda, Claire-Marie A; Hall, Crystal A; Heilingoetter, Cassandra L; Huynh, Joann; Kwok, Susanna S; Kwon, Jin H; Richie, Jacob R; Jensen, Matthew B

    2016-03-01

    To determine the most effective method of dissociating neural stem and progenitor cells into a single-cell suspension. Induced pluripotent stem cells were differentiated toward the neural fate for 4 weeks before clusters were subjected to enzymatic (Accutase, trypsin, TrypLE, dispase, or DNase I) or mechanical (trituration with pipettes of varying size) or combined dissociation. Images of cells were analyzed for cluster size using ImageJ. Cells treated with the enzymes Accutase, TrypLE, or trypsin/EDTA, these enzymes followed by trituration, or a combination one of these enzymes followed by incubation with another enzyme, including DNase I, were more likely to be dissociated into a single-cell suspension. Cells treated with enzymes or combinations of methods were more likely to be dissociated into a single-cell suspension. Copyright © 2015 Medical University of Bialystok. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  17. Comprehensive quantitative comparison of the membrane proteome, phosphoproteome, and sialiome of human embryonic and neural stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo-Braga, Marcella Nunes; Schulz, Melanie; Liu, Qiuyue

    2014-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can differentiate into neural stem cells (NSCs), which can further be differentiated into neurons and glia cells. Therefore, these cells have huge potential as source for treatment of neurological diseases. Membrane-associated proteins are very important...... in cellular signaling and recognition, and their function and activity are frequently regulated by post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and glycosylation. To obtain information about membrane-associated proteins and their modified amino acids potentially involved in changes of h...... in which 78% of phosphopeptides were identified with ≥99% confidence in site assignment and 1810 unique formerly sialylated N-linked glycopeptides. Several proteins were identified as significantly regulated in hESCs and NSC, including proteins involved in the early embryonic and neural development...

  18. Radiation-induced glioblastoma signaling cascade regulates viability, apoptosis and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Vladimir N; Hei, Tom K

    2014-12-01

    Ionizing radiation alone or in combination with chemotherapy is the main treatment modality for brain tumors including glioblastoma. Adult neurons and astrocytes demonstrate substantial radioresistance; in contrast, human neural stem cells (NSC) are highly sensitive to radiation via induction of apoptosis. Irradiation of tumor cells has the potential risk of affecting the viability and function of NSC. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of irradiated glioblastoma cells on viability, proliferation and differentiation potential of non-irradiated (bystander) NSC through radiation-induced signaling cascades. Using media transfer experiments, we demonstrated significant effects of the U87MG glioblastoma secretome after gamma-irradiation on apoptosis in non-irradiated NSC. Addition of anti-TRAIL antibody to the transferred media partially suppressed apoptosis in NSC. Furthermore, we observed a dramatic increase in the production and secretion of IL8, TGFβ1 and IL6 by irradiated glioblastoma cells, which could promote glioblastoma cell survival and modify the effects of death factors in bystander NSC. While differentiation of NSC into neurons and astrocytes occurred efficiently with the corresponding differentiation media, pretreatment of NSC for 8 h with medium from irradiated glioblastoma cells selectively suppressed the differentiation of NSC into neurons, but not into astrocytes. Exogenous IL8 and TGFβ1 increased NSC/NPC survival, but also suppressed neuronal differentiation. On the other hand, IL6 was known to positively affect survival and differentiation of astrocyte progenitors. We established a U87MG neurosphere culture that was substantially enriched by SOX2(+) and CD133(+) glioma stem-like cells (GSC). Gamma-irradiation up-regulated apoptotic death in GSC via the FasL/Fas pathway. Media transfer experiments from irradiated GSC to non-targeted NSC again demonstrated induction of apoptosis and suppression of neuronal differentiation of NSC. In

  19. Anti-Fas conjugated hyaluronic acid microsphere gels for neural stem cell delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shendi, Dalia; Albrecht, Dirk R; Jain, Anjana

    2017-02-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) injuries and diseases result in neuronal damage and loss of function. Transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) has been shown to improve locomotor function after transplantation. However, due to the immune and inflammatory response at the injury site, the survival rate of the engrafted cells is low. Engrafted cell viability has been shown to increase when transplanted within a hydrogel. Hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels have natural anti-inflammatory properties and the backbone can be modified to introduce bioactive agents, such as anti-Fas, which we have previously shown to promote NSC survival while suppressing immune cell activity in bulk hydrogels in vitro. Although bulk HA hydrogels have shown to promote stem cell survival, microsphere gels for NSC encapsulation and delivery may have additional advantages. In this study, a flow-focusing microfluidic device was used to fabricate either vinyl sulfone-modified HA (VS-HA) or anti-Fas-conjugated HA (anti-Fas HA) microsphere gels encapsulated with NSCs. The majority of encapsulated NSCs remained viable for at least 24 h in the VS-HA and anti-Fas HA microsphere gels. Moreover, T-cells cultured in suspension with the anti-Fas HA microsphere gels had reduced viability after contact with the microsphere gels compared to the media control and soluble anti-Fas conditions. This approach can be adapted to encapsulate various cell types for therapeutic strategies in other physiological systems in order to increase survival by reducing the immune response. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 608-618, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. β1-Integrin and integrin linked kinase regulate astrocytic differentiation of neural stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuliu Pan

    Full Text Available Astrogliosis with glial scar formation after damage to the nervous system is a major impediment to axonal regeneration and functional recovery. The present study examined the role of β1-integrin signaling in regulating astrocytic differentiation of neural stem cells. In the adult spinal cord β1-integrin is expressed predominantly in the ependymal region where ependymal stem cells (ESCs reside. β1-integrin signaling suppressed astrocytic differentiation of both cultured ESCs and subventricular zone (SVZ progenitor cells. Conditional knockout of β1-integrin enhanced astrogliogenesis both by cultured ESCs and by SVZ progenitor cells. Previous studies have shown that injection into the injured spinal cord of a self-assembling peptide amphiphile that displays an IKVAV epitope (IKVAV-PA limits glial scar formation and enhances functional recovery. Here we find that injection of IKVAV-PA induced high levels of β1-integrin in ESCs in vivo, and that conditional knockout of β1-integrin abolished the astroglial suppressive effects of IKVAV-PA in vitro. Injection into an injured spinal cord of PAs expressing two other epitopes known to interact with β1-integrin, a Tenascin C epitope and the fibronectin epitope RGD, improved functional recovery comparable to the effects of IKVAV-PA. Finally we found that the effects of β1-integrin signaling on astrogliosis are mediated by integrin linked kinase (ILK. These observations demonstrate an important role for β1-integrin/ILK signaling in regulating astrogliosis from ESCs and suggest ILK as a potential target for limiting glial scar formation after nervous system injury.

  1. Ago2 immunoprecipitation identifies predicted microRNAs in human embryonic stem cells and neural precursors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loyal A Goff

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are required for maintenance of pluripotency as well as differentiation, but since more microRNAs have been computationally predicted in genome than have been found, there are likely to be undiscovered microRNAs expressed early in stem cell differentiation.SOLiD ultra-deep sequencing identified >10(7 unique small RNAs from human embryonic stem cells (hESC and neural-restricted precursors that were fit to a model of microRNA biogenesis to computationally predict 818 new microRNA genes. These predicted genomic loci are associated with chromatin patterns of modified histones that are predictive of regulated gene expression. 146 of the predicted microRNAs were enriched in Ago2-containing complexes along with 609 known microRNAs, demonstrating association with a functional RISC complex. This Ago2 IP-selected subset was consistently expressed in four independent hESC lines and exhibited complex patterns of regulation over development similar to previously-known microRNAs, including pluripotency-specific expression in both hESC and iPS cells. More than 30% of the Ago2 IP-enriched predicted microRNAs are new members of existing families since they share seed sequences with known microRNAs.Extending the classic definition of microRNAs, this large number of new microRNA genes, the majority of which are less conserved than their canonical counterparts, likely represent evolutionarily recent regulators of early differentiation. The enrichment in Ago2 containing complexes, the presence of chromatin marks indicative of regulated gene expression, and differential expression over development all support the identification of 146 new microRNAs active during early hESC differentiation.

  2. Functional Comparison of Neuronal Cells Differentiated from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neural Stem Cells under Different Oxygen and Medium Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Kazuto; Fukushima, Kazuyuki; Sugawara, Michiko; Tabata, Yoshikuni; Imaizumi, Yoichi; Ishihara, Yasuharu; Ito, Masashi; Tsukahara, Kappei; Kohyama, Jun; Okano, Hideyuki

    2016-12-01

    Because neurons are difficult to obtain from humans, generating functional neurons from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) is important for establishing physiological or disease-relevant screening systems for drug discovery. To examine the culture conditions leading to efficient differentiation of functional neural cells, we investigated the effects of oxygen stress (2% or 20% O2) and differentiation medium (DMEM/F12:Neurobasal-based [DN] or commercial [PhoenixSongs Biologicals; PS]) on the expression of genes related to neural differentiation, glutamate receptor function, and the formation of networks of neurons differentiated from hiPSCs (201B7) via long-term self-renewing neuroepithelial-like stem (lt-NES) cells. Expression of genes related to neural differentiation occurred more quickly in PS and/or 2% O2 than in DN and/or 20% O2, resulting in high responsiveness of neural cells to glutamate, N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA), α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA), and ( S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (an agonist for mGluR1/5), as revealed by calcium imaging assays. NMDA receptors, AMPA receptors, mGluR1, and mGluR5 were functionally validated by using the specific antagonists MK-801, NBQX, JNJ16259685, and 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine, respectively. Multielectrode array analysis showed that spontaneous firing occurred earlier in cells cultured in 2% O2 than in 20% O2. Optimization of O2 tension and culture medium for neural differentiation of hiPSCs can efficiently generate physiologically relevant cells for screening systems.

  3. Expression of polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecules on adult stem cells after neuronal differentiation of inner ear spiral ganglion neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyoung Ho [Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, College of Medicine, Catholic University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yeo, Sang Won, E-mail: swyeo@catholic.ac.kr [Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, College of Medicine, Catholic University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Troy, Frederic A., E-mail: fatroy@ucdavis.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, University of California, School of Medicine, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Xiamen University, School of Medicine, Xiamen City (China)

    2014-10-17

    Highlights: • PolySia expressed on neurons primarily during early stages of neuronal development. • PolySia–NCAM is expressed on neural stem cells from adult guinea pig spiral ganglion. • PolySia is a biomarker that modulates neuronal differentiation in inner ear stem cells. - Abstract: During brain development, polysialylated (polySia) neural cell adhesion molecules (polySia–NCAMs) modulate cell–cell adhesive interactions involved in synaptogenesis, neural plasticity, myelination, and neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation and differentiation. Our findings show that polySia–NCAM is expressed on NSC isolated from adult guinea pig spiral ganglion (GPSG), and in neurons and Schwann cells after differentiation of the NSC with epidermal, glia, fibroblast growth factors (GFs) and neurotrophins. These differentiated cells were immunoreactive with mAb’s to polySia, NCAM, β-III tubulin, nestin, S-100 and stained with BrdU. NSC could regenerate and be differentiated into neurons and Schwann cells. We conclude: (1) polySia is expressed on NSC isolated from adult GPSG and on neurons and Schwann cells differentiated from these NSC; (2) polySia is expressed on neurons primarily during the early stage of neuronal development and is expressed on Schwann cells at points of cell–cell contact; (3) polySia is a functional biomarker that modulates neuronal differentiation in inner ear stem cells. These new findings suggest that replacement of defective cells in the inner ear of hearing impaired patients using adult spiral ganglion neurons may offer potential hope to improve the quality of life for patients with auditory dysfunction and impaired hearing disorders.

  4. FGL-functionalized self-assembling nanofiber hydrogel as a scaffold for spinal cord-derived neural stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jian [Department of Orthopedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Zheng, Jin [Department of Neurology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Zheng, Qixin, E-mail: zheng-qx@163.com [Department of Orthopedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Wu, Yongchao; Wu, Bin; Huang, Shuai; Fang, Weizhi; Guo, Xiaodong [Department of Orthopedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China)

    2015-01-01

    A class of designed self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffolds has been shown to be a good biomimetic material in tissue engineering. Here, we specifically made a new peptide hydrogel scaffold FGLmx by mixing the pure RADA{sub 16} and designer functional peptide RADA{sub 16}-FGL solution, and we analyzed the physiochemical properties of each peptide with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and circular dichroism (CD). In addition, we examined the biocompatibility and bioactivity of FGLmx as well as RADA{sub 16} scaffold on spinal cord-derived neural stem cells (SC-NSCs) isolated from neonatal rats. Our results showed that RADA{sub 16}-FGL displayed a weaker β-sheet structure and FGLmx could self-assemble into nanofibrous morphology. Moreover, we found that FGLmx was not only noncytotoxic to SC-NSCs but also promoted SC-NSC proliferation and migration into the three-dimensional (3-D) scaffold, meanwhile, the adhesion and lineage differentiation of SC-NSCs on FGLmx were similar to that on RADA{sub 16}. Our results indicated that the FGL-functionalized peptide scaffold might be very beneficial for tissue engineering and suggested its further application for spinal cord injury (SCI) repair. - Highlights: • RADA{sub 16} and RADA{sub 16}-FGL peptides were synthesized and characterized. • Rat spinal cord neural stem cells were successfully isolated and characterized. • We provided an induction method for mixed differentiation of neural stem cells. • FGL scaffold had good biocompatibility and bioactivity with neural stem cells.

  5. Induced Neural Stem Cells Achieve Long-Term Survival and Functional Integration in the Adult Mouse Brain

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    Kathrin Hemmer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Differentiated cells can be converted directly into multipotent neural stem cells (i.e., induced neural stem cells [iNSCs]. iNSCs offer an attractive alternative to induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC technology with regard to regenerative therapies. Here, we show an in vivo long-term analysis of transplanted iNSCs in the adult mouse brain. iNSCs showed sound in vivo long-term survival rates without graft overgrowths. The cells displayed a neural multilineage potential with a clear bias toward astrocytes and a permanent downregulation of progenitor and cell-cycle markers, indicating that iNSCs are not predisposed to tumor formation. Furthermore, the formation of synaptic connections as well as neuronal and glial electrophysiological properties demonstrated that differentiated iNSCs migrated, functionally integrated, and interacted with the existing neuronal circuitry. We conclude that iNSC long-term transplantation is a safe procedure; moreover, it might represent an interesting tool for future personalized regenerative applications.

  6. SMRT-mediated repression of an H3K27 demethylase in progression from neural stem cell to neuron.

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    Jepsen, Kristen; Solum, Derek; Zhou, Tianyuan; McEvilly, Robert J; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Glass, Christopher K; Hermanson, Ola; Rosenfeld, Michael G

    2007-11-15

    A series of transcription factors critical for maintenance of the neural stem cell state have been identified, but the role of functionally important corepressors in maintenance of the neural stem cell state and early neurogenesis remains unclear. Previous studies have characterized the expression of both SMRT (also known as NCoR2, nuclear receptor co-repressor 2) and NCoR in a variety of developmental systems; however, the specific role of the SMRT corepressor in neurogenesis is still to be determined. Here we report a critical role for SMRT in forebrain development and in maintenance of the neural stem cell state. Analysis of a series of markers in SMRT-gene-deleted mice revealed the functional requirement of SMRT in the actions of both retinoic-acid-dependent and Notch-dependent forebrain development. In isolated cortical progenitor cells, SMRT was critical for preventing retinoic-acid-receptor-dependent induction of differentiation along a neuronal pathway in the absence of any ligand. Our data reveal that SMRT represses expression of the jumonji-domain containing gene JMJD3, a direct retinoic-acid-receptor target that functions as a histone H3 trimethyl K27 demethylase and which is capable of activating specific components of the neurogenic program.

  7. Adverse early life environment increases hippocampal microglia abundance in conjunction with decreased neural stem cells in juvenile mice.

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    Cohen, Susan; Ke, Xingrao; Liu, Qiuli; Fu, Qi; Majnik, Amber; Lane, Robert

    2016-12-01

    Adverse maternal lifestyle resulting in adverse early life environment (AELE) increases risks for neuropsychiatric disorders in offspring. Neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with impaired neurogenesis and neuro-inflammation in the hippocampus (HP). Microglia are neuro-inflammatory cells in the brain that regulate neurogenesis via toll-like receptors (TLR). TLR-9 is implicated in neurogenesis inhibition and is responsible for stress-related inflammatory responses. We hypothesized that AELE would increase microglia cell count and increase TLR-9 expression in juvenile mouse HP. These increases in microglia cell count and TLR-9 expression would be associated with decrease neural stem cell count and neuronal cell count. We developed a mouse model of AELE combining Western diet and a stress environment. Stress environment consisted of random change from embryonic day 13 (E13) to E17 as well as static change in maternal environment from E13 to postnatal day 21(P21). At P21, we measured hippocampal cell numbers of microglia, neural stem cell and neuron, as well as hippocampal TLR-9 expression. AELE significantly increased total microglia number and TLR-9 expression in the hippocampus. Concurrently, AELE significantly decreased neural stem cell and neuronal numbers. AELE increased the neuro-inflammatory cellular response in the juvenile HP. We speculate that increased neuro-inflammatory responses may contribute to impaired neurogenesis seen in this model. Copyright © 2016 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Akhirin regulates the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in intact and injured mouse spinal cord.

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    Abdulhaleem, Felemban Athary M; Song, Xiaohong; Kawano, Rie; Uezono, Naohiro; Ito, Ayako; Ahmed, Giasuddin; Hossain, Mahmud; Nakashima, Kinichi; Tanaka, Hideaki; Ohta, Kunimasa

    2015-05-01

    Although the central nervous system is considered a comparatively static tissue with limited cell turnover, cells with stem cell properties have been isolated from most neural tissues. The spinal cord ependymal cells show neural stem cell potential in vitro and in vivo in injured spinal cord. However, very little is known regarding the ependymal niche in the mouse spinal cord. We previously reported that a secreted factor, chick Akhirin, is expressed in the ciliary marginal zone of the eye, where it works as a heterophilic cell-adhesion molecule. Here, we describe a new crucial function for mouse Akhirin (M-AKH) in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of progenitors in the mouse spinal cord. During embryonic spinal cord development, M-AKH is transiently expressed in the central canal ependymal cells, which possess latent neural stem cell properties. Targeted inactivation of the AKH gene in mice causes a reduction in the size of the spinal cord and decreases BrdU incorporation in the spinal cord. Remarkably, the expression patterns of ependymal niche molecules in AKH knockout (AKH-/-) mice are different from those of AKH+/+, both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we provide evidence that AKH expression in the central canal is rapidly upregulated in the injured spinal cord. Taken together, these results indicate that M-AKH plays a crucial role in mouse spinal cord formation by regulating the ependymal niche in the central canal. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Comparative Analysis Between Flaviviruses Reveals Specific Neural Stem Cell Tropism for Zika Virus in the Mouse Developing Neocortex

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    Jean-Baptiste Brault

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The recent Zika outbreak in South America and French Polynesia was associated with an epidemic of microcephaly, a disease characterized by a reduced size of the cerebral cortex. Other members of the Flavivirus genus, including West Nile virus (WNV, can cause encephalitis but were not demonstrated to cause microcephaly. It remains unclear whether Zika virus (ZIKV and other flaviviruses may infect different cell populations in the developing neocortex and lead to distinct developmental defects. Here, we describe an assay to infect mouse E15 embryonic brain slices with ZIKV, WNV and dengue virus serotype 4 (DENV-4. We show that this tissue is able to support viral replication of ZIKV and WNV, but not DENV-4. Cell fate analysis reveals a remarkable tropism of ZIKV infection for neural stem cells. Closely related WNV displays a very different tropism of infection, with a bias towards neurons. We further show that ZIKV infection, but not WNV infection, impairs cell cycle progression of neural stem cells. Both viruses inhibited apoptosis at early stages of infection. This work establishes a powerful comparative approach to identify ZIKV-specific alterations in the developing neocortex and reveals specific preferential infection of neural stem cells by ZIKV.

  10. Mediation of autophagic cell death by type 3 ryanodine receptor (RyR3 in adult hippocampal neural stem cells

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    Kyung Min eChung

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic Ca2+ actively engages in diverse intracellular processes from protein synthesis, folding and trafficking to cell survival and death. Dysregulation of intracellular Ca2+ levels is observed in various neuropathological states including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Ryanodine receptors (RyRs and IP3 receptors (IP3Rs, the main Ca2+ release channels located in endoplasmic reticulum (ER membranes, are known to direct various cellular events such as autophagy and apoptosis. Here we investigated the intracellular Ca2+-mediated regulation of survival and death of adult hippocampal neural stem (HCN cells utilizing an insulin withdrawal model of autophagic cell death. Despite comparable expression levels of RyR and IP3R transcripts in HCN cells at normal state, the expression levels of RyRs — especially RyR3 — were markedly upregulated upon insulin withdrawal. While treatment with the RyR agonist caffeine significantly promoted the autophagic death of insulin-deficient HCN cells, treatment with its inhibitor dantrolene prevented the induction of autophagy following insulin withdrawal. Furthermore, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of the RyR3 gene abolished autophagic cell death of HCN cells. This study delineates a distinct, RyR3-mediated ER Ca2+ regulation of autophagy and programmed cell death in neural stem cells. Our findings provide novel insights into the critical, yet understudied mechanisms underlying the regulatory function of ER Ca2+ in neural stem cell biology.

  11. Gypenosides Protected the Neural Stem Cells in the Subventricular Zone of Neonatal Rats that Were Prenatally Exposed to Ethanol

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    Lun Dong

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD can cause severe mental retardation in children who are prenatally exposed to ethanol. The effects of prenatal and early postnatal ethanol exposure on adult hippocampal neurogenesis have been investigated; however, the effects of prenatal ethanol exposure on the subventricular zone (SVZ have not. Gypenosides (GPs have been reported to have neuroprotective effects in addition to other bioactivities. The effects of GPs on neural stem cells (NSCs in the FASD model are unknown. Here, we test the effect of prenatal ethanol exposure on the neonatal SVZ, and the protection potential of GPs on NSCs in FASD rats. Our results show that prenatal ethanol exposure can suppress the cell proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in the neonatal SVZ and that GPs (400 mg/kg/day can significantly increase the cell proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells inhibited by ethanol. Our data indicate that GPs have neuroprotective effects on the NSCs and can enhance the neurogenesis inhibited by ethanol within the SVZ of neonatal rats. These findings provide new evidence for a potential therapy involving GPs for the treatment of FASD.

  12. Brain plasticity, cognitive functions and neural stem cells: a pivotal role for the brain-specific neural master gene |-SRGAP2-FAM72-|.

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    Ho, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Kutzner, Arne; Heese, Klaus

    2017-12-20

    Due to an aging society with an increased dementia-induced threat to higher cognitive functions, it has become imperative to understand the molecular and cellular events controlling the memory and learning processes in the brain. Here, we suggest that the novel master gene pair |-SRGAP2-FAM72-| (SLIT-ROBO Rho GTPase activating the protein 2, family with sequence similarity to 72) reveals a new dogma for the regulation of neural stem cell (NSC) gene expression and is a distinctive player in the control of human brain plasticity. Insight into the specific regulation of the brain-specific neural master gene |-SRGAP2-FAM72-| may essentially contribute to novel therapeutic approaches to restore or improve higher cognitive functions.

  13. New tissue dissociation protocol for scaled-up production of neural stem cells in suspension bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Arindom; Kallos, Michael S; Behie, Leo A

    2004-01-01

    The successful dissociation of mammalian neural stem cell (NSC) aggregates (neurospheres) into a single-cell suspension is an important procedure when expanding NSCs for clinical use, or when performing important assays such as clonal analyses. Until now, researchers have had to rely primarily on destructive mechanical methods such as trituration with a pipette tip to break apart the aggregates. In this study we report on a new chemical dissociation procedure that is efficient, cost effective, reproducible, and much less harmful to murine NSCs than both mechanical and enzymatic techniques. This method, involving the manipulation of environmental pH levels, resulted in 40% higher measured cell densities and 15-20% higher viabilities compared with mechanical dissociation. Moreover, chemical dissociation resulted in the production of significantly less cellular debris. Chemical dissociation was found to have no adverse effects on the long-term proliferation of the NSCs, which retained the ability to proliferate, form neurospheres, self-renew, and exhibit multipotentiality. This chemical method represents a new approach for the dissociation of tissues.

  14. Transient muscarinic and glutamatergic stimulation of neural stem cells triggers acute and persistent changes in differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarasinghe, Ranmal A; Kanuparthi, Prasad S; Timothy Greenamyre, J; DeFranco, Donald B; Di Maio, Roberto

    2014-10-01

    While aberrant cell proliferation and differentiation may contribute to epileptogenesis, the mechanisms linking an initial epileptic insult to subsequent changes in cell fate remain elusive. Using both mouse and human iPSC-derived neural progenitor/stem cells (NPSCs), we found that a combined transient muscarinic and mGluR1 stimulation inhibited overall neurogenesis but enhanced NPSC differentiation into immature GABAergic cells. If treated NPSCs were further passaged, they retained a nearly identical phenotype upon differentiation. A similar profusion of immature GABAergic cells was seen in rats with pilocarpine-induced chronic epilepsy. Furthermore, live cell imaging revealed abnormal de-synchrony of Ca(++) transients and altered gap junction intercellular communication following combined muscarinic/glutamatergic stimulation, which was associated with either acute site-specific dephosphorylation of connexin 43 or a long-term enhancement of its degradation. Therefore, epileptogenic stimuli can trigger acute and persistent changes in cell fate by altering distinct mechanisms that function to maintain appropriate intercellular communication between coupled NPSCs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Optimization of a Neural Stem-Cell-Mediated Carboxylesterase/Irinotecan Gene Therapy for Metastatic Neuroblastoma

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    Margarita Gutova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite improved survival for children with newly diagnosed neuroblastoma (NB, recurrent disease is a significant problem, with treatment options limited by anti-tumor efficacy, patient drug tolerance, and cumulative toxicity. We previously demonstrated that neural stem cells (NSCs expressing a modified rabbit carboxylesterase (rCE can distribute to metastatic NB tumor foci in multiple organs in mice and convert the prodrug irinotecan (CPT-11 to the 1,000-fold more toxic topoisomerase-1 inhibitor SN-38, resulting in significant therapeutic efficacy. We sought to extend these studies by using a clinically relevant NSC line expressing a modified human CE (hCE1m6-NSCs to establish proof of concept and identify an intravenous dose and treatment schedule that gave maximal efficacy. Human-derived NB cell lines were significantly more sensitive to treatment with hCE1m6-NSCs and irinotecan as compared with drug alone. This was supported by pharmacokinetic studies in subcutaneous NB mouse models demonstrating tumor-specific conversion of irinotecan to SN-38. Furthermore, NB-bearing mice that received repeat treatment with intravenous hCE1m6-NSCs and irinotecan showed significantly lower tumor burden (1.4-fold, p = 0.0093 and increased long-term survival compared with mice treated with drug alone. These studies support the continued development of NSC-mediated gene therapy for improved clinical outcome in NB patients.

  16. Mechanisms for Interferon-α-Induced Depression and Neural Stem Cell Dysfunction

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    Lian-Shun Zheng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available New neurons generated by the neural stem cells (NSCs in the adult hippocampus play an important role in emotional regulation and respond to the action of antidepressants. Depression is a common and serious side effect of interferon-α (IFN-α, which limits its use as an antiviral and antitumor drug. However, the mechanism(s underlying IFN-induced depression are largely unknown. Using a comprehensive battery of behavioral tests, we found that mice subjected to IFN-α treatment exhibited a depression-like phenotype. IFN-α directly suppressed NSC proliferation, resulting in the reduced generation of new neurons. Brain-specific mouse knockout of the IFN-α receptor prevented IFN-α-induced depressive behavioral phenotypes and the inhibition of neurogenesis, suggesting that IFN-α suppresses hippocampal neurogenesis and induces depression via its receptor in the brain. These findings provide insight for understanding the neuropathology underlying IFN-α-induced depression and for developing new strategies for the prevention and treatment of IFN-α-induced depressive effects.

  17. Let7a involves in neural stem cell differentiation relating with TLX level

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    Song, Juhyun [Department of Anatomy, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyoung Joo; Oh, Yumi [Department of Anatomy, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); BK21 Plus Project for Medical Sciences, and Brain Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Eun, E-mail: jelee@yuhs.ac [Department of Anatomy, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); BK21 Plus Project for Medical Sciences, and Brain Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-10

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) have the potential for differentiation into neurons known as a groundbreaking therapeutic solution for central nervous system (CNS) diseases. To resolve the therapeutic efficiency of NSCs, recent researchers have focused on the study on microRNA's role in CNS. Some micro RNAs have been reported significant functions in NSC self-renewal and differentiation through the post-transcriptional regulation of neurogenesis genes. MicroRNA-Let7a (Let7a) has known as the regulator of diverse cellular mechanisms including cell differentiation and proliferation. In present study, we investigated whether Let7a regulates NSC differentiation by targeting the nuclear receptor TLX, which is an essential regulator of NSC self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation. We performed the following experiments: western blot analysis, TaqMan assay, RT-PCR, and immunocytochemistry to confirm the alteration of NSCs. Our data showed that let7a play important roles in controlling NSC fate determination. Thus, manipulating Let-7A and TLX could be a novel strategy to enhance the efficiency of NSC's neuronal differentiation for CNS disorders. - Highlights: • Let7a influences on NSC differentiation and proliferation. • Let7a involves in mainly NSC differentiation rather than proliferation. • Let7a positively regulates the TLX expression.

  18. 3D culture of murine neural stem cells on decellularized mouse brain sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waele, Jorrit; Reekmans, Kristien; Daans, Jasmijn; Goossens, Herman; Berneman, Zwi; Ponsaerts, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Transplantation of neural stem cells (NSC) in diseased or injured brain tissue is widely studied as a potential treatment for various neurological pathologies. However, effective cell replacement therapy relies on the intrinsic capacity of cellular grafts to overcome hypoxic and/or immunological barriers after transplantation. In this context, it is hypothesized that structural support for grafted NSC will be of utmost importance. With this study, we present a novel decellularization protocol for 1.5 mm thick mouse brain sections, resulting in the generation of acellular three-dimensional (3D) brain sections. Next, the obtained 3D brain sections were seeded with murine NSC expressing both the eGFP and luciferase reporter proteins (NSC-eGFP/Luc). Using real-time bioluminescence imaging, the survival and growth of seeded NSC-eGFP/Luc cells was longitudinally monitored for 1-7 weeks in culture, indicating the ability of the acellular brain sections to support sustained ex vivo growth of NSC. Next, the organization of a 3D maze-like cellular structure was examined using confocal microscopy. Moreover, under mitogenic stimuli (EGF and hFGF-2), most cells in this 3D culture retained their NSC phenotype. Concluding, we here present a novel protocol for decellularization of mouse brain sections, which subsequently support long-term 3D culture of undifferentiated NSC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fragile x mental retardation protein regulates proliferation and differentiation of adult neural stem/progenitor cells.

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    Yuping Luo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Fragile X syndrome (FXS, the most common form of inherited mental retardation, is caused by the loss of functional fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP. FMRP is an RNA-binding protein that can regulate the translation of specific mRNAs. Adult neurogenesis, a process considered important for neuroplasticity and memory, is regulated at multiple molecular levels. In this study, we investigated whether Fmrp deficiency affects adult neurogenesis. We show that in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome, adult neurogenesis is indeed altered. The loss of Fmrp increases the proliferation and alters the fate specification of adult neural progenitor/stem cells (aNPCs. We demonstrate that Fmrp regulates the protein expression of several components critical for aNPC function, including CDK4 and GSK3beta. Dysregulation of GSK3beta led to reduced Wnt signaling pathway activity, which altered the expression of neurogenin1 and the fate specification of aNPCs. These data unveil a novel regulatory role for Fmrp and translational regulation in adult neurogenesis.

  20. N-Myc and GCN5 regulate significantly overlapping transcriptional programs in neural stem cells.

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    Verónica Martínez-Cerdeño

    Full Text Available Here we examine the functions of the Myc cofactor and histone acetyltransferase, GCN5/KAT2A, in neural stem and precursor cells (NSC using a conditional knockout approach driven by nestin-cre. Mice with GCN5-deficient NSC exhibit a 25% reduction in brain mass with a microcephaly phenotype similar to that observed in nestin-cre driven knockouts of c- or N-myc. In addition, the loss of GCN5 inhibits precursor cell proliferation and reduces their populations in vivo, as does loss of N-myc. Gene expression analysis indicates that about one-sixth of genes whose expression is affected by loss of GCN5 are also affected in the same manner by loss of N-myc. These findings strongly support the notion that GCN5 protein is a key N-Myc transcriptional cofactor in NSC, but are also consistent with recruitment of GCN5 by other transcription factors and the use by N-Myc of other histone acetyltransferases. Putative N-Myc/GCN5 coregulated transcriptional pathways include cell metabolism, cell cycle, chromatin, and neuron projection morphogenesis genes. GCN5 is also required for maintenance of histone acetylation both at its putative specific target genes and at Myc targets. Thus, we have defined an important role for GCN5 in NSC and provided evidence that GCN5 is an important Myc transcriptional cofactor in vivo.

  1. E-cadherin-transfected neural stem cells transplantation for spinal cord injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Tu, Feng; Zhang, Ji-yin; Shen, Lin

    2014-08-01

    The effects of E-cadherin-transfected neural stem cells (NSCs) transplantation for spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats were investigated. Sixty SD rats were randomly divided into model control group, NSCs group, empty plasmid group and E-cadherin overexpression group (n=15 each). The animal SCI model was established by using the modified Allen's method. NSCs were cultured. Rats in NSCs group were subjected to NSCs transplantation. E-cadherin gene eucaryotic expression vector and pcDNA3.1-E-cadherin were respectively transfected into cultured NSCs, serving as empty plasmid group and E-cadherin overexpression group respectively. At 7th day after transplantation, neurological function of all rats was assessed by Tarlov score. After rats were sacrificed in each group, the number of BrdU and Nestin positive cells was counted by immunohistochemistry. Immumofluorescence method was used to detect the expression of neurofilament protein (NF) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). As compared with model control group, the Tarlov score and the number of of BrdU and Nestin positive cells, and the expression of NF and GFAP in NSCs group, empty plasmid group, and E-cadherin overexpression group were increased significantly (P<0.05), and those in the E-cadherin overexpression group were increased more significantly than the other transplantation groups (P<0.05). It was suggested that E-cadherin could be conductive to nerve regeneration and repair probably by promoting the proliferation and differentiation of NSCs.

  2. Neural stem cells promote nerve regeneration through IL12-induced Schwann cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Don-Ching; Chen, Jong-Hang; Hsu, Tai-Yu; Chang, Li-Hsun; Chang, Hsu; Chi, Ya-Hui; Chiu, Ing-Ming

    2017-03-01

    Regeneration of injured peripheral nerves is a slow, complicated process that could be improved by implantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) or nerve conduit. Implantation of NSCs along with conduits promotes the regeneration of damaged nerve, likely because (i) conduit supports and guides axonal growth from one nerve stump to the other, while preventing fibrous tissue ingrowth and retaining neurotrophic factors; and (ii) implanted NSCs differentiate into Schwann cells and maintain a growth factor enriched microenvironment, which promotes nerve regeneration. In this study, we identified IL12p80 (homodimer of IL12p40) in the cell extracts of implanted nerve conduit combined with NSCs by using protein antibody array and Western blotting. Levels of IL12p80 in these conduits are 1.6-fold higher than those in conduits without NSCs. In the sciatic nerve injury mouse model, implantation of NSCs combined with nerve conduit and IL12p80 improves motor recovery and increases the diameter up to 4.5-fold, at the medial site of the regenerated nerve. In vitro study further revealed that IL12p80 stimulates the Schwann cell differentiation of mouse NSCs through the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3). These results suggest that IL12p80 can trigger Schwann cell differentiation of mouse NSCs through Stat3 phosphorylation and enhance the functional recovery and the diameter of regenerated nerves in a mouse sciatic nerve injury model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Control of obesity and glucose intolerance via building neural stem cells in the hypothalamus.

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    Li, Juxue; Tang, Yizhe; Purkayastha, Sudarshana; Yan, Jingqi; Cai, Dongsheng

    2014-06-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) were recently revealed to exist in the hypothalamus of adult mice. Here, following our observation showing that a partial loss of hypothalamic NSCs caused weight gain and glucose intolerance, we studied if NSCs-based cell therapy could be developed to control these disorders. While hypothalamus-implanted NSCs failed to survive in mice with obesity, NF-κB inhibition induced survival and neurogenesis of these cells, leading to effects in counteracting obesity and glucose intolerance. To generate an alternative cell source, we revealed that iPS-derived NSCs were converted into htNSCs by neuropeptide treatment. Of note, obesity condition potentiated the transfer of carotid artery-injected NSCs into the hypothalamus. These iPS-derived cells when engineered with NF-κB inhibition were also effective in reducing obesity and glucose intolerance, and neurogenesis towards POMCergic and GABAergic lineages was accountable. In conclusion, building NSCs in the hypothalamus represents a strategy for controlling obesity and glucose disorders.

  4. SPOT14-Positive Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells in the Hippocampus Respond Dynamically to Neurogenic Regulators

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    Marlen Knobloch

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs in the adult brain is tightly controlled to prevent exhaustion and to ensure proper neurogenesis. Several extrinsic stimuli affect NSPC regulation. However, the lack of unique markers led to controversial results regarding the in vivo behavior of NSPCs to different stimuli. We recently identified SPOT14, which controls NSPC proliferation through regulation of de novo lipogenesis, selectively in low-proliferating NSPCs. Whether SPOT14-expressing (SPOT14+ NSPCs react in vivo to neurogenic regulators is not known. We show that aging is accompanied by a marked disappearance of SPOT14+ NSPCs, whereas running, a positive neurogenic stimulus, increases proliferation of SPOT14+ NSPCs. Furthermore, transient depletion of highly proliferative cells recruits SPOT14+ NSPCs into the proliferative pool. Additionally, we have established endogenous SPOT14 protein staining, reflecting transgenic SPOT14-GFP expression. Thus, our data identify SPOT14 as a potent marker for adult NSPCs that react dynamically to positive and negative neurogenic regulators.

  5. A preclinical assessment of neural stem cells as delivery vehicles for anti-amyloid therapeutics.

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    eMalick G Njie

    Full Text Available Transplantation of neural stems cells (NSCs could be a useful means to deliver biologic therapeutics for late-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD. In this study, we conducted a small preclinical investigation of whether NSCs could be modified to express metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9, a secreted protease reported to degrade aggregated Aβ peptides that are the major constituents of the senile plaques. Our findings illuminated three issues with using NSCs as delivery vehicles for this particular application. First, transplanted NSCs generally failed to migrate to amyloid plaques, instead tending to colonize white matter tracts. Second, the final destination of these cells was highly influenced by how they were delivered. We found that our injection methods led to cells largely distributing to white matter tracts, which are anisotropic conduits for fluids that facilitate rapid distribution within the CNS. Third, with regard to MMP9 as a therapeutic to remove senile plaques, we observed high concentrations of endogenous metalloproteinases around amyloid plaques in the mouse models used for these preclinical tests with no evidence that the NSC-delivered enzymes elevated these activities or had any impact. Interestingly, MMP9-expressing NSCs formed substantially larger grafts. Overall, we observed long-term survival of NSCs in the brains of mice with high amyloid burden. Therefore, we conclude that such cells may have potential in therapeutic applications in AD but improved targeting of these cells to disease-specific lesions may be required to enhance efficacy.

  6. Elimination of the geomagnetic field stimulates the proliferation of mouse neural progenitor and stem cells

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    Jing-Peng Fu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Living organisms are exposed to the geomagnetic field (GMF throughout their lifespan. Elimination of the GMF, resulting in a hypogeomagnetic field (HMF, leads to central nervous system dysfunction and abnormal development in animals. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying these effects have not been identified so far. Here, we show that exposure to an HMF (<200 nT, produced by a magnetic field shielding chamber, promotes the proliferation of neural progenitor/stem cells (NPCs/NSCs from C57BL/6 mice. Following seven-day HMF-exposure, the primary neurospheres (NSs were significantly larger in size, and twice more NPCs/NSCs were harvested from neonatal NSs, when compared to the GMF controls. The self-renewal capacity and multipotency of the NSs were maintained, as HMF-exposed NSs were positive for NSC markers (Nestin and Sox2, and could differentiate into neurons and astrocyte/glial cells and be passaged continuously. In addition, adult mice exposed to the HMF for one month were observed to have a greater number of proliferative cells in the subventricular zone. These findings indicate that continuous HMF-exposure increases the proliferation of NPCs/NSCs, in vitro and in vivo. HMF-disturbed NPCs/NSCs production probably affects brain development and function, which provides a novel clue for elucidating the cellular mechanisms of the bio-HMF response.

  7. Taking Advantage of Nature's Gift: Can Endogenous Neural Stem Cells Improve Myelin Regeneration?

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    Akkermann, Rainer; Jadasz, Janusz Joachim; Azim, Kasum; Küry, Patrick

    2016-11-14

    Irreversible functional deficits in multiple sclerosis (MS) are directly correlated to axonal damage and loss. Neurodegeneration results from immune-mediated destruction of myelin sheaths and subsequent axonal demyelination. Importantly, oligodendrocytes, the myelinating glial cells of the central nervous system, can be replaced to some extent to generate new myelin sheaths. This endogenous regeneration capacity has so far mainly been attributed to the activation and recruitment of resident oligodendroglial precursor cells. As this self-repair process is limited and increasingly fails while MS progresses, much interest has evolved regarding the development of remyelination-promoting strategies and the presence of alternative cell types, which can also contribute to the restoration of myelin sheaths. The adult brain comprises at least two neurogenic niches harboring life-long adult neural stem cells (NSCs). An increasing number of investigations are beginning to shed light on these cells under pathological conditions and revealed a significant potential of NSCs to contribute to myelin repair activities. In this review, these emerging investigations are discussed with respect to the importance of stimulating endogenous repair mechanisms from germinal sources. Moreover, we present key findings of NSC-derived oligodendroglial progeny, including a comprehensive overview of factors and mechanisms involved in this process.

  8. Let7a involves in neural stem cell differentiation relating with TLX level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Juhyun; Cho, Kyoung Joo; Oh, Yumi; Lee, Jong Eun

    2015-07-10

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) have the potential for differentiation into neurons known as a groundbreaking therapeutic solution for central nervous system (CNS) diseases. To resolve the therapeutic efficiency of NSCs, recent researchers have focused on the study on microRNA's role in CNS. Some micro RNAs have been reported significant functions in NSC self-renewal and differentiation through the post-transcriptional regulation of neurogenesis genes. MicroRNA-Let7a (Let7a) has known as the regulator of diverse cellular mechanisms including cell differentiation and proliferation. In present study, we investigated whether Let7a regulates NSC differentiation by targeting the nuclear receptor TLX, which is an essential regulator of NSC self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation. We performed the following experiments: western blot analysis, TaqMan assay, RT-PCR, and immunocytochemistry to confirm the alteration of NSCs. Our data showed that let7a play important roles in controlling NSC fate determination. Thus, manipulating Let-7A and TLX could be a novel strategy to enhance the efficiency of NSC's neuronal differentiation for CNS disorders. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Melatonin enhances neural stem cell differentiation and engraftment by increasing mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendivil-Perez, Miguel; Soto-Mercado, Viviana; Guerra-Librero, Ana; Fernandez-Gil, Beatriz I; Florido, Javier; Shen, Ying-Qiang; Tejada, Miguel A; Capilla-Gonzalez, Vivian; Rusanova, Iryna; Garcia-Verdugo, José M; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío; López, Luis Carlos; Velez-Pardo, Carlos; Jimenez-Del-Rio, Marlene; Ferrer, José M; Escames, Germaine

    2017-09-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are regarded as a promising therapeutic approach to protecting and restoring damaged neurons in neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease (PD and AD, respectively). However, new research suggests that NSC differentiation is required to make this strategy effective. Several studies have demonstrated that melatonin increases mature neuronal markers, which reflects NSC differentiation into neurons. Nevertheless, the possible involvement of mitochondria in the effects of melatonin during NSC differentiation has not yet been fully established. We therefore tested the impact of melatonin on NSC proliferation and differentiation in an attempt to determine whether these actions depend on modulating mitochondrial activity. We measured proliferation and differentiation markers, mitochondrial structural and functional parameters as well as oxidative stress indicators and also evaluated cell transplant engraftment. This enabled us to show that melatonin (25 μM) induces NSC differentiation into oligodendrocytes and neurons. These effects depend on increased mitochondrial mass/DNA/complexes, mitochondrial respiration, and membrane potential as well as ATP synthesis in NSCs. It is also interesting to note that melatonin prevented oxidative stress caused by high levels of mitochondrial activity. Finally, we found that melatonin enriches NSC engraftment in the ND mouse model following transplantation. We concluded that a combined therapy involving transplantation of NSCs pretreated with pharmacological doses of melatonin could efficiently restore neuronal cell populations in PD and AD mouse models depending on mitochondrial activity promotion. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Immunocytochemical characterisation of neural stem-progenitor cells from green terror cichlid Aequidens rivulatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, C M; Chen, M M; Nan, F H; Wang, C S

    2017-01-01

    In this study, cultures of neural stem-progenitor cells (NSPC) from the brain of green terror cichlid Aequidens rivulatus were established and various NSPCs were demonstrated using immunocytochemistry. All of the NSPCs expressed brain lipid-binding protein, dopamine- and cAMP-regulated neuronal phosphoprotein 32 (DARPP-32), oligodendrocyte transcription factor 2, paired box 6 and sex determining region Y-box 2. The intensity and localisation of these proteins, however, varied among the different NSPCs. Despite being intermediate cells, NSPCs can be divided into radial glial cells, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) and neuroblasts by expressing the astrocyte marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), OPC marker A2B5 and neuronal markers, including acetyl-tubulin, βIII-tubulin, microtubule-associated protein 2 and neurofilament protein. Nevertheless, astrocytes were polymorphic and were the most dominant cells in the NSPC cultures. By using Matrigel, radial glia exhibiting a long GFAP(+) or DARPP-32(+) fibre and neurons exhibiting a significant acetyl-tubulin(+) process were obtained. The results confirmed that NSPCs obtained from A. rivulatus brains can proliferate and differentiate into neurons in vitro. Clonal culture can be useful for further studying the distinct NSPCs. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  11. Hedgehog Controls Quiescence and Activation of Neural Stem Cells in the Adult Ventricular-Subventricular Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Daynac

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the mechanisms controlling quiescence and activation of neural stem cells (NSCs is crucial for understanding brain repair. Here, we demonstrate that Hedgehog (Hh signaling actively regulates different pools of quiescent and proliferative NSCs in the adult ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ, one of the main brain neurogenic niches. Specific deletion of the Hh receptor Patched in NSCs during adulthood upregulated Hh signaling in quiescent NSCs, progressively leading to a large accumulation of these cells in the V-SVZ. The pool of non-neurogenic astrocytes was not modified, whereas the activated NSC pool increased after a short period, before progressively becoming exhausted. We also showed that Sonic Hedgehog regulates proliferation of activated NSCs in vivo and shortens both their G1 and S-G2/M phases in culture. These data demonstrate that Hh orchestrates the balance between quiescent and activated NSCs, with important implications for understanding adult neurogenesis under normal homeostatic conditions or during injury.

  12. Near infrared laser stimulation of human neural stem cells into neurons on graphene nanomesh semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Omid; Ghaderi, Elham; Shirazian, Soheil A

    2015-02-01

    Reduced graphene oxide nanomeshes (rGONMs), as p-type semiconductors with band-gap energy of ∼ 1 eV, were developed and applied in near infrared (NIR) laser stimulation of human neural stem cells (hNSCs) into neurons. The biocompatibility of the rGONMs in growth of hNSCs was found similar to that of the graphene oxide (GO) sheets. Proliferation of the hNSCs on the GONMs was assigned to the excess oxygen functional groups formed on edge defects of the GONMs, resulting in superhydrophilicity of the surface. Under NIR laser stimulation, the graphene layers (especially the rGONMs) exhibited significant cell differentiations, including more elongations of the cells and higher differentiation of neurons than glia. The higher hNSC differentiation on the rGONM than the reduced GO (rGO) was assigned to the stimulation effects of the low-energy photoexcited electrons injected from the rGONM semiconductors into the cells, while the high-energy photoelectrons of the rGO (as a zero band-gap semiconductor) could suppress the cell proliferation and/or even cause cell damages. Using conventional heating of the culture media up to ∼ 43 °C (the temperature typically reached under the laser irradiation), no significant differentiation was observed in dark. This further confirmed the role of photoelectrons in the hNSC differentiation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Enhance Neuronal Differentiation in Cultured Rat Neural Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Katakura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs can induce neurogenesis and recovery from brain diseases. However, the exact mechanisms of the beneficial effects of PUFAs have not been conclusively described. We recently reported that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA induced neuronal differentiation by decreasing Hes1 expression and increasing p27kip1 expression, which causes cell cycle arrest in neural stem cells (NSCs. In the present study, we examined the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and arachidonic acid (AA on differentiation, expression of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors (Hes1, Hes6, and NeuroD, and the cell cycle of cultured NSCs. EPA also increased mRNA levels of Hes1, an inhibitor of neuronal differentiation, Hes6, an inhibitor of Hes1, NeuroD, and Map2 mRNA and Tuj-1-positive cells (a neuronal marker, indicating that EPA induced neuronal differentiation. EPA increased the mRNA levels of p21cip1 and p27kip1, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, which indicated that EPA induced cell cycle arrest. Treatment with AA decreased Hes1 mRNA but did not affect NeuroD and Map2 mRNA levels. Furthermore, AA did not affect the number of Tuj-1-positive cells or cell cycle progression. These results indicated that EPA could be involved in neuronal differentiation by mechanisms alternative to those of DHA, whereas AA did not affect neuronal differentiation in NSCs.

  14. Llgl1 Connects Cell Polarity with Cell-Cell Adhesion in Embryonic Neural Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jossin, Yves; Lee, Minhui; Klezovitch, Olga; Kon, Elif; Cossard, Alexia; Lien, Wen-Hui; Fernandez, Tania E; Cooper, Jonathan A; Vasioukhin, Valera

    2017-06-05

    Malformations of the cerebral cortex (MCCs) are devastating developmental disorders. We report here that mice with embryonic neural stem-cell-specific deletion of Llgl1 (Nestin-Cre/Llgl1fl/fl), a mammalian ortholog of the Drosophila cell polarity gene lgl, exhibit MCCs resembling severe periventricular heterotopia (PH). Immunohistochemical analyses and live cortical imaging of PH formation revealed that disruption of apical junctional complexes (AJCs) was responsible for PH in Nestin-Cre/Llgl1fl/fl brains. While it is well known that cell polarity proteins govern the formation of AJCs, the exact mechanisms remain unclear. We show that LLGL1 directly binds to and promotes internalization of N-cadherin, and N-cadherin/LLGL1 interaction is inhibited by atypical protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation of LLGL1, restricting the accumulation of AJCs to the basolateral-apical boundary. Disruption of the N-cadherin-LLGL1 interaction during cortical development in vivo is sufficient for PH. These findings reveal a mechanism responsible for the physical and functional connection between cell polarity and cell-cell adhesion machineries in mammalian cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Taking Advantage of Nature’s Gift: Can Endogenous Neural Stem Cells Improve Myelin Regeneration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Akkermann

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Irreversible functional deficits in multiple sclerosis (MS are directly correlated to axonal damage and loss. Neurodegeneration results from immune-mediated destruction of myelin sheaths and subsequent axonal demyelination. Importantly, oligodendrocytes, the myelinating glial cells of the central nervous system, can be replaced to some extent to generate new myelin sheaths. This endogenous regeneration capacity has so far mainly been attributed to the activation and recruitment of resident oligodendroglial precursor cells. As this self-repair process is limited and increasingly fails while MS progresses, much interest has evolved regarding the development of remyelination-promoting strategies and the presence of alternative cell types, which can also contribute to the restoration of myelin sheaths. The adult brain comprises at least two neurogenic niches harboring life-long adult neural stem cells (NSCs. An increasing number of investigations are beginning to shed light on these cells under pathological conditions and revealed a significant potential of NSCs to contribute to myelin repair activities. In this review, these emerging investigations are discussed with respect to the importance of stimulating endogenous repair mechanisms from germinal sources. Moreover, we present key findings of NSC-derived oligodendroglial progeny, including a comprehensive overview of factors and mechanisms involved in this process.

  16. Oxidative stress response in neural stem cells exposed to different superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongrac, Igor M; Pavičić, Ivan; Milić, Mirta; Brkić Ahmed, Lada; Babič, Michal; Horák, Daniel; Vinković Vrček, Ivana; Gajović, Srećko

    2016-01-01

    Biocompatibility, safety, and risk assessments of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are of the highest priority in researching their application in biomedicine. One improvement in the biological properties of SPIONs may be achieved by different functionalization and surface modifications. This study aims to investigate how a different surface functionalization of SPIONs - uncoated, coated with d-mannose, or coated with poly-l-lysine - affects biocompatibility. We sought to investigate murine neural stem cells (NSCs) as important model system for regenerative medicine. To reveal the possible mechanism of toxicity of SPIONs on NSCs, levels of reactive oxygen species, intracellular glutathione, mitochondrial membrane potential, cell-membrane potential, DNA damage, and activities of SOD and GPx were examined. Even in cases where reactive oxygen species levels were significantly lowered in NSCs exposed to SPIONs, we found depleted intracellular glutathione levels, altered activities of SOD and GPx, hyperpolarization of the mitochondrial membrane, dissipated cell-membrane potential, and increased DNA damage, irrespective of the surface coating applied for SPION stabilization. Although surface coating should prevent the toxic effects of SPIONs, our results showed that all of the tested SPION types affected the NSCs similarly, indicating that mitochondrial homeostasis is their major cellular target. Despite the claimed biomedical benefits of SPIONs, the refined determination of their effects on various cellular functions presented in this work highlights the need for further safety evaluations. This investigation helps to fill the knowledge gaps on the criteria that should be considered in evaluating the biocompatibility and safety of novel nanoparticles.

  17. Combination of edaravone and neural stem cell transplantation repairs injured spinal cord in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y Y; Peng, C G; Ye, X B

    2015-12-29

    This study sought to observe the effect of the combination of edaravone and neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation on the repair of complete spinal cord transection in rats. Eighty adult female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used to establish the injury model of complete spinal cord transection at T9. Animals were divided randomly into four groups (N = 20 each): control, edaravone, transplantation, and edaravone + transplantation. The recovery of spinal function was evaluated with the Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan (BBB) rating scale on days 1, 3, and 7 each week after the surgery. After 8 weeks, the BBB scores of the control, edaravone, transplantation, and combination groups were 4.21 ± 0.11, 8.46 ± 0.1, 8.54 ± 0.13, and 11.21 ± 0.14, respectively. At 8 weeks after surgery, the spinal cord was collected; the survival and transportation of transplanted cells were observed with PKH-26 labeling, and the regeneration and distribution of spinal nerve fibers with fluorescent-gold (FG) retrograde tracing. Five rats died due to the injury. PKH-26-labeled NSCs had migrated into the spinal cord. A few intact nerve fibers and pyramidal neurons passed the injured area in the transplantation and combination groups. The numbers of PKH-26-labeled cells and FG-labeled nerve fibers were in the order: combination group > edaravone group and transplantation group > control group (P transplantation can improve the effectiveness of spinal cord injury repair in rats.

  18. Safety of human neural stem cell transplantation in chronic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piltti, Katja M; Salazar, Desiree L; Uchida, Nobuko; Cummings, Brian J; Anderson, Aileen J

    2013-12-01

    The spinal cord injury (SCI) microenvironment undergoes dynamic changes over time, which could potentially affect survival or differentiation of cells in early versus delayed transplantation study designs. Accordingly, assessment of safety parameters, including cell survival, migration, fate, sensory fiber sprouting, and behavioral measures of pain sensitivity in animals receiving transplants during the chronic postinjury period is required for establishing a potential therapeutic window. The goal of the study was assessment of safety parameters for delayed transplantation of human central nervous system-derived neural stem cells (hCNS-SCns) by comparing hCNS-SCns transplantation in the subacute period, 9 days postinjury (DPI), versus the chronic period, 60 DPI, in contusion-injured athymic nude rats. Although the number of surviving human cells after chronic transplantation was lower, no changes in cell migration were detected between the 9 and 60 DPI cohorts; however, the data suggest chronic transplantation may have enhanced the generation of mature oligodendrocytes. The timing of transplantation did not induce changes in allodynia or hyperalgesia measures. Together, these data support the safety of hCNS-SCns transplantation in the chronic period post-SCI.

  19. Chitosan scaffolds induce human dental pulp stem cells to neural differentiation: potential roles for spinal cord injury therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinlong; Lu, Xiaohui; Feng, Guijuan; Gu, Zhifeng; Sun, Yuyu; Bao, Guofeng; Xu, Guanhua; Lu, Yuanzhou; Chen, Jiajia; Xu, Lingfeng; Feng, Xingmei; Cui, Zhiming

    2016-10-01

    Cell-based transplantation strategies hold great potential for spinal cord injury (SCI) repair. Chitosan scaffolds have therapeutic benefits for spinal cord regeneration. Human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are abundant available stem cells with low immunological incompatibility and can be considered for cell replacement therapy. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of chitosan scaffolds in the neural differentiation of DPSCs in vitro and to assess the supportive effects of chitosan scaffolds in an animal model of SCI. DPSCs were incubated with chitosan scaffolds. Cell viability and the secretion of neurotrophic factors were analyzed. DPSCs incubated with chitosan scaffolds were treated with neural differentiation medium for 14 days and then neural genes and protein markers were analyzed by Western blot and reverse transcription plus the polymerase chain reaction. Our study revealed a higher cell viability and neural differentiation in the DPSC/chitosan-scaffold group. Compared with the control group, the levels of BDNF, GDNF, b-NGF, and NT-3 were significantly increased in the DPSC/chitosan-scaffold group. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway played a key role in the neural differentiation of DPSCs combined with chitosan scaffolds. Transplantation of DPSCs together with chitosan scaffolds into an SCI rat model resulted in the marked recovery of hind limb locomotor functions. Thus, chitosan scaffolds were non-cytotoxic and provided a conducive and favorable microenvironment for the survival and neural differentiation of DPSCs. Transplantation of DPSCs might therefore be a suitable candidate for treating SCI and other neuronal degenerative diseases.

  20. Multiparametric Phenotypic Screening System for Profiling Bioactive Compounds Using Human Fetal Hippocampal Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Yoshikuni; Murai, Norio; Sasaki, Takeo; Taniguchi, Sachie; Suzuki, Shuichi; Yamazaki, Kazuto; Ito, Masashi

    2015-10-01

    Stem cell research has been progressing rapidly, contributing to regenerative biology and regenerative medicine. In this field, small-molecule compounds affecting stem cell proliferation/differentiation have been explored to understand stem cell biology and support regenerative medicine. In this study, we established a multiparametric screening system to detect bioactive compounds affecting the cell fate of human neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs), using human fetal hippocampal NSCs/NPCs, HIP-009 cells. We examined effects of 410 compounds, which were collected based on mechanisms of action (MOAs) and chemotypes, on HIP-009's cell fate (self-renewal, neuronal and astrocytic differentiation) and morphology by automated multiparametric assays and profiled induced cellular phenotypes. We found that this screening classified compounds with the same MOAs into subgroups according to additional pharmacological effects (e.g., mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 [mTORC1] inhibitors and mTORC1/mTORC2 dual inhibitors among mTOR inhibitors). Moreover, it identified compounds that have off-target effects under matrix analyses of MOAs and structure similarities (e.g., neurotropic effects of amitriptyline among tri- and tetracyclic compounds). Therefore, this automated, medium-throughput and multiparametric screening system is useful for finding compounds that affect the cell fate of human NSCs/NPCs for supporting regenerative medicine and to fingerprint compounds based on human stem cells' multipotency, leading to understanding of stem cell biology. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  1. Technologies enabling autologous neural stem cell-based therapies for neurodegenerative disease and injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhru, Sasha H.

    The intrinsic abilities of mammalian neural stem cells (NSCs) to self-renew, migrate over large distances, and give rise to all primary neural cell types of the brain offer unprecedented opportunity for cell-based treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and injuries. This thesis discusses development of technologies in support of autologous NSC-based therapies, encompassing harvest of brain tissue biopsies from living human patients; isolation of NSCs from harvested tissue; efficient culture and expansion of NSCs in 3D polymeric microcapsule culture systems; optimization of microcapsules as carriers for efficient in vivo delivery of NSCs; genetic engineering of NSCs for drug-induced, enzymatic release of transplanted NSCs from microcapsules; genetic engineering for drug-induced differentiation of NSCs into specific therapeutic cell types; and synthesis of chitosan/iron-oxide nanoparticles for labeling of NSCs and in vivo tracking by cellular MRI. Sub-millimeter scale tissue samples were harvested endoscopically from subventricular zone regions of living patient brains, secondary to neurosurgical procedures including endoscopic third ventriculostomy and ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement. On average, 12,000 +/- 3,000 NSCs were isolated per mm 3 of subventricular zone tissue, successfully demonstrated in 26 of 28 patients, ranging in age from one month to 68 years. In order to achieve efficient expansion of isolated NSCs to clinically relevant numbers (e.g. hundreds of thousands of cells in Parkinson's disease and tens of millions of cells in multiple sclerosis), an extracellular matrix-inspired, microcapsule-based culture platform was developed. Initial culture experiments with murine NSCs yielded unprecedented expansion folds of 30x in 5 days, from initially minute NSC populations (154 +/- 15 NSCs per 450 mum diameter capsule). Within 7 days, NSCs expanded as almost perfectly homogenous populations, with 94.9% +/- 4.1% of cultured cells staining positive for

  2. Functional integration of grafted neural stem cell-derived dopaminergic neurons monitored by optogenetics in an in vitro Parkinson model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Tønnesen

    Full Text Available Intrastriatal grafts of stem cell-derived dopamine (DA neurons induce behavioral recovery in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD, but how they functionally integrate in host neural circuitries is poorly understood. Here, Wnt5a-overexpressing neural stem cells derived from embryonic ventral mesencephalon of tyrosine hydroxylase-GFP transgenic mice were expanded as neurospheres and transplanted into organotypic cultures of wild type mouse striatum. Differentiated GFP-labeled DA neurons in the grafts exhibited mature neuronal properties, including spontaneous firing of action potentials, presence of post-synaptic currents, and functional expression of DA D₂ autoreceptors. These properties resembled those recorded from identical cells in acute slices of intrastriatal grafts in the 6-hydroxy-DA-induced mouse PD model and from DA neurons in intact substantia nigra. Optogenetic activation or inhibition of grafted cells and host neurons using channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2 and halorhodopsin (NpHR, respectively, revealed complex, bi-directional synaptic interactions between grafted cells and host neurons and extensive synaptic connectivity within the graft. Our data demonstrate for the first time using optogenetics that ectopically grafted stem cell-derived DA neurons become functionally integrated in the DA-denervated striatum. Further optogenetic dissection of the synaptic wiring between grafted and host neurons will be crucial to clarify the cellular and synaptic mechanisms underlying behavioral recovery as well as adverse effects following stem cell-based DA cell replacement strategies in PD.

  3. [18F]FDG labeling of neural stem cells for in vivo cell tracking with positron emission tomography : inhibition of tracer release by phloretin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stojanov, Katica; de Vries, Erik F. J.; Hoekstra, Dick; van Waarde, Aren; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Zuhorn, Inge S.

    The introduction of neural stem cells into the brain has promising therapeutic potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. To monitor the cellular replacement therapy, that is, to determine stem cell migration, survival, and differentiation, in vivo tracking methods are needed.

  4. Dynamic Changes in Ezh2 Gene Occupancy Underlie Its Involvement in Neural Stem Cell Self-Renewal and Differentiation towards Oligodendrocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sher, Falak; Boddeke, Erik; Olah, Marta; Copray, Sjef

    2012-01-01

    Background: The polycomb group protein Ezh2 is an epigenetic repressor of transcription originally found to prevent untimely differentiation of pluripotent embryonic stem cells. We previously demonstrated that Ezh2 is also expressed in multipotent neural stem cells (NSCs). We showed that Ezh2

  5. Running rescues defective adult neurogenesis by shortening the length of the cell cycle of neural stem and progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farioli-Vecchioli, Stefano; Mattera, Andrea; Micheli, Laura; Ceccarelli, Manuela; Leonardi, Luca; Saraulli, Daniele; Costanzi, Marco; Cestari, Vincenzo; Rouault, Jean-Pierre; Tirone, Felice

    2014-07-01

    Physical exercise increases the generation of new neurons in adult neurogenesis. However, only few studies have investigated the beneficial effects of physical exercise in paradigms of impaired neurogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that running fully reverses the deficient adult neurogenesis within the hippocampus and subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle, observed in mice lacking the antiproliferative gene Btg1. We also evaluated for the first time how running influences the cell cycle kinetics of stem and precursor subpopulations of wild-type and Btg1-null mice, using a new method to determine the cell cycle length. Our data show that in wild-type mice running leads to a cell cycle shortening only of NeuroD1-positive progenitor cells. In contrast, in Btg1-null mice, physical exercise fully reactivates the defective hippocampal neurogenesis, by shortening the S-phase length and the overall cell cycle duration of both neural stem (glial fibrillary acidic protein(+) and Sox2(+)) and progenitor (NeuroD1(+)) cells. These events are sufficient and necessary to reactivate the hyperproliferation observed in Btg1-null early-postnatal mice and to expand the pool of adult neural stem and progenitor cells. Such a sustained increase of cell proliferation in Btg1-null mice after running provides a long-lasting increment of proliferation, differentiation, and production of newborn neurons, which rescues the impaired pattern separation previously identified in Btg1-null mice. This study shows that running positively affects the cell cycle kinetics of specific subpopulations of newly generated neurons and suggests that the plasticity of neural stem cells without cell cycle inhibitory control is reactivated by running, with implications for the long-term modulation of neurogenesis. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  6. Gene signatures associated with mouse postnatal hindbrain neural stem cells and medulloblastoma cancer stem cells identify novel molecular mediators and predict human medulloblastoma molecular classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corno, Daniela; Daniela, Corno; Pala, Mauro; Cominelli, Manuela; Cipelletti, Barbara; Leto, Ketty; Croci, Laura; Barili, Valeria; Brandalise, Federico; Melzi, Raffaella; Di Gregorio, Alessandra; Sergi, Lucia Sergi; Politi, Letterio Salvatore; Piemonti, Lorenzo; Bulfone, Alessandro; Rossi, Paola; Rossi, Ferdinando; Consalez, Gian Giacomo; Poliani, Pietro Luigi; Galli, Rossella

    2012-06-01

    Medulloblastoma arises from mutations occurring in stem/progenitor cells located in restricted hindbrain territories. Here we report that the mouse postnatal ventricular zone lining the IV ventricle also harbors bona fide stem cells that, remarkably, share the same molecular profile with cerebellar white matter-derived neural stem cells (NSC). To identify novel molecular mediators involved in medulloblastomagenesis, we compared these distinct postnatal hindbrain-derived NSC populations, which are potentially tumor initiating, with murine compound Ptch/p53 mutant medulloblastoma cancer stem cells (CSC) that faithfully phenocopy the different variants of human medulloblastoma in vivo. Transcriptome analysis of both hindbrain NSCs and medulloblastoma CSCs resulted in the generation of well-defined gene signatures, each reminiscent of a specific human medulloblastoma molecular subclass. Most interestingly, medulloblastoma CSCs upregulated developmentally related genes, such as Ebfs, that were shown to be highly expressed in human medulloblastomas and play a pivotal role in experimental medullo-blastomagenesis. These data indicate that gene expression analysis of medulloblastoma CSCs holds great promise not only for understanding functional differences between distinct CSC populations but also for identifying meaningful signatures that might stratify medulloblastoma patients beyond histopathologic staging.

  7. Effects of Nerve Growth Factor and Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Promote Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells to Neural Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinlong; Lian, Min; Cao, Peipei; Bao, Guofeng; Xu, Guanhua; Sun, Yuyu; Wang, Lingling; Chen, Jiajia; Wang, Yi; Feng, Guijuan; Cui, Zhiming

    2017-04-01

    Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) were the most widely used seed cells in the field of neural regeneration and bone tissue engineering, due to their easily isolation, lack of ethical controversy, low immunogenicity and low rates of transplantation rejection. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) on neural differentiation of DPSCs in vitro. DPSCs were cultured in neural differentiation medium containing NGF and bFGF alone or combination for 7 days. Then neural genes and protein markers were analyzed using western blot and RT-PCR. Our study revealed that bFGF and NGF increased neural differentiation of DPSCs synergistically, compared with bFGF and NGF alone. The levels of Nestin, MAP-2, βIII-tubulin and GFAP were the most highest in the DPSCs + bFGF + NGF group. Our results suggested that bFGF and NGF signifiantly up-regulated the levels of Sirt1. After treatment with Sirt1 inhibitor, western blot, RT-PCR and immunofluorescence staining showed that neural genes and protein markers had markedly decreased. Additionally, the ERK and AKT signaling pathway played a key role in the neural differentiation of DPSCs stimulated with bFGF + NGF. These results suggested that manipulation of the ERK and AKT signaling pathway may be associated with the differentiation of bFGF and NGF treated DPSCs. Our date provided theoretical basis for DPSCs to treat neurological diseases and repair neuronal damage.

  8. Phasor fluorescence lifetime microscopy of free and protein-bound NADH reveals neural stem cell differentiation potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Stringari

    Full Text Available In the stem cell field there is a lack of non invasive and fast methods to identify stem cell's metabolic state, differentiation state and cell-lineage commitment. Here we describe a label-free method that uses NADH as an intrinsic biomarker and the Phasor approach to Fluorescence Lifetime microscopy to measure the metabolic fingerprint of cells. We show that different metabolic states are related to different cell differentiation stages and to stem cell bias to neuronal and glial fate, prior the expression of lineage markers. Our data demonstrate that the NADH FLIM signature distinguishes non-invasively neurons from undifferentiated neural progenitor and stem cells (NPSCs at two different developmental stages (E12 and E16. NPSCs follow a metabolic trajectory from a glycolytic phenotype to an oxidative phosphorylation phenotype through different stages of differentiation. NSPCs are characterized by high free/bound NADH ratio, while differentiated neurons are characterized by low free/bound NADH ratio. We demonstrate that the metabolic signature of NPSCs correlates with their differentiation potential, showing that neuronal progenitors and glial progenitors have a different free/bound NADH ratio. Reducing conditions in NPSCs correlates with their neurogenic potential, while oxidative conditions correlate with glial potential. For the first time we show that FLIM NADH metabolic fingerprint provides a novel, and quantitative measure of stem cell potential and a label-free and non-invasive means to identify neuron- or glial- biased progenitors.

  9. A quantitative study of exocytosis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles from neural stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanli; Wu, Qiuxia; Sui, Keke; Chen, Xin-Xin; Fang, Jie; Hu, Xuefeng; Wu, Minghong; Liu, Yuanfang

    2013-05-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely studied and applied in biomedicine and other fields. It is important to know the basic process of interaction between NPs and cells in terms of cellular endocytosis and exocytosis. However, little attention has been paid to the cellular exocytosis of NPs. Herein, using a multi-step cellular subculture method, we ascertain quantitatively the endocytosis and exocytosis of widely used TiO2 NPs using the neural stem cells (NSC) as a cellular model and ICP-AES as an analytic measure. Irrespective of the type and dose of TiO2 NPs, approximately 30% of the total TiO2 NPs entered NSCs after 48 h incubation. In the first 24 h after removing TiO2NPs, from the culture medium, about 35.0%, 34.6% and 41.7% of NP1 (50 nm), NP2 (30 nm) and NTs (nanotubes, 100 nm × 4-6 nm) were released (exocytosed) from cells, respectively. The release decreased over time, and became negligible at 72 h. Exocytosis did not happen during cell division. In addition, our results suggested that both endocytosis and exocytosis of TiO2NPs were energy-dependent processes, and NPs uptake by cells was influenced by serum proteins. Furthermore, we achieved primary dynamic confocal imaging of the exocytosis, allowing tracking of TiO2 NPs from NSCs. These findings may benefit studies on nanotoxicology and nanomedicine of TiO2 NPs.Nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely studied and applied in biomedicine and other fields. It is important to know the basic process of interaction between NPs and cells in terms of cellular endocytosis and exocytosis. However, little attention has been paid to the cellular exocytosis of NPs. Herein, using a multi-step cellular subculture method, we ascertain quantitatively the endocytosis and exocytosis of widely used TiO2 NPs using the neural stem cells (NSC) as a cellular model and ICP-AES as an analytic measure. Irrespective of the type and dose of TiO2 NPs, approximately 30% of the total TiO2 NPs entered NSCs after 48 h incubation. In the

  10. Zika virus infection dysregulates human neural stem cell growth and inhibits differentiation into neuroprogenitor cells

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    Devhare, Pradip; Meyer, Keith; Steele, Robert; Ray, Ratna B; Ray, Ranjit

    2017-01-01

    The current outbreak of Zika virus-associated diseases in South America and its threat to spread to other parts of the world has emerged as a global health emergency. A strong link between Zika virus and microcephaly exists, and the potential mechanisms associated with microcephaly are under intense investigation. In this study, we evaluated the effect of Zika virus infection of Asian and African lineages (PRVABC59 and MR766) in human neural stem cells (hNSCs). These two Zika virus strains displayed distinct infection pattern and growth rates in hNSCs. Zika virus MR766 strain increased serine 139 phosphorylation of histone H2AX (γH2AX), a known early cellular response proteins to DNA damage. On the other hand, PRVABC59 strain upregulated serine 15 phosphorylation of p53, p21 and PUMA expression. MR766-infected cells displayed poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and caspase-3 cleavage. Interestingly, infection of hNSCs by both strains of Zika virus for 24 h, followed by incubation in astrocyte differentiation medium, induced rounding and cell death. However, astrocytes generated from hNSCs by incubation in differentiation medium when infected with Zika virus displayed minimal cytopathic effect at an early time point. Infected hNSCs incubated in astrocyte differentiating medium displayed PARP cleavage within 24–36 h. Together, these results showed that two distinct strains of Zika virus potentiate hNSC growth inhibition by different mechanisms, but both viruses strongly induce death in early differentiating neuroprogenitor cells even at a very low multiplicity of infection. Our observations demonstrate further mechanistic insights for impaired neuronal homeostasis during active Zika virus infection. PMID:29022904

  11. Estrogen Stimulates Proliferation and Differentiation of Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells through Different Signal Transduction Pathways

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    Makiko Okada

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Our previous study indicated that both 17β-estradiol (E2, known to be an endogenous estrogen, and bisphenol A (BPA, known to be a xenoestrogen, could positively influence the proliferation or differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PCs. The aim of the present study was to identify the signal transduction pathways for estrogenic activities promoting proliferation and differentiation of NS/PCs via well known nuclear estrogen receptors (ERs or putative membrane-associated ERs. NS/PCs were cultured from the telencephalon of 15-day-old rat embryos. In order to confirm the involvement of nuclear ERs for estrogenic activities, their specific antagonist, ICI-182,780, was used. The presence of putative membrane-associated ER was functionally examined as to whether E2 can activate rapid intracellular signaling mechanism. In order to confirm the involvement of membrane-associated ERs for estrogenic activities, a cell-impermeable E2, bovine serum albumin-conjugated E2 (E2-BSA was used. We showed that E2 could rapidly activate extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK 1/2, which was not inhibited by ICI-182,780. ICI-182,780 abrogated the stimulatory effect of these estrogens (E2 and BPA on the proliferation of NS/PCs, but not their effect on the differentiation of the NS/PCs into oligodendroglia. Furthermore, E2-BSA mimicked the activity of differentiation from NS/PCs into oligodendroglia, but not the activity of proliferation. Our study suggests that (1 the estrogen induced proliferation of NS/PCs is mediated via nuclear ERs; (2 the oligodendroglial generation from NS/PCs is likely to be stimulated via putative membrane‑associated ERs.

  12. Inhibition of Sirt1 promotes neural progenitors toward motoneuron differentiation from human embryonic stem cells

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    Zhang, Yun; Wang, Jing [Department of Neurology, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 North Garden Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Clinical Stem Cell Center, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 North Garden Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Chen, Guian [Clinical Stem Cell Center, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 North Garden Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Reproductive Medical Center, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 North Garden Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Fan, Dongsheng, E-mail: dsfan@yahoo.cn [Department of Neurology, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 North Garden Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Clinical Stem Cell Center, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 North Garden Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Deng, Min, E-mail: dengmin1706@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Neurology, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 North Garden Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Clinical Stem Cell Center, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 North Garden Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2011-01-14

    Research highlights: {yields} Nicotinamide inhibit Sirt1. {yields} MASH1 and Ngn2 activation. {yields} Increase the expression of HB9. {yields} Motoneurons formation increases significantly. -- Abstract: Several protocols direct human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) toward differentiation into functional motoneurons, but the efficiency of motoneuron generation varies based on the human ESC line used. We aimed to develop a novel protocol to increase the formation of motoneurons from human ESCs. In this study, we tested a nuclear histone deacetylase protein, Sirt1, to promote neural precursor cell (NPC) development during differentiation of human ESCs into motoneurons. A specific inhibitor of Sirt1, nicotinamide, dramatically increased motoneuron formation. We found that about 60% of the cells from the total NPCs expressed HB9 and {beta}III-tubulin, commonly used motoneuronal markers found in neurons derived from ESCs following nicotinamide treatment. Motoneurons derived from ESC expressed choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), a positive marker of mature motoneuron. Moreover, we also examined the transcript levels of Mash1, Ngn2, and HB9 mRNA in the differentiated NPCs treated with the Sirt1 activator resveratrol (50 {mu}M) or inhibitor nicotinamide (100 {mu}M). The levels of Mash1, Ngn2, and HB9 mRNA were significantly increased after nicotinamide treatment compared with control groups, which used the traditional protocol. These results suggested that increasing Mash1 and Ngn2 levels by inhibiting Sirt1 could elevate HB9 expression, which promotes motoneuron differentiation. This study provides an alternative method for the production of transplantable motoneurons, a key requirement in the development of hESC-based cell therapy in motoneuron disease.

  13. Donepezil promotes differentiation of neural stem cells into mature oligodendrocytes at the expense of astrogenesis.

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    Imamura, Osamu; Arai, Masaaki; Dateki, Minori; Takishima, Kunio

    2017-01-01

    Oligodendrocytes are the myelin-forming cells of the central nervous system. Oligodendrocyte loss and failure of myelin development result in serious human disorders, including multiple sclerosis. Previously, using oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, we have shown that donepezil, which is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor developed for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, stimulates myelin gene expression and oligodendrocyte differentiation. Here, we aimed to analyze the effects of donepezil on primary mouse embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs). Donepezil treatment led to impaired self-renewal ability and increased apoptosis. These effects appeared to be mediated through the Akt/Bad signaling pathway. Using neurosphere differentiation analysis, we observed that donepezil leads to reduced numbers of astrocytes and increased numbers of oligodendrocytes and neurons. Consistent with this finding, mRNA and protein levels for the oligodendrocyte markers myelin-associated glycoprotein, 2', 3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase), and myelin basic protein, as well as the neuronal marker β-tubulin type III (Tuj1) were up-regulated. In contrast, the expression of the astrocyte marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was down-regulated by donepezil in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, donepezil increased oligodendrocyte differentiation, resulting in a reduction in the differentiation of NSCs into astrocytes, by suppressing the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), SMAD1/5/9, and the downstream target gene GFAP, even under astrocyte-inducing conditions. These results suggest that efficient differentiation of NSCs into oligodendrocytes by donepezil may indicate a novel therapeutic role for this drug in promoting repair in demyelinated lesions in addition to its role in preventing astrogenesis. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  14. Neural stem cells as a novel platform for tumor-specific delivery of therapeutic antibodies.

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    Richard T Frank

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recombinant monoclonal antibodies have emerged as important tools for cancer therapy. Despite the promise shown by antibody-based therapies, the large molecular size of antibodies limits their ability to efficiently penetrate solid tumors and precludes efficient crossing of the blood-brain-barrier into the central nervous system (CNS. Consequently, poorly vascularized solid tumors and CNS metastases cannot be effectively treated by intravenously-injected antibodies. The inherent tumor-tropic properties of human neural stem cells (NSCs can potentially be harnessed to overcome these obstacles and significantly improve cancer immunotherapy. Intravenously-delivered NSCs preferentially migrate to primary and metastatic tumor sites within and outside the CNS. Therefore, we hypothesized that NSCs could serve as an ideal cellular delivery platform for targeting antibodies to malignant tumors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: As proof-of-concept, we selected Herceptin (trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody widely used to treat HER2-overexpressing breast cancer. HER2 overexpression in breast cancer is highly correlated with CNS metastases, which are inaccessible to trastuzumab therapy. Therefore, NSC-mediated delivery of trastuzumab may improve its therapeutic efficacy. Here we report, for the first time, that human NSCs can be genetically modified to secrete anti-HER2 immunoglobulin molecules. These NSC-secreted antibodies assemble properly, possess tumor cell-binding affinity and specificity, and can effectively inhibit the proliferation of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells in vitro. We also demonstrate that immunoglobulin-secreting NSCs exhibit preferential tropism to tumor cells in vivo, and can deliver antibodies to human breast cancer xenografts in mice. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these results suggest that NSCs modified to secrete HER2-targeting antibodies constitute a promising novel platform for targeted cancer immunotherapy. Specifically

  15. Regulation of neural stem cell differentiation by transcription factors HNF4-1 and MAZ-1.

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    Wang, Jiao; Cheng, Hua; Li, Xiao; Lu, Wei; Wang, Kai; Wen, Tieqiao

    2013-02-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are promising candidates for a variety of neurological diseases due to their ability to differentiate into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodentrocytes. During this process, Rho GTPases are heavily involved in neuritogenesis, axon formation and dendritic development, due to their effects on the cytoskeleton through downstream effectors. The activities of Rho GTPases are controlled by Rho-GDP dissociation inhibitors (Rho-GDIs). As shown in our previous study, these are also involved in the differentiation of NSCs; however, little is known about the underlying regulatory mechanism. Here, we describe how the transcription factors hepatic nuclear factor (HNF4-1) and myc-associated zinc finger protein (MAZ-1) regulate the expression of Rho-GDIγ in the stimulation of NSC differentiation. Using a transfection of cis-element double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) strategy, referred to as "decoy" ODNs, we examined the effects of HNF4-1 and MAZ-1 on NSC differentiation in the NSC line C17.2. Our results show that HNF4-1 and MAZ-1 decoy ODNs significantly knock down Rho-GDIγ gene transcription, leading to NSC differentiation towards neurons. We observed that HNF4-1 and MAZ-1 decoy ODNs are able enter to the cell nucleolus and specifically bind to their target transcription factors. Furthermore, the expression of Rho-GDIγ-mediated genes was identified, suggesting that the regulatory mechanism for the differentiation of NSCs is triggered by the transcription factors MAZ-1 and HNF4-1. These findings indicate that HNF4-1 and MAZ-1 regulate the expression of Rho-GDIγ and contribute to the differentiation of NSCs. Our findings provide a new perspective within regulatory mechanism research during differentiation of NSCs, especially the clinical application of transcription factor decoys in vivo, suggesting potential therapeutic strategies for neurodegenerative disease.

  16. The neural stem cell fate determinant TRIM32 regulates complex behavioral traits

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    Anna-Lena eHillje

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, new neurons are generated throughout the entire lifespan in two restricted areas of the brain, the dentate gyrus (DG of the hippocampus and the subventricular zone (SVZ – olfactory bulb (OB system. In both regions newborn neurons display unique properties that clearly distinguish them from mature neurons. Enhanced excitability and increased synaptic plasticity enables them to add specific properties to information processing by modulating the existing local circuitry of already established mature neurons. Hippocampal neurogenesis has been suggested to play a role in spatial-navigation learning, spatial memory and spatial pattern separation. Cumulative evidences implicate that adult-born OB neurons contribute to learning processes and odor memory. We recently demonstrated that the cell fate determinant TRIM32 is upregulated in differentiating neuroblasts of the SVZ-OB system in the adult mouse brain. The absence of TRIM32 leads to increased progenitor cell proliferation and less cell death. Both effects accumulate in an overproduction of adult-generated OB neurons. Here, we present novel data from behavioral studies showing that such an enhancement of OB neurogenesis not necessarily leads to increased olfactory performance but in contrast even results in impaired olfactory capabilities. In addition, we show at the cellular level that TRIM32 protein levels increase during differentiation of neural stem cells. At the molecular level, several metabolic intermediates that are connected to glycolysis, glycine or cysteine metabolism are deregulated in TRIM32 knockout mice brain tissue. These metabolomics pathways are directly or indirectly linked to anxiety or depression like behavior. In summary, our study provides comprehensive data on how the impairment of neurogenesis caused by the loss of the cell fate determinant TRIM32 causes a decrease of olfactory performance as well as a deregulation of metabolomic pathways that are linked to

  17. Forced mastication increases survival of adult neural stem cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus.

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    Akazawa, Yuki; Kitamura, Takamasa; Fujihara, Yuri; Yoshimura, Yoshitaka; Mitome, Masato; Hasegawa, Tomokazu

    2013-02-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of forced mastication on neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) of adult mice. Six-week-old mice were subjected to either a hard or normal diet for 13 weeks. They received a daily injection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) for 12 consecutive days beginning at 14 weeks of age. The number of BrdU-positive cells in the DG was counted 1 day after and 5 weeks after the final BrdU injection. The number of BrdU-positive cells 1 day after injection did not differ between the 2 diet groups. However, the number of BrdU-positive cells in the group fed the hard diet was significantly increased 5 weeks after BrdU injection compared to the group fed the normal diet. The results of the Morris water maze test showed that mice fed a hard diet required significantly less time to reach the platform than the control mice when tested at 10 days. Moreover, mice in the group fed the hard diet spent significantly more time in the former platform area than the group fed the normal diet, indicating that hard diet feeding improved spatial memory compared to normal diet feeding. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of glutamate receptor 1 mRNA was significantly increased in the group fed the hard diet compared with the group fed the normal diet. These results suggest that mastication increases the survival of adult neural stem cells in the hippocampal DG.

  18. Exposure to 1800 MHz radiofrequency radiation impairs neurite outgrowth of embryonic neural stem cells

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    Chen, Chunhai; Ma, Qinlong; Liu, Chuan; Deng, Ping; Zhu, Gang; Zhang, Lei; He, Mindi; Lu, Yonghui; Duan, Weixia; Pei, Liping; Li, Min; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    A radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) of 1800 MHz is widely used in mobile communications. However, the effects of RF-EMFs on cell biology are unclear. Embryonic neural stem cells (eNSCs) play a critical role in brain development. Thus, detecting the effects of RF-EMF on eNSCs is important for exploring the effects of RF-EMF on brain development. Here, we exposed eNSCs to 1800 MHz RF-EMF at specific absorption rate (SAR) values of 1, 2, and 4 W/kg for 1, 2, and 3 days. We found that 1800 MHz RF-EMF exposure did not influence eNSC apoptosis, proliferation, cell cycle or the mRNA expressions of related genes. RF-EMF exposure also did not alter the ratio of eNSC differentiated neurons and astrocytes. However, neurite outgrowth of eNSC differentiated neurons was inhibited after 4 W/kg RF-EMF exposure for 3 days. Additionally, the mRNA and protein expression of the proneural genes Ngn1 and NeuroD, which are crucial for neurite outgrowth, were decreased after RF-EMF exposure. The expression of their inhibitor Hes1 was upregulated by RF-EMF exposure. These results together suggested that 1800 MHz RF-EMF exposure impairs neurite outgrowth of eNSCs. More attention should be given to the potential adverse effects of RF-EMF exposure on brain development. PMID:24869783

  19. Exposure to 1800 MHz radiofrequency radiation impairs neurite outgrowth of embryonic neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunhai; Ma, Qinlong; Liu, Chuan; Deng, Ping; Zhu, Gang; Zhang, Lei; He, Mindi; Lu, Yonghui; Duan, Weixia; Pei, Liping; Li, Min; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Zhou

    2014-05-29

    A radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) of 1800 MHz is widely used in mobile communications. However, the effects of RF-EMFs on cell biology are unclear. Embryonic neural stem cells (eNSCs) play a critical role in brain development. Thus, detecting the effects of RF-EMF on eNSCs is important for exploring the effects of RF-EMF on brain development. Here, we exposed eNSCs to 1800 MHz RF-EMF at specific absorption rate (SAR) values of 1, 2, and 4 W/kg for 1, 2, and 3 days. We found that 1800 MHz RF-EMF exposure did not influence eNSC apoptosis, proliferation, cell cycle or the mRNA expressions of related genes. RF-EMF exposure also did not alter the ratio of eNSC differentiated neurons and astrocytes. However, neurite outgrowth of eNSC differentiated neurons was inhibited after 4 W/kg RF-EMF exposure for 3 days. Additionally, the mRNA and protein expression of the proneural genes Ngn1 and NeuroD, which are crucial for neurite outgrowth, were decreased after RF-EMF exposure. The expression of their inhibitor Hes1 was upregulated by RF-EMF exposure. These results together suggested that 1800 MHz RF-EMF exposure impairs neurite outgrowth of eNSCs. More attention should be given to the potential adverse effects of RF-EMF exposure on brain development.

  20. Minocycline-Preconditioned Neural Stem Cells Enhance Neuroprotection after Ischemic Stroke in Rats

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    Sakata, Hiroyuki; Niizuma, Kuniyasu; Yoshioka, Hideyuki; Kim, Gab Seok; Jung, Joo Eun; Katsu, Masataka; Narasimhan, Purnima; Maier, Carolina M.; Nishiyama, Yasuhiro; Chan, Pak H.

    2012-01-01

    Transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) offers a novel therapeutic strategy for stroke; however, massive grafted-cell death following transplantation, possibly due to a hostile host-brain environment, lessens the effectiveness of this approach. Here, we have investigated whether reprogramming NSCs with minocycline, a broadly-used antibiotic also known to possess cytoprotective properties, enhances survival of grafted cells and promotes neuroprotection in ischemic stroke. NSCs harvested from the subventricular zone of fetal rats were preconditioned with minocycline in vitro and transplanted into rat brains 6 h after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Histological and behavioral tests were examined from days 0–28 after stroke. For in vitro experiments, NSCs were subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation. Cell viability and antioxidant gene expression were analyzed. Minocycline preconditioning protected the grafted NSCs from ischemic reperfusion injury via up-regulation of Nrf2 and Nrf2-regulated antioxidant genes. Additionally, preconditioning with minocycline induced the NSCs to release paracrine factors, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor. Moreover, transplantation of the minocycline-preconditioned NSCs significantly attenuated infarct size and improved neurological performance, compared with non-preconditioned NSCs. Minocycline-induced neuroprotection was abolished by transfecting the NSCs with Nrf2-small interfering RNA before transplantation. Thus, preconditioning with minocycline, which reprograms NSCs to tolerate oxidative stress after ischemic reperfusion injury and to express higher levels of paracrine factors through Nrf2 up-regulation, is a simple and safe approach to enhance the effectiveness of transplantation therapy in ischemic stroke. PMID:22399769

  1. Anti-Inflammatory Mechanism of Neural Stem Cell Transplantation in Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhijian; Zhu, Wen; Cao, Kai; Wu, Fei; Li, Jin; Wang, Guoyu; Li, Haopen; Lu, Ming; Ren, Yi; He, Xijing

    2016-08-23

    Neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation has been proposed to promote functional recovery after spinal cord injury. However, a detailed understanding of the mechanisms of how NSCs exert their therapeutic plasticity is lacking. We transplanted mouse NSCs into the injured spinal cord seven days after SCI, and the Basso Mouse Scale (BMS) score was performed to assess locomotor function. The anti-inflammatory effects of NSC transplantation was analyzed by immunofluorescence staining of neutrophil and macrophages and the detection of mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-12 (IL-12). Furthermore, bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) were co-cultured with NSCs and followed by analyzing the mRNA levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 with quantitative real-time PCR. The production of TNF-α and IL-1β by BMDMs was examined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Transplanted NSCs had significantly increased BMS scores (p transplantation significantly reduced the number of neutrophils and iNOS+/Mac-2+ cells at the epicenter of the injured area (p transplantation group were significantly decreased compared to the control group. Furthermore, NSCs inhibited the iNOS expression of BMDMs and the release of inflammatory factors by macrophages in vitro (p transplantation could modulate SCI-induced inflammatory responses and enhance neurological function after SCI via reducing M1 macrophage activation and infiltrating neutrophils. Thus, this study provides a new insight into the mechanisms responsible for the anti-inflammatory effect of NSC transplantation after SCI.

  2. Factors influencing the differentiation of dopaminergic traits in transplanted neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Donaldson, Angela E; Jiang, Yubao; Iacovitti, Lorraine

    2003-10-01

    1. Our previous studies demonstrated that when neural stem cells (NSCs) of the C17.2 clonal line are transplanted into the intact or 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesioned rat striatum, in most, but not all grafts, cells spontaneously express the dopamine (DA) biosynthetic enzymes, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (Yang, M., Stull, N. D., Snyder. E. Y., Berk, M. A., and Iacovitti, L. (2002). Exp. Neurol.). 2. These results suggested that there were certain conditions which were more conducive to the development of DA traits in NSCs and possibly other neurotransmitter phenotypes. 3. In the present study, we modified a number of variables in vitro (i.e. passage number, confluence) and/or in vivo (degree, type, and site of injury) before assessing the survival, migration. and differentiation of engrafted NSCs. 4. We found that low confluence cultures were comprised exclusively of flattened polygonal cells, which when transplanted, migrated widely in the brain but did not express TH. 5. In contrast, high confluence cultures contained both polygonal cells and an overlying bed of fusiform cells. 6. When these NSCs were maintained for 12-20 passages and then transplanted, virtually all engrafted cells in 65% of the grafts expressed TH but not markers of other neurotransmitter systems. 7. Importantly, all TH+ grafts were accompanied by significant physical damage to the brain while TH- grafts were not, suggesting that local injury-related factors were also important. 8. Of no apparent influence on TH expression, regardless of how cells were grown prior to implantation, was the site of transplantation (cortex or striatum) or the degree of chemical lesion (intact, partial or full). 9. We conclude that transplanted NSCs can express traits specifically associated with DA neurons but only when cells are grown under certain conditions in vitro and then transplanted in proximity to injury-induced factors present in vivo.

  3. Self-Organizing 3D Human Neural Tissue Derived from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Recapitulate Alzheimer's Disease Phenotypes.

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    Waseem K Raja

    Full Text Available The dismal success rate of clinical trials for Alzheimer's disease (AD motivates us to develop model systems of AD pathology that have higher predictive validity. The advent of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs allows us to model pathology and study disease mechanisms directly in human neural cells from healthy individual as well as AD patients. However, two-dimensional culture systems do not recapitulate the complexity of neural tissue, and phenotypes such as extracellular protein aggregation are difficult to observe. We report brain organoids that use pluripotent stem cells derived from AD patients and recapitulate AD-like pathologies such as amyloid aggregation, hyperphosphorylated tau protein, and endosome abnormalities. These pathologies are observed in an age-dependent manner in organoids derived from multiple familial AD (fAD patients harboring amyloid precursor protein (APP duplication or presenilin1 (PSEN1 mutation, compared to controls. The incidence of AD pathology was consistent amongst several fAD lines, which carried different mutations. Although these are complex assemblies of neural tissue, they are also highly amenable to experimental manipulation. We find that treatment of patient-derived organoids with β- and γ-secretase inhibitors significantly reduces amyloid and tau pathology. Moreover, these results show the potential of this model system to greatly increase the translatability of pre-clinical drug discovery in AD.

  4. Dual small-molecule targeting of SMAD signaling stimulates human induced pluripotent stem cells toward neural lineages.

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    Methichit Wattanapanitch

    Full Text Available Incurable neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD, Huntington's disease (HD, and Alzheimer's disease (AD are very common and can be life-threatening because of their progressive disease symptoms with limited treatment options. To provide an alternative renewable cell source for cell-based transplantation and as study models for neurological diseases, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs from human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs and then differentiated them into neural progenitor cells (NPCs and mature neurons by dual SMAD signaling inhibitors. Reprogramming efficiency was improved by supplementing the histone deacethylase inhibitor, valproic acid (VPA, and inhibitor of p160-Rho associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK, Y-27632, after retroviral transduction. We obtained a number of iPS colonies that shared similar characteristics with human embryonic stem cells in terms of their morphology, cell surface antigens, pluripotency-associated gene and protein expressions as well as their in vitro and in vivo differentiation potentials. After treatment with Noggin and SB431542, inhibitors of the SMAD signaling pathway, HDF-iPSCs demonstrated rapid and efficient differentiation into neural lineages. Six days after neural induction, neuroepithelial cells (NEPCs were observed in the adherent monolayer culture, which had the ability to differentiate further into NPCs and neurons, as characterized by their morphology and the expression of neuron-specific transcripts and proteins. We propose that our study may be applied to generate neurological disease patient-specific iPSCs allowing better understanding of disease pathogenesis and drug sensitivity assays.

  5. The ROCK/GGTase Pathway Are Essential to the Proliferation and Differentiation of Neural Stem Cells Mediated by Simvastatin.

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    Zhang, Chan; Wu, Jian-Min; Liao, Min; Wang, Jun-Ling; Xu, Chao-Jin

    2016-12-01

    Simvastatin, a lipophilic and fermentation-derived natural statin, is reported to treat neurological disorders, such as traumatic brain injury, Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer disease (AD), etc. Recently, research also indicated that simvastatin could promote regeneration in the dentate gyrus of adult mice by Wnt/β-catenin signaling (Robin et al. in Stem Cell Reports 2:9-17, 2014). However, the effect and mechanisms by which simvastatin may affect the neural stem cells (NSCs; from the embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) SD rat brain) are not fully understood. Here, we investigated the effects of different doses of simvastatin on the survival, proliferation, differentiation, migration, and cell cycle of NSCs as well as underlying intracellular signaling pathways. The results showed that simvastatin not only inhibits the proliferation of NSCs but also enhances the βIII-tubulin(+) neuron differentiation rate. Additionally, we find that simvastatin could also promote NSC migration and induce cell cycle arrest at M2 phrase. All these effects of simvastatin on NSCs were mimicked with an inhibitor of Rho kinase (ROCK) and a specific inhibitor of geranylgeranyl transferase (GGTase). In conclusion, these data indicate that simvastatin could promote neurogenesis of neural stem cells, and these effects were mediated through the ROCK/GGTase pathway.

  6. Human neural stem cells over-expressing VEGF provide neuroprotection, angiogenesis and functional recovery in mouse stroke model.

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    Hong J Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is a lethal stroke type. As mortality approaches 50%, and current medical therapy against ICH shows only limited effectiveness, an alternative approach is required, such as stem cell-based cell therapy. Previously we have shown that intravenously transplanted human neural stem cells (NSCs selectively migrate to the brain and induce behavioral recovery in rat ICH model, and that combined administration of NSCs and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF results in improved structural and functional outcome from cerebral ischemia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We postulated that human NSCs overexpressing VEGF transplanted into cerebral cortex overlying ICH lesion could provide improved survival of grafted NSCs, increased angiogenesis and behavioral recovery in mouse ICH model. ICH was induced in adult mice by unilateral injection of bacterial collagenase into striatum. HB1.F3.VEGF human NSC line produced an amount of VEGF four times higher than parental F3 cell line in vitro, and induced behavioral improvement and 2-3 fold increase in cell survival at two weeks and eight weeks post-transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: Brain transplantation of F3 human NSCs over-expressing VEGF near ICH lesion sites provided differentiation and survival of grafted human NSCs and renewed angiogenesis of host brain and functional recovery of ICH animals. These results suggest a possible application of the human neural stem cell line, which is genetically modified to over-express VEGF, as a therapeutic agent for ICH-stroke.

  7. Stem cell property of postmigratory cranial neural crest cells and their utility in alveolar bone regeneration and tooth development.

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    Chung, Il-Hyuk; Yamaza, Takayoshi; Zhao, Hu; Choung, Pill-Hoon; Shi, Songtao; Chai, Yang

    2009-04-01

    The vertebrate neural crest is a multipotent cell population that gives rise to a variety of different cell types. We have discovered that postmigratory cranial neural crest cells (CNCCs) maintain mesenchymal stem cell characteristics and show potential utility for the regeneration of craniofacial structures. We are able to induce the osteogenic differentiation of postmigratory CNCCs, and this differentiation is regulated by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and transforming growth factor-beta signaling pathways. After transplantation into a host animal, postmigratory CNCCs form bone matrix. CNCC-formed bones are distinct from bones regenerated by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. In addition, CNCCs support tooth germ survival via BMP signaling in our CNCC-tooth germ cotransplantation system. Thus, we conclude that postmigratory CNCCs preserve stem cell features, contribute to craniofacial bone formation, and play a fundamental role in supporting tooth organ development. These findings reveal a novel function for postmigratory CNCCs in organ development, and demonstrate the utility of these CNCCs in regenerating craniofacial structures.

  8. Human neural stem cell-derived cultures in three-dimensional substrates form spontaneously functional neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Imogen; Silveirinha, Vasco; Stein, Jason L; de la Torre-Ubieta, Luis; Farrimond, Jonathan A; Williamson, Elizabeth M; Whalley, Benjamin J

    2017-04-01

    Differentiated human neural stem cells were cultured in an inert three-dimensional (3D) scaffold and, unlike two-dimensional (2D) but otherwise comparable monolayer cultures, formed spontaneously active, functional neuronal networks that responded reproducibly and predictably to conventional pharmacological treatments to reveal functional, glutamatergic synapses. Immunocytochemical and electron microscopy analysis revealed a neuronal and glial population, where markers of neuronal maturity were observed in the former. Oligonucleotide microarray analysis revealed substantial differences in gene expression conferred by culturing in a 3D vs a 2D environment. Notable and numerous differences were seen in genes coding for neuronal function, the extracellular matrix and cytoskeleton. In addition to producing functional networks, differentiated human neural stem cells grown in inert scaffolds offer several significant advantages over conventional 2D monolayers. These advantages include cost savings and improved physiological relevance, which make them better suited for use in the pharmacological and toxicological assays required for development of stem cell-based treatments and the reduction of animal use in medical research. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Return to Quiescence of mouse neural stem cells by degradation of a proactivation protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbán, N. (Noelia); D.L.C. van den Berg (Debbie); Forget, A. (Antoine); Andersen, J. (Jimena); J.A.A. Demmers (Jeroen); Hunt, C. (Charles); Ayrault, O. (Olivier); F. Guillemot (Francois)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractQuiescence is essential for long-term maintenance of adult stem cells. Niche signals regulate the transit of stem cells from dormant to activated states. Here, we show that the E3-ubiquitin ligase Huwe1 (HECT, UBA, and WWE domain-containing 1) is required for proliferating stem cells of

  10. Targeted delivery of neural stem cells to the brain using MRI-guided focused ultrasound to disrupt the blood-brain barrier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Burgess

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy is a promising strategy to treat neurodegenerative diseases, traumatic brain injury, and stroke. For stem cells to progress towards clinical use, the risks associated with invasive intracranial surgery used to deliver the cells to the brain, needs to be reduced. Here, we show that MRI-guided focused ultrasound (MRIgFUS is a novel method for non-invasive delivery of stem cells from the blood to the brain by opening the blood brain barrier (BBB in specific brain regions. We used MRI guidance to target the ultrasound beam thereby delivering the iron-labeled, green fluorescent protein (GFP-expressing neural stem cells specifically to the striatum and the hippocampus of the rat brain. Detection of cellular iron using MRI established that the cells crossed the BBB to enter the brain. After sacrifice, 24 hours later, immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the presence of GFP-positive cells in the targeted brain regions. We determined that the neural stem cells expressed common stem cell markers (nestin and polysialic acid suggesting they survived after transplantation with MRIgFUS. Furthermore, delivered stem cells expressed doublecortin in vivo indicating the stem cells were capable of differentiating into neurons. Together, we demonstrate that transient opening of the BBB with MRIgFUS is sufficient for transplantation of stem cells from the blood to targeted brain structures. These results suggest that MRIgFUS may be an effective alternative to invasive intracranial surgery for stem cell transplantation.

  11. Distribution and localization of fibroblast growth factor-8 in rat brain and nerve cells during neural stem/progenitor cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiang; Li, Dongsheng; Lu, Kehuan

    2012-07-05

    The present study explored the distribution and localization of fibroblast growth factor-8 and its potential receptor, fibroblast growth factor receptor-3, in adult rat brain in vivo and in nerve cells during differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells in vitro. Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the distribution of fibroblast growth factor-8 in adult rat brain in vivo. Localization of fibroblast growth factor-8 and fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 in cells during neural stem/progenitor cell differentiation in vitro was detected by immunofluorescence. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence were used to evaluate the effect of an anti-fibroblast growth factor-8 antibody on neural stem/progenitor cell differentiation and expansion in vitro. Results from this study confirmed that fibroblast growth factor-8 was mainly distributed in adult midbrain, namely the substantia nigra, compact part, dorsal tier, substantia nigra and reticular part, but was not detected in the forebrain comprising the caudate putamen and striatum. Unusual results were obtained in retrosplenial locations of adult rat brain. We found that fibroblast growth factor-8 and fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 were distributed on the cell membrane and in the cytoplasm of nerve cells using immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence analyses. We considered that the distribution of fibroblast growth factor-8 and fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 in neural cells corresponded to the characteristics of fibroblast growth factor-8, a secretory factor. Addition of an anti-fibroblast growth factor-8 antibody to cultures significantly affected the rate of expansion and differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells. In contrast, addition of recombinant fibroblast growth factor-8 to differentiation medium promoted neural stem/progenitor cell differentiation and increased the final yields of dopaminergic neurons and total neurons. Our study may help delineate the important roles of fibroblast growth

  12. Multiplication free neural network for cancer stem cell detection in H-and-E stained liver images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawi, Diaa; Akhan, Ece; Mallah, Ma'en; Üner, Ayşegül; ćetin-Atalay, Rengül; ćetin, A. Enis

    2017-05-01

    Markers such as CD13 and CD133 have been used to identify Cancer Stem Cells (CSC) in various tissue images. It is highly likely that CSC nuclei appear as brown in CD13 stained liver tissue images. We observe that there is a high correlation between the ratio of brown to blue colored nuclei in CD13 images and the ratio between the dark blue to blue colored nuclei in H&E stained liver images. Therefore, we recommend that a pathologist observing many dark blue nuclei in an H&E stained tissue image may also order CD13 staining to estimate the CSC ratio. In this paper, we describe a computer vision method based on a neural network estimating the ratio of dark blue to blue colored nuclei in an H&E stained liver tissue image. The neural network structure is based on a multiplication free operator using only additions and sign operations. Experimental results are presented.

  13. Neural precursor cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells exhibit reduced susceptibility to infection with a neurotropic coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangale, Vrushali; Marro, Brett S; Plaisted, Warren C; Walsh, Craig M; Lane, Thomas E

    2017-11-01

    The present study examines the susceptibility of mouse induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural precursor cells (iPSC-NPCs) to infection with the neurotropic JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV). Similar to NPCs derived from striatum of day 1 postnatal GFP-transgenic mice (GFP-NPCs), iPSC-derived NPCs (iPSC-NPCs) are able to differentiate into terminal neural cell types and express MHC class I and II in response to IFN-γ treatment. However, in contrast to postnatally-derived NPCs, iPSC-NPCs express low levels of carcinoembryonic antigen-cell adhesion molecule 1a (CEACAM1a), the surface receptor for JHMV, and are less susceptible to infection and virus-induced cytopathic effects. The relevance of this in terms of therapeutic application of NPCs resistant to viral infection is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The small GTPase RhoA is required to maintain spinal cord neuroepithelium organization and the neural stem cell pool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herzog, Dominik; Loetscher, Pirmin; van Hengel, Jolanda

    2011-01-01

    ablation. We show that, in the spinal cord neuroepithelium, RhoA is essential to localize N-cadherin and ß-catenin to AJs and maintain apical-basal polarity of neural progenitor cells. Ablation of RhoA caused the loss of AJs and severe abnormalities in the organization of cells within the neuroepithelium......Dia1), does not localize to apical AJs in which it likely stabilizes intracellular adhesion by promoting local actin polymerization and microtubule organization. Furthermore, expressing a dominant-negative form of mDia1 in neural stem/progenitor cells results in a similar phenotype compared...... with that of the RhoA conditional knock-out, namely the loss of AJs and apical polarity. Together, our data show that RhoA signaling is necessary for AJ regulation and for the maintenance of mammalian neuroepithelium organization preventing precocious cell-cycle exit and differentiation....

  15. Electromagnetic fields induce neural differentiation of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells via ROS mediated EGFR activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Eun; Seo, Young-Kwon; Yoon, Hee-Hoon; Kim, Chan-Wha; Park, Jung-Keug; Jeon, Songhee

    2013-03-01

    Even though the inducing effect of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on the neural differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) is a distinctive, the underlying mechanism of differentiation remains unclear. To find out the signaling pathways involved in the neural differentiation of BM-MSCs by EMF, we examined the CREB phosphorylation and Akt or ERK activation as an upstream of CREB. In hBM-MSCs treated with ELF-EMF (50 Hz, 1 mT), the expression of neural markers such as NF-L, MAP2, and NeuroD1 increased at 6 days and phosphorylation of Akt and CREB but not ERK increased at 90 min in BM-MSCs. Moreover, EMF increased phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) as an upstream receptor tyrosine kinase of PI3K/Akt at 90 min. It has been well documented that ELF-MF exposure may alter cellular processes by increasing intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentrations. Thus, we examined EMF-induced ROS production in BM-MSCs. Moreover, pretreatment with a ROS scavenger, N-acetylcystein, and an EGFR inhibitor, AG-1478, prevented the phosphorylation of EGFR and downstream molecules. These results suggest that EMF induce neural differentiation through activation of EGFR signaling and mild generation of ROS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Suppression of the SOX2 Neural Effector Gene by PRDM1 Promotes Human Germ Cell Fate in Embryonic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Ying Lin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of transcriptional regulation underlying human primordial germ cell (PGC differentiation are largely unknown. The transcriptional repressor Prdm1/Blimp-1 is known to play a critical role in controlling germ cell specification in mice. Here, we show that PRDM1 is expressed in developing human gonads and contributes to the determination of germline versus neural fate in early development. We show that knockdown of PRDM1 in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs impairs germline potential and upregulates neural genes. Conversely, ectopic expression of PRDM1 in hESCs promotes the generation of cells that exhibit phenotypic and transcriptomic features of early PGCs. Furthermore, PRDM1 suppresses transcription of SOX2. Overexpression of SOX2 in hESCs under conditions favoring germline differentiation skews cell fate from the germline to the neural lineage. Collectively, our results demonstrate that PRDM1 serves as a molecular switch to modulate the divergence of neural or germline fates through repression of SOX2 during human development.

  17. Neurogenesis and Increase in Differentiated Neural Cell Survival via Phosphorylation of Akt1 after Fluoxetine Treatment of Stem Cells

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    Anahita Rahmani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluoxetine (FLX is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI. Its action is possibly through an increase in neural cell survival. The mechanism of improved survival rate of neurons by FLX may relate to the overexpression of some kinases such as Akt protein. Akt1 (a serine/threonine kinase plays a key role in the modulation of cell proliferation and survival. Our study evaluated the effects of FLX on mesenchymal stem cell (MSC fate and Akt1 phosphorylation levels in MSCs. Evaluation tests included reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, western blot, and immunocytochemistry assays. Nestin, MAP-2, and β-tubulin were detected after neurogenesis as neural markers. Ten μM of FLX upregulated phosphorylation of Akt1 protein in induced hEnSC significantly. Also FLX did increase viability of these MSCs. Continuous FLX treatment after neurogenesis elevated the survival rate of differentiated neural cells probably by enhanced induction of Akt1 phosphorylation. This study addresses a novel role of FLX in neurogenesis and differentiated neural cell survival that may contribute to explaining the therapeutic action of fluoxetine in regenerative pharmacology.

  18. Characterizing low dose and dose rate effects in rodent and human neural stem cells exposed to proton and gamma irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand P. Tseng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Past work has shown that exposure to gamma rays and protons elicit a persistent oxidative stress in rodent and human neural stem cells (hNSCs. We have now adapted these studies to more realistic exposure scenarios in space, using lower doses and dose rates of these radiation modalities, to further elucidate the role of radiation-induced oxidative stress in these cells. Rodent neural stem and precursor cells grown as neurospheres and human neural stem cells grown as monolayers were subjected to acute and multi-dosing paradigms at differing dose rates and analyzed for changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS, reactive nitrogen species (RNS, nitric oxide and superoxide for 2 days after irradiation. While acute exposures led to significant changes in both cell types, hNSCs in particular, exhibited marked and significant elevations in radiation-induced oxidative stress. Elevated oxidative stress was more significant in hNSCs as opposed to their rodent counterparts, and hNSCs were significantly more sensitive to low dose exposures in terms of survival. Combinations of protons and γ-rays delivered as lower priming or higher challenge doses elicited radioadaptive changes that were associated with improved survival, but in general, only under conditions where the levels of reactive species were suppressed compared to cells irradiated acutely. Protective radioadaptive effects on survival were eliminated in the presence of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine, suggesting further that radiation-induced oxidative stress could activate pro-survival signaling pathways that were sensitive to redox state. Data corroborates much of our past work and shows that low dose and dose rate exposures elicit significant changes in oxidative stress that have functional consequences on survival.

  19. Distal C terminus of CaV1.2 channels plays a crucial role in the neural differentiation of dental pulp stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Ge

    Full Text Available L-type voltage-dependent CaV1.2 channels play an important role in the maintenance of intracellular calcium homeostasis, and influence multiple cellular processes. C-terminal cleavage of CaV1.2 channels was reported in several types of excitable cells, but its expression and possible roles in non-excitable cells is still not clear. The aim of this study was to determine whether distal C-terminal fragment of CaV1.2 channels is present in rat dental pulp stem cells and its possible role in the neural differentiation of rat dental pulp stem cells. We generated stable CaV1.2 knockdown cells via short hairpin RNA (shRNA. Rat dental pulp stem cells with deleted distal C-terminal of CaV1.2 channels lost the potential of differentiation to neural cells. Re-expression of distal C-terminal of CaV1.2 rescued the effect of knocking down the endogenous CaV1.2 on the neural differentiation of rat dental pulp stem cells, indicating that the distal C-terminal of CaV1.2 is required for neural differentiation of rat dental pulp stem cells. These results provide new insights into the role of voltage-gated Ca(2+ channels in stem cells during differentiation.

  20. One-Step Seeding of Neural Stem Cells with Vitronectin-Supplemented Medium for High-Throughput Screening Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Sheng; Li, Rong; Long, Yan; Titus, Steve; Zhao, Jinghua; Huang, Ruili; Xia, Menghang; Zheng, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Human neuronal cells differentiated from induced pluripotent cells have emerged as a new model system for the study of disease pathophysiology and evaluation of drug efficacy. Differentiated neuronal cells are more similar in genetics and biological content to human brain cells than other animal disease models. However, culture of neuronal cells in assay plates requires a labor-intensive procedure of plate precoating, hampering its applications in high-throughput screening (HTS). We developed a simplified method with one-step seeding of neural stem cells in assay plates by supplementing the medium with a recombinant human vitronectin (VTN), thus avoiding plate precoating. Robust results were obtained from cell viability, calcium response, and neurite outgrowth assays using this new method. Our data demonstrate that this approach greatly simplifies high-throughput assays using neuronal cells differentiated from human stem cells for translational research.

  1. Neural Stem Cell or Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived GABA-ergic Progenitor Cell Grafting in an Animal Model of Chronic Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhya, Dinesh; Hattiangady, Bharathi; Shetty, Geetha A.; Zanirati, Gabriele; Kodali, Maheedhar; Shetty, Ashok K.

    2016-01-01

    Grafting of neural stem cells (NSCs) or GABA-ergic progenitor cells (GPCs) into the hippocampus could offer an alternative therapy to hippocampal resection in patients with drug-resistant chronic epilepsy, which afflicts >30% of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) cases. Multipotent, self-renewing NSCs could be expanded from multiple regions of the developing and adult brain, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). On the other hand, GPCs could be generated from the medial and lateral ganglionic eminences of the embryonic brain and from hESCs and hiPSCs. To provide comprehensive methodologies involved in testing the efficacy of transplantation of NSCs and GPCs in a rat model of chronic TLE, NSCs derived from the rat medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) and MGE-like GPCs derived from hiPSCs are taken as examples in this unit. The topics comprise description of the required materials, reagents and equipment, methods for obtaining rat MGE-NSCs and hiPSC-derived MGE-like GPCs in culture, generation of chronically epileptic rats, intrahippocampal grafting procedure, post-grafting evaluation of the effects of grafts on spontaneous recurrent seizures and cognitive and mood impairments, analyses of the yield and the fate of graft-derived cells, and the effects of grafts on the host hippocampus. PMID:27532817

  2. Targeted suicide gene therapy for glioma using human embryonic stem cell-derived neural stem cells genetically modified by baculoviral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y; Lam, D H; Yang, J; Lin, J; Tham, C K; Ng, W H; Wang, S

    2012-02-01

    Tumor-tropic neural stem cells (NSCs) can be used in the Trojan horse approach as cellular vehicles for targeted delivery of therapeutic agents to distant tumor sites. To realize this cancer therapy potential, it is important to have a renewable source to generate large quantities of uniform human NSCs. Here, we reported that NSCs derived from HES1 human embryonic stem cell line were capable of migrating into intracranial glioma xenografts after systemic injection or after intracranial injection at a site distant from the tumor. To test whether the HES1-derived NSCs can be used for cancer gene therapy, we used a baculoviral vector to introduce the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase suicide gene into the cells and demonstrated that baculovirus-mediated transgene expression may last for at least 3 weeks in NSCs. After being injected into the cerebral hemisphere opposite the tumor site and in the presence of ganciclovir, NSCs expressing the suicide gene were able to inhibit the growth of human glioma xenografts and prolong survival of tumor-bearing mice. Our findings suggest that human embryonic stem cells could potentially serve as a clinically viable source for production of cellular vehicles suitable for targeted anticancer gene therapy.

  3. Neural stem cells express melatonin receptors and neurotrophic factors: colocalization of the MT1 receptor with neuronal and glial markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMillan Catherine R

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to optimize the potential benefits of neural stem cell (NSC transplantation for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, it is necessary to understand their biological characteristics. Although neurotrophin transduction strategies are promising, alternative approaches such as the modulation of intrinsic neurotrophin expression by NSCs, could also be beneficial. Therefore, utilizing the C17.2 neural stem cell line, we have examined the expression of selected neurotrophic factors under different in vitro conditions. In view of recent evidence suggesting a role for the pineal hormone melatonin in vertebrate development, it was also of interest to determine whether its G protein-coupled MT1 and MT2 receptors are expressed in NSCs. Results RT-PCR analysis revealed robust expression of glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and nerve growth factor (NGF in undifferentiated cells maintained for two days in culture. After one week, differentiating cells continued to exhibit high expression of BDNF and NGF, but GDNF expression was lower or absent, depending on the culture conditions utilized. Melatonin MT1 receptor mRNA was detected in NSCs maintained for two days in culture, but the MT2 receptor was not seen. An immature MT1 receptor of about 30 kDa was detected by western blotting in NSCs cultured for two days, whereas a mature receptor of about 40 – 45 kDa was present in cells maintained for longer periods. Immunocytochemical studies demonstrated that the MT1 receptor is expressed in both neural (β-tubulin III positive and glial (GFAP positive progenitor cells. An examination of the effects of melatonin on neurotrophin expression revealed that low physiological concentrations of this hormone caused a significant induction of GDNF mRNA expression in NSCs following treatment for 24 hours. Conclusions The phenotypic characteristics of C17.2 cells suggest that they are

  4. Store-Operated Calcium Entries Control Neural Stem Cell Self-Renewal in the Adult Brain Subventricular Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenichini, Florence; Terrié, Elodie; Arnault, Patricia; Harnois, Thomas; Magaud, Christophe; Bois, Patrick; Constantin, Bruno; Coronas, Valérie

    2018-01-23

    The subventricular zone (SVZ) is the major stem cell niche in the brain of adult mammals. Within this region, neural stem cells (NSC) proliferate, self-renew and give birth to neurons and glial cells. Previous studies underlined enrichment in calcium signaling-related transcripts in adult NSC. Because of their ability to mobilize sustained calcium influxes in response to a wide range of extracellular factors, store-operated channels (SOC) appear to be, among calcium channels, relevant candidates to induce calcium signaling in NSC whose cellular activities are continuously adapted to physiological signals from the microenvironment. By Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting and immunocytochemistry experiments, we demonstrate that SVZ cells express molecular actors known to build up SOC, namely transient receptor potential canonical 1 (TRPC1) and Orai1, as well as their activator stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1). Calcium imaging reveals that SVZ cells display store-operated calcium entries. Pharmacological blockade of SOC with SKF-96365 or YM-58483 (also called BTP2) decreases proliferation, impairs self-renewal by shifting the type of SVZ stem cell division from symmetric proliferative to asymmetric, thereby reducing the stem cell population. Brain section immunostainings show that TRPC1, Orai1, and STIM1 are expressed in vivo, in SOX2-positive SVZ NSC. Injection of SKF-96365 in brain lateral ventricle diminishes SVZ cell proliferation and reduces the ability of SVZ cells to form neurospheres in vitro. The present study combining in vitro and in vivo approaches uncovers a major role for SOC in the control of SVZ NSC population and opens new fields of investigation for stem cell biology in health and disease. Stem Cells 2018. © AlphaMed Press 2018.

  5. Differentiation-Dependent Energy Production and Metabolite Utilization: A Comparative Study on Neural Stem Cells, Neurons, and Astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jády, Attila Gy; Nagy, Ádám M; Kőhidi, Tímea; Ferenczi, Szilamér; Tretter, László; Madarász, Emília

    2016-07-01

    While it is evident that the metabolic machinery of stem cells should be fairly different from that of differentiated neurons, the basic energy production pathways in neural stem cells (NSCs) or in neurons are far from clear. Using the model of in vitro neuron production by NE-4C NSCs, this study focused on the metabolic changes taking place during the in vitro neuronal differentiation. O2 consumption, H(+) production, and metabolic responses to single metabolites were measured in cultures of NSCs and in their neuronal derivatives, as well as in primary neuronal and astroglial cultures. In metabolite-free solutions, NSCs consumed little O2 and displayed a higher level of mitochondrial proton leak than neurons. In stem cells, glycolysis was the main source of energy for the survival of a 2.5-h period of metabolite deprivation. In contrast, stem cell-derived or primary neurons sustained a high-level oxidative phosphorylation during metabolite deprivation, indicating the consumption of own cellular material for energy production. The stem cells increased O2 consumption and mitochondrial ATP production in response to single metabolites (with the exception of glucose), showing rapid adaptation of the metabolic machinery to the available resources. In contrast, single metabolites did not increase the O2 consumption of neurons or astrocytes. In "starving" neurons, neither lactate nor pyruvate was utilized for mitochondrial ATP production. Gene expression studies also suggested that aerobic glycolysis and rapid metabolic adaptation characterize the NE-4C NSCs, while autophagy and alternative glucose utilization play important roles in the metabolism of stem cell-derived neurons.

  6. Mesenchymal stem cells promote augmented response of endogenous neural stem cells in spinal cord injury of rats

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    Marta Rocha Araujo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic spinal cord injury results in severe neurological deficits, mostly irreversible. The cell therapy represents a strategy for treatment particularly with the use of stem cells with satisfactory results in several experimental models. The aim of the study was to compare the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI with and without mesenchymal stem cells (MSC, to investigate whether MSCs migrate and/or remain at the site of injury, and to analyze the effects of MSCs on inflammation, astrocytic reactivity and activation of endogenous stem cells. Three hours after SCI, animals received bone marrow-derived MSCs (1×107 in 1mL PBS, IV. Animals were euthanized 24 hours, 7 and 21 days post-injury. The MSC were not present in the site of the lesion and the immunofluorescent evaluation showed significant attenuation of inflammatory response with reduction in macrophages labeled with anti-CD68 antibody (ED1, decreased immunoreactivity of astrocytes (GFAP+ and greater activation of endogenous stem cells (nestin+ in the treated groups. Therefore, cell transplantation have a positive effect on recovery from traumatic spinal cord injury possibly due to the potential of MSCs to attenuate the immune response.

  7. Identification of a novel intronic enhancer responsible for the transcriptional regulation of musashi1 in neural stem/progenitor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawase Satoshi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The specific genetic regulation of neural primordial cell determination is of great interest in stem cell biology. The Musashi1 (Msi1 protein, which belongs to an evolutionarily conserved family of RNA-binding proteins, is a marker for neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PCs in the embryonic and post-natal central nervous system (CNS. Msi1 regulates the translation of its downstream targets, including m-Numb and p21 mRNAs. In vitro experiments using knockout mice have shown that Msi1 and its isoform Musashi2 (Msi2 keep NS/PCs in an undifferentiated and proliferative state. Msi1 is expressed not only in NS/PCs, but also in other somatic stem cells and in tumours. Based on previous findings, Msi1 is likely to be a key regulator for maintaining the characteristics of self-renewing stem cells. However, the mechanisms regulating Msi1 expression are not yet clear. Results To identify the DNA region affecting Msi1 transcription, we inserted the fusion gene ffLuc, comprised of the fluorescent Venus protein and firefly Luciferase, at the translation initiation site of the mouse Msi1 gene locus contained in a 184-kb bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC. Fluorescence and Luciferase activity, reflecting the Msi1 transcriptional activity, were observed in a stable BAC-carrying embryonic stem cell line when it was induced toward neural lineage differentiation by retinoic acid treatment. When neuronal differentiation was induced in embryoid body (EB-derived neurosphere cells, reporter signals were detected in Msi1-positive NSCs and GFAP-positive astrocytes, but not in MAP2-positive neurons. By introducing deletions into the BAC reporter gene and conducting further reporter experiments using a minimized enhancer region, we identified a region, "D5E2," that is responsible for Msi1 transcription in NS/PCs. Conclusions A regulatory element for Msi1 transcription in NS/PCs is located in the sixth intron of the Msi1 gene. The 595-bp D5E2 intronic

  8. Localizing Protein in 3D Neural Stem Cell Culture: a Hybrid Visualization Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fai, Stephen; Bennett, Steffany A.L.

    2010-01-01

    The importance of 3-dimensional (3D) topography in influencing neural stem and progenitor cell (NPC) phenotype is widely acknowledged yet challenging to study. When dissociated from embryonic or post-natal brain, single NPCs will proliferate in suspension to form neurospheres. Daughter cells within these cultures spontaneously adopt distinct developmental lineages (neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes) over the course of expansion despite being exposed to the same extracellular milieu. This progression recapitulates many of the stages observed over the course of neurogenesis and gliogenesis in post-natal brain and is often used to study basic NPC biology within a controlled environment. Assessing the full impact of 3D topography and cellular positioning within these cultures on NPC fate is, however, difficult. To localize target proteins and identify NPC lineages by immunocytochemistry, free-floating neurospheres must be plated on a substrate or serially sectioned. This processing is required to ensure equivalent cell permeabilization and antibody access throughout the sphere. As a result, 2D epifluorescent images of cryosections or confocal reconstructions of 3D Z-stacks can only provide spatial information about cell position within discrete physical or digital 3D slices and do not visualize cellular position in the intact sphere. Here, to reiterate the topography of the neurosphere culture and permit spatial analysis of protein expression throughout the entire culture, we present a protocol for isolation, expansion, and serial sectioning of post-natal hippocampal neurospheres suitable for epifluorescent or confocal immunodetection of target proteins. Connexin29 (Cx29) is analyzed as an example. Next, using a hybrid of graphic editing and 3D modelling softwares rigorously applied to maintain biological detail, we describe how to re-assemble the 3D structural positioning of these images and digitally map labelled cells within the complete neurosphere. This

  9. Differential development of neuronal physiological responsiveness in two human neural stem cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Roberta; Miljan, Erik A; Hines, Susan J; Aouabdi, Sihem; Pollock, Kenneth; Patel, Sara; Edwards, Frances A; Sinden, John D

    2007-05-25

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are powerful research tools for the design and discovery of new approaches to neurodegenerative disease. Overexpression of the myc family transcription factors in human primary cells from developing cortex and mesencephalon has produced two stable multipotential NSC lines (ReNcell VM and CX) that can be continuously expanded in monolayer culture. In the undifferentiated state, both ReNcell VM and CX are nestin positive and have resting membrane potentials of around -60 mV but do not display any voltage-activated conductances. As initially hypothesized, using standard methods (stdD) for differentiation, both cell lines can form neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes according to immunohistological characteristics. However it became clear that this was not true for electrophysiological features which designate neurons, such as the firing of action potentials. We have thus developed a new differentiation protocol, designated 'pre-aggregation differentiation' (preD) which appears to favor development of electrophysiologically functional neurons and to lead to an increase in dopaminergic neurons in the ReNcell VM line. In contrast, the protocol used had little effect on the differentiation of ReNcell CX in which dopaminergic differentiation was not observed. Moreover, after a week of differentiation with the preD protocol, 100% of ReNcell VM featured TTX-sensitive Na+-channels and fired action potentials, compared to 25% after stdD. Currents via other voltage-gated channels did not appear to depend on the differentiation protocol. ReNcell CX did not display the same electrophysiological properties as the VM line, generating voltage-dependant K+ currents but no Na+ currents or action potentials under either stdD or preD differentiation. These data demonstrate that overexpression of myc in NSCs can be used to generate electrophysiologically active neurons in culture. Development of a functional neuronal phenotype may be dependent on parameters

  10. Differential development of neuronal physiological responsiveness in two human neural stem cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Sara

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neural stem cells (NSCs are powerful research tools for the design and discovery of new approaches to neurodegenerative disease. Overexpression of the myc family transcription factors in human primary cells from developing cortex and mesencephalon has produced two stable multipotential NSC lines (ReNcell VM and CX that can be continuously expanded in monolayer culture. Results In the undifferentiated state, both ReNcell VM and CX are nestin positive and have resting membrane potentials of around -60 mV but do not display any voltage-activated conductances. As initially hypothesized, using standard methods (stdD for differentiation, both cell lines can form neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes according to immunohistological characteristics. However it became clear that this was not true for electrophysiological features which designate neurons, such as the firing of action potentials. We have thus developed a new differentiation protocol, designated 'pre-aggregation differentiation' (preD which appears to favor development of electrophysiologically functional neurons and to lead to an increase in dopaminergic neurons in the ReNcell VM line. In contrast, the protocol used had little effect on the differentiation of ReNcell CX in which dopaminergic differentiation was not observed. Moreover, after a week of differentiation with the preD protocol, 100% of ReNcell VM featured TTX-sensitive Na+-channels and fired action potentials, compared to 25% after stdD. Currents via other voltage-gated channels did not appear to depend on the differentiation protocol. ReNcell CX did not display the same electrophysiological properties as the VM line, generating voltage-dependant K+ currents but no Na+ currents or action potentials under either stdD or preD differentiation. Conclusion These data demonstrate that overexpression of myc in NSCs can be used to generate electrophysiologically active neurons in culture. Development of a

  11. Anti-Inflammatory Mechanism of Neural Stem Cell Transplantation in Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijian Cheng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cell (NSC transplantation has been proposed to promote functional recovery after spinal cord injury. However, a detailed understanding of the mechanisms of how NSCs exert their therapeutic plasticity is lacking. We transplanted mouse NSCs into the injured spinal cord seven days after SCI, and the Basso Mouse Scale (BMS score was performed to assess locomotor function. The anti-inflammatory effects of NSC transplantation was analyzed by immunofluorescence staining of neutrophil and macrophages and the detection of mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and interleukin-12 (IL-12. Furthermore, bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs were co-cultured with NSCs and followed by analyzing the mRNA levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 with quantitative real-time PCR. The production of TNF-α and IL-1β by BMDMs was examined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Transplanted NSCs had significantly increased BMS scores (p < 0.05. Histological results showed that the grafted NSCs migrated from the injection site toward the injured area. NSCs transplantation significantly reduced the number of neutrophils and iNOS+/Mac-2+ cells at the epicenter of the injured area (p < 0.05. Meanwhile, mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 in the NSCs transplantation group were significantly decreased compared to the control group. Furthermore, NSCs inhibited the iNOS expression of BMDMs and the release of inflammatory factors by macrophages in vitro (p < 0.05. These results suggest that NSC transplantation could modulate SCI-induced inflammatory responses and enhance neurological function after SCI via reducing M1 macrophage activation and infiltrating neutrophils. Thus, this study provides a new insight into the mechanisms responsible for the anti-inflammatory effect of NSC transplantation after SCI.

  12. Transplantation of neural stem/progenitor cells at different locations in mice with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Hiroki; Nori, Satoshi; Nishimura, Soraya; Yasuda, Akimasa; Takano, Morito; Tsuji, Osahiko; Fujiyoshi, Kanehiro; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Okano, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Masaya

    2014-01-01

    Transplantation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PCs) promotes functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI); however, few studies have examined the optimal site of NS/PC transplantation in the spinal cord. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal transplantation site of NS/PCs for the treatment of SCI. Wild-type mice were generated with contusive SCI at the T10 level, and NS/PCs were derived from fetal transgenic mice. These NS/PCs ubiquitously expressed ffLuc-cp156 protein (Venus and luciferase fusion protein) and so could be detected by in vivo bioluminescence imaging 9 days postinjury. NS/PCs (low: 250,000 cells per mouse; high: 1 million cells per mouse) were grafted into the spinal cord at the lesion epicenter (E) or at rostral and caudal (RC) sites. Phosphate-buffered saline was injected into E as a control. Motor functional recovery was better in each of the transplantation groups (E-Low, E-High, RC-Low, and RC-High) than in the control group. The photon counts of the grafted NS/PCs were similar in each of the four transplantation groups, suggesting that the survival of NS/PCs was fairly uniform when more than a certain threshold number of cells were transplanted. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses demonstrated that brain-derived neurotropic factor expression was higher in the RC segment than in the E segment, and this may underlie why NS/PCs more readily differentiated into neurons than into astrocytes in the RC group. The location of the transplantation site did not affect the area of spared fibers, angiogenesis, or the expression of any other mediators. These findings indicated that the microenvironments of the E and RC sites are able to support NS/PCs transplanted during the subacute phase of SCI similarly. Optimally, a certain threshold number of NS/PCs should be grafted into the E segment to avoid damaging sites adjacent to the lesion during the injection procedure.

  13. Neural Stem Cells and their Role in the Pathology and Classification of Central Nervous System Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Tarık TİHAN; Melike PEKMEZCİ; Karnezis, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Today, one of the most popular and controversial topics in medicine is undoubtedly the rapidly developing field of stem cell research. Some of the controversy in this field arises from lack of uniform terminology and different interpretation of concepts such as brain tumor stem cells. In addition, lack of reliable and universal markers that can identify stem cells and define precursor cells in a particular differentiation pathway further confounds the interpretation of results in many studies...

  14. Proliferating resident microglia express the stem cell antigen CD34 in response to acute neural injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladeby, Rune; Wirenfeldt, Martin; Dalmau, Ishar

    2005-01-01

    Reactive microgliosis is a highly characteristic response to neural injury and disease, which may influence neurodegenerative processes and neural plasticity. We have investigated the origin and characteristics of reactive microglia in the acute phase of their activation in the dentate gyrus...

  15. Neural stem cell differentiation by electrical stimulation using a cross-linked PEDOT substrate: Expanding the use of biocompatible conjugated conductive polymers for neural tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Filipa; Ferreira, Quirina; Rodrigues, Carlos A V; Morgado, Jorge; Ferreira, Frederico Castelo

    2015-06-01

    The use of conjugated polymers allows versatile interactions between cells and flexible processable materials, while providing a platform for electrical stimulation, which is particularly relevant when targeting differentiation of neural stem cells and further application for therapy or drug screening. Materials were tested for cytotoxicity following the ISO10993-5. PSS was cross-linked. ReNcellVM neural stem cells (NSC) were seeded in laminin coated surfaces, cultured for 4 days in the presence of EGF (20 ng/mL), FGF-2 (20 ng/mL) and B27 (20 μg/mL) and differentiated over eight additional days in the absence of those factors under 100Hz pulsed DC electrical stimulation, 1V with 10 ms pulses. NSC and neuron elongation aspect ratio as well as neurite length were assessed using ImageJ. Cells were immune-stained for Tuj1 and GFAP. F8T2, MEH-PPV, P3HT and cross-linked PSS (x PSS) were assessed as non-cytotoxic. L929 fibroblast population was 1.3 higher for x PSS than for glass control, while F8T2 presents moderate proliferation. The population of neurons (Tuj1) was 1.6 times higher with longer neurites (73 vs 108 μm) for cells cultured under electrical stimulus, with cultured NSC. Such stimulus led also to longer neurons. x PSS was, for the first time, used to elongate human NSC through the application of pulsed current, impacting on their differentiation towards neurons and contributing to longer neurites. The range of conductive conjugated polymers known as non-cytotoxic was expanded. x PSS was introduced as a stable material, easily processed from solution, to interface with biological systems, in particular NSC, without the need of in-situ polymerization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Bystander Effect Fuels Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neural Stem Cells to Quickly Attenuate Early Stage Neurological Deficits After Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Auston; Huang, Lei; Gonzalez, Rodolfo; Kim, Hye-Sun; Hamblin, Milton H; Lee, Jean-Pyo

    2015-07-01

    : Present therapies for stroke rest with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), the sole licensed antithrombotic on the market; however, tPA's effectiveness is limited in that the drug not only must be administered less than 3-5 hours after stroke but often exacerbates blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage and increases hemorrhagic incidence. A potentially promising therapy for stroke is transplantation of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem cells (hiPSC-NSCs). To date, the effects of iPSCs on injuries that take place during early stage ischemic stroke have not been well studied. Consequently, we engrafted iPSC-NSCs into the ipsilesional hippocampus, a natural niche of NSCs, at 24 hours after stroke (prior to secondary BBB opening and when inflammatory signature is abundant). At 48 hours after stroke (24 hours after transplant), hiPSC-NSCs had migrated to the stroke lesion and quickly improved neurological function. Transplanted mice showed reduced expression of proinflammatory factors (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin 6 [IL-6], IL-1β, monocyte chemotactic protein 1, macrophage inflammatory protein 1α), microglial activation, and adhesion molecules (intercellular adhesion molecule 1, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1) and attenuated BBB damage. We are the first to report that engrafted hiPSC-NSCs rapidly improved neurological function (less than 24 hours after transplant). Rapid hiPSC-NSC therapeutic activity is mainly due to a bystander effect that elicits reduced inflammation and BBB damage. Clinically, cerebral vessel occlusion is rarely permanent because of spontaneous or thrombolytic therapy-mediated reperfusion. These results have clinical implications indicating a much extended therapeutic window for transplantation of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem cells (hiPSC-NSCs; 24 hours after stroke as opposed to the 5-hour window with tissue plasminogen activator [tPA]). In addition, there is potential for a synergistic

  17. Transplantation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neural Stem Cells Mediate Functional Recovery Following Thoracic Spinal Cord Injury Through Remyelination of Axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salewski, Ryan P; Mitchell, Robert A; Li, Lijun; Shen, Carl; Milekovskaia, Maria; Nagy, Andras; Fehlings, Michael G

    2015-07-01

    : Neural stem cells (NSCs) from embryonic or fetal/adult tissue sources have shown considerable promise in regenerative strategies for traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). However, there are limitations with their use related to the availability, immunogenicity, and uncertainty of the mechanisms involved. To address these issues, definitive NSCs derived from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells generated using a nonviral, piggyBac transposon approach, were investigated. Committed NSCs were generated from iPS cells using a free-floating neurosphere methodology previously described by our laboratory. To delineate the mechanism of action, specifically the role of exogenous myelination, NSCs derived from wildtype (wt) and nonmyelinating Shiverer (shi) iPS cell lines were used following thoracic SCI with subacute intraspinal transplantation. Behavioral, histological, and electrophysiological outcomes were analyzed to assess the effectiveness of this treatment. The wt- and shi-iPS-NSCs were validated and shown to be equivalent except in myelination capacity. Both iPS-NSC lines successfully integrated into the injured spinal cord and predominantly differentiated to oligodendrocytes, but only the wt-iPS-NSC treatment resulted in a functional benefit. The wt-iPS-dNSCs, which exhibited the capacity for remyelination, significantly improved neurobehavioral function (Basso Mouse Scale and CatWalk), histological outcomes, and electrophysiological measures of axonal function (sucrose gap analysis) compared with the nonmyelinating iPS-dNSCs and cell-free controls. In summary, we demonstrated that iPS cells can generate translationally relevant NSCs for applications in SCI. Although NSCs have a diverse range of functions in the injured spinal cord, remyelination is the predominant mechanism of recovery following thoracic SCI. Gain-of-function/loss-of-function techniques were used to examine the mechanistic importance of graft-derived remyelination following thoracic spinal cord

  18. Optimization of the magnetic labeling of human neural stem cells and MRI visualization in the hemiparkinsonian rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Gómez, Milagros; Seiz, Emma G; Martínez-Serrano, Alberto

    2015-03-05

    Magnetic resonance imaging is the ideal modality for non-invasive in vivo cell tracking allowing for longitudinal studies over time. Cells labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles have been shown to induce sufficient contrast for in vivo magnetic resonance imaging enabling the in vivo analysis of the final location of the transplanted cells. For magnetic nanoparticles to be useful, a high internalization efficiency of the particles is required without compromising cell function, as well as validation of the magnetic nanoparticles behaviour inside the cells. In this work, we report the development, optimization and validation of an efficient procedure to label human neural stem cells with commercial nanoparticles in the absence of transfection agents. Magnetic nanoparticles used here do not affect cell viability, cell morphology, cell differentiation or cell cycle dynamics. Moreover, human neural stem cells progeny labeled with magnetic nanoparticles are easily and non-invasively detected long time after transplantation in a rat model of Parkinson's disease (up to 5 months post-grafting) by magnetic resonance imaging. These findings support the use of commercial MNPs to track cells for short- and mid-term periods after transplantation for studies of brain cell replacement therapy. Nevertheless, long-term MR images should be interpreted with caution due to the possibility that some MNPs may be expelled from the transplanted cells and internalized by host microglial cells.

  19. Transplantation dose alters the dynamics of human neural stem cell engraftment, proliferation and migration after spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja M. Piltti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of transplantation dose on the spatiotemporal dynamics of human neural stem cell (hNSC engraftment has not been quantitatively evaluated in the central nervous system. We investigated changes over time in engraftment/survival, proliferation, and migration of multipotent human central nervous system-derived neural stem cells (hCNS-SCns transplanted at doses ranging from 10,000 to 500,000 cells in spinal cord injured immunodeficient mice. Transplant dose was inversely correlated with measures of donor cell proliferation at 2 weeks post-transplant (WPT and dose-normalized engraftment at 16 WPT. Critically, mice receiving the highest cell dose exhibited an engraftment plateau, in which the total number of engrafted human cells never exceeded the initial dose. These data suggest that donor cell expansion was inversely regulated by target niche parameters and/or transplantation density. Investigation of the response of donor cells to the host microenvironment should be a key variable in defining target cell dose in pre-clinical models of CNS disease and injury.

  20. Safety of epicenter versus intact parenchyma as a transplantation site for human neural stem cells for spinal cord injury therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piltti, Katja M; Salazar, Desirée L; Uchida, Nobuko; Cummings, Brian J; Anderson, Aileen J

    2013-03-01

    Neural stem cell transplantation may have the potential to yield repair and recovery of function in central nervous system injury and disease, including spinal cord injury (SCI). Multiple pathological processes are initiated at the epicenter of a traumatic spinal cord injury; these are generally thought to make the epicenter a particularly hostile microenvironment. Conversely, the injury epicenter is an appealing potential site of therapeutic human central nervous system-derived neural stem cell (hCNS-SCns) transplantation because of both its surgical accessibility and the avoidance of spared spinal cord tissue. In this study, we compared hCNS-SCns transplantation into the SCI epicenter (EPI) versus intact rostral/caudal (R/C) parenchyma in contusion-injured athymic nude rats, and assessed the cell survival, differentiation, and migration. Regardless of transplantation site, hCNS-SCns survived and proliferated; however, the total number of hCNS-SCns quantified in the R/C transplant animals was twice that in the EPI animals, demonstrating increased overall engraftment. Migration and fate profile were unaffected by transplantation site. However, although transplantation site did not alter the proportion of human astrocytes, EPI transplantation shifted the localization of these cells and exhibited a correlation with calcitonin gene-related peptide fiber sprouting. Critically, no changes in mechanical allodynia or thermal hyperalgesia were observed. Taken together, these data suggest that the intact parenchyma may be a more favorable transplantation site than the injury epicenter in the subacute period post-SCI.

  1. Transplantation dose alters the dynamics of human neural stem cell engraftment, proliferation and migration after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piltti, Katja M; Avakian, Sabrina N; Funes, Gabriella M; Hu, Antoinette; Uchida, Nobuko; Anderson, Aileen J; Cummings, Brian J

    2015-09-01

    The effect of transplantation dose on the spatiotemporal dynamics of human neural stem cell (hNSC) engraftment has not been quantitatively evaluated in the central nervous system. We investigated changes over time in engraftment/survival, proliferation, and migration of multipotent human central nervous system-derived neural stem cells (hCNS-SCns) transplanted at doses ranging from 10,000 to 500,000 cells in spinal cord injured immunodeficient mice. Transplant dose was inversely correlated with measures of donor cell proliferation at 2 weeks post-transplant (WPT) and dose-normalized engraftment at 16 WPT. Critically, mice receiving the highest cell dose exhibited an engraftment plateau, in which the total number of engrafted human cells never exceeded the initial dose. These data suggest that donor cell expansion was inversely regulated by target niche parameters and/or transplantation density. Investigation of the response of donor cells to the host microenvironment should be a key variable in defining target cell dose in pre-clinical models of CNS disease and injury. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Neural stem cells spontaneously express dopaminergic traits after transplantation into the intact or 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Stull, Natalie D; Berk, Mathew A; Snyder, Evan Y; Iacovitti, Lorraine

    2002-09-01

    The ability to differentiate neural stem cells (NSCs) into dopamine neurons is fundamental to their role in cell replacement therapies for neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease. We show here that when a clonal line (C17.2) of undifferentiated NSCs is transplanted into the intact or 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned striatum, cells withdraw from the cell cycle (BrdU(-)), migrate extensively in the host striatum, and express markers associated with neuronal (beta-tubulin III(+), NSE(+), NeuN(+)) but not glial (GFAP(-), MBP(-), A2B5(-)) differentiation. Importantly, by 2-5 weeks postgrafting, in the majority of these transplants, nearly all engrafted cells express the dopamine-synthesizing enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase and aromatic L-amino decarboxylase, sometimes resulting in changes in motor behavior. In contrast, no NSCs stain for dopamine-beta-hydroxylase, choline acetyltransferase, glutamic acid decarboxylase, or serotonin. We conclude that, following transplantation into the intact or 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat, the adult brain contains intrinsic cues sufficient to direct the specific expression of dopaminergic traits in immature multipotential neural stem cells.

  3. Heterotopically transplanted CVO neural stem cells generate neurons and migrate with SVZ cells in the adult mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Lori B; Cai, Jingli; Enikolopov, Grigori; Iacovitti, Lorraine

    2010-05-07

    Production of new neurons throughout adulthood has been well characterized in two brain regions, the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the anterolateral ventricle and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus. The neurons produced from these regions arise from neural stem cells (NSCs) found in highly regulated stem cell niches. We recently showed that midline structures called circumventricular organs (CVOs) also contain NSCs capable of neurogenesis and/or astrogliogenesis in vitro and in situ (Bennett et al.). The present study demonstrates that NSCs derived from two astrogliogenic CVOs, the median eminence and organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis of the nestin-GFP mouse, possess the potential to integrate into the SVZ and differentiate into cells with a neuronal phenotype. These NSCs, following expansion and BrdU-labeling in culture and heterotopic transplantation into a region proximal to the SVZ in adult mice, migrate caudally to the SVZ and express early neuronal markers (TUC-4, PSA-NCAM) as they migrate along the rostral migratory stream. CVO-derived BrdU(+) cells ultimately reach the olfactory bulb where they express early (PSA-NCAM) and mature (NeuN) neuronal markers. Collectively, these data suggest that although NSCs derived from the ME and OVLT CVOs are astrogliogenic in situ, they produce cells phenotypic of neurons in vivo when placed in a neurogenic environment. These findings may have implications for neural repair in the adult brain. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Chinese herbs and their active ingredients for activating xue (blood) promote the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Yin-Chu; Li, Qiang; Xie, Chun-E; Niu, Xin; Xia, Xiao-Hui; Yu, Chang-Yuan

    2014-04-09

    Some Chinese herbs are anti-thrombolysis, and anti-inflammatory, improves brain RNA content, promotes brain protein synthesis, enhances dopamine function, regulates brain hormones, and improves microcirculation in central nervous system that might improve, repair and rehabilitation from the stroke and brain injury. Specific Chinese herbs and their components, such as Acanthopanax, Angelica, could maintain the survival of neural stem cells, and Rhodiola, Ganoderma spore Polygala, Tetramethylpyrazine, Gardenia, Astragaloside and Ginsenoside Rg1 promoted proliferation of neural stem cells, and Rhodiola, Astragaloside promoted differentiation of neural stem cell into neuron and glia in vivo. Astragalus, Safflower, Musk, Baicalin, Geniposide, Ginkgolide B, Cili polysaccharide, Salidroside, Astragaloside, Antler polypeptides, Ginsenoside Rg1, Panax notoginseng saponins promoted proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in vitro. Salvia, Astragalus, Ginsenoside Rg1, P. notoginseng saponins, Musk polypeptide, Muscone and Ginkgolide B promoted neural-directed differentiation of MSCs into nerve cells. These findings are encouraging further research into the Chinese herbs for developing drugs in treating patients of stroke and brain injury.

  5. The DNA glycosylases OGG1 and NEIL3 influence differentiation potential, proliferation, and senescence-associated signs in neural stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Amilcar [Linnaeus Center in Developmental Biology for Regenerative Medicine (DBRM), Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, SE 17177 Stockholm (Sweden); Hermanson, Ola, E-mail: ola.hermanson@ki.se [Linnaeus Center in Developmental Biology for Regenerative Medicine (DBRM), Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, SE 17177 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA glycosylases OGG1 and NEIL3 are required for neural stem cell state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No effect on cell viability by OGG1 or NEIL3 knockdown in neural stem cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OGG1 or NEIL3 RNA knockdown result in decreased proliferation and differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increased HP1{gamma} immunoreactivity after NEIL3 knockdown suggests premature senescence. -- Abstract: Embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs) exhibit self-renewal and multipotency as intrinsic characteristics that are key parameters for proper brain development. When cells are challenged by oxidative stress agents the resulting DNA lesions are repaired by DNA glycosylases through the base excision repair (BER) pathway as a means to maintain the fidelity of the genome, and thus, proper cellular characteristics. The functional roles for DNA glycosylases in NSCs have however remained largely unexplored. Here we demonstrate that RNA knockdown of the DNA glycosylases OGG1 and NEIL3 decreased NSC differentiation ability and resulted in decreased expression of both neuronal and astrocytic genes after mitogen withdrawal, as well as the stem cell marker Musashi-1. Furthermore, while cell survival remained unaffected, NEIL3 deficient cells displayed decreased cell proliferation rates along with an increase in HP1{gamma} immunoreactivity, a sign of premature senescence. Our results suggest that DNA glycosylases play multiple roles in governing essential neural stem cell characteristics.

  6. Neural crest-derived dental stem cells--where we are and where we are going.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Vera; Sawatari, Yoh; Huang, C-Y Charles; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin

    2014-09-01

    There are five types of post-natal human dental stem cells that have been identified, isolated and characterized. Here, we review the information available on dental stem cells as well as their potential applications in dentistry, regenerative medicine and the development of other therapeutic approaches. Data pertinent to dental stem cells and their applications, published in peer-reviewed journals from 1982 to 2013 in English were reviewed. Sources were retrieved from PubMed databases as well as related references that the electronic search yielded. Manuscripts describing the origin, retrieval, characterization and application of dental stem cells were obtained and reviewed. Dental stem cell populations present properties similar to those of mesenchymal stem cells, such as the ability to self-renew and the potential for multilineage differentiation. While they have greater capacity to give rise to odontogenic cells and regenerate dental pulp and periodontal tissue, they have the capacity to differentiate into all three germ line cells, proving that a population of pluripotent stem cells exists in the dental tissues. Dental stem cells have the capacity to differentiate into endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm tissues. Consequently they do not only have applications in dentistry, but also neurodegenerative and ischemic diseases, diabetes research, bone repair, and other applications in the field of tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Histological characterization and quantification of cellular events following neural and fibroblast(-like) stem cell grafting in healty and demyelinated CNS tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Praet, J.; SANTERMANS, Eva; Reekmans, K.; de Vocht, N.; Le Blon, D.; Hoornaert, C.; Daans, J.; Goossens, H.; Berneman, Z.; HENS, Niel; Van der Linden, A.; Ponsaerts, P.

    2014-01-01

    Preclinical animal studies involving intracerebral (stem) cell grafting are gaining popularity in many laboratories due to the reported beneficial effects of cell grafting on various diseases or traumata of the central nervous system (CNS). In this chapter, we describe a histological workflow to characterize and quantify cellular events following neural and fibroblast(-like) stem cell grafting in healthy and demyelinated CNS tissue. First, we provide standardized protocols to isolate and cult...

  8. Quantitative Live Imaging of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Derived Neural Rosettes Reveals Structure-Function Dynamics Coupled to Cortical Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Omer; Zaritsky, Assaf; Yaffe, Yakey; Mutukula, Naresh; Edri, Reuven; Elkabetz, Yechiel

    2015-10-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are progenitor cells for brain development, where cellular spatial composition (cytoarchitecture) and dynamics are hypothesized to be linked to critical NSC capabilities. However, understanding cytoarchitectural dynamics of this process has been limited by the difficulty to quantitatively image brain development in vivo. Here, we study NSC dynamics within Neural Rosettes--highly organized multicellular structures derived from human pluripotent stem cells. Neural rosettes contain NSCs with strong epithelial polarity and are expected to perform apical-basal interkinetic nuclear migration (INM)--a hallmark of cortical radial glial cell development. We developed a quantitative live imaging framework to characterize INM dynamics within rosettes. We first show that the tendency of cells to follow the INM orientation--a phenomenon we referred to as radial organization, is associated with rosette size, presumably via mechanical constraints of the confining structure. Second, early forming rosettes, which are abundant with founder NSCs and correspond to the early proliferative developing cortex, show fast motions and enhanced radial organization. In contrast, later derived rosettes, which are characterized by reduced NSC capacity and elevated numbers of differentiated neurons, and thus correspond to neurogenesis mode in the developing cortex, exhibit slower motions and decreased radial organization. Third, later derived rosettes are characterized by temporal instability in INM measures, in agreement with progressive loss in rosette integrity at later developmental stages. Finally, molecular perturbations of INM by inhibition of actin or non-muscle myosin-II (NMII) reduced INM measures. Our framework enables quantification of cytoarchitecture NSC dynamics and may have implications in functional molecular studies, drug screening, and iPS cell-based platforms for disease modeling.

  9. Decreased N-TAF1 expression in X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism patient-specific neural stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Ito

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism (XDP is a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder involving a progressive loss of striatal medium spiny neurons. The mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration are not known, in part because there have been few cellular models available for studying the disease. The XDP haplotype consists of multiple sequence variations in a region of the X chromosome containing TAF1, a large gene with at least 38 exons, and a multiple transcript system (MTS composed of five unconventional exons. A previous study identified an XDP-specific insertion of a SINE-VNTR-Alu (SVA-type retrotransposon in intron 32 of TAF1, as well as a neural-specific TAF1 isoform, N-TAF1, which showed decreased expression in post-mortem XDP brain compared with control tissue. Here, we generated XDP patient and control fibroblasts and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs in order to further probe cellular defects associated with this disease. As initial validation of the model, we compared expression of TAF1 and MTS transcripts in XDP versus control fibroblasts and iPSC-derived neural stem cells (NSCs. Compared with control cells, XDP fibroblasts exhibited decreased expression of TAF1 transcript fragments derived from exons 32-36, a region spanning the SVA insertion site. N-TAF1, which incorporates an alternative exon (exon 34′, was not expressed in fibroblasts, but was detectable in iPSC-differentiated NSCs at levels that were ∼threefold lower in XDP cells than in controls. These results support the previous findings that N-TAF1 expression is impaired in XDP, but additionally indicate that this aberrant transcription might occur in neural cells at relatively early stages of development that precede neurodegeneration.

  10. Quantitative Live Imaging of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Derived Neural Rosettes Reveals Structure-Function Dynamics Coupled to Cortical Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Ziv

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells (NSCs are progenitor cells for brain development, where cellular spatial composition (cytoarchitecture and dynamics are hypothesized to be linked to critical NSC capabilities. However, understanding cytoarchitectural dynamics of this process has been limited by the difficulty to quantitatively image brain development in vivo. Here, we study NSC dynamics within Neural Rosettes--highly organized multicellular structures derived from human pluripotent stem cells. Neural rosettes contain NSCs with strong epithelial polarity and are expected to perform apical-basal interkinetic nuclear migration (INM--a hallmark of cortical radial glial cell development. We developed a quantitative live imaging framework to characterize INM dynamics within rosettes. We first show that the tendency of cells to follow the INM orientation--a phenomenon we referred to as radial organization, is associated with rosette size, presumably via mechanical constraints of the confining structure. Second, early forming rosettes, which are abundant with founder NSCs and correspond to the early proliferative developing cortex, show fast motions and enhanced radial organization. In contrast, later derived rosettes, which are characterized by reduced NSC capacity and elevated numbers of differentiated neurons, and thus correspond to neurogenesis mode in the developing cortex, exhibit slower motions and decreased radial organization. Third, later derived rosettes are characterized by temporal instability in INM measures, in agreement with progressive loss in rosette integrity at later developmental stages. Finally, molecular perturbations of INM by inhibition of actin or non-muscle myosin-II (NMII reduced INM measures. Our framework enables quantification of cytoarchitecture NSC dynamics and may have implications in functional molecular studies, drug screening, and iPS cell-based platforms for disease modeling.

  11. Generation of Regionally Specified Neural Progenitors and Functional Neurons from Human Embryonic Stem Cells under Defined Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnete Kirkeby

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To model human neural-cell-fate specification and to provide cells for regenerative therapies, we have developed a method to generate human neural progenitors and neurons from human embryonic stem cells, which recapitulates human fetal brain development. Through the addition of a small molecule that activates canonical WNT signaling, we induced rapid and efficient dose-dependent specification of regionally defined neural progenitors ranging from telencephalic forebrain to posterior hindbrain fates. Ten days after initiation of differentiation, the progenitors could be transplanted to the adult rat striatum, where they formed neuron-rich and tumor-free grafts with maintained regional specification. Cells patterned toward a ventral midbrain (VM identity generated a high proportion of authentic dopaminergic neurons after transplantation. The dopamine neurons showed morphology, projection pattern, and protein expression identical to that of human fetal VM cells grafted in parallel. VM-patterned but not forebrain-patterned neurons released dopamine and reversed motor deficits in an animal model of Parkinson's disease.

  12. Conversion of adult human peripheral blood mononuclear cells into induced neural stem cell by using episomal vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xihe Tang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Human neural stem cells (NSCs hold great promise for research and therapy in neural diseases. Many studies have shown direct induction of NSCs from human fibroblasts, which require an invasive skin biopsy and a prolonged period of expansion in cell culture prior to use. Peripheral blood (PB is routinely used in medical diagnoses, and represents a noninvasive and easily accessible source of cells. Here we show direct derivation of NSCs from adult human PB mononuclear cells (PB-MNCs by employing episomal vectors for transgene delivery. These induced NSCs (iNSCs can expand more than 60 passages, can exhibit NSC morphology, gene expression, differentiation potential, and self-renewing capability and can give rise to multiple functional neural subtypes and glial cells in vitro. Furthermore, the iNSCs carry a specific regional identity and have electrophysiological activity upon differentiation. Our findings provide an easily accessible approach for generating human iNSCs which will facilitate disease modeling, drug screening, and possibly regenerative medicine.

  13. Neural stem/progenitor cell-laden microfibers promote transplant survival in a mouse transected spinal cord injury model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugai, Keiko; Nishimura, Soraya; Kato-Negishi, Midori; Onoe, Hiroaki; Iwanaga, Shintaroh; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Morio; Takeuchi, Shoji; Okano, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Masaya

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that transplantation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PCs) into the lesioned spinal cord can promote functional recovery following incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) in animal models. However, this strategy is insufficient following complete SCI because of the gap at the lesion epicenter. To obtain functional recovery in a mouse model of complete SCI, this study uses a novel collagen-based microfiber as a scaffold for engrafted NS/PCs. We hypothesized that the NS/PC-microfiber combination would facilitate lesion closure as well as transplant survival in the transected spinal cord. NS/PCs were seeded inside the novel microfibers, where they maintained their capacity to differentiate and proliferate. After transplantation, the stumps of the transected spinal cord were successfully bridged by the NS/PC-laden microfibers. Moreover, the transplanted cells migrated into the host spinal cord and differentiated into three neural lineages (astrocytes, neurons, and oligodendrocytes). However, the NS/PC-laden scaffold could not achieve a neural connection between the rostral end of the injury and the intact caudal area of the spinal cord, nor could it achieve recovery of motor function. To obtain optimal functional recovery, a microfiber design with a modified composition may be useful. Furthermore, combinatorial therapy with rehabilitation and/or medications should also be considered for practical success of biomaterial/cell transplantation-based approaches to regenerative medicine. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Immune regulatory neural stem/precursor cells protect from central nervous system autoimmunity by restraining dendritic cell function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Pluchino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The systemic injection of neural stem/precursor cells (NPCs provides remarkable amelioration of the clinico-pathological features of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE. This is dependent on the capacity of transplanted NPCs to engage concurrent mechanisms of action within specific microenvironments in vivo. Among a wide range of therapeutic actions alternative to cell replacement, neuroprotective and immune modulatory capacities of transplanted NPCs have been described. However, lacking is a detailed understanding of the mechanisms by which NPCs exert their therapeutic plasticity. This study was designed to identify the first candidate that exemplifies and sustains the immune modulatory capacity of transplanted NPCs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To achieve the exclusive targeting of the peripheral immune system, SJL mice with PLP-induced EAE were injected subcutaneously with NPCs and the treatment commenced prior to disease onset. NPC-injected EAE mice showed significant clinical improvement, as compared to controls. Exogenous NPCs lacking the expression of major neural antigens were reliably (and for long-term found at the level of draining lymph nodes, while establishing sophisticated anatomical interactions with lymph node cells. Importantly, injected NPCs were never found in organs other than lymph nodes, including the brain and the spinal cord. Draining lymph nodes from transplanted mice showed focal up-regulation of major developmental stem cell regulators, such as BMP-4, Noggin and Sonic hedgehog. In lymph nodes, injected NPCs hampered the activation of myeloid dendritic cells (DCs and steadily restrained the expansion of antigen-specific encephalitogenic T cells. Both ex vivo and in vitro experiments identified a novel highly NPC-specific-BMP-4-dependent-mechanism hindering the DC maturation. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The study described herein, identifies the first member of the TGF beta/BMP family of stem cell

  15. Efficient CRISPR/Cas9-assisted gene targeting enables rapid and precise genetic manipulation of mammalian neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Raul Bardini; Dewari, Pooran Singh; Kalantzaki, Maria; Gangoso, Ester; Matjusaitis, Mantas; Garcia-Diaz, Claudia; Blin, Carla; Grant, Vivien; Bulstrode, Harry; Gogolok, Sabine; Skarnes, William C; Pollard, Steven M

    2017-02-15

    Mammalian neural stem cell (NSC) lines provide a tractable model for discovery across stem cell and developmental biology, regenerative medicine and neuroscience. They can be derived from foetal or adult germinal tissues and continuously propagated in vitro as adherent monolayers. NSCs are clonally expandable, genetically stable, and easily transfectable - experimental attributes compatible with targeted genetic manipulations. However, gene targeting, which is crucial for functional studies of embryonic stem cells, has not been exploited to date in NSC lines. Here, we deploy CRISPR/Cas9 technology to demonstrate a variety of sophisticated genetic modifications via gene targeting in both mouse and human NSC lines, including: (1) efficient targeted transgene insertion at safe harbour loci (Rosa26 and AAVS1); (2) biallelic knockout of neurodevelopmental transcription factor genes; (3) simple knock-in of epitope tags and fluorescent reporters (e.g. Sox2-V5 and Sox2-mCherry); and (4) engineering of glioma mutations (TP53 deletion; H3F3A point mutations). These resources and optimised methods enable facile and scalable genome editing in mammalian NSCs, providing significant new opportunities for functional genetic analysis. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Intrastriatal transplantation of adult human neural crest-derived stem cells improves functional outcome in parkinsonian rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Janine; Ossig, Christiana; Greiner, Johannes F W; Hauser, Stefan; Fauser, Mareike; Widera, Darius; Kaltschmidt, Christian; Storch, Alexander; Kaltschmidt, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is considered the second most frequent and one of the most severe neurodegenerative diseases, with dysfunctions of the motor system and with nonmotor symptoms such as depression and dementia. Compensation for the progressive loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons during PD using current pharmacological treatment strategies is limited and remains challenging. Pluripotent stem cell-based regenerative medicine may offer a promising therapeutic alternative, although the medical application of human embryonic tissue and pluripotent stem cells is still a matter of ethical and practical debate. Addressing these challenges, the present study investigated the potential of adult human neural crest-derived stem cells derived from the inferior turbinate (ITSCs) transplanted into a parkinsonian rat model. Emphasizing their capability to give rise to nervous tissue, ITSCs isolated from the adult human nose efficiently differentiated into functional mature neurons in vitro. Additional successful dopaminergic differentiation of ITSCs was subsequently followed by their transplantation into a unilaterally lesioned 6-hydroxydopamine rat PD model. Transplantation of predifferentiated or undifferentiated ITSCs led to robust restoration of rotational behavior, accompanied by significant recovery of DA neurons within the substantia nigra. ITSCs were further shown to migrate extensively in loose streams primarily toward the posterior direction as far as to the midbrain region, at which point they were able to differentiate into DA neurons within the locus ceruleus. We demonstrate, for the first time, that adult human ITSCs are capable of functionally recovering a PD rat model. ©AlphaMed Press.

  17. Human Adult Dental Pulp Stem Cells Enhance Poststroke Functional Recovery Through Non‐Neural Replacement Mechanisms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leong, Wai Khay; Henshall, Tanya L; Arthur, Agnes; Kremer, Karlea L; Lewis, Martin D; Helps, Stephen C; Field, John; Hamilton-Bruce, Monica A; Warming, Scott; Manavis, Jim; Vink, Robert; Gronthos, Stan; Koblar, Simon A

    2012-01-01

    Human adult dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), derived from third molar teeth, are multipotent and have the capacity to differentiate into neurons under inductive conditions both in vitro and following transplantation into the avian embryo...

  18. Nano-Biosensor for Monitoring the Neural Differentiation of Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jin-Ho; Lee, Taek; Choi, Jeong-Woo

    2016-01-01

    In tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, monitoring the status of stem cell differentiation is crucial to verify therapeutic efficacy and optimize treatment procedures. However, traditional methods, such as cell staining and sorting, are labor-intensive and may damage the cells. Therefore, the development of noninvasive methods to monitor the differentiation status in situ is highly desirable and can be of great benefit to stem cell-based therapies. Toward this end, nanotechnology has...

  19. Transplantation of spinal cord-derived neural stem cells for ALS: Analysis of phase 1 and 2 trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Jonathan D; Hertzberg, Vicki S; Boulis, Nicholas M; Riley, Jonathan; Federici, Thais; Polak, Meraida; Bordeau, Jane; Fournier, Christina; Johe, Karl; Hazel, Tom; Cudkowicz, Merit; Atassi, Nazem; Borges, Lawrence F; Rutkove, Seward B; Duell, Jayna; Patil, Parag G; Goutman, Stephen A; Feldman, Eva L

    2016-07-26

    To test the safety of spinal cord transplantation of human stem cells in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with escalating doses and expansion of the trial to multiple clinical centers. This open-label trial included 15 participants at 3 academic centers divided into 5 treatment groups receiving increasing doses of stem cells by increasing numbers of cells/injection and increasing numbers of injections. All participants received bilateral injections into the cervical spinal cord (C3-C5). The final group received injections into both the lumbar (L2-L4) and cervical cord through 2 separate surgical procedures. Participants were assessed for adverse events and progression of disease, as measured by the ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised, forced vital capacity, and quantitative measures of strength. Statistical analysis focused on the slopes of decline of these phase 2 trial participants alone or in combination with the phase 1 participants (previously reported), comparing these groups to 3 separate historical control groups. Adverse events were mostly related to transient pain associated with surgery and to side effects of immunosuppressant medications. There was one incident of acute postoperative deterioration in neurologic function and another incident of a central pain syndrome. We could not discern differences in surgical outcomes between surgeons. Comparisons of the slopes of decline with the 3 separate historical control groups showed no differences in mean rates of progression. Intraspinal transplantation of human spinal cord-derived neural stem cells can be safely accomplished at high doses, including successive lumbar and cervical procedures. The procedure can be expanded safely to multiple surgical centers. This study provides Class IV evidence that for patients with ALS, spinal cord transplantation of human stem cells can be safely accomplished and does not accelerate the progression of the disease. This study lacks the precision to

  20. The role of CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL)12-CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR)4 signalling in the migration of neural stem cells towards a brain tumour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meulen, A. A. E.; Biber, K.; Lukovac, S.; Balasubramaniyan, V.; den Dunnen, W. F. A.; Boddeke, H. W. G. M.; Mooij, J. J. A.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: It has been shown that neural stem cells (NSCs) migrate towards areas of brain injury or brain tumours and that NSCs have the capacity to track infiltrating tumour cells. The possible mechanism behind the migratory behaviour of NSCs is not yet completely understood. As chemokines are involved

  1. Can adult neural stem cells create new brains? Plasticity in the adult mammalian neurogenic niches: realities and expectations in the era of regenerative biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanis, Ilias

    2012-02-01

    Since the first experimental reports showing the persistence of neurogenic activity in the adult mammalian brain, this field of neurosciences has expanded significantly. It is now widely accepted that neural stem and precursor cells survive during adulthood and are able to respond to various endogenous and exogenous cues by altering their proliferation and differentiation activity. Nevertheless, the pathway to therapeutic applications still seems to be long. This review attempts to summarize and revisit the available data regarding the plasticity potential of adult neural stem cells and of their normal microenvironment, the neurogenic niche. Recent data have demonstrated that adult neural stem cells retain a high level of pluripotency and that adult neurogenic systems can switch the balance between neurogenesis and gliogenesis and can generate a range of cell types with an efficiency that was not initially expected. Moreover, adult neural stem and precursor cells seem to be able to self-regulate their interaction with the microenvironment and even to contribute to its synthesis, altogether revealing a high level of plasticity potential. The next important step will be to elucidate the factors that limit this plasticity in vivo, and such a restrictive role for the microenvironment is discussed in more details.

  2. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) enhances MAP2 + and HUC/D + neurons and influences neurite extension during differentiation of neural progenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (L1F), a member of the Interleukin 6 cytokine family, has a role in differentiation of Human Neural Progenitor (hNP) cells in vitro. hNP cells, derived from Human Embryonic Stem (hES) cells, have an unlimited capacity for self-renewal in monolayer cultu...

  3. Pyrolysed 3D-Carbon Scaffolds Induce Spontaneous Differentiation of Human Neural Stem Cells and Facilitate Real-Time Dopamine Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amato, Letizia; Heiskanen, Arto; Caviglia, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Structurally patterned pyrolysed three-dimensional carbon scaffolds (p3Dcarbon) are fabricated and applied for differentiation of human neural stem cells (hNSCs) developed for cell replacement therapy and sensing of released dopamine. In the absence of differentiation factors (DF) the pyrolysed...

  4. Differential Contribution of the Guanylyl Cyclase-Cyclic GMP-Protein Kinase G Pathway to the Proliferation of Neural Stem Cells Stimulated by Nitric Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno P. Carreira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is an important inflammatory mediator involved in the initial boost in the proliferation of neural stem cells following brain injury. However, the mechanisms underlying the proliferative effect of NO are still unclear. The aim of this work was to investigate whether cyclic GMP (cGMP and the cGMP-dependent kinase (PKG are involved in the proliferative effect triggered by NO in neural stem cells. For this purpose, cultures of neural stem cells isolated from the mouse subventricular zone (SVZ were used. We observed that long-term exposure to the NO donor (24 h, NOC-18, increased the proliferation of SVZ cells in a cGMP-dependent manner, since the guanylate cyclase inhibitor, ODQ, prevented cell proliferation. Similarly to NOC-18, the cGMP analogue, 8-Br-cGMP, also increased cell proliferation. Interestingly, shorter exposures to NO (6 h increased cell proliferation in a cGMP-independent manner via the ERK/MAP kinase pathway. The selective inhibitor of PKG, KT5823, prevented the proliferative effect induced by NO at 24 h but not at 6 h. In conclusion, the proliferative effect of NO is initially mediated by the ERK/MAPK pathway, and at later stages by the GC/cGMP/PKG pathway. Thus, our work shows that NO induces neural stem cell proliferation by targeting these two pathways in a biphasic manner.

  5. Cholera toxin regulates a signaling pathway critical for the expansion of neural stem cell cultures from the fetal and adult rodent brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Androutsellis-Theotokis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New mechanisms that regulate neural stem cell (NSC expansion will contribute to improved assay systems and the emerging regenerative approach that targets endogenous stem cells. Expanding knowledge on the control of stem cell self renewal will also lead to new approaches for targeting the stem cell population of cancers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show that Cholera toxin regulates two recently characterized NSC markers, the Tie2 receptor and the transcription factor Hes3, and promotes the expansion of NSCs in culture. Cholera toxin increases immunoreactivity for the Tie2 receptor and rapidly induces the nuclear localization of Hes3. This is followed by powerful cultured NSC expansion and induction of proliferation both in the presence and absence of mitogen. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest a new cell biological mechanism that regulates the self renewal and differentiation properties of stem cells, providing a new logic to manipulate NSCs in the context of regenerative disease and cancer.

  6. Leptin reverses corticosterone-induced inhibition of neural stem cell proliferation through activating the NR2B subunits of NMDA receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Wen-Zhu [Anesthesia and Operation Center, Hainan Branch of Chinese PLA General Hospital, Hainan 572013 (China); Anesthesia and Operation Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China); Miao, Yu-Liang [Department of Anesthesiology, PLA No. 306 Hospital, Beijing 100101 (China); Guo, Wen-Zhi [Department of Anesthesiology, Beijing Military General Hospital of Chinese People’s Liberation Army, Beijing 100700 (China); Wu, Wei, E-mail: wwzwgk@163.com [Department of Head and Neck Surgery of Otolaryngology, PLA No. 306 Hospital, Beijing 100101 (China); Li, Bao-Wei [Department of Head and Neck Surgery of Otolaryngology, PLA No. 306 Hospital, Beijing 100101 (China); An, Li-Na [Department of Anesthesiology, Armed Police General Hospital, Beijing 100039 (China); Fang, Wei-Wu [Department of Anesthesiology, PLA No. 306 Hospital, Beijing 100101 (China); Mi, Wei-Dong, E-mail: elite2005gg@163.com [Anesthesia and Operation Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China)

    2014-04-25

    Highlights: • Leptin promotes the proliferation of neural stem cells isolated from embryonic mouse hippocampus. • Leptin reverses corticosterone-induced inhibition of neural stem cell proliferation. • The effects of leptin are partially mediated by upregulating NR2B subunits. - Abstract: Corticosterone inhibits the proliferation of hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs). The removal of corticosterone-induced inhibition of NSCs proliferation has been reported to contribute to neural regeneration. Leptin has been shown to regulate brain development, improve angiogenesis, and promote neural regeneration; however, its effects on corticosterone-induced inhibition of NSCs proliferation remain unclear. Here we reported that leptin significantly promoted the proliferation of hippocampal NSCs in a concentration-dependent pattern. Also, leptin efficiently reversed the inhibition of NSCs proliferation induced by corticosterone. Interestingly, pre-treatment with non-specific NMDA antagonist MK-801, specific NR2B antagonist Ro 25-6981, or small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting NR2B, significantly blocked the effect of leptin on corticosterone-induced inhibition of NSCs proliferation. Furthermore, corticosterone significantly reduced the protein expression of NR2B, whereas pre-treatment with leptin greatly reversed the attenuation of NR2B expression caused by corticosterone in cultured hippocampal NSCs. Our findings demonstrate that leptin reverses the corticosterone-induced inhibition of NSCs proliferation. This process is, at least partially mediated by increased expression of NR2B subunits of NMDA receptors.

  7. Transplantation of neural stem cells, Schwann cells and olfactory ensheathing cells for spinal cord injury : A Web of Science-based literature analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xing; Yin, Fei; Guo, Li; Zhao, Dongxu; Gong, Gu; Gao, Lei; Zhu, Qingsan

    2012-12-15

    To identify global research trends in transplantation of neural stem cells, Schwann cells and olfactory ensheathing cells for spinal cord injury. We performed a bibliometric analysis of studies on transplantation of neural stem cells, Schwann cells and olfactory ensheathing cells for spinal cord injury published from 2002 to 2011 and retrieved from the Web of Science, using the key words spinal cord injury along with either neural stem cell, Schwann cell or olfactory ensheathing cell. (a) peer-reviewed published articles on neural stem cells, Schwann cells or olfactory ensheathing cells for spinal cord injury indexed in the Web of Science; (b) original research articles, reviews, meeting abstracts, proceedings papers, book chapters, editorial materials and news items; and (c) published between 2002 and 2011. (a) articles that required manual searching or telephone access; (b) documents that were not published in the public domain; and (c) corrected papers. (1) Annual publication output, distribution by journal, distribution by institution and top-cited articles on neural stem cells; (2) annual publication output, distribution by journal, distribution by institution and top-cited articles on Schwann cells; (3) annual publication output, distribution by journal, distribution by institution and top-cited articles on olfactory ensheathing cells. This analysis, based on articles indexed in the Web of Science, identified several research trends among studies published over the past 10 years in transplantation of neural stem cells, Schwann cells and olfactory ensheathing cells for spinal cord injury. The number of publications increased over the 10-year period examined. Most papers appeared in journals with a focus on neurology, such as Journal of Neurotrauma, Experimental Neurology and Glia. Research institutes publishing on the use of neural stem cells to repair spinal cord injury were mostly in the USA and Canada. Those publishing on the use of Schwann cells were

  8. Characterization of human neural differentiation from pluripotent stem cells using proteomics/PTMomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braga, Marcella Nunes de Melo; Meyer, Morten; Zeng, Xianmin

    2015-01-01

    , neurological disease as well as contributing to clinical research. The neural differentiation process is associated with changes at protein and their post-translational modifications (PTMs). PTMs are important regulators of proteins physicochemical properties, function, activity, and interaction with other...... the understanding of molecular processes in cells. Substantial advances in PTM enrichment methods and mass spectrometry has allowed the characterization of a subset of PTMs in large-scale studies. This review focuses on the current state-of-the-art of proteomic, as well as PTMomic studies related to human neural...

  9. Revocation of European patent for neural progenitors highlights patent challenges for inventions relating to human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Barbara

    2013-11-01

    Cells derived from human embryonic stem cells have great therapeutic potential. Patents are key to allowing companies that develop methods of generating such cells to recuperate their investment. However, in Europe, inventions relating to the use of human embryos for commercial purposes are excluded from patentability on moral grounds. The scope of this morality exclusion was recently tested before Germany's highest court and before the European Patent Office (EPO), with diverging results. The decision by the EPO's Opposition Division to revoke EP1040185 relating to neural precursors and methods for their generation has received a mixed reception. The decision has very recently been appealed, and the outcome of this Appeal should provide more definitive guidance on the scope of the morality exclusion.

  10. Single-Cell Transcriptomic Analysis Defines Heterogeneity and Transcriptional Dynamics in the Adult Neural Stem Cell Lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben W. Dulken

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells (NSCs in the adult mammalian brain serve as a reservoir for the generation of new neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes. Here, we use single-cell RNA sequencing to characterize adult NSC populations and examine the molecular identities and heterogeneity of in vivo NSC populations. We find that cells in the NSC lineage exist on a continuum through the processes of activation and differentiation. Interestingly, rare intermediate states with distinct molecular profiles can be identified and experimentally validated, and our analysis identifies putative surface markers and key intracellular regulators for these subpopulations of NSCs. Finally, using the power of single-cell profiling, we conduct a meta-analysis to compare in vivo NSCs and in vitro cultures, distinct fluorescence-activated cell sorting strategies, and different neurogenic niches. These data provide a resource for the field and contribute to an integrative understanding of the adult NSC lineage.

  11. Neural Stem Cell Spreading on Lipid Based Artificial Cell Surfaces, Characterized by Combined X-ray and Neutron Reflectometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Huth

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We developed a bioadhesive coating based on a synthetic peptide-conjugate (AK-cyclo[RGDfC] which contains multiples of the arginyl-glycyl-aspartic acid (RGD amino acid sequence. Biotinylated AK-cyclo[RGDfC] is bound to a supported lipid bilayer via a streptavidin interlayer. Layering, hydration and packing of the coating is quantified by X-ray and neutron reflectometry experiments. AK-cyclo[RGDfC] binds to the streptavidin interlayer in a stretched-out on edge configuration. The highly packed configuration with only 12% water content maximizes the number of accessible adhesion sites. Enhanced cell spreading of neural stem cells was observed for AK-cyclo[RGDfC] functionalized bilayers. Due to the large variety of surfaces which can be coated by physisorption of lipid bilayers, this approach is of general interest for the fabrication of biocompatible surfaces.

  12. Engrafted Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells Promote Functional Recovery through Synapse Reorganization with Spared Host Neurons after Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Yokota

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC transplantation is a promising therapeutic strategy for spinal cord injury (SCI. However, the efficacy of NSPC transplantation on severe SCI is poorly understood. We herein show that NSPC transplantation promotes functional recovery after mild and moderate SCI, but not after severe SCI. In severe SCI mice, there were few remaining host neurons within the range of NSPC engraftment; thus, we examined whether the co-distribution of transplant and host is a contributory factor for functional improvement. A cellular selective analysis using laser microdissection revealed that drug-induced host neuronal ablation considerably decreased the synaptogenic potential of the engrafted NSPCs. Furthermore, following host neuronal ablation, neuronal retrograde tracing showed less propriospinal relay connections bridging the lesion after NSPC transplantation. Our findings suggest that the interactive synaptic reorganization between engrafted NSPCs and spared host neurons is crucial for functional recovery, providing significant insight for establishing therapeutic strategies for severe SCI.

  13. Functional Recovery Secondary to Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells Transplantation Combined with Treadmill Training in Mice with Chronic Spinal Cord Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tashiro, Syoichi; Nishimura, Soraya; Iwai, Hiroki

    Rapid progress in stem cell medicine is being realized in neural regeneration also in spinal cord injury (SCI). Researchers have reported remarkable functional recovery with various cell sources including induced Pluripotent Stem cell derived neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PCs), especially...... are chiefly developed to improve the effect of regenerative therapy for this refractory state, physical training also have attracted the attention as a desirable candidate to combine with cell transplantation. Recently, we have reported that the addition of treadmill training enhances the effect of NS....../PC transplantation for chronic SCI for the first time. In this study, we used thoracic SCI mouse models to compare manifestations secondary to both transplantation and training, and the two therapies combined, with a control group. Significant locomotor recovery in comparison with the control group was only achieved...

  14. AICAR induces astroglial differentiation of neural stem cells via activating the JAK/STAT3 pathway independently of AMP-activated protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Yi; Yu, Li-Fang; Pang, Tao; Fang, Lei-Ping; Feng, Xu; Wen, Tie-Qiao; Nan, Fa-Jun; Feng, Lin-Yin; Li, Jia

    2008-03-07

    Neural stem cell differentiation and the determination of lineage decision between neuronal and glial fates have important implications in the study of developmental, pathological, and regenerative processes. Although small molecule chemicals with the ability to control neural stem cell fate are considered extremely useful tools in this field, few were reported. AICAR is an adenosine analog and extensively used to activate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a metabolic "fuel gauge" of the biological system. In the present study, we found an unrecognized astrogliogenic activity of AICAR on not only immortalized neural stem cell line C17.2 (C17.2-NSC), but also primary neural stem cells (NSCs) derived from post-natal (P0) rat hippocampus (P0-NSC) and embryonic day 14 (E14) rat embryonic cortex (E14-NSC). However, another AMPK activator, Metformin, did not alter either the C17.2-NSC or E14-NSC undifferentiated state although both Metformin and AICAR can activate the AMPK pathway in NSC. Furthermore, overexpression of dominant-negative mutants of AMPK in C17.2-NSC was unable to block the gliogenic effects of AICAR. We also found AICAR could activate the Janus kinase (JAK) STAT3 pathway in both C17.2-NSC and E14-NSC but Metformin fails. JAK inhibitor I abolished the gliogenic effects of AICAR. Taken together, these results suggest that the astroglial differentiation effect of AICAR on neural stem cells was acting independently of AMPK and that the JAK-STAT3 pathway is essential for the gliogenic effect of AICAR.

  15. Enhanced selective gene delivery to neural stem cells in vivo by an adeno-associated viral variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotterman, Melissa A; Vazin, Tandis; Schaffer, David V

    2015-05-15

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are defined by their ability to self-renew and to differentiate into mature neuronal and glial cell types. NSCs are the subject of intense investigation, owing to their crucial roles in neural development and adult brain function and because they present potential targets for gene and cell replacement therapies following injury or disease. Approaches to specifically genetically perturb or modulate NSC function would be valuable for either motivation. Unfortunately, most gene delivery vectors are incapable of efficient or specific gene delivery to NSCs in vivo. Vectors based on adeno-associated virus (AAV) present a number of advantages and have proven increasingly successful in clinical trials. However, natural AAV variants are inefficient in transducing NSCs. We previously engineered a novel AAV variant (AAV r3.45) capable of efficient transduction of adult NSCs in vitro. Here, to build upon the initial promise of this variant, we investigated its in vitro and in vivo infectivity. AAV r3.45 was more selective for NSCs than mature neurons in a human embryonic stem cell-derived culture containing a mixture of cell types, including NSCs and neurons. It was capable of more efficient and selective transduction of rat and mouse NSCs in vivo than natural AAV serotypes following intracranial vector administration. Delivery of constitutively active β-catenin yielded insights into mechanisms by which this key regulator modulates NSC function, indicating that this engineered AAV variant can be harnessed for preferential modulation of adult NSCs in the hippocampus. The capacity to rapidly genetically modify these cells might greatly accelerate in vivo investigations of adult neurogenesis. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. MicroRNA-378 regulates neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation in vitro by modulating Tailless expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yanxia [Department of Psychology and Psychiatry, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710004 (China); Department of Rehabilitation, Xi' an Children' s Hospital, Xi' an 710003 (China); Liu, Xiaoguai [The 3rd Department of Infectious Diseases, Xi' an Children' s Hospital, Xi' an 710003 (China); Wang, Yaping, E-mail: yapwangyy@163.com [Department of Psychology and Psychiatry, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710004 (China)

    2015-10-16

    Previous studies have suggested that microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in regulating neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation and differentiation. However, the precise role of miRNAs in NSC remains largely unexplored. In this study, we showed that miR-378 can target Tailless (TLX), a critical regulator of NSC, to regulate NSC proliferation and differentiation. By bioinformatic algorithms, miR-378 was found to have a predicted target site in the 3′-untranslated region of TLX, which was verified by a dual-luciferase reporter assay. The expression of miR-378 was increased during NSC differentiation and inversely correlated with TLX expression. qPCR and Western blot analysis also showed that miR-378 negatively regulated TLX mRNA and protein expression in neural stem cells (NSCs). Intriguingly, overexpression of miR-378 increased NSC differentiation and reduced NSC proliferation, whereas suppression of miR-378 led to decreased NSC differentiation and increased NSC proliferation. Moreover, the downstream targets of TLX, including p21, PTEN and Wnt/β-catenin were also found to be regulated by miR-378. Additionally, overexpression of TLX rescued the NSC proliferation deficiency induced by miR-378 overexpression and abolished miR-378-promoted NSC differentiation. Taken together, our data suggest that miR-378 is a novel miRNA that regulates NSC proliferation and differentiation via targeting TLX. Therefore, manipulating miR-378 in NSCs could be a novel strategy to develop novel interventions for the treatment of relevant neurological disorders. - Highlights: • miR-378 targeted and regulated TLX. • miR-378 was increased during NSC differentiation. • miR-378 regulated NSC proliferation and differentiation. • miR-378 regulated NSC self-renew through TLX.

  17. p53 interaction with JMJD3 results in its nuclear distribution during mouse neural stem cell differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Solá

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Conserved elements of apoptosis are also integral components of cellular differentiation. In this regard, p53 is involved in neurogenesis, being required for neurite outgrowth in primary neurons and for axonal regeneration in mice. Interestingly, demethylases regulate p53 activity and its interaction with co-activators by acting on non-histone proteins. In addition, the histone H3 lysine 27-specific demethylase JMJD3 induces ARF expression, thereby stabilizing p53 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. We hypothesized that p53 interacts with key regulators of neurogenesis to redirect stem cells to differentiation, as an alternative to cell death. Specifically, we investigated the potential cross-talk between p53 and JMJD3 during mouse neural stem cell (NSC differentiation. Our results demonstrated that JMJD3 mRNA and protein levels were increased early in mouse NSC differentiation, when JMJD3 activity was readily detected. Importantly, modulation of JMJD3 in NSCs resulted in changes of total p53 protein, coincident with increased ARF mRNA and protein expression. ChIP analysis revealed that JMJD3 was present at the promoter and exon 1 regions of ARF during neural differentiation, although without changes in H3K27me3. Immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated a direct interaction between p53 and JMJD3, independent of the C-terminal region of JMJD3, and modulation of p53 methylation by JMJD3-demethylase activity. Finally, transfection of mutant JMJD3 showed that the demethylase activity of JMJD3 was crucial in regulating p53 cellular distribution and function. In conclusion, JMJD3 induces p53 stabilization in mouse NSCs through ARF-dependent mechanisms, directly interacts with p53 and, importantly, causes nuclear accumulation of p53. This suggests that JMJD3 and p53 act in a common pathway during neurogenesis.

  18. MicroRNA-378 regulates neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation in vitro by modulating Tailless expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanxia; Liu, Xiaoguai; Wang, Yaping

    2015-10-16

    Previous studies have suggested that microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in regulating neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation and differentiation. However, the precise role of miRNAs in NSC remains largely unexplored. In this study, we showed that miR-378 can target Tailless (TLX), a critical regulator of NSC, to regulate NSC proliferation and differentiation. By bioinformatic algorithms, miR-378 was found to have a predicted target site in the 3'-untranslated region of TLX, which was verified by a dual-luciferase reporter assay. The expression of miR-378 was increased during NSC differentiation and inversely correlated with TLX expression. qPCR and Western blot analysis also showed that miR-378 negatively regulated TLX mRNA and protein expression in neural stem cells (NSCs). Intriguingly, overexpression of miR-378 increased NSC differentiation and reduced NSC proliferation, whereas suppression of miR-378 led to decreased NSC differentiation and increased NSC proliferation. Moreover, the downstream targets of TLX, including p21, PTEN and Wnt/β-catenin were also found to be regulated by miR-378. Additionally, overexpression of TLX rescued the NSC proliferation deficiency induced by miR-378 overexpression and abolished miR-378-promoted NSC differentiation. Taken together, our data suggest that miR-378 is a novel miRNA that regulates NSC proliferation and differentiation via targeting TLX. Therefore, manipulating miR-378 in NSCs could be a novel strategy to develop novel interventions for the treatment of relevant neurological disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Neurotrophy and immunomodulation of induced neural stem cell grafts in a mouse model of closed head injury

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    Mou Gao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Closed head injury (CHI usually results in severe and permanent neurological impairments, which are caused by several intertwined phenomena, such as cerebral edema, blood-brain barrier (BBB disruption, neuronal loss, astroglial scarring and inflammation. We previously reported that induced neural stem cells (iNSCs, similar to neural stem cells (NSCs, can accelerate neurological recovery in vivo and produce neurotrophic factors in vitro. However, the effects of iNSC neurotrophy following CHI were not determined. Moreover, whether iNSCs have immunomodulatory properties is unknown. Mouse models of CHI were established using a standardized weight-drop device and assessed by neurological severity score (NSS. Although these models fail to mimic the complete spectrum of human CHI, they reproduce impairment in neurological function observed in clinical patients. Syngeneic iNSCs or NSCs were separately transplanted into the brains of CHI mice at 12 h after CHI. Neurological impairment post-CHI was evaluated by several tests. Animals were sacrificed for morphological and molecular biological analyses. We discovered that iNSC administration promoted neurological functional recovery in CHI mice and reduced cerebral edema, BBB disruption, cell death and astroglial scarring following trauma. Implanted iNSCs could up-regulate brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF levels to support the survival of existing neurons after CHI. In addition, engrafted iNSCs decreased immune cell recruitment and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in the brain post-injury. Moreover, we found significant nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB inhibition in the presence of iNSC grafts. In short, iNSCs exert neurotrophic and immunomodulatory effects that mitigate CHI-induced neurological impairment.

  20. Functional assessment of the acute local and distal transplantation of human neural stem cells after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ivan; Mayle, Robert E; Cox, Christopher A; Park, Don Y; Smith, Robert L; Corcoran-Schwartz, Ian; Ponnusamy, Karthikeyan E; Oshtory, Rayshad; Smuck, Matthew W; Mitra, Raj; Kharazi, Alexander I; Carragee, Eugene J

    2012-11-01

    Spinal cord injury can lead to severe functional impairments secondary to axonal damage, neuronal loss, and demyelination. The injured spinal cord has limited regrowth of damaged axons. Treatment remains controversial, given inconsistent functional improvement. Previous studies demonstrated functional recovery of rats with spinal cord contusion after transplantation of rat fetal neural stem cells. We hypothesized that acute transplantation of human fetal neural stem cells (hNSCs) both locally at the injury site as well as distally via intrathecal injection would lead to improved functional recovery compared with controls. Twenty-four adult female Long-Evans hooded rats were randomized into four groups with six animals in each group: two experimental and two control. Functional assessment was measured after injury and then weekly for 6 weeks using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan Locomotor Rating Score. Data were analyzed using two-sample t test and linear mixed-effects model analysis. Posterior exposure and laminectomy at T10 level was used. Moderate spinal cord contusion was induced by the Multicenter Animal Spinal Cord Injury Study Impactor with 10-g weight dropped from a height of 25 mm. Experimental subjects received either a subdural injection of hNSCs locally at the injury site or intrathecal injection of hNSCs through a separate distal laminotomy. Controls received control media injection either locally or distally. Statistically significant functional improvement was observed in local or distal hNSCs subjects versus controls (p=.034 and