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Sample records for himalayan river system

  1. Water quality evaluation of Himalayan Rivers of Kumaun region, Uttarakhand, India

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seth, Richa; Mohan, Manindra; Singh, Prashant; Singh, Rakesh; Dobhal, Rajendra; Singh, Krishna Pal; Gupta, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Water quality of Himalayan rivers has been steadily deteriorating over several decades due to anthropogenic activities, dumping of treated or untreated effluents, poor structured sewerage and drainage system, etc...

  2. Counter-intuitive influence of Himalayan river morphodynamics on Indus Civilisation urban settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajit; Thomsen, Kristina J; Sinha, Rajiv; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Carter, Andrew; Mark, Darren F; Mason, Philippa J; Densmore, Alexander L; Murray, Andrew S; Jain, Mayank; Paul, Debajyoti; Gupta, Sanjeev

    2017-11-28

    Urbanism in the Bronze-age Indus Civilisation (~4.6-3.9 thousand years before the present, ka) has been linked to water resources provided by large Himalayan river systems, although the largest concentrations of urban-scale Indus settlements are located far from extant Himalayan rivers. Here we analyse the sedimentary architecture, chronology and provenance of a major palaeochannel associated with many of these settlements. We show that the palaeochannel is a former course of the Sutlej River, the third largest of the present-day Himalayan rivers. Using optically stimulated luminescence dating of sand grains, we demonstrate that flow of the Sutlej in this course terminated considerably earlier than Indus occupation, with diversion to its present course complete shortly after ~8 ka. Indus urban settlements thus developed along an abandoned river valley rather than an active Himalayan river. Confinement of the Sutlej to its present incised course after ~8 ka likely reduced its propensity to re-route frequently thus enabling long-term stability for Indus settlements sited along the relict palaeochannel.

  3. Trans-Himalayan water contributions to river discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andermann, Christoff; Stieglitz, Thomas; Schuessler, Jan A.; Parajouli, Binod

    2017-04-01

    Hydrological processes in high mountains are not well understood. Groundwater is commonly considered to be of little importance in the mountain water balance, while direct runoff, snow and ice melt are thought to be the principal hydrological buffer. We present new insights into hydrological fluxes between major reservoirs in a trans-Himalayan catchment. The study area is the Kali Gandaki catchment, rising in the dry Tibetan interior, carving through the high Himalayas and draining the full width of the foothills to the Ganges foreland. The catchment has a well-defined monsoon climate, with pronounced annual wet and dry seasons and a clear separation of wind- and leeward regions. We have sampled the main river and its tributaries as well as several springs during the four hydrological seasons (winter, pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon). We have measured major element abundances as well as 222Rn in situ, as a tracer for groundwater contribution. These measurements are placed in a context of topographic analyses as well as continuous discharge and precipitation measurements. Furthermore, we have equipped two sites with continuous water samplers, sampling over > 4 monsoon seasons, allowing us to resolve the seasonal hydrological dynamic range on a very high temporal resolution. Chemical fluxes vary spatially over several orders of magnitude, showing a systematic downstream dilution trend for most major elements during all hydrological seasons. High initial concentrations derive from evaporite deposits in the uppermost part of the catchment, constituting a large scale, natural salt tracer experiment. The well-defined decline of solute concentrations along the main river, paired with constraints on the composition of lateral water inputs downstream allow the calculation of the spatial distribution of additional hydrological fluxes, by applying end member mixing modeling. Continuous river stage and bulk dissolved load (electrical conductivity) monitoring depict well

  4. Rapid grain size fining in modern and Pliocene Himalayan rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubille, Matthieu; Lave, Jerome

    2013-04-01

    Rapid grain size changes between two main units of a sedimentary megacycle in a foreland basin are commonly interpreted to result from changes in tectonic activity or climate in the adjacent mountain range. In central Nepal, the Cenozoic Siwaliks molasse deposits exposed in the frontal Himalayan folds are characterized by such a radical grain size transition. Locally gravel deposits completely replace sands in the upward sequence within about a hundred meters, the median grain size (D50) displaying a sharp increase by a factor of ~100. Such a rapid gravel-sand transition is also observed in present-day river channels about 8-20 km downstream from the outlet of the frontal Himalaya. The passage from gravel-covered channel reaches (proximal alluvial fans) to sand-covered channel reaches (distal alluvial fans) occurs within a few kilometres on the Gangetic Plain in central Nepal, and the D50 ratio between the two types of channels equals ~100. We propose that the dramatic and remarkably similar decrease in grain size observed in the Siwaliks series and along modern rivers in the Gangetic foreland basin, results from a similar hydrological process, i.e. a grain sorting process during the selective deposition of the sediment load. Such behaviour is quite well reproduce by simple grain-size-dependent sediment transport models if we account for the initial grain size distribution of the eroded sediments. By analogy with modern rivers behaviour, the sudden grain size decrease observed in the Cenozoic Siwaliks molasse deposits is interpreted as the crossing of this sorting transition during progressive southward migration of the depositional facies in response to continuous Himalayan orogen construction. This study demonstrates that an abrupt change in grain size does not necessarily relate to a change in tectonic or climatic forcing, but can simply arise from internal adjustment of the piedmont rivers to the deposition of coarse bedload and grain segregation processes.

  5. Snowmelt runoff prediction under changing climate in the Himalayan cryosphere: A case of Gilgit River Basin

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    Muhammad Adnan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available There are serious concerns of rise in temperatures over snowy and glacierized Himalayan region that may eventually affect future river flows of Indus river system. It is therefore necessary to predict snow and glacier melt runoff to manage future water resource of Upper Indus Basin (UIB. The snowmelt runoff model (SRM coupled with MODIS remote sensing data was employed in this study to predict daily discharges of Gilgit River in the Karakoram Range. The SRM was calibrated successfully and then simulation was made over four years i.e. 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010 achieving coefficient of model efficiency of 0.96, 0.86, 0.9 and 0.94 respectively. The scenarios of precipitation and mean temperature developed from regional climate model PRECIS were used in SRM model to predict future flows of Gilgit River. The increase of 3 °C in mean annual temperature by the end of 21th century may result in increase of 35–40% in Gilgit River flows. The expected increase in the surface runoff from the snow and glacier melt demands better water conservation and management for irrigation and hydel-power generation in the Indus basin in future.

  6. Adoption of Geospatial Systems towards evolving Sustainable Himalayan Mountain Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, M. S. R.; Bajracharya, B.; Pradhan, S.; Shestra, B.; Bajracharya, R.; Shakya, K.; Wesselmann, S.; Ali, M.; Bajracharya, S.; Pradhan, S.

    2014-11-01

    Natural resources dependence of mountain communities, rapid social and developmental changes, disaster proneness and climate change are conceived as the critical factors regulating sustainable Himalayan mountain development. The Himalayan region posed by typical geographic settings, diverse physical and cultural diversity present a formidable challenge to collect and manage data, information and understands varied socio-ecological settings. Recent advances in earth observation, near real-time data, in-situ measurements and in combination of information and communication technology have transformed the way we collect, process, and generate information and how we use such information for societal benefits. Glacier dynamics, land cover changes, disaster risk reduction systems, food security and ecosystem conservation are a few thematic areas where geospatial information and knowledge have significantly contributed to informed decision making systems over the region. The emergence and adoption of near-real time systems, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), board-scale citizen science (crowd-sourcing), mobile services and mapping, and cloud computing have paved the way towards developing automated environmental monitoring systems, enhanced scientific understanding of geophysical and biophysical processes, coupled management of socio-ecological systems and community based adaptation models tailored to mountain specific environment. There are differentiated capacities among the ICIMOD regional member countries with regard to utilization of earth observation and geospatial technologies. The region can greatly benefit from a coordinated and collaborative approach to capture the opportunities offered by earth observation and geospatial technologies. The regional level data sharing, knowledge exchange, and Himalayan GEO supporting geospatial platforms, spatial data infrastructure, unique region specific satellite systems to address trans-boundary challenges would go a long way in

  7. Upper crustal shortening and forward modeling of the Himalayan thrust belt along the Budhi-Gandaki River, central Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Subodha; Robinson, Delores M.

    2013-04-01

    A balanced cross-section along the Budhi-Gandaki River in central Nepal between the Main Central thrust, including displacement on that fault, and the Main Frontal thrust reveals a minimum total shortening of 400 km. Minimum displacement on major orogen-scale structures include 116 km on the Main Central thrust, 110 km on the Ramgarh thrust, 95 km on the Trishuli thrust, and 56 km in the Lesser Himalayan duplex. The balanced cross-section was also incrementally forward modeled assuming a generally forward-breaking sequence of thrusting, where early faults and hanging-wall structures are passively carried from the hinterland toward the foreland. The approximate correspondence of the forward modeled result to observe present day geometries suggest that the section interpretation is viable and admissible. In the balanced cross-section, the Trishuli thrust is the roof thrust for the Lesser Himalayan duplex. The forward model and reconstruction emphasize that the Lesser Himalayan duplex grew by incorporating rock from the footwall and transferring it to the hanging wall along the Main Himalayan thrust. As the duplex developed, the Lesser Himalayan ramp migrated southward. The movement of Lesser Himalayan thrust sheets over the ramp pushed the Lesser Himalayan rock and the overburdens of the Greater and Tibetan Himalayan rock toward the erosional surface. This vertical structural movement caused by footwall collapse and duplexing, in combination with erosion, exhumed the Lesser Himalaya.

  8. Isotope provenance of Eastern Himalayan rivers draining to the south into India, Nepal and Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemignani, Lorenzo; Wijbrans, Jan; Najman, Yani; van der Beek, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The two syntaxis of the Himalaya (Eastern and western) are exhuming anomalously fast compared to the rest of Himalaya , and various hypothesis and models have been proposed to explain this, including coupled tectonic-erosion model of (Tectonic Aneurism)1-2 and ductile extrusion of weak lower crust from beneath Tibet by 'channel flow' 3 . The Namche Barwa metamorphic massif constitutes the eastern syntaxis of the belt and has experienced a complex history of uplift and deformation both influenced by intense fluvial erosion associated with the Yarlung-Tzangpo. Therefore, the Himalayas represent a unique natural laboratory where the interactions between the tectonics, erosion, climate and drainage evolution can be investigated. The purpose of the work is to understand in collaboration with other PhD students and European researchers collaborating in the iTECC Marie Curie Initial training Network the importance of processes involving the complex links and feedbacks between climate, tectonics and erosion. In this multi-disciplinary and multi-technique study the mains goals will be to assess the timing of rapid exhumation, to determine provenance source area exhumation of the syntaxis in relation to the big river capture event that has implicates the Yarlung-Tsangpo by the Brahmaputra, and the effect of the dilution of the syntaxis signal 's downstream. During the work the 40Ar/39Ar dating of single-grain detrital micas technique will be used to analyze smaller and younger grains using newly developed high sensitivity multi-collection noble gas mass spectrometry. Detrital zircon fission-track is perform to provides robust cooling age time of the sources terrains. Input from eastern syntaxis has been identified in the Brahmaputra sedimentary record by the appearance of very young grains (from 10 Ma to 6 Ma)4. To compare and to increase the previously collected data, fifteen samples from the Yarlung-Brahmaputra River system and from tributaries draining the Himalaya, the

  9. Assessment of precipitation variability and uncertainty of stream flow in the Hindu Kush Himalayan and Karakoram River basins of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiz, Muhammad Abrar; Liu, Dong; Fu, Qiang; Wrzesiński, Dariusz; Muneer, Shehakk; Khan, Muhammad Imran; Li, Tianxiao; Cui, Song

    2017-09-01

    The agricultural production system and hydropower production of Pakistan is largely dependent on melting water from the Hindu Kush Himalayan and the Karakoram River basins. Regardless of such significant prominence, a complete evaluation of the prevailing state of hydro-climatic variables is missing. In this context, we examine the precipitation variability and uncertainty of river flows based on diversity indexes and Shannon information entropy theory. The results indicate that the Shannon diversity index presents a clear depiction of precipitation variability on all metrological stations as compared to the Simpson diversity index. The maximum precipitation variability was found at Chilas station as compared to Hunza, Bunji and Gilgit stations. The results also show that the diversity indexes are highly, negatively correlated with standard deviation, and the amount of precipitation is less than 50 mm (dry months). At the decadal scale, the Hunza and Astore stations show higher precipitation evenness as compared to the Skardu, Bunji and Gilgit stations. The uncertainty analysis shows higher entropy value E D = 90% for Indus River gauged at Mangla station. The higher entropy means the greater the chaos of the variables and the lower their certainty. The analysis exhibited that the rivers with high stream flow variability also show low entropy of its distribution and therefore higher stream flow concentration in the annual cycle.

  10. A single width-discharge regime relationship for individual threads of braided and meandering rivers from the Himalayan Foreland

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurav, Kumar; S Tandon; Devauchelle, Olivier; Sinha, Rajiv; Métivier, François

    2017-01-01

    International audience; We explore the existence of a single width-discharge regime relation for allu-vial rivers of braided and meandering patterns. The study relies on the field measurement of a channel's cross section geometry (width, depth), discharge, and grain size of 98 individual threads of braided and meandering rivers from the Ganga-Brahmaputra plains of the Himalayan Foreland. Using this data set, we show that, irrespective of the diverse climatic and geologic setting along the str...

  11. Quantifying present and future glacier melt-water contribution to runoff in a central Himalayan river basin

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    M. Prasch

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Water supply of most lowland cultures heavily depends on rain and melt water from the upstream mountains. Especially melt-water release of alpine mountain ranges is usually attributed a pivotal role for the water supply of large downstream regions. Water scarcity is assumed as consequence of glacier shrinkage and possible disappearance due to global climate change (GCC, in particular for large parts of Central and Southeast Asia. In this paper, the application and validation of a coupled modeling approach with regional climate model (RCM outputs and a process-oriented glacier and hydrological model is presented for the central Himalayan Lhasa River basin despite scarce data availability. Current and possible future contributions of ice melt to runoff along the river network are spatially explicitly shown. Its role among the other water balance components is presented. Although glaciers have retreated and will continue to retreat according to the chosen climate scenarios, water availability is and will be primarily determined by monsoon precipitation and snowmelt. Ice melt from glaciers is and will be a minor runoff component in summer monsoon-dominated Himalayan river basins.

  12. Rising river flows throughout the twenty-first century in two Himalayan glacierized watersheds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immerzeel, W.W.; Pelliciotti, F.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2013-01-01

    Greater Himalayan glaciers are retreating and losing mass at rates comparable to glaciers in other regions of the world1–5 . Assessments of future changes and their associated hydrological impacts are scarce, oversimplify glacier dynamics or include a limited number of climate models6–9 . Here, we

  13. Impacts of hydrologic variations on chemical weathering and solute sources in the Min River basin, Himalayan-Tibetan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jun; Li, Si-Liang; Tao, Faxiang; Ding, Hu; Liu, Jing

    2017-08-01

    Feedback between hydrologic variations and chemical weathering is thought to play a crucial role in modulating global carbon cycling. The mechanisms associated with the impacts of hydrologic variations on solute sources and chemical weathering were evaluated by examining the relationships between river discharge and hydrochemistry based on high-frequency sampling of the Min River, which originates in the Himalayan-Tibetan region. Fluid transit times and flow pathways vary with changes in discharge, thereby affecting various biogeochemical processes. Although shorter transit times occur during the high-flow season than during the low-flow season, concentrations of chemical weathering products exhibit chemostatic behaviour (less variation than changes in discharge) in response to increasing discharge due to hydrologic flushing of minerals, which increases the amount of reactive mineral surface area. The contributions of various sources to dissolved loads in the Min River were estimated using a forward model. The calculated annual carbonate and silicate weathering fluxes are 24.1 and 9.6 t/km2 year, respectively. Atmospheric contributions increase with increasing discharge, whereas the contributions of silicate weathering decrease with increasing discharge. Both the carbonate weathering flux (FCarb) and silicate weathering flux (FSil) are positively correlated with the discharge, indicating that temporal variations in chemical weathering fluxes in the Min River are highly affected by hydrologic variations. The slope of the relationship between FCarb and discharge is much greater than that between FSil and discharge due to the rapid dissolution of carbonate minerals, suggesting that carbonate weathering is more sensitive than silicate weathering to hydrologic variations. This study demonstrates that high-frequency sampling is necessary when investigating solute sources and chemical weathering processes in river basins influenced by a monsoon climate.

  14. Time-scales of erosion and weathering processes in the Himalayan river system: Element and isotope approach using the U-series; Constantes de temps des processus d'erosion et d'alteration dans le systeme himalayen: approche geochimique elementaire et isotopique par les series de l'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granet, M

    2007-06-15

    The time-scales of erosion and weathering processes are key parameters which need to be determined to understand the response of the reliefs to external forcing like tectonics, climate and human activities. They were recovered by using U-series nuclides analyzed in sediments and suspended materials carried by the Himalayan rivers of the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins. In the Ganges basin, the time-scales of weathering determined from the study of coarse sediments carried by the Kali Gandaki range from several ky, where the uplift is located, to 350 ky. Such values indicate that the bed-rocks are in situ weathered for a long period before the weathering residual products get transported in the rivers as coarse sediments. At the outlet of the high range, these sediments are carried by the tributaries of the Ganges, the Gandak and Ghaghara, during a transfer period of about 100 ka. The study of the sediments at the outlet of the Brahmaputra tributaries allows to propose time-scales of weathering ranging from 110 to 270 ky. Such long periods confirm that during their transfer in the plains, the sediments are temporarily trapped at several places in the basins. In the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers, the time-scales of sedimentary transfer are 575 and 160 ky, respectively. These values, which are of the same order as their response times, are much longer than the timescales of the Quaternary climate oscillations. It confirms the buffering action of the asiatic alluvial plains for the high-frequency sediment flux variations in response to external forcing in the chain. The study of suspended materials suggests that their chemical compositions result from the mixing of coarse river sediments with fine particles from various locations in the basin which are affected by vegetation recycling. By contrast to coarse sediments, the time-scales of transfer for the suspended materials are fast, e.g. a few ky, pointing the potential of U-series nuclides to assess particle transport

  15. Himalayan Foothills, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This remarkably clear, pre-monsoon view of the Himalayan foothills of Bangladesh (26.0N, 89.5E) shows the deforestation of the lower slopes for agriculture and pasture lands. The cleared lower slopes are generally used for tea cultivation. The intensity of agricultural land use, mostly in the form of small, family subsistance farms on the Ganges Plain is evident over most of the scene. Note also, the aircraft contrail and Tista River.

  16. Counter-intuitive influence of Himalayan river morphodynamics on Indus Civilisation urban settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ajit; Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Sinha, Rajiv

    2017-01-01

    luminescence dating of sand grains, we demonstrate that flow of the Sutlej in this course terminated considerably earlier than Indus occupation, with diversion to its present course complete shortly after similar to 8 ka. Indus urban settlements thus developed along an abandoned river valley rather than...

  17. Soft sediment deformation associated with the East Patna Fault south of the Ganga River, northern India: Influence of the Himalayan tectonics on the southern Ganga plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Aditya K.; Pati, Pitambar; Sharma, Vijay

    2017-08-01

    The geomorphic, tectonic and seismic aspects of the Ganga plain have been studied by several workers in the recent decades. However, the northern part of this tectonically active plain has been the prime focus in most of the studies. The region to the south of the Ganga River requires necessary attention, especially, regarding the seismic activities. The region lying immediately south of the Outer Himalayas (i.e. the Ganga plain) responds to the stress regime of the Himalayan Frontal Thrust Zone by movement along the existing basement faults (extending from the Indian Peninsula) and creating new surface faults within the sediment cover as well. As a result, several earthquakes have been recorded along these basement faults, such as the great earthquakes of 1934 and 1988 associated with the East Patna Fault. Large zones of ground failure and liquefaction in north Bihar (close to the Himalayan front), have been recorded associated with these earthquakes. The present study reports the soft sediment deformation structures from the south Bihar associated with the prehistoric earthquakes near the East Patna Fault for the first time. The seismites have been observed in the riverine sand bed of the Dardha River close to the East Patna Fault. Several types of liquefaction-induced deformation structures such as pillar and pocket structure, thixotropic wedge, liquefaction cusps and other water escape structures have been identified. The location of the observed seismites within the deformed zone of the East Patna Fault clearly indicates their formation due to activities along this fault. However, the distance of the liquefaction site from the recorded epicenters suggests its dissociation with the recorded earthquakes so far and hence possibly relates to any prehistoric seismic event. The occurrence of the earthquakes of a magnitude capable of forming liquefaction structure in the southern Ganga plain indicates the transfer of stress regime far from the Himalayan front into

  18. Structural control of englacial drainage systems in Himalayan debris-covered glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulley, J.; Benn, D. I.

    Englacial cave systems were mapped using speleological techniques in three debris-covered glaciers in the Khumbu Himal, Nepal. Detailed three-dimensional mapping of the cave systems and observations of relationships with structures in the surrounding ice show conduits formed by a mechanism directly analogous to speleogenesis in limestone karst. The highest, oldest parts of all passages developed along debris-filled crevasse traces with hydraulic conductivity in the range 10-4 to 10-5 m s-1. Conduits form when these hydraulically efficient pathways bridge between areas with different hydraulic potential. They then evolve by grading (through head-ward migration of nick points and vertical incision) to local base level, often the surface of supraglacial lakes. Most supraglacial lakes on Himalayan glaciers are perched above the elevation of the terminal stream, and exist for a few years before draining through englacial conduits. As a result, near-surface drainage evolution is frequently interrupted by base-level fall, and conduits may record multiple phases of incision. Conduits commonly migrate laterally during incision, undermining higher levels of the ice and encouraging collapse. Voids can be created by fluvial processes and collapse of crevassed ice. The oft-noted resemblance of the surface morphology of debris-covered glaciers to karst landscapes thus extends to the subsurface, and karst hydrology provides a framework for understanding englacial drainage.

  19. Geometry and Kinematic evolution of the Sikkim Himalaya, India: Implications for the Evolution of the Himalayan Fold-Thrust Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, K.; Mitra, G.

    2012-04-01

    In the Darjeeling - Sikkim Himalaya the Main Central thrust (MCT) system has translated the Greater Himalayan hanging wall rocks over large distances so that Greater Himalayan rocks are exposed within 7 km of the mountain front. The sub-MCT Lesser Himalayan duplex is composed of two duplex systems and has a more complex geometry than in other parts of the Himalayan fold-thrust belt. Within the duplex, a foreland-dipping component and reactivation of the roof thrust resulted in large southward translation of the overlying MCT sheets in this region. The growth of the duplex resulted in a plunge culmination that manifests itself as a broad N-S trending structural high in this region; this is not a "river anticline" as its trace lies west of the Teesta river. A transport parallel balanced cross section constructed across this region suggests a total minimum shortening of ~502 km (~82%) south of the South Tibetan Detachment system (STDS). The Lesser Himalayan duplex accommodates nearly half of this total shortening. In this region, the average long-term shortening rate is estimated to be ~22 mm/yr. Comparison of available shortening estimates from different parts of the Himalayan arc show regional variations in shortening, but it is difficult to evaluate the primary cause for this variation; however, shortening in the Himalayan fold - thrust belt (FTB) is highest in the middle of the Himalayan arc (western Nepal) and progressively decreases towards the two syntaxes. Although, the width of the Lesser Himalayan belt decreases in the eastern Himalaya, the Lesser Himalayan shortening percentage remains approximately similar to that in both eastern and western Nepal Himalaya, where the belt is widest. In addition, the shortening accommodated within the Lesser Himalayan duplex progressively increases from the western to the eastern Himalaya. Thus, the width of the original Lesser Himalayan basin may have played an important role in partitioning the shortening in the Himalayan

  20. The Himalayan cryosphere: A critical assessment and evaluation of glacial melt fraction in the Bhagirathi basin

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    Abul Amir Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The cryosphere constitutes an important subset of the hydrosphere. The Himalayan cryosphere is a significant contributor to the hydrological budget of a large river system such as the Ganges. Basic data on the cryosphere in the Himalaya is inadequate and also has large uncertainties. The data on glacial melt component in the Himalayan rivers of India also shows high variability. The Gangotri glacier which constitutes nearly a fifth of the glacierized area of the Bhagirathi basin represents one of the fastest receding, large valley glaciers in the region which has been surveyed and monitored for over sixty years. The availability of measurement over a long period and relatively small glacier-fed basin for the Bhagirathi river provides suitable constraints for the measurement of the glacial melt fraction in a Himalayan river. Pre- and post-monsoon samples reveal a decreasing trend of depletion of δ18O in the river water from glacier snout (Gaumukh to the confluence of the Bhagirathi river with the Alaknanda river near Devprayag. Calculations of existing glacial melt fraction (∼30% at Rishikesh are not consistent with the reported glacial thinning rates. It is contended that the choice of unsuitable end-members in the three component mixing model causes the overestimation of glacial melt component in the river discharge. Careful selection of end members provides results (∼11% at Devprayag that are consistent with the expected thinning rates.

  1. Stable isotope systematics of surface water bodies in the Himalayan ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stable hydrogen (D) and oxygen (18O) isotope ratios of the headwaters of the Indus and its tributaries, surface ice in glaciers, saline and fresh water lakes and thermal springs in the Himalayan and Trans- Himalayan (Kashmir) region are reported. The D-18O relationship for the river samples shows a slope of 9.12 ...

  2. Contrasting climate change impact on river flows from high-altitude catchments in the Himalayan and Andes Mountains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ragettli, Silvan; Immerzeel, Walter W.; Pellicciotti, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Mountain ranges are the world's natural water towers and provide water resources for millions of people. However, their hydrological balance and possible future changes in river flow remain poorly understood because of high meteorological variability, physical inaccessibility, and the complex

  3. Fish guild structure along a longitudinally-determined ecological zonation of Teesta, an eastern Himalayan river in West Bengal, India

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    Chakrabarty, M

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Eastern Himalaya Biodiversity Hotspot contains exceptional freshwater biodiversity and ecosystems that are of vital importance to local and regional livelihoods, but these are under threat from the developmental and anthropogenic pressures arising from the 62 million people living in the area. Therefore, monitoring the riverine health and considering future conservation approach, the study of fish biodiversity plays a significant role in this region. The River Teesta in the Brahmaputra basin in India forms one of the major rivers in the Eastern Himalayas. In the present investigation, we studied ecological fish guilds as they can enhance the usefulness of fish zonation concepts and serve as tools to assess and manage the ecological integrity of large rivers. We classified fish species according to their water flow preference and spawning substrate preference. Ten spawning habitats were identified, occurring in three water flow guilds. The most widely preferred habitat in upstream zones was lithophils while in lower stretches it was lithopleagophils. On applying predictions of the River Continuum Concept, our results indicated the presence of a zonation pattern based on fish species assemblage and their ecological attributes along the longitudinal stretch of the Teesta River in west Bengal. Along the longitudinal stretch of the river, species richness increased downstream, with maximum richness in the mid-reaches. However, species richness decreased further downstream. The number of ecological guilds also increased downstream, and there were clear shifts in the structure of the guilds.

  4. Geomorphology of the Ganges fluvial system in the Himalayan foreland: an update

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    Rajiv Sinha

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The Ganges is one of the largest fluvial systems in the world rising from the loftiest Himalaya and draining into the Bay of Bengal. Together with the Brahmaputra, it also constitutes the largest delta in the world before finally meeting the sea. The Ganges system passes through a variety of terrain from the rugged mountains through the flat alluvial plains and the sea margin, and also transects variable climatic zones. As a result, the processes, landforms and stratigraphy are strikingly different in different zones of the system. This paper attempts to provide an update on our understanding of this very large and diverse system. A global effort has been made in the last few decades, and the research has focused on a variety of themes. The mountainous catchments have attracted attention in view of the extent of glaciation and extensive erosional processes. The alluvial plains of the Ganges symbolizes the life line of one of the world's largest population. Consequently, a number of studies have been carried out on the morphology, hydrology including flooding history and sediment transport behaviour of the river system. The alluvial stratigraphy of the large valleys and the interfluves in the plains has provided insight about the sedimentation pattern and response to climate change. The deltaic plain is the final destination of this huge sediment dispersal system before it drains into the sea, and it also records the influence of sea level changes apart from the upstream catchment controls over a period of time.

  5. Role of glaciers in watershed hydrology: a preliminary study of a "Himalayan catchment"

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    R. J. Thayyen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A large number of Himalayan glacier catchments are under the influence of humid climate with snowfall in winter (November–April and south-west monsoon in summer (June–September dominating the regional hydrology. Such catchments are defined as "Himalayan catchment", where the glacier meltwater contributes to the river flow during the period of annual high flows produced by the monsoon. The winter snow dominated Alpine catchments of the Kashmir and Karakoram region and cold-arid regions of the Ladakh mountain range are the other major glacio-hydrological regimes identified in the region. Factors influencing the river flow variations in a "Himalayan catchment" were studied in a micro-scale glacier catchment in the Garhwal Himalaya, covering an area of 77.8 km2. Three hydrometric stations were established at different altitudes along the Din Gad stream and discharge was monitored during the summer ablation period from 1998 to 2004, with an exception in 2002. These data have been analysed along with winter/summer precipitation, temperature and mass balance data of the Dokriani glacier to study the role of glacier and precipitation in determining runoff variations along the stream continuum from the glacier snout to 2360 m a.s.l. The study shows that the inter-annual runoff variation in a "Himalayan catchment" is linked with precipitation rather than mass balance changes of the glacier. This study also indicates that the warming induced an initial increase of glacier runoff and subsequent decline as suggested by the IPCC (2007 is restricted to the glacier degradation-derived component in a precipitation dominant Himalayan catchment and cannot be translated as river flow response. The preliminary assessment suggests that the "Himalayan catchment" could experience higher river flows and positive glacier mass balance regime together in association with strong monsoon. The important role of glaciers in this precipitation dominant system is

  6. Ginger and the beetle: Evidence of primitive pollination system in a Himalayan endemic alpine ginger (Roscoea alpina, Zingiberaceae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Babu Ram Paudel; Mani Shrestha; Adrian G Dyer; Qing-Jun Li

    2017-01-01

    The Himalayan endemic alpine genus Roscoea, like other members of ginger family, exhibits the combination of floral traits that would fit pollination by long distant foragers such as bees, birds or flies...

  7. Fish guild structure along a longitudinally-determined ecological zonation of Teesta, an eastern Himalayan river in West Bengal, India

    OpenAIRE

    Chakrabarty, M; Homechaudhuri, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Eastern Himalaya Biodiversity Hotspot contains exceptional freshwater biodiversity and ecosystems that are of vital importance to local and regional livelihoods, but these are under threat from the developmental and anthropogenic pressures arising from the 62 million people living in the area. Therefore, monitoring the riverine health and considering future conservation approach, the study of fish biodiversity plays a significant role in this region. The River Teesta in the Brahmaputra ba...

  8. Contrasting climate change impact on river flows from high-altitude catchments in the Himalayan and Andes Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragettli, Silvan; Immerzeel, Walter W; Pellicciotti, Francesca

    2016-08-16

    Mountain ranges are the world's natural water towers and provide water resources for millions of people. However, their hydrological balance and possible future changes in river flow remain poorly understood because of high meteorological variability, physical inaccessibility, and the complex interplay between climate, cryosphere, and hydrological processes. Here, we use a state-of-the art glacio-hydrological model informed by data from high-altitude observations and the latest climate change scenarios to quantify the climate change impact on water resources of two contrasting catchments vulnerable to changes in the cryosphere. The two study catchments are located in the Central Andes of Chile and in the Nepalese Himalaya in close vicinity of densely populated areas. Although both sites reveal a strong decrease in glacier area, they show a remarkably different hydrological response to projected climate change. In the Juncal catchment in Chile, runoff is likely to sharply decrease in the future and the runoff seasonality is sensitive to projected climatic changes. In the Langtang catchment in Nepal, future water availability is on the rise for decades to come with limited shifts between seasons. Owing to the high spatiotemporal resolution of the simulations and process complexity included in the modeling, the response times and the mechanisms underlying the variations in glacier area and river flow can be well constrained. The projections indicate that climate change adaptation in Central Chile should focus on dealing with a reduction in water availability, whereas in Nepal preparedness for flood extremes should be the policy priority.

  9. Variable shortening rates in the Bhutan thrust belt: implications for strain partitioning in the eastern Himalayan-Tibetan orogenic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, S. P.; McQuarrie, N.; Tobgay, T.; Coutand, I.; Cooper, F. J.; Reiners, P. W.; Wartho, J.; Hodges, K.

    2012-12-01

    We present data on the burial, displacement and exhumation history of the Himalayan fold-thrust belt in eastern Bhutan, which highlight temporal variability in shortening rates. 8 new 40Ar/39Ar ages from white mica (MAr), 32 new zircon (U-Th)/He ages (ZHe), 7 new apatite fission-track (AFT) ages, and one new U-Pb zircon (LA-MC-ICP-MS) metamorphic rim growth age are combined with published cooling ages and deformation temperatures, and incremental restorations of two published balanced cross-sections, to constrain a four-part record of shortening rates from ~23 Ma to the present. Previous work indicates that the Main Central thrust (MCT) sheet was emplaced between ~23-18 Ma, and that proximal Lesser Himalayan (LH) rocks were buried under the MCT sheet at ~20 Ma. After burial, LH rocks were deformed in two duplex systems, the lower LH duplex, with the MCT acting as the roof thrust and the Shumar thrust (ST) acting as the floor thrust, and the upper LH duplex, with the ST acting as the roof thrust. U-Pb zircon rim growth as young as ~15 Ma and a ~15 Ma MAr neoblastic mica growth age from rocks beneath the ST are interpreted as prograde metamorphism due to thrust burial via displacement on the ST. These data bracket construction of the lower LH duplex between 20-15 Ma. Thrust sheets of the lower LH duplex yield MAr ages (325-400°C) between 13-8 Ma, ZHe ages (185-195°C) between 6-10 Ma, and AFT ages (120-130°C) between 3-5 Ma, which are interpreted as the result of passive transport, uplift and erosion during translation over a subsurface footwall ramp and younger deformation of upper LH rocks. Exhumation rates for lower LH rocks were as high as 1.3-2.6 mm/yr, and slowed to 0.4-0.9 mm/yr after passing over the footwall ramp. Thrust sheets of the upper LH duplex were exhumed from peak temperatures of 350-400°C to 185-195°C between 15 and ~9.5-10.5 Ma (ZHe ages). We attribute this pulse of rapid cooling, which corresponds to exhumation rates of 1.1-1.7 mm/yr, to

  10. Diversity, risk mediation, and change in a Trans-Himalayan agropastoral system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mishra, C.; Wieren, van S.E.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2003-01-01

    We describe the diversity and dynamism of social, agricultural, and livestock husbandry practices in a traditional mountain production system in the Indian Trans-Himalaya. These are interpreted in the context of their role in mediating environmental risk. The production system is a little known

  11. Coda Q and its Frequency Dependence in the Eastern Himalayan and Indo-Burman Plate Boundary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, S.; Kumar, A.

    2015-12-01

    We use broadband waveform data for 305 local earthquakes from the Eastern Himalayan and Indo-Burman plate boundary systems, to model the seismic attenuation in NE India. We measure the decay in amplitude of coda waves at discreet frequencies (between 1 and 12Hz) to evaluate the quality factor (Qc) as a function of frequency. We combine these measurements to evaluate the frequency dependence of Qc of the form Qc(f)=Qof η, where Qo is the quality factor at 1Hz and η is the frequency dependence. Computed Qo values range from 80-360 and η ranges from 0.85-1.45. To study the lateral variation in Qo and η, we regionalise the Qc by combining all source-receiver measurements using a back-projection algorithm. For a single back scatter model, the coda waves sample an elliptical area with the epicenter and receiver at the two foci. We parameterize the region using square grids. The algorithm calculates the overlap in area and distributes Qc in the sampled grids using the average Qc as the boundary value. This is done in an iterative manner, by minimising the misfit between the observed and computed Qc within each grid. This process is repeated for all frequencies and η is computed for each grid by combining Qc for all frequencies. Our results reveal strong variation in Qo and η across NE India. The highest Qo are in the Bengal Basin (210-280) and the Indo-Burman subduction zone (300-360). The Shillong Plateau and Mikir Hills have intermediate Qo (~160) and the lowest Qo (~80) is observed in the Naga fold thrust belt. This variation in Qo demarcates the boundary between the continental crust beneath the Shillong Plateau and Mikir Hills and the transitional to oceanic crust beneath the Bengal Basin and Indo-Burman subduction zone. Thick pile of sedimentary strata in the Naga fold thrust belt results in the low Qo. Frequency dependence (η) of Qc across NE India is observed to be very high, with regions of high Qo being associated with relatively higher η.

  12. Evolution of the Paleogene succession of the western Himalayan foreland basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.P. Singh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Paleogene succession of the Himalayan foreland basin is immensely important as it preserves evidence of India-Asia collision and related records of the Himalayan orogenesis. In this paper, the depositional regime of the Paleogene succession of the Himalayan foreland basin and variations in composition of the hinterland at different stages of the basin developments are presented. The Paleogene succession of the western Himalayan foreland basin developed in two stages, i.e. syn-collisional stage and post-collisional stage. At the onset, chert breccia containing fragments derived from the hanging walls of faults and reworked bauxite developed as a result of erosion of the forebulge. The overlying early Eocene succession possibly deposited in a coastal system, where carbonates represent barriers and shales represent lagoons. Up-section, the middle Eocene marl beds likely deposited on a tidal flat. The late Eocene/Oligocene basal Murree beds, containing tidal bundles, indicate that a mixed or semi-diurnal tidal system deposited the sediments and the sedimentation took place in a tide-dominated estuary. In the higher-up, the succession likely deposited in a river-dominated estuary or in meandering rivers. In the beginning of the basin evolution, the sediments were derived from the Precambrian basement or from the metasediments/volcanic rocks possessing terrains of the south. The early and middle Eocene (54.7–41.3 Ma succession of the embryonic foreland possibly developed from the sediments derived from the Trans-Himalayan schists and phyllites and Indus ophiolite of the north during syn-collisional stage. The detrital minerals especially the lithic fragments and the heavy minerals suggest the provenance for the late Eocene/Oligocene sequences to be from the recycled orogenic belt of the Higher Himalaya, Tethyan Himalaya and the Indus-suture zone from the north during post-collisional stage. This is also supported by the paleocurrent

  13. Colorado River Mile System, Tenths of Miles

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains points representing tenth of miles in the GCMRC river mile system. The points fall along the centerline of the Colorado River from Glen Canyon...

  14. Structure and evolution of the drainage system of a Himalayan debris-covered glacier, and its relationship with patterns of mass loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Douglas I.; Thompson, Sarah; Gulley, Jason; Mertes, Jordan; Luckman, Adrian; Nicholson, Lindsey

    2017-09-01

    We provide the first synoptic view of the drainage system of a Himalayan debris-covered glacier and its evolution through time, based on speleological exploration and satellite image analysis of Ngozumpa Glacier, Nepal. The drainage system has several linked components: (1) a seasonal subglacial drainage system below the upper ablation zone; (2) supraglacial channels, allowing efficient meltwater transport across parts of the upper ablation zone; (3) sub-marginal channels, allowing long-distance transport of meltwater; (4) perched ponds, which intermittently store meltwater prior to evacuation via the englacial drainage system; (5) englacial cut-and-closure conduits, which may undergo repeated cycles of abandonment and reactivation; and (6) a "base-level" lake system (Spillway Lake) dammed behind the terminal moraine. The distribution and relative importance of these elements has evolved through time, in response to sustained negative mass balance. The area occupied by perched ponds has expanded upglacier at the expense of supraglacial channels, and Spillway Lake has grown as more of the glacier surface ablates to base level. Subsurface processes play a governing role in creating, maintaining, and shutting down exposures of ice at the glacier surface, with a major impact on spatial patterns and rates of surface mass loss. Comparison of our results with observations on other glaciers indicate that englacial drainage systems play a key role in the response of debris-covered glaciers to sustained periods of negative mass balance.

  15. Streamflow, sediment and carbon transport from a Himalayan watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, P.; Rai, S. C.

    2004-04-01

    Rivers indeed serve an important role in the carbon fluxes being recognized as a major component to regional and global environmental change. The present study focuses the sediment and carbon transports in a Himalayan watershed (elevational range 300-2650 m asl, area of 3014 ha) at Sikkim, India. The watershed has five perennial streams, all attain significant size during rainy season. The micro-watershed for each perennial stream has a mosaic distribution of land-use practices, viz. forests, agroforestry, agriculture and wastelands. The average discharge in the Rinjikhola, the watershed outlet was 840-850 l s -1 in summer season that increased by 5-6 times in rainy season. Sediment concentration varied distinctly with seasons in different streams and the outlet of the watershed. The soil loss rate from the total watershed ranged from 6 to 7 t ha -1 yr -1 that accounts to a net loss of 833 t yr -1 organic carbon, and 2025 t yr -1 dissolved organic carbon from the watershed, and more than 90% of soil losses were attributable to open cropped area. The stream discharge, soil and carbon loss and precipitation partitioning through different pathways in forest and agroforestry land-use suggest that these land-uses promote conservation of soil and carbon. It is emphasized that a good understanding of carbon transfer through overland flow and discharge is important for policy decisions and management of soil and carbon loss of a Himalayan watershed as it is very sensitive to land-use/cover changes. Therefore, the conversion of forest to agricultural land should be reversed. Agroforestry systems should be included in agricultural land in mountainous regions.

  16. River System Behaviour Effects on Flood Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweckendiek, T.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.; Van Mierlo, M.C.L.M.; Calle, E.O.F.; Courage, W.M.G.

    2008-01-01

    A risk-based safety approach is indispensable to support decision-making on flood protection strategies and measures. Hitherto the effects of river system behaviour on flood risk have usually been neglected. River system behaviour refers to the fact that the flood risk (or safety) of a particular

  17. Himalayan Adaptation, Water, and Resilience | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Himalayan Adaptation, Water, and Resilience. This research project will serve to help poor and vulnerable women, men, and children learn to adapt to and manage climate change in Asia's Hindu Kush Himalayan region. Why the Himalayan region is important. The region, stretching from central Afghanistan to northern ...

  18. The Columbia River System Inside Story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-04-01

    The Columbia River is one of the greatest natural resources in the western United States. The river and its tributaries touch the lives of nearly every resident of the Pacific Northwest—from fostering world-famous Pacific salmon to supplying clean natural fuel for 50 to 65 percent of the region’s electrical generation. Since early in the 20th century, public and private agencies have labored to capture the benefits of this dynamic river. Today, dozens of major water resource projects throughout the region are fed by the waters of the Columbia Basin river system.

  19. RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT SYSTEM PLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CERTA PJ

    2008-07-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) manages the River Protection Project (RPP). The RPP mission is to retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste and close the tank farms to protect the Columbia River. As a result, the ORP is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, and disposal of the approximately 57 million gallons of radioactive waste contained in the Hanford Site waste tanks and closure of all the tanks and associated facilities. The previous revision of the System Plan was issued in September 2003. ORP has approved a number of changes to the tank waste treatment strategy and plans since the last revision of this document, and additional changes are under consideration. The ORP has established contracts to implement this strategy to establish a basic capability to complete the overall mission. The current strategy for completion of the mission uses a number of interrelated activities. The ORP will reduce risk to the environment posed by tank wastes by: (1) Retrieving the waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) to double-shell tanks (DST) for treatment and disposal; (2) Constructing and operating the WTP, which will safely treat all of the high-level waste (HLW) and about half of the low-activity waste (LAW) contained in the tank farms, and maximizing its capability and capacity; (3) Developing and deploying supplemental treatment capability or a second WTP LAW Facility that can safely treat about half of the LAW contained in the tank farms; (4) Developing and deploying treatment and packaging capability for transuranic (TRU) tank waste for shipment to and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP); (5) Deploying interim storage capacity for the immobilized HLW and shipping that waste to Yucca Mountain for disposal; (6) Operating the Integrated Disposal Facility for the disposal of immobilized LAW, along with the associated secondary waste, (7) Closing the SST and DST tank farms, ancillary facilities, and al1 waste

  20. RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT SYSTEM PLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CERTA PJ; KIRKBRIDE RA; HOHL TM; EMPEY PA; WELLS MN

    2009-09-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) manages the River Protection Project (RPP). The RPP mission is to retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste and close the tank farms to protect the Columbia River. As a result, ORP is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, and disposal of approximately 57 million gallons 1 of radioactive waste contained in the Hanford Site waste tanks and closure2 of all the tanks and associated facilities. The previous revision of the System Plan was issued in May 2008. ORP has made a number of changes to the tank waste treatment strategy and plans since the last revision of this document, and additional changes are under consideration. ORP has contracts in place to implement the strategy for completion of the mission and establish the capability to complete the overall mission. The current strategl involves a number of interrelated activities. ORP will reduce risk to the environment posed by tank wastes by the following: (1) Retrieving the waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) to double-shell tanks (DST) and delivering the waste to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). (2) Constructing and operating the WTP, which will safely treat all of the high-level waste (HLW) fraction contained in the tank farms. About one-third of the low-activity waste (LAW) fraction separated from the HLW fraction in the WTP will be immobilized in the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility. (3) Developing and deploying supplemental treatment capability assumed to be a second LAW vitrification facility that can safely treat about two-thirds of the LAW contained in the tank farms. (4) Developing and deploying supplemental pretreatment capability currently assumed to be an Aluminum Removal Facility (ARF) using a lithium hydrotalcite process to mitigate sodium management issues. (5) Developing and deploying treatment and packaging capability for contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) tank waste for possible shipment to and

  1. Drainage Pattern, Along-Strike Topography and Three-Dimensional Construction of the Himalayan orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, A.

    2005-12-01

    Past studies on the Himalayan orogen have mostly emphasized its 2-D evolution in cross-section view. As a result, how the orogen has grown in 3-D remains poorly understood. For example, it is not clear if the >1500-km long Main Central Thrust (MCT) and Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) were initiated synchronously along the whole orogen or started at one segment and then propagated laterally during subsequent fault motion. To clarify this issue, I examined the Himalayan drainage pattern, along-strike topography, and geometry and kinematics of growing contractional structures across both the Himalayan front and the Shillong Plateau. The main observations may be summarized as follows. (1) The five rivers that cut across the Himalaya are arranged approximately symmetric with respect to the Himalayan-arc axis (~85° E): the Arun River (87° E) is in the middle with the Sutlej (77° E) and Indus (72° E) Rivers in the west and the Subansiri (93° E) and Yalu-Brahmaputra (96° E) Rivers in the east. (2) Between the eastern and western syntaxes, south-flowing drainages east of 85.5° E are consistently deflected to the east by east-growing anticlines and thrusts, whereas drainages west of 85.5°E are deflected systematically to the west by west-growing anticlines and thrusts along the Himalayan front. The only region where no drainage deflection is observed is the Bhutan Himalaya. There all rivers flow straight across the Himalayan front. (3) The deflected drainage pattern indicates that the Shillong Plateau south of the eastern Himalaya has been growing westward. (4) The along-crest Himalayan topographic profile concaves downward, starting from ~5200 m just inside the two syntaxes and reaching 8848 m at Mt. Everest (~87° E). (5) There are a total of 17 major growing contractional structures in the Main Frontal Thrust Zone (MFTZ), with 10 in the west and 7 in the east. Each structure has a length between ~20 km and >150 km, but the west-growing structures in the west are

  2. Extreme heterogeneity in Sr isotope systematic in the Himalayan ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 110; Issue 2. Extreme heterogeneity in Sr isotope systematic in the Himalayan leucogranites: A possible mechanism of partial melting based on thermal modeling. Dilip K Mukhopadhyay. Volume 110 Issue 2 June 2001 pp 161-169 ...

  3. The Columbia River System : the Inside Story.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-09-01

    The Columbia Ricer is one of the greatest natural resources in the western United States. The river and its tributaries touch the lives of nearly every resident of the Northwest-from providing the world-famous Pacific salmon to supplying the clean natural fuel for over 75 percent of the region's electrical generation. Since early in the century, public and private agencies have labored to capture the benefits of this dynamic river. Today, dozens of major water resource projects throughout the region are fed by the waters of the Columbia Basin river system. And through cooperative efforts, the floods that periodically threaten developments near the river can be controlled. This publication presents a detailed explanation of the planning and operation of the multiple-use dams and reservoirs of the Columbia River system. It describes the river system, those who operate and use it, the agreements and policies that guide system operation, and annual planning for multiple-use operation.

  4. Flood Forecasting in River System Using ANFIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Nazrin; Choudhury, P.

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate applicability of artificial intelligence techniques such as ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System) in forecasting flood flow in a river system. The proposed technique combines the learning ability of neural network with the transparent linguistic representation of fuzzy system. The technique is applied to forecast discharge at a downstream station using flow information at various upstream stations. A total of three years data has been selected for the implementation of this model. ANFIS models with various input structures and membership functions are constructed, trained and tested to evaluate efficiency of the models. Statistical indices such as Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Correlation Coefficient (CORR) and Coefficient of Efficiency (CE) are used to evaluate performance of the ANFIS models in forecasting river flood. The values of the indices show that ANFIS model can accurately and reliably be used to forecast flood in a river system.

  5. Characterization of smallholder pig production system: productive and reproductive performances of local and crossbred pigs in Sikkim Himalayan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, B G; Pathak, P K; Ngachan, S V; Tripathi, A K; Mohanty, A K

    2013-10-01

    The present study was conducted to know the smallholder pig production system in tribal areas of Sikkim State, India. Two hundred tribal farmers were selected randomly from the North and East District of the state. Information on socio-economic characteristics of farmers (gender, occupation, educational status, and farming experience), management practices, disease prevalence, and economics in pig production was collected. The study recorded the mean land holding as 1.2 ± 0.8 ha, and the number of pigs per farm was 5.0 ± 0.28. Pigs were mainly kept as a source of income, and 70 % of farmers reared crossbreed pigs. Ninety percent (90 %) of respondents practiced the intensive system of management whereby kitchen wastes along with cooked mixture comprising maize bhusa, mustard oil cake, pseudostem of banana, tuber, stem, and plant leaves were used to feed their animals. About 40.5 % of farmers procured their breeding stock from government farms that had good records and utilized veterinary services like timely vaccination and deworming. The diseases prevalent in the study area were swine fever, diarrhea, helminthoses, sarcoptic mange, pneumonia, etc. The litter sizes at birth (local, 4.3 ± 0.45; crossbreed, 7.2 ± 0.33), at weaning (local, 2.79 ± 0.24; crossbreed, 6.1 ± 0.21), and age at first farrowing (local, 365.39 ± 7.96 days; crossbreed, 337.24 ± 8.79 days) were recorded. Production costs of meat extracted from local and crossbred pigs were 1.08 $/kg and 0.86 $/kg, respectively.

  6. Colorado River Sewer System Joint Venture to Upgrade Wastewater System

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAN FRANCISCO -Today, the Colorado River Sewer System Joint Venture, located in Parker, Ariz. entered into an agreement with the EPA to upgrade their wastewater treatment system to meet stringent water quality standards. The cost of the upgrade is ap

  7. Geometry and kinematics of the fold-thrust belt and structural evolution of the major Himalayan fault zones in the Darjeeling -- Sikkim Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Kathakali

    The Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya lies in the eastern part of the Himalayan fold-thrust belt (FTB) in a zone of high arc-perpendicular convergence between the Indian and Eurasian plates. In this region two distinct faults form the Main Central thrust (MCT), the structurally higher MCT1 and the lower MCT2; both these faults have translated the Greater Himalayan hanging wall rocks farther towards the foreland than in the western Himalaya. The width of the sub-MCT Lesser Himalayan rocks progressively decreases from the western Himalaya to this part of the eastern Himalaya, and as a result, the width of the FTB is narrower in this region compared to the western Himalaya. Our structural analysis shows that in the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya the sub-MCT Lesser Himalayan duplex is composed of two duplex systems and has a more complex geometry than in the rest of the Himalayan fold-thrust belt. The structurally higher Dating duplex is a hinterland-dipping duplex; the structurally lower Rangit duplex varies in geometry from a hinterland-dipping duplex in the north to an antiformal stack in the middle and a foreland-dipping duplex in the south. The MCT2 is the roof thrust of the Daling duplex and the Ramgarh thrust is the roof thrust of the Rangit duplex. In this region, the Ramgarh thrust has a complex structural history with continued reactivation during footwall imbrication. The foreland-dipping component of the Rangit duplex, along with the large displacement associated with the reactivation of the Ramgarh thrust accounts for the large translation of the MCT sheets in the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya. The growth of the Lesser Himalayan duplex modified the final geometry of the overlying MCT sheets, resulting in a plunge culmination that manifests itself as a broad N-S trending "anticline" in the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya. This is not a "river anticline" as its trace lies west of the Teesta river. A transport parallel balanced cross section across this region has accommodated

  8. RiverHeath: Neighborhood Loop Geothermal Exchange System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geall, Mark [RiverHeath LLC, Appleton, WI (United States)

    2016-07-11

    The goal of the RiverHeath project is to develop a geothermal exchange system at lower capital infrastructure cost than current geothermal exchange systems. The RiverHeath system features an innovative design that incorporates use of the adjacent river through river-based heat exchange plates. The flowing water provides a tremendous amount of heat transfer. As a result, the installation cost of this geothermal exchange system is lower than more traditional vertical bore systems. Many urban areas are located along rivers and other waterways. RiverHeath will serve as a template for other projects adjacent to the water.

  9. Distribution of rare earth elements and heavy metals in the surficial sediments of the Himalayan river system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramesh, R; Ramanathan, Al; Ramesh, S; Purvaja, R; Subramanian, V

    2000-01-01

    .... REEs and heavy metals (V, Pb, Cr, Co, Ag, Zn, Cd, Ni) were analyzed from the suspended sediments of Ganges and surficial sediments of Yamuna, Brahmaputra, Jamuna, Padma and Meghna, using VG Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer...

  10. Health evaluation indicator system for urban landscape rivers, case study of the Bailianjing River in Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Wang, Yue; Yang, Haizhen; Lu, Zhibo; Xu, Xiaotian

    2010-11-01

    The River Bailianjing is an iconic landscape feature known to all residents in Pudong area and running through the Shanghai Expo 2010 Park. The river and its basin was a complex living ecosystem which supports a unique variety of flora and fauna several decades ago. However, as a result of unsuccessful pollution source control, sewage and first flow of the storm water is directly coming into the river in some catchment. The water quality of the river is seriously organically polluted now. The typical organic pollutants are COD, NH3-N, TN and TP, which cause the extinction of the water plants and aquatic. Furthermore, the artificial hard river banks isolate the river course and the land, which damaged the whole ecological system totally. The nature of the River Bailianjing and its history has resulted in many government departments and authorities and non government organizations having jurisdiction and/or an interest in the river's management. As a new tool to improve river management, the river health assessment has become the major focus of ecological and environmental science. Consequently, research on river health evaluation and its development on river management are of great theoretical and practical significance. In order to evaluate the healthy status of the River Bailianjing and prepare comprehensive scientific background data for the integrated river ecological rehabilitation planning, the health evaluation indicator system for River Bailianjing is brought forward. The indicator system has three levels: the first is target layer; the second is criteria layer, including five fields: water quality characteristics, hydrology characteristics, river morphology, biological characteristics and river scenic beauty; the third is an index layer, a total of 15 specific indicators included. Fuzzy AHP method is used to evaluate the target river's health status, and five grades are set up to describe it: healthy, sub health, marginal, unhealthy and pathological. The

  11. Exploring Evidence for Possible Recent N-S Extension Along the Himalayan Crest

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, J. A.; Hodges, K.; Whipple, K. X.; van Soest, M. C.

    2010-12-01

    The tectonic significance of the formation and maintenance of the physiographic transition from the low-relief Tibetan plateau to the high peaks, rugged topography and deep gorges of the Himalaya is debated. Although many consider extrusion of the greater Himalayan sequence during concurrent motion on the MCT and STFS to play a critical role in the evolution of the Himalaya, most models restrict activity on the STFS to Early-Middle Miocene. Such a scenario would entail >10 Myr of erosional etching of the topographic front developed during active extrusion. Intriguingly, transverse rivers that head on the Tibetan Plateau commonly exhibit an abrupt increase in gradient (a knickpoint) near the crest of the Himalaya, marking the start of deep gorges downstream. These knickpoints typically correspond to an abrupt increase in hillslope and local relief to the south suggesting an abrupt increase in erosion rate downstream of the knickpoints which should cause upstream knickpoint migration as a function of drainage area. However, larger drainages have not cut farther back into the plateau than smaller ones, suggesting that these knickpoints may be fixed in space. Although orographic rainfall patterns and relative sediment loads likely play a role, differential uplift across young (Quaternary) faults is the simplest explanation for such pinned knickpoints - if uplift balances the faster erosion rates downstream of knickpoints, no migration of the knickpoint is expected. The geometry requires uplift of the Himalaya relative to the southern plateau, consistent with the persistence of N-S extension on fault systems near the range crest at least into the Quaternary. We explore this possibility in three field sites where river profiles indicate potentially active faults: 1) the Ama Drime Range near Everest in southernmost Tibet, 2) the Kali Gandaki and Myagdi Khola valleys in the Dhaulagiri and Annapurna Himalaya, central Nepal, and 3) the Bhote Khosi River valley near Nyalam

  12. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Jyoti Verma. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 124 Issue 2 March 2015 pp 383-394. The health of benthic diatom assemblages in lower stretch of a lesser Himalayan glacier-fed river, Mandakini · Prakash Nautiyal Asheesh Shivam Mishra Jyoti ...

  13. THE HIMALAYAN TAHR ON T ABLE MOUNTAIN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    apill esculenta. Nature, Lond. 167: 900-901. HYNES, H B N 1950. The food of freshwater sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatw and Pygos- tew pungitiw), with a review of methods used in. THE HIMALAYAN TAHR ON. T ABLE MOUNTAIN.

  14. Himalayan Alpine Vegetation, Climate Change and Mitigation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jan Salick; Suresh K. Ghimire; Zhendong Fang; Sangay Dema; Katie M. Konchar

    2014-01-01

    ...), China to document the effects of climate change on alpine plants and peoples. Data show that Himalayan alpine plants respond to environmental and climate change variables including elevation, precipitation, and biogeography...

  15. Ridgefield - Himalayan Blackberry Removal/Woodland Regeneration

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project would expand the control, restoration, and monitoring efforts to replace stands of Himalayan blackberry and reed canarygrass with Oregon oak and Oregon...

  16. Understanding Himalayan erosion and the significance of the Nicobar Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Lisa C.; Dugan, Brandon; Backman, Jan; Pickering, Kevin T.; Pouderoux, Hugo F. A.; Henstock, Timothy J.; Petronotis, Katerina E.; Carter, Andrew; Chemale, Farid; Milliken, Kitty L.; Kutterolf, Steffen; Mukoyoshi, Hideki; Chen, Wenhuang; Kachovich, Sarah; Mitchison, Freya L.; Bourlange, Sylvain; Colson, Tobias A.; Frederik, Marina C. G.; Guèrin, Gilles; Hamahashi, Mari; House, Brian M.; Hüpers, Andre; Jeppson, Tamara N.; Kenigsberg, Abby R.; Kuranaga, Mebae; Nair, Nisha; Owari, Satoko; Shan, Yehua; Song, Insun; Torres, Marta E.; Vannucchi, Paola; Vrolijk, Peter J.; Yang, Tao; Zhao, Xixi; Thomas, Ellen

    2017-10-01

    A holistic view of the Bengal-Nicobar Fan system requires sampling the full sedimentary section of the Nicobar Fan, which was achieved for the first time by International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 362 west of North Sumatra. We identified a distinct rise in sediment accumulation rate (SAR) beginning ∼9.5 Ma and reaching 250-350 m/Myr in the 9.5-2 Ma interval, which equal or far exceed rates on the Bengal Fan at similar latitudes. This marked rise in SAR and a constant Himalayan-derived provenance necessitates a major restructuring of sediment routing in the Bengal-Nicobar submarine fan. This coincides with the inversion of the Eastern Himalayan Shillong Plateau and encroachment of the west-propagating Indo-Burmese wedge, which reduced continental accommodation space and increased sediment supply directly to the fan. Our results challenge a commonly held view that changes in sediment flux seen in the Bengal-Nicobar submarine fan were caused by discrete tectonic or climatic events acting on the Himalayan-Tibetan Plateau. Instead, an interplay of tectonic and climatic processes caused the fan system to develop by punctuated changes rather than gradual progradation.

  17. Sone megafan: A non-Himalayan megafan of craton origin on the southern margin of the middle Ganga Basin, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Sudarsan; Saha, Dipankar; Dayal, Shankar

    2015-12-01

    Researchers in the last few decades have focused on the fluvial megafans at the base of Himalayan foothills in the Ganga Basin. No major effort has so far been made to delineate any such large depositional environment at the base of the northern Indian peninsular craton at the distal parts of the basin. In this work, for the first time, we document a megafan, unusually created by the cratonic Sone River in the marginal plains south of the Ganga. The geomorphology of the megafan surface, distribution of palaeochannels, sedimentology, and areal extent of the megafan are described. The study also reconstructs the tectonic and palaeoclimatic conditions, which might have helped in sediment supply from the cratonic catchment areas of the Sone. We suggest tectonic control over the Sone River channel dynamics and development of the megafan. The oval- and fan-shaped, craton-derived sediment body covers an area of around 12,000 km2 in the marginal plains and about 9000 km2 in the central alluvium north of the Ganga River. The megafan is around 190 km long and 240 km wide. The mean slope of the megafan surface is 0.03°. An onlap of Himalayan sediments has occurred over the megafan at its toe parts caused by southward encroachment of the Ganga during the Holocene. The megafan sediments comprise brownish yellow fine to coarse sand and gravels with an admixture of carbonaceous nodules (kankars). The thickness of the megafan sediment, which directly overlies the Precambrian basement, varies from only a few meters in the south near the peninsular craton to 1000 m at the north in the central alluvial plain. The granular zones form prolific aquifer systems in an otherwise poor hydrogeological setting of the marginal plains.

  18. Structure and evolution of the drainage system of a Himalayan debris-covered glacier, and its relationship with patterns of mass loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Benn

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We provide the first synoptic view of the drainage system of a Himalayan debris-covered glacier and its evolution through time, based on speleological exploration and satellite image analysis of Ngozumpa Glacier, Nepal. The drainage system has several linked components: (1 a seasonal subglacial drainage system below the upper ablation zone; (2 supraglacial channels, allowing efficient meltwater transport across parts of the upper ablation zone; (3 sub-marginal channels, allowing long-distance transport of meltwater; (4 perched ponds, which intermittently store meltwater prior to evacuation via the englacial drainage system; (5 englacial cut-and-closure conduits, which may undergo repeated cycles of abandonment and reactivation; and (6 a "base-level" lake system (Spillway Lake dammed behind the terminal moraine. The distribution and relative importance of these elements has evolved through time, in response to sustained negative mass balance. The area occupied by perched ponds has expanded upglacier at the expense of supraglacial channels, and Spillway Lake has grown as more of the glacier surface ablates to base level. Subsurface processes play a governing role in creating, maintaining, and shutting down exposures of ice at the glacier surface, with a major impact on spatial patterns and rates of surface mass loss. Comparison of our results with observations on other glaciers indicate that englacial drainage systems play a key role in the response of debris-covered glaciers to sustained periods of negative mass balance.

  19. River Protection Project information systems assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSON, A.L.

    1999-07-28

    The Information Systems Assessment Report documents the results from assessing the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) Hanford Data Integrator 2000 (HANDI 2000) system, Business Management System (BMS) and Work Management System phases (WMS), with respect to the System Engineering Capability Assessment Model (CAM). The assessment was performed in accordance with the expectations stated in the fiscal year (FY) 1999 Performance Agreement 7.1.1, item (2) which reads, ''Provide an assessment report on the selected Integrated Information System by July 31, 1999.'' This report assesses the BMS and WMS as implemented and planned for the River Protection Project (RPP). The systems implementation is being performed under the PHMC HANDI 2000 information system project. The project began in FY 1998 with the BMS, proceeded in FY 1999 with the Master Equipment List portion of the WMS, and will continue the WMS implementation as funding provides. This report constitutes an interim quality assessment providing information necessary for planning RPP's information systems activities. To avoid confusion, HANDI 2000 will be used when referring to the entire system, encompassing both the BMS and WMS. A graphical depiction of the system is shown in Figure 2-1 of this report.

  20. Uncertainty in the Himalayan energy–water nexus: estimating regional exposure to glacial lake outburst floods

    OpenAIRE

    Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Worni, Raphael; Huggel, Christian; Stoffel, Markus; Korup, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Himalayan water resources attract a rapidly growing number of hydroelectric power projects (HPP) to satisfy Asia’s soaring energy demands. Yet HPP operating or planned in steep, glacier-fed mountain rivers face hazards of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) that can damage hydropower infrastructure, alter water and sediment yields, and compromise livelihoods downstream. Detailed appraisals of such GLOF hazards are limited to case studies, however, and a more comprehensive, systematic analysi...

  1. Hydrological and sedimentation implications of landscape changes in a Himalayan catchment due to bioenergy cropping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remesan, Renji; Holman, Ian; Janes, Victoria

    2015-04-01

    There is a global effort to focus on the development of bioenergy and energy cropping, due to the generally increasing demand for crude oil, high oil price volatility and climate change mitigation challenges. Second generation energy cropping is expected to increase greatly in India as the Government of India has recently approved a national policy of 20 % biofuel blending by 2017; furthermore, the country's biomass based power generation potential is estimated as around ~24GW and large investments are expected in coming years to increase installed capacity. In this study, we have modelled the environmental influences (e.g.: hydrology and sediment) of scenarios of increased biodiesel cropping (Jatropha curcas) using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in a northern Indian river basin. SWAT has been applied to the River Beas basin, using daily Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation and NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) meteorological data to simulate the river regime and crop yields. We have applied Sequential Uncertainty Fitting Ver. 2 (SUFI-2) to quantify the parameter uncertainty of the stream flow modelling. The model evaluation statistics for daily river flows at the Jwalamukhi and Pong gauges show good agreement with measured flows (Nash Sutcliffe efficiency of 0.70 and PBIAS of 7.54 %). The study has applied two land use change scenarios of (1) increased bioenergy cropping in marginal (grazing) lands in the lower and middle regions of catchment (2) increased bioenergy cropping in low yielding areas of row crops in the lower and middle regions of the catchment. The presentation will describe the improved understanding of the hydrological, erosion and sediment delivery and food production impacts arising from the introduction of a new cropping variety to a marginal area; and illustrate the potential prospects of bioenergy production in Himalayan valleys.

  2. Indian Himalayan Glaciology Research Programme - An Overview POPURI SANJEEVA RAO Department of Science and Technology, Technology Bhawan, New Delhi-110016, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjeeva Rao, P.

    2013-12-01

    Himalayan Glaciers are unique in many respects. Glaciers are expected to be sensitive to variations in weather and climate forcing. In view of their socio economic importance and unique environmental settings, prepared a scientific report on the `Dynamics of Glaciers in the Indian Himalaya - The Science Plan' synthesizing the available knowledge on the Glaciers in the high mountain regions. Various thrust areas for in-depth studies in glaciology were recognized to generate the necessary scientific information to devise suitable science and technology based intervention strategies. Based on the accessibility, length, aspect, altitude, etc. identified nine bench-mark glaciers, out of 9500 glaciers, across the Indian Himalaya for continuous monitoring in collaboration with different institutions and organizations. Recognizing the fact that the snow melt and glacier melt runoff from the Gangotri Glacier is the hydrological source of Ganga River basin national significance, prepared a status report on `Gangotri Glacier'. In order to understand the role of atmospheric forcing on various aspects of glacier dynamics, including hydrological processes evolved an `Integrated Program on Gangotri Glacier'. This program is to utilize modern in-situ observational systems, advanced remote sensing techniques and modeling to undertake snow cover, mass balance, hydrological, geochemical, geomorphological and aerosols over Himalaya. Efforts are in place towards establishing of a `National Centre for Himalayan Glaciology' at Mussoorie for undertaking long-term monitoring of the glaciers, strengthening of integrated observational systems in the glaciated environments. Capacity building in the form of infrastructure and human resources through multidisciplinary research projects in Himalayan Glaciology is in progress. The presentation shall enlighten the details of these new initiatives to understand the `Dynamics of Glaciers in the Indian Himalaya'.

  3. River Water Quality Zoning: A Case Study of Karoon and Dez River System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Karamouz, N Mahjouri, R Kerachian

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Karoon-Dez River basin, with an area of 67000 square kilometers, is located in southern part of Iran. This river system supplies the water demands of 16 cities, several villages, thousands hectares of agricultural lands, and several hydropower plants. The increasing water demands at the project development stage including agricultural networks, fish hatchery projects, and inter-basin water transfers, have caused a gloomy future for water quality of the Karoon and Dez Rivers. A good part of used agricultural water, which is about 8040 million cubic meters, is returned to the rivers through agricultural drainage systems or as non-point, return flows. River water quality zoning could provide essential information for developing river water quality management policies. In this paper, a methodology is presented for this purpose using methods of -mean crisp classification and a fuzzy clustering scheme. The efficiency of these clustering methods was evaluated using water quality data gathered from the monitoring sampling points along Karoon and Dez Rivers. The results show that the proposed methodology can provide valuable information to support decision-making and to help river water quality management in the region.

  4. Exhumation of the Greater Himalayan Sequence Along the Zanskar Shear Zone, NW India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basta, S.; Beck, E.; Burlick, T.

    2013-12-01

    The Zanskar Shear Zone (ZSZ), the western extent of the South Tibetan Detachment System, exposes high-grade metamorphic rocks of the Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS) in its footwall. Granites and metapelites collected along the the ZSZ in the Suru River valley provide how and when the GHS rocks exhumed and were deformed. There are two suits of Paleozoic granites deformed within the ZSZ: Pan-African Cambrian-Ordovician granites at the cores of gneiss domes and Mississippian-Permian granites related to Panjal Traps magmatism. Age of Himalayan granites indicates 28-16 Ma which is concurrent with anatectic leucogranite crystallization. The metamorphic mineral assemblage indicates increasing metamorhic grade from NE to SW and comprises Qtz × Kfs + Pl + Bt × Ms × Sil × Ky × Grt × St × Chl × Tur × Rt. In addition to macroscopic evidence, strongly deformed quartz grains, deformation twins, pressure shadows, and kink bands have been observed to demonstrate micro-tectonics evidence. There are two different method to explain exhumation and deformation of the GHS metapelites: Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) crystallographic mapping and pseudosection modeling. While EBSD indicates the potential temperature of deformation, pseudosection modeling with Perple_X specifically presents the exhumation path of the GHS rocks. Pseudosection modeling with Perple_X , based on whole-rock geochemical analysis, is set pressure and temperature to 0.4-1.2 GPa and 300-900°C, and uses specific solution models, Bio(TCC), Chl(HP), St(HP), feldspar, Mica(CHA), Gt(HP), and hCrd, namely. These two methods are used by combining with geo/thermochronology data from U-Pb, 40Ar/39Ar, and (U-Th)/He, constraining the age of metamorphism, the cooling and exhumation time of the GHS rocks, and the end of shearing of deformation, respectively. 40Ar/39Ar dating on muscovite and biotite constrains cooling and exhumation ages of the GHS as ~20-19 Ma and 15 Ma, respectively. A metamorphic pressure

  5. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Open River 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  6. Large-scale avulsion of the late Quaternary Sutlej river in the NW Indo-Gangetic foreland basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajit; Gupta, Sanjeev; Sinha, Rajiv; Carter, Andrew; Thomsen, Kristina J.; Mark, Darren F.; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Mason, Philippa J.; Murray, Andrew S.; Jain, Mayank; Paul, Debajyoti

    2015-04-01

    River avulsions are important processes in the spatial evolution of river systems in tectonically active sedimentary basins as they govern large-scale patterns of sediment routing. However, the pattern and timing of avulsions in large river systems are poorly documented and not well understood. Here we document late Quaternary paleo-river channel changes in the Indo-Gangetic basin of northwest India. Using a combination of satellite remote sensing and detailed sediment coring, we analyse the large-scale planform geometry, and detailed sedimentary and stratigraphic nature of a major fluvial sedimentary deposit in the shallow subsurface. This sediment body records aggradation of multiple fluvial channel fills. Satellite remote sensing analysis indicates the trace of the buried channel complex and demonstrates that it exists in region of the Himalayan foreland where no major rivers are currently present. Thus it records the former drainage pathway of a major river, which has since been diverted. We use optically stimulated luminescence dating techniques to develop an age model for the stratigraphic succession and hence constrain the timing of river channel existence and diversion. Provenance analysis based on U-Pb dating of detrital zircons and detrital mica Ar-Ar ages indicate sediment sources in the Higher Himalayan Crystalline and Lesser Himalayan Crystalline Series indicating that this paleo-river channel system formed a major perennial river derived from the main body of the Himalaya. Specifically we are able to fingerprint bedrock sources in the catchment of the present-day Sutlej river indicating that the paleo-fluvial system represents the former course of the Sutlej river prior to a major nodal avulsion to its present day course. Our results indicate that on geologically relatively short time-scales, we observe dramatic along strike shifts in the location of major Himalayan rivers. Our sediment records when combined with high-resolution dating and

  7. Himalayan Glacier Disasters: Changing Geomorphological Process Landscape, or a Changing Human Landscape?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargel, J. S.; Leonard, G. J.

    2012-12-01

    Recent deadly glacier-related disasters in the Himalayan-Karakoram region—the Attabad landslide and formation of glacier meltwater-fed Lake Gojal, the Gayari ice avalanche/landslide and burial of a Pakistani Army base, and the Seti River outburst disaster—beg the question of whether disasters may be on the rise. Science is not yet ready to offer a full answer, but it is an important one to resolve, because future land-use planning and mitigative measures may be affected. Natural disasters have been commonplace throughout the long human history of the Himalaya-Karakoram region. The broad outlines of the changing natural process, natural hazard, and risk environment may be established. The risk is rising rapidly primarily due to increased human presence in these once-forbidding mountains. Risk is shifting also because climate change is modifying the land surface process system. Rapidly changing glaciers cause a destabilization of the landscape. Glaciers are fundamentally a mestastable phenomenon put in motion by the high gravitational potential energies of the components of glacial systems: snow, ice, water, and debris. Any change in the climate-land-glacier system MUST result in a change in the land process system, with hazards and risks rising or falling or changing location or type. Most commonly, glacier-related disasters include a natural process cascade; as the factors affecting land surface processes and the frequency or magnitude of any one of the elements of the process cascade changes, the net hazard and risk to people changes. Otherwise similar glaciers and glacierized basins have differing sets of hazardous conditions and processes depending on whether the glacier is stable, advancing or retreating. The consequences for the overall risk to people will depend on the details of a specific glacier near a particular village or bridge or railroad. One size does not fit all. Generalizations about trends in natural hazards as related to climate change

  8. Diazotrophy in alluvial meadows of subarctic river systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, Thomas H; Zackrisson, Olle; Bergman, Ingela; Díez, Beatriz; Bergman, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    There is currently limited understanding of the contribution of biological N2 fixation (diazotrophy) to the N budget of large river systems. This natural source of N in boreal river systems may partially explain the sustained productivity of river floodplains in Northern Europe where winter fodder was harvested for centuries without fertilizer amendments. In much of the world, anthropogenic pollution and river regulation have nearly eliminated opportunities to study natural processes that shaped early nutrient dynamics of large river systems; however, pristine conditions in northern Fennoscandia allow for the retrospective evaluation of key biochemical processes of historical significance. We investigated biological N2 fixation (diazotrophy) as a potential source of nitrogen fertility at 71 independent floodplain sites along 10 rivers and conducted seasonal and intensive analyses at a subset of these sites. Biological N2 fixation occurred in all floodplains, averaged 24.5 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) and was down regulated from over 60 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) to 0 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) by river N pollution. A diversity of N2-fixing cyanobacteria was found to colonize surface detritus in the floodplains. The data provide evidence for N2 fixation to be a fundamental source of new N that may have sustained fertility at alluvial sites along subarctic rivers. Such data may have implications for the interpretation of ancient agricultural development and the design of contemporary low-input agroecosystems.

  9. Diazotrophy in alluvial meadows of subarctic river systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H DeLuca

    Full Text Available There is currently limited understanding of the contribution of biological N2 fixation (diazotrophy to the N budget of large river systems. This natural source of N in boreal river systems may partially explain the sustained productivity of river floodplains in Northern Europe where winter fodder was harvested for centuries without fertilizer amendments. In much of the world, anthropogenic pollution and river regulation have nearly eliminated opportunities to study natural processes that shaped early nutrient dynamics of large river systems; however, pristine conditions in northern Fennoscandia allow for the retrospective evaluation of key biochemical processes of historical significance. We investigated biological N2 fixation (diazotrophy as a potential source of nitrogen fertility at 71 independent floodplain sites along 10 rivers and conducted seasonal and intensive analyses at a subset of these sites. Biological N2 fixation occurred in all floodplains, averaged 24.5 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1 and was down regulated from over 60 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1 to 0 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1 by river N pollution. A diversity of N2-fixing cyanobacteria was found to colonize surface detritus in the floodplains. The data provide evidence for N2 fixation to be a fundamental source of new N that may have sustained fertility at alluvial sites along subarctic rivers. Such data may have implications for the interpretation of ancient agricultural development and the design of contemporary low-input agroecosystems.

  10. Migration of radionuclides through a river system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsunaga, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-03-01

    Migration behavior of several atmospherically-derived radionuclides in a river watershed was studied. A main interest was in their relocation from the ground soil of the watershed to a downstream region through a river. Studied radionuclides are: {sup 137}Cs generated by weapon tests in the atmosphere; {sup 210}Pb and {sup 7}Be of naturally occurring radionuclides; {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am released by the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. Dominance of the form in suspended solid in river water (particulate form) was qualified for the radionuclides in the Kuji river watershed. An importance of discharge in flooding was also confirmed. A historical budget analysis for weapon test derived {sup 137}Cs was presented for the Hi-i river watershed and its accompanied lake sediment (Lake Shinji). The work afforded a scheme of a fate of {sup 137}Cs after falling on the ground soil and on the lake surface. Several controlling factors, which can influence on the chemical form of radionuclides discharged to a river, were also investigated in the vicinity of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. A special attention was paid on the association of the radionuclides with dissolved species in water. Preferential association of Pu and Am isotopes to a large molecular size of dissolved matrices, probably of humic substances, was suggested. (author)

  11. Catastrophic valley fills record large Himalayan earthquakes, Pokhara, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolle, Amelie; Bernhardt, Anne; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Adhikari, Basanta R.; Fort, Monique; Korup, Oliver

    2017-12-01

    Uncertain timing and magnitudes of past mega-earthquakes continue to confound seismic risk appraisals in the Himalayas. Telltale traces of surface ruptures are rare, while fault trenches document several events at best, so that additional proxies of strong ground motion are needed to complement the paleoseismological record. We study Nepal's Pokhara basin, which has the largest and most extensively dated archive of earthquake-triggered valley fills in the Himalayas. These sediments form a 148-km2 fan that issues from the steep Seti Khola gorge in the Annapurna Massif, invading and plugging 15 tributary valleys with tens of meters of debris, and impounding several lakes. Nearly a dozen new radiocarbon ages corroborate at least three episodes of catastrophic sedimentation on the fan between ∼700 and ∼1700 AD, coinciding with great earthquakes in ∼1100, 1255, and 1344 AD, and emplacing roughly >5 km3 of debris that forms the Pokhara Formation. We offer a first systematic sedimentological study of this formation, revealing four lithofacies characterized by thick sequences of mid-fan fluvial conglomerates, debris-flow beds, and fan-marginal slackwater deposits. New geochemical provenance analyses reveal that these upstream dipping deposits of Higher Himalayan origin contain lenses of locally derived river clasts that mark time gaps between at least three major sediment pulses that buried different parts of the fan. The spatial pattern of 14C dates across the fan and the provenance data are key to distinguishing these individual sediment pulses, as these are not evident from their sedimentology alone. Our study demonstrates how geomorphic and sedimentary evidence of catastrophic valley infill can help to independently verify and augment paleoseismological fault-trench records of great Himalayan earthquakes, while offering unparalleled insights into their long-term geomorphic impacts on major drainage basins.

  12. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 14

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  13. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 4

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  14. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 21

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  15. Stream catalog of the Wood River Lake System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Information on the red salmon runs to all the major spawning tributaries in the Wood River lake system, Bristol Bay, Alaska from 1946 to 1962 is cataloged in this...

  16. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 20

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  17. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 18

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  18. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 13

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  19. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 7

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  20. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  1. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 25

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  2. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  3. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  4. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  5. IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM, TRACKING AND SUPPORT FOR VESSELS ON RIVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAMOILESCU Gheorghe

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the program COMPRIS (Consortium Operational Management Platform River Information Services, AIS (Automatic Identification System, RIS (River Information Services have compiled a reference model based on the perspective of navigation on the river with related information services. This paper presents a tracking and monitoring surveillance system necessary for assistance of each ship sailing in an area of interest. It shows the operating principle of the composition and role of each equipment. Transferring data to traffic monitoring authority is part of this work.

  6. Potential flood volume of Himalayan glacial lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Fujita

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Glacial lakes are potentially dangerous sources of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs, and represent a serious natural hazard in Himalayan countries. Despite the development of various indices aimed at determining the outburst probability, an objective evaluation of the thousands of Himalayan glacial lakes has yet to be completed. In this study we propose a single index, based on the depression angle from the lakeshore, which allows the lakes to be assessed using remotely sensed digital elevation models (DEMs. We test our approach on five lakes in Nepal, Bhutan, and Tibet using images taken by the declassified Hexagon KH-9 satellite before these lakes experienced an outburst flood. All five lakes had a steep lakefront area (SLA, on which a depression angle was steeper than our proposed threshold of 10° before the GLOF event, but the SLA was no longer evident after the events. We further calculated the potential flood volume (PFV; i.e., the maximum volume of floodwater that could be released if the lake surface was lowered sufficiently to eradicate the SLA. This approach guarantees repeatability to assess the possibility of GLOF hazards because it requires no particular expertise to carry out, though the PFV does not quantify the GLOF risk. We calculated PFVs for more than 2000 Himalayan glacial lakes using visible band images and DEMs of ASTER data. The PFV distribution follows a power-law function. We found that 794 lakes did not have an SLA, and consequently had a PFV of zero, while we also identified 49 lakes with PFVs of over 10 million m3, which is a comparable volume to that of recorded major GLOFs. This PFV approach allows us to preliminarily identify and prioritize those Himalayan glacial lakes that require further detailed investigation on GLOF hazards and risk.

  7. Potential flood volume of Himalayan glacial lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, K.; Sakai, A.; Takenaka, S.; Nuimura, T.; Surazakov, A. B.; Sawagaki, T.; Yamanokuchi, T.

    2013-07-01

    Glacial lakes are potentially dangerous sources of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs), and represent a serious natural hazard in Himalayan countries. Despite the development of various indices aimed at determining the outburst probability, an objective evaluation of the thousands of Himalayan glacial lakes has yet to be completed. In this study we propose a single index, based on the depression angle from the lakeshore, which allows the lakes to be assessed using remotely sensed digital elevation models (DEMs). We test our approach on five lakes in Nepal, Bhutan, and Tibet using images taken by the declassified Hexagon KH-9 satellite before these lakes experienced an outburst flood. All five lakes had a steep lakefront area (SLA), on which a depression angle was steeper than our proposed threshold of 10° before the GLOF event, but the SLA was no longer evident after the events. We further calculated the potential flood volume (PFV); i.e., the maximum volume of floodwater that could be released if the lake surface was lowered sufficiently to eradicate the SLA. This approach guarantees repeatability to assess the possibility of GLOF hazards because it requires no particular expertise to carry out, though the PFV does not quantify the GLOF risk. We calculated PFVs for more than 2000 Himalayan glacial lakes using visible band images and DEMs of ASTER data. The PFV distribution follows a power-law function. We found that 794 lakes did not have an SLA, and consequently had a PFV of zero, while we also identified 49 lakes with PFVs of over 10 million m3, which is a comparable volume to that of recorded major GLOFs. This PFV approach allows us to preliminarily identify and prioritize those Himalayan glacial lakes that require further detailed investigation on GLOF hazards and risk.

  8. Modeling hydrology, groundwater recharge and non-point nitrate loadings in the Himalayan Upper Yamuna basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Kapil K; Gosain, A K

    2013-12-01

    The mountainous Himalayan watersheds are important hydrologic systems responsible for much of the water supply in the Indian sub-continent. These watersheds are increasingly facing anthropogenic and climate-related pressures that impact spatial and temporal distribution of water availability. This study evaluates temporal and spatial distribution of water availability including groundwater recharge and quality (non-point nitrate loadings) for a Himalayan watershed, namely, the Upper Yamuna watershed (part of the Ganga River basin). The watershed has an area of 11,600 km(2) with elevation ranging from 6300 to 600 m above mean sea level. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a physically-based, time-continuous model, has been used to simulate the land phase of the hydrological cycle, to obtain streamflows, groundwater recharge, and nitrate (NO3) load distributions in various components of runoff. The hydrological SWAT model is integrated with the MODular finite difference groundwater FLOW model (MODFLOW), and Modular 3-Dimensional Multi-Species Transport model (MT3DMS), to obtain groundwater flow and NO3 transport. Validation of various modules of this integrated model has been done for sub-basins of the Upper Yamuna watershed. Results on surface runoff and groundwater levels obtained as outputs from simulation show a good comparison with the observed streamflows and groundwater levels (Nash-Sutcliffe and R(2) correlations greater than +0.7). Nitrate loading obtained after nitrification, denitrification, and NO3 removal from unsaturated and shallow aquifer zones is combined with groundwater recharge. Results for nitrate modeling in groundwater aquifers are compared with observed NO3 concentration and are found to be in good agreement. The study further evaluates the sensitivity of water availability to climate change. Simulations have been made with the weather inputs of climate change scenarios of A2, B2, and A1B for end of the century. Water yield estimates under

  9. Kyiv Small Rivers in Metropolis Water Objects System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krelshteyn, P.; Dubnytska, M.

    2017-12-01

    The article answers the question, what really are the small underground rivers with artificial watercourses: water bodies or city engineering infrastructure objects? The place of such rivers in metropolis water objects system is identified. The ecological state and the degree of urbanization of small rivers, as well as the dynamics of change in these indicators are analysed on the Kiev city example with the help of water objects cadastre. It was found that the registration of small rivers in Kyiv city is not conducted, and the summary information on such water objects is absent and is not taken into account when making managerial decisions at the urban level. To solve this problem, we propose to create some water bodies accounting system (water cadastre).

  10. ANALYSIS OF SEDIMENT MOVEMENT IN A RIVER DIVERSION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Safari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sediment-related disaster especially debris flow occurs frequently in various places in Indonesia. It has been well known in general that debris flow contents big size of materials which huge power to destroy the river and surrounding area. Comprehensive measures and rising awareness to prevent the toll of human lives against sediment disaster is considered necessary. Diversion system to proximate river aimed to lessen sediment load by considering its capacities and sediment prevention facilities becomes an alternative counter measure of sediment flood disaster. Information of river diversion capability and associated phenomena due to sediment gravity flow is a fundamental desire for establishing reasonable sediment control plans. Physical model compared to simple mathematical model are conducted to know river diversion capacity to convey sediment. The experiment used a channel made of masonry with 80 cm wide in average and 400 cm length, and 10 % gradient. The proposed sediment control facilities comprises two types, there are open type dam with 33 cm wide, 16cm high (at +1.245m elevation of crest and four slits in main stream river and close type dam 41 cm wide, 15 cm high (at +1.255m elevation of spillway for river diversion. The distance of these facilities is 110 cm. The result of this study is expected to be able to explain the sediment gravity flow behavior in the field. It shows that the performance of river diversion and open type dam control volume depend on quantity and mechanism of sediment flow from upstream, and also elevation of crest of the open type dam. The largest amount of sediment gravity flow entering diversion channel is about 7 % of sediment inflow for +1245 m open dam crest elevation and +1255 m river diversion spillway elevation. Keywords: Natural disaster, sediment, river diversion system.

  11. Study of the Genetic Diversity of the Ornamental Fish Badis badis (Hamilton-Buchanan, 1822 in the Terai Region of Sub-Himalayan West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmay Mukhopadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dwarf chameleon fish or Badis badis, a lesser known ornamental freshwater fish, has recently been included in the Indian threatened category of fish list. There are insufficient studies with regard to the assessment of genetic background of this ichthyofauna, especially in the western sub-Himalayan region of West Bengal, India, popularly known as the Terai. The present study is the first attempt to investigate the present status of the genetic background of this species in the Mahananda and Balason rivers, major streams of this region. Twenty-one selective RAPD primers generated 53 and 60 polymorphic fragments in the Mahananda and Balason populations, respectively. The proportion of polymorphic loci, Nei’s genetic diversity (H, and Shannon’s index (H′ were 0.4416, 0.1654±0.2023, and 0.2450±0.2907, respectively, in Mahananda river population and were 0.5041, 0.1983±0.2126, and 0.2901±0.3037, respectively, in Balason river population. Inbreeding coefficient and degree of gene differentiation were also calculated. The H and H′ were found to be 0.1601±0.1944 and 0.2363±0.2782, respectively, in overall Mahananda-Balason river system. Our study revealed considerable lack of genetic variation among the individuals of Badis badis. The genetic data obtained from the present study lend support to the view that there is a scope of stock improvement for this ichthyofauna.

  12. Evaluation of HIV Surveillance System in Rivers State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rivers State has been reported to have the highest HIV prevalence of all the thirty-six states in Nigeria. HIV surveillance system generates information for timely and appropriate public health action. Evaluation of the surveillance system is vital in ensuring that the purpose of the surveillance system is being met.

  13. Deformation mechanisms in the frontal Lesser Himalayan Duplex in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present evidence of EF deformation from Gondwana rocks developed during the emplacement of one of the frontal horses (Jorthang horse) in the Lesser Himalayan Duplex (LHD) structure associated with Lesser Himalayan rocks in the footwall of the Ramgarh thrust in the Rangit window near Jorthang in the Sikkim ...

  14. Assessment of CORDEX-South Asia experiments for monsoonal precipitation over Himalayan region for future climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, A.; Dimri, A. P.

    2017-07-01

    Precipitation is one of the important climatic indicators in the global climate system. Probable changes in monsoonal (June, July, August and September; hereafter JJAS) mean precipitation in the Himalayan region for three different greenhouse gas emission scenarios (i.e. representative concentration pathways or RCPs) and two future time slices (near and far) are estimated from a set of regional climate simulations performed under Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment-South Asia (CORDEX-SA) project. For each of the CORDEX-SA simulations and their ensemble, projections of near future (2020-2049) and far future (2070-2099) precipitation climatology with respect to corresponding present climate (1970-2005) over Himalayan region are presented. The variability existing over each of the future time slices is compared with the present climate variability to determine the future changes in inter annual fluctuations of monsoonal mean precipitation. The long-term (1970-2099) trend (mm/day/year) of monsoonal mean precipitation spatially distributed as well as averaged over Himalayan region is analyzed to detect any change across twenty-first century as well as to assess model uncertainty in simulating the precipitation changes over this period. The altitudinal distribution of difference in trend of future precipitation from present climate existing over each of the time slices is also studied to understand any elevation dependency of change in precipitation pattern. Except for a part of the Hindu-Kush area in western Himalayan region which shows drier condition, the CORDEX-SA experiments project in general wetter/drier conditions in near future for western/eastern Himalayan region, a scenario which gets further intensified in far future. Although, a gradually increasing precipitation trend is seen throughout the twenty-first century in carbon intensive scenarios, the distribution of trend with elevation presents a very complex picture with lower elevations

  15. General classification handbook for floodplain vegetation in large river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieck, Jennifer J.; Ruhser, Janis; Hoy, Erin E.; Robinson, Larry R.

    2015-01-01

    This handbook describes the General Wetland Vegetation Classification System developed as part of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ Upper Mississippi River Restoration (UMRR) Program, Long Term Resource Monitoring (LTRM) element. The UMRR is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the states of Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, and Wisconsin. The classification system consists of 31 general map classes and has been used to create systemic vegetation data layers throughout the diverse Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS), which includes the commercially navigable reaches of the Mississippi River from Minneapolis, Minnesota, in the north to Cairo, Illinois, in the south, the Illinois River, and navigable portions of the Kaskaskia, Black, St. Croix, and Minnesota Rivers. In addition, this handbook describes the evolution of the General Wetland Vegetation Classification System, discusses the process of creating a vegetation data layer, and describes each of the 31 map classes in detail. The handbook also acts as a pictorial guide to each of the map classes as they may appear in the field, as well as on color-infrared imagery. This version is an update to the original handbook published in 2004.

  16. Depth-integrated suspended sediment and geochemical fluxes in large rivers: the Amazon River system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchez, J.; Lupker, M.; Gaillardet, J.; Metivier, F.; France-Lanord, C.; Maurice, L.

    2010-12-01

    Erosion and weathering produce a wide range of residual solid products, in terms of size, density, mineralogy and chemical composition. These solid products are then transported by rivers from the continents to the oceans as suspended particulate matter (SPM) and bedload. Large rivers account for an important part of this transfer of sediments at the global scale. In those rivers, deep channels allow for vertical differentiation, or sorting, of suspended sediment, following their size and density. This hydrodynamic sorting results in vertically heterogeneous depth-profiles in terms of SPM concentration and size distribution (e.g. Garcia, 2008), which in turn likely result in an heterogeneous chemical composition of SPM throughout channel depth (e.g. Galy, 2007), which has to be evaluated. We sampled river water of the main tributaries of the Amazon River system (in the lowland basin), at two distinct water-stages, at various depths following depth-profiles, using a point depth-sampler. After filtration, and SPM recovery, SPM concentration, grain size distribution and chemical composition were determined. River discharge and water velocity throughout the sampled cross-sections were recorded using Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP). The large increase in SPM concentration with depth observed at most of the sampled depth-profiles is well accounted for by the Rouse model (e.g. Rouse, 1950). This analysis allows us to reliably infer the SPM concentration and grain size distribution throughout the sampled river cross-section, and thus to estimate the spatially-integrated instantaneous SPM flux using ADCP data (Bouchez et al., 2010). The study also emphasizes the potential role of particle aggregation, within the river system, as a complicating factor regarding the prediction of these depth-integrated SPM fluxes from easily measurable hydrodynamic parameters (surface SPM concentration and grain size, and water velocity). Then, using the previous analysis, combined

  17. Quantifying habitat benefits of channel reconfigurations on a highly regulated river system, Lower Missouri River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Susannah O.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Elliott, Caroline M.

    2017-01-01

    We present a quantitative analysis of habitat availability in a highly regulated lowland river, comparing a restored reach with two reference reaches: an un-restored, channelized reach, and a least-altered reach. We evaluate the effects of channel modifications in terms of distributions of depth and velocity as well as distributions and availability of habitats thought to be supportive of an endangered fish, the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). It has been hypothesized that hydraulic conditions that support food production and foraging may limit growth and survival of juvenile pallid sturgeon. To evaluate conditions that support these habitats, we constructed two-dimensional hydrodynamic models for the three study reaches, two located in the Lower Missouri River (channelized and restored reaches) and one in the Yellowstone River (least-altered reach). Comparability among the reaches was improved by scaling by bankfull discharge and bankfull channel area. The analysis shows that construction of side-channel chutes and increased floodplain connectivity increase the availability of foraging habitat, resulting in a system that is more similar to the reference reach on the Yellowstone River. The availability of food-producing habitat is low in all reaches at flows less than bankfull, but the two reaches in the Lower Missouri River – channelized and restored – display a threshold-like response as flows overtop channel banks, reflecting the persistent effects of channelization on hydraulics in the main channel. These high lateral gradients result in punctuated ecological events corresponding to flows in excess of bankfull discharge. This threshold effect in the restored reach remains distinct from that of the least-altered reference reach, where hydraulic changes are less abrupt and overbank flows more gradually inundate the adjacent floodplain. The habitat curves observed in the reference reach on the Yellowstone River may not be attainable within the

  18. Trans-Himalayan Transport of Black Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, A. K.; Dhungel, S.; Mahata, K. S.

    2012-12-01

    Aerosol optical depth and black carbon concentrations over the Indo-Gangetic Plains and the Himalayan foothills have increased significantly in recent years, with potentially large consequences on monsoon circulation, air quality, and agriculture. At the same time, snowfields and glaciers on the Himalaya and the Tibetan Plateau have been shrinking in many areas, potentially driven by the arrival of increasing quantities of atmospheric black carbon from the Indo-Gangetic Plains. The high peaks of the Himalaya form a barrier that blocks the transport of moisture and pollutants from South Asia to the Tibetan Plateau. Thus it is likely that the handful of valleys that cut across the Himalaya would play a significant role in channeling the trans-Himalayan transport of black carbon. The Kali Gandaki Valley in Nepal is one such valley. It has long provided easy transit for migrating birds and traders traveling between South Asia and the Tibetan Plateau, and we have hypothesized that it is a major transit route for Tibetan Plateau bound black carbon. A network of weather stations set up by the University of Virginia and ICIMOD in 2009-2010 has found day-time up-valley winds with sustained speeds that often exceed 10-15 m/s throughout the year, occasionally reaching 25 m/s. Since Summer 2011 we have measured black carbon concentrations, aerosol optical depth, carbon monoxide and ozone at a station in Jomsom, Nepal, at the point north of the Annapurna Himalaya where the Kali Gandaki Valley opens up onto the Tibetan Plateau. Together with observations we have been carrying out south of the Annapurna, this provides the first set of observational data to allow an estimation of the transport of Black Carbon up through cross-Himalayan valleys. We provide initial calculations of the annual BC flux up the Kali Gandaki Valley, as well as first estimates of the flux through valleys across the entire Himalaya.

  19. Himalayan Denudation: Noise vs. Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korup, Oliver; Munack, Henry; Codilean, Alexandru T.; Blöthe, Jan-Henrik; Kubik, Peter W.

    2014-05-01

    Comparing estimates of denudation rates is notoriously difficult given the broad choice of geological archives, dating techniques, and the measurement intervals that these rates are averaged over. Even for a given method such as measuring detrital cosmogenic Be-10 concentrations in river sands in order to infer catchment-averaged denudation rates, estimates may vary by orders of magnitude in comparable settings. This variance has confounded the search for straightforward tectonic, climatic, or morphometric predictors of denudation rates, let alone field-based verification of theoretical models that predict relationships between landscape metrics and denudation rates. Both regional and global studies using Be-10 derived denudation rates have aimed at constraining such trends using linear regression, though with mixed and partly inconsistent success. Yet part of the simple linear regression approach largely overlooks that Be-10 derived denudation rate estimates inherently depend on the apparent exposure age of the samples. Therefore, samples that reflect rapidly denuding basins integrate over only a few centuries of apparent exposure time, and thus must also contain less landscape memory; contamination by recent erosional events may further distort longer-term denudation rate estimates. We hypothesize that any correlation between denudation rate and a meaningful tectonic, climatic, or topographic predictor should be largely invariant with respect to the timescale of observation in order remain a robust indication of a potentially underlying causal relationship. We test this hypothesis by analysing an inventory of nearly 300 cosmogenic Be-10 derived catchment-averaged denudation rates from the Himalaya-Tibet orogen. These rates span nearly three orders of magnitude and reveal significant noise that largely prohibits meaningful models based on linear regression. However, we demonstrate that quantile regression can be used to (a) decipher and correct for a timescale

  20. Food and nutrition security in the Hindu Kush Himalayan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasul, Golam; Hussain, Abid; Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Dangol, Narendra

    2018-01-01

    The status of food and nutrition security and its underlying factors in the Hindu-Kush Himalayan (HKH) region is investigated. In this region, one third to a half of children (Food habits in the HKH region are changing. This has led to a deterioration in traditional mountain food systems with a decline in agrobiodiversity. Factors such as high poverty and low dietary energy intakes, a lack of hygienic environments, inadequate nutritional knowledge, and climate change and environmental degradation are also influencing food and nutrition security in the HKH region. To achieve sustainable food and nutrition security in the mountains, this study suggests a multi-sectoral integrated approach with consideration of nutritional aspects in all development processes dealing with economic, social, agricultural and public health issues. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. The Himalayan Seismogenic Zone: A New Frontier for Earthquake Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Larry; Hubbard, Judith; Karplus, Marianne; Klemperer, Simon; Sato, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    The Mw 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake that occurred on April 25 of this year was a dramatic reminder that great earthquakes are not restricted to the large seismogenic zones associated with subduction of oceanic lithosphere. Not only does Himalayan seismogenesis represents important scientific and societal issues in its own right, it constitutes a reference for evaluating general models of the earthquake cycle derived from the studies of the oceanic subduction systems. This presentation reports results of a Mini-Workshop sponsored by the GeoPrisms project that was held in conjunction with the American Geophysical Union on December 15, 2015, designed to organize a new initiative to study the great Himalaya earthquake machine. The Himalayan seismogenic zone shares with its oceanic counterparts a number of fundamental questions, including: a) What controls the updip and downdip limits of rupture? b) What controls the lateral segmentation of rupture zones (and hence magnitude)? c) What is the role of fluids in facilitating slip and or rupture? d) What nucleates rupture (e..g. asperities?)? e) What physical properties can be monitored as precursors to future events? f) How effectively can the radiation pattern of future events be modeled? g) How can a better understanding of Himalayan rupture be translated into more cost effective preparations for the next major event in this region? However the underthrusting of continental, as opposed to oceanic, lithosphere in the Himalayas frames these questions in a very different context: h) How does the greater thickness and weaker rheology of continental crust/lithosphere affect locking of the seismogenic zone? i) How does the different thermal structure of continental vs oceanic crust affect earthquake geodynamics? j) Are fluids a significant factor in intercontinental thrusting? k) How does the basement morphology of underthrust continental crust affect locking/creep, and how does it differ from the oceanic case? l) What is the

  2. Flood forecasting and alert system for Arda River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artinyan, Eram; Vincendon, Beatrice; Kroumova, Kamelia; Nedkov, Nikolai; Tsarev, Petko; Balabanova, Snezhanka; Koshinchanov, Georgy

    2016-10-01

    The paper presents the set-up and functioning of a flood alert system based on SURFEX-TOPODYN platform for the cross-border Arda River basin. The system was built within a Bulgarian-Greek project funded by the European Territorial Cooperation (ETC) Programme and is in operational use since April 2014. The basin is strongly influenced by Mediterranean cyclones during the autumn-winter period and experiences dangerous rapid floods, mainly after intensive rain, often combined with snow melt events. The steep mountainous terrain leads to floods with short concentration time and high river speed causing damage to settlements and infrastructure. The main challenge was to correctly simulate the riverflow in near-real time and to timely forecast peak floods for small drainage basins below 100 km2 but also for larger ones of about 1900 km2 using the same technology. To better account for that variability, a modification of the original hydrological model parameterisation is proposed. Here we present the first results of a new model variant which uses dynamically adjusted TOPODYN river velocity as function of the computed partial streamflow discharge. Based on historical flooding data, river sections along endangered settlements were included in the river flow forecasting. A continuous hydrological forecast for 5 days ahead was developed for 18 settlements in Bulgaria and for the border with Greece, thus giving enough reaction time in case of high floods. The paper discusses the practical implementation of models for the Arda basin, the method used to calibrate the models' parameters, the results of the calibration-validation procedure and the way the information system is organised. A real case of forecasted rapid floods that occurred after the system's finalisation is analysed. One of the important achievements of the project is the on-line presentation of the forecasts that takes into account their temporal variability and uncertainty. The web presentation includes a

  3. River Debris Management System using Off-Grid Photovoltaic Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadon Intan Mastura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, Malacca River has long been the tourism attraction in Malacca. However, due to negligence, the river has been polluted by the litters thrown by tourists and even local residents, thus reflects a negative perception on Malacca. Therefore, this paper discusses about a fully automated river debris management system development using a stand-alone photovoltaic system. The concept design is to be stand alone in the river and automatically pull debris towards it for disposal. An off-grid stand-alone photovoltaic solar panel is used as renewable energy source connected to water pump and Arduino Uno microcontroller. The water pump rotates a water wheel and at the same time moves a conveyor belt; which is connected to the water wheel by a gear for debris collection. The solar system sizing suitable for the whole system is shown in this paper. The dumpster barge is equipped with an infrared sensor to monitor maximum height for debris, and instruct Arduino Uno to turn off the water pump. This system is able to power up using solar energy on sunny days and using battery otherwise.

  4. Understanding Socio-Hydrology System in the Kissimmee River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Wang, D.; Tian, F.; Sivapalan, M.

    2014-12-01

    This study is to develop a conceptual socio-hydrology model for the Kissimmee River Basin. The Kissimmee River located in Florida was channelized in mid-20 century for flood protection. However, the environmental issues caused by channelization led Floridians to conduct a restoration project recently, focusing on wetland recovery. As a complex coupled human-water system, Kissimmee River Basin shows the typical socio-hydrology interactions. Hypothetically, the major reason to drive the system from channelization to restoration is that the community sensitivity towards the environment has changed from controlling to restoring. The model developed in this study includes 5 components: water balance, flood risk, wetland area, crop land area, and community sensitivity. Furthermore, urban population and rural population in the basin have different community sensitivities towards the hydrologic system. The urban population, who live further away from the river are more sensitive to wetland restoration; while the rural population, who live closer to the river are more sensitive to flood protection. The power dynamics between the two groups and its impact on management decision making is described in the model. The model is calibrated based on the observed watershed outflow, wetland area and crop land area. The results show that the overall focus of community sensitivity has changed from flood protection to wetland restoration in the past 60 years in Kissimmee River Basin, which confirms the study hypothesis. There are two main reasons for the community sensitivity change. Firstly, people's flood memory is fading because of the effective flood protection, while the continuously shrinking wetland and the decreasing bird and fish population draw more and more attention. Secondly, in the last 60 years, the urban population in Florida drastically increased compared with a much slower increase of rural population. As a result, the community sensitivity of urban population towards

  5. Downstream flow top width prediction in a river system | Choudhury ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANFIS, ARIMA and Hybrid Multiple Inflows Muskingum models (HMIM) were applied to simulate and forecast downstream discharge and flow top widths in a river system. The ANFIS model works on a set of linguistic rules while the ARIMA model uses a set of past values to predict the next value in a time series. The HMIM ...

  6. Watershed Disturbance and its Potential Effects on River Systems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Atewa Range Forest Reserve in the Eastern Region of Ghana is a very important watershed which serves three important river systems - the Densu, Ayensu and Birim, all in southern Ghana. Widespread degradation of the forest reserve as a result of rampant anthropogenic activities threatens the long-term ...

  7. Evaluation of HIV Surveillance System in Rivers State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sony Computer (Iby)

    3Department of Neuropsychiatry/Mental Health, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital,. Alakahia, PMB ... Conclusion: The HIV surveillance system in Rivers State is a useful tool for planning public health activities. ... individuals, households and nations, reducing by more than half the Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

  8. Climate-hydrology-ecology interactions in glacierized river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, David; Brown, Lee; Milner, Alexander

    2010-05-01

    High climatic sensitivity and low anthropogenic influence make glacierized river basins important environments for examining hydrological and ecological response to global change. This presentation is based on previous and ongoing research in glacierized river basins (located in the French Pyrenees, New Zealand and Swedish Lapland), which adopts an interdisciplinary approach to investigate the climate-hydrology-ecology cascade. Data are used to advance hypotheses concerning impacts of climate change/ variability on glacier river system hydrology and ecology. Aquatic ecosystems in high latitude and altitude environments are influenced strongly by cryospheric and hydrological processes due to links between atmospheric forcing, snowpack/ glacier mass-balance, river runoff, physico-chemistry and biota. In the current phase of global warming, many glaciers are retreating. Shrinking snow and ice-masses may alter spatial and temporal dynamics in bulk basin runoff with significant changes in the relative contributions of snowmelt, glacier-melt and groundwater to stream flow. The timing of peak snow- and ice-melt may shift; and proportion of stream flow sourced from rainfall-runoff and groundwater may increase. In this presentation, the influence of changing water source contributions on physico-chemical habitat and, in turn, benthic communities is assessed using an alternative alpine stream classification. In the future, this model predicts more rapid downstream change in benthic communities as meltwater contributions decline; and, at the basin-scale, biodiversity may be reduced due to less spatio-temporal heterogeneity in water sources contributions and, thus, physico-chemical habitat. Integrated, long-term research into the climate-hydrology-ecology cascade in other glacierized river basins is vital because interdisciplinary science is fundamental: to predicting stream hydrology and ecology under scenarios of future climate/ variability, to assessing the utility of

  9. Climate scenarios for the Truckee-Carson River system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettinger, Michael; Sterle, Kelley; Simpson, Karen; Singletary, Loretta; Fitzgerald, Kelsey; McCarthy, Maureen

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the scenarios ultimately take the form of gridded, daily (maximum and minimum) temperatures and precipitation totals spanning the entire Truckee-Carson River System, from which meteorological inputs to various hydrologic, water-balance and watermanagement models can be extracted by other parts of the Water for the Seasons project and by other studies and stakeholders. Climate scenarios are constructed using: 1) survey data from interviews with 66 Truckee-Carson River System water-management and water-interest organizations to identify plausible drought and high-flow events that could stress the system irreparably; 2) input from the Stakeholder Affiliate Group and other modelers on the Water for the Seasons team to gain additional key stakeholder input with regard to organizational survey results and to identify the most pressing water-management issues being faced in the system; and 3) historical climate datasets used to simulate possible future conditions.

  10. Recycling of graphite during Himalayan erosion: a geological stabilization of carbon in the crust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galy, Valier; Beyssac, Olivier; France-Lanord, Christian; Eglinton, Timothy

    2008-11-07

    At geological time scales, the role of continental erosion in the organic carbon (OC) cycle is determined by the balance between recent OC burial and petrogenic OC oxidation. Evaluating its net effect on the concentration of carbon dioxide and dioxygen in the atmosphere requires the fate of petrogenic OC to be assessed. Here, we report a multiscale (nanometer to micrometer) structural characterization of petrogenic OC in the Himalayan system. We show that graphitic carbon is preserved and buried in marine sediments, while the less graphitized forms are oxidized during fluvial transport. Radiocarbon dating indicates that 30 to 50% of the carbon initially present in the Himalayan rocks is conserved during the erosion cycle. Graphitization during metamorphism thus stabilizes carbon in the crust over geological time scales.

  11. Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) Water Temperature Models Developed for the Missouri River Recovery Management Plan and Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-18

    ER D C/ EL T R- 17 -1 8 Missouri River Recovery Program (MRRP) Hydrologic Engineering Center-River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) Water... Engineering Center-River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) Water Temperature Models Developed for the Missouri River Recovery Management Plan and Environmental...Impact Statement” ERDC/EL TR-17-18 ii Abstract This report describes the Hydrologic Engineering Center-River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) water

  12. Combined assessment and regulation on ecological land use and water demand of the river system: a case study in Luanhe River, North China

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, D. H.; Wang, G.; H. Wang; T. L. Qin

    2011-01-01

    With economic and social development, ecological water and land use of the river system were seriously misappropriated, which resulted in overall degradation of the river systems. In this study, theoretical and technical frameworks of regionalisation on the eco-environmental function of the river systems were preliminarily formulated. According to the river eco-environmental functions, Luanhe River was regionalised into four types of first-class functional areas, i.e., ecological preservation...

  13. Sandy River Delta Habitat Restoration Project, Annual Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Virginia; Dobson, Robin L.

    2002-11-01

    The Sandy River Delta is located at the confluence of the Sandy and Columbia Rivers, just east of Troutdale, Oregon. It comprises about 1,400 land acres north of Interstate 84, managed by the USDA Forest Service, and associated river banks managed by the Oregon Division of State Lands. Three islands, Gary, Flag and Catham, managed by Metro Greenspaces and the State of Oregon lie to the east, the Columbia River lies to the north and east, and the urbanized Portland metropolitan area lies to the west across the Sandy River. Sandy River Delta was historically a wooded, riparian wetland with components of ponds, sloughs, bottomland woodland, oak woodland, prairie, and low and high elevation floodplain. It has been greatly altered by past agricultural practices and the Columbia River hydropower system. Restoration of historic landscape components is a primary goal for this land. The Forest Service is currently focusing on restoration of riparian forest and wetlands. Restoration of open upland areas (meadow/prairie) would follow substantial completion of the riparian and wetland restoration. The Sandy River Delta is a former pasture infested with reed canary grass, blackberry and thistle. The limited over story is native riparian species such as cottonwood and ash. The shrub and herbaceous layers are almost entirely non-native, invasive species. Native species have a difficult time naturally regenerating in the thick, competing reed canary grass, Himalayan blackberry and thistle. A system of drainage ditches installed by past owners drains water from historic wetlands. The original channel of the Sandy River was diked in the 1930's, and the river diverted into the ''Little Sandy River''. The original Sandy River channel has subsequently filled in and largely become a slough. The FS acquired approximately 1,400 acres Sandy River Delta (SRD) in 1991 from Reynolds Aluminum (via the Trust for Public Lands). The Delta had been grazed for many years

  14. Synergetic Development Assessment of Urban River System Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingya Qiao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents Synergetic Development Assessment (SDA as a methodology to evaluate the environmental, economic, and social performance of an urban river system landscape from the perspective of sustainability. SDA is based on synergetics and its “order parameters” theory, proposed as a science to study the self-organization of complex systems. A case study of river system landscapes in China was carried out by, first, simplifying the composite system into three subsystems: environmental, economic, and social; then, going on to construct a hierarchical structure to explore the order parameters as the evaluation index. The Analytic Hierarchy Process was used to get the weight of the evaluation index to complete the assessment index system. At the same time, a Sequential Synergy Degree Model was built to accomplish the SDA. We find that from 2005 to 2015, the order degree of the environmental subsystem developed slowly, with fluctuations, and that river pattern is the key factor. Meanwhile, the order degree of the economic subsystem fluctuated widely, which significantly depended on the changing value of water resources, and the order degree of social subsystem improved continuously, with social culture lagging far behind. As a whole, the synergy degree of the composite system developed orderly at a corresponding low level, which was in low synergy from 2005 to 2009 and then in general synergy up to 2015.

  15. XXI Century Climatology of Snow Cover for the Western River Basins of the Indus River System

    CERN Document Server

    Hasson, Shabeh ul; Lucarini, Valerio

    2012-01-01

    Under changing climate, freshwater resources of Hindu Kush-Karakoram-Himalaya (HKH) region can be affected by changes in temperature and in amount, type and distribution of precipitation. This can have serious implications for the water supply and in turn threaten the food security and economic wellbeing of Indus basin. Using MODIS daily snow products (Terra & Aqua), this study focuses on the assessment of the 2000-2010 snow cover dynamics on seasonal/annual basis against geophysical parameters (aspect, elevation and slope) for the so called western river basins of Indus River System (IRS), namely Indus, Kabul, Jhelum, Astore, Gilgit, Hunza, Swat, Shigar and Shyok basins. Results show that inputs from MODIS instrument provide unprecedented better opportunity to study by using GIS techniques the snow cover dynamics in the remote areas like HKH region at such hyper-temporal and finer planar resolution. Adapted non-spectral cloud filtering techniques have significantly reduced cloud coverage and improved sno...

  16. Sporotrichosis in sub-himalayan India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santwana Verma

    Full Text Available Sporotrichosis is endemic in the Sub-Himalayan belt, which ranges from the northern to the north-eastern Indian subcontinent. Similar to many parts of the developing world, sporotrichosis is commonly recognized clinically in this region however consolidated epidemiological data is lacking. We report epidemiological, clinical and microbiological data from a hundred culture positive cases of sporotrichosis. Out of 305 clinically suspicious cases of sporotrichosis, a total of 100 isolates were identified as Sporothrix schenckii species complex (S. schenckii on culture. Out of the culture proven cases 71% of the cases presented with lymphocutaneous type of lesions while 28% had fixed localized type and 1% had disseminated sporotrichosis. Presentation with lesions on hands was most frequently seen in 32% with arm (23% and face (21% in that sequence. The male to female ratio was 1∶1.27. Age ranged from 1 ½ years to 88 years. Mean age was 43.25 years. Disease was predominantly seen in the fourth to sixth decade of life with 58% cases between 31 and 60 years of age. Since the first report from the region there has been a steady rise in the number of cases of sporotrichosis. Seasonal trends reveal that most of the patients visited for consultation in the beginning of the year between March and April. This is the first study, from the most endemic region of the Sub-Himalayan belt, to delve into epidemiological and clinical details of such a large number of culture proven cases over a period of more than eighteen years which would help in the understanding of the local disease pattern of sporotrichosis.

  17. Glacier and landslide feedbacks to topographic relief in the Himalayan syntaxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korup, Oliver; Montgomery, David R; Hewitt, Kenneth

    2010-03-23

    Despite longstanding research on the age and formation of the Tibetan Plateau, the controls on the erosional decay of its margins remain controversial. Pronounced aridity and highly localized rock uplift have traditionally been viewed as limits to the dissection of the plateau by bedrock rivers. Recently, however, glacier dynamics and landsliding have been argued to retard headward fluvial erosion into the plateau interior by forming dams and protective alluvial fill. Here, we report a conspicuous clustering of hundreds of natural dams along the Indus and the Tsangpo Rivers where these cross the Himalayan syntaxes. The Indus is riddled by hundreds of dams composed of debris from catastrophic rock avalanches, forming the largest concentration of giant landslide dams known worldwide, whereas the Tsangpo seems devoid of comparable landslide dams. In contrast, glacial dams such as river-blocking moraines in the headwaters of both rivers are limited to where isolated mountain ranges intersect the regional snowline. We find that to first-order, high local topographic relief along both rivers corresponds to conspicuously different knickzones and differences in the type and potential longevity of these dams. In both syntaxes, glacier and landslide dams act as a negative feedback in response to fluvial dissection of the plateau margins. Natural damming protects bedrock from river incision and delays headward knickpoint migration, thereby helping stabilize the southwestern and southeastern margins of the Tibetan Plateau in concert with the effects of upstream aridity and localized rock uplift.

  18. Interactive Forecasting with the National Weather Service River Forecast System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, George F.; Page, Donna

    1993-01-01

    The National Weather Service River Forecast System (NWSRFS) consists of several major hydrometeorologic subcomponents to model the physics of the flow of water through the hydrologic cycle. The entire NWSRFS currently runs in both mainframe and minicomputer environments, using command oriented text input to control the system computations. As computationally powerful and graphically sophisticated scientific workstations became available, the National Weather Service (NWS) recognized that a graphically based, interactive environment would enhance the accuracy and timeliness of NWS river and flood forecasts. Consequently, the operational forecasting portion of the NWSRFS has been ported to run under a UNIX operating system, with X windows as the display environment on a system of networked scientific workstations. In addition, the NWSRFS Interactive Forecast Program was developed to provide a graphical user interface to allow the forecaster to control NWSRFS program flow and to make adjustments to forecasts as necessary. The potential market for water resources forecasting is immense and largely untapped. Any private company able to market the river forecasting technologies currently developed by the NWS Office of Hydrology could provide benefits to many information users and profit from providing these services.

  19. An intelligent agent for optimal river-reservoir system management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieker, Jeffrey D.; Labadie, John W.

    2012-09-01

    A generalized software package is presented for developing an intelligent agent for stochastic optimization of complex river-reservoir system management and operations. Reinforcement learning is an approach to artificial intelligence for developing a decision-making agent that learns the best operational policies without the need for explicit probabilistic models of hydrologic system behavior. The agent learns these strategies experientially in a Markov decision process through observational interaction with the environment and simulation of the river-reservoir system using well-calibrated models. The graphical user interface for the reinforcement learning process controller includes numerous learning method options and dynamic displays for visualizing the adaptive behavior of the agent. As a case study, the generalized reinforcement learning software is applied to developing an intelligent agent for optimal management of water stored in the Truckee river-reservoir system of California and Nevada for the purpose of streamflow augmentation for water quality enhancement. The intelligent agent successfully learns long-term reservoir operational policies that specifically focus on mitigating water temperature extremes during persistent drought periods that jeopardize the survival of threatened and endangered fish species.

  20. Review on ethnomedicinal, phytochemical and pharmacological evidence of Himalayan anticancer plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Akash; Mussarat, Sakina; Adnan, Muhammad

    2015-04-22

    Himalayan plants have 6500 years old history of being using as traditional medicines. Inhabitants of the region use indigenous knowledge for the preparation of various herbal recipes in order to treat different kinds of cancer. The aim of this review is to provide ethnopharmacological, phytochemical and toxicological overview of Himalayan medicinal plants having anticancer potential. This will provide a baseline for the discovery of new anticancer drugs. In total, 155 articles (mostly published) were reviewed by using online search engines like PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and floras of different Himalayan countries. Sixty four anticancer medicinal plants were documented belonging to 59 genera and 37 families. Majority of 42 plants were reported from India followed by 17 from Pakistan. Traditional healers in the region mostly prepare ethnomedicinal recipes from leaves (32% plants) and roots (30% plants) in the form of decoction. Thirty plants had reported anticancer related pharmacological and phytochemical activities. Of these, 27 plants were tested in-vitro on cellular models while 16 plants for in-vivo activities. Methanolic, ethanolic and ethylacetate extracts of plants have shown excellent cytotoxic activities against breast, stomach and blood cancers' cell lines. Total 14 active secondary metabolites including phenolic compounds, glycosides, terpenoids, lignans and alkynes from the studied plants were reported active against different cancer cell lines. Plants such as Bergenia ciliata, Argemone mexicana, Capsella bursa-pastoris and Centella asiatica had toxic effects on the living systems at higher doses when studied in-vivo. Certain Himalayan medicinal plants present therapeutic properties against different types of cancer. However, not all of the plants have been fully analysed for in vitro, in vivo and toxicological activities, and isolation of secondary metabolites. Further ethnomedicinal studies would help in identifying potential

  1. Evolution of biomolecular loadings along a major river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freymond, Chantal V.; Kündig, Nicole; Stark, Courcelle; Peterse, Francien; Buggle, Björn; Lupker, Maarten; Plötze, Michael; Blattmann, Thomas M.; Filip, Florin; Giosan, Liviu; Eglinton, Timothy I.

    2018-02-01

    Understanding the transport history and fate of organic carbon (OC) within river systems is crucial in order to constrain the dynamics and significance of land-ocean interactions as a component of the global carbon cycle. Fluvial export and burial of terrestrial OC in marine sediments influences atmospheric CO2 over a range of timescales, while river-dominated sedimentary sequences can provide valuable archives of paleoenvironmental information. While there is abundant evidence that the association of organic matter (OM) with minerals exerts an important influence on its stability as well as hydrodynamic behavior in aquatic systems, there is a paucity of information on where such associations form and how they evolve during fluvial transport. Here, we track total organic carbon (TOC) and terrestrial biomarker concentrations (plant wax-derived long-chain fatty acids (FA), branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) and lignin-derived phenols) in sediments collected along the entire course of the Danube River system in the context of sedimentological parameters. Mineral-specific surface area-normalized biomarker and TOC concentrations show a systematic decrease from the upper to the lower Danube basin. Changes in OM loading of the available mineral phase correspond to a net decrease of 70-80% of different biomolecular components. Ranges for biomarker loadings on Danube River sediments, corresponding to 0.4-1.5 μgFA/m2 for long-chain (n-C24-32) fatty acids and 17-71 ngbrGDGT/m2 for brGDGTs, are proposed as a benchmark for comparison with other systems. We propose that normalizing TOC as well as biomarker concentrations to mineral surface area provides valuable quantitative constraints on OM dynamics and organo-mineral interactions during fluvial transport from terrigenous source to oceanic sink.

  2. Global analysis of river systems: from Earth system controls to Anthropocene syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meybeck, Michel

    2003-01-01

    Continental aquatic systems from rivers to the coastal zone are considered within two perspectives: (i) as a major link between the atmosphere, pedosphere, biosphere and oceans within the Earth system with its Holocene dynamics, and (ii) as water and aquatic biota resources progressively used and transformed by humans. Human pressures have now reached a state where the continental aquatic systems can no longer be considered as being controlled by only Earth system processes, thus defining a new era, the Anthropocene. Riverine changes, now observed at the global scale, are described through a first set of syndromes (flood regulation, fragmentation, sediment imbalance, neo-arheism, salinization, chemical contamination, acidification, eutrophication and microbial contamination) with their related causes and symptoms. These syndromes have direct influences on water uses, either positive or negative. They also modify some Earth system key functions such as sediment, water, nutrient and carbon balances, greenhouse gas emissions and aquatic biodiversity. Evolution of river syndromes over the past 2000 years is complex: it depends upon the stages of regional human development and on natural conditions, as illustrated here for the chemical contamination syndrome. River damming, eutrophication and generalized decrease of river flow due to irrigation are some of the other global features of river changes. Future management of river systems should also consider these long-term impacts on the Earth system. PMID:14728790

  3. A Computed River Flow-Based Turbine Controller on a Programmable Logic Controller for Run-Off River Hydroelectric Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razali Jidin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The main feature of a run-off river hydroelectric system is a small size intake pond that overspills when river flow is more than turbines’ intake. As river flow fluctuates, a large proportion of the potential energy is wasted due to the spillages which can occur when turbines are operated manually. Manual operation is often adopted due to unreliability of water level-based controllers at many remote and unmanned run-off river hydropower plants. In order to overcome these issues, this paper proposes a novel method by developing a controller that derives turbine output set points from computed mass flow rate of rivers that feed the hydroelectric system. The computed flow is derived by summation of pond volume difference with numerical integration of both turbine discharge flows and spillages. This approach of estimating river flow allows the use of existing sensors rather than requiring the installation of new ones. All computations, including the numerical integration, have been realized as ladder logics on a programmable logic controller. The implemented controller manages the dynamic changes in the flow rate of the river better than the old point-level based controller, with the aid of a newly installed water level sensor. The computed mass flow rate of the river also allows the controller to straightforwardly determine the number of turbines to be in service with considerations of turbine efficiencies and auxiliary power conservation.

  4. Life History Attributes of Asian Carps in the Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garvey, James E; DeGrandchamp, Kelly L; Williamson, Christopher J

    2007-01-01

    The Upper Mississippi River (UMR) system starts at the confluence of the Ohio River at Cairo, Illinois, and serves as a conduit for many aquatic invasive species to enter the waterways of the central and northern interior...

  5. Studies on calcium, magnesium and sulphate in the Mandovi and Zuari river system (Goa)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SenGupta, R.; Naik, S.

    Distribution of calcium, magnesium and sulphate have been examined in the tide-dominated Mandovi and Zuari river systems. Calcium and magnesium appear to take some part in the bio-geochemical cycles of the rivers and behave as semi...

  6. Impacts of Urbanization on River Systems in the Taihu Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Deng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available River systems are valuable to human beings; meanwhile, they are intensively influenced by human activities, especially urbanization. In this study, based on the data derived from topographic maps and remote sensing images, the temporal and spatial change of river system geomorphology in the Taihu Region over the past 50 years was investigated in conjunction with urbanization. Results demonstrated that the number of river systems decreased drastically, that the morphology of river channels changed into wider and straighter and that the structure of river network tended to simplify in the Taihu Region in recent 50 years. Meanwhile, the changes in river density, the water surface ratio, the river development coefficient, the main river area length ratio and the box dimension in the rapid urbanization period were much greater than those in the slow urbanization period, but the decrease of river sinuosity in the slow urbanization period was more intense. Moreover, the spatial differences of the changes in the river development coefficient were the largest, and the changes in the river indicators in the low-urbanized regions were the most intense. In addition, the changes in the water surface ratio had the closest correlation with urbanization, and the relational degrees between population urbanization and the changes in river systems were the largest. The results can provide a reliable basis to determine reasonable management and conservation strategies of river systems in the Taihu Region.

  7. Optimum Water Quality Monitoring Network Design for Bidirectional River Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaohui; Yue, Yong; Wong, Prudence W H; Zhang, Yixin; Tan, Jianhong

    2018-01-24

    Affected by regular tides, bidirectional water flows play a crucial role in surface river systems. Using optimization theory to design a water quality monitoring network can reduce the redundant monitoring nodes as well as save the costs for building and running a monitoring network. A novel algorithm is proposed to design an optimum water quality monitoring network for tidal rivers with bidirectional water flows. Two optimization objectives of minimum pollution detection time and maximum pollution detection probability are used in our optimization algorithm. We modify the Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO) algorithm and develop new fitness functions to calculate pollution detection time and pollution detection probability in a discrete manner. In addition, the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is used to simulate hydraulic characteristics and pollution events based on a hypothetical river system studied in the literature. Experimental results show that our algorithm can obtain a better Pareto frontier. The influence of bidirectional water flows to the network design is also identified, which has not been studied in the literature. Besides that, we also find that the probability of bidirectional water flows has no effect on the optimum monitoring network design but slightly changes the mean pollution detection time.

  8. Optimum Water Quality Monitoring Network Design for Bidirectional River Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Affected by regular tides, bidirectional water flows play a crucial role in surface river systems. Using optimization theory to design a water quality monitoring network can reduce the redundant monitoring nodes as well as save the costs for building and running a monitoring network. A novel algorithm is proposed to design an optimum water quality monitoring network for tidal rivers with bidirectional water flows. Two optimization objectives of minimum pollution detection time and maximum pollution detection probability are used in our optimization algorithm. We modify the Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO algorithm and develop new fitness functions to calculate pollution detection time and pollution detection probability in a discrete manner. In addition, the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM is used to simulate hydraulic characteristics and pollution events based on a hypothetical river system studied in the literature. Experimental results show that our algorithm can obtain a better Pareto frontier. The influence of bidirectional water flows to the network design is also identified, which has not been studied in the literature. Besides that, we also find that the probability of bidirectional water flows has no effect on the optimum monitoring network design but slightly changes the mean pollution detection time.

  9. Paddy crop yield estimation in Kashmir Himalayan rice bowl using remote sensing and simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslim, Mohammad; Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad; Rather, A Q

    2015-06-01

    The Kashmir Himalayan region of India is expected to be highly prone to the change in agricultural land use because of its geo-ecological fragility, strategic location vis-à-vis the Himalayan landscape, its trans-boundary river basins, and inherent socio-economic instabilities. Food security and sustainability of the region are thus greatly challenged by these impacts. The effect of future climate change, increased competition for land and water, labor from non-agricultural sectors, and increasing population adds to this complex problem. In current study, paddy rice yield at regional level was estimated using GIS-based environment policy integrated climate (GEPIC) model. The general approach of current study involved combining regional level crop database, regional soil data base, farm management data, and climatic data outputs with GEPIC model. The simulated yield showed that estimated production to be 4305.55 kg/ha (43.05 q h(-1)). The crop varieties like Jhelum, K-39, Chenab, China 1039, China-1007, and Shalimar rice-1 grown in plains recorded average yield of 4783.3 kg/ha (47.83 q ha(-1)). Meanwhile, high altitude areas with varieties like Kohsaar, K-78 (Barkat), and K-332 recorded yield of 4102.2 kg/ha (41.02 q ha(-1)). The observed and simulated yield showed a good match with R (2) = 0.95, RMSE = 132.24 kg/ha, respectively.

  10. Siliguri: A Geopolitical Manoeuvre Corridor in the Eastern Himalayan Region for China and India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Yaser Malik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Siliguri Corridor being part of Indian West Bengal is a diplomatic manoeuvre place located between Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, India’s Seven Sister States and Chumbi Hills in the Eastern Himalayan Region. Being located at the crossroads and centrally situated between all the neighbouring countries the landlocked Siliguri has an especially economic and political value for the regional countries. The corridor being in close proximity to China and India’s Seven Sister States has added to the diplomatic mosaic of the Eastern Himalayan Region. The region consists of beautiful landscape, mountains and rivers which not only add to topographical diversity but also demographic mixture. Despite its geopolitical significance the area could not advance for not only being a northeastern border region but also for being a gateway to the Seven Sister States. Peripheral development of Siliguri Corridor is one of the reasons for illegal practices like smuggling and terrorism. In year 2002 Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh discussed a proposal to form a free trade corridor to simplify the goods transportation through Siliguri Corridor but no such pact could be concluded that would have avoided the activities like smuggling and terrorism mainly through economic and diplomatic ventures.

  11. Sediment budget in a Himalayan Valley (Middle Kali Gandaki, Nepal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, M.; Cossart, E.

    2012-04-01

    Active mountains supply the largest sediment fluxes experienced on earth. At mountain range scale, sediment budgets are controlled by rock uplift and climate, hence by a wide range of erosion processes (detachment, transport and deposition), all operating within drainage basin units, with time and spatial patterns that indeed are quite complex at local scale. In the Himalayas, the sediment cascade is particularly efficient, as favoured by high, glaciated peaks, together with narrow valleys and steep hillslopes, in a monsoon-contrasted, climatic context. We focus on the Kali Gandaki valley, along the gorge section across Higher Himalaya (e.g. from Jomosom down to Tatopani). Along this reach, we identify sediment sources, sediment stores and sinks, and specifically consider hillslope interactions with valley floor at short and longer time scales, and their impact on sediment budgets and fluxes. We present a detailed sediment budget, constrained by available dates and/or relative chronology. Studied sites include rock-avalanches (Jomosom, Dhumpu), Pairothapla-Talbagar and Tatopani landslides, Ghatte khola debris fan, and terraces systems preserved at confluence sites along the lower slopes of the valley. On the basis of geomorphic surveys and mapping, and thanks to DEM facilities, we estimate the volume of each sedimentary unit, including lacustrine sediments trapped upstream of landslide and/or glacial dams. Debris volume eroded and/or deposited during the last decades is also calculated. Alternation of alluviation events and incision stages are then reconstructed, and their relation with sismo-tectonic and/or climatic triggering events suggested, according to the time scale considered. From our results it appears that if large landslides contribute significantly to the denudation history of active mountain range, more frequent, medium to small scales landslides are in fact of primary concern for Himalayan population. This conclusion suggests that in this very

  12. Sinks and sources: Assessing microplastic abundance in river sediment and deposit feeders in an Austral temperate urban river system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, Holly A; Dalu, Tatenda; Wasserman, Ryan J

    2018-01-15

    Microplastics are important novel pollutants in freshwaters but their behaviour in river sediments is poorly understood due to the large amounts of coloured dissolved organic matter that impede sample processing. The present study aimed to 1.) estimate the microplastic pollution dynamics in an urban river system experiencing temporal differences in river flow, and 2.) investigate the potential use of chironomids as indicators of microplastic pollution levels in degraded freshwater environments. Microplastic levels were estimated from sediment and Chironomus spp. larvae collected from various sites along the Bloukrans River system, in the Eastern Cape South Africa during the summer and winter season. River flow, water depth, channel width, substrate embeddedness and sediment organic matter were simultaneously collected from each site. The winter season was characterised by elevated microplastic abundances, likely as a result of lower energy and increased sediment deposition associated with reduced river flow. In addition, results showed that particle distribution may be governed by various other external factors, such as substrate type and sediment organic matter. The study further highlighted that deposit feeders associated with the benthic river habitats, namely Chironomus spp. ingest microplastics and that the seasonal differences in sediment microplastic dynamics were reflected in chironomid microplastic abundance. There was a positive, though weakly significant relationship between deposit feeders and sediment suggesting that deposit feeders such as Chironomus spp. larvae could serve as an important indicator of microplastic loads within freshwater ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Differential behaviour of a Lesser Himalayan watershed in extreme ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    21

    2011-06-05

    Jun 5, 2011 ... dissolved to suspended solid (C/P ratio) was consistently low (<1) ... Keywords: Tons river basin, sediment flux, denudation rate, small hydro-power plants,. 23 ..... Remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) ...

  14. An integrated multiscale river basin observing system in the Heihe River Basin, northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Liu, S.; Xiao, Q.; Ma, M.; Jin, R.; Che, T.

    2015-12-01

    Using the watershed as the unit to establish an integrated watershed observing system has been an important trend in integrated eco-hydrologic studies in the past ten years. Thus far, a relatively comprehensive watershed observing system has been established in the Heihe River Basin, northwest China. In addition, two comprehensive remote sensing hydrology experiments have been conducted sequentially in the Heihe River Basin, including the Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (WATER) (2007-2010) and the Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER) (2012-2015). Among these two experiments, an important result of WATER has been the generation of some multi-scale, high-quality comprehensive datasets, which have greatly supported the development, improvement and validation of a series of ecological, hydrological and quantitative remote-sensing models. The goal of a breakthrough for solving the "data bottleneck" problem has been achieved. HiWATER was initiated in 2012. This project has established a world-class hydrological and meteorological observation network, a flux measurement matrix and an eco-hydrological wireless sensor network. A set of super high-resolution airborne remote-sensing data has also been obtained. In addition, there has been important progress with regard to the scaling research. Furthermore, the automatic acquisition, transmission, quality control and remote control of the observational data has been realized through the use of wireless sensor network technology. The observation and information systems have been highly integrated, which will provide a solid foundation for establishing a research platform that integrates observation, data management, model simulation, scenario analysis and decision-making support to foster 21st-century watershed science in China.

  15. Glacier shrinkage drives changes in river system hydrology and ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, D. M.; Khamis, K.; Blaen, P. J.; Hainie, S.; Mellor, C.; Brown, L. E.; Milner, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    High climatic sensitivity and low anthropogenic influence make glacierized river basins important environments for examining hydrological and ecological response to global change. This paper synthesises findings from previous and ongoing research in glacierized Alpine and Arctic river basins (located in the French Pyrenees, New Zealand, Swedish Lapland and Svalbard), which adopts an interdisciplinary approach to investigate the climate-cryosphere-hydrology-ecology cascade. Data are used to advance hypotheses concerning the consequences of climate change/ variability on glacier river system hydrology and ecology. Aquatic ecosystems in high latitude and altitude environments are influenced strongly by cryospheric and hydrological processes due to links between atmospheric forcing, snowpack/ glacier mass-balance, river runoff, physico-chemistry and biota. In the current phase of global warming, many glaciers are retreating. Using downscaled regional climate projections as inputs to a distributed hydrological model for a study basin in the French Pyrenees (i.e. an environment at the contemporary limit of valley glaciation), we show how shrinking snow and ice-masses may alter space-time dynamics in basin runoff. Notably, the timing of peak snow- and ice-melt may shift; and the proportion of stream flow sourced from rainfall-runoff (cf. meltwater) may increase. Across our range of Alpine and Arctic study basins, we quantify observed links between relative water source contributions (% meltwater : % groundwater), physico-chemical habitat (e.g. water temperature, electrical conductivity, suspended sediment and channel stability) and benthic communities. At the site scale, results point towards increased community diversity (taxonomic and functional) as meltwater contributions decline and physico-chemical habitat becomes less harsh. However, basin-scale biodiversity may be reduced due to less spatio-temporal heterogeneity in water source contributions and habitats, and the

  16. Diatom community structure along physicochemical gradients in upland river segments of Tamiraparani river system, South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshisundaram Amutha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the diversity and distributional patterns of benthic diatom assemblages in the upland streams of Tamiraparani River system, southern part of Western Ghats of Peninsular India. A total of 168 benthic diatoms representing 16 orders, 32 families, and 47 genera were enumerated. Structuring of diatom community was dependent on the environmental conditions of the respective habitats. Canonical correspondence analysis described both physical habitat quality and water parameter gradient and factors that correlated significantly were substrate type, water temperature, dissolved oxygen and nitrate content. Gomphonema gandhii, Cocconeis placentula and Navicula cuspidate were strongly associated with sites with embedded substrates and clear water. Diatoms could be effective in assessing physical habitat alterations in streams.

  17. Andean contributions to the biogeochemistry of the amazon river system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1995-01-01

    Atlántico. Un nuevo programa colaborativo de investigación se inició en 1994 con el propósito de caracterizar de una manera más completa la biogeoquímica de los ríos andinos. Contributions from Andean rivers may play a significant role in determining the basin-wide biogeochemistry integrated into the mainstem Amazon River of Brazil. Concentration data for organic C, NO3-, and PO43- in Andean rivers are highly variable and reveal no clear spatial or altitudinal patterns. Concentrations measured in Andean rivers are similar to those reported in the mainstem Amazon river and its major tributaries. Explanations of processes which alter Andean-derived particulates and solutes as they exit the Cordillera are only speculative at this time, but their net effect is to diminish Andean signals through decomposition and dilution by lowland inputs. The 13C of particulate and dissolved organic matter in the mainstem Amazon provides evidence that some fraction of Andean derived material persists within the river system, ultimately to be discharged to the Atlantic Ocean. In 1994 a new collaborative research program was launched to further characterize the biogeochemistry of Andean rivers.

  18. Environmental state of aquatic systems in the Selenga River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinkareva, Galina; Lychagin, Mikhail

    2013-04-01

    The transboundary river system of Selenga is the biggest tributary of Lake Baikal (about 50 % of the total inflow) which is the largest freshwater reservoir in the world. It originates in the mountainous part of Mongolia and then drains into Russia. There are numerous industries and agricultural activities within the Selenga drainage basin that affect the environmental state of the river aquatic system. The main source of industrial waste in the Republic of Buryatia (Russia) is mining and in Mongolia it is mainly gold mining. Our study aimed to determine the present pollutant levels and main features of their spatial distribution in water, suspended matter, bottom sediments and water plants in the Selenga basin. The results are based on materials of the 2011 (July-August) field campaign carried out both in Russian and Mongolian part of the basin. The study revealed rather high levels of dissolved Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Cu and Mo in the Selenga River water which often are higher than maximum permissible concentrations for water fishery in Russia. In Russian part of the basin most contrast distribution is found for W and Mo, which is caused by mineral deposits in this area. The study showed that Mo and Zn migrate mainly in dissolved form, since more than 70% of Fe, Al, and Mn are bound to the suspended solids. Suspended sediments in general are enriched by As, Cd and Pb in relation to the lithosphere averages. Compared to the background values rather high contents of Mo, Cd, and Mn were found in suspended matter of Selenga lower Ulan-Ude town. Transboundary transport of heavy metals from Mongolia is going both in dissolved and suspended forms. From Mongolia in diluted form Selenga brings a significant amount of Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Mo. Suspended solids are slightly enriched with Pb, Cu, and Mn, in higher concentration - Mo. The study of the Selenga River delta allowed determining biogeochemical specialization of the region: aquatic plants accumulate Mn, Fe, Cu, Cd, and to

  19. Fluvial River Regime in Disturbed River Systems: A Case Study of Evolution of the Middle Yangtze River in Post-TGD (Three Gorges Dam), China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, G.; Lu, J; Visser, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    The fluvial river is a kind of open system that can interact with its outside environments and give response to disturbance from outside on the earth. It can adjust itself to the disturbances outside the system and reflects new characteristics in the process of reaching a new equilibrium. The TGD

  20. Fair Water Allocation in Complex International River Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, L.; Bernauer, T.

    2011-12-01

    Conflicts over water allocation in international freshwater systems are recurring phenomena, and climatic changes are likely to make existing problems worse in many parts of the world. Science-based proposals for water allocation frequently focus on allocating water to the economically most efficient purposes. In reality, allocation outcomes are often shaped by political and economic power, rather than considerations of economic efficiency. This paper develops a new approach to fair international water allocation in complex international freshwater systems. This approach covers both needs-based criteria - if acute water scarcity is present - and criteria for fair water allocation pertaining to relative gains in water-abundant situations. The usefulness of the approach is illustrated with a case study on the Zambezi River Basin (ZRB). Based on a hydrological model, and scenarios for water availability and demand in the ZRB until 2050, the paper shows how the waters of the ZRB could be allocated in a way that fairly distributes costs and benefits.

  1. Assessment of river quality in a subtropical Austral river system: a combined approach using benthic diatoms and macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhiwatiwa, Tamuka; Dalu, Tatenda; Sithole, Tatenda

    2017-12-01

    River systems constitute areas of high human population densities owing to their favourable conditions for agriculture, water supply and transportation network. Despite human dependence on river systems, anthropogenic activities severely degrade water quality. The main aim of this study was to assess the river health of Ngamo River using diatom and macroinvertebrate community structure based on multivariate analyses and community metrics. Ammonia, pH, salinity, total phosphorus and temperature were found to be significantly different among the study seasons. The diatom and macroinvertebrate taxa richness increased downstream suggesting an improvement in water as we moved away from the pollution point sources. Canonical correspondence analyses identified nutrients (total nitrogen and reactive phosphorus) as important variables structuring diatom and macroinvertebrate community. The community metrics and diversity indices for both bioindicators highlighted that the water quality of the river system was very poor. These findings indicate that both methods can be used for water quality assessments, e.g. sewage and agricultural pollution, and they show high potential for use during water quality monitoring programmes in other regions.

  2. Assessment of river quality in a subtropical Austral river system: a combined approach using benthic diatoms and macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhiwatiwa, Tamuka; Dalu, Tatenda; Sithole, Tatenda

    2017-07-01

    River systems constitute areas of high human population densities owing to their favourable conditions for agriculture, water supply and transportation network. Despite human dependence on river systems, anthropogenic activities severely degrade water quality. The main aim of this study was to assess the river health of Ngamo River using diatom and macroinvertebrate community structure based on multivariate analyses and community metrics. Ammonia, pH, salinity, total phosphorus and temperature were found to be significantly different among the study seasons. The diatom and macroinvertebrate taxa richness increased downstream suggesting an improvement in water as we moved away from the pollution point sources. Canonical correspondence analyses identified nutrients (total nitrogen and reactive phosphorus) as important variables structuring diatom and macroinvertebrate community. The community metrics and diversity indices for both bioindicators highlighted that the water quality of the river system was very poor. These findings indicate that both methods can be used for water quality assessments, e.g. sewage and agricultural pollution, and they show high potential for use during water quality monitoring programmes in other regions.

  3. Trading places: new economic geographies across Himalayan borderlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, T.

    2013-01-01

    Major state-led infrastructural development projects in the Himalayan region have been underway for several years, such as the building of highways connecting Nepal and Tibet, the widening of roads throughout North Bengal, Sikkim, and Tibet, and the planning of extensions to the Beijing-Lhasa

  4. The hymenopterous pollinators of Himalayan foot hills of Pakistan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were undertaken to explore the diversity of hymenopterans pollinators from a diverse agroecosystems of Himalayan foot hills comprising the orchards of pome and stone fruits at different altitudes from 2200 to 3000 m from sea level. Field experiments were conducted on seven commercial fruit orchards at five ...

  5. First record of Himalayan Griffon vulture Gyps himalyensis in Chhep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First record of Himalayan Griffon vulture Gyps himalyensis in Chhep, Preah Vihear, northern Cambodia. Martin Gilbert, Song Chansocheat, Nadia Sureda. Abstract. No Abstract. Vulture News Vol. 55, 2006: 4-5. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  6. Variable exhumation rates and variable displacement rates: Documenting recent slowing of Himalayan shortening in western Bhutan

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuarrie, Nadine; Tobgay, Tobgay; Long, Sean P.; Reiners, Peter W.; Cosca, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    We link exhumational variability in space and time to the evolving geometry of the Himalayan fold–thrust belt in western Bhutan. By combining new and published geochronologic and thermochronologic data we document the burial age, peak temperatures and complete cooling history from 20 Ma to the present over an across-strike distance of ∼125 km. These integrated cooling curves highlight windows of fast exhumation that vary spatially and temporally. We propose that pulses of fast exhumation are a result of structures that facilitate the vertical motion of material, illustrated in sequentially-restored cross sections. Due to a range of permissible geometries at depth, we explore and evaluate the impact of geometry on kinematics and rates of deformation. The linked cooling history and cross sections provide estimates of both magnitude and timing of thrust sheet displacement and highlight temporal variability in potential shortening rates. Structural and chronologic data illustrate a general north to south progression of Himalayan deformation, with emplacement of the Main Central thrust (MCT), Paro thrust and Shumar thrust by 12 to no later than 9 Ma. Two different geometries and kinematic scenarios for the Lesser Himalayan duplex are proposed. A north to south propagating duplex system requires that the southern portion of that system, south of the MCT, deformed and cooled by 9 Ma, leaving only the southernmost thrust sheets, including the Main Boundary and Main Frontal thrusts, to deform between 9 and 0 Ma. This limited post 9 Ma shortening would necessitate a marked slowdown in convergence accommodated on the Main Himalayan thrust. A two-tiered duplex system, which allows for the Paro window duplex and the southern Baxa duplex to form simultaneously, permits duplex formation and accompanying exhumation until 6 Ma. Limited cooling from ∼200 °C to the surface post 6 Ma suggests either a decrease in shortening rates from 6 to 0 Ma or that duplex formation and

  7. Variable exhumation rates and variable displacement rates: Documenting recent slowing of Himalayan shortening in western Bhutan

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuarrie, Nadine; Tobgay, Tobgay; Long, Sean P.; Reiners, Peter W.; Cosca, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    We link exhumational variability in space and time to the evolving geometry of the Himalayan fold-thrust belt in western Bhutan. By combining new and published geochronologic and thermochronologic data we document the burial age, peak temperatures and complete cooling history from 20 Ma to the present over an across-strike distance of ∼125 km. These integrated cooling curves highlight windows of fast exhumation that vary spatially and temporally. We propose that pulses of fast exhumation are a result of structures that facilitate the vertical motion of material, illustrated in sequentially-restored cross sections. Due to a range of permissible geometries at depth, we explore and evaluate the impact of geometry on kinematics and rates of deformation. The linked cooling history and cross sections provide estimates of both magnitude and timing of thrust sheet displacement and highlight temporal variability in potential shortening rates. Structural and chronologic data illustrate a general north to south progression of Himalayan deformation, with emplacement of the Main Central thrust (MCT), Paro thrust and Shumar thrust by 12 to no later than 9 Ma. Two different geometries and kinematic scenarios for the Lesser Himalayan duplex are proposed. A north to south propagating duplex system requires that the southern portion of that system, south of the MCT, deformed and cooled by 9 Ma, leaving only the southernmost thrust sheets, including the Main Boundary and Main Frontal thrusts, to deform between 9 and 0 Ma. This limited post 9 Ma shortening would necessitate a marked slowdown in convergence accommodated on the Main Himalayan thrust. A two-tiered duplex system, which allows for the Paro window duplex and the southern Baxa duplex to form simultaneously, permits duplex formation and accompanying exhumation until 6 Ma. Limited cooling from ∼200 °C to the surface post 6 Ma suggests either a decrease in shortening rates from 6 to 0 Ma or that duplex formation and

  8. A brief history and summary of the effects of river engineering and dams on the Mississippi River system and delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jason S.; Wilson, Richard C.; Green, W. Reed

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Forecast Mekong project is providing technical assistance and information to aid management decisions and build science capacity of institutions in the Mekong River Basin. A component of this effort is to produce a synthesis of the effects of dams and other engineering structures on large-river hydrology, sediment transport, geomorphology, ecology, water quality, and deltaic systems. The Mississippi River Basin (MRB) of the United States was used as the backdrop and context for this synthesis because it is a continental scale river system with a total annual water discharge proportional to the Mekong River, has been highly engineered over the past two centuries, and the effects of engineering have been widely studied and documented by scientists and engineers. The MRB is controlled and regulated by dams and river-engineering structures. These modifications have resulted in multiple benefits including navigation, flood control, hydropower, bank stabilization, and recreation. Dams and other river-engineering structures in the MRB have afforded the United States substantial socioeconomic benefits; however, these benefits also have transformed the hydrologic, sediment transport, geomorphic, water-quality, and ecologic characteristics of the river and its delta. Large dams on the middle Missouri River have substantially reduced the magnitude of peak floods, increased base discharges, and reduced the overall variability of intraannual discharges. The extensive system of levees and wing dikes throughout the MRB, although providing protection from intermediate magnitude floods, have reduced overall channel capacity and increased flood stage by up to 4 meters for higher magnitude floods. Prior to major river engineering, the estimated average annual sediment yield of the Mississippi River Basin was approximately 400 million metric tons. The construction of large main-channel reservoirs on the Missouri and Arkansas Rivers, sedimentation in dike

  9. River Maintenance Management System Using Three-Dimensional UAV Data in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, S.; Kawai, Y.

    2016-10-01

    River administration facilities such as levees and river walls play a major role in preventing flooding due to heavy rain. The forms of such facilities must be constantly monitored for alteration due to rain and running water, and limited human resources and budgets make it necessary to efficiently maintain river administration facilities. During maintenance, inspection results are commonly recorded on paper documents. Continuous inspection and repair using information systems are an on-going challenge. This study proposes a maintenance management system for river facilities that uses three-dimensional data to solve these problems and make operation and maintenance more efficient. The system uses three-dimensional data to visualize river facility deformation and its process, and it has functions that visualize information about river management at any point in the three-dimensional data. The threedimensional data is generated by photogrammetry using a camera on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle.

  10. Application of artificial neural networks in hydrological modeling: A case study of runoff simulation of a Himalayan glacier basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, A. M.; Narain, A.; Pandey, P. C.

    1994-01-01

    The simulation of runoff from a Himalayan Glacier basin using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is presented. The performance of the ANN model is found to be superior to the Energy Balance Model and the Multiple Regression model. The RMS Error is used as the figure of merit for judging the performance of the three models, and the RMS Error for the ANN model is the latest of the three models. The ANN is faster in learning and exhibits excellent system generalization characteristics.

  11. Advancement of Global-scale River Hydrodynamics Modelling and Its Potential Applications to Earth System Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, D.

    2015-12-01

    Global river routine models have been developed for representing freshwater discharge from land to ocean in Earth System Models. At the beginning, global river models had simulated river discharge along a prescribed river network map by using a linear-reservoir assumption. Recently, in parallel with advancement of remote sensing and computational powers, many advanced global river models have started to represent floodplain inundation assuming sub-grid floodplain topography. Some of them further pursue physically-appropriate representation of river and floodplain dynamics, and succeeded to utilize "hydrodynamic flow equations" to realistically simulate channel/floodplain and upstream/downstream interactions. State-of-the-art global river hydrodynamic models can well reproduce flood stage (e.g. inundated areas and water levels) in addition to river discharge. Flood stage simulation by global river models can be potentially coupled with land surface processes in Earth System Models. For example, evaporation from inundated water area is not negligible for land-atmosphere interactions in arid areas (such as the Niger River). Surface water level and ground water level are correlated each other in flat topography, and this interaction could dominate wetting and drying of many small lakes in flatland and could also affect biogeochemical processes in these lakes. These land/surface water interactions had not been implemented in Earth System Models but they have potential impact on the global climate and carbon cycle. In the AGU presentation, recent advancements of global river hydrodynamic modelling, including super-high resolution river topography datasets, will be introduces. The potential applications of river and surface water modules within Earth System Models will be also discussed.

  12. Pike River Mine Disaster: Systems-Engineering and Organisational Contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk J. Pons

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Pike River mine (PRM, an underground coal mine in New Zealand (NZ, exploded in 2010. This paper analyses the causes of the disaster, with a particular focus on the systems engineering and organisational contributions. Poor systems-engineering contributed via poorly designed ventilation, use of power-electronics underground, and placement of the main ventilation fan underground. Management rushed prematurely into production even though the technology development in the mine was incomplete. Investment in non-productive infrastructure was deprioritised resulting in inadequate ventilation, and the lack of a viable second emergency egress. The risk assessments were deficient, incomplete, or not actioned. Warnings and feedback from staff were ignored. Risk arises as a consequence of the complex interactions between the components of the sociotechnical system. Organisations will need to strengthen the integrity of their risk management processes at engineering, management, and board levels. The systems engineering perspective shows the interacting causality between the engineering challenges (ventilation, mining method, electrical power, project deliverables, management priorities, organisational culture, and workers’ behaviour. Use of the barrier method provides a new way to examine the risk-management strategies of the mine. The breakdowns in organisational safety management systems are explicitly identified.

  13. Modelling eutrophication and microbial risks in peri-urban river systems using discriminant function analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, U; Maheshwari, B; Shrestha, S; Morris, C

    2012-12-01

    The methodology currently available to river managers for assessment of river conditions for eutrophication and microbial risks is often time consuming and costly. There is a need for efficient predictive tools based on easily measured variables for implementing appropriate management strategies and providing advice to local river users on river health and associated risks. Using the Hawkesbury-Nepean River system in New South Wales, Australia as case study, a stepwise discriminant function analysis was employed to develop two predictive models, one for river eutrophication risk and the other for microbial risk. The models are intended for a preliminary assessment of a river reach, particularly to assess the level of risk (high or low) for algal bloom and whether the river water is suitable for primary contact activities such as swimming. The input variables for both models included saturated dissolved oxygen and turbidity, while the eutrophication risk model included temperature as an additional variable. When validated with an independent data set, both models predicted the observed risk category accurately in two out of three instances. Since the models developed in this study use only two or three easy-to-measure variables, their application can help in rapid assessment of river conditions, result in potential cost saving in river monitoring programs and assist in providing timely advice to community and other users for a particular aspect of river use. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Columbia River Hatchery Reform System-Wide Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Dan [Hatchery Scientific Review Group

    2009-04-16

    for Puget Sound/Coastal Washington hatchery programs, followed by the development in 2005 of a suite of analytical tools to support application of the principles (all reports and tools are available at www.hatcheryreform.us). In 2005, Congress directed the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries) to replicate the Puget Sound and Coastal Washington Hatchery Reform Project in the Columbia River Basin. The HSRG was expanded to 14 members to include individuals with specific knowledge about the Columbia River salmon and steelhead populations. This second phase was initially envisioned as a one-year review, with emphasis on the Lower Columbia River hatchery programs. It became clear however, that the Columbia River Basin needed to be viewed as an inter-connected ecosystem in order for the review to be useful. The project scope was subsequently expanded to include the entire Basin, with funding for a second year provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) under the auspices of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's (NPCC) Fish and Wildlife Program. The objective of the HSRG's Columbia River Basin review was to change the focus of the Columbia River hatchery system. In the past, these hatchery programs have been aimed at supplying adequate numbers of fish for harvest as mitigation primarily for hydropower development in the Basin. A new, ecosystem-based approach is founded on the idea that harvest goals are sustainable only if they are compatible with conservation goals. The challenge before the HSRG was to determine whether or not conservation and harvest goals could be met by fishery managers and, if so, how. The HSRG determined that in order to address these twin goals, both hatchery and harvest reforms are necessary. The HSRG approach represents an important change of direction in managing hatcheries in the region. It provides a clear demonstration that current hatchery programs can indeed be redirected to

  15. 1989-91 Aquatic Habitats - Upper Mississippi River System - Open River 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) has created high-resolution land cover/use data sets for the Upper Mississippi River...

  16. Segmentation of the Himalayan megathrust around the Gorkha earthquake (25 April 2015) in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugnier, Jean-Louis; Jouanne, François; Bhattarai, Roshan; Cortes-Aranda, Joaquim; Gajurel, Ananta; Leturmy, Pascale; Robert, Xavier; Upreti, Bishal; Vassallo, Riccardo

    2017-06-01

    We put the 25 April 2015 earthquake of Nepal (Mw 7.9) into its structural geological context in order to specify the role of the segmentation of the Himalayan megathrust. The rupture is mainly located NW of Kathmandu, at a depth of 13-15 km on a flat portion of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT) that dips towards the N-NE by 7-10°. The northern bound of the main rupture corresponds to the transition towards a steeper crustal ramp. This ramp, which is partly coupled during the interseismic period, is only locally affected by the earthquake. The southern bound of the rupture was near the leading edge of the Lesser Himalaya antiformal duplex and near the frontal footwall ramp of the upper Nawakot duplex. The rupture has been affected by transversal structures: on the western side, the Judi lineament separates the main rupture zone from the nucleation area; on the eastern side, the Gaurishankar lineament separates the 25 April 2015 rupture from the 12 May 2015 (Mw 7.2) rupture. The origin of these lineaments is very complex: they are probably linked to pre-Himalayan faults that extend into the Indian shield beneath the MHT. These inherited faults induce transverse warping of the upper lithosphere beneath the MHT, control the location of lateral ramps of the thrust system and concentrate the hanging wall deformation at the lateral edge of the ruptures. The MHT is therefore segmented by stable barriers that define at least five patches in Central Nepal. These barriers influence the extent of the earthquake ruptures. For the last two centuries: the 1833 (Mw 7.6) earthquake was rather similar in extent to the 2015 event but its rupture propagated south-westwards from an epicentre located NE of Kathmandu; the patch south of Kathmandu was probably affected by at least three earthquakes of Mw ⩾ 7 that followed the 1833 event a few days later or 33 years (1866 event, Mw 7.2) later; the 1934 earthquake (Mw 8.4) had an epicentre ∼170 km east of Kathmandu, may have propagated

  17. River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morel Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The OECD report “Boosting Resilience through Innovative Risk Governance” examines the efforts of OECD countries to prevent or reduce future disaster impacts, and highlights several key areas where improvements can be made. International collaboration is insufficiently utilised to address shocks that have increasingly global consequences. Institutional design plays a significant role in facilitating or hampering the engagement and investments of governmental and non-governmental stakeholders in disaster risk prevention and mitigation. To inform the design of “better” institutions, the OECD proposes the application of a diagnostic framework that helps governments identify institutional shortcomings and take actions to improve them. The goal of the case study on the Rhone River is to conduct an analysis of the progress, achievements and existing challenges in designing and implementing disaster risk reduction strategies through the Rhone Plan from a comparative perspective across a set of selected countries of this study, like Austria and Switzerland, will inform how to improve institutional frameworks governing risk prevention and mitigation. The case study will be used to identify examples of successful practice taking into account their specific country contexts, and analyse their potential for policy transfer.

  18. The Water Quality of the River Enborne, UK: Observations from High-Frequency Monitoring in a Rural, Lowland River System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Halliday

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a 2-year study of water quality in the River Enborne, a rural river in lowland England. Concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus species and other chemical determinands were monitored both at high-frequency (hourly, using automated in situ instrumentation, and by manual weekly sampling and laboratory analysis. The catchment land use is largely agricultural, with a population density of 123 persons km−2. The river water is largely derived from calcareous groundwater, and there are high nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. Agricultural fertiliser is the dominant source of annual loads of both nitrogen and phosphorus. However, the data show that sewage effluent discharges have a disproportionate effect on the river nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics. At least 38% of the catchment population use septic tank systems, but the effects are hard to quantify as only 6% are officially registered, and the characteristics of the others are unknown. Only 4% of the phosphorus input and 9% of the nitrogen input is exported from the catchment by the river, highlighting the importance of catchment process understanding in predicting nutrient concentrations. High-frequency monitoring will be a key to developing this vital process understanding.

  19. A Hybrid Prediction Model for Monitoring of River Water Quality in the USN System

    OpenAIRE

    Hoontae Kim; Minsoo Kim

    2015-01-01

    River water quality is directly related to the wellness of its neighbors. Because the West Nakdong River has long suffered both from the infiltration of sea water and from the inflow of turbid wastewater, inconsiderate use of this water can cause disastrous result to nearby agricultural areas and neighbors. Busan city in Korea had deployed a pilot USN (ubiquitous sensor network) system that monitors this river and nearby tube wells to properly react to those situations. In this paper, we have...

  20. Flood Hazard Mapping by Using Geographic Information System and Hydraulic Model: Mert River, Samsun, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Vahdettin Demir; Ozgur Kisi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, flood hazard maps were prepared for the Mert River Basin, Samsun, Turkey, by using GIS and Hydrologic Engineering Centers River Analysis System (HEC-RAS). In this river basin, human life losses and a significant amount of property damages were experienced in 2012 flood. The preparation of flood risk maps employed in the study includes the following steps: (1) digitization of topographical data and preparation of digital elevation model using ArcGIS, (2) simulation of flood lows...

  1. Modeling Possible Cooling-Water Intake System Impacts on Ohio River Fish Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, Elgin; Seegert, Greg; Vondruska, Joe; Lohner, Timothy; Lewis, Randy

    2002-01-01

    To assess the possible impacts caused by cooling-water intake system entrainment and impingement losses, populations of six target fish species near power plants on the Ohio River were modeled. A Leslie matrix model was constructed to allow an evaluation of bluegill, freshwater drum, emerald shiner, gizzard shad, sauger, and white bass populations within five river pools. Site-specific information on fish abundance and length-frequency distribution was obtained from long-term Ohio River Ecolo...

  2. Managing water and riparian habitats on the Bill Williams River with scientific benefit for other desert river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Hickey,; Woodrow Fields,; Andrew Hautzinger,; Steven Sesnie,; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Dick Gilbert,

    2016-01-01

    This report details modeling to: 1) codify flow-ecology relationships for riparian species of the Bill Williams River as operational guidance for water managers, 2) test the guidance under different climate scenarios, and 3) revise the operational guidance as needed to address the effects of climate change. Model applications detailed herein include the River Analysis System  (HEC-RAS) and the Ecosystem Functions Model  (HEC-EFM), which was used to generate more than three million estimates of local seedling recruitment areas. Areas were aggregated and compared to determine which scenarios generated the most seedling area per unit volume of water. Scenarios that maximized seedling area were grouped into a family of curves that serve as guidance for water managers. This work has direct connections to water management decision-making and builds upon and adds to the rich history of science-based management for the Bill Williams River, Arizona, USA. 

  3. Climate Change Impacts on Stream Temperatures in the Columbia River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yearsley, J. R.; Crozier, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Columbia River system, a drainage basin of 668,000 sq. km that includes the Columbia and Snake River rivers, supports a large population of anadromous, cold-water fishes. 13 species of these fishes are listed under the Endangered Species Act and are vulnerable to impacts of climate change. Bioenergetics models for these species have been developed by the federal agencies that operate the Federal Columbia River Power System. These models simulate the impacts on anadromous fishes as they move through the power system both upstream as adults and downstream as juveniles. Water temperature simulations required for input to the bioenergetics models were made for two different segments of the Columbia River system; one being the portions from the Canadian border to Bonneville Dam and the Snake River from Brownlee Dam in Idaho to its confluence and the other, the Salmon River basin in Idaho. Simulations were performed for the period 1928-1998 with the semi-Lagrangian stream temperature model, RBM, for existing conditions and for a two 2040 climate scenarios, a cool, dry condition (ECHO_g model) and a warm, wet condition (MIROC_3.2 model). Natural flows were simulated with the variable infiltration capacity model, VIC, and modified for Columbia River project operations using HYDSIM, a hydro system regulation model that simulates month-to-month operation of the Pacific Northwest hydropower system.

  4. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix N: Wildlife.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    The Columbia River System is a vast and complex combination of Federal and non-Federal facilities used for many purposes including power production, irrigation, navigation, flood control, recreation, fish and wildlife habitat and municipal and industrial water supply. Each river use competes for the limited water resources in the Columbia River Basin. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The environmental impact statement (EIS) itself and some of the other appendices present analyses of the alternative approaches to the other three decisions considered as part of the SOR. This document is the product of the Wildlife Work Group, focusing on wildlife impacts but not including fishes. Topics covered include the following: scope and process; existing and affected environment, including specific discussion of 18 projects in the Columbia river basin. Analysis, evaluation, and alternatives are presented for all projects. System wide impacts to wildlife are also included.

  5. Propagation of a cadmium spill through an impounded river system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, G.T.; Joziasse, J.; Bakker, I.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of impoundments (sluices, weirs, etc.) and stream components (tributaries, river branches, associated canals) on the metal content in water and suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the Dutch part of the River Meuse is assessed using the decrease in the cadmium content

  6. Lesser Himalayan sequences in Eastern Himalaya and their deformation: Implications for Paleoproterozoic tectonic activity along the northern margin of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Saha

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Substantial part of the northern margin of Indian plate is subducted beneath the Eurasian plate during the Caenozoic Himalayan orogeny, obscuring older tectonic events in the Lesser Himalaya known to host Proterozoic sedimentary successions and granitic bodies. Tectonostratigraphic units of the Proterozoic Lesser Himalayan sequence (LHS of Eastern Himalaya, namely the Daling Group in Sikkim and the Bomdila Group in Arunachal Pradesh, provide clues to the nature and extent of Proterozoic passive margin sedimentation, their involvement in pre-Himalayan orogeny and implications for supercontinent reconstruction. The Daling Group, consisting of flaggy quartzite, meta-greywacke and metapelite with minor mafic dyke and sill, and the overlying Buxa Formation with stromatolitic carbonate-quartzite-slate, represent shallow marine, passive margin platformal association. Similar lithostratigraphy and broad depositional framework, and available geochronological data from intrusive granites in Eastern Himalaya indicate strikewise continuity of a shallow marine Paleoproterozoic platformal sequence up to Arunachal Pradesh through Bhutan. Multiple fold sets and tectonic foliations in LHS formed during partial or complete closure of the sea/ocean along the northern margin of Paleoproterozoic India. Such deformation fabrics are absent in the upper Palaeozoic–Mesozoic Gondwana formations in the Lesser Himalaya of Darjeeling-Sikkim indicating influence of older orogeny. Kinematic analysis based on microstructure, and garnet composition suggest Paleoproterozoic deformation and metamorphism of LHS to be distinct from those associated with the foreland propagating thrust systems of the Caenozoic Himalayan collisional belt. Two possibilities are argued here: (1 the low greenschist facies domain in the LHS enveloped the amphibolite to granulite facies domains, which were later tectonically severed; (2 the older deformation and metamorphism relate to a Pacific type

  7. Analysis of the ancient river system in Loulan period in Lop Nur region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianfeng; Jia, Peng; Nie, Yueping

    2010-09-01

    The Lop Nur region is located in the east of the Tarim Basin. It has served as the strategic passage and communication hub of the Silk Road since Han Dynasty. During Wei-Jin period, the river system there was well developed and the ancient city of Loulan was bred there. In this study, GIS is used to accomplish automatic extraction of the river course in the Lop Nur region at first using ArcGIS. Then the RCI index is constituted to extract ancient river course from Landsat ETM image with band 3 and band 4. It is concluded that the north river course of Peacock River conformed before the end of the 4th century AD according to the distribution of the entire river course of the Lop Nur region. Later, the Peacock River changed its way to south to Tarim River, and flowed into Lop Nur along the direction paralleling Altun Mountain from west to east. It was the change of the river system that mainly caused the decrease in water supply around ancient city of Loulan before the end of 4th century. The ancient city of Loulan has been gradually ruined in the sand because of the absence of water supply since then.

  8. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix O: Economic and Social Impact.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix O of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System measures the economic and social effects of the alternative system operation strategies and includes both geographic and methodology components. Areas discussed in detail include the following: purpose, scope and process; an economic history of the Columbia River Basin and its use today including the Columbia River and Socio-economic development in the Northwest and Major uses of the River System; Analysis procedures and methodologies including national economic evaluation, the concepts, analysis of assumptions, analysis for specific river uses, water quality, Regional evaluation, analysis, and social impacts; alternatives and impacts including implementation costs, andromous fish, resident fish and wildlife, flood control, irrigation and municipal and industrial water supply, navigation impacts, power, recreation, annual costs, regional economic analysis. Extensive comparison of alternatives is included.

  9. Water quality dynamics in the Boro-Thamalakane-Boteti river system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water quality dynamics in the Boro-Thamalakane-Boteti river system, northern Botswana. ... settlements and associated developments on waterbodies, and lends strong support to management efforts to maintain river water quality to ensure the suitability of the water for various ecosystem uses. Keywords: human activities ...

  10. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix J: Recreation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix J of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System discusses impacts on the recreational activities in the region. Major sections include the following: scope and processes; recreation in the Columbia River Basin today - by type, location, participation, user characteristics, factors which affect usage, and managing agencies; recreation analysis procedures and methodology; and alternatives and their impacts.

  11. Dining dichotomy: aquatic and terrestrial prey capture behavior in the Himalayan newt Tylototriton verrucosus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Egon Heiss; Marie De Vylder

    2016-01-01

    ... physical circumstances between water and air to keep performance in both environments. The Himalayan newt, Tylototriton verrucosus, is mostly terrestrial but becomes aquatic during its short breeding period...

  12. The importance of agricultural lands for Himalayan birds in winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsen, Paul R; Kalyanaraman, Ramnarayan; Ramesh, Krishnamurthy; Wilcove, David S

    2017-04-01

    The impacts of land-use change on biodiversity in the Himalayas are poorly known, notwithstanding widespread deforestation and agricultural intensification in this highly biodiverse region. Although intact primary forests harbor many Himalayan birds during breeding, a large number of bird species use agricultural lands during winter. We assessed how Himalayan bird species richness, abundance, and composition during winter are affected by forest loss stemming from agriculture and grazing. Bird surveys along 12 elevational transects within primary forest, low-intensity agriculture, mixed subsistence agriculture, and intensively grazed pastures in winter revealed that bird species richness and abundance were greatest in low-intensity and mixed agriculture, intermediate in grazed pastures, and lowest in primary forest at both local and landscape scales; over twice as many species and individuals were recorded in low-intensity agriculture than in primary forest. Bird communities in primary forests were distinct from those in all other land-use classes, but only 4 species were unique to primary forests. Low-, medium-, and high-intensity agriculture harbored 32 unique species. Of the species observed in primary forest, 80% had equal or greater abundance in low-intensity agricultural lands, underscoring the value of these lands in retaining diverse community assemblages at high densities in winter. Among disturbed landscapes, bird species richness and abundance declined as land-use intensity increased, especially in high-intensity pastures. Our results suggest that agricultural landscapes are important for most Himalayan bird species in winter. But agricultural intensification-especially increased grazing-will likely result in biodiversity losses. Given that forest reserves alone may inadequately conserve Himalayan birds in winter, comprehensive conservation strategies in the region must go beyond protecting intact primary forests and ensure that low-intensity agricultural

  13. Marketing Plan for Case Company: Himalayan Trade Fair

    OpenAIRE

    Paudel, Prabuddha; Silwal, Keshav

    2017-01-01

    The primary objective of this thesis was to create a marketing plan for a case company, Himalayan trade fair which has been operating in Finland since 2010 and dealing with the varieties of garments which are imported from Nepal and India. The purpose of this thesis was to give development recommendations for the company as at the moment, the company does not have any productive and feasible marketing strategies. Initially, an interview was conducted with the owner of the company, Himalay...

  14. Antecedence of the Yarlung-Siang-Brahmaputra River, eastern Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Karl A.; Huntington, Katharine W.

    2014-07-01

    At the eastern terminus of the Himalayan orogen, distortion and capture of southeast Asian drainage basins reflects regional patterns of crustal strain due to the indentation of the Indian Plate into Eurasia. After flowing eastward >1000 km along the southern margin of Tibet, the Yarlung-Siang-Brahmaputra River turns abruptly southward through the eastern Himalayan syntaxis rapidly exhuming a crustal scale antiform in an impressive >2 km knickpoint. This conspicuous drainage pattern and coincidence of focused fluvial incision and rapid rock exhumation has been explained by the capture of an ancestral, high-elevation Yarlung River by headward erosion of a Himalayan tributary. However, recent observation of Tibetan detritus in Neogene foreland basin units complicates this explanation, requiring a connection from Tibet to the foreland prior to the estimated onset of rapid rock exhumation. We constrain the sedimentary provenance of foreland basin units deposited near the Brahmaputra River confluence in the eastern Himalayan foreland basin using detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology. We interpret the significant presence of Gangdese-age detritus in each foreland basin unit to indicate that connection of the Yarlung-Siang-Brahmaputra River was established during, or prior to foreland deposition in the Early Miocene. Our results indicate that connection of the Yarlung-Siang-Brahmaputra River precedes exhumation of the syntaxis, demonstrating the potential for the progressive coevolution of rock uplift and rapid erosion of the Namche Barwa massif.

  15. HIMALA: Climate Impacts on Glaciers, Snow, and Hydrology in the Himalayan Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly Elizabeth; Ouyang, Hua; Habib, Shahid; Shrestha, Basanta; Shrestha, Mandira; Panday, Prajjwal; Tzortziou, Maria; Policelli, Frederick; Artan, Guleid; Giriraj, Amarnath; hide

    2010-01-01

    Glaciers are the largest reservoir of freshwater on Earth, supporting one third of the world s population. The Himalaya possess one of the largest resources of snow and ice, which act as a freshwater reservoir for more than 1.3 billion people. This article describes a new project called HIMALA, which focuses on utilizing satellite-based products for better understanding of hydrological processes of the river basins of the region. With support from the US Agency for International Development (USAID), the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), together with its partners and member countries, has been working on the application of satellite-based rainfall estimates for flood prediction. The US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) partners are working with ICIMOD to incorporate snowmelt and glacier melt into a widely used hydrological model. Thus, through improved modeling of the contribution of snow and ice meltwater to river flow in the region, the HIMALA project will improve the ability of ICIMOD and its partners to understand the impact of weather and climate on floods, droughts, and other water- and climate-induced natural hazards in the Himalayan region in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, and Pakistan.

  16. An overview of studies of observed climate change in the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Long You

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH hereafter region is characterized by mountainous environments and a variety of regional climatic conditions. High-altitude regions in the HKH have the recent warming amplifications, especially during the global warming hiatus period. The rapid warming cause solid state water (snow, ice, glacier, and permafrost to shrink, leading to increase in meltwater and there have been found more frequent incidences of flash floods, landslides, livestock diseases, and other disasters in the HKH region. Increasing awareness of climate change over the HKH region is reached a consensus. Meanwhile, the HKH region is often referred to as the water towers of Asia as many high-altitude regions store its water in the form of snow and/or glacier, feeding ten major large rivers in Asia. Therefore, the impacts of climate change on water availability in these river basins have huge influences on the livelihood of large number of population, especially in downstream regions. However, the scarcity of basic hydro-meteorological observations particularly in high-altitude regions of HKH limits rigorous analysis of climate change. Most studies used reanalysis data and/or model-reconstructed products to explore the spatial and temporal characteristics of hydro-meteorological processes, especially for extreme events. In this study, we review recent climate change in the HKH region, and the scientific challenges and research recommendations are suggested for this high-altitude area.

  17. Sr isotope tracing of multiple water sources in a complex river system, Noteć River, central Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zieliński, Mateusz, E-mail: mateusz.zielinski@amu.edu.pl [Institute of Geoecology and Geoinformation, Adam Mickiewicz University, Dzięgielowa 27, 61-680 Poznań (Poland); Dopieralska, Jolanta, E-mail: dopieralska@amu.edu.pl [Poznań Science and Technology Park, Adam Mickiewicz University Foundation, Rubież 46, 61-612 Poznań (Poland); Belka, Zdzislaw, E-mail: zbelka@amu.edu.pl [Isotope Laboratory, Adam Mickiewicz University, Dzięgielowa 27, 61-680 Poznań (Poland); Walczak, Aleksandra, E-mail: awalczak@amu.edu.pl [Isotope Laboratory, Adam Mickiewicz University, Dzięgielowa 27, 61-680 Poznań (Poland); Siepak, Marcin, E-mail: siep@amu.edu.pl [Institute of Geology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Maków Polnych 16, 61-606 Poznań (Poland); Jakubowicz, Michal, E-mail: mjakub@amu.edu.pl [Institute of Geoecology and Geoinformation, Adam Mickiewicz University, Dzięgielowa 27, 61-680 Poznań (Poland)

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic impact on surface waters and other elements in the environment was investigated in the Noteć River basin in central Poland. The approach was to trace changes in the Sr isotope composition ({sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr) and concentration in space and time. Systematic sampling of the river water shows a very wide range of {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios, from 0.7089 to 0.7127. This strong variation, however, is restricted to the upper course of the river, whereas the water in the lower course typically shows {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr values around 0.7104–0.7105. Variations in {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr are associated with a wide range of Sr concentrations, from 0.14 to 1.32 mg/L. We find that strong variations in {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr and Sr concentrations can be accounted for by mixing of two end-members: 1) atmospheric waters charged with Sr from the near-surface weathering and wash-out of Quaternary glaciogenic deposits, and 2) waters introduced into the river from an open pit lignite mine. The first reservoir is characterized by a low Sr content and high {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios, whereas mine waters display opposite characteristics. Anthropogenic pollution is also induced by extensive use of fertilizers which constitute the third source of Sr in the environment. The study has an important implication for future archeological studies in the region. It shows that the present-day Sr isotope signatures of river water, flora and fauna cannot be used unambiguously to determine the “baseline” for bioavailable {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr in the past. - Highlights: • Sr isotopes fingerprint water sources and their interactions in a complex river system. • Mine waters and fertilizers are critical anthropogenic additions in the river water. • Limited usage of environmental isotopic data in archeological studies. • Sr budget of the river is dynamic and temporary.

  18. Estimating stream discharge from a Himalayan Glacier using coupled satellite sensor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, S. F.; Stearns, L. A.; van der Veen, C. J.; Haritashya, U. K.; Tarpanelli, A.

    2015-12-01

    The 4th IPCC report highlighted our limited understanding of Himalayan glacier behavior and contribution to the region's hydrology. Seasonal snow and glacier melt in the Himalayas are important sources of water, but estimates greatly differ about the actual contribution of melted glacier ice to stream discharge. A more comprehensive understanding of the contribution of glaciers to stream discharge is needed because streams being fed by glaciers affect the livelihoods of a large part of the world's population. Most of the streams in the Himalayas are unmonitored because in situ measurements are logistically difficult and costly. This necessitates the use of remote sensing platforms to obtain estimates of river discharge for validating hydrological models. In this study, we estimate stream discharge using cost-effective methods via repeat satellite imagery from Landsat-8 and SENTINEL-1A sensors. The methodology is based on previous studies, which show that ratio values from optical satellite bands correlate well with measured stream discharge. While similar, our methodology relies on significantly higher resolution imagery (30 m) and utilizes bands that are in the blue and near-infrared spectrum as opposed to previous studies using 250 m resolution imagery and spectral bands only in the near-infrared. Higher resolution imagery is necessary for streams where the source is a glacier's terminus because the width of the stream is often only 10s of meters. We validate our methodology using two rivers in the state of Kansas, where stream gauges are plentiful. We then apply our method to the Bhagirathi River, in the North-Central Himalayas, which is fed by the Gangotri Glacier and has a well monitored stream gauge. The analysis will later be used to couple river discharge and glacier flow and mass balance through an integrated hydrologic model in the Bhagirathi Basin.

  19. Using place-based curricula to teach about restoring river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalles, D. R.; Collins, B. D.; Updegrave, C.; Montgomery, D. R.; Colonnese, T. G.; Sheikh, A. J.; Haynie, K.; Johnson, V.; Data Sets; Inquiry in Environmental Restoration Studies (Nsf Geo Project 0808076)

    2010-12-01

    Zalles, Daniel R. (Center for Technology in Learning, SRI International) Collins, Brian D., Updegrave, Cynthia, Montgomery, David R., Colonnese, Thomas G., Sheikh, Amir J., (University of Washington) Haynie, Kathleen., Johnson, Vonda. (Haynie Research and Evaluation) A collaborative team from the University of Washington and SRI International is developing place based curricula about complex river systems. This NSF-funded project, known as Data Sets and Inquiry in Environmental Restoration Studies (DIGERS), is producing and piloting curricula on river systems of the Puget Sound over a two-year period at the University of Washington and at a public high school on an Indian reservation. At the high school, DIGERS is developing for a population of Native American students a geoscience curriculum that is embedded in their culture and bio-physical environment. At the UW, the goal is to teach about rivers as integrated physical, biological, and human systems that are products of their unique geological and human histories. The curriculum addresses the challenge of teaching general principles about rivers in a way that develops students’ capability to develop a more sophisticated understanding of the interplay of attributes that characterize a particular river at a point in time. Undergraduate students also learn about the challenges of trying to "restore" local river environments to some past condition, including the pitfall of over-generalizing the efficacy of human interventions from one river system to another. For the high school curriculum, a web site is being produced that integrates modules of general information about the focal scientific phenomena (e.g., rivers and floodplains; how human activities influence rivers; salmon habitat) and data and inquiry-related skills (e.g., how to reconstruct historical change) with place based historical and contemporary information about a specific river environment: the Snohomish River watershed. This information consists

  20. The Integrated System of Phytodepuration of Sile River Natural Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroselli, Andrea; Giannotti, Maurizio; Arcangeletti, Ettore; Palomba, Francesca; Marras, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    The water conservation topic is likely to become increasingly important and alternative water resources employment should be considered as one possible response to the challenges of fresh water demand and environmental protection; among alternative water sources, municipal wastewaters represent one of the most profitable source but in order to reuse them they need adequate and advanced depuration techniques, such as the use of Integrated System of Phytodepuration (ISP). Across a 3-year sampling period, the performances of an ISP within the Natural Park of the Sile River in the Northern Italy were evaluated, analyzing raw wastewater and final effluent characteristics according to the recommendations of European and Italian legislation. The investigated ISP represents one of the first attempts designed in Italy to improve the efficiency of an existing wastewater treatment plant, able to serve 8000 equivalent inhabitants. The results obtained during the 3 years of analysis show that the designed ISP is characterized by a general efficiency value higher than 87% for TSS removal, 79% for TN, 91% for BOD5 and 86% for COD; moreover the ISP final effluent is characterized by a quality not only suited for release into surface waters but also for irrigation.

  1. Low-Temperature Microbial Activity in River Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    White, K

    2001-01-01

    This technical note examines dissolved oxygen (DO) levels and changes in river microbiology during winter, low temperatures, and periods of ice cover with the objective of providing guidance for winter water quality modeling...

  2. Downstream flow top width prediction in a river system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-01-29

    Jan 29, 2013 ... Reliable forecasts of future river flow conditions and early warning is necessary ..... ANFIS is an artificial intelligence technique that has been suc- cessfully used for ..... to 1 and the ACF has a linearly decreasing trend. Thus, to.

  3. 1989 Aquatic Areas - Upper Mississippi River System - Pool 04

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) has created high-resolution land cover/use data sets for the Upper Mississippi River...

  4. Microbiological studies in the Mandovi-Zuari river system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Row, A.

    Total heterotrophic and coliform bacteria were surveyed during October 1977 to September 1978 from 9 stations each along the rivers Mandovi and Zuari and 3 along the coast of Goa. Total heterotrophic population showed wide temporal and spatial...

  5. Description and assessment of the Raft River Lotic system in the vicinity of the Raft River Geothermal Area. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    The Raft River is the only perennial lotic system within this area and one concern has been the impact a spill of geothermal water would have on the biota of the stream. Identification of the structure of these communities is the baseline information which was the objective of this study. The results of the inventory in terms of potential recovery of downstream communities from the impact of geothermal water induced perturbations are discussed.

  6. Contextual Essays on the Monongahela River Navigation System. Locks and Dams 2, 3 and 4 Monongahela River Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    diversification and a healthier economic situation for the western territories. The greatest need in the United States of the early 1800s involved the area...of these early coal reserves, together with diversification of manufacturing, the establishment of small towns, better and more roads, and...clerks; ship’s carpenters; potters; founders; plus others whose livelihoods were tied to the rivers and indirectly to the navigation system and to the

  7. West-directed thrusting south of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis indicates clockwise crustal flow at the indenter corner during the India-Asia collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haproff, Peter J.; Zuza, Andrew V.; Yin, An

    2018-01-01

    Whether continental deformation is accommodated by microplate motion or continuum flow is a central issue regarding the nature of Cenozoic deformation surrounding the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. The microplate model predicts southeastward extrusion of rigid blocks along widely-spaced strike-slip faults, whereas the crustal-flow model requires clockwise crustal rotation along closely-spaced, semi-circular right-slip faults around the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. Although global positioning system (GPS) data support the crustal-flow model, the surface velocity field provides no information on the evolution of the India-Asia orogenic system at million-year scales. In this work, we present the results of systematic geologic mapping across the northernmost segment of the Indo-Burma Ranges, located directly southeast of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. Early research inferred the area to have experienced either right-slip faulting accommodating northward indentation of India or thrusting due to the eastward continuation of the Himalayan orogen in the Cenozoic. Our mapping supports the presence of dip-slip thrust faults, rather than strike-slip faults. Specifically, the northern Indo-Burma Ranges exposes south- to west-directed ductile thrust shear zones in the hinterland and brittle fault zones in the foreland. The trends of ductile stretching lineations within thrust shear zones and thrust sheets rotate clockwise from the northeast direction in the northern part of the study area to the east direction in the southern part of the study area. This clockwise deflection pattern of lineations around the eastern Himalayan syntaxis mirrors the clockwise crustal-rotation pattern as suggested by the crustal-flow model and contemporary GPS velocity field. However, our finding is inconsistent with discrete strike-slip deformation in the area and the microplate model.

  8. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 5a

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  9. A Summary of Fish Data in Six Reaches of The Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutreuter, Steve

    1997-01-01

    The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) completed 1,994 collections of fishes from stratified random and permanently fixed sampling locations in six study reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System during 1993...

  10. Estimated Thickness of Quaternary Sediment in the Wood River Valley aquifer system, South-Central Idaho

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is the estimated thickness of Quaternary sediment of the Wood River Valley aquifer system. This isopach map was constructed by subtracting the estimated...

  11. Aquifer Boundary of the Wood River Valley Aquifer System, South-Central Idaho

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains the boundary of the Wood River Valley aquifer system as modified and expanded from that defined by Skinner and others (2007): It has been...

  12. Population Aspects of Fishes in Geba and Sor Rivers, White Nile System in Ethiopia, East Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simagegnew Melaku; Abebe Getahun; Mulugeta Wakjira

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out to assess the diversity, condition factor, length-weight relationship, and sex ratio of fishes in Geba and Sor Rivers located in Baro-Akobo Basin, White Nile system within Ethiopia...

  13. Game theory and risk-based leveed river system planning with noncooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Rui; Lund, Jay R.; Madani, Kaveh

    2016-01-01

    Optimal risk-based levee designs are usually developed for economic efficiency. However, in river systems with multiple levees, the planning and maintenance of different levees are controlled by different agencies or groups. For example, along many rivers, levees on opposite riverbanks constitute a simple leveed river system with each levee designed and controlled separately. Collaborative planning of the two levees can be economically optimal for the whole system. Independent and self-interested landholders on opposite riversides often are willing to separately determine their individual optimal levee plans, resulting in a less efficient leveed river system from an overall society-wide perspective (the tragedy of commons). We apply game theory to simple leveed river system planning where landholders on each riverside independently determine their optimal risk-based levee plans. Outcomes from noncooperative games are analyzed and compared with the overall economically optimal outcome, which minimizes net flood cost system-wide. The system-wide economically optimal solution generally transfers residual flood risk to the lower-valued side of the river, but is often impractical without compensating for flood risk transfer to improve outcomes for all individuals involved. Such compensation can be determined and implemented with landholders' agreements on collaboration to develop an economically optimal plan. By examining iterative multiple-shot noncooperative games with reversible and irreversible decisions, the costs of myopia for the future in making levee planning decisions show the significance of considering the externalities and evolution path of dynamic water resource problems to improve decision-making.

  14. Impacts of the Indian Rivers Inter-link Project on Sediment Transport to River Deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, S.; Overeem, I.; Syvitski, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The Indian Rivers Inter-link project is a proposal by the Indian government to link several of India's major rivers via a network of reservoirs and canals. Variations of the IRI have been discussed since 1980, but the current plan has recently received increased support from the Indian government. Construction on three canals has controversially begun. If the Inter-link project moves forward, fourteen canals will divert water from tributaries of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers to areas in the west, where fresh water is needed for irrigation. Additional canals would transport Himalayan sediments 500 km south to the Mahanadi delta and more than 1000 km south to the Godavari and Krishna deltas. We investigate the impacts of the proposed diversions on sediment transport to the Mahanadi/Brahmani, Godavari, and Krishna deltas in India and the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta in Bangladesh. We map the entire river network and the proposed new nodes and connections. Changing watersheds are delineated using the Terrain Analysis Using Digital Elevation Models (TauDEM) Suite. Climate data comes from interpolation between observed precipitation stations located in China, Nepal, India, Bhutan and Bangladesh. Changes in water discharge due to the proposed canals are simulated using HydroTrend, a climate-driven hydrological water balance and transport model that incorporates drainage area, discharge, relief, temperature, basin-average lithology, and anthropogenic influences. Simulated river discharge is validated against observations from gauging stations archived by the Global Runoff Data Center (GRDC). HydroTrend is then used to investigate sediment transport changes that may result from the proposed canals. We also quantify changes in contributing areas for the outlets of nine major Indian rivers, showing that more than 50% of the land in India will contribute a portion of its runoff to a new outlet should the entire canal system be constructed.

  15. Design of river height and speed monitoring system by using Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, T. H.; Siagian, E. C.; Tanjung, K.; Soeharwinto

    2018-02-01

    River is one part of the hydrologic cycle. Water in rivers is generally collected from precipitation, such as rain, dew, springs, underground runoff, and in certain countries also comes from melt ice/snow. The height and speed of water in a river is always changing. Changes in altitude and speed of water can affect the surrounding environment. In this paper, we will design a system to measure the altitude and speed of the river. In this work we use Arduino Uno, ultrasonic sensors and flow rate sensors. Ultrasonic sensor HC-SR04 is used as a river height meter. Based on the test results, this sensor has an accuracy of 96.6%.

  16. Carbon fate in a large temperate human-impacted river system: Focus on benthic dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilmin, Lauriane; Flipo, Nicolas; Escoffier, Nicolas; Rocher, Vincent; Groleau, Alexis

    2016-07-01

    Fluvial networks play an important role in regional and global carbon (C) budgets. The Seine River, from the Paris urban area to the entrance of its estuary (220 km), is studied here as an example of a large human-impacted river system subject to temperate climatic conditions. We assess organic C (OC) budgets upstream and downstream from one of the world's largest wastewater treatment plants and for different hydrological conditions using a hydrobiogeochemical model. The fine representation of sediment accumulation on the river bed allows for the quantification of pelagic and benthic effects on OC export toward the estuary and on river metabolism (i.e., net CO2 production). OC export is significantly affected by benthic dynamics during the driest periods, when 25% of the inputs to the system is transformed or stored in the sediment layer. Benthic processes also substantially affect river metabolism under any hydrological condition. On average, benthic respiration accounts for one third of the total river respiration along the studied stretch (0.27 out of 0.86 g C m-2 d-1). Even though the importance of benthic processes was already acknowledged by the scientific community for headwater streams, these results stress the major influence of benthic dynamics, and thus of physical processes such as sedimentation and resuspension, on C cycling in downstream river systems. It opens the door to new developments in the quantification of C emissions by global models, whereby biogeochemical processing and benthic dynamics should be taken into account.

  17. A case study of pedometer-recorded steps along the Himalayan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case study of pedometer-recorded steps along the Himalayan mountain range. ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... The aim of this study was to provide data on the volume and intensity of steps in five healthy adults on an 11-day hike along the Himalayan mountain range and to highlight some ...

  18. A meteo-hydrological modelling system for the reconstruction of river runoff: the case of the Ofanto river catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verri, Giorgia; Pinardi, Nadia; Gochis, David; Tribbia, Joseph; Navarra, Antonio; Coppini, Giovanni; Vukicevic, Tomislava

    2017-10-01

    A meteo-hydrological modelling system has been designed for the reconstruction of long time series of rainfall and river runoff events. The modelling chain consists of the mesoscale meteorological model of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF), the land surface model NOAH-MP and the hydrology-hydraulics model WRF-Hydro. Two 3-month periods are reconstructed for winter 2011 and autumn 2013, containing heavy rainfall and river flooding events. Several sensitivity tests were performed along with an assessment of which tunable parameters, numerical choices and forcing data most impacted on the modelling performance.The calibration of the experiments highlighted that the infiltration and aquifer coefficients should be considered as seasonally dependent.The WRF precipitation was validated by a comparison with rain gauges in the Ofanto basin. The WRF model was demonstrated to be sensitive to the initialization time and a spin-up of about 1.5 days was needed before the start of the major rainfall events in order to improve the accuracy of the reconstruction. However, this was not sufficient and an optimal interpolation method was developed to correct the precipitation simulation. It is based on an objective analysis (OA) and a least square (LS) melding scheme, collectively named OA+LS. We demonstrated that the OA+LS method is a powerful tool to reduce the precipitation uncertainties and produce a lower error precipitation reconstruction that itself generates a better river discharge time series. The validation of the river streamflow showed promising statistical indices.The final set-up of our meteo-hydrological modelling system was able to realistically reconstruct the local rainfall and the Ofanto hydrograph.

  19. Study on measuring social cost of water pollution: concentrated on Han River water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang Im; Min, Dong Gee; Chung, Hoe Seong; Lim, Hyun Jeong; Kim, Mee Sook [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    Following the economic development and the progress of urbanization, the damage on water pollution has been more serious but a social cost caused by water pollution cannot be measured. Although the need of water quality preservation is emphasized, a base material for public investment on enhancing water quality preservation is not equipped yet due to the absence of economic values of water resource. Therefore it measured a cost generated by leaving pollution not treated water quality in this study. To measure the usable value of water resource or the cost of water pollution all over the country should include a national water system, but this study is limited on the mainstream of Han River water system from North Han River through Paldang to Chamsil sluice gates. Further study on Nakdong River and Keum River water systems should be done. 74 refs., 4 figs., 51 tabs.

  20. Subsurface soil characterization using geoelectrical and geotechnical investigations at a bridge site in Uttarakhand Himalayan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Anita; Israil, M.; Anbalagan, R.; Gupta, Pravin K.

    2017-09-01

    Geoelectrical characterization of subsurface soil has been done at a bridge foundation site on the banks of Bhagirathi River at Tehri reservoir site, Uttarakhand, India. For this purpose, the Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and the Standard Penetration Test (SPT) data, recorded at both banks of Bhagirathi River are analyzed. A total of six ERT profiles, recorded on both the West and East banks, were interpreted to determine an electrical resistivity image showing the resistivity variations with depth. The borehole data and geological inputs were used for lithological correlation and calibration of the resistivity values to the subsurface formation. Subsequently the electrical parameter (resistivity) for different subsurface lithological units has been inferred. Further, at selected points, the electrical resistivity sounding data, derived from the ERT, have been correlated with the Standard Penetration Test (SPT) data. This correlation results from the fact that in the subsurface soil both the electrical resistivity variations and the soil strength measured by SPT are controlled by the soil properties: grain size distribution, compactness, porosity and water saturation. It has been observed that the N-values smaller than 16 are unreliable and inconsistent. In the River Borne Material (RBM) on the West Bank it is due to the presence of coarse gravels while on the East Bank it is due to the boulders. The N-values greater than 16 mainly correspond to the weathered rock formation. For these values, there exists a linear relationship between N-values and resistivity with a correlation coefficient greater than 0.80. The coefficients of linear relationship at the two banks vary due to varying amount of clay content. Such a relationship is important for any site in tough Himalayan terrain because it can be used as an alternative to the SPT for determining soil strength parameters from ERT.

  1. Pechora River basin integrated system management PRISM; biodiversity assessment for the Pechora River basin; Cluster B: biodiversity, land use & forestry modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der T.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the biodiversity for the Pechora River basin Integrated System Management (PRISM). The Pechora River Basin, situated just west of the Ural Mountains, Russia, consists of vast boreal forests and tundra landscapes, partly pristine and undisturbed. The concept of biodiversity is

  2. Tracking Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) after an incident along a river system - Case study Elbe River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleisinger, Carmen; Dietrich, Stephan; Kehl, Nora; Claus, Evelyn; Schubert, Birgit

    2017-04-01

    In spring 2015, extremely high concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) well above the long-term average were detected in suspended particulate matter (SPM) within the River Elbe. They were released due to abrasive blasting of the old coating from a bridge in the upper part of the River, approximately 50 km upstream of the first measurement site. PCBs are persistent organic pollutants, preferentially bound to fine-grained fractions of the SPM. Results from monitoring of contaminants in SPM along the Elbe indicate the further dispersal of the PCB-contaminated sediments. These measurements include yearly investigations on PCB concentrations in sediments in the inner reaches of the Elbe, an additional longitudinal survey in 2015 and monthly monitoring of PCBs in SPM at stations along the river including the Elbe estuary (Germany). The Elbe estuary is of major economic importance since Hamburg harbour, one of the largest harbours in Europe, is located there. Maintaining the harbour includes dredging and, i.a., relocating large amounts of the dredged material within the water body. High PCB concentrations in sediments could lead to restrictions on the relocation of these sediments. This study aims at tracking the fate of PCB contaminated material released from the point source of the incident site along the whole river stretch and at estimating its impact on the quality of sediments and consequently on dredging activities in the estuary. The ratio of high (PCB 138, 152 and 180) versus low (PCB 28, 52, 101) chlorinated PCB congeners proved to be a suitable tracer to distinguish the PCB load released by the incident from the long-term background signals. As Delor 106/Clophen A60, which contains approx. 90% hexa- to decachloric congeners, was an additive in the coating of the bridge, the pattern of PCBs released by the incident is dominated by the highly chlorinated PCB-congeners PCB 138, 153 and 180. At the tidal weir Geesthacht, the entrance to the estuary, an

  3. The influence of land-use patterns in the Ruvu river watershed on water quality in the river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoye, Elizabeth; Machiwa, John F.

    This work assessed the impacts of land-use patterns in the Ruvu river basin on water quality in the river system. Seasonal changes in water quality parameters were also investigated. Ten river water-sampling stations were selected and samples were collected and analysed according to standard analytical procedures. The results showed that physico-chemical parameters of river water ranged as follows: pH, from 6.95 ± 0.09 to 8.07 ± 0.23; temperature, from 14.0 ± 0.06 to 31.1 ± 0.4 °C; EC, from 39.8 ± 0.8 to 48,734 306 μs/cm; TDS, from 19.9 ± 0.4 to 24,367 ± 152.9 mg/l; turbidity, from 3.0 ± 0.6 to 840 ± 69.3 NTU and DO, from 6.8 ± 0.02 to 16.78 mg/l. The ranges for nutrient concentrations were NO 3-N, from 0.006 ± 0.0003 to 0.62 ± 0.3 mg/l; NH 4-N, from 0.34 ± 0.17 to 16.2 ± 0.5 mg/l; PO 4-P, from 0.009 ± 0.001 to 1.75 ± 0.2 mg/l and TP, from 0.02 ± 0.003 to 3.56 ± 0.38 mg/l. Generally, water samples from stations with forested catchments had high levels of DO and low levels of NH 4-N and NO 3-N compared to those from farmland, industrial, residential and market places. There were clear seasonal variations showing an increase in the concentrations of nutrients during rainy season. The results show impairment of the water quality of the river by anthropogenic activities in the catchment. Water pollution prevention strategies to ensure prevention of pollution and protection of water resources in the Ruvu river watershed are recommended.

  4. The Geomorphology, Hydrology and Evolution of a Chain of Ponds River System: A Poorly Recognised and Unique River Planform Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R.; Fryirs, K.

    2016-12-01

    Chain-of-ponds river types are alluvial, discontinuous watercourses that contain irregularly spaced, deep, steep-sided ponds separated by an ephemeral flow path. Despite being widespread, chains of ponds are now rare in Australia, having experienced extensive channelisation since European settlement and landuse intensification. The Mulwaree system is one of the largest remaining chain of ponds systems in the country. Little is known about its geomorphic structure, Quaternary evolution or hydrological function. The valley fill of the Mulwaree River contains layers of gravel and cobble clast-supported sediments at a depth of 20 m. Atop, silt and fine sand sediments are 1-3 m deep. The ponds, which sit in this valley-fill, are large (1000-4000 m2 and up to 8 m deep), and are relic form from a much larger and more energetic gravel-bed river that occurred in this valley in the past. Optically-stimulated luminescence ages date the change from high-energy gravel bed to the very low energy system seen today at approximately 20-25 ka. The oldest dates for the gravel bed system at 5-7 m deep are 60-90 ka. The coarser substrate beneath the fine-grained floodplain is mostly saturated, forming a near-surface aquifer in the valley fill/floodplain. The water levels in the floodplain are similar to the level of the adjacent ponds (within 0.2 m) and this water level adjusts readily (within 0.5-2 days) to rain/flow. There is significant hydrological connectivity between the ponds and adjacent floodplain. During high flow conditions, stable isotope (δ18O and δ2H) results from the ponds show no deviation through the profile as the water column is being mixed. However, during low-flow conditions, water in the ponds is enriched near the surface due to evaporation, and has a similar signal to the adjacent near-surface, floodplain aquifer below a weak thermocline. This shows that these systems have a dual function, behaving more as groundwater dependent systems during low flow

  5. Landscape ecology of the Upper Mississippi River System: Lessons learned, challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJager, Nathan R.

    2016-03-22

    The Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) is a mosaic of river channels, backwater lakes, floodplain forests, and emergent marshes. This complex mosaic supports diverse aquatic and terrestrial plant communities, over 150 fish species; 40 freshwater mussel species; 50 amphibian and reptile species; and over 360 bird species, many of which use the UMRS as a critical migratory route. The river and floodplain are also hotspots for biogeochemical activity as the river-floodplain collects and processes nutrients derived from the UMR basin. These features qualify the UMRS as a Ramsar wetland of international significance.Two centuries of land-use change, including construction for navigation and conversion of large areas to agriculture, has altered the broad-scale structure of the river and changed local environmental conditions in many areas. Such changes have affected rates of nutrient processing and transport, as well as the abundance of various fish, mussel, plant, and bird species. However, the magnitude and spatial scale of these effects are not well quantified, especially in regards to the best methods and locations for restoring various aspects of the river ecosystem.The U.S. Congress declared the navigable portions of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) a “nationally significant ecosystem and nationally significant commercial navigation system” in the Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) and launched the Upper Mississippi River Restoration (UMRR) Program, the first comprehensive program for ecosystem restoration, monitoring, and research on a large river system. This fact sheet focuses on landscape ecological studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey to support decision making by the UMRR with respect to ecosystem restoration.

  6. Variability in the hydrology of the Ikpoba River system | Iloba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The variability in some physico-chemical parameters was studied in Ikpoba River from June to November, 2009, in three stations. The study shows high variability in transparency, flow velocity, BOD, alkalinity, chloride, nitrate, phosphate with over 40% variability coefficient which is an indication that these parameters ...

  7. Flood Hazard Mapping by Using Geographic Information System and Hydraulic Model: Mert River, Samsun, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahdettin Demir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, flood hazard maps were prepared for the Mert River Basin, Samsun, Turkey, by using GIS and Hydrologic Engineering Centers River Analysis System (HEC-RAS. In this river basin, human life losses and a significant amount of property damages were experienced in 2012 flood. The preparation of flood risk maps employed in the study includes the following steps: (1 digitization of topographical data and preparation of digital elevation model using ArcGIS, (2 simulation of flood lows of different return periods using a hydraulic model (HEC-RAS, and (3 preparation of flood risk maps by integrating the results of (1 and (2.

  8. Microstructural analysis of Greater Himalayan rocks in northern Bhutan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfold, Melissa L.

    Across the Himalayan fold-thrust belt, high-grade metamorphic rocks of the Greater Himalayan (GH) zone are juxtaposed between low-grade metasedimentary rocks structurally above and below. In Bhutan, the higher-grade GH rocks lie structurally over lower-grade Lesser Himalayan rocks and are separated by the Main Central Thrust. However, many aspects of the deformation path, deformation conditions, and the emplacement mechanism that led to the exhumation of GH rocks are poorly understood. In this study geologic mapping and quantitative microstructural analysis are utilized to gain insight into the deformation history of GH rocks in Bhutan, and to test the applicability of end-member emplacement models. Microstructural datasets include characterization of kinematic indicators, determination of deformation temperatures through analysis of quartz deformation microstructures and quartz crystal-preferred orientation (CPO) data, and classification of strain and shear type using CPO and kinematic vorticity data. Semi-quantitative deformation-temperature estimates obtained from cataloguing quartz-recrystallization mechanisms, combined with quantitative temperature estimates from CPO plot opening angles, suggest that GH rocks were deformed at temperatures of ca. 500 to 750°C at both structurally-lower and higher levels, and were later overprinted by a lower-temperature recrystallization event around that occurred at conditions of ca. 400--500°C. The higher-temperature recrystallization event is interpreted to be associated with earlier slip (˜22--15 Ma) along the Main Central Thrust, at or near peak metamorphic temperature conditions. The lower-temperature overprint is interpreted to have occurred at a higher point along the pressure-temperature-deformation path as GH rocks were passively translated and structurally elevated southward, concurrent with duplexing of Lesser Himalayan rocks (˜18--10 Ma). Internal deformation within structurally-lower and higher GH rocks

  9. Authoritative Modes of Speech in a Central Himalayan Ritual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Leavitt

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The authoritative character of an utterance depends not only on the social identity of the speaker, but also on the aesthetic power of the style of speaking. Using Jakobson’s six functions of language as a framework, this paper presents two modes of speech realized in rituals of divine possession in the Central Himalayan region. The ritual forefronts two sources of authoritative language—a socially recognized master of ceremonies and an incarnate divinity—each of which has his or her own social source of authority, but also rely on marked forms of speech to solidify their role and convey their messages in an effective way.

  10. Active faults and related Late Quaternary deformation along the Northwestern Himalayan Frontal Zone, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Nakata

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous newly-identified traces of active faults in the Himalayan foothill zone along the HFF around Chandigarh, in Pinjore Dun, along the piedmont zone of the Lower Siwalik hill front and within the Lower Tertiary hill range reveal the pattern of thrust and strike-slip faulting, striking parallel to the principal structural trend (NNW-SSE of the orogenic belt. The active Chandigarh Fault, Pinjore Garden Fault and Barsar thrust have vertically dislocated, warped and backtilted fluvial and alluvial-fan surfaces made up of Late Pleistocene-Holocene sediments. West- and southwest-facing fault scarplets with heights ranging from 12 to 50 m along these faults suggest continued tectonic movement through Late Pleistocene to recent times. Gentle warping and backtilting of the terraces on the hanging wall sides of the faults indicate fault-bend folding. These active faults are the manifestation of north-dipping imbricated thrust faults branching out from the major fault systems like the Main Boundary Fault (MBF and Himalayan Frontal Fault (HFF, probably merging down northward into a décollement. The Taksal Fault, striking NNW-SSE, shows prominent right-lateral movement marked by lateral offset of streams and younger Quaternary terraces and occupies a narrow deep linear valley along the fault trace. Right stepping along this fault has resulted in formation of a small pull-apart basin. Fault scarplets facing ENE and WSW are the manifestation of dip-slip movement. This fault is an example of slip-partitioning between the strike-slip and thrust faults, suggesting ongoing oblique convergence of the Indian plate and northward migration of a tectonic sliver. Slip rate along the Taksal Fault has been calculated as 2.8 mm/yr. Preliminary trench investigation at the base of the Chandigarh Fault Scarp has revealed total displacement of 3.5 m along a low angle thrust fault with variable dip of 20° to 46° due northeast, possibly the result of one

  11. Transport of regional pollutants through a remote trans-Himalayan valley in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dhungel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and biomass in Asia have increased in recent years. High concentrations of reactive trace gases and light-absorbing and light-scattering particles from these sources form persistent haze layers, also known as atmospheric brown clouds, over the Indo–Gangetic plains (IGP from December through early June. Models and satellite imagery suggest that strong wind systems within deep Himalayan valleys are major pathways by which pollutants from the IGP are transported to the higher Himalaya. However, observational evidence of the transport of polluted air masses through Himalayan valleys has been lacking to date. To evaluate this pathway, we measured black carbon (BC, ozone (O3, and associated meteorological conditions within the Kali Gandaki Valley (KGV, Nepal, from January 2013 to July 2015. BC and O3 varied over both diurnal and seasonal cycles. Relative to nighttime, mean BC and O3 concentrations within the valley were higher during daytime when the up-valley flow (average velocity of 17 m s−1 dominated. BC and O3 concentrations also varied seasonally with minima during the monsoon season (July to September. Concentrations of both species subsequently increased post-monsoon and peaked during March to May. Average concentrations for O3 during the seasonally representative months of April, August, and November were 41.7, 24.5, and 29.4 ppbv, respectively, while the corresponding BC concentrations were 1.17, 0.24, and 1.01 µg m−3, respectively. Up-valley fluxes of BC were significantly greater than down-valley fluxes during all seasons. In addition, frequent episodes of BC concentrations 2–3 times higher than average persisted from several days to a week during non-monsoon months. Our observations of increases in BC concentration and fluxes in the valley, particularly during pre-monsoon, provide evidence that trans-Himalayan valleys are important conduits for transport of

  12. Impact of anomalous forest fire on aerosol radiative forcing and snow cover over Himalayan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Kunal; Mishra, Amit Kumar; Singh, Sachchidanand

    2017-02-01

    Forest fires are very common in tropical region during February-May months and are known to have significant impact on ecosystem dynamics. Moreover, aerosols emitted from these burning activities significantly modulate the Earth's radiation budget. In present study, we investigated the anomalous forest fire events and their impact on atmospheric radiation budget and glaciated snow cover over the Himalayan region. We used multiple dataset derived from satellites [Moderate Resolution Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO)] and reanalysis models [Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS), Second Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Application (MERRA-2) and ERA-interim] to evaluate the effect of biomass burning aerosols on radiation budget. April 2016 is associated with anomalous fire activities over lower Himalayan region in the last fourteen years (2003-2016). The model estimated organic carbon (OC) and black carbon (BC) emission reaches up to ∼3 × 104 and ∼2 × 103 μg/m2/day, respectively during the biomass burning period of April 2016. The meteorological data analysis accompanied with CALIOP aerosol vertical profile shows that these carbonaceous aerosols could reach up to ∼5-7 km altitude and could be transported towards glaciated region of upper Himalayas. The large amount of BC/OC from biomass burning significantly modulates the atmospheric radiation budget. The estimated columnar heating rate shows that these carbonaceous aerosols could heat up the atmosphere by ∼0.04-0.06 K/day in April-2016 with respect to non-burning period (2015). The glaciated snow cover fractions are found to be decreasing by ∼5-20% in 2016 as compared to long term mean (2003-2016). The combined analyses of various climatic factors, fires and associated BC emissions show that the observed snow cover decrease could be results of increased surface/atmospheric temperature due to combined effect of

  13. Heavy Metals and Biogenic Elements in Aquatic Systems of the Don River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, Anna; Tkachenko, Oleg

    2014-05-01

    River deltas are located in the lower parts of the cascade landscape-geochemical systems of the river basins, so their geochemical conditions often characterize the anthropogenic impact on whole river system. The Don River runs through the one of the most agriculturally developed and densely populated area of Russia, and flows into the Azov Sea - the smallest and shallowest sea in the world. These factors determine the geochemical features of aquatic systems of the Don River mouth area and the specificity of the "river-sea" geochemical barrier zone. The paper presents results of the field studies of the geochemical structure of the Don River mouth area, which were conducted in frames of the RFBR project in 2012-2013. Major types of the deltaic water streams and bodies were studied in different hydrological seasons: spring floods, summer, autumn and winter low water periods. About 50 samples of water, suspended matter and 60 samples of bottom sediments have been collected and analyzed for heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, Cr, Cd etc.) and biogenic elements (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, phosphates, silica, total nitrogen and phosphorus, dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll) content. To assess the toxicity degree and nutrient potential of water, bioassay test conducted by growing daphnia in water samples were held. The study shows that the Don River delta water is characterized by the relatively low values of dissolved heavy metal content. Significantly higher values of heavy metals were determined in the vicinity of settlements only. Metal accumulation in bottom sediments can be associated mainly with the rate of water flow. Higher values were found in sediments of small channels with weak flow velocity and prevailing processes of the suspended matter deposition. The data on the seasonal dynamics of nutrients and spatial variability of their forms have been obtained. The maximum concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus, silicon, and other biogenic elements are

  14. A Real-Time Decision Support System for River Basin Management

    OpenAIRE

    Vyas Ayushi; John Siby

    2016-01-01

    The applications of computer technology to analysis of the rainfall-runoff process and the hydrological dynamics of natural rivers have greatly expanded in the past few years. A large number of general purpose programs and a few programs designed for specific application have been developed and applied to hydrologic engineering problems. This paper briefly describes the study of climate change effects on the hydrological dynamics of the Satluj and Beas river system using computer models like ...

  15. Carbon fate in a large temperate human-impacted river system: focus on benthic dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilmin, Lauriane; Flipo, Nicolas; Escoffier, Nicolas; Rocher, Vincent; Groleau, Alexis

    2016-04-01

    During the last decade, several studies highlighted the important role of fluvial networks in regional and global carbon (C) budgets. Therefore, for sustainable C management, in-river C processing needs to be well understood. The Seine River from the Paris urban area to the entrance of its estuary (220 km) is studied here as a pertinent example of a large human impacted river system subject to temperate climatic conditions. We assess organic C (OC) budgets up- and downstream one of the world's largest waste water treatment plants and for different hydrological conditions through hydro-biogeochemical distributed modelling. The fine representation of sediment accumulation on the river bed allows the quantification of the effect of pelagic and benthic processes on OC export towards the estuary and on river metabolism (i.e. net CO2 emission). OC export is significantly affected by benthic dynamics during the driest periods, when 25 % of the inputs to the system is transformed or stored in the sediment layer. River metabolism is also significantly affected by benthic processes, whatever the hydrological conditions. On average, benthic respiration accounts for one third of the total ecosystem respiration along the studied stretch (0.23 out of 0.86 gC.m-2.d-1). These results stress the major influence of benthic dynamics, and thus of physical processes such as sedimentation and re-suspension on C cycling, in large human-impacted temperate river systems and on C export to the estuaries. Even though the importance of benthos processes was already acknowledged by the scientific community for headwater streams, this work highlights its importance for downstream river systems and opens the door to new developments in the quantification of C emissions by global models, in which biogeochemical processing and benthic dynamics must be taken into account.

  16. 10Be systematics in the Tsangpo-Brahmaputra catchment: the cosmogenic nuclide legacy of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupker, Maarten; Lavé, Jérôme; France-Lanord, Christian; Christl, Marcus; Bourlès, Didier; Carcaillet, Julien; Maden, Colin; Wieler, Rainer; Rahman, Mustafizur; Bezbaruah, Devojit; Xiaohan, Liu

    2017-08-01

    The Tsangpo-Brahmaputra River drains the eastern part of the Himalayan range and flows from the Tibetan Plateau through the eastern Himalayan syntaxis downstream to the Indo-Gangetic floodplain and the Bay of Bengal. As such, it is a unique natural laboratory to study how denudation and sediment production processes are transferred to river detrital signals. In this study, we present a new 10Be data set to constrain denudation rates across the catchment and to quantify the impact of rapid erosion within the syntaxis region on cosmogenic nuclide budgets and signals. The measured 10Be denudation rates span around 2 orders of magnitude across individual catchments (ranging from 0.03 to > 4 mm yr-1) and sharply increase as the Tsangpo-Brahmaputra flows across the eastern Himalaya. The increase in denudation rates, however, occurs ˜ 150 km downstream of the Namche Barwa-Gyala Peri massif (NBGPm), an area which has been previously characterized by extremely high erosion and exhumation rates. We suggest that this downstream lag is mainly due to the physical abrasion of coarse-grained, low 10Be concentration, landslide material produced within the syntaxis that dilutes the upstream high-concentration 10Be flux from the Tibetan Plateau only after abrasion has transferred sediment to the studied sand fraction. A simple abrasion model produces typical lag distances of 50 to 150 km compatible with our observations. Abrasion effects reduce the spatial resolution over which denudation can be constrained in the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. In addition, we also highlight that denudation rate estimates are dependent on the sediment connectivity, storage, and quartz content of the upstream Tibetan Plateau part of the catchment, which tends to lead to an overestimation of downstream denudation rates. While no direct 10Be denudation measurements were made in the syntaxis, the dilution of the upstream 10Be signal, measured in Tsangpo-Brahmaputra sediments, provides constraints on the

  17. 10Be systematics in the Tsangpo-Brahmaputra catchment: the cosmogenic nuclide legacy of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lupker

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Tsangpo-Brahmaputra River drains the eastern part of the Himalayan range and flows from the Tibetan Plateau through the eastern Himalayan syntaxis downstream to the Indo-Gangetic floodplain and the Bay of Bengal. As such, it is a unique natural laboratory to study how denudation and sediment production processes are transferred to river detrital signals. In this study, we present a new 10Be data set to constrain denudation rates across the catchment and to quantify the impact of rapid erosion within the syntaxis region on cosmogenic nuclide budgets and signals. The measured 10Be denudation rates span around 2 orders of magnitude across individual catchments (ranging from 0.03 to > 4 mm yr−1 and sharply increase as the Tsangpo-Brahmaputra flows across the eastern Himalaya. The increase in denudation rates, however, occurs  ∼  150 km downstream of the Namche Barwa–Gyala Peri massif (NBGPm, an area which has been previously characterized by extremely high erosion and exhumation rates. We suggest that this downstream lag is mainly due to the physical abrasion of coarse-grained, low 10Be concentration, landslide material produced within the syntaxis that dilutes the upstream high-concentration 10Be flux from the Tibetan Plateau only after abrasion has transferred sediment to the studied sand fraction. A simple abrasion model produces typical lag distances of 50 to 150 km compatible with our observations. Abrasion effects reduce the spatial resolution over which denudation can be constrained in the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. In addition, we also highlight that denudation rate estimates are dependent on the sediment connectivity, storage, and quartz content of the upstream Tibetan Plateau part of the catchment, which tends to lead to an overestimation of downstream denudation rates. While no direct 10Be denudation measurements were made in the syntaxis, the dilution of the upstream 10Be signal, measured in Tsangpo

  18. Remote video radioactive systems evaluation, Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Robinson, C.W.

    1991-12-31

    Specialized miniature low cost video equipment has been effectively used in a number of remote, radioactive, and contaminated environments at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The equipment and related techniques have reduced the potential for personnel exposure to both radiation and physical hazards. The valuable process information thus provided would not have otherwise been available for use in improving the quality of operation at SRS.

  19. Simulation of a Himalayan cloudburst event

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Journal of Earth System Science. Current Issue : Vol. 127, Issue 1 · Current Issue Volume 127 | Issue 1. February 2018. Home · Volumes & Issues · Special Issues · Forthcoming Articles · Search · Editorial Board · Information for Authors · Subscription ...

  20. [Tritium in the Water System of the Techa River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebotina, M Ja; Nikolin, O A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to study modern tritium levels in various sources of the drinking water supply in the settlements situated in the riverside zone of the Techa. Almost everywhere the water entering water-conduit wells from deep slits (100-180 m) contains averagely 2-3 times higher tritium concentrations than the water from less deep personal wells, slits and springs. Tritium levels in the drinking water supply decrease with the distance from the dam; while in wells, springs and personal wells they are constant all along the river. The observed phenomenon can be explained by the fact that the river bed of the Techa is situated at a break zone of the earth crust, where the contaminated deep water penetrates from the reservoirs of the "Mayak" enterprise situated in the upper part of the regulated river bed. Less deep water sources (personal wells, slits and springs) receive predominantly flood, atmospheric and subsoil waters and are not connected with the reservoirs.

  1. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix D: Exhibits.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    The Columbia River and its tributaries are the primary water system in the Pacific Northwest, draining some 219,000 square miles in seven states and another 39,500 square miles in British Columbia. Beginning in the 1930`s, the Columbia River has been significantly modified by construction of 30 major dams on the river and its tributaries, along with dozens of non-Federal projects. Construction and subsequent operation of these water development projects have contributed to eight primary uses of the river system, including navigation, flood control, irrigation, electric power generation, fish migration, fish and wildlife habitat, recreation, and water supply and quality considerations. Increasing stress on the water development of the Columbia River and its tributaries has led primary Federal agencies to undertake intensive analysis and evaluation of the operation of these projects. These agencies are the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation, who operate the large Federal dams on the river, and the Bonneville Power Administration who sells the power generated at the dams. This review, termed the System Operation Review (SOR), has as its ultimate goal to define a strategy for future operation of the major Columbia River projects which effectively considers the needs of all river uses. This volume, Appendix D: Cultural resources appendix, Technical imput includes the following: Development of geomorphology based framework for cultural resources management, Dworshak Reservoir, Idaho; Impact profiles for SOR reservoirs; comments from the following Native American tribes: Burns Paiute Tribe; Coville Confederated Tribes; Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Indian Reservation; Confederated Tribes and bands of the Yakama Indian Nation (comments); Nez Perce Tribe; Coeur D`Alene Tribe; Spokane Tribe of Indians; The confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation.

  2. Alien flora of Indian Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaryan, Vikrant; Uniyal, Sanjay Kr; Gupta, R C; Singh, R D

    2013-07-01

    Recognizing the array of effects that invasive alien species have, documenting their status from biodiversity rich regions has been much emphasized. Lack of such studies is a major limitation that hampers proper management of alien species. The present paper, therefore, documents the alien flora of the Indian Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh (HP) based on data obtained from literature and herbarium records. The alien flora of HP comprises of 497 species belonging to 85 families. Majority of them belong to family Asteraceae (59 species), followed by Poaceae (47 species) and Fabaceae (43 species). Amongst the genera, Ipomoea (9 species), Eucalyptus and Euphorbia (7 species each) are the most predominant. Herbs constitute the majority (i.e., 73%) of alien species and a large percentage of them (i.e., 22.94%) have South America as their native region. Further, of the total alien species, 248 are intentional introductions and majority (31% species) have been introduced for ornamental purposes. It was revealed that 34% species have naturalized while 29% species have become invasive. Today, in addition to human-disturbed landscapes, alien species have also been reported from dense forests. Himalaya being a biodiversity hotspot and HP being a bio-rich Himalayan state, it is hoped that this inventory and assessment of alien flora will help in designing informed management and monitoring strategies against problematic plant invasions in the state.

  3. Satellite Observations of Desert Dust-induced Himalayan Snow Darkening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Ritesh; Hsu, N. Christina; Lau, William K.-M.; Yasunari, Teppei J.

    2013-01-01

    The optically thick aerosol layer along the southern edge of the Himalaya has been subject of several recent investigations relating to its radiative impacts on the South Asian summer monsoon and regional climate forcing. Prior to the onset of summer monsoon, mineral dust from southwest Asian deserts is transported over the Himalayan foothills on an annual basis. Episodic dust plumes are also advected over the Himalaya, visible as dust-laden snow surface in satellite imagery, particularly in western Himalaya. We examined spectral surface reflectance retrieved from spaceborne MODIS observations that show characteristic reduction in the visible wavelengths (0.47 nm) over western Himalaya, associated with dust-induced solar absorption. Case studies as well as seasonal variations of reflectance indicate a significant gradient across the visible (0.47 nm) to near-infrared (0.86 nm) spectrum (VIS-NIR), during premonsoon period. Enhanced absorption at shorter visible wavelengths and the resulting VIS-NIR gradient is consistent with model calculations of snow reflectance with dust impurity. While the role of black carbon in snow cannot be ruled out, our satellite-based analysis suggests the observed spectral reflectance gradient dominated by dust-induced solar absorption during premonsoon season. From an observational viewpoint, this study underscores the importance of mineral dust deposition toward darkening of the western Himalayan snow cover, with potential implications to accelerated seasonal snowmelt and regional snow albedo feedbacks.

  4. An Innovative Steering System for a River Push Barge Operated in Environmentally Sensitive Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramowicz-Gerigk Teresa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an innovative steering system for a river push barge dedicated for operation in environmentally sensitive inland waterways. Development of the inland waterborne transport in Poland is dependent on the exploitation of rivers which can be adapted to navigation in the limited range because a high percent of their length is classified within special environment protection areas of Natura 2000 network. This is now the main reason that their better exploitation cannot be obtained without an introduction of a new generation of waterborne environment friendly inland units. In naturally winding rivers with differing and rapidly changing depths and widths it is important to equip a push barge with an efficient steering system that has a low environmental impact. The innovative steering system proposed in the paper is composed of main steering devices located at the pusher stern, auxiliary steering devices installed on the barge bow and a mechanical coupling system.

  5. Geographical Information Systems for International River Basin Management in the Third World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kammerud, Terje Andre

    1997-12-31

    This thesis discusses implementation and application of Geographical Information systems (GIS) in international River Basin Organizations (RBOs) in the Third World. Third World countries sharing the same river basin are increasingly experiencing conflicts because they exploit the same water resource. Empirical knowledge is derived from two case studies. (1) The Mekong River Commission Secretariat`s experiences in applying GIS are investigated. The conditions assessed are related to institutional, funding, expertise, training and technology issues for successful application of GIS. (2) The prospects for the implementation of GIS at a future WATERNET Centre in Amman are investigated. Israel, Jordan and the Palestinian Authority have decided to establish a regional GIS Centre in the lower Jordan River Basin. The study assesses political, legal and institutional conditions for the successful implementation of GIS. It is concluded that implementing and applying GIS successfully in RBOs in the Third World is challenging, although not for technological reasons. 265 refs., 28 figs., 13 tabs.

  6. Duration of inverted metamorphic sequence formation across the Himalayan Main Central Thrust (MCT), Sikkim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioldi, Stefania; Moulas, Evangelos; Tajcmanová, Lucie; Burg, Jean-Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates since the Eocene (50 Ma) caused the closure of the Neo-Tethys and the underthrusting of India beneath the Tibetan Plateau, generating the 2500 km extended Himalayan belt. The Main Central Thrust (MCT) marks the boundary of the underlying Midland Lower Himalaya metasediments zone (LH) in the south from the overlying high grade metamorphic Higher Himalaya (HH) in the north. Several models considering petrochronology, geothermobarometry and structural geology have been discussed to explain the inverted metamorphic gradient in the LH metasediments without reaching a common agreement. This study investigates the tectonic setting and the timescale of inverted isograds related to crustal-scale thrusting at the MCT in the Sikkim region, northeast India. The aim is to contribute to the understanding of the link between mechanical and thermal evolution of major thrust zones and to clarify the nature and the origin of orogenic heat applying garnet geospeedometry. Garnets provide a sensitive record of metamorphic conditions and are potential chronometer. Their compositional zoning is used as a gauge for rate estimates of element diffusion within the mineral and allows estimating the absolute time of the thermal evolution. Inverse-fitting numerical model considering FRactIonation and Diffusion in GarnEt (FRIDGE) calculates garnet composition profiles by introducing P-T-t paths and bulk-rock composition of a specific sample. P-T conditions were estimated by convectional geothermobarometry supported by phase equilibria modelling and measured garnet chemical compositions. Simulation were compared with measured garnet profiles. Simple step function and FRIDGE preliminary results of Fe-Mg - Ca - Mn garnet fractionation-diffusion modelling indicate very short timescale (between 3 and 6 Ma) for peak metamorphic conditions in the northeast Himalayan collisional system. This duration does not allow thermal re-equilibration. It is an

  7. Chemical composition and biological activities of trans-Himalayan alga Spirogyra porticalis (Muell. Cleve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatinder Kumar

    Full Text Available The freshwater alga Spirogyra porticalis (Muell. Cleve, a filamentous charophyte, collected from the Indian trans-Himalayan cold desert, was identified on the basis of morpho-anatomical characters. Extracts of this alga were made using solvents of varying polarity viz. n-hexane, acetonitrile, methanol and water. The antioxidant capacities and phenolic profile of the extracts were estimated. The methanol extract showing highest antioxidant capacity and rich phenolic attributes was further investigated and phytochemical profiling was conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS hyphenated technique. The cytotoxic activity of methanol extract was evaluated on human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 and colon carcinoma RKO cell lines. The anti-hypoxic effect of methanol extract of the alga was tested on in vivo animal system to confirm its potential to ameliorate oxidative stress. The antioxidant assays viz. ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and nitric oxide (NO radical scavenging capacities, β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching property and lipid peroxidation exhibited analogous results, wherein the algal extracts showed significantly high antioxidant potential. The extracts were also found to possess high content of total proanthocyanidin, flavonoid and polyphenol. GC/MS analysis revealed the presence of thirteen chemotypes in the methanol extract representing different phytochemical groups like fatty acid esters, sterols, unsaturated alcohols, alkynes etc. with substantial phyto-pharmaceutical importance. The methanol extract was observed to possess anticancer activity as revealed from studies on HepG2 and RKO cell lines. In the present study, S. porticalis methanol extract also provided protection from hypoxia-induced oxidative stress and accelerated the onset of adaptative changes in rats during exposure to hypobaric

  8. Effect of climate change on water resources of the Upper Indus River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, L. C.; Naz, B. S.; Ashfaq, M.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.

    2010-12-01

    In recent years, accelerated glacier recession trends have been reported for the Himalayan region, based largely on the studies in the Eastern Himalayas. However, recent studies carried out in the Karakoram Himalayas, suggest an expansion of glaciers and a reduction in summer streamflow due to a significant decrease in summer temperatures. Snow and ice melt from these glaciers is the primary input to the Upper Indus River, upstream of Tarbela Reservoir, a water resource for irrigation and hydroelectric power in Pakistan. Given the complexity of variations in the Himalayan glaciers and their socio-economic significance, it is important to understand the mechanisms that governed these changes in the historical period. More importantly, it is critical to accurately project expected future changes in the extent of Himalayan glaciers due to anthropogenic variations in temperature and precipitation patterns and impacts of such changes on water supply and agriculture. Projecting future changes to perennial water supply or flood risk in the Upper Indus River requires a modeling tool that can represent the effect of glacier and snow cover fluctuations. In this study, the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrology model is modified to better represent ice accumulation, ablation and transport in alpine glacier systems. Ice transport from the higher elevations to the lower elevations within a new glacial ice layer is represented via both ice deformation and basal sliding based on the Glen’s flow law. The transformation of snow to ice during the snow metamorphism process is implemented based on snow density changes within snowpack. The revised VIC model forced with daily precipitation and temperature data from the high resolution FVGCM-RegCM3 climate model for reference time period of 1961-1990, is evaluated at watershed scale using observed historical river discharge, glacier velocities and point observations of snow accumulation. Changes in streamflow seasonality in the

  9. Tracking suspended particle transport via radium isotopes ((226)Ra and (228)Ra) through the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Richard N; Burnett, William C; Opsahl, Stephen P; Santos, Isaac R; Misra, Sambuddha; Froelich, Philip N

    2013-02-01

    Suspended particles in rivers can carry metals, nutrients, and pollutants downstream which can become bioactive in estuaries and coastal marine waters. In river systems with multiple sources of both suspended particles and contamination sources, it is important to assess the hydrologic conditions under which contaminated particles can be delivered to downstream ecosystems. The Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River system in the southeastern United States represents an ideal system to study these hydrologic impacts on particle transport through a heavily-impacted river (the Chattahoochee River) and one much less impacted by anthropogenic activities (the Flint River). We demonstrate here the utility of natural radioisotopes as tracers of suspended particles through the ACF system, where particles contaminated with arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) have been shown to be contributed from coal-fired power plants along the Chattahoochee River, and have elevated concentrations in the surficial sediments of the Apalachicola Bay Delta. Radium isotopes ((228)Ra and (226)Ra) on suspended particles should vary throughout the different geologic provinces of this river system, allowing differentiation of the relative contributions of the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers to the suspended load delivered to Lake Seminole, the Apalachicola River, and ultimately to Apalachicola Bay. We also use various geochemical proxies ((40)K, organic carbon, and calcium) to assess the relative composition of suspended particles (lithogenic, organic, and carbonate fractions, respectively) under a range of hydrologic conditions. During low (base) flow conditions, the Flint River contributed 70% of the suspended particle load to both the Apalachicola River and the bay, whereas the Chattahoochee River became the dominant source during higher discharge, contributing 80% of the suspended load to the Apalachicola River and 62% of the particles entering the estuary. Neither of these hydrologic

  10. Geospatial Modelling Approach for Interlinking of Rivers: A Case Study of Vamsadhara and Nagavali River Systems in Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swathi Lakshmi, A.; Saran, S.; Srivastav, S. K.; Krishna Murthy, Y. V. N.

    2014-11-01

    India is prone to several natural disasters such as floods, droughts, cyclones, landslides and earthquakes on account of its geoclimatic conditions. But the most frequent and prominent disasters are floods and droughts. So to reduce the impact of floods and droughts in India, interlinking of rivers is one of the best solutions to transfer the surplus flood waters to deficit/drought prone areas. Geospatial modelling provides a holistic approach to generate probable interlinking routes of rivers based on existing geoinformatics tools and technologies. In the present study, SRTM DEM and AWiFS datasets coupled with land-use/land -cover, geomorphology, soil and interpolated rainfall surface maps have been used to identify the potential routes in geospatial domain for interlinking of Vamsadhara and Nagavali River Systems in Srikakulam district, Andhra Pradesh. The first order derivatives are derived from DEM and road, railway and drainage networks have been delineated using the satellite data. The inundation map has been prepared using AWiFS derived Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI). The Drought prone areas were delineated on the satellite image as per the records declared by Revenue Department, Srikakulam. Majority Rule Based (MRB) aggregation technique is performed to optimize the resolution of obtained data in order to retain the spatial variability of the classes. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) based Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) is implemented to obtain the prioritization of parameters like geomorphology, soil, DEM, slope, and land use/land-cover. A likelihood grid has been generated and all the thematic layers are overlaid to identify the potential grids for routing optimization. To give a better routing map, impedance map has been generated and several other constraints are considered. The implementation of canal construction needs extra cost in some areas. The developed routing map is published into OGC WMS services using open source Geo

  11. Investigations into the application of a new sonar system for assessing fish passage in Alaskan rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burwen, Deborah; Maxwell, Suzanne; Pfisterer, Carl

    2004-05-01

    Over a two-year period (2002-2003) the Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADFG) has evaluated a relatively new sonar technology at several sites in Alaska to determine its applicability to counting migrating fish in rivers. The new system, called a dual frequency identification sonar (DIDSON), is a high-definition imaging sonar designed and manufactured by the University of Washingtons Applied Physics Lab for military applications such as diver detection and underwater mine identification. Studies conducted in 2002 in a clearwater stream with high fish passage rates (5000 fish/hour) demonstrated that the DIDSON could provide accurate estimates of fish migrating upstream in rivers. Additional studies conducted in 2002 with live tethered fish indicated that size information could be derived from the cameralike images produced by the DIDSON system at ranges up to 12 m. In 2003, ADFG deployed DIDSON systems to assess fish passage in five Alaskan rivers. In each river, the DIDSON system was deployed in the side-looking configuration typically used in riverine sonar applications for estimating fish passage. Preliminary results from experiments in both 2002 and 2003 indicate that the DIDSON provides significant improvements in our ability to detect, track, and determine the direction of travel of migrating fish in rivers.

  12. Modeling the System: How Computers are Used in Columbia River Planning.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; United States. Army Corps of Engineers; United States. Bureau of Reclamation

    1992-10-01

    This publication describes the three computer models Federal agencies and the Northwest Power Pool use regularly to help plan hydro operations in the Columbia River Basin: HYSSR, HYDROSIM, and HYDREG. It is one of a series of booklets written for participants in the System Operation Review (SOR) being conducted jointly by the US Army Corps of Engineers (Corps), the US Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), and theBonneville Power Administration (BPA). A list of the other publications appears on the inside front cover. The SOR is the environmental analysis required to consider changes in Columbia River system operations related contract arrangements. Over the next few years, the agencies will develop a new multiple-use operation for the Columbia River. At the time, the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) and other contracts related to the Columbia River Treaty between the United States and Canada will be renegotiated and renewed. Many alternative ways of operating individual projects and the river system as a whole will be considered in the SOR. To analyze how these changes would affect the system's ability to meet its multiple-use goals, various operating scenarios will be thoroughly evaluated. The three computer models, HYSSR, HYDROSIM, and HYDREG, will play an important role in this evaluation.

  13. Daily Water Quality Forecasting System Linking Weather, Watersheds, Rivers and Dam Reservoirs Based On Numerical Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, C. Y.; Lee, S. J.; Oh, S. S.; Hwang, H. S.; Kim, H. S.

    2016-12-01

    Many large dam reservoirs and rivers, which are the most important water resources in Korea, are under increased pressure from various environmental issues, including an excessive growth of phytoplanktons(algae) because of eutrophication and long-term impact of turbid water on the water supply system after flood events. However most of organizations managing water quality respond to these problems after turbid water or algal blooms happen. But nowadays Korea Water Resources Corporation(K-water) has been upgrading its water quality management system to establish a predictive and preventive management paradigm not only in dam reservoirs but also in rivers and watersheds. For these, K-water has been setting up water quality forecasting systems using 3-dimensional hydrodynamic water quality model ELCOM-CAEDYM to all reservoirs, HSPF(Hydrological Simulation Program Fortran) to 4 watersheds and CE-QUAL-W2 to 4 main rivers in Korean Peninsula. For efficient operation and real time water quality modeling of 3 different models, K-water have also developed integrated software and centralized simulation hardware machines which run all models, link all in- and output together and visualizes results every day. With systems, K-water has been forecasting water quality of all reservoirs and rivers according to 5 days weather forecasting results and applying to predict the water quality changes in dams, rivers and watersheds in advance according to operation rule changes and climate changes.

  14. The exceptional sediment load of fine-grained dispersal systems: Example of the Yellow River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongbo; Nittrouer, Jeffrey A; Naito, Kensuke; Fu, Xudong; Zhang, Yuanfeng; Moodie, Andrew J; Wang, Yuanjian; Wu, Baosheng; Parker, Gary

    2017-05-01

    Sedimentary dispersal systems with fine-grained beds are common, yet the physics of sediment movement within them remains poorly constrained. We analyze sediment transport data for the best-documented, fine-grained river worldwide, the Huanghe (Yellow River) of China, where sediment flux is underpredicted by an order of magnitude according to well-accepted sediment transport relations. Our theoretical framework, bolstered by field observations, demonstrates that the Huanghe tends toward upper-stage plane bed, yielding minimal form drag, thus markedly enhancing sediment transport efficiency. We present a sediment transport formulation applicable to all river systems with silt to coarse-sand beds. This formulation demonstrates a remarkably sensitive dependence on grain size within a certain narrow range and therefore has special relevance to silt-sand fluvial systems, particularly those affected by dams.

  15. Non–invasive sampling of endangered neotropical river otters reveals high levels of dispersion in the Lacantun River System of Chiapas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortega, J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of genetic dispersion, levels of population genetic structure, and movement of the neotropical river otter (Lontra longicaudis were investigated by screening eight polymorphic microsatellites from DNA extracted from fecal samples, collected in a hydrologic system of the Lacandon rainforest in Chiapas, Mexico. A total of 34 unique genotypes were detected from our surveys along six different rivers, and the effect of landscape genetic structure was studied. We recovered 16 of the 34 individuals in multiple rivers at multiple times. We found high levels of dispersion and low levels of genetic differentiation among otters from the six surveyed rivers (P > 0.05, except for the pairwise comparison among the Lacantún and José rivers (P < 0.05. We recommend that conservation management plans for the species consider the entire Lacantún River System and its tributaries as a single management unit to ensure the maintenance of current levels of population genetic diversity, because the population analyzed seems to follow a source–sink dynamic mainly determined by the existence of the major river.

  16. Metal removal via particulate material in a lowland river system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster-Brown, J G; Dee, T J; Hegan, A F

    2012-01-01

    Twelve month surveys of acid-soluble and dissolved trace metal concentrations in the lower Waikato River (in 1998/9 and 2005/6) showed abnormally low particulate Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations and mass flux in autumn, when the suspended particulate material (SPM) had a relatively high diatom and organic carbon content, and low Fe and Al content. Dissolved Mn, Cu and Zn concentrations also decreased in autumn, while dissolved Fe and Pb concentrations were unaffected. While SPM settlement under the low river flow conditions present in autumn can explain the removal of particulate metals, it does not explain dissolved metal removal. SPM-metal interaction was therefore investigated using seasonal monitoring data, experimental adsorption studies, sequential extraction and geochemical modelling. Pb binding to SPM occurred predominantly via Fe-oxide surfaces, and could be reliably predicted using surface complexation adsorption modelling. Dissolved Mn concentrations were controlled by the solubility of Mn oxide, but enhanced removal during autumn could be attributed to uptake by diatoms. Zn and Cu were also adsorbed on Fe-oxide in the SPM, but removal from the water column in autumn appeared augmented by Zn adsorption onto Mn-oxide, and Cu adsorption onto the organic extracellular surfaces of the diatoms.

  17. Block-and-fault dynamics modelling of the Himalayan frontal arc: Implications for seismic cycle, slip deficit, and great earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobieva, Inessa; Mandal, Prantik; Gorshkov, Alexander

    2017-10-01

    A numerical block-and-fault dynamics model (BAFD) of the Himalayan frontal arc, India is developed to understand the long-term patterns of strain accumulation and occurrences of great earthquakes in the Himalaya. The morphostructural scheme outlines twelve major crustal blocks, and external driving motions are prescribed using GPS data. The BAFD model reproduces essential features of the geodynamics and seismicity of the Himalayan frontal arc. The locations of the large synthetic earthquakes and their maximum magnitudes are consistent with the information available from the instrumental and historical earthquake catalogues. We model the evolution of the slip deficit and seismic cycles for different sections across the Himalaya frontal arc. The modelled seismic cycles are found to be varying from 700 to 2100 years and are in good agreement with the return periods estimates from the recent paleoseismological studies. We notice that the accumulation of the slip deficit depends not only on the rate of shortening, rheology and structure but also on the dynamics of the confining crustal blocks. Further, we observe that tectonic motions of the Shillong plateau and Assam basin microplates play a significant role in controlling the seismicity patterns of the Bhutan block, which resulted in the decreased seismic activity, and increased rate of aseismic displacement. Thus, we infer that the regional seismicity patterns are a consequence of dynamics of the entire regional fault-and-block system rather than dynamics of individual fault. Our BAFD modelling predicts the maximum earthquake hazard associated with future large/great earthquakes for the central Himalayan gap region, which lies between the 1905 Kangra and the 2015 Gorkha earthquake ruptures, but relatively less hazard in Kashmir and Assam.

  18. Status and trends of selected resources in the Upper Mississippi River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Barry L.; Hagerty, Karen H.

    2010-01-01

    Like other large rivers, the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) serves a diversity of roles. The UMRS provides commercial and recreational fishing, floodplain agriculture, drinking water for many communities, an important bird migration pathway, a variety of recreational activities, and a navigation system that transports much of the country's agricultural exports. These multiple roles present significant management challenges. Regular assessment of the condition of the river is needed to improve management plans and evaluate their effectiveness. This report provides a summary of the recent status (mean and range of conditions) and trends (change in direction over time) for 24 indicators of the ecological condition of the Upper Mississippi and Illinois Rivers using data collected through the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP). The 24 indicators were grouped into seven categories: hydrology, sedimentation, water quality, land cover, aquatic vegetation, invertebrates, and fish. Most of the data used in the report were collected between about 1993 and 2004, although some older data were also used to compare to recent conditions.Historical observations and current LTRMP data clearly indicate that the UMRS has been changed by human activity in ways that have diminished the ecological health of the river. The data indicate that status and trends differ among regions, and we expect that regional responses to various ecological rehabilitation techniques will differ as well. The continuing role of the LTRMP will be to provide the data needed to assess changes in river conditions and to determine how those changes relate to management actions, natural variation, and the overall ecological integrity of the river system.

  19. ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE HUMAN -TRANSFORMED SYSTEMS OF THE IRPIN RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Madzhd

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to learn the interaction of natural and anthropogenic factors and their consequences in the system “Natural environment (Irpin river – human-transformed environment (Nyvka river”. Methods: To assess the structural and functional changes of hydroecosystems, transformed under technogenic impact, hydrochemical, toxicological and biological techniques, as well as the methods of mathematical statistics for experimental data processing and summarization of obtained results, were applied. Results: it is proposed to determine the dynamics of the biotic self-regulation mechanism change under impact of the modifying (anthropogenic factors, by the example of the two-component system – “Natural environment (Irpin River – environment, transformed under technogenic impact (Nyvka River, the right-hand tributary of the Irpin River”. It is proposed to extend additionally the opportunities of the ecological assessment due to application of the integrating index – the index of ecological conformity. Discussion: obtained results stipulate necessity of the further investigation of structural and functional patterns of the Irpin River ecosystem in space and time. Assessment of anthropogenic factors impact on hydroecosystem condition will make it possible to correct the nature guard activity concerning the improvement of the fishery object ecological condition and recreation essence of the Irpin River. Integration of the Nyvka and Irpin Rivers into a single system “Natural environment – environment, transformed under technogenic impact” will make it possible to obtain the objective assessment of technogenic changes in hydroecosystems. Implementation of the index of ecological conformity will make it possible to estimate completely the inner processes in the rivers.

  20. Insights on Uranium Behavior in a Dynamic Vadose Zone-Aquifer-River Hydrologic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabusaki, S.; Fang, Y.; Waichler, S.

    2008-12-01

    In this study, conceptual process models of uranium behavior for a vadose zone-aquifer-river hydrologic system are evaluated using numerical simulations of dynamic hydrologic and geochemical conditions. The simulations target (1) the vadose zone-aquifer interface under multiple time scales of water table fluctuation, and (2) the aquifer-river interface under spatially and temporally variable solution chemistry in the subsurface of the Hanford Site 300 Area. The large range of diurnal and seasonal fluctuations in the Columbia River stage and the highly transmissive subsurface sediments result in groundwater flow reversals, inland transport above the average water table (in contrast to the net groundwater flow to the river), and cycles of river water incursion into the aquifer. The lower pH, bicarbonate, and calcium in the dilute river water favor the formation of increased amounts of adsorbing uranyl species. Spatially and temporally variable solution chemistry in the unconfined aquifer is shown to significantly alter uranium mobility. In this case, the simulations provide a framework for upscaling and evaluating bench scale uranium sorption characterizations in the context of site-specific hydrology and geochemistry. They also offer insight on the potential for uranium-contaminated sediments in the lower vadose zone to act as a long-term, chronic source of uranium to the groundwater.

  1. Variation in turbidity with precipitation and flow in a regulated river systemriver Göta Älv, SW Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Göransson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The turbidity variation in time and space is investigated in the downstream stretch of the river Göta Älv in Sweden. The river is heavily regulated and carries the discharge from the largest fresh water lake in Sweden, Lake Vänern, to the outflow point in Göteborg Harbour on the Swedish west coast. The river is an important waterway and serves as a fresh-water supply for 700 000 users. Turbidity is utilised as a water quality indicator to ensure sufficient quality of the intake water to the treatment plant. The overall objective of the study was to investigate the influence of rainfall, surface runoff, and river water flow on the temporal and spatial variability of the turbidity in the regulated river system by employing statistical analysis of an extensive data set. A six year long time series of daily mean values on precipitation, discharge, and turbidity from six stations along the river were examined primarily through linear correlation and regression analysis, combined with nonparametric tests and analysis of variance. The analyses were performed on annual, monthly, and daily bases, establishing temporal patterns and dependences, including; seasonal changes, impacts from extreme events, influences from tributaries, and the spatial variation along the river. The results showed that there is no simple relationship between discharge, precipitation, and turbidity, mainly due to the complexity of the runoff process, the regulation of the river, and the effects of Lake Vänern and its large catchment area. For the river Göta Älv, significant, positive correlations between turbidity, discharge, and precipitation could only be found during periods with high flow combined with heavy rainfall. Local precipitation does not seem to have any significant impact on the discharge in the main river, which is primarily governed by precipitation at catchment scale. The discharge from Lake Vänern determines the base level for the turbidity in the river

  2. Biogeochemistry of mercury in a river-reservoir system: impact of an inactive chloralkali plant on the Holston River-Cherokee Reservoir, Virginia and Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrand, S. G.; Lindberg, S. E.; Turner, R. R.; Huckabee, J. W.; Strand, R. H.; Lund, J. R.; Andren, A. W.

    1980-08-01

    Elevated mercury concentrations in fish species from the North Fork of the Holston River were observed in the early 1970's. The source of the mercury was a chloralkali plant which had ceased operation in 1972. Mercury continues to be released to the river from two large (approx. 40-ha) waste disposal ponds at the plant site. This report presents results of a study of the emission of mercury to the environment from the abandoned waste ponds and of the distribution of mercury in water, sediment, and biota of the Holston River-Cherokee Reservoir System in Virginia and eastern Tennessee.

  3. Supraglacial lakes on Himalayan debris-covered glacier (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, A.; Fujita, K.

    2013-12-01

    Debris-covered glaciers are common in many of the world's mountain ranges, including in the Himalayas. Himalayan debris-covered glacier also contain abundant glacial lakes, including both proglacial and supraglacial types. We have revealed that heat absorption through supraglacial lakes was about 7 times greater than that averaged over the whole debris-covered zone. The heat budget analysis elucidated that at least half of the heat absorbed through the water surface was released with water outflow from the lakes, indicating that the warm water enlarge englacial conduits and produce internal ablation. We observed some portions at debris-covered area has caved at the end of melting season, and ice cliff has exposed at the side of depression. Those depression has suggested that roof of expanded water channels has collapsed, leading to the formation of ice cliffs and new lakes, which would accelerate the ablation of debris-covered glaciers. Almost glacial lakes on the debris-covered glacier are partially surrounded by ice cliffs. We observed that relatively small lakes had non-calving, whereas, calving has occurred at supraglacial lakes with fetch larger than 80 m, and those lakes expand rapidly. In the Himalayas, thick sediments at the lake bottom insulates glacier ice and lake water, then the lake water tends to have higher temperature (2-4 degrees C). Therefore, thermal undercutting at ice cliff is important for calving processes in the glacial lake expansion. We estimated and subaqueous ice melt rates during the melt and freeze seasons under simple geomorphologic conditions. In particular, we focused on valley wind-driven water currents in various fetches during the melt season. Our results demonstrate that the subaqueous ice melt rate exceeds the ice-cliff melt rate above the water surface when the fetch is larger than 20 m with the water temperature of 2-4 degrees C. Calculations suggest that onset of calving due to thermal undercutting is controlled by water

  4. Geoethical Audit of Himalayan Stratigraphy: A Current Insight from India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deep Ahluwalia, Arun

    2014-05-01

    Focus of this presentation is to illustrate how learned societies and an eminent academy fellow can unfortunately become a pressure group. It is a very unfair and unbecoming even perhaps more than HIMALAYAN HOAX perpetrated by V. J. Gupta two decades back for over 25 years where he fooled journals, funding agencies and about 120 co-authors. Unless corrected, our learned societies and academies may continue degenerate even more. If this can happen today in the biggest democracy of the world with rule of law and freedom of press, what may happen in other set ups across our planet. The ill conceived and highly misleading book HIMALAYAN FOSSIL FRAUD recently published from PSI, Lucknow University, gives some vital but also unfortunately partial, selective and falsified historical and scientific perspectives of the Himalayan Hoax. This book is a standing testimony of a geoethical failure of individuals and of a learned society who published it without checking facts. Lot of personal testimonies and experiences can be added by the presenter. Some INSA Fellows are today like a cooperative society for cover ups and dirty politicking. The nexus within INSA Fellows to mutually protect each other and gratify at public cost is transparent but ignored for fear and power of their huge clout. Mistakes are allowed in science but science ethics does not allow silence once a fraud is known. If one is such a celebrated VIP like Ashok Sahni and D. M. Banerjee highly rewarded and awarded by so many, it becomes mandatory to maintain highest ethical standards and appear to be doing so. Our eminent INSA Fellows and learned society PSI are making themselves look like a mafia. This is neither ethics nor science. It is pure reckless money making and petty politicking by big guns to save their own skin. Very unfortunate indeed for Lucknow University, Lucknow where PSI is based and the retired teachers manning it are staying put for a life time endlessly getting self elected. Ever lowering

  5. Identifying the Himalayan Hinterland-Foreland Transition in Central Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, K. P.; Godin, L.; Price, R. A.

    2008-12-01

    Recumbent isoclinal folds and orogen transport direction-parallel stretching lineations indicative of extending flow commonly characterize orogenic hinterlands. Strain preserved in orogenic forelands, in contrast, is typified by thrust faulting and related folding characteristic of compressing flow. Exhumed mid-crustal rocks exposed in central Nepal, which are mapped as part of the Greater Himalayan sequence (GHS), record a progressive, multi-stage metamorphic and deformation history. The GHS comprises material in the hanging wall of the Main Central thrust (MCT), here mapped at the base of Tertiary pervasive deformation and metamorphism. In the study area the GHS is separated into two distinct tectonometamorphic domains. Metamorphism and deformation of the migmatitic upper domain is interpreted to have occurred synchronously at ca. 20 Ma. Metamorphic depth estimates define an apparent field gradient of 62 MPa/km, twice that expected for pelitic gneiss density. The distorted pressure field gradient of the upper domain is interpreted to reflect post-metamorphic vertical thinning. Assuming plane strain conditions, as indicated by petrofabric data, vertical thinning of the GHS would have been paired with horizontal stretching. In contrast, metamorphism and strain in the lower domain is diachronous, younging away from the migmatitic core toward the MCT. The lower domain is interpreted to comprise thrust slices added to the hanging wall of the MCT while the fault migrated downward structurally beneath the base of the migmatitic rocks after ca. 20 Ma. The net effect of the migration of the MCT was to vertically thicken and horizontally shorten the GHS. The vertical thinning and horizontal stretching of the upper domain of the GHS indicates hinterland-style extending flow. In contrast, the vertical thickening and horizontal shortening of the lower domain of the GHS is more typical of compressing flow commonly observed in foreland regions. The transition between the upper

  6. Projecting cumulative benefits of multiple river restoration projects: an example from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River system in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondolf, G. Mathias; Angermeier, Paul L.; Cummins, Kenneth; Dunne, Thomas; Healey, Michael; Kimmerer, Wim; Moyle, Peter B.; Murphy, Dennis; Patten, Duncan; Railsback, Steve F.; Reed, Denise J.; Spies, Robert B.; Twiss, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Despite increasingly large investments, the potential ecological effects of river restoration programs are still small compared to the degree of human alterations to physical and ecological function. Thus, it is rarely possible to “restore” pre-disturbance conditions; rather restoration programs (even large, well-funded ones) will nearly always involve multiple small projects, each of which can make some modest change to selected ecosystem processes and habitats. At present, such projects are typically selected based on their attributes as individual projects (e.g., consistency with programmatic goals of the funders, scientific soundness, and acceptance by local communities), and ease of implementation. Projects are rarely prioritized (at least explicitly) based on how they will cumulatively affect ecosystem function over coming decades. Such projections require an understanding of the form of the restoration response curve, or at least that we assume some plausible relations and estimate cumulative effects based thereon. Drawing on our experience with the CALFED Bay-Delta Ecosystem Restoration Program in California, we consider potential cumulative system-wide benefits of a restoration activity extensively implemented in the region: isolating/filling abandoned floodplain gravel pits captured by rivers to reduce predation of outmigrating juvenile salmon by exotic warmwater species inhabiting the pits. We present a simple spreadsheet model to show how different assumptions about gravel pit bathymetry and predator behavior would affect the cumulative benefits of multiple pit-filling and isolation projects, and how these insights could help managers prioritize which pits to fill.

  7. Into the Himalayan exile: the phylogeography of the ground beetle Ethira clade supports the Tibetan origin of forest-dwelling Himalayan species groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Schmidt

    Full Text Available The Himalayan mountain arc is one of the hotspots of biodiversity on earth, and species diversity is expected to be especially high among insects in this region. Little is known about the origin of the Himalayan insect fauna. With respect to the fauna of high altitude cloud forests, it has generally been accepted that Himalayan lineages are derived from ancestors that immigrated from Western Asia and from adjacent mountainous regions of East and Southeast Asia (immigration hypothesis. In this study, we sought to test a Tibetan Origin as an alternative hypothesis for groups with a poor dispersal ability through a phylogeographic analysis of the Ethira clade of the genus Pterostichus. We sequenced COI mtDNA and the 18S and 28S rDNA genes in 168 Pterostichini specimens, including 46 species and subspecies of the Ethira clade. In our analysis, we were able to show that the Ethira clade is monophyletic and, thus, represents a Himalayan endemic clade, supporting endemism of two of the basal lineages to the Central Himalaya and documenting large distributional gaps within the phylogeographic structure of the Ethira clade. Furthermore, the molecular data strongly indicate very limited dispersal abilities of species and subspecies of these primary wingless ground beetles. These results are consistent with the hypothesis of a Tibetan Origin, which explains the evolution, diversity and distribution of the Himalayan ground beetle Ethira clade much more parsimoniously than the original immigration hypothesis.

  8. Real Time Monitoring System of Pollution Waste on Musi River Using Support Vector Machine (SVM) Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachrurrozi, Muhammad; Saparudin; Erwin

    2017-04-01

    Real-time Monitoring and early detection system which measures the quality standard of waste in Musi River, Palembang, Indonesia is a system for determining air and water pollution level. This system was designed in order to create an integrated monitoring system and provide real time information that can be read. It is designed to measure acidity and water turbidity polluted by industrial waste, as well as to show and provide conditional data integrated in one system. This system consists of inputting and processing the data, and giving output based on processed data. Turbidity, substances, and pH sensor is used as a detector that produce analog electrical direct current voltage (DC). Early detection system works by determining the value of the ammonia threshold, acidity, and turbidity level of water in Musi River. The results is then presented based on the level group pollution by the Support Vector Machine classification method.

  9. A qualitative ecological risk assessment of the invasive Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus in a sub-tropical African river system (Limpopo River, South Africa)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zengeya, TA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available CONSERVATION: MARINE AND FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS Aquatic Conserv: Mar. Freshw. Ecosyst. 23: 51–64 (2013) A QUALITATIVE ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF THE INVASIVE NILE TILAPIA, OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS IN A SUB- TROPICAL AFRICAN RIVER SYSTEM (LIMPOPO RIVER... Hatfield, Pretoria, 0028 South Africa b Department of Ichthyology and Fisheries Science, Rhodes University, PO Box 94, Grahamstown, 6140 South Africa c Natural Resources and the Environment Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), PO Box...

  10. A digital underwater video camera system for aquatic research in regulated rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Benjamin M.; Irwin, Elise R.

    2010-01-01

    We designed a digital underwater video camera system to monitor nesting centrarchid behavior in the Tallapoosa River, Alabama, 20 km below a peaking hydropower dam with a highly variable flow regime. Major components of the system included a digital video recorder, multiple underwater cameras, and specially fabricated substrate stakes. The innovative design of the substrate stakes allowed us to effectively observe nesting redbreast sunfish Lepomis auritus in a highly regulated river. Substrate stakes, which were constructed for the specific substratum complex (i.e., sand, gravel, and cobble) identified at our study site, were able to withstand a discharge level of approximately 300 m3/s and allowed us to simultaneously record 10 active nests before and during water releases from the dam. We believe our technique will be valuable for other researchers that work in regulated rivers to quantify behavior of aquatic fauna in response to a discharge disturbance.

  11. Summer Temperature Trend Over the Past Two Millennia Using Air Content in Himalayan Ice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hou, S; Chappellaz, J; Jouzel, J; Chu, P. C; Masson-Delmotte, V; Qin, D; Raynaud, D; Mayewski, P. A; Lipenkov, V. Y; Kang, S

    2007-01-01

    Two Himalayan ice cores display a factor-two decreasing trend of air content over the past two millennia, in contrast to the relatively stable values in Greenland and Antarctica ice cores over the same period...

  12. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Trans-Himalayan Alga Spirogyra porticalis (Muell.) Cleve: e0118255

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jatinder Kumar; Priyanka Dhar; Amol B Tayade; Damodar Gupta; Om P Chaurasia; Dalip K Upreti; Kiran Toppo; Rajesh Arora; M R Suseela; Ravi B Srivastava

    2015-01-01

      The freshwater alga Spirogyra porticalis (Muell.) Cleve, a filamentous charophyte, collected from the Indian trans-Himalayan cold desert, was identified on the basis of morpho-anatomical characters...

  13. Multivariate statistical techniques for the evaluation of surface water quality of the Himalayan foothills streams, Pakistan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Malik, Riffat Naseem; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar

    2017-01-01

    ...; thus, the water quality is closely related to public health. Multivariate techniques were applied to check spatial and seasonal trends, and metals contamination sources of the Himalayan foothills streams, Pakistan...

  14. The distribution of Himalayan Newts, Tylototriton verrucosus in the Punakha-Wangdue Valley, Bhutan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    J.T. Wangyal; D.B. Gurung

    2012-01-01

    In this study, presence-absence survey of the Himalayan Newts Tylototriton verrucosus was conducted in the Punakha-Wangdue Valley to confirm and validate the past information of the presence of the species...

  15. Geomorphic assessment of habitat suitability in large rivers from satellite remote sensing: a case study from the Ganga river system, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozumder, C.; Sinha, R.; Carbonneau, P.

    2010-12-01

    The ecological condition and biotic associations in a river are significantly influenced by geomorphic condition of the river, and therefore, any efforts towards river rehabilitation must address these issues to derive a long-term benefit. Such geomorphic diversity may be generated in various ways - discharge regimes and vegetation cover (driven by climatic setting), channel slope and bankline (driven by catchment morphology), sediment flux and accommodation (driven by geological settings). A pilot study in parts of the Ganga river in India using satellite remote sensing data involved analysis of (a) longitudinal form, (b) cross sectional form and (c) planform of the channel at these sites and derivation of various morphometric parameters. Twelve geomorphic parameters were been identified which influence the aquatic life along with the Land Use/ Land cover in the floodplain, planform dynamics, and channel-floodplain connectivity. For each parameter, four classes are defined as Excellent (A), Good (B), Degraded (C) and Poor (D). Both traditional GIS and the newly developed Fluvial Information System (FIS) were used to analyse the present geomorphic condition of the river for habitat suitability. An attempt was also made to suggest the desired future condition of the river from a geomorphic perspective and the necessary changes/adjustments in river form. These results when integrated with the hydraulic analysis can provide estimates of flow depth and flow volumes necessary for channel maintenance from ecological perspective.

  16. Developing an Approach to Prioritize River Restoration using Data Extracted from Flood Risk Information System Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimal, S.; Tarboton, D. G.; Band, L. E.; Duncan, J. M.; Lovette, J. P.; Corzo, G.; Miles, B.

    2015-12-01

    Prioritizing river restoration requires information on river geometry. In many states in the US detailed river geometry has been collected for floodplain mapping and is available in Flood Risk Information Systems (FRIS). In particular, North Carolina has, for its 100 Counties, developed a database of numerous HEC-RAS models which are available through its Flood Risk Information System (FRIS). These models that include over 260 variables were developed and updated by numerous contractors. They contain detailed surveyed or LiDAR derived cross-sections and modeled flood extents for different extreme event return periods. In this work, over 4700 HEC-RAS models' data was integrated and upscaled to utilize detailed cross-section information and 100-year modelled flood extent information to enable river restoration prioritization for the entire state of North Carolina. We developed procedures to extract geomorphic properties such as entrenchment ratio, incision ratio, etc. from these models. Entrenchment ratio quantifies the vertical containment of rivers and thereby their vulnerability to flooding and incision ratio quantifies the depth per unit width. A map of entrenchment ratio for the whole state was derived by linking these model results to a geodatabase. A ranking of highly entrenched counties enabling prioritization for flood allowance and mitigation was obtained. The results were shared through HydroShare and web maps developed for their visualization using Google Maps Engine API.

  17. CRevolution 2—Origin and evolution of the Colorado River system, workshop abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, L. Sue; Karlstrom, Karl E.; Young, Richard A.; Billingsley, George H.

    2011-01-01

    A 2010 Colorado River symposium, held in Flagstaff, Arizona, involved 70 participants who engaged in intense debate about the origin and evolution of the Colorado River system. This symposium, built upon two previous decadal scientific meetings, focused on forging scientific consensus, where possible, while articulating continued controversies regarding the Cenozoic evolution of the Colorado River System and the landscapes of the Colorado Plateau-Rocky Mountain region that it drains. New developments involved hypotheses that Neogene mantle flow is driving plateau tilting and differential uplift and new and controversial hypotheses for the pre-6 Ma presence and evolution of ancestral rivers that may be important in the history and birth of the present Colorado River. There is a consensus that plateau tilt and uplift models must be tested with multidisciplinary studies involving differential incision studies and additional geochronology and thermochronology to determine the relative importance of tectonic and geomorphic forces that shape the spectacular landscapes of the Colorado Plateau, Arizona and region. In addition to the scientific goals, the meeting participants emphasized the iconic status of Grand Canyon for geosciences and the importance of good communication between the research community, the geoscience education/interpretation community, the public, and the media. Building on a century-long tradition, this region still provides a globally important natural laboratory for studies of the interactions of erosion and tectonism in shaping the landscape of elevated plateaus.

  18. Linking the distribution of an invasive amphibian (Rana catesbeiana) to habitat conditions in a managed river system in northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra Fuller; Karen Pope; Donald Ashton; Hartwell Welsh

    2010-01-01

    Extensive modifications of river systems have left floodplains some of the most endangered ecosystems in the world and made restoration of these systems a priority. Modified river ecosystems frequently support invasive species to the detriment of native species. Rana catesbeiana (American bullfrog) is an invasive amphibian that thrives in modified...

  19. Modeling Possible Cooling-Water Intake System Impacts on Ohio River Fish Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elgin Perry

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the possible impacts caused by cooling-water intake system entrainment and impingement losses, populations of six target fish species near power plants on the Ohio River were modeled. A Leslie matrix model was constructed to allow an evaluation of bluegill, freshwater drum, emerald shiner, gizzard shad, sauger, and white bass populations within five river pools. Site-specific information on fish abundance and length-frequency distribution was obtained from long-term Ohio River Ecological Research Program and Ohio River Sanitation Commission (ORSANCO electrofishing monitoring programs. Entrainment and impingement data were obtained from 316(b demonstrations previously completed at eight Ohio River power plants. The model was first run under a scenario representative of current conditions, which included fish losses due to entrainment and impingement. The model was then rerun with these losses added back into the populations, representative of what would happen if all entrainment and impingement losses were eliminated. The model was run to represent a 50-year time period, which is a typical life span for an Ohio River coal-fired power plant. Percent changes between populations modeled with and without entrainment and impingement losses in each pool were compared to the mean interannual coefficient of variation (CV, a measure of normal fish population variability. In 6 of the 22 scenarios of fish species and river pools that were evaluated (6 species × 5 river pools, minus 8 species/river pool combinations that could not be evaluated due to insufficient fish data, the projected fish population change was greater than the expected variability of the existing fish population, indicating a possible adverse environmental impact. Given the number of other variables affecting fish populations and the conservative modeling approach, which assumed 100% mortality for all entrained fish and eggs, it was concluded that the likelihood of impact was

  20. Modeling possible cooling-water intake system impacts on Ohio River fish populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Elgin; Seegert, Greg; Vondruska, Joe; Lohner, Timothy; Lewis, Randy

    2002-04-26

    To assess the possible impacts caused by cooling-water intake system entrainment and impingement losses, populations of six target fish species near power plants on the Ohio River were modeled. A Leslie matrix model was constructed to allow an evaluation of bluegill, freshwater drum, emerald shiner, gizzard shad, sauger, and white bass populations within five river pools. Site-specific information on fish abundance and length-frequency distribution was obtained from long-term Ohio River Ecological Research Program and Ohio River Sanitation Commission (ORSANCO) electrofishing monitoring programs. Entrainment and impingement data were obtained from 316(b) demonstrations previously completed at eight Ohio River power plants. The model was first run under a scenario representative of current conditions, which included fish losses due to entrainment and impingement. The model was then rerun with these losses added back into the populations, representative of what would happen if all entrainment and impingement losses were eliminated. The model was run to represent a 50-year time period, which is a typical life span for an Ohio River coal-fired power plant. Percent changes between populations modeled with and without entrainment and impingement losses in each pool were compared to the mean interannual coefficient of variation (CV), a measure of normal fish population variability. In 6 of the 22 scenarios of fish species and river pools that were evaluated (6 species x 5 river pools, minus 8 species/river pool combinations that could not be evaluated due to insufficient fish data), the projected fish population change was greater than the expected variability of the existing fish population, indicating a possible adverse environmental impact. Given the number of other variables affecting fish populations and the conservative modeling approach, which assumed 100% mortality for all entrained fish and eggs, it was concluded that the likelihood of impact was by no means

  1. Ancient Himalayan wolf (Canis lupus chanco) lineage in Upper Mustang of the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetri, Madhu; Jhala, Yadvendradev V; Jnawali, Shant R; Subedi, Naresh; Dhakal, Maheshwar; Yumnam, Bibek

    2016-01-01

    The taxonomic status of the wolf (Canis lupus) in Nepal's Trans-Himalaya is poorly understood. Recent genetic studies have revealed the existence of three lineages of wolves in the Indian sub-continent. Of these, the Himalayan wolf, Canis lupus chanco, has been reported to be the most ancient lineage historically distributed within the Nepal Himalaya. These wolves residing in the Trans-Himalayan region have been suggested to be smaller and very different from the European wolf. During October 2011, six fecal samples suspected to have originated from wolves were collected from Upper Mustang in the Annapurna Conservation Area of Nepal. DNA extraction and amplification of the mitochondrial (mt) control region (CR) locus yielded sequences from five out of six samples. One sample matched domestic dog sequences in GenBank, while the remaining four samples were aligned within the monophyletic and ancient Himalayan wolf clade. These four sequences which matched each other, were new and represented a novel Himalayan wolf haplotype. This result confirms that the endangered ancient Himalayan wolf is extant in Nepal. Detailed genomic study covering Nepal's entire Himalayan landscape is recommended in order to understand their distribution, taxonomy and, genetic relatedness with other wolves potentially sharing the same landscape.

  2. Coastal aquifer groundwater dynamics and salt intrusion: Monitoring system of river Neretva delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srzić, Veljko; Vranješ, Mijo; Deković, Jure; Romić, Davor; Zovko, Monika; Milin, Marin

    2017-04-01

    River Neretva delta is located in southern part of Croatia and creates a complex surface- groundwater system influenced by tidal forces characteristic for Adriatic Sea and river Neretva whose discharge varies from 70 - 2700 m3/s over the year. From agricultural point of view, area is used widely for fruit production which implies existence and functionality of complex drainage system consisted of a net of lateral channels and pumping station plants with the capacity of app. 25 m3/s. Area of interest covers app 3500 ha and is bounded by river Neretva from North and Adriatic sea from West. Southern and eastern boundaries are dominantly karstic hills. Lover aquifer is confined with app depth of 65 m, made of fine gravel. Aquitard is a 15 m height layer of clay. Upper aquifer in unconfined with depth of app 10-20 m. Inside the area of interest there are 8 wells installed (each aquifer 4) measuring piezometric head on hourly/daily temporal scale. Sea level measurements are also made capturing for long term tidal oscillations. Discharge measurements are made few km downstream from hydropower plant Mostar (Bosnia and Herzegovina), while three meteorological stations for rainfall measurements are located at the area boundaries. Salt water concentration, pH and resistivity values have been measured locally, app 6 times per year for last 10 years. Results imply confined aquifer is dominantly influenced by the sea level while tidal effects are noticed 9 km upstream the river Neretva with delay of 9-12 minutes compared to sea level. Salt water cline inside the river is related to tidal effects and river discharge, with potential presence at distances of more than 15 km upstream from the sea. Salt water intrusion dominantly occurs through confined aquifer while vertical transport of salt is supposed to be enhanced by the effects of drainage system.

  3. Reactivity, interactions and transport of trace elements, organic carbon and particulate material in a mountain range river system (Adour River, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Point, David; Bareille, Gilles; Amouroux, David; Etcheber, Henri; Donard, Olivier F X

    2007-02-01

    The background levels, variability, partitioning and transport of eleven trace elements-Ag, Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn and U-were investigated in a mountain range river system (Adour River, France). This particular river system displayed a turbulent hydrodynamic regime, characterized by flash-transient discharge conditions leading to fast shifts in suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations as high as two orders of magnitude (12 to 600 mg l(-1)). The distribution of SPM was accurately predicted with a "hysteresis" transport model, indicating that about 75% of the annual solids load was exported within 20 to 40 days. Dissolved and particulate concentrations of most trace elements were low compared to their concentrations in other reference river systems expect for Pb and Cr, associated with historical anthropogenic activities. Although dissolved and particulate metal concentrations were steady for most elements during low and average discharge conditions, significant changes were observed with increasing river discharge. The changes in trace element concentrations in the two compartments was found to induce a partitioning anomaly referred to as the particulate concentration effect. This anomaly was significant for Cr, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cu and organic carbon (p < 0.03). The processes driving this anomaly were possibly linked to the modification and/or increase of colloidal organic and inorganic vectors, suggested by the significant increase of DOC (p < 0.001) and dissolved Al concentrations (p < 0.05) during flood conditions. A complementary process linked to the influence of coarse particles of low complexation capacity and transported mainly during high discharge may also effect trace element concentrations. Annual metal fluxes transported by this river system were estimated using the hysteresis SPM model with consideration of these fate processes. Metals in the Adour River system are primarily exported into the Bay of Biscay (Atlantic Ocean).

  4. LEVELS OF SOME ANIONS IN SOKOTO-RIMA RIVER SYSTEM IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ABSTRACT. The level of some anions in Sokoto-Rima River system at the fishing site of the Argungu. International Fishing and Cultural Festival (AIFCF) were analyzed. Water samples were collected for twelve months and analyzed for anions. Data generated was analyzed using. ANOVA. Statistical analysis of the data was ...

  5. Bacterial communities hitching a hike - a guide to the river system of the Red river, Disko Island, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauptmann, Aviaja Zenia Edna Lyberth; Markussen, Thor N.; Stibal, Marek

    Glacier melting and altered precipitation patterns influence Arctic freshwater and coastal ecosystems. Arctic rivers are central to Arctic water ecosystems linking glacier meltwaters and precipitation with the ocean through transport of particulate matter and microorganisms. However, the impact...... of different water sources on the microbial communities in Arctic rivers and estuaries remains unknown. In this study we used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to assess a small river and its estuary on Disko Island, West Greenland (69°N). We describe the bacterial community through a river into the estuary......, including communities originating in a glacier and a proglacial lake. Our results show that water from the glacier and lake transports distinct communities into the river in terms of diversity and community composition. Bacteria of terrestrial origin were among the dominating OTUs in the main river, while...

  6. Modelling Dissolved Pollutants in Krishna River Using Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matli, C. S.; Umamahesh, N. V.

    2014-01-01

    Water quality models are used to describe the discharge concentration relationships in the river. Number of models exists to simulate the pollutant loads in a river, of which some of them are based on simple cause effect relationships and others on highly sophisticated physical and mathematical approaches that require extensive data inputs. Fuzzy rule based modeling extensively used in other disciplines, is attempted in the present study for modeling water quality with respect of dissolved pollutants in Krishna river flowing in Southern part of India. Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference Systems (ANFIS), a recent development in the area of neuro-computing, based on the concept of fuzzy sets is used to model highly non-linear relationships and are capable of adaptive learning. This paper presents the results of the application of ANFIS for modeling dissolved pollutants in the Krishna River. The application and validation of the models is carried out using water quality and flow data obtained from the monitoring stations on the river. The results indicate that the models are quite successful in simulating the physical processes of the relationships between discharge and concentrations.

  7. Integrated Database Construction for Efficient Support of Yeongsan River Estuary Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, G. H.; Kim, K. H.; Lee, S. J.

    2014-02-01

    Yeongsan River is one of the four major rivers in South Korea, and it flows toward the Yellow Sea by passing through Damyang and Gwangju. In particular, the skewness of the main stream in Yeongsan River is relatively higher compared to other rivers. Accordingly, flood damage occurred frequently due to the flooding of sea water during tidal periods. Additionally, the environment of the estuary in Yeongsan River has been severely damaged due to indiscreet development and the inflow of various waste waters. Therefore, water quality improvement and management are crucial. For better water quality management, the government ministry is collecting various data from different fields to identify the water quality conditions. The necessity of collected data is being heightened in order to apply them into the estuary management system. However, in terms of the observed data, the observed field or items frequently modified according to social interests. Additionally, index is needed in order to search for massive amount of observation data. Due to this, the process of construction into database is relatively difficult. Therefore, in this study, these characteristics were considered for construction into the integrated DB.

  8. Numerical models for calculating hydrologic processes in river and lake-river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforovskaya, V. S.; Voevodin, A. F.

    2017-10-01

    We use one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) longitudinal-vertical mathematical models and their 2D+1D combination as well as numerical methods to study unsteady processes in the complex open channel systems under the influence of water management measures. The analysis shows the economic feasibility and efficiency of using the developed mathematical models to study hydrological process in water bodies. The study of the physical processes in complex water body, consisting of significantly different components, based on the use of only one chosen mathematical model, is uneconomical and inefficient from the viewpoint of computational expense.

  9. Daily/Hourly Hydrosystem Operation : How the Columbia River System Responds to Short-Term Needs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1994-02-01

    The System Operation Review, being conducted by the Bonneville Power Administration, the US Army Corps of Engineers, and the US Bureau of Reclamation, is analyzing current and potential future operations of the Columbia River System. One goal of the System Operations Review is to develop a new System Operation Strategy. The strategy will be designed to balance the many regionally and nationally important uses of the Columbia River system. Short-term operations address the dynamics that affect the Northwest hydro system and its multiple uses. Demands for electrical power and natural streamflows change constantly and thus are not precisely predictable. Other uses of the hydro system have constantly changing needs, too, many of which can interfere with other uses. Project operators must address various river needs, physical limitations, weather, and streamflow conditions while maintaining the stability of the electric system and keeping your lights on. It takes staffing around the clock to manage the hour-to-hour changes that occur and the challenges that face project operators all the time.

  10. Investigating the Performance of One- and Two-dimensional Flood Models in a Channelized River Network: A Case Study of the Obion River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanapu, A. J.; Dullo, T. T.; Thornton, J. C.; Auld, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    Obion River, is located in the northwestern Tennessee region, and discharges into the Mississippi River. In the past, the river system was largely channelized for agricultural purposes that resulted in increased erosion, loss of wildlife habitat and downstream flood risks. These impacts are now being slowly reversed mainly due to wetland restoration. The river system is characterized by a large network of "loops" around the main channels that hold water either from excess flows or due to flow diversions. Without data on each individual channel, levee, canal, or pond it is not known where the water flows from or to. In some segments along the river, the natural channel has been altered and rerouted by the farmers for their irrigation purposes. Satellite imagery can aid in identifying these features, but its spatial coverage is temporally sparse. All the alterations that have been done to the watershed make it difficult to develop hydraulic models, which could predict flooding and droughts. This is especially true when building one-dimensional (1D) hydraulic models compared to two-dimensional (2D) models, as the former cannot adequately simulate lateral flows in the floodplain and in complex terrains. The objective of this study therefore is to study the performance of 1D and 2D flood models in this complex river system, evaluate the limitations of 1D models and highlight the advantages of 2D models. The study presents the application of HEC-RAS and HEC-2D models developed by the Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC), a division of the US Army Corps of Engineers. The broader impacts of this study is the development of best practices for developing flood models in channelized river systems and in agricultural watersheds.

  11. Downstream and seasonal changes of lithium isotope ratios in the Ganges-Brahmaputra river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaka, Takuya; Araoka, Daisuke; Yoshimura, Toshihiro; Hossain, H. M. Zakir; Nishio, Yoshiro; Suzuki, Atsushi; Kawahata, Hodaka

    2017-08-01

    The Li isotope ratio (δ7Li) is expected to be a useful tracer of silicate weathering in river and groundwater systems, which is an important contributor to the seawater compositional changes that accompany the evolution of the Earth's surface environment. To obtain accurate estimates of continental Li fluxes to the ocean, we determined δ7Li values of dissolved Li in the lower Ganges-Brahmaputra river system in both the dry and rainy seasons, and in deep groundwater in the Bengal basin. Dissolved Li and δ7Li values in the lower reaches of the rivers (0.04-0.66 µmol kg-1 and +19.1‰ to +34.2‰, respectively) were predominantly derived from silicate weathering, as is the case in the upper parts of these rivers. We observed large changes in δ7Li over a distance of more than 1000 km downstream that were due mainly to Rayleigh-type removal of Li from river water. Extremely high Li concentrations (1.15-1.67 µmol kg-1) and low δ7Li values (+5.1‰ to +11.6‰) in groundwater samples indicate congruent isotope leaching and dissolution of silicate minerals in the deep aquifer, where the water residence time is long. In the rainy season, Li concentrations and δ7Li values were lower than in the dry season, owing to the shorter residence time of river water and the substantial input of local subsurface flow through lowland alluvium. These results suggest that accurate estimation of continental Li fluxes to the ocean should take account of downstream and seasonal changes, as well as aquifer depth variations, in δ7Li values.

  12. Thidiazuron: A potent cytokinin for efficient plant regeneration in Himalayan poplar (Populus ciliata Wall. using leaf explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Aggarwal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Populus species are important resource for certain branches of industry and have special roles for scientific study on biological and agricultural systems. The present investigation was undertaken with an objective of enhancing the frequency of plant regeneration in Himalayan poplar (Populus ciliata Wall.. The effect of Thiadizuron (TDZ alone and in combination with adenine and α-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA were studied on the regeneration potential of leaf explants. A high efficiency of shoot regeneration was observed in leaf (80.00% explants on MS basal medium supplemented with 0.024 mg/l TDZ and 79.7 mg/l adenine. Elongation and multiplication of shoots were obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS basal medium, containing 0.5 mg/l 6. Benzyl aminopurine (BAP + 0.2mg/l Indole 3-acetic acid (IAA + 0.3 mg/l Gibberellic acid (GA3. High frequency root regeneration from in vitro developed shoots was observed on MS basal medium supplemented with 0.10 mg/l Indole 3-butyric acid(IBA. Maximum of the in vitro rooted plantlets were well accomplished to the mixture of sand: soil (1:1 and exhibited similar morphology with the field plants. A high efficiency plant regeneration protocol has been developedfrom leaf explants in Himalayan poplar (Populus ciliata Wall..

  13. Thidiazuron: A potent cytokinin for efficient plant regeneration in Himalayan poplar (Populus ciliata Wall. using leaf explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Aggarwal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Populus species are important resource for certain branches of industry and have special roles for scientific study on biological and agricultural systems. The present investigation was undertaken with an objective of enhancing the frequency of plant regeneration in Himalayan poplar (Populus ciliataWall.. The effect of Thiadizuron (TDZ alone and in combination with adenine and alpha-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA were studied on the regeneration potential of leaf explants. A high efficiency of shoot regeneration was observed in leaf (80.00% explants on MS basal medium supplemented with 0.024 mg/l TDZ and 79.7 mg/l adenine. Elongation and multiplication of shoots were obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS basal medium, containing 0.5 mg/l 6. Benzyl aminopurine (BAP + 0.2mg/l Indole 3-acetic acid (IAA + 0.3 mg/l Gibberellic acid (GA3. High frequency root regeneration from in vitro developed shoots was observed on MS basal medium supplemented with 0.10 mg/l Indole 3-butyric acid (IBA. Maximum of the in vitro rooted plantlets were well accomplished to the mixture of sand: soil (1:1 and exhibited similar morphology with the field plants. A high efficiency plant regeneration protocol has been developed from leaf explants in Himalayan poplar (Populus ciliata Wall.. 

  14. Multi purpose planning with the ``River System Simulator``, a design support system for water resources planning and operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harby, A. [Norsk Hydroteknisk Lab., Trondheim (Norway); Killingtveit, Aa. [Inst. for Vassbygging, Norges Tekniske Hoegskole, Trondheim (Norway)

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes a computer system called the River System Simulator (RSS) which has been developed in Norway and released for use in 1994. The simulator includes 14 different models for use in hydropower and water resources planning and operation, with special emphasis on environmental effects of river regulations. All models are integrated within one system, with a common user interface and one common database to facilitate the data exchange between different models, and to simplify data storage and data integrity. The user interface is based on modern principles, with emphasis on graphics and readily available help on-line. The first implementation of the simulator has been on Unix-workstations with access to a powerful commercial relational database manager for data storage. The simulator was aimed at two main purposes, multi purpose planning in connection with uprating and refurbishing of existing power plants, and for new hydro power plants, and optimal operation of hydro power systems. The RSS has been extensively tested in three Norwegian rivers in 1993. As the first applications outside Norway the database part of the simulator was selected for environmental data in a large water use project in Zambezi river in Africa. This project will be finished in 1994. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Quantitative mineralogy of the Yukon River system: Changes with reach and season, and determining sediment provenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberl, D.D.

    2004-01-01

    mineral dissolution during transport between Eagle and Pilot Station, a distance of over 2000 km. We estimate that approximately 3 wt% of the quartz, 15 wt% of the feldspar (1 wt% of the alkali and 25 wt% of the plagioclase), and 26 wt% of the carbonates (31 wt% of the calcite and 15 wt% of the dolomite) carried by the river dissolve in this reach. The mineralogies of the suspended sediments change with the season. For example, during the summer of 2002 the quartz content varied by 20 wt%, with a minimum in mid-summer. The calcite content varied by a similar amount, and had a maximum corresponding to the quartz minimum. These modes are related to the relative amount of sediment flowing from the White River system, which is relatively poor in quartz, but rich in carbonate minerals. Suspended total clay minerals varied by as much as 25 wt%, with maxima in mid July, and suspended feldspar varied up to 10 wt%. Suspended sediment data from the summers of 2001 and 2003 support the 2002 trends. A calculation technique was developed to determine theproportion of various sediment sources in a mixed sediment by unmixing its quantitative mineralogy. Results from this method indicate that at least three sediment sources can be identified quantitatively with good accuracy. With this technique, sediment mineralogies can be used to calculate the relative flux of sediment from different tributaries, thereby identifying sediment provenance.

  16. Resilience and flood risk management: A systems approach applied to lowland rivers

    OpenAIRE

    de Bruijn, K.M.

    2005-01-01

    Floods along lowland rivers still cause a lot of damage and casualties although centuries of experience with flood risk management have passed. In order to reduce flood impacts and to prevent flood waves from causing disasters, the current and alternative flood risk management strategies need to be reconsidered. As a potential solution the Dutch policy makers propose to increase the resilience of systems, since resilient systems are expected to be able to cope better with disturbances such as...

  17. An accounting system for water and consumptive use along the Colorado River, Hoover Dam to Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.; Raymond, Lee H.

    1996-01-01

    An accounting system for estimating and distributing consumptive use of water by vegetation to water users was developed for the Colorado River to meet the requirements of a U.S. Supreme Court decree and used with data from calendar year 1984. The system is based on a water-budget method to estimate total consumptive use by vegetation which is apportioned to agricultural users by using percentages of total evapotranspiration by vegetation estimated from digital-image analysis of satellite data.

  18. A fuzzy risk approach for seasonal water quality management of a river system.

    OpenAIRE

    Mujumdar, PP; K Sasikumar

    2002-01-01

    A fuzzy optimization model is developed for the seasonal water quality management of river systems. The model addresses the uncertainty in a water quality system in a fuzzy probability framework. The occurrence of low water quality is treated as a fuzzy event. Randomness associated with the water quality indicator is linked to this fuzzy event using the concept of probability of a fuzzy event. In most water quality management models the risk level for violation of a water quality standard is ...

  19. Numerical simulation of groundwater flow for the Yakima River basin aquifer system, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, D.M.; Bachmann, M.P.; Vaccaro, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    A regional, three-dimensional, transient numerical model of groundwater flow was constructed for the Yakima River basin aquifer system to better understand the groundwater-flow system and its relation to surface-water resources. The model described in this report can be used as a tool by water-management agencies and other stakeholders to quantitatively evaluate proposed alternative management strategies that consider the interrelation between groundwater availability and surface-water resources.

  20. Development of a dynamic strategy planning theory and system for sustainable river basin land use management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Ho; Liu, Wei-Lin; Liaw, Shu-Liang; Yu, Chien-Hwa

    2005-06-15

    Land use management is central to government planning for sustainable development. The main purpose of this study is to develop a novel strategy planning theory and system to assist responsible authorities in obtaining alternatives of sustainable top river basin land use management. The concepts and theory of system analysis, driving force-state-response (DSR) framework, and system dynamics are used to establish the DSR dynamic strategy planning procedure in this work. The integrated management of the land, water, and air resources of a river basin system is considered in the procedure. Two modified land use management procedures combined with the DSR dynamic strategy planning procedure are developed in this work. Based on the DSR dynamic strategy planning procedure, the sustainable river basin land use management DSR dynamic decision support system (SRBLUM-DSRD-DSS) is developed by using the Vensim, MS Excel, ArcView, and Visual Basic software. The concepts of object-orientation are used to develop the system dynamic optimization and simulation models of SRBLUM-DSRD-DSS. Based on the modified land use management procedures, SRBLUM-DSRD-DSS is used to assist decision makers in generating the land use plans of the Nankan river basin in Taoyuan County of Taiwan. Since the decisions of land, water and air resources management are still made at different agencies, the land use management system should be modified based on the innovational procedure to implement the management strategy developed in this work. The results show that the modified land use management procedures can be a guidance for the governments in modifying the systems and regulation of urban and regional plans in Taiwan.

  1. Application of a Sediment Information System to the Three Gorges Project on Yangtze River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shuyou; Liu, Xingnian; Yang, Kejun; Li, Changzhi

    Based on survey and analysis of a huge number of observed entrance sediment transport data and the research results of physical and numerical modeling of Three Gorges Reservoir on the Yangtze River, a sediment information system was designed. The basis of this system includes spatial data and properties of geographic elements, and various documents involved to the Three Gorges Project (TGP). Database and knowledge base are constructed as the information bank. The running environment is constructed by the general control program to realize requirements about various sediment information. The system chooses the window software as the system software. The techniques of graphical user interfaces and groupware geographic information system are applied in this system. In this phase, the emphases of the system are development of document system, map system, and presentation system. Cross-section system of the TGP was also attached. For further improvement of the system, a prepared interface of decision supporting subsystem is finished.

  2. Magnetic tracing of material from a point source in a river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Erwin; Liu, Zhao; Mülller, Christina; Frančišković-Bilinski, Stanislav; Rösler, Wolfgang; Zhang, Qi

    2017-04-01

    In fluvial environment, the mechanism of transport, distribution, and fate of contaminants, and the resulting distribution patterns are complex but only limited studied. A case in Croatia where highly magnetic coal slag was dumped into a river for more than one century (1884-1994) offers an ideal target for studying principles of how to capture the magnetic record of environmental pollution in a river system originating from a well-defined point source. Downstream transport of the coal slag can be roughly recognized by simple sampling of river sediments, but this approach is poorly significant due to the extremely variable magnetic properties caused by hydrodynamic sorting. We suggest applying variogram analyses in river traverses to obtain more reliable values of magnetic concentration, and combining these results with modeling of river bottom magnetic anomalies in order to estimate the amount of coal slag at certain positions. A major focus of this presentation is the translocation of coal slag material to the riverbanks by flooding, i.e. the possible identification of flood affected areas and the discrimination of different flood events. Surface magnetic susceptibility (MS) mapping clearly outlines the extent of flooded areas, and repeated measurements after one year reveal the reach of two recent smaller floods within this period by spatial delineation of strong positive and negative changes of MS values. To identify older flood signatures, dense grids of vertical MS profiles were analyzed at two riverbank areas in two different ways. First, by determining differences between depth horizons at the measurement points, and second, by contouring the vertical MS profiles as a function of the distance to the river (area with flat riverbank topography) and as a function of terrain elevation (area with oblique riverbank). Single flood events cannot be discriminated, but the second approach allows to approximately identify the extent of major historical floods which

  3. Migration of the Ganga river and its implication on hydro-geological ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    existent in its present location near Varanasi.Instead,it was flowing further south towards peripheral craton.Himalayan derived grey micaceous sands were being carried by southward flowing rivers beyond the present day water divide of Ganga and ...

  4. Sediment management of run-of-river hydroelectric power project in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neena Isaac

    management. This paper presents the drawdown flushing studies of the reservoir of a Himalayan River. Hydroelectric Project called Kotlibhel in Uttarakhand, India. For the ... The model studies show that the sedimentation problem of the reservoir can be ..... [6] Yoon Y N 1992 The state and the perspective of the direct.

  5. Observed Changes in the Himalayan Glaciers: Multiple Driving Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romshoo, Shakil; Rashid, Irfan; Abdullah, Tariq; Fayaz, Midhat

    2017-04-01

    There is lack of credible knowledge about Himalayan cryosphere as is evident from the contradictory reports about the status of the glaciers in the region. Glacier behavior in Himalaya has to be understood and interpreted in light of the multiple driving factors; topography, climate and anthropocene. The observed changes in Himalayan glaciers, determined by studying a few hundred glaciers in the Himalaya, indicated that the glacier response varies across different ranges. Satellite images (1990-2015), DEM, altimetry data supported by selective field campaigns, were used to map the changes in glacier boundaries, snout, ELA, AAR, volume, thickness, debris cover and several other glacier parameters. The glaciers across the six ranges of Pir Panjal (PR), Greater Himalaya (GH), Shamasbari (SR), Zanaskar (ZR), Leh (LR) and Karakorum (KR) showed quite varied changes. It was observed that the glaciers in the KR show the least glacial area recession (1.59%) primarily due to the extreme cold winters with -18oC average temperature. Other glacial parameters like snout, ELA, AAR and glacier volume also showed very little changes in the KR during the period. The glaciers in the LR, with an average winter temperature of -6o C, have shrunk, on an average, by 4.19 % during the period, followed by the glaciers in the ZR showing a loss of 5.46%. The highest glacier retreat of 7.72% and 6.94% was observed in the GH and SR with the average winter temperature of -1.3oc and -6.2oc respectively. In the PR, almost all the glaciers have vanished during the last 6-7 decades due to the increasing winter temperatures. The glaciers in the Kashmir showed an overall recession of 26.40% in area which is one of the highest reported for the Himalayan glaciers. The glaciers in the valley showed the maximum reduction in thickness (2.56m) using the IceSat data from 2000-08 while as the Karakoram glaciers showed the least reduction in thickness (0.53m). It was found that the maximum recession of glacial

  6. River networks as ecological corridors: A complex systems perspective for integrating hydrologic, geomorphologic, and ecologic dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Levin, Simon A.; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    This paper synthesizes recent works at the interface of hydrology, geomorphology, and ecology under an integrated framework of analysis with an aim for a general theory. It addresses a wide range of related topics, including biodiversity of freshwater fish in river networks and vegetation along riparian systems, how river networks affected historic spreading of human populations, and how they influence the spreading of water-borne diseases. Given the commonalities among various dendritic structures and despite the variety and complexity of the ecosystems involved, we present here an integrated line of research addressing the above and related topics through a unique, coherent ecohydrological thread and similar mathematical methods. Metacommunity and individual-based models are studied in the context of hydrochory, population, and species migrations and the spreading of infections of water-borne diseases along the ecological corridors of river basins. A general theory emerges on the effects of dendritic geometries on the ecological processes and dynamics operating on river basins that will establish a new significant scientific branch. Insights provided by such a theory will lend themselves to issues of great practical importance such as integration of riparian systems into large-scale resource management, spatial strategies to minimize loss of freshwater biodiversity, and effective prevention campaigns against water-borne diseases.

  7. A concurrent neuro-fuzzy inference system for screening the ecological risk in rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo-Duque, William; Juraske, Ronnie; Kumar, Vikas; Nadal, Martí; Domingo, José Luis; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2012-05-01

    A conceptual model to assess water quality in river basins was developed here. The model was based on ecological risk assessment principles, and incorporated a novel ranking and scoring system, based on self-organizing maps, to account for the likely ecological hazards posed by the presence of chemical substances in freshwater. This approach was used to study the chemical pollution in the Ebro River basin (Spain), whose currently applied environmental indices must be revised in terms of scientific accuracy. Ecological hazard indexes for chemical substances were calculated by pattern recognition of persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity properties. A fuzzy inference system was proposed to compute ecological risk points (ERP), which are a combination of the ecological hazard to aquatic sensitive organisms and environmental concentrations. By aggregating ERP, changes in water quality over time were estimated. The proposed concurrent neuro-fuzzy model was applied to a comprehensive dataset of the network controlling the levels of dangerous substances, such as metals, pesticides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, in the Ebro river basin. The approach was verified by comparison versus biological monitoring. The results showed that water quality in the Ebro river basin is affected by presence of micro-pollutants. The ERP approach is suitable to analyze overall trends of potential threats to freshwater ecosystems by anticipating the likely impacts from multiple substances, although it does not account for synergies among pollutants. Anyhow, the model produces a convenient indicator to search for pollutant levels of concern.

  8. Scaling characteristics of mountainous river flow fluctuations determined using a shallow-water acoustic tomography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Sawaf, Mohamad Basel; Kawanisi, Kiyosi; Kagami, Junya; Bahreinimotlagh, Masoud; Danial, Mochammad Meddy

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the scaling exponent properties of mountainous river flow fluctuations by detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). Streamflow data were collected continuously using Fluvial Acoustic Tomography System (FATS), which is a novel system for measuring continuous streamflow at high-frequency scales. The results revealed that river discharge fluctuations have two scaling regimes and scaling break. In contrast to the Ranting Curve method (RC), the small-scale exponent detected by the FATS is estimated to be 1.02 ± 0.42% less than that estimated by RC. More importantly, the crossover times evaluated from the FATS delayed approximately by 42 ± 21 hr ≈2-3 days than their counterparts estimated by RC. The power spectral density analysis assists our findings. We found that scaling characteristics information evaluated for a river using flux data obtained by RC approach might not be accurately detected, because this classical method assumes that flow in river is steady and depends on constructing a relationship between discharge and water level, while the discharge obtained by the FATS decomposes velocity and depth into two ratings according to the continuity equation. Generally, this work highlights the performance of FATS as a powerful and effective approach for continuous streamflow measurements at high-frequency levels.

  9. Occurrence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in the Temuan Orang Asli (aborigine) River System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Y A L; Aahmad, R A

    2004-12-01

    A survey of the river water frequently used by the Temuan Orang Asli (aborigine) indicated that 66.7% of the river water samples were Giardia cyst positive and 5.6% were Cryptosporidium oocyst positive. Although Giardia cysts were detected in samples from all the sites (e.g. upstream, midstream, and downstream), Cryptosporidium was only present in one river water sample taken from downstream from a village. The only sample of upstream water which contained Giardia cysts had a concentration of 0.7 cysts/l. All samples taken from midstream contained cysts with a mean concentration of 9.8 +/- 6.6 cysts/l (range = 1-20 cysts/l). Eighty-three point three percent of the samples collected from downstream contained cysts and 16.7% had oocysts. The average concentration of cysts was 12.9 +/- 16.4 cysts/l (range = 0-44 cysts/l), whereas the oocyst concentration was 0.4 oocysts/l. All river samples tested positive for the presence of E. coli, indicating fecal contamination. The results of this study imply that the river system is contaminated with fecal-oral transmitted parasites. The river water, used by the Orang Asli, is a probable route for Giardia and Cryptosporidium transmission in this community. Long term strategies, incorporating health education regarding personal hygiene, and provision of toilets and the importance of their proper usage, need to be embraced by this community in order to control the spread of these parasites.

  10. Role of hydrological events in sediment and sediment-associated heavy metals transport within a continental transboundary river system - Tuul River case study (Mongolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietroń, Jan; Jarsjö, Jerker

    2013-04-01

    The concentration of heavy metals in rivers is often greater in the sediment load than in the water solution. Overall, heavy metal conveyance with sediment transport is a significant contributor to the global transport of heavy metals. Heavy metals once released to a river system may remain in the deposits of the river from short to very long times, for instance depending on to which extent erosion and deposition can influence the sediment mass stored in the river bed. In general, the mobility of contaminated sediments to downstream water recipients may to large extent be governed by natural sediment transport dynamics during hydrological events, such as flow peaks following heavy rainfalls. The Tuul River (Northern Mongolia) belongs to a Tuul River-Orkhon River-Selenga River- transboundary river system that discharges into Lake Baikal. The river system is largely characterized by its natural hydrological regime with numerous rapid peak flow events of the spring-summer periods. However, recent studies indicate contamination of fine sediment with heavy metals coming from placer gold mining area (Zaamar Goldfield) located along the downstream Tuul River. In this work, the general idea is to create a one-dimensional sediment transport model of the downstream Tuul River, and use field-data supported modeling to investigate natural erosion-deposition rates and the role of peak flows in natural sediment transport at 14 km reach just downstream the gold mining area. The model results show that the sediment load of the finest investigated grain size has a great potential to be eroded from the bed of the studied reach, especially during the main peak flow events. However, the same events are associated with a significant deposition of the finest material. The model results also show different hysteresis behavior of the sediment load rating curves (clockwise and counter-clockwise) during the main peak flow events. These are interpreted as effects of changing in

  11. Carbon Transport, Transformation and Retention in Tropical Systems: The Lower Tana River Corridor as a Natural Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govers, G.; Omengo, F.; Geeraert, N.; Bouillon, S.; Neyens, G.

    2016-12-01

    The lower Tana river in Kenya is an active river carrying high sediment and carbon loads, while lateral influxes from tributaries are very limited. We used this river as a natural laboratory to study the dynamics of carbon in the river-floodplain system. We measured carbon fluxes in the river as well as rates of carbon processing. Furthermore, we assessed carbon deposition in the floodplain and carbon mobilisation by river migration. We show that both within-river carbon dynamics as well as river-floodplain interaction can only be understood by accounting for autogenic river processes: the amounts of sediment (5-6 Mt yr-1) and particulate organic carbon (120-180 Mg yr-1) that are re-mobilised within the river reach (300 km) are similar to the amounts the reach receives from upstream. Carbon and sediment mobilisation are compensated for by deposition, both in the floodplain and within the river (point bars). This intensive exchange explains why the suspended sediment in the Tana river becomes finer (and more enriched in carbon) in the downstream direction, despite the deposition of fine, carbon-rich sediments in the floodplain. Contrary to what is found in temperate floodplains, overall carbon burial appears not to be very effective: most buried carbon is mineralised within decades after burial. However, burial efficiency is much higher for allochthonous organic carbon (deposited by the river) than for autochthonous organic carbon (sourced from local primary production). The Tana river does not only exchange carbon with its floodplain through deposition and remobilisation of POC. When floods occur, the floodplain acts as an important source of dissolved organic and inorganic carbon which is not only produced by organic carbon decomposition but also by weathering. Finally, there is significant CO2 outgassing from the Tana river, releasing 3-5 Mg C yr-1 to the atmosphere. Our study highlights the role of tropical river corridors as highly dynamic environments, which

  12. A SYSTEM DYNAMICS-BASED CONFLICT RESOLUTION MODEL FOR RIVER WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Karamouz, M. Akhbari, A. Moridi, R. Kerachian

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available System dynamics approach by simulating a bargaining process can be used for resolving conflict of interests in water quality management. This approach can be a powerful alternative for traditional approaches for conflict resolution, which often rely on classical game theory. Waste load allocation models for river water quality management determine the optimal monthly waste load allocation to each point load. Most of these approaches are based on the multi-objective optimization models and do not consider the existing conflicts. In this study, a system dynamics-based conflict resolution model is presented for monthly waste load allocation in river systems. In this model, the stakeholders and decision-makers negotiate with each other considering their relative authorities, aspirations and dissatisfactions. System dynamics approach is actually used for simulating the bargaining process among the players. The model incorporates the objectives and preferences of stakeholders and decision-makers of the system in the form of utility functions and could provide a final agreement among the players. To evaluate the spatial and temporal variation of the concentration of the water quality indicator in the system, a water quality simulation model is also linked to the conflict resolution model. In the proposed model, a pre-assigned utility is allocated to different water users and the results are evaluated using a simulation model. The allocated utilities are tested and adjusted in order to provide an agreement between the assumed utilities and the utilities assigned by the model. The proposed model is applied to the Karkheh River system located in the southwest of Iran. The results show that the model can effectively incorporate the preferences of the players in providing a final agreement and the runtime of the proposed model is much less than the classical conflict resolution models. It is also shown that the waste load allocation can significantly reduce

  13. Development and application of a large scale river system model for National Water Accounting in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Dushmanta; Vaze, Jai; Kim, Shaun; Hughes, Justin; Yang, Ang; Teng, Jin; Lerat, Julien

    2017-04-01

    Existing global and continental scale river models, mainly designed for integrating with global climate models, are of very coarse spatial resolutions and lack many important hydrological processes, such as overbank flow, irrigation diversion, groundwater seepage/recharge, which operate at a much finer resolution. Thus, these models are not suitable for producing water accounts, which have become increasingly important for water resources planning and management at regional and national scales. A continental scale river system model called Australian Water Resource Assessment River System model (AWRA-R) has been developed and implemented for national water accounting in Australia using a node-link architecture. The model includes major hydrological processes, anthropogenic water utilisation and storage routing that influence the streamflow in both regulated and unregulated river systems. Two key components of the model are an irrigation model to compute water diversion for irrigation use and associated fluxes and stores and a storage-based floodplain inundation model to compute overbank flow from river to floodplain and associated floodplain fluxes and stores. The results in the Murray-Darling Basin shows highly satisfactory performance of the model with median daily Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) of 0.64 and median annual bias of less than 1% for the period of calibration (1970-1991) and median daily NSE of 0.69 and median annual bias of 12% for validation period (1992-2014). The results have demonstrated that the performance of the model is less satisfactory when the key processes such as overbank flow, groundwater seepage and irrigation diversion are switched off. The AWRA-R model, which has been operationalised by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology for continental scale water accounting, has contributed to improvements in the national water account by substantially reducing accounted different volume (gain/loss).

  14. Source to sink: Evolution of lignin composition in the Madre de Dios River system with connection to the Amazon basin and offshore

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Xiaojuan; Feakins, Sarah J.; Liu, Zongguang; Ponton, Camilo; Wang, Renée Z.; Karkabi, Elias; Galy, Valier; Berelson, William M.; Nottingham, Andrew T.; Meir, Patrick; West, A. Joshua

    2016-01-01

    While lignin geochemistry has been extensively investigated in the Amazon River, little is known about lignin distribution and dynamics within deep, stratified river channels or its transformations within soils prior to delivery to rivers. We characterized lignin phenols in soils, river particulate organic matter (POM), and dissolved organic matter (DOM) across a 4 km elevation gradient in the Madre de Dios River system, Peru, as well as in marine sediments to investigate the source-to-sink e...

  15. Geochemistry and magnetic measurements of suspended sediment in urban sewage water vis-à-vis quantification of heavy metal pollution in Ganga and Yamuna Rivers, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakarvorty, Munmun; Dwivedi, Akhil Kumar; Shukla, Anil Dutt; Kumar, Sujeet; Niyogi, Ambalika; Usmani, Mavera; Pati, Jayanta Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Sewage water is becoming a key source of heavy metal toxicity in large river systems worldwide and the two major Himalayan Rivers in India (Ganga and Yamuna) are severely affected. The high population density in the river banks combined with increased anthropogenic and industrial activities is contributing to the heavy metal pollution in these rivers. Geochemical data shows a significant increase in the concentration of all heavy metals (Pb, 48-86 ppm; Zn, 360-834 ppm; V, 45-101 ppm; Ni, 20-143 ppm; Cr, 79-266 ppm; Co, 8.62-22.12 ppm and Mn, 313-603 ppm) in sewage and mixed water (sewage and river water confluence site) samples due to increased effluent discharge from the catchment area. The ΣREE content of sewage water (129 ppm) is lower than the average mixed water samples (142 ppm). However, all the samples show similar REE pattern. The mass magnetic susceptibility (Xlf) values of suspended sediments (28 to 1000 × 10(-8) m(3) kg(-1)) indicate variable concentration of heavy metals. The Xlf values show faint positive correlation with their respective bulk heavy metal contents in a limited sample population. The present study comprising geochemical analysis and first magnetic measurement data of suspended sediments in water samples shows a strongly polluted nature of Ganga and Yamuna Rivers at Allahabad contrary to the previous report mainly caused by overtly polluted city sewage water.

  16. SOFTWARE AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM OF YENISEI RIVER BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kadochnikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The work considers the questions of formation of problem-focused geoinformation system of the Yenisei river basin based on interdisciplinary scientific studies. The creation of a system, in which are collected and systematized information about its river network, will provide an opportunity for analysis and modeling of hydrological processes various natural and man-made phenomena, qualitative and quantitative assessment of water resources, ecological status. Methodological basis of development is a regional system of indicators for sustainable environmental management. Development is created in the service-oriented paradigm on the basis of geoportal technologies, interactive web mapping, distributed storage and data processing. The focus in this article is paid to the problems of software design and technological support, the characteristics of software components implementation of the web GIS, the effective processing and presentation of geospatial data.

  17. A Review of Flood-Related Storage and Remobilization of Heavy Metal Pollutants in River Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciszewski, Dariusz; Grygar, Tomáš Matys

    2016-01-01

    Recently observed rapid climate changes have focused the attention of researchers and river managers on the possible effects of increased flooding frequency on the mobilization and redistribution of historical pollutants within some river systems. This text summarizes regularities in the flood-related transport, channel-to-floodplain transfer, and storage and remobilization of heavy metals, which are the most persistent environmental pollutants in river systems. Metal-dispersal processes are essentially much more variable in alluvia than in soils of non-inundated areas due to the effects of flood-sediment sorting and the mixing of pollutants with grains of different origins in a catchment, resulting in changes of one to two orders of magnitude in metal content over distances of centimetres. Furthermore, metal remobilization can be more intensive in alluvia than in soils as a result of bank erosion, prolonged floodplain inundation associated with reducing conditions alternating with oxygen-driven processes of dry periods and frequent water-table fluctuations, which affect the distribution of metals at low-lying strata. Moreover, metal storage and remobilization are controlled by river channelization, but their influence depends on the period and extent of the engineering works. Generally, artificial structures such as groynes, dams or cut-off channels performed before pollution periods favour the entrapment of polluted sediments, whereas the floodplains of lined river channels that adjust to new, post-channelization hydraulic conditions become a permanent sink for fine polluted sediments, which accumulate solely during overbank flows. Metal mobilization in such floodplains takes place only by slow leaching, and their sediments, which accrete at a moderate rate, are the best archives of the catchment pollution with heavy metals.

  18. Evolution of the vegetation system in the Heihe River basin in the last 2000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shoubo; Zhao, Yan; Wei, Yongping; Zheng, Hang

    2017-08-01

    The response of vegetation systems to the long-term changes in climate, hydrology, and social-economic conditions in river basins is critical for sustainable river basin management. This study aims to investigate the evolution of natural and crop vegetation systems in the Heihe River basin (HRB) over the past 2000 years. Archived Landsat images, historical land use maps and hydrological records were introduced to derive the long-term spatial distribution of natural and crop vegetation and the corresponding biomass levels. The major findings are that (1) both natural and crop vegetation experienced three development stages: a pre-development stage (before the Republic of China), a rapid development stage (Republic of China - 2000), and a post-development stage (after 2000). Climate and hydrological conditions did not show significant impacts over crop vegetation, while streamflow presented synchronous changes with natural vegetation in the first stage. For the second stage, warmer temperature and increasing streamflow were found to be important factors for the increase in both natural and crop vegetation in the middle reaches of the HRB. For the third stage, positive climate and hydrological conditions, together with policy interventions, supported the overall vegetation increase in both the middle and lower HRB; (2) there was a significantly faster increase in crop biomass than that of native vegetation since 1949, which could be explained by the technological development; and (3) the ratio of natural vegetation to crop vegetation decreased from 16 during the Yuan Dynasty to about 2.2 since 2005. This ratio reflects the reaction of land and water development to a changing climate and altering social-economic conditions at the river basin level; therefore, it could be used as an indicator of water and land management at river basins.

  19. Dynamic transport capacity in gravel-bed river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. E. Lisle; B. Smith

    2003-01-01

    Abstract - Sediment transport capacity mediates the transfer and storage of bed material between alluvial reservoirs in a drainage system. At intermediate time scales corresponding to the evolution of sediment pulses, conditions governing bed-material transport capacity under the hydrologic regime respond to variations in storage and sediment flux as pulses extend,...

  20. The Impacts of Agricultural Land Use on Dissolved Organic Matter in a Dryland River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, J. L.; Bergamaschi, B. A.; Van Horn, D. J.; Diefendorf, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    Globally, expanding agriculture is significantly impacting aquatic nutrient cycles. In mesic systems, agriculture is a source of nitrogen and phosphorus and increases concentrations of structurally simple dissolved organic carbon (DOC). In contrast, recent studies suggest in dryland systems, where wastewater effluent is a primary nutrient source, agriculture is a nutrient sink—retaining nitrogen and phosphorous. Importantly, very little, is known about the influence of agriculture on DOC dynamics in dryland systems. To address this gap we used synoptic sampling, UV-absorbance, and fluorescence spectroscopy to elucidate source, character, and concentration of riverine and runoff DOC in a dryland agricultural system. Samples were collected along a 25 km stretch of the Rio Grande River in New Mexico (USA). The Rio Grande is an impoundment/irrigation-withdrawal controlled river that receives water from snowmelt, monsoonal storms, and wastewater effluent. During irrigation approximately 80% of the river's water is diverted into a manmade network where it waters crops and percolates through the soil before it enters a series of drains that return water to the river. Our preliminary characterization of the DOC reentering the river (DOCmean=3.23 mg/L, sd=0.81; SUVAmean=4.05, sd=1.37) indicates the agricultural pool is similar in concentration and aromaticity to riverine DOC (DOCmean= 3.10 mg/L, sd=1.17; SUVAmean= 4.64, sd=1.12). However, riverine organic matter is more terrestrially derived (FImean=1.68, sd=0.17) than organic matter in the drains (FImean=1.9, sd=0.24). Additionally, drains directly adjacent to actively irrigated fields show high concentrations (DOCmean=58.35; sd=0.91) of low aromaticity organic matter (SUVAmean=0.33; sd=0.11). We are continuing analysis throughout the irrigation season to further explore organic matter quality (traits such as bioavailability and freshness) and identify locations and processes of DOC transformation within the system

  1. Development and Application of a Process-based River System Model at a Continental Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. S. H.; Dutta, D.; Vaze, J.; Hughes, J. D.; Yang, A.; Teng, J.

    2014-12-01

    Existing global and continental scale river models, mainly designed for integrating with global climate model, are of very course spatial resolutions and they lack many important hydrological processes, such as overbank flow, irrigation diversion, groundwater seepage/recharge, which operate at a much finer resolution. Thus, these models are not suitable for producing streamflow forecast at fine spatial resolution and water accounts at sub-catchment levels, which are important for water resources planning and management at regional and national scale. A large-scale river system model has been developed and implemented for water accounting in Australia as part of the Water Information Research and Development Alliance between Australia's Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) and CSIRO. The model, developed using node-link architecture, includes all major hydrological processes, anthropogenic water utilisation and storage routing that influence the streamflow in both regulated and unregulated river systems. It includes an irrigation model to compute water diversion for irrigation use and associated fluxes and stores and a storage-based floodplain inundation model to compute overbank flow from river to floodplain and associated floodplain fluxes and stores. An auto-calibration tool has been built within the modelling system to automatically calibrate the model in large river systems using Shuffled Complex Evolution optimiser and user-defined objective functions. The auto-calibration tool makes the model computationally efficient and practical for large basin applications. The model has been implemented in several large basins in Australia including the Murray-Darling Basin, covering more than 2 million km2. The results of calibration and validation of the model shows highly satisfactory performance. The model has been operalisationalised in BoM for producing various fluxes and stores for national water accounting. This paper introduces this newly developed river system model

  2. Land use impact on soil quality in eastern Himalayan region of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A K; Bordoloi, L J; Kumar, Manoj; Hazarika, S; Parmar, Brajendra

    2014-04-01

    quality under many exploitatively cultivated land use systems in eastern Himalayan region of India.

  3. Spatial-temporal fluvial morphology analysis in the Quelite river: It's impact on communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Judith; Gracia, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    SummaryDuring 2008 and 2009 heavy rainfall took place around the Mazatlan County in the Sinaloa state, Mexico, with a return period (Tr) between 50 and 100 years. As a result, the region and its infrastructure, such as the railways and highways (designed for a Tr = 20 years) were severely exposed to floods and, as a consequence damage caused by debris and sediments dragged into the channel. One of the highest levels of damage to the infrastructure was observed in the columns of Quelite River railway's bridge. This is catastrophic as the railway is very important for trade within the state and also among other states in Mexico and in the USA. In order to understand the impact of the flooding and to avoid the rail system being damaged it is necessary to analyse how significant the changes in the river channel have been. This analysis looks at the definition of the main channel and its floodplain as a result of the sediment variability, not only at the bridge area, but also upstream and downstream. The Quelite River study considers the integration of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and remote sensing data to map, recognise and assess the spatio-temporal change channel morphology. This increases the effectiveness of using different types of geospatial data with in situ measurements such as hydrological data. Thus, this paper is an assessment of a 20 years study period carried out using historical Landsat images and aerial photographs as well as recent Spot images. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of local topography and flow volumes were also used. The results show the Quelite River is an active river with a high suspended sediment load and migration of meanders associated to heavy rainfall. The river also has several deep alluvial floodplain channels which modified the geometry and other morphological characteristics of the channel in the downstream direction. After the identification of the channel changes, their causes and solutions to control, the channel

  4. Population Aspects of Fishes in Geba and Sor Rivers, White Nile System in Ethiopia, East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simagegnew Melaku

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the diversity, condition factor, length-weight relationship, and sex ratio of fishes in Geba and Sor Rivers located in Baro-Akobo Basin, White Nile system within Ethiopia. Fish samples were collected in one wet and one dry season. The length-weight relationships were fitted using power equation for the most abundant species. A total of 348 fish specimens were collected using gillnets and hooks. These were identified into eight species and one Garra sp. representing seven genera and four families. Family Cyprinidae was the most dominant with six species (66.7%. Labeobarbus intermedius, Labeobarbus nedgia, and Labeo cylindricus were the most abundant fish species, respectively, with 60.72%, 16.83%, and 14.66% index of relative importance (IRI. The diversity index was higher for Geba River (H′ = 1.50 than for Sor River (H′ = 1.10. All the three most abundant species had negative allometric growth. Seasonal variations in the mean Fulton condition factor (FCF were statistically significant for L. cylindricus (p<0.05. There was variation in the sex ratio with the females dominating in all the three most abundant species. Further investigation into the fish diversity, food, feeding, and reproductive behaviors of fish species especially in the tributaries of these rivers and their socioeconomic aspects is recommended.

  5. Bacterial biodiversity from Roopkund Glacier, Himalayan mountain ranges, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Suman; Srinivas, T N R; Pindi, Pavan Kumar; Kishore, K Hara; Begum, Z; Singh, Pawan Kumar; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Pratibha, M S; Yasala, Arun K; Reddy, G S N; Shivaji, S

    2010-07-01

    The bacterial diversity of two soil samples collected from the periphery of the Roopkund glacial lake and one soil sample from the surface of the Roopkund Glacier in the Himalayan ranges was determined by constructing three 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. The three clone libraries yielded a total of 798 clones belonging to 25 classes. Actinobacteria was the most predominant class (>10% of the clones) in the three libraries. In the library from the glacial soil, class Betaproteobacteria (24.2%) was the most predominant. The rarefaction analysis indicated coverage of 43.4 and 41.2% in the samples collected from the periphery of the lake thus indicating a limited bacterial diversity covered; at the same time, the coverage of 98.4% in the glacier sample indicated most of the diversity was covered. Further, the bacterial diversity in the Roopkund glacier soil was low, but was comparable with the bacterial diversity of a few other glaciers. The results of principal component analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene clone library data, percentages of OTUs and biogeochemical data revealed that the lake soil samples were different from the glacier soil sample and the biogeochemical properties affected the diversity of microbial communities in the soil samples.

  6. Himalayan dock (Rumex nepalensis): the flip side of obnoxious weed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangchuk, Kesang

    2015-01-01

    Himalayan dock (Rumex nepalensis) was evaluated for forage value and antinutrients under three, five and seven weeks cutting intervals in the temperate environment. Dry matter (DM) content was measured for each cutting interval. Forage quality parameters such as Crude Protein (CP), Acid Detergent fiber (ADF), Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF), Calcium (Ca) and Phosphorus (P) were analyzed. Plants with seven weeks cutting interval gave higher DM yield. CP and P content were significantly higher for three weeks cutting intervals. Average CP contents were 31.38 %, 30.73 % and 27.32 % and average P content 0.58 %, 0.52 % and 0.51 % for three, five and seven weeks cutting intervals, respectively. Ca content did not differ significantly between cutting intervals. The average Ca content were 0.91 %, 0.90 % and 90 %, for three, five and seven weeks cutting intervals, respectively. Tannin and mimosine contents were not significantly different between cutting intervals. Average tannin contents were 1.32 %, 1.27 % and 1.26 % and mimosine 0.38 %, 0.30 % and 0.28 % for three, five and seven weeks cutting intervals, respectively. The study concluded that R. nepalensis could be a potential source of protein for livestock. The study also suggests seven weeks harvesting interval to provide plants with high dry matter yield, high forage quality and very low levels of anti-nutrients.

  7. Early 21st century snow cover state over the western river basins of the Indus River system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, S.; Lucarini, V.; Khan, M. R.; Petitta, M.; Bolch, T.; Gioli, G.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we assess the snow cover and its dynamics for the western river basins of the Indus River system (IRS) and their sub-basins located in Afghanistan, China, India and Pakistan for the period 2001-2012. First, we validate the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily snow products from Terra (MOD10A1) and Aqua (MYD10A1) against the Landsat Thematic Mapper/Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (TM/ETM+) data set, and then improve them for clouds by applying a validated non-spectral cloud removal technique. The improved snow product has been analysed on a seasonal and annual basis against different topographic parameters (aspect, elevation and slope). Our results show a decreasing tendency for the annual average snow cover for the westerlies-influenced basins (upper Indus basin (UIB), Astore, Hunza, Shigar and Shyok) and an increasing tendency for the monsoon-influenced basins (Jhelum, Kabul, Swat and Gilgit). Seasonal average snow cover decreases during winter and autumn, and increases during spring and summer, which is consistent with the observed cooling and warming trends during the respective seasons. Sub-basins at relatively higher latitudes/altitudes show higher variability than basins at lower latitudes/middle altitudes. Northeastern and northwestern aspects feature greater snow cover. The mean end-of-summer regional snow line altitude (SLA) zones range from 3000 to 5000 m a.s.l. for all basins. Our analysis provides an indication of a descending end-of-summer regional SLA zone for most of the studied basins, which is significant for the Shyok and Kabul basins, thus indicating a change in their water resources. Such results are consistent with the observed hydro-climatic data, recently collected local perceptions and glacier mass balances for the investigated period within the UIB. Moreover, our analysis shows a significant correlation between winter season snow cover and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index of the previous autumn

  8. Early 21st century climatology of snow cover for the western river basins of the Indus River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, S.; Lucarini, V.; Khan, M. R.; Petitta, M.; Bolch, T.; Gioli, G.

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we assess the snow cover and its dynamics for the western river basins of the Indus River System (IRS) and their sub-basins located in Afghanistan, China, India and Pakistan for the period 2001-2012. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) daily snow products from Terra (MOD) and Aqua (MYD) have been first improved and then analysed on seasonal and annual basis against different topographic parameters (aspect, elevation and slope). Our applied cloud filtering technique has reduced the cloud cover from 37% (MOD) and 43% (MYD) to 7%, thus improving snow cover estimates from 7% (MOD) and 5% (MYD) to 14% for the area of interest (AOI) during the validation period (2004). Our results show a decreasing tendency for the annual average snow cover for the westerlies-influenced basins (Upper Indus Basin, Astore, Hunza, Shigar, Shyok) and an increasing tendency for the monsoon-influenced basins (Jhelum, Kabul, Swat and Gilgit). Regarding the seasonal snow cover, decrease during winter and autumn and increase during spring and summer has been found, which is consistent with the observed cooling and warming trends during the respective seasons. Sub-basins at relatively higher latitude/altitude show higher variability than basins at lower latitude/mid-altitude. Northeastern and northwestern aspects feature larger snow cover. The mean regional snow line altitude (SLA) zones range between 3000 and 5000 m a.s.l. for all basins. Our analysis provides an indication of a decrease in the regional SLA zone, thus indicating a change in the water resources of the studied basins, particularly for the Upper Indus Basin (UIB). Such results are consistent with the observed hydro-climate data, recently collected local perceptions and glacier mass balances for the investigated period. Moreover, our analysis suggests some potential for the seasonal stream flow forecast as a significant negative correlation has been detected for the inter-annual variability of winter

  9. An integrated modelling framework for regulated river systems in Land Surface Hydrological Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehan Anis, Muhammad; razavi, Saman; Wheater, Howard

    2017-04-01

    Many of the large river systems around the world are highly regulated with numerous physical flow control and storage structures as well as a range of water abstraction rules and regulations. Most existing Land Surface Models (LSM) do not represent the modifications to the hydrological regimes introduced by water management (reservoirs, irrigation diversions, etc.). The interactions between natural hydrological processes and changes in water and energy fluxes and storage due to human interventions are important to the understanding of how these systems may respond to climate change amongst other drivers for change as well as to the assessment of their feedbacks to the climate system at regional and global scales. This study presents an integrated modelling approach to include human interventions within natural hydrological systems using a fully coupled modelling platform. The Bow River Basin in Alberta (26,200 km2), one of the most managed Canadian rivers, is used to demonstrate the approach. We have dynamically linked the MESH modelling system, which embeds the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS), with the MODSIM-DSS water management modelling tool. MESH models the natural hydrology while MODSIM optimizes the reservoir operation of 4 simulated reservoirs to satisfy demands within the study basin. MESH was calibrated for the catchments upstream the reservoirs and gave good performance (NSE = 0.81) while BIAS was only 2.3% at the catchment outlet. Without coupling with MODSIM (i.e. no regulation), simulated hydrographs at the catchment outlet were in complete disagreement with observations (NSE = 0.28). The coupled model simulated the optimization introduced by the operation of the multi-reservoir system in the Bow river basin and shows excellent agreement between observed and simulated hourly flows (NSE = 0.98). Irrigation demands are fully satisfied during summer, however, there are some shortages in winter demand from industries, which can be rectified by

  10. Geospatial Information Systems Analysis of Regional Environmental Change along the Savannah River Basin of Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund C. Merem

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS; and descriptive statistics in the assessment of environmental change along the Savannah River Basin of Georgia. Results of the study show that Savannah River basin side of Georgia has been experiencing environmental change due to several decades of relentless pressure induced by anthropocentric activities and host of other socio-economic factors. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI analysis of the area also shows a decline in vegetation cover. The pace of ecological change showed some variations across time and space. Generally, the results point to a decline in water bodies, vegetation, and increase in population, loss of harvested cropland, farms and increasing threats to the environmental systems of the region.

  11. Does reintroducing large wood influence the hydraulic landscape of a lowland river system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Adrian; Thoms, Martin; Reid, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Our understanding of the effectiveness of reintroduced large wood for restoration is largely based on studies from high energy river systems. By contrast, few studies of the effectiveness of reintroducing large wood have been undertaken on large, low energy, lowland river systems: river systems where large wood is a significant physical feature on the in-channel environment. This study investigated the effect of reintroduced large wood on the hydraulic landscape of the Barwon-Darling River, Australia, at low flows. To achieve this, the study compared three hydraulic landscapes of replicated reference (naturally wooded), control (unwooded,) and managed (wood reintroduced) treatments on three low flow periods. These time periods were prior to the reintroduction of large wood to managed reaches; several months after the reintroduction of large wood into the managed reaches; and then more than four years after wood reintroduction following several large flood events. Hydraulic landscapes of reaches were characterised using a range of spatial measures calculated from velocity measurements taken with a boat-mounted Acoustic Doppler Profiler. We hypothesised that reintroduced large wood would increase the diversity of the hydraulic landscape at low flows and that managed reaches would be more similar to the reference reaches. Our results suggest that the reintroduction of large wood did not significantly change the character of the hydraulic landscape at the reach scale after several months (p = 0.16) or several years (p = 0.29). Overall, the character of the hydraulic landscape in the managed reaches was more similar to the hydraulic landscape of the control reaches than the hydraulic landscape of the reference reaches, at low flows. Some variability in the hydraulic landscapes was detected over time, and this may reflect reworking of riverbed sediments and sensitivity to variation in discharge. The lack of a response in the low flow hydraulic landscape to the

  12. Geohydrologic framework of the Snake River plain regional aquifer system, Idaho and eastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Snake River Plain in southern Idaho is a major geologic structure of uncertain origin. Surface geology is generally well defined, but subsurface geology is poorly defined below about 500 feet. Rocks that underlie the plain form the framework for a regional ground-water system that supplies large quantities of water for irrigation and makes the plain nationally important in terms of agricultural production.

  13. EVALUATION OF DISASTER MITIGATION SYSTEM AGAINST LAHAR FLOW OF PUTIH RIVER, MT. MERAPI AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Maksal Saputra

    2013-05-01

    Result of the evaluation shows that the existing early warning system does not produce sufficient time for the sand miners to save themselves. The proposed solution is to divide sand mine area in Putih River into 3 zones, each zone has different procedure of the early warning and evacuation. This is arranged to avoid casualties to the sand miners. Keywords: Lahar flood, sand miners, early warning.

  14. Soil and Land Resources Information System (SLISYS-Tarim) for Sustainable Management of River Oases along the Tarim River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othmanli, Hussein; Zhao, Chengyi; Stahr, Karl

    2017-04-01

    The Tarim River Basin is the largest continental basin in China. The region has extremely continental desert climate characterized by little rainfall 3000 mm/a. The climate change is affecting severely the basin causing soil salinization, water shortage, and regression in crop production. Therefore, a Soil and Land Resources Information System (SLISYS-Tarim) for the regional simulation of crop yield production in the basin was developed. The SLISYS-Tarim consists of a database and an agro-ecological simulation model EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate). The database comprises relational tables including information about soils, terrain conditions, land use, and climate. The soil data implicate information of 50 soil profiles which were dug, analyzed, described and classified in order to characterize the soils in the region. DEM data were integrated with geological maps to build a digital terrain structure. Remote sensing data of Landsat images were applied for soil mapping, and for land use and land cover classification. An additional database for climate data, land management and crop information were linked to the system, too. Construction of the SLISYS-Tarim database was accomplished by integrating and overlaying the recommended thematic maps within environment of the geographic information system (GIS) to meet the data standard of the global and national SOTER digital database. This database forms appropriate input- and output data for the crop modelling with the EPIC model at various scales in the Tarim Basin. The EPIC model was run for simulating cotton production under a constructed scenario characterizing the current management practices, soil properties and climate conditions. For the EPIC model calibration, some parameters were adjusted so that the modeled cotton yield fits to the measured yield on the filed scale. The validation of the modeling results was achieved in a later step based on remote sensing data. The simulated cotton yield varied

  15. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Main Report Exhibits.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    This Volume is a part of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Columbia River System. This volume contains technical exhibits of cultural resources and commentary on the (System Operation Review) SOR process. The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation comment is the majority of the material in the volume, in the Consultation Plan, Identification of trust resources; Criteria for the selection of a System Operating Strategy; comment on rights protection and implementation of Federal Trust responsibility; analysis of the draft EIS. Comment by other Native American Tribes and groups is also included: Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation; Kootenai Tribe of Idaho; Spokane Tribe of Indians; Coeur d` Alene tribe.

  16. Flood protection effect of the existing and projected reservoirs in the Amur River basin: evaluation by the hydrological modeling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Motovilov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological modeling system was developed as a tool addressed supporting flood risk management by the existing and projected reservoirs in the Amur River basin. The system includes the physically-based semi-distributed model of runoff generation ECOMAG coupled with a hydrodynamic MIKE-11 model to simulate channel flow in the main river. The case study was carried out for the middle part of the Amur River where large reservoirs are located on the Zeya and Bureya Rivers. The models were calibrated and validated using streamflow measuruments at the different gauges of the main river and its tributaries. Numerical experiments were carried out to assess the effect of the existing Zeya and Bureya reservoirs regulation on 850 km stretch of the middle Amur River stage. It was shown that in the absence of the reservoirs, the water levels downstream of the Zeya and Bureya Rivers would be 0.5–1.5 m higher than the levels measured during the disastrous flood of 2013. Similar experiments were carried out to assess possible flood protection effect of new projected reservoirs on the Zeya and Bureya Rivers.

  17. Flood protection effect of the existing and projected reservoirs in the Amur River basin: evaluation by the hydrological modeling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motovilov, Y.; Danilov-Danilyan, V.; Dod, E.; Kalugin, A.

    2015-06-01

    Hydrological modeling system was developed as a tool addressed supporting flood risk management by the existing and projected reservoirs in the Amur River basin. The system includes the physically-based semi-distributed model of runoff generation ECOMAG coupled with a hydrodynamic MIKE-11 model to simulate channel flow in the main river. The case study was carried out for the middle part of the Amur River where large reservoirs are located on the Zeya and Bureya Rivers. The models were calibrated and validated using streamflow measuruments at the different gauges of the main river and its tributaries. Numerical experiments were carried out to assess the effect of the existing Zeya and Bureya reservoirs regulation on 850 km stretch of the middle Amur River stage. It was shown that in the absence of the reservoirs, the water levels downstream of the Zeya and Bureya Rivers would be 0.5-1.5 m higher than the levels measured during the disastrous flood of 2013. Similar experiments were carried out to assess possible flood protection effect of new projected reservoirs on the Zeya and Bureya Rivers.

  18. SNAKE LINE ANALYSIS FOR LAHAR FLOW WARNING SYSTEM (CASE STUDY IN PUTIH RIVER, MOUNT MERAPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Yulinsa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lahar flow in the region of Mount Merapi after an eruption of 2010 is still considered potentially to happen and threat the region along the river from the upstream. The development of warning criteria against the potential occurrence of lahar flow is a thing that should be done continuously to accommodate dynamics data availability (rainfall data and lahar flow occurrence data, although with limited data. This study aims to develop lahar warning system applying snake line as a rain phenomenon in Putih catchment area which will affect the occurrence of lahar flow and to evaluate the success rate of snake line for deciding the warning system. This study used the main reference from Guidelines for Development of Warning and Evacuation System against Sediment Disasters in Developing Countries released by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport Infrastructure Development Institute – Japan (2004. This research was conducted through several stages, i.e. secondary data collection in the form of rainfall data, lahar flow occurrence data, making correlation graph between rainfall intensity and working rainfall, determination of critical line, warning line and evacuation line. The results show that standard rainfall for warning and evacuation alert in Putih River are 22 mm, and 49 mm, respectively. The accuracy of warning criteria and the evacuation criteria against snake line for warning line is 30%, evacuation line is 61% and the critical line is 83%. The behavior of snake line that indicates lahar flow occurrence in Putih River forming an angle of 40o up to 45o.

  19. The Performance of Equalization Model of Water Allocation Inter Irrigation Areas in River System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farriansyah Anang M.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia, water is public goods so it is necessary to control water allocation. Inequity of water allocation between water users is expanding largely, including irrigation as the largest user, while the density of headworks in the river are getting higher. Considering that water is limited, the practice of irrigation water allocation needs to be refined, from the traditional equity to volumetric equity. MEQAA (Model Equalisasi Alokasi Air/Equalization Model of Water Allocation plays a role in determining water sharing between headworks in order to meet the maximum-equal K-factor in river. MEQAA-Generic is a calculation machine with: analog-deterministic dynamic model; network equation according to mass balance and linear optimization; independent-based system; sustainability-efficiency-equity constraints; Ms. Excel-VBA. The inputs are: scheme system, local inflow, and irrigation demand. The outputs are: K-factor, release and ecosystem quote. The model performance is identified by comparing the output to the class of K-factor based on treatment of water distribution. The model test is performed in an uncontrolled and complicated system in Kukusan Tanggek watershed with 24 headworks in Lombok river basin. As long as it is adequate for water sharing, MEQAA-G can always produce maximum-equal K-factor. The output model is used to operation control.

  20. Urban Flood Management with Integrated Inland-River System in Seoul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Y. I.; Kim, J. S.; Yuk, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Global warming and climate change have caused significant damage and loss of life worldwide. The pattern of natural disasters has gradually diversified and their frequency is increasing. The impact of climate change on flood risk in urban rivers is of particular interest because these areas are typically densely populated. The occurrence of urban river flooding due to climate change not only causes significant loss of life and property but also causes health and social problems. It is therefore necessary to develop a scientific urban flood management system to cope with and reduce the impacts of climate change, including flood damage. In this study, we are going to introduce Integrated Inland-River Flood Analysis System in Seoul to conduct predictions on flash rain or short-term rainfall by using radar and satellite information and perform prompt and accurate prediction on the inland flooded areas. In addition, this urban flood management system can be used as a tool for decision making of systematic disaster prevention through real-time monitoring.

  1. Study of ranking of bio-indices using benthic macroinvertebrates for Lower Dongnai River System, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nga, Le Phi; Quoi, Le Phat; Duc, Pham Anh

    2012-04-01

    It has been demonstrated by research that the most successful assessment methods have been based on the benthic macroinvertebrate communities. A lot of bio-indices have been applied to evaluate the water quality widely. However, most of them have got the rankings for the water quality assessment. In this study, based on the monitoring results of the benthic macroinvertebrate and the environmental parameters in the Lower Dongnai River System during three-year periods (2007 - 2009), the linear correlations among the most popular bio-indices and each environmental parameter were considered. These environmental variables having the most closed correlation with the biological indices were DO (dissolved oxygen), WQI (water quality index) and total nitrogen. From the analysis, the ranking of bio-indices using benthic macroinvertebrate for the Lower Dongnai River System were established. The findings proved that the ranking of bio-indices for water quality assessment can be used to evaluate the water quality for the Lower Dongnai River System.

  2. Contributions to a thermodynamic model of Earth systems on rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iberall, A. S.

    1981-01-01

    A model for the chemical (ground water) erosion and physical (bed load, including sedimentation) erosion of the land was developed. The rudiments of the relation between a regulated sea level (for the past 2500 million years) and the episodic rise and erosion of continents was examined to obtain some notion of the process scalings. Major process scales of about 200 years, 100,000 years, 3 My, 40 My, 300 My were estimated. It was suggested that a program targeted at ecological management would have to become familiar with processes at the first four scales (i.e., from glaciation to the horizontal movement of continents). The study returns to the initial premise. In order to understand and manage Earth biology (life, and modern man), it is necessary minimally to pursue systems' biogeology at a considerable number of process space and time scales via their irreversible thermodynamic couplings.

  3. One-dimensional flow model of the river-hyporheic zone system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrajac, D.

    2016-12-01

    The hyporheic zone is a shallow layer beneath natural streams that is characterized by intense exchange of water, nutrients, pollutants and thermal energy. Understanding these exchange processes is crucial for successful modelling of the river hydrodynamics and morphodynamics at various scales from the river corridor up to the river network scale (Cardenas, 2015). Existing simulation models of hyporheic exchange processes are either idealized models of the tracer movement through the river-hyporheic zone system (e.g. TSM, Bencala and Walters, 1983) or detailed models of turbulent flow in a stream, coupled with a conventional 2D Darcian groundwater model (e.g. Cardenas and Wilson, 2007). This paper presents an alternative approach which involves a simple 1-D simulation model of the hyporheic zone system based on the classical SWE equations coupled with the newly developed porous media analogue. This allows incorporating the effects of flow unsteadiness and non-Darcian parameterization od the drag term in the hyporheic zone model. The conceptual model of the stream-hyporheic zone system consists of a 1D model of the open channel flow in the river, coupled with a 1D model of the flow in the hyporheic zone via volume flux due to the difference in the water level in the river and the hyporheic zone. The interaction with the underlying groundwater aquifer is neglected, but coupling the present model with any conventional groundwater model is straightforward. The paper presents the derivation of the 1D flow equations for flow in the hyporheic zone, the details of the numerical scheme used for solving them and the model validation by comparison with published experimental data. References Bencala, K. E., and R. A. Walters (1983) "Simulation of solute transport in a mountain pool-and-riffle stream- a transient storage model", Water Resources Reseach 19(3): 718-724. Cardenas, M. B. (2015) "Hyporheic zone hydrologic science: A historical account of its emergence and a

  4. Hydrogeologic framework of the Wood River Valley aquifer system, south-central Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolino, James R.; Adkins, Candice B.

    2012-01-01

    The Wood River Valley contains most of the population of Blaine County and the cities of Sun Valley, Ketchum, Hailey, and Bellevue. This mountain valley is underlain by the alluvial Wood River Valley aquifer system, which consists primarily of a single unconfined aquifer that underlies the entire valley, an underlying confined aquifer that is present only in the southernmost valley, and the confining unit that separates them. The entire population of the area depends on groundwater for domestic supply, either from domestic or municipal-supply wells, and rapid population growth since the 1970s has caused concern about the long-term sustainability of the groundwater resource. As part of an ongoing U.S. Geological Survey effort to characterize the groundwater resources of the Wood River Valley, this report describes the hydrogeologic framework of the Wood River Valley aquifer system. Although most of the Wood River Valley aquifer system is composed of Quaternary-age sediments and basalts of the Wood River Valley and its tributaries, older igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic rocks that underlie these Quaternary deposits also are used for water supply. It is unclear to what extent these rocks are hydraulically connected to the main part of Wood River Valley aquifer system and thus whether they constitute separate aquifers. Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in and near the study area that produce water to wells and springs are the Phi Kappa and Trail Creek Formations (Ordovician and Silurian), the Milligen Formation (Devonian), and the Sun Valley Group including the Wood River Formation (Pennsylvanian-Permian) and the Dollarhide Formation (Permian). These sedimentary rocks are intruded by granitic rocks of the Late Cretaceous Idaho batholith. Eocene Challis Volcanic Group rocks overlie all of the older rocks (except where removed by erosion). Miocene Idavada Volcanics are found in the southern part of the study area. Most of these rocks have been folded, faulted, and

  5. Seismic vulnerability of the Himalayan half-dressed rubble stone masonry structures, experimental and analytical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ahmad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Half-Dressed rubble stone (DS masonry structures as found in the Himalayan region are investigated using experimental and analytical studies. The experimental study included a shake table test on a one-third scaled structural model, a representative of DS masonry structure employed for public critical facilities, e.g. school buildings, offices, health care units, etc. The aim of the experimental study was to understand the damage mechanism of the model, develop damage scale towards deformation-based assessment and retrieve the lateral force-deformation response of the model besides its elastic dynamic properties, i.e. fundamental vibration period and elastic damping. The analytical study included fragility analysis of building prototypes using a fully probabilistic nonlinear dynamic method. The prototypes are designed as SDOF systems assigned with lateral, force-deformation constitutive law (obtained experimentally. Uncertainties in the constitutive law, i.e. lateral stiffness, strength and deformation limits, are considered through random Monte Carlo simulation. Fifty prototype buildings are analyzed using a suite of ten natural accelerograms and an incremental dynamic analysis technique. Fragility and vulnerability functions are derived for the damageability assessment of structures, economic loss and casualty estimation during an earthquake given the ground shaking intensity, essential within the context of risk assessment of existing stock aiming towards risk mitigation and disaster risk reduction.

  6. Recommended Investigations of Sediment Transport and Deposition for Predicting Future Configurations of Mississippi River System Channels and Floodplain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gaugush, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the progress made in the study of sediment transport and geomorphology in the Upper Mississippi River System since the 1994 meeting of the working group that developed a description of activities needed...

  7. Water-table altitude of the unconfined aquifer, Wood River Valley aquifer system, south-central Idaho, October 2012.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Water levels in 93 wells completed in the Wood River Valley aquifer system were measured during October 22–24, 2012; these wells are part of a network established...

  8. Potentiometric-surface altitude of the confined aquifer, Wood River Valley aquifer system, south-central Idaho, October 2012.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Water levels in 93 wells completed in the Wood River Valley aquifer system were measured during October 22–24, 2012; these wells are part of a network established...

  9. 1998 Annual Status Report: A Summary of Fish Data in Six Reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burkhardt, Randy

    2000-01-01

    The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) completed 2,664 collections of fishes from stratified random and permanently fixed sampling locations in six study reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System during 1998...

  10. 1997 Annual Status Report A Summary of Fish Data in Six Reaches of The Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burkhardt, Randy

    1998-01-01

    The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) completed 2,797 collections of fishes from stratified random and permanently fixed sampling locations in six study reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System during 1997...

  11. MODFLOW-USG model of groundwater flow in the Wood River Valley aquifer system in Blaine County, Idaho

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A three-dimensional numerical groundwater flow model (MODFLOW-USG) was developed for the Wood River Valley (WRV) aquifer system, south-central Idaho, to evaluate...

  12. Linking hydro-morphology with invertebrate ecology in diverse morphological units of a large river-floodplain system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Blettler, MCM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Interdisciplinary research in the fields of ecohydrology and ecogeomorphology is becoming increasingly important as a way to understand how biological and physical processes interact with each other in river systems. The objectives of the current...

  13. Eustatic and tectonic change effects in the reversion of the transcontinental Amazon River drainage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Vicente Caputo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The development of the transcontinental Amazon River System involved geological events in the Andes Chain; Vaupés, Purus and Gurupá arches; sedimentary basins of the region and sea level changes. The origin and age of this river have been discussed for decades, and many ideas have been proposed, including those pertaining to it having originated in the Holocene, Pleistocene, Pliocene, Late Miocene, or even earlier times. Under this context, the geology of the sedimentary basins of northern Brazil has been analyzed from the Mesozoic time on, and some clarifications are placed on its stratigraphy. Vaupés Arch, in Colombia, was uplifted together with the Andean Mountains in the Middle Miocene time. In the Cenozoic Era, the Purus Arch has not blocked this drainage system westward to marine basins of Western South America or eastward to the Atlantic Ocean. Also the Gurupá Arch remained high up to the end of Middle Miocene, directing this drainage system westward. With the late subsidence and breaching of the Gurupá Arch and a major fall in sea level, at the beginning of the Late Miocene, the Amazon River quickly opened its pathway to the west, from the Marajó Basin, through deep headward erosion, capturing a vast drainage network from cratonic and Andean areas, which had previously been diverted towards the Caribbean Sea. During this time, the large siliciclastic influx to the Amazon Mouth (Foz do Amazonas Basin and its fan increased, due to erosion of large tracts of South America, linking the Amazon drainage network to that of the Marajó Basin. This extensive exposure originated the Late Miocene (Tortonian unconformity, which marks the onset of the transcontinental Amazon River flowing into the Atlantic Ocean.

  14. Les premières années de The Himalayan Journal (1929-1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Raspaud

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionLa création de The Himalayan Club, sur le territoire de l’Empire des Indes à la fin de l’année 1927, s’accompagne presque aussitôt de la publication de The Himalayan Journal, en février 1929, soit mois de dix-huit mois après la création officielle de l’institution. L’objet du présent texte concerne donc la vie de The Himalayan Club lors de ses premières années d’existence, depuis la date de sa création jusqu’au début de la seconde guerre mondiale. Cependant, l’intérêt se focaliser...

  15. Case Report Associated with Aspergillosis and Hepatitis E Virus Coinfection in Himalayan Griffons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study involved a death which occurred in four Himalayan griffons housed in Beijing zoo, China. Based on pathogen identification and the pathological changes observed, we did characterize the fungi and Hepatitis E virus (HEV in four dead Himalayan griffons. Pathological changes were severe. Membranous-like material was observed on the surface of the internal organs. Spleen was necrotic. Focal lymphocyte infiltration in the liver and many sunflower-like fungi nodules were evident in the tissues, especially in the kidney. PCR was used to identify the pathogen. Based on the 18SrRNA genomic sequence of known fungi, the results confirmed that all four dead Himalayan griffons were infected with Aspergillus. At the same time the detection of HEV also showed positive results. To the best of our knowledge, this work appears to be the first report of concurrent presence of Aspergillosis and Hepatitis E virus in rare avian species.

  16. Study of migration behavior of technogenic radionuclides in the Yenisey River-Kara Sea aquatic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, Yu.; Legin, E.; Legin, V. [Khlopin Radium Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Shishlov, A.; Savitskii, Yu. [Krasnoyarsk Mining and Chemical Combine, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Novikov, A.; Goryachenkova, T. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2001-03-01

    For 35 years Krasnoyarsk Mining-Chemical Combine (MCC) manufactures weapon plutonium in single-pass production reactors cooled with water of the Yenisey River. Water discharge from these reactors is the major source of radioactive contamination of the Yenisey River. We have demonstrated that after putting the reactors out of operation (in late 1992) the contamination level of the Yenisey River with short-lived radionuclides considerably decreased, and now the radioactive contamination is caused essentially by Cs-137, Eu-152, Pu-239,240, Sr-90, and Am-241, whose concentration in the aqueous phase is lower than in bottom sediments and, particularly, flood-land deposits by several orders of magnitude (except for Sr-90). The flood-land deposits are classified with the most contaminated environmental objects in the territories under the impact of MCC: their radioactivity is comparable with that of low-level waste. Taking into account the considerable depth and area of the flood-land deposits, this allows their classification as a great technogenic radiation anomaly. Comparison of the maximal Cs-137 and Pu-239,240 levels in flood-land soils and bottom sediments of the Yenisey River with those in bottom sediments of the Pripyat' River and the Kiev reservoir shows that these values are close each to other. A direct correlation is found between the spatial distribution of Cs-137 on the one hand and Pu-239,240, Eu-152, and Am-241 on the other hand in the aqueous phase and bottom sediments, which is not the case for Sr-90. Data on the distribution coefficients of the indicated radionuclides between the deposits and aqueous phase (obtained with actual and model systems) and also on the radionuclide distribution throughout geochemical mobility forms suggest that the essential part of Cs, Pu, Eu, and Am migrates with fine-disperse suspended material, the transport and distribution of which is controlled by the hydrological regime of the Yenisey River. By contrast, strontium

  17. Water Quality Projects Summary for the Mid-Columbia and Cumberland River Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Kevin M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Witt, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hadjerioua, Boualem [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Scheduling and operational control of hydropower systems is accompanied with a keen awareness of the management of water use, environmental effects, and policy, especially within the context of strict water rights policy and generation maximization. This is a multi-objective problem for many hydropower systems, including the Cumberland and Mid-Columbia river systems. Though each of these two systems have distinct operational philosophies, hydrologic characteristics, and system dynamics, they both share a responsibility to effectively manage hydropower and the environment, which requires state-of-the art improvements in the approaches and applications for water quality modeling. The Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory have developed tools for total dissolved gas (TDG) prediction on the Mid-Columbia River and a decision-support system used for hydropower generation and environmental optimization on the Cumberland River. In conjunction with IIHR - Hydroscience & Engineering, The University of Iowa and University of Colorado s Center for Advanced Decision Support for Water and Environmental Systems (CADSWES), ORNL has managed the development of a TDG predictive methodology at seven dams along the Mid-Columbia River and has enabled the ability to utilize this methodology for optimization of operations at these projects with the commercially available software package Riverware. ORNL has also managed the collaboration with Vanderbilt University and Lipscomb University to develop a state-of-the art method for reducing high-fidelity water quality modeling results into surrogate models which can be used effectively within the context of optimization efforts to maximize generation for a reservoir system based on environmental and policy constraints. The novel contribution of these efforts is the ability to predict water quality conditions with simplified methodologies at the same level of accuracy as more complex and resource intensive computing methods

  18. Adapting to Variable Water Supply in the Truckee-Carson River System, Western USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley Sterle

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In snow-fed inland river systems in the western United States, water supply depends upon timing, form, and amount of precipitation. In recent years, this region has experienced unprecedented drought conditions due to decreased snowpack, exacerbated by exceptionally warmer winter temperatures averaging 3–4 °C above normal. In the snow-fed Truckee-Carson River System, two sets of interviews were conducted as part of a larger collaborative modeling case study with local water managers to examine local adaptation to current drought conditions. A comparative analysis of these primary qualitative data, collected during the fourth and fifth consecutive years of continued warmer drought conditions, identifies shifts in adaptation strategies and emergent adaptation barriers. That is, under continuous exposure to climate stressors, managers shifted their adaptation focus from short-term efforts to manage water demand toward long-term efforts to enhance water supply. Managers described the need to: improve forecasts and scientific assessments of snowmelt timing, groundwater levels, and soil moisture content; increase flexibility of prior appropriation water allocation rules based on historical snowpack and streamflow timing; and foster collaboration and communication among water managers across the river system. While water scarcity and insufficient water delivery infrastructure remain significant impediments in this arid region, climate uncertainty emerged as a barrier surrounding adaptation to variable water supply. Existing prior appropriation based water institutions were also described as an adaptation barrier, meriting objective evaluation to assess how to best modify these historical institutions to support dynamic adaptation to climate-induced water supply variability. This study contributes to a growing body of research that assesses drought adaptation in snow-fed inland river systems, and contributes a unique report concerning how adaptation

  19. Individual Dose Calculations with Use of the Revised Techa River Dosimetry System TRDS-2009D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degteva, M. O.; Shagina, N. B.; Tolstykh, E. I.; Vorobiova, M. I.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2009-10-23

    An updated deterministic version of the Techa River Dosimetry System (TRDS-2009D) has been developed to estimate individual doses from external exposure and intake of radionuclides for residents living on the Techa River contaminated as a result of radioactive releases from the Mayak plutonium facility in 1949–1956. The TRDS-2009D is designed as a flexible system that uses, depending on the input data for an individual, various elements of system databases to provide the dosimetric variables requested by the user. Several phases are included in the computation schedule. The first phase includes calculations with use of a common protocol for all cohort members based on village-average-intake functions and external dose rates; individual data on age, gender and history of residence are included in the first phase. This phase results in dose estimates similar to those obtained with system TRDS-2000 used previously to derive risks of health effects in the Techa River Cohort. The second phase includes refinement of individual internal doses for those persons who have had body-burden measurements or exposure parameters specific to the household where he/she lived on the Techa River. The third phase includes summation of individual doses from environmental exposure and from radiological examinations. The results of TRDS-2009D dose calculations have demonstrated for the ETRC members on average a moderate increase in RBM dose estimates (34%) and a minor increase (5%) in estimates of stomach dose. The calculations for the members of the ETROC indicated similar small changes for stomach, but significant increase in RBM doses (400%). Individual-dose assessments performed with use of TRDS-2009D have been provided to epidemiologists for exploratory risk analysis in the ETRC and ETROC. These data provide an opportunity to evaluate the possible impact on radiogenic risk of such factors as confounding exposure (environmental and medical), changes in the Techa River source

  20. An automated system to simulate the River discharge in Kyushu Island using the H08 model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, A.; Jeon, J.; Seto, S.

    2015-12-01

    Kyushu Island is located in southwestern part of Japan, and it is often affected by typhoons and a Baiu front. There have been severe water-related disasters recorded in Kyushu Island. On the other hand, because of high population density and for crop growth, water resource is an important issue of Kyushu Island.The simulation of river discharge is important for water resource management and early warning of water-related disasters. This study attempts to apply H08 model to simulate river discharge in Kyushu Island. Geospatial meteorological and topographical data were obtained from Japanese Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT) and Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System (AMeDAS) of Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). The number of the observation stations of AMeDAS is limited and is not quite satisfactory for the application of water resources models in Kyushu. It is necessary to spatially interpolate the point data to produce grid dataset. Meteorological grid dataset is produced by considering elevation dependence. Solar radiation is estimated from hourly sunshine duration by a conventional formula. We successfully improved the accuracy of interpolated data just by considering elevation dependence and found out that the bias is related to geographical location. The rain/snow classification is done by H08 model and is validated by comparing estimated and observed snow rate. The estimates tend to be larger than the corresponding observed values. A system to automatically produce daily meteorological grid dataset is being constructed.The geospatial river network data were produced by ArcGIS and they were utilized in the H08 model to simulate the river discharge. Firstly, this research is to compare simulated and measured specific discharge, which is the ratio of discharge to watershed area. Significant error between simulated and measured data were seen in some rivers. Secondly, the outputs by the coupled model including crop growth

  1. Oxygen, deuterium, and strontium isotope characteristics of the Indus River water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anupam; Kumar, Kamlesh; Laskar, Amzad; Singh, Sunil Kumar; Mehta, Pankaj

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the sources and compositional characteristics of waters and sediments in the Indus River system is extremely important as its water availability is one of the primary factors for sustenance of the irrigation activities and the socioeconomic status of a very densely populated region of the world. Here we used stable isotopic compositions (δD and δ18O) and strontium isotopic ratio (87Sr/86Sr) in the Indus River water, its tributaries and its small streams (nallahs) in the Indian territory to understand the regional hydrology, water sources, and catchment processes (evaporation, transpiration, recycling, and mixing). The δ18O values in the Indus River system (IRS) ranges from - 16.9‰ to - 12.5‰ and δD from - 122.8‰ to - 88.5‰. The Indus River and its major tributaries (such as the Zanskar, Nubra and Shyok rivers) are characterized by relatively lower δ18O values, whereas TangTse and other small streams contributing to the Indus are relatively enriched in 18O. The local meteoric water line for the IRS was found to be δD = 7.87 × δ18O + 11.41, which is similar to the Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL) indicating meteoric origin of the water and insignificant secondary evaporation in the catchment. The Deuterium excess (d-excess) in the IRS varies between 6.5‰ and 14.9‰ with an average of 11.7‰, which is mostly higher than the long-term average for the Indian summer monsoon ( 8‰). The higher d-excess value is because of the contribution of moisture from westerlies; a simple mass balance shows 26% water in the main Indus channel is contributed by the westerlies originated from the Mediterranean Sea. The Sr isotope ratio in IRS varies between 0.70515 and 0.71291; wherein the Indus, and its tributary rivers Shyok and Nubra, are characterized by relatively high Sr isotope ratios (avg. 0.71086-0.71243) compared to the Zanskar and TangTse tributaries (Sr 0.709) because of the variation in silicate rock weathering component and carbonate

  2. Understanding the sediment routing system along the Gulf of Kachchh coast, western India: Significance of small ephemeral rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prizomwala, S. P.; Bhatt, Nilesh; Basavaiah, N.

    2014-02-01

    The present study is an attempt towards understanding the sediment routing system in the semi-arid margin of the Gulf of Kachchh, which is one of the largest macrotidal regimes in the northern Arabian Sea. Investigations based on heavy minerals, clay minerals, mineral magnetic properties and sediment geochemistry indicated that there are three major sources of sediments contributing to the Gulf of Kachchh basin: (1) Indus River, (2) Kachchh mainland coastal rivers and (3) the Saurashtra peninsular coastal rivers. The flanks of northern and southern coast of western Gulf of Kachchh show dominant signatures of Kachchh mainland/Saurashtra peninsular provenance. In contrast, the eastern Gulf of Kachchh coast bearing fine grained sediments shows dominant Indus River Provenance. Although ephemeral in nature, the small coastal rivers of Saurashtra and Kachchh contribute significant amount of sediments to the Gulf of Kachchh coastline because of their `dryland' nature and thus they control the coarse grained sedimentation processes.

  3. Establishing the system of public communal utility on the river Danube and the river Sava on the territory of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pušić Antonije

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste disposal and treatment problem consideration in the Republic of Serbia is making a pioneer steps. Main goal of this paper is to emphasize problems of waste disposal on waterways in urban areas, which consists of three aspects: uncontrolled disposal, possibilities of waste elimination and institutional model of collecting and recycling. Considering the fact that Draft version of Waste disposal law is not yet adopted by the national government (beside the fact that it contains the question of disposing and recycling municipal solid waste and that it is not elaborating the problem of dumping the municipal waste into rivers, this paper will give methodological and legislative recommendations for the solution of this problem. However, city of Belgrade and the other cities in Serbia are often facing serious problems (arranged riverfronts covered with municipal waste. Because of that, it is necessary to define methods of collecting and treatment of waste disposed in the water streams (in the area of technology. It is also important to determine legislative framework, and also to establish hierarchy in decision-making on the local level. One of the main goals is to determine new aspects of public communal utilities (so called "river communal utility", which will have jurisdiction in this area. International experiences must be analyzed separately and based on them is proposed new concept of elimination of waste from the rivers. Implementation of this pilot project is recommended on the river Danube and the river Sava on the territory of the city of Belgrade.

  4. Generalization of the Sitnica river drainage system with potential pollution of tributaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valjarević Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maps are miniature graphic representation of distinct area and as not being completely real require generalization. Cartographic generalization represents a specific investigation method in cartography. Generalization includes the processes of selection, simplification, and symbolization of details according to the purpose and the map scale. The river generalization requires the phase classification, selection, magnification and simplification to being used. Linear symbols are given on the map by their corresponding/characteristic length and remained unchanged even after the generalization. Particular cartographic criterions need to be applied during generalization. In the given case of the Sitnica river drainage system were applied the computer supported generalization based on the software Global Mapper 16.1 and the Open source software QGIS 2.6.1. The Sitnica drainage system is generalized in three levels. The first included digitalization of all linear objects related to the river Sitnica and its tributaries. Second level resulted in vector generalized data that indicate on polluted tributaries, whereas the final, third stage led to construction of multilayered vector map of the Sitnica catchments area with polluted tributaries.

  5. Climate Change Impact Assessment of Dike Safety and Flood Risk in the Vidaa River System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, H.; Sunyer Pinya, Maria Antonia; Larsen, J.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of climate change on the flood risk and dike safety in the Vidaa River system, a cross-border catchment located in the southern part of Jutland, Denmark and northern Germany, is analysed. The river discharges to the Wadden Sea through a tidal sluice, and extreme water level conditions...... in the river system occur in periods of high sea water levels where the sluice is closed and increased catchment run-off take place. Climate model data from the ENSEMBLES data archive are used to assess the changes in climate variables and the resulting effect on catchment run-off. Extreme catchment run......-off is expected to increase about 8 % in 2050 and 14 % in 2100. The changes in sea water level is assessed considering climate projections of mean sea level rise, isostatic changes, and changes in storm surge statistics. At the Vidaa sluice a mean sea level rise of 0.15–0.39 m in 2050 and 0.41–1.11 m in 2010...

  6. Basin management plan for efficient use of water resource : based on Nakdong River water system management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Hee; Lee Byoung Kook; Choi, Jee Yong; Kim, Eun Jeong [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    Nakdong River basin is about 23,800 km{sup 2} occupying 24% of whole area in Korea and stretches over 3 metropolitan cities, 5 provinces, 19 cities and 22 districts. The annual rainfall in this basin is 1,187 mm, which is the smallest among waster systems of 4 great rivers and it results in making worse of water quality and destroying ecosystem in low part of basin due to the reduction of inflowing water in a dry season. For the fundamental solution of water quality problem and water dispute between regions, it is recommended in domestic and abroad that it requires an integrated water resource management by each basin through the voluntary participation of interested parties free from the government-led downward management system. Therefore, this study introduces the concept of basin management that is applied as a new water resource management in the advanced countries and suggests a plan that can be applied for the efficient use of Nakdong River water resource. 60 refs., 24 figs., 15 tabs.

  7. Introduction: CRevolution 2: origin and evolution of the Colorado River System II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlstrom, Karl E.; Beard, L. Sue; House, P. Kyle; Young, Richard A.; Aslan, Andres; Billingsley, George; Pederson, Joel

    2012-01-01

    A 2010 Colorado River symposium held in Flagstaff, Arizona, in May 2010, had 70 participants who engaged in intense debate about the origin and evolution of the Colorado River system. This symposium, built on two previous decadal scientific meetings, focused on forging scientific consensus where possible, while also articulating continued controversies regarding the Cenozoic evolution of the Colorado River System and the landscapes of the Colorado Plateau–Rocky Mountain region that it drains. New developments involved hypotheses that Neogene mantle flow is driving plateau tilting and differential uplift, with consensus that multidisciplinary studies involving differential incision studies and additional geochronology and thermochronology are needed to test the relative importance of tectonic and geomorphic forcings in shaping the spectacular landscapes of the Colorado Plateau region. In addition to the scientific goals, the meeting participants emphasized the iconic status of Grand Canyon for geosciences, and the importance of good communication between the research community, the geoscience education/interpretation community, the public, and the media. Building on a century-long tradition, this region still provides a globally important natural laboratory for studies of the interactions of erosion and tectonism in the shaping landscape of elevated plateaus.

  8. Impacts of the 2016 outburst flood on the Bhote Koshi River valley, central Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kristen; Andermann, Christoff; Gimbert, Florent; Hovius, Niels; Adhikari, Basanta

    2017-04-01

    The central Nepal Himalaya is a region of rapid erosion where fluvial processes are largely driven by the annual Indian Summer Monsoon, which delivers up to several meters of precipitation each year. However, the rivers in this region are also subject to rare catastrophic floods caused by the sudden failure of landslide or moraine dams. Because these floods happen rarely, it has been difficult to isolate their impact on the rivers and adjacent hillslopes, and their importance for the long-term evolution of Himalayan rivers is poorly constrained. On the 5th of July, 2016, the Bhote Koshi River in central Nepal was hit by a glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF). The flood passed through a seismic and hydrological observatory installed along the river in June 2015, and we have used the resulting data to constrain the timing, duration, and bedload transport properties of the outburst flood. The impact of the flood on the river can be further observed with hourly time-lapse photographs, daily measurements of suspended sediment load, repeat lidar surveys, and satellite imagery. Overall, our observatory data span two monsoon seasons, allowing us to evaluate the impacts of the outburst flood relative to the annual monsoon flood. The outburst flood affected the river on several timescales. In the short term, it transported large amounts of coarse sediment and restructured the river bed during the hours of the flood pulse itself. Over intermediate timescales it resulted in elevated bedload and suspended load transport for several weeks following the flood. Over longer timescales the flood undercut and destabilized the river banks and hillslopes in a number of locations, leading to bank collapses, slumps, and landslides. We map changes in the channel and associated mass wasting using rapidEye imagery from Oct. 2015 and Oct. 2016. We also use repeat terrestrial lidar scans to quantify the magnitude of change in multiple locations along the river channel and to measure bank

  9. Spatio-temporal patterns and predictions of phytoplankton assemblages in a subtropical river delta system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Chao; Li, Xinhui; Wang, Xiangxiu

    2016-01-01

    Spatial and seasonal sampling within a subtropical river delta system, the Pearl River Delta (China), provided data to determine seasonal phytoplankton patterns and develop prediction models. The high nutrient levels and frequent water exchanges resulted in a phytoplankton community with greatest...... diversity of Bacillariophyceae and Chlorophyceae, and greatest biomass of Bacillariophyceae. Spatial and temporal distributions of phytoplankton assemblages were revealed using non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS). Five groups were established using hierarchical clustering based on species biomass...... similarities. These groups were distinct with respect to species richness, biomass and indicators, especially for groups representing spatial dimension. The Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) model indicated that the spatial patterns of phytoplankton assemblages were mostly explained by water quality variables...

  10. Enhancing Earth Observation Capacity in the Himalayan Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, B. R.

    2012-12-01

    Earth observations bear special significance in the Himalayan Region owing to the fact that routine data collections are often hampered by highly inaccessible terrain and harsh climatic conditions. The ongoing rapid environmental changes have further emphasized its relevance and use for informed decision-making. The International Center for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), with a regional mandate is promoting the use of earth observations in line with the GEOSS societal benefit areas. ICIMOD has a proven track record to utilize earth observations notably in the areas of understanding glaciers and snow dynamics, disaster risk preparedness and emergency response, carbon estimation for community forestry user groups, land cover change assessment, agriculture monitoring and food security analysis among others. This paper presents the challenges and lessons learned as a part of capacity building of ICIMOD to utilize earth observations with the primary objectives to empower its member countries and foster regional cooperation. As a part of capacity building, ICIMOD continues to make its efforts to augment as a regional resource center on earth observation and geospatial applications for sustainable mountain development. Capacity building possesses multitude of challenges in the region: the complex geo-political reality with differentiated capacities of member states, poorer institutional and technical infrastructure; addressing the needs for multiple user and target groups; integration with different thematic disciplines; and high resources intensity and sustainability. A capacity building framework was developed based on detailed needs assessment with a regional approach and strategy to enhance capability of ICIMOD and its network of national partners. A specialized one-week training course and curriculum have been designed for different thematic areas to impart knowledge and skills that include development practitioners, professionals, researchers and

  11. Geohydrology and model analysis of stream-aquifer system along the Arkansas River in Kearny and Finney Counties, southwestern Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, L.E.; Lindgren, Richard J.; Sauer, C.G.

    1985-01-01

    A study was made, in cooperation with the Division of Water Resources, Kansas State Board of Agriculture, to determine geohydrologic conditions in an area comprising nearly 850,000 acres along the Arkansas River valley in Kearny and Finney Counties, southwestern Kansas. The Arkansas River meanders atop and interacts hydraulically with the area's multilayered, unconsolidated aquifer system. Declines in static water levels in wells in the heavily pumped lower aquifer ranged from 20 to 80 feet during 1974-80. The river is dry in much of the area. A digital computer model was calibrated to simulate the trends of historic water levels. Simulated 1974-80 conditions depicted an average annual recharge to the unconsolidated aquifer system of 66,900 acre-feet from precipitation and 36,200 acre-feet from river and canal seepage and boundary inflow. Simulated average annual discharge consisted of 634,800 acre-feet from pumpage and boundary outflow. Simulated average annual recharge to the unconsolidated aquifer system was 531,700 acre-feet less than average annual discharge, indicating the ground-water resource is currently (1982) being mined in the study area. Simulation also indicated that there would be sufficient saturated thickness in 2005 for irrigation if 1980 hydrologic conditions continued. Seepage losses from the Arkansas River and irrigation canals are a major source of recharge to the unconsolidated aquifer system. Therefore, the amount of flow in the Arkansas River would be important in determining the rate of future water-level declines in the study area. Streamflow seepage losses could be decreased by (1) decreasing the number of wells pumping in the study area in order to reduce downward leakage from the valley aquifer, or (2) increasing streamflow discharge in order to recharge the valley aquifer. The rate and direction of flow between the river and the valley aquifer depend on the hydraulic conductivity of the streambed and the hydraulic gradient between the

  12. INTELLIGENT COMPUTING SYSTEM FOR RESERVOIR ANALYSIS AND RISK ASSESSMENT OF THE RED RIVER FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark A. Sippel; William C. Carrigan; Kenneth D. Luff; Lyn Canter

    2003-11-12

    Integrated software has been written that comprises the tool kit for the Intelligent Computing System (ICS). The software tools in ICS have been developed for characterization of reservoir properties and evaluation of hydrocarbon potential using a combination of inter-disciplinary data sources such as geophysical, geologic and engineering variables. The ICS tools provide a means for logical and consistent reservoir characterization and oil reserve estimates. The tools can be broadly characterized as (1) clustering tools, (2) neural solvers, (3) multiple-linear regression, (4) entrapment-potential calculator and (5) file utility tools. ICS tools are extremely flexible in their approach and use, and applicable to most geologic settings. The tools are primarily designed to correlate relationships between seismic information and engineering and geologic data obtained from wells, and to convert or translate seismic information into engineering and geologic terms or units. It is also possible to apply ICS in a simple framework that may include reservoir characterization using only engineering, seismic, or geologic data in the analysis. ICS tools were developed and tested using geophysical, geologic and engineering data obtained from an exploitation and development project involving the Red River Formation in Bowman County, North Dakota and Harding County, South Dakota. Data obtained from 3D seismic surveys, and 2D seismic lines encompassing nine prospective field areas were used in the analysis. The geologic setting of the Red River Formation in Bowman and Harding counties is that of a shallow-shelf, carbonate system. Present-day depth of the Red River formation is approximately 8000 to 10,000 ft below ground surface. This report summarizes production results from well demonstration activity, results of reservoir characterization of the Red River Formation at demonstration sites, descriptions of ICS tools and strategies for their application.

  13. Model based control for run-of-river system. Part 2: Comparison of control structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liubomyr Vytvytskyi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Optimal operation and control of a run-of-river hydro power plant depend on good knowledge of the elements of the plant in the form of models. Both the control architecture of the system, i.e. the choice of inputs and outputs, and to what degree a model is used, will affect the achievable control performance. Here, a model of a river reach based on the Saint Venant equations for open channel flow illustrates the dynamics of the run-of-river system. The hyperbolic partial differential equations are discretized using the Kurganov-Petrova central upwind scheme - see Part I for details. A comparison is given of achievable control performance using two alternative control signals: the inlet or the outlet volumetric flow rates to the system, in combination with a number of different control structures such as PI control, PI control with Smith predictor, and predictive control. The control objective is to keep the level just in front of the dam as high as possible, and with little variation in the level to avoid overflow over the dam. With a step change in the volumetric inflow to the river reach (disturbance and using the volumetric outflow as the control signal, PI control gives quite good performance. Model predictive control (MPC gives superior control in the sense of constraining the variation in the water level, at a cost of longer computational time and thus constraints on possible sample time. Details on controller tuning are given. With volumetric inflow to the river reach as control signal and outflow (production as disturbance, this introduces a considerable time delay in the control signal. Because of nonlinearity in the system (varying time delay, etc., it is difficult to achieve stable closed loop performance using a simple PI controller. However, by combining a PI controller with a Smith predictor based on a simple integrator + fixed time delay model, stable closed loop operation is possible with decent control performance. Still, an MPC

  14. Sedimentation and contamination patterns of dike systems along the Rhône River (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seignemartin, Gabrielle; Tena, Alvaro; Piégay, Hervé; Roux, Gwenaelle; Winiarski, Thierry

    2017-04-01

    Humans have historically modified the Rhône River, especially in the last centuries. In the 19th century, the river was systematically embanked for flood protection purposes, and works continued along the 20th century with dike system engineering work for navigation. The Rhône was canalised and its historical course by-passed by a series of hydroelectric dams. Besides, industrial activity polluted the river. For example, high levels of PCB's were attributed to the inputs of the heavily industrialized zone downstream from Lyon. During floods, these contaminants, associated with the suspended sediment, were trapped by the engineering works and the floodplain. Currently, a master plan to reactivate the river dynamics in the alluvial margins by removing the groyne-fields and dikes in the by-passed sections is being implemented. Within this context, this work aims to assess historical dynamics of sediment and associated contaminants in the floodplain (e.g. trace metal elements), notably in the dike system, in order to evaluate the contamination risk related to bank protection removal. With this objective, a transversal methodology has been applied coupling GIS diachronic analysis (old maps, bathymetric data, Orthophotos, LIDAR, etc.) to understand the historical floodplain evolution, sediment survey to obtain sediment thickness (metal rod and Ground Penetrating Radar), and sediment sampling (manual auger and core sampling) to obtain the metal element concentrations (X-Ray Fluorescence and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry). By this way, metal element patterns were defined and used as contamination tracing indicators to apprehend the contamination history but also as geochemical background indicators to define the sediment source influence. We found that sediment temporal patterns are directly related with the by-pass construction year. Spatially, fine sediment deposition predominates in the dike systems, being lower in the floodplain already disconnected in

  15. Glacial Lake Outburst Flood Risk in the Poiqu/Bhote Koshi/Sun Koshi River Basin in the Central Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Raj Khanal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Himalayas have experienced several glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs, and the risk of GLOFs is now increasing in the context of global warming. Poiqu watershed in the Tibet Autonomous Region, China, also known as the Bhote Koshi and Sun Koshi downstream in Nepal, has been identified as highly prone to GLOFs. This study explored the distribution of and changes in glacial lakes, past GLOFs and the resulting losses, risk from potential future GLOFs, and risk reduction initiatives within the watershed. A relationship was established between lake area and volume of lake water based on data from 33 lakes surveyed within the Hindu Kush Himalayan region, and the maximum possible discharge was estimated using this and other previously developed empirical equations. We recommend different strategies to reduce GLOF risk and highlight the need for a glacial lake monitoring and early-warning system. We also recommend strong regional cooperation, especially on issues related to transboundary rivers.

  16. Design of River System Deadlock Avoidance Supervisor by Using Petri Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danko Kezić

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Advanced function of the computer-based river traffic management system should automatically predict and prevent possible conflict and deadlock states between vessels by using adequate control policy (supervisor. This paper proposes a formal method for calculating maximally permissive deadlock prevention supervisor. To model the river system, the authors use a class of Petri net suitable for describing multiple re-entrant flowlines with disjoint sets of resources, jobs and control places, and matrix-based formal method to analyze the system. By using matrix algebra, the structural characteristics of the Petri net (circular waits, P-invariants, critical siphons and subsystem, key resource have been analyzed and the steps for supervisor design proposed. The first and the second level deadlocks can be avoided by maintaining the number of tokens in the critical subsystems and ensuring that the key resource would not be the last available resource in the system. The derived supervisor has been verified by a computer simulation using MATLAB environment. KEYWORDS: traffic management system, deadlock avoidance, discrete event system, Petri net

  17. Solute geochemistry of the Snake River plain regional aquifer system, Idaho and eastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Warren W.; Low, Walton H.

    1988-01-01

    Four geochemical approaches were used to determine chemical reactions controlling solute concentrations in the Snake River Plain regional aquifer system: (1) calculation of a solute balance within the aquifer, (2) identification of weathered products in the aquifer frame- work, (3) comparison of thermodynamic mineral saturation indices with plausible solute reactions, and (4) comparison of stable-isotope ratios of the solutes with those in the aquifer framework. Solutes in the geo- thermal groundwater system underlying the main aquifer were examined by calculating thermodynamic mineral saturation indices, stable-isotope ratios, geothermometry, and radiocarbon dating.

  18. Increasing risk of glacial lake outburst floods as a consequence of climate change in the Himalayan region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somana Riaz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The greater Himalayan Mountains host the largest snow covered area outside the polar regions and serves as the source for some of the major fluvial systems of the world. The region acts as the lifeline for approximately 10% of the world’s population. The terrain is geologically active, highly susceptible to climate change processes and plays a significant role in global hydro-meteorological cycles and biodiversity. With the increasing impacts of climate change to the glaciers and ice caps during the past few decades, people living in the Himalayas have become vulnerable to a higher risk of floods, avalanches and glacial lake outburst floods(GLOFs. This study reviewed the work carried out by earlier researchers to understand the history and science of GLOFs and their potential risk to the communities in the Himalayanbelt, particularly in Pakistan.

  19. Prediction of dissolved oxygen concentration in hypoxic river systems using support vector machine: a case study of Wen-Rui Tang River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaoliang; Shang, Xu; Dahlgren, Randy A; Zhang, Minghua

    2017-07-01

    Accurate quantification of dissolved oxygen (DO) is critically important for managing water resources and controlling pollution. Artificial intelligence (AI) models have been successfully applied for modeling DO content in aquatic ecosystems with limited data. However, the efficacy of these AI models in predicting DO levels in the hypoxic river systems having multiple pollution sources and complicated pollutants behaviors is unclear. Given this dilemma, we developed a promising AI model, known as support vector machine (SVM), to predict the DO concentration in a hypoxic river in southeastern China. Four different calibration models, specifically, multiple linear regression, back propagation neural network, general regression neural network, and SVM, were established, and their prediction accuracy was systemically investigated and compared. A total of 11 hydro-chemical variables were used as model inputs. These variables were measured bimonthly at eight sampling sites along the rural-suburban-urban portion of Wen-Rui Tang River from 2004 to 2008. The performances of the established models were assessed through the mean square error (MSE), determination coefficient (R 2 ), and Nash-Sutcliffe (NS) model efficiency. The results indicated that the SVM model was superior to other models in predicting DO concentration in Wen-Rui Tang River. For SVM, the MSE, R 2 , and NS values for the testing subset were 0.9416 mg/L, 0.8646, and 0.8763, respectively. Sensitivity analysis showed that ammonium-nitrogen was the most significant input variable of the proposal SVM model. Overall, these results demonstrated that the proposed SVM model can efficiently predict water quality, especially for highly impaired and hypoxic river systems.

  20. Relations among geology, physiography, land use, and stream habitat conditions in the Buffalo and Current River Systems, Missouri and Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panfil, Maria S.; Jacobson, Robert B.

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated links between drainage-basin characteristics and stream habitat conditions in the Buffalo National River, Arkansas and the Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri. It was designed as an associative study - the two parks were divided into their principle tributary drainage basins and then basin-scale and stream-habitat data sets were gathered and compared between them. Analyses explored the relative influence of different drainage-basin characteristics on stream habitat conditions. They also investigated whether a relation between land use and stream characteristics could be detected after accounting for geologic and physiographic differences among drainage basins. Data were collected for three spatial scales: tributary drainage basins, tributary stream reaches, and main-stem river segments of the Current and Buffalo Rivers. Tributary drainage-basin characteristics were inventoried using a Geographic Information System (GIS) and included aspects of drainage-basin physiography, geology, and land use. Reach-scale habitat surveys measured channel longitudinal and cross-sectional geometry, substrate particle size and embeddedness, and indicators of channel stability. Segment-scale aerial-photo based inventories measured gravel-bar area, an indicator of coarse sediment load, along main-stem rivers. Relations within and among data sets from each spatial scale were investigated using correlation analysis and multiple linear regression. Study basins encompassed physiographically distinct regions of the Ozarks. The Buffalo River system drains parts of the sandstone-dominated Boston Mountains and of the carbonate-dominated Springfield and Salem Plateaus. The Current River system is within the Salem Plateau. Analyses of drainage-basin variables highlighted the importance of these physiographic differences and demonstrated links among geology, physiography, and land-use patterns. Buffalo River tributaries have greater relief, steeper slopes, and more

  1. A system dynamics approach for integrated management of the Jucar River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Martin, Adria; Macian-Sorribes, Hector; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    System dynamics (SD) is a modelling approach that allows the analysis of complex systems through the mathematical definition of variables and their relationships. Based on systems thinking, SD is suitable for interdisciplinary studies of the management of complex systems. Over the past 50 years, SD tools have been applied to fields as diverse as economics, ecology, politics, sociology and resource management. Its application to the field of water resources has grown significantly over the last two decades, facilitating the enhancement of models by adding social, economic and ecological components. However, its application to the operation of complex multireservoir systems has been very limited so far. In this contribution, we have developed a SD model for the Jucar River Basin, one of the most vulnerable basins in the western Mediterranean region with regard to droughts. The system has three main reservoirs, which allows for a multiannual management of the storage that compensates the highly variable streamflow from upstream. Our SD model of the Jucar River Basin is able to capture the complexity of the water resource system. The model developed consists of five interlinked subsystems: a) Topology of the system network, including the 3 main reservoirs, water seepage and evaporation, inflows and catchments. b) Monthly operating rules of each reservoir. The rules were derived from the expert knowledge eluded from the operators of the reservoirs. c) Monthly urban, agricultural and environmental water demands. d) State index of the system and drought mitigation measures triggered depending on the state index. e) Mancha Oriental aquifer and stream-aquifer interaction with the Jucar River. The comparison between observed and simulated series showed that the model provides a good representation of the observed reservoir operation and total deficits. The interdisciplinary and open nature of the methodology allows to add new variables and dynamics to the model that are

  2. Fine-resolution Modeling of Urban-Energy Systems' Water Footprint in River Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManamay, R.; Surendran Nair, S.; Morton, A.; DeRolph, C.; Stewart, R.

    2015-12-01

    Characterizing the interplay between urbanization, energy production, and water resources is essential for ensuring sustainable population growth. In order to balance limited water supplies, competing users must account for their realized and virtual water footprint, i.e. the total direct and indirect amount of water used, respectively. Unfortunately, publicly reported US water use estimates are spatially coarse, temporally static, and completely ignore returns of water to rivers after use. These estimates are insufficient to account for the high spatial and temporal heterogeneity of water budgets in urbanizing systems. Likewise, urbanizing areas are supported by competing sources of energy production, which also have heterogeneous water footprints. Hence, a fundamental challenge of planning for sustainable urban growth and decision-making across disparate policy sectors lies in characterizing inter-dependencies among urban systems, energy producers, and water resources. A modeling framework is presented that provides a novel approach to integrate urban-energy infrastructure into a spatial accounting network that accurately measures water footprints as changes in the quantity and quality of river flows. River networks (RNs), i.e. networks of branching tributaries nested within larger rivers, provide a spatial structure to measure water budgets by modeling hydrology and accounting for use and returns from urbanizing areas and energy producers. We quantify urban-energy water footprints for Atlanta, GA and Knoxville, TN (USA) based on changes in hydrology in RNs. Although water intakes providing supply to metropolitan areas were proximate to metropolitan areas, power plants contributing to energy demand in Knoxville and Atlanta, occurred 30 and 90km outside the metropolitan boundary, respectively. Direct water footprints from urban landcover primarily comprised smaller streams whereas indirect footprints from water supply reservoirs and energy producers included

  3. Laboratory QA/QC improvements for small drinking water systems at Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, R.D.

    1995-12-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS), a 310 square mile facility located near Aiken, S.C., is operated by Westinghouse Savannah River Company for the US Department of Energy. SRS has 28 separate drinking water systems with average daily demands ranging from 0.0002 to 0.5 MGD. All systems utilize treated groundwater. Until recently, the water laboratories for each system operated independently. As a result, equipment, reagents, chemicals, procedures, personnel, and quality control practices differed from location to location. Due to this inconsistency, and a lack of extensive laboratory OA/QC practices at some locations, SRS auditors were not confident in the accuracy of daily water quality analyses results. The Site`s Water Services Department addressed these concerns by developing and implementing a practical laboratory QA/QC program. Basic changes were made which can be readily adopted by most small drinking water systems. Key features of the program include: Standardized and upgraded laboratory instrumentation and equipment; standardized analytical procedures based on vendor manuals and site requirements; periodic accuracy checks for all instrumentation; creation of a centralized laboratory to perform metals digestions and chlorine colorimeter accuracy checks; off-site and on-site operator training; proper storage, inventory and shelf life monitoring for reagents and chemicals. This program has enhanced the credibility and accuracy of SRS drinking water system analyses results.

  4. ASSESSMENT OF UNCERTAINTY IN THE RADIATION DOSES FOR THE TECHA RIVER DOSIMETRY SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Degteva, M. O.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Shagina, N. B.

    2009-10-23

    In order to provide more accurate and precise estimates of individual dose (and thus more precise estimates of radiation risk) for the members of the ETRC, a new dosimetric calculation system, the Techa River Dosimetry System-2009 (TRDS-2009) has been prepared. The deterministic version of the improved dosimetry system TRDS-2009D was basically completed in April 2009. Recent developments in evaluation of dose-response models in light of uncertain dose have highlighted the importance of different types of uncertainties in the development of individual dose estimates. These include uncertain parameters that may be either shared or unshared within the dosimetric cohort, and also the nature of the type of uncertainty as aleatory or epistemic and either classical or Berkson. This report identifies the nature of the various input parameters and calculational methods incorporated in the Techa River Dosimetry System (based on the TRDS-2009D implementation), with the intention of preparing a stochastic version to estimate the uncertainties in the dose estimates. This report reviews the equations, databases, and input parameters, and then identifies the author’s interpretations of their general nature. It presents the approach selected so that the stochastic, Monte-Carlo, implementation of the dosimetry System - TRDS-2009MC - will provide useful information regarding the uncertainties of the doses.

  5. The UP modelling system for large scale hydrology: simulation of the Arkansas-Red River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. Kilsby

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The UP (Upscaled Physically-based hydrological modelling system to the Arkansas-Red River basin (USA is designed for macro-scale simulations of land surface processes, and aims for a physical basis and, avoids the use of discharge records in the direct calibration of parameters. This is achieved in a two stage process: in the first stage parametrizations are derived from detailed modelling of selected representative small and then used in a second stage in which a simple distributed model is used to simulate the dynamic behaviour of the whole basin. The first stage of the process is described in a companion paper (Ewen et al., this issue, and the second stage of this process is described here. The model operated at an hourly time-step on 17-km grid squares for a two year simulation period, and represents all the important hydrological processes including regional aquifer recharge, groundwater discharge, infiltration- and saturation-excess runoff, evapotranspiration, snowmelt, overland and channel flow. Outputs from the model are discussed, and include river discharge at gauging stations and space-time fields of evaporation and soil moisture. Whilst the model efficiency assessed by comparison of simulated and observed discharge records is not as good as could be achieved with a model calibrated against discharge, there are considerable advantages in retaining a physical basis in applications to ungauged river basins and assessments of impacts of land use or climate change.

  6. 77 FR 51733 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, New River Gorge National River, Bicycle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... River Gorge on rolling, forested terrain. The trail has been built according to the frontcountry trail... Administrative Road. ] Stone Cliff Trail 2.7 Existing Administrative Road. Terry Top Trail 1.7 Existing... Creek Rail Rend Trail. Trail. Fayetteville Trail Headhouse Trail..... Stone Cliff Trail. Park Loop Trail...

  7. Effluent trading in river systems through stochastic decision-making process: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfagharipoor, Mohammad Amin; Ahmadi, Azadeh

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide an efficient framework for effluent trading in river systems. The proposed framework consists of two pessimistic and optimistic decision-making models to increase the executability of river water quality trading programs. The models used for this purpose are (1) stochastic fallback bargaining (SFB) to reach an agreement among wastewater dischargers and (2) stochastic multi-criteria decision-making (SMCDM) to determine the optimal treatment strategy. The Monte-Carlo simulation method is used to incorporate the uncertainty into analysis. This uncertainty arises from stochastic nature and the errors in the calculation of wastewater treatment costs. The results of river water quality simulation model are used as the inputs of models. The proposed models are used in a case study on the Zarjoub River in northern Iran to determine the best solution for the pollution load allocation. The best treatment alternatives selected by each model are imported, as the initial pollution discharge permits, into an optimization model developed for trading of pollution discharge permits among pollutant sources. The results show that the SFB-based water pollution trading approach reduces the costs by US$ 14,834 while providing a relative consensus among pollutant sources. Meanwhile, the SMCDM-based water pollution trading approach reduces the costs by US$ 218,852, but it is less acceptable by pollutant sources. Therefore, it appears that giving due attention to stability, or in other words acceptability of pollution trading programs for all pollutant sources, is an essential element of their success.

  8. Evidence of the St. Clair-Detroit River system as a dispersal corridor and nursery habitat for transient larval burbot

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Darrin E.; Roseman, Edward F.; Keeler, Kevin M.; DeBruyne, Robin L.; Pritt, Jeremy J.; Thompson, Patricia A.; Ireland, Stacey A.; Ross, Jason E.; Bowser, Dustin; Hunter, Robert D.; Castle, Dana Kristina; Fischer, Jason; Provo, Stacy A.

    2015-01-01

    Burbot Lota lota are distributed across the Laurentian Great Lakes where they occupy a top piscivore role. The St. Clair-Detroit River System is known to provide a migration corridor as well as spawning and nursery habitat for many indigenous fishes of economic and ecological significance. However, knowledge is scant of the early life history of burbot and the importance of this system in their dispersal, survival, and recruitment. In order to assess the role of the St. Clair-Detroit River System to burbot ecology, we collected larval burbot during ichthyoplankton surveys in this system from 2010 to 2013 as part of a habitat restoration monitoring program. More and larger burbot larvae were found in the St. Clair River than in the lower Detroit River, although this may be due to differences in sampling methods between the two rivers. Consistent with existing studies, larval burbot exhibited ontogenesis with a distinct transition from a pelagic zooplankton-based diet to a benthic macroinvertebrate-based diet. Our results demonstrate that the St. Clair-Detroit Rivers provide food resources, required habitat, and a migration conduit between the upper and lower Great Lakes, but the contribution of these fish to the lower lakes requires further examination.

  9. Urban metabolism and river systems: an historical perspective – Paris and the Seine, 1790–1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Barles

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse metabolic interaction between Paris and the Seine during the industrial era, 1790–1970, a period marked by strong population growth, technological changes, and the absence of specific legislation on environmental issues. The viewpoint focuses on exchanges of waters and wastes between city and river, quantifying them and tracing their evolution in the light of the strategies implemented by the stakeholders in charge. The study combines industrial ecology, local history and the history of technology. From 1790 to 1850, waste matters, and especially excreta, were considered as raw materials, not refuse: they generated real profits. The removal of human excreta aimed not only at improving urban hygiene, but at producing the fertilizers needed in rural areas. Discharging them into the river was out of the question. But after the 1860s, several factors upset this exploitation, notably domestic water supply: night soil became more and more liquid, difficult to handle and to turn into fertilizer; once utilised, the water had to be removed from the house; at the same time, the sewerage system developed and had negative impacts on the river. Even so, Parisian engineers continued to process sewage using techniques that would not only ensure hygiene but also conciliate economic and agricultural interests: combined sewerage system and sewage farms. Both of these early periods are thus noteworthy for a relative limitation of the river's deterioration by urban wastes. Not until the 1920s, when domestic water supply had become the standard and excreta came to be considered as worthless waste, was the principle of valorisation abandoned. This led to important and long-lasting pollution of the Seine (despite the construction of a treatment plant, aggravating the industrial pollution that had been in evidence since the 1840s. Analysing the priorities that led to the adoption of one principle or another in matters of urban

  10. Urban metabolism and river systems: an historical perspective - Paris and the Seine, 1790-1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barles, S.

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse metabolic interaction between Paris and the Seine during the industrial era, 1790-1970, a period marked by strong population growth, technological changes, and the absence of specific legislation on environmental issues. The viewpoint focuses on exchanges of waters and wastes between city and river, quantifying them and tracing their evolution in the light of the strategies implemented by the stakeholders in charge. The study combines industrial ecology, local history and the history of technology. From 1790 to 1850, waste matters, and especially excreta, were considered as raw materials, not refuse: they generated real profits. The removal of human excreta aimed not only at improving urban hygiene, but at producing the fertilizers needed in rural areas. Discharging them into the river was out of the question. But after the 1860s, several factors upset this exploitation, notably domestic water supply: night soil became more and more liquid, difficult to handle and to turn into fertilizer; once utilised, the water had to be removed from the house; at the same time, the sewerage system developed and had negative impacts on the river. Even so, Parisian engineers continued to process sewage using techniques that would not only ensure hygiene but also conciliate economic and agricultural interests: combined sewerage system and sewage farms. Both of these early periods are thus noteworthy for a relative limitation of the river's deterioration by urban wastes. Not until the 1920s, when domestic water supply had become the standard and excreta came to be considered as worthless waste, was the principle of valorisation abandoned. This led to important and long-lasting pollution of the Seine (despite the construction of a treatment plant), aggravating the industrial pollution that had been in evidence since the 1840s. Analysing the priorities that led to the adoption of one principle or another in matters of urban hygiene and techniques

  11. Geochemistry of buried river sediments from Ghaggar Plains, NW India: Multi-proxy records of variations in provenance, paleoclimate, and paleovegetation patterns in the Late Quaternary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ajit; Paul, Debajyoti; Sinha, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    ) suggest binary mixing of sediments from compositionally distinct Higher Himalaya (HH) and Lesser Himalaya (LH) endmembers in the catchment, and support involvement of a river system originating in the Himalayan hinterland. Distinctly higher 87Sr/86Sr and lower εNd in the core sediments during glacial...... variability clearly reflects climate-controlled sediment erosion in the Himalayan catchment. Temporal variations in δ18O and δ13C of carbonate nodules (n = 27) are consistent with that reported from the Ganga interfluves. The δ13C variability (-4.1‰ to 1.2‰) in carbonates is mainly controlled by the extent...... of silicate (HH) versus carbonate (LH) source weathering due to significant climatic shifts. The δ13C of sediment organic matter (-27.4‰ to -23.2‰, n = 24) suggests dominantly C3 plants in the catchment during the last ~75 ka. More negative δ13C values in sediments during glacial periods relative to those...

  12. Spatial gradients in freshwater fish diversity, abundance and current pattern in the Himalayan region of Upper Ganges Basin, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AJEY KUMAR PATHAK

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pathak AK, Sarkar UK, Singh SP. 2014. Spatial gradients in freshwater fish diversity, abundance and current pattern in the Himalayan region of Upper Ganges Basin, India. Biodiversitas 15: 186-194.The present study describes the analysis and mapping of the different measurements of freshwater fish biodiversity of the Upper Ganges basin in the Himalayan region using spatial interpolation methods of Geographical Information System. The diversity, richness and abundance of fishes for each sampling location were determined and Kriging interpolation was applied on each fisheries measurement to predict and produce semivariogram. The semivariogarms produced were cross validated and reclassified. The reclassified maps for richness, abundance and diversity of fishes, occurrence of cold water threatened fish and abundance of important genera like Tor, Schziothorax and species were produced. The result of the Kriging produced good results and overall error in the estimation process was found significant. The cross validation of semovariograms also provided a better result with the observed data sets. Moreover, weighted overlay analysis of the reclassified raster maps of richness and abundance of fishes produced the classified raster map at different evaluation scale (0-10 qualitatively describing the gradient of species richness and abundance compositely. Similarly, the classified raster map at same evaluation scale qualitatively describing the gradient of species abundance and diversity compositely was produced and published. Further, basin wise analysis between Alaknanda/Pindar and Ganga1 sub basins showed 0.745 disparities at 0.745 distances in 2 dimensional spaces. The richness, diversity and abundance of threatened fishes among the different sampling locations were not significant (p = 0.9.

  13. Diversity and feeding strategies of soil microfauna along elevation gradients in Himalayan cold deserts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Devetter, Miloslav; Háněl, Ladislav; Řeháková, Klára; Doležal, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 11 (2017), č. článku e0187646. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LTC17019 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : diversity * feeding strategies * soil microfauna * Himalayan cold deserts Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  14. High-resolution monitoring of Himalayan glacier dynamics using unmanned aerial vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immerzeel, W. W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/290472113; Kraaijenbrink, P. D A; Shea, J. M.; Shrestha, A. B.; Pellicciotti, F.; Bierkens, M. F P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/125022794; De Jong, S. M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/120221306

    2014-01-01

    Himalayan glacier tongues are commonly debris covered and they are an important source of melt water. However, they remain relatively unstudied because of the inaccessibility of the terrain and the difficulties in field work caused by the thick debris mantles. Observations of debris-covered glaciers

  15. Deformation mechanisms in the frontal Lesser Himalayan Duplex in Sikkim Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matin, Abdul; Mazumdar, Sweety

    2009-08-01

    Understanding deformation mechanisms in Himalayan rocks is a challenging proposition due to the complex nature of the deformed rocks and their genesis. Crustal deformation in the Himalayan thrust belt typically occurs in elastico-frictional (EF) or quasi-plastic (QP) regimes at depths controlled mainly by regional strain-rate and geothermal gradient. However, material property, grain-size and their progressive changes during deformation are also important controlling factors. We present evidence of EF deformation from Gondwana rocks developed during the emplacement of one of the frontal horses (Jorthang horse) in the Lesser Himalayan Duplex (LHD) structure associated with Lesser Himalayan rocks in the footwall of the Ramgarh thrust in the Rangit window near Jorthang in the Sikkim Himalaya. The rocks in the horse exhibit systematic changes in microand meso-structures from an undeformed protolith to cataclasite suggesting that it was emplaced under elastico-frictional conditions. Meso- to micro-scale shear fractures are seen developed in Gondwana sandstone and slate while intercalated fine-grained shale-coal-carbonates are deformed by cataclastic flow suggesting that material property and grain-size have played an important role in the deformation of the Jorthang horse. In contrast, the hanging wall schists and quartzites of the Ramgarh thrust exhibit quasi-plastic deformation structures. This suggests that the Jorthang horse was emplaced under shallower crustal conditions than the antiformally folded Ramgarh thrust sheet even though the Ramgarh sheet presently overlies the Jorthang horse.

  16. Complexities and Controversies in Himalayan Research: A Call for Collaboration and Rigor for Better Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra P. Singh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Himalaya range encompasses enormous variation in elevation, precipitation, biodiversity, and patterns of human livelihoods. These mountains modify the regional climate in complex ways; the ecosystem services they provide influence the lives of almost 1 billion people in 8 countries. However, our understanding of these ecosystems remains rudimentary. The 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report that erroneously predicted a date for widespread glacier loss exposed how little was known of Himalayan glaciers. Recent research shows how variably glaciers respond to climate change in different Himalayan regions. Alarmist theories are not new. In the 1980s, the Theory of Himalayan Degradation warned of complete forest loss and devastation of downstream areas, an eventuality that never occurred. More recently, the debate on hydroelectric construction appears driven by passions rather than science. Poor data, hasty conclusions, and bad science plague Himalayan research. Rigorous sampling, involvement of civil society in data collection, and long-term collaborative research involving institutions from across the Himalaya are essential to improve knowledge of this region.

  17. Retrieval of snow albedo and grain size using reflectance measurements in Himalayan basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Negi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, spectral reflectance measurements of Himalayan seasonal snow were carried out and analysed to retrieve the snow albedo and effective grain size. The asymptotic radiative transfer (ART theory was applied to retrieve the plane and spherical albedo. The retrieved plane albedo was compared with the measured spectral albedo and a good agreement was observed with ±10% differences. Retrieved integrated albedo was found within ±6% difference with ground observed broadband albedo. The retrieved snow grain sizes using different models based on the ART theory were compared for various snow types and it was observed that the grain size model using two channel method (one in visible and another in NIR region can work well for the Himalayan seasonal snow and it was found consistent with temporal changes in grain size. This method can work very well for clean, dry snow as in the upper Himalaya, but sometimes, due to the low reflectances (<20% using wavelength 1.24 μm, the ART theory cannot be applied, which is common in lower and middle Himalayan old snow. This study is important for monitoring the Himalayan cryosphere using air-borne or space-borne sensors.

  18. Populations of Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Its Parasitoids in Himalayan Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a biological control program against olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae Rossi, olives were collected in the Himalayan foothills (China, Nepal, India, and Pakistan) to discover new natural enemies. Wild olives, Olea europaea ssp. cuspidata (Wall ex. G. Don), were sparsely distributed and fly-infes...

  19. Himalayan Vultures in Khodpe, far-west Nepal: is there any threat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Joshi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that Himalayan Vulture Gyps himalayensis is susceptible to the veterinary drug diclofenac, which is responsible for the decline of other Gyps species across South Asia.  Unlike other Gyps species, there is little quantitative data to assess Himalayan Vultures population.  Based on observation, we analyzed the flock size and breeding success of the Himalayan Vultures on two cliffs of Khodpe in Baitadi District, far-west Nepal.  The mean flock size of Himalayan Vulture was 25.83±6.33.  Overall breeding success was 90.9% based on active nests.  We also conducted a questionnaire survey to assess the perceived threats in the view of local people to vultures and these threats include loss of food, veterinary drug, lack of proper nest sites, and lack of public awareness.  Additionally, 76% of the respondents felt that vultures were decreasing in the area, 94.7% were not aware of the toxicity of diclofenac to vultures, and very few (2% knew about the availability of meloxicam as a safe alternative drug.  The colony we studied is one of the few remaining known breeding populations, which provide baseline information from far-west Nepal, thus we recommend for conservation and continuous monitoring of this species to understand their population change and breeding biology. 

  20. Localization of Open Educational Resources (OER) in Nepal: Strategies of Himalayan Knowledge-Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivins, Tiffany Zenith

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation examines localization of Open Educational Resources (OER) in Himalayan community technology centers of Nepal. Specifically, I examine strategies and practices that local knowledge-workers utilize in order to localize educational content for the disparate needs, interests, and ability-levels of learners in rural villages. This…

  1. Nutritional Profile of Phytococktail from Trans-Himalayan Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Priyanka; Tayade, Amol B.; Kumar, Jatinder; Chaurasia, Om P.; Srivastava, Ravi B.; Singh, Shashi B.

    2013-01-01

    We estimated the nutritive value, vitamin content, amino acid composition, fatty acid content, and mineral profile of a phytococktail comprising sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides), apricot (Prunus armeniaca), and roseroot (Rhodiola imbricata) from trans-Himalaya. The free vitamin forms in the phytococktail were determined by rapid resolution liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-MS/MS). Vitamin E and B-complex vitamins were detected as the principle vitamins. Reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with pre-column derivatization was used for identification and quantification of amino acids. Eight essential and eleven non-essential amino acids were quantified, and the content ranged between 76.33 and 9485.67 µg/g. Among the essential amino acids, L-methionine, L-phenylalanine, L-lysine, L-leucine, and L-histidine were found to be the dominant contributors. We also quantified the fatty acids in the phytococktail by using gas chromatography coupled with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) with fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) derivatization. The analysis revealed the presence of 4 major fatty acids contributing to the total lipid content. Palmitic acid was found to be the rich source of saturated fatty acid (SFA) and constituted ∼31% of the total lipid content. Among the unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), palmitoleic acid (43.47%), oleic acid (20.89%), and linoleic acid (4.31%) were prominent. The mineral profiling was carried out by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES), and it was found to contain a number of important dietary mineral elements. The harsh climatic conditions, difficult terrain, and logistic constraints at high altitude regions of Indian trans-Himalayan cold desert lead to the scarcity of fresh fruits and vegetables. Therefore, the source of multiple vitamins, essential amino acids, fatty acids, and dietary minerals from the phytococktail would provide great health benefit in the

  2. Improving SLCF Science in the Himalayan Region: ICIMOD's Atmosphere Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, A. K.; Pradhan, B. B.; Surapipith, V.

    2013-12-01

    Nepal. Each will be on a mountain peak overlooking the Indo-Gangetic Plains. A building will house laboratories and visitor space, and will have a small tower. Each site will be equipped with a Picarro G2401 analyzer for CO, CO¬2, methane and water vapor, aerosol filter samplers, as well as instruments to measure black carbon, ozone, aerosol size distribution, aerosol scattering, cloud condensation nuclei, solar radiation, aerosol optical depth, and meteorology. Together with output from ICIMOD's new atmospheric modeling centre, the data from the sites will allow quantifying the flux of pollutants from the Indo-Gangetic Plains towards the high Himalaya, and to estimate emissions of SLCFs within the Himalayan foothills region. The infrastructure at both observatory sites is designed to accommodate training and future expansion as well as to host visiting instruments.

  3. Nutritional profile of phytococktail from trans-Himalayan plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Dhar

    Full Text Available We estimated the nutritive value, vitamin content, amino acid composition, fatty acid content, and mineral profile of a phytococktail comprising sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides, apricot (Prunus armeniaca, and roseroot (Rhodiola imbricata from trans-Himalaya. The free vitamin forms in the phytococktail were determined by rapid resolution liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-MS/MS. Vitamin E and B-complex vitamins were detected as the principle vitamins. Reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC with pre-column derivatization was used for identification and quantification of amino acids. Eight essential and eleven non-essential amino acids were quantified, and the content ranged between 76.33 and 9485.67 µg/g. Among the essential amino acids, L-methionine, L-phenylalanine, L-lysine, L-leucine, and L-histidine were found to be the dominant contributors. We also quantified the fatty acids in the phytococktail by using gas chromatography coupled with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID with fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs derivatization. The analysis revealed the presence of 4 major fatty acids contributing to the total lipid content. Palmitic acid was found to be the rich source of saturated fatty acid (SFA and constituted ∼31% of the total lipid content. Among the unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs, palmitoleic acid (43.47%, oleic acid (20.89%, and linoleic acid (4.31% were prominent. The mineral profiling was carried out by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES, and it was found to contain a number of important dietary mineral elements. The harsh climatic conditions, difficult terrain, and logistic constraints at high altitude regions of Indian trans-Himalayan cold desert lead to the scarcity of fresh fruits and vegetables. Therefore, the source of multiple vitamins, essential amino acids, fatty acids, and dietary minerals from the phytococktail would provide great health benefit

  4. The physical and geochemical interaction between a tidally-dominated estuary system (Wassaw Sound, GA) and a river-dominated estuary (Savannah River, GA) through salinity and inorganic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mike Scaboo; Christopher Hintz

    2016-01-01

    The Wilmington, Bull, and Savannah Rivers are interconnected waterways that flow through adjacent Savannah and Wassaw Sound Estuaries. These systems are linked by the upper reaches of the Wilmington River maintained as part of the Intracoastal Waterway. Significant changes to the Savannah River began in December 2014 with the initiation of the Savannah Harbor Expansion...

  5. Urban Floods in Lowlands—Levee Systems, Unplanned Urban Growth and River Restoration Alternative: A Case Study in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Gomes Miguez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of cities has always had a very close relation with water. However, cities directly impact land use patterns and greatly change natural landscapes, aggravating floods. Considering this situation, this paper intends to discuss lowland occupation and city sustainability in what regards urban stormwater management, fluvial space, and river restoration, aiming at minimizing flood risks and improving natural and built environment conditions. River plains tend to be attractive places for a city to grow. From ancient times, levees have been used to protect lowland areas along major watercourses to allow their occupation. However, urban rivers demand space for temporary flood storage. From a systemic point of view, levees along extensive river reaches act as canalization works, limiting river connectivity with flood plains, rising water levels, increasing overtopping risks and transferring floods downstream. Departing from this discussion, four case studies in the Iguaçu-Sarapuí River Basin, a lowland area of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, are used to compose a perspective in which the central point refers to the need of respecting watershed limits and giving space to rivers. Different aspects of low-lying city planning are discussed and analyzed concerning the integration of the built and natural environments.

  6. Ecological sentinels of aquatic contamination in the lower Mississippi River system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bart, H. Jr.; Martinat, P.; Spahn, S. [and others

    1996-05-02

    This project has three major subsections; reports on the progress are detailed in the article. Community and Trophic Responses of fishes to aquatic contamination looks at the fate of environmental contaminants in fish from a lateral floodplain swamp in the lower Mississippi River system and at the ecological risks contaminants pose for fish and other aquatic organisms. Contaminants include cadmium, mercury, nickel, chromium, HCB and HCBC. The second section looks at tree cores of baldcypress as biomarkers of present and past pollution events by heavy metals. The third section evaluates the effects of environmental contamination on colonial wading birds and the usefulness of these birds as indicators of environmental contamination. 3 refs.

  7. The Montana Rivers Information System: Edit/entry program user`s manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    The Montana Rivers Information System (MRIS) was initiated to assess the state`s fish, wildlife, and recreation value; and natural cultural and geologic features. The MRIS is now a set of data bases containing part of the information in the Natural Heritage Program natural features and threatened and endangered species data bases. The purpose of this User`s Manual is to: (1) describe to the user how to maintain the MRIS database of their choice by updating, changing, deleting, and adding records using the edit/entry programs; and (2) provide to the user all information and instructions necessary to complete data entry into the MRIS databases.

  8. Trace metal distributions in the sediments from river-reservoir systems: case of the Congo River and Lake Ma Vallée, Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwanamoki, Paola M; Devarajan, Naresh; Niane, Birane; Ngelinkoto, Patience; Thevenon, Florian; Nlandu, José W; Mpiana, Pius T; Prabakar, Kandasamy; Mubedi, Josué I; Kabele, Christophe G; Wildi, Walter; Poté, John

    2015-01-01

    The contamination of drinking water resources by toxic metals is a major problem in many parts of the world, particularly in dense populated areas of developing countries that lack wastewater treatment facilities. The present study characterizes the recent evolution with time of some contaminants deposited in the Congo River and Lake Ma Vallée, both located in the vicinity of the large city of Kinshasa, capital of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Physicochemical parameters including grain size distribution, organic matter and trace element concentrations were measured in sediment cores sampled from Congo River (n = 3) and Lake Ma Vallée (n = 2). The maximum concentration of trace elements in sediment profiles was found in the samples from the sites of Pool Malebo, with the values of 107.2, 111.7, 88.6, 39.3, 15.4, 6.1 and 4.7 mg kg(-1) for Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb, As and Hg, respectively. This site, which is characterized by intense human activities, is especially well known for the construction of numerous boats that are used for regular navigation on Congo River. Concerning Lake Ma Vallée, the concentration of all metals are generally low, with maximum values of 26.3, 53.6, 16.1, 15.3, 6.5 and 1.8 mg kg(-1) for Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb and As, respectively. However, the comparison of the metal profiles retrieved from the different sampled cores also reveals specific variations. The results of this study point out the sediment pollution by toxic metals in the Congo River Basin. This research presents useful tools for the evaluation of sediment contamination of river-reservoir systems.

  9. Drivers and Controls of the Zebra Mussel Invasion of the Mississippi-Missouri River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrandi, R.; Mari, L.; Bertuzzo, E.; Gatto, M.; Levin, S. A.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Rinaldo, A.

    2010-12-01

    The zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha has been haunting North American inland waters for the past twenty years. Due to the huge population densities reached by local colonies and the species' unparalleled dispersal ability, the zebra mussel represents a major threat from both an ecological and an economic perspective. We propose a novel ecohydrological model for the invasion of inland waters by this alien species and test it against field data gathered within the Mississippi-Missouri river system in North America. To incorporate both hydrologic controls and anthropogenic drivers of the invasion, the proposed multi-layer network model accounts explicitly for zebra mussel demographic dynamics, hydrologic transport and dispersal due to human activities. We show that hydrologic transport alone is not sufficient to explain the spread of the species at the basin scale. We also quantify the role played by commercial navigation in promoting the initial, selective colonization of the river system and show how recreational boating may have determined the capillary penetration of the species into the water system. The role of post-establishment dispersal mechanisms and the effectiveness of possible prevention measures are also discussed in the context of model sensitivity and robustness to reparameterization.

  10. The formation and maintenance of single-thread tie channels entering floodplain lakes: observations from three diverse river systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowland, Joel C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dietrich, William E [UC BERKELEY; Day, Geoff [NEWCREST MINING; Parker, Gary [UNIV OF ILLINOIS

    2009-01-01

    Tie channels connect rivers to floodplain lakes on many lowland rivers and thereby play a central role in floodplain sedimentology and ecology, yet they are generally unrecognized and little studied. here we report the results of field studies focused on tie channel origin and morphodynamics in three contrasting systems: the Middle Fly River, Papua New Guinea, the Lower Mississippi River, and Birch Creek in Alaska. Across these river systems, tie channels vary by an order of magnitude in size but exhibit the same characteristic morphology and appear to develop and evolve by a similar set of processes. In all three systems, the channels are characterized by a narrow, leveed single-thread morphology with maximum width approximately one tenth the width of the mainstem river. The channels typically have a V shaped cross-section, unlike most fluvial channels. These channels develop as lakes become isolated from the river by sedimentation. Narrowing of the connection between river and lake causes a sediment-laden jet to develop. Levees develop along the margins of the jet leading to channel emergence and eventual levee aggradation to the height of the mainstem levees. Bi-directional flow in these channels is common. Outflows from the lake scour sediment and prevent channel blockage. We propose that channel geometry and size are then controlled by a dynamic balance between channel narrowing by suspended sediment deposition and incision and widening by mass failure of banks during outflows. Tie channels are laterally stable and may convey flow for hundreds to a few thousand of years.

  11. Decision support system based on DPSIR framework for a low flow Mediterranean river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangash, Rubab Fatima; Kumar, Vikas; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2013-04-01

    The application of decision making practices are effectively enhanced by adopting a procedural approach setting out a general methodological framework within which specific methods, models and tools can be integrated. Integrated Catchment Management is a process that recognizes the river catchment as a basic organizing unit for understanding and managing ecosystem process. Decision support system becomes more complex by considering unavoidable human activities within a catchment that are motivated by multiple and often competing criteria and/or constraints. DPSIR is a causal framework for describing the interactions between society and the environment. This framework has been adopted by the European Environment Agency and the components of this model are: Driving forces, Pressures, States, Impacts and Responses. The proposed decision support system is a two step framework based on DPSIR. Considering first three component of DPSIR, Driving forces, Pressures and States, hydrological and ecosystem services models are developed. The last two components, Impact and Responses, helped to develop Bayesian Network to integrate the models. This decision support system also takes account of social, economic and environmental aspects. A small river of Catalonia (Northeastern Spain), Francoli River with a low flow (~2 m3/s) is selected for integration of catchment assessment models and to improve knowledge transfer from research to the stakeholders with a view to improve decision making process. DHI's MIKE BASIN software is used to evaluate the low-flow Francolí River with respect to the water bodies' characteristics and also to assess the impact of human activities aiming to achieve good water status for all waters to comply with the WFD's River Basin Management Plan. Based on ArcGIS, MIKE BASIN is a versatile decision support tool that provides a simple and powerful framework for managers and stakeholders to address multisectoral allocation and environmental issues in river

  12. The Dnieper River Aquatic System Radioactive Contamination; Long-tern Natural Attenuation And Remediation History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitsekhovych, Oleg; Laptev, Genadiy; Kanivets, Vladimir; Konoplev, Alexey

    2013-04-01

    Near 27 year passed after the Chernobyl Accident, and the experience gained to study radionuclide behavior in the aquatic systems and to mitigate water contamination are still pose of interest for scientists, society and regulatory austerities. There are different aspects of radionuclide transport in the environment were studied since the Chernobyl fallout in 1986 covered the river catchments, wetlands, river, lakes/reservoirs and reached the Black Sea. The monitoring time series data set and also data on the radionuclides behavior studies in the water bodies (river, lakes and the Black Sea) are available now in Ukraine and other affected countries. Its causation analyses, considering the main geochemical, physical and chemical and hydrological process, governing by radionuclide mobility and transport on the way from the initially contaminated catchments, through the river-reservoir hydrological system to the Black Sea can help in better understanding of the main factors governing be the radionuclide behavior in the environment. Radionuclide washout and its hydrological transport are determined speciation of radionuclides as well as soil types and hydrological mode and also geochemistry and landscape conditions at the affected areas. Mobility and bioavailability of radionuclides are determined by ratio of radionuclide chemical forms in fallout and site-specific environmental characteristics determining rates of leaching, fixation/remobilization as well as sorption-desorption of mobile fraction (its solid-liquid distribution). In many cases the natural attenuation processes governing by the above mentioned processes supported by water flow transportation and sedimentation played the key role in self-rehabilitation of the aquatic ecosystems. The models developed during post-Chernobyl decade and process parameters studies can help in monitoring and remediation programs planed for Fukusima Daichi affected watersheds areas as well. Some most important monitoring data

  13. Migration and degradation of swine farm tetracyclines at the river catchment scale: Can the multi-pond system mitigate pollution risk to receiving rivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiuwen; Guo, Xiao; Hua, Guofen; Li, Guoliang; Feng, Ranran; Liu, Xiaoli

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated the degradation behaviors of swine farm tetracyclines (TCs) at a catchment scale and explored whether multi-pond systems could be beneficial to the interception of TCs so as to reduce the pollution risk to receiving rivers. The occurrence and migration of 12 kinds of tetracycline antibiotics, including their degradation products, were studied in four swine farms of the Meijiang River basin in China. The migration paths of the TCs were examined through sampling and analyzing the soil and/or sediment at different points along the swine wastewater outlet, which included sewer, sewage pond, mixed-canal (stream and sewage), farmland (paddy and upland soil) and finally the river. TC concentrations of all collected samples were obtained by solid phase extraction followed by measurement with high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The results showed that sediment TC concentrations varied greatly in different swine farms, from mg·kg -1 to μg·kg -1 levels. TCs had different decay patterns along different migration paths, such that TCs decayed exponentially in paddy soil, while linearly in sewer and mixed canal. The concentrations of TCs and their degradation products decreased in the order: sewer sediment > sewage pond sediment > mixed-canal sediment > paddy soil > upland soil, indicating that TCs tend to be more easily intercepted and accumulated in water-sediment systems such as ponds. Therefore, the multi-pond system could be an effective way to prevent TCs from migrating into rivers. These results provided essential information for contamination control of antibiotics in aquatic environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Upriver transport of dissolved substances in an estuary and sub-estuary system of the lower James River, Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bo; Shen, Jian; Xu, Hongzhou

    2018-01-01

    The water exchange between the James River and the Elizabeth River, an estuary and sub-estuary system in the lower Chesapeake Bay, was investigated using a 3D numerical model. The conservative passive tracers were used to represent the dissolved substances (DS) discharged from the Elizabeth River. The approach enabled us to diagnose the underlying physical processes that control the expansion of the DS, which is representative of potential transport of harmful algae blooms, pollutants from the Elizabeth River to the James River without explicitly simulating biological processes. Model simulations with realistic forcings in 2005, together with a series of processoriented numerical experiments, were conducted to explore the correlations of the transport process and external forcing. Model results show that the upriver transport depends highly on the freshwater discharge on a seasonal scale and maximum upriver transport occurs in summer with a mean transport time ranging from 15-30 days. The southerly/easterly wind, low river discharge, and neap tidal condition all act to strengthen the upriver transport. On the other hand, the northerly/westerly wind, river pulse, water level pulse, and spring tidal condition act to inhibit the upriver transport. Tidal flushing plays an important role in transporting the DS during spring tide, which shortens the travel time in the lower James River. The multivariable regression analysis of volume mean subtidal DS concentration in the mesohaline portion of the James River indicates that DS concentration in the upriver area can be explained and well predicted by the physical forcings (r = 0.858, p = 0.00001).

  15. Integrated and Sustainable Water Management of Red-Thai Binh Rivers System Under Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, M.; Anghileri, D.; Castelletti, A.; Mason, E.; Micotti, M.; Soncini-Sessa, R.; Weber, E.

    2014-12-01

    Vietnam is currently undergoing a rapid economic and demographic development, characterized by internal migrations from the rural areas to the main cities with increasing water demands to guarantee adequate energy and food productions. Hydropower is the primary renewable energy resource in the country, accounting for 33% of the total electric power production, while agriculture contributes for 18% of the national GDP and employs 70% of the population. To cope with this heterogeneous and fast-evolving context, water resources development and management have to be reconsidered by enlarging their scope across sectors and by adopting effective tools to analyze the potential of current and projected infrastructure along with their operating strategies. This work contributes a novel decision-analytic framework based on Multi-Objective Evolutionary Direct Policy Search (MOE-DPS) to support the design of integrated and sustainable water resources management strategies in the Red-Thai Binh River system. The Red River Basin is the second largest basin of Vietnam, with a total area of about 169,000 km2, and comprises three main tributaries and several reservoirs, namely SonLa and HoaBinh on the Da River, ThacBa and TuyenQuang on the Lo River. These reservoirs are regulated for maximizing hydropower production, mitigating flood primarily in Hanoi, and guaranteeing irrigation water supply to the agricultural districts in the delta. The dimensionality of the system and the number of objectives involved increase the complexity of the problem. We address these challenges by combining the MOE-DPS framework with Gaussian radial basis functions policy approximation and the Borg MOEA, which have been demonstrated to guarantee good solutions quality in such many objective policy design problems. Results show that the proposed framework successfully identified alternative management strategies for the system, which explore different tradeoffs among the multi-sector services involved

  16. Summary of the Snake River plain Regional Aquifer-System Analysis in Idaho and eastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    Regional aquifers underlying the 15,600-square-mile Snake River Plain in southern Idaho and eastern Oregon was studied as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Regional Aquifer-System Analysis program. The largest and most productive aquifers in the Snake River Plain are composed of Quaternary basalt of the Snake River Group, which underlies most of the 10,8000-square-mile eastern plain. Aquifer tests and simulation indicate that transmissivity of the upper 200 feet of the basalt aquifer in the eastern plain commonly ranges from about 100,000 to 1,000,000 feet squared per day. However, transmissivity of the total aquifer thickness may be as much as 10 million feet squared per day. Specific yield of the upper 200 feet of the aquifer ranges from about 0.01 to 0.20. Average horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the upper 200 feet of the basalt aquifer ranges from less than 100 to 9,000 feet per day. Values may be one to several orders of magnitude higher in parts in individual flows, such as flow tops. Vertical hydraulic conductivity is probably several orders of magnitude lower than horizontal hydraulic conductivity and is generally related to the number of joints. Pillow lava in ancestral Snake River channels has the highest hydraulic conductivity of all rock types. Hydraulic conductivity of the basalt decreases with depth because of secondary filling of voids with calcite and silica. An estimated 80 to 120 million acre-feet of water is believed to be stored in the upper 200 feet of the basalt aquifer in the eastern plain. The most productive aquifers in the 4,800-square-mile western plain are alluvial sand and gravel in the Boise River valley. Although aquifer tests indicate that transmissivity of alluvium in the Boise River valley ranges from 5,000 to 160,000 feet squared per day, simulation suggests that average transmissivity of the upper 500 feet is generally less than 20,000 feet squared per day. Vertically averaged horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the upper

  17. Natural flow regimes, nonnative fishes, and native fish persistence in arid-land river systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propst, David L; Gido, Keith B; Stefferud, Jerome A

    2008-07-01

    Escalating demands for water have led to substantial modifications of river systems in arid regions, which coupled with the widespread invasion of nonnative organisms, have increased the vulnerability of native aquatic species to extirpation. Whereas a number of studies have evaluated the role of modified flow regimes and nonnative species on native aquatic assemblages, few have been conducted where the compounding effects of modified flow regimes and established nonnatives do not confound interpretations, particularly at spatial and temporal scales that are relevant to conservation of species at a range-wide level. By evaluating a 19-year data set across six sites in the relatively unaltered upper Gila River basin, New Mexico, USA, we tested how natural flow regimes and presence of nonnative species affected long-term stability of native fish assemblages. Overall, we found that native fish density was greatest during a wet period at the beginning of our study and declined during a dry period near the end of the study. Nonnative fishes, particularly predators, generally responded in opposite directions to these climatic cycles. Our data suggested that chronic presence of nonnative fishes, coupled with naturally low flows reduced abundance of individual species and compromised persistence of native fish assemblages. We also found that a natural flow regime alone was unlikely to ensure persistence of native fish assemblages. Rather, active management that maintains natural flow regimes while concurrently suppressing or excluding nonnative fishes from remaining native fish strongholds is critical to conservation of native fish assemblages in a system, such as the upper Gila River drainage, with comparatively little anthropogenic modification.

  18. Variable shortening rates in the eastern Himalayan thrust belt, Bhutan: Insights from multiple thermochronologic and geochronologic data sets tied to kinematic reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Sean P.; McQuarrie, Nadine; Tobgay, Tobgay; Coutand, Isabelle; Cooper, Frances J.; Reiners, Peter W.; Wartho, Jo-Anne; Hodges, Kip V.

    2012-10-01

    We present data on the burial, displacement and exhumation history of the Himalayan fold-thrust belt in eastern Bhutan. These data document the magnitude and timing of displacement of large, discrete structures and highlight temporal variability in shortening rates. Eight new40Ar/39Ar ages from white mica, 32 new zircon (U-Th)/He ages, 7 new apatite fission track ages, and 1 new U-Pb zircon (LA-MC-ICP-MS) metamorphic rim growth age are combined with published cooling ages and deformation temperatures, and incremental shortening magnitudes from restorations of two published balanced cross sections, to illustrate the kinematic and temporal development of the Bhutan thrust belt. Integrating these data from ˜23 Ma to the present illustrates rapid horizontal shortening rates (28-35 mm/yr) between 23-20 Ma and 15-10 Ma, separated by more moderate rates (10-23 mm/yr). Shortening rates decrease significantly to 7-10 mm/yr (and possibly as low as 3-4 mm/yr) from 10 to 0 Ma. This decrease is interpreted to represent the onset of strain partitioning in the eastern part of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogenic system, between shortening in the Bhutan thrust belt, uplift of the Shillong Plateau, and deformation and outward growth of the northern and eastern Tibetan Plateau. Within estimated error, horizontal shortening rates during emplacement of the Main Central thrust sheet and during construction of the upper Lesser Himalayan duplex approached India-Asia tectonic velocities. Thus, for periods of time between ˜23-20 Ma and ˜15-10 Ma, the Bhutan thrust belt may have absorbed nearly all India-Asian convergence at this longitude.

  19. Deep phylogeographic divergence of a migratory passerine in Sino-Himalayan and Siberian forests: the Red-flanked Bluetail (Tarsiger cyanurus) complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Site; Wu, Yuchun; Chang, Qing; Liu, Yang; Yang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Zhengwang; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Qiang; Zou, Fasheng

    2014-01-01

    Enormous mountainous forests in Sino-Himalayans and Siberia harbor important avian biodiversity in the Northern Hemisphere. Numerous studies in last two decades have been contributed to systematics and taxonomy of passerines birds in these regions and have revealed various and complex phylogeographic patterns. A passerine species Red-flanked Bluetail Tarsiger cyanurus provided a good system to manifest such evolutionary complexity. The subspecies T. c. cyanurus and T. c. rufilatus (or/and T. c. pallidior), divergent in morphology, acoustics, and migratory strategies are allopatric in Siberia and Sino-Himalayan forests, respectively. The two taxa most likely deserve full species status but rigorous genetic analysis is missing. In this study, multilocus phylogeography based on mitochondrial DNA and Z-linked DNA reveals that T. c. cyanurus and T. c. rufilatus are reciprocally monophyletic with significant statistical support and differ with a large number of diagnostic nucleotide sites resulting substantial genetic divergence. Our finding supports the proposed split of Tarsiger cyanurus s.l. that T. cyanurus and T. rufilatus should be treated as two full species. Whether “pallidior” is a subspecies or geographical form of T. rufilatus is still uncertain. Additionally, these two forest passerine species may have diverged 1.88 (3.25–1.30) Mya, which might be shaped by geographical vicariance due to grassland and desert steppe on the central Loess Plateau during the Pliocene. Taken together, this study and further suggests another independent example of North Palearctic–Sino-Himalayan phylogeographic pattern in Palearctic birds. PMID:24772276

  20. Contrasting Climate Change Impact on River Flow from Glacierised Catchments in the Himalayan and Andes Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicciotti, F.; Ragettli, S.; Immerzeel, W. W. W.

    2016-12-01

    Glaciers and glacierised catchments in mountainous regions react to a changing climate in different manners depending on climate and glacier characteristics. Despite the key role of mountain ranges as natural water towers, their hydrological balance and future changes in glacier runoff associated with climate warming remain poorly understood because of high meteorological variability, physical inaccessibility and the complex interplay between climate, cryosphere and hydrological processes. We use a state-of-the art glacio-hydrological model informed by data from high altitude observations and the latest CMIP5 climate change scenarios to quantify the climate change impact on glaciers and runoff for two contrasting catchments vulnerable to changes in the cryosphere. The two catchments are located in the Central Andes of Chile and in the Nepalese Himalaya in close vicinity of densely populated areas. Although both sites are projected to experience a strong decrease in glacier area, they show remarkably different hydrological responses. Icemelt is on a rising limb in Langtang at least until 2041-2050 and starts to decrease afterwards, while in Juncal icemelt was already beyond its tipping point at the beginning of the 21st century. This contrasting response can be explained by differences in the elevation distribution of the glaciers in the two regions. In Juncal, many glaciers are melting up to the highest elevations already during the reference period (2000-2010) and increasing melt rates due to higher air temperatures cannot compensate the loss of glacier area. In Langtang, large sections of the glaciers at high elevations are currently not exposed to melt, but will be in the future, thus compensating for the loss of glacier area at lower elevations. As a result of these changes and projected changes in precipitation, in Juncal runoff will sharply decrease in the future and the runoff seasonality is sensitive to projected climatic changes. In Langtang, future water availability is on the rise for decades to come with limited shifts between seasons but increases in extreme events. Climate change adaptation in the Andes of Central Chile should thus focus on dealing with a reduction in water availability from the glacierised catchments, whereas in Nepal preparedness for flood extremes should be the policy priority.

  1. Numerical Simulation of Interaction between Groundwater and River for Evaluating Operation Efficiency of Geothermal System in a riverside area, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H. J.; Koh, E. H.; Lee, K. K.

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in new and renewable energy due to the lack of energy resources. Especially, geothermal energy by using groundwater has been studied for its high potential as an energy source. Since groundwater is one of the important factors in geothermal system, it is essential to study securing stable groundwater temperature. In this study, numerical simulations for interaction between groundwater and surface water in Dumulmeori, Korea were carried out. The study site is a small island surrounded by river and open loop ground source heat pump system has been operated near the riverside. Groundwater within the island is immediately influenced by the river. In particular, inflow of river into aquifer causes changes in groundwater temperature depending on the season. These changes lower efficiency of geothermal system which uses stable temperature as heat source. Therefore, understanding the interaction between surface water and groundwater is critical in developing numerical model depending on variable conditions. By estimating groundwater-river interaction, mixing ratio of two water bodies was calculated. The results show that the mixing ratio can demonstrate a dynamic system with variable the interaction between river and groundwater. In addition, since these results can improve understanding of mixing ratio, simulated model is useful to evaluate operation efficiency of geothermal system in this area.

  2. Developing and testing temperature models for regulated systems: a case study on the Upper Delaware River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jeffrey C.; Maloney, Kelly O.; Schmid, Matthias; McKenna, James E.

    2014-01-01

    well; the HFM model was the most accurate compared other models (RMSE = 0.92, both NSE = 0.98, d = 0.99) and the ARIMA model was least accurate (RMSE = 2.06, NSE = 0.92, d = 0.98); however, all models had an overestimation bias (PBIAS = −4.1 to −10.20). Aside from the one day forecast ARIMA model (md = 0.53), all models forecasted fairly well at the one, three, and five day forecasts (md = 0.77–0.96). Overall, we were successful in developing models predicting daily mean temperature across a broad range of temperatures. These models, specifically the GLScos, ANN, and HFM, may serve as important tools for predicting conditions and managing thermal releases in regulated river systems such as the Delaware River. Further model development may be important in customizing predictions for particular biological or ecological needs, or for particular temporal or spatial scales.

  3. An integrated optimization method for river water quality management and risk analysis in a rural system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Li, Y P; Huang, G H; Zeng, X T; Nie, S

    2016-01-01

    In this study, an interval-stochastic-based risk analysis (RSRA) method is developed for supporting river water quality management in a rural system under uncertainty (i.e., uncertainties exist in a number of system components as well as their interrelationships). The RSRA method is effective in risk management and policy analysis, particularly when the inputs (such as allowable pollutant discharge and pollutant discharge rate) are expressed as probability distributions and interval values. Moreover, decision-makers' attitudes towards system risk can be reflected using a restricted resource measure by controlling the variability of the recourse cost. The RSRA method is then applied to a real case of water quality management in the Heshui River Basin (a rural area of China), where chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and soil loss are selected as major indicators to identify the water pollution control strategies. Results reveal that uncertainties and risk attitudes have significant effects on both pollutant discharge and system benefit. A high risk measure level can lead to a reduced system benefit; however, this reduction also corresponds to raised system reliability. Results also disclose that (a) agriculture is the dominant contributor to soil loss, TN, and TP loads, and abatement actions should be mainly carried out for paddy and dry farms; (b) livestock husbandry is the main COD discharger, and abatement measures should be mainly conducted for poultry farm; (c) fishery accounts for a high percentage of TN, TP, and COD discharges but a has low percentage of overall net benefit, and it may be beneficial to cease fishery activities in the basin. The findings can facilitate the local authority in identifying desired pollution control strategies with the tradeoff between socioeconomic development and environmental sustainability.

  4. The Toms River Childhood Cancer Cluster: Coupled Groundwater and Water Distribution System Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, J. F.; Normani, S. D.

    2003-12-01

    Toms River, New Jersey is the location of a statistically significant childhood cancer cluster. A 1995 cancer investigation indicated that relative to the state, the Toms River section of Dover Township had excess childhood cancer incidence for all malignant cancers combined, brain and central nervous system (CNS) cancers, and leukemia. Children under the age of five were found to have a seven-fold increase in brain and CNS cancer. The community's concern focused on the possibility that exposure to environmental contaminants may be related to the incidence of these childhood cancers. Two Superfund sites in Dover Township were implicated as having a possible impact on the local water supply. One of these, the Reich Farm site, is a source of contaminants to the aquifer that serves a major well field for Toms River. Contaminants in the aquifer include TCE, PCE and styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) trimer. In 1997, the New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry began an epidemiology study to evaluate the relationship between the environmental exposure pathways and the elevated childhood cancer incidence. Toxicity studies for the SAN trimer were also initiated. Groundwater modeling was undertaken to establish the historical relationship between the Reich Farm site and the municipal well field and to aid in the management and protection of the aquifer and well field to ensure both water quality and quantity. The modeling of the water distribution system for Toms River was also part of the study. Groundwater flow from the Reich Farm Superfund site to the municipal well field for Toms River was modeled for a thirty-year time period using MODFLOW. To account for the growth and development of the well field within the modeling domain, a transient model was constructed. The use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and databases to manage, maintain, and compile field observations for model input and calibration was

  5. Solar energy system performance evaluation - final report for Honeywell OTS 45, Salt River Project, Phoenix, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathur, A K

    1983-09-01

    This report describes the operation and technical performance of the Solar Operational Test Site (OTS 45) at Salt River Project in Phoenix, Arizona, based on the analysis of data collected between April 1981 and March 31, 1982. The following topics are discussed: system description, performance assessment, operating energy, energy savings, system maintenance, and conclusions. The solar energy system at OTS 45 is a hydronic heating and cooling system consisting of 8208 square feet of liquid-cooled flat-plate collectors; a 2500-gallon thermal storage tank; two 25-ton capacity organic Rankine-cycle-engine-assisted water chillers; a forced-draft cooling tower; and associated piping, pumps, valves, controls and heat rejection equipment. The solar system has eight basic modes of operation and several combination modes. The system operation is controlled automatically by a Honeywell-designed microprocessor-based control system, which also provides diagnostics. Based on the instrumented test data monitored and collected during the 8 months of the Operational Test Period, the solar system collected 1143 MMBtu of thermal energy of the total incident solar energy of 3440 MMBtu and provided 241 MMBtu for cooling and 64 MMBtu for heating. The projected net annual electrical energy savings due to the solar system was approximately 40,000 kWh(e).

  6. Ecosystem approach to water resources management using the MIKE 11 modeling system in the Strymonas River and Lake Kerkini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doulgeris, Charalampos; Georgiou, Pantazis; Papadimos, Dimitris; Papamichail, Dimitris

    2012-02-01

    The ability to apply an ecosystem approach to the Strymonas River catchment was investigated using the MIKE 11 modeling system for the simulation of surface water. The Strymonas River catchment is shared mainly between Bulgaria and Greece. The river feeds the artificial Lake Kerkini, a significant wetland ecosystem, and further downstream it outflows to the Gulf of Strymonikos, whose estuary ecosystem is very important for fisheries, biodiversity and tourism. MIKE 11-NAM was used for the simulation of rainfall-runoff process in the Strymonas River catchment and MIKE 11-HD was used to simulate the unsteady flow of the Strymonas River and to apply management rules based on the water level of Lake Kerkini. Two water level management scenarios were investigated. The first scenario referred to the mean daily-observed water level of Lake Kerkini between 1986 and 2006, and the second scenario represented adjustments necessary to fulfill the lake's ecosystem requirements. Under the current water level management practices (Scenario 1), the Strymonas River-Lake Kerkini system has enough water to fulfill its Irrigation Water Requirements (IWR) in normal and wet years while a slight deficit is appeared in dry years; however, both Lake Kerkini and the Strymonas River estuary ecosystems are subject to pressures, since reduction of the forest area has been recorded. Applying the ecosystem approach (Scenario 2), the protection of the riparian forest of Lake Kerkini is achieved while in normal and wet years the IWR are fulfilled and the deficit of the IWR is increased in dry years. Compared to Scenario 1, the pressure of the Strymonas River estuary ecosystem is slightly increased. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Recycling chip thickness screens : relocating a chip screen system from Gold River to Squamish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, D. [Western Pulp Inc., Squamish, BC (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    Western Pulp Inc. acquired a used Chip Thickness Screening and conditioning system at reduced cost in April 2000. It purchased the used screen facility from Bowater's closed down Gold River mill. The advantages of a system similar to the Gold River mill are many: improved yield, improved brown stock washing, reduced bleach chemical consumption, increased pulp strength, improvement of the pulp machine performance, and improved overall quality. The author explained the project that involved moving the entire 1100 ton, 5 story building by barge to the Western Pulp Inc. site located at Squamish. Sandwell Engineering performed the detailed design and the construction phase began soon after. Once on location, the newly acquired facility was set into position and integrated with the remainder of the facilities. For the purpose of proper chip flow and pile management, a new chip reclaim and conveyors were installed. The tie-ins and foundations necessitated special attention to design details. Commonwealth Construction was responsible for the completion of the tie-ins, which took place during the mill annual shutdown. The operation of the new screen facility, which began on December 19, 2000, resulted in lower bleaching costs, energy savings, an increase in production (3.5 per cent in February 2001), as well as a lowering in black liquor solids. Based on the cost savings realized to date, it is expected that the payback period will be one year. 1 tab., 11 figs.

  8. Geographical information system (GIS) mapping of spatio-temporal pollution status of rivers in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemo, Olanike K; Babalobi, Olutayo O

    2008-04-01

    More accurate spatio-temporal predictions of urban environment are needed as a basis for assessing exposures as a part of environmental studies and to inform urban protection policy and management. In this study, an information system was developed to manage the physico-chemical pollution information of Ibadan river system, Oyo State, Southwest Nigeria. The study took into account the seasonal influences of point and non-point discharges on the levels of physico-chemical parameters. The overall sensitivity of the watershed to physicochemical environmental pollution revealed that during dry season, of the 22 (100%) sample points, only 3 (13.6%) were unpolluted; 6 (27.3%) were slightly polluted; 10(45.4%) were moderately polluted; 2 (9.1%) were seriously polluted and 1 (4.5%) was exceptionally polluted. During rainy season, 3 (13.6%) were unpolluted; 7 (31.8%) were slightly polluted; 9 (40.9%) were moderately polluted; 2 (9.1%) were seriously polluted and 1 (4.5%) was exceptionally polluted. There is a considerable environmental risk associated with the present level of pollution of the Ibadan river water body on fish health and biodiversity. This research provides a basis for aquatic management and assist in policy making at national and international levels. Appropriate strategies for the control of point and non-point pollution sources, amendments and enforcement of legislation should be developed.

  9. Chemical composition and antioxidant capacities of phytococktail extracts from trans-Himalayan cold desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Priyanka; Bajpai, Prabodh Kumar; Tayade, Amol Bapurao; Chaurasia, Om Prakash; Srivastava, Ravi Bihari; Singh, Shashi Bala

    2013-10-07

    Himalayan plants are widely used in traditional system of medicine both as prophylactics and therapeutics for high altitude maladies. Our aim was to evaluate the antioxidant capacities and bioactive compounds of methanol and n-hexane extracts of the phytococktail comprising of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides), apricot (Prunus armeniaca) and roseroot (Rhodiola imbricata) from trans-Himalaya. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging capacities and lipid peroxidation inhibition (LPI) property of the extracts were determined. Total antioxidant power was determined by ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total polyphenol, flavonoid, flavonol, proanthocyanidin and carotenoid were also estimated for both extracts. We have identified and quantified the phyto-chemotypes present in the methanol and n-hexane extracts by hyphenated gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) technique. Antioxidant capacity assays using DPPH, ABTS, NO, LPI and FRAP exhibited analogous results where the phytococktail showed high antioxidant action. The phytococktail was also found to possess high quantity of total polyphenol, flavonoid, flavonol and carotenoid. A significant and linear correlation was found between the antioxidant capacities and bioactive principles. A total of 32 phyto-chemotypes were identified from these extracts by GC/MS chemometric fingerprinting. Major phyto-chemotypes identified by GC/MS were glycosides, phenylpropanoids and derivatives, terpenoids, alkaloids, phytosterols, fatty acids and esters, alkaloids and derivatives, organic acid esters and aromatic ethers with positive biological and pharmacological actions. The phytococktail extracts were found to contain considerable amount of diverse bioactive compounds with high antioxidant capacities. The presence of hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants in the phytococktail could have

  10. Environmental Nitrogen Losses from Commercial Crop Production Systems in the Suwannee River Basin of Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rishi; Hochmuth, George J

    2016-01-01

    The springs and the Suwannee river of northern Florida in Middle Suwanee River Basin (MSRB) are among several examples in this planet that have shown a temporal trend of increasing nitrate concentration primarily due to the impacts of non-point sources such as agriculture. The rate of nitrate increase in the river as documented by Ham and Hatzell (1996) was 0.02 mg N L-1 y-1. Best management practices (BMPs) for nutrients were adopted by the commercial farms in the MSRB region to reduce the amounts of pollutants entering the water bodies, however the effectiveness of BMPs remains a topic of interest and discussion among the researchers, environmental administrators and policy makers about the loads of nitrogen entering into groundwater and river systems. Through this study, an initiative was taken to estimate nitrogen losses into the environment from commercial production systems of row and vegetable crops that had adopted BMPs and were under a presumption of compliance with state water quality standards. Nitrogen mass budget was constructed by quantifying the N sources and sinks for three crops (potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), sweet corn (Zea mays L.) and silage corn (Zea mays L.)) over a four year period (2010-2013) on a large representative commercial farm in northern Florida. Fertilizer N was found to be the primary N input and represented 98.0 ± 1.4, 91.0 ± 13.9, 78.0 ± 17.3% of the total N input for potato, sweet corn, and silage corn, respectively. Average crop N uptake represented 55.5%, 60.5%, and 65.2% of the mean total input N whereas average mineral N left in top 0.3 m soil layer at harvest represented 9.1%, 4.5%, and 2.6% of the mean total input N. Mean environmental N losses represented 35.3%, 34.3%, and 32.7% of the mean total input N for potato, sweet corn, and silage corn, respectively. Nitrogen losses showed a linear trend with increase in N inputs. Although, there is no quick fix for controlling N losses from crop production in MSRB, the

  11. A System Dynamics Model to Improve Water Resources Allocation in the Conchos River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastelum, J. R.; Valdes, J. B.; Stewart, S.

    2005-12-01

    The Conchos river located in Chihuahua state on a semiarid region is the most important Mexican river contributing water deliveries to USA as established by the Water treaty of 1944 signed between Mexico and USA. Historically, Mexico has delivered to UNITED STATES 550 Hm3 (445,549.5 ACF) per year of water since the treaty was established, which is 25% above the yearly water volume Mexico is required to deliver. The Conchos river has contributed with 54% of the historic Mexican water treaty deliveries to the UNITED STATES, which represents the highest percentage of the 6 Mexican rivers considered on the water treaty. However, during drought situations the basin has proven to be vulnerable, for instance, because of the severe drought of the 90's, several cities in 1992 on Chihuahua state where declared disaster areas, and from 1992 to 2001 Mexico had accumulated a water treaty deficit of 2111.6 Hm3 (1,710,586 ACF). This has conduced to economic, social, and political difficulties in both countries. Because of the cited problematic and considering the poor understanding of the relationship between water supply and demand factors on the basin, a decision support system (DSS) has been developed aimed to improve the decision making process related with the water resources allocation process. This DSS has been created using System Dynamics (SD). It is a semi-distributed model and is running on monthly time step basis. For both the short and long term, three important water resources management strategies have been evaluated: several water allocation policies from reservoirs to water users; bulk water rights transfers inside and outside Irrigation Districts; and improvement of water distribution efficiencies. The model results have provided very useful regard to gain more quantitative understanding of the different strategies being implemented. They have also indicated that the different water resources alternatives change its degree of importance according to the

  12. Simulating on water storage and pump capacity of "Kencing" river polder system in Kudus regency, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyudi, Slamet Imam; Adi, Henny Pratiwi; Santoso, Esti; Heikoop, Rick

    2017-03-01

    Settlement in the Jati District, Kudus Regency, Central Java Province, Indonesia, is growing rapidly. Previous paddy fields area turns into new residential, industrial and office buildings. The rain water collected in small Kencing river that flows into big Wulan River. But the current condition, during high rain intensity Wulan river water elevation higher than the Kencing river, so that water can not flow gravity and the area inundated. To reduce the flooding, required polder drainage system by providing a long channel as water storage and pumping water into Wulan river. How to get optimal value of water storage volume, drainage system channels and the pump capacity? The result used to be efficient in the operation and maintenance of the polder system. The purpose of this study is to develop some scenarios water storage volume, water gate operation and to get the optimal value of operational pumps removing water from the Kencing River to Wulan River. Research Method is conducted by some steps. The first step, it is done field orientation in detail, then collecting secondary data including maps and rainfall data. The map is processed into Watershed or catchment area, while the rainfall data is processed into runoff discharge. Furthermore, the team collects primary data by measuring topography to determine the surface and volume of water storage. The analysis conducted to determine of flood discharge, water channel hydraulics, water storage volume and pump capacity corresponding. Based on the simulating of long water storage volume and pump capacity with some scenario trying, it can be determined optimum values. The results used to be guideline in to construction proses, operation and maintenance of the drainage polder system.

  13. Phosphorus characteristics, distribution, and relationship with environmental factors in surface sediments of river systems in Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenqiang; Jin, Xin; Zhu, Xiaolei; Shan, Baoqing; Zhao, Yu

    2016-10-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for aquatic organisms. However, too much P discharged into limnetic ecosystems can induce eutrophication. The concentration of P in freshwater ecosystems has escalated in Eastern China due to overuse of fertilizer and excess emission of sewage, which is the result of the development of industry and agriculture in this area. However, little is known about the P characteristics and its environmental factors in river systems. Here, we present the results of P characterization and its relationships with environmental factors in Eastern China by applying SMT and (31)P-NMR methods. The results showed that the concentrations of P in surface sediments varied with the river system, and more than 50 % of the samples had P concentrations exceeding 500 mg kg(-1). HCl-Pi was the dominant Pi in surface sediments, with the highest percentage (96.5 %) in the Yellow River System. Mono-P was the dominant Po in river sediments, followed by DNA-P. The PCA approach indicated that NaOH-Pi and ortho-P clustered in one group, with a second group including mono-P, diesters-P, and HCl-Pi. Phon-P and pyro-P belonged to different groups. On a regional scale, NaOH-Pi and Po showed a negative relationship with pH in sediments. Continuous eutrophication was induced by the presence of dams, and oxygen-consuming pollutants, such as NH3-N and CODcr, even when external P input was cut in heavily polluted rivers. The research revealed the characteristics of P in different river systems and proposed a conceptual model of P biogeochemical cycles in heavily polluted rivers. Results from this study may provide insight into P characteristics in Eastern China and would set a scientific basis for effective P management in developing countries.

  14. Progress Report: Chemical contaminants study of the Withlacoochee/Upper Suwannee River Systems reconnaissance field evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Withlacoochee/Upper Suwannee River component of the Suwannee River Basin contains valuable habitat utilized by important trust resources, as well as species of...

  15. Local models for rainstorm-induced hazard analysis on Mediterranean river-torrential geomorphological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Diodato

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Damaging hydrogeomorphological events are defined as one or more simultaneous phenomena (e.g. accelerated erosions, landslides, flash floods and river floods, occurring in a spatially and temporal random way and triggered by rainfall with different intensity and extent. The storm rainfall values are highly dependent on weather condition and relief. However, the impact of rainstorms in Mediterranean mountain environments depend mainly on climatic fluctuations in the short and long term, especially in rainfall quantity. An algorithm for the characterisation of this impact, called Rainfall Hazard Index (RHI, is developed with a less expensive methodology. In RHI modelling, we assume that the river-torrential system has adapted to the natural hydrological regime, and a sudden fluctuation in this regime, especially those exceeding thresholds for an acceptable range of flexibility, may have disastrous consequences for the mountain environment. RHI integrate two rainfall variables based upon storm depth current and historical data, both of a fixed duration, and a one-dimensionless parameter representative of the degree ecosystem flexibility. The approach was applied to a test site in the Benevento river-torrential landscape, Campania (Southern Italy. So, a database including data from 27 events which have occurred during an 77-year period (1926-2002 was compared with Benevento-station RHI(24h, for a qualitative validation. Trends in RHIx for annual maximum storms of duration 1, 3 and 24h were also examined. Little change is observed at the 3- and 24-h duration of a storm, but a significant increase results in hazard of a short and intense storm (RHIx(1h, in agreement with a reduction in return period for extreme rainfall events.

  16. PermVeg: A model to design crop sequences for permanent vegetable production systems in the Red River Delta, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham Thi Thu Huong, Huong; Everaarts, A.P.; Berg, van den W.; Neeteson, J.J.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    The constraints in current vegetable production systems in the Red River Delta, Vietnam, in which vegetables are rotated with flooded rice, called for the design of alternative systems of permanent vegetable production. The practical model, PermVeg, was developed to generate vegetable crop sequences

  17. Linking Flow Regime, Floodplain Lake Connectivity and Fish Catch in a Large River-Floodplain System, the Volga-Akhtuba Floodplain (Russian Federation)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfshaar, van de K.E.; Middelkoop, H.; Addink, E.; Winter, H.V.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    River-floodplain systems are amongst the most productive—but often severely impacted—aquatic systems worldwide. We explored the ecological response of fish to flow regime in a large river-floodplain system by studying the relationships between (1) discharge and inundated floodplain area, with a

  18. The threatening but unpredictable Sarcoptes scabiei: first deadly outbreak in the Himalayan lynx, Lynx lynx isabellinus, from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Khalid; Angelone-Alasaad, Samer; Din, Jaffar Ud; Nawaz, Muhammad Ali; Rossi, Luca

    2016-07-19

    Although neglected, the mite Sarcoptes scabiei is an unpredictable emerging parasite, threatening human and animal health globally. In this paper we report the first fatal outbreak of sarcoptic mange in the endangered Himalayan lynx (Lynx lynx isabellinus) from Pakistan. A 10-year-old male Himalayan lynx was found in a miserable condition with severe crusted lesions in Chitral District, and immediately died. Post-mortem examination determined high S. scabiei density (1309 mites/cm(2) skin). It is most probably a genuine emergence, resulting from a new incidence due to the host-taxon derived or prey-to-predator cross-infestation hypotheses, and less probable to be apparent emergence resulting from increased infection in the Himalayan lynx population. This is an alarming situation for the conservation of this already threatened population, which demands surveillance for early detection and eventually rescue and treatment of the affected Himalayan lynx.

  19. Impact of Land Use on River Systems in Ghana | Ayivor | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rivers play significant roles in the provision of water for domestic and industrial purposes. Nevertheless, land use dynamics continue to impact on river catchments which have negative repercussions for river health. This study focuses on land use change in the Okyeman Traditional Area, which encompasses three major ...

  20. Montana Rivers Information System : Edit/Entry Program User's Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks

    1992-07-01

    The Montana Rivers Information System (MRIS) was initiated to assess the state`s fish, wildlife, and recreation value; and natural cultural, and geologic features. The MRIS is now a set of data bases containing part of the information in the Natural Heritage Program natural features and threatened and endangered species data bases and comprises of the Montana Interagency Stream Fisheries Database; the MDFWP Recreation Database; and the MDFWP Wildlife Geographic Information System. The purpose of this User`s Manual is to describe to the user how to maintain the MRIS database of their choice by updating, changing, deleting, and adding records using the edit/entry programs; and to provide to the user all information and instructions necessary to complete data entry into the MRIS databases.

  1. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study, Weiss Building & Development, LLC., System Home, River Forest, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-09-01

    The Passive House Challenge Home located in River Forest, Illinois, is a 5-bedroom, 4.5-bath, 3,600 ft2 two-story home (plus basement) that costs about $237 less per month to operate than a similar sized home built to the 2009 IECC. For a home with no solar photovoltaic panels installed, it scored an amazingly low 27 on the Home Energy Rating System (HERS) score.An ENERGY STAR-rated dishwasher, clothes washer, and refrigerator; an induction cooktop, condensing clothes dryer, and LED lighting are among the energy-saving devices inside the home. All plumbing fixtures comply with EPA WaterSense criteria. The home was awarded a 2013 Housing Innovation Award in the "systems builder" category.

  2. Distribution, source identification, and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in wetland soils of a river-reservoir system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoliang; Xiong, Ziqian; Liu, Hui; Liu, Guihua; Liu, Wenzhi

    2017-01-01

    The majority of rivers in the world have been dammed, and over 45,000 large reservoirs have been constructed for multiple purposes. Riparian and reservoir shorelines are the two most important wetland types in a dammed river. To date, few studies have concerned the heavy metal pollution in wetland soils of these river-reservoir systems. In this study, we measured the concentrations of ten heavy metals (Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, and Zn) in surface soils collected from riparian and reservoir shorelines along the Han River in different seasons. Our results found that the Co, Cu, and Ni concentrations in riparian wetlands were significantly lower than those in reservoir shorelines. In riparian wetlands, only soil Sr concentration significantly increased after summer and autumn submergence. Multivariate statistical analyses demonstrated that Ba and Cd might originate from industrial and mining sources, whereas Sr and Mn predominantly originated from natural rock weathering. The ecological risk assessment analysis indicated that both riparian and reservoir shorelines along the Han River in China exhibited a moderate ecological risk in soil heavy metals. The upper Han River basin is the water resource area of China's Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project. Therefore, to control the contamination of heavy metals in wetland soils, more efforts should be focused on reducing the discharge of mining and industrial pollutants into the riparian and reservoir shorelines.

  3. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Main Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.); United States. Bonneville Power Administration; United States. Army. Corps of Engineers. North Pacific Division; United States. Bureau of Reclamation. Pacific Northwest Region.

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) Final EIS addresses four actions: (a) need to develop coordinated strategy for managing the multiple uses of the Federal Columbia River system (System Operating Strategy [SOS]); (b) need to provide interested parties other than management agencies with a long-term role in system planning (Forum); (c) need to renew or change current Canadian Entitlement Allocation Agreements (CEAA); and (d) need to renegotiate and renew the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA). SOS alternatives analyzed are: (1) operation prior to Endangered Species Act listings of salmon stocks; (2) current operations (no action); (3) stable storage project operation; (4) natural river operation; (5) fixed drawdown; (6) operating strategies proposed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Marine Fisheries Service, State fisheries agencies, Native American tribes, and Federal operating agencies; and (7) Preferred Alternative. The seven Forum alternatives analyzed are: (1) decisionmaking by the SOR lead agencies (preferred alternative); (2) decisionmaking by SOR lead agencies and recommendations by an existing regional entity; (3) decisionmaking by SOR lead agencies and recommendations by a new regional entity; (4) decisionmaking by a Federal consultation forum; (5) decisionmaking by a new entity; (6) decisionmaking by one Federal operating agency; (7) decisionmaking by a Federal agency other than an operating agency. PNCA alternatives analyzed are: (1) no replacement contract; (2) contract to maximize regional power benefits; (3) roll over existing PNCA; (4) current PNCA with modified operating procedures (preferred alternative); (5) current PNCA with nonpower modifications. CEAA alternatives include: (1) no action (no replacement of current allocation agreements); (2) entitlement allocation: 55 percent Federal; 45 percent non-Federal; (3) entitlement allocation: 70 percent Federal, 30 percent non-Federal (preferred alternative); (4) no agreement.

  4. Vegetation-controlled modern anastomosing system of the upper Narew River (NE Poland) and its sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradziński, Ryszard; Baryła, Janusz; Doktor, Marek; Gmur, Dariusz; Gradziński, Michał; Kędzior, Artur; Paszkowski, Mariusz; Soja, Roman; Zieliński, Tomasz; Żurek, Sławomir

    2003-04-01

    The anastomosing system of the upper Narew River consists of a network of interconnected channels. The channels are relatively deep (width/depth ratio 2-10), straight to sinuous, and they lack natural levees. They are characterised by a low water slope and very low stream power. The river is distinctly bedload-dominated and the transport of suspended clastic fines is minimal. Channel deposits consist almost exclusively of medium- to coarse-grained sand. Laterally extensive interchannel areas are flat and covered with peat-forming vegetation. These stable wetlands are flooded for many weeks during high water stages. Except for the channels, the valley fill consists of peat layer reaching 4 m in thickness. The rate of vertical aggradation of the peat deposit is estimated at 1-1.5 mm/year. The radiocarbon dating indicates that the peat layer is predominantly late Holocene in age. The impact of vegetation on the system is overwhelming. Vegetation produces an erosion-resistant peat layer, stabilizes channel banks and slows down the water flow. Vegetation also stimulates aggradation of bedload material on the channel bottom, and contributes to avulsion by blocking the channels. The channel network owes its origin to repeated though infrequent avulsion. Avulsion in the studied system is a small-scale, gradational and slow process. New channels evolve very slowly because of unfavourable hydrologic conditions and the presence of a resistant peat substratum. A new channel eventually intercepts only a part of the flow, while the old channel is still active, though to a limited extent. Although newly formed channels might subsequently be abandoned, long-lasting ones predominate within the system.

  5. Streamflow response to glacier melt and related fluvial sediment transport in a proglacial Alpine river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morche, D.; Schuchardt, A.; Baewert, H.; Weber, M.; Faust, M.

    2016-12-01

    Glaciers in the European Alps are retreating since the end of the Little Ice Age around 1850. Where the glaciers shrink, they leave unconsolidated sediment stores (moraines, till, glacifluvial deposits). These sediment stores are highly vulnerable for being subsequently eroded and are thus a key variable (source) in the fluvial sediment budget of proglacial areas. The fluvial system in proglacial areas is more or less continuously fed with (fine) sediment by glacial melt water (glacial milk) during the ablation period and infrequently (e.g. during rainstorm events) supplied with sediment by landslides, debris flows, rock fall or fluvial transport from the slopes. A part of the sediment input is temporary stored in intermitted sinks, such as the river bed, bars or braid plains. These storages can be reworked and then become sources for fluvial sediment transport mainly during floods. These sediment transporting processes are highly variable in both, the temporal and spatial scale. A research project has been set up in the Kaunertal valley, Austrian Alps. The presented part of this joint project is focussed on the quantification of recent fluvial sediment dynamics in the proglacial Fagge River below the glacier Gepatschferner. The glacier is located in the Eastern European Alps at the south end of the Kaunertal valley covering an area of 15.7 km² (2012) and is drained by the Fagge River. During the years 2012 to 2015 the Gepatschferner has shown an accelerated glacial retreat leading to the exposure of unconsolidated sediments as well as bedrock areas. The main aim of the presented part of the joint project is the investigation of the fluvial sediment transport rates in the proglacial Fagge River in the Kaunertal valley. Sediment output of the glacial meltwater stream was measured during the ablation periods at a gauging station installed in front of the glacier outlet. Water level was recorded every 15 minutes and discharge measurements were made at different

  6. Seasonal changes in surface albedo of Himalayan glaciers from MODIS data and links with the annual mass balance

    OpenAIRE

    Brun, F.; Dumont, M; Wagnon, P.; Berthier, E.; Azam, M F; J. M. Shea; P. Sirguey; A. Rabatel; Ramanathan, AL

    2015-01-01

    Few glaciological field data are available on glaciers in the Hindu Kush–Karakoram–Himalayan (HKH) region, and remote sensing data are thus critical for glacier studies in this region. The main objectives of this study are to document, using satellite images, the seasonal changes of surface albedo for two Himalayan glaciers, Chhota Shigri Glacier (Himachal Pradesh, India) and Mera Glacier (Everest region, Nepal), and to reconstruct the annual mass balance of these gla...

  7. Widespread Albedo Decreasing and Induced Melting of Himalayan Snow and Ice in the Early 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Ming; Yaqiang Wang; Zhencai Du; Tong Zhang; Wanqin Guo; Cunde Xiao; Xiaobin Xu; Minghu Ding; Dongqi Zhang; Wen Yang

    2015-01-01

    Background The widely distributed glaciers in the greater Himalayan region have generally experienced rapid shrinkage since the 1850s. As invaluable sources of water and because of their scarcity, these glaciers are extremely important. Beginning in the twenty-first century, new methods have been applied to measure the mass budget of these glaciers. Investigations have shown that the albedo is an important parameter that affects the melting of Himalayan glaciers. Methodology/Principal Finding...

  8. Water resource protection in Australia: Links between land use and river health with a focus on stubble farming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowmer, Kathleen H.

    2011-06-01

    SummaryStubble farming (conservation farming, minimum tillage, zero tillage) has increased in Australia over several decades with claims of improved productivity, landscape stability and environmental benefit including ecosystem services downstream, yet recent audits show a dramatic and general decline in river health. This review explores explanations for this apparent anomaly. Many confounding factors complicate interactions between land use and river condition and may disguise or over-ride the potential benefits of adoption of stubble systems or other improvements in agricultural land use practice. These factors include climate change and variability; land use changes including an increase in bushfires, growth of farm dams and afforestation; lag times between land use change and expression of benefits in river systems; use of inappropriate scale that disguises local benefit; variations in the extent of ecosystem resilience; impacts of river regulation; and impacts of introduced species. Additionally, the value of river condition and utility is complicated by different local or regional perceptions and by contrasting rural and urban outlooks. The use of indicators, risk frameworks and biophysical modelling may help elucidate the complex relationships between land use and downstream ecosystem impact. The strengthening of local, regional and catchment scale approaches is advocated. This includes the re-integration of land management and governance with water management and planning. It is encouraging that farmers are themselves developing systems to optimise trade-offs between on-farm activities and ecosystem service benefits. This approach needs to be supported and extended.

  9. River flow and inundation in African river systems: results from a new pan-African land-surface model validated against Earth observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadson, Simon

    2015-04-01

    The role of surface-water flooding in controlling fluxes of water and carbon between the land and the atmosphere is increasingly recognized in studies of the Earth system. Simultaneous advances in remote earth observation and large-scale land-surface and hydrological modeling promise improvements in our ability to understand these linkages, and suggest that improvements in prediction of river flow and inundation extents may result. Here we present an analysis of newly-available observational estimates of surface water inundation obtained through satellite Earth observation with results from simulations produced by using the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) land-surface model operating at 0.5 degree resolution over the African continent. The model was forced with meteorological input from the WATCH Forcing Data for the period 1981-2001 and sensitivity to various model configurations and parameter settings were tested. Both the PDM and TOPMODEL sub-grid scale runoff generation schemes were tested for parameter sensitivities, with the evaluation focussing on simulated river discharge in sub-catchments of the Congo, Nile, Niger, Orange, Okavango and Zambezi rivers. It was found that whilst the water balance in each of the catchments can be simulated with acceptable accuracy, the individual responses of each river vary between model configurations so that there is no single runoff parameterization scheme or parameter values that yields optimal results across all catchments. We trace these differences to the model's representation of sub-surface flow and make some suggestions to improve the performance of large-scale land-surface models for use in similar applications. These findings suggest that the use of Earth observation data together with improved models of large-scale hydrology have the potential to improve our ability to predict surface-water flooding and to develop our understanding of the role of flooding in driving components of the water and carbon

  10. Water quality analysis in rivers with non-parametric probability distributions and fuzzy inference systems: application to the Cauca River, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo-Duque, William; Osorio, Carolina; Piamba, Christian; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L

    2013-02-01

    The integration of water quality monitoring variables is essential in environmental decision making. Nowadays, advanced techniques to manage subjectivity, imprecision, uncertainty, vagueness, and variability are required in such complex evaluation process. We here propose a probabilistic fuzzy hybrid model to assess river water quality. Fuzzy logic reasoning has been used to compute a water quality integrative index. By applying a Monte Carlo technique, based on non-parametric probability distributions, the randomness of model inputs was estimated. Annual histograms of nine water quality variables were built with monitoring data systematically collected in the Colombian Cauca River, and probability density estimations using the kernel smoothing method were applied to fit data. Several years were assessed, and river sectors upstream and downstream the city of Santiago de Cali, a big city with basic wastewater treatment and high industrial activity, were analyzed. The probabilistic fuzzy water quality index was able to explain the reduction in water quality, as the river receives a larger number of agriculture, domestic, and industrial effluents. The results of the hybrid model were compared to traditional water quality indexes. The main advantage of the proposed method is that it considers flexible boundaries between the linguistic qualifiers used to define the water status, being the belongingness of water quality to the diverse output fuzzy sets or classes provided with percentiles and histograms, which allows classify better the real water condition. The results of this study show that fuzzy inference systems integrated to stochastic non-parametric techniques may be used as complementary tools in water quality indexing methodologies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The impact of poultry litter application on sediment chemistry of the Broadkill River estuary system, Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyewumi, Oluyinka; Schreiber, Madeline E; Ciparis, Serena

    2014-01-01

    This project examined the impact of long-term poultry litter application on the chemical signatures of As, Cu, Zn, and P in stream sediments of the Broadkill River watershed within the Delmarva Peninsula, a region of intense poultry production. Thirty-seven sediment samples were collected from Broadkill River drainage systems and analyzed for litter-derived elements (As, Cu, Zn, P) and basic soil parameters such as particle size distribution, organic matter, and soluble salts. Results showed that concentrations of elements in stream sediments are approximately log-normally distributed. Spatial variability in concentrations of elements was evident, with most elements increasing in concentration and enrichment from upgradient headwaters to downgradient reaches draining predominantly agricultural areas. Results of correlation analyses showed positive significant correlation among elements; elements were also positively correlated with percent clay and silt in the sediment. Using GIS maps with overlays of hydrology and land use activities, statistical correlations between As, Cu, Zn, and P enrichment factors and land use were examined. Results showed statistically significant relationships between As, Mn, and Zn enrichment factors and residential areas within the watershed, but did not show a statistically significant relationship between element enrichment factors and agricultural land use. Factors that complicate this type of landscape-scale study include the presence of poultry processing plants, impoundments, changes in land use over time, and the influence of tides, all of which can have direct and indirect influences on element mobility.

  12. Particle release transport in Danshuei River estuarine system and adjacent coastal ocean: a modeling assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Bo; Liu, Wen-Cheng; Kimura, Nobuaki; Hsu, Ming-Hsi

    2010-09-01

    A three-dimensional hydrodynamic model was created to study the Danshuei River estuarine system and adjacent coastal ocean in Taiwan. The model was verified using measurements of the time-series water surface elevation, tidal current, and salinity from 1999. We conclude that our model is consistent with these observations. Our particle-tracking model was also used to explore the transport of particles released from the Hsin-Hai Bridge, an area that is heavily polluted. The results suggest that it takes a much longer time for the estuary to be flushed out under low freshwater discharge conditions than with high freshwater discharge. We conclude that the northeast and southwest winds minimally impact particle dispersion in the estuary. The particles fail to settle to the bottom in the absence of density-induced circulation. Our model was also used to simulate the ocean outfall at the Bali. Our experimental results suggest that the tidal current dominates the particle trajectories and influences the transport properties in the absence of a wind stress condition. The particles tend to move northeast or southwest along the coast when northeast or southwest winds prevail. Our data suggest that wind-driven currents and tidal currents play important roles in water movement as linked with ocean outfall in the context of the Danshuei River.

  13. Status after 5 Years of Survival Compliance Testing in the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, John R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Ploskey, Gene R.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Colotelo, Alison H.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Woodley, Christa M.; Eppard, M. Brad; Hockersmith, Eric E.

    2016-06-27

    Survival studies of juvenile salmonids implanted with acoustic tags have been conducted at hydroelectric dams within the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) in the Columbia and Snake rivers between 2010 and 2014 to assess compliance with dam passage survival standards stipulated in the 2008 Biological Opinion (BiOp). For juvenile salmonids migrating downstream in the spring, dam passage survival defined as survival from the upstream dam face to the tailrace mixing zone must be ≥96% and for summer migrants, ≥93%, and estimated with a standard error ≤1.5% (i.e., 95% confidence interval of ±3%). A total of 29 compliance tests have been conducted at 6 of 8 FCRPS main-stem dams, using over 109,000 acoustic-tagged salmonid smolts. Of these 29 compliance studies, 23 met the survival standards and 26 met the precision requirements. Of the 6 dams evaluated to date, individual survival estimates range from 0.9597 to 0.9868 for yearling Chinook Salmon, 0.9534 to 0.9952 for steelhead, and 0.9076 to 0.9789 for subyearling Chinook Salmon. These investigations suggest the large capital investment over the last 20 years to improve juvenile salmon passage through the FCRPS dams has been beneficial.

  14. Mercury concentrations and loads in a large river system tributary to San Francisco Bay, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, N.; McKee, L.J.; Black, F.J.; Flegal, A.R.; Conaway, C.H.; Schoellhamer, D.H.; Ganju, N.K.

    2009-01-01

    In order to estimate total mercury (HgT) loads entering San Francisco Bay, USA, via the Sacramento-San Joaquin River system, unfiltered water samples were collected between January 2002 and January 2006 during high flow events and analyzed for HgT. Unfiltered HgT concentrations ranged from 3.2 to 75 ng/L and showed a strong correlation (r2 = 0.8, p < 0.001, n = 78) to suspended sediment concentrations (SSC). During infrequent large floods, HgT concentrations relative to SSC were approximately twice as high as observed during smaller floods. This difference indicates the transport of more Hg-contaminated particles during high discharge events. Daily HgT loads in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River at Mallard Island ranged from below the limit of detection to 35 kg. Annual HgT loads varied from 61 ?? 22 kg (n = 5) in water year (WY) 2002 to 470 ?? 170 kg (n = 25) in WY 2006. The data collected will assist in understanding the long-term recovery of San Francisco Bay from Hg contamination and in implementing the Hg total maximum daily load, the long-term cleanup plan for Hg in the Bay. ?? 2009 SETAC.

  15. Flood-inundation maps and updated components for a flood-warning system or the City of Marietta, Ohio and selected communities along the Lower Muskingum River and Ohio River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Matthew T.; Ostheimer, Chad J.

    2014-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for lower reaches of the Muskingum River and a reach of the Ohio River in southeast Ohio were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Muskingum Watershed Conservancy District and the City of Marietta, Ohio. To complete the inundation maps, Ohio River and lower Muskingum River bathymetry was updated and two streamgages, one on the Ohio River upstream of Marietta near Sardis, Ohio, and one on the Muskingum River in Beverly, Ohio, were added as basic components of the flood-warning system. An updated hydraulic model component also led to the new flood-inundation maps. The maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/ depict estimates of the areal extent of flooding corresponding to water levels (stages) at one or more of the following USGS streamgages: Muskingum River at McConnelsville, Ohio (03150000); Muskingum River at Beverly, Ohio (03150500); and Ohio River at Marietta, Ohio (03150700). The maps can be used in conjunction with National Weather Service flood-forecast data to show areas of estimated flood inundation associated with forecasted flood-peak stages.

  16. Oxygenated, nitrated, methyl and parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in rivers of Haihe River System, China: occurrence, possible formation, and source and fate in a water-shortage area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Meng; Qi, Weixiao; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui

    2014-05-15

    Substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (SPAHs) occur ubiquitously in the whole global environment as a result of their persistence and widely-spread sources. Some SPAHs show higher toxicities and levels than the corresponding PAHs. Three types of most frequently existing SPAHs, oxygenated-PAHs (OPAHs), nitrated-PAHs (NPAHs), and methyl-PAHs (MPAHs), as well as the 16 priority PAHs were investigated in this study. The purpose was to identify the occurrence, possible transformation, and source and fate of these target compounds in a water shortage area of North China. We took a river system in the water-shortage area in China, the Haihe River System (HRS), as a typical case. The rivers are used for irrigating the farmland in the North of China, which probably introduce these pollutants to the farmland of this area. The MPAHs (0.02-0.40 μg/L in dissolved phase; 0.32-16.54 μg/g in particulate phase), OPAHs (0.06-0.19 μg/L; 0.41-17.98 μg/g), and PAHs (0.16-1.20 μg/L; 1.56-79.38 μg/g) were found in the water samples, but no NPAHs were detected. The concentrations of OPAHs were higher than that of the corresponding PAHs. Seasonal comparison results indicated that the OPAHs, such as anthraquinone and 2-methylanthraquinone, were possibly transformed from the PAHs, particularly at higher temperature. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent was deemed to be the major source for the MPAHs (contributing 62.3% and 87.6% to the receiving river in the two seasons), PAHs (68.5% and 89.4%), and especially OPAHs (80.3% and 93.2%) in the rivers. Additionally, the majority of MPAHs (12.4 kg, 80.0% of the total input), OPAHs (16.2 kg, 83.5%), and PAHs (65.9 kg, 93.3%) in the studied months entered the farmland through irrigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Low flow water quality in rivers; septic tank systems and high-resolution phosphorus signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macintosh, K.A. [School of Environmental Sciences, University of Ulster, Coleraine, N. Ireland (United Kingdom); Jordan, P., E-mail: p.jordan@ulster.ac.uk [School of Environmental Sciences, University of Ulster, Coleraine, N. Ireland (United Kingdom); Agricultural Catchments Programme, Teagasc, Wexford (Ireland); Cassidy, R. [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University, Belfast, N. Ireland (United Kingdom); Arnscheidt, J. [School of Environmental Sciences, University of Ulster, Coleraine, N. Ireland (United Kingdom); Ward, C. [Blackwater Regional Partnership, Caledon, Tyrone, N. Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    Rural point sources of phosphorus (P), including septic tank systems, provide a small part of the overall phosphorus budget to surface waters in agricultural catchments but can have a disproportionate impact on the low flow P concentration of receiving rivers. This has particular importance as the discharges are approximately constant into receiving waters and these have restricted dilution capacity during ecologically sensitive summer periods. In this study, a number of identified high impact septic systems were replaced with modern sequential batch reactors in three rural catchments during a monitoring period of 4 years. Sub-hourly P monitoring was conducted using bankside-analysers. Results show that strategic replacement of defective septic tank systems with modern systems and polishing filters decreased the low flow P concentration of one catchment stream by 0.032 mg TP L{sup -1} (0.018 mg TRP L{sup -1}) over the 4 years. However two of the catchment mitigation efforts were offset by continued new-builds that increased the density of septic systems from 3.4 km{sup -2} to 4.6 km{sup -2} and 13.8 km{sup -2} to 17.2 km{sup -2} and subsequently increased low flow P concentrations. Future considerations for septic system mitigation should include catchment carrying capacity as well as technology changes.

  18. Demonstration and evaluation of the pulsed ultraviolet-irradiation gas-treatment system, Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, J.; Wilkey, M.; Peters, R.; Tomczyk, N.; Friedlund, J.; Farber, P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.; Mass, B.; Haag, W. [Purus, Inc., San Jose, CA (United States)

    1994-10-01

    Argonne National Laboratory was asked to demonstrate and evaluate a pulsed ultraviolet-irradiation system developed by Purus, Inc., at the Volatile Organic Compounds Non-Arid Integrated Demonstration at the Savannah River Site near aiken, South Carolina. The Purus system consists of four reactor chambers, each containing a xenon flash lamp. During the two weeks of testing, samples were taken and analyzed from the inlet and outlet sides of the Purus system. The contaminants of concern on the inlet were tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA); the contaminants of concern on the outlet were PCE, TCE, TCA, carbon tetrachloride (CT), and chloroform. The evaluation of the Purus system included an examination of the reduction of both TCE and PCE and a search for any change in the concentrations. (Operating conditions included flow rates, ranging from 25 to 100 standard cubic feet per minute; inlet concentration of PCE, ranging from 360 to 10,700 parts per million volume; and flash lamp rates, ranging from 1 to 30 hertz.) The Purus system was quite efficient at reducing the concentrations of both PCE and TCE. The potential by-products, TCA, CT, and chloroform, showed no significant increases throughout the range of the various operating parameters. Overall, the Purus system appears to be a cost-efficient means of reducing the concentrations of PCE and TCE, while the removal of the initial photo-oxidation products and TCA is slower and needs further evaluation.

  19. Water and chemical budgets in an urbanized river system under various hydrological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brion, Natacha; Carbonnel, Vincent; Elskens, Marc; Claeys, Philippe; Verbanck, Michel A.

    2017-04-01

    Since historical times, riversides are preferential settlement places for human life and activities, ultimately leading to the development of Cities. Available water resources are not only essential to ensure human's vital functions, they are also used for the production of food, goods, and energy, as transport routes and as evacuation ways for domestic and industrial waste products. All these activities profoundly modify natural water circulation as well as water quality, with increased hydrological risks (floods, droughts,…) and chemical hazards (untreated sewage releases, industrial pollution,…) as consequence. An extreme example of strongly modified river system is the river Zenne crossing the city of Brussels. In and around the city, the river together with its connected navigation canal, determine a small vertical urbanized area (800 km2) combining extreme land-use landscapes. While the southern upstream part of this area lies in a region of intensive agricultural activities, the central part is occupied by a dense cityscape including a forested area, and the downstream part is mainly under industrial influence. In this context, we established a box-model representation of water and selected polluting chemicals (N and P, biological oxygen demand, and a selection of metals, pesticides and PAHs) budgets for the studied area under variable hydrological conditions. We first have identified the general distribution of water and pollutant tracers in the various background sources of the system: waters in streams located in the very upstream parts of the catchment, and untreated and treated sewage. Secondly we have assessed the distribution of water flows, and pollutant tracer concentrations at the boundaries of the studied water systems for different stable hydrological conditions and during flood events. Finally we will discuss water budgets and pollution tracer budgets for a yearly average hydrological situation and for dry and wet weather conditions in order

  20. Spatial and temporal geochemical trends in the hydrothermal system of Yellowstone National Park: Inferences from river solute fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, S.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Heasler, H.

    2007-01-01

    We present and analyze a chemical dataset that includes the concentrations and fluxes of HCO3-, SO42-, Cl-, and F- in the major rivers draining Yellowstone National Park (YNP) for the 2002-2004 water years (1 October 2001 - 30 September 2004). The total (molar) flux in all rivers decreases in the following order, HCO3- > Cl- > SO42- > F-, but each river is characterized by a distinct chemical composition, implying large-scale spatial heterogeneity in the inputs of the various solutes. The data also display non-uniform temporal trends; whereas solute concentrations and fluxes are nearly constant during base-flow conditions, concentrations decrease, solute fluxes increase, and HCO3-/Cl-, and SO42-/Cl- increase during the late-spring high-flow period. HCO3-/SO42- decreases with increasing discharge in the Madison and Falls Rivers, but increases with discharge in the Yellowstone and Snake Rivers. The non-linear relations between solute concentrations and river discharge and the change in anion ratios associated with spring runoff are explained by mixing between two components: (1) a component that is discharged during base-flow conditions and (2) a component associated with snow-melt runoff characterized by higher HCO3-/Cl- and SO42-/Cl-. The fraction of the second component is greater in the Yellowstone and Snake Rivers, which host lakes in their drainage basins and where a large fraction of the solute flux follows thaw of ice cover in the spring months. Although the total river HCO3- flux is larger than the flux of other solutes (HCO3-/Cl- ??? 3), the CO2 equivalent flux is only ??? 1% of the estimated emission of magmatic CO2 soil emissions from Yellowstone. No anomalous solute flux in response to perturbations in the hydrothermal system was observed, possibly because gage locations are too distant from areas of disturbance, or because of the relatively low sampling frequency. In order to detect changes in river hydrothermal solute fluxes, sampling at higher

  1. Water for Energy and Food: A System Modelling Approach for Blue Nile River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Chia Tan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The world is facing a more water constrained future as a result of urbanisation, population growth, industrialisation and the emergence of climate change. This has direct impacts on the resilience and performance of the energy and food industries, as water plays a key role in electricity generation processes and agriculture production. Water, energy and food dependencies are more evident in transboundary river basins where several countries share the same source of water for irrigation demand and energy production. From the perspective of the upstream users, it would be ideal to store the water for hydropower generation and the agriculture sector while protecting the environment, whereas the downstream users need the supply of water for their agricultural growth and municipal requirements. We aim to develop a system thinking study by focusing on the transboundary Blue Nile River basin where the Ethiopian government investment in the Grand Renaissance dam has led to opposition by downstream users due to potential reduction of water resource availability downstream. We propose a system thinking approach for analysing different water management practices that considers all the available resources and the requirements set by all the users. To simulate this interaction, we use system dynamics to model the linkage between food production, water abstraction and energy generation. We link the simulation model to an optimisation engine to achieve effective management of the reservoir’s operation. The study provides a platform to investigate how the reservoir operating policies can improve an understanding of the value of water in its alternative uses, and shows how different optimal reservoir release rules generate different optimal solutions inherently involved in upstream and downstream users’ requirements. The proposed methodology is an attempt to enable Nile riparian countries to make more informed decisions on water resources policy and

  2. Telemetry narrows the search for sea lamprey spawning locations in the St. Clair-Detroit River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Christopher; Jubar, Aaron K.; Barber, Jessica M.; Tallon, Kevin; Hondorp, Darryl W.

    2016-01-01

    Adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) abundance in Lake Erie has remained above targets set by fishery managers since 2005, possibly due to increased recruitment in the St. Clair-Detroit River System (SCDRS). Sea lamprey recruitment in the SCDRS poses an enormous challenge to sea lamprey control and assessment in Lake Erie because the SCDRS contains no dams to facilitate capture and discharge is at least an order of magnitude larger in the SCDRS than most other sea lamprey-producing tributaries in the Great Lakes. As a first step toward understanding population size, spatial distribution, and spawning habitat of adult sea lampreys in the SCDRS, we used acoustic telemetry to determine where sea lampreys ceased migration (due to spawning, death, or both) among major regions of the SCDRS. All tagged sea lampreys released in the lower Detroit River (N = 27) moved upstream through the Detroit River and entered Lake St. Clair. After entering Lake St. Clair, sea lampreys entered the St. Clair River (N = 22), Thames River (N = 1), or were not detected again (N = 4). Many sea lampreys (10 of 27) were last observed moving downstream (“fallback”) but we were unable to determine if those movements occurred before or after spawning, or while sea lampreys were dead or alive. Regardless of whether estimates of locations where sea lampreys ceased migration were based on the most upstream region occupied or final region occupied, most sea lampreys ceased migration in the St. Clair River or Lake St. Clair. Results suggest that spawning and rearing in the St. Clair River could be an important determinant of sea lamprey recruitment in the SCDRS and may direct future assessment and control activities in that system.

  3. Potential effects of deepening the St. Johns River navigation channel on saltwater intrusion in the surficial aquifer system, Jacksonville, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellino, Jason C.; Spechler, Rick M.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) has proposed dredging a 13-mile reach of the St. Johns River navigation channel in Jacksonville, Florida, deepening it to depths between 50 and 54 feet below North American Vertical Datum of 1988. The dredging operation will remove about 10 feet of sediments from the surficial aquifer system, including limestone in some locations. The limestone unit, which is in the lowermost part of the surficial aquifer system, supplies water to domestic wells in the Jacksonville area. Because of density-driven hydrodynamics of the St. Johns River, saline water from the Atlantic Ocean travels upstream as a saltwater “wedge” along the bottom of the channel, where the limestone is most likely to be exposed by the proposed dredging. A study was conducted to determine the potential effects of navigation channel deepening in the St. Johns River on salinity in the adjacent surficial aquifer system. Simulations were performed with each of four cross-sectional, variable-density groundwater-flow models, developed using SEAWAT, to simulate hypothetical changes in salinity in the surficial aquifer system as a result of dredging. The cross-sectional models were designed to incorporate a range of hydrogeologic conceptualizations to estimate the effect of uncertainty in hydrogeologic properties. The cross-sectional models developed in this study do not necessarily simulate actual projected conditions; instead, the models were used to examine the potential effects of deepening the navigation channel on saltwater intrusion in the surficial aquifer system under a range of plausible hypothetical conditions. Simulated results for modeled conditions indicate that dredging will have little to no effect on salinity variations in areas upstream of currently proposed dredging activities. Results also indicate little to no effect in any part of the surficial aquifer system along the cross section near River Mile 11 or in the water-table unit along the cross

  4. Transverse tectonic structural elements across Himalayan mountain front, eastern Arunachal Himalaya, India: Implication of superposed landform development on analysis of neotectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhakuni, S. S.; Luirei, Khayingshing; Kothyari, Girish Ch.; Imsong, Watinaro

    2017-04-01

    Structural and morphotectonic signatures in conjunction with the geomorphic indices are synthesised to trace the role of transverse tectonic features in shaping the landforms developed along the frontal part of the eastern Arunachal sub-Himalaya. Mountain front sinuosity (Smf) index values close to one are indicative of the active nature of the mountain front all along the eastern Arunachal Himalaya, which can be directly attributed to the regional uplift along the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT). However, the mountain front is significantly sinusoidal around junctions between HFT/MBT (Main Boundary Thrust) and active transverse faults. The high values of stream length gradient (SL) and stream steepness (Ks) indices together with field evidence of fault scarps, offset of terraces, and deflection of streams are markers of neotectonic uplift along the thrusts and transverse faults. This reactivation of transverse faults has given rise to extensional basins leading to widening of the river courses, providing favourable sites for deposition of recent sediments. Tectonic interactions of these transverse faults with the Himalayan longitudinal thrusts (MBT/HFT) have segmented the mountain front marked with varying sinuosity. The net result is that a variety of tectonic landforms recognized along the mountain front can be tracked to the complex interactions among the transverse and longitudinal tectonic elements. Some distinctive examples are: in the eastern extremity of NE Himalaya across the Dibang River valley, the NW-SE trending mountain front is attenuated by the active Mishmi Thrust that has thrust the Mishmi crystalline complex directly over the alluvium of the Brahmaputra plains. The junction of the folded HFT and Mishmi Thrust shows a zone of brecciated and pulverized rocks along which transverse axial planar fracture cleavages exhibit neotectonic activities in a transverse fault zone coinciding with the Dibang River course. Similarly, the transverse faults cut the

  5. Tracing the origin of dissolved silicon transferred from various soil-plant systems towards rivers: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-T. Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon (Si released as H4SiO4 by weathering of Si-containing solid phases is partly recycled through vegetation before its land-to-rivers transfer. By accumulating in terrestrial plants to a similar extent as some major macronutrients (0.1–10% Si dry weight, Si becomes largely mobile in the soil-plant system. Litter-fall leads to a substantial reactive biogenic silica pool in soil, which contributes to the release of dissolved Si (DSi in soil solution. Understanding the biogeochemical cycle of silicon in surface environments and the DSi export from soils into rivers is crucial given that the marine primary bio-productivity depends on the availability of H4SiO4 for phytoplankton that requires Si. Continental fluxes of DSi seem to be deeply influenced by climate (temperature and runoff as well as soil-vegetation systems. Therefore, continental areas can be characterized by various abilities to transfer DSi from soil-plant systems towards rivers. Here we pay special attention to those processes taking place in soil-plant systems and controlling the Si transfer towards rivers. We aim at identifying relevant geochemical tracers of Si pathways within the soil-plant system to obtain a better understanding of the origin of DSi exported towards rivers. In this review, we compare different soil-plant systems (weathering-unlimited and weathering-limited environments and the variations of the geochemical tracers (Ge/Si ratios and δ30Si in DSi outputs. We recommend the use of biogeochemical tracers in combination with Si mass-balances and detailed physico-chemical characterization of soil-plant systems to allow better insight in the sources and fate of Si in these biogeochemical systems.

  6. ASSESSMENT OF VARIOUS TYPES OF UNCERTAINTY IN THE TECHA RIVER DOSIMETRY SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Degteva, M. O.; Anspaugh, L. R.

    2008-09-01

    Recent developments in evaluation of dose-response models in light of uncertain dose data (Stram and Kopecky 2003; Schafer and Gilbert 2006) have highlighted the importance of different types of uncertainties in the development of individual dose estimates. These include uncertain parameters that may be either shared or unshared within the dosimetric cohort, and also the nature of the type of uncertainty as either classical or Berkson. This report is an initial attempt to identify the nature of the various input parameters and calculational methods incorporated in the Techa River Dosimetry System (based on the TRDS-2000 implementation as a starting point, with additions for recently-developed capabilities). This report reviews the database, equations, and input parameters, and then identifies the author's interpretations of their general nature. It closes with some questions for the users of the data (epidemiologists and biostatisticians), so that the next implantation of the TRDS will provide the most useful information.

  7. Groundwater-flow model for the Wood River Valley aquifer system, south-central Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jason C.; Bartolino, James R.; Wylie, Allan H.; Sukow, Jennifer; McVay, Michael

    2016-06-27

    A three-dimensional numerical model of groundwater flow was developed for the Wood River Valley (WRV) aquifer system, Idaho, to evaluate groundwater and surface-water availability at the regional scale. This mountain valley is located in Blaine County and has a drainage area of about 2,300 square kilometers (888 square miles). The model described in this report can serve as a tool for water-rights administration and water-resource management and planning. The model was completed with support from the Idaho Department of Water Resources, and is part of an ongoing U.S. Geological Survey effort to characterize the groundwater resources of the WRV. A highly reproducible approach was taken for constructing the WRV groundwater-flow model. The collection of datasets, source code, and processing instructions used to construct and analyze the model was distributed as an R statistical-computing and graphics package.

  8. Managing drought risk with a computer model of the Raritan River Basin water-supply system in central New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Paul; Tasker, Gary

    1996-01-01

    The reservoirs and pumping stations that comprise the Raritan River Basin water-supply system and its interconnections to the Delaware-Raritan Canal water-supply system, operated by the New Jersey Water Supply Authority (NJWSA), provide potable water to central New Jersey communities. The water reserve of this combined system can easily be depleted by an extended period of below-normal precipitation. Efficient operation of the combined system is vital to meeting the water-supply needs of central New Jersey. In an effort to improve the efficiency of the system operation, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the NJWSA, has developed a computer model that provides a technical basis for evaluating the effects of alternative patterns of operation of the Raritan River Basin water-supply system. This fact sheet describes the model, its technical basis, and its operation.

  9. Evidence for a wide and gently dipping Main Himalayan Thrust in western Bhutan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux-Mallouf, Romain; Godard, Vincent; Cattin, Rodolphe; Ferry, Matthieu; Gyeltshen, Jampel; Ritz, Jean-François; Drupka, Dowchu; Guillou, Valéry; Arnold, M.; Aumaître, G.; Bourlès, D. L.; Keddadouche, K.

    2015-05-01

    The Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT) is the source of great earthquakes that have been documented along the range. Its geometry is a key parameter that influences accommodation of tectonic loading and earthquake magnitudes along the Himalayan Arc. Although seismic images are available for both the western and the central part of the range, this geometry remains poorly constrained for the Bhutanese Himalayas. Here we address this issue using a 10Be cosmogenic nuclides denudation transect across western Bhutan. We observe a wide low denudation rate domain between 50 km and 110 km from the front followed by a strong northward increase. Using a joint inversion of denudation rates, GPS data, and Holocene uplift rates, we interpret this pattern as a consequence of a flat-ramp transition along the MHT. Compared to central Nepal and Sikkim, this location of the ramp suggests a wider décollement, with implications for greater seismogenic potential of the MHT in western Bhutan.

  10. Large paleoearthquake timing and displacement near Damak in eastern Nepal on the Himalayan Frontal Thrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesnousky, Steven G.; Kumahara, Yasuhiro; Chamlagain, Deepak; Pierce, Ian K.; Reedy, Tabor; Angster, Stephen J.; Giri, Bibek

    2017-08-01

    An excavation across the Himalayan Frontal Thrust near Damak in eastern Nepal shows displacement on a fault plane dipping 22° has produced vertical separation across a scarp equal to 5.5 m. Stratigraphic, structural, geometrical, and radiocarbon observations are interpreted to indicate that the displacement is the result of a single earthquake of 11.3 ± 3.5 m of dip-slip displacement that occurred 1146-1256 A.D. Empirical scaling laws indicate that thrust earthquakes characterized by average displacements of this size may produce rupture lengths of 450 to >800 km and moment magnitudes Mw of 8.6 to >9. Sufficient strain has accumulated along this portion of the Himalayan arc during the roughly 800 years since the 1146-1256 A.D. earthquake to produce another earthquake displacement of similar size.

  11. Evidence of interseismic coupling variations along the Bhutan Himalayan arc from new GPS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marechal, Anais; Mazzotti, Stephane; Cattin, Rodolphe; Cazes, Gael; Vernant, Philippe; Drukpa, Dowchu; Thinley, Kinzang; Tarayoun, Alizia; Le Roux-Mallouf, Romain; Thapa, Bal Bahadur; Pelgay, Phuntsho; Gyeltshen, Jampel; Doerflinger, Erik; Gautier, Stéphanie

    2016-12-01

    Although the first-order pattern of present-day deformation is relatively well resolved across the Himalayas, irregular data coverage limits detailed analyses of spatial variations of interseismic coupling. We provide the first GPS velocity field for the Bhutan Himalaya. Combined with published data, these observations show strong east-west variations in coupling between central and eastern Bhutan. In contrast with previous estimations of first-order uniform interseismic coupling along the Himalayan arc, we identify significant lateral variations: In western and central Bhutan, the fully coupled segment is 135-155 km wide with an abrupt downdip transition, whereas in eastern Bhutan the fully coupled segment is 100-120 km wide and is limited updip and downdip by partially creeping segments. This is the first observation of decoupling on the upper ramp along the Himalayan arc, with important implications for large earthquake surface rupture and seismic hazard.

  12. Quantitative Analogue Experimental Sequence Stratigraphy : Modelling landscape evolution and sequence stratigraphy of river-shelf sedimentary systems by quantitative analogue experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijst, Maximiliaan Wilhelmus Ignatius Maria van

    2000-01-01

    This thesis reports a series of flume tank experiments that were conducted to model the stratigraphic evolution of river-delta systems. Chapter 1 introduces the river-delta sedimentary system that is subject of modelling. The chapter also includes an overview of previous research and the summary and

  13. Source to sink: Evolution of lignin composition in the Madre de Dios River system with connection to the Amazon basin and offshore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaojuan; Feakins, Sarah J.; Liu, Zongguang; Ponton, Camilo; Wang, Renée. Z.; Karkabi, Elias; Galy, Valier; Berelson, William M.; Nottingham, Andrew T.; Meir, Patrick; West, A. Joshua

    2016-05-01

    While lignin geochemistry has been extensively investigated in the Amazon River, little is known about lignin distribution and dynamics within deep, stratified river channels or its transformations within soils prior to delivery to rivers. We characterized lignin phenols in soils, river particulate organic matter (POM), and dissolved organic matter (DOM) across a 4 km elevation gradient in the Madre de Dios River system, Peru, as well as in marine sediments to investigate the source-to-sink evolution of lignin. In soils, we found more oxidized lignin in organic horizons relative to mineral horizons. The oxidized lignin signature was maintained during transfer into rivers, and lignin was a relatively constant fraction of bulk organic carbon in soils and riverine POM. Lignin in DOM became increasingly oxidized downstream, indicating active transformation of dissolved lignin during transport, especially in the dry season. In contrast, POM accumulated undegraded lignin downstream during the wet season, suggesting that terrestrial input exceeded in-river degradation. We discovered high concentrations of relatively undegraded lignin in POM at depth in the lower Madre de Dios River in both seasons, revealing a woody undercurrent for its transfer within these deep rivers. Our study of lignin evolution in the soil-river-ocean continuum highlights important seasonal and depth variations of river carbon components and their connection to soil carbon pools, providing new insights into fluvial carbon dynamics associated with the transfer of lignin biomarkers from source to sink.

  14. Anthropometric and body composition characteristics among preschool children of Coastal, Himalayan and Desert Ecology in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arnab; Kshatriya, Gautam Kumar

    2009-09-01

    The present cross-sectional study was aimed to compare anthropometric and body composition characteristics of preschool children in the three contrasting ecological niches namely Coastal, Himalayan and Desert Ecology. A total of 989 randomly selected children (aged Ecology, 327 children (177 boys and 150 girls) belong to Himalayan Ecology and 356 children (168 boys and 188 girls) belong to Desert Ecology. Anthropometric measures namely height, weight, skinfolds at biceps, triceps, subscapular and suprailiac were measured for each child. Body mass index (BMI), sum of four skinfolds (SF4), trunk extremity ratio (TER), arm muscle circumference (AMC), arm muscle area (AMA) and arm fat area (AFA) was computed accordingly using standard equations. No significant sex difference was observed for the mean age within and between the groups. There existed significant sex differences for SF4, TER across the ecological zones. One way ANOVA with Scheffe's posthoc test revealed that Group II (Himalayan Ecology) had significantly higher means than both Group I (Coastal Ecology) and Group III (Desert Ecology) for BMI, SF4 and AFA. On the other hand, Group I had significantly higher means than Group II and Group III for TER (girls only), AMC and AMA. Percentiles (10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 95th) were also calculated for anthropometric and body composition variables. It was observed that there existed significant sex differences for anthropometric and body composition variables both within (p ecological zones) except for AFA (p = 0.07). The 50th percentiles of BMI for Coastal, Himalayan and Desert Ecology were 11.65, 13.00 and 11.85, respectively. The 95th percentile of AFA was 4.81, 8.15 and 6.06 respectively. Significant group differences for variables reiterated the fact that ecology does influence nutrition and body composition measures through underlying physiology of growth.

  15. Lectotypification of names of Himalayan Brassicaceae taxa currently placed in the genus Cardamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhold, Karol; Kempa, Matúš; Al-Shehbaz, Ihsan A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Lectotypes of twenty-eight names of taxa currently recognized or synonymized in Cardamine are designated as part of the work on the account of the genus for the Pan-Himalayan Flora. Among them, the previous first-step lectotypification of the name Cardamine calthifolia is finalized. In cases when specimen images are available online, stable identifiers for specimens, other permanent links, or links via JSTOR Global Plants are provided. PMID:26140016

  16. Rhizospheric Bacterial Community of Endemic Rhododendron arboreum Sm. Ssp. delavayi along Eastern Himalayan Slope in Tawang

    OpenAIRE

    Rajal Debnath; Archana Yadav; Vijai Kumar Gupta; Bhim Pratap Singh; Pratap Jyoti Handique; Ratul Saikia

    2016-01-01

    Information on rhizosphere microbiome of endemic plants from high mountain ecosystems against those of cultivated plantations is inadequate. Comparative bacterial profiles of endemic medicinal plant Rhododendron arboreum Sm. subsp. delavayi rhizosphere pertaining to four altitudinal zonation Pankang Thang (PTSO), Nagula, Y-junction and Bum La (Indo-China border; in triplicates each) along cold adapted Eastern slope of Himalayan Tawang region, India is described here. Significant differences i...

  17. Lectotypification of names of Himalayan Brassicaceae taxa currently placed in the genus Cardamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Marhold

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lectotypes of twenty-eight names of taxa currently recognized or synonymized in Cardamine are designated as part of the work on the account of the genus for the Pan-Himalayan Flora. Among them, the previous first-step lectotypification of the name C. calthifolia is finalized. In cases when specimen images are available online, stable identifiers for specimens, other permanent links, or links via JSTOR Global Plants are provided.

  18. Lectotypification of names of Himalayan Brassicaceae taxa currently placed in the genus Cardamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhold, Karol; Kempa, Matúš; Al-Shehbaz, Ihsan A

    2015-01-01

    Lectotypes of twenty-eight names of taxa currently recognized or synonymized in Cardamine are designated as part of the work on the account of the genus for the Pan-Himalayan Flora. Among them, the previous first-step lectotypification of the name Cardaminecalthifolia is finalized. In cases when specimen images are available online, stable identifiers for specimens, other permanent links, or links via JSTOR Global Plants are provided.

  19. Do Himalayan treelines respond to recent climate change? An evaluation of sensitivity indicators

    OpenAIRE

    U. Schickhoff; Bobrowski, M; Böhner, J.; B. Bürzle; Chaudhary, R. P.; L. Gerlitz; H. Heyken; Lange, J.; Müller, M.; Scholten, T.; Schwab, N; R. Wedegärtner

    2015-01-01

    Climate warming is expected to induce treelines to advance to higher elevations. Empirical studies in diverse mountain ranges, however, give evidence of both advancing alpine treelines and rather insignificant responses. The inconsistency of findings suggests distinct differences in the sensitivity of global treelines to recent climate change. It is still unclear where Himalayan treeline ecotones are located along the response gradient from rapid dynamics to apparently compl...

  20. Do Himalayan treelines respond to recent climate change? An evaluation of sensitivity indicators

    OpenAIRE

    U. Schickhoff; Bobrowski, M; Böhner, J.; B. Bürzle; Chaudhary, R. P.; L. Gerlitz; H. Heyken; Lange, J.; Müller, M.; Scholten, T.; Schwab, N; R. Wedegärtner

    2014-01-01

    Climate warming is expected to induce treelines to advance to higher elevations. Empirical studies in diverse mountain ranges, however, give evidence of both advancing alpine treelines as well as rather insignificant responses. The inconsistency of findings suggests distinct differences in the sensitivity of global treelines to recent climate change. It is still unclear where Himalayan treeline ecotones are located along the response gradient from rapid dynamics ...

  1. Retrieval of snow albedo and grain size using reflectance measurements in Himalayan basin

    OpenAIRE

    H. S. Negi; A. Kokhanovsky

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper spectral reflectance measurements of Himalayan seasonal snow were carried out and analysed to retrieve the snow albedo and effective grain size. The asymptotic radiative transfer (ART) theory was applied to retrieve the plane and spherical albedo. The retrieved plane albedo was compared with the measured spectral albedo and a good agreement was observed with ±10% measured error accuracy. Retrieved integrated albedo was found within ±6% difference with ground observed broa...

  2. Dining dichotomy: aquatic and terrestrial prey capture behavior in the Himalayan newt Tylototriton verrucosus

    OpenAIRE

    Egon Heiss; Marie De Vylder

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Transitions between aquatic and terrestrial prey capture are challenging. Trophic shifts demand a high degree of behavioral flexibility to account for different physical circumstances between water and air to keep performance in both environments. The Himalayan newt, Tylototriton verrucosus, is mostly terrestrial but becomes aquatic during its short breeding period. Nonetheless, it was assumed that it lacks the capability of trophic behavioral flexibility, only captures prey on land ...

  3. Kinematic Analysis of the Almora Klippe: Testing Tectonic Models of the Himalayan Thrust Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosu, S.; Robinson, D. M.; Mamtani, M. A.; Bhattacharya, G.

    2016-12-01

    The Almora klippe is located in the Kumaun Himalaya, northwest India and continues east in the western Nepal as the Dadeldhura klippe. Rocks in the Almora klippe have a similar detrital zircon population and ɛ-Nd values to the Greater Himalayan rock north of the Main Central thrust and are either from the same thrust sheet or part of a similar Greater Himalayan thrust belt. During the development of the Lesser Himalayan duplex, this thrust sheet was folded by an antiformal duplex, leaving the klippe as an erosional outlier of Greater Himalayan rock. In this hypothesis, the fault on the north side of the klippe is a thrust. However, a recent study from the Dadeldhura klippe in western Nepal identified two separate shear zones north of the klippe. The shear zone to the south has top-to-the-north sense of shear and the shear zone to the north has top-to-the-south sense of shear. To determine which model is more accurate, we conducted field work and sampled north of the Almora klippe and towards east in the Dadeldhura klippe to identify the presence of shear zone(s) and the sense of shear. Only one shear zone was identified in the field in 3 transects north of the Almora klippe and 1 transect north of the Dadeldhura klippe. Shear sense indicators in outcrop and microscopic scales show top-to-the-south sense of shear, which matches with the general shear sense of the Main Central thrust. Electron Back-scatter Diffraction (EBSD) analysis is in progress to identify crystallographic deformation and compare that with microstructures.

  4. Effect of pre-germination treatments on seed physiology and germination of central Himalayan oaks?

    OpenAIRE

    Purohit, Vijay K.; Palni, L. M. S.; Nandi, Shyamal K.

    2009-01-01

    The continuous decline in regeneration of two important species of central Himalayan oak, namely Quercus glauca and Q. leucotrichophora, is of great concern. A study was therefore, carried out to improve germination ability of these species using various presoaking treatments. Seeds of both the species lost viability following storage; tetrazolium staining pattern and germination capacity of seeds following different period of storage at 4 °C and 20 °C indicated retainment of viability for a ...

  5. The Spatial Distribution of Bed Sediment on Fluvial System: A Mini Review of the Aceh Meandering River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Irham

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic interactions of hydrological and geomorphological processes in the fluvial system result in accumulated deposit on the bed because the capacity to carry sediment has been exceeded. The bed load of the Aceh fluvial system is primarily generated by mechanical weathering resulting in boulders, pebbles, and sand, which roll or bounce along the river bed forming temporary deposits as bars on the insides of meander bends, as a result of a loss of transport energy in the system. This dynamic controls the style and range of deposits in the Aceh River. This study focuses on the spatial distribution of bed-load transport of the Aceh River. Understanding the spatial distribution of deposits facilitates the reconstruction of the changes in controlling factors during accumulation of deposits. One of the methods can be done by sieve analysis of sediment, where the method illuminates the distribution of sediment changes associated with channel morphology under different flow regimes. Hence, the purpose of this mini review is to investigate how the sediment along the river meander spatially dispersed. The results demonstrate that channel deposits in the Aceh River are formed from four different type of materials: pebble deposited along upstream left bank; sand located on the upstream, downstream, and along meander belts; and silt and clay located along the cut bank of meander bends. Because of different depositional pattern, the distribution of the sediment along the river can be used as a surrogate to identify bank stability, as well as to predict critical geometry for meander bend initiation

  6. Zoning of Water Quality of Hamadan Darreh-Morad Beyg River Based on NSFWQI Index Using Geographic Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Rahmani

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Rivers are one of the main water supply resources for various uses such as agricultural, industrial and drinking purposes. As population and consumption increase, monitoring of rivers water quality becomes an important function of environmental management field. Because Darreh-Morad Beyg river of Hamadan is a water supply for different purposes and many pollutants are discharged in it, its water quality assessment seems necessary. Zoning of pollution and depicting a detailed image of surface water resources quality using geographic information system (GIS are the key factors for the better management of these resources.Materials & Methods: This research is a cross sectional- descriptive study and river water samples were taken for 7 months from 6 sampling stations on the length of the river. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen (D.O., pH, fecal coli form, nitrate, temperature, phosphate and total solids were determined in the samples. Obtained data were analyzed by national sanitation foundation water quality index (NSFWQI and the river was zoned using GIS software.Results: Results of the analyses by NSFWQI showed the best water quality for station 1 and the worst water quality for station 6 with scores of 62.78 and 27.49, respectively.Conclusion: The NSFWQI is a suitable index for zoning of Darreh-Morad Beyg river. Monitoring of physical, chemical, bacteriological quality parameters and using water quality index in various sampling stations are used in the assessment of water pollution. It also helps the officials to correctly decide about the water uses for different purposes.

  7. The study of the interactions between groundwater and Sava River water in the Ljubljansko polje aquifer system (Slovenia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrzel, Janja; Solomon, D. Kip; Blažeka, Željko; Ogrinc, Nives

    2018-01-01

    River basin aquifers are common sites for drinking water wells as bank filtration can be a cost effective pretreatment technology. A groundwater vulnerability to pollution depends on a groundwater mean residence time and on a relative contribution of river water versus local precipitation to groundwater. Environmental isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen (δ18O and δ2H), tritium (3H) and concentrations of nitrate (NO3-) were used to investigate hydrological pathways, mean residence time and interactions between surface water and groundwater in the Ljubljansko polje aquifer system in Slovenia. δ18O and δ2H values indicate a spatial variability of the influence of individual groundwater sources inside the aquifer - local precipitation and the Sava River water. Fractions of river water in groundwater depend on the depth of perforated screens in the pumping wells and their distance from the Sava River. It was estimated that groundwater at wells Kleče 11, Hrastje 3, and Hrastje 8 is mostly composed of recently infiltrated local precipitation, while the Sava River is the dominant source of groundwater at the well Jarški prod 1. Groundwater at wells Kleče 8, Kleče 12, and Jarški prod 3 contains on average between 41% and 48% of the Sava River water. The 3H and 3H/3He methods indicate short mean residence time of groundwater present at Jarški prod (2-7 years) and Hrastje (7-8 years). A small fraction (water/local precipitation and groundwater, and the utility of isotope tracers in evaluating the spatial distribution of groundwater vulnerability to pollution.

  8. Nitrification and inorganic nitrogen distribution in a large perturbed river/estuarine system: the Pearl River Estuary, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dai

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the spatial distribution and seasonal variation of dissolved inorganic nitrogen in a large perturbed estuary, the Pearl River Estuary, based on three cruises conducted in winter (January 2005, summer (August 2005 and spring (March 2006. On-site incubation was also carried out for determining ammonium and nitrite oxidation rates (nitrification rates. We observed a year-round pattern of dramatic decrease in NH4+, increase in NO3, but insignificant change in NO2 in the upper estuary at salinity ~0–5. However, species and concentrations of inorganic nitrogen at upper estuary significantly changed with season. In winter, with low runoff, the most upper reach of the Pearl River Estuary showed relatively low rates of ammonia oxidation (0–5.4 μmol N L−1 d−1 and nitrite oxidation (0–5.2 μmol N L−1 d−1, accompanied by extremely high concentrations of ammonia (up to >800 μmol L−1 and nitrate (up to >300 μmol L−1. In summer, the upper estuary showed higher nitrification rates (ammonia oxidation rate ~1.5–33.1 μmol N L−1 d−1, nitrite oxidation rate ~0.6–32.0 μmol N L−1 d−1 with lower concentrations of ammonia (<350 μmol L−1 and nitrate (<120 μmol L−1. The Most Probable Number test showed relatively lower nitrifier abundance in summer at most sampling stations, indicating a greater specific nitrification rate per cell in the warm season. Temperature appeared to control nitrification rates to a large degree in different seasons. Spatial variability of nitrification rates appeared to be controlled by a combination of many other factors such as nutrient concentrations, nitrifier abundance and dissolved oxygen (DO concentrations. In addition to aerobic respiration, nitrification contributed significantly

  9. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment for Himalayan-Tibetan Region from Historical and Instrumental Earthquake Catalogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. Moklesur; Bai, Ling; Khan, Nangyal Ghani; Li, Guohui

    2017-09-01

    The Himalayan-Tibetan region has a long history of devastating earthquakes with wide-spread casualties and socio-economic damages. Here, we conduct the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis by incorporating the incomplete historical earthquake records along with the instrumental earthquake catalogs for the Himalayan-Tibetan region. Historical earthquake records back to more than 1000 years ago and an updated, homogenized and declustered instrumental earthquake catalog since 1906 are utilized. The essential seismicity parameters, namely, the mean seismicity rate γ, the Gutenberg-Richter b value, and the maximum expected magnitude M max are estimated using the maximum likelihood algorithm assuming the incompleteness of the catalog. To compute the hazard value, three seismogenic source models (smoothed gridded, linear, and areal sources) and two sets of ground motion prediction equations are combined by means of a logic tree on accounting the epistemic uncertainties. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) and spectral acceleration (SA) at 0.2 and 1.0 s are predicted for 2 and 10% probabilities of exceedance over 50 years assuming bedrock condition. The resulting PGA and SA maps show a significant spatio-temporal variation in the hazard values. In general, hazard value is found to be much higher than the previous studies for regions, where great earthquakes have actually occurred. The use of the historical and instrumental earthquake catalogs in combination of multiple seismogenic source models provides better seismic hazard constraints for the Himalayan-Tibetan region.

  10. Multivariate statistical techniques for the evaluation of surface water quality of the Himalayan foothills streams, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Riffat Naseem; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar

    2017-10-01

    Himalayan foothills streams, Pakistan play an important role in living water supply and irrigation of farmlands; thus, the water quality is closely related to public health. Multivariate techniques were applied to check spatial and seasonal trends, and metals contamination sources of the Himalayan foothills streams, Pakistan. Grab surface water samples were collected from different sites (5-15 cm water depth) in pre-washed polyethylene containers. Fast Sequential Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Varian FSAA-240) was used to measure the metals concentration. Concentrations of Ni, Cu, and Mn were high in pre-monsoon season than the post-monsoon season. Cluster analysis identified impaired, moderately impaired and least impaired clusters based on water parameters. Discriminant function analysis indicated spatial variability in water was due to temperature, electrical conductivity, nitrates, iron and lead whereas seasonal variations were correlated with 16 physicochemical parameters. Factor analysis identified municipal and poultry waste, automobile activities, surface runoff, and soil weathering as major sources of contamination. Levels of Mn, Cr, Fe, Pb, Cd, Zn and alkalinity were above the WHO and USEPA standards for surface water. The results of present study will help to higher authorities for the management of the Himalayan foothills streams.

  11. A linguistically informed autosomal STR survey of human populations residing in the greater Himalayan region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirsa Kraaijenbrink

    Full Text Available The greater Himalayan region demarcates two of the most prominent linguistic phyla in Asia: Tibeto-Burman and Indo-European. Previous genetic surveys, mainly using Y-chromosome polymorphisms and/or mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms suggested a substantially reduced geneflow between populations belonging to these two phyla. These studies, however, have mainly focussed on populations residing far to the north and/or south of this mountain range, and have not been able to study geneflow patterns within the greater Himalayan region itself. We now report a detailed, linguistically informed, genetic survey of Tibeto-Burman and Indo-European speakers from the Himalayan countries Nepal and Bhutan based on autosomal microsatellite markers and compare these populations with surrounding regions. The genetic differentiation between populations within the Himalayas seems to be much higher than between populations in the neighbouring countries. We also observe a remarkable genetic differentiation between the Tibeto-Burman speaking populations on the one hand and Indo-European speaking populations on the other, suggesting that language and geography have played an equally large role in defining the genetic composition of present-day populations within the Himalayas.