WorldWideScience

Sample records for hii region complexes

  1. HRM: HII Region Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Trey V.; Kepley, Amanda K.; Balser, Dana S.

    2017-07-01

    HII Region Models fits HII region models to observed radio recombination line and radio continuum data. The algorithm includes the calculations of departure coefficients to correct for non-LTE effects. HII Region Models has been used to model star formation in the nucleus of IC 342.

  2. The WISE Catalog of Galactic HII Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, L D; Balser, Dana S; Cunningham, V; Wenger, T V; Johnstone, B M; Armentrout, W P

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the all-sky Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) satellite, we made a catalog of over 8000 Galactic HII regions and HII region candidates by searching for their characteristic mid-infrared (MIR) morphology. WISE has sufficient sensitivity to detect the MIR emission from HII regions located anywhere in the Galactic disk. We believe this is the most complete catalog yet of regions forming massive stars in the Milky Way. Of the ~8000 cataloged sources, ~1500 have measured radio recombination line (RRL) or H$\\alpha$ emission, and are thus known to be HII regions. This sample improves on previous efforts by resolving HII region complexes into multiple sources and by removing duplicate entries. There are ~2500 candidate HII regions in the catalog that are spatially coincident with radio continuum emission. Our group's previous RRL studies show that ~95% of such targets are HII regions. We find that ~500 of these candidates are also positionally associated with known HII region complexes, so th...

  3. Finding Distant Galactic HII Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, L D; Johnstone, B M; Bania, T M; Balser, Dana S; Wenger, Trey V; Cunningham, V

    2015-01-01

    The WISE Catalog of Galactic HII Regions contains $\\sim2000$ HII region candidates lacking ionized gas spectroscopic observations. All candidates have the characteristic HII region mid-infrared morphology of WISE $12\\,\\,\\mu\\,m$ emission surrounding $22\\,\\mu\\,m$ emission, and additionally have detected radio continuum emission. We here report Green Bank Telescope (GBT) hydrogen radio recombination line (RRL) and radio continuum detections at X-band (9GHz; 3cm) of 302 WISE HII region candidates (out of 324 targets observed) in the zone $225^{\\circ} > l > -20^{\\circ}$, $|b| \\le 6^{\\circ}$. Here we extend the sky coverage of our HII region Discovery Survey (HRDS), which now contains nearly 800 HII regions distributed across the entire northern sky. We provide LSR velocities for the 302 detections and kinematic distances for 131 of these. Of the 302 new detections, five have ($l, b, v$) coordinates consistent with the Outer Scutum-Centaurus Arm (OSC), the most distant molecular spiral arm of the Milky Way. Due to ...

  4. Spitzer Analysis of HII Region Complexes in the Magellanic Clouds: Determining a Suitable Monochromatic Obscured Star Formation Indicator

    CERN Document Server

    Lawton, Brandon; Babler, Brian; Block, Miwa; Bolatto, Alberto D; Bracker, Steve; Carlson, Lynn R; Engelbracht, Charles W; Hora, Joseph L; Indebetouw, Remy; Madden, Suzanne C; Meade, Marilyn; Meixner, Margaret; Misselt, Karl; Oey, M S; Oliveira, Joana M; Robitaille, Thomas; Sewilo, Marta; Shiao, Bernie; Vijh, Uma P; Whitney, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    HII regions are the birth places of stars, and as such they provide the best measure of current star formation rates (SFRs) in galaxies. The close proximity of the Magellanic Clouds allows us to probe the nature of these star forming regions at small spatial scales. We aim to determine the monochromatic IR band that most accurately traces the bolometric IR flux (TIR), which can then be used to estimate an obscured SFR. We present the spatial analysis, via aperture/annulus photometry, of 16 LMC and 16 SMC HII region complexes using the Spitzer IRAC and MIPS bands. UV rocket data and SHASSA H-alpha data are also included. We find that nearly all of the LMC and SMC HII region SEDs peak around 70um, from ~10 to ~400 pc from the central sources. As a result, the sizes of HII regions as probed by 70um is approximately equal to the sizes as probed by TIR (about 70 pc in radius); the radial profile of the 70um flux, normalized by TIR, is constant at all radii (70um ~ 0.45 TIR); the 1-sigma standard deviation of the 7...

  5. Discovery of radiatively excited molecular hydrogen in the giant extragalactic HII region complex NGC 604

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Israel, F.P.; Hawarden, T.G.; Wade, R.S.; Geballe, T.R.; Dishoeck, van E.F.

    1989-01-01

    The 1-0S(1), 2-1S(1), 1-0S(0) and 1-0Q branch transitions of molecular hydrogen (H2) towards the giant emission nebula (HII region) NGC 604 in M33 have been detected. The line ratios are incompatible with shock-excited H2, but indicate the widespread presence of fluorescent H2 at a mean temperature

  6. Dusty Cradles in a Turbulent Nursery: The Sgr A East HII Region Complex at the Galactic Center

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, Ryan; Morris, Mark; Adams, Joe

    2014-01-01

    We present imaging at 19, 25, 31, and 37 {\\mu}m of the compact HII region complex G-0.02-0.07 located 6 pc in projection from the center of the Galaxy obtained with SOFIA using FORCAST. G-0.02-0.07 contains three compact HII regions (A, B, and C) and one ultra-compact HII region (D). Our observations reveal the presence of two faint, infrared sources located 23'' and 35'' to the east of region C (FIRS 1 and 2) and detect dust emission in two of the three "ridges" of ionized gas west of region A. The 19/37 color temperature and 37 {\\mu}m optical depth maps of regions A - C are used to characterize the dust energetics and morphology. Regions A and B exhibit average 19/37 color temperatures of ~105 K, and regions C and D exhibit color temperatures of ~115 K and ~130 K, respectively. Using the DustEM code we model the SEDs of regions A - D and FIRS 1, all of which require populations of very small, transiently heated grains and large, equilibrium-heated grains. We also require the presence of polycyclic aromatic ...

  7. On the structure of giant HII regions and HII galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Tenorio-Tagle, G; Pérez, E; Silich, S; Telles, E

    2006-01-01

    We review the structural properties of giant extragalactic HII regions and HII galaxies based on two dimensional hydrodynamic calculations, and propose an evolutionary sequence that accounts for their observed detailed structure. The model assumes a massive and young stellar cluster surrounded by a large collection of clouds. These are thus exposed to the most important star-formation feedback mechanisms: photoionization and the cluster wind. The models show how the two feedback mechanisms compete with each other in the disruption of clouds and lead to two different hydrodynamic solutions: The storage of clouds into a long lasting ragged shell that inhibits the expansion of the thermalized wind, and the steady filtering of the shocked wind gas through channels carved within the cloud stratum that results into the creation of large-scale superbubbles. Both solutions are here claimed to be concurrently at work in giant HII regions and HII galaxies, causing their detailed inner structure. A full description of t...

  8. Determining the Hubble constant using HII regions and HII galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Chavez, Ricardo; Terlevich, Roberto; Plionis, Manolis; Bresolin, Fabio; Basilakos, Spyros; Melnick, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    We report the first results of a long term program aiming to provide accurate independent estimates of the Hubble constant (H0) and the Dark Energy equation of state parameter (w) using the L(Hbeta)-velocity dispersion (sigma) distance estimator for Giant HII regions and HII galaxies. We have used VLT and Subaru high dispersion spectroscopic observations of a local sample of HII galaxies, identified in the SDSS DR7 catalogue in order to re-define and improve the L(Hbeta) - sigma distance indicator and to determine the Hubble constant. To this end we used as local calibration or 'anchor' of this correlation, giant HII regions in nearby galaxies which have accurate distance measurements determined via primary indicators. Using our best sample of 89 nearby HII galaxies and 23 Giant HII regions in 9 galaxies we obtain H0 = 73.9+- 2.7 (statistical)+- 2.9 (systematic) km s-1 Mpc-1, in excellent agreement with, and independently confirming, the most recent SNe Ia based results.

  9. Dusty Cradles in a Turbulent Nursery: The Sgr A East HII Region Complex at the Galactic Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ryan M.; Herter, Terry; Morris, Mark; Adams, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    We present high spatial resolution (FWHM ~ 3.2’’ - 3.8’’) imaging performed by the FORCAST instrument on SOFIA at 19, 25, 31, and 37 μm of the compact HII region complex G-0.02-0.07, the site of the most recent confirmed star formation within ~10 pc of the Galactic center. G-0.02-0.07 contains three compact HII regions (A, B, and C) and one ultra-compact HII region (D). Using this multiband imaging along with DustEM, we constrain the gas-to-dust mass ratios (~45 - 65) and the relative mass abundances of large grains, very small grains, and PAHs in the emitting dust from each region. Combining the inferred stellar luminosities, the expected and observed 1.90 μm fluxes and the observed dust thermal structure, the previously suggested heating sources for regions A, B, and C are confirmed. However, for region D, the observed fluxes at 1.87 and 1.90 μm of the previously proposed ionizing star are a factor of ~40 times too bright to be the heating source. We find that the location of the Region A heating source and the morphology of surrounding dust emission is consistent with that of a bow-shock, which suggests the heating source may have been ejected from its initial birth site rather than forming in-situ. In the ejection scenario for the Region A heating source, we estimate a lower limit on its age of ~104 yrs based on the size of the bow-shock.

  10. Python Program to Select HII Region Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Clare; Lamarche, Cody; Vishwas, Amit; Stacey, Gordon J.

    2016-01-01

    HII regions are areas of singly ionized Hydrogen formed by the ionizing radiaiton of upper main sequence stars. The infrared fine-structure line emissions, particularly Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Neon, can give important information about HII regions including gas temperature and density, elemental abundances, and the effective temperature of the stars that form them. The processes involved in calculating this information from observational data are complex. Models, such as those provided in Rubin 1984 and those produced by Cloudy (Ferland et al, 2013) enable one to extract physical parameters from observational data. However, the multitude of search parameters can make sifting through models tedious. I digitized Rubin's models and wrote a Python program that is able to take observed line ratios and their uncertainties and find the Rubin or Cloudy model that best matches the observational data. By creating a Python script that is user friendly and able to quickly sort through models with a high level of accuracy, this work increases efficiency and reduces human error in matching HII region models to observational data.

  11. Interstellar Bubbles in Two Young HII Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Naze, Y; Points, S D; Danforth, C W; Rosado, M; Chen, C H R; Naze, Yael; Chu, You-Hua; Points, Sean D.; Danforth, Charles W.; Rosado, Margarita

    2001-01-01

    Massive stars are expected to produce wind-blown bubbles in the interstellar medium; however, ring nebulae, suggesting the existence of bubbles, are rarely seen around main-sequence O stars. To search for wind-blown bubbles around main-sequence O stars, we have obtained high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 images and high-dispersion echelle spectra of two pristine HII regions, N11B and N180B, in the Large Magellanic Cloud. These HII regions are ionized by OB associations that still contain O3 stars, suggesting that the HII regions are young and have not hosted any supernova explosions. Our observations show that wind-blown bubbles in these HII regions can be detected kinematically but not morphologically because their expansion velocities are comparable to or only slightly higher than the isothermal sound velocity in the HII regions. Bubbles are detected around concentrations of massive stars, individual O stars, and even an evolved red supergiant (a fossil bubble). Comparisons between the observed bu...

  12. Extended emission associated with young HII regions

    CERN Document Server

    Ellingsen, S P; Kurtz, S E

    2004-01-01

    We have used the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) to make observations of a sample of eight young ultra-compact HII regions, selected on the basis that they have associated class II methanol maser emission. We have made observations sensitive to both compact and extended structures and find both to be present in most sources. The scale of the extended emission in our sample is in general less than that observed towards samples based on IRAS properties, or large single-dish flux densities. Our observations are consistent with a scenario where extended and compact radio continuum emission coexists within HII regions for a significant period of time. We suggest that these observations are consistent with a model where HII evolution takes place within hierarchically structured molecular clouds. This model is the subject of a companion paper (Shabala et al. 2005) and addresses both the association between compact and extended emission and UCHII region lifetime problem.

  13. Integral field spectroscopy of the two complexes of HII regions in the main galaxy of the minor merger AM2306-721

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Jimenez, J. A.; Pastoriza, G.; Sanmartim, D.; Winge, C.; Bonatto, C.; Krabbe, A. C.; Rodrigues, I.

    2017-07-01

    We present a study of two complexes of HII regions in the main galaxy of minor merger AM 2306-721. The observations were obtained with the GMOS-IFU on the Gemini South telescope. By using different discrimination criteria, we determined that shock-ionized gas fraction ranges between 0% and 35%, which are in good agreement with numerical models. Thus, we conclude that almost all the mechanical energy from stellar winds and supernovae is being irradiated.

  14. Intergalactic HII Regions Discovered in SINGG

    CERN Document Server

    Ryan-Weber, E V; Freeman, K C; Putman, M E; Webster, R L; team., the SINGG

    2003-01-01

    A number of very small isolated HII regions have been discovered at projected distances up to 30 kpc from their nearest galaxy. These HII regions appear as tiny emission line objects in narrow band images obtained by the NOAO Survey for Ionization in Neutral Gas Galaxies (SINGG). We present spectroscopic confirmation of four isolated HII regions in two systems, both systems have tidal HI features. The results are consistent with stars forming in interactive debris due to cloud-cloud collisions. The H-alpha luminosities of the isolated HII regions are equivalent to the ionizing flux of only a few O stars each. They are most likely ionized by stars formed in situ, and represent atypical star formation in the low density environment of the outer parts of galaxies. A small but finite intergalactic star formation rate will enrich and ionize the surrounding medium. In one system, NGC 1533, we calculate a star formation rate of 1.5e-3 msun/yr, resulting in a metal enrichment of ~1e-3 solar for the continuous formati...

  15. Identification of ten new Galactic HII regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We discovered ten large HII regions in the Sino-German λ6 cm polarization survey of the Galactic plane. They have been identified according to their flat spectral indexes and the high ratio between the 60 μm infrared emission and the λ6 cm emission. The integrated flux densities as well as the sizes of these sources are given at 4800 MHz. Cross-identifications are made with other major radio catalogs.

  16. The size--density relation of extragalactic HII regions

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, L K

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the size--density relation in extragalactic HII regions, with the aim of understanding the role of dust and different physical conditions in the ionized medium. First, we compiled several observational data sets for Galactic and extragalactic HII regions and confirm that extragalactic HII regions follow the same size (D)--density (n) relation as Galactic ones. Motivated by the inability of static models to explain this, we then modelled the evolution of the size--density relation of HII regions by considering their star formation history, the effects of dust, and pressure-driven expansion. The results are compared with our sample data whose size and density span roughly six orders of magnitude. We find that the extragalactic size--density relation does not result from an evolutionary sequence of HII regions but rather reflects a sequence with different initial gas densities (``density hierarchy''). Moreover, the size of many HII regions is limited by dust absorption of ionizing photons, rather ...

  17. Radio Recombination Lines in Galactic HII Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Quireza, C; Bania, T M; Rood, R T; Balser, Dana S.; Quireza, Cintia; Rood, Robert T.

    2006-01-01

    We report radio recombination line (RRL) and continuum observations of a sample of 106 Galactic HII regions made with the NRAO 140 Foot radio telescope in Green Bank, WV. We believe this to be the most sensitive RRL survey ever made for a sample this large. Most of our source integration times range between 6 and 90 hours which yield typical r.m.s. noise levels of 1.0--3.5 milliKelvins. Our data result from two different experiments performed, calibrated, and analyzed in similar ways. A CII survey was made at 3.5 cm wavelength to obtain accurate measurements of carbon radio recombination lines. When combined with atomic (CI) and molecular (CO) data, these measurements will constrain the composition, structure, kinematics, and physical properties of the photodissociation regions that lie on the edges of HII regions. A second survey was made at 3.5 cm wavelength to determine the abundance of 3He in the interstellar medium of the Milky Way. Together with measurements of the 3He+ hyperfine line we get high precis...

  18. The Morphology of HII Regions during Reionization

    CERN Document Server

    McQuinn, M; Zahn, O; Dutta, S; Hernquist, L; Zaldarriaga, M; Quinn, Matthew Mc; Lidz, Adam; Zahn, Oliver; Dutta, Suvendra; Hernquist, Lars; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2006-01-01

    It is possible that the properties of HII regions during reionization depend sensitively on many poorly constrained quantities (the nature of the ionizing sources, the clumpiness of the gas in the IGM, the degree to which photo-ionizing feedback suppresses the abundance of low mass galaxies, etc.), making it extremely difficult to interpret upcoming observations of this epoch. We demonstrate that the actual situation is more encouraging, using a suite of radiative transfer simulations, post-processed on outputs from a 1024^3, 94 Mpc N-body simulation. Analytic prescriptions are used to incorporate small scale structures that affect reionization, yet remain unresolved in the N-body simulation. We show that the morphology of the HII regions is most dependent on the global ionization fraction x_i. This is not to say that the bubble morphology is completely independent of all parameters besides x_i. The next most important dependence is that of the nature of the ionizing sources. The rarer the sources, the larger...

  19. Molecular Counterparts of Ultracompact HII Regions with Extended Envelopes

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, K T; Kim, Kee-Tae; Koo, Bon-Chul

    2003-01-01

    We carried out 13CO J=1-0, CS, and C34S J=2-1 and J=3-2 line observations of molecular clouds associated with 16 ultracompact (UC) HII regions with extended envelopes. The molecular clouds are the ones that give birth to rich stellar clusters and/or very massive (O7-O4) stars. Our data show that the clouds are very clumpy and of irregular morphology. They usually have much larger masses, velocity dispersions, and fractions of dense gas than molecular clouds that form early B or late O stars. This is compatible with earlier findings that more massive stars form in more massive cores. 13CO cores are in general associated with compact HII regions regardless of the presence of UC HII regions therein. In contrast, CS cores are preferentially associated with compact HII regions that contain UC HII regions. As with the fact that the compact HII regions containing UC HII regions are more compact than those not associated with UC HII regions, these indicate that the former may be in an earlier evolutionary phase than ...

  20. The HII Region of a Primordial Star

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, T; Bryan, G L; Abel, Tom; Wise, John H.; Bryan, Greg L.

    2006-01-01

    The concordance model of cosmology and structure formation predicts the formation of isolated very massive stars at high redshifts in dark matter dominated halos of 10^5 to 10^6 Msun. These stars photo-ionize their host primordial molecular clouds, expelling all the baryons from their halos. When the stars die, a relic HII region is formed within which large amounts of molecular hydrogen form which will allow the gas to cool efficiently when gravity assembles it into larger dark matter halos. The filaments surrounding the first star hosting halo are largely shielded and provide the pathway for gas to stream into the halo when the star has died. We present the first fully three dimensional cosmological radiation hydrodynamical simulations that follow all these effects. A novel adaptive ray casting technique incorporates the time dependent radiative transfer around point sources. This approach is fast enough so that radiation transport, kinetic rate equations, and hydrodynamics are solved self-consistently. It ...

  1. The environs of the HII region Gum31

    CERN Document Server

    Cappa, C; Amorin, R; Vasquez, J

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the distribution of the interstellar matter in the environs of the \\hii region Gum 31, excited by the open cluster NGC 3324, located in the complex Carina region, with the aim of investigating the action of the massive stars on the surrounding neutral material. We use 21cm-line data, radio continuum images at 0.843, 2.4 and 4.9 GHz, $^{12}${\\bf CO(1-0)} observations, and IRAS and MSX infrared data. Adopting a distance of 3 kpc for the \\hii\\ region and the ionizing cluster, we have derived an electron density of 33$\\pm$3 cm$^{-3}$ and an ionized mass of (3.3$\\pm$1.1)$\\times10^3$ M$_{\\odot}$ based on the radio continuum data at 4.9 GHz. The \\hi 21-cm line images revealed an \\hi shell surrounding the H {\\sc ii} region. The \\hi structure is 10.0$\\pm$1.7 pc in radius, has a neutral mass of 1500$\\pm$500 M$_{\\odot}$, and is expanding at 11 km s$^{-1}$. The associated molecular gas amounts to (1.5$\\pm$0.5)$\\times10^5$ M$_{\\odot}$, being its volume density of about 500 cm^{-3}. This molecular material proba...

  2. Chemical distribution of HII regions towards the Galactic anticentre

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández-Martín, Alba; Vílchez, José Manuel; Mampaso, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    We study the physical and chemical properties of a sample of HII regions located at RG >11 kpc and present the radial distribution of abundances towards the Galaxy anticentre. We carried out optical spectroscopic observations of nine HII regions with the WHT. The sample was increased by searching the literature for optical observations of regions towards the Galactic anticentre, re-analysing them to obtain a single sample of 23 objects covering the Galactocentric radius from 11 kpc to 18 kpc to be processed in a homogeneous and consistent manner. Accurate electron densities and temperatures of several ionic species were derived in 13 HII regions. These physical parameters were applied to the spectra to determine direct total chemical abundances. For those regions without direct estimations of temperature, chemical abundances were derived by performing tailor-made photoionisation models and/or by using an empirical relation obtained from radio recombination and optical temperatures. We performed weighted least...

  3. Time Variability in Simulated Ultracompact and Hypercompact HII Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Keto, Eric; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Banerjee, Robi; Klessen, Ralf S

    2011-01-01

    Ultracompact and hypercompact HII regions appear when a star with a mass larger than about 15 solar masses starts to ionize its own environment. Recent observations of time variability in these objects are one of the pieces of evidence that suggest that at least some of them harbor stars that are still accreting from an infalling neutral accretion flow that becomes ionized in its innermost part. We present an analysis of the properties of the HII regions formed in the 3D radiation-hydrodynamic simulations presented by Peters et al. (2010) as a function of time. Flickering of the HII regions is a natural outcome of this model. The radio-continuum fluxes of the simulated HII regions, as well as their flux and size variations are in agreement with the available observations. From the simulations, we estimate that a small but non-negligible fraction (~ 10 %) of observed HII regions should have detectable flux variations (larger than 10 %) on timescales of ~ 10 years, with positive variations being more likely to ...

  4. HII regions feeding the interstellar medium in M83

    CERN Document Server

    Blasco-Herrera, Javier; Beckman, John; Gutiérrez, Leonel; Lundgren, Andreas; Font, Joan; Hernandez, Olivier; Carignan, Claude

    2009-01-01

    We analyse the internal dynamics of star-forming HII regions and their efficiency in interacting with the ISM. We use GHaFaS (Fabry-Perot) data of the nearby spiral galaxy M83 to perform multiple-Gaussian fitting to the integrated Halpha emission line for 136 HII regions, advanced instrumental response subtraction and to study the Luminosity-velocity dispersion relation. We find that the best way of dealing with instrumental response effects is convolving its actual shape with the Gaussian before fitting and that in our data almost none of the regions need a secondary Gaussian.

  5. On the Form of the HII Region Luminosity Function

    CERN Document Server

    Oey, M S

    1997-01-01

    Observed variations in the HII region luminosity function (HII LF) seen in spiral arm vs. interarm regions, and different galactic Hubble type, can be explained simply by evolutionary effects and maximum number of ionizing stars per cluster. We present Monte Carlo simulations of the HII LF, drawing the number of ionizing stars N_* from a power-law distribution of constant slope, and the stellar masses from a Salpeter IMF with an upper-mass limit of 100 M_sol. We investigate the evolution of the HII LF, as determined by stellar main-sequence lifetimes and ionizing luminosities, for a single burst case and continuous creation of the nebular population. Shallower HII LF slopes measured for the arms of spiral galaxies can be explained as a composite slope, expected for a zero-age burst population, whereas the interarm regions tend to be dominated by evolved rich clusters described by a single, steeper slope. Steeper slopes in earlier-type galaxies can be explained simply by a lower maximum N_* cutoff found for th...

  6. Nonlinear Dynamics of Ionization Fronts in HII Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuta, A; Kane, J O; Pound, M W; Remington, B A; Ryutov, D D; Takabe, H

    2006-04-20

    Hydrodynamic instability of an accelerating ionization front (IF) is investigated with 2D hydrodynamic simulations, including absorption of incident photoionizing photons, recombination in the HII region, and radiative molecular cooling. When the amplitude of the perturbation is large enough, nonlinear dynamics of the IF triggered by the separation of the IF from the cloud surface is observed. This causes the second harmonic of the imposed perturbation to appear on the cloud surfaces, whereas the perturbation in density of ablated gas in the HII region remains largely single mode. This mismatch of modes between the IF and the density perturbation in the HII region prevents the strong stabilization effect seen in the linear regime. Large growth of the perturbation caused by Rayleigh-Taylor-like instability is observed late in time.

  7. On the Size of HII Regions around High Redshift Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Maselli, A; Ferrara, A; Choudhury, T R

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of constraining the ionization state of the Intergalactic Medium (IGM) close to the end of reionization (z ~ 6) by measuring the size of the HII regions in high-z quasars spectra. We perform a combination of multiphase SPH and 3D radiative transfer (RT) simulations to reliably predict the properties of typical high-z quasar HII regions, embedded in a partly neutral IGM. From the analysis of mock spectra along lines of sight through the simulated QSO environment we find that the HII region size derived from quasar spectra is on average 30 % smaller than the physical one. Additional maximum likelihood analysis shows that this offset induces an overestimate of the neutral hydrogen fraction, x_HI, by a factor ~ 3. By applying the same statistical method to a sample of observed QSOs our study favors a mostly ionized (x_HI < 0.06) universe at z=6.1.

  8. X-ray observations of the Sagittarius D HII region toward the Galactic center with Suzaku

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sawada, M.; Tsujimoto, M.; Koyama, K.; Law, C.J.; Tsuru, T.G.; Hyodo, Y.

    2009-01-01

    We present a Suzaku X-ray study of the Sagittarius D (Sgr D) HII region in the Galactic center region. Two 18' × 18' images by the X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (XIS) encompass the entire Sgr D complex. Thanks to the low background, XIS discovered two diffuse sources with low surface brightness and obt

  9. Integral field spectroscopy of HII regions in M33

    CERN Document Server

    López-Hernández, Jesús; Terlevich, Roberto; Rosa-González, Daniel; Díaz, Ángeles; Benito, Rubén García; Vílchez, José; Hägele, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Integral field spectroscopy (IFS) is presented for star forming regions in M33. A central area of 300 x 500 pc^2 and the external HII region IC 132, at a galactocentric distance {\\sim} 19arcmin (4.69 kpc) were observed with the Potsdam Multi Aperture Spectrophotometer (PMAS) instrument at the 3.5 m telescope of the Calar Alto Hispano- Alem\\'an observatory (CAHA). The spectral coverage goes from 3600 A to 1{\\mu}m to include from [OII]{\\lambda}3727 A to the near infrared lines required for deriving sulphur electron temperature and abundance diagnostics. Local conditions within individual HII regions are presented in the form of emission line fluxes and physical conditions for each spatial resolution element (spaxel) and for segments with similar H{\\alpha} surface brightness. A clear dichotomy is observed when comparing the central to outer disc HII regions. While the external HII region has higher electron temperature plus larger H{\\beta} equivalent width, size and excitation, the central region has higher exti...

  10. A multiwavelength study of star formation in the vicinity of Galactic HII region Sh2-100

    OpenAIRE

    Samal, M. R.; Pandey, A. K.; Ojha, D. K.; Ghosh, S K; Kulkarni, V. K.; Kusakabe, N.; Tamura, M.; Bhatt, B. C.; Thompson, M A; Sagar, R

    2010-01-01

    We present multiwavelength investigation of morphology, physical-environment, stellar contents and star formation activity in the vicinity of star-forming region Sh 2-100. It is found that the Sh 2-100 region contains seven HII regions of ultracompact and compact nature. The present estimation of distance for three HII regions, along with the kinematic distance for others, suggests that all of them belong to the same molecular cloud complex. Using NIR photometry, we identified the most probab...

  11. An Isolated HII Region near ESO 481-G017

    CERN Document Server

    Santiago-Figueroa, N; Werk, J; Ryan-Weber, E; Meurer, G

    2009-01-01

    We obtained VLA 21-cm observations of the galaxy ESO 481-G017 to determine the environment and trigger of remote star formation traced by a HII region found 43 kpc from the galaxy (in projection). ESO 481-G017 is an early type spiral galaxy with a HI mass of 1.1*10^9 Msun and a distance of 55 Mpc. The isolated HII region has a H-alpha luminosity of 10^38.1 erg s^-1 and minimal continuum emission suggesting that new stars have formed where little or no stars previously existed. The difference in velocity between the HI disk of ESO 481-G017 (3840-4000 km s^-1) and the isolated HII region (4701 +/- 80 km s^-1) indicates the origin of the HII region may be stars forming in a tidal feature or newly triggered star formation in a very low luminosity companion galaxy. The VLA observations shed light on the nature of this young object.

  12. Rotation of the Warm Molecular Gas Surrounding Ultracompact HII Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Klaassen, P D; Keto, E R; Zhang, Q

    2009-01-01

    We present molecular line and 1.4 mm continuum observations towards five massive star forming regions at arcsecond resolution using the Submillimeter Array (SMA). We find that the warm molecular gas surrounding each HII region (as traced by SO_2 and OCS) appears to be undergoing bulk rotation. From the molecular line emission and thermal component of the continuum emission, we independently derived gas masses for each region which are consistent with each other. From the free-free component of the continuum emission we estimate the minimum stellar mass required to power the HII region and find that this mass, when added to the derived gas mass, is a significant fraction of the dynamical mass for that region.

  13. On the feedback from super stellar clusters. I. The structure of giant HII regions and HII galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Tenorio-Tagle, G; Pérez, E; Silich, S; Telles, E

    2006-01-01

    We review the structural properties of giant extragalactic HII regions and HII galaxies based on 2D hydrodynamic calculations, and propose an evolutionary sequence that accounts for their observed detailed structure. The model assumes a massive and young stellar cluster surrounded by a large collection of clouds. These are thus exposed to the most important star-formation feedback mechanisms: photoionization and the cluster wind. The models show how the two feedback mechanisms compete in the disruption of clouds and lead to two different hydrodynamic solutions: The storage of clouds into a long lasting ragged shell that inhibits the expansion of the thermalized wind, and the steady filtering of the shocked wind gas through channels carved within the cloud stratum. Both solutions are claimed to be concurrently at work in giant HII regions and HII galaxies, causing their detailed inner structure. This includes multiple large-scale shells, filled with an X-ray emitting gas, that evolve to finally merge with each...

  14. Topology and Sizes of HII Regions during Cosmic Reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Friedrich, Martina M; Alvarez, Marcelo A; Shapiro, Paul R; Iliev, Ilian T

    2010-01-01

    We use the results of large-scale simulations of reionization to explore methods for characterizing the topology and sizes of HII regions during reionization. We use four independent methods for characterizing the sizes of ionized regions. Three of them give us a full size distribution: the friends-of-friends (FOF) method, the spherical average method (SPA) and the power spectrum (PS) of the ionized fraction. These latter three methods are complementary: While the FOF method captures the size distribution of the small scale H~II regions, which contribute only a small amount to the total ionization fraction, the spherical average method provides a smoothed measure for the average size of the H~II regions constituting the main contribution to the ionized fraction, and the power spectrum does the same while retaining more details on the size distribution. Our fourth method for characterizing the sizes of the H II regions is the average size which results if we divide the total volume of the H II regions by their...

  15. Dust Properties in HII Regions in M33

    CERN Document Server

    Relano, M; Lisenfeld, U; Verley, S; Hermelo, I; Boquien, M; Albrecht, M; Kramer, C; Braine, J; Perez-Montero, E; De Looze, I; Xilouris, M; Kovacs, A; Staguhn, J

    2016-01-01

    The conversion of the IR emission into star formation rate can be strongly dependent on the physical properties of the dust, which are affected by the environmental conditions where the dust is embedded. We study here the dust properties of a set of HII regions in the Local Group Galaxy M33 presenting different spatial configurations between the stars, gas and dust to understand the dust evolution under different environments. We model the SED of each region using the DustEM tool and obtain the mass relative to hydrogen for Very Small Grains (YVSG), Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (YPAH) and Big Grains (YBG). The relative mass of the VSGs (YVSG/YTOT) is a factor of 1.7 higher for HII regions classified as filled and mixed than for regions presenting a shell structure. The enhancement of VSGs within NGC 604 and NGC 595 is correlated to expansive gas structures with velocities greater than 50 km/s. The gas-to-dust ratio derived for the HII regions in our sample exhibits two regimes related to the HI-H2 transit...

  16. Single Star HII Regions in nearby LEGUS Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayitesi, Bridget; Lee, Janice C.; Thilker, David A.; LEGUS Team

    2017-01-01

    It is believed that O stars typically form in clustered environments, however past observations have shown that there are a few O stars in the field that are fairly far from clusters and have low space velocities. The goal of this project is to determine whether these O stars can be born in situ or whether they are runaways ejected from their parent clusters due to binary supernova explosions or other dynamic interactions. To do this, we select candidate hot stars and compute an isolation metric based on distance from other hot stars and clusters. We then deploy Zooniverse citizen scientists to classify the isolated sources and their associated nebulae. The detected presence of an HII region allows us to confirm a candidate as a true O star. We use the Zooniverse classification system to study the morphology of these HII regions and determine the runaway status of the O stars.

  17. Realistic Models for Filling Factors in HII Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, Steven R.; Costa, Allison H.; Bergerud, Brandon M.; Beauchamp, Kara M.

    2017-01-01

    One of the parameters used to describe HII regions and other ionized parts of the interstellar medium is the filling factor, defined as the volume fraction of an HII region occupied by matter. The best observational evidence for the existence of a filling factor less than unity is a discrepancy between the electron density derived from density-sensitive line ratios and the root mean square density obtained from emission measure measurements. Following the early, influential study by Osterbrock and Flather (ApJ 129, 26, 1959), most investigations of HII regions envision these objects as a group of isolated cells of high gas density embedded in a vacuum. This picture is at serious odds with more direct measurements of other astrophysical plasmas like the solar wind, where the density follows a less extreme probability distribution function (pdf) such as an exponential or lognormal. We have carried out a set of simulations in which model HII regions are created with different density pdfs such as exponential and lognormal as well as the extreme case of two delta functions. We calculate the electron density as inferred from spectroscopic line ratios and emission measures for all lines of sight through the model nebulas. In the cases of exponential and lognormal pdfs, the spectroscopically derived densities are higher than those obtained by the emission measures by factors of 20 to 100 percent. These are considerably smaller than values often reported in the literature, which can be an order of magnitude or greater. We will discuss possible ways to reconcile realistic density pdfs such as measured in space and laboratory plasmas with the results from astronomical spectroscopic measurements. Finally, we point out that for the Orion Nebula, the density discrepancy is due to geometry, not filling factor (O'Dell, ARAA 39, 99, 2001).

  18. HII Region Metallicity Distribution in the Milky Way Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Balser, Dana S; Bania, T M; Anderson, L D

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of metals in the Galaxy provides important information about galaxy formation and evolution. HII regions are the most luminous objects in the Milky Way at mid-infrared to radio wavelengths and can be seen across the entire Galactic disk. We used the NRAO Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to measure radio recombination line and continuum emission in 81 Galactic HII regions. We calculated LTE electron temperatures using these data. In thermal equilibrium metal abundances are expected to set the nebular electron temperature with high abundances producing low temperatures. Our HII region distribution covers a large range of Galactocentric radius (5 to 22 kpc) and samples the Galactic azimuth range 330 degree to 60 degree. Using our highest quality data (72 objects) we derived an O/H Galactocentric radial gradient of -0.0383 +/- 0.0074 dex/kpc. Combining these data with a similar survey made with the NRAO 140 Foot telescope we get a radial gradient of -0.0446 +/- 0.0049 dex/kpc for this larger sample of ...

  19. The Fine Structure Lines of Hydrogen in HII Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Dennison, B; Minter, A H; Dennison, Brian; Minter, Anthony H.

    2005-01-01

    The 2s_{1/2} state of hydrogen is metastable and overpopulated in HII regions. In addition, the 2p states may be pumped by ambient Lyman-alpha radiation. Fine structure transitions between these states may be observable in HII regions at 1.1 GHz (2s_{1/2}-2p_{1/2}) and/or 9.9 GHz (2s_{1/2}-2p_{3/2}), although the details of absorption versus emission are determined by the relative populations of the 2s and 2p states. The n=2 level populations are solved with a parameterization that allows for Lyman-alpha pumping of the 2p states. The density of Lyman-alpha photons is set by their creation rate, easily determined from the recombination rate, and their removal rate. Here we suggest that the dominant removal mechanism of Lyman-alpha radiation in HII regions is absorption by dust. This circumvents the need to solve the Lyman-alpha transfer problem, and provides an upper limit to the rate at which the 2p states are populated by Lyman-alpha photons. In virtually all cases of interest, the 2p states are predominantl...

  20. Modeling the Photoionized Interface in Blister HII Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Sankrit, R; Sankrit, Ravi

    2000-01-01

    We present a grid of photoionization models for the emission from photoevaporative interfaces between the ionized gas and molecular cloud in blister HII regions. For the density profiles of the emitting gas in the models, we use a general power law form calculated for photoionized, photoevaporative flows by Bertoldi (1989). We find that the spatial emission line profiles are dependent on the incident flux, the shape of the ionizing continuum and the elemental abundances. In particular, we find that the peak emissivity of the [SII] and [NII] lines are more sensitive to the elemental abundances than are the total line intensities. The diagnostics obtained from the grid of models can be used in conjunction with high spatial resolution data to infer the properties of ionized interfaces in blister HII regions. As an example, we consider a location at the tip of an ``elephant trunk'' structure in M16 (the Eagle Nebula) and show how narrow band HST-WFPC2 images constrain the HII region properties. We present a photo...

  1. New calibrations for abundance determinations in HII regions

    CERN Document Server

    Pilyugin, L S

    2016-01-01

    Simple relations for deriving the oxygen abundance in HII regions with intensities of the three strong emission lines R_2, R_3, and N_2 (R calibration) or S_2, R_3, and N_2 (S calibration) in their spectra are suggested. A sample of 313 reference HII regions of the counterpart method is used as calibrating data points. Relations for the determination of nitrogen abundances, the R calibration, are also constructed. We find that the oxygen and nitrogen abundances in high-metallicity HII regions can be estimated using the intensities of the two strong lines R_2 and N_2 (or S_2 and N_2 for oxygen) only. The corresponding two-dimensional relations are provided. There are considerable advantages of the suggested calibration relations as compared to the existing ones. First, the oxygen and nitrogen abundances estimated through the suggested calibrations agree with the Te-based abundances within ~0.1 dex over the whole metallicity range, i.e., the relative accuracy of the calibration-based abundances is 0.1 dex. Alth...

  2. The Fragmenting Superbubble Associated with the HII Region W4

    CERN Document Server

    West, J L; Normandeau, M; Landecker, T L; West, Jennifer L.; English, Jayanne; Normandeau, Magdalen

    2006-01-01

    New observations at high latitudes above the HII region W4 show that the structure formerly identified as a chimney candidate, an opening to the Galactic halo, is instead a superbubble in the process of fragmenting and possibly evolving into a chimney. Data at high Galactic latitudes (b > 5 degrees) above the W3/W4 star forming region at 1420 and 408 MHz Stokes I (total power) and 1420 MHz Stokes Q and U (linear polarization) reveal an egg-shaped structure with morphological correlations between our data and the H-alpha data of Dennison, Topasna, & Simonetti. Polarized intensity images show depolarization extending from W4 up the walls of the superbubble, providing strong evidence that the radio continuum is generated by thermal emission coincident with the H-alpha emission regions. We conclude that the parts of the HII region hitherto known as W4 and the newly revealed thermal emission are all ionized by the open cluster OCl 352. Assuming a distance of 2.35 kpc, the ovoid structure is 164 pc wide and ext...

  3. ATLASGAL --- properties of compact HII regions and their natal clumps

    CERN Document Server

    Urquhart, J S; Moore, T J T; Purcell, C R; Hoare, M G; Schuller, F; Wyrowski, F; Csengeri, T; Menten, K M; Lumsden, S L; Kurtz, S; Walmsley, C M; Bronfman, L; Morgan, L K; Eden, D J; Russeil, D

    2013-01-01

    We present a complete sample of molecular clumps containing compact and ultra-compact (UC) HII regions between \\ell=10\\degr and 60\\degr\\ and $|b|<1\\degr, identified by combining the the ATLASGAL submm and CORNISH radio continuum surveys with visual examination of archival infrared data. Our sample is complete to optically thin, compact and UCHII regions driven by a zero age main sequence star of spectral type B0 or earlier embedded within a 1,000 Msun clump. In total we identify 213 compact and UCHII regions, associated with 170 clumps. Unambiguous kinematic distances are derived for these clumps and used to estimate their masses and physical sizes, as well as the Lyman continuum fluxes and sizes of their embedded HII regions. We find a clear lower envelope for the surface density of molecular clumps hosting massive star formation of 0.05 g cm^{-2}, which is consistent with a similar sample of clumps associated with 6.7 GHz masers. The mass of the most massive embedded stars is closely correlated with the ...

  4. Anomalous Microwave Emission from the HII region RCW175

    CERN Document Server

    Dickinson, C; Allison, J R; Bond, J R; Casassus, S; Cleary, K; Davis, R J; Jones, M E; Mason, B S; Myers, S T; Pearson, T J; Readhead, A C S; Sievers, J L; Taylor, A C; Todorovic, M; White, G J; Wilkinson, P N

    2008-01-01

    We present evidence for anomalous microwave emission in the RCW175 \\hii region. Motivated by 33 GHz $13\\arcmin$ resolution data from the Very Small Array (VSA), we observed RCW175 at 31 GHz with the Cosmic Background Imager (CBI) at a resolution of $4\\arcmin$. The region consists of two distinct components, G29.0-0.6 and G29.1-0.7, which are detected at high signal-to-noise ratio. The integrated flux density is $5.97\\pm0.30$ Jy at 31 GHz, in good agreement with the VSA. The 31 GHz flux density is $3.28\\pm0.38$ Jy ($8.6\\sigma$) above the expected value from optically thin free-free emission based on lower frequency radio data and thermal dust constrained by IRAS and WMAP data. Conventional emission mechanisms such as optically thick emission from ultracompact \\hii regions cannot easily account for this excess. We interpret the excess as evidence for electric dipole emission from small spinning dust grains, which does provide an adequate fit to the data.

  5. Study of young stellar groupings in HII regions based on the spectral and photometric data

    CERN Document Server

    Gusev, A S; Piskunov, A E; Kharchenko, N V; Pilyugin, L S; Ezhkova, O V; Khramtsova, M S; Guslyakova, S A; Bruevich, V V; Dodonov, S N; Lang, V; Shimanovskaya, E V; Efremov, Yu N

    2016-01-01

    We studied 102 star forming regions in seven spiral galaxies (NGC 628, NGC 783, NGC 2336, NGC 6217, NGC 6946, NGC 7331, and NGC 7678) on the basis of complex spectroscopic, photometric (UBVRI) and spectrophotometric (H alpha line) observations. Using data on the chemical composition and absorption in HII regions, obtained from spectroscopic observations, and using evolutionary models, we estimated physical parameters (ages and masses) of young stellar groupings embedded in HII regions. We found that the gas extinction, A(gas), which determined from the Balmer decrement, does not correspond in some cases to the absorption A(stars) in the young stellar associations (complexes). This is due to the spatial offset relative HII cloud the stellar group related to him. It has been found that the condition A(gas) = A(stars) does not satisfied for the star forming regions, in which: 1) the contribution to the total emission of gas in the B and/or V bands is higher than 40%, and 2) EW(H alpha) > 1500A. Extinction A(V) i...

  6. Effective temperature of ionizing stars of extragalactic HII regions

    CERN Document Server

    Dors, O L; Cardaci, M V; Krabbe, A C

    2016-01-01

    The effective temperature (Teff) of the radiation field of the ionizing star(s) of a large sample of extragalactic HII regions was estimated using the R= log([OII](3727)/[OIII]5007) index. We used a grid of photoionization models to calibrate the Teff-R relation finding that it has a strong dependence with the ionizing parameter while it shows a weak direct dependence with the metallicity (variations in Z imply variations in U) of both the stellar atmosphere of the ionizing star and the gas phase of the HII region. Since the R index varies slightly with the Teff for values larger than 40 kK, the R index can be used to derive the Teff in 30-40 kK range. A large fraction of the ionization parameter variation is due to differences in the temperature of the ionizing stars and then the use of the (relatively) low Teff dependent S2=[S II](6717+31)/Ha emission-line ratio to derive the ionization parameter is preferable over others in the literature. We propose linear metallicity dependent relationships between S2 an...

  7. Photoionization models of the CALIFA HII regions. I. Hybrid models

    CERN Document Server

    Morisset, C; Sánchez, S F; Galbany, L; Garcia-Benito, R; Husemann, B; Marino, R A; Mast, D; Roth, M M; Colaboration, CALIFA

    2016-01-01

    Photoionization models of HII regions require as input a description of the ionizing SED and of the gas distribution, in terms of ionization parameter U and chemical abundances (e.g. O/H and N/O). A strong degeneracy exists between the hardness of the SED and U, which in turn leads to high uncertainties in the determination of the other parameters, including abundances. One way to resolve the degeneracy is to fix one of the parameters using additional information. For each of the ~ 20000 sources of the CALIFA HII regions catalog, a grid of photoionization models is computed assuming the ionizing SED being described by the underlying stellar population obtained from spectral synthesis modeling. The ionizing SED is then defined as the sum of various stellar bursts of different ages and metallicities. This solves the degeneracy between the shape of the ionizing SED and U. The nebular metallicity (associated to O/H) is defined using the classical strong line method O3N2 (which gives to our models the status of "h...

  8. Forming a Primordial Star in a Relic HII Region

    CERN Document Server

    O'Shea, B W; Whalen, D; Norman, M L; Shea, Brian W. O'; Abel, Tom; Whalen, Dan; Norman, Michael L.

    2005-01-01

    There has been considerable theoretical debate over whether photoionization and supernova feedback from the first Population III stars facilitate or suppress the formation of the next generation of stars. We present results from an Eulerian adaptive mesh refinement simulation demonstrating the formation of a primordial star within a region ionized by an earlier nearby star. Despite the higher temperatures of the ionized gas and its flow out of the dark matter potential wells, this second star formed within 23 million years of its neighbor's death. The enhanced electron fraction within the HII region catalyzes rapid molecular hydrogen formation that leads to faster cooling in the subsequent star forming halos than in the first halos. This ``second generation'' primordial protostar has a much lower accretion rate because, unlike the first protostar, it forms in a rotationally supported disk of approximately 10-100 solar masses. In contrast to unpreprocessed regions, such configurations may allow binaries or mul...

  9. Line Emission from Radiation-Pressurized HII Region II: Dynamics and Population Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Verdolini, Silvia; Krumholz, Mark R; Matzner, Christopher D; Tielens, Alexander G G M

    2013-01-01

    Optical and infrared emission lines from HII regions are an important diagnostic used to study galaxies, but interpretation of these lines requires significant modeling of both the internal structure and dynamical evolution of the emitting regions. Most of the models in common use today assume that HII region dynamics are dominated by the expansion of stellar wind bubbles, and have neglected the contribution of radiation pressure to the dynamics, and in some cases also to the internal structure. However, recent observations of nearby galaxies suggest that neither assumption is justified, motivating us to revisit the question of how HII region line emission depends on the physics of winds and radiation pressure. In a companion paper we construct models of single HII regions including and excluding radiation pressure and winds, and in this paper we describe a population synthesis code that uses these models to simulate galactic collections of HII regions with varying physical parameters. We show that the choice...

  10. A Large Scale, Low Frequency Murchison Widefield Array Survey of Galactic HII regions between 260< l <\\340

    CERN Document Server

    Hindson, L; Hurley-Walker, N; Callingham, J R; Su, H; Morgan, J; Bell, M; Bernardi, G; Bowman, J D; Briggs, F; Cappallo, R J; Deshpande, A A; Dwarakanath, K S; For, B -Q; Gaensler, B M; Greenhill, L J; Hancock, P; Hazelton, B J; Kapinska, A D; Kaplan, D L; Lenc, E; Lonsdale, C J; Mckinley, B; McWhirter, S R; Mitchell, D A; Morales, M F; Morgan, E; Oberoi, D; Offringa, A; Ord, S M; Procopio, P; Prabu, T; UdayaShankar, N; Srivani, K S; Staveley-Smith, L; Subrahmanyan, R; Tingay, S J; Wayth, R B; Webster, R L; Williams, A; Williams, C L; Wu, C; Zheng, Q

    2016-01-01

    We have compiled a catalogue of HII regions detected with the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) between 72 and 231MHz. The multiple frequency bands provided by the MWA allow us identify the characteristic spectrum generated by the thermal Bremsstrahlung process in HII regions. We detect 306 HII regions between 260 < l < 340 and report on the positions, sizes, peak, integrated flux density, and spectral indices of these HII regions. By identifying the point at which HII regions transition from the optically thin to thick regime we derive the physical properties including the electron density, ionised gas mass and ionising photon flux, towards 61 HII regions. This catalogue of HII regions represents the most extensive and uniform low frequency survey of HII regions in the Galaxy to date.

  11. Spectral line survey of the ultracompact HII region Monoceros R2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginard, D.; Gonzalez-Garcia, M.; Fuente, A.; Cernicharo, J.; Alonso-Albi, T.; Pilleri, P.; Gerin, M.; Garcia-Burillo, S.; Ossenkopf, V.; Rizzo, J. R.; Kramer, C.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Pety, J.; Berne, O.; Joblin, C.

    2012-01-01

    Context. Ultracompact (UC) HII regions constitute one of the earliest phases in the formation of a massive star and are characterized by extreme physical conditions (G(0) > 10(5) Habing field and n > 10(6) cm(-3)). The UC HII Mon R2 is the closest example and an excellent target to study the chemist

  12. Properties of compact HII regions and their host clumps in the inner vs outer Galaxy - early results from SASSy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Julie; Thompson, Mark; Urquhart, James S.

    2017-01-01

    We present a catalog of compact and ultracompact HII regions for all Galactocentric radii. Previous catalogs focus on the inner Galaxy (Rgal ≤ 8 kpc) but the recent SASSy 870 µm survey allows us to identify regions out to ~20 kpc. Early samples are also filled with false classifications leading to uncertainty when deriving star formation efficiencies in Galactic models. These objects have similar mid-IR colours to HII regions. Urquhart et al. (2013) found that they could use mid-IR, submm, and radio data to identify the genuine compact HII regions, avoiding confusion. They used this method on a small portion of the Galaxy (10 < l < 60), identifying 213 HII regions embedded in 170 clumps. We use ATLASGAL and SASSy, crossmatched with RMS, to sample the remaining galactic longitudes out to Rgal = 20 kpc. We derive the properties of the identified compact HII regions and their host clumps while addressing the implications for recent massive star formation in the outer Galaxy. Observations towards nearby galaxies are biased towards massive stars, affecting simulations and overestimating models for galactic evolution and star formation rates. The Milky Way provides the ideal template for studying factors affecting massive star formation rates and efficiencies at high resolution, thus fine-tuning those models. We find that there is no significant change in the rate of massive star formation in the outer vs inner Galaxy. Despite some peaks in known complexes and possible correlation with spiral arms, the outer Galaxy appears to produce massive stars as efficiently as the inner regions. However, many of the potential star forming SASSy clumps have no available radio counterpart to confirm the presence of an HII region or other star formation tracer. Follow-up observations will be required to verify this conclusion and are currently in progress.

  13. Distinguishing between HII regions and planetary nebulae with Hi-GAL, WISE, MIPSGAL, and GLIMPSE

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Loren D; Barlow, M J; Garcia-Lario, P; Noriega-Crespo, A

    2011-01-01

    HII regions and planetary nebulae (PNe) both emit at radio and infrared (IR) wavelengths, and angularly small HII regions can be mistaken for PNe. This problem of classification is most severe for HII regions in an early evolutionary stage, those that are extremely distant, or those that are both young and distant. Using data from the Herschel Hi-GAL survey, as well as WISE and the Spitzer MIPSGAL and GLIMPSE surveys, we wish to establish characteristic IR colors that can be used to distinguish between HII regions and PNe. We perform aperture photometry measurements for a sample of 126 HII regions and 43 PNe at wavelengths from 8.0 micron to 500 micron. We find that HII regions and PNe have distinct IR colors. The most robust discriminating color criteria are [F12/F8] 1.3, and [F160/F24] > 0.8 (or alternately [F160/F22] > 0.8), where the brackets indicate the log of the flux ratio. All three of these criteria are individually satisfied by over 98% of our sample of HII regions and by about 10% of our sample o...

  14. Evolution of Blister-Type HII Regions in a Magnetized Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Gendelev, Leo

    2011-01-01

    We use the three-dimensional Athena ionizing radiation-magnetohydrodynamics (IRMHD) code to simulate blister-type HII regions driven by stars on the edge of magnetized gas clouds. We compare these to simulations of spherical HII regions where the star is embedded deep within a cloud, and to non-magnetized simulations of both types, in order to compare their ability to drive turbulence and influence star formation. We find that magnetized blister HII regions can be very efficient at injecting energy into clouds. This is partly a magnetic effect: the magnetic energy added to a cloud by an HII region is comparable to or larger than the kinetic energy, and magnetic fields can also help collimate the ejected gas, increasing its energy yield. As a result of these effects, a blister HII region expanding into a cloud with a magnetic field perpendicular to its edge injects twice as much energy by 5 Myr as a non-magnetized blister HII region driven by a star of the same luminosity. Blister HII regions are also more eff...

  15. Deuteration around the ultracompact HII region Mon R2

    CERN Document Server

    Treviño-Morales, S P; Fuente, A; Kramer, C; Roueff, E; González-García, M; Cernicharo, J; Gerin, M; Goicoechea, J R; Pety, J; Berné, O; Ossenkopf, V; Ginard, D; García-Burillo, S; Rizzo, J R; Viti, S

    2014-01-01

    The massive star-forming region Mon R2 hosts the closest ultra-compact HII region that can be spatially resolved with current single-dish telescopes. We used the IRAM-30m telescope to carry out an unbiased spectral survey toward two important positions (namely IF and MP2), in order to studying the chemistry of deuterated molecules toward Mon R2. We found a rich chemistry of deuterated species at both positions, with detections of C2D, DCN, DNC, DCO+, D2CO, HDCO, NH2D, and N2D+ and their corresponding hydrogenated species and isotopologs. Our high spectral resolution observations allowed us to resolve three velocity components: the component at 10 km/s is detected at both positions and seems associated with the layer most exposed to the UV radiation from IRS 1; the component at 12 km/s is found toward the IF position and seems related to the molecular gas; finally, a component at 8.5 km/s is only detected toward the MP2 position, most likely related to a low-UV irradiated PDR. We derived the column density of ...

  16. Untangling the Recombination Line Emission from HII Regions with Multiple Velocity Components

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, L D; Wenger, T V; Bania, T M; Balser, Dana S

    2015-01-01

    HII regions are the ionized spheres surrounding high-mass stars. They are ideal targets for tracing Galactic structure because they are predominantly found in spiral arms and have high luminosities at infrared and radio wavelengths. In the Green Bank Telescope HII Region Discovery Survey (GBT HRDS) we found that >30% of first Galactic quadrant HII regions have multiple hydrogen radio recombination line (RRL) velocities, which makes determining their Galactic locations and physical properties impossible. Here we make additional GBT RRL observations to determine the discrete HII region velocity for all 117 multiple-velocity sources within 18deg. < l < 65deg. The multiple-velocity sources are concentrated in the zone 22deg. < l < 32deg., coinciding with the largest regions of massive star formation, which implies that the diffuse emission is caused by leaked ionizing photons. We combine our observations with analyses of the electron temperature, molecular gas, and carbon recombination lines to determ...

  17. Imaging HII Regions from Galaxies and Quasars During Reionisation with SKA

    CERN Document Server

    Wyithe, Stuart; Kim, Hansik

    2015-01-01

    The ionisation structure of the Intergalactic Medium (IGM) during reionisation is sensitive to the unknown galaxy formation physics that prevailed at that time. This structure introduces non-Gaussian statistics into the redshifted 21 cm fluctuation amplitudes that can only be studied through tomographic imaging, which will clearly discriminate between different galaxy formation scenarios. Imaging the ionisation structure and cosmological HII regions during reionisation is therefore a key goal for the SKA. For example, the SKA1-LOW baseline design with a 1 km diameter core will resolve HII regions expected from galaxy formation models which include strong feedback on low-mass galaxy formation. Imaging the smaller HII regions that result from galaxy formation in the absence of SNe feedback will also be possible for SKA1-LOW in the later stages of reionisation, but may require the greater sensitivity of SKA early in the reionisation era. In addition to having baselines long enough to resolve the HII regions, the...

  18. The Discovery of Raman Scattering in HII Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Dopita, Michael A; Sutherland, Ralph S; Kewley, Lisa J; Groves, Brent A

    2016-01-01

    We report here on the discovery of faint extended wings of H\\alpha\\ observed out to an apparent velocity of ~ 7600 km/s in the Orion Nebula (M42) and in five HII regions in the Large and the Small Magellanic Clouds. We show that, these wings are caused by Raman scattering of both the O I and Si II resonance lines and stellar continuum UV photons with H I followed by radiative decay to the H I n=2 level. The broad wings also seen in H\\beta\\ and in H\\gamma\\ result from Raman scattering of the UV continuum in the H I n=4 and n=5 levels respectively.The Raman scattering fluorescence is correlated with the intensity of the narrow permitted lines of O I and Si II. In the case of Si II, this is explained by radiative pumping of the same 1023.7\\AA\\ resonance line involved in the Raman scattering by the Ly\\beta\\ radiation field. The subsequent radiative cascade produces enhanced Si II 5978.9, 6347.1$ and 6371.4\\AA\\ permitted transitions. Finally we show that in O I, radiative pumping of the 1025.76\\AA\\ resonance line ...

  19. High-velocity gas associated ultracompact HII regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Ye(徐烨); JIANG; Dongrong(蒋栋荣); YANG; Chuanyi(杨传义); ZHENG; Xingwu(郑兴武); GU; Minfeng(顾敏峰); PEI; Chunchuan(裴春传)

    2002-01-01

    We present the results of a survey for high-velocity 12CO (1-0) emission associated H2O masers and ultracompact (UC) HII regions. The aim is to investigate the relationship between H2O masers, CO high-velocity gas (HVG) and their associated infrared sources. Our sample satisfies Wood & Churchwell criterion. Almost 70 % of the sources have full widths (FWs) greater than 15 km@ s?1 at T*a = 100 mK and 15 % have FWs greater than 30 km@ s?1. In most of our objects there is excess high velocity emission in the beam. There is a clear correlation between CO line FWs and far-infrared luminosities: the FW increases with the FIR luminosity. The relation suggests that more luminous sources are likely to be more energetic and able to inject more energy into their surroundings. As a result, larger FW of the CO line could be produced. In most of our sources, the velocities of peak of the H2O emission are in agreement with those of the CO cloud, but a number of them have a large blueshift with respect to the CO peak. These masers might stem from the amplifications of a background source, which may amplify some unobservable weak masers to an observable level.

  20. A Protostellar Jet Emanating from a Hypercompact HII Region

    CERN Document Server

    Guzmán, Andrés E; Rodríguez, Luis F; Contreras, Yanett; Dougados, Catherine; Cabrit, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    We present radio continuum observations of the high-mass young stellar object (HMYSO) G345.4938+01.4677 made using the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) at 5, 9, 17, and 19 GHz. These observations provide definite evidence that the outer and inner pairs of radio lobes consist of shock ionized material being excited by an underlying collimated and fast protostellar jet emanating from a hypercompact HII region. By comparing with images taken 6 yr earlier at 5 and 9 GHz using the same telescope, we assess the proper motions of the radio sources. The outer West and East lobes exhibit proper motions of $64\\pm12$ and $48\\pm13$ milliarcsec yr$^{-1}$, indicating velocities projected in the plane of the sky and receding from G345.4938+01.4677 of $520$ and $390$ km s$^{-1}$, respectively. The internal radio lobes also display proper motion signals consistently receding from the HMYSO, with magnitudes of $17\\pm11$ and $35\\pm10$ milliarcsec yr$^{-1}$ for the inner West and East lobes, respectively. The morphology ...

  1. 7 mm continuum observations of ultra compact HII regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leto, P.; Umana, G.; Trigilio, C.; Buemi, C. S.; Dolei, S.; Manzitto, P.; Cerrigone, L.; Siringo, C.

    2009-12-01

    Aims: Ultra compact HII (UCHII) regions are indicators of high-mass star formation sites and are distributed mainly in the Galactic plane. They exhibit a broad band spectrum with significant emission between near-IR and radio wavelengths. We intend to investigate the possible contribution of the forthcoming ESA Planck mission to the science of UCHII regions by evaluating the possibility of detecting UCHIIs that are bright in the radio regime. Methods: We performed new 7 mm observations of a sample of UCHII regions. The observations were designed to acquire high-frequency radio spectra. For each source in our sample, the free-free radio spectrum has been modeled. Along with far-IR measurements, our spectra allow us to estimate the flux densities of the sources in the millimeter and sub-millimeter bands. We extrapolated and summed the ionized-gas (free-free radio emission) and dust (thermal emission) contributions in the afore mentioned wavelength ranges. The possibility of Planck detecting the selected sources can be assessed by comparing the estimated flux densities to the expected sensitivity in each Planck channel. To obtain a realistic estimation of the noise produced by the Galactic emission, the Planck sky model software package was used. Results: For each target source, from our new 7 mm data and other radio measurements from the literature, important physical parameters such as electron density and their spatial distribution, source geometry and emission measure were derived. We conclude that, in the case of the present sample, located close to the Galactic center, Planck will have a very low detection rate. In contrast, assuming that our sample is representative of the whole UCHII-region population, we derive a very high probability of detecting this kind of source with Planck if located instead close to the anticenter. From the analysis of the ionized-gas properties, we suggest that the selected sample could also be contaminated by other kinds of Galactic

  2. The Green Bank Telescope HII Region Discovery Survey: III. Kinematic Distances

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, L D; Balser, Dana S; Rood, Robert T

    2012-01-01

    Using the HI Emission/Absorption method, we resolve the kinematic distance ambiguity and derive distances for 149 of 182 (82%) HII regions discovered by the Green Bank Telescope HII Region Discovery Survey (GBT HRDS). The HRDS is an X-band (9GHz, 3cm) GBT survey of 448 previously unknown HII regions in radio recombination line and radio continuum emission. Here we focus on HRDS sources from 67deg. > l > 18deg., where kinematic distances are more reliable. The 25 HRDS sources in this zone that have negative recombination line velocities are unambiguously beyond the orbit of the Sun, up to 20kpc distant. They are the most distant HII regions yet discovered. We find that 61% of HRDS sources are located at the far distance, 31% at the tangent point distance, and only 7% at the near distance. "Bubble" HII regions are not preferentially at the near distance (as was assumed previously) but average 10kpc from the Sun. The HRDS nebulae, when combined with a large sample of HII regions with previously known distances, ...

  3. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES AND PHYSICAL PARAMETERS OF HII REGIONS IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Carlos Reyes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Usamos datos en la región ultravioleta, visible e infrarroja de 11 regiones HII en las Nubes de Magallanes, a fin de determinar sus parámetros físicos y abundancias químicas. Así, hacemos un modelo de fotoionización de seis regiones HII en la Gran Nube de Magallanes (GNM y cinco regiones HII en la Pequeña Nube de Magallanes (PNM, lo cual nos permite calcular las abundancias de He, G, N, O, Ne, S y Ar. Los valores calculados se comparan con los encontrados en la literatura para regiones HII, nebulosas planetarias y estrellas. Obtuvimos los valores de las abundancias ajustando modelos del código CLOUDY para las intensidades de línea observadas. Además, las observaciones en el Observatorio Pico dos Dias de [S II] λ6717/λ6731 para regiones HII en la PNM nos permiten determinar la densidad electrónica. Los datos IUE de las líneas [C III] λ1909 se usan para determinar la abundancia de C de seis y cinco regiones HII en la GNM y en la PNM, respectivamente.

  4. Spectral line survey of the ultracompact HII region Mon R2

    CERN Document Server

    Ginard, D; Fuente, A; Cernicharo, J; Alonso-Albi, T; Pilleri, P; Gerin, M; García-Burillo, S; Ossenkopf, V; Rizzo, J R; Kramer, C; Goicoechea, J R; Pety, J; Berné, O; Joblin, C

    2012-01-01

    Ultracompact (UC) HII regions constitute one of the earliest phases in the formation of a massive star and are characterized by extreme physical conditions (Go>10^5 Habing field and n>10^6 cm^-3). The UC HII Mon R2 is the closest one and therefore an excellent target to study the chemistry in these complex regions. We carried out a 3mm and 1mm spectral survey using the IRAM 30-m telescope towards three positions that represent different physical environments in Mon R2: (i) the ionization front (IF) at (0",0"); two peaks in the molecular cloud (ii) MP1 at the offset (+15",-15") and (iii) MP2 at the farther offset (0",40"). In addition, we carried out extensive modeling to explain the chemical differences between the three observed regions. We detected more than thirty different species. We detected SO+ and C4H suggesting that UV radiation plays an important role in the molecular chemistry of this region. We detected the typical PDR molecules CN, HCN, HCO, C2H, and c-C3H2. While the IF and the MP1 have a chemis...

  5. The interstellar medium and the massive stellar content toward the SNR G18.1-0.1 and neighboring HII regions

    CERN Document Server

    Paron, S; Ortega, M E; Colombo, J F Albacete; Pichel, A

    2013-01-01

    We perform a multiwavelength study toward the SNR G18.1-0.1 and nearby several HII regions (infrared dust bubbles N21 and N22, and the HII regions G018.149-00.283 and G18.197-00.181). Our goal is to provide observational evidence supporting that massive stars usually born in clusters from the same molecular cloud, which then produce, along their evolution, different neighboring objects such as HII regions, interstellar bubbles and supernova remnants. We suggest that the objects analysed in this work belong to a same complex located at the distance of about 4 kpc. Using molecular data we inspected the interstellar medium toward this complex and from optical and X-ray observations we looked for OB-type stars in the region. Analysing public 13CO J=1--0 data we found several molecular structures very likely related to the HII region/SNR complex. We suggest that the molecular gas is very likely being swept and shaped by the expansion of the HII regions. From spectroscopic optical observations obtained with the 2.1...

  6. A New Interpretation of the Bipolar HII Region S106 from HCN J = 3 - 2 Mapping Observations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-Li Qin; Jun-Jie Wang; Gang Zhao; Martin Miller

    2005-01-01

    The first mapping observations of the bipolar HII region S106 in HCN J = 3-2 line were made by KOSMA submillimeter telescope in April, 2004. The results show that there is a bipolar cloud core is perpendicular to the IRS4 and that the flat structure of molecular cloud core is perpendicular to the axis of the outflow. This image roughly corresponds to the optical image where a dark lane bisects the bipolar HII region. Together with the optical, infrared and radio data, we conclude that the central UC HII region, and that a neutral disk is responsible for the bipolar HII region and the outflow.

  7. The Green Bank Telescope HII Region Discovery Survey II. The Source Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, L D; Balser, Dana S; Rood, Robert T

    2011-01-01

    The Green Bank Telescope HII Region Discovery Survey has doubled the number of known HII regions in the Galactic zone 343deg.\\leql\\leq67deg. with |b|\\leq1deg. We detected 603 discrete hydrogen radio recombination line (RRL) components at 9GHz (3cm) from 448 targets. Our targets were selected based on spatially coincident mid-infrared and 20cm radio continuum emission. Such sources are almost invariably HII regions; we detected hydrogen RRL emission from 95% of our target sample. The sensitivity of the Green Bank Telescope and the power of its spectrometer together made this survey possible. Here we provide a catalog of the measured properties of the RRL and continuum emission from the survey nebulae. The derived survey completeness limit, 180mJy at 9GHz, is sufficient to detect all HII regions ionized by single O-stars to a distance of 12kpc. These recently discovered nebulae share the same distribution on the sky as does the previously known census of Galactic HII regions. On average, however, the new nebula...

  8. Line Emission from Radiation-Pressurized HII Regions I: Internal Structure and Line Ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Yeh, Sherry C C; Krumholz, Mark R; Matzner, Christopher D; Tielens, Alexander G G M

    2013-01-01

    The emission line ratios [OIII]5007/H-beta and [NII]6584/H-alpha have been adopted as an empirical way to distinguish between the fundamentally different mechanisms of ionization in emission-line galaxies. However, detailed interpretation of these diagnostics requires calculations of the internal structure of the emitting HII regions, and these calculations depend on the assumptions one makes about the relative importance of radiation pressure and stellar winds. In this paper we construct a grid of quasi-static HII region models to explore how choices about these parameters alter HII regions' emission line ratios. We find that, when radiation pressure is included in our models, HII regions reach a saturation point beyond which further increases in the luminosity of the driving stars does not produce any further increase in effective ionization parameter, and thus does not yield any further alteration in an HII region's line ratio. We also show that, if stellar winds are assumed to be strong, the maximum possi...

  9. 20-CM radio-continuum study of the SMC: Part III - Compact HII Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, G F; Crawford, E J; Tothill, N F H; De Horta, A Y; Galvin, T J

    2012-01-01

    We present and discuss a new catalogue of 52 compact HII regions in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) and a newly created deep 1420 MHz (\\lambda=20 cm) radio-continuum image of the N19 region located in the southwestern part of the SMC. The new images were created by merging 1420 MHz radio-continuum archival data from the Australian Telescope Compact Array. The majority of these detected radio compact HII regions have rather flat spectral indices which indicates, as expected, that the dominant emission mechanism is of thermal nature.

  10. CHAOS I: Direct Chemical Abundances for HII Regions in NGC 628

    CERN Document Server

    Berg, Danielle A; Skillman, Evan D; Pogge, Richard W; Moustakas, John; Groh-Johnson, Mara

    2015-01-01

    The CHemical Abundances of Spirals (CHAOS) project leverages the combined power of the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) with the broad spectral range and sensitivity of the Multi Object Double Spectrograph (MODS) to measure "direct" abundances in large samples of HII regions in spiral galaxies. We present LBT MODS observations of 62 HII regions in the nearby NGC628. We measure one or more auroral lines ([OIII] 4363, [NII] 5755, [SIII] 6312, or [OII] 7320,7330) in a large number of HII regions (40). Comparing derived temperatures from multiple auroral line measurements, we find: a strong correlation between temperatures based on [SIII] and [NII]; and large discrepancies for some temperatures based on [OII] and [OIII]. These trends are consistent with other observations in the literature, yet, given the widespread use and acceptance of [OIII] as a temperature determinant, the magnitude of the T[OIII] discrepancies still came as a surprise. Based on these results, we conduct a uniform abundance analysis using the...

  11. Extraplanar HII regions in the edge-on spiral galaxies NGC 3628 and NGC 4522

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Y.; Bomans, D. J.; Ferguson, A. M. N.; Dettmar, R.-J.

    2017-08-01

    Context. Gas infall and outflow are critical for determining the star formation rate and chemical evolution of galaxies but direct measurements of gas flows are difficult to make. Young massive stars and Hii regions in the halos of galaxies are potential tracers for accretion and/or outflows of gas. Aims: Gas phase abundances of three Hii regions in the lower halos of the edge-on galaxies NGC 3628 and NGC 4522 are determined by analyzing optical long-slit spectra. The observed regions have projected distances to the midplane of their host from 1.4 to 3 kpc. Methods: With the measured flux densities of the optical nebular emission lines, we derived the oxygen abundance 12 + log(O/H) for the three extraplanar Hii regions. The analysis was based on one theoretical and two empirical strong-line calibration methods. Results: The resulting oxygen abundances of the extraplanar Hii regions are comparable to the disk Hii regions in one case and are a little lower in the other case. Since our results depend on the accuracy of the metallicity determinations, we critically discuss the difference of the calibration methods we applied and confirm previously noted offsets. From our measurements, we argue that these three extraplanar Hii regions were formed in the disk or at least from disk material. We discuss the processes that could transport disk material into the lower halo of these systems and conclude that gravitational interaction with a companion galaxy is most likely for NGC 3628 while ram pressure is favored in the case of NGC 4522. Based on observations gathered as part of observing program 64.N-0208(A), 3.6 m telescope with European Southern Observatory (ESO) Faint Object Spectrograph and Camera (EFOSC2) at ESO, La Silla observatory.

  12. A Study of Molecular Cloud Associated with the HII Region Sh156

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Meejoo; Lee, Youngung

    2005-06-01

    We have conducted observations toward the molecular cloud associated with the HII region Sh 156 in tcocom (J=1-0), ȩocom(J=1-0), and CS(J=2-1) using the TRAO 14 m telescope. Combining with existing \\cocom(J=1-0) data of the Outer Galaxy Survey, we delineated the physical properties of the cloud. We found that there is a significant sign of interaction between the HII region and the molecular gas. We estimated the masses of the molecular cloud, using three different techniques; the most plausible mass is estimated to be 1.37 × 105 M⊙, using a conversion factor of X=1.9 × 1020 \\conf, and this is similar to virial mass estimate. This implies that the cloud is gravitationally bound and in virial equilibrium even though it is closely associated with the HII region. In addition to existing outflow, we found several MSX and IRAS point sources associated with dense core regions. Thus, more star forming activities other than the existing HII region are also going on in this region.

  13. Scaling Relations of Star-Forming Regions: from kpc-size clumps to HII regions

    CERN Document Server

    Wisnioski, Emily; Blake, Chris; Poole, Gregory B; Green, Andrew W; Wyder, Ted; Martin, Chris

    2012-01-01

    We present the properties of 8 star-forming regions, or 'clumps,' in 3 galaxies at z~1.3 from the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey, which are resolved with the OSIRIS integral field spectrograph. Within turbulent discs, \\sigma~90 km/s, clumps are measured with average sizes of 1.5 kpc and average Jeans masses of 4.2 x 10^9 \\Msolar, in total accounting for 20-30 per cent of the stellar mass of the discs. These findings lend observational support to models that predict larger clumps will form as a result of higher disc velocity dispersions driven-up by cosmological gas accretion. As a consequence of the changes in global environment, it may be predicted that star-forming regions at high redshift should not resemble star-forming regions locally. Yet despite the increased sizes and dispersions, clumps and HII regions are found to follow tight scaling relations over the range z=0-2 for size, velocity dispersion, luminosity, and mass when comparing >2000 HII regions locally and 30 clumps at z>1 (\\sigma \\propto r^{0.42+/-...

  14. Properties of the giant HII regions and bar in the nearby spiral galaxy NGC5430

    CERN Document Server

    Brière, É; Spekkens, K

    2012-01-01

    In order to better understand the impact of the bar on the evolution of spiral galaxies, we measure the properties of giant HII regions and the bar in the SB(s)b galaxy NGC5430. We use two complementary data sets, both obtained at the Observatoire du Mont-M\\'egantic: a hyperspectral data cube from the imaging Fourier transform spectrograph SpIOMM, and high-resolution spectra across the bar from a long-slit spectrograph. We flux-calibrate SpIOMM spectra for the first time, and produce H{\\alpha} and [NII]{\\lambda}6584\\r{A} intensity maps from which we identify 51 giant HII regions in the spiral arms and bar. We evaluate the type of activity, the oxygen abundance and the age of the young populations contained in these giant HII regions and in the bar. Thus, we confirm that NGC5430 does not harbour a strong AGN, and that its Wolf-Rayet knot shows a pure HII region nature. We find no variation in abundance or age between the bar and spiral arms, nor as a function of galactocentric radius. These results are consist...

  15. The chemical composition of planetary nebulae and HII regions in NGC 3109

    CERN Document Server

    Pena, Miriam; Richer, Michael

    2007-01-01

    We present deep spectrophotometry for a sample of 8 PNe and 12 HII regions in the irregular galaxy NGC 3109, to analyze the chemical composition of both types of nebulae. We present line intensities and the physical conditions and the abundances of He, O, Ne, N, S and Ar are derived, using the classical T_e-based method. We confirm our previous identification of PNe and HII regions based on photometry, except for one object that we argue is a compact HII region rather than a PN. We find that the chemical composition of the ISM in NGC 3109, as sampled by its HII regions, is remarkably uniform. The oxygen abundance is log O/H + 12 = 7.77 \\pm 0.07 in this galaxy, as compared to 8.05 \\pm 0.09 for the SMC. PNe show significantly higher oxygen abundances in NGC 3109: log O/H + 12 = 8.16 \\pm 0.19. We argue that, similarly to what has been suggested for some of the PNe in the Magellanic Clouds and other metal-poor galaxies, oxygen in the PNe in NGC 3109 is affected by dredge up in their progenitors. This could be als...

  16. ON THE 21-MU-M FEATURE IN HII-REGIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OUDMAIJER, RD; DEWINTER, D

    1995-01-01

    It has recently become possible to reduce the raw IRAS Low Resolution Spectrograph (LRS) data in an interactive way. In this paper several problems concerning the LRS data of extended objects are addressed. We investigate the presence of the 21 mum emission feature in HII regions as reported by Cox

  17. The Pa{\\alpha} Luminosity Function of HII Regions in Nearby Galaxies from HST/NICMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Guilin; Kennicutt, Robert C; Schinnerer, Eva; Sofue, Yoshiaki; Komugi, Shinya; Egusa, Fumi; Scoville, Nicholas Z

    2013-01-01

    The HII region luminosity function (LF) is an important tool for deriving the birthrates and mass distribution of OB associations, and is an excellent tracer of the newly formed massive stars and associations. To date, extensive work (predominantly in H{\\alpha}) has been done from the ground, which is hindered by dust extinction and the severe blending of adjacent (spatially or in projection) HII regions. Reliably measuring the properties of HII regions requires a linear resolution <40 pc, but analyses satisfying this requirement have been done only in a handful of galaxies, so far. As the first space-based work using a galaxy sample, we have selected 12 galaxies from our HST NICMOS Pa{\\alpha} survey and studied the luminosity function and size distribution of HII regions both in individual galaxies and cumulatively, using a virtually extinction-free tracer of the ionizing photon rate. The high angular resolution and low sensitivity to diffuse emission of NICMOS also offer an advantage over ground-based im...

  18. Dust dynamics and evolution in expanding HII regions. I. Radiative drift of neutral and charged grains

    CERN Document Server

    Akimkin, V V; Pavlyuchenkov, Ya N; Wiebe, D S

    2015-01-01

    We consider dust drift under the influence of stellar radiation pressure during the pressure-driven expansion of an HII region using the chemo-dynamical model MARION. Dust size distribution is represented by four dust types: conventional polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), very small grains (VSGs), big grains (BGs) and also intermediate-sized grains (ISGs), which are larger than VSGs and smaller than BGs. The dust is assumed to move at terminal velocity determined locally from the balance between the radiation pressure and gas drag. As Coulomb drag is an important contribution to the overall gas drag, we evaluate a grain charge evolution within the HII region for each dust type. BGs are effectively swept out of the HII region. The spatial distribution of ISGs within the HII region has a double peak structure, with a smaller inner peak and a higher outer peak. PAHs and VSGs are mostly coupled to the gas. The mean charge of PAHs is close to zero, so they can become neutral from time to time because of char...

  19. Hard X-rays from Ultra-Compact HII Regions in W49A

    CERN Document Server

    Tsujimoto, M; Feigelson, E D; Getman, K V; Broos, P S

    2006-01-01

    We report the Chandra detection of hard X-ray emission from the Welch ring in W49A, an organized structure of ultra-compact (UC) HII regions containing a dozen nascent early-type stars. Two UC HII regions are associated with hard X-ray emission in a deep Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer image exposed for 96.7 ks. One of the two X-ray sources has no near-infrared counterpart and is extended by ~5 arcsec, or ~0.3 pc, at a distance of ~11.4 kpc, which is spatially aligned with the cometary radio continuum emission associated with the UC HII region. The X-ray spectrum of the emission, when fit with a thermal model, indicates a heavily absorbed plasma with extinction of \\~5x10^{23}/cm^{2}, temperature of ~7 keV, and X-ray luminosity in the 3.0-8.0 keV band of ~3x10^{33} ergs/s. Both the luminosity and the size of the emission resemble the extended hard emission found in UC HII regions in Sagittarius B2, yet they are smaller by an order of magnitude than the emission found in massive star clusters such as NGC 3603...

  20. Detecting stellar-wind bubbles through infrared arcs in HII regions

    CERN Document Server

    Mackey, Jonathan; Gvaramadze, Vasilii V; Mohamed, Shazrene; Langer, Norbert; Harries, Tim J

    2015-01-01

    Mid-infrared arcs of dust emission are often seen near ionizing stars within HII regions. A possible explanations for these arcs is that they could show the outer edges of asymmetric stellar wind bubbles. We use two-dimensional, radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of wind bubbles within HII regions around individual stars to predict the infrared emission properties of the dust within the HII region. We assume that dust and gas are dynamically well-coupled and that dust properties (composition, size distribution) are the same in the HII region as outside it, and that the wind bubble contains no dust. We post-process the simulations to make synthetic intensity maps at infrared wavebands using the TORUS code. We find that the outer edge of a wind bubble emits brightly at 24um through starlight absorbed by dust grains and re-radiated thermally in the infrared. This produces a bright arc of emission for slowly moving stars that have asymmetric wind bubbles, even for cases where there is no bow shock or any corresp...

  1. The effect of Galactic foreground subtraction on redshifted 21-cm observations of quasar HII regions

    CERN Document Server

    Geil, Paul M; Petrovic, Nada; Oh, Peng

    2008-01-01

    We assess the impact of Galactic synchrotron foreground removal on the observation of high-redshift quasar HII regions in redshifted 21-cm emission. We consider the case where a quasar is observed in an intergalactic medium (IGM) whose ionisation structure evolves slowly relative to the light crossing time of the HII region, as well as the case where the evolution is rapid. The latter case is expected towards the end of the reionisation era where the highest redshift luminous quasars will be observed. In the absence of foregrounds the fraction of neutral hydrogen in the IGM could be measured directly from the contrast between the HII region and surrounding IGM. However, we find that foreground removal lowers the observed contrast between the HII region and the IGM. This indicates that measurement of the neutral fraction would require modelling to correct for this systematic effect. On the other hand, foreground removal does not modify the most prominent features of the 21-cm maps. Using a simple algorithm we ...

  2. The metallicity gradient of M 33: chemical abundances of HII regions

    CERN Document Server

    Magrini, L; Mampaso, A; Corradi, R L M; Leisy, P

    2007-01-01

    We present spectroscopic observations of a sample of 72 emission-line objects, including mainly HII regions, in the spiral galaxy M 33. Spectra were obtained with the multi-object, wide field spectrograph AF2/WYFFOS at the 4.2m WHT telescope. Line intensities, extinction, and electron density were determined for the whole sample of objects. The aim of the present work was to derive chemical and physical parameters of a set of HII regions, and from them the metallicity gradient. Electron temperatures and chemical abundances were derived for the 14 HII regions where both [OII] and [OIII] emission line fluxes were measured, including the electron temperature sensitive emission line [OIII] 436.3 nm and in a few cases [NII] 575.5 nm. The ionization correction factor (ICF) method was used to derive the total chemical abundances. The presence of abundance gradients was inferred from the radial behaviour of several emission-line ratios, and accurately measured from chemical abundances directly derived in 14 HII regio...

  3. Spectral line survey of the ultracompact HII region Monoceros R2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginard, D.; González-García, M.; Fuente, A.; Cernicharo, J.; Alonso-Albi, T.; Pilleri, P.; Gerin, M.; García-Burillo, S.; Ossenkopf, V.; Rizzo, J. R.; Kramer, C.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Pety, J.; Berné, O.; Joblin, C.

    2012-07-01

    Context. Ultracompact (UC) Hii regions constitute one of the earliest phases in the formation of a massive star and are characterized by extreme physical conditions (G0 > 105 Habing field and n > 106 cm-3). The UC Hii Mon R2 is the closest example and an excellent target to study the chemistry in these complex regions. Aims: Our goal is to investigate the chemistry of the molecular gas around UC Hii Mon R2 and the variations caused by the different local physical conditions. Methods: We carried out 3 mm and 1 mm spectral surveys using the IRAM 30-m telescope towards three positions that represent different physical environments in Mon R2: (i) the ionization front (IF) at (0″, 0″), and two peaks in the molecular cloud; (ii) molecular Peak 1 (hereafter MP1) at the offset (+15″, -15″); and (iii) molecular Peak 2 (hereafter MP2) at the farther offset (0″, 40″). In addition, we carried out extensive modeling to explain the chemical differences between the three observed regions. Results: We detected more than 30 different species (including isotopologues and deuterated compounds). In particular, we detected SO+ and C4H confirming that ultraviolet (UV) radiation plays an important role in the molecular chemistry of this region. In agreement with this interpretation, we detected the typical photo-dissociation region (PDR) molecules CN, HCN, HCO, C2H, and c-C3H2. There are chemical differences between the observed positions. While the IF and the MP1 have a chemistry similar to that found in high UV field and dense PDRs such as the Orion Bar, the MP2 is similar to lower UV/density PDRs such as the Horsehead nebula. Our chemical modeling supports this interpretation. In addition to the PDR-like species, we detected complex molecules such as CH3CN, H2CO, HC3N, CH3OH, and CH3C2H that are not usually found in PDRs. The sulfur compounds CS, HCS+, C2S, H2CS, SO, and SO2 and the deuterated species DCN and C2D were also identified. The origin of these complex species

  4. Unveiling the birth and evolution of the HII region Sh2-173

    CERN Document Server

    Cichowolski, S; Ortega, M E; Cappa, C E; Vasquez, J

    2008-01-01

    Based on a multiwavelength study, the ISM around the HII region Sh2-173 has been analyzed. The ionized region is clearly detected in the optical and in the radio continuum images. The analysis of the HI data shows a region of low emissivity that has an excellent morphological correlation with the radio continuum emission. The HII region is partially bordered by a photodissociation region, which, in turn, is encircled by a molecular structure. Taking into account the presence of noncircular motions in the Perseus spiral arm, together with previous distance estimates for the region, we adopt a distance of 2.5 +- 0.5 kpc for Sh2-173. Seven hot stars were identified in the field of Sh2-173, being only one an O-type star. The amount of energetic photons emitted by this star is enough to keep the region ionized and heat the dust. Given that an expanding HII region may trigger star formation, a search for YSO candidates was made using different infrared point source catalogues. A population of 46 YSO candidates was ...

  5. A nebula in your computer: simulating the physics and chemistry of an HII region

    CERN Document Server

    Bisbas, Thomas G

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution we discuss about numerical modeling of nebulae. In particular we emphasize on the dynamical evolution of an HII region and the chemical structure of a Photodissociation region. We do this using the Smoothed Particles Hydrodynamics code SEREN and the recently developed astrochemistry code 3D-PDR, respectively. We show an example application by simulating a cometary globule using these two codes.

  6. The Orion HII Region and the Orion Bar in the Mid-Infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Salgado, F; Adams, J D; Herter, T L; Tielens, A G G M

    2016-01-01

    We present mid-infrared photometry of the Orion Bar obtained with FORCAST aboard SOFIA at 6.4, 6.6, 7.7, 19.7, 31.5 and 37.1 \\um. By complementing this observations with archival FORCAST and \\emph{Herschel}/PACS images we are able to construct a complete infrared spectral energy distribution of the Huygens region in the Orion nebula By comparing the infrared images with gas tracers, we find that PACS maps trace the molecular cloud, while the FORCAST data trace the photodissociation region (PDR) and HII region. Analysis of the energetics of the region reveal that the PDR extends for 0.28~pc along the line-of-sight and that the Bar is inclined at an angle of $4\\degr$. The infrared and submillimeter images reveal that the Orion Bar represents a swept up shell with a thickness of 0.1~pc. The mass of the shell implies a shock velocity of $\\simeq 3$ km/s and an age of $\\simeq 10^5$ yr for the HII region. Our analysis shows that the UV and infrared dust opacities in the HII region and the PDR are a factor 5 to 10 lo...

  7. Spitzer--IRAC Imagery and Photometry of Ultracompact HII Regions With Extended Emission

    CERN Document Server

    De la Fuente-Acosta, E; Grave, J M C; Kumar, M S N; Trinidad, M A; Kurtz, S; Kemp, S; Franco, J; Quevedo, G

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of a morphological study performed to a sample of Ultracompact (UC) HII regions with Extended Emission (EE) using Spitzer--IRAC imagery and 3.6 cm VLA conf. D radio-continuum (RC) maps. Some examples of the comparison between maps and images are presented. Usually there is an IR point source counterpart to the peak(s) of RC emission, at the position of the UC source. We find that the predominant EE morphology is the cometary, and in most cases is coincident with IR emission at 8.0 $\\mu$m. Preliminary results of Spitzer--IRAC photometry of a sub-sample of 13 UC HII regions with EE based on GLIMPSE legacy data are also presented. Besides, individual IRAC photometry was performed to 19 UC sources within these 13 regions. We show that UC sources lie on specific locus, both in IRAC color-color and AM-product diagnostic diagrams. Counts of young stellar sources are presented for each region, and we conclude that a proportion of ~ 2%, ~10%, and ~88% of sources in the UC HII regions with EE are...

  8. From Ultracompact to Extended HII Regions. II: Cloud Gravity and Stellar Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Franco, J; Kurtz, S; Franco, Jose; Garcia-Segura, Guillermo; Kurtz, Stan

    2005-01-01

    The dynamical evolution of HII regions with and without stellar motion in dense, structured molecular clouds is studied. Clouds are modeled in hydrostatic equilibrium, with gaussian central cores and external halos that obey r**-2 and r**-3 density power laws. The cloud gravity is included as a time-independent, external force. Stellar velocities of 0, 2, 8, and 12 km/s are considered. When stellar motion is included, stars move from the central core to the edge of the cloud, producing transitions from ultracompact to extended HII regions as the stars move into lower density regions. The opposite behavior occurs when stars move toward the cloud cores. The main conclusion of our study is that ultracompact HII regions are pressure-confined entities while they remain embedded within dense cores. The confinement comes from ram and/or ambient pressures. The survival of ultracompact regions depends on the position of the star with respect to the core, the stellar life-time, and the core crossing time. Stars with ve...

  9. The Stellar Content of Obscured Galactic Giant HII Regions. VII. W3

    CERN Document Server

    Navarete, F; Damineli, A; Moisés, A P; Blum, R D; Conti, P S

    2011-01-01

    Spectrophotometric distances in the K band have been reported by different authors for a number of obscured Galactic HII regions. Almost 50% of them show large discrepancies compared to the classical method using radial velocities measured in the radio spectral region. In order to provide a crucial test of both methods, we selected a target which does not present particular difficulty for any method and which has been measured by as many techniques as possible. The W3 star forming complex, located in the Perseus arm, offers a splendid opportunity for such a task. We used the NIFS spectrograph on the Frederick C. Gillett Gemini North telescope to classify candidate "naked photosphere" OB stars based on 2MASS photometry. Two of the targets are revealed to be mid O-type main sequence stars leading to a distance of d = 2.20 kpc. This is in excellent agreement with the spectrophotometric distance derived in the optical band (d = 2.18 kpc, Humphreys 1978) and with a measurement of the W3 trigonometric parallax (d =...

  10. Primordial 4He abundance: a determination based on the largest sample of HII regions with a methodology tested on model HII regions

    CERN Document Server

    Izotov, Y I; Guseva, N G

    2013-01-01

    We verified the validity of the empirical method to derive the 4He abundance used in our previous papers by applying it to CLOUDY (v13.01) models. Using newly published HeI emissivities, for which we present convenient fits as well as the output CLOUDY case B hydrogen and HeI line intensities, we found that the empirical method is able to reproduce the input CLOUDY 4He abundance with an accuracy of better than 1%. The CLOUDY output data also allowed us to derive the non-recombination contribution to the intensities of the strongest Balmer hydrogen Halpha, Hbeta, Hgamma, and Hdelta emission lines and the ionisation correction factors for He. With these improvements we used our updated empirical method to derive the 4He abundances and to test corrections for several systematic effects in a sample of 1610 spectra of low-metallicity extragalactic HII regions, the largest sample used so far. From this sample we extracted a subsample of 111 HII regions with Hbeta equivalent width EW(Hbeta) > 150A, with excitation p...

  11. Revealing deuterium Balmer lines in HII regions with VLT-UVES

    CERN Document Server

    Hébrard, G; Walsh, J R; Vidal-Madjar, A; Ferlet, R

    2000-01-01

    The search for deuterium Balmer lines with VLT-UVES is reported in HII regions of the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds. The DI lines appear as faint, narrow emission features in the blue wings of the HI Balmer lines and can be distinguished from high-velocity HI emission. The previous identification to deuterium is re-inforced beyond doubt. The detection of D-alpha and D-beta in Orion (Hebrard et al. 2000) is confirmed and deuterium lines are now detected up to at least D-eta. The UVES observations provide the first detection of Balmer DI lines in four new HII regions (M 8, M 16, M 20, and DEM S 103 in SMC), demonstrating that these lines are of common occurence.

  12. Sh2-205: Three independent HII regions or only one?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, G. A.; Cappa, C. E.

    Resumen: We present a study of the HII region Sh2-205 and its environs, based on data obtained from the CGPS, 12CO observations and MSX. We find that Sh2-205 can be separated in three independent optical structures: SH149.25-0.0, SH148.83-0.67, and LBN148.11-0.45. The derived spectral indices show the thermal nature of SH148.83-0.67 and LBN148.11-0.45. The morphology of SH148.83-0.67, both in optical and in radio, along with the energetic requirements indicate that this feature is an interstellar bubble powered by the UV photons of HD24431 (O9 III). LBN148.11-0.45 has the morphology of a classical HII region and their ionizing sources remain uncertain. Dust and molecular gas are found related to LBN148.11-0.45. Particularly, a photodissociation region is detected surrounding the central part of this HII region at infrared wavelengths.

  13. An Analysis of IRAS Identified Hii Regions and their Radio Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, V A

    1993-01-01

    To try and confirm the types of object in the list of 2298 potential HII regions identified by Hughes \\& MacLeod from the IRAS Point Source Catalog, we selected a sample of 82 for observing at the VLA. We selected half with values of Y = log(F$_{25}$/F$_{12}$) $\\geq$ 0.8, and for control purposes, half with values of 0.3 $\\leq$ log(F$_{25}$/F$_{12}$) $\\leq$ 0.5. 78 radio sources were detected, and of all the objects, 72\\% had at least one associated radio source. Most of the radio sources had diameters of $<$ 3\\arcsec, which was the limit to the angular resolving power of the survey. Those with larger values of Y had significantly larger values of peak radio, integrated radio, and 100$\\mu$m flux densities than those with smaller Y. Also, they generally had associated masers, and thus were most likely young compact HII regions containing star forming regions. Those with smaller Y tended not to have associated maser activity and are probably older HII regions, or stars with high IR and ionizing radiation...

  14. The impact of new ionizing fluxes on ISO observations of HII regions and starbursts

    CERN Document Server

    Schärer, D; Schaerer, Daniel; Stasinska, Grazyna

    1998-01-01

    Extensive grids of photoionization models have been calculated for single star HII regions and evolving starbursts. We illustrate the predictions for IR fine structure lines which are used to analyse the stellar content, and derive properties such as the age and IMF. The impact of recent ionizing fluxes on the IR lines are shown. First comparisons of our starburst models with IR-diagnostics and the ISO observations of Genzel et al. (1998) are also presented.

  15. Chemical behavior of the Dwarf Irregular Galaxy NGC 6822. Its PN and HII region abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez-Martinez, Liliana; Carigi, Leticia; Garcia-Rojas, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    We aim to derive the chemical behavior of a significant sample of PNe and HII regions in the irregular galaxy NGC 6822 The selected objects are distributed in different zones of the galaxy. Due to the faintness of PNe and HII regions in NGC 6822, to gather spectroscopic data with large telescopes is necessary. We obtained a well suited sample of spectra by employing VLT-FORS 2 and Gemini-GMOS spectrographs. Ionic and total abundances are calculated for the objects where electron temperatures can be determined through the detection of [OIII] \\lambda 4363 or/and [NII] \\lambda 5755 lines. A "simple" chemical evolution model has been developed and the observed data are used to compute a model for NGC 6822 in order to infer a preliminary chemical history in this galaxy. Confident determinations of He, O, N, Ne, S and Ar abundances were derived for a sample of 11 PNe and one HII region. We confirm that the present ISM is chemically homogeneous, at least in the central 2 kpc of the galaxy, showing a value 12+log O/H...

  16. A multiwavelength investigation of the HII region S311: Young stellar population and star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Yadav, Ram Kesh; Sharma, Saurabh; Ojha, D K; Samal, M R; Mallick, K K; Jose, J; Ogura, K; Richichi, Andrea; Irawati, Puji; Kobayashi, N; Eswaraiah, C

    2016-01-01

    We present a multiwavelength investigation of the young stellar population and star formation activities around the \\hii region Sharpless 311. Using our deep near-infrared observations and archival {\\it Spitzer}-IRAC observations, we have detected a total of 125 young stellar objects (YSOs) in an area of $\\sim$86 arcmin$^2$. The YSOs sample include 8 Class I and 117 Class II candidate YSOs. The mass completeness of the identified YSOs sample is estimated to be 1.0 \\msun. The ages and masses of the majority of the candidate YSOs are estimated to be in the range of $\\sim$0.1$-$5 Myr and $\\sim$0.3$-$6 \\msun, respectively. The 8 \\mum image of S311 displays an approximately spherical cavity around the ionizing source which is possibly created due to the expansion of the \\hii region. The spatial distribution of the candidate YSOs reveals that a significant number of them are distributed systematically along the 8 $\\mu$m emission with a majority clustered around the eastern border of the \\hii region. Four clumps/com...

  17. Spitzer and Herschel multiwavelength characterization of the dust content of evolved HII regions

    CERN Document Server

    Paladini, R; Veneziani, M; Noriega-Crespo, A; Anderson, L D; Piacentini, F; Goncalves, D Pinheiro; Paradis, D; Tibbs, C T; Bernard, J -P; Natoli, P

    2012-01-01

    We have analyzed a uniform sample of 16 evolved HII regions located in a 2 deg X 2 deg Galactic field centered at (l,b) = (30 deg, 0 deg) and observed as part of the Herschel Hi-GAL survey. The evolutionary stage of these HII regions was established using ancillary radio continuum data. By combining Hi-GAL PACS (70 micron, 160 micron) and SPIRE (250 micron, 350 micron and 500 micron) measurements with MIPSGAL 24 micron data, we built Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) of the sources and showed that a 2-component grey-body model is a good representation of the data. In particular, wavelengths > 70 micron appear to trace a cold dust component, for which we estimated an equilibrium temperature of the Big Grains (BGs) in the range 20 - 30 K, while for lambda < 70 micron, the data indicated the presence of a warm dust component at temperatures of the order of 50 - 90 K. This analysis also revealed that dust is present in the interior of HII regions, although likely not in a large amount. In addition, the data...

  18. PAH 8μm Emission as a Diagnostic of HII Region Optical Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oey, M. S.; Lopez-Hernandez, J.; Kellar, J. A.; Pellegrini, E. W.; Gordon, Karl D.; Jameson, Katherine; Li, Aigen; Madden, Suzanne C.; Meixner, Margaret; Roman-Duval, Julia; Bot, Caroline; Rubio, Monica; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2017-01-01

    PAHs are easily destroyed by Lyman continuum radiation and so in optically thick Stromgren spheres, they tend to be found only on the periphery of HII regions, rather than in the central volume. We therefore expect that in HII regions that are optically thin to ionizing radiation, PAHs would be destroyed beyond the primary nebular structure. Using data from the Spitzer SAGE survey of the Magellanic Clouds, we test whether 8 μm emission can serve as a diagnostic of optical depth in HII regions. We find that 8 μm emission does provide valuable constraints in the Large Magellanic Cloud, where objects identified as optically thick by their atomic ionization structure have 6 times higher median 8 μm surface brightness than optically thin objects. However, in the Small Magellanic Cloud, this differentiation is not observed. This appears to be caused by extremely low PAH production in this low-metallicity environment, such that any differentiation between optically thick and thin objects is washed out by stochastic variations, likely driven by the interplay between dust production and UV destruction. Thus, PAH emission is sensitive to nebular optical depth only at higher metallicities.

  19. Identification and multi-filter photometry of HII regions from nearby galaxies with J-PLUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logroño-García, R.; Vilella-Rojo, G.; López-Sanjuan, C.; Varela, J.; Muniesa, D.; Lamadrid, J. L.; Cenarro, A. J.; J-PLUS, T.

    2017-03-01

    The Javalambre Photometric Local Universe Survey (J-PLUS) has already started the data acquisition phase at the Observatorio Astrofísico de Javalambre (OAJ) in Teruel, Spain. Benefiting from the large field of view (2 deg^2) and the 12 filters set of the T80Cam at the T80/JAST telescope, we aim to study the properties of HII regions in nearby galaxies (z J-PLUS bands using as reference the Hα+NII detection image. (5) Constructs the photo-spectra for each identified HII region. We demonstrate the capabilities of this method by comparing synthetic aperture photometry from SDSS spectra with the Hα flux measured with J-PLUS data. Such comparison can be found in the poster by Vilella-Rojo et al. Once the pipeline is implemented, we will generate a catalog of nearby HII regions at zJ-PLUS. With this catalog, we will study the impact of environment in the 2D star formation properties of nearby galaxies, taking advantage of the unprecedented large contiguous area that J-PLUS will offer.

  20. The HII region G35.673-00.847: another case of triggered star formation?

    CERN Document Server

    Paron, S; Ortega, M E

    2010-01-01

    As part of a systematic study that we are performing with the aim to increase the observational evidence of triggered star formation in the surroundings of HII regions, we analyze the ISM around the HII region G35.673-00.847, a poorly studied source. Using data from large-scale surveys: Two Micron All Sky Survey, Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE), MIPSGAL, Galactic Ring Survey (GRS), VLA Galactic Plane Survey (VGPS), and NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) we performed a multiwavelength study of G35.673-00.847 and its surroundings. The mid IR emission, shows that G35.673-00.847 has an almost semi-ring like shape with a cut towards the galactic west. The radius of this semi-ring is about 1.5' (~1.6 pc, at the distance of ~3.7 kpc). The distance was estimated from an HI absorption study and from the analysis of the molecular gas. Indeed, we find a molecular shell composed by several clumps distributed around the HII region, suggesting that its expansion is collecting the surrounding mate...

  1. Enrichment of the ISM by metal-rich droplets and the abundance bias in HII regions

    CERN Document Server

    Stasinska, Grazyna; Rodriguez, Monica; Henney, William J

    2007-01-01

    We critically examine a scenario for the enrichment of the interstellar medium (ISM) in which supernova ejecta follow a long (10^8 yr) journey before falling back onto the galactic disk in the form of metal-rich ``droplets'', These droplets do not become fully mixed with the interstellar medium until they become photoionized in HII regions. We investigate the hypothesis that the photoionization of these highly metallic droplets can explain the observed ``abundance discrepancy factors'' (ADFs), which are found when comparing abundances derived from recombination lines and from collisionally excited lines, both in Galactic and extragalactic HII regions. We derive bounds of 10^{13}--10^{15} cm on the droplet sizes inside HII regions in order that (1) they should not have already been detected by direct imaging of nearby nebulae, and (2) they should not be too swiftly destroyed by diffusion in the ionized gas. From photoionization modelling we find that, if this inhomogeneous enrichment scenario holds, then the r...

  2. Re-analysis of the radio luminosity function of Galactic HII regions

    CERN Document Server

    Paladini, R; Noriega-Crespo, A; Carey, S J

    2009-01-01

    We have re-analyzed continuum and recombination lines radio data available in the literature in order to derive the luminosity function (LF) of Galactic HII regions. The study is performed by considering the first and fourth Galactic quadrants independently. We estimate the completeness level of the sample in the fourth quadrant at 5 Jy, and the one in the first quadrant at 2 Jy. We show that the two samples (fourth or first quadrant) include, as well as giant and super-giant HII regions, a significant number of sub-giant sources. The LF is obtained, in each Galactic quadrant, with a generalized Schmidt's estimator using an effective volume derived from the observed spatial distribution of the considered HII regions. The re-analysis also takes advantage of recently published ancillary absorption data allowing to solve the distance ambiguity for several objects. A single power-law fit to the LFs retrieves a slope equal to -2.23+/-0.07 (fourth quadrant) and to -1.85+/-0.11 (first quadrant). We also find margina...

  3. Type II supernovae as probes of environment metallicity: observations of host HII regions

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, J P; Dessart, L; Hamuy, M; Galbany, L; Morrell, N I; Stritzinger, M D; Phillips, M M; Folatelli, G; Boffin, H M J; de Jaeger, T; Kuncarayakti, H; Prieto, J L

    2016-01-01

    Spectral modelling of SNII atmospheres indicates a clear dependence of metal line strengths on progenitor metallicity. This motivates further work to evaluate the accuracy with which these SNe can be used as metallicity indicators. To assess this accuracy we present a sample of SNII HII-region spectroscopy, from which environment abundances are derived. These environment abundances are compared to the observed strength of metal lines in SN spectra. Combining our sample with measurements from the literature, we present oxygen abundances of 119 host HII regions, by extracting emission line fluxes and using abundance diagnostics. Then, following Dessart et al., these abundances are compared to equivalent widths of Fe 5018 A at various time and colour epochs. Our distribution of inferred SNII host HII-region abundances has a range of ~0.6 dex. We confirm the dearth of SNeII exploding at metallicities lower than those found (on average) in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The equivalent width of Fe 5018 A at 50 days po...

  4. NEBU_3D afast pseudo-3D photoionization code for aspherical planetary nebulae and HII regions

    CERN Document Server

    Morisset, C; Peña, M

    2005-01-01

    We describe a pseudo-3D photoionization code, NEBU_3D and its associated visualization tool, VIS_NEB3D, which are able to easily and rapidly treat a wide variety of nebular geometries, by combining models obtained with a 1D photoionization code. We also present a tool, VELNEB_3D, which can be applied to the results of 1D or 3D photoionization codes to generate emission line profiles, position-velocity maps and 3D maps in any emission line by assuming an arbitrary velocity field. As examples of the capabilities of these new tools, we consider three very different theoretical cases. The first one is a blister HII region, for which we have also constructed a spherical model (the spherical impostor) which has exactly the same Hbeta surface brightness distribution as the blister model and the same ionizing star. The second example shows how complex line profiles can be obtained even with a simple expansion law if the nebula is bipolar and the slit slightly off-center. The third example shows different ways to prod...

  5. The population of planetary nebulae and HII regions in M81. A study of radial metallicity gradients and chemical evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Stanghellini, Letizia; Villaver, Eva; Galli, Daniele

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the chemical abundances of planetary nebulae and HII regions in the M81 disk for insight on galactic evolution, and compare it with that of other galaxies, including the Milky Way. We acquired Hectospec/MMT spectra of 39 PNe and 20 HII regions, with 33 spectra viable for temperature and abundance analysis. Our PN observations represent the first PN spectra in M81 ever published, while several HII region spectra have been published before, although without a direct electron temperature determination. We determine elemental abundances of helium, nitrogen, oxygen, neon, sulfur, and argon in PNe and HII regions, and determine their averages and radial gradients. The average O/H ratio of PNe compared to that of the HII regions indicates a general oxygen enrichment in M81 in the last ~10 Gyr. The PN metallicity gradient in the disk of M81 is -0.055+-0.02 dex/kpc. Neon and sulfur in PNe have a radial distribution similar to that of oxygen, with similar gradient slopes. If we combine our HII sample with th...

  6. Star Cluster Complexes and the Host Galaxy in Three HII Galaxies: Mrk 36, UM 408, and UM 461

    CERN Document Server

    Lagos, Patricio; Nigoche-Netro, A; Carrasco, Eleazar Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    We present a stellar population study of three HII galaxies (Mrk 36, UM 408, and UM 461) based on the analysis of new ground-based high resolution near-infrared J, H and Kp broad-band and Br narrow-band images obtained with Gemini/NIRI. We identify and determine relative ages and masses of the elementary star clusters and/or star cluster complexes of the starburst regions in each of these galaxies by comparing the colors with evolutionary synthesis models that include the contribution of stellar continuum, nebular continuum and emission lines. We found that the current star cluster formation efficiency in our sample of low luminosity HII galaxies is ~10%. Therefore, most of the recent star formation is not in massive clusters. Our findings seem to indicate that the star formation mode in our sample of galaxies is clumpy, and that these complexes are formed by a few massive star clusters with masses > 10^4 Mo. The age distribution of these star cluster complexes shows that the current burst started recently an...

  7. A radio continuum and infrared study of Galactic HII regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Hernandez, NL; van der Hulst, JM; Tielens, AGGM

    2003-01-01

    We present observations of the 4.8 and 8.6 GHz continuum emission towards 11 southern H II regions made with the Australian Telescope Compact Array. The observed objects were selected from the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) spectral catalogue of compact H II regions (Peeters et al. 2002b). The mor

  8. Hydrodynamic Instability of Ionization Fronts in HII Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuta, A; Kane, J; Ryutov, D; Remington, B; Takabe, H; Pound, M

    2003-08-21

    The authors investigate hydrodynamic instability of accelerating ionization fronts with two dimensional hydrodynamic simulations. When recombination in the ionized region is turned off, Rayleigh-Taylor instability is effective. Perturbation grows up with classical Rayleigh-Taylor growth rate. In the case with recombination, the local difference of absorption profile works to smooth the surface. The perturbation does not grow and the amplitude follows a damped oscillations with time.

  9. Hii regions in ngc 5055. ii. physical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rozas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo usamos las observaciones presentadas en Rozas (2007 de la galaxia NGC 5055 en las líneas Hα y Hβ, junto con observaciones CCD con filtros estrechos en las líneas [OII], [OIII], [SII] y S[III] para calcular las anchuras equivalentes, excitación, grados de ionización, parámetros de ionización y metalicidades de las regiones catalogadas en Rozas (2007.

  10. The Molecular Cloud Associated with the HII Region RCW:34

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, L.; Heydari-Malayeri, M.; Castets, A.

    1993-08-01

    We present millimetric multi-line observations of the molecular cloud associated with the H II region RCW 34. We believe we are able to present a coherent description of the cloud: a molecular bar on top of the H II region is divided into three elements: a dense, heated part situated in the post-shock trail, a cold, less dense part besides, left unperturbed and a diffuse component either in front of the dense parts or possibly mixed with them if the dense parts are clumpy. This diffuse component has a density of a few hundreds per cm-3, a temperature in the range 30-60 K and its opacity in 12CO is close to or less than unity. We show that this diffuse component, the existence of which is controversial, is the best explanation to the large 12CO (J: 1 → 0)/(J: 2 → 1) ratio we have observed. A simple-minded model is presented to approach its properties. The cloud is on top and partly in front of the H II region and can explain the 4.2 mag of visual extinction measured by one of us (Heydari-Malayeri 1988). The very high velocity flow detected in Hα by Heydari-Malayeri has no counterpart in radio but could be a direct visualisation of the so-called "Champagne effect" (Tonorio-Tagle 1979).

  11. An Old Supernova Remnant within an HII Complex at l {\\approx} 173{\\circ}: FVW 172.8+1.5

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Ji-hyun; Salter, Chris

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of HI 21-cm line observations to explore the nature of the high-velocity (HV) HI gas at l ~ 173{\\circ} . In low-resolution Hi surveys this HV gas appears as faint, wing-like, HI emission that extends to velocities beyond those allowed by Galactic rotation. We designate this feature FVW (Forbidden Velocity Wing) 172.8+1.5. Our high-resolution (3.'4) Arecibo HI observations show that FVW 172.8+1.5 is composed of knots, filaments, and ring-like structures distributed over an area a few degrees in extent. These HV HI emission features are confined within the limits of the HII complex G173+1.5, which is composed of five Sharpless HII regions distributed along a radio continuum loop of size 4{\\circ}.4 {\\times} 3{\\circ}.4, or ~ 138 pc {\\times} 107 pc, at a distance of 1.8 kpc. G173+1.5 is one of the largest star-forming regions in the outer Galaxy. We demonstrate that the HV HI gas is well correlated with the radio continuum loop and that the two seem to trace an expanding shell. The expansion...

  12. HII Region Ionization of the Interstellar Medium: A Case Study of NGC 7538

    CERN Document Server

    Luisi, Matteo; Balser, Dana S; Bania, T M; Wenger, Trey V

    2016-01-01

    Using data from the Green Bank Telescope, we analyze the radio continuum (free-free) and radio recombination line (RRL) emission of the compact HII region NGC 7538 (Sharpless 158). We detect extended radio continuum and hydrogen RRL emission beyond the photodissociation region (PDR) toward the north and east, but a sharp decrease in emission toward the south and west. This indicates that a non-uniform PDR morphology is affecting the amount of radiation "leaking" through the PDR. The strongest carbon RRL emission is found in the western PDR that appears to be dense. We compute a leaking fraction $f_R = 15 \\pm 5$ % of the radio continuum emission measured in the plane of the sky which represents a lower limit when accounting for the three-dimensional geometry of the region. We detect an average $^4\\textrm{He}^+/\\textrm{H}^+$ abundance ratio by number of $0.088 \\pm 0.003$ inside the HII region and a decrease in this ratio with increasing distance from the region beyond the PDR. Using Herschel Space Observatory d...

  13. An MSX Infrared Analysis of the Superbubble around Giant HII Region NGC3603

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jia

    2009-01-01

    Using the MSX mid-infrared observation, we reveal a 100 pc-scale superbubble surrounding the giant HII region NGC3603. We suggest that the diffuse surrounding infrared emission in bands A, C, and D is dominated by that of PAH and the emission in band E is dominated by that of dust grains. The fitted dust temperature is consistent with the heating by the central cluster's UV photons. The derived gas-to-dust mass ratio for the bubble shell is of order 10^2.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SN II in host HII regions (Anderson+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. P.; Gutierrez, C. P.; Dessart, L.; Hamuy, M.; Galbany, L.; Morrell, N. I.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Phillips, M. M.; Folatelli, G.; Boffin, H. M. J.; de Jaeger, T.; Kuncarayakti, H.; Prieto, J. L.

    2016-07-01

    The data analysed in this publication comprise two distinct types of observations. The first is of SN II optical spectroscopy obtained during their photospheric phases, i.e. from discovery to at most ~100 days post explosion. These data are used to extract absorption line pEW measurements. The second data set is emission line spectral observations of host HII regions of SNe II. These are used to estimate SN II environment oxygen abundances, which can be used as metallicity proxies. In the course of this work we compare our observational results with the predictions from the spectral models of Dessart et al. (2014MNRAS.440.1856D). (2 data files).

  15. New radio observations of anomalous microwave emission in the HII region RCW175

    CERN Document Server

    Battistelli, E S; Cruciani, A; de Bernardis, P; Genova-Santos, R; Masi, S; Naldi, A; Paladini, R; Piacentini, F; Tibbs, C T; Verstraete, L; Ysard, N

    2015-01-01

    We have observed the HII region RCW175 with the 64m Parkes telescope at 8.4GHz and 13.5GHz in total intensity, and at 21.5GHz in both total intensity and polarization. High angular resolution, high sensitivity, and polarization capability enable us to perform a detailed study of the different constituents of the HII region. For the first time, we resolve three distinct regions at microwave frequencies, two of which are part of the same annular diffuse structure. Our observations enable us to confirm the presence of anomalous microwave emission (AME) from RCW175. Fitting the integrated flux density across the entire region with the currently available spinning dust models, using physically motivated assumptions, indicates the presence of at least two spinning dust components: a warm component with a relatively large hydrogen number density n_H=26.3/cm^3 and a cold component with a hydrogen number density of n_H=150/cm^3. The present study is an example highlighting the potential of using high angular-resolutio...

  16. Constraining the escape fraction of ionizing photons from HII regions within NGC 300: A concept paper

    CERN Document Server

    Niederhofer, Florian; Bastian, Nate; Ercolano, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Using broadband photometry from the Hubble Space Telescope in combination with Very Large Telescope narrowband Halpha observations of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 300, we explore a method for estimating the escape fractions of hydrogen-ionizing photons from HII regions within this galaxy. Our goal in this concept study is to evaluate the spectral types of the most massive stars using the broadband data and estimating their ionizing photon output with the help of stellar atmosphere models. A comparison with the Halpha flux that gives the amount of ionized gas in the HII region provides a measure of the escape fraction of ionizing photons from that region. We performed some tests with a number of synthetic young clusters with varying parameters to assess the reliability of the method. However, we found that the derived stellar spectral types and consequently the expected ionizing photon luminosity of a region is highly uncertain. The tests also show that on one hand we tended to overestimate the integrated phot...

  17. Interaction Between HII Region and AFGL333-Ridge: Implications to the Star Formation Scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Nakano, Makoto; Chibueze, James O; Nagayama, Takumi; Omodaka, Toshihiro; Handa, Toshihiro; Sunada, Kazuyuki; Kamezaki, Tatsuya; Burns, Ross A

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the star formation activities in the AFGL333 region, which is in the vicinity of the W4 expanding bubble, by conducting NH3 (1,1), (2,2), and (3,3) mapping observations with the 45 m Nobeyama Radio Telescope at an angular resolution of 75". The morphology of the NH3 (1,1) map shows a bow-shape structure with the size of 2.0 x 0.6 pc as seen in the dust continuum. At the interface between the W4 bubble and the dense NH3 cloud, the compact HII region G134.2+0.8, associated with IRAS02245+6115, is located. Interestingly, just north and south of G134.2+0.8 we found NH3 emission exhibiting large velocity widths of ~ 2.8 km/s, compared to 1.8 km/s at the other positions. As the possibility of mechanical energy injection through the activity of YSO(s) is low, we considered the origin of the large turbulent gas motion as indication of interaction between the compact HII region and the periphery of the dense molecular cloud. We also found expanding motion of the CO emission associated with G134.2+0.8. ...

  18. A single HII region model of the strong interstellar scattering towards Sgr A*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicheneder, Egid; Dexter, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Until recently, the strong interstellar scattering observed towards the Galactic center (GC) black hole, Sgr A*, was thought to come from dense gas within the GC region. The pulse broadening towards the transient magnetar SGR J1745-2900 near Sgr A* has shown that the source of the scattering is instead located much closer to Earth, possibly in a nearby spiral arm. We show that a single HII region along the line of sight, 1.5 - 4.8 kpc away from Earth with density ne of a few ˜eq 100 cm^{-3} and radius R ≃ 1.8 - 3.2 pc can explain the observed angular broadening of Sgr A*. Clouds closer to the GC overproduce the observed DM, providing an independent location constraint that agrees with that from the magnetar pulse broadening. Our model predicts that sources within ≲ 10 pc should show the same scattering origin as the magnetar and Sgr A*, while the nearest known pulsars with separations >20 pc should not. The radio spectrum of Sgr A* should show a cutoff from free-free absorption at 0.2 ≲ ν ≲ 1 GHz. For a magnetic field strength B ˜eq 15 - 70 {μ}G, the HII region could produce the rotation measure of the magnetar, the largest of any known pulsar, without requiring the gas near Sgr A* to be strongly magnetised.

  19. S7 : Probing the physics of Seyfert Galaxies through their ENLR & HII Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Dopita, Michael A; Scharwachter, Julia; Kewley, Lisa J; Davies, Rebecca; Sutherland, Ralph; Kharb, Preeti; Jose, Jessy; Bhatt, Harish; Ramya, S; Hampton, Elise; Jin, Chichuan; Banfield, Julie; Zaw, Ingyin; Srivastava, Shweta; James, Bethan

    2014-01-01

    Here we present the first results from the Siding Spring Southern Seyfert Spectroscopic Snapshot Survey (S7) which aims to investigate the physics of ~140 radio-detected southern active Galaxies with z<0.02 through Integral Field Spectroscopy using the Wide Field Spectrograph (WiFeS). This instrument provides data cubes of the central 38 x 25 arc sec. of the target galaxies in the waveband 340-710nm with the unusually high resolution of R=7000 in the red (530-710nm), and R=3000 in the blue (340-560nm). These data provide the morphology, kinematics and the excitation structure of the extended narrow-line region, probe relationships with the black hole characteristics and the host galaxy, measures host galaxy abundance gradients and the determination of nuclear abundances from the HII regions. From photoionisation modelling, we may determine the shape of the ionising spectrum of the AGN, discover whether AGN metallicities differ from nuclear abundances determined from HII regions, and probe grain destruction...

  20. New 20-cm radio-continuum study of the small Magellanic cloud - part III: Compact Hii regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong G.F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present and discuss a new catalogue of 48 compact Hii regions in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC and a newly created deep 1420 MHz (λ=20 cm radio-continuum image of the N19 region located in the southwestern part of the SMC. The new images were created by merging 1420 MHz radiocontinuum archival data from the Australian Telescope Compact Array. The majority of these detected radio compact Hii regions have rather flat spectral indices which indicates, as expected, that the dominant emission mechanism is of thermal nature.

  1. Detection of reactive ions in the ultracompact HII regions Mon R2 and G29.96-0.02

    CERN Document Server

    Rizzo, J R; Rodríguez-Franco, A; García-Burillo, S

    2003-01-01

    We report the first detection of the reactive ions CO+ and HOC+ towards ultracompact (UC) HII regions, particularly in Mon R2 and G29.96-0.02. We have observed two positions in Mon R2, namely the peak of the UC HII region and a position in the high density molecular cloud which bounds it. CO+ and HOC+ were detected at the UC HII region but not at the molecular cloud, as expected if the CO$^+$ and HOC$^+$ emissions arise in the PDR surrounding the \\uch. The measured CO$^+$ and HOC$^+$ column densities are of the order of 10$^{11}$ cm$^{-2}$ in both sources, which yields a strikingly low [HCO$^+$]/[HOC$^+$] abundance ratio of 460 in Mon R2. These values are similar to those found in some other well-known PDRs, like NGC 7023 and the Orion Bar. We briefly discuss the chemical implications of these results.

  2. A multi-wavelength investigation of RCW175: an HII region harboring spinning dust emission

    CERN Document Server

    Tibbs, C T; Compiegne, M; Dickinson, C; Alves, M I R; Flagey, N; Shenoy, S; Noriega-Crespo, A; Carey, S; Casassus, S; Davies, R D; Davis, R J

    2012-01-01

    Using infrared, radio continuum and spectral observations, we performed a detailed investigation of the HII region RCW175. We determined that RCW175, which actually consists of two separate HII regions, G29.1-0.7 and G29.0-0.6, is located at a distance of 3.2+/-0.2 kpc. Based on the observations we infer that the more compact G29.0-0.6 is less evolved than G29.1-0.7 and was possibly produced as a result of the expansion of G29.1-0.7 into the surrounding interstellar medium. We compute a star formation rate for RCW175 of (12.6+/-1.9)x10^{-5} M_{\\sun}/yr, and identified 6 possible young stellar object candidates within its vicinity. Additionally, we estimate that RCW175 contains a total dust mass of 215+/-53 M_{\\sun}. RCW175 has previously been identified as a source of anomalous microwave emission (AME), an excess of emission at cm wavelengths often attributed to electric dipole radiation from the smallest dust grains. We find that the AME previously detected in RCW175 is not correlated with the smallest dust ...

  3. Two physical regimes for the Giant HII Regions and Giant Molecular Clouds in the Antennae Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Zaragoza-Cardiel, Javier; Beckman, John E; García-Lorenzo, Begoña; Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Gutiérrez, Leonel

    2014-01-01

    We have combined observations of the Antennae galaxies from the radio interferometer ALMA (Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array) and from the optical interferometer GH$\\alpha$FaS (Galaxy Halpha Fabry-Perot System). The two sets of observations have comparable angular and spectral resolutions, enabling us to identify 142 giant molecular clouds and 303 HII regions. We have measured, and compare, their basic physical properties (radius, velocity dispersion, luminosity). For the HII regions we find two physical regimes, one for masses $>10^{5.4} \\mathrm{M_{\\odot}}$ of ionized gas, which the gas density increases with gas mass, the other for masses $<10^{5.4} \\mathrm{M_{\\odot}}$ of ionized gas where the gas density decreases with gas mass. For the GMCs we find, in contrast to previous studies in other galaxies over a generally lower mass range of clouds, that the gas density increases with the total gas mass, hinting at two regimes for these clouds if we consider both sources of data. We also find that ...

  4. StarBench: The D-type expansion of an HII region

    CERN Document Server

    Bisbas, T G; Williams, R J R; Mackey, J; Tremblin, P; Raga, A C; Arthur, S J; Baczynski, C; Dale, J E; Frostholm, T; Geen, S; Haugboelle, T; Hubber, D; Iliev, I T; Kuiper, R; Rosdahl, J; Sullivan, D; Walch, S; Wuensch, R

    2015-01-01

    StarBench is a project focused on benchmarking and validating different star-formation and stellar feedback codes. In this first StarBench paper we perform a comparison study of the D-type expansion of an HII region. The aim of this work is to understand the differences observed between the twelve participating numerical codes against the various analytical expressions examining the D-type phase of HII region expansion. To do this, we propose two well-defined tests which are tackled by 1D and 3D grid- and SPH- based codes. The first test examines the `early phase' D-type scenario during which the mechanical pressure driving the expansion is significantly larger than the thermal pressure of the neutral medium. The second test examines the `late phase' D-type scenario during which the system relaxes to pressure equilibrium with the external medium. Although they are mutually in excellent agreement, all twelve participating codes follow a modified expansion law that deviates significantly from the classical Spit...

  5. Unresolved wind-driven shells and the supersonic velocity dispersion in giant HII regions

    CERN Document Server

    Tenorio-Tagle, G; Fernandes, R C; Fernandes, R Cid

    1995-01-01

    The presence of giant shells or loops in giant HII regions are clear witness of the mechanical energy input from massive stars. Here we evaluate the impact that winds may have on the structure of giant nebulae and on their supersonic velocity dispersion. We follow the suggestion from Chu \\& Kennicutt (1994) to see if a combination of a large number of unresolved wind-driven shells caused by massive stars could produce the integrated broad Gaussian profiles typical of giant HII regions. The results, accounting for a wide range of energies, densities and velocity or age of the expanding shells, show that supersonic Gaussian profiles may arise only from a collection of unresolved wind-driven shells if the shells present a peculiar velocity distribution which implies a strongly peaked age distribution leading to an awkward star formation history. On the other hand, a uniform distribution of ages originates profiles with a flat-topped core defined by the terminal shell velocity and a steep decay as v^{-6} up t...

  6. On the Origin of the HII Regions Associated with Massive and Compact Superstar Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silich, Sergiy; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana

    This contribution to the IV Korea-Mexico meeting deals with the hydrodynamics of the matter reinserted within super star clusters (SSCs) by both stellar winds and supernova explosions, results recently printed in The Astrophysical Journal (Silich et al. 2007). The motivation of such a project arose from the persistent presence of the small mass and compact HII regions that sit right on top of many massive and compact SSCs, from which one expects a large mechanical energy power. The data used for our calculations appear only recently (see Smith et al. 2006) for the massive and compact SSC M82-A1. We presented in our paper the calculated flow, derived through analytical and semi-analytical methods, which led to almost identical results. We have found out that the only way of accommodating a compact HII region (4.5 pc in radius, in the case of M82-A1) on top of a 6.3 Myr old and massive (> 10^6 M_{⊙}) SSC with a half light radius of 3 pc, requires of two assumptions: a very low heating efficiency (Tagle et al. 2007) and a high pressure in the surrounding medium.

  7. The Role of Stellar Feedback in the Dynamics of HII Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, Laura A; Bolatto, Alberto D; Prochaska, J Xavier; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Castro, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Stellar feedback is often cited as the biggest uncertainty in galaxy formation models today. This uncertainty stems from a dearth of observational constraints as well as the great dynamic range between the small scales (1 kpc) that are shaped by this feedback. To bridge this divide, in this paper we aim to assess observationally the role of stellar feedback at the intermediate scales of HII regions. In particular, we employ multiwavelength data to examine several stellar feedback mechanisms in a sample of 32 HII regions in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC, respectively). Using optical, infrared, radio, and X-ray images, we measure the pressures exerted on the shells from the direct stellar radiation, the dust-processed radiation, the warm ionized gas, and the hot X-ray emitting gas. We find that the warm ionized gas dominates over the other terms in all of the sources, although two have comparable dust-processed radiation pressures to their warm gas pressures. The hot gas pressures are compa...

  8. HII REGIONS IN HYDROSTATIC BALANCE BETWEEN GAS PRESSURE, RADIATION PRESSURE AND GRAVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Raga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudiamos las soluciones de una versión modificada de la ecuación de Lane-Emden isotérmica, la cual incorpora el efecto de la presión de radiación (dirigida hacia afuera asociada a las fotoionizaciones. Estas soluciones son relevantes para regiones HII alrededor de un cúmulo con ≈500 estrellas O, que puede fotoionizar el gas hasta distancias de ≈ pc (siendo n0 la densidad central del gas, donde son importantes los efectos tanto de la autogravedad como de la presión de radiación. Encontramos que las soluciones tienen una transición de un régimen "dominado por gravedad" (en el que las soluciones convergen a radios grandes a la solución de la esfera isotérmica autogravitante no singular a uno "dominado por presión de radiación" (en el que la densidad diverge a un radio finito para regiones HII con densidades centrales mayores que ncrit = 100 cm -3. Argumentamos que las soluciones con densidades centrales altas, dominadas por presión de radiación, no ocurrirán en muchas de las situaciones astrofísicamente relevantes, dada la ausencia de un posible medio confinador de presión suficientemente alta.

  9. Fossil HII Regions: Self-Limiting Star Formation at High Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, S P; Haiman, Zoltan

    2003-01-01

    Recent results by the WMAP satellite suggest that the intergalactic medium was significantly reionized at redshifts as high as z~17. At this early epoch, the first ionizing sources likely appeared in the shallow potential wells of mini-halos with virial temperatures T < 10^4 K. Once such an ionizing source turns off, its surrounding HII region Compton cools and recombines. Nonetheless, we show that the ``fossil'' HII regions left behind remain at high adiabats, prohibiting gas accretion and cooling in subsequent generations of mini-halos. Thus, early star formation is self-limiting. We quantify this effect to show that star formation in mini-halos cannot account for the bulk of the electron scattering opacity measured by WMAP, which must be due to more massive objects. We argue that gas entropy, rather than IGM metallicity, regulates the evolution of the global ionizing emissivity, and impedes full reionization until lower redshifts. We discuss several important consequences of this early entropy floor for...

  10. Resolving the electron temperature discrepancies in HII Regions and Planetary Nebulae: kappa-distributed electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Nicholls, David C; Sutherland, Ralph S

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of electron temperatures and metallicities in H ii regions and Planetary Nebulae (PNe) has-for several decades-presented a problem: results obtained using different techniques disagree. What it worse, they disagree consistently. There have been numerous attempts to explain these discrepancies, but none has provided a satisfactory solution to the problem. In this paper, we explore the possibility that electrons in H ii regions and PNe depart from a Maxwell-Boltzmann equilibrium energy distribution. We adopt a "kappa-distribution" for the electron energies. Such distributions are widely found in Solar System plasmas, where they can be directly measured. This simple assumption is able to explain the temperature and metallicity discrepancies in H ii regions and PNe arising from the different measurement techniques. We find that the energy distribution does not need to depart dramatically from an equilibrium distribution. From an examination of data from Hii regions and PNe it appears that kappa ~ ...

  11. GMRT and VLA Observations at 49 cm and 20 cm of the HII Region near = 24.8°, = 0.1°

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N. G. Kantharia; W. M. Goss; D. Anish Roshi; Niruj R. Mohan; Francois Viallefond

    2007-03-01

    We report multi-frequency radio continuum and hydrogen radio recombination line observations of HII regions near = 24.8°, = 0.1° using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope(GMRT) at 1.28 GHz ( = 172), 0.61 GHz ( = 220) and the Very Large Array (VLA) at 1.42 GHz ( = 166). The region consists of a large number of resolved HII regions and a few compact HII regions as seen in our continuum maps, many of which have associated infrared (IR) point sources. The largest HII region at = 24.8° and = 0.1° is a few arcmins in size and has a shell-type morphology. It is a massive HII region enclosing ∼ 550 M⊙ with a linear size of 7 pc and an rms electron density of ∼ 110 cm-3 at a kinematic distance of 6 kpc. The required ionization can be provided by a single star of spectral type O5.5. We also report detection of hydrogen recombination lines from the HII region at = 24.8° and = 0.1° at all observed frequencies near = 100 km s-1. We model the observed integrated line flux density as arising in the diffuse HII region and find that the best fitting model has an electron density comparable to that derived from the continuum.We also report detection of hydrogen recombination lines from two other HII regions in the field.

  12. Chandra observations of the HII complex G5.89-0.39 and TeV gamma-ray source HESSJ1800-240B

    CERN Document Server

    Hampton, E J; Hofmann, W; Horns, D; Uchiyama, Y; Wagner, S

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of our investigation, using a Chandra X-ray observation, into the stellar population of the massive star formation region G5.89-0.39, and its potential connection to the coincident TeV gamma-ray source HESSJ1800-240B. G5.89-0.39 comprises two separate HII regions G5.89-0.39A and G5.89-0.39B (an ultra-compact HII region). We identified 159 individual X-ray point sources in our observation using the source detection algorithm \\texttt{wavdetect}. 35 X-ray sources are associated with the HII complex G5.89-0.39. The 35 X-ray sources represent an average unabsorbed luminosity (0.3-10\\,keV) of $\\sim10^{30.5}$\\,erg/s, typical of B7-B5 type stars. The potential ionising source of G5.89-0.39B known as Feldt's star is possibly identified in our observation with an unabsorbed X-ray luminosity suggestive of a B7-B5 star. The stacked energy spectra of these sources is well-fitted with a single thermal plasma APEC model with kT$\\sim$5\\,keV, and column density N$_{\\rm H}=2.6\\times10^{22}$\\,cm$^{-2}$ (A...

  13. The Genesis of Super Star Clusters as Self-Gravitating HII Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, J C; Tan, Jonathan C.; Kee, Christopher F. Mc

    2000-01-01

    We examine the effects of ionization, radiation pressure and main sequence winds from massive stars on self-gravitating, clumpy molecular clouds, thereby modeling the formation and pre-supernova feedback of massive star clusters. We find the process of ``turbulent mass loading'' is effective in confining HII regions. Extrapolating typical Galactic high-mass star forming regions to greater initial gas cloud masses and assuming steady star formation rates, we determine the timescales for cloud disruption. We find that a dense n_c ~ 2 x 10^5 cm^-3 cloud with initial mass M_c ~ 4 x 10^5 M_sun is able to form ~2 x 10^5 M_sun of stars (50% efficiency) before feedback disperses the gas after ~3 Myr. This mass and age are typical of young, optically visible super star clusters (SSCs). The high efficiency permits the creation of a bound stellar system.

  14. Comparative internal kinematics of the HII regions in interacting and isolated galaxies: implications for massive star formation modes

    CERN Document Server

    Zaragoza-Cardiel, Javier; Font, Joan; García-Lorenzo, Begoña; Camps-Fariña, Artemi; Fathi, Kambiz; James, Philip A; Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Barrera-Ballesteros, Jorge; Cisternas, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    We have observed 10 interacting galaxy pairs using the Fabry-Perot interferometer GH$\\alpha$FaS (Galaxy H$\\alpha$ Fabry-Perot system) on the $4.2\\rm{m}$ William Herschel Telescope (WHT) at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma. We present here the H$\\alpha$ surface brightness, velocity and velocity dispersion maps for the 10 systems we have not previously observed using this technique, as well as the physical properties (sizes, H$\\alpha$ luminosities and velocity dispersion) of 1259 HII regions from the full sample. We also derive the physical properties of 1054 HII regions in a sample of 28 isolated galaxies observed with the same instrument in order to compare the two populations of HII regions. We find a population of the brightest HII regions for which the scaling relations, for example the relation between the H$\\alpha$ luminosity and the radius, are clearly distinct from the relations for the regions of lower luminosity. The regions in this bright population are more frequent in the inte...

  15. Extinction and PAH intensity variations across the HII region IRAS 12063-6259

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, D.; Peeters, E.; Tielens, X.; Otaguro, J.; Bik, A.

    The spatial variations in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) band intensities are generally attributed to variations of the physical conditions in the environment hosting the emitting PAH molecules. However, in recent years, it has been suggested that such variations are caused mainly by extinction. To resolve this question, we have obtained near-infrared (NIR), mid-infrared (MIR) and radio observations of the compact HII region IRAS 12063-6259. We use these data to construct multiple independent extinction maps and to measure the main PAH feature intensities (6.2, 7.7, 8.6 and 11.2 µ m). Three extinction maps are derived: the first using the NIR hydrogen lines and case B recombination theory; the second combining the NIR data, radio data and case B recombination; and the third making use of the Spitzer/IRS MIR observations to measure the 9.8 µ m silicate absorption feature intensity using the Spoon method and PAHFIT. We conclude that different areas of IRAS 12063-6259 possess markedly different extinction properties, with some regions displaying both silicate absorption and corresponding NIR extinction, and other regions displaying NIR extinction and no corresponding silicate absorption. While such breakdowns of the relationship between the NIR extinction and the silicate absorption strength have been observed in molecular clouds, they have never been observed for HII regions. We then compare the PAH intensity variations in the Spitzer/IRS data after dereddening to those found in the original data. Generally it was found that the PAH band intensity variations persist even after dereddening, implying that extinction is not the main cause of the PAH band intensity variations.

  16. Predictions of the extent of self-enrichment in oxygen of giant metal-poor HII regions

    CERN Document Server

    Wofford, Aida

    2009-01-01

    In general, HII regions do not show clear signs of self-enrichment in products from massive stars (M > 8 M_sun). In order to explore why, I modeled the contamination with Wolf-Rayet star ejecta of metal-poor (Z=0.001) HII regions, ionised either by a 10^6 M_sun cluster of coeval stars (cluster 1), or a cluster resulting from continuous star formation at a rate of 1 M_sun yr^-1 (cluster 2). The clusters have Z=0.001 and a Salpeter initial mass function (IMF) from 0.1 to 120 M_sun. Independent one dimensional constant density simulations of the emission-line spectra of unenriched HII regions were computed at the discrete ages 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 Myr, with the photoionisation code CLOUDY, using as input, radiative and mechanical stellar feedbacks predicted by the evolutionary synthesis code STARBURST99. Each HII region was placed at the outer radius of the adiabatically expanding superbubble of Mac Low and McCray (1988). For models with thermal and ionisation balance time-scales of less than 1 Myr, and with oxygen...

  17. Amplification of Magnetic Fields in a Primordial HII Region and Supernova

    CERN Document Server

    Koh, Daegene

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic fields permeate the Universe on all scales and play a key role during star formation. We study the evolution of magnetic fields around a massive metal-free (Population III) star at $z \\sim 15$ during the growth of its HII region and subsequent supernova explosion by conducting three cosmological magnetohydrodynamic simulations with radiation transport. Given the theoretical uncertainty and weak observational constraints of magnetic fields in the early universe, we initialize the simulations with identical initial conditions only varying the seed field strength. We find that magnetic fields grow as $\\rho^{2/3}$ during the gravitational collapse preceding star formation, as expected from ideal spherical collapse models. Massive Population III stars can expel a majority of the gas from the host halo through radiative feedback, and we find that the magnetic fields are not amplified above the spherical collapse scaling relation during this phase. However, afterwards when its supernova remnant can radiativ...

  18. THE INNER GALACTIC STRUCTURE TRACED BY MOLECULAR CLOUDS ASSOCIATED WITH ULTRA-COMPACT HII REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Luna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Estamos sometiendo a pruebas un método para determinar las distancias para una muestra de regiones HII ultracompactas con colores en IRAS y con detección de CS(J=2-1. La ambigüedad de las distancias cinem aticas se resuelve mediante simulaciones Monte Carlo. Utilizando nubes moleculares sintéticas simulamos las distribuciones longitud heliocéntrica-radio (l-R sobre el plano galáctico, y las proyecciones asociadas longitudvelocidad LSR (l-VLSR. Se escoge la mejor distribución galáctica por comparación con los mapas observados de CO. Se presentan resultados preliminares para el IV cuadrante galáctico.

  19. Extragalactic Ultracompact HII Regions: Probing the Birth Environments of Super Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, K E

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, a number of extragalactic massive star clusters that are still deeply embedded in their birth material have been discovered. These objects represent the youngest stage of massive star cluster evolution yet observed, and the most massive and dense of these may be proto globular clusters. Their properties appear to be similar to those of ultracompact HII regions in the Galaxy, but scaled up in total mass and luminosity. In many cases, these clusters are only visible at mid-IR to radio wavelengths, and they have typically been detected as ``inverted'' spectrum radio sources. However, the set of existing observations is anemic, and our current physical model for these natal clusters in simplistic. This article will overview what we think we know about these objects based on existing observations and outline some of the most significant gaps in our current understanding.

  20. Formation of Population III Stars in Fossil HII Regions: Significance of HD

    CERN Document Server

    Nagakura, T; Nagakura, Takanori; Omukai, Kazuyuki

    2005-01-01

    We study the evolution of gas in HII regions around the first stars after the death of the exciting stars. If the first star in a small halo dies without supernova (SN), subsequent star formation is possible in the same halo. We thus investigate the effect of ionization of the gas on subsequent star formation within small halos in the early universe using one-dimensional hydrodynamics with spherical symmetry along with non-equilibrium primordial gas chemistry. We find that the enhanced electron fraction facilitates the formation of molecular hydrogen at the cores of these halos. The low temperature circumstances produced by the H_2 cooling is suitable for HD formation and the resultant cooling further drops the temperature below 100 K. Consequently, low-mass stars with primordial abundances can form even in a small halo. After accreting the interstellar metals, these stars might resemble low-mass ultra metal-poor stars discovered in the present Galactic halo.

  1. Radiation-MHD simulations of pillars and globules in HII regions

    CERN Document Server

    Mackey, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Implicit and explicit raytracing-photoionisation algorithms have been implemented in the author's radiation-magnetohydrodynamics code. The algorithms are described briefly and their efficiency and parallel scaling are investigated. The implicit algorithm is more efficient for calculations where ionisation fronts have very supersonic velocities, and the explicit algorithm is favoured in the opposite limit because of its better parallel scaling. The implicit method is used to investigate the effects of initially uniform magnetic fields on the formation and evolution of dense pillars and cometary globules at the boundaries of HII regions. It is shown that for weak and medium field strengths an initially perpendicular field is swept into alignment with the pillar during its dynamical evolution, matching magnetic field observations of the`Pillars of Creation' in M16. A strong perpendicular magnetic field remains in its initial configuration and also confines the photoevaporation flow into a bar-shaped, dense, ioni...

  2. Modelling Carbon Radio Recombination Line observation towards the Ultra-Compact HII region W48A

    CERN Document Server

    Jeyakumar, S

    2013-01-01

    We model Carbon Recombination Line (CRL) emission from the Photo Dissociation Region (PDR) surrounding the Ultra-Compact (UC) HII region W48A. Our modelling shows that the inner regions ($A_V \\sim 1$) of the CII layer in the PDR contribute significantly to the CRL emission. The dependence of line ratios of CRL emission with the density of the PDR and the far ultra-violet (FUV) radiation incident on the region is explored over a large range of these parameters that are typical for the environments of UCHII regions. We find that by observing a suitable set of CRLs it is possible to constrain the density of the PDR. If the neutral density in the PDR is high ($\\gtrsim 10^7$ \\cmthree) CRL emission is bright at high frequencies ($\\gtrsim 20$ GHz), and absorption lines from such regions can be detected at low frequencies ($\\lesssim 10$ GHz). Modelling CRL observations towards W48A shows that the UCHII region is embedded in a molecular cloud of density of about $4 \\times$ 10$^7$ \\cmthree.

  3. The filling factor - radius relation for 58 HII regions across the disk of NGC6946

    CERN Document Server

    Cedrés, B; Bongiovanni, A; Cepa, J; Ramos, A Asensio; Giammanco, C; Cabrera-Lavers, A; Alfaro, E

    2013-01-01

    Using the OSIRIS tunable narrow band imager on the 10.4m GTC (La Palma) we have mapped the SAB(rs)cd galaxy NGC 6946 over a 7.3x7.5 square arcminutes field in the emission lines of the [SII]\\lambda\\lambda, 6717, 6731 doublet, and in H\\alpha. From these maps we have produced catalogs of the H\\alpha luminosities and effective radii of 557 HII regions across the disk, and derived the [SII] emission line ratios of 370 of these. The H\\alpha observations were used to derive the mean luminosity-weighted electron densities for the regions of the sample, while the [SII] line ratios allowed us to derive values of the in situ electron densities in the denser zones from which the major fraction of the radiation in these lines is emitted, for 58 of the regions. This is by far the largest data set of its kind for a single galaxy. A classical two phase model is used to derive the filling factors of the regions. We find that although the mean electron density decreases with the square root of the radius of the regions, the i...

  4. Study of morphology and stellar content of the Galactic HII region IRAS 16148-5011

    CERN Document Server

    Mallick, K K; Tamura, M; Linz, H; Samal, M R; Ghosh, S K

    2014-01-01

    An investigation of the IRAS 16148-5011 region - a cluster at a distance of 3.6 kpc - is presented here, carried out using multiwavelength data in near-infrared (NIR) from the 1.4m Infrared Survey Facility telescope, mid-infrared (MIR) from the archival Spitzer GLIMPSE survey, far-infrared (FIR) from the Herschel archive, and low-frequency radio continuum observations at 1280 and 843 MHz from the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) and Molonglo Survey archive, respectively. A combination of NIR and MIR data is used to identify 7 Class I and 133 Class II sources in the region. Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) analysis of selected sources reveals a 9.6 Msolar, high-mass source embedded in nebulosity. However, Lyman continuum luminosity calculation using radio emission - which shows a compact HII, region - indicates the spectral type of the ionizing source to be earlier than B0-O9.5. Free-free emission SED modelling yields the electron density as 138 cm^{-3}, and thus the mass of the ionized hydrogen as ~16...

  5. Star formation towards the southern Cometary HII region IRAS 17256-3631

    CERN Document Server

    Veena, V S; Tej, A; Varricatt, W P; Ghosh, S K; Chandrasekhar, T; Ashok, N M

    2015-01-01

    IRAS 17256-3631 is a southern Galactic massive star forming region located at a distance of 2 kpc. In this paper, we present a multiwavelength investigation of the embedded cluster, the HII region, as well as the parent cloud. Radio images at 325, 610 and 1372 MHz were obtained using GMRT, India while the near-infrared imaging and spectroscopy were carried out using UKIRT and Mt. Abu Infrared Telescope, India. The near-infrared K-band image reveals the presence of a partially embedded infrared cluster. The spectral features of the brightest star in the cluster, IRS-1, spectroscopically agrees with a late O or early B star and could be the driving source of this region. Filamentary H_2 emission detected towards the outer envelope indicates presence of highly excited gas. The parent cloud is investigated at far-infrared to millimeter wavelengths and eighteen dust clumps have been identified. The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of these clumps have been fitted as modified blackbodies and the best-fit peak t...

  6. Triggered massive star formation associated with the bubble Hii region Sh2-39 (N5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duronea, N. U.; Cappa, C. E.; Bronfman, L.; Borissova, J.; Gromadzki, M.; Kuhn, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    Aims: We perform a multiwavelength analysis of the bubble Hii region Sh2-39 (N5) and its environs with the aim of studying the physical properties of Galactic IR bubbles and exploring their impact in triggering massive star formation. Methods: To analyze the molecular gas, we used CO(3-2) and HCO+(4-3) line data obtained with the on-the-fly technique from the ASTE telescope. To study the distribution and physical characteristics of the dust, we made use of archival data from ATLASGAL, Herschel, and MSX, while the ionized gas was studied making use of an NVSS image. We used public WISE, Spitzer, and MSX point source catalogs to search for infrared candidate young stellar objects (YSOs) in the region. To investigate the stellar cluster [BDS2003]6 we used IR spectroscopic data obtained with the ARCoIRIS spectrograph, mounted on Blanco 4 m Telescope at CTIO, and new available IR Ks band observations from the VVVeXtended ESO Public Survey (VVVX). Results: The new ASTE observations allowed the molecular gas component in the velocity range from 30 km s-1 to 46 km s-1, associated with Sh2-39, to be studied in detail. The morphology of the molecular gas suggests that the ionized gas is expanding against its parental cloud. We identified four molecular clumps, which were likely formed by the expansion of the ionization front, and determined some of their physical and dynamical properties. Clumps with HCO+ and 870 μm counterparts show evidence of gravitational collapse. We identified several candidate YSOs across the molecular component. Their spatial distribution and the fragmentation time derived for the collected layers of the molecular gas suggest that massive star formation might have been triggered by the expansion of the nebula via the collect and collapse mechanism. The spectroscopical distance obtained for the stellar cluster [BDS2003]6, placed over one of the collapsing clumps in the border of the Hii region, reveals that this cluster is physically associated with

  7. The environment and star formation of HII region Sh2-163: a multi-wavelength study

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Naiping; Li, Nan

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the environment of HII region Sh2-163 and search for evidence of triggered star formation in this region, we performed a multi-wavelength study of this HII region. Most of our data were taken from large-scale surveys: 2MASS, CGPS, MSX and SCUBA. We also made CO molecular line observations, using the 13.7-m telescope. The ionized region of Sh2-163 is detected by both the optical and radio continuum observations. Sh2-163 is partially bordered by an arc-like photodissociation region (PDR), which is coincident with the strongest optical and radio emissions, indicating interactions between the HII region and the surrounding interstellar medium. Two molecular clouds were discovered on the border of the PDR. The morphology of these two clouds suggests they are compressed by the expansion of Sh2-163. In cloud A, we found two molecular clumps. And it seems star formation in clump A2 is much more active than in clump A1. In cloud B, we found new outflow activities and massive star(s) are forming inside. ...

  8. Formation of Pillars at the Boundaries between HII Regions and Molecular Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuta, A; Kane, J O; Pound, M W; Remington, B A; Ryutov, D D; Takabe, H

    2006-04-20

    We investigate numerically the hydrodynamic instability of an ionization front (IF) accelerating into a molecular cloud, with imposed initial perturbations of different amplitudes. When the initial amplitude is small, the imposed perturbation is completely stabilized and does not grow. When the initial perturbation amplitude is large enough, roughly the ratio of the initial amplitude to wavelength is greater than 0.02, portions of the IF temporarily separate from the molecular cloud surface, locally decreasing the ablation pressure. This causes the appearance of a large, warm HI region and triggers nonlinear dynamics of the IF. The local difference of the ablation pressure and acceleration enhances the appearance and growth of a multimode perturbation. The stabilization usually seen at the IF in the linear regimes does not work due to the mismatch of the modes of the perturbations at the cloud surface and in density in HII region above the cloud surface. Molecular pillars are observed in the late stages of the large amplitude perturbation case. The velocity gradient in the pillars is in reasonably good agreement with that observed in the Eagle Nebula. The initial perturbation is imposed in three different ways: in density, in incident photon number flux, and in the surface shape. All cases show both stabilization for a small initial perturbation and large growth of the second harmonic by increasing amplitude of the initial perturbation above a critical value.

  9. Anomalous Microwave Emission in HII regions: is it really anomalous? The case of RCW 49

    CERN Document Server

    Paladini, Roberta; Agliozzo, Claudia; Tibbs, Christopher T; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Umana, Grazia; Dickinson, Clive; Trigilio, Corrado

    2015-01-01

    The detection of an excess of emission at microwave frequencies with respect to the predicted free-free emission has been reported for several Galactic HII regions. Here, we investigate the case of RCW 49, for which the Cosmic Background Imager tentatively (~ 3 sigma) detected Anomalous Microwave Emission at 31 GHz on angular scales of 7'. Using the Australia Telescope Compact Array, we carried out a multi-frequency (5 GHz, 19 GHz and 34 GHz) continuum study of the region, complemented by observations of the H109$\\alpha$ radio recombination line. The analysis shows that: 1) the spatial correlation between the microwave and IR emission persists on angular scales from 3.4' to 0.4", although the degree of the correlation slightly decreases at higher frequencies and on smaller angular scales, 2) the spectral indices between 1.4 and 5 GHz are globally in agreement with optically thin free-free emission, however, ~ 30% of these are positive and much greater than -0.1, consistently with a stellar wind scenario, 3) n...

  10. High Angular Resolution Imaging Spectroscopy of the Galactic Ultra-Compact HII Region K3-50A

    CERN Document Server

    Blum, Robert D

    2009-01-01

    Gemini North adaptive optics imaging spectroscopy is presented for the Galactic ultra-compact HII (UCHII) region K3-50A. Data were obtained in the K-band using the Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS) behind the facility adaptive optics module ALTAIR in natural guide star mode. The NIFS data cube reveals a complex spatial morphology across the 0.1 pc scale of the 3'' UCHII region. Comparison of the nebular emission to Cloudy ionization models shows that the central source must have an effective temperature between about 37000 K and 45000 K with preferred values near 40000 K. Evidence is presented for sharp density variations in the nebula which are interpreted as a clearing of material nearest the central source. High excitation lines of FeIII and SeIV show that the ionization of the nebula clearly changes with distance from the central source. A double lobed kinematic signature (+/- 25 kms) is evident in the Br gamma line map which may be related to the larger scale ionized flow detailed in earli...

  11. The RMS Survey: Resolving kinematic distance ambiguities towards a sample of compact HII regions using HI absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Urquhart, J S; Lumsden, S L; Oudmaijer, R D; Moore, T J T; Mottram, J C; Cooper, H D B; Mottram, M; Rogers, H C

    2011-01-01

    We present high-resolution HI data obtained using the Australia Telescope Compact Array to resolve the near/far distance ambiguities towards a sample of compact HII regions from the Red MSX Source (RMS) survey. The high resolution data are complemented with lower resolution archival HI data extracted from the Southern and VLA Galactic Plane surveys. We resolve the distance ambiguity for nearly all of the 105 sources where the continuum was strong enough to allow analysis of the HI absorption line structure. This represents another step in the determination of distances to the total RMS sample, which with over 1,000 massive young stellar objects and compact HII regions, is the largest and most complete sample of its kind. The full sample will allow the distribution of massive star formation in the Galaxy to be examined.

  12. The relation between radio flux density and ionizing ultra-violet flux for HII regions and supernova remnants in the Large Magellanic cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović M.D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparison between the Parkes radio surveys (Filipović et al 1995 and Vacuum Ultra-Violet (VUV surveys (Smith et al. 1987 of the Large Magellanic Clouds (LMC. We have found 72 sources in common in the LMC which are known HII regions (52 and supernova remnants (SNRs (19. Some of these radio sources are associated with two or more UV stellar associations. A comparison of the radio flux densities and ionizing UV flux for HII regions shows a very good correlation, as expected from theory. Many of the Magellanic Clouds (MCs SNRs are embedded in HII regions, so there is also a relation between radio and UV which we attribute to the surrounding HII regions.

  13. Radiation-MHD models of elephant trunks and globules in HII regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Jonathan; Lim, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    We study the formation and evolution of pillars of dense gas, known as elephant trunks, at the boundaries of HII regions, formed by shadowing of ionising radiation by dense clumps. The effects of magnetic fields on this process are investigated using 3D radiation-magnetohydrodynamics simulations. For a simulation in which an initially uniform magnetic field of strength \\vert B\\vert≃50 μG is oriented perpendicular to the radiation propagation direction, the field is swept into alignment with the pillar during its dynamical evolution, in agreement with observations of the ``Pillars of Creation'' in M16, and of some cometary globules. This effect is significantly enhanced when the simulation is re-run with a weaker field of ≃18 μG. A stronger field with \\vert B\\vert≃ 160 μG is sufficient to prevent this evolution completely, also significantly affecting the photoionisation process. Using a larger simulation domain it is seen that the pillar formation models studied in Mackey & Lim (2010) ultimately evolve to cometary structures in the absence of dense gas further from the star.

  14. Detailed Numerical Simulations on the Formation of Pillars around HII-regions

    CERN Document Server

    Gritschneder, Matthias; Naab, Thorsten; Walch, Stefanie

    2010-01-01

    We study the structural evolution of turbulent molecular clouds under the influence of ionizing radiation emitted from a nearby massive star by performing a high resolution parameter study with the iVINE code. The temperature is taken to be 10K or 100K, the mean number density is either 100cm^3 or 300cm^3. Besides, the turbulence is varied between Mach 1.5 and Mach 12.5 and the main driving scale between 1pc and 8pc. We vary the ionizing flux by an order of magnitude. In our simulations the ionizing radiation enhances the initial turbulent density distribution and thus leads to the formation of pillar-like structures observed adjacent to HII regions in a natural way. Gravitational collapse occurs regularly at the tips of the structures. We find a clear correlation between the initial state of the turbulent cold cloud and the final morphology and physical properties of the structures formed. The most favorable regime for the formation of pillars is Mach 4-10. Structures and therefore stars only form if the ini...

  15. The giant HII region NGC 588 as a benchmark for 2D photoionisation models

    CERN Document Server

    Perez-Montero, Enrique; Relano, Monica; Vilchez, Jose M; Kehrig, Carolina; Morisset, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    We use optical integral field spectroscopy and 8 and 24 micron mid-IR observations of the giant HII region NGC 588 in the disc of M33 as input and constraints for two-dimensional tailor-made photoionisation models. Two different geometrical approaches are followed for the modelling structure: i) Each spatial element of the emitting gas is studied individually using models which assume that the ionisation structure is complete in each element to look for azimuthal variations across gas and dust. ii) A single model is considered, and the two-dimensional structure of the gas and the dust are assumed to be due to the projection of an emitting sphere onto the sky. The models in both assumptions reproduce the radial profiles of Hbeta surface brightness, the observed number of ionising photons, and the strong optical emission-line relative intensities. The first approach produces a constant-density matter-bounded thin shell of variable thickness and dust-to-gas ratio, while the second gives place to a radiation-boun...

  16. Heavy elements in Galactic and Magellanic Cloud HII regions recombination-line versus forbidden-line abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Tsamis, Y G; Liu, X W; Danziger, I J; Storey, P J; Tsamis, Yiannis G.

    2003-01-01

    We have obtained deep optical, long-slit spectrophotometry of the Galactic HII regions M 17, NGC 3576 and of the Magellanic Cloud HII regions 30 Doradus, LMC N11B and SMC N66, recording the optical recombination lines (ORLs) of CII, NII and OII. Temperature-insensitive ORL C2+/O2+ and N2+/O2 ratios are obtained for all nebulae except SMC N66. The ORL C2+/O2+ ratios show remarkable agreement within each galactic system, while also being in agreement with the corresponding CEL ratios. For all five nebulae, the O2+/H+ abundance derived from multiple OII ORLs is found to be higher than the corresponding value derived from the strong [OIII] 4959, 5007A CELs, by factors of 1.8--2.7 for four of the nebulae. The LMC N11B nebula exhibits a more extreme discrepancy factor for the O2+ ion, ~5. Thus these HII regions exhibit ORL/CEL abundance discrepancy factors that are similar to those previously encountered amongst planetary nebulae. Our optical CEL O2+/H+ abundances agree to within 20-30 per cent with published O2+/H...

  17. ISO Mid-Infrared Observations of Giant HII Regions in M33

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, B. P.; Waller, W. H.; Hodge, P. W.; Boulanger, F.; Cornett, R. H.; Fanelli, M. N.; Lequeux, J.; Stecher, T. P.; Viallefond, F.; Hui, Y.

    1999-01-01

    We present Infrared Space Observatory Camera (ISOCAM) Circular Variable Filter scans of three giant HII regions in M33. IC 133, NGC 595, and CC 93 span a wide range of metallicity, luminosity, nebular excitation, and infrared excess; three other emission regions (CC 43, CC 99, and a region to the northeast of the core of NGC 595) are luminous enough in the mid-infrared to be detected in the observed fields. ISOCAM CVF observations provide spatially resolved observations (5'') of 151 wavelengths between 5.1 and 16.5 microns with a spectral resolution R = 35 to 50. We observe atomic emission lines ([Ne II], [Ne III], and [S IV]), several "unidentified infrared bands" (UIBs; 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3, 12.0, and 12.7 microns), and in some cases a continuum which rises steeply at longer wavelengths. We conclude that the spectra of these three GHRs are well explained by combinations of ionized gas, PAHs, and very small grains in various proportions and with different spatial distributions. Comparisons between observed ratios of the various UIBs with model ratios indicate that the PAHs in all three of the GHRs are dehydrogenated and that the small PAHs have been destroyed in IC 133 but have survived in NGC 595 and CC 93. The [Ne III]/[Ne II] ratios observed in IC 133 and NGC 595 are consistent with their ages of 5 and 4.5 Myr, respectively; the deduced ionization parameter is higher in IC 133, consistent with its more compact region of emission.

  18. ISO Mid-Infrared Observations of Giant HII Regions in M33

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, B. P.; Waller, W. H.; Hodge, P. W.; Boulanger, F.; Cornett, R. H.; Fanelli, M. N.; Lequeux, J.; Stecher, T. P.; Viallefond, F.; Hui, Y.

    1999-01-01

    We present Infrared Space Observatory Camera (ISOCAM) Circular Variable Filter scans of three giant HII regions in M33. IC 133, NGC 595, and CC 93 span a wide range of metallicity, luminosity, nebular excitation, and infrared excess; three other emission regions (CC 43, CC 99, and a region to the northeast of the core of NGC 595) are luminous enough in the mid-infrared to be detected in the observed fields. ISOCAM CVF observations provide spatially resolved observations (5'') of 151 wavelengths between 5.1 and 16.5 microns with a spectral resolution R = 35 to 50. We observe atomic emission lines ([Ne II], [Ne III], and [S IV]), several "unidentified infrared bands" (UIBs; 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3, 12.0, and 12.7 microns), and in some cases a continuum which rises steeply at longer wavelengths. We conclude that the spectra of these three GHRs are well explained by combinations of ionized gas, PAHs, and very small grains in various proportions and with different spatial distributions. Comparisons between observed ratios of the various UIBs with model ratios indicate that the PAHs in all three of the GHRs are dehydrogenated and that the small PAHs have been destroyed in IC 133 but have survived in NGC 595 and CC 93. The [Ne III]/[Ne II] ratios observed in IC 133 and NGC 595 are consistent with their ages of 5 and 4.5 Myr, respectively; the deduced ionization parameter is higher in IC 133, consistent with its more compact region of emission.

  19. A molecular outflow evidencing star formation activity in the vicinity of the HII region G034.8-0.7 and the SNR W44

    CERN Document Server

    Paron, S; Rubio, M; Dubner, G

    2009-01-01

    This work aims at investigating the molecular gas component in the vicinity of two young stellar object (YSO) candidates identified at the border of the HII region G034.8-0.7 that is evolving within a molecular cloud shocked by the SNR W44. The purpose is to explore signatures of star forming activity in this complex region. We performed a near and mid infrared study towards the border of the HII region G034.8-0.7 and observed a 90" X 90" region near 18h 56m 48s, +01d 18' 45" (J2000) using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE) in the 12CO J=3--2, 13CO J=3--2, HCO+ J=4--3 and CS J=7--6 lines with an angular resolution of 22". Based on the infrared study we propose that the source 2MASS 18564827+0118471 (IR1 in this work) is a YSO candidate. We discovered a bipolar 12CO outflow in the direction of the line of sight and a HCO+ clump towards IR1, confirming that it is a YSO. From the detection of the CS J=7--6 line we infer the presence of high density (>10^7 cm^-3) and warm (>60 K) gas towards IR...

  20. An In-Depth View of the Mid-Infrared Properties of Point Sources and the Diffuse ISM in the SMC Giant HII Region, N66

    CERN Document Server

    Whelan, David G; Galliano, Frederic; Peeters, Els; Bernard-Salas, Jeronimo; Johnson, Kelsey E; Indebetouw, Remy; Brandl, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    (abridged)The focus of this work is to study mid-infrared point sources and the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) in the low-metallicity (~0.2 solar) giant HII region N66 using the Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Spectrograph. We study 14 targeted infrared point sources as well as spectra of the diffuse ISM that is representative of both the photodissociation regions (PDRs) and the HII regions. Among the point source spectra, we spectroscopically confirm that the brightest mid-infrared point source is a massive embedded young stellar object, we detect silicates in emission associated with two young stellar clusters, and we observe spectral features of a known B[e] supergiant that are more commonly associated with Herbig Be stars. In the diffuse ISM, we provide additional evidence that the very small grain population is being photodestroyed in the hard radiation field. The 11.3 um PAH complex emission exhibits an unexplained centroid shift in both the point source and ISM spectra that should be investigated...

  1. The galaxy-wide distributions of mean electron density in the HII regions of M51 and NGC 4449

    CERN Document Server

    Gutiérrez, Leonel

    2010-01-01

    Using ACS-HST images to yield continuum subtracted photometric maps in H\\alpha of the Sbc galaxy M51 and the dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 4449, we produced extensive (over 2000 regions for M51, over 200 regions for NGC4449) catalogues of parameters of their HII regions: their H\\alpha luminosities, equivalent radii and coordinates with respect to the galaxy centers. From these data we derived, for each region, its mean luminosity weighted electron density, , determined from the H\\alpha luminosity and the radius, R, of the region. Plotting these densities against the radii of the regions we find excellent fits for varying as R^{-1/2}. This relatively simple relation has not, as far as we know, been predicted from models of HII region structure, and should be useful in constraining future models. Plotting the densities against the galactocentric radii, r, of the regions we find good exponential fits, with scale lengths of close to 10 kpc for both galaxies. These values are comparable to the scale lengths of the H...

  2. INDUCED STAR FORMATION IN THE HII REGION SH2-54

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vasquez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo presentamos un estudio multifrecuencia del medio interstelar en el entorno de la región HII Sh2-54. El gas molecular y el polvo se han analizado y descripto por medio de las observaciones milimétricas e infrarrojas, respectivamente. La emisión en 8.0 ¿Êm de Spitzer-IRAC presenta una compleja estructura filamentaria de gas fotodisociado, evidenciando la interacción entre la región HII y el gas molecular. Numerosos candidatos a objetos estelares jóvenes se encuentran proyectados sobre Sh2-54 y sus alrededores. Analizamos si la presencia de estos objetos puede ser explicada dentro de un escenario de formación estelar inducida.

  3. Bipolar HII regions - Morphology and star formation in their vicinity - I - G319.88$+$00.79 and G010.32$-$00.15

    CERN Document Server

    Deharveng, L; Samal, M R; Anderson, L D; LeLeu, G; Brevot, D; Duarte-Cabral, A; Molinari, S; Pestalozzi, M; Foster, J B; Rathborne, J M; Jackson, J M

    2015-01-01

    Our goal is to identify bipolar HII regions and to understand their morphology, their evolution, and the role they play in the formation of new generations of stars. We use the Spitzer and Herschel Hi-GAL surveys to identify bipolar HII regions. We search for their exciting star(s) and estimate their distances using near-IR data. Dense clumps are detected using Herschel-SPIRE data. MALT90 observations allow us to ascertain their association with the central HII region. We identify Class 0/I YSOs using their Spitzer and Herschel-PACS emissions. These methods will be applied to the entire sample of candidate bipolar HII regions. This paper focuses on two bipolar HII regions, one interesting in terms of its morphology, G319.88$+$00.79, and one in terms of its star formation, G010.32$-$00.15. Their exciting clusters are identified and their photometric distances estimated to be 2.6 kpc and 1.75 kpc, respectively. We suggest that these regions formed in dense and flat structures that contain filaments. They have a...

  4. The first CO+ image. I. Probing the HI/H2 layer around the ultracompact HII region Mon R2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treviño-Morales, S. P.; Fuente, A.; Sánchez-Monge, Á.; Pilleri, P.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Ossenkopf-Okada, V.; Roueff, E.; Rizzo, J. R.; Gerin, M.; Berné, O.; Cernicharo, J.; Gónzalez-García, M.; Kramer, C.; García-Burillo, S.; Pety, J.

    2016-09-01

    The CO+ reactive ion is thought to be a tracer of the boundary between a Hii region and the hot molecular gas. In this study, we present the spatial distribution of the CO+ rotational emission toward the Mon R2 star-forming region. The CO+ emission presents a clumpy ring-like morphology, arising from a narrow dense layer around the Hii region. We compared the CO+ distribution with other species present in photon-dominated regions (PDR), such as [Cii] 158 μm, H2 S(3) rotational line at 9.3 μm, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and HCO+. We find that the CO+ emission is spatially coincident with the PAHs and [Cii] emission. This confirms that the CO+ emission arises from a narrow dense layer of the Hi/H2 interface. We determined the CO+ fractional abundance relative to C+ toward three positions. The abundances range from 0.1 to 1.9 × 10-10 and are in good agreement with the previous chemical model, which predicts that the production of CO+ in PDRs only occurs in dense regions with high UV fields. The CO+ linewidth is larger than those found in molecular gas tracers, and their central velocity are blueshifted with respect to the molecular gas velocity. We interpret this as a hint that the CO+ is probing photoevaporating clump surfaces.

  5. The first CO+ image: Probing the HI/H2 layer around the ultracompact HII region Mon R2

    CERN Document Server

    Trevino-Morales, S P; Sanchez-Monge, A; Pilleri, P; Goicoechea, J R; Ossenkopf-Okada, V; Roueff, E; Rizzo, J R; Gerin, M; Berne, O; Cernicharo, J; Gonzalez-Garcia, M; Kramer, C; Garcia-Burillo, S; Pety, J

    2016-01-01

    The CO+ reactive ion is thought to be a tracer of the boundary between a HII region and the hot molecular gas. In this study, we present the spatial distribution of the CO+ rotational emission toward the Mon R2 star-forming region. The CO+ emission presents a clumpy ring-like morphology, arising from a narrow dense layer around the HII region. We compare the CO+ distribution with other species present in photon-dominated regions (PDR), such as [CII] 158 mm, H2 S(3) rotational line at 9.3 mm, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and HCO+. We find that the CO+ emission is spatially coincident with the PAHs and [CII] emission. This confirms that the CO+ emission arises from a narrow dense layer of the HI/H2 interface. We have determined the CO+ fractional abundance, relative to C+ toward three positions. The abundances range from 0.1 to 1.9x10^(-10) and are in good agreement with previous chemical model, which predicts that the production of CO+ in PDRs only occurs in dense regions with high UV fields. The CO...

  6. Near-IR integral field spectroscopy of ionizing stars and young stellar objects on the borders of HII regions

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, F; Deharveng, L; Zavagno, A; Bouret, J -C

    2009-01-01

    We present near-IR SINFONI observations of three Galactic HII regions: RVW79, RCW82 and RCW120. We identify the ionizing stars of each region: they are early to late O stars, close to the main sequence. We derive their stellar and wind properties using atmosphere models computed with the code CMFGEN. The cluster ionizing RCW~79 formed 2.3+/-0.5 Myr ago. Similar ages are estimated, albeit with a larger uncertainty, for the ionizing stars of the other two regions. In RCW79 the mechanical wind luminosity represents only 0.1% of the ionizing luminosity, questioning the influence of stellar winds on the dynamics of the the HII region. The young stellar objects show four main types of spectral features: H2 emission, Br gamma emission, CO bandheads emission and CO bandheads absorption. These features are typical of young stellar objects surrounded by disks and/or envelopes. The radial velocities of most YSOs are consistent with that of the ionized gas, firmly establishing that star formation is taking place on the b...

  7. HII region G46.5-0.2: the interplay between ionizing radiation, molecular gas and star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Paron, S; Dubner, G; Yuan, Jing-Hua; Petriella, A; Giacani, E; Li, Jin Zeng; Wu, Yuefang; Liu, Hongli; Huang, Ya Fang; Zhang, Si-Ju

    2015-01-01

    HII regions are particularly interesting because they can generate dense layers of gas and dust, elongated columns or pillars of gas pointing towards the ionizing sources, and cometary globules of dense gas, where triggered star formation can occur. Understanding the interplay between the ionizing radiation and the dense surrounding gas is very important to explain the origin of these peculiar structures, and hence to characterize triggered star formation. G46.5-0.2 (G46), a poorly studied galactic HII region located at about 4 kpc, is an excellent target to perform this kind of studies. Using public molecular data extracted from the Galactic Ring Survey (13CO J=1-0) and from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope data archive (12CO, 13CO, C18O J=3-2, HCO+ and HCN J=4-3), and infrared data from the GLIMPSE and MIPSGAL surveys, we perform a complete study of G46, its molecular environment and the young stellar objects placed around it. We found that G46, probably excited by an O7V star, is located close to the edge...

  8. H$\\alpha$ tail, intracluster HII regions and star-formation: ESO137-001 in Abell 3627

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, M; Voit, G M

    2007-01-01

    We present the discovery of a 40 kpc H-alpha tail and at least 29 emission-line objects downstream of a star-forming galaxy ESO 137-001 in a rich, nearby cluster A3627. The galaxy is known to possess a dramatic 70 kpc X-ray tail. The detected H-alpha tail coincides positionally with the X-ray tail. The H-alpha emission in the galaxy is sharply truncated on the front and the sides near the nucleus, indicating significant ram pressure stripping. ESO 137-001 is thus the first cluster late-type galaxy known with both an X-ray tail and an H-alpha tail. The emission-line objects are all distributed downstream of the galaxy, with projected distance up to 39 kpc from the galaxy. From the analysis on the H-alpha_{off} frame and the estimate of the background emission-line objects, we conclude that it is very likely all these 29 emission-line objects are HII regions associated with ESO 137-001. The high surface number density and luminosities of these HII regions (up to 10^40 ergs/s) largely dwarf the previously known ...

  9. An Alternative to Spinning Dust for the Microwave Emission of LPH 201.663+1.643 an Ultracompact HII Region

    CERN Document Server

    McCullough, P R

    2002-01-01

    The microwave spectral energy distribution of the dusty, diffuse H II region LPH 201.663+1.643 has been interpreted by others as tentative evidence for microwave emission from spinning dust grains. We present an alternative interpretation for that particular object; specifically, that an ultracompact H II region embedded within the dust cloud would explain the available observations as well or better than spinning dust. Parameters for the size, surface brightness, and flux density of the putative ultracompact HII region, derived from the microwave observations, are within known ranges. A possible candidate for such an ultracompact H II region is IRAS 06337+1051, based upon its infrared colors. However, IRAS 06337+1051's infrared flux appears to be too small to be consistent with the microwave flux required for this alternative model to explain the observations.

  10. On the relative importance of different microphysics on the D-type expansion of galactic HII regions

    CERN Document Server

    Haworth, Thomas J; Acreman, David M; Bisbas, Thomas G

    2015-01-01

    Radiation hydrodynamics (RHD) simulations are used to study many astrophysical phenomena, however they require the use of simplified radiation transport and thermal prescriptions to reduce computational cost. In this paper we present a systematic study of the importance of microphysical processes in RHD simulations using the example of D-type HII region expansion. We compare the simplest hydrogen-only models with those that include: ionisation of H, He, C, N, O, S and Ne, different gas metallicity, non-LTE metal line blanketed stellar spectral models of varying metallicity, radiation pressure, dust and treatment of photodissociation regions. Each of these processes are explicitly treated using modern numerical methods rather than parameterisation. In line with expectations, changes due to microphysics in either the effective number of ionising photons or the thermal structure of the gas lead to differences in D-type expansion. In general we find that more realistic calculations lead to the onset of D-type exp...

  11. Flickering of 1.3 cm Sources in Sgr B2: Towards a Solution to the Ultracompact HII Region Lifetime Problem

    CERN Document Server

    De Pree, C G; Mac Low, M -M; Wilner, D J; Goss, W M; Galván-Madrid, R; Keto, E R; Klessen, R S; Monsrud, A

    2013-01-01

    Accretion flows onto massive stars must transfer mass so quickly that they are themselves gravitationally unstable, forming dense clumps and filaments. These density perturbations interact with young massive stars, emitting ionizing radiation, alternately exposing and confining their HII regions. As a result, the HII regions are predicted to flicker in flux density over periods of decades to centuries rather than increasing monotonically in size as predicted by simple Spitzer solutions. We have recently observed the Sgr B2 region at 1.3 cm with the VLA in its three hybrid configurations (DnC, CnB and BnA) at a resolution of 0.25''. These observations were made to compare in detail with matched continuum observations from 1989. At 0.25'' resolution, Sgr B2 contains 41 UC HII regions, 6 of which are hypercompact. The new observations of Sgr B2 allow comparison of relative peak flux densites for the HII regions in Sgr B2 over a 23 year time baseline (1989-2012) in one of the most source-rich massive star forming...

  12. Young stellar population and ongoing star formation in the HII complex Sh2-252

    CERN Document Server

    Jose, Jessy; Samal, M R; Ojha, D K; Ogura, K; Kim, J S; Kobayashi, N; Goyal, A; Chauhan, N; Eswaraiah, C

    2013-01-01

    In this paper an extensive survey of the star forming complex Sh2-252 has been undertaken with an aim to explore its hidden young stellar population as well as to understand the structure and star formation history. This complex is composed of five embedded clusters associated with the sub-regions A, C, E, NGC 2175s and Teu 136. Using 2MASS-NIR and Spitzer-IRAC, MIPS photometry we identified 577 young stellar objects (YSOs), of which, 163 are Class I, 400 are Class II and 14 are transition disk YSOs. Spatial distribution of the candidate YSOs shows that they are mostly clustered around the sub-regions in the western half of the complex, suggesting enhanced star formation activity towards its west. Using the spectral energy distribution and optical colour-magnitude diagram based age analyses, we derived probable evolutionary status of the sub-regions of Sh2-252. Our analysis shows that the region A is the youngest (~ 0.5 Myr), the regions B, C and E are of similar evolutionary stage (~ 1-2 Myr) and the cluster...

  13. Combined stellar structure and atmosphere models for massive stars; 4, The impact on the ionization structure of single star HII regions

    CERN Document Server

    Stasinska, G; Stasinska, Grazyna; Schaerer, Daniel

    1996-01-01

    We study the impact of modern stellar atmospheres that take into account the effects of stellar winds, departures from LTE and line blanketing ("CoStar" models) on the ionization structure of HII regions. Results from a large grid of photoionization models are presented. Due to a flatter energy distribution in the HeI continuum, compared to the widely used Kurucz models, generally higher ionic ratios are obtained. We find that N+/O+ and Ne++/O++ can be safely used as direct indicators of N/O and Ne/O abundance ratios in HII regions, over a wide range of astrophysical situations. The roughly constant observed value of Ne++/O++ ionic ratios in Galactic HII regions is naturally reproduced by photoionization models using CoStar fluxes, while Kurucz models at solar metallicity fail to reproduce this behaviour. This gives support to ionizing fluxes from non-LTE atmospheres including stellar winds and line blanketing. However, we also point out that tests of stellar atmosphere models from observations of HII regions...

  14. A Herschel and BIMA study of the sequential star formation near the W48A HII region

    CERN Document Server

    Rygl, K L J; Polychroni, D; Wyrowski, F; Motte, F; Elia, D; Nguyen-Luong, Q; Didelon, P; Pestalozzi, M; Benedettini, M; Molinari, S; Andre, Ph; Fallscheer, C; Gibb, A; di Giorgio, A M; Hill, T; Konyves, V; Marston, A; Pezzuto, S; Rivera-Ingraham, A; Schisano, E; Schneider, N; Spinoglio, L; Ward-Thompson, D; White, G J

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of Herschel HOBYS photometric mapping combined with BIMA observations and additional archival data, and perform an in-depth study of the evolutionary phases of the star-forming clumps in W 48A and their surroundings. Age estimates for the compact sources were derived from bolometric luminosities and envelope masses, which were obtained from the dust continuum emission, and agree within an order of magnitude with age estimates from molecular line and radio data. The clumps in W 48A are linearly aligned by age (east-old to west-young): we find a ultra compact (UC) HII region, a young stellar object (YSO) with class II methanol maser emission, a YSO with a massive outflow, and finally the NH_2D prestellar cores from Pillai et al. This remarkable positioning reflects the (star) formation history of the region. We find that it is unlikely that the star formation in the W 48A molecular cloud was triggered by the UCHII region and discuss the Aquila supershell expansion as a mayor influence on ...

  15. An HST/NICMOS view of the prototypical giant HII region NGC604 in M33

    CERN Document Server

    Barba, Rodolfo H; Perez, Enrique; Rubio, Monica; Bolatto, Alberto; Farina, Cecilia; Bosch, Guillermo; Walborn, Nolan R

    2009-01-01

    We present the first high-spatial resolution near-infrared (NIR) imaging of NGC 604, obtained with the NICMOS camera aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). These NICMOS broadband images reveal new NIR point sources, clusters, and diffuse structures. We found an excellent spatial correlation between the 8.4 GHz radio continuum and the 2.2mu-m nebular emission. Moreover, massive young stellar object candidates appear aligned with these radio peaks, reinforcing the idea that those areas are star-forming regions. Three different scaled OB associations are recognized in the NICMOS images. The brightest NIR sources in our images have properties that suggest that they are red supergiant stars, of which one of them was previously known. This preliminary analysis of the NICMOS images shows the complexity of the stellar content of the NGC 604 nebula.

  16. A young stellar cluster within the RCW41 HII region: deep NIR photometry and Optical/NIR polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Fábio P; Franco, Gabriel A P

    2012-01-01

    The RCW41 star-forming region is embedded within the Vela Molecular Ridge, hosting a massive stellar cluster surrounded by a conspicuous HII region. Understanding the role of interstellar magnetic fields and studying the newborn stellar population is crucial to build a consistent picture of the physical processes acting on this kind of environment. We have carried out a detailed study of the interstellar polarization toward RCW41, with data from an optical and near-infrared polarimetric survey. Additionally, deep near-infrared images from the NTT 3.5m telescope have been used to study the photometric properties of the embedded young stellar cluster, revealing several YSO's candidates. By using a set of pre-main sequence isochrones, a mean cluster age in the range 2.5 - 5.0 million years was determined, and evidence of sequential star formation were revealed. An abrupt decrease in R-band polarization degree is noticed toward the central ionized area, probably due to low grain alignment efficiency caused by the...

  17. Abundance determination of multiple star-forming regions in the HII galaxy SDSS J165712.75+321141.4

    CERN Document Server

    Hagele, Guillermo F; Perez-Montero, Enrique; Diaz, Angeles I; Cardaci, Monica V; Firpo, Veronica; Terlevich, Elena; Terlevich, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    We analyze high signal-to-noise spectrophotometric observations acquired simultaneously with TWIN, a double-arm spectrograph, from 3400 to 10400 \\AA of three star-forming regions in the HII galaxy SDSS J165712.75+321141.4. We have measured four line temperatures: Te([OIII]), Te([SIII]), Te([OII]), and Te([SII]), with high precision, rms errors of order 2%, 5%, 6% and 6%, respectively, for the brightest region, and slightly worse for the other two. The temperature measurements allowed the direct derivation of ionic abundances of oxygen, sulphur, nitrogen, neon and argon. We have computed CLOUDY tailor-made models which reproduce the O2+ measured thermal and ionic structures within the errors in the three knots, with deviations of only 0.1 dex in the case of O+ and S2+ ionic abundances. In the case of the electron temperature and the ionic abundances of S+/H+, we find major discrepancies which could be consequence of the presence of colder diffuse gas. The star formation history derived using STARLIGHT shows a ...

  18. The Spitzer Survey of the Small Magellanic Cloud: Discovery of Embedded Protostars in the HII Region NGC 346

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Joshua D; Whitney, Barbara A; Robitaille, Thomas P; Shah, Ronak Y; Makovoz, David; Stanimirovic, Snezana; Barba, Rodolfo H; Rubio, Monica

    2007-01-01

    We use Spitzer Space Telescope observations from the Spitzer Survey of the Small Magellanic Cloud (S3MC) to study the young stellar content of N66, the largest and brightest HII region in the SMC. In addition to large numbers of normal stars, we detect a significant population of bright, red infrared sources that we identify as likely to be young stellar objects (YSOs). We use spectral energy distribution (SED) fits to classify objects as ordinary (main sequence or red giant) stars, asymptotic giant branch stars, background galaxies, and YSOs. This represents the first large-scale attempt at blind source classification based on Spitzer SEDs in another galaxy. We firmly identify at least 61 YSOs, with another 50 probable YSOs; only one embedded protostar in the SMC was reported in the literature prior to the S3MC. We present color selection criteria that can be used to identify a relatively clean sample of YSOs with IRAC photometry. Our fitted SEDs indicate that the infrared-bright YSOs in N66 have stellar mas...

  19. Small-spatial scale variations of nebular properties and the abundance discrepancy in three Galactic HII regions

    CERN Document Server

    Mesa-Delgado, A

    2010-01-01

    We present results of long-slit spectroscopy in several slit positions that cover different morphological structures of the central parts of three bright Galactic HII regions: M8, M17 and NGC7635. We study the spatial distributions of a large number of nebular parameters such as the extinction coefficient, line fluxes, physical conditions and ionic abundances at the maximum spatial resolution attainable with our instrumentation. Particularly, our goal is to study the behaviour of the abundance discrepancy factor of O^{2+}, ADF(O^{2+}), defined as the logarithmic difference of the O^{2+} abundances derived from collisionally excited and recombination lines. We find that the ADF(O^{2+}) remains fairly constant along the slit positions of M8 and M17. In the case of NGC7635, we only detect the OII recombination lines in the integrated spectrum along the whole slit, where the ADF(O^{2+}) reaches a remarkably high value of about 0.59 dex. We compare our results with previous ones obtained for the Orion Nebula. We f...

  20. The Ionizing Stars of the Galactic Ultra-Compact HII Region G45.45+0.06

    CERN Document Server

    Blum, Robert D

    2008-01-01

    Using the NIFS near-infrared integral-field spectrograph behind the facility adaptive optics module, ALTAIR, on Gemini North, we have identified several massive O-type stars that are responsible for the ionization of the Galactic Ultra-Compact HII region G45.45+0.06. The sources ``m'' and ``n'' from the imaging study of Feldt et a. 1998 are classified as hot, massive O-type stars based on their K-band spectra. Other bright point sources show red and/or nebular spectra and one appears to have cool star features that we suggest are due to a young, low-mass pre-main sequence component. Still two other embedded sources (``k'' and ``o'' from Feldt et al.) exhibit CO bandhead emission that may arise in circumstellar disks which are possibly still accreting. Finally, nebular lines previously identified only in higher excitation planetary nebulae and associated with KrIII and SeIV ions are detected in G45.45+0.06.

  1. Denser Sampling of the Rosette Nebula with Faraday Rotation Measurements: Improved Estimates of Magnetic Fields in HII Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Allison H; Sink, Joseph R; Brown, Shea; Mao, Sui Ann

    2015-01-01

    We report Faraday rotation measurements of 11 extragalactic radio sources with lines of sight through the Rosette Nebula, a prominent HII region associated with the star cluster NGC 2244. It is also a prototypical example of a "stellar bubble" produced by the winds of the stars in NGC 2244. The goal of these measurements is to better determine the strength and structure of the magnetic field in the nebula. We calculate the rotation measure (RM) through two methods, a least-squares fit to $\\chi$( $\\lambda^2$) and Rotation Measure Synthesis. In conjunction with our results from Savage et al. (2013), we find an excess RM due to the shell of the nebula of +40 to +1200 rad m$^{-2}$ above a background RM of +147 rad m$^{-2}$. We discuss two forms of a simple shell model intended to reproduce the magnitude of the observed RM as a function of distance from the center of the Rosette Nebula. The models represent different physical situations for the magnetic field within the shell of the nebula. The first assumes that ...

  2. Helium in natal HII regions: the origin of the X-ray absorption in gamma-ray burst afterglows

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, Darach; Andersen, Anja C; Fynbo, Johan P U; Gorosabel, Javier; Hjorth, Jens; Jakobsson, Páll; Krühler, Thomas; Laursen, Peter; Leloudas, Giorgos; Malesani, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    Soft X-ray absorption in excess of Galactic is observed in the afterglows of most gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), but the correct solution to its origin has not been arrived at after more than a decade of work, preventing its use as a powerful diagnostic tool. We resolve this long-standing problem and find that He in the GRB's host HII region is responsible for most of the absorption. We show that the X-ray absorbing column density (N_Hx) is correlated with both the neutral gas column density and with the optical afterglow extinction (Av). This correlation explains the connection between dark bursts and bursts with high N_Hx values. From these correlations we exclude an origin of the X-ray absorption which is not related to the host galaxy, i.e. the intergalactic medium or intervening absorbers are not responsible. We find that the correlation with the dust column has a strong redshift evolution, whereas the correlation with the neutral gas does not. From this we conclude that the column density of the X-ray absorpt...

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: IRX-β relation of HII regions in NGC628 (Ye+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, C.; Zou, H.; Lin, L.; Lian, J.; Hu, N.; Kong, X.

    2016-10-01

    NGC 628 has been observed by the PPAK IFS Nearby Galaxies Survey (PINGS) performed by the 3.5m telescope of the Calar Alto Observatory. The IFU provides a sampling of 2.7", an optical wavelength range of 3700-7000Å with a spectral resolution of ~8Å. The final data set comprises 11094 individual spectra, and the typical spatial resolution is about 3.5"-4". The slice image at the Hα wavelength is used to determine HII regions. FUV and near-UV (NUV) images of NGC 628 were taken by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), which are centered at wavelengths of 1516 and 2267Å. IR images were taken by Spitzer IRAC (3.6um, 8.0um) and MIPS (24um). The spatial resolutions of UV and IR images are 4.3", 5.3", 1.9", 2.8", and 6.4", respectively. We obtain these images from the data release website of Local Volume Legacy (LVL) survey DR5 (Dale+, 2009, J/ApJ/703/517; http://irsa.ipac.caltech.edu/data/SPITZER/LVL/). (2 data files).

  4. ISO spectroscopy of compact HII regions in the Galaxy - II. Ionization and elemental abundances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Hernandez, NL; Peeters, E; Morisset, C; Tielens, AGGM; Cox, P; Roelfsema, PR; Baluteau, JP; Schaerer, D; Mathis, JS; Damour, F; Churchwell, E; Kessler, MF

    2002-01-01

    Based on the ISO spectral catalogue of compact H II regions by Peeters et al. (2002), we present a first analysis of the hydrogen recombination and atomic fine-structure lines originated in the ionized gas. The sample consists of 34 H II regions located at galactocentric distances between R-Gal = 0

  5. The Orion HII Region and the Orion Bar in the Mid-infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, F.; Berné, O.; Adams, J. D.; Herter, T. L.; Keller, L. D.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2016-10-01

    We present mid-infrared photometry of the Orion bar obtained with the Faint Object infraRed Camera for the SOFIA Telescope (FORCAST) on board SOFIA at 6.4, 6.6, 7.7, 19.7, 31.5, and 37.1 μm. By complementing this observation with archival FORCAST and Herschel/PACS images, we are able to construct a complete infrared spectral energy distribution of the Huygens region in the Orion nebula. Comparing the infrared images with gas tracers, we find that PACS maps trace the molecular cloud, while the FORCAST data trace the photodissociation region (PDR) and the H ii region. Analysis of the energetics of the region reveal that the PDR extends for 0.28 pc along the line of sight and that the bar is inclined at an angle of 4°. The infrared and submillimeter images reveal that the Orion bar represents a swept-up shell with a thickness of 0.1 pc. The mass of the shell implies a shock velocity of ≃3 km s-1 and an age of ≃105 years for the H ii region. Our analysis shows that the UV and infrared dust opacities in the H ii region and the PDR are a factor 5 to 10 lower than in the diffuse interstellar medium. In the ionized gas, Lyα photons are a major source of dust heating at distances larger than ≃0.06 pc from θ 1 Ori C. Dust temperatures can be explained if the size of the grains is between 0.1 and 1 μm. We derive the photoelectric heating efficiency of the atomic gas in the Orion bar. The results are in good qualitative agreement with models and the quantitative differences indicate a decreased polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon abundance in this region.

  6. Oxygen abundance distributions in six late-type galaxies based on SALT spectra of HII regions

    CERN Document Server

    Zinchenko, I A; Grebel, E K; Pilyugin, L S

    2015-01-01

    Spectra of 34 H II regions in the late-type galaxies NGC1087, NGC2967, NGC3023, NGC4030, NGC4123, and NGC4517A were observed with the South African Large Telescope (SALT). In all 34 H II regions, oxygen abundances were determined through the "counterpart" method (C method). Additionally, in two H II regions in which the auroral lines were detected oxygen abundances were measured through the classic Te method. We also estimated the abundances in our H II regions using the O3N2 and N2 calibrations and compared those with the C-based abundances. With these data we examined the radial abundance distributions in the disks of our target galaxies. We derived surface-brightness profiles and other characteristics of the disks (the surface brightness at the disk center and the disk scale length) in three photometric bands for each galaxy using publicly available photometric imaging data. The radial distributions of the oxygen abundances predicted by the relation between abundance and disk surface brightness in the W1 b...

  7. Populations of High-Luminosity Density-Bounded HII Regions in Spiral Galaxies? Evidence and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, J. E.; Rozas, M.; Zurita, A.; Watson, R. A.; Knapen, J. H.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we present evidence that the H II regions of high luminosity in disk galaxies may be density bounded, so that a significant fraction of the ionizing photons emitted by their exciting OB stars escape from the regions. The key piece of evidence is the presence, in the Ha luminosity functions (LFs) of the populations of H iI regions, of glitches, local sharp peaks at an apparently invariant luminosity, defined as the Stromgren luminosity Lstr), LH(sub alpha) = Lstr = 10(sup 38.6) (+/- 10(sup 0.1)) erg/ s (no other peaks are found in any of the LFs) accompanying a steepening of slope for LH(sub alpha) greater than Lstr This behavior is readily explicable via a physical model whose basic premises are: (a) the transition at LH(sub alpha) = Lstr marks a change from essentially ionization bounding at low luminosities to density bounding at higher values, (b) for this to occur the law relating stellar mass in massive star-forming clouds to the mass of the placental cloud must be such that the ionizing photon flux produced within the cloud is a function which rises more steeply than the mass of the cloud. Supporting evidence for the hypothesis of this transition is also presented: measurements of the central surface brightnesses of H II regions for LH(sub alpha) less than Lstr are proportional to L(sup 1/3, sub H(sub alpha)), expected for ionization bounding, but show a sharp trend to a steeper dependence for LH(sub alpha) greater than Lstr, and the observed relation between the internal turbulence velocity parameter, sigma, and the luminosity, L, at high luminosities, can be well explained if these regions are density bounded. If confirmed, the density-bounding hypothesis would have a number of interesting implications. It would imply that the density-bounded regions were the main sources of the photons which ionize the diffuse gas in disk galaxies. Our estimates, based on the hypothesis, indicate that these regions emit sufficient Lyman continuum not only to

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Radio observations of Galactic WISE HII regions (Anderson+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L. D.; Armentrout, W. P.; Johnstone, B. M.; Bania, T. M.; Balser, D. S.; Wenger, T. V.; Cunningham, V.

    2016-01-01

    We draw our targets from the MIR objects in the WISE catalog of Anderson+, 2014, J/ApJS/212/1. We also include in our sample Sharpless H II regions (Sharpless 1959, VII/20). See section 2 for further details. Our observations were made with the GBT 100m telescope from 2012 July through 2014 August. There are seven radio recombination lines (RRLs) that can be cleanly observed simultaneously with the GBT in the X-band: H87α to H93α. We average these seven RRLs (each at two orthogonal polarizations) to create a single average RRL spectrum. We followed the same GBT observational procedure as in the original HRDS (Green Bank Telescope H II Region Discovery Survey (GBT HRDS; Bania et al. 2010ApJ...718L.106B). (3 data files).

  9. Star clusters and the structure of the ISM Tunnels and wakes in giant extragalactic HII regions

    CERN Document Server

    Tenorio-Tagle, G; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Tanco, Gustavo Medina

    1998-01-01

    Several structures have been discovered embedded in regions of recent or ongoing star formation, which point to the importance of the interaction between fast moving wind-blowing stars and their environment. Using hydrodynamic simulations, we investigate the passage through the interstellar medium of a supersonic stellar wind source, and show how it can naturally lead to the formation of tubes, channels and swamps of globules as interfaces are crossed. The results are in excellent agreement with observation of 30 Doradus.

  10. Production of Elephant Trunks in HII Regions by Radiation-Magnetohydrodynamic Instabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Fierlinger, Katharina; Krumholz, Mark; Grittschneder, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Recent SPH and grid code simulations showed, that ionizing radiation can amplify overdensities in turbulent molecular clouds and produce molecular pillars. The relevance of magnetic fields for the structure and stability of molecular clouds is still under discussion. We investigate whether an ionization front hitting a medium with small distortions of the magnetic field can produce the observed pillar-like structures in star forming regions (e.g. Eagle Nebula). Numerical MHD simulations with ...

  11. Physical properties of the Sh2-104 HII region as seen by Herschel

    CERN Document Server

    Rodón, J A; Baluteau, J -P; Anderson, L D; Polehampton, E; Abergel, A; Motte, F; Bontemps, S; Ade, P; André, P; Arab, H; Beichman, C; Bernard, J -P; Blagrave, K; Boulanger, F; Cohen, M; Compiegne, M; Cox, P; Dartois, E; Davis, G; Emery, R; Fulton, T; Gry, C; Habart, E; Halpern, M; Huang, M; Joblin, C; Jones, S C; Kirk, J; Lagache, G; Lin, T; Madden, S; Makiwa, G; Martin, P; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Molinari, S; Moseley, H; Naylor, D; Okumura, K; Orieux, F; Gonçalvez, D Pinheiro; Rodet, T; Russeil, D; Saraceno, P; Sidher, S; Spencer, L; Swinyard, B; Ward-Thompson, D; White, G

    2010-01-01

    Context: Sh2-104 is a Galactic H ii region with a bubble morphology, detected at optical and radio wavelengths. It is considered the first observational confirmation of the collect-and-collapse model of triggered star-formation. Aims: We aim to analyze the dust and gas properties of the Sh2-104 region to better constrain its effect on local future generations of stars. In addition, we investigate the relationship between the dust emissivity index {\\beta} and the dust temperature, T_dust. Methods: Using Herschel PACS and SPIRE images at 100, 160, 250, 350 and 500 {\\mu}m we determine T_dust and {\\beta} throughout Sh2-104, fitting the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) obtained from aperture photometry. With the SPIRE Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) we obtained spectra at different positions in the Sh2-104 region. We detect J-ladders of CO and 13CO, with which we derive the gas temperature and column density. We also detect proxies of ionizing flux as the [NII] 3P1-3P0 and [CI] 3P2-3P1 transitions. Result...

  12. A radiation driven implosion model for the enhanced luminosity of protostars near HII regions

    CERN Document Server

    Motoyama, K; Shang, H

    2007-01-01

    Context. Molecular clouds near the H II regions tend to harbor more luminous protostars. Aims. Our aim in this paper is to investigate whether or not radiation-driven implosion mechanism enhances luminosity of protostars near regions of high-ionizing fluxes. Methods. We performed numerical simulations to model collapse of cores exposed to UV radiation from O stars. We investigated dependence of mass loss rates on the initial density profiles of cores and variation of UV fluxes. We derived simple analytic estimates of accretion rates and final masses of protostars. Results. Radiation-driven implosion mechanism can increase accretion rates of protostars by 1-2 orders of magnitude. On the other hand, mass loss due to photo-evaporation is not large enough to have a significant impact on the luminosity. The increase of accretion rate makes luminosity 1-2 orders higher than those of protostars that form without external triggering. Conclusions. Radiation-driven implosion can help explain the observed higher luminos...

  13. Optical Recombination Lines of Heavy-elements in Giant Extragalactic HII Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Esteban, C; Torres-Peimbert, S; Rodríguez, M

    2002-01-01

    We present high resolution observations of the giant extragalactic H II regions NGC 604, NGC 2363, NGC 5461 and NGC 5471, based on observations taken with the ISIS spectrograph on the William Herschel Telescope. We have detected -by the first time- C II and O II recombination lines in these objects. We find that recombination lines give larger C^{++} and O^{++} abundances than collisionallly excited lines, suggesting that temperature variations can be present in the objects. We detect [Fe IV] lines in NGC 2363 and NGC 5471, the most confident detection of optical lines of this kind in H II regions. Considering the temperature structure we derive their H, He, C, N, O, Ne, S, Ar, and Fe abundances. From the recombination lines of NGC 5461 and NGC 5471 we determine the presence of C/H and O/H gradients in M101. We calculate the Delta Y/Delta O and Delta Y/Delta Z values considering the presence of temperature variations and under the assumption of constant temperature. We obtain a better agreement with models of...

  14. Physical and chemical properties of Red MSX Sources in the southern sky: HII regions

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Naiping; Li, Nan

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the physical and chemical properties of 18 southern Red Midcourse Space Experiment Sources (RMSs), using archival data taken from the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) Telescope Large Area Survey of the Galaxy, the Australia Telescope Compact Array, and the Millimeter Astronomy Legacy Team Survey at 90 GHz. Most of our sources have simple cometary/unresolved radio emissions at 4.8 and/or 8.6GHz. The large number of Lyman continuum fluxes (NL) indicates they are probably massive O- or early B-type star formation regions. Archival IRAS infrared data are used to estimate the dust temperature, which is about 30 K of our sources. Then, the H2 column densities and the volume-averaged H2 number densities are estimated using the 0.87 mm dust emissions. Large-scale infall and ionized accretions may be occurring in G345.4881+00.3148. We also attempt to characterize the chemical properties of these RMSs through molecular line (N2H+ (1-0) and HCO+ (1-0)) observations. Most of the detected N2H+ and HCO+...

  15. The Herschel view of HII regions in M 33 (HERM33ES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verley, S.; Relaño, M.; Kramer, C.; Xilouris, E. M.; Boquien, M.; Calzetti, D.; Combes, F.; Buchbender, C.; Braine, J.; Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Tabatabaei, F. S.; Lord, S.; Israel, F.; Stacey, G.; van der Werf, P.

    2010-12-01

    Within the framework of the HERM33ES Key Project (Kramer et al. 2010), using the high resolution and sensitivity of the Herschel photometric data, we study the compact emission in the Local Group spiral galaxy M 33. We present a catalogue of 159 compact emission sources in M 33 identified by SExtractor in the 250 μm SPIRE band which is the one that provides the best spatial resolution. We measure fluxes at 24 μm and Hα for those 159 extracted sources. We find a very strong Pearson correlation coefficient with the MIPS 24 μm emission (r24 = 0.94) and a rather strong correlation with the Hα emission, although with more scatter (rHα = 0.83). Due to the very strong link between the 250 μm compact emission and the 24 μm and Hα emissions, by recovering the star formation rate from standard recipes for H II regions, we are able to provide star formation rate calibrations based on the 250 μm compact emission alone. Finally, the morphological study of a set of three Hα shells shows that there is a displacement between far-ultraviolet and the SPIRE bands, while the Hα structure is in general much more coincident with the cool dust.

  16. The Elephant Trunk Nebula and the Trumpler 37 cluster: Contribution of triggered star formation to the total population of an HII region

    CERN Document Server

    Getman, Konstantin V; Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora; Broos, Patrick S; Kuhn, Michael A; Garmire, Gordon P

    2012-01-01

    Rich young stellar clusters produce HII regions whose expansion into the nearby molecular cloud is thought to trigger the formation of new stars. However, the importance of this mode of star formation is uncertain. This investigation seeks to quantify triggered star formation (TSF) in IC 1396A (a.k.a., the Elephant Trunk Nebula), a bright rimmed cloud (BRC) on the periphery of the nearby giant HII region IC 1396 produced by the Trumpler 37 cluster. X-ray selection of young stars from Chandra X-ray Observatory data is combined with existing optical and infrared surveys to give a more complete census of the TSF population. Over 250 young stars in and around IC 1396A are identified; this doubles the previously known population. A spatio-temporal gradient of stars from the IC 1396A cloud toward the primary ionizing star HD 206267 is found. We argue that the TSF mechanism in IC 1396A is the radiation-driven implosion process persisting over several million years. Analysis of the X-ray luminosity and initial mass f...

  17. The oxygen abundance in the inner HII regions of M101. Implications for the calibration of strong-line metallicity indicators

    CERN Document Server

    Bresolin, F

    2006-01-01

    I present deep spectroscopy of four HII regions in the inner, metal-rich zone of the spiral galaxy M101 obtained with the LRIS spectrograph at the Keck telescope. From the analysis of the collisionally excited lines in two of the target HII regions, H1013 and H493, I have obtained oxygen abundances 12+log(O/H)=8.52 and 12+log(O/H)=8.74, respectively. These measurements extend the determination of the oxygen abundance gradient of M101 via the direct method to only 3 kpc from the center. The intensity of the CII 4267 line in H1013 leads to a carbon abundance 12+log(C/H)=8.66, corresponding to nearly twice the solar value. From a comparison of the continuum temperature derived from the Balmer discontinuity, T(Bac)=5000 K, and the line temperature derived from [OIII]4363/5007, T[OIII]=7700 K, an average temperature T0=5500 K and a mean square temperature fluctuation t^2=0.06 have been derived. Accounting for the spatial inhomogeneity in temperature raises the oxygen abundance obtained from the oxygen auroral line...

  18. The evolution of emission lines in HII galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Stasinska, G; Leitherer, C; Stasinska, Grazyna; Schaerer, Daniel; Leitherer, Claus

    2001-01-01

    We constructed diagnostic diagrams using emission line ratios and equivalent widths observed in several samples of HII galaxies. The diagrams are compared to predictions from new photoionization models for evolving starbursts. We find that HII galaxies from objective-prism surveys are not reproduced by models of instantaneous starbursts surrounded by constant density, ionization bounded HII regions. The observed relations between emission line ratios and Hb equivalent width (W(Hb)) can be understood if older stellar populations are not negligible in HII galaxies. Also, different dust obscuration for stars and gas and leakage of Lyman continuum photons from the observed HII regions can be important. As a result, HII galaxies selected from objective-prism surveys are unlikely to contain many objects in which the most recent starburst is older than about 5~Myr. The observed increase of [OI]/Hb with decreasing W(Hb) can result from the dynamical effects of winds and supernovae. This interpretation provides also a...

  19. Stripped gas as fuel for newly formed HII regions in the encounter between VCC1249 and M49: a unified picture from NGVS and GUViCS

    CERN Document Server

    Battaia, Fabrizio Arrigoni; Fumagalli, Michele; Boselli, Alessandro; Boissier, Samuel; Cortese, Luca; Heinis, Sebastien; Ferrarese, Laura; Côté, Patrick; Mihos, J Christopher; Cuillandre, Jean Charles; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Durrell, Patrick; Gwyn, Stephen; Jordán, Andrés; Liu, Chengze; Peng, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Context: We study the peculiar interacting galaxy system of VCC1249/M49 located in the core of the Virgo B subcluster. Owing to a recent interaction between the dwarf galaxy VCC1249 and the halo gas of the gE M49, neutral hydrogen has been displaced from the interstellar medium of this dwarf into the Virgo ICM. Observations also reveal multiple compact star-forming regions that are embedded in this HI cloud, with a projected separation up to 13 kpc from VCC1249 in the northwest direction. Aims: Motivated by recent NUV imaging from GUViCS of the VCC1249/M49 system that shows significant ongoing/recent star formation in the compact regions, we aim to constrain the origin of these outlying HII regions with a multi-wavelength approach. Methods: Using deep optical (u, g, i, z) imaging from NGVS and new Halpha imaging obtained at the San Pedro Martir observatory together with Keck long-slit spectroscopy, we characterize the SFR, ages, and metallicity of VCC1249 and its outlying compact regions. Moreover, we analyze...

  20. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition. It causes intense pain, usually in the arms, hands, legs, or feet. ... in skin temperature, color, or texture Intense burning pain Extreme skin sensitivity Swelling and stiffness in affected ...

  1. Deep near-infrared adaptive optics observations of a young embedded cluster at the edge of the RCW 41 HII region

    CERN Document Server

    Neichel, B; Plana, H; Zavagno, A; Bernard, A; Fusco, T

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the star formation activity in a young star forming cluster embedded at the edge of the RCW 41 HII region. As a complementary goal, we aim at demonstrating the gain provided by Wide-Field Adaptive Optics instruments to study young clusters. We used deep, JHKs images from the newly commissioned Gemini-GeMS/GSAOI instrument, complemented with Spitzer IRAC observations, in order to study the photometric properties of the young stellar cluster. GeMS is an AO instrument, delivering almost diffraction limited images over a field of 2' across. The exquisite angular resolution allows us to reach a limiting magnitude of J = 22 for 98% completeness. The combination of the IRAC photometry with our JHKs catalog is used to build color-color diagrams, and select Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) candidates. We detect the presence of 80 Young Stellar Object (YSO) candidates. Those YSOs are used to infer the cluster age, which is found to be in the range 1 to 5 Myr. We find that 1/3 of the YSOs are in a range betwe...

  2. An O2If*/WN6 Star Catch in the Act in a Compact Hii region in the Starburst Cluster NGC 3603

    CERN Document Server

    Roman-Lopes, A

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I report the discovery of an O2If*/WN6 star probably still partially embedded in its parental cocoon in the star-burst cluster NGC 3603. From the observed size of the associated compact Hii region, it was possible to derive a probable dynamic age of no more than 600,000 years. Using the computed visual extinction value Av ~ 6 magnitudes, an absolute visual magnitude Mv =-5.7 mag is obtained, which for the assumed heliocentric distance of 7.6 kpc results in a bolometric luminosity of ~ 8x10^5 Lsun. Also from the V magnitude and the V-I color of the new star, and previous models for NGC3603's massive star population, we estimate its mass for the binary (O2If*/WN6 + O3If) and the single-star case (O2If*/WN6). In the former, it was found that the initial mass of each component possibly exceeded 80 Msun and 40 Msun, while in the latter MTT 58's initial mass possibly was in excess of 100 Msun.

  3. Modeling and predicting the shape of the far-infrared/submillimeter emission in ultra-compact HII regions and cold clumps

    CERN Document Server

    Paradis, D; Noriega-Crespo, A; Paladini, R; Bernard, J -P; Bot, C; Cambrésy, L; Demyk, K; Gromov, V; Rivera-Ingraham, A; Veneziani, M

    2014-01-01

    Dust properties are likely affected by the environment in which dust grains evolve. For instance, some analyses of cold clumps (7 K- 17 K) lead to favor the aggregation process in dense environments. However, the study of warm (30 K-40 K) dust emission at long wavelength ($\\lambda$$>$300 $\\mu$m) has been limited by the difficulty in combining far infred-millimeter (FIR-mm) spectral coverage and high angular resolution to observe warm dust grains. Using Herschel data from 70 to 500 $\\mu$m, as part of the Herschel infrared Galactic (Hi-GAL) survey associated to 1.1 mm data from the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS), we compare emission in two types of environments: ultra-compact HII (UCHII) regions and cold molecular clumps (denoted as cold clumps). This comparison allows us to test models of dust emission in the FIR-mm domain used to reproduce emission in the diffuse medium, in these environments, and to check their ability to predict the dust emission in our Galaxy. We determine the emission spectra in twe...

  4. Extragalactic chemical abundances: do HII regions and young stars tell the same story? The case of the spiral galaxy NGC 300

    CERN Document Server

    Bresolin, Fabio; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Pietrzynski, Grzegorz; Urbaneja, Miguel A; Carraro, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    (Abridged) We have obtained new spectrophotometric data for 28 HII regions in the spiral galaxy NGC 300, a member of the nearby Sculptor Group. The detection of auroral lines, including [OIII]4363, [SIII]6312 and [NII]5755, has allowed us to measure electron temperatures and direct chemical abundances for the whole sample. We determine for the first time in this galaxy a radial gas-phase oxygen abundance gradient based solely on auroral lines, and obtain the following least-square solution: 12+log(O/H)=8.57-0.41 R/R25, where the galactocentric distance is expressed in terms of the isophotal radius R25. The gradient corresponds to -0.077 dex/kpc, and agrees very well with the galactocentric trend in metallicity obtained for 29 B and A supergiants in the same galaxy. The intercept of the regression for the nebular data virtually coincides with the intercept obtained from the stellar data. This allows little room for depletion of nebular oxygen onto dust grains, although in this kind of comparison we are somewha...

  5. Gas Kinematics in the HII regions G351.69-1.15 and G351.63-1.25

    CERN Document Server

    Veena, V S; Tej, A; Kantharia, N G; Ghosh, S K

    2016-01-01

    We probe the structure and kinematics of two neighbouring H II regions identified as cometary and bipolar, using radio recombination lines (RRL). The H172{\\alpha} RRLs from these H II regions: G351.6-1.15 and G351.6-1.25, are mapped using GMRT, India. We also detect carbon RRLs C172{\\alpha} towards both these regions. The hydrogen RRLs display the effects of pressure and dynamical broadening in the line profiles, with the dynamical broadening (15 km/s) playing a major role in the observed profile of G351.6-1.15. We investigate the kinematics of molecular gas species towards this H II region from the MALT90 pilot survey. The molecular gas is mostly distributed towards the north and north-west of the cometary head. The molecular line profiles indicate signatures of turbulence and outflow in this region. The ionized gas at the cometary tail is blue shifted by 8 km/s with respect to the ambient molecular cloud, consistent with the earlier proposed champagne flow scenario. The relative velocity of 5 km/s between t...

  6. First science results from SOFIA/FORCAST: The mid-infrared view of the compact HII region W3A

    CERN Document Server

    Salgado, F; Adams, J D; Herter, T L; Gull, G; Schoenwald, J; Keller, L D; De Buizer, J M; Vacca, W D; Becklin, E E; Shuping, R Y; M., A G G; Tielens,; Zinnecker, H

    2012-01-01

    The massive star forming region W3 was observed with the faint object infrared camera for the SOFIA telescope (FORCAST) as part of the Short Science program. The 6.4, 6.6, 7.7, 19.7, 24.2, 31.5 and 37.1 \\um bandpasses were used to observe the emission of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules, Very Small Grains and Big Grains. Optical depth and color temperature maps of W3A show that IRS2 has blown a bubble devoid of gas and dust of $\\sim$0.05 pc radius. It is embedded in a dusty shell of ionized gas that contributes 40% of the total 24 \\um emission of W3A. This dust component is mostly heated by far ultraviolet, rather than trapped Ly$\\alpha$ photons. This shell is itself surrounded by a thin ($\\sim$0.01 pc) photodissociation region where PAHs show intense emission. The infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) of three different zones located at 8, 20 and 25\\arcsec from IRS2, show that the peak of the SED shifts towards longer wavelengths, when moving away from the star. Adopting the stellar radi...

  7. HII galaxies in 4D

    CERN Document Server

    Telles, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    HII galaxies are clumpy and their gas kinematics can be mapped to show the global turbulent motions and the effect of massive star evolution. The distribution of their physical conditions is homogeneous and oxygen abundance is uniform. The presence of nebular HeII 4868 line seems to be higher in a low abundance galaxy, implying a harder ionization power probably due to stars in low metallicity. Innovative methods of data cube analysis, namely PCA tomography (nicknamed 4D), seem promising in revealing additional information not detected with the standard methods. I review some of our own recent work on the 3D spectroscopy of HII galaxies.

  8. Detection of Complex Salient Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petia Radeva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of interest point detectors is to find, in an unsupervised way, keypoints easy to extract and at the same time robust to image transformations. We present a novel set of saliency features based on image singularities that takes into account the region content in terms of intensity and local structure. The region complexity is estimated by means of the entropy of the gray-level information; shape information is obtained by measuring the entropy of significant orientations. The regions are located in their representative scale and categorized by their complexity level. Thus, the regions are highly discriminable and less sensitive to confusion and false alarm than the traditional approaches. We compare the novel complex salient regions with the state-of-the-art keypoint detectors. The presented interest points show robustness to a wide set of image transformations and high repeatability as well as allow matching from different camera points of view. Besides, we show the temporal robustness of the novel salient regions in real video sequences, being potentially useful for matching, image retrieval, and object categorization problems.

  9. Molecular clouds associated with compact HII regionsin Galactic plane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙锦; 沈家健; 孙艳春; 张燕平

    2002-01-01

    13CO (J = 1 - 0) emission of massive star forming region including 15 ultracompact and 4compact HII regions in Galactic plane was mapped with the 13.7 m millimeter wave telescope of Purple Mountain Observatory. The present observations provide the first complete structure of the clouds in 13CO with a higher spatial resolution and a wide-field coverage of 28′×45′. Combined with the images of far-infrared emission and dust color temperature obtained from ISSA, various possible dynamical connections between the compact HII regions and associated clouds were found. We presente some reasons to explain the formation of new dense cold core and molecular emission cavity in the massive star formation and early evolution. The luminosities of excitation stars for all HII regions and the main parameters of associated clouds are also derived. The results show that the newborn stars' luminosities are correlated with the 13CO column densities, masses (in 55"beam) and 13CO velocity widths obviously.``

  10. Ha AND [OIII] EMISSION LINE MAPS OF MRK 1318 AND TOL 1358-328. CHARACTERISING THE STAR FORMATION IN HII GALAXIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Torres-Campos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Usando im genes en los filtros H y [OIII] h5007 tomadas con el telescopio SOAR de 4.1 m hemos creado un cat logo de regiones HII en las galaxias HII Tol 1358-328 y Mrk 1318. Este cat logo es el primer paso de un trabajo que pretende caracterizar la formaci n estelar y el impacto que tiene en el medio interestelar (MIE que lo rodea en galaxias HII extremadamente j venes.

  11. Mäesuitsu hiis / Ahto Kaasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaasik, Ahto, 1969-

    2014-01-01

    Tartumaal Võnnu vallas Terikese külas asuvast Mäesuitsu hiiest, mida on nimetatud ka Suitsumäe hiis, Suitsumägi, Salumägi, Härja hiie mägi, Ohvrimägi, Ohvrimäe hiis, Ukumägi ning taluomaniku järgi ka Ääre-, Ääru- ja Ääro mägi

  12. The complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaklander, Anne Louise; Horowitz, Steven H

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is the current consensus-derived name for a syndrome usually triggered by limb trauma. Required elements include prolonged, disproportionate distal-limb pain and microvascular dysregulation (e.g., edema or color changes) or altered sweating. CRPS-II (formerly "causalgia") describes patients with identified nerve injuries. CRPS-I (formerly "reflex sympathetic dystrophy") describes most patients who lack evidence of specific nerve injuries. Diagnosis is clinical and the pathophysiology involves combinations of small-fiber axonopathy, microvasculopathy, inflammation, and brain plasticity/sensitization. Females have much higher risk and workplace accidents are a well-recognized cause. Inflammation and dysimmunity, perhaps facilitated by injury to the blood-nerve barrier, may contribute. Most patients, particularly the young, recover gradually, but treatment can speed healing. Evidence of efficacy is strongest for rehabilitation therapies (e.g., graded-motor imagery), neuropathic pain medications, and electric stimulation of the spinal cord, injured nerve, or motor cortex. Investigational treatments include ketamine, botulinum toxin, immunoglobulins, and transcranial neuromodulation. Nonrecovering patients should be re-evaluated for neurosurgically treatable causal lesions (nerve entrapment, impingement, infections, or tumors) and treatable potentiating medical conditions, including polyneuropathy and circulatory insufficiency. Earlier impressions that CRPS represents malingering or psychosomatic illness have been replaced by evidence that CRPS is a rare complication of limb injury in biologically susceptible individuals. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthesis, characterization and crystal structure of four new asymmetric triazene ligands: An example of linear HII complex with H... secondary bonding interactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohammad Reza Melardi; Fatemeh Baber Shamsi Mogoii; Ayoob Babaii Sajirani; Jafar Attar Gharamaleki; Behrouz Notash; Mohammad Kazem Rofouei

    2015-12-01

    In this work, the asymmetric ligands [1-(phenyl)-3-(2-nitro-4-methylphenyl)]triazene (1), [1-(4-methylphenyl)-3-(2-nitro-4-methylphenyl)]triazene (2), [1-(4-ethylphenyl)-3-(2-nitro-4-methylphenyl)]triazene (3) and [1-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-3-(2-nitro-4-methylphenyl)]triazene (4), were synthesized. The reaction of the ligand (3) with HgCl2 in methanol resulted in the formation of the [HgL2] complex, (5). All compounds were characterized by means of CHN analysis, FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectroscopy. In addition, the crystal structures of the ligands (2) to (4) were investigated by single crystal X-ray analysis. In the solid state, all ligands exhibited trans conformation about the –N=N– double bond. The HgII complex (5) crystallized in monoclinic system with 2/ space group. The triazene ligand was found to be deprotonated prior to coordination and acts as monodentate ligand. The HgII which lies on inversion center (site symmetry $\\bar{1}$), is surrounded by two N atoms from L ligands forming a linear geometry. The other two Hg–N bonds are relatively longer and can only be regarded as weak secondary bonds. Also, Hg-3-arene -interactions are present in this compound. Hydrogen bonds, · · · and C–H· · · stacking interactions help in the stabilization of the resulted frameworks. These C–H· · · edge-to-face interactions are present with H· · · distance of 3.00 Å.

  14. From Complex Regions to Complex Worlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Holling

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Panarchy focuses on ecological and social systems that change abruptly. Panarchy is the process by which they grow, adapt, transform, and, in the end, collapse. These stages occur at different scales. The back loop of such changes is a critical time and presents critical opportunities for experiment and learning. It is when uncertainties arise and when resilience is tested and established. We now see changes on a global scale that suggest that we are in such a back loop. This article assesses the possibility of using the ideas that are central to panarchy, developed on a regional scale, to help explain the changes that are being brought about on a global scale by the Internet and by climate, economic, and geopolitical changes.

  15. Mid-Infrared diagnostics of metal-rich HII regions from VLT and Spitzer Spectroscopy of Young Massive Stars in W31

    CERN Document Server

    Furness, JP; Morris, PW; Barbosa, CL; Blum, RD; Conti, PS; van Dyk, SD

    2009-01-01

    We present near-IR VLT/ISAAC and mid-IR Spitzer/IRS spectroscopy of the young massive cluster in the W31 star-forming region. H-band spectroscopy provides refined classifications for four cluster members O stars with respect to Blum et al. In addition, photospheric features are detected in the massive Young Stellar Object (mYSO) #26. Spectroscopy permits estimates of stellar temperatures and masses, from which a cluster age of ~0.6 Myr and distance of 3.3 kpc are obtained, in excellent agreement with Blum et al. IRS spectroscopy reveals mid-infrared fine structure line fluxes of [Ne II-III] and [S III-IV] for four O stars and five mYSOs. In common with previous studies, stellar temperatures of individual stars are severely underestimated from the observed ratios of fine-structure lines, despite the use of contemporary stellar atmosphere and photoionization models. We construct empirical temperature calibrations based upon the W31 cluster stars of known spectral type, supplemented by two inner Milky Way ultrac...

  16. Cosmological HII Bubble Growth During Reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Shin, Min-Su; Cen, Renyue

    2007-01-01

    We present general properties of ionized hydrogen (HII) bubbles and their growth based on a state-of-the-art large-scale (100 Mpc/h) cosmological radiative transfer simulation. The simulation resolves all halos with atomic cooling at the relevant redshifts and simultaneously performs radiative transfer and dynamical evolution of structure formation. Our major conclusions include: (1) for significant HII bubbles, the number distribution is peaked at a volume of ~ 0.6 Mpc^3/h^3 at all redshifts. But, at z 10 even the largest HII bubbles have a balanced ionizing photon contribution from Pop II and Pop III stars, while at z < 8 Pop II stars start to dominate the overall ionizing photon production for large bubbles, although Pop III stars continue to make a non-negligible contribution. (6) The relationship between halo number density and bubble size is complicated but a strong correlation is found between halo number density and bubble size for for large bubbles.

  17. 3D OPTICAL AND IR SPECTROSCOPY OF EXCEPTIONAL HII GALAXIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Telles

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution I will very brie y summarize some recent results obtained applying 3D spectroscopy to observations of the well known HII galaxy II Zw 40, both in the optical and near-IR. I have studied the distribution of the dust in the starburst region, the velocity and velocity dispersion, and the geometry of the molecular hydrogen and ionized gas. I found a clear correlation between the component of the ISM and the velocity eld suggesting that the latter has a fundamental role in de ning the modes of the star formation process.

  18. Observações em Radiofreqüências do complexo de Regiões HII Compactas RCW 95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barres de Almeida, Ulisses

    2006-05-01

    In this work we studied the complex of compact HII (CHII) regions RCW 95. The cloud is about 10'x10' and was mapped on the radio continuum emission at 43 GHz; a survey of water lines was also conducted at 22.2 GHz, corresponding to the 616 - 523 rotational transition of this molecule. The observations were made with the 14-meter single-dish antennae of the Itaptinga radio observatory, in Atibaia, ruled by INPE (Nacional Institute for Space Research, Brazil). For the continuum observations we made several scans in right ascension throughout the whole of the source spaced by 1' in declination, that were following combined to produce a map of isotemperatures for the cloud. The study resulted on the identification of resolved radio continuum sources associated with all the three IRAS sources in the region: IRAS 15408-5356, 15411-5352 and 15412-5359, all with far-IR colours characteristics of CHII regions. The water line survey resulted on the positive identification of maser emission associated with the three IRAS sources, supporting the evidences for these regions to harbour massive young stars. Two other unresolved HII regions, unassociated with far-IR sources, were also discovered through detailed analyses of the profiles of the radio continuum scans. The regions associated to the IRAS sources 15408-5356 and 15411-5352 were already known to be regions of massive star formation, whilst the stellar population associated to IRAS 15412-5359 had not been studied before. The discovery of water lines and the presence of a thermal continuum source on this direction suggested that this region could also contain young stars. We then conducted a study of the stellar population inside a region of 2'2' around this IRAS source using near-IR (J, H and K) band images from 2MASS catalogue. Throught this we were able to identify a significant population of massive stars, including one O9V star and some early BV that were charged responsibility for the ionization of the gas in the

  19. Different structures formed at HII boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Jingqi; Cornwall, Paul; Kinnear, Tim

    2015-03-01

    Hydrodynamic simulations on the evolution of molecular clouds (MCs) at HII boundaries are used to show that radiation driven implosion (RDI) model can create almost all of the different morphological structures, such as a single bright-rimmed cloud (BRC), fragment structure and multiple elephant trunk (ET) structures.

  20. The L-σ relation for HII galaxies in green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnick, J.; Telles, E.; Bordalo, V.; Chávez, R.; Fernández-Arenas, D.; Terlevich, E.; Terlevich, R.; Bresolin, F.; Plionis, M.; Basilakos, S.

    2017-03-01

    The correlation between emission-line luminosity (L) and profile-width (σ) for HII galaxies provides a powerful method to measure the distances to galaxies over a wide range of redshifts. In this paper, we use SDSS spectrophotometry to explore the systematics of the correlation using the [OIII]5007 lines instead of Hα or Hβ to measure luminosities and line widths. We also examine possible systematic effects involved in measuring the profile-widths and the luminosities through different apertures. We find that the green L-σ relation, defined using [OIII]5007 luminosities, is significantly more sensitive than Hβ to the effects of age and the physical conditions of the nebulae, which more than offsets the advantage of the higher strength of the [OIII]5007 lines. We then explore the possibility of mixing [OIII]5007 profile-widths with SDSS Hβ luminosities using the Hubble constant H0 to quantify the possible systematic effects. We find the mixed L(Hβ) - σ[OIII] relation to be at least as powerful as the canonical L-σ relation as a distance estimator, and we show that evolutionary corrections do not change the slope and the scatter of the correlation and, therefore, do not bias the L-σ distance indicator at high redshifts. Locally, however, the luminosities of the giant HII regions that provide the zero-point calibrators are sensitive to evolutionary corrections and may bias the Hubble constant if their mean ages, as measured by the equivalent widths of Hβ, are significantly different from the mean age of the HII galaxies. Using a small sample of 16 ad-hoc zero point calibrators we obtain a value of H0 = 66.4+ 5.0-4.5km s-1 Mpc-1 for the Hubble constant, which is fully consistent with the best modern determinations, and which is not biased by evolutionary corrections.

  1. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: An inflammatory disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Dirckx (Maaike)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractThe pathophysiology of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is complex and still not completely understood. In addition to a convincing role of inflammation, there are a number of arguments why an involvement of the immune system has been suggested in the pathophysiology of CRPS. Th

  2. Complex anatomic variation in the brachial region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troupis, Th; Michalinos, A; Protogerou, V; Mazarakis, A; Skandalakis, P

    2015-01-01

    Authors describe a case of a complex anatomic variation discovered during dissection of the humeral region. On the right side, brachial artery followed a superficial course. Musculocutaneous nerve did not pierce coracobrachialis muscle but instead passed below the muscle before continuing in the forearm. On the left side, a communication between musculocutaneous and median nerve was dissected. Those variations are analytically presented with a brief review on their anatomic and clinical implications. Considerations on their embryological origin are attempted.

  3. Region Tourist and Recreation Complex Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizaveta Oyusovna Tappaskhanova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of the research is the tourist and recreation complex of Kabardino-Balkar Republic. The purpose of the work is to provide solutions to problems of the republic tourist and recreation complex development. The results obtained from the study showed that in spite of the fact that in the region’s development certain positive steps are taken, according to the indicators of the tourism and recreation development, the region has not reach the level of the 1990th yet, the possibilities of this major sector of the republic economy remain not demanded. It is highlighted, that the most important factor in the tourist and recreation complex development is its infrastructure condition. It is recommended to use the model of the infrastructure management aimed at providing its effective functioning and development due to formation of interaction system at every power level through a network of the centers of the tourist and recreation complex development. In the article, the need for the use of the innovative approaches for the republic tourist and recreation complex development in the particular development of the new tourist directions are also found. For the purpose to improve the professional training of personnel for the tourism and recreation sphere, the need for a transition to multilevel training of personnel is proved. The main directions of the republic image development on the basis of designing and implementing of the regional program of its image development as the tourist territory and creation of the tourist information center are defined. Realization of all these problems allows to develop a highly effective and competitive tourist and recreation complex in Kabardino-Balkaria.

  4. Starburst in the interacting HII galaxy II Zw 40 and in non-interacting HII galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Telles, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    I summarize the results of our integral field spectroscopic observations of the nearby prototype of HII galaxies, II Zw 40. Observations with GMOS-IFU on GEMINI-North in the optical allowed us to make a detailed kinematic picture of the central starburst, while SINFONI with adaptive optics on the ESO-VLT gave us a near-IR view of the interplay between the ISM phases. Here, I also address the question that not all starbursts require an external trigger such as a galaxy-galaxy encounter, as it seems to be the case for a fraction of low luminosity HII galaxies. We speculate that these may form stars spontaneously like "pop-corn in a pan".

  5. The performance of regional timber industry complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Aleksandrovich Shishelov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the results of the economic evaluation of the performance of regional timber industry complex of the NorthWestern Federal District based on the calculation of the structural indicator. The position and the role of forestry in the economy are shown. A comparative assessment of the characteristics of the regional forestry: volume of shipped products, industrial structure, product diversification, deep processing of wood is carried out. Structural economic performance timber for each subject Northwestern Federal District is designed the following factors that determine the high effectiveness of the system: the scale pulp and paper, wood diversification, export products are identified. The important methodological significance is the fact that the use of structural indicators will determine not only the effectiveness of forestry regions North-West in general, but their industries: forestry, woodworking, pulp and paper production, and the level of labor productivity and capital productivity. The presented results are of high practical and methodological value to determine the current state of forestry.

  6. The Radio Properties of Composite LINER/HII Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Filho, M E; Ho, L C; Filho, Mercedes E.; Barthel, Peter D.; Ho, Luis C.

    2002-01-01

    Arcsec-resolution VLA observations -- newly obtained as well as published -- of 40 nearby galaxies are discussed, completing a study of the radio properties of a magnitude-limited sample of nearby galaxies of the composite LINER/HII type. Our results reveal an overall detection rate of at least 25% AGN candidates among these composite sources. The general properties of these AGN candidates, as compared to non-AGN composite sources and HII galaxies, are discussed.

  7. Direct measurement of lensing amplification in Abell S1063 using a strongly lensed high redshift HII Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Terlevich, Roberto; Terlevich, Elena; Chavez, Ricardo; Telles, Eduardo; Bresolin, Fabio; Plionis, Manolis; Basilakos, Spyros; Arenas, David Fernandez; Moran, Ana Luisa Gonzalez; Diaz, Angeles I; Aretxaga, Itziar

    2016-01-01

    ID11 is an actively star forming extremely compact galaxy and Ly alpha emitter at z=3.117 that is gravitationally magnified by a factor of ~17 by the cluster of galaxies Hubble Frontier Fields AS1063. Its observed properties resemble those of low luminosity HII galaxies or Giant HII regions like 30-Doradus in the LMC. Using the tight correlation correlation between the Balmer-line luminosities and the width of the emission lines (typically L(Hbeta)-sigma(Hbeta)) valid for HII galaxies and Giant HII regions to estimate its total luminosity, we are able to measure the lensing amplification of ID11. We obtain an amplification of 23 +- 11 similar within errors to the value of ~17 estimated or predicted by the best lensing models of the massive cluster Abell S1063. We also compiled from the literature luminosities and velocity dispersions for a set of lensed compact starforming regions. There is more scatter in the L-sigma correlation for these lensed systems but on the whole the results tend to support the lensin...

  8. [Complex regional pain syndrome. Current status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Zuluaga, Paola Andrea; Plancarte-Sánchez, Ricardo; Tamayo-Valenzuela, Antonio César

    2004-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a disorder or group of disorders that develop as a consequence of previous trauma with or without evident nerve injury. The syndrome is characterized by presence of spontaneous pain, hyperalgesia and allodynia, sensitive changes, blood flow changes, sweating, and trophic changes. The disease is characterized by symptoms of acute inflammatory states as well as by chronic neuropathic changes. Pain is associated with changes generated by the autonomic nervous system. Spinal neurons can increase their sensitivity to these autonomic changes. At a supraspinal level, reorganization of somatosensorial cortex is seen. Creation of diagnostic criteria has been difficult due to the plentiful symptoms of CRSP. Sympathetic blockade with phentolamine is the most commonly approved examination to diagnose sympathetic maintained pain. Several strategies have been used for treatment of CRPS, but with none of these has sufficient evidence of treatment effectiveness been afforded.

  9. Doppler Imaging of Young Late-Type Stars: HII 686, HII 3163, and P1724

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout-Batalha, Natalie Marie

    Maximum entropy image reconstruction (Doppler imaging) is applied to HII 686 (K4V, v sin i=64 km s-1) and HII 3163 (K0, v sin i=70 km s-1), two zero-age main sequence stars of the Pleiades cluster, and the weak-lined T Tauri star Parenago 1724 (K0, v sin i=71 km s-1). Their surface temperature distributions are determined in order to study the nature of magnetic activity in young ultra-fast rotators. Specific intensity line profiles used in the DI algorithm are synthesized. The sensitivity of the reconstructions to the choice of input stellar and atomic data is investigated. The quality of the fit to the average disk integrated line profile is found to be more important to DI analysis than the exact parameters used to generate the fit when the shape of the disk integrated line profile is dominated by rotational broadening. Fifteen absorption lines are used to generate fifteen individual reconstructions of each Pleiades target. Averaging reduces noise in the reconstructions. However, spurious features can persist at sub-observer longitudes. Such 'phase-ghosting' can largely be eliminated by including broad-band photometric observations in the analysis. Using the large number of reconstructions for a given star, uncertainties in the images are estimated. HII 686 shows one predominant feature at 77o latitude which is 700 K cooler than the surrounding photosphere. HII 3163 also shows one predominant feature centered at approximately 70o latitude. A spot temperature 1000 K cooler than the photosphere best reproduces the observations. P1724 shows a predominant feature (or features) centered at 30o latitude which is 800 K cooler than its photosphere. These results are discussed in light of recent theoretical observations and existing image reconstructions of similar objects. No correlations are found among reconstructions which could be attributed to line characteristics: equivalent width, excitation potential or depth of formation. This is also true for the LiI and KI

  10. A substellar companion to Pleiades HII 3441

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Mihoko; Matsuo, Taro; Yamamoto, Kodai; Samland, Matthias; Sudo, Jun; Shibai, Hiroshi; Itoh, Yoichi; Fukagawa, Misato; Sumi, Takahiro; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Hashimoto, Jun; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Abe, Lyu; Akiyama, Eiji; Brandner, Wolfgang; Brandt, Timothy D.; Carson, Joseph C.; Feldt, Markus; Goto, Miwa; Grady, Carol A.; Guyon, Olivier; Hayano, Yutaka; Hayashi, Masahiko; Hayashi, Saeko S.; Henning, Thomas; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Ishii, Miki; Iye, Masanori; Janson, Markus; Kandori, Ryo; Knapp, Gillian R.; Kwon, Jungmi; McElwain, Michael W.; Mede, Kyle; Miyama, Shoken; Morino, Jun-Ichi; Moro-Martín, Amaya; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Oh, Daehyeon; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Serabyn, Eugene; Schlieder, Joshua E.; Suenaga, Takuya; Suto, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Ryuji; Takahashi, Yasuhiro H.; Takami, Michihiro; Takato, Naruhisa; Terada, Hiroshi; Thalmann, Christian; Turner, Edwin L.; Watanabe, Makoto; Wisniewski, John P.; Yamada, Toru; Takami, Hideki; Usuda, Tomonori; Tamura, Motohide

    2016-09-01

    We find a new substellar companion to the Pleiades member star, Pleiades HII 3441, using the Subaru telescope with adaptive optics. The discovery is made as part of the high-contrast imaging survey to search for planetary-mass and substellar companions in the Pleiades and young moving groups. The companion has a projected separation of 0{^''.}49 ± 0{^''.}02 (66 ± 2 au) and a mass of 68 ± 5 MJ based on three observations in the J-, H-, and Ks-bands. The spectral type is estimated to be M7 (˜2700 K), and thus no methane absorption is detected in the H band. Our Pleiades observations result in the detection of two substellar companions including one previously reported among 20 observed Pleiades stars, and indicate that the fraction of substellar companions in the Pleiades is about 10.0^{+26.1}_{-8.8}%. This is consistent with multiplicity studies of both the Pleiades stars and other open clusters.

  11. A Substellar Companion to Pleiades HII 3441

    CERN Document Server

    Konishi, Mihoko; Yamamoto, Kodai; Samland, Matthias; Sudo, Jun; Shibai, Hiroshi; Itoh, Yoichi; Fukagawa, Misato; Sumi, Takahiro; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Hashimoto, Jun; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Abe, Lyu; Akiyama, Eiji; Brandner, Wolfgang; Brandt, Timothy D; Carson, Joseph C; Feldt, Markus; Goto, Miwa; Grady, Carol A; Guyon, Olivier; Hayano, Yutaka; Hayashi, Masahiko; Hayashi, Saeko S; Henning, Thomas; Hodapp, Klaus W; Ishii, Miki; Iye, Masanori; Janson, Markus; Kandori, Ryo; Knapp, Gillian R; Kwon, Jungmi; Mcelwain, Michael W; Mede, Kyle; Miyama, Shoken; Morino, Jun-Ichi; Moro-Mart'in, Amaya; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Oh, Daehyeon; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Serabyn, Eugene; Schlieder, Joshua E; Suenaga, Takuya; Suto, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Ryuji; Takahashi, Yasuhiro H; Takami, Michihiro; Takato, Naruhisa; Terada, Hiroshi; Thalmann, Christian; Turner, Edwin L; Watanabe, Makoto; Wisniewski, John P; Yamada, Toru; Takami, Hideki; Usuda, Tomonori; Tamura, Motohide

    2016-01-01

    We find a new substellar companion to the Pleiades member star, Pleiades HII 3441, using the Subaru telescope with adaptive optics. The discovery is made as part of the high-contrast imaging survey to search for planetary-mass and substellar companions in the Pleiades and young moving groups. The companion has a projected separation of 0".49 +/- 0".02 (66 +/- 2 AU) and a mass of 68 +/- 5 M_J based on three observations in the J-, H-, and K_S-band. The spectral type is estimated to be M7 (~2700 K), and thus no methane absorption is detected in the H band. Our Pleiades observations result in the detection of two substellar companions including one previously reported among 20 observed Pleiades stars, and indicate that the fraction of substellar companions in the Pleiades is about 10.0 +26.1/-8.8 %. This is consistent with multiplicity studies of both the Pleiades stars and other open clusters.

  12. A substellar companion to Pleiades HII 3441

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Mihoko; Matsuo, Taro; Yamamoto, Kodai; Samland, Matthias; Sudo, Jun; Shibai, Hiroshi; Itoh, Yoichi; Fukagawa, Misato; Sumi, Takahiro; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Hashimoto, Jun; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Abe, Lyu; Akiyama, Eiji; Brandner, Wolfgang; Brandt, Timothy D.; Carson, Joseph C.; Feldt, Markus; Goto, Miwa; Grady, Carol A.; Guyon, Olivier; Hayano, Yutaka; Hayashi, Masahiko; Hayashi, Saeko S.; Henning, Thomas; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Ishii, Miki; Iye, Masanori; Janson, Markus; Kandori, Ryo; Knapp, Gillian R.; Kwon, Jungmi; McElwain, Michael W.; Mede, Kyle; Miyama, Shoken; Morino, Jun-Ichi; Moro-Martín, Amaya; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Oh, Daehyeon; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Serabyn, Eugene; Schlieder, Joshua E.; Suenaga, Takuya; Suto, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Ryuji; Takahashi, Yasuhiro H.; Takami, Michihiro; Takato, Naruhisa; Terada, Hiroshi; Thalmann, Christian; Turner, Edwin L.; Watanabe, Makoto; Wisniewski, John P.; Yamada, Toru; Takami, Hideki; Usuda, Tomonori; Tamura, Motohide

    2016-12-01

    We find a new substellar companion to the Pleiades member star, Pleiades HII 3441, using the Subaru telescope with adaptive optics. The discovery is made as part of the high-contrast imaging survey to search for planetary-mass and substellar companions in the Pleiades and young moving groups. The companion has a projected separation of 0{^''.}49 ± 0{^''.}02 (66 ± 2 au) and a mass of 68 ± 5 MJ based on three observations in the J-, H-, and Ks-bands. The spectral type is estimated to be M7 (˜2700 K), and thus no methane absorption is detected in the H band. Our Pleiades observations result in the detection of two substellar companions including one previously reported among 20 observed Pleiades stars, and indicate that the fraction of substellar companions in the Pleiades is about 10.0^{+26.1}_{-8.8}%. This is consistent with multiplicity studies of both the Pleiades stars and other open clusters.

  13. The W40 Cloud Complex

    CERN Document Server

    Rodney, Steven A

    2008-01-01

    The W40 complex is a nearby site of recent massive star formation composed of a dense molecular cloud adjacent to an HII region that contains an embedded OB star cluster. The HII region is beginning to blister out and break free from its envelope of molecular gas, but our line of sight to the central stars is largely obscured by intervening dust. Several bright OB stars in W40 - visible at optical, infrared, or cm wavelengths - are providing the ionizing flux that heats the HII region. The known stellar component of W40 is dominated by a small number of partly or fully embedded OB stars which have been studied at various wavelengths, but the lower mass stellar population remains largely unexamined. Despite its modest optical appearance, at 600pc W40 is one of the nearest massive star forming regions, and with a UV flux of about 1/10th of the Orion Nebula Cluster, this neglected region deserves detailed investigation.

  14. Complex Network for Solar Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daei, Farhad; Safari, Hossein; Dadashi, Neda

    2017-08-01

    In this paper we developed a complex network of solar active regions (ARs) to study various local and global properties of the network. The values of the Hurst exponent (0.8-0.9) were evaluated by both the detrended fluctuation analysis and the rescaled range analysis applied on the time series of the AR numbers. The findings suggest that ARs can be considered as a system of self-organized criticality (SOC). We constructed a growing network based on locations, occurrence times, and the lifetimes of 4227 ARs recorded from 1999 January 1 to 2017 April 14. The behavior of the clustering coefficient shows that the AR network is not a random network. The logarithmic behavior of the length scale has the characteristics of a so-called small-world network. It is found that the probability distribution of the node degrees for undirected networks follows the power law with exponents of about 3.7-4.2. This indicates the scale-free nature of the AR network. The scale-free and small-world properties of the AR network confirm that the system of ARs forms a system of SOC. Our results show that the occurrence probability of flares (classified by GOES class C> 5, M, and X flares) in the position of the AR network hubs takes values greater than that obtained for other nodes.

  15. The L-sigma Relation of Local HII Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bordalo, Vinicius

    2011-01-01

    We present for the first time a new data set of emission line widths for 118 star-forming regions in HII galaxies (HIIGs). This homogeneous set is used to investigate the L-sigma relation in conjunction with optical spectrophotometric observations. Peculiarities in the line profiles such as sharp lines, wings, asymmetries, and in some cases more than one component in emission were verified. From a new independent homogeneous set of spectrophotometric data we derived physical condition parameters and performed the statistical principal component analysis. We have investigated the potential role of metallicity (O/H), Hbeta equivalent width (WHbeta) and ionization ratio [OIII]/[OII] to account for the observational scatter of L-sigma relation. Our results indicate that the L-sigma relation for HIIGs is more sensitive to the evolution of the current starburst event (short-term evolution) and dated by WHbeta or even the [OIII]/[OII] ratio. The long-term evolution measured by O/H also plays a potential role in dete...

  16. Constraining the Dark Energy Equation of State with HII Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Chávez, Ricardo; Basilakos, Spyros; Terlevich, Roberto; Terlevich, Elena; Melnick, Jorge; Bresolin, Fabio; González-Morán, Ana Luisa

    2016-01-01

    We use the HII galaxies $L - \\sigma$ relation and the resulting Hubble expansion cosmological probe of a sample of just 25 high-$z$ (up to $z \\sim 2.33$) HII galaxies, in a joint likelihood analysis with other well tested cosmological probes (CMB, BAOs) in an attempt to constrain the dark energy equation of state (EoS). The constraints, although still weak, are in excellent agreement with those of a similar joint analysis using the well established SNIa Hubble expansion probe. Interestingly, even with the current small number of available high redshift HII galaxies, the HII/BAO/CMB joint analysis gives a 13% improvement of the quintessence dark energy cosmological constraints compared to the BAO/CMB joint analysis. We have further performed extensive Monte Carlo simulations, with a realistic redshift sampling, to explore the extent to which the use of the $L - \\sigma$ relation, observed in HII galaxies, can constrain effectively the parameter space of the dark energy EoS. The simulations predict substantial i...

  17. Treatment of complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resmini, Giuseppina; Ratti, Chiara; Canton, Gianluca; Murena, Luigi; Moretti, Antimo; Iolascon, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a multifactorial and disabling disorder with complex etiology and pathogenesis. Goals of therapy in CRPS should be pain relief, functional restoration, and psychological stabilization, but early interventions are needed in order to achieve these objectives. Several drugs have been used to reduce pain and to improve functional status in CRPS, despite the lack of scientific evidence supporting their use in this scenario. They include anti-inflammatory drugs, analgesics, anesthetics, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, oral muscle relaxants, corticosteroids, calcitonin, bisphosphonates, calcium channel blockers and topical agents. NSAIDs showed no value in treating CRPS. Glucocorticoids are the only anti-inflammatory drugs for which there is direct clinical trial evidence in early stage of CRPS. Opioids are a reasonable second or third-line treatment option, but tolerance and long term toxicity are unresolved issues. The use of anticonvulsants and tricyclic antidepressants has not been well investigated for pain management in CRPS. During the last years, bisphosphonates have been the mostly studied pharmacologic agents in CRPS treatment and there are good evidence to support their use in this condition. Recently, the efficacy of intravenous (IV) administration of neridronate has been reported in a randomized controlled trial. Significant improvements in VAS score and other indices of pain and quality of life in patients who received four 100 mg IV doses of neridronate versus placebo were reported. These findings were confirmed in the open-extension phase of the study, when patients formerly enrolled in the placebo group received neridronate at the same dosage, and these results were maintained at 1 year follow-up. The current literature concerning sympathetic blocks and sympathectomy techniques lacks evidence of efficacy. Low evidence was recorded for a free radical scavenger, dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) cream (50%). The same level

  18. Treatment of complex regional pain syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resmini, Giuseppina; Ratti, Chiara; Canton, Gianluca; Murena, Luigi; Moretti, Antimo; Iolascon, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Summary Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a multifactorial and disabling disorder with complex etiology and pathogenesis. Goals of therapy in CRPS should be pain relief, functional restoration, and psychological stabilization, but early interventions are needed in order to achieve these objectives. Several drugs have been used to reduce pain and to improve functional status in CRPS, despite the lack of scientific evidence supporting their use in this scenario. They include anti-inflammatory drugs, analgesics, anesthetics, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, oral muscle relaxants, corticosteroids, calcitonin, bisphosphonates, calcium channel blockers and topical agents. NSAIDs showed no value in treating CRPS. Glucocorticoids are the only anti-inflammatory drugs for which there is direct clinical trial evidence in early stage of CRPS. Opioids are a reasonable second or third-line treatment option, but tolerance and long term toxicity are unresolved issues. The use of anticonvulsants and tricyclic antidepressants has not been well investigated for pain management in CRPS. During the last years, bisphosphonates have been the mostly studied pharmacologic agents in CRPS treatment and there are good evidence to support their use in this condition. Recently, the efficacy of intravenous (IV) administration of neridronate has been reported in a randomized controlled trial. Significant improvements in VAS score and other indices of pain and quality of life in patients who received four 100 mg IV doses of neridronate versus placebo were reported. These findings were confirmed in the open-extension phase of the study, when patients formerly enrolled in the placebo group received neridronate at the same dosage, and these results were maintained at 1 year follow-up. The current literature concerning sympathetic blocks and sympathectomy techniques lacks evidence of efficacy. Low evidence was recorded for a free radical scavenger, dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) cream (50%). The

  19. CONCEPTS OF REGIONALIZATION, REGIONAL SUBSYSTEMS, REGIONAL COMPLEXES AND REGIONAL TRANSFORMATIONS IN CONTEMPORARY IR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei D. Voskressenski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The article examines theoretical aspects of regional dimension in international relations and the ways to apply in practice the results of world politics’ analysis from the viewpoint of regional and macro-regional levels. It also considers the key discussion points on regions and macro-regions in the world and Russian research literature. The author concludes that this is exactly the new IR concepts of regional level which should become the prototype of original Russian regional and country studies. These studies need to have a higher degree of theoretical conceptualization of regional level as their basis. Such an approach will enable the researchers to draw deep and unconventional conclusions of practical use especially as far as the non-Western parts of the world which are traditionally less examined by Western researchers, theorists and practitioners are concerned.

  20. Rethinking the psychogenic model of complex regional pain syndrome: somatoform disorders and complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Renee J; Chopra, Pradeep; Richardi, Toni

    2012-01-01

    Explaining the etiology of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) from the psychogenic model is exceedingly unsophisticated, because neurocognitive deficits, neuroanatomical abnormalities, and distortions in cognitive mapping are features of CRPS pathology. More importantly, many people who have developed CRPS have no history of mental illness. The psychogenic model offers comfort to physicians and mental health practitioners (MHPs) who have difficulty understanding pain maintained by newly uncovered neuro inflammatory processes. With increased education about CRPS through a biopsychosocial perspective, both physicians and MHPs can better diagnose, treat, and manage CRPS symptomatology.

  1. Rethinking the Psychogenic Model of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: Somatoform Disorders and Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Renee J.; Chopra, Pradeep; Richardi, Toni

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Explaining the etiology of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) from the psychogenic model is exceedingly unsophisticated, because neurocognitive deficits, neuroanatomical abnormalities, and distortions in cognitive mapping are features of CRPS pathology. More importantly, many people who have developed CRPS have no history of mental illness. The psychogenic model offers comfort to physicians and mental health practitioners (MHPs) who have difficulty understanding pain maintained by newly uncovered neuro inflammatory processes. With increased education about CRPS through a biopsychosocial perspective, both physicians and MHPs can better diagnose, treat, and manage CRPS symptomatology. PMID:24223338

  2. THE STAR FORMATION REGION NGC 6334

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tapia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The bright nebular complex NGC 6334 contains some of the most active sites of massive star formation known in our Galaxy. It is located at a distance from the Sun of 1.62 kpc and has a total mass of a few 105M . The physical characteristics of the active spots range widely, from well developed expanding HII regions to deeply embedded, still contracting, young objects detected only as millimeter sources, thus at their earliest observable stage of their evolution. The oldest optically visible round HII regions with central O-type stars are found in the southern parts, and the youngest along a molecular ridge. On the latter, no clear spatial evolutionary correlation is apparent.

  3. Environmental management on the basis of Complex Regional Indicators Concept: case of the Murmansk region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, A.; Gutman, S.; Zaychenko, I.; Rytova, E.; Nijinskaya, P.

    2015-09-01

    The article presents an approach to sustainable environmental development of the Murmansk region of the Russian Federation based on the complex regional indicators as a transformation of a balance scorecard method. The peculiarities of Murmansk region connected with sustainable environmental development are described. The complex regional indicators approach allows to elaborate the general concept of complex regional development taking into consideration economic and non-economic factors with the focus on environmental aspects, accumulated environmental damage in particular. General strategic chart of sustainable environmental development of the Murmansk region worked out on the basis of complex regional indicators concept is composed. The key target indicators of sustainable ecological development of the Murmansk region are presented for the following strategic chart components: regional finance; society and market; industry and entrepreneurship; training, development and innovations. These charts are to be integrated with international environmental monitoring systems.

  4. Complex molecules in W51 North region

    CERN Document Server

    Rong, Jialei; Zapata, Luis A; Wu, Yuefang; Liu, Tie; Zhang, Chengpeng; Peng, Yaping; Zhang, Li; Liu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    We present Submillimeter Array (SMA) molecular line observations in two 2 GHz-wide bands centered at 217.5 and 227.5 GHz, toward the massive star forming region W51 North. We identified 84 molecular line transitions from 17 species and their isotopologues. The molecular gas distribution of these lines mainly peaks in the continuum position of W51 North, and has a small tail extending to the west, probably associated with W51 d2. In addition to the commonly detected nitrogen and oxygen-bearing species, we detected a large amount of transitions of the Acetone (CH$_3$COCH$_3$) and Methyl Formate (CH$_3$OCHO), which may suggest that these molecules are present in an early evolutionary stage of the massive stars. We also found that W51 North is an ethanol-rich source. There is no obvious difference in the molecular gas distributions between the oxygen-bearing and nitrogen-bearing molecules. Under the assumption of Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE), with the XCLASS tool, the molecular column densities, and rota...

  5. Evolution of Prolate Molecular Clouds at Hii Boundaries: II. Formation of BRCs of asymmetrical morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Kinnear, T M; White, G J; Sugitani, K; Goodwin, S

    2015-01-01

    A systematic investigation on the evolution of a prolate cloud at an Hii boundary is conducted using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) in order to understand the mechanism for a variety of irregular morphological structures found at the boundaries of various Hii regions. The prolate molecular clouds in this investigation are set with their semi-major axes at inclinations between 0 and 90 degrees to a plane parallel ionizing radiation flux. A set of 4 parameters, the number density n, the ratio of major to minor axis gamma, the inclination angle phi and the incident flux F_EUV, are used to define the initial state of the simulated clouds. The dependence of the evolution of a prolate cloud under Radiation Driven Implosion (RDI) on each of the four parameters is investigated. It is found that: i) in addition to the well studied standard type A, B or C Bright Rimmed Clouds (BRCs), many other types such as asymmetrical BRCs, filamentary structures and irregular horse-head structures could also be developed at ...

  6. Wind-Blown Bubbles and HII Regions around Massive Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Arthur

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La evoluci on de las estrellas muy masivas est a dominada por su p erdida de masa, aunque las tasas de p erdida de masa no se conocen con mucha precisi on, particularmente una vez que la estrella sale de la secuencia principal. Los estudios de las nebulosas de anillo y de las cascarones de HI que rodean a muchas estrellas Wolf-Rayet (WR y variables azules luminosas (LBV proporcionan algo de informaci on acerca de la historia de la p erdida de masa en las etapas previas. Durante la secuencia principal y la fase WR los vientos estelares hipers onicos forman burbujas en el medio circunestelar e interestelar. Estas dos fases est an separadas por una etapa en donde la estrella pierde masa a una tasa muy alta pero a baja velocidad. Por lo tanto, el ambiente presupernova es determinado por la estrella progenitora misma, a un hasta distancias de algunas decenas de parsecs de la estrella. En este art culo, se describen las diferentes etapas en la evoluci on del medio circunestelar alrededar de una estrella de masa 40 M mediante simulaciones num ericas

  7. Thermally induced fluid reversed hexagonal (H(II)) mesophase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amar-Yuli, Idit; Wachtel, Ellen; Shalev, Deborah E; Moshe, Hagai; Aserin, Abraham; Garti, Nissim

    2007-12-06

    In the present study we characterized the microstructures of the Lc and HII phases in a glycerol monooleate (GMO)/tricaprylin (TAG)/water mixture as a function of temperature. We studied the factors that govern the formation of a low-viscosity HII phase at relatively elevated temperatures (>35 degrees C). This phase has very valuable physical characteristics and properties. The techniques used were differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide- and small-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS and SAXS, respectively), NMR (self-diffusion and (2)H NMR), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies. The reverse hexagonal phase exhibited relatively rapid flow of water in the inner channels within the densely packed cylindrical aggregates of GMO with TAG molecules located in the interstices. The existence of two water diffusion peaks reflects the existence of both mobile water and hydration water at the GMO-water interface (hydrogen exchange between the GMO hydroxyls and water molecules). Above 35 degrees C, the sample became fluid yet hexagonal symmetry was maintained. The fluidity of the HII phase is explained by a significant reduction in the domain size and also perhaps cylinder length. This phenomenon was characterized by higher mobility of the GMO, lower mobility of the water, and a significant dehydration process.

  8. A Fractal Dimension Survey of Active Region Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAteer, R. T. James; Gallagher, Peter; Ireland, Jack

    2005-01-01

    A new approach to quantifying the magnetic complexity of active regions using a fractal dimension measure is presented. This fully-automated approach uses full disc MDI magnetograms of active regions from a large data set (2742 days of the SoHO mission; 9342 active regions) to compare the calculated fractal dimension to both Mount Wilson classification and flare rate. The main Mount Wilson classes exhibit no distinct fractal dimension distribution, suggesting a self-similar nature of all active regions. Solar flare productivity exhibits an increase in both the frequency and GOES X-ray magnitude of flares from regions with higher fractal dimensions. Specifically a lower threshold fractal dimension of 1.2 and 1.25 exists as a necessary, but not sufficient, requirement for an active region to produce M- and X-class flares respectively .

  9. Video thermography: complex regional pain syndrome in the picture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.P. Niehof (Sjoerd)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis videothermography is developed and evaluated as a diagnostic and monitoring tool in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1 (CRPS1). This work is conducted within four pre- set developmental phases: namely, the initial, potential, monitoring and diagnostic phases. Tw

  10. Evidence based guidelines for complex regional pain syndrome type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez, Roberto S.; Zollinger, Paul E.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Thomassen-Hilgersom, Ilona L.; Zuurmond, Wouter W.; Rosenbrand, Kitty C. J.; Geertzen, Jan H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Treatment of complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) is subject to discussion. The purpose of this study was to develop multidisciplinary guidelines for treatment of CRPS-I. Method: A multidisciplinary task force graded literature evaluating treatment effects for CRPS-I according

  11. Video thermography: complex regional pain syndrome in the picture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.P. Niehof (Sjoerd)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis videothermography is developed and evaluated as a diagnostic and monitoring tool in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1 (CRPS1). This work is conducted within four pre- set developmental phases: namely, the initial, potential, monitoring and diagnostic phases.

  12. Risk perception of developing complex regional pain syndrome I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, PU; van der Schans, CP; Geertzen, JHB

    This study investigated how members of a hand team perceive clinical signs after a fracture of the distal radius. The risk of developing complex regional pain syndrome I (CRPS-I) was assessed on a 100-mm straight line based on clinical signs 5 weeks, 7 weeks and 10 weeks after the accident. Members

  13. Genetic and epidemiological aspect of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, Annetje Monique de

    2010-01-01

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a painful disorder affecting one or more extremities. CRPS is characterized by various combinations of sensory, autonomic and motor disturbances. Genetic factors are suggested to play a role in CRPS, but this has not been extensively studied. Therefore the ai

  14. Contribution of large region joint associations to complex traits genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paré, Guillaume; Asma, Senay; Deng, Wei Q

    2015-04-01

    A polygenic model of inheritance, whereby hundreds or thousands of weakly associated variants contribute to a trait's heritability, has been proposed to underlie the genetic architecture of complex traits. However, relatively few genetic variants have been positively identified so far and they collectively explain only a small fraction of the predicted heritability. We hypothesized that joint association of multiple weakly associated variants over large chromosomal regions contributes to complex traits variance. Confirmation of such regional associations can help identify new loci and lead to a better understanding of known ones. To test this hypothesis, we first characterized the ability of commonly used genetic association models to identify large region joint associations. Through theoretical derivation and simulation, we showed that multivariate linear models where multiple SNPs are included as independent predictors have the most favorable association profile. Based on these results, we tested for large region association with height in 3,740 European participants from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) study. Adjusting for SNPs with known association with height, we demonstrated clustering of weak associations (p = 2x10-4) in regions extending up to 433.0 Kb from known height loci. The contribution of regional associations to phenotypic variance was estimated at 0.172 (95% CI 0.063-0.279; p < 0.001), which compared favorably to 0.129 explained by known height variants. Conversely, we showed that suggestively associated regions are enriched for known height loci. To extend our findings to other traits, we also tested BMI, HDLc and CRP for large region associations, with consistent results for CRP. Our results demonstrate the presence of large region joint associations and suggest these can be used to pinpoint weakly associated SNPs.

  15. Electron Temperatures in W51 Complex from High Resolution, Low Frequency Radio Observations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P. K. Srivastava; A. Pramesh Rao

    2010-03-01

    W51 is a giant radio complex lying along the tangent to the Sagitarius arm at a distance of about 7 kpc from the Sun, with an extension of about 1° in the sky. It is divided into three components A, B, C where W51A and W51B consist of many compact HII regions while W51C is a supernova remnant. We have made continuum radio observations of these HII regions of the W51 complex at 240, 610, 1060 and 1400 MHz using GMRT with lower resolution (20'' × 15'') at the lowest frequency. The observed spectra of the prominent thermal subcomponents of W51 have been fitted to a free-free emission spectrum and their physical properties like electron temperatures and emission measures have been estimated. The electron temperatures from continuum spectra are found to be lower than the temperatures reported from radio recombination line (RRL) studies of these HII regions indicating the need for a filling factor even at this resolution. Also, the observed brightness at 240 MHz is found to be higher than expected from the best fits suggesting the need for a multicomponent model for the region.

  16. MULTILEVEL RECURRENT MODEL FOR HIERARCHICAL CONTROL OF COMPLEX REGIONAL SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey V. Masloboev

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of research. The research goal and scope are development of methods and software for mathematical and computer modeling of the regional security information support systems as multilevel hierarchical systems. Such systems are characterized by loosely formalization, multiple-aspect of descendent system processes and their interconnectivity, high level dynamics and uncertainty. The research methodology is based on functional-target approach and principles of multilevel hierarchical system theory. The work considers analysis and structural-algorithmic synthesis problem-solving of the multilevel computer-aided systems intended for management and decision-making information support in the field of regional security. Main results. A hierarchical control multilevel model of regional socio-economic system complex security has been developed. The model is based on functional-target approach and provides both formal statement and solving, and practical implementation of the automated information system structure and control algorithms synthesis problems of regional security management optimal in terms of specified criteria. An approach for intralevel and interlevel coordination problem-solving in the multilevel hierarchical systems has been proposed on the basis of model application. The coordination is provided at the expense of interconnection requirements satisfaction between the functioning quality indexes (objective functions, which are optimized by the different elements of multilevel systems. That gives the possibility for sufficient coherence reaching of the local decisions, being made on the different control levels, under decentralized decision-making and external environment high dynamics. Recurrent model application provides security control mathematical models formation of regional socioeconomic systems, functioning under uncertainty. Practical relevance. The model implementation makes it possible to automate synthesis realization of

  17. H(II) centers in natural silica under repeated UV laser irradiations

    OpenAIRE

    Messina, F.; Cannas, M.; Boscaino, R.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the kinetics of H(II) centers (=Ge'-H) in natural silica under repeated 266nm UV irradiations performed by a Nd:YAG pulsed laser. UV photons temporarily destroy these paramagnetic defects, their reduction being complete within 250 pulses. After re-irradiation, H(II) centers grow again, and the observed recovery kinetics depends on the irradiation dose; multiple 2000 pulses re-irradiations induce the same post-irradiation kinetics of H(II) centers after each exposure cycle. The...

  18. Complexity of the Ibero-Magrhebian region: intermediate depth earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buforn, Elisa; Cesca, Simone; Del Fresno, Carmen; Udias, Agustin

    2010-05-01

    Complexity of the Ibero-Magrhebian region: intermediate depth earthquakes Buforn E. (1), Cesca S.(2), del Fresno C.(3), Udías, A. (1) (1) Dpt. Geofísica y Meteorología. Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain (2) Institute of Geophysics, University of Hamburg, Germany (3) Instituto Geográfico Nacional, Madrid (Spain) The Ibero-Magrhebian region is located at the plate boundary between Eurasia and Africa and it is a tectonically complex region. A sign of the complexity, is the occurrence of intermediate depth earthquakes (40region (50 km width) located East of Gibraltar, extending NNE-SSW from the Malaga (Spain) area to a region offshore the Moroccan coast. The moderate magnitude of the intermediate depth events (less than 5.5), the heterogeneity of the crustal structure in the region, and the strong influence of microseismic noise on seismic data represent significant challenges for the inversion of focal mechanism based on waveform modelling. We have estimated the focal mechanisms of 9 intermediate depth earthquakes (Mw 3.3 to 4.5) occurred in the period 2002-2009 from moment tensor inversion of broad-band data at regional distances, using the recently developed Kiwi tools. Moment tensor inversion is carried out by fitting body waves amplitude spectra, solving for strike, dip, rake, scalar moment and improving the original hypocentral depth. For each earthquake, we carry out a set of inversions, comparing results using different station subsets, seismic phases and earth models. The new obtained results, together with other selected solutions estimated previously using different methods, show a change on the stress pattern: to the west of 4.5°W, focal mechanisms show vertical tension axis, while to the east

  19. Regional genomic instability predisposes to complex dystrophin gene rearrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Junko; Magner, Daniel B; Lee, Jennifer A; Breman, Amy M; Schmitt, Eric S; White, Lisa D; Crowe, Carol A; Merrill, Michelle; Jayakar, Parul; Rajadhyaksha, Aparna; Eng, Christine M; del Gaudio, Daniela

    2009-09-01

    Mutations in the dystrophin gene (DMD) cause Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies and the majority of cases are due to DMD gene rearrangements. Despite the high incidence of these aberrations, little is known about their causative molecular mechanism(s). We examined 792 DMD/BMD clinical samples by oligonucleotide array-CGH and report on the junction sequence analysis of 15 unique deletion cases and three complex intragenic rearrangements to elucidate potential underlying mechanism(s). Furthermore, we present three cases with intergenic rearrangements involving DMD and neighboring loci. The cases with intragenic rearrangements include an inversion with flanking deleted sequences; a duplicated segment inserted in direct orientation into a deleted region; and a splicing mutation adjacent to a deletion. Bioinformatic analysis demonstrated that 7 of 12 breakpoints combined among 3 complex cases aligned with repetitive sequences, as compared to 4 of 30 breakpoints for the 15 deletion cases. Moreover, the inversion/deletion case may involve a stem-loop structure that has contributed to the initiation of this rearrangement. For the duplication/deletion and splicing mutation/deletion cases, the presence of the first mutation, either a duplication or point mutation, may have elicited the deletion events in an attempt to correct preexisting mutations. While NHEJ is one potential mechanism for these complex rearrangements, the highly complex junction sequence of the inversion/deletion case suggests the involvement of a replication-based mechanism. Our results support the notion that regional genomic instability, aided by the presence of repetitive elements, a stem-loop structure, and possibly preexisting mutations, may elicit complex rearrangements of the DMD gene.

  20. Priority Directions of The Regional Food Complex Effectiveness Increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Andreyevich Karkh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the modern trends of management integration as a solution of food and sectoral problems are considered. On the basis of national and foreign experience of development of integration, the classification of integration in economic systems is developed. On the basis of the given classification, the concept of integration is conducted. In the article, much attention is given to the food problem solution, which depends more on the agro-industrial complex based on metaintegration. The leading place of a food complex in the system of agro-industrial complex is caused by a role of food and food raw materials in life of the population of the country. The ratio of the sectors participating in the food production and consumer goods makes the sectoral structure of agro-industrial complex. In the conditions of the resource limitation necessary for the production and food delivery to the domestic market, the role of trade will increase not only in agro-industrial complex, but in all national economy. Also, in this article, the phenomenon of clusters is studied. The attention to clusters as to innovation systems reflects a rising tide of interest of economic science to the questions of economics functioning in regional level and understanding of a role of specific local resources in stimulation of innovative opportunities and competitiveness of small and medium business. Creating a cluster, participants develop the spatial and organizational integrated structure, in interaction of legal entities the status is saved and cooperation provides competitive advantages with other business entities. The role of the state in integration of cluster formations in the Russian Federation is more significant, than in any other country. The state represented by regional authorities actively participates in decision-making process by the business located in its catchment area not only through membership in governing bodies of large joint stock companies.

  1. Complex regional pain syndrome: more than a peripheral disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinersmann, Annika; Maier, Christoph; Schwenkreis, Peter; Lenz, Melanie

    2013-11-01

    SUMMARY At early stages, complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is clinically characterized by damage of peripheral tissues and nerves (edema, activation of osteoblasts, hyperalgesia to blunt pressure). These signs are the result of a dysbalance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, which normalizes approximately 6 months after the beginning of the disease, independent from clinical outcome. At the same time, evolving clinical signs such as allodynia, cold hyperalgesia, reduced tactile acuity or symptoms of disrupted body representation (e.g., neglect-like syndrome, impaired hand laterality recognition or shift of the body midline) suggest a crucial role of the CNS in the pathophysiology of this pain syndrome. Imaging studies have found a severe but reversible reduction of the cortical hand representation (primary and secondary somatosensory cortices and primary motor cortices). Interestingly however, complex multisensory integration in central association areas are unaffected in CRPS, as patients are capable of integrating artificial body parts or recognize 2D forms despite tactile dysfunction. Furthermore, despite its unilateral clinical manifestation, it has been shown that in CRPS but not in other unilateral neuropathic pain syndromes, alterations in cortical excitability occur bilaterally, both in sensory and motor regions. In conclusion, a more widespread and bilateral pattern of CNS reorganization appears to characterize CRPS, which might be related to dysfunctions in the basal ganglia or in thalamo-cortical structures. Consequently, CRPS treatment should involve not only anti-inflammatory measures and pain therapy, but also the integration of neurorehabilitative training programs.

  2. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy--a complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Stokes, L

    2002-12-15

    Reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) is a complex and poorly-understood condition characterized by: (a) pain and altered sensation; (b) motor disturbance and soft tissue change; (c) vasomotor and autonomic changes; and (d) psychosocial disturbance. Neurological symptoms typically do not conform to any particular pattern of nerve damage. Many different names have been ascribed to this condition and most recently the term 'complex regional pain syndrome' has been coined to emphasize the complex interaction of somatic, psychological and behavioural factors. Diagnostic criteria have been proposed by the International Association for the Study of Pain, but are still subject to debate. This review article describes the clinical features which may present as part of the condition, and the patho-physiology and pre-disposing factors so far identified. The evidence for effectiveness of different interventions is presented and a treatment approach outlined for inter-disciplinary management. While RSD is traditionally associated with pain in the extremities, the possibility is raised that the same process may underlie chronic pain syndromes affecting more central structures, such as testicular or pelvic pain.

  3. HII mesophase as a drug delivery system for topical application of methyl salicylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xin; Chen, Yu-Lin; Jiang, Xiao-Jing; Wang, Sheng-Mei; Zhang, Ji-Wen; Gui, Shuang-Ying

    2017-03-30

    The main objective of this study was to develop reversed hexagonal (HII) mesophase for transdermal delivery of methyl salicylate. The formulation was prepared, characterized and evaluated for its skin penetration in vitro and skin retention in vivo. Preliminary pharmacodynamics and skin irritation were also investigated. The formulation was identified as hexagonal structure. In vitro study exhibited that HII mesophase enhanced the skin permeation by delivering 2.61 times more methyl salicylate than the commercially available cream. Meanwhile, HII mesophase presented higher bioavailability as AUC(0-24) and AUC(0-∞) were 32.894μg·mL(-1) and 32.935μg·mL(-1) respectively, while the cream were 12.791μg·mL(-1) and 12.970μg·mL(-1). Preliminary pharmacodynamics studies demonstrated that HII mesophase possessed anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects for inhibiting paw edema, granuloma and pain. MeSa HII mesophase showed no skin irritation on the normal rat skin. Thus, HII mesophase was considered as an effective delivery system for MeSa.

  4. The HII Galaxy Hubble Diagram Strongly Favors $R_{\\rm h}=ct$ over $\\Lambda$CDM

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Jun-Jie; Melia, Fulvio

    2016-01-01

    We continue to build support for the proposal to use HII galaxies (HIIGx) and giant extragalactic HII regions (GEHR) as standard candles to construct the Hubble diagram at redshifts beyond the current reach of Type Ia supernovae. Using a sample of 25 high-redshift HIIGx, 107 local HIIGx, and 24 GEHR, we confirm that the correlation between the emission-line luminosity and ionized-gas velocity dispersion is a viable luminosity indicator, and use it to test and compare the standard model $\\Lambda$CDM and the $R_{\\rm h}=ct$ Universe by optimizing the parameters in each cosmology using a maximization of the likelihood function. For the flat $\\Lambda$CDM model, the best fit is obtained with $\\Omega_{\\rm m}= 0.40_{-0.09}^{+0.09}$. However, statistical tools, such as the Akaike (AIC), Kullback (KIC) and Bayes (BIC) Information Criteria favor $R_{\\rm h}=ct$ over the standard model with a likelihood of $\\approx 94.8\\%-98.8\\%$ versus only $\\approx 1.2\\%-5.2\\%$. For $w$CDM (the version of $\\Lambda$CDM with a dark-energy...

  5. Modeling Complex Organic Molecules in dense regions: Eley-Rideal and complex induced reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Ruaud, M; Hickson, K M; Gratier, P; Hersant, F; Wakelam, V

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations have revealed the existence of Complex Organic Molecules (COMs) in cold dense cores and prestellar cores. The presence of these molecules in such cold conditions is not well understood and remains a matter of debate since the previously proposed "warm- up" scenario cannot explain these observations. In this article, we study the effect of Eley- Rideal and complex induced reaction mechanisms of gas-phase carbon atoms with the main ice components of dust grains on the formation of COMs in cold and dense regions. Based on recent experiments we use a low value for the chemical desorption efficiency (which was previously invoked to explain the observed COM abundances). We show that our introduced mechanisms are efficient enough to produce a large amount of complex organic molecules in the gas-phase at temperatures as low as 10K.

  6. On the compact HII galaxy UM 408 as seen by GMOS-IFU: Physical conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Lagos, Patricio; Munoz-Tunon, Casiana; Carrasco, Eleazar R; Cuisinier, Francois; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo

    2009-01-01

    We present Integral Field Unit GMOS-IFU data of the compact HII galaxy UM408, obtained at Gemini South telescope, in order to derive the spatial distribution of emission lines and line ratios, kinematics, plasma parameters, and oxygen abundances as well the integrated properties over an area of 3"x4".4(~750x1100 pc) located in the central part of the galaxy. The starburst in this area is resolved into two giant regions of ~375 and 250pc diameter, respectively. The ages of these two regions, estimated using Hb equivalent widths, suggest that they are coeval events of ~5Myr with stellar masses of ~10^4M_o. We have also used [OIII]/Hb and [SII]/Ha ratio maps to explore the excitation mechanisms in this galaxy. The Ha emission line was used to measure the radial velocity and velocity dispersion. We derived an integrated oxygen abundance of 12+log(O/H)=7.87 summing over all spaxels in our field of view. An average value of 12+log(O/H)=7.77 and a difference of D(O/H)=0.47 between the minimum and maximum values (7.5...

  7. Neurogenic neuroinflammation in fibromyalgia and complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlejohn, Geoffrey

    2015-11-01

    Although fibromyalgia and complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) have distinct clinical phenotypes, they do share many other features. Pain, allodynia and dysaesthesia occur in each condition and seem to exist on a similar spectrum. Fibromyalgia and CRPS can both be triggered by specific traumatic events, although fibromyalgia is most commonly associated with psychological trauma and CRPS is most often associated with physical trauma, which is frequently deemed routine or minor by the patient. Fibromyalgia and CRPS also seem to share many pathophysiological mechanisms, among which the most important are those involving central effects. Nonetheless, peripheral effects, such as neurogenic neuroinflammation, are also important contributors to the clinical features of each of these disorders. This Review highlights the differing degrees to which neurogenic neuroinflammation might contribute to the multifactorial pathogenesis of both fibromyalgia and CRPS, and discusses the evidence suggesting that this mechanism is an important link between the two disorders, and could offer novel therapeutic targets.

  8. OH (1720 MHz) Masers: A Multiwavelength Study of the Interaction between the W51C Supernova Remnant and the W51B Star Forming Region

    CERN Document Server

    Brogan, C L; Hunter, T R; Richards, A M S; Chandler, C J; Lazendic, J S; Koo, B -C; Hoffman, I M; Claussen, M J

    2013-01-01

    We present a comprehensive view of the W51B HII region complex and the W51C supernova remnant (SNR) using new radio observations from the VLA, VLBA, MERLIN, JCMT, and CSO along with archival data from Spitzer, ROSAT, ASCA, and Chandra. Our VLA data include the first 400 cm (74 MHz) continuum image of W51 at high resolution (88 arcsec). The 400 cm image shows non-thermal emission surrounding the G49.2-0.3 HII region, and a compact source of non-thermal emission (W51B_NT) coincident with the previously-identified OH (1720 MHz) maser spots, non-thermal 21 and 90 cm emission, and a hard X-ray source. W51B_NT falls within the region of high likelihood for the position of TeV gamma-ray emission. Using the VLBA three OH (1720 MHz) maser spots are detected in the vicinity of W51B_NT with sizes of 60 to 300 AU and Zeeman effect magnetic field strengths of 1.5 to 2.2 mG. The multiwavelength data demonstrate that the northern end of the W51B HII region complex has been partly enveloped by the advancing W51C SNR and this...

  9. Star Formation in HII Galaxies. Properties of the ionized gas

    CERN Document Server

    Hägele, G F; Terlevich, E; Pérez-Montero, E; Terlevich, R; Cardaci, M V

    2009-01-01

    We propose a methodology to perform a self-consistent analysis of the physical properties of the emitting gas of HII galaxies adequate to the data that can be obtained with the XXI century technology. This methodology requires the production and calibration of empirical relations between the different line temperatures that should superseed currently used ones based on very simple, and poorly tested, photo-ionization model sequences. Then, these observations are analysed applying a methodology designed to obtain accurate elemental abundances of oxygen, sulphur, nitrogen, neon, argon and iron in the ionsied gas. Four electron temperatures and one electron density are derived from the observed forbidden line ratios using the five-level atom approximation. For our best objects errors of 1% in T([OIII]), 3% in T([OII]) and 5% in T([SIII]) are achieved with a resulting accuracy between 5 and 9% in total oxygen abundances, O/H. These accuracies are expected to improve as better calibrations based on more precise me...

  10. [Clinical practice guideline 'Complex regional pain syndrome type I'].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, R S G M; Zollinger, P E; Dijkstra, P U; Thomassen-Hilgersom, I L; Zuurmond, W W A; Rosenbrand, C J G M; Geertzen, J H B

    2007-07-28

    The development and treatment ofthe complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) are a subject of much discussion. Using the method for the development ofevidence-based guidelines, a multidisciplinary guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of this syndrome has been drawn up. The diagnosis of CRPS-I is based on the clinical observation of signs and symptoms. For pain treatment, the WHO analgesic ladder is advised up to step z. In case of pain ofa neuropathic nature, anticonvulsants and tricyclic antidepressants may be considered. For the treatment ofinflammatory symptoms, free-radical scavengers (dimethylsulphoxide or acetylcysteine) are advised. In order to enhance peripheral blood flow, vasodilatory medication may be considered. Percutaneous sympathetic blockades may be used for a cold extremity ifvasodilatory medication produces insufficient effect. To decrease functional limitations, standardised physiotherapy and occupational therapy are advised. To prevent the occurrence of CRPS-I after wrist fractures, the use of vitamin C is recommended. Adequate perioperative analgesia, limitation of operation time and limited use of bloodlessness are advised for the secondary prevention of CRPS-I. Use of regional anaesthetic techniques can also be considered in this connection.

  11. Orofacial complex regional pain syndrome: pathophysiologic mechanisms and functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeon-Hee; Lee, Kyung Mi; Kim, Hyug-Gi; Kang, Soo-Kyung; Auh, Q-Schick; Hong, Jyung-Pyo; Chun, Yang-Hyun

    2017-08-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is one of the most challenging chronic pain conditions and is characterized by burning pain, allodynia, hyperalgesia, autonomic changes, trophic changes, edema, and functional loss involving mainly the extremities. Until recently, very few reports have been published concerning CRPS involving the orofacial area. We report on a 50-year-old female patient who presented with unbearable pain in all of her teeth and hypersensitivity of the facial skin. She also reported intractable pain in both extremities accompanied by temperature changes and orofacial pain that increased when the other pains were aggravated. In the case of CRPS with trigeminal neuropathic pain, protocols for proper diagnosis and prompt treatment have yet to be established in academia or in the clinical field. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging for a thorough analysis of the cortical representation of the affected orofacial area immediately before and immediately after isolated light stimulus of the affected hand and foot and concluded that CRPS can be correlated with trigeminal neuropathy in the orofacial area. Furthermore, the patient was treated with carbamazepine administration and stellate ganglion block, which can result in a rapid improvement of pain in the trigeminal region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. An empirical application of regional security complex theory on eastern partnership region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila STUPARU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Eastern Partnership (EaP is a very dynamic region. If a year ago the EaP was seen as an authentic and vibrant „laboratory” of democracy building, overcoming the remains of the totalitarian state and putting the basis of a free and pluralist society, nowadays the Eastern Partnership is seen as an „out-dated” approach of the EU. However, Eastern Partnership is visible on European political arena and the big powers (USA, Russia and the EU pay attention more and more to the evolution of EaP countries. Moreover, it seems to be a confrontation between Russia and Western powers regarding the political and geopolitical orientation of EaP countries. Kremlin tries actively to stop the efforts of the EaP to close to the EU and on the other side, the EU as well as the USA encourage EaP countries to implement reforms in order to build their democracy. This paper aims to analyse the Eastern Partnership in terms of security complex, trying to argue that Eastern Partnership countries at this phase don’t form a Regional Security Complex and the EU and USA should rethink its approach towards this region.

  13. Genome-wide expression profiling of complex regional pain syndrome.

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    Eun-Heui Jin

    Full Text Available Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS is a chronic, progressive, and devastating pain syndrome characterized by spontaneous pain, hyperalgesia, allodynia, altered skin temperature, and motor dysfunction. Although previous gene expression profiling studies have been conducted in animal pain models, there genome-wide expression profiling in the whole blood of CRPS patients has not been reported yet. Here, we successfully identified certain pain-related genes through genome-wide expression profiling in the blood from CRPS patients. We found that 80 genes were differentially expressed between 4 CRPS patients (2 CRPS I and 2 CRPS II and 5 controls (cut-off value: 1.5-fold change and p<0.05. Most of those genes were associated with signal transduction, developmental processes, cell structure and motility, and immunity and defense. The expression levels of major histocompatibility complex class I A subtype (HLA-A29.1, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9, alanine aminopeptidase N (ANPEP, l-histidine decarboxylase (HDC, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor 3 receptor (G-CSF3R, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 genes selected from the microarray were confirmed in 24 CRPS patients and 18 controls by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. We focused on the MMP9 gene that, by qRT-PCR, showed a statistically significant difference in expression in CRPS patients compared to controls with the highest relative fold change (4.0±1.23 times and p = 1.4×10(-4. The up-regulation of MMP9 gene in the blood may be related to the pain progression in CRPS patients. Our findings, which offer a valuable contribution to the understanding of the differential gene expression in CRPS may help in the understanding of the pathophysiology of CRPS pain progression.

  14. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy/complex regional pain syndrome, type 1

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    S.H. Botha

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Complex regional pain syndrome (CPRS, type 1 is a pain disorder that develops unpredictably and can follow a minor injury. A 12-year-old boy presented with severe pain in the feet and could not walk or stand weight bearing. Normal X-rays showed osteopenic changes and radiolucent lines, which appeared to be stress fractures. Three-phase bone scintigraphy showed no uptake in the left lower leg on the blood pool phase or on the immediate or delayed images. This indicated typical CPRS type 1 in children. The uptake in the right foot was increased and the stress fracture and other illness could not be differentiated. Computed tomography was done to exclude stress fractures. Only osteopenic changes in both calcaneus bones were found and there was no evidence of cortical stress fractures. Magnetic resonance images revealed oedema in the calcaneus and talus bones of both feet. The patient received epidural narcotic infusion with sympathetic blockage for 1 week combined with extensive physiotherapy. The blood pool phase of the bone scan became normal within 2 weeks, and increased uptake in both feet was noticed. The patient was followed up with MRI every 3 months and the bone marrow oedema disappeared after 6 months.

  15. Complex regional pain syndrome 1 – the Swiss cohort study

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    Perez Roberto SGM

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the course of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1 and potential factors influencing the course of this disorder over time. The goal of this study is a to set up a database with patients suffering from suspected CRPS 1 in an initial stadium, b to perform investigations on epidemiology, diagnosis, prognosis, and socioeconomics within the database and c to develop a prognostic risk assessment tool for patients with CRPS 1 taking into account symptomatology and specific therapies. Methods/design Prospective cohort study. Patients suffering from a painful swelling of the hand or foot which appeared within 8 weeks after a trauma or a surgery and which cannot be explained by conditions that would otherwise account for the degree of pain and dysfunction will be included. In accordance with the recommendations of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF model, standardised and validated questionnaires will be used. Patients will be monitored over a period of 2 years at 6 scheduled visits (0 and 6 weeks, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. Each visit involves a physical examination, registration of therapeutic interventions, and completion of the various study questionnaires. Outcomes involve changes in health status, quality of life and costs/utility. Discussion This paper describes the rationale and design of patients with CRPS 1. Ideally, potential risk factors may be identified at an early stage in order to initiate an early and adequate treatment in patients with increased risk for delayed recovery. Trial registration Not applicable

  16. Complex regional pain syndromes (CRPS type 1 validating case histories

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    P. Berger

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS type 1 is challenging and unpredictable as the condition presents with vascular and neuropathic symptoms after nil or even minor injury to a peripheral nerve. The condition is one of a pain and motor dysfunction. The pathophysiology is not well understood and the relief of symptoms may change from being sympathetically mediated to sympathetically independent during  the course of the disease. At any stage physiotherapy has been advocated as the corner stone and most important aspect of treatment in the rehabilitation of these individuals but unfortunately it has been difficult to execute when pain is exacerbated due to allodynia (unbearable to touch or move and hyperalgesia. Best results have been obtained if the patients are recognised and treated in the early or acute phase and it has been found that through careful assessment and analysis these patients can be recognised by previous events that have occurred in their initial case history. The treatment in the acute stage with physiotherapy modalities such as electrical stimulation and acupuncture will produce an early cessation of the symptoms and prevention of the disease developing into the fully blown CRPS type 1 with irreversible and possibly atrophic consequences. Case histories have been presented that illustrate these important aspects and demonstrate  the value of early and the appropriate physiotherapy that may be more successful than other pharmacological and physical interventions in this disease.

  17. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome after Transradial Cardiac Catheterization

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    Chih-Jou Lai

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS is a disease with unclear pathophysiology. The condition is characterized by pain, soft tissue change, vasomotor change, and even psychosocial disturbance. It may affect the upper more than the lower extremities, and the distal more than the proximal. The trigger factors include carpal tunnel release, Dupuytren's repair, tendon release procedures, knee surgery, crush injury, ankle arthrodesis, amputation, and hip arthroplasty. Rarely, it has been associated with stroke, mastectomy, pregnancy, and osteogenesis imperfecta. Herein, we present a rare case of a patient who was diagnosed with CRPS after transradial cardiac catheterization. CRPS was first diagnosed due to hand swelling, allodynia, paresthesia, and the limited range of motion of interphalangeal, metacarpophalangeal, and wrist joints, with the preceding factor of transradial cardiac catheterization, and was then confirmed by a three-phase bone scan. After intensive physical therapy with hydrotherapy, manual soft tissue release, and occupational therapy for the hand function, there was much improvement in range of motion and hand function. There was no allodynia or painful sensation in the follow-up. After training, the functional status of this patient was adequate for daily activity.

  18. Copepod assemblages in a highly complex hydrographic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berasategui, A. D.; Menu Marque, S.; Gómez-Erache, M.; Ramírez, F. C.; Mianzan, H. W.; Acha, E. M.

    2006-02-01

    Community structure and diversity patterns of planktonic copepods were investigated for the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean between 34 and 41°S. Our objectives were (1) to define copepod assemblages, (2) to accurately identify their association to different water masses/hydrodynamic regimes, (3) to characterize the assemblages in terms of their community structure, and (4) to test if frontal boundaries between water masses separate copepod assemblages. Biogeographic patterns were investigated using multivariate analysis (cluster and ANOSIM analyses). Biodiversity patterns were examined using different univariate indexes (point species richness and taxonomic distinctness). Five regions of similar copepod assemblages were defined for our study area each one corresponding to different environments (freshwater, estuarine, continental shelf, Malvinas and Brazil current assemblages). These assemblages have major community structure differences. In spite of the complex oceanographic scenario of our study area, that can lead us to expect a pattern of copepod communities with diffuse boundaries, we found a strong spatial correspondence between these limits and the presence of permanent frontal structures.

  19. Intravenous Regional Block with Phentolamine in the Treatment of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

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    Hooshang Shahriyari

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS is a variety of painful conditions following injury which appears regionally having a distal predominance of abnormal findings. This study, evaluate the use of phentolamine for sympathetic block and regional anesthesia in treatment of CRPS related pain. In this study, 68 patients with CRPS who were referred to pain clinics of Imam Hossein and Akhtar Hospitals and Gandy Center of Surgery between 2003-2008 were evaluated. Forty three of 87 patients finally undertaken intravenous regional sympatholytic block according to therapeutic protocol. 37 patients (86% received one block, 2 of them (4.75% received 2 repetitions of blocks and finally repeated block for three times occurred in 4 patients (9.3%. A week after block pain relief outcomes was recorded as following; excellent in 7 patients (16.3%, good in the 32 patients (74.4% and moderate in the 4 patients (9.3%. After a month, 8 patients (18.5% showed excellent relief and it was good and moderate in 32 (78% and one case (2.4%, respectively. Pain relief after three months was excellent, good and moderate in the 13 patients (31.7%, 25 patients (61% and 3 patients (7.3%, respectively. In this study level of pain relief was significant in various intervals and it showed significant difference in relief three months after block (P=0.04. CRPS due to SMP(sympathetically maintained pain is thought to be alleviated by phentolamine. Intravenous phentolamine infusion is potentially a new significant option for the therapy of CRPS.

  20. Intravenous regional block with phentolamine in the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaki, Asadollah Saadat; Bagherzadi, Kambiz; Momenzadeh, Sirous; Shahriyari, Hooshang; Dori, Mehrdad Mokarram

    2011-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a variety of painful conditions following injury which appears regionally having a distal predominance of abnormal findings. This study, evaluate the use of phentolamine for sympathetic block and regional anesthesia in treatment of CRPS related pain. In this study, 68 patients with CRPS who were referred to pain clinics of Imam Hossein and Akhtar Hospitals and Gandy Center of Surgery between 2003-2008 were evaluated. Forty three of 87 patients finally undertaken intravenous regional sympatholytic block according to therapeutic protocol. 37 patients (86%) received one block, 2 of them (4.75%) received 2 repetitions of blocks and finally repeated block for three times occurred in 4 patients (9.3%). A week after block pain relief outcomes was recorded as following; excellent in 7 patients (16.3%), good in the 32 patients (74.4%) and moderate in the 4 patients (9.3%). After a month, 8 patients (18.5%) showed excellent relief and it was good and moderate in 32 (78%) and one case (2.4%), respectively. Pain relief after three months was excellent, good and moderate in the 13 patients (31.7%), 25 patients (61%) and 3 patients (7.3%), respectively. In this study level of pain relief was significant in various intervals and it showed significant difference in relief three months after block (P=0.04). CRPS due to SMP(sympathetically maintained pain) is thought to be alleviated by phentolamine. Intravenous phentolamine infusion is potentially a new significant option for the therapy of CRPS.

  1. Sensitization of the Nociceptive System in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome.

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    Maren Reimer

    Full Text Available Complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I is characterized by sensory, motor and autonomic abnormalities without electrophysiological evidence of a nerve lesion.Aims were to investigate how sensory, autonomic and motor function change in the course of the disease.19 CRPS-I patients (17 with acute, 2 with chronic CRPS, mean duration of disease 5.7±8.3, range 1-33 months were examined with questionnaires (LANSS, NPS, MPI, Quick DASH, multiple choice list of descriptors for sensory, motor, autonomic symptoms, motor and autonomic tests as well as quantitative sensory testing according to the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain at two visits (baseline and 36±10.6, range 16-53 months later.CRPS-I patients had an improvement of sudomotor and vasomotor function, but still a great impairment of sensory and motor function upon follow-up. Although pain and mechanical detection improved upon follow-up, thermal and mechanical pain sensitivity increased, including the contralateral side. Increase in mechanical pain sensitivity and loss of mechanical detection were associated with presence of ongoing pain.The results demonstrate that patients with CRPS-I show a sensitization of the nociceptive system in the course of the disease, for which ongoing pain seems to be the most important trigger. They further suggest that measured loss of function in CRPS-I is due to pain-induced hypoesthesia rather than a minimal nerve lesion. In conclusion, this article gives evidence for a pronociceptive pain modulation profile developing in the course of CRPS and thus helps to assess underlying mechanisms of CRPS that contribute to the maintenance of patients' pain and disability.

  2. Serum and salivary oxidative analysis in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Elon; Shtahl, Shalom; Geller, Rimma; Reznick, Abraham Z; Sharf, Ordi; Ravbinovich, Meirav; Erenreich, Adam; Nagler, Rafael M

    2008-08-15

    Although both inflammatory and neural mechanisms have been suggested as potential contributors to Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I (CRPS-I), the pathogenesis of the syndrome is still unclear. Clinical trials have shown that free radical scavengers can reduce signs and symptoms of CRPS-I, indirectly suggesting that free radicals and increased oxidative stress are involved in the pathogenesis of CRPS-I. This study investigated this premise by determining the levels of antioxidants in the serum and saliva of 31 patients with CRPS-I and in a control group of 21 healthy volunteers. Serum lipid peroxidation products (MDA) and all antioxidative parameters analyzed were significantly elevated in CRPS-I patients: median salivary peroxidase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity values, uric acid (UA) concentration and total antioxidant status (TAS) values were higher in CRPS-I patients by 150% (p=0.01), 280% (p=0.04), 60% (p=0.0001), and 200% (p=0.0003), respectively, as compared with controls. Similar although not as extensive pattern of oxidative changes were found in the serum: mean serum UA and MDA concentrations and TAS value in the CRPS-I patients were higher by 16% (p=0.04), 25% (p=0.02), and 22% (p=0.05), respectively, than in the controls. Additionally, median salivary albumin concentration and median salivary LDH activities in the patients were 2.5 times (p=0.001) and 3.1 (p=0.004) times higher than in the controls. The accumulated data show that free radicals are involved in the pathophysiology of CRPS-I, which is reflected both in serum and salivary analyses. These data could be used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in CRPS-I patients.

  3. Complexity of case mix in a regional allergy service

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    Kaminski Edward R

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently in the United Kingdom (UK, there is a mismatch between limited financial resources and the large proportion of patients with suspected allergies actually being referred to specialist allergy clinics. To better understand the case mix of patients being referred, we audited referrals to a regional allergy service over an 8 year period. The main source of data was consultant letters to General Practitioners (GP summarising the diagnosis of patients, archived from January 2002 to September 2009. Letters were reviewed, extracting the clinic date, doctor seen, gender, date of birth, postcode, GP, and diagnoses. Diagnoses were classified into seven groups and illustrative cases for each group noted. Findings Data from 2,028 new referrals with suspected allergy were analysed. The largest group of patients (43% were diagnosed with a type I hypersensitivity. The other diagnostic groups were chronic idiopathic (spontaneous urticaria (35%, suspected type I hypersensitivity but no allergen identified (8%, idiopathic (spontaneous angioedema (8%, physical urticaria (2.5%, non-allergic symptoms (1.6%, type IV hypersensitivity (0.8% and ACE inhibitor sensitivity (0.5%. Two thirds of patients seen were female with a higher percentage of female patients in the non type-I hypersensitivity group (71% than the type 1 hypersensitivity (66% (χ2 = 5.1, 1df, p = 0.024. The type 1 hypersensitivity patients were younger than other patients (38 Vs 46 years, t = -10.8, p Conclusions This study highlights the complexity of specialist allergy practice and the large proportion of patients referred with non-type I hypersensitivities, chronic idiopathic (spontaneous urticaria being by far the largest group. Such information is critical to inform commissioning decisions, define referral pathways and in primary care education.

  4. Demographic Features in Patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

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    Berat Meryem Alkan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary Özet Orijinal Araştırma / Original Investigation 77 Aim: Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS is characterized by pain, vasomotor and sudomotor changes and trophic disturbances. It may develop as a result of trauma, especially extremity fractures and surgery. Although the pathogenesis of CRPS is not exactly clear explained, it has been suggested that central and periferal mechanisms play role and neurogenic inflamatuar and microvasculer functional impairmensts are accompanying to the process. Not all but some of the patients with past trauma or with other possible etiological factors develop CRPS. This suggests the presence of an individual predisposition. In this article, we searched post fractüred CRPS-I patients demographic characteristics, current systemic diseases and symptoms that accompany a CRPS in our records. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study conducted in Ankara Atatürk Education and Research Hospital, medical records of 356 patients admitted to physical medicine and rehabilitation outpatient clinics with fractures between January 2011 and June 2011 were evaluated and 34 patients diagnosed as CRPS-1 were included in the study. Results: 34 of 356 patients (9.56% with fractures were diagnosed as CRPS-1 in our outpatient clinics. Mean age of the patients was 46.05 years and 10 patients were females (29.4% and 24 patients (70.6% were males. Fractures were in upper extremities in 18 patients (52.9% and in lower extremities in 16 (47.1% patients. Neuropsychiatric disorders and other systemic diseases that may have a role in etiology of CRPS were found in lower rates in medical records of our patients. Conclusion: CRPS does not develop in every patients after travma who has etiologic risk factors, so it reminds that there exists a tendency to CRPS. We have observed that CRPS-1 risk was increased in male patients and in upper extremity fractures. We did not observe any other impertant factor which increases

  5. MicroRNA modulation in complex regional pain syndrome

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    Orlova Irina A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aberrant expression of small noncoding RNAs called microRNAs (miRNAs is a common feature of several human diseases. The objective of the study was to identify miRNA modulation in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS a chronic pain condition resulting from dysfunction in the central and/or peripheral nervous systems. Due to a multitude of inciting pathologies, symptoms and treatment conditions, the CRPS patient population is very heterogeneous. Our goal was to identify differentially expressed miRNAs in blood and explore their utility in patient stratification. Methods We profiled miRNAs in whole blood from 41 patients with CRPS and 20 controls using TaqMan low density array cards. Since neurogenic inflammation is known to play a significant role in CRPS we measured inflammatory markers including chemokines, cytokines, and their soluble receptors in blood from the same individuals. Correlation analyses were performed for miRNAs, inflammatory markers and other parameters including disease symptoms, medication, and comorbid conditions. Results Three different groups emerged from miRNA profiling. One group was comprised of 60% of CRPS patients and contained no control subjects. miRNA profiles from the remaining patients were interspersed among control samples in the other two groups. We identified differential expression of 18 miRNAs in CRPS patients. Analysis of inflammatory markers showed that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, interleukin1 receptor antagonist (IL1Ra and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP1 were significantly elevated in CRPS patients. VEGF and IL1Ra showed significant correlation with the patients reported pain levels. Analysis of the patients who were clustered according to their miRNA profile revealed correlations that were not significant in the total patient population. Correlation analysis of miRNAs detected in blood with additional parameters identified miRNAs associated with

  6. Complex regional pain syndrome after surgery of complex metacarpophalangeal dislocation of the little finger:case report and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN De-an; SONG Jie-fu; WEI Jie; SU Yun-xing

    2009-01-01

    @@ Post-traumatic complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS1) is uncommon and can cause the disability of patients. Complex dislocation of the metacarpophalangeal joint on the little finger due to interposition of the sesamoid bone is rare and was firstly reported by Pribyl.

  7. Regional Seismic Focal Depth Estimation in Complex Tectonic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    seismicity in Iran region, Geophys. J. Int. 167: 761–778. Hatzfeld, D., M. Tatar, K. Priestley, and M. Ghafory-Ashtiany (2003). Seismological constraints...receiver functions and crustal structure. In Computer programs in seismology . Kennett B. L. N., and E. R. Engdahl (1991), Travel times for global...estimation. Proc. RADC Spectral Estimation Workshop, 243–258, Rome, Italy . Stroujkova, A. and D. Reiter (2006). Regional Depth Phase Detection and Focal

  8. Conflict and complexity countering terrorism, insurgency, ethnic and regional violence

    CERN Document Server

    Bar-Yam, Yaneer; Minai, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Complexity science affords a number of novel tools for examining terrorism, particularly network analysis and NK-Boolean fitness landscapes as well as other tools drawn from non-linear dynamical systems modeling. This book follows the methodologies of complex adaptive systems research in their application to addressing the problems of terrorism, specifically terrorist networks, their structure and various methods of mapping and interdicting them as well as exploring the complex landscape of network-centric and irregular warfare. A variety of new models and approaches are presented here, including Dynamic Network Analysis, DIME/PMESII models, percolation models and emergent models of insurgency. In addition, the analysis is informed by practical experience, with analytical and policy guidance from authors who have served within the U.S. Department of Defense, the British Ministry of Defence as well as those who have served in a civilian capacity as advisors on terrorism and counter-terrorism.

  9. REGIONAL FEATURES OF SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX OF REGION IN CONDITIONS OF INSTABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.G. Lavrikova

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In clause the methodical approach to typology of spatial development of economy of the regions, considering position of region in national geoeconomic space, orientation to the global markets and character of interactions (network or integrated managing subjects in region is considered. Regional features of spatial development of regions of the Ural federal district are allocated. Directions of perfection of a level of the organization of spatial development of economy of regions in conditions of instability from positions of theories of unbalanced growth are offered.

  10. Regional innovation systems revisited: networks, institutions, policy and complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Elvira Uyarra

    2011-01-01

    Despite the popularity of the concept 'regional innovation system' (RIS) in the academic literature and in policy practice, multiple interpretations and uses of the term coexist. For instance while some scholars view RIS as subsystems of national or sector-based systems presenting particular spatial features, other portray them as smaller-scale versions of national systems (Lagendijk, 1999; Howells, 1999; Iammarino, 2005, Uyarra, 2010). Doloreux & Parto (2005) identify three dimensions of reg...

  11. Complex Monitoring of Life Quality in the Voronezh Region

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    Volkova Svetlana Aleksandrovna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the historical aspects of the formation of the life quality category and studies Russian experience in assessing the life quality of the population at the regional level as well as the deficiencies of existing methodological approaches. The author carries out the comparative analysis of methodological approaches to the development of indicators for life quality assessment. The generalization of existing methodological approaches makes it possible to identify several areas of evaluation of the life quality in various spheres of human activity, ranging from professional activity and to the ecological environment, household devices, etc. It is shown that quality of life is a multifaceted category that defies unambiguous objective assessment. The author presents the indicators for monitoring the life quality in the Voronezh region, including a set of indicators: unit 1 – the level and differentiation of incomes of the population; unit 2 – the level of development of the consumer market; unit 3 – housing supply and quality of housing conditions; unit 4 – health; unit 5 – education and innovation; unit 6 – the quality of the environment; unit 7 – security of the person; unit 8 – the state of the labor market; unit 9 – indicators characterizing the demographic dynamics, and unit 10 – the quality of leisure and recreation. Thus, the author implemented the evaluation of the indicators of the life quality in the region, resulting in the suggested vectors in the active socio-economic policy development.

  12. The metallicity of circumnuclear star forming regions

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz, A I; Castellanos, M; Hägele, G F

    2006-01-01

    We present a spectrophotometric study of circumnuclear star forming regions (CNSFR) in the early type spiral galaxies: NGC 2903, NGC 3351 and NGC 3504, all of them of over solar metallicity according to standard empirical calibrations. A detailed determination of their abundances is made after careful subtraction of the very prominent underlying stellar absorption. It is found that most regions show the highest abundances in HII region-like objects. The relative N/O and S/O abundances are discussed. In is also shown that CNSFR, as a class, segregate from the disk HII region family, clustering around smaller ``softness parameter" -- \\eta' -- values, and therefore higher ionizing temperatures.

  13. Stroke, complex regional pain syndrome and phantom limb pain: can commonalities direct future management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acerra, Nicole E; Souvlis, Tina; Moseley, G Lorimer

    2007-03-01

    Despite being different conditions, complex regional pain syndrome type 1, phantom limb pain and stroke share some potentially important similarities. This report examines experimental and clinical findings from each patient population. It identifies common aspects of symptomatic presentation, sensory phenomena and patterns of cortical reorganization. Based on these common findings, we argue that established principles of stroke rehabilitation are also applicable to rehabilitation of complex regional pain syndrome type 1 and phantom limb pain. In addition, we contend that promising treatment approaches for complex regional pain syndrome type 1 and phantom limb pain may be helpful in stroke rehabilitation. Examples of emerging supportive evidence for these hypotheses are provided and discussed.

  14. Studying the interstellar medium of HII/BCD galaxies using IFU spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Lagos, Patricio

    2013-01-01

    We review the results from our studies, and previous published work, on the spatially resolved physical properties of a sample of HII/BCD galaxies, as obtained mainly from integral-field unit spectroscopy with Gemini/GMOS and VLT/VIMOS. We confirm that, within observational uncertainties, our sample galaxies show nearly spatially constant chemical abundances, similar to other low-mass starburst galaxies. They also show He II 4686 emission with properties being suggestive of a mix of excitation sources, with Wolf-Rayet stars being excluded as the primary one. Finally, in this contribution we include a list of all HII/BCD galaxies studied thus far with integral-field unit spectroscopy.

  15. An X-ray Tour of Massive Star-forming Regions with Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Townsley, L K

    2006-01-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory is providing fascinating new views of massive star-forming regions, revealing all stages in the life cycles of massive stars and their effects on their surroundings. I present a Chandra tour of some of the most famous of these regions: M17, NGC 3576, W3, Tr14 in Carina, and 30 Doradus. Chandra highlights the physical processes that characterize the lives of these clusters, from the ionizing sources of ultracompact HII regions (W3) to superbubbles so large that they shape our views of galaxies (30 Dor). X-ray observations usually reveal hundreds of pre-main sequence (lower-mass) stars accompanying the OB stars that power these great HII region complexes, although in one case (W3 North) this population is mysteriously absent. The most massive stars themselves are often anomalously hard X-ray emitters; this may be a new indicator of close binarity. These complexes are sometimes suffused by soft diffuse X-rays (M17, NGC 3576), signatures of multi-million-degree plasmas created by fas...

  16. The interplay between ionized gas and massive stars in the HII galaxy IIZw70: integral field spectroscopy with PMAS

    CERN Document Server

    Kehrig, C; Sánchez, S F; Telles, E; Pérez-Montero, E; Martin-Gordon, D

    2007-01-01

    We performed an integral field spectroscopic study for the HII galaxy IIZw70 in order to investigate the interplay between its ionized interstellar medium (ISM) and the massive star formation (SF). Observations were taken in the optical spectral range (3700-6800 A) with the Potsdam Multi-Aperture Spectrophotometer (PMAS) attached to the 3.5 m telescope at CAHA. We created and analysed maps of spatially distributed emission-lines, continuum emission and properties of the ionized ISM (e.g. physical-chemical conditions, dust extinction, kinematics). We investigated the relation of these properties to the spatial distribution and evolutionary stage of the massive stars. For the first time we detected the presence of Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars in this galaxy. The peak of the ionized gas emission coincides with the location of the WR bump. The region of the galaxy with lower dust extinction corresponds to the region that shows the lowest values of velocity dispersion and radial velocity. The overall picture suggests tha...

  17. Cotton Effect in Copper-Proline Complexes in the Visible Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Victor; Pfister, Rolf

    2005-01-01

    The electronic properties of Cu(II) complex with proline are considered to demonstrate the Cotton effect in the visible region. A series of experiments in optical rotatory dispersion spectroscopy with free D- and L-proline and their complexes with the Cu(II) ion in aqueous solution is suggested.

  18. NEW APPROACHES TO MANAGEMENT OF INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL AND INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX OF A REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Tatyana B. Malkova; Lyubov A. Ipateva

    2013-01-01

    In the given project defining conditions of successful introduction of new approaches to management of innovative development of agrarian and industrial complex of regions are analysed. It is shown that it is expedient to carry out their introduction through formation of regional corporate structures. For this purpose it is necessary to create the corresponding conditions through interaction of the state structures, the regional government, commercial and insurance institutes, the scientific ...

  19. APPLICATION OF ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK IN COMPLEX SYSTEMS OF REGIONAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Chun; Philip JAMES; GUO Zhong-yang

    2004-01-01

    Meeting the challenge of sustainable development requires substantial advances in understanding the interaction of natural and human systems. The dynamics of regional sustainable development could be addressed in the context of complex system thinking. Three features of complex systems are that they are uncertain, non-linear and self-organizing. Modeling regional development requires a consideration of these features. This paper discusses the feasibility of using the artificial neural networt(ANN) to establish an adjustment prediction model for the complex systems of sustainable development (CSSD). Shanghai Municipality was selected as the research area to set up the model, from which reliable prediction data were produced in order to help regional development planning. A new approach, which could help to manage regional sustainable development, is then explored.

  20. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS Type II After Carpal Tunnel Release Surgery: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Tunç

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary Complex regional pain syndrome is a chronic syndrome characterised with dystrophic changes and neurovascular disordes of bone and skin of extremities. The most common etiological factors are trauma, ischemic heart disease, cerebral lesions, servical region disorders, infections, and surgical treatments. Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common compressive neuropaty of the upper extremity. There are various surgical and conservative alternatives in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome. Complex regional pain syndrome has been reported as a complication of surgical carpal tunnel release in 2-5% of patients. In this case report clinical characteristics and rehabilitation outcomes of a patient with complex regional pain syndrome after carpal tunnel release surgery is presented. (Osteoporoz Dünyasından 2010;16:41-3

  1. Flattening of Caribbean coral reefs: region-wide declines in architectural complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Filip, Lorenzo; Dulvy, Nicholas K; Gill, Jennifer A; Côté, Isabelle M; Watkinson, Andrew R

    2009-08-22

    Coral reefs are rich in biodiversity, in large part because their highly complex architecture provides shelter and resources for a wide range of organisms. Recent rapid declines in hard coral cover have occurred across the Caribbean region, but the concomitant consequences for reef architecture have not been quantified on a large scale to date. We provide, to our knowledge, the first region-wide analysis of changes in reef architectural complexity, using nearly 500 surveys across 200 reefs, between 1969 and 2008. The architectural complexity of Caribbean reefs has declined nonlinearly with the near disappearance of the most complex reefs over the last 40 years. The flattening of Caribbean reefs was apparent by the early 1980s, followed by a period of stasis between 1985 and 1998 and then a resumption of the decline in complexity to the present. Rates of loss are similar on shallow (20 m) reefs and are consistent across all five subregions. The temporal pattern of declining architecture coincides with key events in recent Caribbean ecological history: the loss of structurally complex Acropora corals, the mass mortality of the grazing urchin Diadema antillarum and the 1998 El Nino Southern Oscillation-induced worldwide coral bleaching event. The consistently low estimates of current architectural complexity suggest regional-scale degradation and homogenization of reef structure. The widespread loss of architectural complexity is likely to have serious consequences for reef biodiversity, ecosystem functioning and associated environmental services.

  2. Isotopic chronology and geological events of Precambrian complex in Taihangshan region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘树文; 梁海华; 赵国春; 华永刚; 简安华

    2000-01-01

    There are five major geological events in Precambrian complex, Taihangshan region determined by researching into geology and isotopic chronology of the complex. Basaltic magma erupted and quartz-dioritic to tonalitic magma intruded in earlier neo-Archaean, which formed horn-blende-plagiogneiss of Fuping gneiss complex and metamorphic mafic rock enclaves in TTG gneiss complex. Granulite fades metamorphism and emplacement of biotite-plagiogneiss occurred in late neo-Archaean. Extension and uplifting from the end of neo-Archaean to Paleoproterozoic era formed Chengnanzhuang large extensional deformation zones and metamorphic mafic veins emplaced into the deformation zones. Remobilization of Precambrian complex and tectonic uplifting in late Paleoproterozoic era formed Longquanguan ductile shear zone and emplacement of Nanying gneiss. Occurrence of regional granite pegmatite at the end of Paleoproterozoic era means the end of the Luliang movement.

  3. Isotopic chronology and geological events of Precambrian complex in Taihangshan region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    There are five major geological events in Precambrian complex, Taihangshan region determined by researching into geology and isotopic chronology of the complex. Basaltic magma erupted and quartz-dioritic to tonalitic magma intruded in earlier neo-Archaean, which formed hornblende-plagiogneiss of Fuping gneiss complex and metamorphic mafic rock enclaves in TTG gneiss complex. Granulite facies metamorphism and emplacement of biotite-plagiogneiss occurred in late neo-Archaean. Extension and uplifting from the end of neo-Archaean to Paleoproterozoic era formed Chengnanzhuang large extensional deformation zones and metamorphic mafic veins emplaced into the deformation zones. Remobilization of Precambrian complex and tectonic uplifting in late Paleoproterozoic era formed Longquanguan ductile shear zone and emplacement of Nanying gneiss. Occurrence of regional granite pegmatite at the end of Paleoproterozoic era means the end of the Lliang movement.

  4. Parsec-scale X-ray Flows in High-mass Star-forming Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Townsley, L K; Feigelson, E D; Garmire, G P

    2005-01-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory is providing remarkable new views of massive star-forming regions, revealing all stages in the life cycle of high-mass stars and their effects on their surroundings. We present a Chandra tour of several high-mass star-forming regions, highlighting physical processes that characterize the life of a cluster of high-mass stars, from deeply-embedded cores too young to have established an HII region to superbubbles so large that they shape our views of galaxies. Along the way we see that X-ray observations reveal hundreds of stellar sources powering great HII region complexes, suffused by both hard and soft diffuse X-ray structures caused by fast O-star winds thermalized in wind-wind collisions or by termination shocks against the surrounding media. Finally, we examine the effects of the deaths of high-mass stars that remained close to their birthplaces, exploding as supernovae within the superbubbles that these clusters created. We present new X-ray results on W51 IRS2E and 30 Doradu...

  5. Parsec-scale X-ray Flows in High-mass Star-forming Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Townsley, L K; Montmerle, T; Broos, P; Chu, Y H; Garmire, G; Getman, K

    2004-01-01

    We present Chandra/ACIS images of several high-mass star-forming regions. The massive stellar clusters powering these HII regions are resolved at the arcsecond level into hundreds of stellar sources, similar to those seen in closer young stellar clusters. However, we also detect diffuse X-ray emission on parsec scales that is spatially and spectrally distinct from the point source population. For nearby regions (e.g. M17 and Rosette) the emission is soft, with plasma temperatures less than 10 million degrees, in contrast to what is seen in more distant complexes (e.g. RCW49, W51). This extended emission most likely arises from the fast O-star winds thermalized either by wind-wind collisions or by a termination shock against the surrounding media. We have established that only a small portion of the wind energy and mass appears in the observed diffuse X-ray plasma; in the blister HII regions, we suspect that most of it flows without cooling into the low-density interstellar medium through blow-outs or fissures...

  6. Psychologic factors in the development of complex regional pain syndrome: history, myth, and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliu, Miriam H; Edwards, Christopher L

    2010-01-01

    The present paper examines the literature that addresses psychologic aspects involved in complex regional pain syndrome from a historic perspective to provide a rationale for the emergence of psychologic theories to explain its pathogenesis. The support of such perspective is then analyzed through the review of evidence-based studies. A review of the literature from a historic perspective was presented since its first description to the present time, including the clinical presentation and associated symptoms. An evidence-based approach was used to review the literature on complex regional pain syndrome and psychologic factors associated with the etiology or as predictors in the development of the disorder. After reviewing the literature on the history and the myths associated with complex regional pain syndrome, a hypothesis is provided based on an analysis of the Zeitgeist in the development of the psychologic theory associated with the disorder. We also concluded there is no evidence to support a linear relationship that establishes a psychologic predisposition to develop the disorder. An analysis of the Zeitgeist when complex regional pain syndrome was first described helps to understand the long-standing theories associated with a psychological theory of its etiology. This understanding should help to undermine the perpetuation of such claims which may contribute to undertreatment and misdiagnosis. To be consistent with todays Zeitgeist we must incorporate psychologic aspects, which while not causal in nature or exclusive of complex regional pain syndrome, are strongly associated with a wide spectrum of chronic pain disorders.

  7. Ionized and neutral gas in the peculiar star/cluster complex in NGC 6946

    CERN Document Server

    Efremov, Yu N; Alfaro, E J; Boomsma, R; Bastian, N; Larsen, S; Sanchez-Gil, M C; Silchenko, O K; García-Lorenzo, B; Muñoz-Tunón, C; Hodge, P W

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics of ionized and HI gas in the peculiar star/cluster complex in NGC 6946, obtained with the 6-m telescope (BTA) SAO RAS, the Gemini North telescope, and the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT), are presented. The complex is unusual as hosting a super star cluster, the most massive known in an apparently non-interacting giant galaxy. It contains a number of smaller clusters and is bordered by a sharp C-shaped rim. We found that the complex is additionally unusual in having peculiar gas kinematics. The velocity field of the ionized gas reveals a deep oval minimum, ~300 pc in size, centered 7" east of the supercluster. The Vr of the ionized gas in the dip center is 100 km/s lower than in its surroundings, and emission lines within the dip appear to be shock excited. This dip is near the center of an HI hole and a semi-ring of HII regions. The HI (and less certainly, HII) velocity fields reveal expansion, with the velocity reaching ~30 km/s at a distance about 300 pc from the center of e...

  8. Functional and architectural complexity within and between muscles: regional variation and intermuscular force transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Higham, Timothy E.; Biewener, Andrew A.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, studies of single muscles have revealed complex patterns of regional variation in muscle architecture, activation, strain and force. In addition, muscles are often functionally integrated with other muscles in parallel or in series. Understanding the extent of this complexity and the interactions between muscles will profoundly influence how we think of muscles in relation to organismal function, and will allow us to address questions regarding the functional benefits ...

  9. The 3D geometry of regional-scale dolerite saucer complexes and their feeders in the Secunda Complex, Karoo Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, André; Kisters, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    Dolerites in the Karoo Basin of South Africa commonly represent kilometre-scale, interconnected saucer-shaped structures that consist of inner sills, bounded by inclined sheets connected to stratigraphically higher outer sills. Based on information from over 3000 boreholes and mining operations extending over an area of ca. 500 km2 and covering a > 3 km vertical section from Karoo strata into underlying basement rocks, this paper presents the results of a 3D modelling exercise that describes the geometry and spatial relationships of a regional-scale saucer complex, locally referred to as the number 8 sill, from the Secunda (coal mine) Complex in the northern parts of the Karoo Basin. The composite number 8 sill complex consists of three main dolerite saucers (dolerites A to C). These dolerite saucers are hosted by the Karoo Supergroup and the connectivity and geometry of the saucers support a lateral, sill-feeding-sill relationship between dolerite saucers A, B and C. The saucers are underlain and fed by a shallowly-dipping sheet (dolerite D) in the basement rocks below the Karoo sequence. The 3D geometric strata model agrees well with experimental results of saucer formation from underlying feeders in sedimentary basins, but demonstrates a more intricate relationship where a single feeder can give rise to several split level saucers in one regionally extensive saucer complex. More localised dome- or ridge-shape protrusions are common in the flat lying sill parts of the regional-scale saucers. We suggest a mode of emplacement for these kilometre-scale dome- and ridge structures having formed as a result of lobate magma flow processes. Magma lobes, propagating in different directions ahead of the main magma sheet, undergo successive episodes of lobe arrest and inflation. The inflation of lobes initiates failure of the overlying strata and the formation of curved faults. Magma exploiting these faults transgresses the stratigraphy and coalesces to form a ring

  10. Growth and Destruction of Disks: Combined HI and HII View

    CERN Document Server

    Bershady, Matthew; Crawford, Steven

    2008-01-01

    How large disk galaxies have evolved in, and out of, the blue cloud of actively star-forming galaxies as a function of environment and time is an outstanding question. Some of the largest disks become systems like M31, M33 and the Milky Way today. In denser environments, it appears they transform onto the red sequence. Tracking disk systems since z<0.5 as a function HI mass, dynamical mass, and environment should be possible in the coming decade. HI and optical data combined can sample outer and inner disk dynamics to connect halo properties with regions of most intense star-formation, and the gas reservoir to the consumption rate. We describe existing and future IFUs on 4-10m telescopes that complement upcoming HI surveys for studying disks at z<0.5. Multiple units, deployable over large fields-of-view, and with logarithmic sampling will yield kinematic and star-formation maps and properties of the stellar populations, resolving the core but retaining sensitivity to disk outskirts.

  11. Current state and development trends of the agroindustrial complex and rural territories of Perm Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadiy Vladimirovich Klimenkov

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of regional agricultural sector status and rural areas of Perm in 1990-2011 years indicates a systemic crisis of agriculture in Perm region, which is largely determined by the fact that Perm region has no strategy or strategic plan and program for sustainable agricultural sector and rural areas of Perm region development, there is no scheme of territorial development and master plans of territorial development with the development of agro-industrial complex of Perm region. In these circumstances, there is a steady downward trend in production, weakening and bankruptcy of enterprises, social impoverishment of rural areas, appearance of many of irreversible processes (sale and neglect of agricultural land, demographic problems associated with low living standards, population migration, policy optimization in the areas of education and health, union of territories, policy of depopulation of territories etc.. This paper presents main recommendations for improving the situation in agriculture of Perm region.

  12. Complex Technique of Multifactorial Assessment of Scientific Potential in the Regions of the Southern Federal District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Aleksandrovna Trukhlyaeva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to methodological issues of the research of the scientific potential of regional economic systems. The authors studied the existing domestic and foreign methodology adapted to Russian conditions for assessing the potential of science and technology area, analyzed their advantages and disadvantages, and as a result they developed and tested a system of quantitative and qualitative indicators of evaluation of the scientific potential of the regional economic system (consisting of 22 relative indicators, grouped into six main units – the human, scientific and innovative, financial, logistical, informational and institutional components and offered to use their own technique of complex multifactorial assessment of the overall state of the scientific potential of the region (on the example of regions of the Southern Federal District. The complex comparative rating assessment was used in the region for a particular method of synthesis of private (basic region. Positioning (with the release of groups of regions with high, medium and low levels of scientific potential development and zoning of macroregion by meaning of rating of scientific potential deviation was carried out to develop guidelines for the management of research activities in the regions of the Southern Federal District. To be able to visualize the distribution of the data on the territory of the macroregion, a thematic map of the zoning of the Southern Federal District was also presented.

  13. Heterogeneous convergence of regional house prices and the complexity in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Lin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to analyze the convergence of regional house prices and its complexity in China. In this purpose it used nonlinear time varying factor model. The obtained results have provided evidences for the existence of some degree of segmentation in China’s housing market. By further dynamic analysis of the convergence, we have found that important housing policies from Chinese central government can significantly alter the housing market but with a time lag of 4 to 5 months, and that quite different behaviors exist between the new house market and the second-hand house market in China, which provides the evidence for the complexity of housing market in China. Multiple factors together are the driving forces for the regional house price convergence. And the driving forces differ among three clubs. The basic conclusion provided from the realized research is that the conventional definitions of economic regions may not be appropriate to analyze house price segregation in China. Heterogeneous convergence exists in China’s regional house prices, indicating the complexity of regional house prices in China. And housing policies should be implemented with different focus among the regions. The way of the central government is to make housing policies aiming at different sub-markets of the new house market and the second-hand house market.

  14. NEW APPROACHES TO MANAGEMENT OF INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL AND INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX OF A REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana B. Malkova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the given project defining conditions of successful introduction of new approaches to management of innovative development of agrarian and industrial complex of regions are analysed. It is shown that it is expedient to carry out their introduction through formation of regional corporate structures. For this purpose it is necessary to create the corresponding conditions through interaction of the state structures, the regional government, commercial and insurance institutes, the scientific organizations and producers when at the initial stage the defining role is played by the state.

  15. Spontaneous onset of complex regional pain syndrome Type I in a woman infected with Bartonella koehlerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Cristina Pérez; Maggi, Ricardo G; Woods, Christopher W; Mascarelli, Patricia E; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2014-04-01

    After a short-term fever, complex regional pain syndrome, characterized by hyperalgesia, intermittent swelling, erythema and cyanosis of both feet, was diagnosed in a female veterinarian. The woman was infected with Bartonella koehlerae and she was also Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii seroreactive. Having failed other treatments, symptoms resolved following initiation of antibiotics.

  16. Muscle Hyperalgesia Correlates With Motor Function in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooijen, Diana E.; Marinus, Johan; Schouten, Alfred Christiaan; Noldus, Lucas P.J.J.; van Hilten, Jacobus J.

    2013-01-01

    At present it is unclear if disturbed sensory processing plays a role in the development of the commonly observed motor impairments in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). This study aims to investigate the relation between sensory and motor functioning in CRPS patients with and

  17. Peripheral nerve pathology in patients with severely affected complex regional pain syndrome type I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Bodde, Marlies I.; van den Dungen, Johannes; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; den Dunnen, Wilfred F. A.

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) is a chronic pain syndrome with no clinical evidence of nerve injury; however, recently, changes in muscle tissue have been found in case of CRPS-I. Our aim was to search for histological changes in peripheral nerves of amputated limbs from patients wit

  18. Modelling of the flow of stable air over a complex region

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholtz, MT

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow of stable air over a general region of complex topography and non-uniform surface temperature has been investigated. In order to gain further understanding of the motion of surface air, it was necessary to study the vertical structure...

  19. Therapy-Resistant Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I : To Amputate or Not?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodde, M.I.; Dijkstra, P.U.; den Dunnen, W.F.A.; Geertzen, J.H.B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Amputation for the treatment of long-standing, therapy-resistant complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) is controversial. An evidence-based decision regarding whether or not to amputate is not possible on the basis of current guidelines. The aim of the current study was to system

  20. Informed Decision-Making Regarding Amputation for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodde, Marlies I.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Schrier, Michiel; van den Dungen, Johannes; den Dunnen, Wilfred E.; Geertzen, Joannes

    2014-01-01

    Background: Literature on complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) discussing the decision to amputate or not, the level of amputation, or the timing of the amputation is scarce: We evaluated informed decision-making regarding amputation for CRPS-I. Methods: We describe our findings in a retro

  1. ECOLOGICAL SAFETY OF MINING REGIONS THROUGH CREATION OF POWER‐HEATING COMPLEXES (in Russian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. YEFREMOV

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There was presented a method of use of alterative source of energy, namely coal mine methane, the use of which as a fuel for power and heatiing generation is a main direction in coal mines. By this means some ecological problems of the region are solved. Highly efficient power and heating technologies are implemented and energy complexes are established.

  2. Ecosystem services provided by a complex coastal region: challenges of classification and mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Lisa P; Sousa, Ana I; Alves, Fátima L; Lillebø, Ana I

    2016-03-11

    A variety of ecosystem services classification systems and mapping approaches are available in the scientific and technical literature, which needs to be selected and adapted when applied to complex territories (e.g. in the interface between water and land, estuary and sea). This paper provides a framework for addressing ecosystem services in complex coastal regions. The roadmap comprises the definition of the exact geographic boundaries of the study area; the use of CICES (Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services) for ecosystem services identification and classification; and the definition of qualitative indicators that will serve as basis to map the ecosystem services. Due to its complexity, the Ria de Aveiro coastal region was selected as case study, presenting an opportunity to explore the application of such approaches at a regional scale. The main challenges of implementing the proposed roadmap, together with its advantages are discussed in this research. The results highlight the importance of considering both the connectivity of natural systems and the complexity of the governance framework; the flexibility and robustness, but also the challenges when applying CICES at regional scale; and the challenges regarding ecosystem services mapping.

  3. Formation of competitive potential of the machine-building complex of the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Ivanovich Botkin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the features of competitive potential of regional machine-building complex in a globalized world economy. The purpose of the research is the development of theoretically reasonable economic basis of the machine-building complex considering  the  features of business in the conditions of the WTO. In the work, the hypothesis of a special role of the external economic factors locates in development of the enterprises of regional industrial complexes. The study of the theoretical provisions defining the development of the region revealed the factors determining influence of the international trade agreements on spatial localization of the industry. The main attention is paid to an analytical assessment of the current state and the trends, which have developed in the period of post-crisis economic recovery. Analysis of the main indicators of attractiveness has revealed the weak position of local industrial enterprises in the WTO. The directions of strengthening of the competitive capacity of the local industrial enterprises are defined. The obtained results allow us to increase the sustainability of the industry by means of effective management mechanism improvements and to create favorable operating conditions of a machine-building complex of the region

  4. In search for the etiology of the complex regional pain syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Mos (Marissa)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe complex regional pain syndrome is poorly elucidated. In line with this its diagnosis and clinical management have remained suboptimal. The multifaceted nature makes it a fascinating study topic for scientists with varying interests, but unraveling the etiology has been proven a labor

  5. Capillary blood gas analysis in complex regional pain syndrome: a pilot study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, E.C.T.H.; Keijzer, M.H. de; Goris, R.J.A.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS 1) is still a matter of debate. An inflammatory reaction may cause the syndrome. Increasing evidence points to a role for impairment of oxygen metabolism in the affected limb. METHODS: In this pilot study (16 patients) we

  6. Muscle Hyperalgesia Correlates With Motor Function in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, van Diana E.; Marinus, Johan; Schouten, Alfred C.; Noldus, Lucas P.J.J.; Hilten, van Jacobus J.

    2013-01-01

    At present it is unclear if disturbed sensory processing plays a role in the development of the commonly observed motor impairments in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). This study aims to investigate the relation between sensory and motor functioning in CRPS patients with and with

  7. Stressful life events and psychological dysfunction in complex regional pain syndrome type I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertzen, JHB; de Bruijn-Kofman, AT; de Bruijn, HP; van de Wiel, HBM; Dijkstra, PU

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To determine to what extent stressful life events and psychological dysfunction play a role in the pathogenesis of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I (CRPS). Design: A comparative study between a CRPS group and a control group. Stressful life events and psychological dysfunction evalua

  8. Fixed Dystonia in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: a Descriptive and Computational Modeling Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munts, A.G.; Mugge, W.; Meurs, T.S.; Schouten, A.C.; Marinus, J.; Lorimer Moseley, G.; Van der Helm, F.C.T.; Van Hilten, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) may occur after trauma, usually to one limb, and is characterized by pain and disturbed blood flow, temperature regulation and motor control. Approximately 25% of cases develop fixed dystonia. Involvement of dysfunctional GABAergic interneurons has b

  9. Dystonia in complex regional pain syndrome : clinical, pathophysiological and therapeutic aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, Monica Adriana van

    2010-01-01

    The clinical characteristics of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) are defined by pain and various combinations of sensory disturbances, autonomic features, and sudomotor and trophic changes. Furthermore, patients with CRPS may suffer from movement disorders, of which dystonia is the most prevale

  10. Quality of life in adults with childhood-onset of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Edward C T H; van de Sandt-Renkema, Nienke; Krabbe, Paul F M; Aronson, Daniel C; Severijnen, René S V M

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The clinical presentation of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I (CRPS I) in children differs compared to the presentation in adults. Reported results of treatment of CRPS I in children are usually more favourable and seem better than the reported treatment of adults with CRPS I. We

  11. Regional and Historical Minerageny of the Gemstone Complexes in Russia (Quantitative Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyanin V.S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an approximate quantitative estimation of the mineragenic potentials of gems in the paleogeodynamic systems, complexes, and geological formations of Russia, which are characterized by different age and regional distribution. General trends of the changes in the scale and intensity of formation processes of the same gem deposits over geologic time were identified.

  12. Pharmacologic treatment of complex regional pain syndrome I : A conceptual framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribbers, GM; Stam, HJ; Mulder, T

    2003-01-01

    Pain may be a leading symptom in complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I) and may hinder functional recovery In this case, a pharmacotherapeutic approach to pain should be part of the individually tailored interdisciplinary treatment regimen. However, operational criteria for determining which

  13. Amputation for Long-Standing, Therapy-Resistant Type-I Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krans-Schreuder, H.K.; Bodde, M.I.; Schrier, E.; Dijkstra, P.U.; van den Dungen, J.A.; den Dunnen, W.F.; Geertzen, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Some patients with long-standing, therapy-resistant typed complex regional pain syndrome consider an amputation. There is a lack of evidence regarding the risk of recurrence of the pain syndrome and patient outcomes after amputation. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the impa

  14. Ecosystem services provided by a complex coastal region: challenges of classification and mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Lisa P.; Sousa, Ana I.; Alves, Fátima L.; Lillebø, Ana I.

    2016-03-01

    A variety of ecosystem services classification systems and mapping approaches are available in the scientific and technical literature, which needs to be selected and adapted when applied to complex territories (e.g. in the interface between water and land, estuary and sea). This paper provides a framework for addressing ecosystem services in complex coastal regions. The roadmap comprises the definition of the exact geographic boundaries of the study area; the use of CICES (Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services) for ecosystem services identification and classification; and the definition of qualitative indicators that will serve as basis to map the ecosystem services. Due to its complexity, the Ria de Aveiro coastal region was selected as case study, presenting an opportunity to explore the application of such approaches at a regional scale. The main challenges of implementing the proposed roadmap, together with its advantages are discussed in this research. The results highlight the importance of considering both the connectivity of natural systems and the complexity of the governance framework; the flexibility and robustness, but also the challenges when applying CICES at regional scale; and the challenges regarding ecosystem services mapping.

  15. The prevalence of autoantibodies in complex regional pain syndrome type i

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Dirckx (Maaike); M.W.J. Schreurs (Marco); M. De Mos (Marissa); D.L. Stronks (Dirk); F.J.P.M. Huygen (Frank)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAutoimmunity has been suggested as one of the pathophysiologic mechanisms that may underlie complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Screening for antinuclear antibodies (ANA) is one of the diagnostic tests, which is usually performed if a person is suspected to have a systemic autoimmune

  16. Informed Decision-Making Regarding Amputation for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodde, Marlies I.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Schrier, Michiel; van den Dungen, Johannes; den Dunnen, Wilfred E.; Geertzen, Joannes

    2014-01-01

    Background: Literature on complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) discussing the decision to amputate or not, the level of amputation, or the timing of the amputation is scarce: We evaluated informed decision-making regarding amputation for CRPS-I. Methods: We describe our findings in a

  17. Optical and Near-infrared survey of the stellar contents associated with the star-forming Complex Sh2-252

    CERN Document Server

    Jose, Jessy; Ogura, K; Samal, M R; Ojha, D K; Bhatt, B C; Chauhan, N; Eswaraiah, C; Mito, H; Kobayashi, N; Yadav, R K; 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.21175.x

    2013-01-01

    We present the analyses of the stellar contents associated with the HII region Sh2-252 using UBVRI photometry, slit and slitless spectroscopy along with the NIR data from 2MASS for an area ~1 degree x 1 degree. We studied the sub-regions of Sh2-252 which includes four compact-HII (CHII) regions, namely A, B, C and E and two clusters NGC 2175s and Teutsch 136 (Teu 136). Of the fifteen spectroscopically observed bright stars, eight have been identified as massive members of spectral class earlier than B3. From the spectro-photometric analyses, we derived the average distance of the region as 2.4+/-0.2 kpc and the reddening of the massive members is found to vary between 0.35 to 2.1 mag. We found that NGC 2175s and Teu 136, located towards the eastern edge of the complex are the sub-clusters of Sh2-252. The stellar surface density distribution in K-band shows clustering associated with the regions A, C, E, NGC 2175s and Teu 136. We have also identified the candidate ionizing sources of the CHII regions. 61 H_alp...

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spectrophotometric distances of HII regions (Moises+, 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moises, A. P.; Damineli, A.; Figueredo, E.; Blum, R. D.; Conti, P. S.; Barbosa, C. L.

    2011-11-01

    The J-band (λ1.28um, δλ=0.3um), H-band (λ1.63um, δλ=0.3um) and Ks-band (λ2.19um, δλ=0.4um) images were obtained on the nights of 1999 May 1, 4 and 20, 2000 May 19 and 21 and 2001 July 10 and 12, at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) 4-m Blanco telescope, using the facility's infrared imager OSIRIS, which has a field of view (FOV) of 93x93arcsec2 and a pixel scale of 0.161arcsec/pixel. On the nights of 2005 Jult 3-6 and 11 and 2006 June 3-7, we obtained images using the facility's infrared imager ISPI (with a FOV of 10.25x10.25arcmin2 and a pixel scale of 0.3arcsec/pix), also at the 4-m Blanco telescope. Also, on the nights of 1998 August 28 and 29, we obtained images on the CTIO 4-m telescope using the facility's infrared imager CIRIM (with a FOV of 102x102arcsec2 and a pixel scale of 0.40arcsec/pix). (3 data files).

  19. Photoevaporation Flows in Blister HII Regions: I. Smooth Ionization Fronts and Application to the Orion Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Henney, W J; Garcia-Diaz, M T; Garcia-Diaz, Ma. T.

    2005-01-01

    We present hydrodynamical simulations of the photoevaporation of a cloud with large-scale density gradients, giving rise to an ionized, photoevaporation flow. The flow is found to be approximately steady during the large part of its evolution, during which it can resemble a "champagne flow" or a "globule flow" depending on the curvature of the ionization front. The distance from source to ionization front and the front curvature uniquely determine the structure of the flow, with the curvature depending on the steepness of the lateral density gradient in the neutral cloud. We compare these simulations with both new and existing observations of the Orion nebula and find that a model with a mildly convex ionization front can reproduce the profiles of emission measure, electron density, and mean line velocity for a variety of emitting ions on scales of 10^{17} to 10^{18} cm. The principal failure of our model is that we cannot explain the large observed widths of the [O I] 6300 Angstrom line that forms at the ion...

  20. Properties of compact 250 \\mu m emission and HII regions in M33 (HERM33ES)

    CERN Document Server

    Verley, S; Kramer, C; Xilouris, E M; Boquien, M; Calzetti, D; Combes, F; Buchbender, C; Braine, J; Quintana-Lacaci, G; Tabatabaei, F S; Lord, S; Israel, F; Stacey, G; van der Werf, P

    2010-01-01

    Within the framework of the HERM33ES Key Project, using the high resolution and sensitivity of the Herschel photometric data, we study the compact emission in the Local Group spiral galaxy M33 to investigate the nature of the compact SPIRE emission sources. We extracted a catalogue of sources at 250um in order to investigate the nature of this compact emission. Taking advantage of the unprecedented Herschel resolution at these wavelengths, we also focus on a more precise study of some striking Halpha shells in the northern part of the galaxy. We present a catalogue of 159 compact emission sources in M33 identified by SExtractor in the 250um SPIRE band that is the one that provides the best spatial resolution. We also measured fluxes at 24um and Halpha for those 159 extracted sources. The morphological study of the shells also benefits from a multiwavelength approach including Halpha, far-UV from GALEX, and infrared from both Spitzer IRAC 8um and MIPS 24um in order to make comparisons. For the 159 compact sour...

  1. Determination of haplotypes at structurally complex regions using emulsion haplotype fusion PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyson Jess

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genotyping and massively-parallel sequencing projects result in a vast amount of diploid data that is only rarely resolved into its constituent haplotypes. It is nevertheless this phased information that is transmitted from one generation to the next and is most directly associated with biological function and the genetic causes of biological effects. Despite progress made in genome-wide sequencing and phasing algorithms and methods, problems assembling (and reconstructing linear haplotypes in regions of repetitive DNA and structural variation remain. These dynamic and structurally complex regions are often poorly understood from a sequence point of view. Regions such as these that are highly similar in their sequence tend to be collapsed onto the genome assembly. This is turn means downstream determination of the true sequence haplotype in these regions poses a particular challenge. For structurally complex regions, a more focussed approach to assembling haplotypes may be required. Results In order to investigate reconstruction of spatial information at structurally complex regions, we have used an emulsion haplotype fusion PCR approach to reproducibly link sequences of up to 1kb in length to allow phasing of multiple variants from neighbouring loci, using allele-specific PCR and sequencing to detect the phase. By using emulsion systems linking flanking regions to amplicons within the CNV, this led to the reconstruction of a 59kb haplotype across the DEFA1A3 CNV in HapMap individuals. Conclusion This study has demonstrated a novel use for emulsion haplotype fusion PCR in addressing the issue of reconstructing structural haplotypes at multiallelic copy variable regions, using the DEFA1A3 locus as an example.

  2. A code-based approach for labeling in complex irregular regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-long LI; Jun-jie CAO; Xiu-ping LIU; Zhi-xun SU

    2009-01-01

    Labeling information in a complex irregular region is a useful procedure occurring frequently in sheet metal and the furniture industry which will be beneficial in parts management. A fast code-based labeler (FCBL) is proposed to accomplish this objective in this paper. The region is first discretized, and then encoded by the Freeman encoding technique for providing the 2D regional information by 1D codes with redundancies omitted. We enhance the encoding scheme to make it more suitable for our complex problem. Based on the codes, searching algorithms are designed and can be extended with customized constraints. In addition, by introducing a smart optimal direction estimation, the labeling speed and accuracy of FCBL are significantly improved. Experiments with a large range of real data gained from industrial factories demonstrate the stability and millisecond-level speed of FCBL. The proposed method has been integrated into a shipbuilding CAD system, and plays a very important role in ship parts labeling process.

  3. A cross-sectional retrospective analysis of the regionalization of complex surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studnicki, James; Craver, Christopher; Blanchette, Christopher M; Fisher, John W; Shahbazi, Sara

    2014-08-16

    longest lengths of stay were found in higher volume hospitals. Complex surgery in Florida is effectively regionalized so that small volume hospitals operating within the range of complex procedures appropriate to their capabilities provide no increased risk of post surgical mortality.

  4. Magnetic Complexity in Eruptive Solar Active Regions and Associated Eruption Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Georgoulis, M K

    2007-01-01

    Using an efficient magnetic complexity index in the active-region solar photosphere, we quantify the preflare strength of the photospheric magnetic polarity inversion lines in 23 eruptive active regions with flare/CME/ICME events tracked all the way from the Sun to the Earth. We find that active regions with more intense polarity inversion lines host statistically stronger flares and faster, more impulsively accelerated, CMEs. No significant correlation is found between the strength of the inversion lines and the flare soft X-ray rise times, the ICME transit times, and the peak $Dst indices of the induced geomagnetic storms. Corroborating these and previous results, we speculate on a possible interpretation for the connection between source active regions, flares, and CMEs. Further work is needed to validate this concept and uncover its physical details.

  5. Methodology for Calculating a Complex Index for Assessing the Pressure of Regional Indicators on Public Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe SĂVOIU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the correlations between regional employment in public administration and several major phenomena, starting from the case of Romania’s regions trying to find a territorial statistical solution for measuring the process itself. In this article, especially in its own methodology and methods, the territorial index is estimated as a result of the pressure of other major regional factors, synthesized by specific indicators and indices. The first section describes some conceptual and legal aspects of the regional employment level in public administration and contemporary statistical delimitation of regions in Romania. The second section underlines the originality of the methods and methodology, and the third section defines the three characteristics of the new solutions: the relative temporal, spatial and structural proportionality, the relative trends of an adequate econometric model, and the limits of regional concentration and diversification using the Gini-Struck coefficient in an ABC curve. The analysis of the complexity and impact of the new statistical instruments on regional employment in public administration, its characteristic Romanian limits and the final conclusion show that only an original methodology, some innovative methods and new statistical instruments lead to a better and adequate solution for an optimum level of employment.

  6. Pharmaceutical companies and Italian Regional Governments: managing relationships in an increasing institutional complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compagni, Amelia; Cavalli, Laura; Jommi, Claudio

    2008-09-01

    In Italy, the process of power decentralization to Regional Governments has particularly affected pharmaceutical care policies. Regions are experimenting with various strategies to govern drugs utilization and expenditure, and differentiating their approaches, leading to an ever-changing and complex institutional scenario. Pharmaceutical companies have created new professional roles, the Regional Affairs Managers (RAM), with the mandate to monitor the different regional contexts and measures, and to establish relationships with the public actors in charge of pharmaceutical policies. This analysis shows how public affairs/lobbying actions at regional level and the creation of a solid political competence within companies are still in an early phase. The activities carried out by RAMs remain limited to an exchange of information and only rarely are perceived by Regional public servants (RRs) as giving support to their work or influence decisions. The interaction with RAMs is often seen as little relevant and still too concentrated on products and a marketing/commercial approach rather than on broader issues of interest to RRs who need to manage the pharmaceutical care system at large. The level of acceptance of this type of activity is also variable and RRs' attitudes alternate between diffidence, polite tolerance, and openness to a constructive dialogue about pharmaceuticals and their management in a regional healthcare system.

  7. Case study: Gluteal compartment syndrome as a cause of lumbosacral radiculoplexopathy and complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Andrew; Turk, David; Howard, Antonio; Reddy, Srinivas; Stern, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 24 yr old male who was diagnosed with gluteal compartment syndrome and was subsequently found to have developed lumbosacral radiculoplexopathy and complex regional pain syndrome. The patient's gluteal compartment syndrome was diagnosed within 24 h of presentation to the emergency room, and he underwent emergent compartment release. While recovering postoperatively, persistent weakness was noted in the right lower limb. Results of electrodiagnostic testing were consistent with a lumbosacral radiculoplexopathy. After admission to inpatient rehabilitation, the patient complained of pain, burning sensation, and numbness in the distal right lower limb. Based on clinical findings, he was diagnosed with complex regional pain syndrome type II, or causalgia, and was referred for a lumbar sympathetic block under fluoroscopic guidance. Sympathetic block resulted in relief of the patient's symptoms. He was discharged home with good pain control on oral medications.

  8. On Magnetic Activity Band Overlap, Interaction, and the Formation of Complex Solar Active Regions

    CERN Document Server

    McIntosh, Scott W

    2014-01-01

    Recent work has revealed an phenomenological picture of the how the $\\sim$11-year sunspot cycle of Sun arises. The production and destruction of sunspots is a consequence of the latitudinal-temporal overlap and interaction of the toroidal magnetic flux systems that belong to the 22-year magnetic activity cycle and are rooted deep in the Sun's convective interior. We present a conceptually simple extension of this work, presenting a hypothesis on how complex active regions can form as a direct consequence of the intra- and extra-hemispheric interaction taking place in the solar interior. Furthermore, during specific portions of the sunspot cycle we anticipate that those complex active regions may be particular susceptible to profoundly catastrophic breakdown---producing flares and coronal mass ejections of most severe magnitude.

  9. Autophagy initiation by ULK complex assembly on ER tubulovesicular regions marked by ATG9 vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanasios, Eleftherios; Walker, Simon A.; Okkenhaug, Hanneke; Manifava, Maria; Hummel, Eric; Zimmermann, Hans; Ahmed, Qashif; Domart, Marie-Charlotte; Collinson, Lucy; Ktistakis, Nicholas T.

    2016-01-01

    Autophagosome formation requires sequential translocation of autophagy-specific proteins to membranes enriched in PI3P and connected to the ER. Preceding this, the earliest autophagy-specific structure forming de novo is a small punctum of the ULK1 complex. The provenance of this structure and its mode of formation are unknown. We show that the ULK1 structure emerges from regions, where ATG9 vesicles align with the ER and its formation requires ER exit and coatomer function. Super-resolution microscopy reveals that the ULK1 compartment consists of regularly assembled punctate elements that cluster in progressively larger spherical structures and associates uniquely with the early autophagy machinery. Correlative electron microscopy after live imaging shows tubulovesicular membranes present at the locus of this structure. We propose that the nucleation of autophagosomes occurs in regions, where the ULK1 complex coalesces with ER and the ATG9 compartment. PMID:27510922

  10. Contrasting regional architectures of schizophrenia and other complex diseases using fast variance components analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loh, Po-Ru; Bhatia, Gaurav; Gusev, Alexander;

    2015-01-01

    Heritability analyses of genome-wide association study (GWAS) cohorts have yielded important insights into complex disease architecture, and increasing sample sizes hold the promise of further discoveries. Here we analyze the genetic architectures of schizophrenia in 49,806 samples from the PGC...... and nine complex diseases in 54,734 samples from the GERA cohort. For schizophrenia, we infer an overwhelmingly polygenic disease architecture in which ≥71% of 1-Mb genomic regions harbor ≥1 variant influencing schizophrenia risk. We also observe significant enrichment of heritability in GC-rich regions....... To accomplish these analyses, we developed a fast algorithm for multicomponent, multi-trait variance-components analysis that overcomes prior computational barriers that made such analyses intractable at this scale....

  11. Contrasting regional architectures of schizophrenia and other complex diseases using fast variance components analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loh, Po-Ru; Bhatia, Gaurav; Gusev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Heritability analyses of genome-wide association study (GWAS) cohorts have yielded important insights into complex disease architecture, and increasing sample sizes hold the promise of further discoveries. Here we analyze the genetic architectures of schizophrenia in 49,806 samples from the PGC...... and nine complex diseases in 54,734 samples from the GERA cohort. For schizophrenia, we infer an overwhelmingly polygenic disease architecture in which ≥71% of 1-Mb genomic regions harbor ≥1 variant influencing schizophrenia risk. We also observe significant enrichment of heritability in GC-rich regions...... and in higher-frequency SNPs for both schizophrenia and GERA diseases. In bivariate analyses, we observe significant genetic correlations (ranging from 0.18 to 0.85) for several pairs of GERA diseases; genetic correlations were on average 1.3 tunes stronger than the correlations of overall disease liabilities...

  12. Chronic visceral pain secondary to ventral disc herniation: Development of visceral complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauretti, Gabriela Rocha; de Oliveira, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    When an organ disease is ruled out as the origin of pelvic pain, the superior hypogastric plexus (SHP) injury and consequent dysfunction could be the mechanism of visceral chronic pain perpetuation. As much as a dorsal discus herniation may harm the dorsal or ventral roots, a ventral discus herniation at L4-L5 or L5-S1 may result in direct physical trauma to the SHP, maintaining chronic visceral pain mediated by sympathetic dysfunction, conceivably also afferent fibers dysfunction. We propose that similarly to nociceptive somatic dysfunction named complex regional pain syndrome, the maintained sympathetic pelvic pain secondary to straight physical damage to the SHP characterize in fact the same disease, but in nociceptive visceral tissue, named visceral complex regional pain syndrome, a concept constructed based on the International Association for the Study of Pain criteria (1994).

  13. An Evaluation of Satellite Retrievals of Snowfall in Regions of Complex Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, K. A.; Nesbitt, S. W.; Kulie, M.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.; Wood, N.

    2013-12-01

    Snowfall in regions of complex terrain plays an important role in the global hydrologic cycle, and can have major physical and social implications ranging from water resource management, to flash flooding, to climate change impacts. Due to the diversity of impacts that can result from snowfall, the ability to directly observe and measure snowfall in real-time is of great importance. However, the physical limitations of ground-based radars particularly in complex terrain and the lack of spatially complete measurement networks in mountainous regions make high-resolution ground-based snowfall observations a challenging task. Spaceborne satellite retrievals of snowfall such as those that will be made possible by the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission offer the ability to make high spatial and temporal resolution measurements that are otherwise not possible using traditional ground-based methods. This study seeks to investigate the skill level of current spaceborne snowfall products over the complex terrain of the Rocky Mountains in the western United States. Satellite derived snowfall products from measurements obtained via instruments including the CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR), EOS Aqua Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E), and GCOM-W1 Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) are evaluated using ground-based observations such as the Natural Resources Conservation Service Snow Telemetry (SNOTEL) data and the NCEP Stage IV data. Satellite derived snowfall variables including snowfall rate and snow water equivalent are compared to ground-based observations to determine the overall accuracy and skill level of current satellite derived snowfall products in the region of interest. An analysis is also done to determine how the accuracy and skill level change based on varying snowfall regimes such as light, moderate, and heavy snowfall events. The knowledge gained will be used to determine how satellite derived snowfall

  14. A case of recurrent complex regional pain syndrome accompanying Raynaud's disease: a prospective coincidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesikburun, Serdar; Günendi, Zafer; Aydemir, Koray; Özgül, Ahmet; Tan, Arif Kenan

    2013-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CPRS) and Raynaud's disease are disorders characterized by vasomotor disturbances associating with abnormal autonomic nervous system. We present a case of CRPS involving a history of recurrence and no initiating event. Raynaud's disease accompanying CRPS was diagnosed clinically in the patient. We propose that a sympathetic dysfunction underlies the pathophysiologies of both disorders and may be responsible for the coexistence of these two distinct entities. Recurrence and unknown etiology of CRPS might account for temporary alterations in sympathetic function.

  15. Proliferation concerns in the Russian closed nuclear weapons complex cities : a study of regional migration behavior.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Kristen Lee

    2004-07-01

    The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the legacy of the USSR weapons complex with an estimated 50 nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons cities containing facilities responsible for research, production, maintenance, and destruction of the weapons stockpile. The Russian Federation acquired ten such previously secret, closed nuclear weapons complex cities. Unfortunately, a lack of government funding to support these facilities resulted in non-payment of salaries to employees and even plant closures, which led to an international fear of weapons material and knowledge proliferation. This dissertation analyzes migration in 33 regions of the Russian Federation, six of which contain the ten closed nuclear weapons complex cities. This study finds that the presence of a closed nuclear city does not significantly influence migration. However, the factors that do influence migration are statistically different in regions containing closed nuclear cities compared to regions without closed nuclear cities. Further, these results show that the net rate of migration has changed across the years since the break up of the Soviet Union, and that the push and pull factors for migration have changed across time. Specifically, personal and residential factors had a significant impact on migration immediately following the collapse of the Soviet Union, but economic infrastructure and societal factors became significant in later years. Two significant policy conclusions are derived from this research. First, higher levels of income are found to increase outmigration from regions, implying that programs designed to prevent migration by increasing incomes for closed city residents may be counter-productive. Second, this study finds that programs designed to increase capital and build infrastructure in the new Russian Federation will be more effective for employing scientists and engineers from the weapons complex, and consequently reduce the potential for emigration of

  16. The comparative osteology of the petrotympanic complex (ear region) of extant baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekdale, Eric G; Berta, Annalisa; Deméré, Thomas A

    2011-01-01

    Anatomical comparisons of the ear region of baleen whales (Mysticeti) are provided through detailed osteological descriptions and high-resolution photographs of the petrotympanic complex (tympanic bulla and petrosal bone) of all extant species of mysticete cetaceans. Salient morphological features are illustrated and identified, including overall shape of the bulla, size of the conical process of the bulla, morphology of the promontorium, and the size and shape of the anterior process of the petrosal. We place our comparative osteological observations into a phylogenetic context in order to initiate an exploration into petrotympanic evolution within Mysticeti. The morphology of the petrotympanic complex is diagnostic for individual species of baleen whale (e.g., sigmoid and conical processes positioned at midline of bulla in Balaenoptera musculus; confluence of fenestra cochleae and perilymphatic foramen in Eschrichtius robustus), and several mysticete clades are united by derived characteristics. Balaenids and neobalaenids share derived features of the bulla, such as a rhomboid shape and a reduced anterior lobe (swelling) in ventral aspect, and eschrichtiids share derived morphologies of the petrosal with balaenopterids, including loss of a medial promontory groove and dorsomedial elongation of the promontorium. Monophyly of Balaenoidea (Balaenidae and Neobalaenidae) and Balaenopteroidea (Balaenopteridae and Eschrichtiidae) was recovered in phylogenetic analyses utilizing data exclusively from the petrotympanic complex. This study fills a major gap in our knowledge of the complex structures of the mysticete petrotympanic complex, which is an important anatomical region for the interpretation of the evolutionary history of mammals. In addition, we introduce a novel body of phylogenetically informative characters from the ear region of mysticetes. Our detailed anatomical descriptions, illustrations, and comparisons provide valuable data for current and future

  17. The comparative osteology of the petrotympanic complex (ear region of extant baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric G Ekdale

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anatomical comparisons of the ear region of baleen whales (Mysticeti are provided through detailed osteological descriptions and high-resolution photographs of the petrotympanic complex (tympanic bulla and petrosal bone of all extant species of mysticete cetaceans. Salient morphological features are illustrated and identified, including overall shape of the bulla, size of the conical process of the bulla, morphology of the promontorium, and the size and shape of the anterior process of the petrosal. We place our comparative osteological observations into a phylogenetic context in order to initiate an exploration into petrotympanic evolution within Mysticeti. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The morphology of the petrotympanic complex is diagnostic for individual species of baleen whale (e.g., sigmoid and conical processes positioned at midline of bulla in Balaenoptera musculus; confluence of fenestra cochleae and perilymphatic foramen in Eschrichtius robustus, and several mysticete clades are united by derived characteristics. Balaenids and neobalaenids share derived features of the bulla, such as a rhomboid shape and a reduced anterior lobe (swelling in ventral aspect, and eschrichtiids share derived morphologies of the petrosal with balaenopterids, including loss of a medial promontory groove and dorsomedial elongation of the promontorium. Monophyly of Balaenoidea (Balaenidae and Neobalaenidae and Balaenopteroidea (Balaenopteridae and Eschrichtiidae was recovered in phylogenetic analyses utilizing data exclusively from the petrotympanic complex. SIGNIFICANCE: This study fills a major gap in our knowledge of the complex structures of the mysticete petrotympanic complex, which is an important anatomical region for the interpretation of the evolutionary history of mammals. In addition, we introduce a novel body of phylogenetically informative characters from the ear region of mysticetes. Our detailed anatomical descriptions, illustrations, and

  18. Innovation development of the construction complex in the region on the basis of cluster approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Georgievna Lavrikova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates the necessity of using cluster approach in the development of the region’s construction complex for increasing its innovation activity. The formation and development of the regional construction clusters can facilitate the formation of innovation system in the construction complex and integration of different types of innovation. Clusters are also an effective mechanism under the conditions of the market economy; they can unite independent organizations for achieving common strategic goals. Taking the construction cluster of the Ural as an example, the authors discuss the opportunities of using its potential for different purposes, including for the investment development of the Arctic territories. The article shows that cluster can provide innovation-inactive Northern territories with complex innovation construction solutions

  19. Functional and architectural complexity within and between muscles: regional variation and intermuscular force transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, Timothy E; Biewener, Andrew A

    2011-05-27

    Over the past 30 years, studies of single muscles have revealed complex patterns of regional variation in muscle architecture, activation, strain and force. In addition, muscles are often functionally integrated with other muscles in parallel or in series. Understanding the extent of this complexity and the interactions between muscles will profoundly influence how we think of muscles in relation to organismal function, and will allow us to address questions regarding the functional benefits (or lack thereof) and dynamics of this complexity under in vivo conditions. This paper has two main objectives. First, we present a cohesive and integrative review of regional variation in function within muscles, and discuss the functional ramifications that can stem from this variation. This involves splitting regional variation into passive and active components. Second, we assess the functional integration of muscles between different limb segments by presenting new data involving in vivo measurements of activation and strain from the medial gastrocnemius, iliotibialis cranialis and iliotibialis lateralis pars preacetabularis of the helmeted guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) during level running on a motorized treadmill. Future research directions for both of these objectives are presented.

  20. An Evolutionary Algorithm of the Regional Collaborative Innovation Based on Complex Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed a new perspective to study the evolution of regional collaborative innovation based on complex network theory. The two main conceptions of evolution, “graph with dynamic features” and “network evolution,” have been provided in advance. Afterwards, we illustrate the overall architecture and capability model of the regional collaborative innovation system, which contains several elements and participants. Therefore, we can definitely assume that the regional collaborative innovation system could be regarded as a complex network model. In the proposed evolutionary algorithm, we consider that each node in the network could only connect to less than a certain amount of neighbors, and the extreme value is determined by its importance. Through the derivation, we have created a probability density function as the most important constraint and supporting condition of our simulation experiments. Then, a case study was performed to explore the network topology and validate the effectiveness of our algorithm. All the raw datasets were obtained from the official website of the National Bureau of Statistic of China and some other open sources. Finally, some meaningful recommendations were presented to policy makers, especially based on the experimental results and some common conclusions of complex networks.

  1. Complex Genotype Mixtures Analyzed by Deep Sequencing in Two Different Regions of Hepatitis B Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Andrea; Gregori, Josep; Homs, Maria; Tabernero, David; Gonzalez, Carolina; Quer, Josep; Blasi, Maria; Casillas, Rosario; Nieto, Leonardo; Riveiro-Barciela, Mar; Esteban, Rafael; Buti, Maria; Rodriguez-Frias, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses the presence and outcome of genotype mixtures in the polymerase/surface and X/preCore regions of the HBV genome in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Thirty samples from ten chronic hepatitis B patients were included. The polymerase/surface and X/preCore regions were analyzed by deep sequencing (UDPS) in the first available sample at diagnosis, a pre-treatment sample, and a sample while under treatment. HBV genotype was determined by phylogenesis. Quasispecies complexity was evaluated by mutation frequency and nucleotide diversity. The polymerase/surface and X/preCore regions were validated for genotyping from 113 GenBank reference sequences. UDPS yielded a median of 10,960 sequences per sample (IQR 16,645) in the polymerase/surface region and 11,595 sequences per sample (IQR 14,682) in X/preCore. Genotype mixtures were more common in X/preCore (90%) than in polymerase/surface (30%) (pgenotyping, all samples were genotype A, whereas polymerase/surface yielded genotypes A (80%), D (16.7%), and F (3.3%) (p = 0.036). Genotype changes in polymerase/surface were observed in four patients during natural quasispecies dynamics and in two patients during treatment. There were no genotype changes in X/preCore. Quasispecies complexity was higher in X/preCore than in polymerase/surface (p = 0.004). The results provide evidence of genotype mixtures and differential genotype proportions in the polymerase/surface and X/preCore regions. The genotype dynamics in HBV infection and the different patterns of quasispecies complexity in the HBV genome suggest a new paradigm for HBV genotype classification.

  2. Evolution of Prolate Molecular Clouds at HII Boundaries: I. Formation of fragment-core structures

    CERN Document Server

    Kinnear, Timothy M; White, Glenn J; Goodwin, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of a prolate cloud at an Hii boundary is investigated using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). The prolate molecular clouds in our investigation are set with their semi-major axis perpendicular to the radiative direction of a plane parallel ionising Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) flux. Simulations on three high mass prolate clouds reveal that EUV radiation can trigger distinctive high density core formation embedded in a final linear structure. This contrasts with results of the previous work in which only an isotropic Far Ultraviolet (FUV) interstellar background flux was applied. A systematic investigation on a group of prolate clouds of equal mass but different initial densities and geometric shapes finds that the distribution of the cores over the final linear structure changes with the initial conditions of the prolate cloud and the strength of the EUV radiation flux. These highly condensed cores may either scatter over the full length of the final linear structure or form two groups of high...

  3. HII 2407: A Low-Mass Eclipsing Binary Revealed by K2 Observations of the Pleiades

    CERN Document Server

    David, Trevor J; Hillenbrand, Lynne A; Cody, Ann Marie; Conroy, Kyle; Stassun, Keivan G; Pope, Benjamin; Aigrain, Suzanne; Gillen, Ed; Cameron, Andrew Collier; Barrado, David; Rebull, L M; Isaacson, Howard; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Zhang, Celia; Riddle, Reed L; Ziegler, Carl; Law, Nicholas M; Baranec, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The star HII 2407 is a member of the relatively young Pleiades star cluster and was previously discovered to be a single-lined spectroscopic binary. It is newly identified here within $Kepler$/$K2$ photometric time series data as an eclipsing binary system. Mutual fitting of the radial velocity and photometric data leads to an orbital solution and constraints on fundamental stellar parameters. While the primary has arrived on the main sequence, the secondary is still pre-main-sequence and we compare our results for the $M/M_\\odot$ and $R/R_\\odot$ values with stellar evolutionary models. We also demonstrate that the system is likely to be tidally synchronized. Follow-up infrared spectroscopy is likely to reveal the lines of the secondary, allowing for dynamically measured masses and elevating the system to benchmark eclipsing binary status.

  4. HII 2407: AN ECLIPSING BINARY REVEALED BY K2 OBSERVATIONS OF THE PLEIADES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Trevor J.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Zhang, Celia; Riddle, Reed L. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stauffer, John; Rebull, L. M. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cody, Ann Marie [NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, CA 94035 (United States); Conroy, Kyle; Stassun, Keivan G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Pope, Benjamin; Aigrain, Suzanne; Gillen, Ed [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Cameron, Andrew Collier [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Barrado, David [Centro de Astrobiología, INTA-CSIC, Dpto. Astrofísica, ESAC Campus, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Isaacson, Howard; Marcy, Geoffrey W. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ziegler, Carl; Law, Nicholas M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States); Baranec, Christoph, E-mail: tjd@astro.caltech.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Hilo, HI 96720-2700 (United States)

    2015-11-20

    The star HII 2407 is a member of the relatively young Pleiades star cluster and was previously discovered to be a single-lined spectroscopic binary. It is newly identified here within Kepler/K2 photometric time series data as an eclipsing binary system. Mutual fitting of the radial velocity and photometric data leads to an orbital solution and constraints on fundamental stellar parameters. While the primary has arrived on the main sequence, the secondary is still pre-main sequence and we compare our results for the M/M{sub ⊙} and R/R{sub ⊙} values with stellar evolutionary models. We also demonstrate that the system is likely to be tidally synchronized. Follow-up infrared spectroscopy is likely to reveal the lines of the secondary, allowing for dynamically measured masses and elevating the system to benchmark eclipsing binary status.

  5. Genomic organization of duplicated major histocompatibility complex class I regions in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Ruth B

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously identified associations between major histocompatibility complex (MHC class I and resistance towards bacterial and viral pathogens in Atlantic salmon. To evaluate if only MHC or also closely linked genes contributed to the observed resistance we ventured into sequencing of the duplicated MHC class I regions of Atlantic salmon. Results Nine BACs covering more than 500 kb of the two duplicated MHC class I regions of Atlantic salmon were sequenced and the gene organizations characterized. Both regions contained the proteasome components PSMB8, PSMB9, PSMB9-like and PSMB10 in addition to the transporter for antigen processing TAP2, as well as genes for KIFC1, ZBTB22, DAXX, TAPBP, BRD2, COL11A2, RXRB and SLC39A7. The IA region contained the recently reported MHC class I Sasa-ULA locus residing approximately 50 kb upstream of the major Sasa-UBA locus. The duplicated class IB region contained an MHC class I locus resembling the rainbow trout UCA locus, but although transcribed it was a pseudogene. No other MHC class I-like genes were detected in the two duplicated regions. Two allelic BACs spanning the UBA locus had 99.2% identity over 125 kb, while the IA region showed 82.5% identity over 136 kb to the IB region. The Atlantic salmon IB region had an insert of 220 kb in comparison to the IA region containing three chitin synthase genes. Conclusion We have characterized the gene organization of more than 500 kb of the two duplicated MHC class I regions in Atlantic salmon. Although Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout are closely related, the gene organization of their IB region has undergone extensive gene rearrangements. The Atlantic salmon has only one class I UCA pseudogene in the IB region while trout contains the four MHC UCA, UDA, UEA and UFA class I loci. The large differences in gene content and most likely function of the salmon and trout class IB region clearly argues that sequencing of salmon will not

  6. Localising loci underlying complex trait variation using Regional Genomic Relationship Mapping.

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    Yoshitaka Nagamine

    Full Text Available The limited proportion of complex trait variance identified in genome-wide association studies may reflect the limited power of single SNP analyses to detect either rare causative alleles or those of small effect. Motivated by studies that demonstrate that loci contributing to trait variation may contain a number of different alleles, we have developed an analytical approach termed Regional Genomic Relationship Mapping that, like linkage-based family methods, integrates variance contributed by founder gametes within a pedigree. This approach takes advantage of very distant (and unrecorded relationships, and this greatly increases the power of the method, compared with traditional pedigree-based linkage analyses. By integrating variance contributed by founder gametes in the population, our approach provides an estimate of the Regional Heritability attributable to a small genomic region (e.g. 100 SNP window covering ca. 1 Mb of DNA in a 300000 SNP GWAS and has the power to detect regions containing multiple alleles that individually contribute too little variance to be detectable by GWAS as well as regions with single common GWAS-detectable SNPs. We use genome-wide SNP array data to obtain both a genome-wide relationship matrix and regional relationship ("identity by state" or IBS matrices for sequential regions across the genome. We then estimate a heritability for each region sequentially in our genome-wide scan. We demonstrate by simulation and with real data that, when compared to traditional ("individual SNP" GWAS, our method uncovers new loci that explain additional trait variation. We analysed data from three Southern European populations and from Orkney for exemplar traits - serum uric acid concentration and height. We show that regional heritability estimates are correlated with results from genome-wide association analysis but can capture more of the genetic variance segregating in the population and identify additional trait loci.

  7. Hand region extraction and gesture recognition from video stream with complex background through entropy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JongShill; Lee, YoungJoo; Lee, EungHyuk; Hong, SeungHong

    2004-01-01

    Hand gesture recognition utilizing image processing relies upon recognition through markers or hand extraction by colors, and therefore is heavily restricted by the colors of clothes or skin. We propose a method to recognize band gestures extracted from images with a complex background for a more natural interface in HCI (human computer interaction). The proposed method obtains the image by subtracting one image from another sequential image, measures the entropy, separates hand region from images, tracks the hand region and recognizes hand gestures. Through entropy measurement, we have color information that has near distribution in complexion for regions that have big values and extracted hand region from input images. We could draw the hand region adaptively in variable lighting or individual differences because entropy offers color information as well as motion information at the same time. The detected contour using chain code for the hand region is extracted, and present centroidal profile method that is improved little more and recognized gesture of hand. In the experimental results for 6 kinds of hand gesture, it shows the recognition rate with more than 95% for person and 90-100% for each gesture at 5 frames/sec.

  8. On Model Complexity and Parameter Regionalization for Continental Scale Hydrologic Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakovec, O.; Mizukami, N.; Newman, A. J.; Thober, S.; Kumar, R.; Wood, A.; Clark, M. P.; Samaniego, L. E.

    2016-12-01

    Assessing hydrologic model complexity and performing continental-domain model simulations has become an important objective in contemporary hydrology. We present a large-sample hydrologic modeling study to better understand (1) the benefits of parameter regionalization schemes, (2) the effects of spatially distributed/lumped model structures, and (3) the importance of selected hydrological processes on model performance. Four hydrological/land surface models (mHM, SAC, VIC, Noah-MP) are set up for 500 small to medium-sized unimpaired basins over the contiguous United States for two spatial scales: lumped and 12km grid. We performed model calibration at individual basins with and without parameter regionalization. For parameter regionalization, we use the well-established Multiscale Parameter Regionalization (MPR) technique, with the specific goal of assessing the transferability of model parameters across different time periods (from calibration to validation period), spatial scales (lumped basin scale to distributed) and locations, for different models. Our results reveal that large inter-model differences are dominated by the choice of model specific hydrological processes (in particular snow and soil moisture) over the choice of spatial discretization and/or parameter regionalization schemes. Nevertheless, parameter regionalization is crucial for parameter transferability across scale and to un-gauged locations. Last but not least, we observe that calibration of model parameters cannot always compensate for the choice of model structure.

  9. Towards a regional ontology of management education in Africa: A complexity leadership theory perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nixon M. Ochara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The title of this critique, ‘Towards a regional ontology of management education in Africa: A complexity leadership theory perspective’, sought to capture a paradox in the prescriptive nature and universalistic leaning of current leadership theories; yet local realities may call for being cognisant of (possible extant regional ontologies. Motivation for the study: The argumentation and analysis developed in this article were based on a synthesis of ideas from literature to evolve a preliminary regional ontology for reorienting business and management education relevant for Africa. Research design, approach and method: The critique was structured on insights from complexity leadership theory. The outcome was a proposition for an Afrocentric regional ontology for strengthening business and management education anchored on four themes: ethical and moral engagement, entrepreneurial leadership, Ubuntu and local National Systems of Innovation (NSI. These emerging ideas were considered to be tentative and should be considered as a foundation to inform further inquiry into how business and management education in Africa can be better interpreted and legitimised in the behavioural sciences. Practical/managerial implications: From an Afrocentric perspective, conceptualising and maintaining the logic of leadership was considered to be desirable and imperative in evolving a regional ontology of leadership that takes into account local realities. Of course, we recognised that these defining rationalities are not unique to Africa, but that said; a regional perspective that is unique cannot continue to be ignored but should find their place in discourses about leadership in the 21st century. Contribution/value-add: The synthesis and narrative presented in this paper concisely summarises and provides traction on how to advance business and management education in Africa. 

  10. Revealing the "missing" low-mass stars in the S254-S258 star forming region by deep X-ray imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Mucciarelli, Paola; Zinnecker, Hans

    2011-01-01

    (abbreviated) In the central part of the S254-S258 star forming complex, a dense embedded cluster of very young stellar objects (S255-IR) is sandwiched between the two HII regions S255 and S257. This interesting configuration had led to different speculations such as dynamical ejection of the B-stars from the central cluster or triggered star formation in a cloud that was swept up in the collision zone between the two expanding HII regions. The presence or absence of low-mass stars associated with these B-stars can discriminate between the possible scenarios. We performed a deep Chandra X-ray observation of the S254-S258 region in order to efficiently discriminate young stars from the numerous older field stars in the area. We detected 364 X-ray point sources, providing a complete sample of all young stars in the observed region down to ~0.5 Msun. A clustering analysis identifies three significant clusters, containing 64 X-ray sources in total. After accounting for X-ray background contaminants, this implies ...

  11. Mirror therapy in patients with causalgia (complex regional pain syndrome type II) following peripheral nerve injury: Two cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.W. Selles (Ruud); A.R. Schreuders (Ton); H.J. Stam (Henk)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To describe the use of mirror therapy in 2 patients with complex regional pain syndrome type II following traumatic nerve injury. Design: Two case reports. Subjects: Two patients with complex regional pain syndrome type II. Methods: Two patients received mirror therapy with

  12. Mirror therapy in patients with causalgia (complex regional pain syndrome type II) following peripheral nerve injury: Two cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.W. Selles (Ruud); A.R. Schreuders (Ton); H.J. Stam (Henk)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To describe the use of mirror therapy in 2 patients with complex regional pain syndrome type II following traumatic nerve injury. Design: Two case reports. Subjects: Two patients with complex regional pain syndrome type II. Methods: Two patients received mirror therapy with th

  13. A low-complexity region-based video coder using backward morphological motion field segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X; Ramchandran, K

    1999-01-01

    We introduce a novel region-based video compression framework based on morphology to efficiently capture motion correspondences between consecutive frames in an image sequence. Our coder is built on the observation that the motion field associated with typical image sequences can be segmented into component motion subfield "clusters" associated with distinct objects or regions in the scene, and further, that these clusters can be efficiently captured using morphological operators in a "backward" framework that avoids the need to send region shape information. Region segmentation is performed directly on the motion field by introducing a small "core" for each cluster that captures the essential features of the cluster and reliably represents its motion behavior. Cluster matching is used in lieu of the conventional block matching methods of standard video coders to define a cluster motion representation paradigm. Furthermore, a region-based pel-recursive approach is applied to find the refinement motion field for each cluster and the cluster motion prediction error image is coded by a novel adaptive scalar quantization method. Experimental results reveal a 10-20% reduction in prediction error energy and 1-3 dB gain in the final reconstructed peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) over the standard MPEG-1 coder at typical bit rates of 500 Kb/s to 1 Mb/s on standard test sequences, while also requiring lower computational complexity.

  14. SAMPLEX: Automatic mapping of perturbed and unperturbed regions of proteins and complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loth Karine

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The activity of proteins within the cell is characterized by their motions, flexibility, interactions or even the particularly intriguing case of partially unfolded states. In the last two cases, a part of the protein is affected either by binding or unfolding and the detection of the respective perturbed and unperturbed region(s is a fundamental part of the structural characterization of these states. This can be achieved by comparing experimental data of the same protein in two different states (bound/unbound, folded/unfolded. For instance, measurements of chemical shift perturbations (CSPs from NMR 1H-15N HSQC experiments gives an excellent opportunity to discriminate both moieties. Results We describe an innovative, automatic and unbiased method to distinguish perturbed and unperturbed regions in a protein existing in two distinct states (folded/partially unfolded, bound/unbound. The SAMPLEX program takes as input a set of data and the corresponding three-dimensional structure and returns the confidence for each residue to be in a perturbed or unperturbed state. Its performance is demonstrated for different applications including the prediction of disordered regions in partially unfolded proteins and of interacting regions in protein complexes. Conclusions The proposed approach is suitable for partially unfolded states of proteins, local perturbations due to small ligands and protein-protein interfaces. The method is not restricted to NMR data, but is generic and can be applied to a wide variety of information.

  15. Brazilian Policy and the Creation of a Regional Security Complex in the South Atlantic: Pax Brasiliana?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Rodrigues Bessa Mattos

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the past five years, the South Atlantic region has become a central element of Brazilian security policy, with Brazil actively supporting the notion of a trans-oceanic security consciousness involving African littoral states. It has invested in diplomatic initiatives such as the Zone of Peace and Cooperation of the South Atlantic (ZPCSA, or ZOPACAS, and extensive military co-operation with West African states such as São Tomé e Príncipe, Namibia and Cape Verde. Its internal security and defence policy documents have repeatedly been updated to reflect this dimension, and now provide the foundation for advancing these initiatives. This policy thrust is directed at securing Brazil’s offshore oil assets, and limiting the influence of what it has termed ‘extra-regional powers’ such as the P-5. This article highlights these initiatives and reviews the prospects for this policy by examining the plausibility of the South Atlantic region as a regional security complex in the sense coined by Buzan and Wæver. The analysis is based on the role of geographical and linguistic proximity in international relations, and the impact of multilateral bodies on building support for a regional approach to security governance.

  16. MEDICATION AND APPROPRIATE PHYSICAL THERAPY OF COMPLEX REGIONAL PAIN SYNDROME PATIENTS AFTER TRAUMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Elizabeta

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Treatment of patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS after trauma needs a complex physical and medical therapy, according of the stage of condition. The patient with trauma is coming to rehabilitation department, after surgery treatment. The aim of our study is to represent the effect of complexity physical therapy and medical support in treatment of patients with CRPS with evaluation of decrease of pain and increase of function in affected region.Method: we are treating 35 patients overage 35-70 years with 2 including criteria, clinical reaction of CRPS and radiologicalchanges of osteoporosis. Medication includes non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, tricycle antidepressants, vasoactive drugs and calcitonin. Physical therapy is consisting of electro therapy, sonophoresis and paraffin.Results: The evaluation was made with observation and measurement of pain, swelling and color of skin and movements of the joint.Conclusion: the goodness of the condition with whole time of rehabilitation 3-6 months was significant p < 0.01.

  17. Adaptation of brain regions to habitat complexity: a comparative analysis in bats (Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, Kamran; Dechmann, Dina K N

    2005-01-22

    Vertebrate brains are organized in modules which process information from sensory inputs selectively. Therefore they are probably under different evolutionary pressures. We investigated the impact of environmental influences on specific brain centres in bats. We showed in a phylogenetically independent contrast analysis that the wing area of a species corrected for body size correlated with estimates of habitat complexity. We subsequently compared wing area, as an indirect measure of habitat complexity, with the size of regions associated with hearing, olfaction and spatial memory, while controlling for phylogeny and body mass. The inferior colliculi, the largest sub-cortical auditory centre, showed a strong positive correlation with wing area in echolocating bats. The size of the main olfactory bulb did not increase with wing area, suggesting that the need for olfaction may not increase during the localization of food and orientation in denser habitat. As expected, a larger wing area was linked to a larger hippocampus in all bats. Our results suggest that morphological adaptations related to flight and neuronal capabilities as reflected by the sizes of brain regions coevolved under similar ecological pressures. Thus, habitat complexity presumably influenced and shaped sensory abilities in this mammalian order independently of each other.

  18. Complex assessment of the level and dynamics of innovative capacity of region

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    P.M. Hryhoruk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to describe the approach to the assessment of the innovative capacity of the region based on the creation of complex index and study its dynamics in order to develop practical recommendations to enhance innovative activity. The results of the analysis. Innovative development of economy determines the need for formation of an effective innovative policy at regional level, the implementation of which is aimed to set priorities and conceptual basis of innovative regional activity. One of the urgent tasks, the solution of which contributes to the goal, is to assess innovative capacity of the region. The results of the assessment of innovative development of Khmelnytskyi region for the period 2009-2014 on the main indicators of innovation show that the costs for execution of scientific and technical activity by research institutions of region in general tended to increase. The number of institutions involved for research and the total number of scientific staff are incremented, but in 2014 the figure dropped slightly. Funding research activity was increasing every year. Herewith, the main part of funds stands out for applied research. However, the relative share of enterprises engaged in innovative activities generally decreased, and compared to 2011 reduced by almost half. A similar pattern occurred for the firms which implement innovations. There is decrement of the share of innovative products in industrial production. Own sources of investment are dominated in the structure of expenditure on innovation activities of enterprises of Khmelnytskyi region. The reasons of this situation are the state of political instability in the country, that increase the risk of innovative activity; uncertainty in long-term credits and high bank rates; reduction in state funding innovation and lack of own funds of enterprises, lack of public procurement and state guarantees against the risk of bankruptcy for the used bank loans to

  19. Temperature field of complex soilscapes (by the example of the Vladimir opolie region)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shein, E. V.; Bannikov, M. V.; Troshina, O. V.; Churkina, O. A.

    2009-02-01

    Problems of the assessment of soil temperature regime at the polypedon level have yet to be solved. An approach suggested by the authors consists of three stages: (1) the characterization and prediction of the soil water regime as a factor influencing the soil temperature regime, (2) the obtaining of thermophysical functions for the particular elements of complex soilscapes, and (3) the calculation and assessment of the temperature regime of complex soilscapes in the form of the functional fields of soil temperature isopleths. This approach has been applied to predict the soil temperature regime of an arable field in the Vladimir opolie region. The complex soilscape of the field consists of medium loamy agrogray soils, agrogray soils with the second humus horizon, and podzolized agrogray soils. At the beginning of the growing season, minimum temperatures are observed in the areas of agrogray soils with the second humus horizon; the difference in soil temperatures at a depth of 20 cm reaches 1°C, and the difference in the sum of active soil temperatures reaches 20°C. Then, this difference changes considerably, so that the agrogray soils with the second humus horizon become warmer than the agrogray soils. In general, the functional field of soil temperatures within the complex soilscape is highly dynamic and diverse, which is specified by the variability in the water-physical and thermophysical properties of particular soils.

  20. Decay of Activity Complexes, Formation of Unipolar Magnetic Regions and Coronal Holes in their Causal Relation

    CERN Document Server

    Golubeva, Elena

    2016-01-01

    North-south asymmetry of sunspot activity resulted in an asynchronous reversal of the Sun's polar fields in the current cycle. The asymmetry is also observed in the formation of polar coronal holes. A stable coronal hole was first formed at the South Pole, despite the later polar-field reversal there. The aim of this study is to understand processes making this situation possible. Synoptic magnetic maps from the Global Oscillation Network Group and corresponding coronal-hole maps from the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory are analyzed here to study a causal relationship between the decay of activity complexes, evolution of large-scale magnetic fields, and formation of coronal holes. Ensembles of coronal holes associated with decaying active regions and activity complexes are presented. These ensembles take part in global rearrangements of the Sun's open magnetic flux. In particular, the...

  1. Imaging of Posttraumatic Arthritis, Avascular Necrosis, Septic Arthritis, Complex Regional Pain Syndrome, and Cancer Mimicking Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupasov, Andrey; Cain, Usa; Montoya, Simone; Blickman, Johan G

    2017-09-01

    This article focuses on the imaging of 5 discrete entities with a common end result of disability: posttraumatic arthritis, a common form of secondary osteoarthritis that results from a prior insult to the joint; avascular necrosis, a disease of impaired osseous blood flow, leading to cellular death and subsequent osseous collapse; septic arthritis, an infectious process leading to destructive changes within the joint; complex regional pain syndrome, a chronic limb-confined painful condition arising after injury; and cases of cancer mimicking arthritis, in which the initial findings seem to represent arthritis, despite a more insidious cause. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Thermal hypesthesia in patients with complex regional pain syndrome related dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munts, Alexander G; van Rijn, Monique A; Geraedts, Erica J; van Hilten, Jacobus J; van Dijk, J Gert; Marinus, Johan

    2011-04-01

    The quantitative thermal test showed cold and warmth hypesthesia without increased heat pain sensitivity in the affected limbs of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) patients with tonic dystonia (n = 44) in comparison with healthy controls with a similar age and sex distribution (n = 35). The degrees of cold and warmth hypesthesia were strongly correlated. We conclude that dysfunction in small nerve fiber (i.e., C and Aδ) processing is present in patients with CRPS-related dystonia.

  3. Pulsed Radiofrequency Treatment of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Djuric

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Various forms of sympathetic chain neurolysis (sympathectomy have, at one time or another, held promise as effective treatment options for complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS. Complications, such as worsening pain and the development of new pain syndromes, have prevented sympathectomy from emerging as a standard intervention. In an effort to avoid poor outcomes associated with neurolysis, pulsed radiofrequency (PRF has been proposed as a potential treatment alternative for a number of chronic neuropathic pain states, including some forms of CRPS.

  4. Post-traumatic complex regional pain syndrome: clinical features and epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratti, Chiara; Nordio, Andrea; Resmini, Giuseppina; Murena, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Summary Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition that occurs after a tissue injury (fractures, sprain, surgery) of the upper or lower extremities. A clear pathophysiological mechanism has not been established yet and different patterns are considered to play a role in the genesis of the disease. The diagnosis is made by different diagnosis criteria and a gold standard has not been established yet. Incidence of CRPS is unclear and large prospective studies on the incidence and prevalence of CRPS are scarce. The aim of this review is to give an overview on the prevalent data regarding this chronic syndrome. PMID:27134626

  5. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS/RSD and Neuropathic Pain: Role of Intravenous Bisphosphonates as Analgesics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Yanow

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain is a sequela of dysfunction, injuries, or diseases of the peripheral and/or central nervous system pain pathways, which has historically been extremely difficult to treat. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS types 1 and 2 are neuropathic pain conditions that have a long history in the medical literature but whose pathophysiology remains elusive and whose available treatment options remain few. While an exact animal model for CRPS doesn't yet exist, there are several animal models of neuropathic pain that develop behaviors of hypersensitivity, one of the hallmark signs of neuropathic pain in humans.

  6. Surprise and Uncertainty—Framing Regional Geohazards in the Theory of Complexity

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    Beate M. W. Ratter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the concepts of uncertainty and surprise as key variables of a socio-ecological system’s behavior in the context of the theory of complexity. Experiences from the past have shown that living with uncertainty is part of our daily life and surprises are only surprising because our perspective of system trajectories is basically linear and non-dynamic. The future of humanity is dependent on the understanding of the system’s behavior and needs a change in perspective of linearity to non-linearity and from the planning imperative to a management hedging uncertainty and surprise. In the context of humanity’s future, the theory of complexity offers a new perspective on system trajectories and their understanding of surprises and uncertainty. There is a need for a Gestaltwechsel—a change in perception—which helps to see things differently and fosters the search for new answers to emerging questions at the human-nature interface. Drawing on the case study of hazard management the paper will explain the necessity of analysis system’s behavior and the taking into account of multi-agent behavior on the micro level which led to emergent behavior on the macro-level of the system. Regional geohazards are explained as the regional impact of an uncontrolled risk based on a state of a natural feature that has a direct impact on a regional population being affected by the appearance of a hazard and its development into damage. By acting in space, time and connectivity, people construct hazardscapes and change risk into regional geohazards. This concept shows relevance for future mitigation and adaptation measures. The theory of complexity can help in engendering the necessary shift in perspective. What is non-linear dynamic thinking as suggested by the theory of complexity? Why is the consideration of the system’s behavior crucial and not just the number of system’s elements? What is the role of agents in these systems? In

  7. T-cell compartment involvement in two high antibody responder lines of mice (HI and HII Biozzi mice) respectively susceptible and resistant to collagen-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, G C; Zyad, A; Decreusefond, C; Mevel, J C; Stiffel, C; Mouton, D; Couderc, J

    1993-08-01

    The T-cell compartment was investigated in two high antibody responder lines of mice respectively susceptible (HI) and resistant (HII) to chicken collagen (CII)-induced arthritis (CIA). Previous data had shown that both lines were high anti-CII Ab producers, without any TCR V-beta gene defect or membrane expression impairment. The present studies demonstrate that anti-CII proliferation is much lower in HII than in HI. These results are confirmed by the limiting dilution analysis of anti-CII T-precursor frequencies (1/991 in HI and 1/12175 in HII). The percentage of CD8+ T cells is constitutively higher in HII mice, this difference increasing after CII immunization. This finding suggests a suppressive effect accounting for resistance to CIA. However, no restoration of specific response was achieved by in-vivo or in-vitro depletion of CD8+ T cells. T clones specific for Chicken CII could be obtained only from primed HI mice. Four of five clones with CD8+ phenotype proliferated in vitro to native and denatured CII and showed cytotoxic function in an anti-CD3 redirected assay. The CD4+ clone was shown to proliferate on both HI and HII-pulsed APC, which rules out a major CII processing/presentation defect in HII.

  8. The Rhodomonas salina mitochondrial genome: bacteria-like operons, compact gene arrangement and complex repeat region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauth, Amy M; Maier, Uwe G; Lang, B Franz; Burger, Gertraud

    2005-01-01

    To gain insight into the mitochondrial genome structure and gene content of a putatively ancestral group of eukaryotes, the cryptophytes, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial DNA of Rhodomonas salina. The 48 063 bp circular-mapping molecule codes for 2 rRNAs, 27 tRNAs and 40 proteins including 23 components of oxidative phosphorylation, 15 ribosomal proteins and two subunits of tat translocase. One potential protein (ORF161) is without assigned function. Only two introns occur in the genome; both are present within cox1 belong to group II and contain RT open reading frames. Primitive genome features include bacteria-like rRNAs and tRNAs, ribosomal protein genes organized in large clusters resembling bacterial operons and the presence of the otherwise rare genes such as rps1 and tatA. The highly compact gene organization contrasts with the presence of a 4.7 kb long, repeat-containing intergenic region. Repeat motifs approximately 40-700 bp long occur up to 31 times, forming a complex repeat structure. Tandem repeats are the major arrangement but the region also includes a large, approximately 3 kb, inverted repeat and several potentially stable approximately 40-80 bp long hairpin structures. We provide evidence that the large repeat region is involved in replication and transcription initiation, predict a promoter motif that occurs in three locations and discuss two likely scenarios of how this highly structured repeat region might have evolved.

  9. Genes involved in complex adaptive processes tend to have highly conserved upstream regions in mammalian genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohane Isaac

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances in genome sequencing suggest a remarkable conservation in gene content of mammalian organisms. The similarity in gene repertoire present in different organisms has increased interest in studying regulatory mechanisms of gene expression aimed at elucidating the differences in phenotypes. In particular, a proximal promoter region contains a large number of regulatory elements that control the expression of its downstream gene. Although many studies have focused on identification of these elements, a broader picture on the complexity of transcriptional regulation of different biological processes has not been addressed in mammals. The regulatory complexity may strongly correlate with gene function, as different evolutionary forces must act on the regulatory systems under different biological conditions. We investigate this hypothesis by comparing the conservation of promoters upstream of genes classified in different functional categories. Results By conducting a rank correlation analysis between functional annotation and upstream sequence alignment scores obtained by human-mouse and human-dog comparison, we found a significantly greater conservation of the upstream sequence of genes involved in development, cell communication, neural functions and signaling processes than those involved in more basic processes shared with unicellular organisms such as metabolism and ribosomal function. This observation persists after controlling for G+C content. Considering conservation as a functional signature, we hypothesize a higher density of cis-regulatory elements upstream of genes participating in complex and adaptive processes. Conclusion We identified a class of functions that are associated with either high or low promoter conservation in mammals. We detected a significant tendency that points to complex and adaptive processes were associated with higher promoter conservation, despite the fact that they have emerged

  10. Human–Information Interaction with Complex Information for Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Albers

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Human–information interaction (HII for simple information and for complex information is different because people’s goals and information needs differ between the two cases. With complex information, comprehension comes from understanding the relationships and interactions within the information and factors outside of a design team’s control. Yet, a design team must consider all these within an HII design in order to maximize the communication potential. This paper considers how simple and complex information requires different design strategies and how those strategies differ.

  11. Fear of pain in children and adolescents with neuropathic pain and complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Laura E

    2016-02-01

    A significant proportion of children and adolescents with chronic pain endorse elevated pain-related fear. Pain-related fear is associated with high levels of disability, depressive symptoms, and school impairment. Because of faulty nerve signaling, individuals with neuropathic pain and complex regional pain syndrome may be more prone to develop pain-related fear as they avoid use of and neglect the affected body area(s), resulting in exacerbated symptoms, muscle atrophy, maintenance of pain signaling, and ongoing pain-related disability. Not surprisingly, effective treatments for elevated pain-related fears involve exposure to previously avoided activities to downregulate incorrect pain signaling. In the context of intensive interdisciplinary pain treatment of youth with neuropathic pain, decreasing pain-related fear is associated with improved physical and psychological functioning, whereas high initial pain-related fear is a risk factor for less treatment responsiveness. An innovative approach to targeting pain-related fear and evidence of a neural response to treatment involving decoupling of the amygdala with key fear circuits in youth with complex regional pain syndrome suggest breakthroughs in our ability to ameliorate these issues.

  12. Wolbachia strains in cryptic species of the Anastrepha fraterculus complex (Diptera, Tephritidae) along the Neotropical Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezotto, Leandro F; Perondini, André L P; Hernández-Ortiz, Vicente; Marino, Celso L; Selivon, Denise

    2017-01-01

    Infection by Wolbachia was described previously in eleven species of Anastrepha fruit flies some of which are important pests of fruticulture. One such species is the nominal Anastrepha fraterculus, the South American fruit fly, which actually comprises a complex of cryptic species. The suggestions of using Wolbachia for the control of these pest species, make imperative a more precise characterization of the existing strains of the bacteria. In this study, population samples of the A. fraterculus complex from Brazil, Argentina, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Guatemala and Mexico were analyzed for Wolbachia infection. The bacteria were genotyped by the MLST and WSP Typing methodologies. All samples were infected with Wolbachia of supergroup "A". For each of the five MLST genes, unique as well as already known alleles were detected. Nineteen sequence types for the concatenated sequences of the five MLST genes, and twenty wsp alleles were found in the samples. Host-specific haplotypes, shared strains among distinct hosts, and more than one strain of Wolbachia were found in some population samples. Recombination among the MLST genes and intragenic recombination between wsp haplotypes was rare. Phylogenetic analysis showed a great similarity among the Wolbachia strains in the A. fraterculus complex. However, some strains of Wolbachia are found throughout the Neotropical Region and there are specific strains in determined geographical areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. The formation of ethylene glycol and other complex organic molecules in star-forming regions

    CERN Document Server

    Rivilla, V M; Cesaroni, R; Fontani, F; Codella, C; Zhang, Q

    2016-01-01

    We study the molecular abundance and spatial distribution of the simplest sugar alcohol, ethylene glycol (EG), the simplest sugar glycoladehyde (GA), and other chemically related complex organic species towards the massive star-forming region G31.41+0.31. We have analyzed multiple single dish and interferometric data, and obtained excitation temperatures and column densities using an LTE analysis. We have reported for the first time the presence of EG towards G31.41+0.31, and we have also detected multiple transitions of other complex organic molecules such as GA, methyl formate (MF), dimethyl ether (DME) and ethanol (ET). The high angular resolution images show that the EG emission is very compact, peaking towards the maximum of the continuum. These observations suggest that low abundance complex organic molecules, like EG or GA, are good probes of the gas located closer to the forming stars. Our analysis confirms that EG is more abundant than GA in G31.41+0.31, as previously observed in other interstellar r...

  14. Decay of Activity Complexes, Formation of Unipolar Magnetic Regions, and Coronal Holes in Their Causal Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubeva, E. M.; Mordvinov, A. V.

    2016-12-01

    The peculiar development of solar activity in the current cycle resulted in an asynchronous reversal of the Sun's polar fields. The asymmetry is also observed in the formation of polar coronal holes. A stable coronal hole was first formed at the South Pole, despite the later polar-field reversal there. The aim of this study is to understand the processes making this situation possible. Synoptic magnetic maps from the Global Oscillation Network Group and corresponding coronal-hole maps from the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory are analyzed here to study the causal relationship between the decay of activity complexes, evolution of large-scale magnetic fields, and formation of coronal holes. Ensembles of coronal holes associated with decaying active regions and activity complexes are presented. These ensembles take part in global rearrangements of the Sun's open magnetic flux. In particular, the south polar coronal hole was formed from an ensemble of coronal holes that came into existence after the decay of multiple activity complexes observed during 2014.

  15. Complex pegmatite - apelitic of Cabecinha - strategies appreciation of geological heritage and economic development of the region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, José; Cabral, Tiago; Cabral, João; Gomes, Ana

    2014-05-01

    The Complex pegmatite - apelitic of Cabecinha corresponds to an isolated ridge that reaches 933 meters, located in the middle zone of transition between the Hesperian massif and the Cova da Beira being located in the NE central part of Portugal, more specifically in the Mountainous region of the province of Beira Alta, council of Sabugal. This complex lies embedded in porphyritic granites with terms of switching to a medium-grained granite rich in sodium feldspars in which they are muscovite granite intrusions. The lodes have pegmatites with NE-SW orientation, presenting phases of predominantly quartz crystallization with multiple parageneses. The inclusions observed are veins filonianian secondary. Some veins have structural discontinuity due to further their training tectonics. The apelitico material is basic in nature engaging in descontinuiddes of pegmatite material, showing no preferred orientation. The petrological characteristics of the area in question provide the appearance of motivating exotic landforms of scientific interest. These landforms, over time, have motivated the popular level the emergence of various myths, thus contributing to the enrichment of the local cultural heritage. This study proceeded to the geological and geomorphological mapping an area of about 6945,350 m2 with a maximum length of 182 m. The huge patent mineralogical, petrological and geomorphological level geodiversity, allied to the structural complexity and associated cultural heritage, allow geoconservation strategies and recovery, using new multimedia technologies including use of QR codes and 3D. All this geological framework and environment becomes an asset for the scientific, educational and economic development of the region. On the other hand, it has the vital Importance in the context of the strategy of forming a geological park, in the point of view of tourism, research and interpretation.

  16. TRENDS AND ISSUES IN OF DEVELOPMENT OF REGION MACHINE BUILDING COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Виталий Николаевич Маковеев

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Transition of the Russian economy to an innovation type of development, selected by leaders of the country as a priority one, creates the need of solving number of problems. A key one is the need for large-scale renovation of the economy’s production basis, which can not be implemented without a modern machine building sector.Purpose. To analyze development of machine building complex in theVologda region against the all-Russian background, to identify common trends and challenges of the sector’s development.Methodology. Methods of system and structural analysis, comparison, differences and similarities analysis, deduction and induction were used. Official statistics, as well as the works of prominent scientists in this field, served as an information basis for the study.Results. The author conducted an analysis of basic production assets, growth rates, the financial situation, investments, levels of profitability, staffing and salary levels of employees of machine building sector of the Vologda Region and Russia. The main trends and problems of the sector development were identified. Measures that are able to change the situation were proposed.Practical implications. The research materials could be useful for regional authorities in forming industrial and innovation policy, as well as for all those interested in problems of machine building development.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-2-24

  17. Improvement of pain and regional osteoporotic changes in the foot and ankle by low-dose bisphosphonate therapy for complex regional pain syndrome type I: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wada Takuro

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Complex regional pain syndrome is characterized by pain, allodynia, hyperalgesia, edema, signs of vasomotor instability, movement disorders, joint stiffness, and regional osteopenia. It is recognized to be difficult to treat, despite various methods of treatment, including physiotherapy, calcitonin, corticosteroids, sympathetic blockade, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Pathophysiologically, complex regional pain syndrome reveals enhanced regional bone resorption and high bone turnover, and so bisphosphonates, which have a potent inhibitory effect on bone resorption, were proposed for the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome. Case presentation A 48-year-old Japanese man with complex regional pain syndrome type I had severe right ankle pain with a visual analog scale score of 59 out of 100 regardless of treatment with physiotherapy and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for five months. Radiographs showed marked regional osteoporotic changes and bone scintigraphy revealed a marked increase in radioactivity in his ankle. One month after the start of oral administration of risedronate (2.5 mg per day, his bone pain had fallen from a VAS score of 59 out of 100 to 18 out of 100. Bone scintigraphy at 12 months showed a marked reduction in radioactivity to a level comparable to that in his normal, left ankle. On the basis of these results, the treatment was discontinued at 15 months. At 32 months, our patient had almost no pain and radiographic findings revealed that the regional osteoporotic change had returned to normal. A second 48-year-old Japanese man with complex regional pain syndrome type I had severe right foot pain with a visual analog scale score of 83 out of 100 regardless of treatment with physiotherapy and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for nine months. Radiographs showed regional osteoporotic change in his phalanges, metatarsals, and tarsals, and bone scintigraphy revealed a marked increase

  18. Formation of ethylene glycol and other complex organic molecules in star-forming regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivilla, V. M.; Beltrán, M. T.; Cesaroni, R.; Fontani, F.; Codella, C.; Zhang, Q.

    2017-02-01

    Context. The detection of complex organic molecules related with prebiotic chemistry in star-forming regions allows us to investigate how the basic building blocks of life are formed. Aims: Ethylene glycol (CH2OH)2 is the simplest sugar alcohol and the reduced alcohol of the simplest sugar glycoladehyde (CH2OHCHO). We study the molecular abundance and spatial distribution of (CH2OH)2, CH2OHCHO and other chemically related complex organic species (CH3OCHO, CH3OCH3, and C2H5OH) towards the chemically rich massive star-forming region G31.41+0.31. Methods: We analyzed multiple single-dish (Green Bank Telescope and IRAM 30 m) and interferometric (Submillimeter Array) spectra towards G31.41+0.31, covering a range of frequencies from 45 to 258 GHz. We fitted the observed spectra with a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) synthetic spectra, and obtained excitation temperatures and column densities. We compared our findings in G31.41+0.31 with the results found in other environments, including low- and high-mass star-forming regions, quiescent clouds and comets. Results: We report for the first time the presence of the aGg' conformer of (CH2OH)2 towards G31.41+0.31, detecting more than 30 unblended lines. We also detected multiple transitions of other complex organic molecules such as CH2OHCHO, CH3OCHO, CH3OCH3, and C2H5OH. The high angular resolution images show that the (CH2OH)2 emission is very compact, peaking towards the maximum of the 1.3 mm continuum. These observations suggest that low abundance complex organic molecules, like (CH2OH)2 or CH2OHCHO, are good probes of the gas located closer to the forming stars. Our analysis confirms that (CH2OH)2 is more abundant than CH2OHCHO in G31.41+0.31, as previously observed in other interstellar regions. Comparing different star-forming regions we find evidence of an increase of the (CH2OH)2/CH2OHCHO abundance ratio with the luminosity of the source. The CH3OCH3/CH3OCHO and (CH2OH)2/C2H5OH ratios are nearly constant with

  19. Development of territorial marketing complex for industrial cities of old industrial regions social and economic potential increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Dubnitsky

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Role of territorial marketing in the innovation development process and in the improving of important components of social and economic potential possibilities efficiency of industrial cities regional economic complex is discovered in this article.

  20. Impairments and activity limitations in subjects with chronic upper-limb complex regional pain syndrome type I.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.C. Schasfoort (Fabiënne); J.B.J. Bussmann (Hans); H.J. Stam (Henk)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To determine the degree of impairments and activity limitations and their interrelationship in complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS type I). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study interrelating impairments and objectively measured activity limitations. SETTING: Ambulatory and

  1. Disentangling the metallicity and star formation history of HII galaxies through tailor-made models

    CERN Document Server

    Perez-Montero, Enrique; Hagele, Guillermo F; Diaz, Angeles I

    2010-01-01

    We present a self-consistent study of the stellar populations and the ionized gas in a sample of 10 HII galaxies with, at least, four measured electron temperatures and a precise determination of ionic abundances following the "direct method". We fitted the spectral energy distribution of the galaxies using the program STARLIGHT in order to quantify the contribution of the underlying stellar population to EW(Hbeta), which amounts to about 10% for most of the objects. We then studied the Wolf-Rayet stellar populations detected in seven of the galaxies. The presence of these populations and the corrected EW(Hbeta) values indicate that the ionizing stellar populations were created following a continuous star formation episode of 10 Myr duration, hence WR stars may be present in all of objects even if they are not detected in some of them. The derived stellar features, the number of ionizing photons and the relative intensities of the strongest emission lines were used as input parameters to compute tailored mode...

  2. Complex sources of air-soil-water pollution processes in the Miyun reservoir region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Dongzhen; XU; Xiangde; LIU; Xiaoduan; XU; Qing; DING

    2005-01-01

    The comprehensive impact of atmospheric dry deposition and wet deposition and the pollution sources of farmlands, mining areas, and towns along the Baihe River on the water quality of Miyun reservoir is investigated from the angle of the complex sources of air-soil-water pollution processes, in the context of the 1990-2001 precipitation chemical data at Shangdianzi station--a WMO regional background air pollution monitoring station 15 km far from the Miyun reservoir, in conjunction with the atmospheric dry deposition and wet deposition data of the 2002-2003 Beijing City Air Pollution Observation Field Experiment (BECAPEX). Analysis results suggest that the major ions in precipitation in the Miyun reservoir region in this period were SO, NO, NH and Ca2+; wet acid deposition quantity of Miyun reservoir in the summer half year (April to September) was greater than the quantity in the winter half year (October to March), and the annual wet acid deposition in the reservoir exhibited a rising trend with the mean 1038.45 t, the maximum 1766.31 t occurred in 1996, and the minimum 604.02 t in 1994; the long-term averaged pH of atmospheric precipitation in the Miyun reservoir region was 5.20, i.e. weakly acidic, and the interannual variation of pH values displayed a falling trend. pH values of water body at various depths in the Miyun reservoir were all greater than 7.0, but they exhibited vertical and horizontal nonhomogeneity, and at the same region pH decreased vertically with depth; the 2002 and 2003 annual dustfalls in the Miyun reservoir were 13513.08 t and 3577.64 t, respectively, and the spring dustfall was the number one in a year, accounting for the 61.91% and 44.56% of the annual totals of 2002 and 2003, respectively. Because the atmospheric dry deposition and wet depositions contain multiple types heavy metal elements and harmful elements, they to some extent exacerbated the eutrophication, acidification and potential heavy metal pollution of the reservoir water

  3. Mirror therapy in patients with causalgia (complex regional pain syndrome type II) following peripheral nerve injury: Two cases

    OpenAIRE

    Selles, Ruud; Schreuders, Ton; Stam, Henk

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To describe the use of mirror therapy in 2 patients with complex regional pain syndrome type II following traumatic nerve injury. Design: Two case reports. Subjects: Two patients with complex regional pain syndrome type II. Methods: Two patients received mirror therapy with the painful hand hidden behind the mirror while the non-painful hand was positioned so that, from the perspective of the patient, the reflection of this hand was "superimposed" on the painful hand. P...

  4. Evaluation of a prototype tool for communicating body perception disturbances in complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, Ailie J; Palmer, Mark; Grieve, Sharon; Moss, Timothy P; Lewis, Jenny; McCabe, Candida S

    2013-01-01

    Patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) experience distressing changes in body perception. However representing body perception is a challenge. A digital media tool for communicating body perception disturbances was developed. A proof of concept study evaluating the acceptability of the application for patients to communicate their body perception is reported in this methods paper. Thirteen CRPS participants admitted to a 2-week inpatient rehabilitation program used the application in a consultation with a research nurse. Audio recordings were made of the process and a structured questionnaire was administered to capture experiences of using the tool. Participants produced powerful images of disturbances in their body perception. All reported the tool acceptable for communicating their body perception. Participants described the positive impact of now seeing an image they had previously only imagined and could now convey to others. The application has provided a novel way for communicating perceptions that are otherwise difficult to convey.

  5. Crystal structure of a shark single-domain antibody V region in complex with lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanfield, Robyn L; Dooley, Helen; Flajnik, Martin F; Wilson, Ian A

    2004-09-17

    Cartilaginous fish are the phylogenetically oldest living organisms known to possess components of the vertebrate adaptive immune system. Key to their immune response are heavy-chain, homodimeric immunoglobulins called new antigen receptors (IgNARs), in which the variable (V) domains recognize antigens with only a single immunoglobulin domain, akin to camelid heavy-chain V domains. The 1.45 angstrom resolution crystal structure of the type I IgNAR V domain in complex with hen egg-white lysozyme (HEL) reveals a minimal antigen-binding domain that contains only two of the three conventional complementarity-determining regions but still binds HEL with nanomolar affinity by means of a binding interface comparable in size to conventional antibodies.

  6. Complex regional pain syndrome with associated chest wall dystonia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwartzman Robert J

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS often suffer from an array of associated movement disorders, including dystonia of an affected limb. We present a case of a patient with long standing CRPS after a brachial plexus injury, who after displaying several features of the movement disorder previously, developed painful dystonia of chest wall musculature. Detailed neurologic examination found palpable sustained contractions of the pectoral and intercostal muscles in addition to surface allodynia. Needle electromyography of the intercostal and paraspinal muscles supported the diagnosis of dystonia. In addition, pulmonary function testing showed both restrictive and obstructive features in the absence of a clear cardiopulmonary etiology. Treatment was initiated with intrathecal baclofen and the patient had symptomatic relief and improvement of dystonia. This case illustrates a novel form of the movement disorder associated with CRPS with response to intrathecal baclofen treatment.

  7. GROUNDWATER OF OREL REGION AND FORECAST OF THEIR POLLUTION IN AREAS OF LIVESTOCK COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Seleznev

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In areas with intense economic activity showed a significant variety of forms of man-made ecological imbalance in the geological environment, as well as a manifestation of the natural geological environment of negative processes caused by groundwater. They give rise to environmental changes, both global and local scales. The degree of risk is determined to a large extent the processes taking place en masse in the geological environment, as a rule, have an inertial character and hidden from direct observation. For the first time for groundwater of Orel region is set by a previously unknown contaminant natural character due to the advancement of strontium in the groundwater complex, and is composed geofiltration model that allows to carry out prediction of the front of strontium in 27 years. Developed a model of the radial pull of nitrate intake group to establish the pathways of contaminant in water wells.

  8. Cambrian nepheline syenite complex at Jabal Sawda, Midyan region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, W.K.; Ramsay, C.R.; Hedge, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    The only nepheline syenite complex presently known in the Arabian Shield is at Jabal Sawda, about 30 km S of Haql in the extreme NW of Saudi Arabia. It is a post-tectonic, composite intrusion with a crudely concentric structure. A core of leuco-nepheline syenite, a partial ring of mela-nepheline syenite, and an almost complete outer ring of alkali-feldspar syenite are the main rock units. Several mega-inclusions of porphyritic nepheline syenite, nepheline monzosyenite, malignite and ijolite are present in the leuco-nepheline syenite. The chemical composition is notable for very high values of Al2O3, Na2O, Ba, La, Nb, Sr and Zr. U{single bond}Pb isotope dating indicates an emplacement age of 553 ?? 4 Ma, one of an increasing number of reliable Cambrian isotope dates in the northern Red Sea region. ?? 1986.

  9. Analysis and Modelling of Extreme Wind Speed Distributions in Complex Mountainous Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laib, Mohamed; Kanevski, Mikhail

    2016-04-01

    Modelling of wind speed distributions in complex mountainous regions is an important and challenging problem which interests many scientists from several fields. In the present research, high frequency (10 min) Swiss wind speed monitoring data (IDAWEB service, Meteosuisse) are analysed and modelled with different parametric distributions (Weibull, GEV, Gamma, etc.) using maximum likelihood method. In total, 111 stations placed in different geomorphological units and at different altitude (from 203 to 3580 meters) are studied. Then, this information is used for training machine learning algorithms (Extreme Learning Machines, Support vector machine) to predict the distribution at new places, potentially useful for aeolian energy generation. An important part of the research deals with the construction and application of a high dimensional input feature space, generated from digital elevation model. A comprehensive study was carried out using feature selection approach to get the best model for the prediction. The main results are presented as spatial patterns of distributions' parameters.

  10. Automated identification of mitochondrial regions in complex intracellular space by texture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tuan D.

    2014-01-01

    Automated processing and quantification of biological images have been rapidly increasing the attention of researchers in image processing and pattern recognition because the roles of computerized image and pattern analyses are critical for new biological findings and drug discovery based on modern high-throughput and highcontent image screening. This paper presents a study of the automated detection of regions of mitochondria, which are a subcellular structure of eukaryotic cells, in microscopy images. The automated identification of mitochondria in intracellular space that is captured by the state-of-the-art combination of focused ion beam and scanning electron microscope imaging reported here is the first of its type. Existing methods and a proposed algorithm for texture analysis were tested with the real intracellular images. The high correction rate of detecting the locations of the mitochondria in a complex environment suggests the effectiveness of the proposed study.

  11. Complex organic molecules toward low-mass and high-mass star forming regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre, C.; Ceccarelli, C.; Lefloch, B.; Bergin, E.; Carvajal, M.; Brouillet, N.; Despois, D.; Jørgensen, J.; Kleiner, I.

    2016-12-01

    One of the most important questions in molecular astrophysics is how, when, and where complex organic molecules, COMs (≥ 6 atoms) are formed. In the Interstellar-Earth connection context, could this have a bearing on the origin of life on Earth? Formation mechanisms of COMs, which include potentially prebiotic molecules, are still debated and may include grain-mantle and/or gas-phase chemistry. Understanding the mechanisms that lead to the interstellar molecular complexification, along with the involved physicochemical processes, is mandatory to answer the above questions. In that context, active researches are ongoing in theory, laboratory experiment, chemical modeling and observations. Thanks to recent progress in radioastronomy instrumentation for both single-dish and millimeter array (e.g. Herschel, NOEMA, ALMA), new results have been obtained. I will review some notable results on the detection of COMs, including prebiotic molecules, towards star forming regions.

  12. Motor imagery and its effect on complex regional pain syndrome: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélio Silva de Souza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The motor imagery (MI has been proposed as a treatment in the complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1, since it seems to promote a brain reorganization effect on sensory- motor areas of pain perception. The aim of this paper is to investigate, through an integrative critical review, the influence of MI on the CRPS-1, correlating their evidence to clinical practice. Research in PEDro, Medline, Bireme and Google Scholar databases was conducted. Nine randomized controlled trials (level 2, 1 non-controlled clinical study (level 3, 1 case study (level 4, 1 systematic review (level 1, 2 review articles and 1 comment (level 5 were found. We can conclude that MI has shown effect in reducing pain and functionality that remains after 6 months of treatment. However, the difference between the MI strategies for CRPS-1 is unknown as well as the intensity of mental stress influences the painful response or effect of MI or other peripheral neuropathies.

  13. Complex interactions mediate the effects of fish farming on benthic chemistry within a region of Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Daniel J; Solan, Martin

    2011-07-01

    Fish farms typically generate a localised gradient of both organic and inorganic pollutants in the underlying sediments. The factors governing the extent of such impacts remain poorly understood, particularly when multiple sites are considered. We used regression-type techniques to examine the drivers of sediment chemistry patterns around five Scottish fish farms that ranged in size (120-2106 tonnes) and fish species, but were located within farm illustrate that between-site variability can be high, even at this regional-scale. These effects must be accounted for when comparing the effects of fish farming at different locations. All measured chemical parameters declined rapidly as a function of distance from the cage edge, with the rate of decline depending on local current speeds. Only phosphorus concentrations increased directly with farm size. Increasing current speeds at farms carbon in the underlying sediments, whereas the opposite occurred at larger farms. The counterintuitive effect of current speed at farms above the threshold size suggests that the physical properties of the seabed at these locations favour the accumulation of organic wastes and/or that the underlying communities have a lower assimilative capacity. These imply that the environmental efficiency of fish farming activities may be further optimised by taking into account the interaction between current speed, substrate complexity and the functional characteristics of the benthos. Collectively, our analyses demonstrate that the fate of fish farm-derived wastes is complex and highlight the need for site-specific management techniques.

  14. Stratigraphic units overlying the Zambales Ophiolite Complex (ZOC) in Luzon, (Philippines): Tectonostratigraphic significance and regional implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queaño, Karlo L.; Dimalanta, Carla B.; Yumul, Graciano P.; Marquez, Edanjarlo J.; Faustino-Eslava, Decibel V.; Suzuki, Shigeyuki; Ishida, Keisuke

    2017-07-01

    The Zambales Ophiolite Complex (ZOC) on the island of Luzon, Philippines is one of the most well-studied crust-mantle sequences in the region. Several massifs comprise the ZOC, one of which is the Coto Block overlain by clastic sedimentary units previously dated as Eocene. Geochronologic studies from diabase, granodiorites and other late-stage magmatic products similarly yielded the same age. Succeeding tectonic models have therefore all been grounded on the assumption that the entire ZOC is Eocene. Recent investigations, however, revealed the presence of chert blocks within the Early to Middle Miocene clastic formation overlying the Acoje Block in the northern part of the ophiolite complex. Radiolarians extracted from the cherts yielded a stratigraphic range that suggests a Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous age. The recognition of a much older age than previously reported of the ZOC warrants a re-examination of its actual distribution and genesis. Correlating with other similarly-aged ophiolites, we suggest defining a western Mesozoic ophiolite belt, largely extending from the west-central portion of the archipelago to the northeastern tip of Luzon island. Tentatively, we attribute the Mesozoic ophiolitic and associated rocks in western Luzon to an arc-continent collision involving the Philippine Mobile Belt and the Palawan Microcontinental Block. In addition, differences in the clastic compositions of the Cenozoic sedimentary formations provide material not only for deciphering the ZOC's unroofing history but also for constraining the timing of province linkage. The intermittent appearance of lithic fragments and detrital minerals from the ophiolite in the units of the Middle Miocene Candelaria Limestone and the Late Miocene to Early Pliocene Sta. Cruz Formation indicates significant but geographically variable contributions from the ophiolite complex. In the northern Zambales Range, the Sta. Cruz Formation caps the Coto Block and the Acoje Block of the ZOC

  15. Complex regional pain syndrome type i. An analysis of 7 cases in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedemonte Stalla, V; Medici Olaso, C; Kanopa Almada, V; Gonzalez Rabelino, G

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is characterised by the presence of pain accompanied by sensory, autonomic and motor symptoms, usually preceded by a lesion or immobilisation. The clinical course is disproportionate to the initial injury in intensity and in duration. Its distribution is regional, predominantly in limbs. It is classified as type I and type II according to the absence or presence of nerve injury. We present the cases of seven children, 6 girls and 1 boy, aged 7 to 15 years. Three had a history of previous trauma. In 5 cases, the symptoms were located in the lower limbs. Time to diagnosis was between 4 and 90 days. Three patients had clinical features of anxiety and depression. Imaging and immunological studies were performed to rule out differential diagnoses in all the children. Interdisciplinary treatment was performed with physiotherapy, psychotherapy, and gabapentin or pregabalin. All patients had a good clinical outcome, with no relapses in the follow-up period (between 4 and 30 months). CRPS is frequently unrecognised in children, leading to family anxiety and unnecessary para-clinical costs. Paediatricians and paediatric neurologists should be aware of this syndrome in order to avoid delay in diagnosis, unnecessary studies, and multiple visits to specialists, with a view to providing effective treatment. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. A comparison of spatial interpolation methods for soil temperature over a complex topographical region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Tang, Xiao-Ping; Ma, Xue-Qing; Liu, Hong-Bin

    2016-08-01

    Soil temperature variability data provide valuable information on understanding land-surface ecosystem processes and climate change. This study developed and analyzed a spatial dataset of monthly mean soil temperature at a depth of 10 cm over a complex topographical region in southwestern China. The records were measured at 83 stations during the period of 1961-2000. Nine approaches were compared for interpolating soil temperature. The accuracy indicators were root mean square error (RMSE), modelling efficiency (ME), and coefficient of residual mass (CRM). The results indicated that thin plate spline with latitude, longitude, and elevation gave the best performance with RMSE varying between 0.425 and 0.592 °C, ME between 0.895 and 0.947, and CRM between -0.007 and 0.001. A spatial database was developed based on the best model. The dataset showed that larger seasonal changes of soil temperature were from autumn to winter over the region. The northern and eastern areas with hilly and low-middle mountains experienced larger seasonal changes.

  17. Gemini GMOS--IFU spectroscopy of the compact HII galaxies Tol 0104-388 and Tol 2146-391: The dependence on the properties of the interstellar medium

    CERN Document Server

    Lagos, P; Nigoche-Netro, A; Carrasco, E R

    2012-01-01

    Using GMOS--IFU spectroscopic observations of the compact HII/BCD galaxies Tol 0104-388 and Tol 2146-391, we study the spatial distribution of emission lines, equivalent width EW(Hb), extinction c(Hb), ionization ratios ([OIII]5007/Hb, [SII]6717,6731/Ha and [NII]6584/Ha), kinematics, and the chemical pattern (O/H, N/H and N/O) of the warm interstellar medium in these galaxies. We also investigate a possible dependence of these properties on the I(HeII4686)/I(Hb) ratio and find no significant correlation between these variables. In fact, the oxygen abundances appear to be uniform in the regions where the HeII4686 emission line was measured. It can be interpreted in the sense that these correlations are related to global properties of the galaxies and not with small patches of the interstellar medium. Although a possible weak N/H gradient is observed in Tol 2146-391, the available data suggest that the metals from previous star-formation events are well mixed and homogeneously distributed through the optical ex...

  18. Institutional Analysis of Knowledge Generation Resource Potential at the Enterprises of Regional Military-Industrial Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Vasilyevich Popov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the processes of knowledge generation at the enterprises of military-industrial complex, which are the leaders of the regional innovative activity. The target of the research is to develop the methodology based on the use of resource application potential for increasing the efficiency of knowledge generation at the instrument-making enterprises of military-industrial complex. The system analysis of the knowledge generation processes is conducted at one of them. It allows to draw a conclusion that such enterprises have a lack of the institutes of knowledge generation processes. The authors are offered a technique of the development of the knowledge generation system at the military-industrial enterprises based on the accounting of assets and opportunities of the enterprise in the realization of intellectual activity. The developed technique is based on the determination of the horizontal resource potential of knowledge generation and allows to determine the potential of resource application at each stage of product life cycle. The comparison of the actual and theoretical values of horizontal resource potential allows to correct the distribution of a share of each of resources within a stage, and therefore, to optimize the realization of tasks at a specific stage. The offered tools were implemented in 2015 at one of the regional military-Industrial enterprises. The methodological tools of the research include the methods of expert assessment, mathematical statistics and the institutional analysis. On the basis of the offered technique and received empirical results, the institutional spiral of knowledge generation during the filling of state order at the military-industrial enterprise is developed. Its implementation will promote the decrease in the level of uncertainty during the whole life cycle of innovative activity product. The developed institutional spiral of knowledge generation at instrument-making military

  19. Evaluation of MODIS Vegetation Products in Regions of Complex Terrain and Monsoon Climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremichael, M.; Barros, A. P.

    2004-12-01

    An evaluation of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation products through comparison against independent surface observations is essential to establish quantitative measures of uncertainty and the confidence level of these satellite-based products for use in land-data assimilation models, for land-use change detection and attribution studies, and for process oriented research. Here, we focus specifically on Photosynthesis and Primary Productivity, Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR), Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity, and Evapotranspiration data sets. Our objective is to perform extensive quantitative assessment of the accuracy and statistical properties of these products against independent estimates in tropical mountainous regions at two climatologically distinct sites. The first site, the Sonora river basin in northern Mexico, is a semi-arid region characterized by complex topography and highly heterogeneous vegetation cover, which exhibits dramatic and fast response to rainfall forcing at the onset of the North-American Monsoon. The second site, the Marsyandi river basin in central Nepal, is a humid region characterized by strong ecohydrological gradients on steep orography, which remain generally stable subsequent to the onset of the Indian Monsoon. Atmospheric soundings, flux tower measurements, and raingauge observations are available for both sites. We evaluate the MODIS products in two ways: 1) comparison with tower-based observations, and 2) evaluation of hydrological response and diurnal cycles of surface water and energy budgets prior, during and post monsoon onset as simulated by a 3D hydroecological model with assimilation of MODIS data. Statistical analysis of the scaling behavior of the variables, both in space and time, is also performed to address the scale discrepancy between flux tower observations and the resolution of MODIS data.

  20. Metamorphic and tectonic evolution of the Greater Himalayan Crystalline Complex in Nyalam region, south Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Min; Zhang, Jin-Jiang; Rubatto, Daniela

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies evoke dispute whether the Himalayan metamorphic core - Greater Himalayan Crystalline Complex (GHC) - was exhumed as a lateral crustal flow or a critical taper wedge during the India-Asia collision. This contribution investigated the evolution of the GHC in the Nyalam region, south Tibet, with comprehensive studies on structural kinematics, metamorphic petrology and geochronology. The GHC in the Nyalam region can be divided into the lower and upper GHC. Phase equilibria modelling and conventional thermobarometric results show that peak temperature conditions are lower in the lower GHC (~660-700°C) and higher in the upper GHC (~740-780°C), whereas corresponding pressure conditions at peak-T decrease from ~9-13 kbar to ~4 kbar northward. Monazite, zircon and rutile U-Pb dating results reveal two distinct blocks within the GHC of the Nyalam region. The upper GHC underwent higher degree of partial melting (15-25%, via muscovite dehydration melting) that initiated at ~32 Ma, peaked at ~29 Ma to 25 Ma, possibly ended at ~20 Ma. The lower GHC underwent lower degree of melting (0-10%) that lasted from 19 to 16 Ma, which was produced mainly via H2O-saturated melting. At different times, both the upper and lower blocks underwent initial slow cooling (35 ± 8 and 10 ± 5°C/Myr, respectively) and subsequent rapid cooling (120 ± 40°C/Myr). The established timescale of metamorphism suggests that high-temperature metamorphism within the GHC lasted a long duration (~15 Myr), whereas duration of partial melting lasted for ~3 Myr in the lower GHC and lasted for 7-12 Myr in the upper GHC. The documented diachronous metamorphism and discontinuity of peak P-T conditions implies the presence of the Nyalam Thrust in the study area. This thrust is probably connected to the other thrusts in Nepal and Sikkim Himalaya, which extends over ~800 km and is named the "High Himalayan Thrust". Timing of activity along this thrust is at ~25-16 Ma, which is coeval with active

  1. Star forming regions in gas-rich SO galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogge, Richard W.; Eskridge, Paul B.

    1987-01-01

    The first results of an H alpha imaging survey of HI rich SO galaxies, which were searched for HII regions and other sources of emission, are presented. The charge coupled device H alpha interference filter images were made of 16 galaxies. Eight of these galaxies show evidence for on-going star formation, one has nuclear emission but no HII regions, and the remaining seven have no emissions detected within well defined upper limits. With the exception of one notably peculiar galaxy in which the emission from HII regions appears pervasive, the HII regions are either organized into inner-disk rings or randomly distributed throughout the disk. A few of these galaxies are found to be clearly not SO's; or peculiar objects atypical of the SO class. Using simple models star formation rates (SFRs) and gas depletion times from the observed H alpha fluxes were estimated. In general, the derived SFRs are much lower than those found in isolated field spiral galaxies and the corresponding gas depletion time scales are also longer.

  2. Radio and infrared recombination studies of the southern massive star-forming region G333.6-0.2

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiyoshi, T; Caswell, J L; Moore, T J T; Lumsden, S L; Aitken, D K; Roche, P F; Fujiyoshi, Takuya; Smith, Craig H.; Caswell, James L.; Moore, Toby J. T.; Lumsden, Stuart L.; Aitken, David K.; Roche, Patrick F.

    2006-01-01

    We present high spatial resolution radio and near-infrared hydrogen recombination line observations of the southern massive star-forming region G333.6-0.2. The 3.4-cm continuum peak is found slightly offset from the infrared source. The H90alpha spectra show for the first time a double peak profile at some positions. The complex velocity structure may be accounted for by champagne outflows, which may also explain the offset between the radio and infrared sources. The 2.17-um Brackett gamma image and H90alpha map are combined to construct an extinction map which shows a trend probably set by the blister nature of the HII region. The total number of Lyman continuum photons in the central 50-arcsec is estimated to be equivalent to that emitted by up to 19 O7V stars.

  3. Objective sensory evaluation of the spread of complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinger, Lara; Schwartzman, Robert J; Ahmad, Ayesha; Erwin, Kirsten; Alexander, Guillermo M

    2013-01-01

    The spread of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) has been well documented. Many severe refractory long-standing patients have total body pain (TBP) that evolved from a single extremity injury. The purpose of this study was to document by objective sensory threshold testing the extent of body area involvement in 20 long-standing patients with CRPS who have TBP. A comparison of sensory threshold testing parameters between 20 long-standing refractory patients with CRPS who have TBP versus 10 healthy participants. Twenty patients with CRPS who stated that they suffered from total body pain were chosen from the Drexel University College of Medicine CRPS database. They were compared to 10 healthy participants that were age and gender matched to the patients with CRPS. The sensory parameters tested were: skin temperature; static and mechanical allodynia; thermal allodynia; mechanical hyperalgesia; after sensations following all sensory tests. The sites chosen for testing in the patients with CRPS were the most painful area in each of 8 body regions that comprised the total body area. Five patients with CRPS had signs of CRPS over 100% of their body (20%). One patient had pain over 87% and another had pain over 90% of their body area. The average percentage of body involvement was 62% (range 37% - 100%). All patients with CRPS had at least one sensory parameter abnormality in all body regions. All patients with CRPS had lower pain thresholds for static allodynia in all body areas, while 50% demonstrated a lower threshold for dynamic allodynia in all body regions compared to the healthy participants. Cold allodynia had a higher median pain rating on the Likert pain scale in all body areas versus healthy participants except for the chest, abdomen, and back. Eighty-five percent of the patients with CRPS had a significantly lower pain threshold for mechanical hyperalgesia in all body areas compared to the healthy participants. After sensations occurred after all sensory

  4. Impact of resolution on regional climate modeling in the source region of Yellow River with complex terrain using RegCM3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Pinhong; Tang, Jianping; Wang, Shuyu; Wu, Jian; Niu, Xiaorui; Kang, Yue

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents results from a 20-year (1990-2009) simulation by RegCM3 with both 45- and 15-km horizontal resolutions. The research focuses on the source region of Yellow River and its surrounding area, which is located on the northeast edge of the Tibetan Plateau with its very complex topography. Driven by the ECMWF ERA-interim reanalysis data, RegCM3 displays reasonable ability to reproduce the spatial patterns, annual cycles, and the interannual variabilities of regional surface climate, though the model shows wet and cold bias. The model's performance is more close to observation for the source region of Yellow River than the other part of the analysis region, and the application of high resolution of 15 km demonstrates better skill with less bias for mean climate and larger correlation coefficients for interannual variability at most stations. However, the high-resolution simulation shows little advantage for reproducing the variations of precipitation and surface air temperature with altitude. The RegCM3 model also generally reproduces the probability distribution functions (PDFs) of surface climate and, consequently, the occurrence of climatic extremes and extreme indices. The simulation with high resolution again proves to be more reliable to generate climatic extremes over complex terrain of the source region of the Yellow River, related to its better representation of complex terrain and local processes.

  5. Cervico-thoracic or lumbar sympathectomy for neuropathic pain and complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straube, Sebastian; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; Cole, Peter

    2013-09-02

    This review is an update of a review first published in Issue 2, 2003, which was substantially updated in Issue 7, 2010. The concept that many neuropathic pain syndromes (traditionally this definition would include complex regional pain syndromes (CRPS)) are "sympathetically maintained pains" has historically led to treatments that interrupt the sympathetic nervous system. Chemical sympathectomies use alcohol or phenol injections to destroy ganglia of the sympathetic chain, while surgical ablation is performed by open removal or electrocoagulation of the sympathetic chain or by minimally invasive procedures using thermal or laser interruption. To review the evidence from randomised, double blind, controlled trials on the efficacy and safety of chemical and surgical sympathectomy for neuropathic pain, including complex regional pain syndrome. Sympathectomy may be compared with placebo (sham) or other active treatment, provided both participants and outcome assessors are blind to treatment group allocation. On 2 July 2013, we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Oxford Pain Relief Database. We reviewed the bibliographies of all randomised trials identified and of review articles and also searched two clinical trial databases, ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, to identify additional published or unpublished data. We screened references in the retrieved articles and literature reviews and contacted experts in the field of neuropathic pain. Randomised, double blind, placebo or active controlled studies assessing the effects of sympathectomy for neuropathic pain and CRPS. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and validity, and extracted data. No pooled analysis of data was possible. Only one study satisfied our inclusion criteria, comparing percutaneous radiofrequency thermal lumbar sympathectomy with lumbar sympathetic neurolysis using phenol in 20 participants with CRPS. There was no comparison of

  6. Regional molecular and cellular differences in the female rabbit Achilles tendon complex: potential implications for understanding responses to loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, Elise S; Andersson, Gustav; Scott, Alexander; Reno, Carol R; Hart, David A; Thornton, Gail M

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was: (i) to analyze the morphology and expression of extracellular matrix genes in six different regions of the Achilles tendon complex of intact normal rabbits; and (ii) to assess the effect of ovariohysterectomy (OVH) on the regional expression of these genes. Female New Zealand White rabbits were separated into two groups: (i) intact normal rabbits (n = 4); and (ii) OVH rabbits (n = 8). For each rabbit, the Achilles tendon complex was dissected into six regions: distal gastrocnemius (DG); distal flexor digitorum superficialis; proximal lateral gastrocnemius (PLG); proximal medial gastrocnemius; proximal flexor digitorum superficialis; and paratenon. For each of the regions, hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed for histological evaluation of intact normal rabbit tissues and mRNA levels for proteoglycans, collagens and genes associated with collagen regulation were assessed by real-time reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction for both the intact normal and OVH rabbit tissues. The distal regions displayed a more fibrocartilaginous phenotype. For intact normal rabbits, aggrecan mRNA expression was higher in the distal regions of the Achilles tendon complex compared with the proximal regions. Collagen Type I and matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression levels were increased in the PLG compared to the DG in the intact normal rabbit tissues. The tendons from OVH rabbits had lower gene expressions for the proteoglycans aggrecan, biglycan, decorin and versican compared with the intact normal rabbits, although the regional differences of increased aggrecan expression in distal regions compared with proximal regions persisted. The tensile and compressive forces experienced in the examined regions may be related to the regional differences found in gene expression. The lower mRNA expression of the genes examined in the OVH group confirms a potential effect of systemic estrogen on tendon.

  7. Phenoxybenzamine in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: Potential Role and Novel Mechanisms

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    Mario A. Inchiosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a relatively long history of the use of the α-adrenergic antagonist, phenoxybenzamine, for the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS. One form of this syndrome, CRPS I, was originally termed reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD because of an apparent dysregulation of the sympathetic nervous system in the region of an extremity that had been subjected to an injury or surgical procedure. The syndrome develops in the absence of any apparent continuation of the inciting trauma. Hallmarks of the condition are allodynia (pain perceived from a nonpainful stimulus and hyperalgesia (exaggerated pain response to a painful stimulus. In addition to severe, unremitting burning pain, the affected limb is typically warm and edematous in the early weeks after trauma but then progresses to a primarily cold, dry limb in later weeks and months. The later stages are frequently characterized by changes to skin texture and nail deformities, hypertrichosis, muscle atrophy, and bone demineralization. Earlier treatments of CRPS syndromes were primarily focused on blocking sympathetic outflow to an affected extremity. The use of an α-adrenergic antagonist such as phenoxybenzamine followed from this perspective. However, the current consensus on the etiology of CRPS favors an interpretation of the symptomatology as an evidence of decreased sympathetic activity to the injured limb and a resulting upregulation of adrenergic sensitivity. The clinical use of phenoxybenzamine for the treatment of CRPS is reviewed, and mechanisms of action that include potential immunomodulatory/anti-inflammatory effects are presented. Also, a recent study identified phenoxybenzamine as a potential intervention for pain mediation from its effects on gene expression in human cell lines; on this basis, it was tested and found to be capable of reducing pain behavior in a classical animal model of chronic pain.

  8. Dissection of a Complex Disease Susceptibility Region Using a Bayesian Stochastic Search Approach to Fine Mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Wallace

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Identification of candidate causal variants in regions associated with risk of common diseases is complicated by linkage disequilibrium (LD and multiple association signals. Nonetheless, accurate maps of these variants are needed, both to fully exploit detailed cell specific chromatin annotation data to highlight disease causal mechanisms and cells, and for design of the functional studies that will ultimately be required to confirm causal mechanisms. We adapted a Bayesian evolutionary stochastic search algorithm to the fine mapping problem, and demonstrated its improved performance over conventional stepwise and regularised regression through simulation studies. We then applied it to fine map the established multiple sclerosis (MS and type 1 diabetes (T1D associations in the IL-2RA (CD25 gene region. For T1D, both stepwise and stochastic search approaches identified four T1D association signals, with the major effect tagged by the single nucleotide polymorphism, rs12722496. In contrast, for MS, the stochastic search found two distinct competing models: a single candidate causal variant, tagged by rs2104286 and reported previously using stepwise analysis; and a more complex model with two association signals, one of which was tagged by the major T1D associated rs12722496 and the other by rs56382813. There is low to moderate LD between rs2104286 and both rs12722496 and rs56382813 (r2 ≃ 0:3 and our two SNP model could not be recovered through a forward stepwise search after conditioning on rs2104286. Both signals in the two variant model for MS affect CD25 expression on distinct subpopulations of CD4+ T cells, which are key cells in the autoimmune process. The results support a shared causal variant for T1D and MS. Our study illustrates the benefit of using a purposely designed model search strategy for fine mapping and the advantage of combining disease and protein expression data.

  9. Complex regional pain syndrome type I affects brain structure in prefrontal and motor cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhard Pleger

    Full Text Available The complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS is a rare but debilitating pain disorder that mostly occurs after injuries to the upper limb. A number of studies indicated altered brain function in CRPS, whereas possible influences on brain structure remain poorly investigated. We acquired structural magnetic resonance imaging data from CRPS type I patients and applied voxel-by-voxel statistics to compare white and gray matter brain segments of CRPS patients with matched controls. Patients and controls were statistically compared in two different ways: First, we applied a 2-sample ttest to compare whole brain white and gray matter structure between patients and controls. Second, we aimed to assess structural alterations specifically of the primary somatosensory (S1 and motor cortex (M1 contralateral to the CRPS affected side. To this end, MRI scans of patients with left-sided CRPS (and matched controls were horizontally flipped before preprocessing and region-of-interest-based group comparison. The unpaired ttest of the "non-flipped" data revealed that CRPS patients presented increased gray matter density in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. The same test applied to the "flipped" data showed further increases in gray matter density, not in the S1, but in the M1 contralateral to the CRPS-affected limb which were inversely related to decreased white matter density of the internal capsule within the ipsilateral brain hemisphere. The gray-white matter interaction between motor cortex and internal capsule suggests compensatory mechanisms within the central motor system possibly due to motor dysfunction. Altered gray matter structure in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex may occur in response to emotional processes such as pain-related suffering or elevated analgesic top-down control.

  10. Complex regional pain syndrome type I affects brain structure in prefrontal and motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleger, Burkhard; Draganski, Bogdan; Schwenkreis, Peter; Lenz, Melanie; Nicolas, Volkmar; Maier, Christoph; Tegenthoff, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a rare but debilitating pain disorder that mostly occurs after injuries to the upper limb. A number of studies indicated altered brain function in CRPS, whereas possible influences on brain structure remain poorly investigated. We acquired structural magnetic resonance imaging data from CRPS type I patients and applied voxel-by-voxel statistics to compare white and gray matter brain segments of CRPS patients with matched controls. Patients and controls were statistically compared in two different ways: First, we applied a 2-sample ttest to compare whole brain white and gray matter structure between patients and controls. Second, we aimed to assess structural alterations specifically of the primary somatosensory (S1) and motor cortex (M1) contralateral to the CRPS affected side. To this end, MRI scans of patients with left-sided CRPS (and matched controls) were horizontally flipped before preprocessing and region-of-interest-based group comparison. The unpaired ttest of the "non-flipped" data revealed that CRPS patients presented increased gray matter density in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. The same test applied to the "flipped" data showed further increases in gray matter density, not in the S1, but in the M1 contralateral to the CRPS-affected limb which were inversely related to decreased white matter density of the internal capsule within the ipsilateral brain hemisphere. The gray-white matter interaction between motor cortex and internal capsule suggests compensatory mechanisms within the central motor system possibly due to motor dysfunction. Altered gray matter structure in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex may occur in response to emotional processes such as pain-related suffering or elevated analgesic top-down control.

  11. MS_RHII-RSD, a dual-function RNase HII-(p)ppGpp synthetase from Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdeshwar, Maya S; Chatterji, Dipankar

    2012-08-01

    In the noninfectious soil saprophyte Mycobacterium smegmatis, intracellular levels of the stress alarmones guanosine tetraphosphate and guanosine pentaphosphate, together termed (p)ppGpp, are regulated by the enzyme Rel(Msm). This enzyme consists of a single, bifunctional polypeptide chain that is capable of both synthesizing and hydrolyzing (p)ppGpp. The rel(Msm) knockout strain of M. smegmatis (Δrel(Msm)) is expected to show a (p)ppGpp null [(p)ppGpp(0)] phenotype. Contrary to this expectation, the strain is capable of synthesizing (p)ppGpp in vivo. In this study, we identify and functionally characterize the open reading frame (ORF), MSMEG_5849, that encodes a second functional (p)ppGpp synthetase in M. smegmatis. In addition to (p)ppGpp synthesis, the 567-amino-acid-long protein encoded by this gene is capable of hydrolyzing RNA·DNA hybrids and bears similarity to the conventional RNase HII enzymes. We have classified this protein as actRel(Msm) in accordance with the recent nomenclature proposed and have named it MS_RHII-RSD, indicating the two enzymatic activities present [RHII, RNase HII domain, originally identified as domain of unknown function 429 (DUF429), and RSD, RelA_SpoT nucleotidyl transferase domain, the SYNTH domain responsible for (p)ppGpp synthesis activity]. MS_RHII-RSD is expressed and is constitutively active in vivo and behaves like a monofunctional (p)ppGpp synthetase in vitro. The occurrence of the RNase HII and (p)ppGpp synthetase domains together on the same polypeptide chain is suggestive of an in vivo role for this novel protein as a link connecting the essential life processes of DNA replication, repair, and transcription to the highly conserved stress survival pathway, the stringent response.

  12. Methodical Approaches To Analysis And Forecasting Of Development Fuel And Energy Complex And Gas Industry In The Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Andreyevich Tsybatov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fuel and energy complex (FEC is one of the main elements of the economy of any territory over which intertwine the interests of all economic entities. To ensure economic growth of the region should ensure that internal balance of energy resources, which should be developed with account of regional specifics of economic growth and energy security. The study examined the status of this equilibrium, indicating fuel and energy balance of the region (TEB. The aim of the research is the development of the fuel and energy balance, which will allow to determine exactly how many and what resources are not enough to ensure the regional development strategy and what resources need to be brought in. In the energy balances as the focus of displays all issues of regional development, so thermopile is necessary as a mechanism of analysis of current issues, economic development, and in the forward-looking version — as a tool future vision for the fuel and energy complex, energy threats and ways of overcoming them. The variety of relationships in the energy sector with other sectors and aspects of society lead to the fact that the development of the fuel and energy balance of the region have to go beyond the actual energy sector, involving the analysis of other sectors of economy, as well as systems such as banking, budgetary, legislative, tax. Due to the complexity of the discussed problems, the obvious is the need to develop appropriate forecast-analytical system, allowing regional authorities to implement evidence-based predictions of the consequences of management decisions. Multivariant scenario study on development of fuel and energy complex and separately industry, to use the methods of project-based management, harmonized application of state regulation of strategic and market mechanisms on the operational directions of development of fuel and energy complex and separately industry in the economy of the region.

  13. Abnormal thalamocortical activity in patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, K D; Dubois, M; Llinás, R R

    2010-07-01

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a neuropathic disease that presents a continuing challenge in terms of pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Recent studies of neuropathic pain, in both animals and patients, have established a direct relationship between abnormal thalamic rhythmicity related to Thalamo-cortical Dysrhythmia (TCD) and the occurrence of central pain. Here, this relationship has been examined using magneto-encephalographic (MEG) imaging in CRPS Type I, characterized by the absence of nerve lesions. The study addresses spontaneous MEG activity from 13 awake, adult patients (2 men, 11 women; age 15-62), with CRPS Type I of one extremity (duration range: 3months to 10years) and from 13 control subjects. All CRPS I patients demonstrated peaks in power spectrum in the delta (orbitofrontal-temporal cortices related to the affective pain perception. Indeed, CRPS Type I patients presented abnormal brain activity typical of TCD, which has both diagnostic value indicating a central origin for this ailment and a potential treatment interest involving pharmacological and electrical stimulation therapies.

  14. Nucleoporin translocated promoter region (Tpr) associates with dynein complex, preventing chromosome lagging formation during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Hiroshi; Funasaka, Tatsuyoshi; Hashizume, Chieko; Wong, Richard W

    2010-04-01

    Gain or loss of whole chromosomes is often observed in cancer cells and is thought to be due to aberrant chromosome segregation during mitosis. Proper chromosome segregation depends on a faithful interaction between spindle microtubules and kinetochores. Several components of the nuclear pore complex/nucleoporins play critical roles in orchestrating the rapid remodeling events that occur during mitosis. Our recent studies revealed that the nucleoporin, Rae1, plays critical roles in maintaining spindle bipolarity. Here, we show association of another nucleoporin, termed Tpr (translocated promoter region), with the molecular motors dynein and dynactin, which both orchestrate with the spindle checkpoints Mad1 and Mad2 during cell division. Overexpression of Tpr enhanced multinucleated cell formation. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of Tpr caused a severe lagging chromosome phenotype and disrupted spindle checkpoint proteins expression and localization. Next, we performed a series of rescue and dominant negative experiments to confirm that Tpr orchestrates proper chromosome segregation through interaction with dynein light chain. Our data indicate that Tpr functions as a spatial and temporal regulator of spindle checkpoints, ensuring the efficient recruitment of checkpoint proteins to the molecular motor dynein to promote proper anaphase formation.

  15. Relationships between psychological factors, pain, and disability in complex regional pain syndrome and low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Debbie J; Johnson, Malcolm H; Kydd, Robert R

    2014-08-01

    Cognitive and emotional factors are known to influence peoples' pain experiences in many conditions, including low back pain. However, in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), their role is unclear. This study aimed to assess the relationships between psychological factors, pain, and disability in CRPS, compared with low back pain. This could help to identify target variables for psychological treatment. A total of 88 CRPS patients and 88 low back pain patients completed measures of pain, disability, depression, anxiety, and fear of movement and reinjury (kinesiophobia). Mean scores between the 2 groups were compared, and correlations between psychological factors, pain, and disability were compared between the 2 groups. Predictors of pain and disability were assessed using multiple regression analyses. The 2 groups had remarkably similar scores on measures of pain, disability, depression, anxiety, and kinesiophobia. In both groups, those who were more depressed, anxious, and kinesiophobic were more disabled. For the CRPS group (but not the low back pain group), pain intensity significantly correlated with distress. Multivariate analyses showed that the unique predictors of disability for the 2 groups were pain and depression, and that depression had a stronger relationship with disability for the CRPS group. For both groups, pain intensity was predicted by kinesiophobia, and anxiety was a unique predictor in the CRPS group only. In CRPS, disability and pain severity were more strongly associated with psychological factors than they were in low back pain. Cause and effect relationships could not be established by this cross-sectional study.

  16. Bee Venom Pharmacopuncture: An Effective Treatment for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Min Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Treating complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS is difficult because it still does not have a recommended therapy. A 29-year-old man was diagnosed with CRPS after surgery on his 4th and 5th left toes 7 years ago. Though he had undergone diverse pain treatment, the symptoms persisted, so he visited Dunsan Korean Medicine Hospital of Daejeon University. This case report presents results on the effect of bee venom pharmacopuncture in treating patient with CRPS. Methods: Bee venom pharmacopuncture (BVP, 0.15 to 0.4 mL dosage, was administered at GB43. The treatment was applied each week for a total 14 times. The symptoms were evaluated using a numeric rating scale (NRS and the dosage of pain medicine. Results: On the first visit, he was taking an anticonvulsant, a trycyclic antidepressant, and an analgesic. On the NRS the worst pain in the toes received a score of 8. He also complained of severe pain and hypersensitivity when the 4th and the 5th toes were touched just slightly. Other complaint included dyspepsia, rash, and depression. After treatment, on the NRS, the score for toe pain was 0, and he no longer needed to take pain medication. During the 4-months follow-up period, he has remained without pain; neither have additional symptoms appeared nor adverse events occurred. Conclusion: BVP may have potential benefits for treating patients with CRPS.

  17. A case of complex regional pain syndrome with agnosia for object orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Gail; Cohen, Helen; Goebel, Andreas

    2011-07-01

    This systematic investigation of the neurocognitive correlates of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) in a single case also reports agnosia for object orientation in the context of persistent CRPS. We report a patient (JW) with severe long-standing CRPS who had no difficulty identifying and naming line drawings of objects presented in 1 of 4 cardinal orientations. In contrast, he was extremely poor at reorienting these objects into the correct upright orientation and in judging whether an object was upright or not. Moreover, JW made orientation errors when copying drawings of objects, and he also showed features of mirror reversal in writing single words and reading single letters. The findings are discussed in relation to accounts of visual processing. Agnosia for object orientation is the term for impaired knowledge of an object's orientation despite good recognition and naming of the same misoriented object. This defect has previously only been reported in patients with major structural brain lesions. The neuroanatomical correlates are discussed. The patient had no structural brain lesion, raising the possibility that nonstructural reorganisation of cortical networks may be responsible for his deficits. Other patients with CRPS may have related neurocognitive defects. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Proteomic Identification of Altered Cerebral Proteins in the Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Sahngun Nahm

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS is a rare but debilitating pain disorder. Although the exact pathophysiology of CRPS is not fully understood, central and peripheral mechanisms might be involved in the development of this disorder. To reveal the central mechanism of CRPS, we conducted a proteomic analysis of rat cerebrum using the chronic postischemia pain (CPIP model, a novel experimental model of CRPS. Materials and Methods. After generating the CPIP animal model, we performed a proteomic analysis of the rat cerebrum using a multidimensional protein identification technology, and screened the proteins differentially expressed between the CPIP and control groups. Results. A total of 155 proteins were differentially expressed between the CPIP and control groups: 125 increased and 30 decreased; expressions of proteins related to cell signaling, synaptic plasticity, regulation of cell proliferation, and cytoskeletal formation were increased in the CPIP group. However, proenkephalin A, cereblon, and neuroserpin were decreased in CPIP group. Conclusion. Altered expression of cerebral proteins in the CPIP model indicates cerebral involvement in the pathogenesis of CRPS. Further study is required to elucidate the roles of these proteins in the development and maintenance of CRPS.

  19. CFD Investigation of Complex Phenomena in S-Shape Region of Reversible Pump-Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquet, C.; Fortes-Patella, R.; Balarac, L.; Houdeline, J.-B.

    2016-11-01

    Pumped Storage Plants (PSP) using reversible pump-turbines offer the possibility to store large amounts of energy with high efficiency and at reasonable cost. For reversible high head pump-turbines, the characteristic curves exhibit an S-shape in the turbine, turbine break and reverse pump quadrants. This S-shape leads to unstable behaviour of the turbine when coupling to the grid (for small guide vane opening) or to surge transient phenomena in case of emergency shutdown (for large guide vane opening). Typically the piping system can be exposed to severe pressure oscillations. Furthermore, the flow inside the pump-turbine is characterized by unsteady complex hydrodynamic phenomena. These phenomena have to be deeply investigated to improve the behaviour of the pump-turbine in such operating conditions. This paper focuses on the numerical analysis of the flow in a reversible pump-turbine in the S- shape region. For this application, we used unsteady computation applying the SAS-SST turbulence model and considered a full computational domain that includes all the component of the pump-turbine. The study highlights the evolution of the flow behaviour for a large range of operating conditions: from the optimal efficiency point to the zero discharge condition, for a given constant guide vane opening.

  20. Sensorimotor integration in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, Ailie J; McCabe, Candida S; Harris, Nigel; Filipovic, Sasa R

    2007-02-01

    There is evidence that patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) have altered central sensorimotor processing. Sensory input can influence motor output either through indirect pathways or through direct connections from the sensory to motor cortex. The purpose of this study was to investigate sensorimotor interaction via direct connections in patients with CRPS and to compare the results with normal subjects'. Direct short-latency sensory-motor interaction was evaluated in eight patients with CRPS1 affecting a hand. Modulation of EMG responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) induced by concomitant median nerve stimulation was measured, the so-called, short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI). Results were compared with eight normal subjects who were age and sex matched with the patients. As expected, all the normal subjects' EMG responses to TMS with median nerve stimulation were smaller than responses to TMS alone. In seven of the eight CRPS patients EMG responses to TMS were suppressed when paired with median nerve stimulation. Only one CRPS patient's results showed no suppression of EMG responses. These results suggest that the disease mechanisms of CRPS1 do not typically affect the direct neural circuit between sensory and motor cortex and that normal sensorimotor interaction is occurring via this route.

  1. The Prevalence of Autoantibodies in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaike Dirckx

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmunity has been suggested as one of the pathophysiologic mechanisms that may underlie complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS. Screening for antinuclear antibodies (ANA is one of the diagnostic tests, which is usually performed if a person is suspected to have a systemic autoimmune disease. Antineuronal antibodies are autoantibodies directed against antigens in the central and/or peripheral nervous system. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of these antibodies in CRPS patients with the normal values of those antibodies in the healthy population. Twenty seven (33% of the 82 CRPS patients of whom serum was available showed a positive ANA test. This prevalence is significantly higher than in the general population. Six patients (7.3% showed a positive result for typical antineuronal antibodies. This proportion, however, does not deviate from that in the general population. Our findings suggest that autoantibodies may be associated with the pathophysiology of CRPS, at least in a subset of patients. Further research is needed into defining this subset and into the role of autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of CRPS.

  2. INVESTMENT ACTIVITY OF AGRIBUSINESS IN THE AGROINDUSTRIAL COMPLEX REGION, AS ONE OF THE ELEMENTS OF THE FINANCIAL SECURITY OF THE AGRO-INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX OF THE STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Nikolaevna Uglitskikh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The developed economic-political situation around of Russia, specifies an indispensability of support of agricultural commodity producers as from their financial well-being, investment activity the financial security of agrarian and industrial complex of the state depends. Limitation of own financial resources at agrarians does not allow them to realize independently conceived projects. Studying of questions of formation and functioning of investment activity in agriculture of Stavropol Territory and an assessment of investment projects offered to reali-zation, have allowed to analyse investment activity of agrarian and industrial complex of region up to the introduction of Russia into WTO and in conditions of its membership. By results of the lead assessment the administrative areas of region showing the greatest investment activity, threats of a financial security of agrarian and industrial complex of region not putting by the activity have been revealed. It is drawn a conclusion on influence West-American sanctions on financial without-danger agra-rian and industrial complex of the state and the responsibility сельхозтоваропроизводителей about delivery of agricultural production in necessary volume and import substitution.

  3. IMPROVING THE MECHANISMS OF STATE REGULATION OF THE AGRO-INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX OF THE KRASNODAR REGION IN MODERN CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemova E. I.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines features of the functioning of the agro-industrial complex of Russia and the Krasnodar region in the economic crisis. It substantiates the urgency of adaptation of state regulation of agro-industrial complex mechanisms to modern economic realities, we have disclosed functions and principles for the development of regional policy strategy in the agricultural sector. It is proved, that the system of state regulation of regional agro-industrial complex should correlate with the priorities of the development of its main component - agriculture and to promote structural reforms in the agricultural sector, enhance its innovation and investment potential and maintain the social orientation of the agrarian reforms. Improving the mechanisms of state support of the agro-industrial complex of Russia and the Krasnodar region requires a special approach in relation to the country's membership in the World Trade Organization. Due to this, we have proposed the adjustment of state support instruments of domestic agro-industrial complex, which involves the use of priority measures of the "green box", including an increase in funding for research in agriculture, development of an effective institutional environment, which will stimulate the efficiency and competitiveness of the agricultural sector

  4. An Introduction to the Chandra Carina Complex Project

    CERN Document Server

    Townsley, Leisa K; Corcoran, Michael F; Feigelson, Eric D; Gagné, Marc; Montmerle, Thierry; Oey, M S; Smith, Nathan; Garmire, Gordon P; Getman, Konstantin V; Povich, Matthew S; Evans, Nancy Remage; Nazé, Yaël; Parkin, E R; Preibisch, Thomas; Wang, Junfeng; Wolk, Scott J; Chu, You-Hua; Cohen, David H; Gruendl, Robert A; Hamaguchi, Kenji; King, Robert R; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; McCaughrean, Mark J; Moffat, Anthony F J; Oskinova, L M; Pittard, Julian M; Stassun, Keivan G; ud-Doula, Asif; Walborn, Nolan R; Waldron, Wayne L; Churchwell, Ed; Nichols, J S; Owocki, Stanley P; Schulz, N S

    2011-01-01

    The Great Nebula in Carina provides an exceptional view into the violent massive star formation and feedback that typifies giant HII regions and starburst galaxies. We have mapped the Carina star-forming complex in X-rays, using archival Chandra data and a mosaic of 20 new 60ks pointings using the Chandra X-ray Observatory's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer, as a testbed for understanding recent and ongoing star formation and to probe Carina's regions of bright diffuse X-ray emission. This study has yielded a catalog of properties of >14,000 X-ray point sources; >9800 of them have multiwavelength counterparts. Using Chandra's unsurpassed X-ray spatial resolution, we have separated these point sources from the extensive, spatially-complex diffuse emission that pervades the region; X-ray properties of this diffuse emission suggest that it traces feedback from Carina's massive stars. In this introductory paper, we motivate the survey design, describe the Chandra observations, and present some simple results, pr...

  5. [11C]-(R)-PK11195 positron emission tomography in patients with complex regional pain syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, So Yeon; Seo, Seongho; Lee, Jae Sung; Choi, Soo-Hee; Lee, Do-Hyeong; Jung, Ye-Ha; Song, Man-Kyu; Lee, Kyung-Jun; Kim, Yong Chul; Kwon, Hyun Woo; Im, Hyung-Jun; Lee, Dong Soo; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kang, Do-Hyung

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is characterized by severe and chronic pain, but the pathophysiology of this disease are not clearly understood. The primary aim of our case–control study was to explore neuroinflammation in patients with CRPS using positron emission tomography (PET), with an 18-kDa translocator protein specific radioligand [11C]-(R)-PK11195. [11C]-(R)-PK11195 PET scans were acquired for 11 patients with CRPS (30–55 years) and 12 control subjects (30–52 years). Parametric image of distribution volume ratio (DVR) for each participant was generated by applying a relative equilibrium-based graphical analysis. The DVR of [11C]-(R)-PK11195 in the caudate nucleus (t(21) = −3.209, P = 0.004), putamen (t(21) = −2.492, P = 0.022), nucleus accumbens (t(21) = −2.218, P = 0.040), and thalamus (t(21) = −2.395, P = 0.026) were significantly higher in CRPS patients than in healthy controls. Those of globus pallidus (t(21) = −2.045, P = 0.054) tended to be higher in CRPS patients than in healthy controls. In patients with CRPS, there was a positive correlation between the DVR of [11C]-(R)-PK11195 in the caudate nucleus and the pain score, the visual analog scale (r = 0.661, P = 0.026, R2 = 0.408) and affective subscales of McGill Pain Questionnaire (r = 0.604, P = 0.049, R2 = 0.364). We demonstrated that neuroinflammation of CRPS patients in basal ganglia. Our results suggest that microglial pathology can be an important pathophysiology of CRPS. Association between the level of caudate nucleus and pain severity indicated that neuroinflammation in this region might play a key role. These results may be essential for developing effective medical treatments. PMID:28072713

  6. El síndrome doloroso regional complejo y medicina basada en la evidencia Complex Regional Pain Syndrome and Evidence-Based Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    F. Neira; J. L. Ortega

    2007-01-01

    Los pacientes con el Síndrome Doloroso Regional Complejo (SDRC) han recibido diferentes tratamientos, con mayor o menor éxito. En la presente revisión se realiza una búsqueda sistemática en Internet, utilizando el término "Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy" y "Complex Regional Pain Syndrome". El objetivo es determinar las técnicas diagnósticas y terapéuticas más efectivas fundamentadas en medicina basada en la evidencia, que permitan un adecuado control de los pacientes aquejados del SDRC. La IASP...

  7. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in patients with complex regional pain syndrome type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jai Y; Ahn, Ryun S

    2012-09-01

    An exaggerated inflammatory process is considered an important pathophysiological feature of complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1). The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis serves as a negative feedback mechanism for inflammatory processes. The present study examined the HPA axis function in patients with CRPS-1 by a determination of cortisol concentrations in saliva. Three sets of saliva samples were sequentially collected from 24 patients with CRPS-1 during medication (on-Med), 72 h after stopping medication (off-Med) and 8h after the oral administration of 1mg dexamethasone. One set of saliva samples was collected from healthy controls. The cortisol awakening response (CAR) and diurnal cortisol decline (DCD) were used as indices for HPA axis function. Cortisol levels during the post-awakening period in patients were increased following withdrawal of medications. The CAR during the off-Med condition was disappeared after administration of dexamethasone. Among the examined CRPS-related numerical variables, the frequency of spontaneous pain attacks showed relationships with the indices of HPA axis function. After classifying the patients into two subgroups, we observed that the CAR and DCD in patient who had a relatively high frequency of spontaneous pain attacks (subgroup 5 ≤) were lower and less steep than those in patient who had a relatively low frequency of spontaneous pain attacks (subgroup 0-4) for the on- and off-Med conditions. The CAR and DCD in subgroup 5 ≤ during their off-Med condition were comparable to those in controls. These results suggest that the increase in frequency of spontaneous pain attacks is associated with a reduced CAR and flattened DCD in patients CRPS-1.

  8. Sympathetic skin responses in hemiplegic patients with and without complex regional pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Barin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: To investigate whether there were changes in the sympathetic skin responses (SSR in the limbs with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS type I in hemiplegic patients. Setting: A physical medicine and rehabilitation center in Turkey . Materials and Methods: Sympathetic skin responses were evaluated in 69 stroke patients (41 with CRPS and 28 without CRPS and 20 healthy volunteers. SSR were recorded on the paretic and healthy hands after stimulation of the ipsilateral median nerve. Patients′ ages ranged from 33 to 77 years, with a mean of 60.0 ± 12.9 years. Results: The SSR were obtained in all patients with CRPS, whereas SSR was absent in 9 of 28 patients with hemiplegia who did not have CRPS after stimulation of the plegic side and the difference was statistically significant ( P =0.023. SSR amplitudes were increased at the hemiplegic limbs in patients affected by CRPS compared to individuals unaffected; this group difference was statistically significant ( P =0.014. The mean amplitude of the SSR in the advanced stage of CRPS was greater than lower stage and the difference was statistically significant ( P =0.035. Conclusion: Our results suggest that SSR can be obtained in stroke patients with CRPS even in the early stages of CRPS. SSR acquirability and amplitude increase as the stage of the disease advances. As an electrophysiologic technique, SSR may be used in the evaluation of the sympathetic function in hemiplegic patients and also in the diagnosis of CRPS and in monitoring of its treatment.

  9. Complex regional pain syndrome treated with intravenous immunoglobulin in a patient with common variable immune deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachdjian, Raffi

    2013-12-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) represents a large heterogeneous group of antibody-deficiency syndromes associated with a wide range of clinical features and a lack of defined causes in the realm of primary immunodeficiencies. Here, we present a case of CVID in a 62-year-old white male patient with a history of longstanding complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). His medical history included multiple sinus infections per year and several pneumonias requiring antibiotics. He has had various back surgeries, including a laminectomy at the L4 level 1 year prior to his diagnosis. Thereafter, he underwent four sympathetic nerve blocks with minimal pain relief. Blood chemistries showed a normal white blood cell count with a normal differential, but increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein levels. Total Ig (Immunoglobulin)G was 611 mg/dL (normal 700-1,600), IgG1 was 425 mg/dL (341-894), IgG2 was 114 mg/dL (171-632), IgG3 was 14.4 mg/dL (18.4-106), and IgG4 was 7.4 mg/dL (2.4-121). IgA was 47 mg/dL (normal 70-400), IgM was 131 mg/dL (40-230), and IgE was 4.5 kU/L (<4.0). He only had 10 of 23 pneumococcal titers in the protective range post-vaccination. Upon treatment of the CVID with intravenous immunoglobulin, the patient's pain levels were significantly decreased and have been maintained for more than 2 years. Therefore, immunoglobulin therapy appears to have been beneficial in the treatment of the patient's symptoms of CRPS, including pain. Additional studies investigating the mechanism by which immunoglobulin therapy may reduce the inflammation and pain of CRPS are needed.

  10. Local cytokine changes in complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I) resolve after 6 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Melanie; Uçeyler, Nurcan; Frettlöh, Jule; Höffken, Oliver; Krumova, Elena K; Lissek, Silke; Reinersmann, Annika; Sommer, Claudia; Stude, Philipp; Waaga-Gasser, Ana M; Tegenthoff, Martin; Maier, Christoph

    2013-10-01

    There is evidence that inflammatory processes are involved in at least the early phase of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). We compared a panel of pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines in skin blister fluids and serum from patients with CRPS and patients with upper-limb pain of other origin (non-CRPS) in the early stage (< 1 year) and after 6 months of pain treatment. Blister fluid was collected from the affected and contralateral nonaffected side. We used a multiplex-10 bead array cytokine assay and Luminex technology to measure protein concentrations of the cytokines interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p40, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and the chemokines eotaxin, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β (MIP-1β). We found bilaterally increased proinflammatory TNF-α and MIP-1β and decreased antiinflammatory IL-1RA protein levels in CRPS patients compared to non-CRPS patients. Neither group showed side differences. After 6 months under analgesic treatment, protein levels of all measured cytokines in CRPS patients, except for IL-6, significantly changed bilaterally to the level of non-CRPS patients. These changes were not related to treatment outcome. In serum, only IL-8, TNF-α, eotaxin, MCP-1, and MIP-1β were detectable without intergroup differences. Blister fluid of CRPS patients showed a bilateral proinflammatory cytokine profile. This profile seems to be relevant only at the early stage of CRPS. Almost all measured cytokine levels were comparable to those of non-CRPS patients after 6 months of analgesic treatment and were not related to treatment outcome.

  11. Factors Associated With Disability and Sick Leave in Early Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Debbie J; Johnson, Malcolm H; Heiss-Dunlop, Wolfgang; Kydd, Robert R

    2016-02-01

    Factors influencing disability and work absence in complex regional pain syndrome type-1 (CRPS)-1 have not been thoroughly described in the literature. We sought to determine whether demographic variables, work-related factors, CRPS clinical severity ratings, pain scores, or psychological variables were associated with disability and sick leave in early CRPS-1. A total of 66 CRPS-1 patients were recruited within 12 weeks of CRPS onset. Patients completed measures of pain, depression, anxiety, stress, pain catastrophizing, and pain-related fear. A physical examination was conducted to assess signs and symptoms of CRPS and to calculate a CRPS severity score. Demographic details, clinical details, treatments, work type, and work status were recorded. In multivariate analyses, the following factors were associated with greater disability: higher pain scores, more restricted ankle or wrist extension, and higher levels of depression. Among the 49 who were either working or studying before developing CRPS, 28 had stopped work or study at the time of assessment. Multivariate analyses showed that sick leave was more likely among those whose CRPS was triggered by more severe injuries, whose work was more physically demanding, among those with higher disability scores, and there was also a significant effect of depression on sick leave, which was mediated by disability. Although the study was cross-sectional and so cannot differentiate cause from effect, results suggest that even in the early stages of CRPS, a cycle of pain, disability, depression, and work absence can emerge. Treatments aimed to prevent this cycle may help prevent adverse long-term outcomes.

  12. The temperature and ionization structure of the emitting gas in HII galaxies: Implications for the accuracy of abundance determinations

    CERN Document Server

    Hägele, G F; Díaz, A I; Terlevich, E; Terlevich, R J; Haegele, Guillermo F.; Perez-Montero, Enrique; Diaz, Angeles I.; Terlevich, Elena; Terlevich, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    We propose a methodology to perform a self-consistent analysis of the physical properties of the emitting gas of HII galaxies adequate to the data that can be obtained with the XXI century technology. This methodology requires the production and calibration of empirical relations between the different line temperatures that should superseed currently used ones based on very simple, and poorly tested, photo-ionization model sequences. As a first step to reach these goals we have obtained simultaneous blue to far red longslit spectra with the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) of three compact HII galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 2 (DR2) spectral catalog using the INAOE Virtual Observatory superserver. Our spectra cover the range from 3200 to 10500 \\AA, including the Balmer jump, the [OII]3727,29 \\AA lines, the [SIII]9069,9532 \\AA doublet as well as various weak auroral lines such as [OIII]4363 \\AA and [SIII]6312 \\AA. For the three objects we have measured at least four line...

  13. Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenson, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The term complexity derives etymologically from the Latin plexus, which means interwoven. Intuitively, this implies that something complex is composed by elements that are difficult to separate. This difficulty arises from the relevant interactions that take place between components. This lack of separability is at odds with the classical scientific method - which has been used since the times of Galileo, Newton, Descartes, and Laplace - and has also influenced philosophy and engineering. In recent decades, the scientific study of complexity and complex systems has proposed a paradigm shift in science and philosophy, proposing novel methods that take into account relevant interactions.

  14. Type-I complex regional pain syndrome of umbilical port site: An unforeseen complication of laparoscopic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragavan Munisamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many complications have been observed after laparoscopic surgery. Persisting pain in the umbilical port site is due to infection, hernia, endometriosis, metastasis, etc. There is no case report due to neuralgic complex regional pain syndrome, and we have dealt a case which is described with relevant literature review and etiopathogenesis.

  15. Motor dysfunction in complex regional pain syndrome : the role of sensory processing and sensory-motor integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bank, Paulina Johanna Maria

    2014-01-01

    In the chronic stage of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS), motor disturbances are common and cause significant disability. The motor dysfunction of CRPS is a poorly understood phenomenon that is characterized predominantly by a decrease or loss of voluntary muscle control. This thesis aims to

  16. Role of NFκB in an Animal Model of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome-type I (CRPS-I)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Mos (Marissa); A. Laferrière (André); M. Millecamps (Magali); M. Pilkington (Mercedes); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam); F.J.P.M. Huygen (Frank); T.J. Coderre (Terence)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractNFκB is involved in several pathogenic mechanisms that are believed to underlie the complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), including ischemia, inflammation and sensitization. Chronic postischemia pain (CPIP) has been developed as an animal model that mimics the symptoms of CRPS-I. The po

  17. Chronic pain and evoked responses in the brain: A magnetoencephalographic study in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome I and II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theuvenet, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) type I and II are chronic pain syndromes with comparable symptoms, only in CRPS II a peripheral nerve injury is present. No objective tests are currently available to differentiate the two types which hampers diagnosis and treatment. Non-invasive brain imaging t

  18. Impact of spinal cord stimulation on sensory characteristics in complex regional pain syndrome type I - A randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemler, MA; Reulen, JPH; Barendse, GAM; van Kleef, M; de Vet, HCW; van den Wildenberg, FAJM

    2001-01-01

    Background: A randomized trial was performed to assess the effect of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) on detection and pain thresholds for pressure, warmth, and cold and on the extent of mechanical hyperalgesia in patients with chronic complex regional pain syndrome type I. Methods: Fifty-four chronic

  19. Motor dysfunction in complex regional pain syndrome : the role of sensory processing and sensory-motor integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bank, Paulina Johanna Maria

    2014-01-01

    In the chronic stage of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS), motor disturbances are common and cause significant disability. The motor dysfunction of CRPS is a poorly understood phenomenon that is characterized predominantly by a decrease or loss of voluntary muscle control. This thesis aims to ob

  20. Magma accumulation and segregation during regional-scale folding: The Holland's dome granite injection complex, Damara belt, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Tolene; Kisters, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    The regional-scale, upright fold of the Holland's dome in the Damara belt of central Namibia contains a kilometre-scale network of intrusive, highly fractionated uraniferous leucogranites. Three broadly orthogonal and intersecting sets of leucogranite sheets that intruded parallel and at right angles to the axial plane of the first-order fold can be distinguished. The granites are internally sheeted and illustrate the growth of the injection complex through the successive addition of thousands of smaller magma batches. Spatial and timing relationships point to a stepwise evolution of the injection complex. Early dilatancy-driven segregation and accumulation of granitic magmas in the core of the fold, above a basal detachment, was followed by compaction-driven segregation of a melt phase during fold tightening. The intersecting leucogranite sets provide a suitably organized permeability structure for melt segregation, while the successive injection of magma batches ensures compatibility between regional strain rates during folding and the rates of magma segregation. The three-dimensional network of melt-bearing structures further assisted regional shortening past the lock-up of the fold. The Holland's dome injection complex illustrates the geometric complexity of magma transfer pathways and the significance of regional-scale folding for the accumulation, segregation and fractionation of granitic magmas in suprasolidus crust.

  1. Model complex of forecasting of interdependent development of migration processes and region labour market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Aleksandrovich Chereshnev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The essential problems of current international labor migration raising the need to forecast interdependent labor market and migration processes in a region for improving the effectiveness of regional migration policy in Russia are considered. A model for the prediction of migration flows as determined by wage differentials, distances between populations of the regions as well as wages and unemployment, which come from the impact of migration on the availability of jobs at the labor market with search-matching frictions for source and host regions is presented in the framework of search and matching theory. Applying the model to statistical data, the forecast for labor migration flows to regions of Russia from CIS countries, as well as its effects on regional labor markets for 2012-2021 is maid. Recommendations for improving the effectiveness of regional migration policy are given on the basis of the forecast.

  2. German translation and external validation of the Radboud Skills Questionnaire in patients suffering from Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez Roberto SGM

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients suffering from Complex Regional Pain Syndrome commonly complain of substantial limitations in their activities of daily living. The Radboud Skills Questionnaire measures alterations in the level of disability of patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome, but this instrument is currently not available in German. The goals of our study were to translate the Dutch Radboud Skills Questionnaire into German and to assess its external criterion validity with the German version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire. Methods We translated the Radboud Skills Questionnaire according to published guidelines. Demographic data and validity were assessed in 57 consecutive patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1 of the upper extremity. Information on age, duration of symptoms, type of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1 and type of initiating event was obtained. We assessed the external criterion validity by comparing the German Radboud Skills Questionnaire and the German Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire and calculated the prediction intervals. Results Score values ranged from 55.4 ± 22.0 for the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire score and 140.1 ± 39.2 for the Radboud Skills Questionnaire. We found a high correlation between the Radboud Skills Questionnaire and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire (R2 = 0.83. Conclusion This validation of the Radboud Skills Questionnaire demonstrates that this German version is a simple and accurate instrument to assess and quantify disabilities of patients suffering from Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1 of the upper extremity for clinical and research purposes

  3. Numerical Simulations of Texture Development and Associated Rheological Anisotropy in Regions of Complex Mantle Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, D. K.; Castelnau, O.; Becker, T. W.

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the predictions of different micromechanical approaches that have been employed recently to study mineral alignment during flow in the upper mantle. Computational capabilities are reaching a point where the potential rheological effects of such lattice-preferred orientation (LPO) can be considered as an integral part of determining the flow pattern and evolution. But, in order to have confidence in taking this next step, the detailed behavior of the different micromechanical models needs to be understood. An important consequence of LPO development is the subsequent anisotropy of the mechanical properties. Curiously, most published geophysical studies only address the elastic anisotropy, probably because of its link with the observed seismic anisotropy. The viscoplastic (or rheological) anisotropy has received much less attention, although it may have a notable influence on regional and global convective flow pattern, which in turn controls the LPO development. Micromechanical approaches aim at linking the rheological behaviour at the grain scale, associated with the activate deformation mechanisms (dislocation glide and climb, diffusion creep, "), with the overall rheology at the sample scale, including also other mechanisms such as recrystallization. This is achieved by an evaluation of the internal stress generated by the (strong) mechanical interaction between neighbour grains. All models proposed in the literature (kinematic model, finite strain model, tangent self-consistent model, lower bound model, ") make simplifying assumptions, since the mechanical problem is very complicated. One can distinguish between rather simple models that allow some freedom in deformation of individual grains, and more advanced techniques (and generally more accurate) that require a minimum number (=4) of independent slip systems (or directional deformation mechanisms) for the plastic strain to occur. In respect to this, unlike all other models

  4. Evolution of the complex refractive index in the UV spectral region in ageing secondary organic aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, J. M.; Zhao, D. F.; Segev, L.; Schlag, P.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Fuchs, H.; Watne, Å. K.; Bluvshtein, N.; Mentel, Th. F.; Hallquist, M.; Rudich, Y.

    2014-06-01

    The chemical and physical properties of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed by the photochemical degradation of biogenic and anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC) are as yet still poorly constrained. The evolution of the complex refractive index (RI) of SOA, formed from purely biogenic VOC and mixtures of biogenic and anthropogenic VOC, was studied over a diurnal cycle in the SAPHIR photochemical outdoor chamber in Jülich, Germany. The correlation of RI with SOA chemical and physical properties such as oxidation level and volatility was examined. The RI was retrieved by a newly developed broadband cavity-enhanced spectrometer for aerosol optical extinction measurements in the UV spectral region (360 to 420 nm). Chemical composition and volatility of the particles were monitored by a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer, and a volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer. SOA was formed by ozonolysis of either (i) a mixture of biogenic VOC (α-pinene and limonene), (ii) biogenic VOC mixture with subsequent addition of an anthropogenic VOC (p-xylene-d10), or (iii) a mixture of biogenic and anthropogenic VOC. The SOA aged by ozone/OH reactions up to 29.5 h was found to be non-absorbing in all cases. The SOA with p-xylene-d10 showed an increase of the scattering component of the RI correlated with an increase of the O / C ratio and with an increase in the SOA density. There was a greater increase in the scattering component of the RI when the SOA was produced from the mixture of biogenic VOCs and anthropogenic VOC than from the sequential addition of the VOCs after approximately the same ageing time. The increase of the scattering component was inversely correlated with the SOA volatility. Two RI retrievals determined for the pure biogenic SOA showed a constant RI for up to 5 h of ageing. Mass spectral characterization shows the three types of the SOA formed in this study have a significant amount of semivolatile components. The

  5. Identification of regions critical for the integrity of the TSC1-TSC2-TBC1D7 complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Jorge Santiago Lima

    Full Text Available The TSC1-TSC2-TBC1D7 complex is an important negative regulator of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 that controls cell growth in response to environmental cues. Inactivating TSC1 and TSC2 mutations cause tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC, an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by the occurrence of benign tumours in various organs and tissues, notably the brain, skin and kidneys. TBC1D7 mutations have not been reported in TSC patients but homozygous inactivation of TBC1D7 causes megaencephaly and intellectual disability. Here, using an exon-specific deletion strategy, we demonstrate that some regions of TSC1 are not necessary for the core function of the TSC1-TSC2 complex. Furthermore, we show that the TBC1D7 binding site is encoded by TSC1 exon 22 and identify amino acid residues involved in the TSC1-TBC1D7 interaction.

  6. Clinical utility of complex mutations in the core promoterand proximal precore regions of the hepatitis B virusgenome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Young Min Park

    2015-01-01

    The core promoter and proximal precore regions arethe most complex portions of the hepatitis B virus(HBV) genome. These regions cooperatively regulateviral replication and differentially regulate the synthesisof the viral proteins E, core, and X. Multiple mutationsin these regions are associated with the persistencyof viral infection and the development of cirrhosis andhepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In South Korea, nearlyall HBVs are classified as HBV genotype C2; the majorityof these viruses have the basal core promoter doublemutation, a precore stop mutation, or both. Thesemutations may play a role in the alteration of viral andclinical features, and abundant and complex mutationsare particularly prevalent in the core promoter andproximal precore regions. We previously demonstratedthat the accumulation of ≥ 6 mutations at eight keynucleotides located in these regions (G1613A, C1653T,T1753V, A1762T, G1764A, A1846T, G1896A, andG1899A) is a useful marker to predict the developmentof HCC regardless of advanced liver disease. In addition,certain mutation combinations were predominant incases with ≥ 4 mutations. In cases with ≤ 5 mutations,a low Hepatitis B e antigen titer (〈 35 signal to noiseratio) was indicative of HCC risk. Viral mutation data ofthe single HBV genotype C2 suggest that the combinedeffect of the number and pattern of mutations in thecore promoter and proximal precore regions is helpful inpredicting HCC risk.

  7. Complex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CLEMENT O BEWAJI

    Schiff bases and their complex compounds have been studied for their .... establishing coordination of the N–(2 – hydroxybenzyl) - L - α - valine Schiff base ..... (1967); “Spectrophotometric Identification of Organic Compounds”, Willey, New.

  8. Using the VLT to analyze the compact photoionized regions in NGC 3109

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Peña

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Veinte nebulosas planetarias (NP y numerosas regiones HII compactas fueron detectadas en la galaxia irregular NGC3109, mediante imágenes \\en-línea" y \\fuera de línea" en [O III] 5007 obtenidas con el ESO VLT. Las NPs fueron seleccionadas como objetos estelares que no mostraran continuo estelar. Espectroscopia obtenida con el VLT FORS1 en modo multi-objeto ha permitido confirmar la naturaleza de NP para varias candidatas. Se ha obtenido también espectroscopia para varias regiones HII compactas. Los espectros son profundos de manera que muchos objetos muestran [O III] 4363 y se puede determinar la temperatura de las regiones, permitiendo analizar la composición química de NPs y regiones HII. Encontramos que las regiones HII muestran una composición química (O/H muy homogénea (en promedio 12 + log O/H = 7.79_0.10, en tanto que las NPs muestran variaciones grandes de composición química y un aparente enriquecimiento en oxígeno.

  9. 40Ar/ 39Ar mineral ages from the Oki metamorphic complex, Oki-Dogo, southwest Japan: implications for regional correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallmeyer, R. D.; Takasu, A.

    1998-08-01

    The Oki metamorphic complex exposed in the Oki-Dogo islands consists predominantly of psammitic and pelitic gneisses with subordinate amphibolite and rare calcareous gneiss. The Oki gneisses were regionally metamorphosed to general amphibolite facies conditions, with local development of granulite facies assemblages. Peak metamorphic conditions of c. 800°C have been suggested. Hornblende concentrates from amphibolites collected within the Oki metamorphic complex record 40Ar/ 39Ar isotope correlation ages of 199-192 Ma. These are interpreted to date the post metamorphic cooling through temperatures required for intracrystalline retention of argon (c. 500°C). Muscovite concentrates record 40Ar/ 39Ar plateau ages of 167-168 Ma. These are interpreted to date post metamorphic cooling through appropriate closure temperature of muscovite (c. 400-375°C). Combined with the previously reported geochronological data, the Oki metamorphic complex appears to have experienced peak metamorphic conditions at c. 250 Ma. Subsequently, it cooled and was exhumed at the earth's surface at c. 90 Ma with cooling rate of c. 5°C/Ma. The Oki metamorphic complex records a similar prograde metamorphic event as the Hida metamorphic complex exposed in central Japan. The cooling and exhumation rates of the Hida metamorphic complex were significantly more rapid compared with the Oki metamorphic complex, and they were exhumed with extensively intruded Jurassic granites (Funatsu granites).

  10. Mathematical models of functioning and allocation indicators of road-transport complex resources in the fuel and raw materials region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyvis, V. A.; Novichikhin, A. V.; Temlyantsev, M. V.

    2017-09-01

    A number of features of coal industry functioning was determined for the conditions of Kemerovo region, and the specifics of planning and organization of coal transportation were revealed. The analysis of indicators of motor and railway types of transport in the process of coal transportation was executed. The necessity of improving the tools of coal products transportation in the modern conditions is substantiated. Specific features of functioning of a road-transport complex in the fuel and raw material region (on the example of Kemerovo region) are determined. The modern scientific and applied problems of functioning and allocation of the road-transport complex resources are identified. To justify the management decisions on the development and improvement of road-transport complex a set of indicators are proposed: infrastructural, transportation performance, operating, social and economic. Mathematical models of indicators are recommended for formulation and justification of decisions made during operational and strategic planning of development, evaluation and development of algorithms of functioning and allocation of road-transport sector in Kemerovo region in the future.

  11. The Complexities and Challenges of Regional Education Hubs: Focus on Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Jane; Morshidi, Sirat

    2011-01-01

    The race to establish regional education hubs is a recent development in cross-border higher education. This article briefly examines the rationales and strategies used by three countries in the Middle East and three in South East Asia which are working towards positioning themselves as regional education hubs. The different approaches and…

  12. The Complexities and Challenges of Regional Education Hubs: Focus on Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Jane; Morshidi, Sirat

    2011-01-01

    The race to establish regional education hubs is a recent development in cross-border higher education. This article briefly examines the rationales and strategies used by three countries in the Middle East and three in South East Asia which are working towards positioning themselves as regional education hubs. The different approaches and…

  13. Complex emergencies in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: Impact on tuberculosis control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Seita

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Complex emergencies pose a significant negative impact on tuberculosis in the EMR. This issue should be raised in the global health and political arena. This is a time bomb for tuberculosis.

  14. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 2. Mid-American Solar Energy Complex Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Mid-American Solar Energy Complex Region. (WHK)

  15. Prediction of major histocompatibility complex binding regions of protein antigens by sequence pattern analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sette, A; Buus, S; Appella, E;

    1989-01-01

    We have previously experimentally analyzed the structural requirements for interaction between peptide antigens and mouse major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules of the d haplotype. We describe here two procedures devised to predict specifically the capacity of peptide molecules to inter......We have previously experimentally analyzed the structural requirements for interaction between peptide antigens and mouse major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules of the d haplotype. We describe here two procedures devised to predict specifically the capacity of peptide molecules...

  16. Radio and infrared study of the star forming region IRAS 20286+4105

    CERN Document Server

    R, Varsha; Tej, A; Vig, S; Ghosh, S K; Ojha, D K

    2016-01-01

    A multi-wavelength investigation of the star forming complex IRAS 20286+4105, located in the Cygnus-X region, is presented here. Near-infrared K-band data is used to revisit the cluster / stellar group identified in previous studies. The radio continuum observations, at 610 and 1280 MHz show the presence of a HII region possibly powered by a star of spectral type B0 - B0.5. The cometary morphology of the ionized region is explained by invoking the bow-shock model where the likely association with a nearby supernova remnant is also explored. A compact radio knot with non-thermal spectral index is detected towards the centre of the cloud. Mid-infrared data from the Spitzer Legacy Survey of the Cygnus-X region show the presence of six Class I YSOs inside the cloud. Thermal dust emission in this complex is modelled using Herschel far-infrared data to generate dust temperature and column density maps. Herschel images also show the presence of two clumps in this region, the masses of which are estimated to be {\\sim...

  17. Downscaling 20th century flooding events in complex terrain (Switzerland) using the WRF regional climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Ulla; Gómez Navarro, Juan Jose; Franke, Jörg; Brönnimann, Stefan; Cattin, Réne

    2016-04-01

    Switzerland has experienced a number of severe precipitation events during the last few decades, such as during the 14-16 November of 2002 or during the 21-22 August of 2005. Both events, and subsequent extreme floods, caused fatalities and severe financial losses, and have been well studied both in terms of atmospheric conditions leading to extreme precipitation, and their consequences [e.g. Hohenegger et al., 2008, Stucki et al., 2012]. These examples highlight the need to better characterise the frequency and severity of flooding in the Alpine area. In a larger framework we will ultimately produce a high-resolution data set covering the entire 20th century to be used for detailed hydrological studies including all atmospheric parameters relevant for flooding events. In a first step, we downscale the aforementioned two events of 2002 and 2005 to assess the model performance regarding precipitation extremes. The complexity of the topography in the Alpine area demands high resolution datasets. To achieve a sufficient detail in resolution we employ the Weather Research and Forecasting regional climate model (WRF). A set of 4 nested domains is used with a 2-km resolution horizontal resolution over Switzerland. The NCAR 20th century reanalysis (20CR) with a horizontal resolution of 2.5° serves as boundary condition [Compo et al., 2011]. First results of the downscaling the 2002 and 2005 extreme precipitation events show that, compared to station observations provided by the Swiss Meteorological Office MeteoSwiss, the model strongly underestimates the strength of these events. This is mainly due to the coarse resolution of the 20CR data, which underestimates the moisture fluxes during these events. We tested driving WRF with the higher-resolved NCEP reanalysis and found a significant improvement in the amount of precipitation of the 2005 event. In a next step we will downscale the precipitation and wind fields during a 6-year period 2002-2007 to investigate and

  18. [Complexity of care and organizational effectiveness: a survey among medical care units in nine Lombardy region hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquali, Sara; Capitoni, Enrica; Tiraboschi, Giuseppina; Alborghetti, Adriana; De Luca, Giuseppe; Di Mauro, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    Eleven medical care units of nine Lombardy Region hospitals organized by levels of care model or by the traditional departmental model have been analyzed, in order to evaluate if methods for complexity of patient-care evaluation represent an index factor of nursing organizational effectiveness. Survey with nine Nurses in managerial position was conducted between Nov. 2013-Jan. 2014. The following factors have been described: context and nursing care model, staffing, complexity evaluation, patient satisfaction, staff well-being. Data were processed through Microsoft Excel. Among Units analysed ,all Units in levels of care and one organized by the departmental model systematically evaluate nursing complexity. Registered Nurses (RN) and Health Care Assistants (HCA) are on average numerically higher in Units that measure complexity (0.55/ 0.49 RN, 0.38/0.23 HCA - ratio per bed). Adopted measures in relation to changes in complexity are:rewarding systems, supporting interventions, such as moving personnel within different Units or additional required working hours; reduction in number of beds is adopted when no other solution is available. Patient satisfaction is evaluated through Customer Satisfaction questionnaires. Turnover, stress and rate of absenteeism data are not available in all Units. Complexity evaluation through appropriate methods is carried out in all hospitals organized in levels of care with personalized nursing care models, though complexity is detected with different methods. No significant differences in applied managerial strategies are present. Patient's satisfaction is evaluated everywhere. Data on staffing wellbeing is scarcely available. Coordinated regional actions are recommended in order to gather comparable data for research, improve decision making and effectiveness of Nursing care.

  19. From forced collapse to H ii region expansion in Mon R2: Envelope density structure and age determination with Herschel

    CERN Document Server

    Didelon, P; Tremblin, P; Hill, T; Hony, S; Hennemann, M; Hennebelle, P; Anderson, L D; Galliano, F; Schneider, N; Rayner, T; Rygl, K; Louvet, F; Zavagno, A; Konyves, V; Sauvage, M; Andre, Ph; Bontemps, S; Peretto, N; Griffin, M; Gonzalez, M; Lebouteiller, V; Arzoumanian, D; Benedettini, M; Di Francesco, J; Menshchikov, A; Minier, V; Luong, Q Nguyen; Bernard, J -P; Palmeirim, P; Pezzuto, S; Rivera-Ingraham, A; Russeil, D; Ward-Thompson, D; White, G J

    2015-01-01

    The surroundings of HII regions can have a profound influence on their development, morphology, and evolution. This paper explores the effect of the environment on H II regions in the MonR2 molecular cloud. We aim to investigate the density structure of envelopes surrounding HII regions and to determine their collapse and ionisation expansion ages. The Mon R2 molecular cloud is an ideal target since it hosts an H II region association. Column density and temperature images derived from Herschel data were used together to model the structure of HII bubbles and their surrounding envelopes. The resulting observational constraints were used to follow the development of the Mon R2 ionised regions with analytical calculations and numerical simulations. The four hot bubbles associated with H II regions are surrounded by dense, cold, and neutral gas envelopes. The radial density profiles are reminiscent of those of low-mass protostellar envelopes. The inner parts of envelopes of all four HII regions could be free-fal...

  20. Dusty cradles in a turbulent nursery: the SGR A east H II region complex at the galactic center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, R. M.; Herter, T. L.; Adams, J. D. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, 202 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Morris, M. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, 430 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)

    2014-10-20

    We present imaging at 19, 25, 31, and 37 μm of the compact H II region complex G-0.02-0.07 located 6 pc in projection from the center of the Galaxy obtained with SOFIA using FORCAST. G-0.02-0.07 contains three compact H II regions (A, B, and C) and one ultra-compact H II region (D). Our observations reveal the presence of two faint, infrared sources located 23'' and 35'' to the east of region C (FIRS 1 and 2) and detect dust emission in two of the three 'ridges' of ionized gas west of region A. The 19/37 color temperature and 37 μm optical depth maps of regions A-C are used to characterize the dust energetics and morphology. Regions A and B exhibit average 19/37 color temperatures of ∼105 K, and regions C and D exhibit color temperatures of ∼115 K and ∼130 K, respectively. Using the DustEM code, we model the SEDs of regions A-D and FIRS 1, all of which require populations of very small, transiently heated grains and large, equilibrium-heated grains. We also require the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in regions A-C in order to fit the 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm fluxes observed by Spitzer/IRAC. The location of the heating source for region A is determined by triangulation from distances and temperatures derived from DustEM models fit to SEDs of three different points around the region, and it is found to be displaced to the northeast of the center of curvature near the color temperature peak. Based on total luminosity, expected 1.90 μm fluxes, and proximity to the mid-IR color temperature peaks, we identify heating source candidates for regions A, B, and C. However, for region D, the observed fluxes at 1.87 and 1.90 μm of the previously proposed ionizing star are a factor of ∼40 times too bright to be the heating source and hence is likely just a star lying along the line of sight toward region D.

  1. Revision of the Psammothidium germainii complex (Bacillariophyta) in the Maritime Antarctic Region

    OpenAIRE

    Vijver, van de, B.; Kopalova, Katerina; Zidarova, Ralitsa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Psammothidium germainii is a widespread freshwater monoraphid diatom species in the Antarctic Region. Detailed analysis of the populations in the different parts of the Antarctic Region revealed the presence of several species that were lumped under the name 'P. germainii'. The type material of both Achnanthes germainii and Achnanthes ninckei has been investigated to allow a better morphological delimitation of both taxa and to better characterize the new taxa. Two new taxa are prop...

  2. Effective management models and methods of economic educations in regional industrial complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Gennadyevich Butrin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the methodical bases of management by the integrated industrial enterprises is developed according to the indicators of sustainable economic development of the region. The scope of the research is the region as the difficult mesosystem consisting of logistic clusters. The subject matter of the research is the organizational and economic relations developing in the course of interaction of participants of the regional economy as mesosystems. The models and methods of management by the large economic systems in the economy of the industrially developed region are developed; the organizational and economic essence of a logistic cluster as the subject of the regional economy us revealed. The mechanism of management by the integrated enterprises with using the cluster approach, technologies of logistics, management of supply chains is offered. They allow to the management of an enterprises to make scientifically reasonable effective decisions developing programs of supply, economic production and realization of finished goods in the close connection with programs of regional economic development.

  3. Massive Stars in the W33 Giant Molecular Complex

    CERN Document Server

    Messineo, Maria; Figer, Donald F; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Najarro, Francisco; Rich, R Michael; Menten, Karl M; Ivanov, Valentin D; Valenti, Elena; Trombley, Christine; Chen, C -H Rosie; Davies, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Rich in HII regions, giant molecular clouds are natural laboratories to study massive stars and sequential star formation. The Galactic star forming complex W33 is located at l=~12.8deg and at a distance of 2.4 kpc, has a size of ~10 pc and a total mass of (~0.8 - ~8.0) X 10^5 Msun. The integrated radio and IR luminosity of W33 - when combined with the direct detection of methanol masers, the protostellar object W33A, and protocluster embedded within the radio source W33 main - mark the region out as a site of vigorous ongoing star formation. In order to assess the long term star formation history, we performed an infrared spectroscopic search for massive stars, detecting for the first time fourteen early-type stars, including one WN6 star and four O4-7 stars. The distribution of spectral types suggests that this population formed during the last ~2-4 Myr, while the absence of red supergiants precludes extensive star formation at ages 6-30 Myr. This activity appears distributed throughout the region and does ...

  4. Physiotherapy for pain and disability in adults with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) types I and II

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background   Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a painful and disabling condition that usually manifests in response to trauma or surgery. When it occurs, it is associated with significant pain and disability. It is thought to arise and persist as a consequence of a maladaptive pro-inflammatory response and disturbances in sympathetically-mediated vasomotor control, together with maladaptive peripheral and central neuronal plasticity. CRPS can be classified into two types: type I (CRPS ...

  5. Derangement of body representation in complex regional pain syndrome: report of a case treated with mirror and prisms

    OpenAIRE

    Bultitude, Janet H.; Robert D. Rafal

    2009-01-01

    Perhaps the most intriguing disorders of body representation are those that are not due to primary disease of brain tissue. Strange and sometimes painful phantom limb sensations can result from loss of afference to the brain; and Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)—the subject of the current report—can follow limb trauma without pathology of either the central or peripheral nervous system. This enigmatic and vexing condition follows relatively minor trauma, and can result in enduring misery...

  6. Aircraft Regional-Scale Flux Measurements over Complex Landscapes of Mangroves, Desert, and Marine Ecosystems of Magdalena Bay, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Natural ecosystems are rarely structurally simple or functionally homogeneous. This is true for the complex coastal region of Magdalena Bay, Baja California Sur, Mexico, where the spatial variability in ecosystem fluxes from the Pacific coastal ocean, eutrophic lagoon, mangroves, and desert were studied. The Sky Arrow 650TCN environmental research aircraft proved to be an effective tool in characterizing land–atmosphere fluxes of energy, CO2, and water vapor across a heterogeneous landscape a...

  7. Species of the Paramecium aurelia complex in Russia (western region of European Russia) with molecular characteristics of Paramecium novaurelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przyboś, Ewa; Tarcz, Sebastian; Rautian, Maria; Potekhin, Alexey

    2006-01-01

    The presence of P. primaurelia, P. biaurelia, P. triaurelia, and P. novaurelia of the P. aurelia complex was revealed in the studied region of Russia. RAPD-PCR fingerprints (band patterns) of newly identified P. novaurelia strains from Russia were compared to those characteristic for the other chosen European strains of the species. The strains revealed intraspecific polymorphism as several groups of genotypes confirming the existence of polymorphism within P. novaurelia.

  8. Regulation of peripheral blood flow in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: clinical implication for symptomatic relief and pain management

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background During the chronic stage of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS), impaired microcirculation is related to increased vasoconstriction, tissue hypoxia, and metabolic tissue acidosis in the affected limb. Several mechanisms may be responsible for the ischemia and pain in chronic cold CPRS. Discussion The diminished blood flow may be caused by either sympathetic dysfunction, hypersensitivity to circulating catecholamines, or endothelial dysfunction. The pain may be of neuropa...

  9. Assessment of regional influence from a petrochemical complex by modeling and fingerprint analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yuan-Chang; Chen, Sheng-Po; Tong, Yu-Huei; Fan, Chen-Lun; Chen, Wei-Hao; Wang, Jia-Lin; Chang, Julius S.

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to demonstrate a strategy to investigate the influence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on its neighboring districts from a gigantic petrochemical complex. Monitoring of the VOCs in the region was achieved by a nine-station network, dubbed photochemical assessment measurement stations (PAMS), which produced speciated mixing ratios of 54 non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) to represent VOCs with an hourly resolution within a 20 km radius. One-year (2013/10/1-2014/9/30) worth of PAMS data from the network were used in forms of total NMHCs (called PAMS-TNMHC) and speciated mixing ratios. Three dimensional modeling coupled with PAMS measurements successfully elucidated how the study domain was affected by the petrochemical complex and distant sources under three typical seasonal wind patterns: northeast monsoonal, southwest monsoonal, and local-circulation. More exquisite analysis of influence on the neighboring districts was permitted with the use of speciated mixing ratios of VOCs provided by the PAMS network. The ratios of ethylene/acetylene (E/A) > 3 and propylene/acetylene (P/A) > 1.5 were used as indicators to reveal the PAMS sites affected by the petrochemical emissions. Consequently, the hourly speciated data from the nine PAMS sites enabled a finer assessment of the districts affected by the complex to calculate the percent time of influence (dubbed TI%) for all the sites (districts). It was found that the region was more affected by the complex under both the northeast monsoonal and the local-circulation wind types with some of the PAMS sites greater than 5% for the TI%. By contrast, influence on the region was found minimal under the southwest monsoonal flow with the TI% small than 1.5% across all sites. This study successfully devised a method of assessment with the use of speciated measurements of selected VOCs and modeling to assess the influence of a prominent source on the neighboring districts by filtering out irrelevant sources under

  10. Organic inclusion complex novel materials for optical second-harmonic generation in ultraviolet region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanqing; Lu, Mengkai

    1996-10-01

    Herein is presented a new class of materials for second harmonic generation (SHG) -- organic inclusion complex, in which 'SHG-active units' (guest) are incorporated into chiral handle polycondensed anions (host) through short hydrogen bonds. The former can provide nonlinear optical response. The latter is expected to produce noncentrosymmetric structural 'molecular framework' and improve fundamental properties of materials such as thermal stability, mechanical strength and fabrication behavior, et al. Several new SHG active inclusion complexes were synthesized. In particular, optically fine bulk crystals of urea-(d)tartaric acid (UDT) and urea-(dl)tartaric acid (UDLT) have been obtained. They have good powder SHG intensity and short cutoff wavelengths.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: HII regions and GMC in the Antennae (Zaragoza-Cardiel+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragoza-Cardiel, J.; Font, J.; Beckman, J. E.; Garcia-Lorenzo, B.; Erroz-Ferrer, S.; Gutierrez, L.

    2014-10-01

    We present two sets of observations of the Antennae: data cubes of emission in Hα from the ionized component of the interstellar medium and of emission in the CO(3-2) line from the molecular component. (4 data files).

  12. The ionizing radiation from massive stars and its impact on HII regions: results from modern model atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Simón-Díaz, S

    2008-01-01

    We present a detailed comparison of the ionizing spectral energy distributions (SEDs) predicted by four modern stellar atmosphere codes, TLUSTY, CMFGEN, WMbasic, and FASTWIND. We consider three sets of stellar parameters representing a late O-type dwarf (O9.5 V), a mid O-type (O7 V) dwarf, and an early O-type dwarf (O5.5 V). We explore two different possibilities for such a comparison, following what we called evolutionary and observational approaches: in the evolutionary approach one compares the SEDs of stars defined by the same values of Teff and logg; in the observational approach the models to be compared do not necessarily have the same Teff and logg, but produce similar H and HeI-II optical lines. We find that there is a better agreement, in terms of Q(H0), the ratio Q(He0)/Q(H0), and the shape of the SEDs predicted by the four codes in the spectral range between 13 and 30 eV, when models are compared following the observational approach. However, even in this case, large differences are found at highe...

  13. A search for precursors of Ultracompact HII Regions in a sample of luminous IRAS sources; 3, Circumstellar Dust Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Molinari, S; Cesaroni, R; Palla, Fabrizio; Molinari, Sergio; Brand, Jan; Cesaroni, Riccardo; Palla, Francesco

    2000-01-01

    The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope has been used to obtain submillimeter and millimeter continuum photometry of a sample of 30 IRAS sources previously studied in molecular lines and centimeter radio continuum. All the sources have IRAS colours typical of very young stellar objects (YSOs) and are associated with dense gas. In spite of their high luminosities (L>10000 solar units), only ten of these sources are also associated with a radio counterpart. In 17 cases we could identify a clear peak of millimeter emission associated with the IRAS source, while in 9 sources the millimeter emission was extended or faint and a clear peak could not be identified; upper limits were found in 4 cases only. Using simple greybody fitting model to the observed SED, we derive global properties of the circumstellar dust. The dust temperature varies from 24 K to 45 K, while the exponent of the dust emissivity vs frequency power-law spans a range 1.56

  14. A spectral and photometric study of 102 star forming regions in seven spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Gusev, A S; Piskunov, A E; Kharchenko, N V; Bruevich, V V; Ezhkova, O V; Guslyakova, S A; Lang, V; Shimanovskaya, E V; Efremov, Yu N

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of complexes of young massive star clusters (YMCs), embedded in extragalactic giant HII regions, based on the coupling of spectroscopic with photometric and spectrophotometric observations of about 100 star forming regions in seven spiral galaxies (NGC 628, NGC 783, NGC 2336, NGC 6217, NGC 6946, NGC 7331, and NGC 7678). The complete observational database has been observed and accumulated within the framework of our comprehensive study of extragalactic star forming regions. The current paper presents the last part of either unpublished or refreshed photometric and spectrophotometric observations of the galaxies NGC 6217, NGC 6946, NGC 7331, and NGC 7678. We derive extinctions, chemical abundances, continuum and line emissions of ionised gas, ages and masses for cluster complexes. We find the young massive cluster complexes to have ages no greater than 10 Myr and masses between 10^4Msol and 10^7Msol, and the extinctions A(V) vary between ~ 0 and 3 mag, while the impact of the nebular emissio...

  15. Complex Chemistry in Star-Forming Regions: An Expanded Gas-Grain Warm-up Chemical Model

    CERN Document Server

    Garrod, Robin T; Herbst, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Gas-phase processes were long thought to be the key formation mechanisms for complex organic molecules in star-forming regions. However, recent experimental and theoretical evidence has cast doubt on the efficiency of such processes. Grain-surface chemistry is frequently invoked as a solution, but until now there have been no quantitative models taking into account both the high degree of chemical complexity and the evolving physical conditions of star-forming regions. Here, we introduce a new gas-grain chemical network, wherein a wide array of complex species may be formed by reactions involving radicals. The radicals we consider (H, OH, CO, HCO, CH3, CH3O, CH2OH, NH and NH2) are produced primarily by cosmic ray-induced photodissociation of the granular ices formed during the colder, earlier stages of evolution. The gradual warm-up of the hot core is crucial to the formation of complex molecules, allowing the more strongly-bound radicals to become mobile on grain surfaces. This type of chemistry is capable o...

  16. Non-coding roX RNAs prevent the binding of the MSL-complex to heterochromatic regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida L A Figueiredo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Long non-coding RNAs contribute to dosage compensation in both mammals and Drosophila by inducing changes in the chromatin structure of the X-chromosome. In Drosophila melanogaster, roX1 and roX2 are long non-coding RNAs that together with proteins form the male-specific lethal (MSL complex, which coats the entire male X-chromosome and mediates dosage compensation by increasing its transcriptional output. Studies on polytene chromosomes have demonstrated that when both roX1 and roX2 are absent, the MSL-complex becomes less abundant on the male X-chromosome and is relocated to the chromocenter and the 4th chromosome. Here we address the role of roX RNAs in MSL-complex targeting and the evolution of dosage compensation in Drosophila. We performed ChIP-seq experiments which showed that MSL-complex recruitment to high affinity sites (HAS on the X-chromosome is independent of roX and that the HAS sequence motif is conserved in D. simulans. Additionally, a complete and enzymatically active MSL-complex is recruited to six specific genes on the 4th chromosome. Interestingly, our sequence analysis showed that in the absence of roX RNAs, the MSL-complex has an affinity for regions enriched in Hoppel transposable elements and repeats in general. We hypothesize that roX mutants reveal the ancient targeting of the MSL-complex and propose that the role of roX RNAs is to prevent the binding of the MSL-complex to heterochromatin.

  17. Ice Complex permafrost of MIS5 age in the Dmitry Laptev Strait coastal region (East Siberian Arctic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterich, Sebastian; Tumskoy, Vladimir; Rudaya, Natalia; Kuznetsov, Vladislav; Maksimov, Fedor; Opel, Thomas; Meyer, Hanno; Andreev, Andrei A.; Schirrmeister, Lutz

    2016-09-01

    Ice Complex deposits (locally known as the Buchchagy Ice Complex) are exposed at both coasts of the East Siberian Dmitry Laptev Strait and preserved below the Yedoma Ice Complex that formed during MIS3 and MIS2 (Marine Isotope Stage) and lateglacial-Holocene thermokarst deposits (MIS1). Radioisotope disequilibria (230Th/U) of peaty horizons date the Buchchagy Ice Complex deposition to 126 + 16/-13 kyr and 117 + 19/-14 kyr until 98 ± 5 kyr and 89 ± 5 kyr. The deposit is characterised by poorly-sorted medium-to-coarse silts with cryogenic structures of horizontal ice bands, lens-like, and lens-like reticulated segregation ice. Two peaty horizons within the Buchchagy Ice Complex and syngenetic ice wedges (2-4 m wide, up to 10 m high) are striking. The isotopic composition (δ18O, δD) of Buchchagy ice-wedge ice indicates winter conditions colder than during the MIS3 interstadial and warmer than during MIS2 stadial, and similar atmospheric winter moisture sources as during the MIS2 stadial. Buchchagy Ice Complex pollen spectra reveal tundra-steppe vegetation and harsher summer conditions than during the MIS3 interstadial and rather similar vegetation as during the MIS2 stadial. Short-term climatic variability during MIS5 is reflected in the record. Even though the regional chronostratigraphic relationship of the Buchchagy Ice Complex to the Last Interglacial remains unclear because numerical dating is widely lacking, the present study indicates permafrost (Ice Complex) formation during MIS5 sensu lato, and its preservation afterwards. Palaeoenvironmental insights into past climate and the periglacial landscape dynamics of arctic lowlands in eastern Siberia are deduced from the record.

  18. The molecular cloud-H II region complexes associated with SH 90 and SH 235

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafon, G.; Baudry, A.; de La Noe, J.; Deharveng, L.

    1983-07-01

    The Sharpless regions Sh 90 and Sh 235 are characterized on the basis of monochromatic photographs (at H-alpha, N III, and O III) and H-alpha photographic interferograms made at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence and of molecular-cloud maps (at 110.201 and 89.189 GHz) made at the Observatoire de Bordeaux. Sh 90, at a distance of 2.4 kpc, is found to have an evolved-H II-region shell structure, with ionized gas flowing both away from and toward a neutral molecular cloud with a mass of about 60,000 solar mass which lies partly in front of the H II region. Sh 235, at 1.6 kpc, has two extended 100,000-300,000-solar-mass neutral clouds which partly overlap. The northern cloud, identified at -20 km/s, is related to the optical nebula; the southern cloud (at -17 km/s) contains three compact H II regions (A, B, and C) and exhibits recent star-formation processes. The 'champagne' model of H II regions proposed by Tenorio-Tagle (1979) is considered applicable to Sh 90 and to Sh 235C.

  19. Different Evolutionary Stages in the Massive Star Forming Region S255 Complex

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Y; Bik, A; Vasyunina, T; Jiang, Z; Puga, E; Linz, H; Rodon, J A; Henning, Th; Tamura, M

    2010-01-01

    To understand evolutionary and environmental effects during the formation of high-mass stars, we observed three regions of massive star formation at different evolutionary stages that reside in the same natal molecular cloud. Methods. The three regions S255IR, S255N and S255S were observed at 1.3 mm with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) and followup short spacing information was obtained with the IRAM 30m telescope. Near infrared (NIR) H + K-band spectra and continuum observations were taken for S255IR with VLT-SINFONI to study the different stellar populations in this region. The combination of millimeter (mm) and near infrared data allow us to characterize different stellar populations within the young forming cluster in detail. While we find multiple mm continuum sources toward all regions, their outflow, disk and chemical properties vary considerably. The most evolved source S255IR exhibits a collimated bipolar outflow visible in CO and H2 emission, the outflows from the youngest region S255S are still small...

  20. Complex regional pain syndrome related dystonia : exploratory metabolomics and therapeutic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plas, Anton Adriaan van der

    2013-01-01

    Dit proefschrift beschrijft de resultaten van aan aantal studies naar bewegingsstoornissen en pijn bij patiënten met complex regionaal pijnsyndroom (CRPS). Ten eerste werd het effect onderzocht van intrathecaal baclofen op verschillende pijnkwaliteiten bij CRPS-patiënten, de invloed bestudeerd van v