WorldWideScience

Sample records for hii region complexes

  1. HRM: HII Region Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Trey V.; Kepley, Amanda K.; Balser, Dana S.

    2017-07-01

    HII Region Models fits HII region models to observed radio recombination line and radio continuum data. The algorithm includes the calculations of departure coefficients to correct for non-LTE effects. HII Region Models has been used to model star formation in the nucleus of IC 342.

  2. Young stellar population and star formation history ofW4 HII region/Cluster Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, Neelam

    2018-04-01

    The HII region/cluster complex has been a subject of numerous investigations to study the feedback effect of massive stars on their surroundings. Massive stars not only alter the morphology of the parental molecular clouds, but also influence star formation, circumstellar disks and the mass function of low-mass stars in their vicinity. However, most of the studies of low-mass stellar content of the HII regions are limited only to the nearby regions. We study the star formation in the W4 HII region using deep optical observations obtained with the archival data from Canada - France - Hawaii Telescope, Two-Micron All Sky Survey, Spitzer, Herschel and Chandra. We investigate the spatial distribution of young stellar objects in the region, their association with the remnant molecular clouds, and search for the clustering to establish the sites of recent star formation. Our analysis suggests that the influence of massive stars on circumstellar disks is significant only to thei! r immediate neighborhood. The spatial correlation of the young stars with the distribution of gas and dust of the complex indicate that the clusters would have formed in a large filamentary cloud. The observing facilities at the 3.6-m Devasthal Optical Telescope (DOT), providing high-resolution spectral and imaging capabilities, will fulfill the major objectives in the study of HII regions.

  3. Giant HII regions as distance indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnick, Jorge; Terlevich, Robert; Moles, Mariano

    1987-01-01

    The correlations between the integrated Hβ luminosities, the velocity widths of the nebular lines and the metallicities of giant HII regions and HII galaxies are demonstrated to provide powerful distance indicators. They are calibrated on a homogeneous sample of giant HII regions with well determined distances and applied to distant HII galaxies to obtain a value of H 0 =95+-10 for the Hubble parameter, consistent with the value obtained by the Tully-Fisher technique. The effect of Malmquist bias and other systematic effects on the HII region method are discussed in detail. (Author)

  4. The Southern HII Region Discovery Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Trey; Miller Dickey, John; Jordan, Christopher; Bania, Thomas M.; Balser, Dana S.; Dawson, Joanne; Anderson, Loren D.; Armentrout, William P.; McClure-Griffiths, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    HII regions are zones of ionized gas surrounding recently formed high-mass (OB-type) stars. They are among the brightest objects in the sky at radio wavelengths. HII regions provide a useful tool in constraining the Galactic morphological structure, chemical structure, and star formation rate. We describe the Southern HII Region Discovery Survey (SHRDS), an Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) survey that discovered ~80 new HII regions (so far) in the Galactic longitude range 230 degrees to 360 degrees. This project is an extension of the Green Bank Telescope HII Region Discovery Survey (GBT HRDS), Arecibo HRDS, and GBT Widefield Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) HRDS, which together discovered ~800 new HII regions in the Galactic longitude range -20 degrees to 270 degrees. Similar to those surveys, candidate HII regions were chosen from 20 micron emission (from WISE) coincident with 10 micron (WISE) and 20 cm (SGPS) emission. By using the ATCA to detect radio continuum and radio recombination line emission from a subset of these candidates, we have added to the population of known Galactic HII regions.

  5. The formation of HII regions. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenorio-Tagle, G.

    1978-04-01

    Numerical models of the evolution of HII regions accounting for the fact that star formation takes place inside a dense cloud are presented. The gas dynamical effects produced after the ionization of the cloud's edge (from the inside) are here postulated to determine the size, velocity field, and large scale density variation observed in HII regions. The consequences and observational predictions from these models are also given. (orig.) [de

  6. Abundance determinations in HII regions and planetary nebulae

    OpenAIRE

    Stasinska, Grazyna

    2002-01-01

    The methods of abundance determinations in HII regions and planetary nebulae are described, with emphasis on the underlying assumptions and inherent problems. Recent results on abundances in Galactic HII regions and in Galactic and extragalactic Planetary Nebulae are reviewed.

  7. A Complete Census of the ~7000 Milky Way HII Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armentrout, William Paul; Anderson, Loren Dean; Wenger, Trey; Bania, Thomas; Balser, Dana; Dame, Thomas; Dickey, John M.; Dawson, Joanne; Jordan, Christopher H.; McClure-Griffiths, Naomi M.; Andersen, Morten

    2018-01-01

    HII regions are the archetypical tracers of high-mass star formation. Because of their high luminosities, they can be seen across the entire Galactic disk from mid-infrared to radio wavelengths. A uniformly sensitive survey of Galactic HII regions would allow us to constrain the properties of Galactic structure and star formation. We have cataloged over 8000 HII regions and candidates in the WISE Catalog of Galactic HII Regions (astro.phys.wvu.edu/wise), but only 2000 of these are confirmed HII regions to date.To bring us closer to a complete census of high-mass star formation regions in the Milky Way, we have several ongoing observational campaigns. These efforts include (1) Green Bank Telescope radio recombination line (RRL) observations as part of the HII Region Discovery Survey (HRDS); (2) Australia Telescope Compact Array observations of southern HII region candidates in the Southern HII Region Discovery Survey (SHRDS); (3) Green Bank and Gemini North Telescope observations of star formation regions thought to reside at the edge of the star forming disk in the Outer Scutum-Centaurus Arm (OSC); and (4) Very Large Array continuum observations of the faintest HII region candidates in the second and third Galactic quadrants.Together, these observations will detect the RRL emission from all Galactic HII regions with peak cm-wavelength flux densities > 60mJy, establish the outer edge of Galactic high-mass star formation, and determine the number of HII regions in the Galaxy. The HRDS and SHRDS surveys have more than doubled the known population of Galactic HII regions. We use the OSC observations to determine the properties of high-mass star formation in the extreme outer Galaxy and our VLA observations to determine how many of our faint candidates are indeed HII regions. We combine the completeness limits we obtain through these HII region surveys with an HII region population synthesis model to estimate the total number of Galactic HII regions. From this, we

  8. The Southern HII Region Discovery Survey: The Bright Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Trey V.; Dickey, John M.; Jordan, Christopher H.; Balser, Dana; Armentrout, William Paul; Anderson, Loren; Bania, Thomas; Dawson, Joanne; McClure-Griffiths, Naomi M.; Shea, Jeanine

    2018-01-01

    HII regions, the zones of ionized gas surrounding recently formed high-mass stars, are the archetypical tracers of Galactic structure. The census of Galactic HII regions in the Southern sky is vastly incomplete due to a lack of sensitive radio recombination line (RRL) surveys. The Southern HII Region Discovery Survey (SHRDS) is a 900-hour Australia Telescope Compact Array cm-wavelength RRL and continuum emission survey of hundreds of third and fourth quadrant Galactic HII region candidates. These candidates are identified in the Widefield Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) Catalog of Galactic HII Regions based on coincident 10 micron (WISE) and 20 cm (Southern Galactic Plane Survey) emission. The SHRDS is an extension of HII Region Discovery Surveys in the Northern sky with the Green Bank Telescope and Arecibo Telescope which discovered ~800 new HII regions. In the first 500 hours of the SHRDS, we targeted the 249 brightest HII region candidates and 33 previously known HII regions. We discuss the data reduction, analysis, and preliminary results from this first stage of the survey.

  9. Differences in the size-internal velocity relation of galactic and extragalactic HII regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, C.R.

    1990-01-01

    The nature of the size-internal velocity relation in extragalactic HII regions is examined in order to improve their use as distance determinants. The relation between the linear size and the internal velocity was compared for HII regions in the Galaxy and in external galaxies. Data for the former are from the researcher's own studies at high spatial resolution, while the latter have been the subject of spectroscopy that includes almost the entire objects. The Galactic HII regions are corrected to values of the internal velocity that would be observed if they were at extragalactic distances. A very different size-internal velocity relation was found for the two types of objects in the sense that the extragalactic objects are some ten times larger at the same internal velocity. This is interpreted to mean that the extragalactic HII regions are actually complexes of small HII regions comparable in size to their Galactic counterparts

  10. HII regions in collapsing massive molecular clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yorke, H.W.; Bodenheimer, P.; Tenorio-Tagle, G.

    1982-01-01

    Results of two-dimensional numerical calculations of the evolution of HII regions associated with self-gravitating, massive molecular clouds are presented. Depending on the location of the exciting star, a champagne flow can occur concurrently with the central collapse of a nonrotating cloud. Partial evaporation of the cloud at a rate of about 0.005 solar masses/yr results. When 100 O-stars are placed at the center of a freely falling cloud of 3x10 5 solar masses no evaporation takes place. Rotating clouds collapse to disks and the champagne flow can evaporate the cloud at a higher rate (0.01 solar masses/yr). It is concluded that massive clouds containing OB-stars have lifetimes of no more than 10 7 yr. (Auth.)

  11. Radio continuum interferometry of dark clouds: A search for newly formed HII regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmore, W.S.

    1978-01-01

    A search for compact HII regions embedded in dark clouds has been carried out in an effort to study local massive star formation. Approximately 20% of the total area of opaque dark cloud material in the sky with Av greater than or equal to 6 mag was surveyed with the NRAO three-element interferometer at 2695 MHz, and at least 5% more was surveyed with the NRAO 300-foot telescope at 4750 MHz. The regions surveyed include the dark cloud complexes in Perseus, Taurus, Orion, and Ophiuchus, as well as several smaller cloud complexes and individual clouds. No hidden compact HII regions embedded inside dark clouds were detected with certainty in the radio continuum. However, eleven HII regions with associated visible emission and eighteen other possible HII regions were detected. Five infrared sources thought to have the luminosities of early B stars were not detected in the radio continuum. These five sources showed high correlation with the presence of CO self-absorption, CO emission over a wide range of velocities, and type I OH masers, but an absence of coincident visible nebulosity and detectable radio continuum emission. Therefore, it is suggested that they represent an earlier evolutionary stage than those HII region detected in the radio continuum. This first evolutionary state marks the presence of ''pre-emergent'' (with respect to the molecular cloud) cocoon stars. HII regions in the second evolutionary state are marked by the presence of detectable radio continuum emission, i.e., they are stronger than 10 mJy at 2695 MHz. They have associated visible nebulosity, are relatively large, and appear to be located at the edges of molecular clouds. These are designated as ''emergent edge'' HII regions. The fact that many young HII regions are edge HII regions implies that massive stars are born near the edges of clouds, a phenomenon previously suggested by several other investigators

  12. The Southern HII Region Discovery Survey: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Jeanine; Wenger, Trey; Balser, Dana S.; Anderson, Loren D.; Armentrout, William P.; Bania, Thomas M.; Dawson, Joanne; Miller Dickey, John; Jordan, Christopher; McClure-Griffiths, Naomi M.

    2017-01-01

    HII regions are some of the brightest sources at radio frequencies in the Milky Way and are the sites of massive O and B-type star formation. They have relatively short (Bank Telescope. Candidate HII regions were selected from mid-infrared emission coincident with radio continuum emission, and confirmed as HII regions by the detection of radio recombination lines. Here we discuss the Southern HII Region Discovery Survey (SHRDS), a continuation of the HRDS using the Australia Telescope Compact Array over the Galactic longitude range 230 to 360 degrees. We have reduced and analyzed a small sub-set of the SHRDS sources and discuss preliminary results, including kinematic distances and metallicities.

  13. Optical and near-IR study of LMC HII region N11AB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.G.

    1990-01-01

    N11 (DEM 34), complex HII region located about 4 degrees from the center of the LMC bar, is a very interesting giant interstellar shell. It has a complicated structure and motion. It is located on the edge of an HI concentration. This is the progress report of the study of its two components, A and B at the optical and near-IR wavelengths to investigate stars, dust and ionized gas associated with them. N11A is a compact high-excitation blob and N11B is a bright HII region in this complex, which embeds OB association Lucke-Hodge 10

  14. Aperture synthesis observations of recombination lines from compact HII regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorkom, J.H. van.

    1980-01-01

    This thesis describes a continuation of early attempts to attain a high spectral dynamic range in general and to study recombination lines from compact HII regions in particular. These observations are made with the WSRT, until recently, the only instrument with sufficient angular resolution and sensitivity to provide at 6 cm detailed line maps of compact HII regions. An investigation into the spectral stability of the WSRT is described. Chromatic errors were found and their effects on maps are shown. These errors were found in the 80 channel filter spectrometer which was still in use at that time. The advent of the digital line backend (DLB) improved the dynamic range by an order of magnitude. An experiment is described which was partially aimed at testing the spectral stability of the DLB. It concerns a search for HI emission from the high velocity system of NGC 1275. Recombination line observations of the compact components in five giant HII regions are presented. The author discusses the radiative transfer problem in recombination lines and shows that non-LTE effects and pressure broadening can be of importance in compact HII regions. Observations obtained with the DLB are also presented. Because of the much better instrumental quality and improved insight into calibration procedures, mapping the H110α emission of DR21 and both the H110α and H166α emission of W3 was succeeded. (Auth.)

  15. Spectrophotometric observations of very low ionization HII regions in the LMC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, M.; Ruiz, M.T.; Rubio, M.

    1987-01-01

    Optical spectrophotometric observations of 17 very low ionization HII regions of the LMC are reported. Physical conditions and chemical composition of these objects are derived from the emission line intensities. The average chemical abundances obtained are: log O/H=8.49+-0.08, log N/H=6.91+-0.07 and log S/H=6.89+-0.10. We do not find evidence of any composition gradient in the LMC. The HII regions in the vicinity of the detected molecular cloud complexes show higher nebular reddening. (Author)

  16. Shape Analysis of HII Regions - I. Statistical Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-White, Justyn; Froebrich, Dirk; Kume, Alfred

    2018-04-01

    We present here our shape analysis method for a sample of 76 Galactic HII regions from MAGPIS 1.4 GHz data. The main goal is to determine whether physical properties and initial conditions of massive star cluster formation is linked to the shape of the regions. We outline a systematic procedure for extracting region shapes and perform hierarchical clustering on the shape data. We identified six groups that categorise HII regions by common morphologies. We confirmed the validity of these groupings by bootstrap re-sampling and the ordinance technique multidimensional scaling. We then investigated associations between physical parameters and the assigned groups. Location is mostly independent of group, with a small preference for regions of similar longitudes to share common morphologies. The shapes are homogeneously distributed across Galactocentric distance and latitude. One group contains regions that are all younger than 0.5 Myr and ionised by low- to intermediate-mass sources. Those in another group are all driven by intermediate- to high-mass sources. One group was distinctly separated from the other five and contained regions at the surface brightness detection limit for the survey. We find that our hierarchical procedure is most sensitive to the spatial sampling resolution used, which is determined for each region from its distance. We discuss how these errors can be further quantified and reduced in future work by utilising synthetic observations from numerical simulations of HII regions. We also outline how this shape analysis has further applications to other diffuse astronomical objects.

  17. Fractal dimension and turbulence in Giant HII Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caicedo-Ortiz, H E; Santiago-Cortes, E; López-Bonilla, J; er piso, CP 07738, México D.F (Mexico))" data-affiliation=" (ESFM, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Edif. 9, 1er piso, CP 07738, México D.F (Mexico))" >Castañeda, H O

    2015-01-01

    We have measured the fractal dimensions of the Giant HII Regions Hubble X and Hubble V in NGC6822 using images obtained with the Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2). These measures are associated with the turbulence observed in these regions, which is quantified through the velocity dispersion of emission lines in the visible. Our results suggest low turbulence behaviour

  18. CO J=2-1 observations toward southern HII regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.N.; Ruf, K.; Wilson, T.L.; Zimmermann, P.; Emerson, D.T.

    1983-01-01

    A spectral line receiver system developed at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie in Bonn was installed on the ESO 3.6-m and 1-m telescopes in July 1981. The cooled mixer front end gave DSB receiver temperatures of 260-600 K at 230 GHz. The spectrometer was a 256 x 1 MHz filterbank. The authors have observed the CO 2-1 transition towards 42 positions corresponding to the brightest southern HII regions. (Auth.)

  19. Properties of the HII Regions Derived Using Integral Field Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian F. Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we review some of our more recent results on the observed properties of HII regions using Integral Field Spectroscopy. In particular, we illustrate the use of this technique to study in detail the ionization conditions across the nebulae for galactic HII regions (focused on the Orion Nebula and the statistical study of large samples of extragalactic HII regions. We review the reported new scaling relation between the local mass density and the oxygen abundance across the disk galaxies and the recently discovered universal gradient for oxygen abundances. We update our previous results the lack of a dependence of the Mass-Metallicity relation with the starformation rate, including new unpublished data. Finally we discuss on the relation between the ionization conditions in the nebulae and the underlying stellar population. All together our results indicate that disk galaxies present a chemical enrichment dominated by an inside-out growth scenario, with a less evident effect of radial migrations and/or outflows.

  20. Far-infrared spectroscopy of HII regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, R.J.; Kessler, M.F.

    1984-01-01

    Interest has developed rapidly in the astrophysics associated with far-infrared line emission from ionised regions, following the development of spectroscopic instruments and observing facilities appropriate to those wavelengths. Far-infrared observations and their interpretation are now at the stage where the need for specific developments in theoretical and laboratory work have been identified. The need is also apparent for the development of models dealing with more realistic astrophysical situations. (Auth.)

  1. Star bursts and giant HII regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagel, B.E.J.

    1990-01-01

    Massive star formation bursts occur in a variety of galactic environments and can temporarily dominate the light output of a galaxy even when a relatively small proportion of its mass is involved. Inferences about their ages, the IMF and its dependence on chemical composition are still somewhat wobbly owing to an excess of unknowns, but certain things can be deduced from emission spectra of associated H II regions when due regard is paid to the effects of chemical composition and ionization parameter: In particular, largest ionization parameters and effective temperatures of exciting stars, at any given oxygen abundance, are anti-correlated with the abundance, and the second effect suggests an increasing proportion of more massive stars at lower abundances, although this is not yet satisfactorily quantified. A new blue compact galaxies could be very young, but it is equally possible that there is an older population of low surface brightness. Some giant H II regions may be self-polluted with nitrogen and helium due to winds from massive stars in the associated burst. (orig.)

  2. Properties of the HII Regions Derived Using Integral Field Spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sánchez, Sebastián F.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 2013, č. 1 (2013), 596501/1-596501/14 ISSN 1687-7969 Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M100031241; Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M100031201 Program:M Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : H-II regions * star -foraming galaxies * chemo-spectrophotometric evolution Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.234, year: 2013

  3. [NEII] Line Velocity Structure of Ultracompact HII Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Yoshiko K.; Kataza, Hirokazu; Yamashita, Takuya; Miyata, Takashi; Sako, Shigeyuki; Honda, Mitsuhiko; Onaka, Takashi; Fujiyoshi, Takuya

    Newly formed massive stars are embedded in their natal molecular clouds and are observed as ultracompact HII regions. They emit strong ionic lines such as [NeII] 12.8 micron. Since Ne is ionized by UV photons of E>21.6eV which is higher than the ionization energy of hydrogen atoms the line probes the ionized gas near the ionizing stars. This enables to probe gas motion in the vicinity of recently-formed massive stars. High angular and spectral resolution observations of the [NeII] line will thus provide siginificant information on structures (e.g. disks and outflows) generated through massive star formation. We made [NeII] spectroscopy of ultracompact HII regions using the Cooled Mid-Infrared Camera and Spectrometer (COMICS) on the 8.2m Subaru Telescope in July 2002. Spatial and spectral resolutions were 0.5"" and 10000 respectively. Among the targets G45.12+0.13 shows the largest spatial variation in velocity. The brightest area of G45.12+0.13 has the largest line width in the object. The total velocity deviation amounts to 50km/s (peak to peak value) in the observed area. We report the velocity structure of [NeII] emission of G45.12+0.13 and discuss the gas motion near the ionizing star.

  4. Smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations of expanding HII regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisbas, Thomas G.

    2009-09-01

    This thesis deals with numerical simulations of expanding ionized regions, known as HII regions. We implement a new three dimensional algorithm in Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics for including the dynamical effects of the interaction between ionizing radiation and the interstellar medium. This interaction plays a crucial role in star formation at all epochs. We study the influence of ionizing radiation in spherically symmetric clouds. In particular, we study the spherically symmetric expansion of an HII region inside a uniform-density, non-self-gravitating cloud. We examine the ability of our algorithm to reproduce the known theoretical solution and we find that the agreement is very good. We also study the spherically symmetric expansion inside a uniform-density, self-gravitating cloud. We propose a new differential equation of motion for the expanding shell that includes the effects of gravity. Comparing its numerical solution with the simulations, we find that the equation predicts the position of the shell accurately. We also study the expansion of an off-centre HII region inside a uniform-density, non- self-gravitating cloud. This results in an evolution known as the rocket effect, where the ionizing radiation pushes and accelerates the cloud away from the exciting star leading to its dispersal. During this evolution, cometary knots appear as a result of Rayleigh-Taylor and Vishniac instabilities. The knots are composed of a dense head with a conic tail behind them, a structure that points towards the ionizing source. Our simulations show that these knots are very reminiscent of the observed structures in planetary nebula, such as in the Helix nebula. The last part of this thesis is dedicated to the study of cores ionized by an exciting source which is placed outside and far away from them. The evolution of these cores is known as radiation driven compression (or implosion). We perform simulations and compare our findings with results of other workers and we

  5. GMRT and VLA Observations at 49 cm and 20 cm of the HII Region ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2007-03-08

    Mar 8, 2007 ... as arising in the diffuse HII region and find that the best fitting model has an electron density ... these observations was to image and determine the physical properties of the diffuse. HII region from which ... At the time of our observations, noise switching to measure the system temperature was not available.

  6. Herschel observations in the ultracompact HII region Mon R2 : Water in dense photon-dominated regions (PDRs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuente, A.; Berne, O.; Cernicharo, J.; Rizzo, J. R.; Gonzalez-Garcia, M.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Pilleri, P.; Ossenkopf, V.; Gerin, M.; Guesten, R.; Akyilmaz, M.; Benz, A. O.; Boulanger, F.; Bruderer, S.; Dedes, C.; France, K.; Garcia-Burillo, S.; Harris, A.; Joblin, C.; Klein, T.; Kramer, C.; Le Petit, F.; Lord, S. D.; Martin, P. G.; Martin-Pintado, J.; Mookerjea, B.; Neufeld, D. A.; Okada, Y.; Pety, J.; Phillips, T. G.; Roellig, M.; Simon, R.; Stutzki, J.; van der Tak, F.; Teyssier, D.; Usero, A.; Yorke, H.; Schuster, K.; Melchior, M.; Lorenzani, A.; Szczerba, R.; Fich, M.; McCoey, C.; Pearson, J.; Dieleman, P.

    2010-01-01

    Context. Monoceros R2, at a distance of 830 pc, is the only ultracompact Hii region (UC Hii) where the photon-dominated region (PDR) between the ionized gas and the molecular cloud can be resolved with Herschel. Therefore, it is an excellent laboratory to study the chemistry in extreme PDRs (G0 >

  7. Why is observable radio recombination line emission from galactic HII regions always close to LTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaver, P.A.

    1980-01-01

    There is no evidence for significant deviations from LTE in single-dish observations of radio recombination line emission from galactic HII regions. This is in agreement with the known properties of HII regions, particularly their density variations and limited range of excitation parameters; the optimum configuration for strong observable non-LTE effects, low electron density and high emission measure, simply does not exist in galactic HII regions, and the observed lines are emitted under near-LTE conditions. Models of the Orion Nebulae and NGC 6604 are presented which fit all available data and show only weak stimulated emission. It is concluded that reliable electron temperatures can indeed be obtained from straightforward analysis of appropriate radio recombination lines. (orig.)

  8. A radio catalog of Galactic HII regions for applications from decimeter to millimeter wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paladini, R.; Burigana, C.; Davies, R. D.; Maino, D.; Bersanelli, M.; Cappellini, B.; Platania, P.; Smoot, G.

    2003-01-01

    By collecting the information from 24 previously published lists and catalogs, we produce a comprehensive catalog (Master Catalog) of 1442 Galactic HII regions. For each object, we quote the original fluxes and diameters as well as the available information on radio line velocities, line widths and line temperatures and the errors on these quantitities. References to the original works are also reported. By exploiting all these data we produce a Synthetic Catalog of fluxes and diameters (with corresponding errors) at 2.7 GHz. This choice is motivated by the extensive, although not complete, information available at this frequency, widely spread among many different catalogs, and by its relevance for both detailed studies on Galactic HII regions and the extrapolation up to millimetric wavelengths. The catalog can be used for detailed studies of Galactic HII regions and, by extrapolation, for investigations of HII regions up to millimetric wavelengths. In particular, we discuss the study of the effects of microwave emission from HII regions on the new generation of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) experiments. We present simulations of the detection of HII regions in the PLANCK high resolution CMB survey, and briefly analize some of the typical applications of our catalog to the evaluation of CMB anisotropy experiments such as calibration, beam reconstruction and straylight effects. The Master Catalog and the Synthetic Catalog are available via ftp at: cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr. This work is related to PLANCK-LFI activities. The Master Catalog and the Synthetic Catalog are only available in electronic form via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/397/213

  9. The evolution of young HII regions. I. Continuum emission and internal dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, P. D.; Johnston, K. G.; Urquhart, J. S.; Mottram, J. C.; Peters, T.; Kuiper, R.; Beuther, H.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Goddi, C.

    2018-04-01

    Context. High-mass stars form in much richer environments than those associated with isolated low-mass stars, and once they reach a certain mass, produce ionised (HII) regions. The formation of these pockets of ionised gas are unique to the formation of high-mass stars (M > 8 M⊙), and present an excellent opportunity to study the final stages of accretion, which could include accretion through the HII region itself. Aim. This study of the dynamics of the gas on both sides of these ionisation boundaries in very young HII regions aims to quantify the relationship between the HII regions and their immediate environments. Methods: We present high-resolution ( 0.5″) ALMA observations of nine HII regions selected from the red MSX source survey with compact radio emission and bolometric luminosities greater than 104 L⊙. We focus on the initial presentation of the data, including initial results from the radio recombination line H29α, some complementary molecules, and the 256 GHz continuum emission. Results: Of the six (out of nine) regions with H29α detections, two appear to have cometary morphologies with velocity gradients across them, and two appear more spherical with velocity gradients suggestive of infalling ionised gas. The remaining two were either observed at low resolution or had signals that were too weak to draw robust conclusions. We also present a description of the interactions between the ionised and molecular gas (as traced by CS (J = 5 - 4)), often (but not always) finding the HII region had cleared its immediate vicinity of molecules. Conclusions: Of our sample of nine, the observations of the two clusters expected to have the youngest HII regions (from previous radio observations) are suggestive of having infalling motions in the H29α emission, which could be indicative of late stage accretion onto the stars despite the presence of an HII region. Table A.2 is also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130

  10. Observations of Anomalous Microwave Emission from HII Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Dickinson

    2013-01-01

    free-free emission from UCHII regions may be also be significant in some cases. The AME emissivity, defined as the ratio of the AME brightness to the 100 μm brightness, is comparable to the value observed in high-latitude diffuse cirrus in some regions, but is significantly lower in others. However, this value is dependent on the dust temperature. More data, both at high frequencies (>~5 GHz and high resolution (~1′ or better is required to disentangle the emission processes in such complex regions.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Multiwavelength study of HII region S311 (Yadav+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, R. K.; Pandey, A. K.; Sharma, S.; Ojha, D. K.; Samal, M. R.; Mallick, K. K.; Jose, J.; Ogura, K.; Richichi, A.; Irawati, P.; Kobayashi, N.; Eswaraiah, C.

    2017-11-01

    We observed the HII region S311 (centred on RA(2000)=07:52:24, DE(2000)=-26:24:58.40) in NIR broad-bands J (1.25um), H (1.63um) and Ks (2.14um) on 2010 March 3 using the Infrared Side Port Imager (ISPI) camera mounted on the CTIO Blanco 4-m telescope. We consider only those sources having error data files).

  12. The stellar content, metallicity and ionization structure of HII regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Hernandez, NL; Vermeij, R; Tielens, AGGM; van der Hulst, JM; Peeters, E

    Observations of infrared fine-structure lines provide direct information on the metallicity and ionization structure of H II regions and indirectly on the hardness of the radiation field ionizing these nebulae. We have analyzed a sample of Galactic and Magellanic Cloud H II regions observed by the

  13. A radio continuum and infrared study of Galactic HII regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Hernandez, NL; van der Hulst, JM; Tielens, AGGM

    We present observations of the 4.8 and 8.6 GHz continuum emission towards 11 southern H II regions made with the Australian Telescope Compact Array. The observed objects were selected from the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) spectral catalogue of compact H II regions (Peeters et al. 2002b). The

  14. HII regions in IC 1613: The ISM in a nearby dwarf irregular galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jill S.; Mason, Stephen F.; Gullixson, Craig A.

    1990-01-01

    IC 1613, a nearby (725 kpc distant) dwarf irregular galaxy, has always been known to contain large, ring-shaped HII regions in its northeast corner. A new H alpha image has been obtained using the Bell Labs Charge Coupled Device (CCD) camera, an RCA 320 X 512 pixel-thinned, back-illuminated CCD, an H alpha filter of central wavelength 6562 A and width (full width half maximum) of 30 A, and the 42 inch telescope at Lowell Observatory. The low resolution images exhibit many new, faint features.

  15. New 20-cm radio-continuum study of the small Magellanic cloud - part III: Compact Hii regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong G.F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present and discuss a new catalogue of 48 compact Hii regions in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC and a newly created deep 1420 MHz (λ=20 cm radio-continuum image of the N19 region located in the southwestern part of the SMC. The new images were created by merging 1420 MHz radiocontinuum archival data from the Australian Telescope Compact Array. The majority of these detected radio compact Hii regions have rather flat spectral indices which indicates, as expected, that the dominant emission mechanism is of thermal nature.

  16. El medio interestelar en los alrededores de la region HII Sh2-183

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichowolski, S.; Cappa, C. E.; Blanco, A.; Eppens, L.; Ertini, K.; Leiva, M. M.

    2017-10-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of the HII region Sh2-183, located at (,) = (123.3,+3.0) at a distance of 7.0 1.5 kpc from the Sun. Based on the radio continuum data we estimated the amount of ionized gas, the electronic density, and the number of ionizing photons needed to keep the region ionized, which is important since the star/s responsible of the region was/were not detected yet. On the other hand, based on IRAS data we have analyzed the dust temperature and distribution. The Hi line data allowed the detection of a shell-like structure surrounding the ionized gas and the CO data revealed the presence of 6 molecular clouds probably related to Sh2-183, which harbor several young stellar object candidates.

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Inner/outer HII regions: galaxy sample (Rodriguez-Baras+, 2018)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Baras, M.; Diaz, A. I.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Sanchez, S. F.

    2017-11-01

    Physical properties for 263 isolated spiral galaxies, observed by the CALIFA survey, are presented. These galaxies compose this work galaxy sample. For each galaxy redshift, morphological type, inclination, distance, effective radius, g and r SDSS magnitudes, absolute B magnitude and total number of HII regions extracted in the galaxy are given. (1 data file).

  18. Triggered massive star formation associated with the bubble Hii region Sh2-39 (N5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duronea, N. U.; Cappa, C. E.; Bronfman, L.; Borissova, J.; Gromadzki, M.; Kuhn, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    Aims: We perform a multiwavelength analysis of the bubble Hii region Sh2-39 (N5) and its environs with the aim of studying the physical properties of Galactic IR bubbles and exploring their impact in triggering massive star formation. Methods: To analyze the molecular gas, we used CO(3-2) and HCO+(4-3) line data obtained with the on-the-fly technique from the ASTE telescope. To study the distribution and physical characteristics of the dust, we made use of archival data from ATLASGAL, Herschel, and MSX, while the ionized gas was studied making use of an NVSS image. We used public WISE, Spitzer, and MSX point source catalogs to search for infrared candidate young stellar objects (YSOs) in the region. To investigate the stellar cluster [BDS2003]6 we used IR spectroscopic data obtained with the ARCoIRIS spectrograph, mounted on Blanco 4 m Telescope at CTIO, and new available IR Ks band observations from the VVVeXtended ESO Public Survey (VVVX). Results: The new ASTE observations allowed the molecular gas component in the velocity range from 30 km s-1 to 46 km s-1, associated with Sh2-39, to be studied in detail. The morphology of the molecular gas suggests that the ionized gas is expanding against its parental cloud. We identified four molecular clumps, which were likely formed by the expansion of the ionization front, and determined some of their physical and dynamical properties. Clumps with HCO+ and 870 μm counterparts show evidence of gravitational collapse. We identified several candidate YSOs across the molecular component. Their spatial distribution and the fragmentation time derived for the collected layers of the molecular gas suggest that massive star formation might have been triggered by the expansion of the nebula via the collect and collapse mechanism. The spectroscopical distance obtained for the stellar cluster [BDS2003]6, placed over one of the collapsing clumps in the border of the Hii region, reveals that this cluster is physically associated with

  19. Formation of Pillars at the Boundaries between HII Regions and Molecular Clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuta, A; Kane, J O; Pound, M W; Remington, B A; Ryutov, D D; Takabe, H

    2006-01-01

    We investigate numerically the hydrodynamic instability of an ionization front (IF) accelerating into a molecular cloud, with imposed initial perturbations of different amplitudes. When the initial amplitude is small, the imposed perturbation is completely stabilized and does not grow. When the initial perturbation amplitude is large enough, roughly the ratio of the initial amplitude to wavelength is greater than 0.02, portions of the IF temporarily separate from the molecular cloud surface, locally decreasing the ablation pressure. This causes the appearance of a large, warm HI region and triggers nonlinear dynamics of the IF. The local difference of the ablation pressure and acceleration enhances the appearance and growth of a multimode perturbation. The stabilization usually seen at the IF in the linear regimes does not work due to the mismatch of the modes of the perturbations at the cloud surface and in density in HII region above the cloud surface. Molecular pillars are observed in the late stages of the large amplitude perturbation case. The velocity gradient in the pillars is in reasonably good agreement with that observed in the Eagle Nebula. The initial perturbation is imposed in three different ways: in density, in incident photon number flux, and in the surface shape. All cases show both stabilization for a small initial perturbation and large growth of the second harmonic by increasing amplitude of the initial perturbation above a critical value

  20. The relation between radio flux density and ionizing ultra-violet flux for HII regions and supernova remnants in the Large Magellanic cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović M.D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparison between the Parkes radio surveys (Filipović et al 1995 and Vacuum Ultra-Violet (VUV surveys (Smith et al. 1987 of the Large Magellanic Clouds (LMC. We have found 72 sources in common in the LMC which are known HII regions (52 and supernova remnants (SNRs (19. Some of these radio sources are associated with two or more UV stellar associations. A comparison of the radio flux densities and ionizing UV flux for HII regions shows a very good correlation, as expected from theory. Many of the Magellanic Clouds (MCs SNRs are embedded in HII regions, so there is also a relation between radio and UV which we attribute to the surrounding HII regions.

  1. Kinematic Study of Ionized and Molecular Gases in Ultracompact HII Region in Monoceros R2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwihyun; Lacy, John H.; Jaffe, Daniel Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Monoceros R2 (Mon R2) is an UltraCompact HII region (UCHII) surrounded by several PhotoDissociation Regions (PDRs). It is an excellent example to investigate the chemistry and physics of early stage of massive star formation due to its proximity (830pc) and brightness. Previous studies suggest that the wind from the star holds the ionized gas up against the dense molecular core and the higher pressure at the head drives the ionized gas along the shell. In order for the model to work, there should be evidence for dense molecular gas along the shell walls, irradiated by the UCHII region and perhaps entrained into the flow along the walls.We obtained the Immersion Grating INfrared Spectrograph (IGRINS) spectra of Mon R2 to study the kinematic patterns in the areas where ionized and molecular gases interact. The position-velocity maps from the high resolution (R~45,000) H- and K-band (1.4-2.5μm) IGRINS spectra demonstrate that the ionized gases (Brackett and Pfund series, He and Fe emission lines; Δv ≈ 40km/s) flow along the walls of the surrounding clouds. This is consistent with the model by Zhu et al. (2008). In the PV maps of the H2 emission lines there is no obvious motion (Δv ≈ 10km/s) of the molecular hydrogen right at the ionization boundary. This implies that the molecular gas is not taking part in the flow as the ionized gas is moving along the cavity walls.This work used the Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrograph (IGRINS) that was developed under a collaboration between the University of Texas at Austin and the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) with the financial support of the US National Science Foundation (NSF; grant AST-1229522), of the University of Texas at Austin, and of the Korean GMTProject of KASI.

  2. Exploring the 13CO/C18O abundance ratio towards Galactic young stellar objects and HII regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areal, M. B.; Paron, S.; Celis Peña, M.; Ortega, M. E.

    2018-05-01

    Aims: Determining molecular abundance ratios is important not only for the study of Galactic chemistry, but also because they are useful to estimate physical parameters in a large variety of interstellar medium environments. One of the most important molecules for tracing the molecular gas in the interstellar medium is CO, and the 13CO/C18O abundance ratio is usually used to estimate molecular masses and densities of regions with moderate to high densities. Nowadays isotope ratios are in general indirectly derived from elemental abundances ratios. We present the first 13CO/C18O abundance ratio study performed from CO isotope observations towards a large sample of Galactic sources of different natures at different locations. Methods: To study the 13CO/C18O abundance ratio, we used 12CO J = 3 - 2 data obtained from the CO High-Resolution Survey, 13CO and C18O J = 3 - 2 data from the 13CO/C18O (J = 3 - 2) Heterodyne Inner Milky Way Plane Survey, and some complementary data extracted from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope database. We analyzed a sample of 198 sources composed of young stellar objects (YSOs), and HII and diffuse HII regions as catalogued in the Red MSX Source Survey in 27.°5 ≤ l ≤ 46.°5 and |b|0.°5. Results: Most of the analyzed sources are located in the galactocentric distance range 4.0-6.5 kpc. We found that YSOs have, on average, lower 13CO/C18O abundance ratios than HII and diffuse HII regions. Taking into account that the gas associated with YSOs should be less affected by the radiation than in the case of the others sources, selective far-UV photodissociation of C18O is confirmed. The 13CO/C18O abundance ratios obtained in this work are systematically lower than those predicted from the known elemental abundance relations. These results will be useful in future studies of molecular gas related to YSOs and HII regions based on the observation of these isotopes.

  3. Examining Sites of Recent Star Formation in the Galactic Center: A Closer Look at the Arched Filaments and H HII Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, Matthew; Herter, Terry; Lau, Ryan; Morris, Mark; Mills, Elisabeth

    2018-01-01

    In this dissertation presentation, we analyze mid-infrared imaging of the Arched Filaments and H HII regions in the Galactic center taken with the Faint Object Infrared Camera for the SOFIA Telescope (FORCAST). Examining these regions are of great interest because they provide insights on star formation in the Galactic center and the interactions massive stars have with the ISM. The Arched Filaments are a collection of molecular cloud ridges which are ionized by the nearby Arches star cluster, and give the appearance of large (~25 pc) arch-like structures. The H HII regions are a collection of HII regions just to the west of the Arches cluster (~5-15 pc). The origin of the stars powering the H HII regions is uncertain, as they may have formed in a nearby molecular cloud or could be ejected members of the Arches cluster. FORCAST observations of these regions were used to study the morphology and heating structure of the HII regions, as well as constrain their luminosities.Color-temperature maps of the Arched Filaments created with the FORCAST data reveals fairly uniform dust temperatures (~70-100 K) across the length filaments. The temperature uniformity of the clouds can be explained if they are heated by the Arches cluster but are located at a larger distance from the cluster than they appear. The density of the Arched Filaments clouds was estimated from the FORCAST data and was found to be below the threshold for tidal shearing, indicating that that the clouds will be destroyed by the strong tidal field near the Galactic center. To the west of the Arched Filaments, there is an interesting collection of HII regions, referred to as the H HII regions. These regions are likely heated by massive O/B type stars, and the morphology of the dust emission associated with these objects indicate a mixture of potential in situ formation mechanisms and interlopers. Interestingly, FORCAST imaging of the H HII regions also reveal several compact sources, which may be young

  4. A Velocity Structure Analysis of Giant Molecular Cloud Associated with HII Region S152

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Yeol Choi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available S152 is a small bright emission nebula located in the Perseus arm. Its optical diameter corresponds to 1.5 pc for an adopted distance 3.5 kpc. However, S152 is a part of a giant molecular cloud complex, which consists of several dense cores, containing active star-forming sites, and well aligned arm-like features. We analyzed the FCRAO 12CO (J = 1→0 Outer Galaxy Survey data in this region to study the kinematical structure of this region, which resembles a big ``scorpion". We found that there exist three different velocity components, about --54.5, --50.4, --48.8 km s-1, depending on the position of the ``scorpion". There also exist velocity gradients of 0.21 km s-1 pc-1 and 0.16 km s-1 pc-1 through the whole extent of the ``scorpion". Interestingly, these two velocity gradients show an opposite direction with each other. It is likely that the velocity structure of this region may result from the mergence of different gas clouds, and the interaction with the SNR 109.1-1.0 occurred later, mostly at the region around the ``head of the scorpion" only.

  5. H-alpha observations of Sh2-190, Sh2-222, Sh2-229, Sh2-236 HII regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahan, Muhittin

    2018-02-01

    Hα spectral line (6563Å) profiles of four northern HII regions in the our galaxy (Sh2-190, Sh2-222, Sh2-229, Sh2-236) have been obtained using DEFPOS spectrometer, located at coude focus of 150 cm RTT150 telescope at TUBITAK National Observatory (TUG, Antalya, Turkey). Observations were carried out at nights of 2015 December 24-27 with long exposure times ranging from 900s to 3600s. The LSR velocities and the linewidths (Full Width Half Maximum: FWHM) of the Hα emission lines were found to be in the range of -45.46 kms-1 to +3.57 kms-1 and 38.50 kms-1 to 44.10 kms-1, respectively. The Sh2-229 HII region is the faintest one (211.16 R), while the Sh2-236 HII region (IC410) is brightest source (535.75 R). The LSR velocity and the line width (FWHM) results of the DEFPOS/RTT150 system were compared with the data by several authors given in literature and results of DEFPOS data were found to be in good agreement with data given in literature.

  6. ISO spectroscopy of compact HII regions in the Galaxy - II. Ionization and elemental abundances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Hernandez, NL; Peeters, E; Morisset, C; Tielens, AGGM; Cox, P; Roelfsema, PR; Baluteau, JP; Schaerer, D; Mathis, JS; Damour, F; Churchwell, E; Kessler, MF

    Based on the ISO spectral catalogue of compact H II regions by Peeters et al. (2002), we present a first analysis of the hydrogen recombination and atomic fine-structure lines originated in the ionized gas. The sample consists of 34 H II regions located at galactocentric distances between R-Gal = 0

  7. A VLT spectroscopic study of the ultracompact HII region G29.96-0.02

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Hernandez, NL; Bik, A; Kaper, L; Tielens, AGGM; Hanson, MM

    A high quality, medium-resolution K-band spectrum has been obtained of the ultracompact H II region G29.96-0.02 with the Very Large Telescope (VLT). The slit was positioned along the symmetry axis of the cometary shaped nebula. Besides the spectrum of the embedded ionizing O star, the long-slit

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Radio observations of Galactic WISE HII regions (Anderson+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L. D.; Armentrout, W. P.; Johnstone, B. M.; Bania, T. M.; Balser, D. S.; Wenger, T. V.; Cunningham, V.

    2016-01-01

    We draw our targets from the MIR objects in the WISE catalog of Anderson+, 2014, J/ApJS/212/1. We also include in our sample Sharpless H II regions (Sharpless 1959, VII/20). See section 2 for further details. Our observations were made with the GBT 100m telescope from 2012 July through 2014 August. There are seven radio recombination lines (RRLs) that can be cleanly observed simultaneously with the GBT in the X-band: H87α to H93α. We average these seven RRLs (each at two orthogonal polarizations) to create a single average RRL spectrum. We followed the same GBT observational procedure as in the original HRDS (Green Bank Telescope H II Region Discovery Survey (GBT HRDS; Bania et al. 2010ApJ...718L.106B). (3 data files).

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Infrared morphology of HII regions (Topchieva+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topchieva, A. P.; Wiebe, D. S.; Kirsanova, M. S.; Krushinskii, V. V.

    2018-03-01

    The 20-cm New GPS survey (http://third.ucllnl.org/gps), created using the MAGPIS database of radio images of regions with Galactic coordinates |bGal|MIPS (Rieke et al., 2004ApJS..154...25R) cameras of the Spitzer Telescope. The resulting list contains objects having the appearance of rings at 8um, inside of which IR emission at 24um and radio emission at 20cm is observed. (2 data files).

  10. Production of Elephant Trunks in HII Regions by Radiation-Magnetohydrodynamic Instabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Fierlinger, Katharina; Krumholz, Mark; Grittschneder, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Recent SPH and grid code simulations showed, that ionizing radiation can amplify overdensities in turbulent molecular clouds and produce molecular pillars. The relevance of magnetic fields for the structure and stability of molecular clouds is still under discussion. We investigate whether an ionization front hitting a medium with small distortions of the magnetic field can produce the observed pillar-like structures in star forming regions (e.g. Eagle Nebula). Numerical MHD simulations with ...

  11. Spitzer Observations of M33 & M83 and the Hot Star, Hii Region Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, R.; Simpson, J.; Colgan, S.; Dufour, R.; Citron, R.; Ray, K.; Erickson, E.; Haas, M.; Pauldrach, A.

    2007-05-01

    H II regions play a crucial role in the measurement of current interstellar abundances. They also serve as laboratories for atomic physics and provide fundamental data about heavy element abundances that serve to constrain models of galactic chemical evolution. We observed emission lines of [S IV] 10.5, H (7-6) 12.4, [Ne II] 12.8, [Ne III] 15.6, & [S III] 18.7 micron cospatially with the Spitzer Space Telescope using the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) in short-high mode (SH). Here we concentrate on the galaxy M33 and compare the results with our earlier similar study of M83. In each of these substantially face-on spirals, we observed ˜25 H II regions, covering a full range of galactocentric radii (RG). For most of the M33 H II regions, we were able to measure the H (7-6) line while none were detectable in M83. This limited our M83 study to a determination of the Ne++/Ne+, /, and S3+/S++ abundance ratios vs. RG. Angular brackets denote fractional ionizations. As well as having the addition of fluxes for the H(7-6) line, the M33 H II regions are generally of much higher ionization than those in M83, resulting in larger Ne++/Ne+ and S3+/ S++ abundance ratios. For M33, in addition to what we derived for those nebulae in M83, we are also able to derive Ne/H, S/H and Ne/S vs. RG. Important advantages compared with prior optical studies are: 1) the IR lines have a weak and similar electron temperature (Te) dependence while optical lines vary exponentially with Te and 2) the IR lines suffer far less from interstellar extinction. Additionally, these data may be used as constraints on the ionizing spectral energy distribution for the stars exciting these nebulae by comparing the above ionic ratios with predictions using stellar atmosphere models from several different non-LTE model sets. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under NASA contract 1407

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Bubble HII region Sh2-39 (N5) (Duronea+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duronea, N. U.; Cappa, C. E.; Bronfman, L.; Borissova, J.; Gromadzki, M.; Kuhn, M. A.

    2017-06-01

    The molecular observations were carried out in August 2015 with the 10m Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE). We used DASH345, a two sideband single-polarization heterodyne receiver, tunable in LO frequency range from 327GHz to 370GHz at observable frequency range from 321GHz to 376GHz. The XF digital spectrometer was set to a bandwidth and spectral resolution of 128MHz and 125KHz, respectively. The spectral velocity resolution was 0.11km/s, the half power beamwidth (HPBW) is ~22", and the main beam efficiency (mb) is 0.65. Observations were made using the on-the-fly (OTF) mode with two orthogonal scan directions along RA and Dec. (J2000) centered on RA, Dec.(J2000)= (18:17:02.1, -18:40:19). We observed simultaneously the lines CO(3-2) (345.796GHz) and HCO+(4-3) (356.734) in a region of ~17'x17' (see Fig. 1). The spectra were reduced with NOSTAR2 using the standard procedure. The brightest star projected at the center of [BDS2003] 6 (2MASS J18165113-1841488) was observed on August 2016 with Astronomy Research using the Cornell Infra Red Imaging Spectrograph (ARCoIRIS), a cross-dispersed, single-object, longslit, infrared imaging spectrograph,mounted on Blanco 4-m Telescope, CTIO. The spectra cover a simultaneous wavelength range of 0.80 to 2.47um, at a spectral resolution of about 3500 λ{δλ, encompassing the entire zYJHK photometric range. The spectrum was taken with 480 sec integration time, at 1.03 average airmass. The HD163336 telluric A0 V standard is observed immediately after target. The basic steps of the reduction procedure are described in Chene et al. (2012A&A...545A..54C, Cat. J/A+A/545/A54, 2013A&A...549A..98C). We used the corresponding pipeline. (3 data files).

  13. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition. It causes intense pain, usually in the arms, hands, legs, or feet. It may happen ... move the affected body part The cause of CRPS is unknown. There is no specific diagnostic test. ...

  14. Optical and millimeter wavelength study of the complex Sh2-147/Sh2-153

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydari-Malayeri, M.; Testor, G.; Kahane, C.; Lucas, R.

    1982-01-01

    Sh2-147/Sh2-153 is a vast HII region-molecular cloud complex of dimension 1 0 .5 located in the Perseus arm at l approximately 109 0 . This cloud embodies the HII regions Sh2-147, 148, 149, 152 and 153. In this direction were detected several H 2 O and OH masers, a number of infrared sources, and a supernova remnant. The authors present the 13 CO map and also optical results on two of the HII regions: Sh2-152 and 148. (Auth.)

  15. Quantifying China's regional economic complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian; Zhou, Tao

    2018-02-01

    China has experienced an outstanding economic expansion during the past decades, however, literature on non-monetary metrics that reveal the status of China's regional economic development are still lacking. In this paper, we fill this gap by quantifying the economic complexity of China's provinces through analyzing 25 years' firm data. First, we estimate the regional economic complexity index (ECI), and show that the overall time evolution of provinces' ECI is relatively stable and slow. Then, after linking ECI to the economic development and the income inequality, we find that the explanatory power of ECI is positive for the former but negative for the latter. Next, we compare different measures of economic diversity and explore their relationships with monetary macroeconomic indicators. Results show that the ECI index and the non-linear iteration based Fitness index are comparative, and they both have stronger explanatory power than other benchmark measures. Further multivariate regressions suggest the robustness of our results after controlling other socioeconomic factors. Our work moves forward a step towards better understanding China's regional economic development and non-monetary macroeconomic indicators.

  16. Starbursts and the chemical evolution of HII galaxies: ages of bursts VS local environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagel, B.E.J.

    1987-01-01

    Results previously published for oxygen, nitrogen and helium abundances in HII galaxies are revised to allow for collisional contributions to the helium lines and a few further objects added. The relationships found are similar in general to those found previously, though with fewer objects departing from the dY/dZ relation derived by Peimbert and his colleagues, and are confirmed by a principal component analysis which shows that O/H accounts for about half of the variation in helium but N/H for essentially all of it. These effects are consistent with an additional component of helium and secondary nitrogen, superposed on primary nitrogen, with the additional component either coming from low-mass stars made in very old bursts or resulting from local pollution of the observed HII regions by winds from massive stars within them. Evidence from different regions of POX 4 and NGC 5253 gives some slight support to the latter hypothesis

  17. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome and Treatment Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Gokcen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Complex Regional Pain Syndrome is a symptom complex including severe pain which is disproportioned by the initiating event. Formerly, it was known as reflex sympathetic dystropy, Sudeck’s atrophy and algoneurodystrophy. There are two types of complex regional pain syndrome (CPRS. CRPS type 1 (Reflex sympathetic dystropy occurs after a minor trauma of the extremities, CRPS type 2 (Causalgia occurs following peripheral nevre injury. Diagnosis is made according to the history, symptoms and physical findings of the patients. Patient education, physical therapy and medical treatment are the most common treatment approaches of complex regional pain syndrome. The aim of this review is to revise the treatment options ofcomplex regional pain syndrome, as well as to overview the new treatment approaches and options for the refractory complex regional pain syndrome cases. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(4.000: 514-531

  18. Electron Temperatures in W51 Complex from High Resolution, Low ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... We have made continuum radio observations of these HII regions of the W51 complex at 240, 610, 1060 and 1400 MHz using GMRT with lower resolution (20'' × 15'') at the lowest frequency. The observed spectra of the prominent thermal subcomponents of W51 have been fitted to a free-free emission ...

  19. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: An inflammatory disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Dirckx (Maaike)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractThe pathophysiology of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is complex and still not completely understood. In addition to a convincing role of inflammation, there are a number of arguments why an involvement of the immune system has been suggested in the pathophysiology of CRPS.

  20. The GAN Exonuclease or the Flap Endonuclease Fen1 and RNase HII Are Necessary for Viability of Thermococcus kodakarensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Brett W; Cubonova, Lubomira; Heider, Margaret R; Kelman, Zvi; Reeve, John N; Santangelo, Thomas J

    2017-07-01

    Many aspects of and factors required for DNA replication are conserved across all three domains of life, but there are some significant differences surrounding lagging-strand synthesis. In Archaea , a 5'-to-3' exonuclease, related to both bacterial RecJ and eukaryotic Cdc45, that associates with the replisome specifically through interactions with GINS was identified and designated GAN (for G INS- a ssociated n uclease). Despite the presence of a well-characterized flap endonuclease (Fen1), it was hypothesized that GAN might participate in primer removal during Okazaki fragment maturation, and as a Cdc45 homologue, GAN might also be a structural component of an archaeal CMG (Cdc45, MCM, and GINS) replication complex. We demonstrate here that, individually, either Fen1 or GAN can be deleted, with no discernible effects on viability and growth. However, deletion of both Fen1 and GAN was not possible, consistent with both enzymes catalyzing the same step in primer removal from Okazaki fragments in vivo RNase HII has also been proposed to participate in primer processing during Okazaki fragment maturation. Strains with both Fen1 and RNase HII deleted grew well. GAN activity is therefore sufficient for viability in the absence of both RNase HII and Fen1, but it was not possible to construct a strain with both RNase HII and GAN deleted. Fen1 alone is therefore insufficient for viability in the absence of both RNase HII and GAN. The ability to delete GAN demonstrates that GAN is not required for the activation or stability of the archaeal MCM replicative helicase. IMPORTANCE The mechanisms used to remove primer sequences from Okazaki fragments during lagging-strand DNA replication differ in the biological domains. Bacteria use the exonuclease activity of DNA polymerase I, whereas eukaryotes and archaea encode a flap endonuclease (Fen1) that cleaves displaced primer sequences. RNase HII and the GINS-associated exonuclease GAN have also been hypothesized to assist in primer

  1. A Substellar Companion to Pleiades HII 3441

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Mihoko; Matsuo, Taro; Yamamoto, Kodai; Samland, Matthias; Sudo, Jun; Shibai, Hiroshi; Itoh, Yoichi; Fukagawa, Misato; Sumi, Takhiro; Kudo, Tomoyuki; hide

    2016-01-01

    We find a new substellar companion to the Pleiades member star, Pleiades HII 3441, using the Subaru telescope with adaptive optics. The discovery is made as part of the high-contrast imaging survey to search for planetary-mass and substellar companions in the Pleiades and young moving groups. The companion has a projected separation of 0". 49+/-0". 02 (66+/-2 au) and a mass of 68+/-5M(sub J) based on three observations in the J-, H-, and K(sub s)-bands. The spectral type is estimated to be M7 (approx. 2700 K), and thus no methane absorption is detected in the H band. Our Pleiades observations result in the detection of two substellar companions including one previously reported among 20 observed Pleiades stars, and indicate that the fraction of substellar companions in the Pleiades is about 10.0+26.1 -8.8 %. This is consistent with multiplicity studies of both the Pleiades stars and other open clusters.

  2. Spontaneous onset of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, A.M.; Perez, R.S.G.M.; Huygen, F.J.; van Eijs, F.; van Kleef, M.; Bauer, M.C.R.; van Hilten, J.J.; Marinus, J.

    2010-01-01

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) usually develops after a noxious event, but spontaneous onsets have been described in 3-11% of the cases. The existence of spontaneous-onset CRPS is highly debated and the aim of the present study was therefore to compare the phenotypic characteristics of CRPS

  3. COMPLEX REGIONAL PAIN SYNDROME: AN UPDATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Complex Regional Pain Syndrome or CRPS is a chronic disabling heterogenous pain disorder due to trauma, resulting in sensory changes, motor function impairment, psychological changes. Diagnosis is based on clinical features and investigations. The patho - physiology is not clearly known. There is no single drug therapy, only combinations work. Treatment is multidisplinary involving medical, psychological and rehabi li tation. Newer modes of spinal cord stimulations, neuraxial mode of analgesics and newe r drugs are promising

  4. Brain in complex regional pain syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Hotta, Jaakko

    2017-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) causes disabling and severe limb pain that is difficult to treat. The pain typically increases during motor actions, but is present also at rest. The pathophysiology of CRPS is incompletely understood. Some of the symptoms suggest involvement of the central nervous system, and accordingly, patients have been shown to display alterations in, for instance, the primary sensorimotor cortex (SM1) and indications of neuroinflammation. More thorough pathophysiol...

  5. Region Tourist and Recreation Complex Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizaveta Oyusovna Tappaskhanova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of the research is the tourist and recreation complex of Kabardino-Balkar Republic. The purpose of the work is to provide solutions to problems of the republic tourist and recreation complex development. The results obtained from the study showed that in spite of the fact that in the region’s development certain positive steps are taken, according to the indicators of the tourism and recreation development, the region has not reach the level of the 1990th yet, the possibilities of this major sector of the republic economy remain not demanded. It is highlighted, that the most important factor in the tourist and recreation complex development is its infrastructure condition. It is recommended to use the model of the infrastructure management aimed at providing its effective functioning and development due to formation of interaction system at every power level through a network of the centers of the tourist and recreation complex development. In the article, the need for the use of the innovative approaches for the republic tourist and recreation complex development in the particular development of the new tourist directions are also found. For the purpose to improve the professional training of personnel for the tourism and recreation sphere, the need for a transition to multilevel training of personnel is proved. The main directions of the republic image development on the basis of designing and implementing of the regional program of its image development as the tourist territory and creation of the tourist information center are defined. Realization of all these problems allows to develop a highly effective and competitive tourist and recreation complex in Kabardino-Balkaria.

  6. New Concepts in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajerian, Maral; Clark, J David

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Despite the severe pain and disability associated with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS), our lack of understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms supporting this enigmatic condition prevents the rational design of new therapies, a situation that is frustrating both to the physician and the patient. The following review will highlight some of the mechanisms thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of CRPS in preclinical models and CRPS patients, with the ultimate goal that understanding these mechanisms will lead to the design of efficacious, mechanism-based treatments available to the clinic. PMID:26611388

  7. [Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) : An update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova, V; Birklein, F

    2018-04-17

    The acute phase of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is pathophysiologically characterized by an activation of the immune system and its associated inflammatory response. During the course of CRPS, central nervous symptoms like mechanical hyperalgesia, loss of sensation, and body perception disorders develop. Psychological factors such as pain-related anxiety and traumatic events might have a negative effect on the treatment outcome. While the visible inflammatory symptoms improve, the pain often persists. A stage adapted, targeted treatment could improve the prognosis. Effective multidisciplinary treatment includes the following: pharmacotherapy with steroids, bisphosphonates, or dimethylsulfoxide cream (acute phase), and antineuropathic analgesics (all phases); physiotherapy and behavioral therapy for pain-related anxiety and avoidance of movement; and interventional treatment like spinal cord or dorsal root ganglion stimulation if noninvasive options failed.

  8. Radiation-hydrodynamics of HII regions and molecular clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandford, M.T. II; Whitaker, R.W.; Klein, R.I.

    1981-01-01

    Two-dimensional calculations of ionization-shock fronts surrounding neutral cloud clumps reveal that a radiation-driven implosion of the clump can occur. The implosion of a cloud clump results in the formation of density enhancements that may eventually form low mass stars. The smaller globules produced may become Herbig-Haro objects, or maser sources

  9. Inflammation in complex regional pain syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkitny, Luke; McAuley, James H.; Di Pietro, Flavia; Stanton, Tasha R.; O’Connell, Neil E.; Marinus, Johan; van Hilten, Jacobus J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: We conducted a systematic review of the literature with meta-analysis to determine whether complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is associated with a specific inflammatory profile and whether this is dependent on the duration of the condition. Methods: Comprehensive searches of the literature using MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and reference lists from published reviews identified articles that measured inflammatory factors in CRPS. Two independent investigators screened titles and abstracts, and performed data extraction and risk of bias assessments. Studies were subgrouped by medium (blood, blister fluid, and CSF) and duration (acute and chronic CRPS). Where possible, meta-analyses of inflammatory factor concentrations were performed and pooled effect sizes were calculated using random-effects models. Results: Twenty-two studies were included in the systematic review and 15 in the meta-analysis. In acute CRPS, the concentrations of interleukin (IL)-8 and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors I (sTNF-RI) and II (sTNF-RII) were significantly increased in blood. In chronic CRPS, significant increases were found in 1) TNFα, bradykinin, sIL-1RI, IL-1Ra, IL-2, sIL-2Ra, IL-4, IL-7, interferon-γ, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and sRAGE (soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products) in blood; 2) IL-1Ra, MCP-1, MIP-1β, and IL-6 in blister fluid; and 3) IL-1β and IL-6 in CSF. Chronic CRPS was also associated with significantly decreased 1) substance P, sE-selectin, sL-selectin, sP-selectin, and sGP130 in blood; and 2) soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) in CSF. Most studies failed to meet 3 or more of our quality criteria. Conclusion: CRPS is associated with the presence of a proinflammatory state in the blood, blister fluid, and CSF. Different inflammatory profiles were found for acute and chronic cases. PMID:23267031

  10. Rethinking the Psychogenic Model of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: Somatoform Disorders and Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Renee J.; Chopra, Pradeep; Richardi, Toni

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Explaining the etiology of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) from the psychogenic model is exceedingly unsophisticated, because neurocognitive deficits, neuroanatomical abnormalities, and distortions in cognitive mapping are features of CRPS pathology. More importantly, many people who have developed CRPS have no history of mental illness. The psychogenic model offers comfort to physicians and mental health practitioners (MHPs) who have difficulty understanding pain maintained by newly uncovered neuro inflammatory processes. With increased education about CRPS through a biopsychosocial perspective, both physicians and MHPs can better diagnose, treat, and manage CRPS symptomatology. PMID:24223338

  11. Schur Stability Regions for Complex Quadratic Polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sui Sun; Huang, Shao Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Given a quadratic polynomial with complex coefficients, necessary and sufficient conditions are found in terms of the coefficients such that all its roots have absolute values less than 1. (Contains 3 figures.)

  12. Viscosity of HI-I2-H2O solution at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Songzhe; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Laijun; Xu, Jingming; Gao, Mengxue

    2014-01-01

    Iodine-Sulfur thermochemical cycle (IS-cycle) is one of the most promising massive hydrogen production methods. Basic properties data of the HI-I 2 -H 2 O solution involved in the HI decomposition section of IS-cycle are found to be very important. HI, I 2 , and H 2 O make up a highly non-ideal solution system. Viscosity and its variation with the composition/temperature are very essential for the flowsheet work and HI-H 2 O-I 2 solution’s fluid simulation, especially in the distillation and electro-electrodialysis processes. In this paper, viscosity values of HI-H 2 O-I 2 solutions were measured at atmospheric pressure and varying temperatures (from 20 to 125 ºC). As for the composition, the HI/H2O molar ratio of the samples ranged from 1:5.36 to 1:12.00, while the HI/I 2 molar ratio from 1.0 to 1.4.0. Both temperature and composition have dramatic influence on the viscosity. Increasing temperature or H 2 O/HI molar ratio will lead to the reduction of viscosity; while increasing of I 2 /HI molar ratio results in the increase of viscosity. It was also found that I 2 content has a larger and more complex influence on the viscosity of the HI-H 2 O-I 2 solution than H 2 O content does, especially at low temperature (<50 °C). (author)

  13. Environmental management on the basis of Complex Regional Indicators Concept: case of the Murmansk region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, A.; Gutman, S.; Zaychenko, I.; Rytova, E.; Nijinskaya, P.

    2015-09-01

    The article presents an approach to sustainable environmental development of the Murmansk region of the Russian Federation based on the complex regional indicators as a transformation of a balance scorecard method. The peculiarities of Murmansk region connected with sustainable environmental development are described. The complex regional indicators approach allows to elaborate the general concept of complex regional development taking into consideration economic and non-economic factors with the focus on environmental aspects, accumulated environmental damage in particular. General strategic chart of sustainable environmental development of the Murmansk region worked out on the basis of complex regional indicators concept is composed. The key target indicators of sustainable ecological development of the Murmansk region are presented for the following strategic chart components: regional finance; society and market; industry and entrepreneurship; training, development and innovations. These charts are to be integrated with international environmental monitoring systems.

  14. Rotational Modulation and Activity Cycles at Rotational Extremes: 25 yrs of NURO Photometry for HII 1883

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milingo, Jackie; Saar, Steven; Marschall, Laurence

    2018-01-01

    We present a 25 yr compilation of V-band differential photometry for the Pleiades K dwarf HII 1883 (V660 Tau). HII 1883 has a rotational period of ~ 0.24 d and displays significant rotational modulation due to non-uniform surface brightness or "starspots". Preliminary work yields a cycle period of ~ 9 yrs and rotational shear (ΔP_rot/) considerably less than solar. HII 1883 is one of the fastest rotating single stars with a known cycle. With additional data available we compare newly determined P_cyc and ΔP_rot/ values with those of other stars, putting HII 1883 into the broader context of dynamo properties in single cool dwarfs.

  15. Optimizing velocities and transports for complex coastal regions and archipelagos

    OpenAIRE

    Haley, Patrick; Agarwal, Arpit; Lermusiaux, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    We derive and apply a methodology for the initialization of velocity and transport fields in complex multiply-connected regions with multiscale dynamics. The result is initial fields that are consistent with observations, complex geometry and dynamics, and that can simulate the evolution of ocean processes without large spurious initial transients. A class of constrained weighted least squares optimizations is defined to best fit first-guess velocities while satisfying the complex bathymetry,...

  16. Estimation of Economic Efficiency of Regional Touristic Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurchenkov Vladimir Viktorovich

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the features of the development of the regional touristic complex in modern conditions and determines the direction of realizing the potential of the regional market of tourist services. The authors reveal the multiplicative interrelation for analyzing the interaction of the primary and secondary sectors of the regional market of tourist services. The key indicators of efficiency are outlined, the extent of their relevance for assessing the potential of international tourism in the region is revealed. The authors calculate the relative indicators reflecting the dynamics of incomes from inbound, outbound and domestic tourism in relation to the total income from tourism activities in the region during the reporting period, usually for one calendar year. On the basis of these parameters, the classification of the regions of the Southern Federal District in terms of tourist attraction is carried out. The authors determine the reasons of the low tourist attractiveness of the Volgograd region in comparison with other regions of the Southern Federal District. It is substantiated that the potential of expanding tourism activity is not fully realized today in the Volgograd region. The technique of analysis and evaluation of the effectiveness of regional touristic complex on the basis of cluster approach is suggested. For analyzing the effectiveness of regional tourism cluster the authors propose to use indicators that reflect the overall performance of the regional tourism cluster, characterizing the impact of cluster development of the area, or the regional market, as well as evaluating the performance of each of the companies cooperating in the framework of the cluster. The article contains recommendations to the regional authorities on improving the efficiency of regional touristic complex in the short- and long-term prospects.

  17. On synchronized regions of discrete-time complex dynamical networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Zhisheng; Chen Guanrong

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the local synchronization of discrete-time complex networks is studied. First, it is shown that for any natural number n, there exists a discrete-time network which has at least left floor n/2 right floor +1 disconnected synchronized regions for local synchronization, which implies the possibility of intermittent synchronization behaviors. Different from the continuous-time networks, the existence of an unbounded synchronized region is impossible for discrete-time networks. The convexity of the synchronized regions is also characterized based on the stability of a class of matrix pencils, which is useful for enlarging the stability region so as to improve the network synchronizability.

  18. COMPLEX REGIONAL PAIN SYNDROME – CLINIC, DIAGNOSTICS, TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Shostak

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The problem of pain today remains one of the fundamental issues of medical care. It is known that the pain is the leading cause of treatmentto the doctor. Among pain syndromes, a special place belongs to the complex regional pain syndromes. They are distinguished by the multidisciplinary problem, the presence of explicit nature of the pain, difficulty of diagnosis and nature of the treatment. The article presentsmodern data on the diagnosis and treatment of the complex regional pain syndromes.

  19. COMPLEX REGIONAL PAIN SYNDROME – CLINIC, DIAGNOSTICS, TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Shostak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of pain today remains one of the fundamental issues of medical care. It is known that the pain is the leading cause of treatmentto the doctor. Among pain syndromes, a special place belongs to the complex regional pain syndromes. They are distinguished by the multidisciplinary problem, the presence of explicit nature of the pain, difficulty of diagnosis and nature of the treatment. The article presentsmodern data on the diagnosis and treatment of the complex regional pain syndromes.

  20. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome in Children: Asking the Right Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R Goldschneider

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS is a painful disorder without a known unifying mechanism. There are little data on which to base evaluation and treatment decisions, and what data are available come from studies involving adults; however, even that literature is relatively sparse. Developing robust research for CRPS in children is essential for the progress toward optimal treatment.

  1. Genetic and epidemiological aspect of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, Annetje Monique de

    2010-01-01

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a painful disorder affecting one or more extremities. CRPS is characterized by various combinations of sensory, autonomic and motor disturbances. Genetic factors are suggested to play a role in CRPS, but this has not been extensively studied. Therefore the

  2. Neuroimmune Alterations in the Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J.P.M. Huygen (Frank)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractComplex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a disease which occurs as a complication after surgery or trauma, although spontaneous development is described. CRPS is characterized by continuing pain, sensory and vasomotor, sudomotor, motor and trophic disturbances. Many of these symptoms are

  3. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy/complex regional pain syndrome, type 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    with MRI every 3 months and the bone marrow oedema disappeared after 6 months. Introduction ... SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • August 2004. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy/complex regional pain syndrome, type 1 ... may be either trauma of external origin or iatrogenic, post surgery. In some patients particularly children ...

  4. [Complex regional pain syndrome type 1: negating the myth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frolke, J.P.M.; Dongen, R.T.M. van; Meent, H. van de

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1) was identified in the Netherlands more than 30 years ago, but since then the arguments supporting this diagnosis have become weaker. Incidence has decreased, it is often not possible to make a definite diagnosis, the pathophysiology remains unclear and

  5. Evidence based guidelines for complex regional pain syndrome type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez, R.S.G.M.; Zollinger, P.E.; Dijkstra, P.U.; Thomassen-Hilgersom, I.L.; Zuurmond, W.W.A.; Rosenbrand, C.J.G.M.; Geerzen, J.H.B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Treatment of complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) is subject to discussion. The purpose of this study was to develop multidisciplinary guidelines for treatment of CRPS-I.Method: A multidisciplinary task force graded literature evaluating treatment effects for CRPS-I according

  6. Evidence based guidelines for complex regional pain syndrome type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez, Roberto S.; Zollinger, Paul E.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Thomassen-Hilgersom, Ilona L.; Zuurmond, Wouter W.; Rosenbrand, Kitty C. J.; Geertzen, Jan H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Treatment of complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) is subject to discussion. The purpose of this study was to develop multidisciplinary guidelines for treatment of CRPS-I. Method: A multidisciplinary task force graded literature evaluating treatment effects for CRPS-I according

  7. Contribution of Large Region Joint Associations to Complex Traits Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paré, Guillaume; Asma, Senay; Deng, Wei Q.

    2015-01-01

    A polygenic model of inheritance, whereby hundreds or thousands of weakly associated variants contribute to a trait’s heritability, has been proposed to underlie the genetic architecture of complex traits. However, relatively few genetic variants have been positively identified so far and they collectively explain only a small fraction of the predicted heritability. We hypothesized that joint association of multiple weakly associated variants over large chromosomal regions contributes to complex traits variance. Confirmation of such regional associations can help identify new loci and lead to a better understanding of known ones. To test this hypothesis, we first characterized the ability of commonly used genetic association models to identify large region joint associations. Through theoretical derivation and simulation, we showed that multivariate linear models where multiple SNPs are included as independent predictors have the most favorable association profile. Based on these results, we tested for large region association with height in 3,740 European participants from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) study. Adjusting for SNPs with known association with height, we demonstrated clustering of weak associations (p = 2x10-4) in regions extending up to 433.0 Kb from known height loci. The contribution of regional associations to phenotypic variance was estimated at 0.172 (95% CI 0.063-0.279; p < 0.001), which compared favorably to 0.129 explained by known height variants. Conversely, we showed that suggestively associated regions are enriched for known height loci. To extend our findings to other traits, we also tested BMI, HDLc and CRP for large region associations, with consistent results for CRP. Our results demonstrate the presence of large region joint associations and suggest these can be used to pinpoint weakly associated SNPs. PMID:25856144

  8. Optimizing velocities and transports for complex coastal regions and archipelagos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Patrick J.; Agarwal, Arpit; Lermusiaux, Pierre F. J.

    2015-05-01

    We derive and apply a methodology for the initialization of velocity and transport fields in complex multiply-connected regions with multiscale dynamics. The result is initial fields that are consistent with observations, complex geometry and dynamics, and that can simulate the evolution of ocean processes without large spurious initial transients. A class of constrained weighted least squares optimizations is defined to best fit first-guess velocities while satisfying the complex bathymetry, coastline and divergence strong constraints. A weak constraint towards the minimum inter-island transports that are in accord with the first-guess velocities provides important velocity corrections in complex archipelagos. In the optimization weights, the minimum distance and vertical area between pairs of coasts are computed using a Fast Marching Method. Additional information on velocity and transports are included as strong or weak constraints. We apply our methodology around the Hawaiian islands of Kauai/Niihau, in the Taiwan/Kuroshio region and in the Philippines Archipelago. Comparisons with other common initialization strategies, among hindcasts from these initial conditions (ICs), and with independent in situ observations show that our optimization corrects transports, satisfies boundary conditions and redirects currents. Differences between the hindcasts from these different ICs are found to grow for at least 2-3 weeks. When compared to independent in situ observations, simulations from our optimized ICs are shown to have the smallest errors.

  9. Priority Directions of The Regional Food Complex Effectiveness Increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Andreyevich Karkh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the modern trends of management integration as a solution of food and sectoral problems are considered. On the basis of national and foreign experience of development of integration, the classification of integration in economic systems is developed. On the basis of the given classification, the concept of integration is conducted. In the article, much attention is given to the food problem solution, which depends more on the agro-industrial complex based on metaintegration. The leading place of a food complex in the system of agro-industrial complex is caused by a role of food and food raw materials in life of the population of the country. The ratio of the sectors participating in the food production and consumer goods makes the sectoral structure of agro-industrial complex. In the conditions of the resource limitation necessary for the production and food delivery to the domestic market, the role of trade will increase not only in agro-industrial complex, but in all national economy. Also, in this article, the phenomenon of clusters is studied. The attention to clusters as to innovation systems reflects a rising tide of interest of economic science to the questions of economics functioning in regional level and understanding of a role of specific local resources in stimulation of innovative opportunities and competitiveness of small and medium business. Creating a cluster, participants develop the spatial and organizational integrated structure, in interaction of legal entities the status is saved and cooperation provides competitive advantages with other business entities. The role of the state in integration of cluster formations in the Russian Federation is more significant, than in any other country. The state represented by regional authorities actively participates in decision-making process by the business located in its catchment area not only through membership in governing bodies of large joint stock companies.

  10. Security Inequalities in North America: Reassessing Regional Security Complex Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Kilroy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article re-evaluates earlier work done by the authors on Regional Security Complex Theory (RSCT in North America, using sectoral analysis initially developed by Buzan and Waever, but also adding the variables of institutions, identity, and interests. These variables are assessed qualitatively in the contemporary context on how they currently impress upon the process of securitization within sectoral relations between Canada, Mexico, and the United States. The article reviews the movement from bilateral security relations between these states to the development of a trilateral response to regional security challenges post- 9/11. It further addresses the present period and what appears to be a security process derailed by recent political changes and security inequalities, heightened by the election of Donald Trump in 2016. The article argues that while these three states initially evinced a convergence of regional security interests after 9/11, which did create new institutional responses, under the current conditions, divergence in political interests and security inequalities have reduced the explanatory power of RSCT in North America. Relations between states in North American are becoming less characterized by the role of institutions and interests and more by identity politics in the region.

  11. Condições físicas em galáxias HII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehrig, C.; Telles, E.; Cuisinier, F.

    2003-08-01

    Galáxias HII são galáxias anãs de baixa luminosidade que apresentam alta taxa de formação estelar. Seus espectros são dominados por intensas linhas de emissão devido à fotoionização pela presença de um grande número de estrelas do tipo O e B. Nós apresentamos um catálogo espectrofotométrico de 111 galáxias HII observadas no telescópio 1.52m do ESO com o espectrógrafo Boller & Chivens. Determinamos propriedades estatísticas da amostra e derivamos condições físicas (temperatura eletrônica, densidade eletrônica) e abundâncias químicas. Para algumas galáxias, fomos também capazes de resolver espacialmente regiões de formação estelar individuais e determinar propriedades espectroscópicas para estas regiões separadamente, o que nos permitiu avaliar as flutuações das condições físico-químicas dentro das galáxias HII. Em particular, vimos que apesar das galáxias HII apresentarem formação estelar espalhada ao longo do corpo da galáxia, são objetos quimicamente homogêneos. A fim de estudar a evolução temporal dos objetos durante o tempo de vida das estrelas ionizantes construimos também alguns diagramas relacionando razões de linhas de emissão com a largura equivalente de Hb (EW(Hb)). Para interpretar tais diagramas utilizamos modelos de fotoionização para populações estelares integradas. Concluímos que as galáxias HII não correspondem a simples idéia de um burst instantâneo envolvido por um gás opaco aos fótons ionizantes e com densidade constante. As relações observadas entre razões de linhas e EW(Hb) podem ser melhor compreendidas se as galáxias HII apresentarem populações estelares mais velhas, que contribuem para o contínuo óptico observado.

  12. Complex regional pain syndrome type I following pacemaker implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangita Kamath

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A 70-year-old woman presented with burning pain and swelling over dorsum of right hand and small joints of the fingers, associated with redness, feeling of warmth, and stiffness of the fingers, with inability to bend the fingers since 2 months. The symptoms were progressively increasing in intensity for the past 1 month. There was no history of fever or trauma to the hand. Two months before her symptoms started, she had permanent pacemaker implanted for complete heart block with syncope. She was hypertensive and was on regular medication. Her X-ray of right hand showed decreased bone density (demineralisation, suggestive of osteopenia. A diagnosis of reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome or complex regional pain syndrome type I induced by pacemaker insertion was made. She was treated with amitriptyline and steroids, after which her symptoms improved dramatically.

  13. Immunological aspects of the complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Heidrun H

    2012-01-01

    Limb trauma can lead to the development of a complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). CRPS is a descriptive term of a variety of different symptoms. According to the current IASP-approved criteria, human CRPS can be diagnosed if a combination of signs is present: continuing pain and hyperalgesia, disproportionate to the initial trauma, skin temperature and colour asymmetry, sweating asymmetry, edema, decreased range of motion, and trophic changes. The diagnosis and treatment of human CRPS can be demanding and the pathophysiology underlying the disease is still under investigation. Immunological aspects are considered to play an important role in the development of CRPS. The impact of elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines systemically as well as locally, increased neurogenic inflammation and auto-antibodies in the pathophysiological development of CRPS are discussed in this review.

  14. Orofacial complex regional pain syndrome: pathophysiologic mechanisms and functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeon-Hee; Lee, Kyung Mi; Kim, Hyug-Gi; Kang, Soo-Kyung; Auh, Q-Schick; Hong, Jyung-Pyo; Chun, Yang-Hyun

    2017-08-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is one of the most challenging chronic pain conditions and is characterized by burning pain, allodynia, hyperalgesia, autonomic changes, trophic changes, edema, and functional loss involving mainly the extremities. Until recently, very few reports have been published concerning CRPS involving the orofacial area. We report on a 50-year-old female patient who presented with unbearable pain in all of her teeth and hypersensitivity of the facial skin. She also reported intractable pain in both extremities accompanied by temperature changes and orofacial pain that increased when the other pains were aggravated. In the case of CRPS with trigeminal neuropathic pain, protocols for proper diagnosis and prompt treatment have yet to be established in academia or in the clinical field. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging for a thorough analysis of the cortical representation of the affected orofacial area immediately before and immediately after isolated light stimulus of the affected hand and foot and concluded that CRPS can be correlated with trigeminal neuropathy in the orofacial area. Furthermore, the patient was treated with carbamazepine administration and stellate ganglion block, which can result in a rapid improvement of pain in the trigeminal region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Evidence based guidelines for complex regional pain syndrome type 1

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    Thomassen-Hilgersom Ilona L

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment of complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I is subject to discussion. The purpose of this study was to develop multidisciplinary guidelines for treatment of CRPS-I. Method A multidisciplinary task force graded literature evaluating treatment effects for CRPS-I according to their strength of evidence, published between 1980 to June 2005. Treatment recommendations based on the literature findings were formulated and formally approved by all Dutch professional associations involved in CRPS-I treatment. Results For pain treatment, the WHO analgesic ladder is advised with the exception of strong opioids. For neuropathic pain, anticonvulsants and tricyclic antidepressants may be considered. For inflammatory symptoms, free-radical scavengers (dimethylsulphoxide or acetylcysteine are advised. To promote peripheral blood flow, vasodilatory medication may be considered. Percutaneous sympathetic blockades may be used to increase blood flow in case vasodilatory medication has insufficient effect. To decrease functional limitations, standardised physiotherapy and occupational therapy are advised. To prevent the occurrence of CRPS-I after wrist fractures, vitamin C is recommended. Adequate perioperative analgesia, limitation of operating time, limited use of tourniquet, and use of regional anaesthetic techniques are recommended for secondary prevention of CRPS-I. Conclusions Based on the literature identified and the extent of evidence found for therapeutic interventions for CRPS-I, we conclude that further research is needed into each of the therapeutic modalities discussed in the guidelines.

  16. Multifractal analysis of forest fires in complex regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega Orozco, C. D.; Kanevski, M.; Golay, J.; Tonini, M.; Conedera, M.

    2012-04-01

    Forest fires can be studied as point processes where the ignition points represent the set of locations of the observed events in a defined study region. Their spatial and temporal patterns can be characterized by their fractal properties; which quantify the global aspect of the geometry of the support data. However, a monofractal dimension can not completely describe the pattern structure and related scaling properties. Enhancements in fractal theory had developed the multifractal concept which describes the measures from which interlinked fractal sets can be retrieved and characterized by their fractal dimension and singularity strength [1, 2]. The spatial variability of forest fires is conditioned by an intermixture of human, topographic, meteorological and vegetation factors. This heterogeneity makes fire patterns complex scale-invariant processes difficult to be depicted by a single scale. Therefore, this study proposes an exploratory data analysis through a multifractal formalism to characterize and quantify the multiscaling behaviour of the spatial distribution pattern of this phenomenon in a complex region like the Swiss Alps. The studied dataset is represented by 2,401 georeferenced forest fire ignition points in canton Ticino, Switzerland, in a 40-years period from 1969 to 2008. Three multifractal analyses are performed: one assesses the multiscaling behaviour of fire occurrence probability of the support data (raw data) and four random patterns simulated within three different support domains; second analysis studies the multifractal behavior of patterns from anthropogenic and natural ignited fires (arson-, accident- and lightning-caused fires); and third analysis aims at detecting scale-dependency of the size of burned area. To calculate the generalized dimensions, Dq, a generalization of the box counting methods is carried out based on the generalization of Rényi information of the qth order moment of the probability distribution. For q > 0, Dq

  17. Lactobacillus paracasei HII01, xylooligosaccharides, and synbiotics reduce gut disturbance in obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiennimitr, Parameth; Yasom, Sakawdaurn; Tunapong, Wannipa; Chunchai, Titikorn; Wanchai, Keerati; Pongchaidecha, Anchalee; Lungkaphin, Anusorn; Sirilun, Sasithorn; Chaiyasut, Chaiyavat; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2018-03-20

    The beneficial effects of pro-, pre-, and synbiotics on obesity with insulin resistance have been reported previously. However, the strain-specific effect of probiotics and the combination with various types of prebiotic fiber yield controversial outcomes and limit clinical applications. Our previous study demonstrated that the probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei (L. paracasei) HII01, prebiotic xylooligosaccharide (XOS), and synbiotics share similar efficacy in attenuating cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction in obese-insulin resistant rats. Nonetheless, the roles of HII01 and XOS on gut dysbiosis and gut inflammation under obese-insulin resistant conditions have not yet, to our knowledge, been investigated. Our hypothesis was that pro-, pre-, and synbiotics improve the metabolic parameters in obese-insulin resistant rats by reducing gut dysbiosis and gut inflammation. Male Wistar rats were fed with either a normal or high-fat diet that contained 19.77% and 59.28% energy from fat, respectively, for 12 wk. Then, the high-fat diet rats were fed daily with a 10 8 colony forming unit of the probiotic HII01, 10% prebiotic XOS, and synbiotics for 12 wk. The metabolic parameters, serum lipopolysaccharide levels, fecal Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratios, levels of Enterobacteriaceae, Bifidobacteria, and gut proinflammatory cytokine gene expression were quantified. The consumption of probiotic L. paracasei HII01, prebiotic XOS, and synbiotics for 12 wk led to a decrease in metabolic endotoxemia, gut dysbiosis (a reduction in the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and Enterobacteriaceae), and gut inflammation in obese-insulin resistant rats. Pro-, pre-, and synbiotics reduced gut dysbiosis and gut inflammation, which lead to improvements in metabolic dysfunction in obese-insulin resistant rats. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. An empirical application of regional security complex theory on eastern partnership region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila STUPARU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Eastern Partnership (EaP is a very dynamic region. If a year ago the EaP was seen as an authentic and vibrant „laboratory” of democracy building, overcoming the remains of the totalitarian state and putting the basis of a free and pluralist society, nowadays the Eastern Partnership is seen as an „out-dated” approach of the EU. However, Eastern Partnership is visible on European political arena and the big powers (USA, Russia and the EU pay attention more and more to the evolution of EaP countries. Moreover, it seems to be a confrontation between Russia and Western powers regarding the political and geopolitical orientation of EaP countries. Kremlin tries actively to stop the efforts of the EaP to close to the EU and on the other side, the EU as well as the USA encourage EaP countries to implement reforms in order to build their democracy. This paper aims to analyse the Eastern Partnership in terms of security complex, trying to argue that Eastern Partnership countries at this phase don’t form a Regional Security Complex and the EU and USA should rethink its approach towards this region.

  19. Complex regional pain syndrome–up-to-date

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birklein, Frank; Dimova, Violeta

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) was described for the first time in the 19th century by Silas Weir Mitchell. After the exclusion of other causes, CRPS is characterised by a typical clinical constellation of pain, sensory, autonomic, motor, or trophic symptoms which can no longer be explained by the initial trauma. These symptoms spread distally and are not limited to innervation territories. If CRPS is not improved in the acute phase and becomes chronic, the visible symptoms change throughout because of the changing pathophysiology; the pain, however, remains. The diagnosis is primarily clinical, although in complex cases further technical examination mainly for exclusion of alternative diagnoses is warranted. In the initial phase, the pathophysiology is dominated by a posttraumatic inflammatory reaction by the activation of the innate and adaptive immune system. In particular, without adequate treatment, central nociceptive sensitization, reorganisation, and implicit learning processes develop, whereas the inflammation moderates. The main symptoms then include movement disorders, alternating skin temperature, sensory loss, hyperalgesia, and body perception disturbances. Psychological factors such as posttraumatic stress or pain-related fear may impact the course and the treatability of CRPS. The treatment should be ideally adjusted to the pathophysiology. Pharmacological treatment maybe particularly effective in acute stages and includes steroids, bisphosphonates, and dimethylsulfoxide cream. Common anti-neuropathic pain drugs can be recommended empirically. Intravenous long-term ketamine administration has shown efficacy in randomised controlled trials, but its repeated application is demanding and has side effects. Important components of the treatment include physio- and occupational therapy including behavioural therapy (eg, graded exposure in vivo and graded motor imaging). If psychosocial comorbidities exist, patients should be appropriately

  20. Genome-wide expression profiling of complex regional pain syndrome.

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    Eun-Heui Jin

    Full Text Available Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS is a chronic, progressive, and devastating pain syndrome characterized by spontaneous pain, hyperalgesia, allodynia, altered skin temperature, and motor dysfunction. Although previous gene expression profiling studies have been conducted in animal pain models, there genome-wide expression profiling in the whole blood of CRPS patients has not been reported yet. Here, we successfully identified certain pain-related genes through genome-wide expression profiling in the blood from CRPS patients. We found that 80 genes were differentially expressed between 4 CRPS patients (2 CRPS I and 2 CRPS II and 5 controls (cut-off value: 1.5-fold change and p<0.05. Most of those genes were associated with signal transduction, developmental processes, cell structure and motility, and immunity and defense. The expression levels of major histocompatibility complex class I A subtype (HLA-A29.1, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9, alanine aminopeptidase N (ANPEP, l-histidine decarboxylase (HDC, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor 3 receptor (G-CSF3R, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 genes selected from the microarray were confirmed in 24 CRPS patients and 18 controls by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. We focused on the MMP9 gene that, by qRT-PCR, showed a statistically significant difference in expression in CRPS patients compared to controls with the highest relative fold change (4.0±1.23 times and p = 1.4×10(-4. The up-regulation of MMP9 gene in the blood may be related to the pain progression in CRPS patients. Our findings, which offer a valuable contribution to the understanding of the differential gene expression in CRPS may help in the understanding of the pathophysiology of CRPS pain progression.

  1. Complex regional pain syndrome–up-to-date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Birklein

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS was described for the first time in the 19th century by Silas Weir Mitchell. After the exclusion of other causes, CRPS is characterised by a typical clinical constellation of pain, sensory, autonomic, motor, or trophic symptoms which can no longer be explained by the initial trauma. These symptoms spread distally and are not limited to innervation territories. If CRPS is not improved in the acute phase and becomes chronic, the visible symptoms change throughout because of the changing pathophysiology; the pain, however, remains. The diagnosis is primarily clinical, although in complex cases further technical examination mainly for exclusion of alternative diagnoses is warranted. In the initial phase, the pathophysiology is dominated by a posttraumatic inflammatory reaction by the activation of the innate and adaptive immune system. In particular, without adequate treatment, central nociceptive sensitization, reorganisation, and implicit learning processes develop, whereas the inflammation moderates. The main symptoms then include movement disorders, alternating skin temperature, sensory loss, hyperalgesia, and body perception disturbances. Psychological factors such as posttraumatic stress or pain-related fear may impact the course and the treatability of CRPS. The treatment should be ideally adjusted to the pathophysiology. Pharmacological treatment maybe particularly effective in acute stages and includes steroids, bisphosphonates, and dimethylsulfoxide cream. Common anti-neuropathic pain drugs can be recommended empirically. Intravenous long-term ketamine administration has shown efficacy in randomised controlled trials, but its repeated application is demanding and has side effects. Important components of the treatment include physio- and occupational therapy including behavioural therapy (eg, graded exposure in vivo and graded motor imaging. If psychosocial comorbidities exist, patients should

  2. Complex regional pain syndrome 1 – the Swiss cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez Roberto SGM

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the course of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1 and potential factors influencing the course of this disorder over time. The goal of this study is a to set up a database with patients suffering from suspected CRPS 1 in an initial stadium, b to perform investigations on epidemiology, diagnosis, prognosis, and socioeconomics within the database and c to develop a prognostic risk assessment tool for patients with CRPS 1 taking into account symptomatology and specific therapies. Methods/design Prospective cohort study. Patients suffering from a painful swelling of the hand or foot which appeared within 8 weeks after a trauma or a surgery and which cannot be explained by conditions that would otherwise account for the degree of pain and dysfunction will be included. In accordance with the recommendations of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF model, standardised and validated questionnaires will be used. Patients will be monitored over a period of 2 years at 6 scheduled visits (0 and 6 weeks, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. Each visit involves a physical examination, registration of therapeutic interventions, and completion of the various study questionnaires. Outcomes involve changes in health status, quality of life and costs/utility. Discussion This paper describes the rationale and design of patients with CRPS 1. Ideally, potential risk factors may be identified at an early stage in order to initiate an early and adequate treatment in patients with increased risk for delayed recovery. Trial registration Not applicable

  3. Activation of cutaneous immune responses in complex regional pain syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birklein, Frank; Drummond, Peter D.; Li, Wenwu; Schlereth, Tanja; Albrecht, Nahid; Finch, Philip M.; Dawson, Linda F.; Clark, J. David; Kingery, Wade S.

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is unresolved, but TNF-α and IL-6 are elevated in experimental skin blister fluid from CRPS affected limbs, as is tryptase, a marker for mast cells. In the rat fracture model of CRPS exaggerated sensory and sympathetic neural signaling stimulate keratinocyte and mast cell proliferation, causing the local production of high levels of inflammatory cytokines leading to pain behavior. The current investigation used CRPS patient skin biopsies to determine whether keratinocyte and mast cell proliferation occur in CRPS skin and to identify the cellular source of the up-regulated TNF-α, IL-6, and tryptase observed in CRPS experimental skin blister fluid. Skin biopsies were collected from the affected skin and the contralateral mirror site in 55 CRPS patients and the biopsy sections were immunostained for keratinocyte, cell proliferation, mast cell markers, TNF-α, and IL-6. In early CRPS keratinocytes were activated in the affected skin, resulting in proliferation, epidermal thickening, and up-regulated TNF-α and IL-6 expression. In chronic CRPS there was reduced keratinocyte proliferation with epidermal thinning in the affected skin. Acute CRPS patients also had increased mast cell accumulation in the affected skin, but there was no increase in mast cell numbers in chronic CRPS. PMID:24462502

  4. Genome-Wide Expression Profiling of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Eun-Heui; Zhang, Enji; Ko, Youngkwon; Sim, Woo Seog; Moon, Dong Eon; Yoon, Keon Jung; Hong, Jang Hee; Lee, Won Hyung

    2013-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic, progressive, and devastating pain syndrome characterized by spontaneous pain, hyperalgesia, allodynia, altered skin temperature, and motor dysfunction. Although previous gene expression profiling studies have been conducted in animal pain models, there genome-wide expression profiling in the whole blood of CRPS patients has not been reported yet. Here, we successfully identified certain pain-related genes through genome-wide expression profiling in the blood from CRPS patients. We found that 80 genes were differentially expressed between 4 CRPS patients (2 CRPS I and 2 CRPS II) and 5 controls (cut-off value: 1.5-fold change and pCRPS patients and 18 controls by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). We focused on the MMP9 gene that, by qRT-PCR, showed a statistically significant difference in expression in CRPS patients compared to controls with the highest relative fold change (4.0±1.23 times and p = 1.4×10−4). The up-regulation of MMP9 gene in the blood may be related to the pain progression in CRPS patients. Our findings, which offer a valuable contribution to the understanding of the differential gene expression in CRPS may help in the understanding of the pathophysiology of CRPS pain progression. PMID:24244504

  5. Complex regional pain syndromes (CRPS type 1 validating case histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Berger

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS type 1 is challenging and unpredictable as the condition presents with vascular and neuropathic symptoms after nil or even minor injury to a peripheral nerve. The condition is one of a pain and motor dysfunction. The pathophysiology is not well understood and the relief of symptoms may change from being sympathetically mediated to sympathetically independent during  the course of the disease. At any stage physiotherapy has been advocated as the corner stone and most important aspect of treatment in the rehabilitation of these individuals but unfortunately it has been difficult to execute when pain is exacerbated due to allodynia (unbearable to touch or move and hyperalgesia. Best results have been obtained if the patients are recognised and treated in the early or acute phase and it has been found that through careful assessment and analysis these patients can be recognised by previous events that have occurred in their initial case history. The treatment in the acute stage with physiotherapy modalities such as electrical stimulation and acupuncture will produce an early cessation of the symptoms and prevention of the disease developing into the fully blown CRPS type 1 with irreversible and possibly atrophic consequences. Case histories have been presented that illustrate these important aspects and demonstrate  the value of early and the appropriate physiotherapy that may be more successful than other pharmacological and physical interventions in this disease.

  6. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy/complex regional pain syndrome, type 1

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    S.H. Botha

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Complex regional pain syndrome (CPRS, type 1 is a pain disorder that develops unpredictably and can follow a minor injury. A 12-year-old boy presented with severe pain in the feet and could not walk or stand weight bearing. Normal X-rays showed osteopenic changes and radiolucent lines, which appeared to be stress fractures. Three-phase bone scintigraphy showed no uptake in the left lower leg on the blood pool phase or on the immediate or delayed images. This indicated typical CPRS type 1 in children. The uptake in the right foot was increased and the stress fracture and other illness could not be differentiated. Computed tomography was done to exclude stress fractures. Only osteopenic changes in both calcaneus bones were found and there was no evidence of cortical stress fractures. Magnetic resonance images revealed oedema in the calcaneus and talus bones of both feet. The patient received epidural narcotic infusion with sympathetic blockage for 1 week combined with extensive physiotherapy. The blood pool phase of the bone scan became normal within 2 weeks, and increased uptake in both feet was noticed. The patient was followed up with MRI every 3 months and the bone marrow oedema disappeared after 6 months.

  7. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome after Transradial Cardiac Catheterization

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    Chih-Jou Lai

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS is a disease with unclear pathophysiology. The condition is characterized by pain, soft tissue change, vasomotor change, and even psychosocial disturbance. It may affect the upper more than the lower extremities, and the distal more than the proximal. The trigger factors include carpal tunnel release, Dupuytren's repair, tendon release procedures, knee surgery, crush injury, ankle arthrodesis, amputation, and hip arthroplasty. Rarely, it has been associated with stroke, mastectomy, pregnancy, and osteogenesis imperfecta. Herein, we present a rare case of a patient who was diagnosed with CRPS after transradial cardiac catheterization. CRPS was first diagnosed due to hand swelling, allodynia, paresthesia, and the limited range of motion of interphalangeal, metacarpophalangeal, and wrist joints, with the preceding factor of transradial cardiac catheterization, and was then confirmed by a three-phase bone scan. After intensive physical therapy with hydrotherapy, manual soft tissue release, and occupational therapy for the hand function, there was much improvement in range of motion and hand function. There was no allodynia or painful sensation in the follow-up. After training, the functional status of this patient was adequate for daily activity.

  8. Estudo da região HII galática NGC 2579

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffel, R.; Copetti, M. V. F.

    2003-08-01

    Desde a descoberta dos gradientes de abundância química em galáxias espirais, as regiões HII galáticas têm sido intensamente estudadas com o objetivo de determinar a forma do gradiente de abundância química na Via-Láctea. Entretanto, a forma do gradiente galático continua controversa e existem muitas regiões HII que continuam inexploradas. A região HII galática NGC 2579 é um objeto que aparece em imagens Ha, como uma pequena mancha brilhante de aproximadamente 2 segundos de arco de diâmetro a 20 segundos de arco ao leste de RCW 20, sendo NGC 2579 muitas vezes confundida com esta última. Apesar de seu alto brilho superficial, NGC 2579 é um objeto pouco estudado provavelmente por problemas de identificação deste objeto. Como parte de um projeto de reavaliação dos gradientes de abundância química das regiões HII na Via-Láctea, estamos realizando um estudo extensivo das propriedades físicas básicas como temperatura eletrônica, densidade eletrônica e composição química da região HII galática NGC 2579. Analisamos dados espectrofotométricos de fenda longa na faixa de 3700Å a 7750Å obtidos com o telescópio de 1.52 m do ESO, Chile, em 2002. Determinamos a temperatura eletrônica usando a razão entre as linhas do [OIII] (l4959+l5007/l4363) e a densidade eletrônica pela razão entre as linhas do [SII] (l6716/l6731). As abundâncias químicas do O, N, Cl, S, Ne e He foram determinadas. Realizamos um estudo de imagens fotométricas nas bandas UBVRI obtidas em 2000 no observatório astronômico San Pedro Mártir, México, para identificar e classificar as estrelas ionizantes de NGC 2579 e determinar a distância deste objeto.

  9. H2 region detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comte, G.

    1978-01-01

    The now classical technique of detection of HII regions is by means of photography and/or interferometry through narrow-band interference filters, with a large aperture ratio of the imaging optics. It enables the detailed study of the spiral structure and the repartition of ionized gas in our Galaxy as well as in the external galaxies [fr

  10. Estrogens and the risk of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mos, M; Huygen, F J P M; Stricker, B H Ch; Dieleman, J P; Sturkenboom, M C J M

    2009-01-01

    Since complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) shows a clear female predominance, we investigated the association between the cumulative as well as current exposure to estrogens, and CRPS. A population-based case-control study was conducted in the Integrated Primary Care Information (IPCI) project in the Netherlands. Cases were identified from electronic records (1996-2005) and included if they were confirmed during a visit (using International Association for the Study of Pain Criteria), or had been diagnosed by a specialist. Controls were matched to cases on gender, age, calendar time, and injury. Measures of cumulative endogenous estrogen exposure were obtained by questionnaire and included age of menarche and menopause, menstrual life, and cumulative months of pregnancy and breast-feeding. Current estrogen exposure at CRPS onset was retrieved from the electronic medical records and determined by current pregnancy or by the use of oral contraceptive (OC) drugs or hormonal replacement therapy (HRT). Hundred and forty-three female cases (1493 controls) were included in analyses on drug use and pregnancies, while cumulative endogenous estrogen exposure was studied in 53 cases (58 controls) for whom questionnaire data were available. There was no association between CRPS and either cumulative endogenous estrogen exposure, OC, or HRT use. CRPS onset was increased during the first 6 months after pregnancy (OR: 5.6, 95%CI: 1.0-32.4), although based on small numbers. We did not find an association between CRPS onset and cumulative endogenous estrogen exposure or current OC or HRT use, but more powered studies are needed to exclude potential minor associations.

  11. Sensitization of the Nociceptive System in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrichs, Carolina; Baron, Ralf; Gierthmühlen, Janne

    2016-01-01

    Background Complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) is characterized by sensory, motor and autonomic abnormalities without electrophysiological evidence of a nerve lesion. Objective Aims were to investigate how sensory, autonomic and motor function change in the course of the disease. Methods 19 CRPS-I patients (17 with acute, 2 with chronic CRPS, mean duration of disease 5.7±8.3, range 1–33 months) were examined with questionnaires (LANSS, NPS, MPI, Quick DASH, multiple choice list of descriptors for sensory, motor, autonomic symptoms), motor and autonomic tests as well as quantitative sensory testing according to the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain at two visits (baseline and 36±10.6, range 16–53 months later). Results CRPS-I patients had an improvement of sudomotor and vasomotor function, but still a great impairment of sensory and motor function upon follow-up. Although pain and mechanical detection improved upon follow-up, thermal and mechanical pain sensitivity increased, including the contralateral side. Increase in mechanical pain sensitivity and loss of mechanical detection were associated with presence of ongoing pain. Conclusions The results demonstrate that patients with CRPS-I show a sensitization of the nociceptive system in the course of the disease, for which ongoing pain seems to be the most important trigger. They further suggest that measured loss of function in CRPS-I is due to pain-induced hypoesthesia rather than a minimal nerve lesion. In conclusion, this article gives evidence for a pronociceptive pain modulation profile developing in the course of CRPS and thus helps to assess underlying mechanisms of CRPS that contribute to the maintenance of patients’ pain and disability. PMID:27149519

  12. Sensitization of the Nociceptive System in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Reimer

    Full Text Available Complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I is characterized by sensory, motor and autonomic abnormalities without electrophysiological evidence of a nerve lesion.Aims were to investigate how sensory, autonomic and motor function change in the course of the disease.19 CRPS-I patients (17 with acute, 2 with chronic CRPS, mean duration of disease 5.7±8.3, range 1-33 months were examined with questionnaires (LANSS, NPS, MPI, Quick DASH, multiple choice list of descriptors for sensory, motor, autonomic symptoms, motor and autonomic tests as well as quantitative sensory testing according to the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain at two visits (baseline and 36±10.6, range 16-53 months later.CRPS-I patients had an improvement of sudomotor and vasomotor function, but still a great impairment of sensory and motor function upon follow-up. Although pain and mechanical detection improved upon follow-up, thermal and mechanical pain sensitivity increased, including the contralateral side. Increase in mechanical pain sensitivity and loss of mechanical detection were associated with presence of ongoing pain.The results demonstrate that patients with CRPS-I show a sensitization of the nociceptive system in the course of the disease, for which ongoing pain seems to be the most important trigger. They further suggest that measured loss of function in CRPS-I is due to pain-induced hypoesthesia rather than a minimal nerve lesion. In conclusion, this article gives evidence for a pronociceptive pain modulation profile developing in the course of CRPS and thus helps to assess underlying mechanisms of CRPS that contribute to the maintenance of patients' pain and disability.

  13. MicroRNA modulation in complex regional pain syndrome

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    Orlova Irina A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aberrant expression of small noncoding RNAs called microRNAs (miRNAs is a common feature of several human diseases. The objective of the study was to identify miRNA modulation in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS a chronic pain condition resulting from dysfunction in the central and/or peripheral nervous systems. Due to a multitude of inciting pathologies, symptoms and treatment conditions, the CRPS patient population is very heterogeneous. Our goal was to identify differentially expressed miRNAs in blood and explore their utility in patient stratification. Methods We profiled miRNAs in whole blood from 41 patients with CRPS and 20 controls using TaqMan low density array cards. Since neurogenic inflammation is known to play a significant role in CRPS we measured inflammatory markers including chemokines, cytokines, and their soluble receptors in blood from the same individuals. Correlation analyses were performed for miRNAs, inflammatory markers and other parameters including disease symptoms, medication, and comorbid conditions. Results Three different groups emerged from miRNA profiling. One group was comprised of 60% of CRPS patients and contained no control subjects. miRNA profiles from the remaining patients were interspersed among control samples in the other two groups. We identified differential expression of 18 miRNAs in CRPS patients. Analysis of inflammatory markers showed that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, interleukin1 receptor antagonist (IL1Ra and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP1 were significantly elevated in CRPS patients. VEGF and IL1Ra showed significant correlation with the patients reported pain levels. Analysis of the patients who were clustered according to their miRNA profile revealed correlations that were not significant in the total patient population. Correlation analysis of miRNAs detected in blood with additional parameters identified miRNAs associated with

  14. Demographic Features in Patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

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    Berat Meryem Alkan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary Özet Orijinal Araştırma / Original Investigation 77 Aim: Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS is characterized by pain, vasomotor and sudomotor changes and trophic disturbances. It may develop as a result of trauma, especially extremity fractures and surgery. Although the pathogenesis of CRPS is not exactly clear explained, it has been suggested that central and periferal mechanisms play role and neurogenic inflamatuar and microvasculer functional impairmensts are accompanying to the process. Not all but some of the patients with past trauma or with other possible etiological factors develop CRPS. This suggests the presence of an individual predisposition. In this article, we searched post fractüred CRPS-I patients demographic characteristics, current systemic diseases and symptoms that accompany a CRPS in our records. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study conducted in Ankara Atatürk Education and Research Hospital, medical records of 356 patients admitted to physical medicine and rehabilitation outpatient clinics with fractures between January 2011 and June 2011 were evaluated and 34 patients diagnosed as CRPS-1 were included in the study. Results: 34 of 356 patients (9.56% with fractures were diagnosed as CRPS-1 in our outpatient clinics. Mean age of the patients was 46.05 years and 10 patients were females (29.4% and 24 patients (70.6% were males. Fractures were in upper extremities in 18 patients (52.9% and in lower extremities in 16 (47.1% patients. Neuropsychiatric disorders and other systemic diseases that may have a role in etiology of CRPS were found in lower rates in medical records of our patients. Conclusion: CRPS does not develop in every patients after travma who has etiologic risk factors, so it reminds that there exists a tendency to CRPS. We have observed that CRPS-1 risk was increased in male patients and in upper extremity fractures. We did not observe any other impertant factor which increases

  15. Complex approach to power supply system in the Tomsk region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshcheryakov, V.N.; Bojko, V.I.; Koshelev, F.P.; Kolpakov, G.N.; Shamanin, I.V.

    2001-01-01

    The problem of power supply of the Tomsk region is under consideration. Power sources are compared with regard to economical and ecological effectiveness. It is shown that nuclear power industry is promising for the Tomsk region due to a unique nuclear park in a town of Seversk with developed scientific, industrial, skilled personnel and construction bases. It is noted that the construction of the NPP based on two WWER-640, WWER-1000 reactors of new generation permits solving the problem of power supply of the Tomsk region [ru

  16. Conflict and complexity countering terrorism, insurgency, ethnic and regional violence

    CERN Document Server

    Bar-Yam, Yaneer; Minai, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Complexity science affords a number of novel tools for examining terrorism, particularly network analysis and NK-Boolean fitness landscapes as well as other tools drawn from non-linear dynamical systems modeling. This book follows the methodologies of complex adaptive systems research in their application to addressing the problems of terrorism, specifically terrorist networks, their structure and various methods of mapping and interdicting them as well as exploring the complex landscape of network-centric and irregular warfare. A variety of new models and approaches are presented here, including Dynamic Network Analysis, DIME/PMESII models, percolation models and emergent models of insurgency. In addition, the analysis is informed by practical experience, with analytical and policy guidance from authors who have served within the U.S. Department of Defense, the British Ministry of Defence as well as those who have served in a civilian capacity as advisors on terrorism and counter-terrorism.

  17. The NGC 7538 region: the distribution and dynamics of molecules compared with those of HI and H+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickel, H.R.; Dickel, J.R.; Wilson, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    CO maps and preliminary H 2 S and H 2 CO data for the molecular cloud associated with the HII region NGC 7538 are compared with the distributions of ionized and neutral hydrogen. South of the optical HII region is a ridge of high 13 CO column density with cold, self-absorbed HI gas just beyond it. A dense clump within the ridge is found adjacent to the HII region in the southeast. The percentage of the hydrogen in atomic form varies from approximately 0.1% in the dense region to approximately 0.8% in the outskirts. The lower-density region of expanding gas seen next to the HII region in the southwest is attributed to the passage of a molecular dissociation wave. (Auth.)

  18. THE COMPLEX NORTH TRANSITION REGION OF CENTAURUS A: RADIO STRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neff, Susan G. [NASA' s Goddard Space Flight Center, Laboratory for Observational Cosmology, Mail Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Eilek, Jean A. [Physics Department, New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Owen, Frazer N., E-mail: susan.g.neff@nasa.gov [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O,  Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2015-04-01

    We present deep radio images of the inner ∼50 kpc of Centaurus A, taken with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array at 90 cm. We focus on the Transition Regions between the inner galaxy—including the active nucleus, inner radio lobes, and star-forming disk—and the outer radio lobes. We detect previously unknown extended emission around the Inner Lobes, including radio emission from the star-forming disk. We find that the radio-loud part of the North Transition Region (NTR), known as the North Middle Lobe, is significantly overpressured relative to the surrounding interstellar medium. We see no evidence for a collimated flow from the active galactic nucleus through this region. Our images show that the structure identified by Morganti et al. as a possible large-scale jet appears to be part of a narrow ridge of emission within the broader, diffuse, radio-loud region. This knotty radio ridge is coincident with other striking phenomena: compact X-ray knots, ionized gas filaments, and streams of young stars. Several short-lived phenomena in the NTR, as well as the frequent re-energization required by the Outer Lobes, suggest that energy must be flowing through both Transition Regions at the present epoch. We suggest that the energy flow is in the form of a galactic wind.

  19. Vibration test of 1/5 scale H-II launch vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morino, Yoshiki; Komatsu, Keiji; Sano, Masaaki; Minegishi, Masakatsu; Morita, Toshiyuki; Kohsetsu, Y.

    In order to predict dynamic loads on the newly designed Japanese H-II launch vehicle, the adequacy of prediction methods has been assessed by the dynamic scale model testing. The three-dimensional dynamic model was used in the analysis to express coupling effects among axial, lateral (pitch and yaw) and torsional vibrations. The liquid/tank interaction was considered by use of a boundary element method. The 1/5 scale model of the H-II launch vehicle was designed to simulate stiffness and mass properties of important structural parts, such as core/SRB junctions, first and second stage Lox tanks and engine mount structures. Modal excitation of the test vehicle was accomplished with 100-1000 N shakers which produced random or sinusoidal vibrational forces. The vibrational response of the test vehicle was measured at various locations with accelerometers and pressure sensor. In the lower frequency range, corresmpondence between analysis and experiment was generally good. The basic procedures in analysis seem to be adequate so far, but some improvements in mathematical modeling are suggested by comparison of test and analysis.

  20. The Emerging Architecture of a Regional Security Complex in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-03-03

    Mar 3, 2015 ... Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, 2017 .... of International Security Studies by appropriating Regional Security .... collaborative network is also embedded across Saharan and Sahelian Africa, ... (previously located in the city of Baga in Nigeria's Borno State), fell into the.

  1. REGIONAL FEATURES OF SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX OF REGION IN CONDITIONS OF INSTABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.G. Lavrikova

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In clause the methodical approach to typology of spatial development of economy of the regions, considering position of region in national geoeconomic space, orientation to the global markets and character of interactions (network or integrated managing subjects in region is considered. Regional features of spatial development of regions of the Ural federal district are allocated. Directions of perfection of a level of the organization of spatial development of economy of regions in conditions of instability from positions of theories of unbalanced growth are offered.

  2. Star formation in the inner galaxy: a far-infrared and radio study of two H2 regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, D.F.; Dinerstein, H.L.; Werner, M.W.; Harvey, P.M.; Evans, N.J.; Brown, R.L.

    1985-09-01

    Far-infrared and radio continuum maps have been made of the central 6' of the inner-galaxy HII regions G30.8-0.0 (in the W43 complex) and G25.4-0.2, along with radio and molecular line measurements at selected positions. The purpose of this study is an effort to understand star formation in the molecular ring at 5 kpc in galactic radius. Measurements at several far infrared wavelengths allow the dust temperature structures and total far infrared fluxes to be determined. Comparison of the radio and infrared maps shows a close relationship between the ionized gas and the infrared-emitting material. There is evidence that parts of G30.8 are substantially affected by extinction, even at far-infrared wavelengths. Using radio recombination line and CO line data for G25.4-0.2, the distance ambiguity for this source is resolved. The large distance previously ascribed to the entire complex is found to apply to only one of the two main components. The confusion in distance determination is found to result from an extraordinary near-superposition of two bright HII regions. Using the revised distances of 4.3 kpc for G25.4SE and 12 kpc for G25.4NW, it is found that the latter, which is apparently the fainter of the two sources, is actually the more luminous. The ratio of total luminosity to ionizing luminosity is very similar to that of HII regions in the solar circle. Assuming a coeval population of ionizing stars, a normal initial mass function is indicated

  3. Critical Hydrologic and Atmospheric Measurements in Complex Alpine Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlange, M. B.; Bou-Zeid, E.; Barrenetxea, G.; Krichane, M.; Ingelrest, F.; Couach, O.; Luyet, V.; Vetterli, M.; Lehning, M.; Duffy, C.; Tobin, C.; Selker, J.; Kumar, M.

    2007-12-01

    The Alps are often referred to as the « Water Towers of Europe » and as such play an essential role in European water resources. The impact of climatic change is expected to be particularly pronounced in the Alps and the lack of detailed hydrologic field observations is problematic for predictions of hydrologic and hazard assessment. Advances in information technology and communications provide important possibilities to improve the situation with relatively few measurements. We will present sensorscope technology (arrays of wireless weather stations including soil moisture, pressure, and temperature) that has now been deployed at the Le Genepi and Grand St. Bernard pass. In addition, a Distributed Temperature Sensor array on the stream beds has been deployed and stream discharge monitored. The high spatial resolution data collected in these previously "ungaged" regions are used in conjunction with new generation hydrologic models. The framework as to what is possible today with sensor arrays and modeling in extreme mountain environments is discussed.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spectroscopy of NGC3310 HII regions (Miralles-Caballero+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralles-Caballero, D.; Diaz, A. I.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Perez-Montero, E.; Sanchez, S. F.

    2015-01-01

    NGC 3310 observations were carried out with the 3.5m telescope of the Calar Alto Observatory using the Postdam Multi-Aperture Spectrograph (PMAS) in the PMAS fibre package mode (PPAK). This was part of the PINGS (Rosales-Ortega et al., 2010MNRAS.405..735R). We retrieved publicly available broad-band imaging of this galaxy in order to perform an absolute flux re-calibration. Specifically, we used the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS, http://www.sdss.org/) broad-band g- and r-filter images (with a spatial resolution of about 1-arcsec) and an HST (http://www.stsci.edu/hst/) image taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2, with a spatial resolution of about 0.05-arcsec) using the F439W filter (similar to B Johnson). We also obtained UV images of the galaxy. In particular, taken with the UVW2 and UVM2 filters (with effective wavelengths of 2087 and 2297Å, respectively), mounted on the OM camera on board the XMM-Newton satellite. (3 data files).

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The HII Region Discovery Survey (HRDS). II. (Anderson+, 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L. D.; Bania, T. M.; Balser, D. S.; Rood, R. T.

    2011-08-01

    Our observations were made with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) 100m telescope from 2008 June through 2010 October. We assembled our target list from the following multi-frequency, large solid angle Galactic surveys: the NRAO Very Large Array (VLA) Galactic Plane Survey at 21cm HI and continuum (VGPS: Stil et al. 2006AJ....132.1158S), the NRAO VLA Sky Survey at 20cm continuum (NVSS: Condon et al. 1998, Cat. VIII/65), the Southern Galactic Plane Survey at 21cm HI and continuum (SGPS: Haverkorn et al. 2006ApJS..167..230H), the VLA MAGPIS at 20cm continuum (Helfand et al. 2006, Cat. J/AJ/131/2525), and the Spitzer 24um MIPSGAL survey (Carey et al. 2009PASP..121...76C). Our analysis here also uses 8.0um data from the Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE: Benjamin et al. 2003PASP..115..953B), which were obtained with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope. (4 data files).

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galactic HII region IRAS 16148-5011 content (Mallick+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, K. K.; Ojha, D. K.; Tamura, M.; Linz, H.; Samal, M. R.; Ghosh, S. K.

    2015-11-01

    NIR photometric observations in J (1.25um), H (1.63um), and Ks (2.14um) bands (centred on RA=16:18:31, DE=-50:17:32 (2000)) were carried out on 2004 July 29 using the 1.4m Infrared Survey Facility (IRSF) telescope, South Africa. The observations were taken with the help of the Simultaneous InfraRed Imager for Unbiased Survey (SIRIUS) instrument, a three colour simultaneous camera mounted at the f/10 Cassegrain focus of the telescope. Radio continuum observations at 1280MHz were obtained on 2012 November 09 using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) array. The GMRT array consists of 30 antennas arranged in an approximate Y-shaped configuration, with each antenna having a diameter of 45m. This translates to a primary beam-size of 26.2-arcmin at 1280MHz. (2 data files).

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spectrophotometric distances of HII regions (Moises+, 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moises, A. P.; Damineli, A.; Figueredo, E.; Blum, R. D.; Conti, P. S.; Barbosa, C. L.

    2011-11-01

    The J-band (λ1.28um, δλ=0.3um), H-band (λ1.63um, δλ=0.3um) and Ks-band (λ2.19um, δλ=0.4um) images were obtained on the nights of 1999 May 1, 4 and 20, 2000 May 19 and 21 and 2001 July 10 and 12, at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) 4-m Blanco telescope, using the facility's infrared imager OSIRIS, which has a field of view (FOV) of 93x93arcsec2 and a pixel scale of 0.161arcsec/pixel. On the nights of 2005 Jult 3-6 and 11 and 2006 June 3-7, we obtained images using the facility's infrared imager ISPI (with a FOV of 10.25x10.25arcmin2 and a pixel scale of 0.3arcsec/pix), also at the 4-m Blanco telescope. Also, on the nights of 1998 August 28 and 29, we obtained images on the CTIO 4-m telescope using the facility's infrared imager CIRIM (with a FOV of 102x102arcsec2 and a pixel scale of 0.40arcsec/pix). (3 data files).

  8. Experience from the ECORS program in regions of complex geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damotte, B.

    1993-04-01

    The French ECORS program was launched in 1983 by a cooperation agreement between universities and petroleum companies. Crustal surveys have tried to find explanations for the formation of geological features, such as rifts, mountains ranges or subsidence in sedimentary basins. Several seismic surveys were carried out, some across areas with complex geological structures. The seismic techniques and equipment used were those developed by petroleum geophysicists, adapted to the depth aimed at (30-50 km) and to various physical constraints encountered in the field. In France, ECORS has recorded 850 km of deep seismic lines onshore across plains and mountains, on various kinds of geological formations. Different variations of the seismic method (reflection, refraction, long-offset seismic) were used, often simultaneously. Multiple coverage profiling constitutes the essential part of this data acquisition. Vibrators and dynamite shots were employed with a spread generally 15 km long, but sometimes 100 km long. Some typical seismic examples show that obtaining crustal reflections essentialy depends on two factors: (1) the type and structure of shallow formations, and (2) the sources used. Thus, when seismic energy is strongly absorbed across the first kilometers in shallow formations, or when these formations are highly structured, standard multiple-coverage profiling is not able to provide results beyond a few seconds. In this case, it is recommended to simultaneously carry out long-offset seismic in low multiple coverage. Other more methodological examples show: how the impact on the crust of a surface fault may be evaluated according to the seismic method implemented ( VIBROSEIS 96-fold coverage or single dynamite shot); that vibrators make it possible to implement wide-angle seismic surveying with an offset 80 km long; how to implement the seismic reflection method on complex formations in high mountains. All data were processed using industrial seismic software

  9. Neuropeptides, neurogenic inflammation and complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birklein, Frank; Schmelz, Martin

    2008-06-06

    This review explains symptoms and nature of neuropeptide signaling and its importance for clinical symptoms of CRPS. Neurogenic inflammation regularly accompanies excitation of primary afferent nociceptors. It has two major components-plasma extravasation and vasodilatation. The most important mediators are the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP). After peripheral trauma immune reaction (e.g. cytokines) and the attempts of the tissue to regenerate (e.g. growth factors) sensitize nociceptors and amplify neurogenic inflammation. This cascade of events has been demonstrated in rat models of CRPS. Clinical findings in these animals strongly resemble clinical findings in CRPS, and can be prevented by anti-cytokine and anti-neuropeptide treatment. In CRPS patients, there is meanwhile also plenty of evidence that neurogenic inflammation contributes to clinical presentation. Increased cytokine production was demonstrated, as well as facilitated neurogenic inflammation. Very recently even "non-inflammatory" signs of CRPS (hyperhidrosis, cold skin) have been linked to neuropeptide signaling. Surprisingly, there was even moderately increased neurogenic inflammation in unaffected body regions. This favors the possibility that CRPS patients share genetic similarities. The future search for genetic commonalities will help us to further unravel the "mystery" CRPS.

  10. Spotted star light curve numerical modeling technique and its application to HII 1883 surface imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbin, A. I.; Shimansky, V. V.

    2014-04-01

    We developed a code for imaging the surfaces of spotted stars by a set of circular spots with a uniform temperature distribution. The flux from the spotted surface is computed by partitioning the spots into elementary areas. The code takes into account the passing of spots behind the visible stellar limb, limb darkening, and overlapping of spots. Modeling of light curves includes the use of recent results of the theory of stellar atmospheres needed to take into account the temperature dependence of flux intensity and limb darkening coefficients. The search for spot parameters is based on the analysis of several light curves obtained in different photometric bands. We test our technique by applying it to HII 1883.

  11. HII 2407: AN ECLIPSING BINARY REVEALED BY K2 OBSERVATIONS OF THE PLEIADES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Trevor J.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Zhang, Celia; Riddle, Reed L. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stauffer, John; Rebull, L. M. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cody, Ann Marie [NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, CA 94035 (United States); Conroy, Kyle; Stassun, Keivan G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Pope, Benjamin; Aigrain, Suzanne; Gillen, Ed [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Cameron, Andrew Collier [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Barrado, David [Centro de Astrobiología, INTA-CSIC, Dpto. Astrofísica, ESAC Campus, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Isaacson, Howard; Marcy, Geoffrey W. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ziegler, Carl; Law, Nicholas M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States); Baranec, Christoph, E-mail: tjd@astro.caltech.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Hilo, HI 96720-2700 (United States)

    2015-11-20

    The star HII 2407 is a member of the relatively young Pleiades star cluster and was previously discovered to be a single-lined spectroscopic binary. It is newly identified here within Kepler/K2 photometric time series data as an eclipsing binary system. Mutual fitting of the radial velocity and photometric data leads to an orbital solution and constraints on fundamental stellar parameters. While the primary has arrived on the main sequence, the secondary is still pre-main sequence and we compare our results for the M/M{sub ⊙} and R/R{sub ⊙} values with stellar evolutionary models. We also demonstrate that the system is likely to be tidally synchronized. Follow-up infrared spectroscopy is likely to reveal the lines of the secondary, allowing for dynamically measured masses and elevating the system to benchmark eclipsing binary status.

  12. Hierarchical Model for the Similarity Measurement of a Complex Holed-Region Entity Scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanlong Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Complex multi-holed-region entity scenes (i.e., sets of random region with holes are common in spatial database systems, spatial query languages, and the Geographic Information System (GIS. A multi-holed-region (region with an arbitrary number of holes is an abstraction of the real world that primarily represents geographic objects that have more than one interior boundary, such as areas that contain several lakes or lakes that contain islands. When the similarity of the two complex holed-region entity scenes is measured, the number of regions in the scenes and the number of holes in the regions are usually different between the two scenes, which complicates the matching relationships of holed-regions and holes. The aim of this research is to develop several holed-region similarity metrics and propose a hierarchical model to measure comprehensively the similarity between two complex holed-region entity scenes. The procedure first divides a complex entity scene into three layers: a complex scene, a micro-spatial-scene, and a simple entity (hole. The relationships between the adjacent layers are considered to be sets of relationships, and each level of similarity measurements is nested with the adjacent one. Next, entity matching is performed from top to bottom, while the similarity results are calculated from local to global. In addition, we utilize position graphs to describe the distribution of the holed-regions and subsequently describe the directions between the holes using a feature matrix. A case study that uses the Great Lakes in North America in 1986 and 2015 as experimental data illustrates the entire similarity measurement process between two complex holed-region entity scenes. The experimental results show that the hierarchical model accounts for the relationships of the different layers in the entire complex holed-region entity scene. The model can effectively calculate the similarity of complex holed-region entity scenes, even if the

  13. Methods for deconvoluting and interpreting complex gamma- and x-ray spectral regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunnink, R.

    1983-06-01

    Germanium and silicon detectors are now widely used for the detection and measurement of x and gamma radiation. However, some analysis situations and spectral regions have heretofore been too complex to deconvolute and interpret by techniques in general use. One example is the L x-ray spectrum of an element taken with a Ge or Si detector. This paper describes some new tools and methods that were developed to analyze complex spectral regions; they are illustrated with examples

  14. Stellar population in star formation regions of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, Alexander S.; Shimanovskaya, Elena V.; Shatsky, Nikolai I.; Sakhibov, Firouz; Piskunov, Anatoly E.; Kharchenko, Nina V.

    2018-05-01

    We developed techniques for searching young unresolved star groupings (clusters, associations, and their complexes) and of estimating their physical parameters. Our study is based on spectroscopic, spectrophotometric, and UBVRI photometric observations of 19 spiral galaxies. In the studied galaxies, we found 1510 objects younger than 10 Myr and present their catalogue. Having combined photometric and spectroscopic data, we derived extinctions, chemical abundances, sizes, ages, and masses of these groupings. We discuss separately the specific cases, when the gas extinction does not agree with the interstellar one. We assume that this is due to spatial offset of Hii clouds with respect to the related stellar population.We developed a method to estimate age of stellar population of the studied complexes using their morphology and the relation with associated H emission region. In result we obtained the estimates of chemical abundances for 80, masses for 63, and ages for 57 young objects observed in seven galaxies.

  15. Complex researches on substantiation of construction and seismic stability of large dams in seismic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negmatullaev, S.Kh.; Yasunov, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    This article is devoted to complex researches on substantiation of construction and seismic stability of large dams (Nurec hydroelectric power station) in seismic region. Geological, seismological, model, and engineering investigations are discussed in this work. At construction of Nurec hydroelectric power station the rich experience is accumulated. This experience can be used in analogous seismically active regions at construction similar hydroelectric power stations.

  16. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS Type II After Carpal Tunnel Release Surgery: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Tunç

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary Complex regional pain syndrome is a chronic syndrome characterised with dystrophic changes and neurovascular disordes of bone and skin of extremities. The most common etiological factors are trauma, ischemic heart disease, cerebral lesions, servical region disorders, infections, and surgical treatments. Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common compressive neuropaty of the upper extremity. There are various surgical and conservative alternatives in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome. Complex regional pain syndrome has been reported as a complication of surgical carpal tunnel release in 2-5% of patients. In this case report clinical characteristics and rehabilitation outcomes of a patient with complex regional pain syndrome after carpal tunnel release surgery is presented. (Osteoporoz Dünyasından 2010;16:41-3

  17. Incidence of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome I Following Foot and Ankle Fractures Using the Budapest Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullen, Michael; Lang, Coran; Tran, Phong

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE : Fractures are a well-recognized inciting event in the development of complex regional pain syndrome. This study aimed to prospectively determine the incidence of complex regional pain syndrome following foot and ankle fractures. METHODS : A prospective study was conducted of patients presenting to two metropolitan hospitals with plain radiograph diagnosis of fractures to the foot or ankle. Patients were initially screened by phone 3 months after injury using the validated International Association for the Study of Pain Budapest criteria. Patients who fulfilled the screening criteria were then physically examined by a pain specialist to assess clinical signs as part of the Budapest criteria. RESULTS : A total of 306 consecutive eligible patients were included. One hundred and ten patients reported at least one symptom of complex regional pain syndrome; however, only three fulfilled the minimum requirements to necessitate clinical review. Of these three, only one patient fulfilled the combination of symptom and sign criteria for a positive diagnosis according to the validated Budapest criteria. The incidence of complex regional pain syndrome following foot and ankle fracture in this study was 0.3%. CONCLUSION : Although many patients may experience vasomotor, sensory, and sudomotor disturbance following a fracture to the foot and ankle, the observed incidence of complex regional pain syndrome using a prospectively collected validated criteria is significantly lower than previously published. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Region-specific expression of mitochondrial complex I genes during murine brain development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Wirtz

    Full Text Available Mutations in the nuclear encoded subunits of mitochondrial complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase may cause circumscribed cerebral lesions ranging from degeneration of the striatal and brainstem gray matter (Leigh syndrome to leukodystrophy. We hypothesized that such pattern of regional pathology might be due to local differences in the dependence on complex I function. Using in situ hybridization we investigated the relative expression of 33 nuclear encoded complex I subunits in different brain regions of the mouse at E11.5, E17.5, P1, P11, P28 and adult (12 weeks. With respect to timing and relative intensity of complex I gene expression we found a highly variant pattern in different regions during development. High average expression levels were detected in periods of intense neurogenesis. In cerebellar Purkinje and in hippocampal CA1/CA3 pyramidal neurons we found a second even higher peak during the period of synaptogenesis and maturation. The extraordinary dependence of these structures on complex I gene expression during synaptogenesis is in accord with our recent findings that gamma oscillations--known to be associated with higher cognitive functions of the mammalian brain--strongly depend on the complex I activity. However, with the exception of the mesencephalon, we detected only average complex I expression levels in the striatum and basal ganglia, which does not explain the exquisite vulnerability of these structures in mitochondrial disorders.

  19. H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) and the Operations Concept for Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Blome, Elizabeth; Tetsuya, Sakashita

    2011-01-01

    With the retirement of the Space Shuttle fleet imminent in 2011, a new operations concept will become reality to meet the transportation challenges of the International Space Station (ISS). The planning associated with the retirement of the Space Shuttle has been underway since the announcement in 2004. Since then, several companies and government entities have had to look for innovative low-cost commercial orbital transportation systems to continue to achieve the objectives of ISS delivery requirements. Several options have been assessed and appear ready to meet the large and demanding delivery requirements of the ISS. Options that have been identified that can facilitate the challenge include the Russian Federal Space Agency's Soyuz and Progress spacecraft, European Space Agency's Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV), and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA s) H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV). The newest of these options is the JAXA's HTV. This paper focuses on the HTV, mission architecture and operations concept for Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) hardware, the associated launch system, and details of the launch operations approach.

  20. GBA manager: an online tool for querying low-complexity regions in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Nirmalya; Kahveci, Tamer

    2010-01-01

    Abstract We developed GBA Manager, an online software that facilitates the Graph-Based Algorithm (GBA) we proposed in our earlier work. GBA identifies the low-complexity regions (LCR) of protein sequences. GBA exploits a similarity matrix, such as BLOSUM62, to compute the complexity of the subsequences of the input protein sequence. It uses a graph-based algorithm to accurately compute the regions that have low complexities. GBA Manager is a user friendly web-service that enables online querying of protein sequences using GBA. In addition to querying capabilities of the existing GBA algorithm, GBA Manager computes the p-values of the LCR identified. The p-value gives an estimate of the possibility that the region appears by chance. GBA Manager presents the output in three different understandable formats. GBA Manager is freely accessible at http://bioinformatics.cise.ufl.edu/GBA/GBA.htm .

  1. The plausible reason why the length of 5' untranslated region is unrelated to organismal complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Feng-Chi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organismal complexity is suggested to increase with the complexity of transcriptional and translational regulations. Supporting this notion is a recent study that demonstrated a higher level of tissue-specific gene expression in human than in mouse. However, whether this correlation can be extended beyond mammals remains unclear. In addition, 5' untranslated regions (5'UTRs, which have undergone stochastic elongation during evolution and potentially included an increased number of regulatory elements, may have played an important role in the emergence of organismal complexity. Although the lack of correlation between 5'UTR length and organismal complexity has been proposed, the underlying mechanisms remain unexplored. Results In this study, we select the number of cell types as the measurement of organismal complexity and examine the correlation between (1 organismal complexity and transcriptional regulatory complexity; and (2 organismal complexity and 5'UTR length by comparing the 5'UTRs and multiple-tissue expression profiles of human (Homo sapiens, mouse (Mus musculus, and fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster. The transcriptional regulatory complexity is measured by using the tissue specificity of gene expression and the ratio of non-constitutively expressed to constitutively expressed genes. We demonstrate that, whereas correlation (1 holds well in the three-way comparison, correlation (2 is not true. Results from a larger dataset that includes more than 15 species, ranging from yeast to human, also reject correlation (2. The reason for the failure of correlation (2 may be ascribed to: Firstly, longer 5'UTRs do not contribute to increased tissue specificity of gene expression. Secondly, the increased numbers of common translational regulatory elements in longer 5'UTRs do not lead to increased organismal complexity. Conclusions Our study has extended the evidence base for the correlation between organismal complexity and

  2. Complex active regions as the main source of extreme and large solar proton events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishkov, V. N.

    2013-12-01

    A study of solar proton sources indicated that solar flare events responsible for ≥2000 pfu proton fluxes mostly occur in complex active regions (CARs), i.e., in transition structures between active regions and activity complexes. Different classes of similar structures and their relation to solar proton events (SPEs) and evolution, depending on the origination conditions, are considered. Arguments in favor of the fact that sunspot groups with extreme dimensions are CARs are presented. An analysis of the flare activity in a CAR resulted in the detection of "physical" boundaries, which separate magnetic structures of the same polarity and are responsible for the independent development of each structure.

  3. Current state and development trends of the agroindustrial complex and rural territories of Perm Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadiy Vladimirovich Klimenkov

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of regional agricultural sector status and rural areas of Perm in 1990-2011 years indicates a systemic crisis of agriculture in Perm region, which is largely determined by the fact that Perm region has no strategy or strategic plan and program for sustainable agricultural sector and rural areas of Perm region development, there is no scheme of territorial development and master plans of territorial development with the development of agro-industrial complex of Perm region. In these circumstances, there is a steady downward trend in production, weakening and bankruptcy of enterprises, social impoverishment of rural areas, appearance of many of irreversible processes (sale and neglect of agricultural land, demographic problems associated with low living standards, population migration, policy optimization in the areas of education and health, union of territories, policy of depopulation of territories etc.. This paper presents main recommendations for improving the situation in agriculture of Perm region.

  4. Heterogeneous convergence of regional house prices and the complexity in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Lin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to analyze the convergence of regional house prices and its complexity in China. In this purpose it used nonlinear time varying factor model. The obtained results have provided evidences for the existence of some degree of segmentation in China’s housing market. By further dynamic analysis of the convergence, we have found that important housing policies from Chinese central government can significantly alter the housing market but with a time lag of 4 to 5 months, and that quite different behaviors exist between the new house market and the second-hand house market in China, which provides the evidence for the complexity of housing market in China. Multiple factors together are the driving forces for the regional house price convergence. And the driving forces differ among three clubs. The basic conclusion provided from the realized research is that the conventional definitions of economic regions may not be appropriate to analyze house price segregation in China. Heterogeneous convergence exists in China’s regional house prices, indicating the complexity of regional house prices in China. And housing policies should be implemented with different focus among the regions. The way of the central government is to make housing policies aiming at different sub-markets of the new house market and the second-hand house market.

  5. Formation of competitive potential of the machine-building complex of the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Ivanovich Botkin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the features of competitive potential of regional machine-building complex in a globalized world economy. The purpose of the research is the development of theoretically reasonable economic basis of the machine-building complex considering  the  features of business in the conditions of the WTO. In the work, the hypothesis of a special role of the external economic factors locates in development of the enterprises of regional industrial complexes. The study of the theoretical provisions defining the development of the region revealed the factors determining influence of the international trade agreements on spatial localization of the industry. The main attention is paid to an analytical assessment of the current state and the trends, which have developed in the period of post-crisis economic recovery. Analysis of the main indicators of attractiveness has revealed the weak position of local industrial enterprises in the WTO. The directions of strengthening of the competitive capacity of the local industrial enterprises are defined. The obtained results allow us to increase the sustainability of the industry by means of effective management mechanism improvements and to create favorable operating conditions of a machine-building complex of the region

  6. Complex regional pain syndrome related movement disorders : studies on pathophysiology and therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munts, Alexander Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) may occur after trauma, usually to one limb, and is characterised by pain and disturbed blood flow, temperature regulation and motor control. Knowledge on CRPS and its movement disorders is scarce. Dysfunction in small nerve fiber processing was found in CRPS

  7. Mitochondrial dysfunction in muscle tissue of complex regional pain syndrome type I patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, E.C.T.H.; Janssen, A.J.W.M.; Roestenberg, P.M.H.; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Goris, R.J.A.; Rodenburg, R.J.T.

    2011-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to be involved in the pathophysiology of complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I). Since the mitochondrial respiratory chain is a major source of ROS, we hypothesized that mitochondria play a role in the pathophysiology of CRPS I. The hypothesis was

  8. Mannitol as salvage treatment for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, E.C.T.H.; Tacken, M.C.; Groenewoud, J.M.M.; Goor, H. van; Frolke, J.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I (CRPS I) is a continuation of symptoms and signs due to a pathological exaggerated reaction in an extremity of the human body after an injury or operation. Although the clinical picture of CRPS I in the majority of patients is well known, the

  9. Evidence for local inflammation in complex regional pain syndrome type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank J. P. M. Huygen

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pathophysiology of complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS 1 is still a matter of debate. Peripheral afferent, efferent and central mechanisms are supposed. Based on clinical signs and symptoms (e.g. oedema, local temperature changes and chronic pain local inflammation is suspected.

  10. Dystonia in complex regional pain syndrome : clinical, pathophysiological and therapeutic aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, Monica Adriana van

    2010-01-01

    The clinical characteristics of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) are defined by pain and various combinations of sensory disturbances, autonomic features, and sudomotor and trophic changes. Furthermore, patients with CRPS may suffer from movement disorders, of which dystonia is the most

  11. Muscle Hyperalgesia Correlates With Motor Function in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooijen, Diana E.; Marinus, Johan; Schouten, Alfred Christiaan; Noldus, Lucas P.J.J.; van Hilten, Jacobus J.

    2013-01-01

    At present it is unclear if disturbed sensory processing plays a role in the development of the commonly observed motor impairments in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). This study aims to investigate the relation between sensory and motor functioning in CRPS patients with and

  12. Genetic HLA Associations in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome With and Without Dystonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooijen, D.E.; Roelen, D.L.; Verduijn, W.; Haasnoot, G.W.; Huygen, F.J.P.M.; Perez, R.S.G.M.; Claas, F.H.J.; Marinus, J.; van Hilten, J.J.; van den Maagdenberg, A.M.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    We previously showed evidence for a genetic association of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system and complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) with dystonia. Involvement of the HLA system suggests that CRPS has a genetic component with perturbed regulation of inflammation and neuroplasticity as

  13. Informed Decision-Making Regarding Amputation for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodde, Marlies I.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Schrier, Michiel; van den Dungen, Johannes; den Dunnen, Wilfred E.; Geertzen, Joannes

    2014-01-01

    Background: Literature on complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) discussing the decision to amputate or not, the level of amputation, or the timing of the amputation is scarce: We evaluated informed decision-making regarding amputation for CRPS-I. Methods: We describe our findings in a

  14. ECOLOGICAL SAFETY OF MINING REGIONS THROUGH CREATION OF POWER‐HEATING COMPLEXES (in Russian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. YEFREMOV

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There was presented a method of use of alterative source of energy, namely coal mine methane, the use of which as a fuel for power and heatiing generation is a main direction in coal mines. By this means some ecological problems of the region are solved. Highly efficient power and heating technologies are implemented and energy complexes are established.

  15. Ecosystem services provided by a complex coastal region: challenges of classification and mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Lisa P.; Sousa, Ana I.; Alves, Fátima L.; Lillebø, Ana I.

    2016-03-01

    A variety of ecosystem services classification systems and mapping approaches are available in the scientific and technical literature, which needs to be selected and adapted when applied to complex territories (e.g. in the interface between water and land, estuary and sea). This paper provides a framework for addressing ecosystem services in complex coastal regions. The roadmap comprises the definition of the exact geographic boundaries of the study area; the use of CICES (Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services) for ecosystem services identification and classification; and the definition of qualitative indicators that will serve as basis to map the ecosystem services. Due to its complexity, the Ria de Aveiro coastal region was selected as case study, presenting an opportunity to explore the application of such approaches at a regional scale. The main challenges of implementing the proposed roadmap, together with its advantages are discussed in this research. The results highlight the importance of considering both the connectivity of natural systems and the complexity of the governance framework; the flexibility and robustness, but also the challenges when applying CICES at regional scale; and the challenges regarding ecosystem services mapping.

  16. Cerebral activation during motor imagery in complex regional pain syndrome type 1 with dystonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gieteling, Esther W.; van Rijn, Monique A.; de Jong, Bauke M.; Hoogduin, Johannes M.; Renken, Remco; van Hilten, Jacobus J.; Leenders, Klaus L.

    The pathogenesis of dystonia in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1) is unclear. In primary dystonia, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has revealed changes in cerebral networks during execution of movement. The aim of this study was to determine cerebral network function in

  17. Regional and Historical Minerageny of the Gemstone Complexes in Russia (Quantitative Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyanin V.S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an approximate quantitative estimation of the mineragenic potentials of gems in the paleogeodynamic systems, complexes, and geological formations of Russia, which are characterized by different age and regional distribution. General trends of the changes in the scale and intensity of formation processes of the same gem deposits over geologic time were identified.

  18. Complex regional pain syndrome 1 : a study on pain and motor impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.M. Ribbers (Gerard)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis, is compiled of publications on reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) or Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1 (CRPS 1), as it was renamed by the committee on taxonomy of the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP). It is a puzzling syndrome both from a clinical

  19. Modelling of the flow of stable air over a complex region

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholtz, MT

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow of stable air over a general region of complex topography and non-uniform surface temperature has been investigated. In order to gain further understanding of the motion of surface air, it was necessary to study the vertical structure...

  20. Stressful life events and psychological dysfunction in complex regional pain syndrome type I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertzen, JHB; de Bruijn-Kofman, AT; de Bruijn, HP; van de Wiel, HBM; Dijkstra, PU

    Objective: To determine to what extent stressful life events and psychological dysfunction play a role in the pathogenesis of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I (CRPS). Design: A comparative study between a CRPS group and a control group. Stressful life events and psychological dysfunction

  1. Ecosystem services provided by a complex coastal region: challenges of classification and mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Lisa P; Sousa, Ana I; Alves, Fátima L; Lillebø, Ana I

    2016-03-11

    A variety of ecosystem services classification systems and mapping approaches are available in the scientific and technical literature, which needs to be selected and adapted when applied to complex territories (e.g. in the interface between water and land, estuary and sea). This paper provides a framework for addressing ecosystem services in complex coastal regions. The roadmap comprises the definition of the exact geographic boundaries of the study area; the use of CICES (Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services) for ecosystem services identification and classification; and the definition of qualitative indicators that will serve as basis to map the ecosystem services. Due to its complexity, the Ria de Aveiro coastal region was selected as case study, presenting an opportunity to explore the application of such approaches at a regional scale. The main challenges of implementing the proposed roadmap, together with its advantages are discussed in this research. The results highlight the importance of considering both the connectivity of natural systems and the complexity of the governance framework; the flexibility and robustness, but also the challenges when applying CICES at regional scale; and the challenges regarding ecosystem services mapping.

  2. Resilience in patients with amputation because of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodde, Marlies I.; Schrier, Ernst; Krans, Hilde K.; Geertzen, J.H.B.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Although controversial, an amputation for longstanding and therapy-resistant Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I (CRPS-I) may improve quality of life and pain intensity. Resilience, the way people deal with adversity in a positive way may be related to these positive outcomes. This study

  3. Optokinetic stimulation increases limb pain and forehead hyperalgesia in complex regional pain syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lone F.; Drummond, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ambiguous visual stimuli increase limb pain in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), possibly due to afferent sensory feedback conflicts. Conflicting sensory stimuli can also generate unpleasant sensations in healthy people such as during motion sickness. We wanted to i...

  4. Determination of haplotypes at structurally complex regions using emulsion haplotype fusion PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Jess; Armour, John A L

    2012-12-11

    Genotyping and massively-parallel sequencing projects result in a vast amount of diploid data that is only rarely resolved into its constituent haplotypes. It is nevertheless this phased information that is transmitted from one generation to the next and is most directly associated with biological function and the genetic causes of biological effects. Despite progress made in genome-wide sequencing and phasing algorithms and methods, problems assembling (and reconstructing linear haplotypes in) regions of repetitive DNA and structural variation remain. These dynamic and structurally complex regions are often poorly understood from a sequence point of view. Regions such as these that are highly similar in their sequence tend to be collapsed onto the genome assembly. This is turn means downstream determination of the true sequence haplotype in these regions poses a particular challenge. For structurally complex regions, a more focussed approach to assembling haplotypes may be required. In order to investigate reconstruction of spatial information at structurally complex regions, we have used an emulsion haplotype fusion PCR approach to reproducibly link sequences of up to 1kb in length to allow phasing of multiple variants from neighbouring loci, using allele-specific PCR and sequencing to detect the phase. By using emulsion systems linking flanking regions to amplicons within the CNV, this led to the reconstruction of a 59kb haplotype across the DEFA1A3 CNV in HapMap individuals. This study has demonstrated a novel use for emulsion haplotype fusion PCR in addressing the issue of reconstructing structural haplotypes at multiallelic copy variable regions, using the DEFA1A3 locus as an example.

  5. Determination of haplotypes at structurally complex regions using emulsion haplotype fusion PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyson Jess

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genotyping and massively-parallel sequencing projects result in a vast amount of diploid data that is only rarely resolved into its constituent haplotypes. It is nevertheless this phased information that is transmitted from one generation to the next and is most directly associated with biological function and the genetic causes of biological effects. Despite progress made in genome-wide sequencing and phasing algorithms and methods, problems assembling (and reconstructing linear haplotypes in regions of repetitive DNA and structural variation remain. These dynamic and structurally complex regions are often poorly understood from a sequence point of view. Regions such as these that are highly similar in their sequence tend to be collapsed onto the genome assembly. This is turn means downstream determination of the true sequence haplotype in these regions poses a particular challenge. For structurally complex regions, a more focussed approach to assembling haplotypes may be required. Results In order to investigate reconstruction of spatial information at structurally complex regions, we have used an emulsion haplotype fusion PCR approach to reproducibly link sequences of up to 1kb in length to allow phasing of multiple variants from neighbouring loci, using allele-specific PCR and sequencing to detect the phase. By using emulsion systems linking flanking regions to amplicons within the CNV, this led to the reconstruction of a 59kb haplotype across the DEFA1A3 CNV in HapMap individuals. Conclusion This study has demonstrated a novel use for emulsion haplotype fusion PCR in addressing the issue of reconstructing structural haplotypes at multiallelic copy variable regions, using the DEFA1A3 locus as an example.

  6. Probing the Galactic Structure of the Milky Way with H II Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red, Wesley Alexander; Wenger, Trey V.; Balser, Dana; Anderson, Loren; Bania, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Mapping the structure of the Milky Way is challenging since we reside within the Galactic disk and distances are difficult to determine. Elemental abundances provide important constraints on theories of the formation and evolution of the Milky Way. HII regions are the brightest objects in the Galaxy at radio wavelengths and are detected across the entire Galactic disk. We use the Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) to observe the radio recombination line (RRL) and continuum emission of 120 Galactic HII regions located across the Galactic disk. In thermal equilibrium, metal abundances are expected to set the nebular electron temperature with high abundances producing low temperatures. We derive the metallicity of HII regions using an empirical relation between an HII region's radio recombination line-to-continuum ratio and nebular metallicity. Here we focus on a subset of 20 HII regions from our sample that have been well studied with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to test our data reduction pipeline and analysis methods. Our goal is to expand this study to the Southern skies with the Australia Telescope Compact Array and create a metallicity map of the entire Galactic disk.

  7. Independent variable complexity for regional regression of the flow duration curve in ungauged basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Geoffrey; Skupin, André; Hope, Allen

    2016-04-01

    The flow duration curve (FDC) is one of the most widely used tools to quantify streamflow. Its percentile flows are often required for water resource applications, but these values must be predicted for ungauged basins with insufficient or no streamflow data. Regional regression is a commonly used approach for predicting percentile flows that involves identifying hydrologic regions and calibrating regression models to each region. The independent variables used to describe the physiographic and climatic setting of the basins are a critical component of regional regression, yet few studies have investigated their effect on resulting predictions. In this study, the complexity of the independent variables needed for regional regression is investigated. Different levels of variable complexity are applied for a regional regression consisting of 918 basins in the US. Both the hydrologic regions and regression models are determined according to the different sets of variables, and the accuracy of resulting predictions is assessed. The different sets of variables include (1) a simple set of three variables strongly tied to the FDC (mean annual precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, and baseflow index), (2) a traditional set of variables describing the average physiographic and climatic conditions of the basins, and (3) a more complex set of variables extending the traditional variables to include statistics describing the distribution of physiographic data and temporal components of climatic data. The latter set of variables is not typically used in regional regression, and is evaluated for its potential to predict percentile flows. The simplest set of only three variables performed similarly to the other more complex sets of variables. Traditional variables used to describe climate, topography, and soil offered little more to the predictions, and the experimental set of variables describing the distribution of basin data in more detail did not improve predictions

  8. A cross-sectional retrospective analysis of the regionalization of complex surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studnicki, James; Craver, Christopher; Blanchette, Christopher M; Fisher, John W; Shahbazi, Sara

    2014-08-16

    longest lengths of stay were found in higher volume hospitals. Complex surgery in Florida is effectively regionalized so that small volume hospitals operating within the range of complex procedures appropriate to their capabilities provide no increased risk of post surgical mortality.

  9. A Distributed Public Key Infrastructure Based on Threshold Cryptography for the HiiMap Next Generation Internet Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Hanka

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a security extension for the HiiMap Next Generation Internet Architecture is presented. We regard a public key infrastructure which is integrated into the mapping infrastructure of the locator/identifier-split addressing scheme. The security approach is based on Threshold Cryptography which enables a sharing of keys among the mapping servers. Hence, a more trustworthy and fair approach for a Next Generation Internet Architecture as compared to the state of the art approach is fostered. Additionally, we give an evaluation based on IETF AAA recommendations for security-related systems.

  10. Simulating Complex, Cold-region Process Interactions Using a Multi-scale, Variable-complexity Hydrological Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, C.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Wheater, H. S.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate management of water resources is necessary for social, economic, and environmental sustainability worldwide. In locations with seasonal snowcovers, the accurate prediction of these water resources is further complicated due to frozen soils, solid-phase precipitation, blowing snow transport, and snowcover-vegetation-atmosphere interactions. Complex process interactions and feedbacks are a key feature of hydrological systems and may result in emergent phenomena, i.e., the arising of novel and unexpected properties within a complex system. One example is the feedback associated with blowing snow redistribution, which can lead to drifts that cause locally-increased soil moisture, thus increasing plant growth that in turn subsequently impacts snow redistribution, creating larger drifts. Attempting to simulate these emergent behaviours is a significant challenge, however, and there is concern that process conceptualizations within current models are too incomplete to represent the needed interactions. An improved understanding of the role of emergence in hydrological systems often requires high resolution distributed numerical hydrological models that incorporate the relevant process dynamics. The Canadian Hydrological Model (CHM) provides a novel tool for examining cold region hydrological systems. Key features include efficient terrain representation, allowing simulations at various spatial scales, reduced computational overhead, and a modular process representation allowing for an alternative-hypothesis framework. Using both physics-based and conceptual process representations sourced from long term process studies and the current cold regions literature allows for comparison of process representations and importantly, their ability to produce emergent behaviours. Examining the system in a holistic, process-based manner can hopefully derive important insights and aid in development of improved process representations.

  11. The Responsive Amygdala: Treatment-induced Alterations in Functional Connectivity in Pediatric Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, LE; Pielech, M; Erpelding, N; Linnman, C; Moulton, E; Sava, S; Lebel, A; Serrano, P; Sethna, N; Berde, C; Becerra, L; Borsook, D

    2014-01-01

    The amygdala is a key brain region with efferent and afferent neural connections that involve complex behaviors such as pain, reward, fear and anxiety. This study evaluated resting state functional connectivity of the amygdala with cortical and subcortical regions in a group of chronic pain patients (pediatric complex regional pain syndrome) with age-gender matched controls before and after intensive physical-biobehavioral pain treatment. Our main findings include (1) enhanced functional connectivity from the amygdala to multiple cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar regions in patients compared to controls, with differences predominantly in the left amygdala in the pre-treated condition (disease state); (2) dampened hyperconnectivity from the left amygdala to the motor cortex, parietal lobe, and cingulate cortex after intensive pain rehabilitation treatment within patients with nominal differences observed among healthy controls from Time 1 to Time 2 (treatment effects); (3) functional connectivity to several regions key to fear circuitry (prefrontal cortex, bilateral middle temporal lobe, bilateral cingulate, hippocampus) correlated with higher pain-related fear scores and (4) decreases in pain-related fear associated with decreased connectivity between the amygdala and the motor and somatosensory cortex, cingulate, and frontal areas. Our data suggest that there are rapid changes in amygdala connectivity following an aggressive treatment program in children with chronic pain and intrinsic amygdala functional connectivity activity serving as a potential indicator of treatment response. PMID:24861582

  12. Bilateral complex regional pain syndrome following spinal cord injury and bilateral calcaneus fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Boyacı

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS is a disease affectingone or more extremities, characterized by spontaneouspain, allodynia, hyperpathia and hyperalgesia.CRPS is separated into Type 1 and Type 2. CRPS whichdevelops after a nociceptive event is labeled as Type 1and when it develops following peripheral nerve damage,Type 2. Although the pathogenesis is not fully understood,peripheral and central sensitivity are held responsible.Bilateral lower extremity involvement is extremely rare.However, it should be borne in mind that it can develop intraumatic injuries which occur in more than one area anddiagnosis and commencement of a rehabilitation programshould be made in the early period. The case is presentedhere of bilateral Type 1 CRPS developing after incompletespinal cord injury and bilateral calcaneus fracture. JClin Exp Invest 2013; 4 (3: 360-363Key words: complex regional pain syndrome, calcaneusfracture, spinal cord injury

  13. ON MAGNETIC ACTIVITY BAND OVERLAP, INTERACTION, AND THE FORMATION OF COMPLEX SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntosh, Scott W. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States); Leamon, Robert J., E-mail: mscott@hao.ucar.edu [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)

    2014-11-20

    Recent work has revealed a phenomenological picture of the how the ∼11 yr sunspot cycle of the Sun arises. The production and destruction of sunspots is a consequence of the latitudinal-temporal overlap and interaction of the toroidal magnetic flux systems that belong to the 22 yr magnetic activity cycle and are rooted deep in the Sun's convective interior. We present a conceptually simple extension of this work, presenting a hypothesis on how complex active regions can form as a direct consequence of the intra- and extra-hemispheric interaction taking place in the solar interior. Furthermore, during specific portions of the sunspot cycle, we anticipate that those complex active regions may be particularly susceptible to profoundly catastrophic breakdown, producing flares and coronal mass ejections of the most severe magnitude.

  14. Risk Factors for Post-treatment Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Pelle B; Mikkelsen, Kim Lyngby; Lauritzen, Jes B

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Complex regional pain syndrome is a challenging condition that includes a broad spectrum of sensory, autonomic, and motor features predominantly in extremities recovering from a trauma. Few large-scale studies have addressed occurrence of and factors associated with complex regional......, gender, initial diagnosis, treatment, and amount of compensation were extracted. Multivariate logistic regressions were performed to identify variables associated with approval of the claim. For carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients, we registered whether symptoms were bilateral or unilateral...... normal neurophysiology. CONCLUSIONS: Female gender, surgical treatment, and treatment to the upper limb were risk factors. Elective surgery accounted for a large number of post-treatment CRPS patients. In CTS patients developing CRPS, normal neurophysiological examination findings were common...

  15. The comparative osteology of the petrotympanic complex (ear region of extant baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric G Ekdale

    Full Text Available Anatomical comparisons of the ear region of baleen whales (Mysticeti are provided through detailed osteological descriptions and high-resolution photographs of the petrotympanic complex (tympanic bulla and petrosal bone of all extant species of mysticete cetaceans. Salient morphological features are illustrated and identified, including overall shape of the bulla, size of the conical process of the bulla, morphology of the promontorium, and the size and shape of the anterior process of the petrosal. We place our comparative osteological observations into a phylogenetic context in order to initiate an exploration into petrotympanic evolution within Mysticeti.The morphology of the petrotympanic complex is diagnostic for individual species of baleen whale (e.g., sigmoid and conical processes positioned at midline of bulla in Balaenoptera musculus; confluence of fenestra cochleae and perilymphatic foramen in Eschrichtius robustus, and several mysticete clades are united by derived characteristics. Balaenids and neobalaenids share derived features of the bulla, such as a rhomboid shape and a reduced anterior lobe (swelling in ventral aspect, and eschrichtiids share derived morphologies of the petrosal with balaenopterids, including loss of a medial promontory groove and dorsomedial elongation of the promontorium. Monophyly of Balaenoidea (Balaenidae and Neobalaenidae and Balaenopteroidea (Balaenopteridae and Eschrichtiidae was recovered in phylogenetic analyses utilizing data exclusively from the petrotympanic complex.This study fills a major gap in our knowledge of the complex structures of the mysticete petrotympanic complex, which is an important anatomical region for the interpretation of the evolutionary history of mammals. In addition, we introduce a novel body of phylogenetically informative characters from the ear region of mysticetes. Our detailed anatomical descriptions, illustrations, and comparisons provide valuable data for current and

  16. The sodium pentothal hypnosis interview with follow-up treatment for complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, E P; Dahl, L F

    1999-08-01

    A patient who was unresponsive to multiple conservative medical treatments for complex regional pain syndrome was assessed using a novel approach--the sodium pentothal hypnosis interview. The interview suggested that his pain was centrally generated. The patient's pain symptoms resolved with hypnotherapeutic treatment. Indications for this procedure and implications for assessment and treatment are discussed. This case raises more questions than it answers, and leaves the reader to struggle with current difficulties in diagnostic decision-making.

  17. Regional labour market analysis and policy evaluation: Job insecurity, flexibility and complexity. Evidence from Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Baruffini, Moreno; Maggi, Rico

    2014-01-01

    The thesis focuses on labour market flexibility, security and complexity. The research is divided into three chapters: two of the chapters specifically relate to perceived security, flexibility and job satisfaction, using data from the longitudinal Swiss Household Panel (SHP), while the last investigates labour market programs and their impact on a regional labour market. The first essay analyses perceptions of economic insecurity in Switzerland, during the business cycle between 2008 an...

  18. Child Abuse and Dissociation in Patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Williams

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available >OBJECTIVE: In the absence of a proven medical explanation for the chronic pain syndrome Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I (CRPS I, this study explored a hypothetical link between childhood physical and sexual abuse, and the subsequent development of CRPS I. The hypothesis predicts the existence of a subpopulation of CRPS I patients with a high frequency of dissociative experiences corresponding to a history of childhood trauma.

  19. Geographic/conceptual delimitation of the «Southern Mediterranean». A Regional Security Complex?

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    Alberto Priego Moreno

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to analyse how the Mediterranean Area has evolved after the changes occurred with the so-called Arab Springs. The main idea is to focus on the Southern Mediterranean as a dynamic space that expands itself as a result of its internal transformations and subsequent external changes caused by the Arab Spring. We will use the IR theory of the Regional Security Complex as it is considered as the most adaptable to this changing reality.

  20. PROPERTIES OF THE COMPACT H II REGION COMPLEX G-0.02-0.07

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, E.; Morris, M. R.; Lang, C. C.; Dong, H.; Wang, Q. D.; Cotera, A.; Stolovy, S. R.

    2011-01-01

    We present new extinction maps and high-resolution Paschen-alpha images of G-0.02-0.07, a complex of compact H II regions located adjacent to the M-0.02-0.07 giant molecular cloud, 6 pc in projection from the center of the Galaxy. These H II regions, which lie in projection just outside the boundary of the Sgr A East supernova remnant, represent one of the most recent episodes of star formation in the central parsecs of the Galaxy. The 1.87 μm extinctions of regions A, B, and C are almost identical, approximately 3.7 mag. Region D, in contrast, has a peak extinction of A 1.87 = 5.9 mag. Adopting an extinction law specific to the Galactic center, we find that these extinctions correspond to visual extinctions of A V = 45 and A V = 71. The similar and uniform extinctions of regions A, B, and C are consistent with that expected for foreground extinction in the direction of the Galactic center, suggesting that they lie at the front side of the M-0.02-0.07 molecular cloud. Region D is more compact, has a higher extinction, and is thus suspected to be younger and embedded in a dense core in a compressed ridge on the western edge of this cloud.

  1. Towards a regional ontology of management education in Africa: A complexity leadership theory perspective

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    Nixon M. Ochara

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The title of this critique, ‘Towards a regional ontology of management education in Africa: A complexity leadership theory perspective’, sought to capture a paradox in the prescriptive nature and universalistic leaning of current leadership theories; yet local realities may call for being cognisant of (possible extant regional ontologies. Motivation for the study: The argumentation and analysis developed in this article were based on a synthesis of ideas from literature to evolve a preliminary regional ontology for reorienting business and management education relevant for Africa. Research design, approach and method: The critique was structured on insights from complexity leadership theory. The outcome was a proposition for an Afrocentric regional ontology for strengthening business and management education anchored on four themes: ethical and moral engagement, entrepreneurial leadership, Ubuntu and local National Systems of Innovation (NSI. These emerging ideas were considered to be tentative and should be considered as a foundation to inform further inquiry into how business and management education in Africa can be better interpreted and legitimised in the behavioural sciences. Practical/managerial implications: From an Afrocentric perspective, conceptualising and maintaining the logic of leadership was considered to be desirable and imperative in evolving a regional ontology of leadership that takes into account local realities. Of course, we recognised that these defining rationalities are not unique to Africa, but that said; a regional perspective that is unique cannot continue to be ignored but should find their place in discourses about leadership in the 21st century. Contribution/value-add: The synthesis and narrative presented in this paper concisely summarises and provides traction on how to advance business and management education in Africa.

  2. Water masers in NGC7538 region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameya, Osamu

    We observed H2O masers towards NGC7538 molecular-cloud core using VERA (VLBI Experiment of Radio Astrometry). This region is in the Perseus arm at a distance of about 2.7 kpc and is famous for its multiple, massive star formation. There are three areas there, N(IRS1-3), E(IRS9), and S(IRS11), each having a strong IR source(s), ultra-compact HII region(s), bipolar outflow, high-density core, and OH/H2O/CH3OH masers. We made differential VLBI observations towards the NGC7538 H2O maser sources at N and S and a reference source, Cepheus A H2O maser, simultaneously. The Cepheus A region is separated by 2 degrees from the NGC7538 region. The positions of H2O masers in N and S regions, distributed around the ultra-compact HII regions, are basically consistent with those found by means of interferometric observations of past 29 years. The masers may come from interface regions between the ultra-compact HII regions and the environments of dense molecular gas.

  3. Complex emergencies in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: Impact on tuberculosis control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seita, Akihiro

    2016-12-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) has witnessed the largest refugee crisis in history. Overall, 70% of the global refugee populations are from Palestine, Syria, Afghanistan, or Somalia. We reviewed the possible impact of such crisis on the tuberculosis situation in EMR. We used the available data and information from the World Health Organization and other international and national institutions. Overall, 15 out of 22 countries in the EMR are either engulfed in complex emergencies (10 countries) or suffering from their neighbors' complex emergencies (7 countries), whereas two countries suffer from both. Eighty-five percent of the total population (636 million) in the region lives in these 15 countries. For tuberculosis, these 15 countries account for a significant burden in EMR: 94% of the estimated total incidence of 740,000 cases a year and 95% of the estimated total mortality of 91,000 a year. These countries have yet to show the significant negative impact on tuberculosis epidemiology as such changes take considerable time to manifest. Still, there are reports on health systems impact: access to health facilities, destruction of health facilities, health staff casualties, and shortage of medicines. Complex emergencies pose a significant negative impact on tuberculosis in the EMR. This issue should be raised in the global health and political arena. This is a time bomb for tuberculosis. Copyright © 2016.

  4. Brazilian Policy and the Creation of a Regional Security Complex in the South Atlantic: Pax Brasiliana?

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    Beatriz Rodrigues Bessa Mattos

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the past five years, the South Atlantic region has become a central element of Brazilian security policy, with Brazil actively supporting the notion of a trans-oceanic security consciousness involving African littoral states. It has invested in diplomatic initiatives such as the Zone of Peace and Cooperation of the South Atlantic (ZPCSA, or ZOPACAS, and extensive military co-operation with West African states such as São Tomé e Príncipe, Namibia and Cape Verde. Its internal security and defence policy documents have repeatedly been updated to reflect this dimension, and now provide the foundation for advancing these initiatives. This policy thrust is directed at securing Brazil’s offshore oil assets, and limiting the influence of what it has termed ‘extra-regional powers’ such as the P-5. This article highlights these initiatives and reviews the prospects for this policy by examining the plausibility of the South Atlantic region as a regional security complex in the sense coined by Buzan and Wæver. The analysis is based on the role of geographical and linguistic proximity in international relations, and the impact of multilateral bodies on building support for a regional approach to security governance.

  5. Pinning-controlled synchronization of complex networks with bounded or unbounded synchronized regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan-Li, Zou; Guan-Rong, Chen

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies pinning-controlled synchronization of complex networks with bounded or unbounded synchronized regions. To study a state-feedback pinning-controlled network with N nodes, it first converts the controlled network to an extended network of N+1 nodes without controls. It is shown that the controlled synchronizability of the given network is determined by the real part of the smallest nonzero eigenvalue of the coupling matrix of its extended network when the synchronized region is unbounded; but it is determined by the ratio of the real parts of the largest and the smallest nonzero eigenvalues of the coupling matrix when the synchronized region is bounded. Both theoretical analysis and numerical simulation show that the portion of controlled nodes has no critical values when the synchronized region is unbounded, but it has a critical value when the synchronized region is bounded. In the former case, therefore, it is possible to control the network to achieve synchronization by pinning only one node. In the latter case, the network can achieve controlled synchronization only when the portion of controlled nodes is larger than the critical value. (general)

  6. Segmental Duplication, Microinversion, and Gene Loss Associated with a Complex Inversion Breakpoint Region in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, Oriol; González, Josefa; Betrán, Esther; Ruiz, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    Chromosomal inversions are usually portrayed as simple two-breakpoint rearrangements changing gene order but not gene number or structure. However, increasing evidence suggests that inversion breakpoints may often have a complex structure and entail gene duplications with potential functional consequences. Here, we used a combination of different techniques to investigate the breakpoint structure and the functional consequences of a complex rearrangement fixed in Drosophila buzzatii and comprising two tandemly arranged inversions sharing the middle breakpoint: 2m and 2n. By comparing the sequence in the breakpoint regions between D. buzzatii (inverted chromosome) and D. mojavensis (noninverted chromosome), we corroborate the breakpoint reuse at the molecular level and infer that inversion 2m was associated with a duplication of a ∼13 kb segment and likely generated by staggered breaks plus repair by nonhomologous end joining. The duplicated segment contained the gene CG4673, involved in nuclear transport, and its two nested genes CG5071 and CG5079. Interestingly, we found that other than the inversion and the associated duplication, both breakpoints suffered additional rearrangements, that is, the proximal breakpoint experienced a microinversion event associated at both ends with a 121-bp long duplication that contains a promoter. As a consequence of all these different rearrangements, CG5079 has been lost from the genome, CG5071 is now a single copy nonnested gene, and CG4673 has a transcript ∼9 kb shorter and seems to have acquired a more complex gene regulation. Our results illustrate the complex effects of chromosomal rearrangements and highlight the need of complementing genomic approaches with detailed sequence-level and functional analyses of breakpoint regions if we are to fully understand genome structure, function, and evolutionary dynamics. PMID:22328714

  7. Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 mimicking Raynaud’s phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serpil Tuna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1 is a chronic pain syndrome characterized by severe pain, swelling, autonomic dysfunction and dystrophic changes in affected extremity. RSDS is a rare disease in children and usually occurs after trauma, however, without trauma may also occur. We were detected CRPS-1 activated by cold and stress and characterized by recurrent attacks in the bilateral upper extremities in 14 year-old girl, which is similar to Raynaud’s phenomenon. We present this case with the literature because of its rarity and atypical course.

  8. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS/RSD and Neuropathic Pain: Role of Intravenous Bisphosphonates as Analgesics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Yanow

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain is a sequela of dysfunction, injuries, or diseases of the peripheral and/or central nervous system pain pathways, which has historically been extremely difficult to treat. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS types 1 and 2 are neuropathic pain conditions that have a long history in the medical literature but whose pathophysiology remains elusive and whose available treatment options remain few. While an exact animal model for CRPS doesn't yet exist, there are several animal models of neuropathic pain that develop behaviors of hypersensitivity, one of the hallmark signs of neuropathic pain in humans.

  9. Inflammatory arthritis mimicking Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) in a child: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egilmez, Zeliha; Turgut, Selin Turan; Icagasioglu, Afitap; Bicakci, Irem

    2016-01-01

    Joint complaints in childhood are seen frequently and differential diagnosis can be difficult. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common rheumatological disease of childhood. It involves peripheral joint arthritis, chronic synovitis, and extra-articular manifestations. Accurate diagnosis can take a long time and sometimes multiple diagnoses are used while following the patient until a final diagnosis can be reached. Arthritis may be triggered by trauma and confused with other diseases like complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), in which trauma plays a role in the etiology. In the present case, ankle pain in an 8-year-old girl was misdiagnosed as CRPS.

  10. Clinical features and pathophysiology of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome – current state of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinus, Johan; Moseley, G. Lorimer; Birklein, Frank; Baron, Ralf; Maihöfner, Christian; Kingery, Wade S.; van Hilten, Jacobus J.

    2017-01-01

    That a minor injury can trigger a complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) - multiple system dysfunction, severe and often chronic pain and disability - has fascinated scientists and perplexed clinicians for decades. However, substantial advances across several medical disciplines have recently increased our understanding of CRPS. Compelling evidence implicates biological pathways that underlie aberrant inflammation, vasomotor dysfunction, and maladaptive neuroplasticity in the clinical features of CRPS. Collectively, the evidence points to CRPS being a multifactorial disorder that is associated with an aberrant host response to tissue injury. Varying susceptibility to perturbed regulation of any of the underlying biological pathways probably accounts for the clinical heterogeneity of CRPS. PMID:21683929

  11. Radiofrequency ablation of stellate ganglion in a patient with complex regional pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinmoy Roy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS is characterized by a combination of sensory, motor, vasomotor, pseudomotor dysfunctions and trophic signs. We describe the use of radiofrequency (RF ablation of Stellate ganglion (SG under fluoroscopy, for long-term suppression of sympathetic nervous system, in a patient having CRPS-not otherwise specified. Although the effects of thermal RF neurolysis may be partial or temporary, they may promote better conditions toward rehabilitation. The beneficial effect obtained by the RF neurolysis of SG in this particular patient strongly advocates the use of this mode of therapy in patients with CRPS.

  12. Treatment of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) using low dose naltrexone (LDN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Pradeep; Cooper, Mark S

    2013-06-01

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a neuropathic pain syndrome, which involves glial activation and central sensitization in the central nervous system. Here, we describe positive outcomes of two CRPS patients, after they were treated with low-dose naltrexone (a glial attenuator), in combination with other CRPS therapies. Prominent CRPS symptoms remitted in these two patients, including dystonic spasms and fixed dystonia (respectively), following treatment with low-dose naltrexone (LDN). LDN, which is known to antagonize the Toll-like Receptor 4 pathway and attenuate activated microglia, was utilized in these patients after conventional CRPS pharmacotherapy failed to suppress their recalcitrant CRPS symptoms.

  13. Post-traumatic complex regional pain syndrome: clinical features and epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratti, Chiara; Nordio, Andrea; Resmini, Giuseppina; Murena, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Summary Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition that occurs after a tissue injury (fractures, sprain, surgery) of the upper or lower extremities. A clear pathophysiological mechanism has not been established yet and different patterns are considered to play a role in the genesis of the disease. The diagnosis is made by different diagnosis criteria and a gold standard has not been established yet. Incidence of CRPS is unclear and large prospective studies on the incidence and prevalence of CRPS are scarce. The aim of this review is to give an overview on the prevalent data regarding this chronic syndrome. PMID:27134626

  14. Bilateral Complex Regional Pain Syndrome after Fracture of Bilateral Tibia and Fibula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senem Şaş

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Complex regional syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1 is a painful clinical condition. It occurs after a painful event and characterized by allodynia, hyperalgesia, edema, abnormalities in skin blood flow and abnormal sudomotor activity. When CRPS-1 is associated with nerve injury, it is defined as CRPS-2. Central and peripheral theory are responsible in etiopathogenesis of CRPS-1. Generally it occurs in the injured limb. But, it may ocur in the opposite extremities. In this article, we present a case developing bilateral CRPS-1 after bilateral tibia and fibula fracture by reviewing current literatüre.

  15. Pulsed Radiofrequency Treatment of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Djuric

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Various forms of sympathetic chain neurolysis (sympathectomy have, at one time or another, held promise as effective treatment options for complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS. Complications, such as worsening pain and the development of new pain syndromes, have prevented sympathectomy from emerging as a standard intervention. In an effort to avoid poor outcomes associated with neurolysis, pulsed radiofrequency (PRF has been proposed as a potential treatment alternative for a number of chronic neuropathic pain states, including some forms of CRPS.

  16. Imaging of Posttraumatic Arthritis, Avascular Necrosis, Septic Arthritis, Complex Regional Pain Syndrome, and Cancer Mimicking Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupasov, Andrey; Cain, Usa; Montoya, Simone; Blickman, Johan G

    2017-09-01

    This article focuses on the imaging of 5 discrete entities with a common end result of disability: posttraumatic arthritis, a common form of secondary osteoarthritis that results from a prior insult to the joint; avascular necrosis, a disease of impaired osseous blood flow, leading to cellular death and subsequent osseous collapse; septic arthritis, an infectious process leading to destructive changes within the joint; complex regional pain syndrome, a chronic limb-confined painful condition arising after injury; and cases of cancer mimicking arthritis, in which the initial findings seem to represent arthritis, despite a more insidious cause. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of climate change on the Hii River basin and salinity in Lake Shinji: a case study using the SWAT model and a regression curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impacts of climate change on water resources were analysed for the Hii River basin and downstream Lake Shinji. The variation between saline and fresh water within these systems means that they encompass diverse ecosystems. Changes in evapotranspiration (ET), snow water equivalent, discharge into...

  18. Synaptonemal complex aberrations in the pseudoautosomal region of X, Y chromosomes in irradiated hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, J.W.; Collins, B.W. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Poorman-Allen, P. [Wellcome Research Lab., Research Triangle Park, N.C. (United States); Sontag, M.R. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Medical Center

    1994-05-01

    The effects of X-radiation, bleomycin and amsacrine (m-AMSA) on the meiotic chromosomes of male Armenian hamsters were determined by electron microscopic analysis of synaptonemal complex (SC) damage. Pachytene stage cells were analyzed 5 or 6 days following their treatment at putative preleptotene-leptotene stages of meiosis. Of the multiple types of SC aberrations observed to be significantly increased over control levels, lateral element breakage and synaptic anomalies were most prevalent. The focus of these studies was on the sex chromosomes which, in the Armenian hamster, reveal an unusally well-defined pseudoautosomal region. In the XY pair, radiation and chemical treatments caused certain forms of structural and synaptic anomalies which appeared to be preferentially localized to telomeric and/or crossover regions. The nature of these specific aberrations, involving breakage, bridge formation and asynapsis, is not well understood; however, their distributions are suggestive of possible relationships with sites and processes of crossing over. (author).

  19. Block-induced Complex Structures Building the Flare-productive Solar Active Region 12673

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shuhong; Zhang, Jun [CAS Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Zhu, Xiaoshuai [Max-Planck Institute for Solar System Research, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Song, Qiao, E-mail: shuhongyang@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Center for Space Weather, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2017-11-10

    Solar active region (AR) 12673 produced 4 X-class, 27 M-class, and numerous lower-class flares during its passage across the visible solar disk in 2017 September. Our study is to answer the questions why this AR was so flare-productive and how the X9.3 flare, the largest one of the past decade, took place. We find that there was a sunspot in the initial several days, and then two bipolar regions emerged nearby it successively. Due to the standing of the pre-existing sunspot, the movement of the bipoles was blocked, while the pre-existing sunspot maintained its quasi-circular shaped umbra only with the disappearance of a part of penumbra. Thus, the bipolar patches were significantly distorted, and the opposite polarities formed two semi-circular shaped structures. After that, two sequences of new bipolar regions emerged within the narrow semi-circular zone, and the bipolar patches separated along the curved channel. The new bipoles sheared and interacted with the previous ones, forming a complex topological system, during which numerous flares occurred. At the highly sheared region, a great deal of free energy was accumulated. On September 6, one negative patch near the polarity inversion line began to rapidly rotate and shear with the surrounding positive fields, and consequently the X9.3 flare erupted. Our results reveal that the block-induced complex structures built the flare-productive AR and the X9.3 flare was triggered by an erupting filament due to the kink instability. To better illustrate this process, a block-induced eruption model is proposed for the first time.

  20. Impaired insula functional connectivity associated with persistent pain perception in patients with complex regional pain syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Joon Hwan; Lee, Do-Hyeong; Lee, Kyung-Jun; Lee, Won Joon; Moon, Jee Youn; Kim, Yong Chul

    2017-01-01

    Given that the insula plays a contributory role in the perception of chronic pain, we examined the resting-state functional connectivity between the insular cortex and other brain regions to investigate neural underpinnings of persisting perception of background pain in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). A total of 25 patients with CRPS and 25 matched healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging at rest. With the anterior and posterior insular cortices as seed regions, we compared the strength of the resting-state functional connectivity between the two groups. Functional connectivity between the anterior and posterior insular cortices and the postcentral and inferior frontal gyri, cingulate cortices was reduced in patients with CRPS compared with controls. Additionally, greater reductions in functional connectivity between the anterior insula and right postcentral gyrus were associated with more severe sensory pain in patients with CRPS (short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire sensory subscores, r = -.517, P = .023). The present results imply a possible role of the insula in aberrant processing of pain information in patients with CRPS. The findings suggest that a functional derangement of the connection between one of the somatosensory cortical functions of perception and one of the insular functions of awareness can play a significant role in the persistent experience of regional pain that is not confined to a specific nerve territory. PMID:28692702

  1. Genes involved in complex adaptive processes tend to have highly conserved upstream regions in mammalian genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohane Isaac

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances in genome sequencing suggest a remarkable conservation in gene content of mammalian organisms. The similarity in gene repertoire present in different organisms has increased interest in studying regulatory mechanisms of gene expression aimed at elucidating the differences in phenotypes. In particular, a proximal promoter region contains a large number of regulatory elements that control the expression of its downstream gene. Although many studies have focused on identification of these elements, a broader picture on the complexity of transcriptional regulation of different biological processes has not been addressed in mammals. The regulatory complexity may strongly correlate with gene function, as different evolutionary forces must act on the regulatory systems under different biological conditions. We investigate this hypothesis by comparing the conservation of promoters upstream of genes classified in different functional categories. Results By conducting a rank correlation analysis between functional annotation and upstream sequence alignment scores obtained by human-mouse and human-dog comparison, we found a significantly greater conservation of the upstream sequence of genes involved in development, cell communication, neural functions and signaling processes than those involved in more basic processes shared with unicellular organisms such as metabolism and ribosomal function. This observation persists after controlling for G+C content. Considering conservation as a functional signature, we hypothesize a higher density of cis-regulatory elements upstream of genes participating in complex and adaptive processes. Conclusion We identified a class of functions that are associated with either high or low promoter conservation in mammals. We detected a significant tendency that points to complex and adaptive processes were associated with higher promoter conservation, despite the fact that they have emerged

  2. Fear of pain in children and adolescents with neuropathic pain and complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Laura E

    2016-02-01

    A significant proportion of children and adolescents with chronic pain endorse elevated pain-related fear. Pain-related fear is associated with high levels of disability, depressive symptoms, and school impairment. Because of faulty nerve signaling, individuals with neuropathic pain and complex regional pain syndrome may be more prone to develop pain-related fear as they avoid use of and neglect the affected body area(s), resulting in exacerbated symptoms, muscle atrophy, maintenance of pain signaling, and ongoing pain-related disability. Not surprisingly, effective treatments for elevated pain-related fears involve exposure to previously avoided activities to downregulate incorrect pain signaling. In the context of intensive interdisciplinary pain treatment of youth with neuropathic pain, decreasing pain-related fear is associated with improved physical and psychological functioning, whereas high initial pain-related fear is a risk factor for less treatment responsiveness. An innovative approach to targeting pain-related fear and evidence of a neural response to treatment involving decoupling of the amygdala with key fear circuits in youth with complex regional pain syndrome suggest breakthroughs in our ability to ameliorate these issues.

  3. Evaluation of Optimized WRF Precipitation Forecast over a Complex Topography Region during Flood Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF model has been utilized to generate quantitative precipitation forecasts with higher spatial and temporal resolutions. However, factors including horizontal resolution, domain size, and the physical parameterization scheme have a strong impact on the dynamic downscaling ability of the WRF model. In this study, the influence of these factors has been analyzed in precipitation forecasting for the Xijiang Basin, southern China—a region with complex topography. The results indicate that higher horizontal resolutions always result in higher Critical Success Indexes (CSI, but higher biases as well. Meanwhile, the precipitation forecast skills are also influenced by the combination of microphysics parameterization scheme and cumulus convective parameterization scheme. On the basis of these results, an optimized configuration of the WRF model is built in which the horizontal resolution is 10 km, the microphysics parameterization is the Lin scheme, and the cumulus convective parameterization is the Betts–Miller–Janjic scheme. This configuration is then evaluated by simulating the daily weather during the 2013–2014 flood season. The high Critical Success Index scores and low biases at various thresholds and lead times confirm the high accuracy of the optimized WRF model configuration for Xijiang Basin. However, the performance of the WRF model varies from different sub-basins due to the complexity of the mesoscale convective system (MCS over this region.

  4. Path Complexity in Virtual Water Maze Navigation: Differential Associations with Age, Sex, and Regional Brain Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Ana M; Yuan, Peng; Dahle, Cheryl L; Bender, Andrew R; Yang, Yiqin; Raz, Naftali

    2015-09-01

    Studies of human navigation in virtual maze environments have consistently linked advanced age with greater distance traveled between the start and the goal and longer duration of the search. Observations of search path geometry suggest that routes taken by older adults may be unnecessarily complex and that excessive path complexity may be an indicator of cognitive difficulties experienced by older navigators. In a sample of healthy adults, we quantify search path complexity in a virtual Morris water maze with a novel method based on fractal dimensionality. In a two-level hierarchical linear model, we estimated improvement in navigation performance across trials by a decline in route length, shortening of search time, and reduction in fractal dimensionality of the path. While replicating commonly reported age and sex differences in time and distance indices, a reduction in fractal dimension of the path accounted for improvement across trials, independent of age or sex. The volumes of brain regions associated with the establishment of cognitive maps (parahippocampal gyrus and hippocampus) were related to path dimensionality, but not to the total distance and time. Thus, fractal dimensionality of a navigational path may present a useful complementary method of quantifying performance in navigation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Complex pegmatite - apelitic of Cabecinha - strategies appreciation of geological heritage and economic development of the region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, José; Cabral, Tiago; Cabral, João; Gomes, Ana

    2014-05-01

    The Complex pegmatite - apelitic of Cabecinha corresponds to an isolated ridge that reaches 933 meters, located in the middle zone of transition between the Hesperian massif and the Cova da Beira being located in the NE central part of Portugal, more specifically in the Mountainous region of the province of Beira Alta, council of Sabugal. This complex lies embedded in porphyritic granites with terms of switching to a medium-grained granite rich in sodium feldspars in which they are muscovite granite intrusions. The lodes have pegmatites with NE-SW orientation, presenting phases of predominantly quartz crystallization with multiple parageneses. The inclusions observed are veins filonianian secondary. Some veins have structural discontinuity due to further their training tectonics. The apelitico material is basic in nature engaging in descontinuiddes of pegmatite material, showing no preferred orientation. The petrological characteristics of the area in question provide the appearance of motivating exotic landforms of scientific interest. These landforms, over time, have motivated the popular level the emergence of various myths, thus contributing to the enrichment of the local cultural heritage. This study proceeded to the geological and geomorphological mapping an area of about 6945,350 m2 with a maximum length of 182 m. The huge patent mineralogical, petrological and geomorphological level geodiversity, allied to the structural complexity and associated cultural heritage, allow geoconservation strategies and recovery, using new multimedia technologies including use of QR codes and 3D. All this geological framework and environment becomes an asset for the scientific, educational and economic development of the region. On the other hand, it has the vital Importance in the context of the strategy of forming a geological park, in the point of view of tourism, research and interpretation.

  6. Lack of genetic association of neutral endopeptidase (NEP) with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huehne, Kathrin; Schaal, Ute; Leis, Stefan; Uebe, Steffen; Gosso, M Florencia; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M; Maihöfner, Christian; Birklein, Frank; Rautenstrauss, Bernd; Winterpacht, Andreas

    2010-03-12

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a condition that is characterized by severe pain and exaggerated neurogenic inflammation, which may develop after injury or surgery. Neurogenic inflammation is mediated by neuropeptides, such as calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP) that are released from nociceptors. Genetic factors may play a role in CRPS as was suggested by the occurrence of familial cases and several genetic association studies investigating mainly the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system. Here we investigated the role of neutral endopeptidase (NEP), a key enzyme in neuropeptide catabolism. NEP dysfunction resulting in reduced inactivation of neuropeptides may be a possible pathomechanism in CRPS. To this end, we tested a GT-repeat polymorphism in the NEP promoter region as well as 18 tag-SNPs in six linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks in the NEP gene region in 320 CRPS patients and 376 controls. No significant genetic association was observed. Thus, we conclude that the NEP gene does not seem to be a major risk factor for CRPS. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dynamical downscaling of ERA-40 in complex terrain using the WRF regional climate model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikkilae, U. [Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Uni Bjerknes Centre, Bergen (Norway); Sandvik, A. [Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Institute for Marine Research (IMR), Bergen (Norway); Sorteberg, A. [University of Bergen, Geophysical Institute, Bergen (Norway)

    2011-10-15

    Results from a first-time employment of the WRF regional climate model to climatological simulations in Europe are presented. The ERA-40 reanalysis (resolution 1 ) has been downscaled to a horizontal resolution of 30 and 10 km for the period of 1961-1990. This model setup includes the whole North Atlantic in the 30 km domain and spectral nudging is used to keep the large scales consistent with the driving ERA-40 reanalysis. The model results are compared against an extensive observational network of surface variables in complex terrain in Norway. The comparison shows that the WRF model is able to add significant detail to the representation of precipitation and 2-m temperature of the ERA-40 reanalysis. Especially the geographical distribution, wet day frequency and extreme values of precipitation are highly improved due to the better representation of the orography. Refining the resolution from 30 to 10 km further increases the skill of the model, especially in case of precipitation. Our results indicate that the use of 10-km resolution is advantageous for producing regional future climate projections. Use of a large domain and spectral nudging seems to be useful in reproducing the extreme precipitation events due to the better resolved synoptic scale features over the North Atlantic, and also helps to reduce the large regional temperature biases over Norway. This study presents a high-resolution, high-quality climatological data set useful for reference climate impact studies. (orig.)

  8. Central Asia as a Regional Security Complex from the Perspectives of Realism, Liberalism and Constructivism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Putri Pratama

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Tulisan ini bertujuan menganalisis kawasan Asia Tengah, dilihat dari perspektif Realisme, Liberalisme dan Konstruktivisme, melalui teori Regional Security Complex oleh Barry Buzan dan Ole Waever. Teori ini hendak menunjukkan keamanan regional berdasarkan interdependensi antar unit dalam kawasan dilihat dari struktur power dan proses sekuritisasi di dalamnya, demikian pola hubungan keamanan dalam kawasan Asia Tengah berusaha dijelaskan dengan elemen-elemen dari ketiga paradigma yang terdapat dalam teori tersebut. Hasil analisis tulisan ini menunjukkan bahwa Asia Tengah dipandang sebagai bentuk insecurity interdependence by external forces dari perspektif Realis, security interdependence by interest dari perspektif Liberalis dan securitization interdependence by understanding of threat/security dari perspektif Konstruktivis. Kompleks keamanan Asia Tengah termasuk dalam tipe kompleks keamanan Great Power, terlihat dari peran besar kekuatan-kekuatan eksternal terutama Rusia dan Cina dalam kawasan tersebut; baik dalam pembentukan pola pertemanan dengan kerjasama, pola permusuhan dengan persaingan dan ketakutan, juga proses sekuritisasi isu separatisme, ekstremisme dan terorisme sebagai ancaman terhadap keamanan regional.Tulisan ini diambil dari tugas karya akhir penulis yang diajukan untuk medapatkan gelar Sarjana Sosial dari Departemen Ilmu Hubungan Internasional, Universitas Indonesia.

  9. Are you better? A multi-centre study of patient-defined recovery from Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llewellyn, A; McCabe, CS; Hibberd, Y

    2018-01-01

    Background: Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) symptoms can significantly differ between patients, fluctuate over time, disappear or persist. This leads to problems in defining recovery and in evaluating the efficacy of therapeutic interventions. Objectives: To define recovery from the patient...

  10. Cambrian nepheline syenite complex at Jabal Sawda, Midyan region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, W.K.; Ramsay, C.R.; Hedge, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    The only nepheline syenite complex presently known in the Arabian Shield is at Jabal Sawda, about 30 km S of Haql in the extreme NW of Saudi Arabia. It is a post-tectonic, composite intrusion with a crudely concentric structure. A core of leuco-nepheline syenite, a partial ring of mela-nepheline syenite, and an almost complete outer ring of alkali-feldspar syenite are the main rock units. Several mega-inclusions of porphyritic nepheline syenite, nepheline monzosyenite, malignite and ijolite are present in the leuco-nepheline syenite. The chemical composition is notable for very high values of Al2O3, Na2O, Ba, La, Nb, Sr and Zr. U{single bond}Pb isotope dating indicates an emplacement age of 553 ?? 4 Ma, one of an increasing number of reliable Cambrian isotope dates in the northern Red Sea region. ?? 1986.

  11. Association of Neglect-Like Symptoms with Anxiety, Somatization, and Depersonalization in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michal, Matthias; Adler, Julia; Reiner, Iris; Wermke, Andreas; Ackermann, Tatiana; Schlereth, Tanja; Birklein, Frank

    2017-04-01

    Many patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) report some foreignness of the affected limb, which is referred to as "neglect-like symptoms" (NLS). Despite similarities of the NLS reports to symptoms of body image disturbances in mental disorders, no study has been conducted to examine such associations. We investigated 50 patients with CRPS and 45 pain control patients (N = 27, chronic limb pain; N = 18, migraine headache). NLS, anxiety, depression, depersonalization, and somatization were assessed using validated questionnaires. Seventy-two percent of the CRPS patients reported at least one NLS vs 29.6% and 33.3% in the two patient control groups. In limb pain controls, NLS correlated with pain intensity. In CRPS patients, NLS correlated with anxiety (rho = 0.658, P  psychological studies. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. Complex regional pain syndrome with associated chest wall dystonia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwartzman Robert J

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS often suffer from an array of associated movement disorders, including dystonia of an affected limb. We present a case of a patient with long standing CRPS after a brachial plexus injury, who after displaying several features of the movement disorder previously, developed painful dystonia of chest wall musculature. Detailed neurologic examination found palpable sustained contractions of the pectoral and intercostal muscles in addition to surface allodynia. Needle electromyography of the intercostal and paraspinal muscles supported the diagnosis of dystonia. In addition, pulmonary function testing showed both restrictive and obstructive features in the absence of a clear cardiopulmonary etiology. Treatment was initiated with intrathecal baclofen and the patient had symptomatic relief and improvement of dystonia. This case illustrates a novel form of the movement disorder associated with CRPS with response to intrathecal baclofen treatment.

  13. Motor imagery and its effect on complex regional pain syndrome: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélio Silva de Souza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The motor imagery (MI has been proposed as a treatment in the complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1, since it seems to promote a brain reorganization effect on sensory- motor areas of pain perception. The aim of this paper is to investigate, through an integrative critical review, the influence of MI on the CRPS-1, correlating their evidence to clinical practice. Research in PEDro, Medline, Bireme and Google Scholar databases was conducted. Nine randomized controlled trials (level 2, 1 non-controlled clinical study (level 3, 1 case study (level 4, 1 systematic review (level 1, 2 review articles and 1 comment (level 5 were found. We can conclude that MI has shown effect in reducing pain and functionality that remains after 6 months of treatment. However, the difference between the MI strategies for CRPS-1 is unknown as well as the intensity of mental stress influences the painful response or effect of MI or other peripheral neuropathies.

  14. Molecular signature of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and its analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Simone; Schlereth, Tanja; Birklein, Frank

    2017-10-01

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a rare, but often disabling pain disease. Biomarkers are lacking, but several inflammatory substances have been associated with the pathophysiology. This review outlines the current knowledge with respect to target biomolecules and the analytical tools available to measure them. Areas covered: Targets include cytokines, neuropeptides and resolvins; analysis strategies are thus needed for different classes of substances such as proteins, peptides, lipids and small molecules. Traditional methods like immunoassays are of importance next to state-of-the art high-resolution mass spectrometry techniques and 'omics' approaches. Expert commentary: Future biomarker studies need larger cohorts, which improve subgrouping of patients due to their presumed pathophysiology, and highly standardized workflows from sampling to analysis.

  15. Continuous Thoracic Sympathetic Ganglion Block in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Patients with Spinal Cord Stimulation Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EungDon Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The sympathetic block is widely used for treating neuropathic pain such as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS. However, single sympathetic block often provides only short-term effect. Moreover, frequent procedures for sympathetic block may increase the risk of complications. The use of epidural route may be limited by concern of infection in case of previous implantation of the spinal cord stimulation (SCS. In contrast, a continuous sympathetic block can be administered without such concerns. The continuous thoracic sympathetic block (TSGB has been used to treat the ischemic disease and other neuropathic conditions such as postherpetic neuralgia. We administered continuous thoracic sympathetic block using catheter in CRPS patients who underwent SCS implantations and achieved desirable outcomes. We believe a continuous sympathetic block is a considerable option before performing neurolysis or radiofrequency rhizotomy and even after SCS implantation.

  16. Complex organic molecules toward low-mass and high-mass star forming regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre, C.; Ceccarelli, C.; Lefloch, B.; Bergin, E.; Carvajal, M.; Brouillet, N.; Despois, D.; Jørgensen, J.; Kleiner, I.

    2016-12-01

    One of the most important questions in molecular astrophysics is how, when, and where complex organic molecules, COMs (≥ 6 atoms) are formed. In the Interstellar-Earth connection context, could this have a bearing on the origin of life on Earth? Formation mechanisms of COMs, which include potentially prebiotic molecules, are still debated and may include grain-mantle and/or gas-phase chemistry. Understanding the mechanisms that lead to the interstellar molecular complexification, along with the involved physicochemical processes, is mandatory to answer the above questions. In that context, active researches are ongoing in theory, laboratory experiment, chemical modeling and observations. Thanks to recent progress in radioastronomy instrumentation for both single-dish and millimeter array (e.g. Herschel, NOEMA, ALMA), new results have been obtained. I will review some notable results on the detection of COMs, including prebiotic molecules, towards star forming regions.

  17. Cambrian nepheline syenite complex at Jabal Sawda, Midyan region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, W. K.; Ramsay, C. R.; Hedge, C. E.

    The only nepheline syenite complex presently known in the Arabian Shield is at Jabal Sawda, about 30 km S of Haql in the extreme NW of Saudi Arabia. It is a post-tectonic, composite intrusion with a crudely concentric structure. A core of leuco-nepheline syenite, a partial ring of mela-nepheline syenite, and an almost complete outer ring of alkali-feldspar syenite are the main rock units. Several mega-inclusions of porphyritic nepheline syenite, nepheline monzosyenite, malignite and ijolite are present in the leuco-nepheline syenite. The chemical composition is notable for very high values of Al 2O 3, Na 2O, Ba, La, Nb, Sr and Zr. U sbnd Pb isotope dating indicates an emplacement age of 553 ± 4 Ma, one of an increasing number of reliable Cambrian isotope dates in the northern Red Sea region.

  18. Venipuncture-Induced Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foad Elahi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Venipuncture, the most frequently performed invasive medical procedure, is usually benign. Generally it produces only transitory mild discomfort. Venipuncture-induced neuropathic pain is hard to recognize at an early stage. Medical literature reviews show that there is not adequate medical knowledge about this important subject. The inciting incident in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS can often seem far too trivial to result in a condition with such severe pathophysiologic effects. The practicing physician has little information available to enable early recognition of the condition, initiation of multidisciplinary treatment modalities, and proper referral to pain specialists. We encountered a unique case of venipuncture-induced complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS. The patient is a 52-year-old school teacher with no significant past medical history, who presented initially to the Center of Pain Medicine with left upper extremity pain. The pain started while phlebotomy was performed in the patient’s left antecubital area for routine blood check. The patient’s pain did not improve with multiple medications, physical therapy, or several nerve blocks. The patient demonstrated all the signs and symptoms of chronic neuropathic pain of CRPS in the upper extremity with minimal response to the continuous pain management. We decided to proceed with cervical spinal cord nerve stimulation along with continuing other modalities. The patient responded to this combination. During the follow-up, we noticed that the patient’s pain course was complicated by extension of the CRPS to her lower extremity. We will describe the course of treatment for the patient in this paper. In this paper we will discuss the electrical neuromodulation as an important modality in addition to the multidisciplinary pain management for a patient with venipuncture-induced chronic neuropathic pain.

  19. An immunohistochemical study of the triangular fibrocartilage complex of the wrist: regional variations in cartilage phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milz, S; Sicking, B; Sprecher, C M; Putz, R; Benjamin, M

    2007-01-01

    The triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) transmits load from the wrist to the ulna and stabilizes the distal radioulnar joint. Damage to it is a major cause of wrist pain. Although its basic structure is well established, little is known of its molecular composition. We have analysed the immunohistochemical labelling pattern of the extracellular matrix of the articular disc and the meniscal homologue of the TFCC in nine elderly individuals (age range 69–96 years), using a panel of monoclonal antibodies directed against collagens, glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP). Although many of the molecules (types I, III and VI collagen, chondroitin 4 sulphate, dermatan sulphate and keratan sulphate, the oversulphated epitope of chondroitin 6 sulphate, versican and COMP) were found in all parts of the TFCC, aggrecan, link protein and type II collagen were restricted to the articular disc and to entheses. They were thus not a feature of the meniscal homologue. The shift in tissue phenotype within the TFCC, from a fibrocartilaginous articular disc to a more fibrous meniscal homologue, correlates with biomechanical data suggesting that the radial region is stiff and subject to considerable stress concentration. The presence of aggrecan, link protein and type II collagen in the articular disc could explain why the TFCC is destroyed in rheumatoid arthritis, given that it has been suggested that autoimmunity to these antigens results in the destruction of articular cartilage. The differential distribution of aggrecan within the TFCC is likely to be reflected by regional differences in water content and mobility on the radial and ulnar side. This needs to be taken into account in the design of improved MRI protocols for visualizing this ulnocarpal complex of the wrist. PMID:17532798

  20. Granulitic orthogneisses geochemistry of Caraiba complex, in Riachao do Jacuipe region - Bahia state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, L.R.; Mello, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the granulitic orthogneisses of the Riachao do Jacuipe unit (Caraiba Complex) petrographicaly classified as tonalitic (predominating), trondhjemitic, granodioritic and quartz dioritic hyperstene gneisses. The chemical composition of the orthogneisses is dominantly tonalitic/granodioritic, that is typical of a calc-alkaline parentage depleted in K and enriched in Al sub(2) O sub(3). Their geochemical characteristics are very similar to those of the grey gneisses of other regions of the world, usually named TTG (tonalite-trondhhemite-granodiorite). In the sequence of orthogneiss coexist rocks both normal and depleted in LILE. The patterns of distribution of highly fractioned REE (La/YbN ratio up to 102) with Eu anomaly small or absent points against a direct mantle origin. On the other hand the only Rb-Sr age determination in the se rocks gives an age of 2,35 Ga with an initial ratio (Ro) of 0,702. This initial ratio suggests that the rocks did not originated from reworking of a much older continental crust. The available data suggest that the granulitized orthogneisses of the Caraiba Complex were formed by partial melt of basaltic material (amphibalitized oceanic crust). (author)

  1. Stratigraphic units overlying the Zambales Ophiolite Complex (ZOC) in Luzon, (Philippines): Tectonostratigraphic significance and regional implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queaño, Karlo L.; Dimalanta, Carla B.; Yumul, Graciano P.; Marquez, Edanjarlo J.; Faustino-Eslava, Decibel V.; Suzuki, Shigeyuki; Ishida, Keisuke

    2017-07-01

    The Zambales Ophiolite Complex (ZOC) on the island of Luzon, Philippines is one of the most well-studied crust-mantle sequences in the region. Several massifs comprise the ZOC, one of which is the Coto Block overlain by clastic sedimentary units previously dated as Eocene. Geochronologic studies from diabase, granodiorites and other late-stage magmatic products similarly yielded the same age. Succeeding tectonic models have therefore all been grounded on the assumption that the entire ZOC is Eocene. Recent investigations, however, revealed the presence of chert blocks within the Early to Middle Miocene clastic formation overlying the Acoje Block in the northern part of the ophiolite complex. Radiolarians extracted from the cherts yielded a stratigraphic range that suggests a Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous age. The recognition of a much older age than previously reported of the ZOC warrants a re-examination of its actual distribution and genesis. Correlating with other similarly-aged ophiolites, we suggest defining a western Mesozoic ophiolite belt, largely extending from the west-central portion of the archipelago to the northeastern tip of Luzon island. Tentatively, we attribute the Mesozoic ophiolitic and associated rocks in western Luzon to an arc-continent collision involving the Philippine Mobile Belt and the Palawan Microcontinental Block. In addition, differences in the clastic compositions of the Cenozoic sedimentary formations provide material not only for deciphering the ZOC's unroofing history but also for constraining the timing of province linkage. The intermittent appearance of lithic fragments and detrital minerals from the ophiolite in the units of the Middle Miocene Candelaria Limestone and the Late Miocene to Early Pliocene Sta. Cruz Formation indicates significant but geographically variable contributions from the ophiolite complex. In the northern Zambales Range, the Sta. Cruz Formation caps the Coto Block and the Acoje Block of the ZOC

  2. The semiquantitative three-phase bone scintigraphy on hemiplegic patients with earlier complex regional pain syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fang; Liu Xingdang; Lu Zhihui; Liu Congjin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the difference between the early phases and delay phase of three-phase bone scintigraphy on hemiplegic patients with earlier complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Methods: Twenty-nine stroke patients with hemiplegia complicating CRPS received three-phase bone scintigraphy after intravenous injection of 99 Tc m -methylene diphosphonate (MDP). The region of interest (ROI) technique was used to obtain the radioactive counts of involved joints and contralateral sites on wrists, metacarpophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal and distal interphalangeal joints. The total counts of these four sites in each patient were then obtained and the total uptake ratios of involved joints/contralateral joints for each phase were calculated to compare the difference among the three phases. Wilcoxon test and ANOVA were used in data analyses. Results: The involved joints of hemiplegic side displayed higher tracer uptake. There were significant differences of the radioactive counts between involved joints and uninvolved ones in the perfusion, pool and delay phase (Wilcoxon test, Z: -4.73 to -2.10, P<0.05). There was no significant difference of total uptake ratios of involved joints/contralateral joints among the three phases (ANOVA, F = 0. 807, P < 0.05). Conclusions: Due to higher bone seeking agent accumulation on three-phase bone scintigraphy, both early phases and delay phase imaging showed similar value in stroke patients with hemiplegia complicating earlier CRPS. (authors)

  3. A comparison of spatial interpolation methods for soil temperature over a complex topographical region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Tang, Xiao-Ping; Ma, Xue-Qing; Liu, Hong-Bin

    2016-08-01

    Soil temperature variability data provide valuable information on understanding land-surface ecosystem processes and climate change. This study developed and analyzed a spatial dataset of monthly mean soil temperature at a depth of 10 cm over a complex topographical region in southwestern China. The records were measured at 83 stations during the period of 1961-2000. Nine approaches were compared for interpolating soil temperature. The accuracy indicators were root mean square error (RMSE), modelling efficiency (ME), and coefficient of residual mass (CRM). The results indicated that thin plate spline with latitude, longitude, and elevation gave the best performance with RMSE varying between 0.425 and 0.592 °C, ME between 0.895 and 0.947, and CRM between -0.007 and 0.001. A spatial database was developed based on the best model. The dataset showed that larger seasonal changes of soil temperature were from autumn to winter over the region. The northern and eastern areas with hilly and low-middle mountains experienced larger seasonal changes.

  4. A neutral lipophilic technetium-99m complex for regional cerebral blood flow imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narra, R.K.; Nunn, A.D.; Kuczynski, B.L.; DiRocco, R.J.; Feld, T.; Silva, D.A.; Eckelman, W.C.

    1990-01-01

    Technetium-99m-DMG-2MP (Chloro[bis[2,3-butanedionedioxime(1-)-0][2,3- butanedionedioximato (2-)-N,N',N double-prime,N'double-prime,N double-prime double-prime,N'double-prime double-prime] (2-methylpropyl borato (2-))technetium]), also known as SQ 32097 is a member of a family of neutral lipophilic compounds generally known as boronic acid adducts of technetium dioxime complexes (BATOs). After i.v. administration, the concentration of [ 99m Tc]DMG-2MP in various regions of the brain appears to be proportional to blood flow. In rats, 1.1% ID was in the brain at 5 min postinjection when the blood contained less than 3% ID. Over 24 hr excretion was 59% in the feces and 23% in the urine. The activity in monkey brain at 5 min was 2.8% ID and it cleared with a t1/2 of 86 min. Autoradiographs of monkey brain sections showed excellent regional detail with a gray/white ratio of 3.6 at 10 min. The distribution of [ 99m Tc]DMG-2MP in the monkey brain corresponds to the known cytoarchitectural pattern of cerebral glucose metabolism. The properties of [ 99m Tc]DMG-2MP make it a potentially useful agent for cerebral perfusion imaging in man

  5. Institutional Analysis of Knowledge Generation Resource Potential at the Enterprises of Regional Military-Industrial Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Vasilyevich Popov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the processes of knowledge generation at the enterprises of military-industrial complex, which are the leaders of the regional innovative activity. The target of the research is to develop the methodology based on the use of resource application potential for increasing the efficiency of knowledge generation at the instrument-making enterprises of military-industrial complex. The system analysis of the knowledge generation processes is conducted at one of them. It allows to draw a conclusion that such enterprises have a lack of the institutes of knowledge generation processes. The authors are offered a technique of the development of the knowledge generation system at the military-industrial enterprises based on the accounting of assets and opportunities of the enterprise in the realization of intellectual activity. The developed technique is based on the determination of the horizontal resource potential of knowledge generation and allows to determine the potential of resource application at each stage of product life cycle. The comparison of the actual and theoretical values of horizontal resource potential allows to correct the distribution of a share of each of resources within a stage, and therefore, to optimize the realization of tasks at a specific stage. The offered tools were implemented in 2015 at one of the regional military-Industrial enterprises. The methodological tools of the research include the methods of expert assessment, mathematical statistics and the institutional analysis. On the basis of the offered technique and received empirical results, the institutional spiral of knowledge generation during the filling of state order at the military-industrial enterprise is developed. Its implementation will promote the decrease in the level of uncertainty during the whole life cycle of innovative activity product. The developed institutional spiral of knowledge generation at instrument-making military

  6. Complex and region-specific changes in astroglial markers in the aging brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, José J; Yeh, Chia-Yu; Terzieva, Slavica; Olabarria, Markel; Kulijewicz-Nawrot, Magdalena; Verkhratsky, Alexei

    2014-01-01

    Morphological aging of astrocytes was investigated in entorhinal cortex (EC), dentate gyrus (DG), and cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) regions of hippocampus of male SV129/C57BL6 mice of different age groups (3, 9, 18, and 24 months). Astroglial profiles were visualized by immunohistochemistry by using glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), glutamine synthetase (GS), and s100β staining; these profiles were imaged using confocal or light microscopy for subsequent morphometric analysis. GFAP-positive profiles in the DG and the CA1 of the hippocampus showed progressive age-dependent hypertrophy, as indicated by an increase in surface, volume, and somata volume at 24 months of age compared with 3-month-old mice. In contrast with the hippocampal regions, aging induced a decrease in GFAP-positive astroglial profiles in the EC: the surface, volume, and cell body volume of astroglial cells at 24 months of age were decreased significantly compared with the 3-month group. The GS-positive astrocytes displayed smaller cellular surface areas at 24 months compared with 3-month-old animals in both areas of hippocampus, whereas GS-positive profiles remained unchanged in the EC of old mice. The morphometry of s100β-immunoreactive profiles revealed substantial increase in the EC, more moderate increase in the DG, and no changes in the CA1 area. Based on the morphological analysis of 3 astroglial markers, we conclude that astrocytes undergo a complex age-dependent remodeling in a brain region-specific manner. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Comparison of different wind data interpolation methods for a region with complex terrain in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Katja; Samimi, Cyrus

    2018-01-01

    While climatological data of high spatial resolution are largely available in most developed countries, the network of climatological stations in many other regions of the world still constitutes large gaps. Especially for those regions, interpolation methods are important tools to fill these gaps and to improve the data base indispensible for climatological research. Over the last years, new hybrid methods of machine learning and geostatistics have been developed which provide innovative prospects in spatial predictive modelling. This study will focus on evaluating the performance of 12 different interpolation methods for the wind components \\overrightarrow{u} and \\overrightarrow{v} in a mountainous region of Central Asia. Thereby, a special focus will be on applying new hybrid methods on spatial interpolation of wind data. This study is the first evaluating and comparing the performance of several of these hybrid methods. The overall aim of this study is to determine whether an optimal interpolation method exists, which can equally be applied for all pressure levels, or whether different interpolation methods have to be used for the different pressure levels. Deterministic (inverse distance weighting) and geostatistical interpolation methods (ordinary kriging) were explored, which take into account only the initial values of \\overrightarrow{u} and \\overrightarrow{v} . In addition, more complex methods (generalized additive model, support vector machine and neural networks as single methods and as hybrid methods as well as regression-kriging) that consider additional variables were applied. The analysis of the error indices revealed that regression-kriging provided the most accurate interpolation results for both wind components and all pressure heights. At 200 and 500 hPa, regression-kriging is followed by the different kinds of neural networks and support vector machines and for 850 hPa it is followed by the different types of support vector machine and

  8. Metamorphic and tectonic evolution of the Greater Himalayan Crystalline Complex in Nyalam region, south Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Min; Zhang, Jin-Jiang; Rubatto, Daniela

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies evoke dispute whether the Himalayan metamorphic core - Greater Himalayan Crystalline Complex (GHC) - was exhumed as a lateral crustal flow or a critical taper wedge during the India-Asia collision. This contribution investigated the evolution of the GHC in the Nyalam region, south Tibet, with comprehensive studies on structural kinematics, metamorphic petrology and geochronology. The GHC in the Nyalam region can be divided into the lower and upper GHC. Phase equilibria modelling and conventional thermobarometric results show that peak temperature conditions are lower in the lower GHC (~660-700°C) and higher in the upper GHC (~740-780°C), whereas corresponding pressure conditions at peak-T decrease from ~9-13 kbar to ~4 kbar northward. Monazite, zircon and rutile U-Pb dating results reveal two distinct blocks within the GHC of the Nyalam region. The upper GHC underwent higher degree of partial melting (15-25%, via muscovite dehydration melting) that initiated at ~32 Ma, peaked at ~29 Ma to 25 Ma, possibly ended at ~20 Ma. The lower GHC underwent lower degree of melting (0-10%) that lasted from 19 to 16 Ma, which was produced mainly via H2O-saturated melting. At different times, both the upper and lower blocks underwent initial slow cooling (35 ± 8 and 10 ± 5°C/Myr, respectively) and subsequent rapid cooling (120 ± 40°C/Myr). The established timescale of metamorphism suggests that high-temperature metamorphism within the GHC lasted a long duration (~15 Myr), whereas duration of partial melting lasted for ~3 Myr in the lower GHC and lasted for 7-12 Myr in the upper GHC. The documented diachronous metamorphism and discontinuity of peak P-T conditions implies the presence of the Nyalam Thrust in the study area. This thrust is probably connected to the other thrusts in Nepal and Sikkim Himalaya, which extends over ~800 km and is named the "High Himalayan Thrust". Timing of activity along this thrust is at ~25-16 Ma, which is coeval with active

  9. Objective sensory evaluation of the spread of complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinger, Lara; Schwartzman, Robert J; Ahmad, Ayesha; Erwin, Kirsten; Alexander, Guillermo M

    2013-01-01

    The spread of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) has been well documented. Many severe refractory long-standing patients have total body pain (TBP) that evolved from a single extremity injury. The purpose of this study was to document by objective sensory threshold testing the extent of body area involvement in 20 long-standing patients with CRPS who have TBP. A comparison of sensory threshold testing parameters between 20 long-standing refractory patients with CRPS who have TBP versus 10 healthy participants. Twenty patients with CRPS who stated that they suffered from total body pain were chosen from the Drexel University College of Medicine CRPS database. They were compared to 10 healthy participants that were age and gender matched to the patients with CRPS. The sensory parameters tested were: skin temperature; static and mechanical allodynia; thermal allodynia; mechanical hyperalgesia; after sensations following all sensory tests. The sites chosen for testing in the patients with CRPS were the most painful area in each of 8 body regions that comprised the total body area. Five patients with CRPS had signs of CRPS over 100% of their body (20%). One patient had pain over 87% and another had pain over 90% of their body area. The average percentage of body involvement was 62% (range 37% - 100%). All patients with CRPS had at least one sensory parameter abnormality in all body regions. All patients with CRPS had lower pain thresholds for static allodynia in all body areas, while 50% demonstrated a lower threshold for dynamic allodynia in all body regions compared to the healthy participants. Cold allodynia had a higher median pain rating on the Likert pain scale in all body areas versus healthy participants except for the chest, abdomen, and back. Eighty-five percent of the patients with CRPS had a significantly lower pain threshold for mechanical hyperalgesia in all body areas compared to the healthy participants. After sensations occurred after all sensory

  10. Dissection of a Complex Disease Susceptibility Region Using a Bayesian Stochastic Search Approach to Fine Mapping.

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    Chris Wallace

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Identification of candidate causal variants in regions associated with risk of common diseases is complicated by linkage disequilibrium (LD and multiple association signals. Nonetheless, accurate maps of these variants are needed, both to fully exploit detailed cell specific chromatin annotation data to highlight disease causal mechanisms and cells, and for design of the functional studies that will ultimately be required to confirm causal mechanisms. We adapted a Bayesian evolutionary stochastic search algorithm to the fine mapping problem, and demonstrated its improved performance over conventional stepwise and regularised regression through simulation studies. We then applied it to fine map the established multiple sclerosis (MS and type 1 diabetes (T1D associations in the IL-2RA (CD25 gene region. For T1D, both stepwise and stochastic search approaches identified four T1D association signals, with the major effect tagged by the single nucleotide polymorphism, rs12722496. In contrast, for MS, the stochastic search found two distinct competing models: a single candidate causal variant, tagged by rs2104286 and reported previously using stepwise analysis; and a more complex model with two association signals, one of which was tagged by the major T1D associated rs12722496 and the other by rs56382813. There is low to moderate LD between rs2104286 and both rs12722496 and rs56382813 (r2 ≃ 0:3 and our two SNP model could not be recovered through a forward stepwise search after conditioning on rs2104286. Both signals in the two variant model for MS affect CD25 expression on distinct subpopulations of CD4+ T cells, which are key cells in the autoimmune process. The results support a shared causal variant for T1D and MS. Our study illustrates the benefit of using a purposely designed model search strategy for fine mapping and the advantage of combining disease and protein expression data.

  11. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I Affects Brain Structure in Prefrontal and Motor Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleger, Burkhard; Draganski, Bogdan; Schwenkreis, Peter; Lenz, Melanie; Nicolas, Volkmar; Maier, Christoph; Tegenthoff, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a rare but debilitating pain disorder that mostly occurs after injuries to the upper limb. A number of studies indicated altered brain function in CRPS, whereas possible influences on brain structure remain poorly investigated. We acquired structural magnetic resonance imaging data from CRPS type I patients and applied voxel-by-voxel statistics to compare white and gray matter brain segments of CRPS patients with matched controls. Patients and controls were statistically compared in two different ways: First, we applied a 2-sample ttest to compare whole brain white and gray matter structure between patients and controls. Second, we aimed to assess structural alterations specifically of the primary somatosensory (S1) and motor cortex (M1) contralateral to the CRPS affected side. To this end, MRI scans of patients with left-sided CRPS (and matched controls) were horizontally flipped before preprocessing and region-of-interest-based group comparison. The unpaired ttest of the “non-flipped” data revealed that CRPS patients presented increased gray matter density in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. The same test applied to the “flipped” data showed further increases in gray matter density, not in the S1, but in the M1 contralateral to the CRPS-affected limb which were inversely related to decreased white matter density of the internal capsule within the ipsilateral brain hemisphere. The gray-white matter interaction between motor cortex and internal capsule suggests compensatory mechanisms within the central motor system possibly due to motor dysfunction. Altered gray matter structure in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex may occur in response to emotional processes such as pain-related suffering or elevated analgesic top-down control. PMID:24416397

  12. Complex regional pain syndrome type I affects brain structure in prefrontal and motor cortex.

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    Burkhard Pleger

    Full Text Available The complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS is a rare but debilitating pain disorder that mostly occurs after injuries to the upper limb. A number of studies indicated altered brain function in CRPS, whereas possible influences on brain structure remain poorly investigated. We acquired structural magnetic resonance imaging data from CRPS type I patients and applied voxel-by-voxel statistics to compare white and gray matter brain segments of CRPS patients with matched controls. Patients and controls were statistically compared in two different ways: First, we applied a 2-sample ttest to compare whole brain white and gray matter structure between patients and controls. Second, we aimed to assess structural alterations specifically of the primary somatosensory (S1 and motor cortex (M1 contralateral to the CRPS affected side. To this end, MRI scans of patients with left-sided CRPS (and matched controls were horizontally flipped before preprocessing and region-of-interest-based group comparison. The unpaired ttest of the "non-flipped" data revealed that CRPS patients presented increased gray matter density in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. The same test applied to the "flipped" data showed further increases in gray matter density, not in the S1, but in the M1 contralateral to the CRPS-affected limb which were inversely related to decreased white matter density of the internal capsule within the ipsilateral brain hemisphere. The gray-white matter interaction between motor cortex and internal capsule suggests compensatory mechanisms within the central motor system possibly due to motor dysfunction. Altered gray matter structure in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex may occur in response to emotional processes such as pain-related suffering or elevated analgesic top-down control.

  13. Analysis of gene expression profile microarray data in complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wulin; Song, Yiyan; Mo, Chengqiang; Jiang, Shuangjian; Wang, Zhongxing

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to predict key genes and proteins associated with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) using bioinformatics analysis. The gene expression profiling microarray data, GSE47603, which included peripheral blood samples from 4 patients with CRPS and 5 healthy controls, was obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in CRPS patients compared with healthy controls were identified using the GEO2R online tool. Functional enrichment analysis was then performed using The Database for Annotation Visualization and Integrated Discovery online tool. Protein‑protein interaction (PPI) network analysis was subsequently performed using Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interaction Genes database and analyzed with Cytoscape software. A total of 257 DEGs were identified, including 243 upregulated genes and 14 downregulated ones. Genes in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) family were most significantly differentially expressed. Enrichment analysis demonstrated that signaling pathways, including immune response, cell motion, adhesion and angiogenesis were associated with CRPS. PPI network analysis revealed that key genes, including early region 1A binding protein p300 (EP300), CREB‑binding protein (CREBBP), signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3, STAT5A and integrin α M were associated with CRPS. The results suggest that the immune response may therefore serve an important role in CRPS development. In addition, genes in the HLA family, such as HLA‑DQB1 and HLA‑DRB1, may present potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of CRPS. Furthermore, EP300, its paralog CREBBP, and the STAT family genes, STAT3 and STAT5 may be important in the development of CRPS.

  14. Solar resource assessment in complex orography: a comparison of available datasets for the Trentino region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiti, Lavinia; Giovannini, Lorenzo; Zardi, Dino

    2015-04-01

    The accurate assessment of the solar radiation available at the Earth's surface is essential for a wide range of energy-related applications, such as the design of solar power plants, water heating systems and energy-efficient buildings, as well as in the fields of climatology, hydrology, ecology and agriculture. The characterization of solar radiation is particularly challenging in complex-orography areas, where topographic shadowing and altitude effects, together with local weather phenomena, greatly increase the spatial and temporal variability of such variable. At present, approaches ranging from surface measurements interpolation to orographic down-scaling of satellite data, to numerical model simulations are adopted for mapping solar radiation. In this contribution a high-resolution (200 m) solar atlas for the Trentino region (Italy) is presented, which was recently developed on the basis of hourly observations of global radiation collected from the local radiometric stations during the period 2004-2012. Monthly and annual climatological irradiation maps were obtained by the combined use of a GIS-based clear-sky model (r.sun module of GRASS GIS) and geostatistical interpolation techniques (kriging). Moreover, satellite radiation data derived by the MeteoSwiss HelioMont algorithm (2 km resolution) were used for missing-data reconstruction and for the final mapping, thus integrating ground-based and remote-sensing information. The results are compared with existing solar resource datasets, such as the PVGIS dataset, produced by the Joint Research Center Institute for Energy and Transport, and the HelioMont dataset, in order to evaluate the accuracy of the different datasets available for the region of interest.

  15. Brain alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex: kinetic properties, regional distribution, and effects of inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, J C; Cooper, A J

    1986-11-01

    The substrate and cofactor requirements and some kinetic properties of the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC; EC 1.2.4.2, EC 2.3.1.61, and EC 1.6.4.3) in purified rat brain mitochondria were studied. Brain mitochondrial KGDHC showed absolute requirement for alpha-ketoglutarate, CoA and NAD, and only partial requirement for added thiamine pyrophosphate, but no requirement for Mg2+ under the assay conditions employed in this study. The pH optimum was between 7.2 and 7.4, but, at pH values below 7.0 or above 7.8, KGDHC activity decreased markedly. KGDHC activity in various brain regions followed the rank order: cerebral cortex greater than cerebellum greater than or equal to midbrain greater than striatum = hippocampus greater than hypothalamus greater than pons and medulla greater than olfactory bulb. Significant inhibition of brain mitochondrial KGDHC was noted at pathological concentrations of ammonia (0.2-2 mM). However, the purified bovine heart KGDHC and KGDHC activity in isolated rat heart mitochondria were much less sensitive to inhibition. At 5 mM both beta-methylene-D,L-aspartate and D,L-vinylglycine (inhibitors of cerebral glucose oxidation) inhibited the purified heart but not the brain mitochondrial enzyme complex. At approximately 10 microM, calcium slightly stimulated (by 10-15%) the brain mitochondrial KGDHC. At concentrations above 100 microM, calcium (IC50 = 1 mM) inhibited both brain mitochondrial and purified heart KGDHC. The present results suggest that some of the kinetic properties of the rat brain mitochondrial KGDHC differ from those of the purified bovine heart and rat heart mitochondrial enzyme complexes. They also suggest that the inhibition of KGDHC by ammonia and the consequent effect on the citric acid cycle fluxes may be of pathophysiological and/or pathogenetic importance in hyperammonemia and in diseases (e.g., hepatic encephalopathy, inborn errors of urea metabolism, Reye's syndrome) where hyperammonemia is a

  16. Regional molecular and cellular differences in the female rabbit Achilles tendon complex: potential implications for understanding responses to loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, Elise S; Andersson, Gustav; Scott, Alexander; Reno, Carol R; Hart, David A; Thornton, Gail M

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was: (i) to analyze the morphology and expression of extracellular matrix genes in six different regions of the Achilles tendon complex of intact normal rabbits; and (ii) to assess the effect of ovariohysterectomy (OVH) on the regional expression of these genes. Female New Zealand White rabbits were separated into two groups: (i) intact normal rabbits (n = 4); and (ii) OVH rabbits (n = 8). For each rabbit, the Achilles tendon complex was dissected into six regions: distal gastrocnemius (DG); distal flexor digitorum superficialis; proximal lateral gastrocnemius (PLG); proximal medial gastrocnemius; proximal flexor digitorum superficialis; and paratenon. For each of the regions, hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed for histological evaluation of intact normal rabbit tissues and mRNA levels for proteoglycans, collagens and genes associated with collagen regulation were assessed by real-time reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction for both the intact normal and OVH rabbit tissues. The distal regions displayed a more fibrocartilaginous phenotype. For intact normal rabbits, aggrecan mRNA expression was higher in the distal regions of the Achilles tendon complex compared with the proximal regions. Collagen Type I and matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression levels were increased in the PLG compared to the DG in the intact normal rabbit tissues. The tendons from OVH rabbits had lower gene expressions for the proteoglycans aggrecan, biglycan, decorin and versican compared with the intact normal rabbits, although the regional differences of increased aggrecan expression in distal regions compared with proximal regions persisted. The tensile and compressive forces experienced in the examined regions may be related to the regional differences found in gene expression. The lower mRNA expression of the genes examined in the OVH group confirms a potential effect of systemic estrogen on tendon. © 2014 Anatomical Society.

  17. INVESTMENT ACTIVITY OF AGRIBUSINESS IN THE AGROINDUSTRIAL COMPLEX REGION, AS ONE OF THE ELEMENTS OF THE FINANCIAL SECURITY OF THE AGRO-INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX OF THE STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Nikolaevna Uglitskikh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The developed economic-political situation around of Russia, specifies an indispensability of support of agricultural commodity producers as from their financial well-being, investment activity the financial security of agrarian and industrial complex of the state depends. Limitation of own financial resources at agrarians does not allow them to realize independently conceived projects. Studying of questions of formation and functioning of investment activity in agriculture of Stavropol Territory and an assessment of investment projects offered to reali-zation, have allowed to analyse investment activity of agrarian and industrial complex of region up to the introduction of Russia into WTO and in conditions of its membership. By results of the lead assessment the administrative areas of region showing the greatest investment activity, threats of a financial security of agrarian and industrial complex of region not putting by the activity have been revealed. It is drawn a conclusion on influence West-American sanctions on financial without-danger agra-rian and industrial complex of the state and the responsibility сельхозтоваропроизводителей about delivery of agricultural production in necessary volume and import substitution.

  18. Personality assessment of patients with complex regional pain syndrome type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, D A; Herring, C L; Schwartzman, R J; Marchese, M

    1998-12-01

    There is controversy regarding the importance of psychological/psychiatric factors in the development of the Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS). Our objective was to determine whether CRPS type I patients were psychiatrically different from other chronic pain patients, with particular attention to personality pathology. A standardized clinical assessment of all major psychiatric categories, including personality disorders, was performed on 25 CRPS type I patients and a control group of 25 patients with chronic low back pain from disc-related radiculopathy. Both sections of the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (3rd ed., rev.) and the visual analog scale. Both groups were similar in terms of pain intensity and duration. Statistical analysis showed both groups to have a significant amount of major psychiatric comorbidity, in particular major depressive disorder, and a high incidence of personality disorders. Therefore, intense chronic pain was associated with significant psychiatric comorbidity in both groups and in similar proportions. The high incidence of personality pathology in both groups may represent an exaggeration of maladaptive personality traits and coping styles as a result of a chronic, intense, state of pain.

  19. Proteomic identification of altered cerebral proteins in the complex regional pain syndrome animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahm, Francis Sahngun; Park, Zee-Yong; Nahm, Sang-Soep; Kim, Yong Chul; Lee, Pyung Bok

    2014-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a rare but debilitating pain disorder. Although the exact pathophysiology of CRPS is not fully understood, central and peripheral mechanisms might be involved in the development of this disorder. To reveal the central mechanism of CRPS, we conducted a proteomic analysis of rat cerebrum using the chronic postischemia pain (CPIP) model, a novel experimental model of CRPS. After generating the CPIP animal model, we performed a proteomic analysis of the rat cerebrum using a multidimensional protein identification technology, and screened the proteins differentially expressed between the CPIP and control groups. Results. A total of 155 proteins were differentially expressed between the CPIP and control groups: 125 increased and 30 decreased; expressions of proteins related to cell signaling, synaptic plasticity, regulation of cell proliferation, and cytoskeletal formation were increased in the CPIP group. However, proenkephalin A, cereblon, and neuroserpin were decreased in CPIP group. Altered expression of cerebral proteins in the CPIP model indicates cerebral involvement in the pathogenesis of CRPS. Further study is required to elucidate the roles of these proteins in the development and maintenance of CRPS.

  20. Proteomic Identification of Altered Cerebral Proteins in the Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Animal Model

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    Francis Sahngun Nahm

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS is a rare but debilitating pain disorder. Although the exact pathophysiology of CRPS is not fully understood, central and peripheral mechanisms might be involved in the development of this disorder. To reveal the central mechanism of CRPS, we conducted a proteomic analysis of rat cerebrum using the chronic postischemia pain (CPIP model, a novel experimental model of CRPS. Materials and Methods. After generating the CPIP animal model, we performed a proteomic analysis of the rat cerebrum using a multidimensional protein identification technology, and screened the proteins differentially expressed between the CPIP and control groups. Results. A total of 155 proteins were differentially expressed between the CPIP and control groups: 125 increased and 30 decreased; expressions of proteins related to cell signaling, synaptic plasticity, regulation of cell proliferation, and cytoskeletal formation were increased in the CPIP group. However, proenkephalin A, cereblon, and neuroserpin were decreased in CPIP group. Conclusion. Altered expression of cerebral proteins in the CPIP model indicates cerebral involvement in the pathogenesis of CRPS. Further study is required to elucidate the roles of these proteins in the development and maintenance of CRPS.

  1. Abnormal thalamocortical activity in patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, K D; Dubois, M; Llinás, R R

    2010-07-01

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a neuropathic disease that presents a continuing challenge in terms of pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Recent studies of neuropathic pain, in both animals and patients, have established a direct relationship between abnormal thalamic rhythmicity related to Thalamo-cortical Dysrhythmia (TCD) and the occurrence of central pain. Here, this relationship has been examined using magneto-encephalographic (MEG) imaging in CRPS Type I, characterized by the absence of nerve lesions. The study addresses spontaneous MEG activity from 13 awake, adult patients (2 men, 11 women; age 15-62), with CRPS Type I of one extremity (duration range: 3months to 10years) and from 13 control subjects. All CRPS I patients demonstrated peaks in power spectrum in the delta (CRPS Type I patients presented abnormal brain activity typical of TCD, which has both diagnostic value indicating a central origin for this ailment and a potential treatment interest involving pharmacological and electrical stimulation therapies. Copyright 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Interaction of hyperalgesia and sensory loss in complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I.

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    Volker Huge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sensory abnormalities are a key feature of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS. In order to characterise these changes in patients suffering from acute or chronic CRPS I, we used Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST in comparison to an age and gender matched control group. METHODS: 61 patients presenting with CRPS I of the upper extremity and 56 healthy subjects were prospectively assessed using QST. The patients' warm and cold detection thresholds (WDT; CDT, the heat and cold pain thresholds (HPT; CPT and the occurrence of paradoxical heat sensation (PHS were observed. RESULTS: In acute CRPS I, patients showed warm and cold hyperalgesia, indicated by significant changes in HPT and CPT. WDT and CDT were significantly increased as well, indicating warm and cold hypoaesthesia. In chronic CRPS, thermal hyperalgesia declined, but CDT as well as WDT further deteriorated. Solely patients with acute CRPS displayed PHS. To a minor degree, all QST changes were also present on the contralateral limb. CONCLUSIONS: We propose three pathomechanisms of CRPS I, which follow a distinct time course: Thermal hyperalgesia, observed in acute CRPS, indicates an ongoing aseptic peripheral inflammation. Thermal hypoaesthesia, as detected in acute and chronic CRPS, signals a degeneration of A-delta and C-fibres, which further deteriorates in chronic CRPS. PHS in acute CRPS I indicates that both inflammation and degeneration are present, whilst in chronic CRPS I, the pathomechanism of degeneration dominates, signalled by the absence of PHS. The contralateral changes observed strongly suggest the involvement of the central nervous system.

  3. Intrinsic brain networks normalize with treatment in pediatric complex regional pain syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Lino; Sava, Simona; Simons, Laura E.; Drosos, Athena M.; Sethna, Navil; Berde, Charles; Lebel, Alyssa A.; Borsook, David

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric complex regional pain syndrome (P-CRPS) offers a unique model of chronic neuropathic pain as it either resolves spontaneously or through therapeutic interventions in most patients. Here we evaluated brain changes in well-characterized children and adolescents with P-CRPS by measuring resting state networks before and following a brief (median = 3 weeks) but intensive physical and psychological treatment program, and compared them to matched healthy controls. Differences in intrinsic brain networks were observed in P-CRPS compared to controls before treatment (disease state) with the most prominent differences in the fronto-parietal, salience, default mode, central executive, and sensorimotor networks. Following treatment, behavioral measures demonstrated a reduction of symptoms and improvement of physical state (pain levels and motor functioning). Correlation of network connectivities with spontaneous pain measures pre- and post-treatment indicated concomitant reductions in connectivity in salience, central executive, default mode and sensorimotor networks (treatment effects). These results suggest a rapid alteration in global brain networks with treatment and provide a venue to assess brain changes in CRPS pre- and post-treatment, and to evaluate therapeutic effects. PMID:25379449

  4. Sex differences in complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chaoliang; Li, Juan; Tai, Wai Lydia; Yao, Weifeng; Zhao, Bo; Hong, Junmou; Shi, Si; Wang, Song; Xia, Zhongyuan

    2017-01-01

    Sex differences have been increasingly highlighted in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) in clinical practice. In CRPS type I (CRPS-I), although inflammation and oxidative stress have been implicated in its pathogenesis, whether pain behavior and the underlying mechanism are sex-specific is unclear. In the present study, we sought to explore whether sex differences have an impact on inflammation, oxidative stress, and pain sensitivity in CRPS-I. Chronic post-ischemia pain (CPIP) was established in both male and female mice as an animal model of CRPS-I. Edema and mechanical allodynia of bilateral hind paws were assessed after reperfusion. Blood samples were analyzed for serum levels of oxidative stress markers and inflammatory cytokines. Both male and female mice developed edema. Male mice developed CPIP at day 3 after reperfusion; female mice developed CPIP at day 2 after reperfusion. Female mice displayed significantly earlier and higher mechanical allodynia in the ischemic hind paw, which was associated with higher serum levels of IL-2, TNF-α, isoprostanes, 8 OhdG, and malondialdehyde at day 2 after reperfusion. Moreover, female mice showed significantly lower SOD and IL-4 compared to male mice at day 2 after reperfusion. Our results indicate that sex differences in inflammatory and oxidative stress states may play a central role in the sex-specific nociceptive hypersensitivity in CRPS-I, and offer a new insight into pharmacology treatments to improve pain management with CRPS.

  5. Local cytokine changes in complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I) resolve after 6 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Melanie; Uçeyler, Nurcan; Frettlöh, Jule; Höffken, Oliver; Krumova, Elena K; Lissek, Silke; Reinersmann, Annika; Sommer, Claudia; Stude, Philipp; Waaga-Gasser, Ana M; Tegenthoff, Martin; Maier, Christoph

    2013-10-01

    There is evidence that inflammatory processes are involved in at least the early phase of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). We compared a panel of pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines in skin blister fluids and serum from patients with CRPS and patients with upper-limb pain of other origin (non-CRPS) in the early stage (CRPS patients compared to non-CRPS patients. Neither group showed side differences. After 6 months under analgesic treatment, protein levels of all measured cytokines in CRPS patients, except for IL-6, significantly changed bilaterally to the level of non-CRPS patients. These changes were not related to treatment outcome. In serum, only IL-8, TNF-α, eotaxin, MCP-1, and MIP-1β were detectable without intergroup differences. Blister fluid of CRPS patients showed a bilateral proinflammatory cytokine profile. This profile seems to be relevant only at the early stage of CRPS. Almost all measured cytokine levels were comparable to those of non-CRPS patients after 6 months of analgesic treatment and were not related to treatment outcome. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Intrinsic brain networks normalize with treatment in pediatric complex regional pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Becerra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric complex regional pain syndrome (P-CRPS offers a unique model of chronic neuropathic pain as it either resolves spontaneously or through therapeutic interventions in most patients. Here we evaluated brain changes in well-characterized children and adolescents with P-CRPS by measuring resting state networks before and following a brief (median = 3 weeks but intensive physical and psychological treatment program, and compared them to matched healthy controls. Differences in intrinsic brain networks were observed in P-CRPS compared to controls before treatment (disease state with the most prominent differences in the fronto-parietal, salience, default mode, central executive, and sensorimotor networks. Following treatment, behavioral measures demonstrated a reduction of symptoms and improvement of physical state (pain levels and motor functioning. Correlation of network connectivities with spontaneous pain measures pre- and post-treatment indicated concomitant reductions in connectivity in salience, central executive, default mode and sensorimotor networks (treatment effects. These results suggest a rapid alteration in global brain networks with treatment and provide a venue to assess brain changes in CRPS pre- and post-treatment, and to evaluate therapeutic effects.

  7. Interaction of hyperalgesia and sensory loss in complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huge, Volker; Lauchart, Meike; Förderreuther, Stefanie; Kaufhold, Wibke; Valet, Michael; Azad, Shahnaz Christina; Beyer, Antje; Magerl, Walter

    2008-07-23

    Sensory abnormalities are a key feature of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS). In order to characterise these changes in patients suffering from acute or chronic CRPS I, we used Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) in comparison to an age and gender matched control group. 61 patients presenting with CRPS I of the upper extremity and 56 healthy subjects were prospectively assessed using QST. The patients' warm and cold detection thresholds (WDT; CDT), the heat and cold pain thresholds (HPT; CPT) and the occurrence of paradoxical heat sensation (PHS) were observed. In acute CRPS I, patients showed warm and cold hyperalgesia, indicated by significant changes in HPT and CPT. WDT and CDT were significantly increased as well, indicating warm and cold hypoaesthesia. In chronic CRPS, thermal hyperalgesia declined, but CDT as well as WDT further deteriorated. Solely patients with acute CRPS displayed PHS. To a minor degree, all QST changes were also present on the contralateral limb. We propose three pathomechanisms of CRPS I, which follow a distinct time course: Thermal hyperalgesia, observed in acute CRPS, indicates an ongoing aseptic peripheral inflammation. Thermal hypoaesthesia, as detected in acute and chronic CRPS, signals a degeneration of A-delta and C-fibres, which further deteriorates in chronic CRPS. PHS in acute CRPS I indicates that both inflammation and degeneration are present, whilst in chronic CRPS I, the pathomechanism of degeneration dominates, signalled by the absence of PHS. The contralateral changes observed strongly suggest the involvement of the central nervous system.

  8. A case of complex regional pain syndrome with agnosia for object orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Gail; Cohen, Helen; Goebel, Andreas

    2011-07-01

    This systematic investigation of the neurocognitive correlates of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) in a single case also reports agnosia for object orientation in the context of persistent CRPS. We report a patient (JW) with severe long-standing CRPS who had no difficulty identifying and naming line drawings of objects presented in 1 of 4 cardinal orientations. In contrast, he was extremely poor at reorienting these objects into the correct upright orientation and in judging whether an object was upright or not. Moreover, JW made orientation errors when copying drawings of objects, and he also showed features of mirror reversal in writing single words and reading single letters. The findings are discussed in relation to accounts of visual processing. Agnosia for object orientation is the term for impaired knowledge of an object's orientation despite good recognition and naming of the same misoriented object. This defect has previously only been reported in patients with major structural brain lesions. The neuroanatomical correlates are discussed. The patient had no structural brain lesion, raising the possibility that nonstructural reorganisation of cortical networks may be responsible for his deficits. Other patients with CRPS may have related neurocognitive defects. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Impaired recognition of social emotion in patients with complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Na Young; Kang, Do-Hyung; Jang, Joon Hwan; Park, Soo Young; Hwang, Jae Yeon; Kim, Sung Nyun; Byun, Min Soo; Park, Hye Youn; Kim, Yong Chul

    2013-11-01

    Multiple brain areas involved in nociceptive, autonomic, and social-emotional processing are disproportionally changed in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Little empirical evidence is available involving social cognitive functioning in patients with chronic pain conditions. We investigated the ability of patients with CRPS to recognize the mental/emotional states of other people. Forty-three patients with CRPS and 30 healthy controls performed the Reading Mind in the Eyes Test, which consists of photos in which human eyes express various emotional and mental states. Neuropsychological tests, including the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the stop-signal test, and the reaction time test, were administered to evaluate other cognitive functions. Patients with CRPS were significantly less accurate at recognizing emotional states in other persons, but not on other cognitive tests, compared with control subjects. We found a significant association between the deficit in social-emotion recognition and the affective dimension of pain, whereas this deficit was not related to the sensory dimension of pain. Our findings suggest a disrupted ability to recognize others' mental/emotional states in patients with CRPS. This article demonstrated a deficit in inferring mental/emotional states of others in patients with CRPS that was related to pain affect. Our study suggests that additional interventions directed toward reducing distressful affective pain may be helpful to restore social cognitive processing in patients with CRPS. Copyright © 2013 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Bee Venom Pharmacopuncture: An Effective Treatment for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Min Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Treating complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS is difficult because it still does not have a recommended therapy. A 29-year-old man was diagnosed with CRPS after surgery on his 4th and 5th left toes 7 years ago. Though he had undergone diverse pain treatment, the symptoms persisted, so he visited Dunsan Korean Medicine Hospital of Daejeon University. This case report presents results on the effect of bee venom pharmacopuncture in treating patient with CRPS. Methods: Bee venom pharmacopuncture (BVP, 0.15 to 0.4 mL dosage, was administered at GB43. The treatment was applied each week for a total 14 times. The symptoms were evaluated using a numeric rating scale (NRS and the dosage of pain medicine. Results: On the first visit, he was taking an anticonvulsant, a trycyclic antidepressant, and an analgesic. On the NRS the worst pain in the toes received a score of 8. He also complained of severe pain and hypersensitivity when the 4th and the 5th toes were touched just slightly. Other complaint included dyspepsia, rash, and depression. After treatment, on the NRS, the score for toe pain was 0, and he no longer needed to take pain medication. During the 4-months follow-up period, he has remained without pain; neither have additional symptoms appeared nor adverse events occurred. Conclusion: BVP may have potential benefits for treating patients with CRPS.

  11. Correlates and importance of neglect-like symptoms in complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittayer, Matthias; Dimova, Violeta; Birklein, Frank; Schlereth, Tanja

    2018-05-01

    Neglect-like symptoms (NLS) are frequently observed in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). The clinical meaning of NLS, however, is largely unknown. Therefore, this study sets out to assess the importance of NLS for patient outcome and to explore their clinical correlates. We assessed NLS in a group of 53 patients with CRPS and compared the results to 28 healthy volunteers. To define the origin of the NLS reports, we tested the subjective visual midline, performed a limb-laterality recognition test, and quantitative sensory testing. In addition, psychological and pain assessment scales were completed. Tests were analyzed with univariate and multivariate approaches. After 6 months, patients were reassessed and the influence of NLS on pain outcome was determined. Most patients reported NLS in the questionnaire, whereas subjective visual midline and limb-laterality recognition test in contrast to previous studies did not reveal perceptual disturbances. Neglect-like symptom scores were associated with pain and pain catastrophizing in acute CRPS and anxiety and thermal sensory loss in chronic CRPS. Furthermore, high NLS scores had a negative impact on pain outcome after 6 months. Our results indicate that NLS have a different meaning in acute and chronic CRPS and might be of prognostic value. Possibly, treatment should focus on reducing NLS.

  12. Evaluation of brain metabolite in patients with complex regional pain syndrome by MR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwashita, Narihito; Fukui, Mikio; Nitta, Kazuhito; Anzawa, Noriyuki; Tomie, Hisashi; Nakanishi, Miho; Matsumoto, Tomikichi; Nosaka, Shuichi

    2010-01-01

    Recently brain imaging studies have shown that patients with chronic pain have an altered cortical processing of nociceptive inputs. We evaluated brain metabolites in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) using MR spectroscopy. Absolute concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and choline (Cho) were measured in anterior cingulate (ACC) and prefrontal cortices (PFC) of patients and volunteers as matched control. Psychological aspects of patients were also evaluated with Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale, in addition to the intensity of pain by visual analog scale. In the ACC, CRPS patients had a significant decrease of NAA and a significant increase of Cho compared to the control. Furthermore, patients with anxiety scored by HAD scale had reduced NAA concentration in ACC compared to the patients without anxiety. In the PFC, there was a reduction of NAA in the patients compared with that in control. No correlation was observed between intensity of pain and these metabolites. These results suggest that metabolite changes in ACC and PFC could reflect the pathogenesis of CRPS. (author)

  13. Abnormal Brain Responses to Action Observation in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Jaakko; Saari, Jukka; Koskinen, Miika; Hlushchuk, Yevhen; Forss, Nina; Hari, Riitta

    2017-03-01

    Patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) display various abnormalities in central motor function, and their pain is intensified when they perform or just observe motor actions. In this study, we examined the abnormalities of brain responses to action observation in CRPS. We analyzed 3-T functional magnetic resonance images from 13 upper limb CRPS patients (all female, ages 31-58 years) and 13 healthy, age- and sex-matched control subjects. The functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired while the subjects viewed brief videos of hand actions shown in the first-person perspective. A pattern-classification analysis was applied to characterize brain areas where the activation pattern differed between CRPS patients and healthy subjects. Brain areas with statistically significant group differences (q frontal gyrus, secondary somatosensory cortex, inferior parietal lobule, orbitofrontal cortex, and thalamus. Our findings indicate that CRPS impairs action observation by affecting brain areas related to pain processing and motor control. This article shows that in CRPS, the observation of others' motor actions induces abnormal neural activity in brain areas essential for sensorimotor functions and pain. These results build the cerebral basis for action-observation impairments in CRPS. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Psychological distress and stressful life events in pediatric complex regional pain syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wager, Julia; Brehmer, Hannah; Hirschfeld, Gerrit; Zernikow, Boris

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is little knowledge regarding the association between psychological factors and complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) in children. Specifically, it is not known which factors precipitate CRPS and which result from the ongoing painful disease. OBJECTIVES: To examine symptoms of depression and anxiety as well as the experience of stressful life events in children with CRPS compared with children with chronic primary headaches and functional abdominal pain. METHODS: A retrospective chart study examined children with CRPS (n=37) who received intensive inpatient pain treatment between 2004 and 2010. They were compared with two control groups (chronic primary headaches and functional abdominal pain; each n=37), who also received intensive inpatient pain treatment. Control groups were matched with the CRPS group with regard to admission date, age and sex. Groups were compared on symptoms of depression and anxiety as well as stressful life events. RESULTS: Children with CRPS reported lower anxiety and depression scores compared with children with abdominal pain. A higher number of stressful life events before and after the onset of the pain condition was observed for children with CRPS. CONCLUSIONS: Children with CRPS are not particularly prone to symptoms of anxiety or depression. Importantly, children with CRPS experienced more stressful life events than children with chronic headaches or abdominal pain. Prospective long-term studies are needed to further explore the potential role of stressful life events in the etiology of CRPS. PMID:26035287

  15. Cerebral glucose metabolism change in patients with complex regional pain syndrome. A PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Satoe; Kobayashi, Hidetoshi; Nihashi, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine abnormalities of the central nervous system in patients with chronic pain who were diagnosed with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Brain activity was assessed using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. The data collected from 18 patients were compared with data obtained from 13 normal age-matched controls. Our results showed that glucose metabolism was bilaterally increased in the secondary somatosensory cortex, mid-anterior cingulated cortex (ACC) or posterior cingulated cortex (PCC) (or both), parietal cortex, posterior parietal cortex (PPC), and cerebellum as well as in the right posterior insula and right thalamus in our patients. In contrast, glucose metabolism was reduced contralaterally in the dorsal prefrontal cortex and primary motor cortex. Glucose metabolism was bilaterally elevated in the mid-ACC/PCC and the PPC, which correlated with pain duration. These data suggested that glucose metabolism in the brains of patients with CRPS changes dramatically at each location. In particular, glucose metabolism was increased in the areas concerned with somatosensory perception, possibly due to continuous painful stimulation. (author)

  16. Methodical Approaches To Analysis And Forecasting Of Development Fuel And Energy Complex And Gas Industry In The Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Andreyevich Tsybatov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fuel and energy complex (FEC is one of the main elements of the economy of any territory over which intertwine the interests of all economic entities. To ensure economic growth of the region should ensure that internal balance of energy resources, which should be developed with account of regional specifics of economic growth and energy security. The study examined the status of this equilibrium, indicating fuel and energy balance of the region (TEB. The aim of the research is the development of the fuel and energy balance, which will allow to determine exactly how many and what resources are not enough to ensure the regional development strategy and what resources need to be brought in. In the energy balances as the focus of displays all issues of regional development, so thermopile is necessary as a mechanism of analysis of current issues, economic development, and in the forward-looking version — as a tool future vision for the fuel and energy complex, energy threats and ways of overcoming them. The variety of relationships in the energy sector with other sectors and aspects of society lead to the fact that the development of the fuel and energy balance of the region have to go beyond the actual energy sector, involving the analysis of other sectors of economy, as well as systems such as banking, budgetary, legislative, tax. Due to the complexity of the discussed problems, the obvious is the need to develop appropriate forecast-analytical system, allowing regional authorities to implement evidence-based predictions of the consequences of management decisions. Multivariant scenario study on development of fuel and energy complex and separately industry, to use the methods of project-based management, harmonized application of state regulation of strategic and market mechanisms on the operational directions of development of fuel and energy complex and separately industry in the economy of the region.

  17. Mitochondrial Complex 1 Activity Measured by Spectrophotometry Is Reduced across All Brain Regions in Ageing and More Specifically in Neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Amelia Kate; Craig, Emma Louise; Chakrabarti, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial function, in particular complex 1 of the electron transport chain (ETC), has been shown to decrease during normal ageing and in neurodegenerative disease. However, there is some debate concerning which area of the brain has the greatest complex 1 activity. It is important to identify the pattern of activity in order to be able to gauge the effect of age or disease related changes. We determined complex 1 activity spectrophotometrically in the cortex, brainstem and cerebellum of middle aged mice (70-71 weeks), a cerebellar ataxic neurodegeneration model (pcd5J) and young wild type controls. We share our updated protocol on the measurements of complex1 activity and find that mitochondrial fractions isolated from frozen tissues can be measured for robust activity. We show that complex 1 activity is clearly highest in the cortex when compared with brainstem and cerebellum (p<0.003). Cerebellum and brainstem mitochondria exhibit similar levels of complex 1 activity in wild type brains. In the aged brain we see similar levels of complex 1 activity in all three-brain regions. The specific activity of complex 1 measured in the aged cortex is significantly decreased when compared with controls (p<0.0001). Both the cerebellum and brainstem mitochondria also show significantly reduced activity with ageing (p<0.05). The mouse model of ataxia predictably has a lower complex 1 activity in the cerebellum, and although reductions are measured in the cortex and brain stem, the remaining activity is higher than in the aged brains. We present clear evidence that complex 1 activity decreases across the brain with age and much more specifically in the cerebellum of the pcd5j mouse. Mitochondrial impairment can be a region specific phenomenon in disease, but in ageing appears to affect the entire brain, abolishing the pattern of higher activity in cortical regions.

  18. Local and regional minimum 1D models for earthquake location and data quality assessment in complex tectonic regions: application to Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husen, S.; Clinton, J. F.; Kissling, E.

    2011-01-01

    One-dimensional (1D) velocity models are still widely used for computing earthquake locations at seismological centers or in regions where three-dimensional (3D) velocity models are not available due to the lack of data of sufficiently high quality. The concept of the minimum 1D model with appropriate station corrections provides a framework to compute initial hypocenter locations and seismic velocities for local earthquake tomography. Since a minimum 1D model represents a solution to the coupled hypocenter-velocity problem it also represents a suitable velocity model for earthquake location and data quality assessment, such as evaluating the consistency in assigning pre-defined weighting classes and average picking error. Nevertheless, the use of a simple 1D velocity structure in combination with station delays raises the question of how appropriate the minimum 1D model concept is when applied to complex tectonic regions with significant three-dimensional (3D) variations in seismic velocities. In this study we compute one regional minimum 1D model and three local minimum 1D models for selected subregions of the Swiss Alpine region, which exhibits a strongly varying Moho topography. We compare the regional and local minimum 1D models in terms of earthquake locations and data quality assessment to measure their performance. Our results show that the local minimum 1D models provide more realistic hypocenter locations and better data fits than a single model for the Alpine region. We attribute this to the fact that in a local minimum 1D model local and regional effects of the velocity structure can be better separated. Consequently, in tectonically complex regions, minimum 1D models should be computed in sub-regions defined by similar structure, if they are used for earthquake location and data quality assessment. (authors)

  19. Local and regional minimum 1D models for earthquake location and data quality assessment in complex tectonic regions: application to Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husen, S.; Clinton, J. F. [Swiss Seismological Service, ETH Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Kissling, E. [Institute of Geophysics, ETH Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2011-10-15

    One-dimensional (1D) velocity models are still widely used for computing earthquake locations at seismological centers or in regions where three-dimensional (3D) velocity models are not available due to the lack of data of sufficiently high quality. The concept of the minimum 1D model with appropriate station corrections provides a framework to compute initial hypocenter locations and seismic velocities for local earthquake tomography. Since a minimum 1D model represents a solution to the coupled hypocenter-velocity problem it also represents a suitable velocity model for earthquake location and data quality assessment, such as evaluating the consistency in assigning pre-defined weighting classes and average picking error. Nevertheless, the use of a simple 1D velocity structure in combination with station delays raises the question of how appropriate the minimum 1D model concept is when applied to complex tectonic regions with significant three-dimensional (3D) variations in seismic velocities. In this study we compute one regional minimum 1D model and three local minimum 1D models for selected subregions of the Swiss Alpine region, which exhibits a strongly varying Moho topography. We compare the regional and local minimum 1D models in terms of earthquake locations and data quality assessment to measure their performance. Our results show that the local minimum 1D models provide more realistic hypocenter locations and better data fits than a single model for the Alpine region. We attribute this to the fact that in a local minimum 1D model local and regional effects of the velocity structure can be better separated. Consequently, in tectonically complex regions, minimum 1D models should be computed in sub-regions defined by similar structure, if they are used for earthquake location and data quality assessment. (authors)

  20. Are more complex physiological models of forest ecosystems better choices for plot and regional predictions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenchi Jin; Hong S. He; Frank R. Thompson

    2016-01-01

    Process-based forest ecosystem models vary from simple physiological, complex physiological, to hybrid empirical-physiological models. Previous studies indicate that complex models provide the best prediction at plot scale with a temporal extent of less than 10 years, however, it is largely untested as to whether complex models outperform the other two types of models...

  1. An approach for a complex assessment of the geo-ecological risk from natural disasters in a geographic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlateva, Plamena; Stoyanov, Krasimir

    2009-01-01

    The paper proposes an approach for a complex assessment of the geo-ecological risk of a certain geographic region on the basis of quantitative and qualitative datum about the potential natural disasters. A fuzzy logic model is designed. The type of the threats, consequences and interdependencies between infrastructure objects are taken into account. The geographic region is considered as a complex system of interconnected and mutually influencing elements. The expected damages are directly and/or indirectly connected with life quality deterioration. Keywords: Risk, Geo-ecological risk, Damages, Threats, Vulnerabilities, Natural disasters

  2. Application of digital tomosynthesis in diagnosing the fractures or dislocations in irregular bones and regions with complex structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuerdi, Batuer; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Ying; Zhou, Hao; Zhang, Hao

    2015-01-01

    The application potential of digital tomosynthesis in diagnosing fractures or dislocations in irregular bones and regions with complex structures was evaluated. Digital radiography and tomosynthesis were performed in 121 patients, and the image quality, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were compared. The number of participants with a definite diagnosis of fracture and/or dislocation was 98. The ratio of excellent images, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of digital tomosynthesis were higher than that of direct radiography. Digital tomosynthesis could be applied in the diagnosis of fractures or dislocations in irregular bones and regions with complex structures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The globular cluster system of NGC 1316. IV. Nature of the star cluster complex SH2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richtler, T.; Husemann, B.; Hilker, M.; Puzia, T. H.; Bresolin, F.; Gómez, M.

    2017-05-01

    Context. The light of the merger remnant NGC 1316 (Fornax A) is dominated by old and intermediate-age stars. The only sign of current star formation in this big galaxy is the Hii region SH2, an isolated star cluster complex with a ring-like morphology and an estimated age of 0.1 Gyr at a galactocentric distance of about 35 kpc. A nearby intermediate-age globular cluster, surrounded by weak line emission and a few more young star clusters, is kinematically associated. The origin of this complex is enigmatic. Aims: We want to investigate the nature of this star cluster complex. The nebular emission lines permit a metallicity determination which can discriminate between a dwarf galaxy or other possible precursors. Methods: We used the Integral Field Unit (IFU) of the VIMOS instrument at the Very Large Telescope of the European Southern Observatory in high dispersion mode to study the morphology, kinematics, and metallicity employing line maps, velocity maps, and line diagnostics of a few characteristic spectra. Results: The line ratios of different spectra vary, indicating highly structured Hii regions, but define a locus of uniform metallicity. The strong-line diagnostic diagrams and empirical calibrations point to a nearly solar or even super-solar oxygen abundance. The velocity dispersion of the gas is highest in the region offset from the bright clusters. Star formation may be active on a low level. There is evidence for a large-scale disk-like structure in the region of SH2, which would make the similar radial velocity of the nearby globular cluster easier to understand. Conclusions: The high metallicity does not fit to a dwarf galaxy as progenitor. We favour the scenario of a free-floating gaseous complex having its origin in the merger 2 Gyr ago. Over a long period the densities increased secularly until finally the threshold for star formation was reached. SH2 illustrates how massive star clusters can form outside starbursts and without a considerable field

  4. [11C]-(R)-PK11195 positron emission tomography in patients with complex regional pain syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, So Yeon; Seo, Seongho; Lee, Jae Sung; Choi, Soo-Hee; Lee, Do-Hyeong; Jung, Ye-Ha; Song, Man-Kyu; Lee, Kyung-Jun; Kim, Yong Chul; Kwon, Hyun Woo; Im, Hyung-Jun; Lee, Dong Soo; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kang, Do-Hyung

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is characterized by severe and chronic pain, but the pathophysiology of this disease are not clearly understood. The primary aim of our case–control study was to explore neuroinflammation in patients with CRPS using positron emission tomography (PET), with an 18-kDa translocator protein specific radioligand [11C]-(R)-PK11195. [11C]-(R)-PK11195 PET scans were acquired for 11 patients with CRPS (30–55 years) and 12 control subjects (30–52 years). Parametric image of distribution volume ratio (DVR) for each participant was generated by applying a relative equilibrium-based graphical analysis. The DVR of [11C]-(R)-PK11195 in the caudate nucleus (t(21) = −3.209, P = 0.004), putamen (t(21) = −2.492, P = 0.022), nucleus accumbens (t(21) = −2.218, P = 0.040), and thalamus (t(21) = −2.395, P = 0.026) were significantly higher in CRPS patients than in healthy controls. Those of globus pallidus (t(21) = −2.045, P = 0.054) tended to be higher in CRPS patients than in healthy controls. In patients with CRPS, there was a positive correlation between the DVR of [11C]-(R)-PK11195 in the caudate nucleus and the pain score, the visual analog scale (r = 0.661, P = 0.026, R2 = 0.408) and affective subscales of McGill Pain Questionnaire (r = 0.604, P = 0.049, R2 = 0.364). We demonstrated that neuroinflammation of CRPS patients in basal ganglia. Our results suggest that microglial pathology can be an important pathophysiology of CRPS. Association between the level of caudate nucleus and pain severity indicated that neuroinflammation in this region might play a key role. These results may be essential for developing effective medical treatments. PMID:28072713

  5. A Novel Compound Analgesic Cream (Ketamine, Pentoxifylline, Clonidine, DMSO) for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Marc A; Santarelli, Danielle M

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a manifestation of microvascular dysfunction. Topical combinations of α2-adrenergic receptor agonists or nitric oxide donors with phosphodiesterase or phosphatidic acid inhibitors formulated to treat microvascular dysfunction have been shown to reduce allodynia in a rat model of CRPS-I. Driven by these findings, we assessed the outcomes of CRPS patients treated with a compound analgesic cream (CAC) consisting of ketamine 10%, pentoxifylline 6%, clonidine 0.2%, and dimethyl sulfoxide 6% to 10%. An audit was conducted on 13 CRPS patients who trialed the CAC. A detailed report was compiled for each patient which comprised baseline characteristics, including CRPS description, previous treatments, and pain scores (numerical pain rating scale; 0 to 10). Recorded outcomes consisted of pain scores, descriptive outcomes, and concurrent medications/treatments, for which basic analysis was performed to determine the effectiveness of the CAC. Case reports are presented for 3 patients with varying outcomes. Nine patients (69%) reported pain/symptom reduction (4.4 ± 2.1 vs. 6.3 ± 1.9) with use of the CAC. Six patients reported sustained benefits after 2 months of CAC use, and 2 patients reported complete resolution of pain/symptoms: one had early CRPS-I and the other received a partial CRPS diagnosis. An otherwise medication refractory and intolerant patient found partial benefit with the CAC. These results demonstrate promise for this topical combination as a useful treatment in multimodal therapy for patients with CRPS, with the potential to resolve pain/symptoms in early CRPS patients. © 2015 World Institute of Pain.

  6. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome following an Episode of Herpes Zoster: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Christopher E; Mclean, Neuyen; Varnado, Keyana

    2017-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is characterized by searing pain, hyperalgesia, edema, allodynia, and skin changes. CRPS may be difficult to diagnose and to treat given poorly understood mechanisms as well as its presentation of symptoms that may mimic common conditions such as joint stiffness in this condition as well as rheumatoid arthritis. A 71-year-old female presented to our clinic post shingles of the right upper extremity. We diagnosed her with CRPS based on the Budapest diagnostic criteria and the clinical findings of pain and decreased the range of motion along with edema, hypersensitivity, discoloration and allodynia of the right thumb and index finger. She was treated with vitamin C as well as gabapentin and physical therapy. The patient was unable to go consistently to physical therapy due to insurance limitations, and we found no clinical benefit of vitamin C in reducing her symptoms. She was lost to follow-up during her treatment but re-emerged at 21 months. At that time she reported, she was largely unchanged in regards to her right-hand symptoms but did believe the gabapentin was helpful and still continued to take 300 mg daily. This case report highlights the usefulness of the Budapest diagnostic criteria to make the diagnosis of CRPS when associated with shingles, which can cause long-term pain and mimic some findings. Prompt diagnosis is important, as recovery typically extends beyond 6 months; our patient still reported continued symptoms at 21 months post initial presentation. Our primary treatment plan was physical therapy, which she discontinued due to insurance limitations. We recommend that patients, physicians, and third-party payers work together to extend access to physical therapy. More investigation is warranted regarding symptomatic treatment, as we found limited clinical benefit of gabapentin and vitamin C.

  7. Pain increases during sympathetic arousal in patients with complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, P D; Finch, P M; Skipworth, S; Blockey, P

    2001-10-09

    To investigate the effect of sympathetic arousal on pain and vasomotor responses in healthy control subjects and patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), and to determine whether pain increases in patients with particular symptoms. In experiments 1 and 2, capsaicin was applied to the forearm of 24 healthy subjects to induce thermal hyperalgesia. Vascular responses were monitored and subjects rated thermal hyperalgesia before and after being startled (experiment 1), and before, during, and after mental arithmetic, breath holding, forehead cooling, the Valsalva maneuver, and a cold pressor test in experiment 2. In a third experiment, sensitivity to heat, cold, and mechanical stimulation was investigated in 61 patients with CRPS. Pain ratings and vascular and electrodermal responses were recorded after patients were startled and during forehead cooling. In experiment 1, thermal hyperalgesia decreased in healthy control subjects after they were startled, and digital blood vessels constricted symmetrically. In experiment 2, thermal hyperalgesia decreased during and after other forms of sympathetic arousal. However, in experiment 3, ratings of clinical pain increased during forehead cooling or after being startled in over 70% of patients with CRPS. Pain increased most consistently during forehead cooling in patients with cold allodynia or punctate allodynia. Digital blood vessels constricted more intensely on the symptomatic than the nonsymptomatic side in patients with CRPS during sympathetic arousal. Normal inhibitory influences on pain during sympathetic arousal are compromised in the majority of patients with CRPS. The augmented vasoconstrictor response in the symptomatic limb during sympathetic arousal is consistent with adrenergic supersensitivity. An adrenergic sensitivity in nociceptive afferents might contribute to pain and hyperalgesia during sympathetic arousal in certain patients with CRPS.

  8. Selective Fiber Degeneration in the Peripheral Nerve of a Patient With Severe Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Yvon

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS is characterized by chronic debilitating pain disproportional to the inciting event and accompanied by motor, sensory, and autonomic disturbances. The pathophysiology of CRPS remains elusive. An exceptional case of severe CRPS leading to forearm amputation provided the opportunity to examine nerve histopathological features of the peripheral nerves.Methods: A 35-year-old female developed CRPS secondary to low voltage electrical injury. The CRPS was refractory to medical therapy and led to functional loss of the forelimb, repeated cutaneous wound infections leading to hospitalization. Specifically, the patient had exhausted a targeted conservative pain management programme prior to forearm amputation. Radial, median, and ulnar nerve specimens were obtained from the amputated limb and analyzed by light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM.Results: All samples showed features of selective myelinated nerve fiber degeneration (47–58% of fibers on electron microscopy. Degenerating myelinated fibers were significantly larger than healthy fibers (p < 0.05, and corresponded to the larger Aα fibers (motor/proprioception whilst smaller Aδ (pain/temperature fibers were spared. Groups of small unmyelinated C fibers (Remak bundles also showed evidence of degeneration in all samples.Conclusions: We are the first to show large fiber degeneration in CRPS using TEM. Degeneration of Aα fibers may lead to an imbalance in nerve signaling, inappropriately triggering the smaller healthy Aδ fibers, which transmit pain and temperature. These findings suggest peripheral nerve degeneration may play a key role in CRPS. Improved knowledge of pathogenesis will help develop more targeted treatments.

  9. Children and adolescents with complex regional pain syndrome: More psychologically distressed than other children in pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Deirdre E; Williams, Sara E; Carullo, Veronica P; Claar, Robyn Lewis; Bruehl, Stephen; Berde, Charles B

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Historically, in both adult and pediatric populations, a lack of knowledge regarding complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and absence of clear diagnostic criteria have contributed to the view that this is a primarily psychiatric condition. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that children with CRPS are more functionally disabled, have more pain and are more psychologically distressed than children with other pain conditions. METHODS: A total of 101 children evaluated in a tertiary care pediatric pain clinic who met the International Association for the Study of Pain consensus diagnostic criteria for CRPS participated in the present retrospective study. Comparison groups included 103 children with abdominal pain, 291 with headache and 119 with back pain. Children and parents completed self-report questionnaires assessing disability, somatization, pain coping, depression, anxiety and school attendance. RESULTS: Children with CRPS reported higher pain intensity and more recent onset of pain at the initial tertiary pain clinic evaluation compared with children with other chronic pain conditions. They reported greater functional disability and more somatic symptoms than children with headaches or back pain. Scores on measures of depression and anxiety were within normal limits and similar to those of children in other pain diagnostic groups. CONCLUSIONS: As a group, clinic-referred children with CRPS may be more functionally impaired and experience more somatic symptoms compared with children with other pain conditions. However, overall psychological functioning as assessed by self-report appears to be similar to that of children with other chronic pain diagnoses. Comprehensive assessment using a biopsychosocial framework is essential to understanding and appropriately treating children with symptoms of CRPS. PMID:23662291

  10. Impaired spatial body representation in complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinersmann, Annika; Landwehrt, Julia; Krumova, Elena K; Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Güntürkün, Onur; Maier, Christoph

    2012-11-01

    Recently, a shift of the visual subjective body midline (vSM), a correlate of the egocentric reference frame, towards the affected side was reported in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). However, the specificity of this finding is as yet unclear. This study compares 24 CRPS patients to 21 patients with upper limb pain of other origin (pain control) and to 24 healthy subjects using a comprehensive test battery, including assessment of the vSM in light and dark, line bisection, hand laterality recognition, neglect-like severity symptoms, and motor impairment (disability of the arm, shoulder, and hand). 1-way analysis of variance, t-tests, significance level: 0.05. In the dark, CRPS patients displayed a significantly larger leftward spatial bias when estimating their vSM, compared to pain controls and healthy subjects, and also reported lower motor function than pain controls. For right-affected CRPS patients only, the deviation of the vSM correlated significantly with the severity of distorted body perception. Results confirm previous findings of impaired visuospatial perception in CRPS patients, which might be the result of the involvement of supraspinal mechanisms in this pain syndrome. These mechanisms might accentuate the leftward bias that results from a right-hemispheric dominance in visuospatial processing and is known as pseudoneglect. Pseudoneglect reveals itself in the tendency to perceive the midpoint of horizontal lines or the subjective body midline left of the centre. It was observable in all 3 groups, but most pronounced in CRPS patients, which might be due to the cortical reorganisation processes associated with this syndrome. Copyright © 2012 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Medical history and the onset of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mos, M; Huygen, F J P M; Dieleman, J P; Koopman, J S H A; Stricker, B H Ch; Sturkenboom, M C J M

    2008-10-15

    Knowledge concerning the medical history prior to the onset of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) might provide insight into its risk factors and potential underlying disease mechanisms. To evaluate prior to CRPS medical conditions, a case-control study was conducted in the Integrated Primary Care Information (IPCI) project, a general practice (GP) database in the Netherlands. CRPS patients were identified from the records and validated through examination by the investigator (IASP criteria) or through specialist confirmation. Cases were matched to controls on age, gender and injury type. All diagnoses prior to the index date were assessed by manual review of the medical records. Some pre-specified medical conditions were studied for their association with CRPS, whereas all other diagnoses, grouped by pathogenesis, were tested in a hypothesis-generating approach. Of the identified 259 CRPS patients, 186 cases (697 controls) were included, based on validation by the investigator during a visit (102 of 134 visited patients) or on specialist confirmation (84 of 125 unvisited patients). A medical history of migraine (OR: 2.43, 95% CI: 1.18-5.02) and osteoporosis (OR: 2.44, 95% CI: 1.17-5.14) was associated with CRPS. In a recent history (1-year before CRPS), cases had more menstrual cycle-related problems (OR: 2.60, 95% CI: 1.16-5.83) and neuropathies (OR: 5.7; 95% CI: 1.8-18.7). In a sensitivity analysis, including only visited cases, asthma (OR: 3.0; 95% CI: 1.3-6.9) and CRPS were related. Psychological factors were not associated with CRPS onset. Because of the hypothesis-generating character of this study, the findings should be confirmed by other studies.

  12. A prospective, multisite, international validation of the Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Severity Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, R Norman; Maihofner, Christian; Abousaad, Elias; Vatine, Jean-Jacques; Kirsling, Amy; Perez, Roberto S G M; Kuroda, Maxine; Brunner, Florian; Stanton-Hicks, Michael; Marinus, Johan; van Hilten, Jacobus J; Mackey, Sean; Birklein, Frank; Schlereth, Tanja; Mailis-Gagnon, Angela; Graciosa, Joe; Connoly, Sara B; Dayanim, David; Massey, Michael; Frank, Hadas; Livshitz, Anatoly; Bruehl, Stephen

    2017-08-01

    Clinical diagnosis of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a dichotomous (yes/no) categorization, a format necessary for clinical decision making. Such dichotomous diagnostic categories do not convey an individual's subtle gradations in the severity of the condition over time and have poor statistical power when used as an outcome measure in research. This prospective, international, multicenter study slightly modified and further evaluated the validity of the CRPS Severity Score (CSS), a continuous index of CRPS severity. Using a prospective design, medical evaluations were conducted in 156 patients with CRPS to compare changes over time in CSS scores between patients initiating a new treatment program and patients on stable treatment regimens. New vs stable categorizations were supported by greater changes in pain and function in the former. Results indicated that CSS values in the stable CRPS treatment group exhibited much less change over time relative to the new treatment group, with intraclass correlations nearly twice as large in the former. A calculated smallest real difference value revealed that a change in the CSS of ≥4.9 scale points would indicate real differences in CRPS symptomatology (with 95% confidence). Across groups, larger changes in CRPS features on the CSS over time were associated in the expected direction with greater changes in pain intensity, fatigue, social functioning, ability to engage in physical roles, and general well-being. The overall pattern of findings further supports the validity of the CSS as a measure of CRPS severity and suggests it may prove useful in clinical monitoring and outcomes research.

  13. Motor dysfunction of complex regional pain syndrome is related to impaired central processing of proprioceptive information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Paulina J M; Peper, C Lieke E; Marinus, Johan; Beek, Peter J; van Hilten, Jacobus J

    2013-11-01

    Our understanding of proprioceptive deficits in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and its potential contribution to impaired motor function is still limited. To gain more insight into these issues, we evaluated accuracy and precision of joint position sense over a range of flexion-extension angles of the wrist of the affected and unaffected sides in 25 chronic CRPS patients and in 50 healthy controls. The results revealed proprioceptive impairment at both the patients' affected and unaffected sides, characterized predominantly by overestimation of wrist extension angles. Precision of the position estimates was more prominently reduced at the affected side. Importantly, group differences in proprioceptive performance were observed not only for tests at identical percentages of each individual's range of wrist motion but also when controls were tested at wrist angles that corresponded to those of the patient's affected side. More severe motor impairment of the affected side was associated with poorer proprioceptive performance. Based on additional sensory tests, variations in proprioceptive performance over the range of wrist angles, and comparisons between active and passive displacements, the disturbances of proprioceptive performance most likely resulted from altered processing of afferent (and not efferent) information and its subsequent interpretation in the context of a distorted "body schema." The present results point at a significant role for impaired central processing of proprioceptive information in the motor dysfunction of CRPS and suggest that therapeutic strategies aimed at identification of proprioceptive impairments and their restoration may promote the recovery of motor function in CRPS patients. Copyright © 2013 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Is physiotherapy effective for children with complex regional pain syndrome type 1?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialocerkowski, Andrea E; Daly, Anne

    2012-01-01

    This study synthesized current research evidence on the effectiveness of physiotherapy for the management of children diagnosed with complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1), to provide up-to-date physiotherapy treatment recommendations, and to identify areas that require further investigation. Nine electronic databases were searched for quantitative studies that evaluated the effect of physiotherapy on children with CRPS-1. The methodological quality of the studies was evaluated using the Critical Review Form. Data were extracted regarding the study design, participant characteristics, types of outcome measures used, and physiotherapy technique used and its effectiveness. The search strategy identified 303 potential studies, of which 12 met the inclusion criteria (1 randomized controlled trial, 1 comparative study, 10 case series). The methodological quality of all studies was rated as poor to fair. The "stand-alone" value of physiotherapy could not be determined as physiotherapy was prescribed in conjunction with psychological and medical interventions. There is low volume and poor-to-fair quality evidence which suggests that physiotherapy prescribed with other interventions may lead to short-term improvement in the signs and symptoms of CRPS-1 or functional ability in children with CRPS-1, and the relapse rate may be moderately high. High-quality studies are required in this area. These studies should evaluate a package of care (which includes physiotherapy); they should investigate the effects of physiotherapy treatments that have proven effectiveness in adults with CRPS-1; they should use psychometrically sound measures to evaluate outcome; and the nature of physiotherapy should be detailed in future publications to enable replication in the clinical setting.

  15. Changes in plasma cytokines and their soluble receptors in complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Guillermo M; Peterlin, B Lee; Perreault, Marielle J; Grothusen, John R; Schwartzman, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic and often disabling pain disorder. There is evidence demonstrating that neurogenic inflammation and activation of the immune system play a significant role in the pathophysiology of CRPS. This study evaluated the plasma levels of cytokines, chemokines, and their soluble receptors in 148 subjects afflicted with CRPS and in 60 gender- and age-matched healthy controls. Significant changes in plasma cytokines, chemokines, and their soluble receptors were found in subjects with CRPS as compared with healthy controls. For most analytes, these changes resulted from a distinct subset of the CRPS subjects. When the plasma data from the CRPS subjects was subjected to cluster analysis, it revealed 2 clusters within the CRPS population. The category identified as most important for cluster separation by the clustering algorithm was TNFα. Cluster 1 consisted of 64% of CRPS subjects and demonstrated analyte values similar to the healthy control individuals. Cluster 2 consisted of 36% of the CRPS subjects and demonstrated significantly elevated levels of most analytes and in addition, it showed that the increased plasma analyte levels in this cluster were correlated with disease duration and severity. The identification of biomarkers that define disease subgroups can be of great value in the design of specific therapies and of great benefit to the design of clinical trials. It may also aid in advancing our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of CRPS, which may lead to novel treatments for this very severe condition. Copyright © 2012 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Rational pain management in complex regional pain syndrome 1 (CRPS 1)--a network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertli, Maria M; Kessels, Alphons G H; Perez, Roberto S G M; Bachmann, Lucas M; Brunner, Florian

    2014-09-01

    Guidelines for complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) 1 advocate several substance classes to reduce pain and support physical rehabilitation, but guidance about which agent should be prioritized when designing a therapeutic regimen is not provided. Using a network meta-analytic approach, we examined the efficacy of all agent classes investigated in randomized clinical trials of CRPS 1 and provide a rank order of various substances stratified by length of illness duration. In this study a network meta-analysis was conducted. The participants of this study were patients with CRPS 1. Searches in electronic, previous systematic reviews, conference abstracts, book chapters, and the reference lists of relevant articles were performed. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials comparing at least one analgesic agent with placebo or with another analgesic and reporting efficacy in reducing pain. Summary efficacy stratified by symptom duration and length of follow-up was computed across all substance classes. Two authors independently extracted data. In total, 16 studies were included in the analysis. Bisphosphonates appear to be the treatment of choice in early stages of CRPS 1. The effects of calcitonin surpass that of bisphosphonates and other substances as a short-term medication in more chronic stages of the illness. While most medications showed some efficacy on short-term follow-up, only bisphosphonates, NMDA analogs, and vasodilators showed better long-term pain reduction than placebo. For some drug classes, only a few studies were available and many studies included a small group of patients. Insufficient data were available to analyze efficacy on disability. This network meta-analysis indicates that a rational pharmacological treatment strategy of pain management should consider bisphosphonates in early CRPS 1 and a short-term course of calcitonin in later stages. While most medications showed some efficacy on short-term follow-up, only bisphosphonates

  17. Research on the development efficiency of regional high-end talent in China: A complex network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Minggang; Tian, Lixin; Zhang, Wenbin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, based on the panel data of 31 provinces and cities in China from 1991 to 2016, the regional development efficiency matrix of high-end talent is obtained by DEA method, and the matrix is converted into a continuous change of complex networks through the construction of sliding window. Using a series of continuous changes in the complex network topology statistics, the characteristics of regional high-end talent development efficiency system are analyzed. And the results show that the average development efficiency of high-end talent in the western region is at a low level. After 2005, the national regional high-end talent development efficiency network has both short-range relevance and long-range relevance in the evolution process. The central region plays an important intermediary role in the national regional high-end talent development system. And the western region has high clustering characteristics. With the implementation of the high-end talent policies with regional characteristics by different provinces and cities, the relevance of high-end talent development efficiency in various provinces and cities presents a weakening trend, and the geographical characteristics of high-end talent are more and more obvious.

  18. Motor dysfunction in complex regional pain syndrome : the role of sensory processing and sensory-motor integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bank, Paulina Johanna Maria

    2014-01-01

    In the chronic stage of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS), motor disturbances are common and cause significant disability. The motor dysfunction of CRPS is a poorly understood phenomenon that is characterized predominantly by a decrease or loss of voluntary muscle control. This thesis aims to

  19. fMRI Reveals Distinct CNS Processing during Symptomatic and Recovered Complex Regional Pain Syndrome in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, A.; Becerra, L.; Wallin, D.; Moulton, E. A.; Morris, S.; Pendse, G.; Jasciewicz, J.; Stein, M.; Aiello-Lammens, M.; Grant, E.; Berde, C.; Borsook, D.

    2008-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) in paediatric patients is clinically distinct from the adult condition in which there is often complete resolution of its signs and symptoms within several months to a few years. The ability to compare the symptomatic and asymptomatic condition in the same individuals makes this population interesting for the…

  20. Investigating Reports of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: An Analysis of HPV-16/18-Adjuvanted Vaccine Post-Licensure Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J.P.M. Huygen (Frank); K. Verschueren (Kristin); C. McCabe (Candida); J.-U. Stegmann (Jens-Ulrich); J. Zima (Julia); O. Mahaux (Olivia); L. Van Holle (Lionel); M.-G. Angelo (Maria-Genalin)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractComplex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain disorder that typically follows trauma or surgery. Suspected CRPS reported after vaccination with human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines led to temporary suspension of proactive recommendation of HPV vaccination in Japan. We

  1. Chronic pain and evoked responses in the brain: A magnetoencephalographic study in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome I and II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theuvenet, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) type I and II are chronic pain syndromes with comparable symptoms, only in CRPS II a peripheral nerve injury is present. No objective tests are currently available to differentiate the two types which hampers diagnosis and treatment. Non-invasive brain imaging

  2. How Discourses on Leisure Affect Regional Development in the Province of Fryslân : a Complex Adaptive Systems Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meekes, Jasper; Parra Novoa, Constanza; de Roo, Gert

    2014-01-01

    Leisure is seen as an important factor for regional development in the province of Fryslân and many other predominantly rural and peripheral areas. However, planning for leisure, requiring high spatial quality, is a complex challenge. This is due to the fragmentation of leisure policy, but also to

  3. U-Pb age in zircon of intrusive granite at Acopiara complex, Crystal region, domain Central Ceara, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neri, T.F.O.; Hamelak, G.M.S.; Azevedo, L.R.; Mattos, I.C.; Verissimo, C.U.V.; Nogueira Neto, J.A.; Lima, M.N.

    2015-01-01

    Granitic body mineralogically composed by two micas, located at Crystal region, Ceara Central domain and intruded into lithotypes from Acopiara complex, provided an age of ∼526 Ma, indicating important period of magma generation of granitic composition associated with crustal anatexia, during Paleozoic

  4. Impact of spinal cord stimulation on sensory characteristics in complex regional pain syndrome type I - A randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemler, MA; Reulen, JPH; Barendse, GAM; van Kleef, M; de Vet, HCW; van den Wildenberg, FAJM

    Background: A randomized trial was performed to assess the effect of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) on detection and pain thresholds for pressure, warmth, and cold and on the extent of mechanical hyperalgesia in patients with chronic complex regional pain syndrome type I. Methods: Fifty-four chronic

  5. Intravenous magnesium for chronic complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Sigrid G L; Collins, Susan; Boogaard, Sabine; Loer, Stephan A; Zuurmond, Wouter W A; Perez, Roberto S G M

    2013-09-01

    To assess the effects of intravenous administration of magnesium on complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1), a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial was performed. Fifty-six patients with CRPS-1 (International Association for the Study of Pain Orlando criteria) received MgSO(4) 70 mg/kg or placebo (NaCl 0.9%) in 4 hours over 5 consecutive days. Pain (BOX-11 and McGill), the level of impairment (Impairment level Sum Score [ISS]), functional limitations (Radboud Skills Questionnaire, Walking Skills Questionnaire/questionnaire rising and sitting down), participation (Impact on Participation and Autonomy [IPA]), and quality of life (Short Form-36, EuroQol, IPA) were evaluated at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 weeks. No significant differences were found between MgSO(4) and placebo on the BOX-11 and ISS at different time points during the trial on intention-to-treat and per-protocol analysis. A significant improvement on the BOX-11 was found after the first week of the trial in both groups (mean 0.7; standard deviation 1.1). For the MgSO(4) group, a clinically relevant and statistically significant improvement on the ISS at 1 week (median 5, interquartile range [IQR] -1 to 8) and a significant improvement on the McGill up to 6 weeks (median 2 words, IQR 0-4.5) were found compared with baseline, which were not found in the placebo group. Significant improvement in perceived job participation was found for the MgSO(4) group at 12 weeks (median improvement 1.44-1.17; P = 0.01). ISS improved significantly more in patients with a low Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) score (≤10) in the MgSO(4) group (mean 4.4 vs mean -3.1; P = 0.02). Administration of the physiological competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist magnesium in chronic CRPS provides insufficient benefit over placebo. Future research should focus on patients with acute CRPS and early signs and symptoms of central sensitization. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Prevalence and Cost Analysis of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS): A Role for Neuromodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsamadicy, Aladine A; Yang, Siyun; Sergesketter, Amanda R; Ashraf, Bilal; Charalambous, Lefko; Kemeny, Hanna; Ejikeme, Tiffany; Ren, Xinru; Pagadala, Promila; Parente, Beth; Xie, Jichun; Lad, Shivanand P

    2017-09-29

    The diagnosis and treatment of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is challenging and there is a paucity of data describing its overall cost burden and quantifying its impact on the US healthcare system. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and healthcare utilization costs associated with CRPS. A retrospective longitudinal study was performed using the Truven MarketScan® database to identify patients with a new indexed diagnosis of CRPS (Type I, II, or both) from 2001 to 2012. We collected total, outpatient, and pain prescription costs three years prior to CRPS diagnosis (baseline), at year of CRPS diagnosis, and eight-year post-CRPS diagnosis. A longitudinal multivariate analysis was used to model the estimated total and pain prescription cost ratios comparing patients diagnosed before and after CRPS. We included 35,316 patients with a newly indexed diagnosis of CRPS (Type I: n = 18,703, Type II: n = 14,599, Unspecified: n = 2014). Baseline characteristics were similar between the CRPS cohorts. Compared to two- and three-year baseline costs, one-year prior to diagnosis for all CRPS patients yielded the highest interquartile median [IQR] costs: total costs $7904[$3469, $16,084]; outpatient costs $6706[$3119, $12,715]; and pain prescription costs $1862[$147, $7649]. At the year of CRPS diagnosis, the median [IQR] costs were significantly higher than baseline costs: total costs $8508[$3943, $16,666]; outpatient costs $7251[$3527, $13,568]; and pain prescription costs $2077[$140, $8856]. Over the eight-year period after CRPS diagnosis, costs between all the years were similar, ranging from the highest (one-year) to lowest (seven-years), $4845 to $3888. The median total cumulative cost 8-years after CRPS diagnosis was $43,026 and $12,037 for pain prescription costs. [Correction added on 06 November 2017 after first online publication: the preceding sentence has been updated to demonstrate the median cumulative cost in replacement of the

  7. Regional differences in brain volume predict the acquisition of skill in a complex real-time strategy videogame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Chandramallika; Voss, Michelle W; Erickson, Kirk I; Boot, Walter R; Kramer, Arthur F

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies have found that differences in brain volume among older adults predict performance in laboratory tasks of executive control, memory, and motor learning. In the present study we asked whether regional differences in brain volume as assessed by the application of a voxel-based morphometry technique on high resolution MRI would also be useful in predicting the acquisition of skill in complex tasks, such as strategy-based video games. Twenty older adults were trained for over 20 h to play Rise of Nations, a complex real-time strategy game. These adults showed substantial improvements over the training period in game performance. MRI scans obtained prior to training revealed that the volume of a number of brain regions, which have been previously associated with subsets of the trained skills, predicted a substantial amount of variance in learning on the complex game. Thus, regional differences in brain volume can predict learning in complex tasks that entail the use of a variety of perceptual, cognitive and motor processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Complex emergencies in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: Impact on tuberculosis control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Seita

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Complex emergencies pose a significant negative impact on tuberculosis in the EMR. This issue should be raised in the global health and political arena. This is a time bomb for tuberculosis.

  9. Geology, petrology and geochronology of meridional and oriental regions of the Morungaba complex, SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlach, S.R.F.

    1985-01-01

    This work studies the Morungaba Intensive Complex, in Southwestern of Sao Paulo State. Formed principally by granitoid rocks with biotite. 31 granitoid facies with structural was recognized. Petrographic own characteristics. The rocks from Morungaba Complex was joint in three magmatics groups, denominated: Roby Gray and Porphyritic. Petrographic and mineralogical composition studies of this three groups were done. Geochranological studies by Rb/Sr and K/sr methods made possible to establish the ages and evolution of this rocks. This Complex formation and evolution are associated with the dioritic rocks presence. This work also concluded that the Morungaba Intrusive Complex represent the pos-orogenic wents from Brazilian Cycle. (C.D.G.) [pt

  10. Mediterranean land systems: Representing diversity and intensity of complex land systems in a dynamic region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malek, Ziga; Verburg, P.H.

    In the Mediterranean region, land systems have been shaped gradually through centuries. They provide services to a large and growing population in a region that is among the most vulnerable to future global change. The spatial extent and distribution of Mediterranean land systems is, however,

  11. The emerging architecture of a regional security complex in the Lake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article explores the emerging regional security architecture to fight terrorism and insurgency in the Lake Chad Basin (LCB). It diagnoses the evolution of the Lake Chad Basin Commission (LCBC) as a sub-regional organization that unites Chad, Cameroon, Niger and Nigeria. In particular, the article critically investigates ...

  12. Effector region of the translation elongation factor EF-Tu.GTP complex stabilizes an orthoester acid intermediate structure of aminoacyl-tRNA in a ternary complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, C; Limmer, S; Zeidler, W; Sprinzl, M

    1994-01-01

    tRNA(Val) from Escherichia coli was aminoacylated with [1-13C]valine and its complex with Thermus thermophilus elongation factor EF-Tu.GTP was analyzed by 13C NMR spectroscopy. The results suggest that the aminoacyl residue of the valyl-tRNA in ternary complex with bacterial EF-Tu and GTP is not attached to tRNA by a regular ester bond to either a 2'- or 3'-hydroxyl group; instead, an intermediate orthoester acid structure with covalent linkage to both vicinal hydroxyls of the terminal adenosine-76 is formed. Mutation of arginine-59 located in the effector region of EF-Tu, a conserved residue in protein elongation factors and the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins), abolishes the stabilization of the orthoester acid structure of aminoacyl-tRNA. PMID:8183898

  13. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 2. Mid-American Solar Energy Complex Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Mid-American Solar Energy Complex Region. (WHK)

  14. Experimental study of the vapour-liquid equilibria of HI-I-2-H2O ternary mixtures, Part 2: Experimental results at high temperature and pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larousse, B.; Lovera, P.; Borgard, J.M.; Roehrich, G.; Mokrani, N.; Maillault, C.; Doizi, D.; Dauvois, V.; Roujou, J.L.; Lorin, V.; Fauvet, P.; Carles, P.; Hartmann, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    In order to assess the choice of the sulphur-iodine thermochemical cycle for massive hydrogen production, a precise knowledge of the concentrations of the gaseous species (HI, I 2 , and H 2 O) in thermodynamic equilibrium with the liquid phase of the HI-I 2 -H 2 O ternary mixture is required, in a wide range of concentrations and for temperatures and pressures up to 300 degrees C and 50 bar. In the companion paper (Part 1) the experimental device was described, which enables the measurement of the total pressure and concentrations of the vapour phase (and thus the knowledge of the partial pressures of the different gaseous species) for the HI-I 2 -H 2 O mixture in the 20-140 degrees C range and up to 2 bar. This (Part 2) article describes the experimental device which enables similar measurements but now in the process domain. The results concerning concentrations in the vapour phase for the HI-I 2 -H 2 O initial mixture (with a global composition) in the 120-270 degrees C temperature range and up to 30 bar are presented. As previously, optical online diagnostics are used, based on recordings of infrared transmission spectra for HI and H 2 O and on UV/visible spectrometry for I 2 . The concentrations measured in the vapour phase are the first to describe the vapour composition under thermophysical conditions close to those of the distillation column. The experimental results are compared with a thermodynamic model and will help us to scale up and optimize the reactive distillation column we promote for the HI section of the sulphur-iodine cycle. (authors)

  15. [Complexity of care and organizational effectiveness: a survey among medical care units in nine Lombardy region hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquali, Sara; Capitoni, Enrica; Tiraboschi, Giuseppina; Alborghetti, Adriana; De Luca, Giuseppe; Di Mauro, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    Eleven medical care units of nine Lombardy Region hospitals organized by levels of care model or by the traditional departmental model have been analyzed, in order to evaluate if methods for complexity of patient-care evaluation represent an index factor of nursing organizational effectiveness. Survey with nine Nurses in managerial position was conducted between Nov. 2013-Jan. 2014. The following factors have been described: context and nursing care model, staffing, complexity evaluation, patient satisfaction, staff well-being. Data were processed through Microsoft Excel. Among Units analysed ,all Units in levels of care and one organized by the departmental model systematically evaluate nursing complexity. Registered Nurses (RN) and Health Care Assistants (HCA) are on average numerically higher in Units that measure complexity (0.55/ 0.49 RN, 0.38/0.23 HCA - ratio per bed). Adopted measures in relation to changes in complexity are:rewarding systems, supporting interventions, such as moving personnel within different Units or additional required working hours; reduction in number of beds is adopted when no other solution is available. Patient satisfaction is evaluated through Customer Satisfaction questionnaires. Turnover, stress and rate of absenteeism data are not available in all Units. Complexity evaluation through appropriate methods is carried out in all hospitals organized in levels of care with personalized nursing care models, though complexity is detected with different methods. No significant differences in applied managerial strategies are present. Patient's satisfaction is evaluated everywhere. Data on staffing wellbeing is scarcely available. Coordinated regional actions are recommended in order to gather comparable data for research, improve decision making and effectiveness of Nursing care.

  16. Solar and Stellar Active Regions:Cosmic laboratories for the study of Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Vlahos, Loukas

    2008-01-01

    Solar active regions are driven dissipative dynamical systems. The turbulent convection zone forces new magnetic flux tubes to rise above the photosphere and shuffles the magnetic fields which are already above the photosphere. The driven 3D active region responds to the driver with the formation of Thin Current Sheets in all scales and releases impulsively energy, when special thresholds are met, on the form of nano-, micro-, flares and large scale coronal mass ejections. It has been documen...

  17. Effective management models and methods of economic educations in regional industrial complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Gennadyevich Butrin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the methodical bases of management by the integrated industrial enterprises is developed according to the indicators of sustainable economic development of the region. The scope of the research is the region as the difficult mesosystem consisting of logistic clusters. The subject matter of the research is the organizational and economic relations developing in the course of interaction of participants of the regional economy as mesosystems. The models and methods of management by the large economic systems in the economy of the industrially developed region are developed; the organizational and economic essence of a logistic cluster as the subject of the regional economy us revealed. The mechanism of management by the integrated enterprises with using the cluster approach, technologies of logistics, management of supply chains is offered. They allow to the management of an enterprises to make scientifically reasonable effective decisions developing programs of supply, economic production and realization of finished goods in the close connection with programs of regional economic development.

  18. Badass gullies: Fluvio-mass-movement gully complexes in New Zealand's East Coast region, and potential for remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marden, Michael; Fuller, Ian C.; Herzig, Alexander; Betts, Harley D.

    2018-04-01

    This paper reviews gully erosion in the East Coast region of New Zealand's North Island and conceptualises fluvio-mass-movement gully complexes as badass gully systems. Tectonic setting and lithological control, with steep slopes and a climate influenced by tropical cyclones, predispose hill country in the East Coast region to gully erosion. The clearance of indigenous forest since the late 1800s has dramatically increased catchment erosion and paved the way for development of large-scale fluvio-mass-movement gully complexes. These features are a composite of fluvial and mass movement processes. They are conceptualised as 'badass' by not conforming to any existing gully model and by generating disproportionate results in East Coast catchment sediment cascades. Their remediation is discussed, but their nature means that prevention is better than a cure.

  19. Dusty cradles in a turbulent nursery: the SGR A east H II region complex at the galactic center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, R. M.; Herter, T. L.; Adams, J. D. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, 202 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Morris, M. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, 430 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)

    2014-10-20

    We present imaging at 19, 25, 31, and 37 μm of the compact H II region complex G-0.02-0.07 located 6 pc in projection from the center of the Galaxy obtained with SOFIA using FORCAST. G-0.02-0.07 contains three compact H II regions (A, B, and C) and one ultra-compact H II region (D). Our observations reveal the presence of two faint, infrared sources located 23'' and 35'' to the east of region C (FIRS 1 and 2) and detect dust emission in two of the three 'ridges' of ionized gas west of region A. The 19/37 color temperature and 37 μm optical depth maps of regions A-C are used to characterize the dust energetics and morphology. Regions A and B exhibit average 19/37 color temperatures of ∼105 K, and regions C and D exhibit color temperatures of ∼115 K and ∼130 K, respectively. Using the DustEM code, we model the SEDs of regions A-D and FIRS 1, all of which require populations of very small, transiently heated grains and large, equilibrium-heated grains. We also require the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in regions A-C in order to fit the 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm fluxes observed by Spitzer/IRAC. The location of the heating source for region A is determined by triangulation from distances and temperatures derived from DustEM models fit to SEDs of three different points around the region, and it is found to be displaced to the northeast of the center of curvature near the color temperature peak. Based on total luminosity, expected 1.90 μm fluxes, and proximity to the mid-IR color temperature peaks, we identify heating source candidates for regions A, B, and C. However, for region D, the observed fluxes at 1.87 and 1.90 μm of the previously proposed ionizing star are a factor of ∼40 times too bright to be the heating source and hence is likely just a star lying along the line of sight toward region D.

  20. Automatic system for ecological monitoring of ambient air in the region of energy complex 'Maritsa-Iztok'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilev, V.; Videnova, I.; Nedyalkov, N.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the automatic system for ecological monitoring of ambient air in the region of the energy complex 'Maritza-Iztok', developed by CCS-Bulgaria, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Control and System Research. The automatic station takes the concentration of nitric oxides, sulfuric dioxide and dust, as well as the meteorological indicators: temperature and humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind direction and speed, sun heat and radiation. The data appears on a information board and is kept in a database

  1. Association of non-traumatic complex regional pain syndrome with adenocarcinoma lung on 99mTc-MDP bone scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damle, Nishikant A.; Tripathi, Madhavi; Singhal, Abhinav; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Praveen Kumar; Kandasamy, Devasenathipathi; Jana, Manisha

    2012-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is usually associated with trauma. Rarely, it may be seen in association with malignancies. We present here the bone scan and X-ray findings in the case of a 56-year-male-patient with adenocarcinoma lung who also had non-traumatic CRPS without involvement of the stellate ganglion. The case highlights the fact that spontaneous development of reflex sympathetic dystrophy may be associated with a neoplastic etiology. (author)

  2. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Revived by Epileptic Seizure Then Disappeared Soon during Treatment with Regional Intravenous Nerve Blockade: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiko Sumitani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS, in which symptoms, including burning pain and severe allodynia, were alleviated by using a regional intravenous nerve blockade (Bier block combined with physiotherapy, but reappeared following an epileptic seizure. Symptoms disappeared again following control of epileptic discharges, as revealed by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT and electroencephalography (EEG results. Although systemic toxicity of a local anesthetic applied by Bier block was suspected as a cause of the first seizure, the patient did not present any other toxic symptoms, and seizures repeatedly occurred after Bier block cessation; the patient was then diagnosed as having temporal symptomatic epilepsy. This case suggests that symptoms of CRPS may be sustained by abnormal brain conditions, and our findings contribute to the understanding of how the central nervous system participates in maintaining pain and allodynia associated with CRPS.

  3. Complex regional pain syndrome related dystonia : exploratory metabolomics and therapeutic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plas, Anton Adriaan van der

    2013-01-01

    Dit proefschrift beschrijft de resultaten van aan aantal studies naar bewegingsstoornissen en pijn bij patiënten met complex regionaal pijnsyndroom (CRPS). Ten eerste werd het effect onderzocht van intrathecaal baclofen op verschillende pijnkwaliteiten bij CRPS-patiënten, de invloed bestudeerd van

  4. Surface Wind Regionalization over Complex Terrain: Evaluation and Analysis of a High-Resolution WRF Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiménez, P.A.; González-Rouco, J.F.; García-Bustamante, E.; Navarro, J.; Montávez, J.P.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Dudhia, J.; Muñoz-Roldan, A.

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes the daily-mean surface wind variability over an area characterized by complex topography through comparing observations and a 2-km-spatial-resolution simulation performed with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for the period 1992–2005. The evaluation focuses on the

  5. The system of innovative development of the agroindustrial complex in order to ensure the economic security of the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Ovchinnikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The basis for innovative development of the agroindustrial complex is the goals, principles and methods that determine the economic security of the region. The category of “economic security”is often identified with the sustainability, competitiveness and risk-free economy of agricultural and processing enterprises. Ensuring the economically safe functioning of all industries and spheres of regional agribusiness is impossible without interconnection with science and education. The most important principles necessary for the formation in the regional and national agribusinesses of a developed economically secure market of scientific, technical and innovative products for agroindustrial purposes are the following: providing the scientific and research sphere of the agro-industrial complex with highly qualified personnel; ensuring real freedom and independence in the activities of research institutions; the formation of a common interdependent economic space and interest; organization of specialized market structures in the field of research and innovation development; development and application within the regional agro-industrial complex of a scientifically grounded economic mechanism for regulating the functioning and stimulating the development of the market for scientific and technical innovation products. Purposeful development of the civilized market of scientific, technical and innovative products of agro-industrial design with its corresponding structures and organizational-economic mechanism is an objective necessity of functioning of economic security of the national economy. The interests of the economic and food security of the region and the state as a whole need to increase the financing of the agricultural sector and the processing industry to a level that will overcome the investment and innovation crisis caused by sanctions. To this end, we believe it is necessary to finance the innovative investment agrarian fund at the

  6. Application of a complex assessment of landslide hazards in mountain regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna E. Boyko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The main regional factors of occurrence and activation of landslides within the mountain region were examined. As a result of study of recommendations made by experts, geologists, and gap analysis of existing methods of forecasting the landslide process, an algorithm of comprehensive assessment of landslide hazard areas based on the construction of models in a GIS environment was proposed. These models describe the spatial patterns of landslides. All factors determining the tendency of the studies area to the landslide process development were divided into actual factors, reflecting the regional peculiarities of the territory and forming the landslide-prone slopes (static model, as well as triggering factors, initiating the landslide process and determining its activity (dynamic model. The first cartographic model was built, showing the distribution of the deterministic indirect indicator of landslide hazard, i.e. stability index.

  7. Does Dynamical Downscaling Introduce Novel Information in Climate Model Simulations of Recipitation Change over a Complex Topography Region?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tselioudis, George; Douvis, Costas; Zerefos, Christos

    2012-01-01

    Current climate and future climate-warming runs with the RegCM Regional Climate Model (RCM) at 50 and 11 km-resolutions forced by the ECHAM GCM are used to examine whether the increased resolution of the RCM introduces novel information in the precipitation field when the models are run for the mountainous region of the Hellenic peninsula. The model results are inter-compared with the resolution of the RCM output degraded to match that of the GCM, and it is found that in both the present and future climate runs the regional models produce more precipitation than the forcing GCM. At the same time, the RCM runs produce increases in precipitation with climate warming even though they are forced with a GCM that shows no precipitation change in the region. The additional precipitation is mostly concentrated over the mountain ranges, where orographic precipitation formation is expected to be a dominant mechanism. It is found that, when examined at the same resolution, the elevation heights of the GCM are lower than those of the averaged RCM in the areas of the main mountain ranges. It is also found that the majority of the difference in precipitation between the RCM and the GCM can be explained by their difference in topographic height. The study results indicate that, in complex topography regions, GCM predictions of precipitation change with climate warming may be dry biased due to the GCM smoothing of the regional topography.

  8. The Disordered C-Terminus of Yeast Hsf1 Contains a Cryptic Low-Complexity Amyloidogenic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Pujols

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Response mechanisms to external stress rely on networks of proteins able to activate specific signaling pathways to ensure the maintenance of cell proteostasis. Many of the proteins mediating this kind of response contain intrinsically disordered regions, which lack a defined structure, but still are able to interact with a wide range of clients that modulate the protein function. Some of these interactions are mediated by specific short sequences embedded in the longer disordered regions. Because the physicochemical properties that promote functional and abnormal interactions are similar, it has been shown that, in globular proteins, aggregation-prone and binding regions tend to overlap. It could be that the same principle applies for disordered protein regions. In this context, we show here that a predicted low-complexity interacting region in the disordered C-terminus of the stress response master regulator heat shock factor 1 (Hsf1 protein corresponds to a cryptic amyloid region able to self-assemble into fibrillary structures resembling those found in neurodegenerative disorders.

  9. The Disordered C-Terminus of Yeast Hsf1 Contains a Cryptic Low-Complexity Amyloidogenic Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujols, Jordi; Santos, Jaime; Pallarès, Irantzu; Ventura, Salvador

    2018-05-06

    Response mechanisms to external stress rely on networks of proteins able to activate specific signaling pathways to ensure the maintenance of cell proteostasis. Many of the proteins mediating this kind of response contain intrinsically disordered regions, which lack a defined structure, but still are able to interact with a wide range of clients that modulate the protein function. Some of these interactions are mediated by specific short sequences embedded in the longer disordered regions. Because the physicochemical properties that promote functional and abnormal interactions are similar, it has been shown that, in globular proteins, aggregation-prone and binding regions tend to overlap. It could be that the same principle applies for disordered protein regions. In this context, we show here that a predicted low-complexity interacting region in the disordered C-terminus of the stress response master regulator heat shock factor 1 (Hsf1) protein corresponds to a cryptic amyloid region able to self-assemble into fibrillary structures resembling those found in neurodegenerative disorders.

  10. Evolução química de galáxias HII anãs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraresi, M., Jr.; Cuisinier, F.; Telles, E.

    2003-08-01

    Galáxias HII anãs são galáxias de baixa massa, com alto conteúdo de gás, e se encontram em uma fase intensa de formação estelar. A taxa de formação estelar está tão alta nestas galáxias que não pode ter se mantido durante sua vida inteira. O tempo máximo de duração do episódio atual de formação estelar deve ser no máximo de algumas dezenas de milhões de anos, bem inferior à idade destas galáxias. Isto leva naturalmente a idéia de que já aconteceram surtos anteriores. Abundâncias químicas oferecem uma ferramenta poderosa para investigar a história evolutiva destas galáxias, porque aumentam de geração em geração estelar. O hidrogênio, o oxigênio, o nitrogênio produzem algumas das linhas mais importantes em um gás foto-ionizado, permitindo a determinação das abundâncias destes elementos facilmente. A dispersão das abundâncias em oxigênio e nitrogênio é significativa, sendo maior que os erros observacionais. O oxigênio é produzido em estrelas massivas, que explodem quase instâneamente, enquanto o nitrogênio é produzido em estrelas de massa intermediária, que só o liberam depois de um atraso de @ 500 mihões de anos. Construímos um modelo de evolução química semi-analítico, utilizando rendimentos empíricos baseados nas abundâncias observadas destes dois elementos. Conseguimos através deste modelo rudimentar explicar nas galáxias de mais baixas metalicidades as abundâncias de oxigênio e de nitrogênio, assim como a dispersão dos dados observacionais devida a formação estelar descontínua, e isto com um número baixo de surtos (1 ou 2, no máximo 3).

  11. The Scc2/Scc4 complex acts in sister chromatid cohesion and transcriptional regulation by maintaining nucleosome-free regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Serra, Lidia; Kelly, Gavin; Patel, Harshil; Stewart, Aengus; Uhlmann, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The cohesin complex is at the heart of many chromosomal activities, including sister chromatid cohesion and transcriptional regulation1-3. Cohesin loading onto chromosomes depends on the Scc2/Scc4 cohesin loader complex4-6, but the chromatin features that form cohesin loading sites remain poorly understood. Here, we show that the RSC chromatin remodeling complex recruits budding yeast Scc2/Scc4 to broad nucleosome-free regions, that the cohesin loader itself helps to maintain. Consequently, inactivation of the cohesin loader or RSC complex have similar effects on nucleosome positioning, gene expression and sister chromatid cohesion. These results reveal an intimate link between local chromatin structure and higher order chromosome architecture. Our findings pertain to the similarities between two severe human disorders, Cornelia de Lange syndrome, caused by mutations in the human cohesin loader, and Coffin-Siris syndrome, resulting from mutations in human RSC complex components7-9. Both could arise from gene misregulation due to related changes in the nucleosome landscape. PMID:25173104

  12. Mirror box therapy added to cognitive behavioural therapy in three chronic complex regional pain syndrome type I patients : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tichelaar, Y. I. G. Vladimir; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Keizer, Doeke; van Wilgen, C. Paul

    Complex regional pain syndrome type I is a disorder of the extremities with disability and pain as the most prominent features. This paper describes the results of cognitive behavioural therapy combined with mirror box therapy in three patients with chronic complex regional pain syndrome type I.

  13. Sequential assignment of proline-rich regions in proteins: Application to modular binding domain complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanelis, Voula; Donaldson, Logan; Muhandiram, D.R.; Rotin, Daniela; Forman-Kay, Julie D.; Kay, Lewis E.

    2000-01-01

    Many protein-protein interactions involve amino acid sequences containing proline-rich motifs and even poly-proline stretches. The lack of amide protons in such regions complicates assignment, since 1 HN-based triple-resonance assignment strategies cannot be employed. Two such systems that we are currently studying include an SH2 domain from the protein Crk with a region containing 9 prolines in a 14 amino acid sequence, as well as a WW domain that interacts with a proline-rich target. A modified version of the HACAN pulse scheme, originally described by Bax and co-workers [Wang et al. (1995) J. Biomol. NMR, 5, 376-382], and an experiment which correlates the intra-residue 1 H α , 13 C α / 13 C β chemical shifts with the 15 N shift of the subsequent residue are presented and applied to the two systems listed above, allowing sequential assignment of the molecules

  14. Cluster approach to realization of innovation development strategy for the agroindustrial complex of the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Aleksandrovna Kundius

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews cluster approach as an innovative management technology for the regional economy. The results of studying the theory and practice of clustering of the regional economy, the formation of agribusiness and food clusters in agribusiness are presented. Basic features and operation of the cluster systems are revealed and distinguished from other forms of cooperative and economic interactions between small and big business features, motivational components of integration into clusters. On the basis of scientific propositions, a model of regional economic clusters is formulated; specific territorial distribution and level of aggregation of clusters in the agricultural sector were distinguished. It is proposed to refer agroindustrial clusters to the clusters that represent the associations of organization of various fields in a single reproduction cycle from raw material to finished products sales including all stages of reproduction on the basis of innovation and investment activity. A structuring work on principles of agro-clusters was held, sustainable competitive advantage and the formation mechanisms of the development of agro-industrial clusters have been grounded.

  15. Ecological safety of the Carpathian region as a process of oil and gas complexes functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiy Rudko

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available There have been considered the main ecological problems of Western Ukraine and changes of geological environment under the influence of oil and gas complexes functioning. Ecochemical investigations of the environment give us a possibility to reveal the areas with abnormal hydrocarbon concentration in the near-surface layers and in ground waters. On the basis of the investigation results there have been worked out organizational, technological and environmental measures to eliminate pollution or to reduce its negative influence on geological environment.

  16. Geology, petrography and geochronology of meridional and oriental regions from Morungaba complex, SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlach, S.R.F.

    1985-01-01

    The Morungaba Granitoid Complex, covering about 330 km 2 , crops out as an elongate irregular Massif trending SW-NE, in the southeast part of the State of Sao Paulo, southeast Brazil. Major constituents are biotite granitoids with subordinate diorites. Over thirty facies types, each with distinctive structural-petrographic features, were recognized during detailed mapping of part of the Massif (about 200 km 2 ), and mapped as groups of facies. Geochronological Rb/Sr data for several groups of associated facies are also presented. (author)

  17. Complex Approach to Thyroid Screening In Regions Adjacent to the Semipalatinsk Test Site Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhumadilov, Zh.Sh.; Musinov, D.R.; Vasikovsky, G.G.; Bobokhidze, D.A.; Zhigitaev, T.K.; Abisheva, G.N.

    1998-01-01

    It has been well documented that the thyroid gland is one of the most radiosensitive of organs, especially when exposure occurs during childhood. It is known as well that childhood exposure to radioactive iodine increases thyroid cancer risk. Conducting thyroid screening in regions adjacent to the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) area is very important for medical examination, data management and thyroid dose reconstruction. Our experience of thyroid screening based on our screening projects in Kurchatov and several regions adjacent to STS (more than 4,000 screened patients) allowed to work out the most appropriate screening protocol. A retrospective analysis of the results of surgical treatment of the 7,271 patients with thyroid abnormalities in the Semipalatinsk, Pavlodar and Ust-Kamenogorsk regions of Kazakstan and study the histological staging of 7,271 surgically removed thyroid glands was preceded by our thyroid screening projects. Ours is the first study in the Semipalatinsk region that covers the period 1966-1998.Taking into account the onset of population effective doses during 1962, it was decided to distinguish 6 periods of observation. It is known that basic effective equivalent doses for the majority of the region's population were established by radioactive events in the period 1949-1962. This explains our focus on the year 1962, but thyroid dose reconstruction matter as well as other radiation related problems are still in the progress. We need to get the accurate dosimetry data. Selection of study subjects based on the appropriate criteria needed to be adjusted and clarified in accordance with the main goal of the project and radiation related information. All specialists involved in the thyroid screening project, data management, data analyses and interpretation of the results must be trained and must be highly qualified specialists in this field of science and practice. The experiences in Nagasaki, Hiroshima and Chernobyl, and discussions with

  18. Illuminant direction estimation for a single image based on local region complexity analysis and average gray value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jizheng; Mao, Xia; Chen, Lijiang; Xue, Yuli; Compare, Angelo

    2014-01-10

    Illuminant direction estimation is an important research issue in the field of image processing. Due to low cost for getting texture information from a single image, it is worthwhile to estimate illuminant direction by employing scenario texture information. This paper proposes a novel computation method to estimate illuminant direction on both color outdoor images and the extended Yale face database B. In our paper, the luminance component is separated from the resized YCbCr image and its edges are detected with the Canny edge detector. Then, we divide the binary edge image into 16 local regions and calculate the edge level percentage in each of them. Afterward, we use the edge level percentage to analyze the complexity of each local region included in the luminance component. Finally, according to the error function between the measured intensity and the calculated intensity, and the constraint function for an infinite light source model, we calculate the illuminant directions of the luminance component's three local regions, which meet the requirements of lower complexity and larger average gray value, and synthesize them as the final illuminant direction. Unlike previous works, the proposed method requires neither all of the information of the image nor the texture that is included in the training set. Experimental results show that the proposed method works better at the correct rate and execution time than the existing ones.

  19. Age- and gender-related regional variations of human brain cortical thickness, complexity, and gradient in the third decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creze, Maud; Versheure, Leslie; Besson, Pierre; Sauvage, Chloe; Leclerc, Xavier; Jissendi-Tchofo, Patrice

    2014-06-01

    Brain functional and cytoarchitectural maturation continue until adulthood, but little is known about the evolution of the regional pattern of cortical thickness (CT), complexity (CC), and intensity or gradient (CG) in young adults. We attempted to detect global and regional age- and gender-related variations of brain CT, CC, and CG, in 28 healthy young adults (19-33 years) using a three-dimensional T1 -weighted magnetic resonance imaging sequence and surface-based methods. Whole brain interindividual variations of CT and CG were similar to that in the literature. As a new finding, age- and gender-related variations significantly affected brain complexity (P gender), all in the right hemisphere. Regions of interest analyses showed age and gender significant interaction (P left inferior parietal. In addition, we found significant inverse correlations between CT and CC and between CT and CG over the whole brain and markedly in precentral and occipital areas. Our findings differ in details from previous reports and may correlate with late brain maturation and learning plasticity in young adults' brain in the third decade. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The Moroccan eastern region, a green energy complex for sustainable development and advanced decentralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhaj, Siham; Bahi, Lahcen; Akhssas, Ahmed; Jalal El hamidi, Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    The Moroccan eastern region is characterized by: A total population 2,314,346 inhabitants (in 2014) (6.84% of the population of Morocco) by a density 24 inhabitants per km2. The population structure is as follows: 30% under 15 years of age, 50% of the population is under 25 years of age, 61% of working age (15-60 years), 9% in the third age group (over than 60 years). An urbanization rate of 58.5% with an economic profile GDP: 44.2 MMDH / year. GDP growth rate: 10.8% .The Oriental contribution to the formation of the national GDP is 4.9%, in the region we have the predominance of two activities: Tertiary (51.4%) and Secondary activities (22.3%). Concerning the clean resources of energy we can mention: - Abundant solar resources because the average radiation on a surface inclined at 30 ° is 2,082 kWh / (m2 / year); An important potential of the wind distributed in: offshore at sea along the Mediterranean facade (197 km of coast) and the onshore wind along the ridges of the mountains; Large biomass potential for biogas production; A precise zoning of the territories destined to shelter installations of production of the electricity of solar. We will in this work express the importance of this diversity of the clean energy resources -projects- cited in the region of the east to develop: Production of solar photovoltaic energy; Production of solar and thermal energy; Hydropower production; the valorization of biomass (biogas, biofuel, etc.); Production of geothermal energy; Keywords: Oujda, Sustainable Development, Energy

  1. Modelling internal boundary-layer development in a region with a complex coastline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batchvarova, E.; Cai, X.; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    1999-01-01

    , and the Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modelling System (CSU-RAMS) are tested by comparison with data gathered during a field study (called Pacific '93) of photochemical pollution in the Lower Fraser Valley of British Columbia, Canada. The data utilised here are drawn from tethered balloon flights......, free flying balloon ascents, and downlooking lidar operated from an aircraft flown at roughly 3500 m above sea level. Both models are found to represent the temporal and spatial development of the internal boundary-layer depth over the Lower Fraser Valley very well, and reproduce many of the finer...

  2. Impact of environmental diversity of hunting complexes in the Lublin region on ontogenetic quality indicators in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyżowski, Piotr; Drozd, Leszek; Karpiński, Mirosław; Tajchman, Katarzyna; Goleman, Małgorzata; Wojtaś, Justyna; Zieliński, Damian

    2018-01-01

    Populations of game are not confined to single ecosystems but function within higher-order units, e.g. ecological landscape. The basis for the establishment of the hunting complexes was the assumption that the existing game hunting grounds, i.e. the basic units implementing game management, are too small and do not cover the natural areas inhabited by game populations. Roe deer are flexible species and easily adapt to various site conditions, so they inhabit many different habitats, from large forest complexes, through small in-field tree stands and shrubs, to treeless grounds and field monocultures. The aim of the study was to determine a possible impact of environmental conditions prevailing in the hunting complexes of the Regional Directorate of State Forests (RDLP in Lublin) on the ontogenetic quality of roe deer. The study was conducted on 518 European roe deer ( Capreolus capreolus ) aged from 4 to 7 years (379 bucks and 139 does) harvested within hunting seasons 2010/2011-2013/2014. The results have shown that animals originating from areas with greater forest cover and denser stands are characterised by lower values of the mean ontogenetic quality parameters (carcase weight, kidney fat index, chest girth, weight of antlers) in comparison with animals from typical agricultural areas with fragmented forest complexes. These results indicate that, even in the case of such a eurytopic species as the roe deer, the ontogenetic quality differs between individual hunting complexes. The study has proved that strategies for hunting management of the roe deer should take into account the impact of the landscape structure, which provides a rationale behind creation of hunting complexes.

  3. NEW MEMBERS OF THE SCORPIUS-CENTAURUS COMPLEX AND AGES OF ITS SUB-REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Inseok [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2451 (United States); Zuckerman, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, 475 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Bessell, M. S. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Institute of Advanced Studies, The Australian National University, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2012-07-15

    We have spectroscopically identified {approx}100 G-, K-, and M-type members of the Scorpius-Centaurus complex. To deduce the age of these young stars we compare their Li {lambda}6708 absorption line strengths against those of stars in the TW Hydrae association and {beta} Pictoris moving group. These line strengths indicate that Sco-Cen stars are younger than {beta} Pic stars whose ages of {approx}12 Myr have previously been derived from a kinematic traceback analysis. Our derived age, {approx}10 Myr, for stars in the Lower Centaurus Crux and Upper Centaurus Lupus subgroups of ScoCen is younger than previously published ages based on the moving cluster method and upper main-sequence fitting. The discrepant ages are likely due to an incorrect (or lack of) cross-calibration between model-dependent and model-independent age-dating methods.

  4. The results of complex radiation-hygienic survey of the reference settlements in Mogilev region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageeva, T.N.; Chegerova, T.I.; Shchur, A.V.; Shapsheeva, T.P.; Lipnitskij, L.V.

    2011-01-01

    The results of complex radiation-hygienic survey of the reference settlements located on the radioactively contaminated territory have been presents in the article. The four-year dynamics of the internal exposure doses of the reference settlements' inhabitants and their relationship with the 137 Cs content in foods consumed by the population have been shown. It was ascertained that there are still some isolated individuals with high doses of internal radiation among the surveyed population, which have the significant influence on the average annual radiation dose for the inhabitants and dose of its critical group. The external exposure individual doses of the inhabitants and the results of measuring of the gamma radiation dose rate in place of the settlements have been analyzed. It have been expressed the opinion about need entering adjustment in the measuring techniques of external doses. (authors)

  5. THE COMPLEX NORTH TRANSITION REGION OF CENTAURUS A: A GALACTIC WIND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neff, Susan G. [NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, Laboratory for Observational Cosmology, Mail Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Eilek, Jean A. [Physics Department, New Mexico Tech, Socorro NM 87801 (United States); Owen, Frazer N., E-mail: susan.g.neff@nasa.gov [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro NM 87801 (United States)

    2015-04-01

    We present deep GALEX images of NGC 5128, the parent galaxy of Centaurus A. We detect a striking “weather ribbon” of far-UV (FUV) and Hα emission which extends more than 35 kpc northeast of the galaxy. This ribbon is associated with a knotty ridge of radio/X-ray emission and is an extension of the previously known string of optical emission-line filaments. Many phenomena in the region are too short-lived to have survived transit out from the inner galaxy; something must be driving them locally. We also detect FUV emission from the galaxy’s central dust lane. Combining this with previous radio and far-IR measurements, we infer an active starburst in the central galaxy which is currently forming stars at ∼2 M{sub ☉} yr{sup −1}, and has been doing so for 50–100 Myr. If the wind from this starburst is enhanced by energy and mass driven out from the active galactic nucleus, the powerful augmented wind can be the driver needed for the northern weather system. We argue that both the diverse weather system, and the enhanced radio emission in the same region, result from the wind’s encounter with cool gas left by one of the recent merger/encounter events in the history of NGC 5128.

  6. Evaluating the adequacy of a reference site pool for ecological assessments in environmentally complex regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ode, Peter R.; Rehn, Andrew C.; Mazor, Raphael D.; Schiff, Kenneth C.; Stein, Eric D.; May, Jason; Brown, Larry R.; Herbst, David B.; Gillette, D.D.; Lunde, Kevin; Hawkins, Charles P.

    2016-01-01

    Many advances in the field of bioassessment have focused on approaches for objectively selecting the pool of reference sites used to establish expectations for healthy waterbodies, but little emphasis has been placed on ways to evaluate the suitability of the reference-site pool for its intended applications (e.g., compliance assessment vs ambient monitoring). These evaluations are critical because an inadequately evaluated reference pool may bias assessments in some settings. We present an approach for evaluating the adequacy of a reference-site pool for supporting biotic-index development in environmentally heterogeneous and pervasively altered regions. We followed common approaches for selecting sites with low levels of anthropogenic stress to screen 1985 candidate stream reaches to create a pool of 590 reference sites for assessing the biological integrity of streams in California, USA. We assessed the resulting pool of reference sites against 2 performance criteria. First, we evaluated how well the reference-site pool represented the range of natural gradients present in the entire population of streams as estimated by sites sampled through probabilistic surveys. Second, we evaluated the degree to which we were successful in rejecting sites influenced by anthropogenic stress by comparing biological metric scores at reference sites with the most vs fewest potential sources of stress. Using this approach, we established a reference-site pool with low levels of human-associated stress and broad coverage of environmental heterogeneity. This approach should be widely applicable and customizable to particular regional or programmatic needs.

  7. Structural characterization of POM6 Fab and mouse prion protein complex identifies key regions for prions conformational conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, Pravas Kumar; Swayampakula, Mridula; Aguzzi, Adriano; James, Michael N G

    2018-05-01

    Conversion of the cellular prion protein PrP C into its pathogenic isoform PrP S c is the hallmark of prion diseases, fatal neurodegenerative diseases affecting many mammalian species including humans. Anti-prion monoclonal antibodies can arrest the progression of prion diseases by stabilizing the cellular form of the prion protein. Here, we present the crystal structure of the POM6 Fab fragment, in complex with the mouse prion protein (moPrP). The prion epitope of POM6 is in close proximity to the epitope recognized by the purportedly toxic antibody fragment, POM1 Fab also complexed with moPrP. The POM6 Fab recognizes a larger binding interface indicating a likely stronger binding compared to POM1. POM6 and POM1 exhibit distinct biological responses. Structural comparisons of the bound mouse prion proteins from the POM6 Fab:moPrP and POM1 Fab:moPrP complexes reveal several key regions of the prion protein that might be involved in initiating mis-folding events. The structural data of moPrP:POM6 Fab complex are available in the PDB under the accession number www.rcsb.org/pdb/search/structidSearch.do?structureId=6AQ7. © 2018 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  8. Brain electric correlates of strong belief in paranormal phenomena: intracerebral EEG source and regional Omega complexity analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzagalli, D; Lehmann, D; Gianotti, L; Koenig, T; Tanaka, H; Wackermann, J; Brugger, P

    2000-12-22

    The neurocognitive processes underlying the formation and maintenance of paranormal beliefs are important for understanding schizotypal ideation. Behavioral studies indicated that both schizotypal and paranormal ideation are based on an overreliance on the right hemisphere, whose coarse rather than focussed semantic processing may favor the emergence of 'loose' and 'uncommon' associations. To elucidate the electrophysiological basis of these behavioral observations, 35-channel resting EEG was recorded in pre-screened female strong believers and disbelievers during resting baseline. EEG data were subjected to FFT-Dipole-Approximation analysis, a reference-free frequency-domain dipole source modeling, and Regional (hemispheric) Omega Complexity analysis, a linear approach estimating the complexity of the trajectories of momentary EEG map series in state space. Compared to disbelievers, believers showed: more right-located sources of the beta2 band (18.5-21 Hz, excitatory activity); reduced interhemispheric differences in Omega complexity values; higher scores on the Magical Ideation scale; more general negative affect; and more hypnagogic-like reveries after a 4-min eyes-closed resting period. Thus, subjects differing in their declared paranormal belief displayed different active, cerebral neural populations during resting, task-free conditions. As hypothesized, believers showed relatively higher right hemispheric activation and reduced hemispheric asymmetry of functional complexity. These markers may constitute the neurophysiological basis for paranormal and schizotypal ideation.

  9. Are Complex Magnetic Field Structures Responsible for the Confined X-class Flares in Super Active Region 12192?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jun; Li, Ting; Chen, Huadong, E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: hdchen@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2017-08-10

    From 2014 October 19 to 27, six X-class flares occurred in super active region (AR) 12192. They were all confined flares and were not followed by coronal mass ejections. To examine the structures of the four flares close to the solar disk center from October 22 to 26, we firstly employ composite triple-time images in each flare process to display the stratified structure of these flare loops. The loop structures of each flare in both the lower (171 Å) and higher (131 Å) temperature channels are complex, e.g., the flare loops rooting at flare ribbons are sheared or twisted (enwound) together, and the complex structures were not destroyed during the flares. For the first flare, although the flare loop system appears as a spindle shape, we can estimate its structures from observations, with lengths ranging from 130 to 300 Mm, heights from 65 to 150 Mm, widths at the middle part of the spindle from 40 to 100 Mm, and shear angles from 16° to 90°. Moreover, the flare ribbons display irregular movements, such as the left ribbon fragments of the flare on October 22 sweeping a small region repeatedly, and both ribbons of the flare on October 26 moved along the same direction instead of separating from each other. These irregular movements also imply that the corresponding flare loops are complex, e.g., several sets of flare loops are twisted together. Although previous studies have suggested that the background magnetic fields prevent confined flares from erupting,based on these observations, we suggest that complex flare loop structures may be responsible for these confined flares.

  10. Low-complexity atlas-based prostate segmentation by combining global, regional, and local metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Qiuliang; Ruan, Dan, E-mail: druan@mednet.ucla.edu [The Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: To improve the efficiency of atlas-based segmentation without compromising accuracy, and to demonstrate the validity of the proposed method on MRI-based prostate segmentation application. Methods: Accurate and efficient automatic structure segmentation is an important task in medical image processing. Atlas-based methods, as the state-of-the-art, provide good segmentation at the cost of a large number of computationally intensive nonrigid registrations, for anatomical sites/structures that are subject to deformation. In this study, the authors propose to utilize a combination of global, regional, and local metrics to improve the accuracy yet significantly reduce the number of required nonrigid registrations. The authors first perform an affine registration to minimize the global mean squared error (gMSE) to coarsely align each atlas image to the target. Subsequently, atarget-specific regional MSE (rMSE), demonstrated to be a good surrogate for dice similarity coefficient (DSC), is used to select a relevant subset from the training atlas. Only within this subset are nonrigid registrations performed between the training images and the target image, to minimize a weighted combination of gMSE and rMSE. Finally, structure labels are propagated from the selected training samples to the target via the estimated deformation fields, and label fusion is performed based on a weighted combination of rMSE and local MSE (lMSE) discrepancy, with proper total-variation-based spatial regularization. Results: The proposed method was applied to a public database of 30 prostate MR images with expert-segmented structures. The authors’ method, utilizing only eight nonrigid registrations, achieved a performance with a median/mean DSC of over 0.87/0.86, outperforming the state-of-the-art full-fledged atlas-based segmentation approach of which the median/mean DSC was 0.84/0.82 when applying to their data set. Conclusions: The proposed method requires a fixed number of nonrigid

  11. Estimation of PHI (γ,n) average probability for complex nuclei in the quasi-deuteron region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, M.C. da S.

    1977-01-01

    The average probabilities of (γ,n) reactions for complexe nuclei of 6 C 12 , 19 F 19 , 25 Mn 55 , 79 Au 197 and 92 U 238 , in the energy range from giant resonance end to photomesonic threshold (quasi-deuteron region), using values of cross sections per quantum equivalent to 300 Mev produced by Bremsstrahlung photons in the Frascati and Orsay accelerators were determined. The probabilities were also calculated using nuclear transparence for protons and neutrons, resultants from quasi-deuteron disintegration. The transparence formulaes were determined by optical model. (M.C.K.) [pt

  12. Photoacoustic microscopy of complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-1) after stellate ganglion blocks in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong; Yi, Xiaobin; Xing, Wenxin; Hu, Song; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-03-01

    We used photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) to assist diagnoses and monitor the progress and treatment outcome of complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1). Blood vasculature and oxygen saturation (sO2) were imaged by PAM in eight adult patients with CRPS-1. Patients' hands and cuticles were imaged both before and after stellate ganglion block (SGB) for comparison. For all patients, both the vascular structure and sO2 could be assessed by PAM. In addition, more vessels and stronger signals were observed after SGB.

  13. Modern Political and Economic Aspects of the Oil and Gas Complex in the Southeast Asia Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery I. Salygin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstracUThe article reviews the problems caused by the conflict of interests between certain Southeast Asian countries and other states, China foremost, which aroused from oil and gas field development on disputable offshore sections. At the same time the positions of the region's leading transnational corporations in the field of oil and gas policy and their relationships with the countries-ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations members are outlined. Separately are represented the foreign policy stands of Indonesia, Vietnam, Brunei, Philippines and Malaysia on territorial disputes over offshore oil and gas fields. These processes are pushing both European and American business to abandon the conventional schemes and accept the new conditions of their activity in Southeast Asia.

  14. Doing more with less (data): complexities of resource flow analysis in the Gauteng City-Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culwick, Christina; Götz, Graeme; Butcher, Siân; Harber, Jesse; Maree, Gillian; Mushongera, Darlington

    2017-12-01

    Urban metabolism is a growing field of study into resource flows through cities, and how these could be managed more sustainably. There are two main schools of thought on urban metabolism—metabolic flow analysis (MFA) and urban political ecology (UPE). The two schools remain siloed despite common foundations. This paper reflects on recent research by the Gauteng City-Region Observatory (GCRO) into urban sustainability transitions in South Africa’s Gauteng City-Region, a large and sprawling urban formation that faces a host of sustainability challenges including water deficits, erratic electricity supply, stretched infrastructure networks and increasingly carbon-intensive settlement patterns. Three GCRO research projects are reviewed. Each project began with the assumption that data collection on the region’s metabolism could enable an MFA or MFA-like analysis to highlight where possible resource efficiency and sustainability gains might be achieved. However, in each case we confronted severe data-limitations, and ended up asking UPE-style questions on the reasons for and implications of the chronic paucity of urban metabolism data. We have been led to conclude that urban metabolism research will require much more than just assembling and modelling flows data, although these efforts should not be abandoned. A synthesis of MFA and UPE is needed, which simultaneously builds a deeper understanding of resource flows and the systems that govern these flows. We support the emerging approach in political-industrial ecology literature which values both material data on and socio-political insight into urban metabolism, and emphasises the importance of multi-disciplinary and multi-dimensional analysis to inform decision-making in urban sustainability transitions.

  15. The outermost N-terminal region of tapasin facilitates folding of major histocompatibility complex class I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røder, Gustav Andreas; Geironson, Linda; Darabi, Anna

    2009-01-01

    ). Using a biochemical peptide-MHC-I-binding assay, recombinant Tpn(1-87) was found to specifically facilitate peptide-dependent folding of HLA-A*0201. Furthermore, we used Tpn(1-87) to generate a monoclonal antibody, alphaTpn(1-87)/80, specific for natural human Tpn and capable of cellular staining of ER......Tapasin (Tpn) is an ER chaperone that is uniquely dedicated to MHC-I biosynthesis. It binds MHC-I molecules, integrates them into peptide-loading complexes, and exerts quality control of the bound peptides; only when an "optimal peptide" is bound will the MHC-I be released and exported to the cell...... surface for presentation to T cells. The exact mechanisms of Tpn quality control and the criteria for being an optimal peptide are still unknown. Here, we have generated a recombinant fragment of human Tpn, Tpn(1-87) (representing the 87 N-terminal and ER-luminal amino acids of the mature Tpn protein...

  16. Complex Inflammation mRNA-Related Response in ALS Is Region Dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Berjaoui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory changes are analyzed in the anterior spinal cord and frontal cortex area 8 in typical spinal-predominant ALS cases. Increased numbers of astrocytes and activated microglia are found in the anterior horn of the spinal cord and pyramidal tracts. Significant increased expression of TLR7, CTSS, and CTSC mRNA and a trend to increased expression of IL10RA, TGFB1, and TGFB2 are found in the anterior lumbar spinal cord in ALS cases compared to control cases, whereas C1QTNF7 and TNFRSF1A mRNA expression levels are significantly decreased. IL6 is significantly upregulated and IL1B shows a nonsignificant increased expression in frontal cortex area 8 in ALS cases. IL-6 immunoreactivity is found in scattered monocyte-derived macrophages/microglia and TNF-α in a few cells of unknown origin in ALS cases. Increased expression and abnormal distribution of IL-1β occurred in motor neurons of the lumbar spinal cord in ALS. Strong IL-10 immunoreactivity colocalizes with TDP-43-positive inclusions in motor neurons in ALS cases. The present observations show a complex participation of cytokines and mediators of the inflammatory response in ALS consistent with increased proinflammatory cytokines and sequestration of anti-inflammatory IL-10 in affected neurons.

  17. Radiofrequency therapy in back pain and complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norina Bergamin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous radiofrequency procedures are frequently used in the management of chronic pain. Continuous radiofrequency (CRF has been established as a safe and effective treatment for pain originating from facet and sacroiliac joints by way of co-agulation of their nerve supply. Different methods have been proposed to account for the complex nerve supply of the sacroiliac joint. Due to its neurodestructive property, CRF was limited to the treatment of neuropathic pain. When applied to the dorsal root ganglion (DRG for spinal pain or to the sympathetic ganglia in treatment of CRPS, heat related side effects have been reported. With the development of pulsed radiofrequency (PRF, a less destructive alternative to CRF became available, that is more suitable to treat neuropathic pain. PRF was adopted in the treatment of several pain conditions with different success. The results with PRF adjacent to the DRG are promising, whereas for facet and sacroiliac joint pain PRF could not yet be proven equally effective as CRF. As for PRF in CRPS there is almost no evidence available. The potential of PRF seems to lie in those areas where CRF is of limited value. Con-versely, it is questionable if PRF will ever be equally effective in indications, where CRF is already well established. Despite its active use in clinical practice, PRF is not validated yet nor is its mode of action. The literature in both cases is accumulating but further studies are urgently needed.

  18. Trends in the structures development of the regional machine-building complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ershova I.V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the process of market reforms of the Russian machine-building complex several distinct periods can be revealed. In this article the authors define periods of mass disintegration and spontaneous integration (since the beginning of the reforms until the financial crisis of 1996, post-crisis stabilization, directional specialization (2000-2008 and evolutionary development (since 2010. The economic consequences of the enterprises mergers and divisions are shown on the example of machine-building enterprises of the Middle Urals. The aim of this study is to substantiate the methodical approach to the selection of the optimal organizational structure for the machine-building business. The necessity of taking into account the extent of the personnel diversification and the production volume has been revealed for the optimum organizational structure determination in the machine-building associations. The authors have analyzed sales profitability of the 2745 machine-building enterprises, depending on the production scale and industry sector. The factors affecting the development of cooperative ties and outsourcing have been defined. The authors have made a conclusion that it is necessary to form technological chains as a new kind of business associations.

  19. Natural radionuclides in the Brazilian coast region: 1. Estuarine complex Cananeia-Iguape, Sao Paulo State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franca, E.J. de; Ferreira, Fabiano S.; Silva Neto, Paulo C.; Farias, Emerson E.G. de; Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Ribeiro, Andreza P., E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: biologofabiano10@gmail.com, E-mail: ptpoli@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: emersonemiliano@yahoo.com.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Mangrove forests are of utmost important ecosystems for biogeochemical transport processes in a global scale because of the preferential transport via sediments and organic matter from continents to oceans. Such ecosystems are the richest biodiversity areas, in which bioaccumulation of chemical substances can be expected for some species, in this case, there is a lack of knowledge of natural radionuclides accumulation in mangrove vegetation. This work encompasses the first results obtained for the Estuarine Complex Cananeia-Iguape, a peculiar coast area of the Sao Paulo State, Brazil. In 2011, leaf samples of Rhyzophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa trees with perimeter at the breast height higher than 15 cm were collected in the conservation unit Parque Estadual Ilha do Cardoso. Sample preparation consisted of leaf washing, oven-drying, milling in porcelain mortar at the particle size lower than 0.5 mm. Portions of 10 g were transferred to polyethylene vials of appropriate geometry for the analysis by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Reference materials were analyzed together to evaluate the quality of the analytical procedure. K-40 was preferentially allocated in leaves. Some accumulation in leaves was noticed for Pb-210 and Ac-228 depending on the species, indicating differences of radionuclide distribution in the mangrove vegetation. (author)

  20. Natural radionuclides in the Brazilian coast region: 1. Estuarine complex Cananeia-Iguape, Sao Paulo State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca, E.J. de; Ferreira, Fabiano S.; Silva Neto, Paulo C.; Farias, Emerson E.G. de; Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Ribeiro, Andreza P.

    2015-01-01

    Mangrove forests are of utmost important ecosystems for biogeochemical transport processes in a global scale because of the preferential transport via sediments and organic matter from continents to oceans. Such ecosystems are the richest biodiversity areas, in which bioaccumulation of chemical substances can be expected for some species, in this case, there is a lack of knowledge of natural radionuclides accumulation in mangrove vegetation. This work encompasses the first results obtained for the Estuarine Complex Cananeia-Iguape, a peculiar coast area of the Sao Paulo State, Brazil. In 2011, leaf samples of Rhyzophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa trees with perimeter at the breast height higher than 15 cm were collected in the conservation unit Parque Estadual Ilha do Cardoso. Sample preparation consisted of leaf washing, oven-drying, milling in porcelain mortar at the particle size lower than 0.5 mm. Portions of 10 g were transferred to polyethylene vials of appropriate geometry for the analysis by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Reference materials were analyzed together to evaluate the quality of the analytical procedure. K-40 was preferentially allocated in leaves. Some accumulation in leaves was noticed for Pb-210 and Ac-228 depending on the species, indicating differences of radionuclide distribution in the mangrove vegetation. (author)

  1. UNIFORM INFALL TOWARD THE COMETARY H II REGION IN THE G34.26+0.15 COMPLEX?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Tie; Wu, Yuefang; Zhang, Huawei

    2013-01-01

    Gas accretion is a key process in star formation. However, gas infall detections in high-mass, star-forming regions with high spatial resolution observations are rare. Here, we report the detection of gas infall toward a cometary ultracompact H II region ( C) in the G34.26+0.15 complex. The observations were made with the IRAM 30 m, the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope 15 m telescope, and the Submillimeter Array (SMA). The hot core associated with 'C' has a mass of ∼76 ± 11 M ☉ and a volume density of (1.1 ± 0.2) × 10 8 cm –3 . The HCN (3-2) and HCO + (1-0) lines observed by single dishes and the CN (2-1) lines observed by the SMA show redshifted absorption features, indicating gas infall. We found a linear relationship between the line width and optical depth of the CN (2-1) lines. Those transitions with larger optical depths and line widths have larger absorption areas. However, the infall velocities measured from different lines seem to be constant, indicating that the gas infall is uniform. We also investigated the evolution of gas infall in high-mass, star-forming regions. A tight relationship was found between the infall velocity and the total dust/gas mass. At stages prior to the hot core phase, the typical infall velocity and mass infall rate are ∼1 km s –1 and ∼10 –4 M ☉ yr –1 , respectively. While in more evolved regions, the infall velocity and mass infall rates can reach as high as several km s –1 and ∼10 –3 -10 –2 M ☉ yr –1 , respectively. Accelerated infall has been detected toward some hypercompact H II and ultracompact H II regions. However, the acceleration phenomenon is not seen in more evolved ultracompact H II regions (e.g., G34.26+0.15)

  2. Estimation of the ripple effects on a regional community of the formation of the nuclear energy science complex in Gyeongju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung-Sik [Dankook Univ., Chungnam (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Moon, Joo Hyun [Dongguk Univ. Gyeongju, Gyeongbuk (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Energy Engineering

    2017-05-15

    Korea has developed advanced nuclear technologies, including those for future nuclear energy systems and the safe management of spent nuclear fuel, and is about to make a decision as to whether to make a massive investment in the development R and D for commercialization of them. There is no area large enough to accommodate all the development R and D-related facilities together at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) to perform the development R and Ds. KAERI seeks solutions to the space problem, which includes the construction of a nuclear energy science complex (NESC). Gyeongju is one of the potential sites. This study estimated the ripple effects on the regional community if the NESC is to be formed in Gyeongju using inter-regional input-output analysis. The estimation shows that the ripple effects to the regional community of the formation of the NESC in Gyeongju would be 1,086,633 billion Korean Won (KRW) for regional production inducement, 455,299 billion KRW for value-added inducement, and 9,592 persons for employment inducement.

  3. Regression-based approach for testing the association between multi-region haplotype configuration and complex trait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Hongbo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is quite common that the genetic architecture of complex traits involves many genes and their interactions. Therefore, dealing with multiple unlinked genomic regions simultaneously is desirable. Results In this paper we develop a regression-based approach to assess the interactions of haplotypes that belong to different unlinked regions, and we use score statistics to test the null hypothesis of non-genetic association. Additionally, multiple marker combinations at each unlinked region are considered. The multiple tests are settled via the minP approach. The P value of the "best" multi-region multi-marker configuration is corrected via Monte-Carlo simulations. Through simulation studies, we assess the performance of the proposed approach and demonstrate its validity and power in testing for haplotype interaction association. Conclusion Our simulations showed that, for binary trait without covariates, our proposed methods prove to be equal and even more powerful than htr and hapcc which are part of the FAMHAP program. Additionally, our model can be applied to a wider variety of traits and allow adjustment for other covariates. To test the validity, our methods are applied to analyze the association between four unlinked candidate genes and pig meat quality.

  4. Simulating flaring events in complex active regions driven by observed magnetograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitropoulou, M.; Isliker, H.; Vlahos, L.; Georgoulis, M. K.

    2011-05-01

    Context. We interpret solar flares as events originating in active regions that have reached the self organized critical state, by using a refined cellular automaton model with initial conditions derived from observations. Aims: We investigate whether the system, with its imposed physical elements, reaches a self organized critical state and whether well-known statistical properties of flares, such as scaling laws observed in the distribution functions of characteristic parameters, are reproduced after this state has been reached. Methods: To investigate whether the distribution functions of total energy, peak energy and event duration follow the expected scaling laws, we first applied a nonlinear force-free extrapolation that reconstructs the three-dimensional magnetic fields from two-dimensional vector magnetograms. We then locate magnetic discontinuities exceeding a threshold in the Laplacian of the magnetic field. These discontinuities are relaxed in local diffusion events, implemented in the form of cellular automaton evolution rules. Subsequent loading and relaxation steps lead the system to self organized criticality, after which the statistical properties of the simulated events are examined. Physical requirements, such as the divergence-free condition for the magnetic field vector, are approximately imposed on all elements of the model. Results: Our results show that self organized criticality is indeed reached when applying specific loading and relaxation rules. Power-law indices obtained from the distribution functions of the modeled flaring events are in good agreement with observations. Single power laws (peak and total flare energy) are obtained, as are power laws with exponential cutoff and double power laws (flare duration). The results are also compared with observational X-ray data from the GOES satellite for our active-region sample. Conclusions: We conclude that well-known statistical properties of flares are reproduced after the system has

  5. Intravenous regional block is similar to sympathetic ganglion block for pain management in patients with complex regional pain syndrome type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S.A. Nascimento

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sympathetic ganglion block (SGB or intravenous regional block (IVRB has been recommended for pain management in patients with complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I. Forty-five patients were initially selected but only 43 were accepted for the study. The present study evaluated the efficacy of IVRB produced by combining 70 mg lidocaine with 30 µg clonidine (14 patients, 1 male/13 females, age range: 27-50 years versus SGB produced by the injection of 70 mg lidocaine alone (14 patients, 1 male/13 females, age range: 27-54 years or combined with 30 µg clonidine (15 patients, 1 male/14 females, age range: 25-50 years into the stellate ganglion for pain management in patients with upper extremity CRPS-I. Each procedure was repeated five times at 7-day intervals, and pain intensity and duration were measured using a visual analog scale immediately before each procedure. A progressive and significant reduction in pain scores and a significant increase in the duration of analgesia were observed in all groups following the first three blocks, but no further improvement was obtained following the last two blocks. Drowsiness, the most frequent side effect, and dry mouth occurred only in patients submitted to SGB with lidocaine combined with clonidine. The three methods were similar regarding changes in pain intensity and duration of analgesia. However, IVRB seems to be preferable to SGB due to its easier execution and lower risk of undesirable effects.

  6. Banning is not enough: The complexities of oceanic shark management by tuna regional fisheries management organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Travassos Tolotti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, declining populations of several pelagic shark species have led to global conservation concerns surrounding this group. As a result, a series of species-specific banning measures have been implemented by Regional Fishery Management Organizations (RFMOs in charge of tuna fisheries, which include retention bans, finning bans and trading bans. There are both positive and negative aspects to most management measures, but generally, the positive aspects outweigh the negatives, ensuring the measure is beneficial to the resource and its users in the long term. Banning measures are a good first step towards the conservation of pelagic shark species, especially since they improve conservation awareness among fishers, managers and the public. Measures that impose total bans, however, can lead to negative impacts that may jeopardize the populations they were intended to protect. The majority of pelagic shark catches are incidental and most sharks die before they reach the vessel or after they are released. The legislation set out by RFMOs only prevents retention but not the actual capture or the mortality that may occur as a result. Managers should be fully aware that the development and implementation of mitigation measures are critical for a more effective conservation strategy.

  7. COMPLEX OF PATHOGENES ON VEGETABLE CROPS IN CONDITION OF CENTRAL REGION OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. T. Timina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of monitoring of causative agents of diseases of vegetable crops and studying of its species specification, the genus and species of fungi and bacteria, were found. Previously unknown in the Central region of Russia pathogens of carrot were identified: Sclerotinia nevales, Gleocladium roseum, Verticillium spp, Trichotecium roseum, Streptomyces scabies, F. nivale, F. chlamidosporum, F. equiseti, F. proliferatum, Chaetomium spp., Erysiphe umbelliferum, Erwinia carotovora. Main causative agents of diseases  of carrot during storage were also described: Alternaria infectoria, A. alternatа, A. arborescens, A. radicina, A. cheiranthi, A. corotiincultae, A. cinerariae, Embellisia spp., Nimbia spp., Cladosporium spp. It was found new pathogen for onion (Aspergillus niger, garlic (Fusarium semitectum, F. subglutinans, F. proliferatum, F.avenacium, red beet (Typhula ishikariensis, and radish (Drechslera Bondartseva.

  8. CONSTRAINING THE ABUNDANCES OF COMPLEX ORGANICS IN THE INNER REGIONS OF SOLAR-TYPE PROTOSTARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taquet, Vianney; Charnley, Steven B. [Astrochemistry Laboratory and The Goddard Center for Astrobiology, Mailstop 691, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20770 (United States); López-Sepulcre, Ana; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Kahane, Claudine [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Neri, Roberto, E-mail: taquet@strw.leidenuniv.nl [Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique, Grenoble (France)

    2015-05-10

    The high abundances of Complex Organic Molecules (COMs) with respect to methanol, the most abundant COM, detected toward low-mass protostars, tend to be underpredicted by astrochemical models. This discrepancy might come from the large beam of the single-dish telescopes, encompassing several components of the studied protostar, commonly used to detect COMs. To address this issue, we have carried out multi-line observations of methanol and several COMs toward the two low-mass protostars NGC 1333-IRAS 2A and -IRAS 4A with the Plateau de Bure interferometer at an angular resolution of 2″, resulting in the first multi-line detection of the O-bearing species glycolaldehyde and ethanol and of the N-bearing species ethyl cyanide toward low-mass protostars other than IRAS 16293. The high number of detected transitions from COMs (more than 40 methanol transitions for instance) allowed us to accurately derive the source size of their emission and the COM column densities. The COM abundances with respect to methanol derived toward IRAS 2A and IRAS 4A are slightly, but not substantitally, lower than those derived from previous single-dish observations. The COM abundance ratios do not vary significantly with the protostellar luminosity, over five orders of magnitude, implying that low-mass hot corinos are quite chemically rich as high-mass hot cores. Astrochemical models still underpredict the abundances of key COMs, such as methyl formate or di-methyl ether, suggesting that our understanding of their formation remains incomplete.

  9. Infrared emission from galactic H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeilik, M. II.

    1975-01-01

    Near-infrared observations are presented of selected galactic HII regions (especially G45.5 + 0.1, G45.1 + 0.1, S88, and W3A) to infer the physical conditions of the dust responsible for the 2 to 25 micron emission. Two-component dust models are developed to match the observed characteristics of the infrared emission from HII regions. The dust, assumed to be bare and well-mixed with the gas in the ionized volume, consists of large (0.1 micron) ''silicate'' grains and small (0.2 micron) graphite grains. The ''silicates'' have their cosmic maximum abundance with respect to hydrogen, but the graphite grains are depleted by factors of 25 to 100 in mass. The Lyman-alpha radiation field predominately heats the ''silicate'' grains, which produce almost all the emission at 20 microns and most of it from 8 to 13 microns. The stellar radiation field predominately heats the graphite grains, which generate most of the emission at 3.5 and 5 microns. Roughly half of the observed 2 to 25 micron luminosity (when corrected for extinction) arises from Lyman-alpha photons and the other half from the Lyman and Balmer continua. The grains are too hot to provide significant emission in the far-infrared; this probably arises from a dust shell around the HII region. This two-component model predicts that HII regions should have smaller sizes at 3.5 and 5 microns than at 10 and 20 microns. The emissivities of fine-structure infrared lines for the regions are calculated. In the one instance where observations of such lines have been published (G29.9 - 0.0), predicted emissivities fall below those observed, especially for the 12.86-micron line of NeII. The discrepancy probably arises from an incorrect modeling of the region's ionization structure, but it might also reflect variations in elemental abundances or deficiencies in model stellar atmospheres for hot stars

  10. Potential Risk Factors for the Onset of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1: A Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey Pons

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaesthetists in the acute and chronic pain teams are often involved in treating Complex Regional Pain Syndromes. Current literature about the risk factors for the onset of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1 (CRPS 1 remains sparse. This syndrome has a low prevalence, a highly variable presentation, and no gold standard for diagnosis. In the research setting, the pathogenesis of the syndrome continues to be elusive. There is a growing body of literature that addresses efficacy of a wide range of interventions as well as the likely mechanisms that contribute to the onset of CRPS 1. The objective for this systematic search of the literature focuses on determining the potential risk factors for the onset of CRPS 1. Eligible articles were analysed, dated 1996 to April 2014, and potential risk factors for the onset of CRPS 1 were identified from 10 prospective and 6 retrospective studies. Potential risk factors for the onset of CRPS 1 were found to include being female, particularly postmenopausal female, ankle dislocation or intra-articular fracture, immobilisation, and a report of higher than usual levels of pain in the early phases of trauma. It is not possible to draw definite conclusions as this evidence is heterogeneous and of mixed quality, relevance, and weighting strength against bias and has not been confirmed across multiple trials or in homogenous studies.

  11. Treatment of complex regional pain syndrome type 1 in a pediatric patient using the lidocaine patch 5%: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven G Frost, MD

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Successful treatment of complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1 requires a coordinated, multidisciplinary approach. Physical rehabilitation is an important component of long-term treatment. Unfortunately, patients with significant allodynia or hyperalgesia characteristic of CRPS-1 often have difficulty progressing through a physical therapy (PT regimen. In most adults with CRPS-1, the treatment of choice is PO opioids. Objective: This article presents a case report of the use of the lidocaine patch 5%, a targeted peripheral analgesic, in a pediatric patient and its effects on reducing pain, improving the patient's overall attitude, and facilitating compliance with ongoing PT. Results: A 10-year-old girl developed CRPS-1 after arthroscopic surgery for a sprained ankle. Attempts at PT were unsuccessful due to inadequate pain relief from various treatment modalities. Therapy with the lidocaine patch 5% was initiated and resulted in significant pain relief, improvements in the patient's attitude, and progress with PT. Conclusion: This case report of a child with CRPS-1 showed that therapy with lidocaine patch 5% may be efficacious in treating children with pain resulting from CRPS-1, thereby increasing the success of PT. Keywords: complex regional pain syndrome, lidocaine patch 5%, targeted peripheral analgesic, pediatrics

  12. Electroencephalographic evoked pain response is suppressed by spinal cord stimulation in complex regional pain syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylands-White, Nicholas; Duarte, Rui V; Beeson, Paul; Mayhew, Stephen D; Raphael, Jon H

    2016-12-01

    Pain is a subjective response that limits assessment. The purpose of this case report was to explore how the objectivity of the electroencephalographic response to thermal stimuli would be affected by concurrent spinal cord stimulation. A patient had been implanted with a spinal cord stimulator for the management of complex regional pain syndrome of both hands for 8 years. Following ethical approval and written informed consent we induced thermal stimuli using the Medoc PATHWAY Pain & Sensory Evaluation System on the right hand of the patient with the spinal cord stimulator switched off and with the spinal cord stimulator switched on. The patient reported a clinically significant reduction in thermal induced pain using the numerical rating scale (71.4 % reduction) with spinal cord stimulator switched on. Analysis of electroencephalogram recordings indicated the occurrence of contact heat evoked potentials (N2-P2) with spinal cord stimulator off, but not with spinal cord stimulator on. This case report suggests that thermal pain can be reduced in complex regional pain syndrome patients with the use of spinal cord stimulation and offers objective validation of the reported outcomes with this treatment.

  13. CENTRAL REGION COMPONENT1, a Novel Synaptonemal Complex Component, Is Essential for Meiotic Recombination Initiation in Rice[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Chunbo; Tang, Ding; Zhang, Honggen; Wang, Mo; Li, Yafei; Tang, Shuzhu; Yu, Hengxiu; Gu, Minghong; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2013-01-01

    In meiosis, homologous recombination entails programmed DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation and synaptonemal complex (SC) assembly coupled with the DSB repair. Although SCs display extensive structural conservation among species, their components identified are poorly conserved at the sequence level. Here, we identified a novel SC component, designated CENTRAL REGION COMPONENT1 (CRC1), in rice (Oryza sativa). CRC1 colocalizes with ZEP1, the rice SC transverse filament protein, to the central region of SCs in a mutually dependent fashion. Consistent with this colocalization, CRC1 interacts with ZEP1 in yeast two-hybrid assays. CRC1 is orthologous to Saccharomyces cerevisiae pachytene checkpoint2 (Pch2) and Mus musculus THYROID RECEPTOR-INTERACTING PROTEIN13 (TRIP13) and may be a conserved SC component. Additionally, we provide evidence that CRC1 is essential for meiotic DSB formation. CRC1 interacts with HOMOLOGOUS PAIRING ABERRATION IN RICE MEIOSIS1 (PAIR1) in vitro, suggesting that these proteins act as a complex to promote DSB formation. PAIR2, the rice ortholog of budding yeast homolog pairing1, is required for homologous chromosome pairing. We found that CRC1 is also essential for the recruitment of PAIR2 onto meiotic chromosomes. The roles of CRC1 identified here have not been reported for Pch2 or TRIP13. PMID:23943860

  14. Central region component1, a novel synaptonemal complex component, is essential for meiotic recombination initiation in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Chunbo; Tang, Ding; Zhang, Honggen; Wang, Mo; Li, Yafei; Tang, Shuzhu; Yu, Hengxiu; Gu, Minghong; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2013-08-01

    In meiosis, homologous recombination entails programmed DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation and synaptonemal complex (SC) assembly coupled with the DSB repair. Although SCs display extensive structural conservation among species, their components identified are poorly conserved at the sequence level. Here, we identified a novel SC component, designated central region component1 (CRC1), in rice (Oryza sativa). CRC1 colocalizes with ZEP1, the rice SC transverse filament protein, to the central region of SCs in a mutually dependent fashion. Consistent with this colocalization, CRC1 interacts with ZEP1 in yeast two-hybrid assays. CRC1 is orthologous to Saccharomyces cerevisiae pachytene checkpoint2 (Pch2) and Mus musculus THYROID receptor-interacting protein13 (TRIP13) and may be a conserved SC component. Additionally, we provide evidence that CRC1 is essential for meiotic DSB formation. CRC1 interacts with homologous pairing aberration in rice meiosis1 (PAIR1) in vitro, suggesting that these proteins act as a complex to promote DSB formation. PAIR2, the rice ortholog of budding yeast homolog pairing1, is required for homologous chromosome pairing. We found that CRC1 is also essential for the recruitment of PAIR2 onto meiotic chromosomes. The roles of CRC1 identified here have not been reported for Pch2 or TRIP13.

  15. An Approach to Understanding Complex Socio-Economic Impacts and Responses to Climate Disruption in the Chesapeake Bay Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, R. K.; Nix, M.; Ihde, A. G.; Paxton, L. J.; Weiss, M.; Simpkins, S.; Fountain, G. H.; APl GAIA Team

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we describe the application of a proven methodology for modeling the complex social and economic interactions of a system under stress to the regional issues that are tied to global climate disruption. Under the auspices of the GAIA project (http://gaia.jhuapl.edu), we have investigated simulating the complex interplay between climate, politics, society, industry, and the environment in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed and associated geographic areas of Maryland, Virginia, and Pennsylvania. This Chesapeake Bay simulation draws on interrelated geophysical and climate models to support decision-making analysis about the Bay. In addition to physical models, however, human activity is also incorporated via input and output calculations. For example, policy implications are modeled in relation to business activities surrounding fishing, farming, industry and manufacturing, land development, and tourism. This approach fosters collaboration among subject matter experts to advance a more complete understanding of the regional impacts of climate change. Simulated interactive competition, in which teams of experts are assigned conflicting objectives in a controlled environment, allow for subject exploration which avoids trivial solutions that neglect the possible responses of affected parties. Results include improved planning, the anticipation of areas of conflict or high risk, and the increased likelihood of developing mutually acceptable solutions.

  16. Bringing up the rear: new premotor interneurons add regional complexity to a segmentally distributed motor pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Brian J.; Doloc-Mihu, Anca; Calabrese, Ronald L.

    2011-01-01

    Central pattern generators (CPGs) pace and pattern many rhythmic activities. We have uncovered a new module in the heartbeat CPG of leeches that creates a regional difference in this segmentally distributed motor pattern. The core CPG consists of seven identified pairs and one unidentified pair of heart interneurons of which 5 pairs are premotor and inhibit 16 pairs of heart motor neurons. The heartbeat CPG produces a side-to-side asymmetric pattern of activity of the premotor heart interneurons corresponding to an asymmetric fictive motor pattern and an asymmetric constriction pattern of the hearts with regular switches between the two sides. The premotor pattern progresses from rear to front on one side and nearly synchronously on the other; the motor pattern shows corresponding intersegmental coordination, but only from segment 15 forward. In the rearmost segments the fictive motor pattern and the constriction pattern progress from front to rear on both sides and converge in phase. Modeling studies suggested that the known inhibitory inputs to the rearmost heart motor neurons were insufficient to account for this activity. We therefore reexamined the constriction pattern of intact leeches. We also identified electrophysiologically two additional pairs of heart interneurons in the rear. These new heart interneurons make inhibitory connections with the rear heart motor neurons, are coordinated with the core heartbeat CPG, and are dye-coupled to their contralateral homologs. Their strong inhibitory connections with the rearmost heart motor neurons and the small side-to-side phase difference of their bursting contribute to the different motor and beating pattern observed in the animal's rear. PMID:21775711

  17. Hominoid chromosomal rearrangements on 17q map to complex regions of segmental duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardone, Maria Francesca; Jiang, Zhaoshi; D'Addabbo, Pietro; Archidiacono, Nicoletta; Rocchi, Mariano; Eichler, Evan E; Ventura, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements, such as translocations and inversions, are recurrent phenomena during evolution, and both of them are involved in reproductive isolation and speciation. To better understand the molecular basis of chromosome rearrangements and their part in karyotype evolution, we have investigated the history of human chromosome 17 by comparative fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and sequence analysis. Human bacterial artificial chromosome/p1 artificial chromosome probes spanning the length of chromosome 17 were used in FISH experiments on great apes, Old World monkeys and New World monkeys to study the evolutionary history of this chromosome. We observed that the macaque marker order represents the ancestral organization. Human, chimpanzee and gorilla homologous chromosomes differ by a paracentric inversion that occurred specifically in the Homo sapiens/Pan troglodytes/Gorilla gorilla ancestor. Detailed analyses of the paracentric inversion revealed that the breakpoints mapped to two regions syntenic to human 17q12/21 and 17q23, both rich in segmental duplications. Sequence analyses of the human and macaque organization suggest that the duplication events occurred in the catarrhine ancestor with the duplication blocks continuing to duplicate or undergo gene conversion during evolution of the hominoid lineage. We propose that the presence of these duplicons has mediated the inversion in the H. sapiens/P. troglodytes/G. gorilla ancestor. Recently, the same duplication blocks have been shown to be polymorphic in the human population and to be involved in triggering microdeletion and duplication in human. These results further support a model where genomic architecture has a direct role in both rearrangement involved in karyotype evolution and genomic instability in human.

  18. Analysing a Chinese Regional Integrated Healthcare Organisation Reform Failure using a Complex Adaptive System Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxi Tang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: China’s organised health system has remained outdated for decades. Current health systems in many less market-oriented countries still adhere to traditional administrative-based directives and linear planning. Furthermore, they neglect the responsiveness and feedback of institutions and professionals, which often results in reform failure in integrated care. Complex adaptive system theory (CAS provides a new perspective and methodology for analysing the health system and policy implementation.  Methods: We observed the typical case of Qianjiang’s Integrated Health Organization Reform (IHO for 2 years to analyse integrated care reforms using CAS theory. Via questionnaires and interviews, we observed 32 medical institutions and 344 professionals. We compared their cooperative behaviours from both organisational and inter-professional levels between 2013 and 2015, and further investigated potential reasons for why medical institutions and professionals did not form an effective IHO. We discovered how interested parties in the policy implementation process influenced reform outcome, and by theoretical induction, proposed a new semi-organised system and corresponding policy analysis flowchart that potentially suits the actual realisation of CAS.  Results: The reform did not achieve its desired effect. The Qianjiang IHO was loosely integrated rather than closely integrated, and the cooperation levels between organisations and professionals were low. This disappointing result was due to low mutual trust among IHO members, with the main contributing factors being insufficient financial incentives and the lack of a common vision.  Discussion and Conclusions: The traditional 'organised health system' is old-fashioned. Rather than being completely organised or adaptive, the health system is currently more similar to a s'emi-organised system'. Medical institutions and professionals operate in a middle ground between complete adherence

  19. Tests of high-resolution simulations over a region of complex terrain in Southeast coast of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Sin Chan; Luís Gomes, Jorge; Ristic, Ivan; Mesinger, Fedor; Sueiro, Gustavo; Andrade, Diego; Lima-e-Silva, Pedro Paulo

    2013-04-01

    The Eta Model is used operationally by INPE at the Centre for Weather Forecasts and Climate Studies (CPTEC) to produce weather forecasts over South America since 1997. The model has gone through upgrades along these years. In order to prepare the model for operational higher resolution forecasts, the model is configured and tested over a region of complex topography located near the coast of Southeast Brazil. The model domain includes the two Brazilians cities, Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo, urban areas, preserved tropical forest, pasture fields, and complex terrain where it can rise from sea level up to about 1000 m. Accurate near-surface wind direction and magnitude are needed for the power plant emergency plan. Besides, the region suffers from frequent events of floods and landslides, therefore accurate local forecasts are required for disaster warnings. The objective of this work is to carry out a series of numerical experiments to test and evaluate high resolution simulations in this complex area. Verification of model runs uses observations taken from the nuclear power plant and higher resolution reanalyses data. The runs were tested in a period when flow was predominately forced by local conditions and in a period forced by frontal passage. The Eta Model was configured initially with 2-km horizontal resolution and 50 layers. The Eta-2km is a second nesting, it is driven by Eta-15km, which in its turn is driven by Era-Interim reanalyses. The series of experiments consists of replacing surface layer stability function, adjusting cloud microphysics scheme parameters, further increasing vertical and horizontal resolutions. By replacing the stability function for the stable conditions substantially increased the katabatic winds and verified better against the tower wind data. Precipitation produced by the model was excessive in the region. Increasing vertical resolution to 60 layers caused a further increase in precipitation production. This excessive

  20. Collaborative Observation and Research (CORE) Watersheds: new strategies for tracking the regional effects of climate change on complex systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, P. S.

    2007-12-01

    The past 30 years of environmental research have shown that our world is not made up of discrete components acting independently, but rather of a mosaic of complex relations among air, land, water, living resources, and human activities. Recent warming of the climate is having a significant effect on the functioning of those systems. A national imperative is developing to quickly establish local, regional, and national systems for anticipating environmental degradation from a changing climate and developing cost-effective adaptation or mitigation strategies. In these circumstances, the debate over research versus monitoring becomes moot--there is a clear need for the integrated application of both across a range of temporal and spatial scales. A national framework that effectively addresses the multiple scales and complex multi-disciplinary processes of climate change is being assembled largely from existing programs through collaboration among Federal, State, local, and NGO organizations. The result will be an observation and research network capable of interpreting complex environmental changes at a range of spatial and temporal scales, but at less cost than if the network were funded as an independent initiative. A pilot implementation of the collaborative framework in the Delaware River Basin yielded multi-scale assessments of carbon storage and flux, and the effects of forest fragmentation and soil calcium depletion on ecosystem function. A prototype of a national climate-effects observation and research network linking research watersheds, regional surveys, remote sensing, and ecosystem modeling is being initiated in the Yukon River Basin where carbon flux associated with permafrost thaw could accelerate global warming.

  1. Statistical downscaling of historical monthly mean winds over a coastal region of complex terrain. II. Predicting wind components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamp, Derek van der [University of Victoria, Pacific Climate Impacts Consortium, Victoria, BC (Canada); University of Victoria, School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Victoria, BC (Canada); Curry, Charles L. [Environment Canada University of Victoria, Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Victoria, BC (Canada); University of Victoria, School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Victoria, BC (Canada); Monahan, Adam H. [University of Victoria, School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2012-04-15

    A regression-based downscaling technique was applied to monthly mean surface wind observations from stations throughout western Canada as well as from buoys in the Northeast Pacific Ocean over the period 1979-2006. A predictor set was developed from principal component analysis of the three wind components at 500 hPa and mean sea-level pressure taken from the NCEP Reanalysis II. Building on the results of a companion paper, Curry et al. (Clim Dyn 2011), the downscaling was applied to both wind speed and wind components, in an effort to evaluate the utility of each type of predictand. Cross-validated prediction skill varied strongly with season, with autumn and summer displaying the highest and lowest skill, respectively. In most cases wind components were predicted with better skill than wind speeds. The predictive ability of wind components was found to be strongly related to their orientation. Wind components with the best predictions were often oriented along topographically significant features such as constricted valleys, mountain ranges or ocean channels. This influence of directionality on predictive ability is most prominent during autumn and winter at inland sites with complex topography. Stations in regions with relatively flat terrain (where topographic steering is minimal) exhibit inter-station consistencies including region-wide seasonal shifts in the direction of the best predicted wind component. The conclusion that wind components can be skillfully predicted only over a limited range of directions at most stations limits the scope of statistically downscaled wind speed predictions. It seems likely that such limitations apply to other regions of complex terrain as well. (orig.)

  2. Complexity in the scaling of velocity fluctuations in the high-latitude F-region ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Parkinson

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The temporal scaling properties of F-region velocity fluctuations, δvlos, were characterised over 17 octaves of temporal scale from τ=1 s to <1 day using a new data base of 1-s time resolution SuperDARN radar measurements. After quality control, 2.9 (1.9 million fluctuations were recorded during 31.5 (40.4 days of discretionary mode soundings using the Tasmanian (New Zealand radars. If the fluctuations were statistically self-similar, the probability density functions (PDFs of δvlos would collapse onto the same PDF using the scaling Psvs, τ=ταPvlos, τ and δvsvlosτ−α where α is the scaling exponent. The variations in scaling exponents α and multi-fractal behaviour were estimated using peak scaling and generalised structure function (GSF analyses, and a new method based upon minimising the differences between re-scaled probability density functions (PDFs. The efficiency of this method enabled calculation of "α spectra", the temporal spectra of scaling exponents from τ=1 s to ~2048 s. The large number of samples enabled calculation of α spectra for data separated into 2-h bins of MLT as well as two main physical regimes: Population A echoes with Doppler spectral width <75 m s−1 concentrated on closed field lines, and Population B echoes with spectral width >150 m s−1 concentrated on open field lines. For all data there was a scaling break at τ~10 s and the similarity of the fluctuations beneath this scale may be related to the large spatial averaging (~100 km×45 km employed by SuperDARN radars. For Tasmania Population B, the velocity fluctuations exhibited approximately mono fractal power law scaling between τ~8 s and 2048 s (34 min, and probably up to several hours. The scaling exponents were generally less than that expected for basic MHD

  3. Downscaling wind and wavefields for 21st century coastal flood hazard projections in a region of complex terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Andrea; Erikson, Li; Barnard, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    While global climate models (GCMs) provide useful projections of near-surface wind vectors into the 21st century, resolution is not sufficient enough for use in regional wave modeling. Statistically downscaled GCM projections from Multivariate Adaptive Constructed Analogues provide daily averaged near-surface winds at an appropriate spatial resolution for wave modeling within the orographically complex region of San Francisco Bay, but greater resolution in time is needed to capture the peak of storm events. Short-duration high wind speeds, on the order of hours, are usually excluded in statistically downscaled climate models and are of key importance in wave and subsequent coastal flood modeling. Here we present a temporal downscaling approach, similar to constructed analogues, for near-surface winds suitable for use in local wave models and evaluate changes in wind and wave conditions for the 21st century. Reconstructed hindcast winds (1975–2004) recreate important extreme wind values within San Francisco Bay. A computationally efficient method for simulating wave heights over long time periods was used to screen for extreme events. Wave hindcasts show resultant maximum wave heights of 2.2 m possible within the Bay. Changes in extreme over-water wind speeds suggest contrasting trends within the different regions of San Francisco Bay, but 21th century projections show little change in the overall magnitude of extreme winds and locally generated waves.

  4. The influence of patients' complexity and general practitioners' characteristics on referrals to outpatient health services in an Italian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Valent

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. Patient referrals to outpatient health services may affect both health outcomes and health expenditures. General practitioners (GP have a crucial role in driving the use of outpatient services and recognizing factors which affect referrals is important for health managers and planners. OBJECTIVES. We investigated patient- and physician-related determinants of patient referrals in an Italian region. METHODS. This was cross-sectional study based on the individual linkage of administrative databases from the health information system of the Friuli Venezia Giulia region. For each GP of the region, the association of the number of patient referrals to different types of outpatient services with the proportion of patients with chronic conditions, with the number of hospital admissions and drug prescriptions in 2012, and with GP's characteristics was investigated through multilevel multivariable Poisson regression models. RESULTS. Some chronic conditions (e.g., cancer, autoimmune diseases, endocrine diseases, digestive system diseases were positively associated with the number of referrals, as were hospital admissions and drug prescriptions. Time since GP's graduation was inversely related with referrals. CONCLUSION. Patient complexity and GP's experience affect referral rates. These factors should be considered in case of a reorganization of the general practice structure in Friuli Venezia Giulia.

  5. Bunsen Reaction using a HIx Solution (HI-I2-H2O with Countercurrent Flow for Sulfur-Iodine Hydrogen Production Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hyo-Sub

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the sulfur-iodine hydrogen production process, the Bunsen reaction is a crucial section because of the linkage with the H2SO4 and HI decomposition sections. The HIx solution (HI-I2-H2O mixture was fed to the Bunsen reaction section as a reactant from the HI decomposition section. In this study, the Bunsen reaction using the HIx solution with countercurrent flow was performed. The production rate of HIx phase solution increased while that of H2SO4 phase solution was maintained constant when increasing the flow rate of HIx solution. As the SO2 flow rate increased, the production rates of H2SO4 and HIx phase solutions increased. The amount of resultant H2SO4 phase was very lower than that of resultant HIx phase under the conditions examined in this study.

  6. SPITZER ANALYSIS OF H II REGION COMPLEXES IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS: DETERMINING A SUITABLE MONOCHROMATIC OBSCURED STAR FORMATION INDICATOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, B.; Gordon, K. D.; Meixner, M.; Sewilo, M.; Shiao, B.; Babler, B.; Bracker, S.; Meade, M.; Block, M.; Engelbracht, C. W.; Misselt, K.; Bolatto, A. D.; Carlson, L. R.; Hora, J. L.; Robitaille, T.; Indebetouw, R.; Madden, S. C.; Oey, M. S.; Oliveira, J. M.; Vijh, U. P.

    2010-01-01

    H II regions are the birth places of stars, and as such they provide the best measure of current star formation rates (SFRs) in galaxies. The close proximity of the Magellanic Clouds allows us to probe the nature of these star forming regions at small spatial scales. To study the H II regions, we compute the bolometric infrared flux, or total infrared (TIR), by integrating the flux from 8 to 500 μm. The TIR provides a measure of the obscured star formation because the UV photons from hot young stars are absorbed by dust and re-emitted across the mid-to-far-infrared (IR) spectrum. We aim to determine the monochromatic IR band that most accurately traces the TIR and produces an accurate obscured SFR over large spatial scales. We present the spatial analysis, via aperture/annulus photometry, of 16 Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and 16 Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) H II region complexes using the Spitzer Space Telescope's IRAC (3.6, 4.5, 8 μm) and MIPS (24, 70, 160 μm) bands. Ultraviolet rocket data (1500 and 1900 A) and SHASSA Hα data are also included. All data are convolved to the MIPS 160 μm resolution (40 arcsec full width at half-maximum), and apertures have a minimum radius of 35''. The IRAC, MIPS, UV, and Hα spatial analysis are compared with the spatial analysis of the TIR. We find that nearly all of the LMC and SMC H II region spectral energy distributions (SEDs) peak around 70 μm at all radii, from ∼10 to ∼400 pc from the central ionizing sources. As a result, we find the following: the sizes of H II regions as probed by 70 μm are approximately equal to the sizes as probed by TIR (∼70 pc in radius); the radial profile of the 70 μm flux, normalized by TIR, is constant at all radii (70 μm ∼ 0.45TIR); the 1σ standard deviation of the 70 μm fluxes, normalized by TIR, is a lower fraction of the mean (0.05-0.12 out to ∼220 pc) than the normalized 8, 24, and 160 μm normalized fluxes (0.12-0.52); and these results are the same for the LMC and the

  7. OXA-Carbapenemases Present in Clinical Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus Complex Isolates from Patients in Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjo, Aryann R; Maghdid, Delshad M; Mansoor, Isam Y; Kok, Dik J; Severin, Juliette A; Verbrugh, Henri A; Kreft, Deborah; Fatah, M H; Alnakshabandi, A A; Dlnya, Asad; Hammerum, Anette M; Ng, Kim; Goessens, Wil

    2016-12-01

    In addition to intrinsic resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii, many different types of acquired resistance mechanisms have been reported, including the presence of VIM and IMP metallo β-lactamases and also of bla OXA-23-like and bla OXA-58-like enzymes. In the Kurdistan region of Iraq, the multiresistant A. baumannii-calcoaceticus complex is prevalent. We characterized the different mechanisms of resistance present in clinical isolates collected from different wards and different hospitals from the Kurdistan region. One hundred twenty clinical nonduplicate A. baumannii-calcoaceticus complex isolates were collected from four hospitals between January 2012 and October 2013. The identification of the isolates was confirmed by MALDI-TOF. The susceptibility to different antibiotics was determined by disk diffusion and analyzed in accordance to EUCAST guidelines. By PCR, the presence of bla OXA-51-like , bla OXA-23-like , bla OXA-24-like , and bla OXA-58-like genes was determined as well as the presence of the insertion element ISAba1. Clonal diversity was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using the restriction enzyme ApaI and, in addition, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed on a selected subset of 15 isolates. All 120 A. baumannii isolates harbored bla OXA-51-like genes. One hundred one out of 110 (92%) imipenem (IMP)-resistant A. baumannii-calcoaceticus complex isolates additionally carried the bla OXA-23-like gene and four isolates (3%) were positive for bla OXA-24-like. All 101 bla OXA-23-like -positive isolates had the ISAba1 insertion sequence, 1,600 bp upstream of the bla OXA-23-like gene. The bla OXA-58-like gene was not detected in any of the 110 IMP-resistant strains. Eight different PFGE clusters were identified and distributed over the different hospitals. MLST analysis performed on a subset of 15 representative isolates revealed the presence of the international clone ST2 (Pasteur). Besides ST2 (Pasteur), also many other

  8. Giant panda BAC library construction and assembly of a 650-kb contig spanning major histocompatibility complex class II region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Hui-Juan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giant panda is rare and endangered species endemic to China. The low rates of reproductive success and infectious disease resistance have severely hampered the development of captive and wild populations of the giant panda. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC plays important roles in immune response and reproductive system such as mate choice and mother-fetus bio-compatibility. It is thus essential to understand genetic details of the giant panda MHC. Construction of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library will provide a new tool for panda genome physical mapping and thus facilitate understanding of panda MHC genes. Results A giant panda BAC library consisting of 205,800 clones has been constructed. The average insert size was calculated to be 97 kb based on the examination of 174 randomly selected clones, indicating that the giant panda library contained 6.8-fold genome equivalents. Screening of the library with 16 giant panda PCR primer pairs revealed 6.4 positive clones per locus, in good agreement with an expected 6.8-fold genomic coverage of the library. Based on this BAC library, we constructed a contig map of the giant panda MHC class II region from BTNL2 to DAXX spanning about 650 kb by a three-step method: (1 PCR-based screening of the BAC library with primers from homologous MHC class II gene loci, end sequences and BAC clone shotgun sequences, (2 DNA sequencing validation of positive clones, and (3 restriction digest fingerprinting verification of inter-clone overlapping. Conclusion The identifications of genes and genomic regions of interest are greatly favored by the availability of this giant panda BAC library. The giant panda BAC library thus provides a useful platform for physical mapping, genome sequencing or complex analysis of targeted genomic regions. The 650 kb sequence-ready BAC contig map of the giant panda MHC class II region from BTNL2 to DAXX, verified by the three-step method, offers a

  9. UNIFORM INFALL TOWARD THE COMETARY H II REGION IN THE G34.26+0.15 COMPLEX?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tie; Wu, Yuefang; Zhang, Huawei, E-mail: liutiepku@gmail.com, E-mail: ywu@pku.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China)

    2013-10-10

    Gas accretion is a key process in star formation. However, gas infall detections in high-mass, star-forming regions with high spatial resolution observations are rare. Here, we report the detection of gas infall toward a cometary ultracompact H II region ({sup C)} in the G34.26+0.15 complex. The observations were made with the IRAM 30 m, the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope 15 m telescope, and the Submillimeter Array (SMA). The hot core associated with 'C' has a mass of ∼76 ± 11 M{sub ☉} and a volume density of (1.1 ± 0.2) × 10{sup 8} cm{sup –3}. The HCN (3-2) and HCO{sup +} (1-0) lines observed by single dishes and the CN (2-1) lines observed by the SMA show redshifted absorption features, indicating gas infall. We found a linear relationship between the line width and optical depth of the CN (2-1) lines. Those transitions with larger optical depths and line widths have larger absorption areas. However, the infall velocities measured from different lines seem to be constant, indicating that the gas infall is uniform. We also investigated the evolution of gas infall in high-mass, star-forming regions. A tight relationship was found between the infall velocity and the total dust/gas mass. At stages prior to the hot core phase, the typical infall velocity and mass infall rate are ∼1 km s{sup –1} and ∼10{sup –4} M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, respectively. While in more evolved regions, the infall velocity and mass infall rates can reach as high as several km s{sup –1} and ∼10{sup –3}-10{sup –2} M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, respectively. Accelerated infall has been detected toward some hypercompact H II and ultracompact H II regions. However, the acceleration phenomenon is not seen in more evolved ultracompact H II regions (e.g., G34.26+0.15)

  10. Case Study of High-Dose Ketamine for Treatment of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasek, Tracy Ann; Crowley, Kelli; Campese, Catherine; Lauer, Rachel; Yang, Charles

    2017-06-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a life-altering and debilitating chronic pain condition. The authors are presenting a case study of a female who received high-dose ketamine for the management of her CRPS. The innovative treatment lies not only within the pharmacologic management of her pain, but also in the fact that she was the first patient to be admitted to our pediatric intensive care unit solely for pain control. The primary component of the pharmacotherapy treatment strategy plan was escalating-dose ketamine infusion via patient-controlled-analgesia approved by the pharmacy and therapeutics committee guided therapy for this patient. The expertise of advanced practice nurses blended exquisitely to ensure patient and family-centered care and the coordination of care across the illness trajectory. The patient experienced positive outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Regulation of peripheral blood flow in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: clinical implication for symptomatic relief and pain management

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    Coderre Terence J

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the chronic stage of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS, impaired microcirculation is related to increased vasoconstriction, tissue hypoxia, and metabolic tissue acidosis in the affected limb. Several mechanisms may be responsible for the ischemia and pain in chronic cold CPRS. Discussion The diminished blood flow may be caused by either sympathetic dysfunction, hypersensitivity to circulating catecholamines, or endothelial dysfunction. The pain may be of neuropathic, inflammatory, nociceptive, or functional nature, or of mixed origin. Summary The origin of the pain should be the basis of the symptomatic therapy. Since the difference in temperature between both hands fluctuates over time in cold CRPS, when in doubt, the clinician should prioritize the patient's report of a persistent cold extremity over clinical tests that show no difference. Future research should focus on developing easily applied methods for clinical use to differentiate between central and peripheral blood flow regulation disorders in individual patients.

  12. Issues of human resources management in the enterprises of the machine-building complex of the Tyumen region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lez’er Victoria

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article, the authors have considered theoretical-methodological and practical aspects of human resource management in the process of restructuring enterprises of the machine-building complex of the Tyumen region. Based on the study of the evolution of theories concerning the human factor in the economy, the systematization and generalization of the provisions contained therein, the system of categories in the field of human resource management is substantiated. The basic principles of such management have been identified and supplemented, the tasks facing the enterprise management have been clarified, new tools for human resource management have been proposed, to ensure the completeness, continuity and validity of the decisions made in the field of human resources management in the restructuring of industrial enterprises.

  13. Intrathecal Bupivacaine Monotherapy with a Retrograde Catheter for the Management of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome of the Lower Extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRoberts, W Porter; Apostol, Catalina; Haleem, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) presents a therapeutic challenge due to its many presentations and multifaceted pathophysiology. There is no approved treatment algorithm and clinical interventions are often applied empirically. In cases of CRPS where symptoms are localized to an extremity, a targeted treatment is indicated. We describe the use of intrathecal bupivacaine monotherapy, delivered through a retrograde catheter, in the treatment of CRPS affecting the lower extremity. The patient, a 57-year-old woman with a history of failed foot surgery, was seen in our office after 2 years of ineffective treatments with local blocks and neurolytic procedures. We advanced therapy to moderately invasive procedures with an emphasis on neuromodulation. A combined central and peripheral stimulation technique that initially provided 75% pain relief, failed to provide lasting analgesia. We proceeded with an intrathecal pump implant. Based on the results of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) mapping, L5-S1 was identified as the optimal target for therapy and a retrograde catheter was placed at this level. Various intrathecal medications were tested individually. An intrathecal morphine trial was ineffective (visual analog scale [VAS] 7), while intrathecal clonidine provided excellent pain relief (VAS 0) that was limited by severe side effects. Bupivacaine provided 100% analgesia with tolerable side effects (lower extremity weakness and minor bladder incontinence) and was selected for intrathecal infusion. After 14 months, bupivacaine treatment continued to control pain exacerbations. We conclude that CRPS patients benefit from early identification of the predominant underlying symptoms and a targeted treatment with moderately invasive techniques when less invasive techniques fail. Intrathecal bupivacaine, bupivacaine monotherapy, retrograde catheter, complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), dual stimulation, dosal root ganglion (DRG) testing.

  14. The use of modern methods for complex studies of the hydrotechnical structures of the Barents Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mel'nikov N. N

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Barents region hydrotechnical structures (HTS as part of the bulk earth dams and levees tailings of mining enterprises in terms of requirements of the responsible entities have been considered. The brief review of emergencies and accidents of HTS with an analysis of their causes and geo-ecological consequences has been fulfilled. The necessity and urgency of the application of modern techniques for comprehensive research and monitoring of the HTS state have been shown: geo-fluid mechanics computer modeling, subsurface georadar sensing, GPS geodetic measurements, optical and radar satellite imagery. Joint use of GPR and satellite imagery in combination with traditional engineering-geological, hydro-geological and geodetic studies allows obtaining a more complete picture of the HTS state taking into account local and regional geological and fluid dynamic processes. The system structure of HTS complex researches which creates a scientific and technical basis for researching the geologic-geophysical environment, shifts, deformations and power influence has been developed. This allows to reveal the hidden filtration and deformation zones in HTS at early stages of their formation and in due time to make the administrative decision on prevention and localization of any emergency. Application of modern methods for HTS complex researches will allow to receive operational information on their state, parametrical sizes of volume, angular and linear deformations and movements, intensity of natural and technogenic influence. The obtained data have to be integrated in the "Database and Parameters" geoportal by means of which their logical processing and comparison to standard and extreme values has to be carried out. On this basis expert assessment of the current and expected state of HTS is carried out and the operating decisions including on development, in case of need, of preventive and protective measures are made

  15. C-terminal region of DNA ligase IV drives XRCC4/DNA ligase IV complex to chromatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Sicheng; Liu, Xunyue; Kamdar, Radhika Pankaj; Wanotayan, Rujira; Sharma, Mukesh Kumar; Adachi, Noritaka; Matsumoto, Yoshihisa

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Chromatin binding of XRCC4 is dependent on the presence of DNA ligase IV. •C-terminal region of DNA ligase IV alone can recruit itself and XRCC4 to chromatin. •Two BRCT domains of DNA ligase IV are essential for the chromatin binding of XRCC4. -- Abstract: DNA ligase IV (LIG4) and XRCC4 form a complex to ligate two DNA ends at the final step of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair through non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). It is not fully understood how these proteins are recruited to DSBs. We recently demonstrated radiation-induced chromatin binding of XRCC4 by biochemical fractionation using detergent Nonidet P-40. In the present study, we examined the role of LIG4 in the recruitment of XRCC4/LIG4 complex to chromatin. The chromatin binding of XRCC4 was dependent on the presence of LIG4. The mutations in two BRCT domains (W725R and W893R, respectively) of LIG4 reduced the chromatin binding of LIG4 and XRCC4. The C-terminal fragment of LIG4 (LIG4-CT) without N-terminal catalytic domains could bind to chromatin with XRCC4. LIG4-CT with W725R or W893R mutation could bind to chromatin but could not support the chromatin binding of XRCC4. The ability of C-terminal region of LIG4 to interact with chromatin might provide us with an insight into the mechanisms of DSB repair through NHEJ

  16. Strong topographic sheltering effects lead to spatially complex treeline advance and increased forest density in a subtropical mountain region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Sarah; Chen, Jan-Chang; Chen, Chaur-Tzuhn; Jump, Alistair S

    2014-12-01

    Altitudinal treelines are typically temperature limited such that increasing temperatures linked to global climate change are causing upslope shifts of treelines worldwide. While such elevational increases are readily predicted based on shifting isotherms, at the regional level the realized response is often much more complex, with topography and local environmental conditions playing an important modifying role. Here, we used repeated aerial photographs in combination with forest inventory data to investigate changes in treeline position in the Central Mountain Range of Taiwan over the last 60 years. A highly spatially variable upslope advance of treeline was identified in which topography is a major driver of both treeline form and advance. The changes in treeline position that we observed occurred alongside substantial increases in forest density, and lead to a large increase in overall forest area. These changes will have a significant impact on carbon stocking in the high altitude zone, while the concomitant decrease in alpine grassland area is likely to have negative implications for alpine species. The complex and spatially variable changes that we report highlight the necessity for considering local factors such as topography when attempting to predict species distributional responses to warming climate. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The place of occupational therapy in rehabilitation strategies of complex regional pain syndrome: Comparative study of 60 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rome, L

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the value of combining occupational therapy (OT) with physical therapy (PT) for the rehabilitation of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and to measure its effectiveness on activities of daily life. Sixty patients with CRPS type 1 were recruited and interviewed between September 1, 2014 and February 1, 2015. Thirty patients had undergone PT and thirty had undergone PT+OT. They were administered the short-form of the "Assessment of Life Habits" questionnaire (v.3.0 LIFE-H) created in Canada. This questionnaire consists of 16 items exploring activities of daily living, which were used to compare the effectiveness of the two rehabilitation protocols. The results of each test were submitted to the Wilcoxon test. After confirming the complexity of CRPS in terms of its etiology, clinical signs and progression, rehabilitation was effective, especially for pain. The patients who received PT+OT had on average 10% better dressing and undressing function, 25% better for meal preparation, and 20% better on personal care than those who underwent PT only. In CRPS, OT combined with PT brings a real benefit in restoring the essential activities of daily life. This strategy could be implemented as soon the diagnosis confirmed and continued for a very long time. It helps to avoid the risk of dependence on third parties. Copyright © 2016 SFCM. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Linking Bayesian and agent-based models to simulate complex social-ecological systems in semi-arid regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloah J Pope

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Interdependencies of ecologic, hydrologic, and social systems challenge traditional approaches to natural resource management in semi-arid regions. As a complex social-ecological system, water demands in the Sonoran Desert from agricultural and urban users often conflicts with water needs for its ecologically-significant riparian corridors. To explore this system, we developed an agent-based model to simulate complex feedbacks between human decisions and environmental conditions in the Rio Sonora Watershed. Cognitive mapping in conjunction with stakeholder participation produced a Bayesian model of conditional probabilities of local human decision-making processes resulting to changes in water demand. Probabilities created in the Bayesian model were incorporated into the agent-based model, so that each agent had a unique probability to make a positive decision based on its perceived environment at each point in time and space. By using a Bayesian approach, uncertainty in the human decision-making process could be incorporated. The spatially-explicit agent-based model simulated changes in depth-to-groundwater by well pumping based on an agent’s water demand. Changes in depth-to-groundwater feedback to influence agent behavior, as well as determine unique vegetation classes within the riparian corridor. Each vegetation class then provides varying stakeholder-defined quality values of ecosystem services. Using this modeling approach allowed us to examine effects on both the ecological and social system of semi-arid riparian corridors under various scenarios. The insight provided by the model contributes to understanding how specific interventions may alter the complex social-ecological system in the future.

  19. Gathering dust: A galaxy-wide study of dust emission from cloud complexes in NGC 300

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riener, M.; Faesi, C. M.; Forbrich, J.; Lada, C. J.

    2018-05-01

    Aims: We use multi-band observations by the Herschel Space Observatory to study the dust emission properties of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 300. We compile a first catalogue of the population of giant dust clouds (GDCs) in NGC 300, including temperature and mass estimates, and give an estimate of the total dust mass of the galaxy. Methods: We carried out source detection with the multiwavelength source extraction algorithm getsources. We calculated physical properties, including mass and temperature, of the GDCs from five-band Herschel PACS and SPIRE observations from 100 to 500 μm; the final size and mass estimates are based on the observations at 250 μm that have an effective spatial resolution of 170 pc. We correlated our final catalogue of GDCs to pre-existing catalogues of HII regions to infer the number of GDCs associated with high-mass star formation and determined the Hα emission of the GDCs. Results: Our final catalogue of GDCs includes 146 sources, 90 of which are associated with known HII regions. We find that the dust masses of the GDCs are completely dominated by the cold dust component and range from 1.1 × 103 to 1.4 × 104 M⊙. The GDCs have effective temperatures of 13-23 K and show a distinct cold dust effective temperature gradient from the centre towards the outer parts of the stellar disk. We find that the population of GDCs in our catalogue constitutes 16% of the total dust mass of NGC 300, which we estimate to be about 5.4 × 106 M⊙. At least about 87% of our GDCs have a high enough average dust mass surface density to provide sufficient shielding to harbour molecular clouds. We compare our results to previous pointed molecular gas observations in NGC 300 and results from other nearby galaxies and also conclude that it is very likely that most of our GDCs are associated with complexes of giant molecular clouds. The catalogue is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  20. [Effects of therapeutic complexes including balneoradonokinesitherapy, electromyostimulation and low-frequency magnetotherapy on regional blood flow in patients with postrraumatic gonarthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspopova, E A; Udartsev, E Iu

    2006-01-01

    Balneoradonokinesitherapy alone and its combination with electrostimulation and low-frequency magnetotherapy were used for the treatment of regional blood flow disorders in 76 patients with posttraumatic gonarthritis. Balneoradonokinesitherapy in combination with electromyostimulation improved blood circulation. When low-frequency magnetotherapy was added to the latter complex, the regress of regional blood flow disorders of a damaged extremity was most significant.

  1. Evaluation of low level laser and interferential current in the therapy of complex regional pain syndrome by infrared thermographic camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I is characterized by continuous regional pain, disproportional according to duration and intensity and to the sort of trauma or other lesion it was caused by. The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare, by using thermovison, the effects of low level laser therapy and therapy with interferential current in treatment of CRPS I. Methods. The prospective randomized controlled clinical study included 45 patients with unilateral CRPS I, after a fracture of the distal end of the radius, of the tibia and/or the fibula, treated in the Clinical Centre in Nis from 2004 to 2007. The group A consisted of 20 patients treated by low level laser therapy and kinesy-therapy, while the patients in the group B (n = 25 were treated by interferential current and kinesy-therapy. The regions of interest were filmed by a thermovision camera on both sides, before and after the 20 therapeutic procedures had been applied. Afterwards, the quantitative analysis and the comparing of thermograms taken before and after the applied therapy were performed. Results. There was statistically significant decrease of the mean maximum temperature difference between the injured and the contralateral extremity after the therapy in comparison to the status before the therapy, with the patients of the group A (p < 0.001 as well as those of the group B (p < 0.001. The decrease was statistically significantly higher in the group A than in the group B (p < 0.05. Conclusions. By the use of the infrared thermovision we showed that in the treatment of CRPS I both physical medicine methods were effective, but the effectiveness of laser therapy was statistically significantly higher compared to that of the interferential current therapy.

  2. One-year experience of a regional service model of teleconsultation for planning and treatment of complex thoracoabdominal aortic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisci, Emiliano; de Donato, Gianmarco; Fargion, Aaron; Ventoruzzo, Giorgio; Parlani, Gianbattista; Setacci, Carlo; Ercolini, Leonardo; Michelagnoli, Stefano

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to report the methodology and 1-year experience of a regional service model of teleconsultation for planning and treatment of complex thoracoabdominal aortic disease (TAAD). Complex TAADs without a feasible conventional surgical repair were prospectively evaluated by vascular surgeons of the same public health service (National Health System) located in a huge area of 22,994 km 2 with 3.7 million inhabitants and 11 tertiary hospitals. Surgeons evaluated computed tomography scans and clinical details that were placed on a web platform (Google Drive; Google, Mountain View, Calif) and shared by all surgeons. Patients gave informed consent for the teleconsultation. The surgeon who submits a case discusses in detail his or her case and proposes a possible therapeutic strategy. The other surgeons suggest other solutions and options in terms of grafts, techniques, or access to be used. Computed tomography angiography, angiography, and clinical outcomes of cases are then presented at the following telemeetings, and a final agreement of the operative strategy is evaluated. Teleconsultation is performed using a web conference service (WebConference.com; Avaya Inc, Basking Ridge, NJ) every month. An inter-rater agreement statistic was calculated, and the κ value was interpreted according to Altman's criteria for computed tomography angiography measurements. The rate of participation was constant (mean number of surgeons, 11; range, 9-15). Twenty-four complex TAAD cases were discussed for planning and operation during the study period. The interobserver reliability recorded was moderate (κ = 0.41-0.60) to good (κ = 0.61-0.80) for measurements of proximal and distal sealing and very good (κ = 0.81-1) for detection of any target vessel angulation >60 degrees, significant calcification (circumferential), and thrombus presence (>50%). The concordance for planning and therapeutic strategy among all participants was complete in 16 cases. In

  3. Bodily Sensory Inputs and Anomalous Bodily Experiences in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: Evaluation of the Potential Effects of Sound Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tajadura-Jiménez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Neuroscientific studies have shown that human's mental body representations are not fixed but are constantly updated through sensory feedback, including sound feedback. This suggests potential new therapeutic sensory approaches for patients experiencing body-perception disturbances (BPD. BPD can occur in association with chronic pain, for example in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS. BPD often impacts on emotional, social, and motor functioning. Here we present the results from a proof-of-principle pilot study investigating the potential value of using sound feedback for altering BPD and its related emotional state and motor behavior in those with CRPS. We build on previous findings that real-time alteration of the sounds produced by walking can alter healthy people's perception of their own body size, while also resulting in more active gait patterns and a more positive emotional state. In the present study we quantified the emotional state, BPD, pain levels and gait of twelve people with CRPS Type 1, who were exposed to real-time alteration of their walking sounds. Results confirm previous reports of the complexity of the BPD linked to CRPS, as participants could be classified into four BPD subgroups according to how they mentally visualize their body. Further, results suggest that sound feedback may affect the perceived size of the CRPS affected limb and the pain experienced, but that the effects may differ according to the type of BPD. Sound feedback affected CRPS descriptors and other bodily feelings and emotions including feelings of emotional dominance, limb detachment, position awareness, attention and negative feelings toward the limb. Gait also varied with sound feedback, affecting the foot contact time with the ground in a way consistent with experienced changes in body weight. Although, findings from this small pilot study should be interpreted with caution, they suggest potential applications for regenerating BDP and its related

  4. Bodily Sensory Inputs and Anomalous Bodily Experiences in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: Evaluation of the Potential Effects of Sound Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajadura-Jiménez, Ana; Cohen, Helen; Bianchi-Berthouze, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    Neuroscientific studies have shown that human's mental body representations are not fixed but are constantly updated through sensory feedback, including sound feedback. This suggests potential new therapeutic sensory approaches for patients experiencing body-perception disturbances (BPD). BPD can occur in association with chronic pain, for example in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS). BPD often impacts on emotional, social, and motor functioning. Here we present the results from a proof-of-principle pilot study investigating the potential value of using sound feedback for altering BPD and its related emotional state and motor behavior in those with CRPS. We build on previous findings that real-time alteration of the sounds produced by walking can alter healthy people's perception of their own body size, while also resulting in more active gait patterns and a more positive emotional state. In the present study we quantified the emotional state, BPD, pain levels and gait of twelve people with CRPS Type 1, who were exposed to real-time alteration of their walking sounds. Results confirm previous reports of the complexity of the BPD linked to CRPS, as participants could be classified into four BPD subgroups according to how they mentally visualize their body. Further, results suggest that sound feedback may affect the perceived size of the CRPS affected limb and the pain experienced, but that the effects may differ according to the type of BPD. Sound feedback affected CRPS descriptors and other bodily feelings and emotions including feelings of emotional dominance, limb detachment, position awareness, attention and negative feelings toward the limb. Gait also varied with sound feedback, affecting the foot contact time with the ground in a way consistent with experienced changes in body weight. Although, findings from this small pilot study should be interpreted with caution, they suggest potential applications for regenerating BDP and its related bodily feelings in

  5. The rubber hand illusion in complex regional pain syndrome: preserved ability to integrate a rubber hand indicates intact multisensory integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinersmann, Annika; Landwehrt, Julia; Krumova, Elena K; Peterburs, Jutta; Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Güntürkün, Onur; Maier, Christoph

    2013-09-01

    In patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type 1, processing of static tactile stimuli is impaired, whereas more complex sensory integration functions appear preserved. This study investigated higher order multisensory integration of body-relevant stimuli using the rubber hand illusion in CRPS patients. Subjective self-reports and skin conductance responses to watching the rubber hand being harmed were compared among CRPS patients (N=24), patients with upper limb pain of other origin (N=21, clinical control group), and healthy subjects (N=24). Additionally, the influence of body representation (body plasticity [Trinity Assessment of Body Plasticity], neglect-like severity symptoms), and clinical signs of illusion strength were investigated. For statistical analysis, 1-way analysis of variance, t test, Pearson correlation, with α=0.05 were used. CRPS patients did not differ from healthy subjects and the control group with regard to their illusion strength as assessed by subjective reports or skin conductance response values. Stronger left-sided rubber hand illusions were reported by healthy subjects and left-side-affected CRPS patients. Moreover, for this subgroup, illness duration and illusion strength were negatively correlated. Overall, severity of neglect-like symptoms and clinical signs were not related to illusion strength. However, patients with CRPS of the right hand reported significantly stronger neglect-like symptoms and significantly lower illusion strength of the affected hand than patients with CRPS of the left hand. The weaker illusion of CRPS patients with strong neglect-like symptoms on the affected hand supports the role of top-down processes modulating body ownership. Moreover, the intact ability to perceive illusory ownership confirms the notion that, despite impaired processing of proprioceptive or tactile input, higher order multisensory integration is unaffected in CRPS. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study

  6. Regional-dependent intestinal permeability and BCS classification: elucidation of pH-related complexity in rats using pseudoephedrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairstein, Moran; Swissa, Rotem; Dahan, Arik

    2013-04-01

    Based on its lower Log P value relative to metoprolol, a marker for the low/high-permeability (P(eff)) class boundary, pseudoephedrine was provisionally classified as BCS low-permeability compound. On the other hand, following oral administration, pseudoephedrine fraction dose absorbed (F(abs)) and systemic bioavailability approaches 100%. This represents a challenge to the generally recognized P(eff)-F(abs) correlation. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the underlying mechanisms behind the confusion in pseudoephedrine's BCS classification. Pseudoephedrine's BCS solubility class was determined, and its physicochemical properties and intestinal permeability were thoroughly investigated, both in vitro and in vivo in rats, considering the complexity of the whole of the small intestine. Pseudoephedrine was found to be unequivocally a high-solubility compound. All of the permeability studies revealed similar phenomenon; at any given intestinal segment/pH, the permeability of metoprolol was higher than that of pseudoephedrine, however, as the intestinal region becomes progressively distal, and the pH gradually increases, pseudoephedrine's permeability rises above that of metoprolol in the former segment. This unique permeability pattern likely explains pseudoephedrine's complete absorption. In conclusion, pseudoephedrine is a BCS Class I compound; no discrepancy between P(eff) and F(abs) is involved in its absorption. Rather, it reflects the complexity behind P(eff) when considering the whole of the intestine. We propose to allow high-permeability classification to drugs with P(eff) that matches/exceeds the low/high class benchmark anywhere throughout the intestinal tract and not restricted necessarily to the jejunum.

  7. Two putative subunits of a peptide pump encoded in the human major histocompatability complex class 2 region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahram, S.; Arnold, D.; Bresnahan, M.; Strominger, J.L.; Spies, T.

    1991-01-01

    The class 2 region of the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) may encode several genes controlling the processing of endogenous antigen and the presentation of peptide epitopes by MHC class 1 molecules to cytotoxic T lymphocytes. A previously described peptide supply factor (PSF1) is a member of the multidrug-resistance family of transporters and may pump cytosolic peptides into the membrane-bound compartment where class 1 molecules assemble. A second transporter gene, PSF2, was identified 10 kilobases (kb) from PSF1, near the class 2 DOB gene. The complete sequences of PSF1 and PSF2 were determined from cDNA clones. The translation products are closely related in sequence and predicted secondary structure. Both contain a highly conserved ATP-binding fold and share 25% homology in a hydrophobic domain with a tentative number of eight membrane-spanning segments. Based on the principle dimeric organization of these two domains in other transporters, PSF1 and PSF2 may function as complementary subunits, independently as homodimers, or both. Taken together with previous genetic evidence, the coregulation of PSF1 and PSF2 by γ interferon and the to-some-degree coordinate transcription of these genes suggest a common role in peptide-loading of class 1 molecules, although a distinct function of PSF2 cannot be ruled out

  8. Usefulness of asymmetry score on quantitative three-phase bone scintigraphy in the evaluation of complex regional pain syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampath, Santhosh; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai; Arun, Sasikumar; Sood, Ashwani; Bhattacharya, Anish; Sharma, Aman

    2013-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is primarily a clinical diagnosis. Diagnostic imaging in CRPS can be used, especially to exclude other disorders. The sensitivity and specificity of three phase bone scintigraphy (TPBS) for the diagnosis of CRPS is variable throughout the literature. To establish a simple and effective quantitative approach to help in the diagnosis of CRPS by TPBS. TPBS done in patients (n = 68) with suspected CRPS was analyzed retrospectively. They were classified into bone scan positive group (BSP), bone scan negative group (BSN) and non-CRPS group based on diffusely increased periarticular uptake, symmetrical uptake, and focal uptake respectively. Asymmetry score (AS) was also measured between the affected and unaffected side. 16 patients showed focal uptake, 37 were in BSP group with mean AS score of 1.57 ± 0.5 and 15 were in BSN group with mean AS score of 1.01 ± 0.05. The mean AS was significantly different (P < 0.0001). AS of 1.06 had sensitivity and specificity of 96.43% and 100% respectively (P = 0.0001). There was a trend of negative correlation between the AS and the duration, r = −0.21; however, it was not statistically significant (P = 0.28). TPBS should be considered in the evaluation of CRPS to rule out patients who have focal involvement, not diagnostic of CRPS (~24% in this study). Quantitative AS of 1.06 can be included to support visual interpretation in the delayed phase

  9. Enhanced pain and autonomic responses to ambiguous visual stimuli in chronic Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, H E; Hall, J; Harris, N; McCabe, C S; Blake, D R; Jänig, W

    2012-02-01

    Cortical reorganisation of sensory, motor and autonomic systems can lead to dysfunctional central integrative control. This may contribute to signs and symptoms of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS), including pain. It has been hypothesised that central neuroplastic changes may cause afferent sensory feedback conflicts and produce pain. We investigated autonomic responses produced by ambiguous visual stimuli (AVS) in CRPS, and their relationship to pain. Thirty CRPS patients with upper limb involvement and 30 age and sex matched healthy controls had sympathetic autonomic function assessed using laser Doppler flowmetry of the finger pulp at baseline and while viewing a control figure or AVS. Compared to controls, there were diminished vasoconstrictor responses and a significant difference in the ratio of response between affected and unaffected limbs (symmetry ratio) to a deep breath and viewing AVS. While viewing visual stimuli, 33.5% of patients had asymmetric vasomotor responses and all healthy controls had a homologous symmetric pattern of response. Nineteen (61%) CRPS patients had enhanced pain within seconds of viewing the AVS. All the asymmetric vasomotor responses were in this group, and were not predictable from baseline autonomic function. Ten patients had accompanying dystonic reactions in their affected limb: 50% were in the asymmetric sub-group. In conclusion, there is a group of CRPS patients that demonstrate abnormal pain networks interacting with central somatomotor and autonomic integrational pathways. © 2011 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  10. Antiallodynic Effects of Bee Venom in an Animal Model of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1 (CRPS-I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Hyun; Lee, Jae Min; Kim, Yun Hong; Choi, Jung Hyun; Jeon, Seung Hwan; Kim, Dong Kyu; Jeong, Hyeon Do; Lee, You Jung; Park, Hue Jung

    2017-09-15

    Neuropathic pain in a chronic post-ischaemic pain (CPIP) model mimics the symptoms of complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I). The administration of bee venom (BV) has been utilized in Eastern medicine to treat chronic inflammatory diseases accompanying pain. However, the analgesic effect of BV in a CPIP model remains unknown. The application of a tight-fitting O-ring around the left ankle for a period of 3 h generated CPIP in C57/Bl6 male adult mice. BV (1 mg/kg ; 1, 2, and 3 times) was administered into the SC layer of the hind paw, and the antiallodynic effects were investigated using the von Frey test and by measuring the expression of neurokinin type 1 (NK-1) receptors in dorsal root ganglia (DRG). The administration of BV dose-dependently reduced the pain withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimuli compared with the pre-administration value and with that of the control group. After the development of the CPIP model, the expression of NK-1 receptors in DRG increased and then decreased following the administration of BV. SC administration of BV results in the attenuation of allodynia in a mouse model of CPIP. The antiallodynic effect was objectively proven through a reduction in the increased expression of NK-1 receptors in DRG.

  11. Investigating Reports of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: An Analysis of HPV-16/18-Adjuvanted Vaccine Post-Licensure Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huygen, Frank; Verschueren, Kristin; McCabe, Candida; Stegmann, Jens-Ulrich; Zima, Julia; Mahaux, Olivia; Van Holle, Lionel; Angelo, Maria-Genalin

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain disorder that typically follows trauma or surgery. Suspected CRPS reported after vaccination with human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines led to temporary suspension of proactive recommendation of HPV vaccination in Japan. We investigated the potential CRPS signal in relation to HPV-16/18-adjuvanted vaccine (Cervarix®) by database review of CRPS cases with independent expert confirmation; a disproportionality analysis and analyses of temporality; an observed versus expected analysis using published background incidence rates; systematic reviews of aggregate safety data, and a literature review. The analysis included 17 case reports of CRPS: 10 from Japan (0.14/100,000 doses distributed) and seven from the United Kingdom (0.08/100,000). Five cases were considered by independent experts to be confirmed CRPS. Quantitative analyses did not suggest an association between CRPS and HPV-16/18-adjuvanted vaccine. Observed CRPS incidence after HPV-16/18 vaccination was statistically significantly below expected rates. Systematic database reviews using search terms varying in specificity and sensitivity did not identify new cases. No CRPS was reported during clinical development and no unexpected results found in the literature. There is not sufficient evidence to suggest an increased risk of developing CRPS following vaccination with HPV-16/18-adjuvanted vaccine. Post-licensure safety surveillance confirms the acceptable benefit-risk of HPV-16/18 vaccination. PMID:26501109

  12. [Comparable disorder of the body schema in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and phantom pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinersmann, A; Haarmeyer, G S; Blankenburg, M; Frettlöh, J; Krumova, E K; Ocklenburg, S; Maier, C

    2011-09-01

    In patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) a disruption of the body schema has been shown in an altered cortical representation of the hand and in delayed reaction times (RT) in the hand laterality recognition task. However, the role of attentional processes or the effect of isolated limb laterality training has not yet been clarified. The performance of healthy subjects (n = 38), CRPS patients (n = 12) and phantom limb pain (PLP) patients (n = 12) in a test battery of attentional performance (TAP) and in a limb laterality recognition task was compared and the effect of limb laterality training in CRPS patients and healthy subjects evaluated. The RTs of both CRPS and PLP patients were significantly slower than those of healthy subjects despite normal TAP values. The CRPS and PLP patients showed bilaterally delayed RTs. Through training RTs improved significantly but the RTs of CRPS patients remained slower than those of healthy subjects. In this study an equal disruption of the body schema was found in both CRPS and PLP patients which cannot be accounted for by attentional processes. For CRPS patients this disorder cannot be fully reversed by isolated limb laterality recognition training.

  13. Establishing the characteristics for patients with chronic Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: the value of the CRPS-UK Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenker, Nicholas; Goebel, Andreas; Rockett, Mark; Batchelor, James; Jones, Gareth T; Parker, Richard; de C Williams, Amanda C; McCabe, Candida

    2015-05-01

    The long-term prognosis of patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is unknown with no reported prospective studies from the United Kingdom longer than 18 months. The CRPS-UK Network aims to study this by use of a Registry. The aims of this article are, to outline the CRPS-UK Registry, assess the validity of the data and to describe the characteristics of a sample of the UK CRPS population. A web-based CRPS-UK Registry was developed and made accessible to centres experienced in diagnosing and managing patients with CRPS. Pragmatic annual follow-up questions were agreed. Up until July 2013, the Registry has recruited 240 patients. A blinded, validation study of 20 consecutive patients from two centres (10 each) demonstrated 95.6% completion and 99.4% accuracy of a random sample of the recorded data. These patients had chronic disease (median duration: 29 months); 72.5% were female (2.6:1), with a mean age at symptoms onset of 43 years, and were left-handed more than expected (21.8% versus 10% in the general population). Patients reported a delayed diagnosis, with the median time between symptom onset and diagnosis of 6 months. In all, 30 patients (12.5%) had multiple limb involvement and (83.3%) had a contiguous spread of CRPS. CRPS-UK Registry is a validated method for actively recruiting well-characterised patients with CRPS to provide further information on the long-term outcome.

  14. Novel Signs and Their Clinical Utility in Diagnosing Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS): A Prospective Observational Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttikat, Anoop; Shaikh, Maliha; Oomatia, Amin; Parker, Richard; Shenker, Nicholas

    2017-06-01

    Delays in diagnosis occur with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). We define and prospectively demonstrate that novel bedside tests measuring body perception disruption can identify patients with CRPS postfracture. The objectives of our study were to define and validate 4 bedside tests, to identify the prevalence of positive tests in patients with CRPS and other chronic pain conditions, and to assess the clinical utility (sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value) for identifying CRPS within a Fracture cohort. This was a single UK teaching hospital prospective cohort study with 313 recruits from pain-free volunteers and patients with chronic pain conditions.Four novel tests were Finger Perception (FP), Hand Laterality identification (HL), Astereognosis (AS), and Body Scheme (BS) report. Five questionnaires (Brief Pain Inventory, Upper Extremity Functional Index, Lower Extremity Functional Index, Neglect-like Symptom Questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score) assessed the multidimensional pain experience. FP and BS were the best performing tests. Prospective monitoring of fracture patients showed that out of 7 fracture patients (total n=47) who had both finger misperception and abnormal BS report at initial testing, 3 developed persistent pain with 1 having a formal diagnosis of CRPS. Novel signs are reliable, easy to perform, and present in chronic pain patients. FP and BS have significant clinical utility in predicting persistent pain in a fracture group thereby allowing targeted early intervention.

  15. A CRPS-IgG-transfer-trauma model reproducing inflammatory and positive sensory signs associated with complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tékus, Valéria; Hajna, Zsófia; Borbély, Éva; Markovics, Adrienn; Bagoly, Teréz; Szolcsányi, János; Thompson, Victoria; Kemény, Ágnes; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Goebel, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    The aetiology of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), a highly painful, usually post-traumatic condition affecting the limbs, is unknown, but recent results have suggested an autoimmune contribution. To confirm a role for pathogenic autoantibodies, we established a passive-transfer trauma model. Prior to undergoing incision of hind limb plantar skin and muscle, mice were injected either with serum IgG obtained from chronic CRPS patients or matched healthy volunteers, or with saline. Unilateral hind limb plantar skin and muscle incision was performed to induce typical, mild tissue injury. Mechanical hyperalgesia, paw swelling, heat and cold sensitivity, weight-bearing ability, locomotor activity, motor coordination, paw temperature, and body weight were investigated for 8days. After sacrifice, proinflammatory sensory neuropeptides and cytokines were measured in paw tissues. CRPS patient IgG treatment significantly increased hind limb mechanical hyperalgesia and oedema in the incised paw compared with IgG from healthy subjects or saline. Plantar incision induced a remarkable elevation of substance P immunoreactivity on day 8, which was significantly increased by CRPS-IgG. In this IgG-transfer-trauma model for CRPS, serum IgG from chronic CRPS patients induced clinical and laboratory features resembling the human disease. These results support the hypothesis that autoantibodies may contribute to the pathophysiology of CRPS, and that autoantibody-removing therapies may be effective treatments for long-standing CRPS. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. High-resolution spatial databases of monthly climate variables (1961-2010) over a complex terrain region in southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Xu, An-Ding; Liu, Hong-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Climate data in gridded format are critical for understanding climate change and its impact on eco-environment. The aim of the current study is to develop spatial databases for three climate variables (maximum, minimum temperatures, and relative humidity) over a large region with complex topography in southwestern China. Five widely used approaches including inverse distance weighting, ordinary kriging, universal kriging, co-kriging, and thin-plate smoothing spline were tested. Root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) showed that thin-plate smoothing spline with latitude, longitude, and elevation outperformed other models. Average RMSE, MAE, and MAPE of the best models were 1.16 °C, 0.74 °C, and 7.38 % for maximum temperature; 0.826 °C, 0.58 °C, and 6.41 % for minimum temperature; and 3.44, 2.28, and 3.21 % for relative humidity, respectively. Spatial datasets of annual and monthly climate variables with 1-km resolution covering the period 1961-2010 were then obtained using the best performance methods. Comparative study showed that the current outcomes were in well agreement with public datasets. Based on the gridded datasets, changes in temperature variables were investigated across the study area. Future study might be needed to capture the uncertainty induced by environmental conditions through remote sensing and knowledge-based methods.

  17. The Santa Izabel Complex, Gavião Block, Brazil: Components, geocronology, regional correlations and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Eder Luis Mathias; Cruz, Simone Cerqueira Pereira; Barbosa, Johildo Salomão Figueiredo; Paquette, Jean Louis; Peucat, Jean Jacques; Jesus, Silvandira dos Santos Góes Pereira de; Barbosa, Rafael Gordilho; Brito, Reinaldo Santana Correia de; Carneiro, Mauricio Antônio

    2017-12-01

    Cratons, as well as the basement of their marginal orogens, may represent important sites of research regarding the formation and evolution of Archean continental crusts. The Gavião Block is one of the oldest terranes in South America with rocks aged up to 3.6 Ga. Among the Archean units that outcrop in the southern sector of this block is the Santa Izabel Complex, which for the most part is located in the São Francisco Craton, close to its limit with the Araçuaí-West Congo Orogen. This complex has generally been described as comprising ortho- and paraderived rocks that were metamorphosed in high amphibolite facies. Studies in the southern region of this complex have shown the main components: (i) orthogneisses, whose protoliths are the Mesoarchean rocks of the Santa Izabel Magmatic Suite; and (iii) migmatites. and (iv) amphibolitic and metaultramafic enclaves. U-Pb studies (LA-ICPMS and SHRIMP) performed on zircons of the paleosome in metatexites and inherited zircons in migmatites indicate crystallization ages between 3091 ± 24 and 3136 ± 8 Ma for the rocks of the Santa Izabel Magmatic Suite. Inherited zircons aged ca. 3.4 Ga in paleosomes demonstrate the influence of older continental crust in the formation of these rocks. For the Caraguatai Magmatic Suite, the alignment of zircons and monazites suggests a crystallization age around 2.6 Ga. The Rhyacian migmatites were divided into metatexites and diatexites. Diatexites were divided into: (i) discontinuous boudinated early diatexites, which are parallel to stromatic metatexites, composing the gneissic banding. These rocks have diffuse metamorphic banding and features that suggest the action of mylonitization processes; and (ii) late diatexites, forming more continuous bodies, which truncate the gneissic banding. The migmatization occurred in two stages, with time interval between ca. 2.1 Ga and 2.07 Ga. The structural framework reveal the existence of four progressive Rhyacian deformation phases (Dn to Dn

  18. Analysis Of Ultra Compact Ionized Hydrogen Regions Within The Northern Half Of The Galactic Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, John

    2011-01-01

    From a catalog of 199 candidate ultra compact (UC) HII regions 123 sources included in the the intersection of the GLIMPSE (8 μm),Cornish (6 cm), and Bolocam ( 1.1 mm) galactic plane surveys (BGPS) were analyzed. The sources were sorted based on 6 cm morphology and coincidence with 8 μm bubbles. The 1.1 mm flux attributes were measured and calculations were performed to determine the ionized hydrogen contributions to the 1.1 mm flux. The category averages and frequencies were obtained as well. Significant differences in HII percentages were present among the morphology groups but ranged widely, without apparent distinction, between the bubble forming and triggered source categories.

  19. Disdrometer-based C-Band Radar Quantitative Precipitation Estimation (QPE) in a highly complex terrain region in tropical Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, J.; Hoyos Ortiz, C. D.

    2017-12-01

    An adequate quantification of precipitation over land is critical for many societal applications including agriculture, hydroelectricity generation, water supply, and risk management associated with extreme events. The use of rain gauges, a traditional method for precipitation estimation, and an excellent one, to estimate the volume of liquid water during a particular precipitation event, does not allow to fully capture the highly spatial variability of the phenomena which is a requirement for almost all practical applications. On the other hand, the weather radar, an active remote sensing sensor, provides a proxy for rainfall with fine spatial resolution and adequate temporary sampling, however, it does not measure surface precipitation. In order to fully exploit the capabilities of the weather radar, it is necessary to develop quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) techniques combining radar information with in-situ measurements. Different QPE methodologies are explored and adapted to local observations in a highly complex terrain region in tropical Colombia using a C-Band radar and a relatively dense network of rain gauges and disdrometers. One important result is that the expressions reported in the literature for extratropical locations are not representative of the conditions found in the tropical region studied. In addition to reproducing the state-of-the-art techniques, a new multi-stage methodology based on radar-derived variables and disdrometer data is proposed in order to achieve the best QPE possible. The main motivation for this new methodology is based on the fact that most traditional QPE methods do not directly take into account the different uncertainty sources involved in the process. The main advantage of the multi-stage model compared to traditional models is that it allows assessing and quantifying the uncertainty in the surface rain rate estimation. The sub-hourly rainfall estimations using the multi-stage methodology are realistic

  20. NuSTAR Search for Hard X-ray Emission from the Star Formation Regions in Sh2-104

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotthelf, Eric V.

    2016-04-01

    We present NuSTAR hard X-ray observations of Sh2-104, a compact Hii region containing several young massive stellar clusters (YMSCs). We have detected distinct hard X-ray sources coincident with localized VERITAS TeV emission recently resolved from the giant gamma-ray complex MGRO J2019+37 in the Cygnus region. Faint, diffuse X-ray emission coincident with the eastern YMSC in Sh2-104 is likely the result of colliding winds of component stars. Just outside the radio shell of Sh2-104 lies 3XMM J201744.7+365045 and nearby nebula NuSTAR J201744.3+364812, whose properties are most consistent with extragalactic objects. The combined XMM-Newton and NuSTAR spectrum of 3XMM J201744.7+365045 is well-fit to an absorbed power-law model with NH = (3.1+/-1.0)E22 1/cm^2 and photon index Gamma = 2.1+/-0.1. Based on possible long-term flux variation and lack of detected pulsations (Sh2-104 will help identify the nature of the X-ray sources and their relation to MGRO J2019+37.

  1. Differential Efficacy of Ketamine in the Acute versus Chronic Stages of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajerian, Maral; Leu, David; Yang, Phillip; Huang, Ting Ting; Kingery, Wade S; Clark, J David

    2015-01-01

    Background Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a painful, disabling and often chronic condition, where many patients transition from an acute phase with prominent peripheral neurogenic inflammation to a chronic phase with evident central nervous system (CNS) changes. Ketamine is a centrally-acting agent believed to work through blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and is being increasingly used for the treatment of refractory CRPS, although the basis for the drug’s effects and efficacy at different stages of the syndrome remain unclear. Methods We used a mouse model of CRPS (n=8–12/group) involving tibia fracture/cast immobilization to test the efficacy of ketamine (2 mg/kg/day; 7 days) or vehicle infusion during acute (3weeks [3w] post-fracture) and chronic (7w post-fracture) stages. Results Acute phase fracture mice displayed elevated limb temperature, edema and nociceptive sensitization that were not reduced by ketamine. Fracture mice treated with ketamine during the chronic phase showed reduced nociceptive sensitization that persisted beyond completion of the infusion. During this chronic phase, ketamine also reduced latent nociceptive sensitization and improved motor function at 18 weeks post-fracture. No side effects of the infusions were identified. These behavioral changes were associated with altered spinal astrocyte activation and expression of pain-related proteins including NMDA receptor 2b (NR2b), Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ii (CaMK2), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF). Conclusions Collectively, these results demonstrate that ketamine is efficacious in the chronic, but not acute stages of CRPS, suggesting that the centrally-acting drug is relatively ineffective in early CRPS when peripheral mechanisms are more critical for supporting nociceptive sensitization. PMID:26492479

  2. Relationship Between HbA1c and Complex Regional Pain Syndrome in Stroke Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between glycosylated hemoglobin A (HbA1c) and complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) in stroke patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods A retrospective chart review was performed of stroke patients from January 2012 to December 2013. We reviewed 331 patients and included 200 in the analysis. We divided them into CRPS and non-CRPS groups and compared them by age, gender, stroke lesion, cause of stroke, duration of T2DM, HbA1c (%), National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, affected shoulder flexor muscle strength, Fugl-Meyer Assessment score, motricity index, Functional Independence Measure, Korean version of Modified Barthel Index, blood glucose level on admission day, duration from stroke onset to HbA1c check, and duration from stroke onset to three-phase bone scan for CRPS diagnosis. Thereafter, we classified the patients into five groups by HbA1c level (group 1, 5.0%–5.9%; group 2, 6.0%–6.9%; group 3, 7.0%–7.9%; group 4, 8.0%–8.9%; and group 5, 9.0%–9.9%) and we investigated the difference in CRPS prevalence between the two groups. Results Of the 200 patients, 108 were in the CRPS group and 92 were in the non-CRPS group. There were significant differences in HbA1c (pCRPS prevalence (pCRPS prevalence and thus that uncontrolled blood glucose can affect CRPS occurrence in stroke patients with diabetes. PMID:27847707

  3. Anti tumor necrosis factor - alpha adalimumab for complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-I): a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Elon; Sandler, Ifat; Treister, Roi; Suzan, Erica; Haddad, May

    2013-11-01

    Evidence suggests tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) mediates, at least in part, symptoms and signs in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Here, we present a case series of patients with CRPS type 1, in whom the response to the anti-TNF-α adalimumab was assessed. Ten patients with CRPS type 1 were recruited. Assessments were performed before treatment, at 1 week, and 1, 3, and 6 months following 3 biweekly subcutaneous injections (40 mg/0.8 mL) adalimumab (Humira(®) ) and included the followings: Pain intensity using a 0-10 cm visual analog scale; the Short Form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire; the Beck Depression Inventory; the SF-36 questionnaire and mechanical and thermal thresholds (Von frey hair and Thermal Sensory Analyzer, respectively). In addition to the description of individual patient responses, both intention to treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) analyses were performed for the entire group. Three subgroups of patients were identified (3 patients in each): "nonresponders", "partial responders", and "robust responders" in whom improvement in almost all parameters was noted. Both the ITT and PP analyses demonstrated only a trend toward improvement in mechanical pain thresholds following treatment (ITT χ² = 13.83, P = 0.008; PP χ² = 10.29, P = 0.036). These results suggest adalimumab, and possibly other anti-TNF-α, can be potentially useful in some (although not in all) patients with CRPS type 1. These preliminary results along with the growing body of evidence which points to the involvement of TNF-α in the pathogenesis of CRPS justify further studies in this area. © 2013 World Institute of Pain.

  4. Diagnostic Performance of Three Phase Bone Scan for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1 with Optimally Modified Image Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hyun Woo; Paeng, Jin Chul; Nahm, Francins Sahngun; Kim, Seog Gyun; Zehra, Tanzeel; Oh, So Won; Lee, Hyo Sang; Kang, Keon Wook; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Although the three phase bone scan (TBPS) is one of the widely used imaging studies for diagnosing complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS 1), there is some controversy regarding the TPBS image criteria for CRPS 1. In this study, we modified the image criteria using image pattern and quantitative analysis in the patients diagnosed using the most recent consensus clinical diagnostic criteria. The study included 140 patients with suspected CRPS 1 (CRPS 1, n=79; non CRPS, n=61; mean age 39{+-}15 years) who underwent TPBS. The clinical diagnostic criteria for CRPS 1 revised by the Budapest consensus group were used for confirmative diagnosis. Patients were classified according to flow/pool and delayed uptake (DU) image patterns, and the time interval between the initiating event and TPBS (TI{sup eventscan)}. Quantitative analysis for lesion to contralateral ratio (LCR) was performed. Modified TPBS image criteria were created and evaluated for optimal diagnostic performance. Both increased and decreased periarticular DU were significant image findings for CRPS 1 (CRPS 1 positive rate=73% in the increased DU group, 75% in the decreased DU group). The TI{sup eventscand}id not differ significantly between the different image pattern groups. Quantitative analysis revealed an LCR of 1.43 was the optimal cutoff value for CRPS 1 and diagnostic performance was significantly improved in the increased DU group (area under the curve=0.732). Given the modified image criteria, the sensitivity and specificity of TPBS for diagnosing CRPS 1 were 80% and 72%, respectively. Optimally modified TPBS image criteria for CRPS 1 were suggested using image pattern and quantitative analysis. With the criteria, TPBS is an effective imaging study for CRPS 1 even with the most recent consensus clinical diagnostic criteria.

  5. Complete recovery from intractable complex regional pain syndrome, CRPS-type I, following anesthetic ketamine and midazolam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Ralph-Thomas; Rohr, Peter; Ploppa, Annette; Altemeyer, Karl-Heinz; Schwartzman, Robert Jay

    2007-06-01

    To describe the treatment of an intractable complex regional pain syndrome I (CRPS-I) patient with anesthetic doses of ketamine supplemented with midazolam. A patient presented with a rapidly progressing contiguous spread of CRPS from a severe ligamentous wrist injury. Standard pharmacological and interventional therapy successively failed to halt the spread of CRPS from the wrist to the entire right arm. Her pain was unmanageable with all standard therapy. As a last treatment option, the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit and treated on a compassionate care basis with anesthetic doses of ketamine in gradually increasing (3-5 mg/kg/h) doses in conjunction with midazolam over a period of 5 days. On the second day of the ketamine and midazolam infusion, edema, and discoloration began to resolve and increased spontaneous movement was noted. On day 6, symptoms completely resolved and infusions were tapered. The patient emerged from anesthesia completely free of pain and associated CRPS signs and symptoms. The patient has maintained this complete remission from CRPS for 8 years now. In a patient with severe spreading and refractory CRPS, a complete and long-term remission from CRPS has been obtained utilizing ketamine and midazolam in anesthetic doses. This intensive care procedure has very serious risks but no severe complications occurred. The psychiatric side effects of ketamine were successfully managed with the concomitant use of midazolam and resolved within 1 month of treatment. This case report illustrates the effectiveness and safety of high-dose ketamine in a patient with generalized, refractory CRPS.

  6. Recommendations for a first Core Outcome Measurement set for complex regional PAin syndrome Clinical sTudies (COMPACT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieve, Sharon; Perez, Roberto SGM; Birklein, Frank; Brunner, Florian; Bruehl, Stephen; Harden R, Norman; Packham, Tara; Gobeil, Francois; Haigh, Richard; Holly, Janet; Terkelsen, Astrid; Davies, Lindsay; Lewis, Jennifer; Thomassen, Ilona; Connett, Robyn; Worth, Tina; Vatine, Jean-Jacques; McCabe, Candida S

    2017-01-01

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a persistent pain condition that remains incompletely understood and challenging to treat. Historically, a wide range of different outcome measures have been used to capture the multidimensional nature of CRPS. This has been a significant limiting factor in the advancement of our understanding of the mechanisms and management of CRPS. In 2013, an international consortium of patients, clinicians, researchers and industry representatives was established, to develop and agree on a minimum core set of standardised outcome measures for use in future CRPS clinical research, including but not limited to clinical trials within adult populations The development of a core measurement set was informed through workshops and supplementary work, using an iterative consensus process. ‘What is the clinical presentation and course of CRPS, and what factors influence it?’ was agreed as the most pertinent research question that our standardised set of patient-reported outcome measures should be selected to answer. The domains encompassing the key concepts necessary to answer the research question were agreed as: pain, disease severity, participation and physical function, emotional and psychological function, self efficacy, catastrophizing and patient's global impression of change. The final core measurement set included the optimum generic or condition-specific patient-reported questionnaire outcome measures, which captured the essence of each domain, and one clinician reported outcome measure to capture the degree of severity of CRPS. The next step is to test the feasibility and acceptability of collecting outcome measure data using the core measurement set in the CRPS population internationally. PMID:28178071

  7. The association between ACE inhibitors and the complex regional pain syndrome: Suggestions for a neuro-inflammatory pathogenesis of CRPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mos, M; Huygen, F J P M; Stricker, B H Ch; Dieleman, J P; Sturkenboom, M C J M

    2009-04-01

    Antihypertensive drugs interact with mediators that are also involved in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), such a neuropeptides, adrenergic receptors, and vascular tone modulators. Therefore, we aimed to study the association between the use of antihypertensive drugs and CRPS onset. We conducted a population-based case-control study in the Integrated Primary Care Information (IPCI) database in the Netherlands. Cases were identified from electronic records (1996-2005) and included if they were confirmed during an expert visit (using IASP criteria), or if they had been diagnosed by a medical specialist. Up to four controls per cases were selected, matched on gender, age, calendar time, and injury. Exposure to angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, and diuretics was assessed from the automated prescription records. Data were analyzed using multivariate conditional logistic regression. A total of 186 cases were matched to 697 controls (102 confirmed during an expert visit plus 84 with a specialist diagnosis). Current use of ACE inhibitors was associated with an increased risk of CRPS (OR(adjusted): 2.7, 95% CI: 1.1-6.8). The association was stronger if ACE inhibitors were used for a longer time period (OR(adjusted): 3.0, 95% CI: 1.1-8.1) and in higher dosages (OR(adjusted): 4.3, 95% CI: 1.4-13.7). None of the other antihypertensive drug classes was significantly associated with CRPS. We conclude that ACE inhibitor use is associated with CRPS onset and hypothesize that ACE inhibitors influence the neuro-inflammatory mechanisms that underlie CRPS by their interaction with the catabolism of substance P and bradykinin.

  8. Role of NFkappaB in an animal model of complex regional pain syndrome-type I (CRPS-I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mos, Marissa; Laferrière, André; Millecamps, Magali; Pilkington, Mercedes; Sturkenboom, Miriam C J M; Huygen, Frank J P M; Coderre, Terence J

    2009-11-01

    NFkappaB is involved in several pathogenic mechanisms that are believed to underlie the complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), including ischemia, inflammation and sensitization. Chronic postischemia pain (CPIP) has been developed as an animal model that mimics the symptoms of CRPS-I. The possible involvement of NFkappaB in CRPS-I was studied using CPIP rats. Under sodium pentobarbital anesthesia, a tourniquet was placed around the rat left ankle joint, producing 3 hours of ischemia, followed by rapid reperfusion (IR injury). NFkappaB was measured in nuclear extracts of muscle and spinal cord tissue using ELISA. Moreover, the anti-allodynic (mechanical and cold) effect was tested for systemic, intrathecal, or intraplantar treatment with the NFkappaB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC). At 2 and 48 hours after IR injury, NFkappaB was elevated in muscle and spinal cord of CPIP rats compared to shams. At 7 days, NFkappaB levels were normalized in muscle, but still elevated in spinal cord tissue. Systemic PDTC treatment relieved mechanical and cold allodynia in a dose-dependent manner, lasting for at least 3 hours. Intrathecal-but not intraplantar-administration also relieved mechanical allodynia. The results suggest that muscle and spinal NFkappaB plays a role in the pathogenesis of CPIP and potentially of human CRPS. Using the CPIP model, we demonstrate that NFkappaB is involved in the development of allodynia after a physical injury (ischemia and reperfusion) without direct nerve trauma. Since CPIP animals exhibit many features of human CRPS-I, this observation indicates a potential role for NFkappaB in human CRPS.

  9. “New” Scythian Complex of the 3rd Century BC on the Right Bank of the Lower Dniester Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey N. Razumov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the new attribution of the materials from barrow 20, excavated in 1975 near Semenovka village on the right bank of the Dniester liman, Belgorod-Dnesterovsky district, Odessa region, Ukraine. The only burial of this barrow was still considered as the monument of Babino culture (aka Multi-Cordoned Ware culture of the first quarter of the 2nd millennium BC. The ceramic and metal artifacts found under the barrow were considered during the study of the material culture of the Scythians of the last third of the 1st millennium BC. The thorough analysis of the stratigraphy, planigraphy, funeral rite and artifacts showed that barrow 20 near Semenovka village was built instantaneously, and in fact it is Scythian. A cenotaph was the main complex of the barrow. It came with not only the armament items (iron-socketed arrowheads, spearheads and sockets of spears, horse harness (bronze frontlet with axe-shaped blade and a hook, bronze ringed beads, iron bits and iron snaffle ring, iron round pendants, glass cup, remains of the funeral feast as a ceramic breakage (Rhodes, Sinop, Cos, Cnidus amphorae, two pottery jars and molded vessel, but also with the burial of a dependent person lying crouched on his left side, his head in the eastern sector, in the catacomb. Depth of the fixing of these findings corresponded to the level of the ancient horizon on which the two-sided mainland ejected from the burial construction. Based on the Rhodes amphora marked with the eponym Άγήσιππος of - manufacturer - Έπίγονος 1, the barrow dates back to the last third or last quarter of the 3rd century BC.

  10. Diagnostic Performance of Three Phase Bone Scan for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1 with Optimally Modified Image Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Hyun Woo; Paeng, Jin Chul; Nahm, Francins Sahngun; Kim, Seog Gyun; Zehra, Tanzeel; Oh, So Won; Lee, Hyo Sang; Kang, Keon Wook; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Lee, Dong Soo

    2011-01-01

    Although the three phase bone scan (TBPS) is one of the widely used imaging studies for diagnosing complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS 1), there is some controversy regarding the TPBS image criteria for CRPS 1. In this study, we modified the image criteria using image pattern and quantitative analysis in the patients diagnosed using the most recent consensus clinical diagnostic criteria. The study included 140 patients with suspected CRPS 1 (CRPS 1, n=79; non CRPS, n=61; mean age 39±15 years) who underwent TPBS. The clinical diagnostic criteria for CRPS 1 revised by the Budapest consensus group were used for confirmative diagnosis. Patients were classified according to flow/pool and delayed uptake (DU) image patterns, and the time interval between the initiating event and TPBS (TI eventscan) . Quantitative analysis for lesion to contralateral ratio (LCR) was performed. Modified TPBS image criteria were created and evaluated for optimal diagnostic performance. Both increased and decreased periarticular DU were significant image findings for CRPS 1 (CRPS 1 positive rate=73% in the increased DU group, 75% in the decreased DU group). The TI eventscand id not differ significantly between the different image pattern groups. Quantitative analysis revealed an LCR of 1.43 was the optimal cutoff value for CRPS 1 and diagnostic performance was significantly improved in the increased DU group (area under the curve=0.732). Given the modified image criteria, the sensitivity and specificity of TPBS for diagnosing CRPS 1 were 80% and 72%, respectively. Optimally modified TPBS image criteria for CRPS 1 were suggested using image pattern and quantitative analysis. With the criteria, TPBS is an effective imaging study for CRPS 1 even with the most recent consensus clinical diagnostic criteria.

  11. High-Frequency Repetitive Sensory Stimulation as Intervention to Improve Sensory Loss in Patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Marianne; Dinse, Hubert R; Mainka, Tina; Tegenthoff, Martin; Maier, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Achieving perceptual gains in healthy individuals or facilitating rehabilitation in patients is generally considered to require intense training to engage neuronal plasticity mechanisms. Recent work, however, suggested that beneficial outcome similar to training can be effectively acquired by a complementary approach in which the learning occurs in response to mere exposure to repetitive sensory stimulation (rSS). For example, high-frequency repetitive sensory stimulation (HF-rSS) enhances tactile performance and induces cortical reorganization in healthy subjects and patients after stroke. Patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) show impaired tactile performance associated with shrinkage of cortical maps. We here investigated the feasibility and efficacy of HF-rSS, and low-frequency rSS (LF-rSS) to enhance tactile performance and reduce pain intensity in 20 patients with CRPS type I. Intermittent high- or low-frequency electrical stimuli were applied for 45 min/day to all fingertips of the affected hand for 5 days. Main outcome measures were spatial two-point-discrimination thresholds and mechanical detection thresholds measured on the tip of the index finger bilaterally. Secondary endpoint was current pain intensity. All measures were assessed before and on day 5 after the last stimulation session. HF-rSS applied in 16 patients improved tactile discrimination on the affected hand significantly without changes contralaterally. Current pain intensity remained unchanged on average, but decreased in four patients by ≥30%. This limited pain relief might be due to the short stimulation period of 5 days only. In contrast, after LF-rSS, tactile discrimination was impaired in all four patients, while detection thresholds and pain were not affected. Our data suggest that HF-rSS could be used as a novel approach in CRPS treatment to improve sensory loss. Longer treatment periods might be required to induce consistent pain relief.

  12. Regional Analysis of Long-term Local and Synoptic Effects on Wind Velocity and Energy Patterns in Complex Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belu, R.; Koracin, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    Investments in renewable energy are justified in both environmental and economic terms. Climate change risks call for mitigation strategies aimed to reduce pollutant emissions, while the energy supply is facing high uncertainty by the current or future global economic and political contexts. Wind energy is playing a strategic role in the efforts of any country for sustainable development and energy supply security. Wind energy is a weather and climate-dependent resource, having a natural spatio-temporal variability at time scales ranging from fraction of seconds to seasons and years, while at spatial scales is strongly affected by the topography and vegetation. Main objective of the study is to investigate spatio-temporal characteristics of the wind velocity in the Southwest U.S., that are relevant to wind energy assessment, analysis, development, operation, and grid integration, by using long-term multiple meteorological tower observations. Wind velocity data and other meteorological parameters from five towers, located near Tonopah, Nevada, operated between 2003 to 2008, and from three towers are located in Carson Valley, Nevada, operated between 2006 and 2014 were used in this study. Multi-annual wind speed data collected did not show significant increase trends with increasing elevation; the differences are mainly governed by the topographic complexity, including local atmospheric circulations. Auto- and cross-correlations show a strong coherence between the wind speed and direction with slowly decreasing amplitude of the multi-day periodicity with increasing lag periods. Besides pronounced diurnal periodicity at all locations, detrended fluctuation analysis also showed significant seasonal and annual periodicities, and long-memory persistence with similar characteristics. In spite of significant differences in mean wind speeds among the towers, due to location specifics, the relatively high auto- and cross-correlation coefficients among the towers indicate

  13. High frequency repetitive sensory stimulation as intervention to improve sensory loss in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne eDavid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Achieving perceptual gains in healthy individuals, or facilitating rehabilitation in patients is generally considered to require intense training to engage neuronal plasticity mechanisms. Recent work, however, suggested that beneficial outcome similar to training can be effectively acquired by a complementary approach in which the learning occurs in response to mere exposure to repetitive sensory stimulation (rSS. For example, high-frequency repetitive sensory stimulation (HF-rSS enhances tactile performance and induces cortical reorganization in healthy subjects and patients after stroke. Patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS show impaired tactile performance associated with shrinkage of cortical maps. We here investigated the feasibility and efficacy of HF-rSS, and low-frequency rSS (LF-rSS to enhance tactile performance and reduce pain intensity in 20 patients with CRPS type I. Intermittent high or low frequency electrical stimuli were applied for 45min/day to all fingertips of the affected hand for 5 days. Main outcome measures were spatial 2-point-discrimination thresholds and mechanical detection thresholds measured on the tip of the index finger bilaterally. Secondary endpoint was current pain intensity. All measures were assessed before and on day 5 after the last stimulation session. HF-rSS applied in 16 patients improved tactile discrimination on the affected hand significantly without changes contralaterally. Current pain intensity remained unchanged on average, but decreased in 4 patients by 30%. This limited pain relief might be due to the short stimulation period of 5 days only. In contrast, after LF-rSS, tactile discrimination was impaired in all 4 patients, while detection thresholds and pain were not affected. Our data suggest that HF-rSS could be used as a novel approach in CRPS treatment to improve sensory loss. Longer treatment periods might be required to induce consistent pain relief.

  14. DNA-PK dependent targeting of DNA-ends to a protein complex assembled on matrix attachment region DNA sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauldin, S.K.; Getts, R.C.; Perez, M.L.; DiRienzo, S.; Stamato, T.D.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: We find that nuclear protein extracts from mammalian cells contain an activity that allows DNA ends to associate with circular pUC18 plasmid DNA. This activity requires the catalytic subunit of DNA-PK (DNA-PKcs) and Ku since it was not observed in mutants lacking Ku or DNA-PKcs but was observed when purified Ku/DNA-PKcs was added to these mutant extracts. Competition experiments between pUC18 and pUC18 plasmids containing various nuclear matrix attachment region (MAR) sequences suggest that DNA ends preferentially associate with plasmids containing MAR DNA sequences. At a 1:5 mass ratio of MAR to pUC18, approximately equal amounts of DNA end binding to the two plasmids were observed, while at a 1:1 ratio no pUC18 end-binding was observed. Calculation of relative binding activities indicates that DNA-end binding activities to MAR sequences was 7 to 21 fold higher than pUC18. Western analysis of proteins bound to pUC18 and MAR plasmids indicates that XRCC4, DNA ligase IV, scaffold attachment factor A, topoisomerase II, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase preferentially associate with the MAR plasmid in the absence or presence of DNA ends. In contrast, Ku and DNA-PKcs were found on the MAR plasmid only in the presence of DNA ends. After electroporation of a 32P-labeled DNA probe into human cells and cell fractionation, 87% of the total intercellular radioactivity remained in nuclei after a 0.5M NaCl extraction suggesting the probe was strongly bound in the nucleus. The above observations raise the possibility that DNA-PK targets DNA-ends to a repair and/or DNA damage signaling complex which is assembled on MAR sites in the nucleus

  15. The mineralogy and geochemistry of quartz-tourmaline schlieren in the granites of the Primorsky Complex, Western Baikal Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savel'eva, V. B.; Bazarova, E. P.; Kanakin, S. V.

    2014-12-01

    Quartz-tourmaline schlieren have been found within rapakivi-like granites of the Early Proterozoic Primorsky Complex in the Western Baikal Region. These rocks are biotite leucogranites with normal alkalinity (A/CNK = 1.00-1.04); a high iron mole fraction (92-95%); a K2O/Na2O value of about 2.0; relatively high F, Li, Rb, Cs, Sn, Pb, Th, and U contents; and low Ba, Sr, Eu, Zn, Sc, and V contents. The schlieren composed of quartz and tourmaline with relics of feldspar also contain fluorite, rare muscovite, chlorite, and accessory rutile, ilmenite, zircon, monazite, xenotime, and bastnäsite. B2O3 and F contents in the schlieren are 2.29-2.63 and 0.30-0.47 wt %, respectively. Fe2O3 (4.8-5.4 wt %), F, and H2O contents are higher in these schlieren than in the host granite, while SiO2, CaO, Na2O, K2O, and P2O5 contents are lower than in host rocks. K2O/Na2O values decrease in the schlieren down to 0.4. Enrichment of the schlieren in Fe and other ore elements (Zn, Co, Cu, Sn, etc.), together with B, F, H2O, and Na, suggests that they crystallized from fluid-saturated melt segregated from aluminosilicate melt in the apical part of a shallow-seated intrusion. The formation of tourmaline may be related to the interaction of the fluid with feldspars in the crystallizing granites; it was accompanied by a separation of fluid F-CO2. Quartz precipitated at the next stage, due to the acidic character of the aqueous fluid. In general, the relationships of minerals in the schlieren indicate distinct fractionation of LREE, HREE, and Y in the fluid-saturated melt.

  16. Treatment of Patients With Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I With Mannitol: A Prospective, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blinded Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez, R.S.G.M.; Pragt, E.; Geurts, J.J.G.; Zuurmond, W.W.A.; Patijn, J.; van Kleef, M.

    2008-01-01

    To assess the effects of intravenous administration of the free radical scavenger mannitol 10% on complaints associated with complex regional pain syndrome Type I (CRPS I), a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial was performed. Forty-one CRPS I patients according to the Bruehl et al

  17. Modified Graded Motor Imagery for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1 of the Upper Extremity in the Acute Phase: A Patient Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagueux, Emilie; Charest, Joelle; Lefrancois-Caron, Eve; Mauger, Marie-Eve; Mercier, Emilie; Savard, Kim; Tousignant-Laflamme, Yannick

    2012-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a pathologic condition in which the painful experience is disproportionate in time and intensity in comparison with the inciting event. At present, the pathophysiology of CRPS is not well understood. Several studies have indicated that cortical reorganization plays a role in the persistence of the symptoms.…

  18. Oxidative Stress in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS): No Systemically Elevated Levels of Malondialdehyde, F2-Isoprostanes and 8OHdG in a Selected Sample of Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, S.G.L.; Perez, R.S.G.M.; Nouta, J.; Zuurmond, W.W.A.; Scheffer, P.G.

    2013-01-01

    Exaggerated inflammation and oxidative stress are involved in the pathogenesis of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS). However, studies assessing markers for oxidative stress in CRPS patients are limited. In this study, markers for lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde and F2-isoprostanes) and DNA

  19. Human papillomavirus vaccines, complex regional pain syndrome, postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, and autonomic dysfunction - a review of the regulatory evidence from the European Medicines Agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jefferson, Tom; Jørgensen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Recent concerns about a possible association between exposure of young women to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines and two "dysautonomic syndromes" (a collection of signs and symptoms thought to be caused by autoimmunity) - complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and postural orthostatic tachycardia...

  20. Monitoring of radionuclides in the forest ecosystems of the Krasnoyarsk region in the 30 km area around the mining and chemical complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dement'eva, D.V.; Bolsunovskij, A.Ya.

    2010-01-01

    The study addresses accumulation of radionuclides by mushrooms and berry shrubs in the forest ecosystems around the mining and chemical complex (MCC, Krasnoyarsk region, Russia). Results of determination of radionuclide levels in mushrooms and shrubs were used to calculate transfer factors. (authors)

  1. Composition and seasonal phenology of a nonindigenous root-feeding weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) complex in northern hardwood forests in the Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. A. Pinski; W. J. Mattson; K. F. Raffa

    2005-01-01

    Phyllobius oblongus (L.), Polydrusus sericeus (Schaller), and Sciaphilus asperatus (Bonsdorff) comprise a complex of nonindigenous root-feeding weevils in northern hardwood forests of the Great Lakes region. Little is known about their detailed biology, seasonality, relative abundance, and distribution patterns....

  2. Complex regional pain syndrome type I : Use of the International Association for the Study of Pain diagnostic criteria defined in 1994

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, M.F.; Geertzen, J.H.B.; Dijkstra, P.U.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: The objective was to assess the reported use in recent publications of the diagnostic criteria for complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS 1) proposed by the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) in 1994. Methods: A literature search of MEDLINE (January 1996 to July

  3. Effects of 4D-Var Data Assimilation Using Remote Sensing Precipitation Products in a WRF Model over the Complex Terrain of an Arid Region River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoduo Pan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Individually, ground-based, in situ observations, remote sensing, and regional climate modeling cannot provide the high-quality precipitation data required for hydrological prediction, especially over complex terrains. Data assimilation techniques can be used to bridge the gap between observations and models by assimilating ground observations and remote sensing products into models to improve precipitation simulation and forecasting. However, only a small portion of satellite-retrieved precipitation products assimilation research has been implemented over complex terrains in an arid region. Here, we used the weather research and forecasting (WRF model to assimilate two satellite precipitation products (The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission: TRMM 3B42 and Fengyun-2D: FY-2D using the 4D-Var data assimilation method for a typical inland river basin in northwest China’s arid region, the Heihe River Basin, where terrains are very complex. The results show that the assimilation of remote sensing precipitation products can improve the initial WRF fields of humidity and temperature, thereby improving precipitation forecasting and decreasing the spin-up time. Hence, assimilating TRMM and FY-2D remote sensing precipitation products using WRF 4D-Var can be viewed as a positive step toward improving the accuracy and lead time of numerical weather prediction models, particularly over regions with complex terrains.

  4. Development of a symptoms questionnaire for complex regional pain syndrome and potentially related illnesses: the Trauma Related Neuronal Dysfunction Symptoms Inventory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, S.; van Hilten, J.J.; Marinus, J.J.; Zuurmond, W.W.A.; de Lange, J.J.; Perez, R.S.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Collins S, van Hilten JJ, Marinus J, Zuurmond WW, de Lange JJ, Perez RS. Development of a symptoms questionnaire for complex regional pain syndrome and potentially related illnesses: the Trauma Related Neuronal Dysfunction Symptoms Inventory. Objective: To develop a questionnaire to evaluate

  5. Low-Dose Intravenous Immunoglobulin Treatment for Long-Standing Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Andreas; Bisla, Jatinder; Carganillo, Roy; Frank, Bernhard; Gupta, Rima; Kelly, Joanna; McCabe, Candy; Murphy, Caroline; Padfield, Nick; Phillips, Ceri; Sanders, Mark; Serpell, Mick; Shenker, Nick; Shoukrey, Karim; Wyatt, Lynne; Ambler, Gareth

    2017-10-03

    Two small trials suggest that low-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) may improve the symptoms of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), a rare posttraumatic pain condition. To confirm the efficacy of low-dose IVIg compared with placebo in reducing pain during a 6-week period in adult patients who had CRPS from 1 to 5 years. 1:1 parallel, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial for 6 weeks, with an optional 6-week open extension. Patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 study groups between 27 August 2013 and 28 October 2015; the last patient completed follow-up on 21 March 2016. Patients, providers, researchers, and outcome assessors were blinded to treatment assignment. (ISRCTN42179756). 7 secondary and tertiary care pain management centers in the United Kingdom. 111 patients with moderate or severe CRPS of 1 to 5 years' duration. IVIg, 0.5 g/kg of body weight, or visually indistinguishable placebo of 0.1% albumin in saline on days 1 and 22 after randomization. The primary outcome was 24-hour average pain intensity, measured daily between days 6 and 42, on an 11-point (0- to 10-point) rating scale. Secondary outcomes were pain interference and quality of life. The primary analysis sample consisted of 108 eligible patients, 103 of whom had outcome data. Mean (average) pain scores were 6.9 points (SD, 1.5) for placebo and 7.2 points (SD, 1.3) for IVIg. The adjusted difference in means was 0.27 (95% CI, -0.25 to 0.80; P = 0.30), which excluded the prespecified, clinically important difference of -1.2. No statistically significant differences in secondary outcomes were found between the groups. In the open extension, 12 of the 67 patients (18%) who received 2 IVIg infusions had pain reduction of at least 2 points compared with their baseline score. Two patients in the blinded phase (1 in the placebo and 1 in the IVIg group) and 4 in the open IVIg phase had serious events. Results do not apply to patients who have had CRPS for less than 1 year or more

  6. Systemic inflammatory mediators in post-traumatic complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS I) - longitudinal investigations and differences to control groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinkel, Christian; Scherens, A; Köller, M; Roellecke, G; Muhr, G; Maier, C

    2009-03-17

    The Complex Regional Pain Syndrome I (CRPS I) is a disease that might affect an extremity after trauma or operation. The pathogenesis remains yet unclear. It has clinical signs of severe local inflammation as a result of an exaggerated inflammatory response but neurogenic dysregulation also contributes to it. Some studies investigated the role inflammatory mediators and cytokines; however, few longitudinal studies exist and control groups except healthy controls were not investigated yet. To get further insights into the role of systemic inflammatory mediators in CRPS I, we investigated a variety of pro-, anti-, or neuro-inflammatory mediators such as C-Reactive Protein (CRP), White Blood Cell Count (WBC), Interleukins 4, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12 (p70), Interferon gamma, Tumor-Necrosis-Factor alpha (TNF-a) and its soluble Receptors I/II, soluble Selectins (E,L,P), Substance-P (SP), and Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP) at different time points in venous blood from patients with acute (AC) and chronic (CC) CRPS I, patients with forearm fractures (FR), with neuralgia (NE), and from healthy volunteers (C). No significant changes for serum parameters investigated in CRPS compared to control groups were found except for CC/C (CGRP p = 0.007), FR/C (CGRP p = 0.048) and AC/CC (IL-12 p = 0.02; TNFRI/II p = 0.01; SP p = 0.049). High interindividual variations were observed. No intra- or interindividual correlation of parameters with clinical course (e.g. chronification) or outcome was detectable. Although clinically appearing as inflammation in acute stages, local rather than systemic inflammatory responses seem to be relevant in CRPS. Variable results from different studies might be explained by unpredictable intermittent release of mediators from local inflammatory processes into the blood combined with high interindividual variabilities. A clinically relevant difference to various control groups was not notable in this pilot study. Determination of systemic inflammatory

  7. Systemic inflammatory mediators in post-traumatic Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS I - longitudinal investigations and differences to control groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schinkel Ch

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives The Complex Regional Pain Syndrome I (CRPS I is a disease that might affect an extremity after trauma or operation. The pathogenesis remains yet unclear. It has clinical signs of severe local inflammation as a result of an exaggerated inflammatory response but neurogenic dysregulation also contributes to it. Some studies investigated the role inflammatory mediators and cytokines; however, few longitudinal studies exist and control groups except healthy controls were not investigated yet. Methods To get further insights into the role of systemic inflammatory mediators in CRPS I, we investigated a variety of pro-, anti-, or neuro-inflammatory mediators such as C-Reactive Protein (CRP, White Blood Cell Count (WBC, Interleukins 4, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12 (p70, Interferon gamma, Tumor-Necrosis-Factor alpha (TNF-α and its soluble Receptors I/II, soluble Selectins (E, L, P, Substance-P (SP, and Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP at different time points in venous blood from patients with acute (AC and chronic (CC CRPS I, patients with forearm fractures (FR, with neuralgia (NE, and from healthy volunteers (C. Results No significant changes for serum parameters investigated in CRPS compared to control groups were found except for CC/C (CGRP p = 0.007, FR/C (CGRP p = 0.048 and AC/CC (IL-12 p = 0.02; TNFRI/II p = 0.01; SP p = 0.049. High interindividual variations were observed. No intra-or interindividual correlation of parameters with clinical course (e.g. chronification or outcome was detectable. Conclusion Although clinically appearing as inflammation in acute stages, local rather than systemic inflammatory responses seem to be relevant in CRPS. Variable results from different studies might be explained by unpredictable intermittent release of mediators from local inflammatory processes into the blood combined with high interindividual variabilities. A clinically relevant difference to various control groups was not notable in this

  8. [Prevalence and Co-prevalence of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) in Hand Rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubrech, F; Gentzsch, T; Kotsougiani, D; Bickert, B; Kneser, U; Harhaus, L

    2016-06-01

    In the current literature, there are reports of associations between complex regional pain syndromes (CRPS) and carpal tunnel syndromes (CTS). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of both disease patterns in hand rehabilitation patients and to investigate whether there is a correlation between CTS and CRPS. Furthermore, differences in the healing process of patients with and without additional CTS, and the effectiveness of the rehabilitative therapy for both diseases, were investigated. The computerised medical records of 791 patients in the years 2009-2015 who had been in hand rehabilitation were retrospectively analysed. At the beginning and end of rehabilitation, measurements were made of pain by visual analogue scales (VAS, 0-10), grip strength and finger mobility (mean distance from finger pulp to palmar D2-D5). The clinical course was statistically analysed. CRPS diagnosis was confirmed clinically by a pain therapist, CTS diagnosis was confirmed by neurological and neurophysiological examination. Surgical therapy was performed despite CRPS diagnosis. The prevalence of CRPS was 161/1000 and of CTS 62/1000; the co-prevalence of the 2 diagnoses was 24/1000 (pCRPS group, after a mean of 8 (1-21) weeks of rehabilitative therapy, mean pain was reduced from 5 (1-10) to 3 (0-9), grip strength improved from 10 (0-39)kg to 18.5 (2.5-45.5)kg and finger mobility increased from 2.9 (0-7.6)cm to 1.8 (0-7.8)cm. In the CRPS+CTS group, after a mean of 6.8 (3-23) weeks of rehabilitative therapy, mean pain was reduced from 5 (0-8) to 2.6 (0-5), grip strength improved from 9.7 (2.4-25.5)kg to 17.4 (0.9-47.4)kg and finger mobility increased from 2.7 (0-5.3)cm to 1.7 (0-5.3)cm. Improvement over the period of rehabilitation was significant in both groups, though the period of therapy was significantly shorter in the CRPS+CTS group. CRPS and CTS are often associated. Rehabilitative therapy was effective for CRPS- and CRPS+CTS patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG

  9. Impact of ictal/postictal regional cerebral blood flow patterns on the management of patients with complex partial seizures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borbely, K.; Toth, M.; Solyom, A.; Balogh, A.; Juhos, V.; Neuwirth, M.; Halasz, P.

    2002-01-01

    Aims: RCBF SPECT has been proved to be a sensitive and specific method in the pre-surgical evaluation of patients with complex partial seizures (CPS). Ictal minus interictal rCBF analysis is a routine part in the assessment of epileptogenic foci. During ictal/postictal rCBF studies changes might appear not only in the epileptogenic area. The precise note of the time of the tracer injection for SPECT is the key in interpreting the brain perfusion changes. We studied ictal/postictal rCBF patterns in the brain tissue within, adjacent to, and remote from the epileptogenic foci in 64 patients with CPS. Methods: The assessment included neurological examination, ictal semiology, interictal and ictal electrophysiological recording, MRI, and neuropsychological evaluation. Baseline, ictal and/or postictal SPECT studies were carried out with a standard technique for each patient. SPECT data were analysed visually and by a special region of interests (ROIs) program. Circular ROIs were placed over the basal ganglia, thalamus, frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital cortex, and cerebellum. ROIs were normalized to the whole brain average. The statistical analysis was considered significant at P<0.05. MRI was positive in 46 patients, while in 18 cases there were no abnormalities. SPECT results were compared to electrophysiological and surgical findings. Results: The baseline SPECT demonstrated a significant hypoperfusion (P<0.05) in the epileptogenic area (EA) in 37/64 (57.81%) cases. 54/64 (84.38%) of the ictal studies showed a marked hyperperfusion (P<0.005) in the EA with low cerebellar tracer uptake (P<0.05). In 26/64 (40.63%) patients the early postictal studies demonstrated moderate or high tracer uptake in the EA (P<0.05) with diffuse perfusion abnormalities in the surrounding tissue. Late postictal studies (14/64, 21.88%) showed hypoperfusion (P<0.05) in the EA with moderate or high tracer uptake in the surrounding tissue. The results of the ictal/postictal studies

  10. COMPLEX EVALUATION OF THE NUMBER DYNAMICS OF COLONIAL WATERBIRD COMMUNITIES (THE CASE OF SOME ISLANDS OF SIVASH REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsyura A.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the mathematical analysis of the number dynamics of the nesting waterbirds for the islands of the south of Ukraine is examined. The algorithm of the evaluation of changes in the number of island birds is proposed. Data of the long-term monitoring of the number of birds were analyzed according to this algorithm. The necessity of the implementation of the statistical indices together with the graphic representation of island birds’ turnover is proved. The trends of population dynamics are determined for the key species. The discussed procedure of the complex evaluation is proposed for the management planning of the island bird species and their habitats. The performed analysis of the number dynamics of the key-stone breeding island birds showed that, with the exception of little tern, the population status and the prognosis of number are sufficiently favorable. From the data of long-term monitoring we came up with the conclusion about the existence of island habitats with carrying capacity to maintain the additional number of breeding birds. In the case of unfavorable conditions like strengthening of anthropogenic press, concurrent interrelations, deficiency of feed resources or drastic reduction of breeding biotopes, the birds due to turnover are capable to successfully react even without reducing their number and breeding success. The extinction rate of the breeding bird species from the island sites directly correlates with the number of breeding species. For the species with equal abundance, the extinction probability is higher for birds, whose numbers are unstable and characterized by significant fluctuations. This testifies the urgency of the constant monitoring and analysis of the number dynamics of breeding bird species in region. The suggested procedure of analysis is recommended for drawing up of management plans and performing of prognoses of number of breeding island bird species. More detail analysis with use of

  11. Complex refractive indices in the near-ultraviolet spectral region of biogenic secondary organic aerosol aged with ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, J. M.; Washenfelder, Rebecca; Adler, Gabriela; Lee, H-J; Segev, Lior; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Nizkorodov, Sergey; Brown, Steven; Rudich, Yinon

    2014-05-14

    Atmospheric absorption by brown carbon aerosol may play an important role in global radiative forcing. Brown carbon arises from both primary and secondary sources, but the mechanisms and reactions for the latter are highly uncertain. One proposed mechanism is the reaction of ammonia or amino acids with carbonyl products in secondary organic aerosol (SOA). We generated SOA in situ by reacting biogenic alkenes (α-pinene, limonene, and α-humulene) with excess ozone, humidifying the resulting aerosol, and reacting the humidified aerosol with gaseous ammonia. We determined the complex refractive indices (RI) in the 360 – 420 nm range for these aerosols using broadband cavity enhanced spectroscopy (BBCES). The average real part (n) of the measured spectral range of the NH3-aged α-pinene SOA increased from n = 1.50 (±0.01) for the unreacted SOA to n = 1.57 (± 0.01) after a 1.5h exposure to 1.9 ppm NH3; whereas,the imaginary component (k) remained below k < 0.001 (± 0.002). For the limonene and α-humulene SOA the real part did not change significantly, and we observed a small change in the imaginary component of the RI. The imaginary component increased from k = 0.0 to an average k= 0.029 (± 0.021) for α-humulene SOA, and from k < 0.001 (± 0.002) to an average k = 0.032 (±0.019) for limonene SOA after a 1.5 h exposure to 1.3 and 1.9 ppm of NH3, respectively. Collected filter samples of the aged and unreacted α-pinene SOA and limonene SOA were analyzed off-line with nanospray desorption electrospray ionization high resolution mass spectrometry (nano-DESI/HR-MS), and in-situ with a Time-of-Fligh Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, confirming that the SOA reacted and that various nitrogen-containing reaction products formed. If we assume that NH3 aging reactions scale linearly with time and concentration, then a 1.5 h reaction with 1 ppm NH3 in the laboratory is equivalent to 24 h reaction with 63 ppbv NH3, indicating that the observed aerosol absorption will be limited

  12. Complex regional pain syndrome type I in the upper extremity - how efficient physical therapy and rehabilitation are.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zečević Luković, Tanja; Ristić, Branko; Jovanović, Zorica; Rančić, Nemanja; Ignjatović Ristić, Dragana; Cuković, Saša

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of early started combined therapy in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome-1 (CRPS-1) on the upper extremities. The study included 36 patients in the first stadium of CRPS-1 on the upper extremities The mean age of patients was 42.6±14.6, the majority of them (26 of 36) were females. The right side of the upper extremity was affected much more then the left side. They were treated by combined therapy including analgetics, electrotherapy, magneto therapy and kinesitherapy. The average length of observation was 172.1 days (from 90 to 250 days). The average length of treatment was 91.5±42.16 days. Intensity of pain, swelling of the extremity, the change in skin coloration and cutaneous manifestations were assessed three times, at the beginning of the treatment, after 6 weeks and at the end of the treatment. The pain was registered in all patients at visit 1 (average pain intensity was 5.70 ±1.44 on 100 mm visual analogue scale), and it was progressively decreased during the treatment from 3.60±1.22 at the second visit to 0.34±0.68 at the third visit. Vasodilatation was registered in 30 (83.33%) patients and skin temperature asymmetries was found in 21 (58.33%) patients. The difference of size was detected in 30 (83.33%) patients at the first visit compared to four (11.11%) patients at the end of the treatment. There were six (16.66%) patients without swelling at the beginning compared to 26 (72.22%) at the end of the treatment (p less than 0.000). Complete healing was achieved in 32 patients (88.88%). The carefully chosen physical agents in combination with analgesic and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may benefit in patients with CRPS-1 on the upper extremity if the treatment starts as soon as possible.

  13. Bisphosphonates Inhibit Pain, Bone Loss, and Inflammation in a Rat Tibia Fracture Model of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liping; Guo, Tian-Zhi; Hou, Saiyun; Wei, Tzuping; Li, Wen-Wu; Shi, Xiaoyou; Clark, J David; Kingery, Wade S

    2016-10-01

    Bisphosphonates are used to prevent the bone loss and fractures associated with osteoporosis, bone metastases, multiple myeloma, and osteogenesis deformans. Distal limb fractures cause regional bone loss with cutaneous inflammation and pain in the injured limb that can develop into complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Clinical trials have reported that antiresorptive bisphosphonates can prevent fracture-induced bone loss, inhibit serum inflammatory cytokine levels, and alleviate CRPS pain. Previously, we observed that the inhibition of inflammatory cytokines or adaptive immune responses attenuated the development of pain behavior in a rat fracture model of CRPS, and we hypothesized that bisphosphonates could prevent pain behavior, trabecular bone loss, postfracture cutaneous cytokine upregulation, and adaptive immune responses in this CRPS model. Rats underwent tibia fracture and cast immobilization for 4 weeks and were chronically administered either subcutaneously perfused alendronate or oral zoledronate. Behavioral measurements included hindpaw von Frey allodynia, unweighting, warmth, and edema. Bone microarchitecture was measured by microcomputed tomography, and bone cellular activity was evaluated by static and dynamic histomorphometry. Spinal cord Fos immunostaining was performed, and skin cytokine (tumor necrosis factor, interleukin [IL]-1, IL-6) and nerve growth factor (NGF) levels were determined by enzyme immunoassay. Skin and sciatic nerve immunoglobulin levels were determined by enzyme immunoassay. Rats with tibia fractures developed hindpaw allodynia, unweighting, warmth, and edema, increased spinal Fos expression and trabecular bone loss in the lumbar vertebra and bilateral distal femurs as measured by microcomputed tomography, increased trabecular bone resorption and osteoclast surface with decreased bone formation rates, increased cutaneous inflammatory cytokine and NGF expression, and elevated immunocomplex deposition in skin and nerve

  14. The Complex Stratigraphy of the Highland Crust in the Serenitatis Region of the Moon Inferred from Mineral Fragment Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Graham; Norman, Marc D.; Taylor, G. Jeffrey

    1997-01-01

    rocks do not contribute significantly to the fragment population. Nor do ferroan anorthosites contribute more than a tiny part of even the plagiociase fragment population. A few mineral fragments that are consistent with the cryptic low-K Fra Mauro chemical component were found, and these appear to be from gabbroic sources. The mineral fragment populations cannot be mixed in their observed proportions to produce the whole rock composition, because the fragments are more refractory and deficient in Ti, P, and alkalis. A preferential contribution to the melt from a rock similar to sodic ferrogabbro can partly resolve the discrepancy. The population of mineral fragments requires a very diverse population of igenous rocks that are not all related to each other, demonstrating the existence of a complex crust built of numerous separate igneous plutons. Many of these plutons may have crystallized at shallow depths. The chemical composition of the melt breccias, in combination with the mineral fragment data and an understanding of the cratering process, suggests that the deepest crust sampled by the Serenitatis impace (not necessarily the deepest crust) was basaltic in composition, including KREEP and gabbroic rocks like sodic ferrogabbro, and lacking abundant olivine-rich material. These were overlain by Mg-suite rocks of varied types, including norites and troctolites that supplied most of the olivine mineral fragments. Granulities, which are metamorphosed and more feldspathic breccias, were abundant near the surface. Remote sensing indicates that the entire Serenitatis region lacks ferroan anorthosite, consistent with the results of our study.

  15. ITS all right mama: investigating the formation of chimeric sequences in the ITS2 region by DNA metabarcoding analyses of fungal mock communities of different complexities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnsgaard Aas, Anders; Davey, Marie Louise; Kauserud, Håvard

    2017-07-01

    The formation of chimeric sequences can create significant methodological bias in PCR-based DNA metabarcoding analyses. During mixed-template amplification of barcoding regions, chimera formation is frequent and well documented. However, profiling of fungal communities typically uses the more variable rDNA region ITS. Due to a larger research community, tools for chimera detection have been developed mainly for the 16S/18S markers. However, these tools are widely applied to the ITS region without verification of their performance. We examined the rate of chimera formation during amplification and 454 sequencing of the ITS2 region from fungal mock communities of different complexities. We evaluated the chimera detecting ability of two common chimera-checking algorithms: perseus and uchime. Large proportions of the chimeras reported were false positives. No false negatives were found in the data set. Verified chimeras accounted for only 0.2% of the total ITS2 reads, which is considerably less than what is typically reported in 16S and 18S metabarcoding analyses. Verified chimeric 'parent sequences' had significantly higher per cent identity to one another than to random members of the mock communities. Community complexity increased the rate of chimera formation. GC content was higher around the verified chimeric break points, potentially facilitating chimera formation through base pair mismatching in the neighbouring regions of high similarity in the chimeric region. We conclude that the hypervariable nature of the ITS region seems to buffer the rate of chimera formation in comparison with other, less variable barcoding regions, due to shorter regions of high sequence similarity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. STATISTICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE INVESTMENT IN INFRASTRUCTURE COMPLEX ON ECONOMIC SITUATION IN THE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina A. Malinovskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of assessing the impact of infrastructure investment on the economic situation of the region. It is suggested that economic and social effects of, as well as instant and deferred. Using regression analysis allowed us to estimate the nature of different types of effects that affect the economic system of the region.

  17. Transforming Your Regional Economy through Uncertainty and Surprise: Learning from Complexity Science, Network Theory and the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, June

    The field of regional development blossomed in the last decade, as researchers and practitioners increasingly asserted that the region was the most effective geographic unit for supporting the excellence and innovation of entrepreneurs. See, for example, the many studies by the European Union and the work by Michael Porter.

  18. Delayed diagnosis and worsening of pain following orthopedic surgery in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunden, Lars K; Kleggetveit, Inge P; Jørum, Ellen

    2016-04-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a serious and disabling chronic pain condition, usually occurring in a limb. There are two main types, CRPS 1 with no definite nerve lesion and CRPS 2 with an identified nerve lesion. CRPS 1 and 2 may occur following an injury (frequently following fractures), surgery or without known cause. An early diagnosis and start of adequate treatment is considered desirable for patients with CRPS. From the clinical experience of the principal investigator, it became apparent that CRPS often remained undiagnosed and that the clinical conditions of many patients seemed to be worsened following orthopedic surgery subsequent to the initial eliciting event. The aim of the present retrospective study of 55 patients, all diagnosed with either CRPS 1 or 2, was to evaluate the time from injury until diagnosis of CRPS and the effect on pain of orthopedic surgical intervention subsequent to the original injury/surgery. Clinical symptoms with an emphasis on pain were assessed by going through the patients' records and by information given during the investigation at Oslo University Hospital, where the patients also were examined clinically and with EMG/neurography. Alteration in pain was evaluated in 27 patients who underwent orthopedic surgery subsequent to the eliciting injury. Of a total of 55 patients, 28 women and 27 men (mean age 38.7 (SD 12.3), 38 patients were diagnosed with CRPS type 1, and 17 with CRPS type 2. Mean time before diagnosis was confirmed was 3.9 years (SD1.42, range 6 months-10 years). The eliciting injuries for both CRPS type 1 and type 2 were fractures, squeeze injuries, blunt injuries, stretch accidents and surgery. A total of 27 patients (14 men and 13 women) were operated from one to 12 times at a later stage (from 6 months to several years) following the initial injury or any primary operation because of fracture. A total of 22 patients reported a worsening of pain following secondary surgical events, while four

  19. The Industrial and Logistics Port Complex of Açu and its impacts on the drainage system and the urban structure of the Northern- Fluminense Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Carneiro Rangel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The construction of the Industrial and Logistics Port Complex of Açu will result in an accelerated process of urbanization directly related to population growth. When it no longer supports agricultural and livestock activities to meet the port activities, the region will have its urban, hydrological and economic dynamics changed. Given the fragility of the Quaternary Coastal, geomorphology of the region, these areas have occupation problems, and are subject to constant flooding. Therefore, it is necessary to make geomorphology studies of the area study so that development is can be planned, avoiding future environmental and territorial and urban problems.

  20. Source tagging modeling study of heavy haze episodes under complex regional transport processes over Wuhan megacity, Central China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Miaomiao; Tang, Xiao; Wang, Zifa; Gbaguidi, Alex; Liang, Shengwen; Hu, Ke; Wu, Lin; Wu, Huangjian; Huang, Zhen; Shen, Longjiao

    2017-01-01

    Wuhan as a megacity of Central China was suffering from severe particulate matter pollution according to previous observation studies, however, the mechanism behind the pollution formation especially the impact of regional chemical transport is still unclear. This study, carried out on the Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (NAQPMS) coupled with an on-line source-tagging module, explores different roles regional transport had in two strong haze episodes over Wuhan in October 2014 and quantitatively assesses the contributions from local and regional sources to PM 2.5 concentration. Validation of predictions based on observations shows modeling system good skills in reproducing key meteorological and chemical features. The first short-time haze episode occurred on 12 October under strong northerly winds, with a hourly PM 2.5 peak of 180 μg m −3 , and was found to be caused primarily by the long-range transport from the northern regions, which contributed 60.6% of the episode's PM 2.5 concentration (versus a total of 32.7% from sources in and near Wuhan). The second episode lasted from the 15–20 October under stable regional large-scale synoptic conditions and weak winds, and had an hourly PM 2.5 peak of 231.0 μg m −3 . In this episode, both the long-distance transport from far regions and short-range transport from the Wuhan-cluster were the primary causes of the haze episode and account for 24.8% and 29.2% of the PM 2.5 concentration respectively. Therefore, regional transport acts as a crucial driver of haze pollution over Wuhan through not only long-range transfer of pollutants, but also short-range aerosol movement under specific meteorological conditions. The present findings highlight the important role of regional transport in urban haze formation and indicate that the joint control of multi city-clusters are needed to reduce the particulate pollution level in Wuhan. - Highlights: • Regional transport impacts studied on two haze

  1. Methodology to Model and Understand the Complexities of Social, Economic,and Governance Interactions for Regional Assessment in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    narcotics trafficking in Mexico , complex commuter rail systems, and nuclear weapons proliferation. Systemigrams provide us with “a basis for systems...1997-1998. Not only did the flooding destroy bridges, roads, and crops, but it also created epidemics of cholera and malaria (CIA, 2011). In a large

  2. Differential Gene Expression Patterns in Developing Sexually Dimorphic Rat Brain Regions Exposed to Antiandrogenic, Estrogenic, or Complex Endocrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtensteiger, Walter; Bassetti-Gaille, Catherine; Faass, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    -Mix (estrogenic mixture) with 4 estrogenic chemicals (bisphenol A, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate, and butylparaben), a complex mixture, AEP-Mix, containing the components of A-Mix and E-Mix plus paracetamol, and paracetamol alone, were administered by oral gavage to rat dams from...

  3. Are Pain-Related Fears Mediators for Reducing Disability and Pain in Patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1? An Explorative Analysis on Pain Exposure Physical Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhoorn, Karlijn J.; Staal, J. Bart; van Dongen, Robert T. M.; Frölke, Jan Paul M.; Klomp, Frank P.; van de Meent, Henk; Samwel, Han; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether pain-related fears are mediators for reducing disability and pain in patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1 when treating with Pain Exposure Physical Therapy. Design An explorative secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial. Participants Fifty-six patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1. Interventions The experimental group received Pain Exposure Physical Therapy in a maximum of five treatment sessions; the control group received conventional treatment following the Dutch multidisciplinary guideline. Outcome measures Levels of disability, pain, and pain-related fears (fear-avoidance beliefs, pain catastrophizing, and kinesiophobia) were measured at baseline and after 3, 6, and 9 months follow-up. Results The experimental group had a significantly larger decrease in disability of 7.77 points (95% CI 1.09 to 14.45) and in pain of 1.83 points (95% CI 0.44 to 3.23) over nine months than the control group. The potential mediators pain-related fears decreased significantly in both groups, but there were no significant differences between groups, which indicated that there was no mediation. Conclusion The reduction of pain-related fears was comparable in both groups. We found no indication that pain-related fears mediate the larger reduction of disability and pain in patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1 treated with Pain Exposure Physical Therapy compared to conventional treatment. Trial registration International Clinical Trials Registry NCT00817128 PMID:25919011

  4. Bisphosphonates for treatment of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials versus placebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevreau, Maxime; Romand, Xavier; Gaudin, Philippe; Juvin, Robert; Baillet, Athan

    2017-07-01

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1 is a severely disabling pain syndrome with no definite established treatment. We have performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of all randomized controlled trials to assess the benefit of bisphosphonates on pain and function in patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1. A systematic literature search was performed in the Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases. Two authors selected independently blinded randomized trials comparing bisphosphonates to placebo on short-term (J30 to J40) and medium term pain (M2-M3), safety and function in patients with CRPS 1. The methodological quality of the studies was analyzed. Data were aggregated using the method of the inverse of the variance. 258 articles were identified. Four trials of moderate to good quality comprising 181 patients (90 in the bisphosphonate group and 91 in the placebo group) were included in this meta-analysis. Short-term pain Visual Analog Scale was significantly lower in the bisphosphonate group versus the placebo group (SMD=-2.6, 95%CI [-1.8, -3.4], Ppain (SMD=-2.5, 95%CI [-1.4, -3.6], Ppain in patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1. Other studies are needed to determine their effectiveness. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  5. Genomic Anatomy of a Premier Major Histocompatibility Complex Paralogous Region on Chromosome 1q21–q22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiina, Takashi; Ando, Asako; Suto, Yumiko; Kasai, Fumio; Shigenari, Atsuko; Takishima, Nobusada; Kikkawa, Eri; Iwata, Kyoko; Kuwano, Yuko; Kitamura, Yuka; Matsuzawa, Yumiko; Sano, Kazumi; Nogami, Masahiro; Kawata, Hisako; Li, Suyun; Fukuzumi, Yasuhito; Yamazaki, Masaaki; Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Tamiya, Gen; Kohda, Atsushi; Okumura, Katsuzumi; Ikemura, Toshimichi; Soeda, Eiichi; Mizuki, Nobuhisa; Kimura, Minoru; Bahram, Seiamak; Inoko, Hidetoshi

    2001-01-01

    Human chromosomes 1q21–q25, 6p21.3–22.2, 9q33–q34, and 19p13.1–p13.4 carry clusters of paralogous loci, to date best defined by the flagship 6p MHC region. They have presumably been created by two rounds of large-scale genomic duplications around the time of vertebrate emergence. Phylogenetically, the 1q21–25 region seems most closely related to the 6p21.3 MHC region, as it is only the MHC paralogous region that includes bona fide MHC class I genes, the CD1 and MR1 loci. Here, to clarify the genomic structure of this model MHC paralogous region as well as to gain insight into the evolutionary dynamics of the entire quadriplication process, a detailed analysis of a critical 1.7 megabase (Mb) region was performed. To this end, a composite, deep, YAC, BAC, and PAC contig encompassing all five CD1 genes and linking the centromeric +P5 locus to the telomeric KRTC7 locus was constructed. Within this contig a 1.1-Mb BAC and PAC core segment joining CD1D to FCER1A was fully sequenced and thoroughly analyzed. This led to the mapping of a total of 41 genes (12 expressed genes, 12 possibly expressed genes, and 17 pseudogenes), among which 31 were novel. The latter include 20 olfactory receptor (OR) genes, 9 of which are potentially expressed. Importantly, CD1, SPTA1, OR, and FCERIA belong to multigene families, which have paralogues in the other three regions. Furthermore, it is noteworthy that 12 of the 13 expressed genes in the 1q21–q22 region around the CD1 loci are immunologically relevant. In addition to CD1A-E, these include SPTA1, MNDA, IFI-16, AIM2, BL1A, FY and FCERIA. This functional convergence of structurally unrelated genes is reminiscent of the 6p MHC region, and perhaps represents the emergence of yet another antigen presentation gene cluster, in this case dedicated to lipid/glycolipid antigens rather than antigen-derived peptides. [The nucleotide sequence data reported in this paper have been submitted to the DDBJ, EMBL, and GenBank databases under

  6. Ecological Catastrophes in the steppe? Landscape Archaeology at the mining and metallurgical complex of Kargaly (Region of Orenbourg, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicent García, Juan M.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Kargaly is one of the most important centers of mining and metallurgy in the great Eurasian steppe. Dr. E.N. Chernykh and his team (Institute of Archaeology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow and various researchers at the CSIC and other Spanish institutions have developed a joint project to undertake a comprehensive study of the site's two main phases of occupation, the Bronze Age (2nd millenium BC and the first Russian industrialization (1745-1900 AD. The Russian members of the joint team are in charge of the archaeological investigations, while the Spanish members are studying metallurgical and mining technology and production, on the one hand, and the environmental context and impact of these activities, on the other. This article presents the research design and first results of the Palaeoenvironmental research at Kargaly. This work has two aspects. The first consisted of obtaining one of the most complete palaeoenvironmental data sets from the steppes through both the systematic sampling of archaeological sites to recover charcoal, seeds, fruits and pollen and the taking of palynological cores from natural deposits, on the other Both sampling programs were supported by radiocarbon dates. The second aspect, to which the greater part of this article is devoted, was dedicated to contextualizing the palaeobotanical evidence by studying the present-day landscape, with particular attention to understanding the processes which shape the variability of the pollen rain. Our purpose was to obtain explicit and measurable calibrative criteria which would enable us to answer the palaeoenvironmental questions raised by our archaeological and archaeometallurgical research. These questions include, most importantly, the following: what was the extent of forest (the energy base for the mining/metallurgical complex during the Bronze Age? and how do we evaluate subsistence practices? (an issue related to the origins of agriculture on the

  7. The molecular complex associated with the Galactic H II region Sh2-90: a possible site of triggered star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, M. R.; Zavagno, A.; Deharveng, L.; Molinari, S.; Ojha, D. K.; Paradis, D.; Tigé, J.; Pandey, A. K.; Russeil, D.

    2014-06-01

    Aims: We investigate the star formation activity in the molecular complex associated with the Galactic H ii region Sh2-90. Methods: We obtain the distribution of the ionized and cold neutral gas using radio-continuum and Herschel observations. We use near-infrared and Spitzer data to investigate the stellar content of the complex. We discuss the evolutionary status of embedded massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) using their spectral energy distribution. Results: The Sh2-90 region presents a bubble morphology in the mid-infrared. Radio observations suggest it is an evolved H ii region with an electron density ~144 cm-3, emission measure ~ 6.7 × 104 cm-6 pc and an ionized mass ~55 M⊙. From Herschel and CO (J = 3 - 2) observations we found that the H ii region is part of an elongated extended molecular cloud (H2 column density ≥ 3 × 1021 cm-2 and dust temperature 18-27 K) of total mass ≥ 1 × 104 M⊙. We identify the ionizing cluster of Sh2-90, the main exciting star being an O8-O9 V star. Five cold dust clumps, four mid-IR blobs around B stars, and a compact H ii region are found at the edge of the bubble. The velocity information derived from CO data cubes suggest that most of them are associated with the Sh2-90 region. One hundred and twenty-nine low mass (≤3 M⊙) YSOs have been identified, and they are found to be distributed mostly in the regions of high column density. Four candidate Class 0/I MYSOs have been found. We suggest that multi-generation star formation is present in the complex. From evidence of interaction, time scales involved, and evolutionary status of stellar/protostellar sources, we argue that the star formation at the edges of Sh2-90 might have been triggered. However, several young sources in this complex are probably formed by some other processes. Full Table 5 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/566/A122

  8. Development of innovation complexes as a mechanism of technologies transfer and an instrument of social-economic policy in the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Sukhovey

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article is developed a role of innovation complexes of a region at the base of analysis of foreign and domestic experience of organization science-technological complexes. Main reasons, braking innovation transformations in Russia are cleared. For example of Russia it is shown, that unsystematic forming objects of innovation infrastructure without interaction with needs of development region and state its science-technical and industrial potential do not taken to positive change at economy and do not help to activation of innovation processes. Peculiarity different innovation complexes as instrument of social-economic policy, its participation at decision, those actual problems as overcoming of decline traditional branches of industry, forming high-tech sector, rise of outlaying districts, rise of competitive ability of industry were cleared. It is given special attention to possibility of innovation complexes as effective mechanism passing of technologies, allowing to create favorable conditions to subjects of innovation activity and to speed up process “research — production”. Measures to foundation of effective innovation infrastructure as one conditions of acceleration innovation development in Russia are offered.

  9. Revision of fleas of the genus Plocopsylla belonging to the 'angusticeps-lewisi' complex in the Andean biogeographic region, with the description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, J; Beaucournu, J-C; Lareschi, M

    2015-06-01

    In Argentina, the Andean biogeographic region accommodates the most diverse population of fleas in the country. The Craneopsyllinae (Siphonaptera: Stephanocircidae) represent one of the most commonly found subfamilies in this region and show some endemism and high diversity. Plocopsylla is the most diverse genus of Craneopsyllinae; it includes 10 species mainly distributed in the Patagonian subregion, which parasitize sigmodontine rodents (Rodentia: Cricetidae). We describe and illustrate the morphology of the aedeagus in species of Plocopsylla that belong to the 'angusticeps-lewisi' complex. This character is of diagnostic value in differentiating among species. A new species of this complex, Plocopsylla (Plocopsylla) linardii sp. n., is described and identified by the shape and chaetotaxy of the distal arm of sternite IX, as well as by the shape of the median dorsal lobe of the aedeagus. New host associations for this complex and range extensions for most of its species are reported. Plocopsylla (P.) silewi is recorded for the first time in Argentina. The southern limits of the distributions of Plocopsylla (P.) lewisi and Plocopsylla (P.) wilesi are extended to Santa Cruz Province. The angusticeps-lewisi complex is found for the first time in San Juan Province. The information may be useful in epidemiological studies of flea-borne diseases. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  10. Visual motion imagery neurofeedback based on the hMT+/V5 complex: evidence for a feedback-specific neural circuit involving neocortical and cerebellar regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banca, Paula; Sousa, Teresa; Catarina Duarte, Isabel; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2015-12-01

    Objective. Current approaches in neurofeedback/brain-computer interface research often focus on identifying, on a subject-by-subject basis, the neural regions that are best suited for self-driven modulation. It is known that the hMT+/V5 complex, an early visual cortical region, is recruited during explicit and implicit motion imagery, in addition to real motion perception. This study tests the feasibility of training healthy volunteers to regulate the level of activation in their hMT+/V5 complex using real-time fMRI neurofeedback and visual motion imagery strategies. Approach. We functionally localized the hMT+/V5 complex to further use as a target region for neurofeedback. An uniform strategy based on motion imagery was used to guide subjects to neuromodulate hMT+/V5. Main results. We found that 15/20 participants achieved successful neurofeedback. This modulation led to the recruitment of a specific network as further assessed by psychophysiological interaction analysis. This specific circuit, including hMT+/V5, putative V6 and medial cerebellum was activated for successful neurofeedback runs. The putamen and anterior insula were recruited for both successful and non-successful runs. Significance. Our findings indicate that hMT+/V5 is a region that can be modulated by focused imagery and that a specific cortico-cerebellar circuit is recruited during visual motion imagery leading to successful neurofeedback. These findings contribute to the debate on the relative potential of extrinsic (sensory) versus intrinsic (default-mode) brain regions in the clinical application of neurofeedback paradigms. This novel circuit might be a good target for future neurofeedback approaches that aim, for example, the training of focused attention in disorders such as ADHD.

  11. Physiotherapy for pain and disability in adults with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) types I and II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Keith M; Wand, Benedict M; O'Connell, Neil E

    2016-02-24

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a painful and disabling condition that usually manifests in response to trauma or surgery. When it occurs, it is associated with significant pain and disability. It is thought to arise and persist as a consequence of a maladaptive pro-inflammatory response and disturbances in sympathetically-mediated vasomotor control, together with maladaptive peripheral and central neuronal plasticity. CRPS can be classified into two types: type I (CRPS I) in which a specific nerve lesion has not been identified, and type II (CRPS II) where there is an identifiable nerve lesion. Guidelines recommend the inclusion of a variety of physiotherapy interventions as part of the multimodal treatment of people with CRPS, although their effectiveness is not known. To determine the effectiveness of physiotherapy interventions for treating the pain and disability associated with CRPS types I and II. We searched the following databases from inception up to 12 February 2015: CENTRAL (the Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, LILACS, PEDro, Web of Science, DARE and Health Technology Assessments, without language restrictions, for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of physiotherapy interventions for treating pain and disability in people CRPS. We also searched additional online sources for unpublished trials and trials in progress. We included RCTs of physiotherapy interventions (including manual therapy, therapeutic exercise, electrotherapy, physiotherapist-administered education and cortically directed sensory-motor rehabilitation strategies) employed in either a stand-alone fashion or in combination, compared with placebo, no treatment, another intervention or usual care, or of varying physiotherapy interventions compared with each other in adults with CRPS I and II. Our primary outcomes of interest were patient-centred outcomes of pain intensity and functional disability. Two review authors independently evaluated those studies

  12. OXA-carbapenemases present in clinical acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus complex isolates from patients in kurdistan region, Iraq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganjo, A.R. (Aryann R.); D.M. Maghdid (Delshad); Mansoor, I.Y. (Isam Y.); Kok, D.J. (Dik J.); J.A. Severin (Juliëtte); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); D. Kreft; Fatah, M.H.; Alnakshabandi, A.A.; Dlnya, A. (Asad); Hammerum, A.M. (Anette M.); Ng, K. (Kim); W.H.F. Goessens (Wil)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractIn addition to intrinsic resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii, many different types of acquired resistance mechanisms have been reported, including the presence of VIM and IMP metallo β-lactamases and also of blaOXA-23-like and blaOXA-58-like enzymes. In the Kurdistan region of

  13. Which complexity of regional climate system models is essential for downscaling anthropogenic climate change in the Northwest European Shelf?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Moritz; Elizalde, Alberto; Mikolajewicz, Uwe

    2018-04-01

    Climate change impact studies for the Northwest European Shelf (NWES) make use of various dynamical downscaling strategies in the experimental setup of regional ocean circulation models. Projected change signals from coupled and uncoupled downscalings with different domain sizes and forcing global and regional models show substantial uncertainty. In this paper, we investigate influences of the downscaling strategy on projected changes in the physical and biogeochemical conditions of the NWES. Our results indicate that uncertainties due to different downscaling strategies are similar to uncertainties due to the choice of the parent global model and the downscaling regional model. Downscaled change signals reveal to depend stronger on the downscaling strategy than on the model skills in simulating present-day conditions. Uncoupled downscalings of sea surface temperature (SST) changes are found to be tightly constrained by the atmospheric forcing. The incorporation of coupled air-sea interaction, by contrast, allows the regional model system to develop independently. Changes in salinity show a higher sensitivity to open lateral boundary conditions and river runoff than to coupled or uncoupled atmospheric forcings. Dependencies on the downscaling strategy for changes in SST, salinity, stratification and circulation collectively affect changes in nutrient import and biological primary production.

  14. Improvement of the complex mechanism of state administration of E-government process on the regional level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Kondakov

    2017-03-01

    Suggested structure of the Department will contribute to the improvement of administrative relations between national and regional administration levels. According to the offered structure, main tasks of the structural sub-divisions in the above-mentioned Department have also been defined.

  15. Regional Differences in Brain Volume Predict the Acquisition of Skill in a Complex Real-Time Strategy Videogame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Chandramallika; Voss, Michelle W.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Boot, Walter R.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have found that differences in brain volume among older adults predict performance in laboratory tasks of executive control, memory, and motor learning. In the present study we asked whether regional differences in brain volume as assessed by the application of a voxel-based morphometry technique on high resolution MRI would also…

  16. Cortical Regions Recruited for Complex Active-Learning Strategies and Action Planning Exhibit Rapid Reactivation during Memory Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Joel L.; Galvan, Ashley; Gonsalves, Brian D.

    2011-01-01

    Memory retrieval can involve activity in the same sensory cortical regions involved in perception of the original event, and this neural "reactivation" has been suggested as an important mechanism of memory retrieval. However, it is still unclear if fragments of experience other than sensory information are retained and later reactivated during…

  17. Nature and regional significance of unconformities associated with the Middle Ordovician Hagan K-bentonite complex in the North American midcontinent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolata, Dennis R.; Huff, W.D.; Bergstrom, Stig M.

    1998-01-01

    Stratal patterns of the Middle Ordovician Hagan K-bentonite complex and associated rocks show that the Black River-Trenton unconformity in the North American midcontinent formed through the complex interplay of eustasy, sediment accumulation rates, siliciclastic influx, bathymetry, seawater chemistry, and perhaps local tectonic uplift. The unconformity is diachronous and is an amalgamated surface that resulted from local late Turinian lowstand exposure followed by regional early Chatfieldian transgressive drowning and sediment starvation. The duration of the unconformity is greatest in southern Wisconsin, northern Illinois, and northern Indiana, where the Deicke and Millbrig K-bentonite Beds converge at the unconformity. On the basis of published isotopic ages for the Deicke and Millbrig beds, it is possible that in these regions erosion and non-deposition spanned a period of as much as 3.2 m.y. Two broad coeval depositional settings are recognized within the North American midcontinent during early Chatfieldian time. 1) An inner shelf, subtidal facies of fossiliferous shale (Spechts Ferry Shale Member and Ion Shale Member of the Decorah Formation) and argillaceous lime mudstone and skeletal wackestone (Guttenberg and Kings Lake Limestone Members) extended from the Canadian shield and Transcontinental arch southeastward through Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, and Missouri. 2) A seaward, relatively deep subtidal, sediment-starved, middle shelf extended eastward from the Mississippi Valley region to the Taconian foreland basins in the central and southern Appalachians and southward through the pericratonic Arkoma and Black Warrior basins. In the inner shelf region, the Black River-Trenton unconformity is a composite of at least two prominent hardground omission surfaces, one at the top of the Castlewood and Carimona Limestone Members and the other at the top of the Guttenberg and Kings Lake Limestone Members, both merging to a single surface in the middle shelf region

  18. EMD-RBFNN Coupling Prediction Model of Complex Regional Groundwater Depth Series: A Case Study of the Jiansanjiang Administration of Heilongjiang Land Reclamation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Fu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The accurate and reliable prediction of groundwater depth is the basis of the sustainable utilization of regional groundwater resources. However, the complexity of the prediction has been ignored in previous studies of regional groundwater depth system analysis and prediction, making it difficult to realize the scientific management of groundwater resources. To address this defect, taking complexity diagnosis as the research foundation, this paper proposes a new coupling forecast strategy for evaluating groundwater depth based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD and a radial basis function neural network (RBFNN. The data used for complexity analysis and modelling are the monthly groundwater depth series monitoring data from 15 long-term monitoring wells from 1997 to 2007, which were collected from the Jiansanjiang Administration of Heilongjiang Agricultural Reclamation in China. The calculation results of the comprehensive complexity index for each groundwater depth series obtained are based on wavelet theory, fractal theory, and the approximate entropy method. The monthly groundwater depth sequence of District 8 of Farm Nongjiang, which has the highest complexity among the five farms in the Jiansanjiang Administration midland, was chosen as the modelling sample series. The groundwater depth series of District 8 of Farm Nongjiang was separated into five intrinsic mode function (IMF sequences and a remainder sequence by applying the EMD method, which revealed that local groundwater depth has a significant one-year periodic character and an increasing trend. The RBFNN was then used to forecast and stack each EMD separation sequence. The results suggest that the future groundwater depth will remain at approximately 10 m if the past pattern of water use continues, exceeding the ideal depth of groundwater. Thus, local departments should take appropriate countermeasures to conserve groundwater resources effectively.

  19. Cooperation networks and innovation: A complex system perspective to the analysis and evaluation of a EU regional innovation policy programme

    OpenAIRE

    Russo, Margherita; Rossi, Federica

    2008-01-01

    Recent developments in innovation theory and policy have led policymakers to assign particular importance to supporting networks of cooperation among heterogeneous economic actors, especially in production systems composed of small and medium enterprises. Such innovative policies call for parallel innovations in policy analysis, monitoring and assessment. Our analysis of a policy experiment aimed at supporting innovation networks in the Italian region of Tuscany intends to address some issues...

  20. Reproducible association with type 1 diabetes in the extended class I region of the major histocompatibility complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viken, M.K.; Blomhoff, A.; Olsson, M.

    2009-01-01

    parent homozygous for these loci, were genotyped for 137 polymorphisms. We found novel associations on the DRB1(*)0401-DQA1(*)03-DQB1(*)0302 haplotypic background with eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located within or near the PRSS16 gene. In addition, association at the butyrophilin (BTN......(*)03-DQA1(*)0501-DQB1(*)0201 haplotype, and this study aimed to fine-map the associated region also on the DRB1(*)0401-DQA1(*)03-DQB1(*)0302 haplotype, characterized by less extensive linkage disequilibrium. To exclude associations secondary to DRB1-DQA1-DQB1 haplotypes, 205 families with at least one......)-gene cluster, particularly the BTN3A2 gene, was observed by multilocus analyses. We replicated the associations with SNPs in the PRSS16 region and, albeit weaker, to the BTN3A2 region, in an independent material of 725 families obtained from the Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium. It is important to note...

  1. Interpretation of complex electromagnetic data in seismically active regions: Case study of the Chuya Depression, Mountain Altai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevedrova, N. N.; Pospeeva, E. V.; Sanchaa, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    A procedure for the simultaneous interpretation of magnetotelluric and near-field transient electromagnetic sounding (MTS and NF TEMS, respectively) data is proposed. The advantages of the complex interpretation are demonstrated by specific examples. In accordance with the interpretation of the field data, geoelectrical sections of the lithosphere in the western part of the Chuya Depression are constructed. A reduction in the depth to the conductive crustal layer in the epicentral zone is found, and the geoelectrical boundary in the upper part of the paleozoic basement is revealed.

  2. Drainage isolation and climate change-driven population expansion shape the genetic structures of Tuber indicum complex in the Hengduan Mountains region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bang; Zhao, Qi; Xu, Jianping; Qin, Jiao; Yang, Zhu L

    2016-02-24

    The orogenesis of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and the Quaternary climate changes have played key roles in driving the evolution of flora and fauna in Southwest China, but their effects on higher fungi are poorly addressed. In this study, we investigated the phylogeographic pattern of the Tuber indicum species complex, an economically important fungal group distributed in the Hengduan Mountains region. Our data confirmed the existence of two distinct lineages, T. indicum and T. himalayense, within this species complex. Three geographic groups (Groups W, N and C) were revealed within T. indicum, with Group W found in the paleo-Lancang River region, while Groups N and C corresponded to the two banks along the contemporary Jinsha River, suggesting that rivers have acted as barriers for gene flow among populations from different drainages. Historical range expansion resulted from climate changes was inferred in Group C, contributing to the observed gene flow among geographic populations within this group. Although no significant geographic structure was identified in T. himalayense, evidence of drainage isolation for this species was also detected. Our findings demonstrate that both topographic changes and Quaternary climate oscillations have played important roles in driving the genetic structures of the T. indicum species complex.

  3. Statistical downscaling of historical monthly mean winds over a coastal region of complex terrain. I. Predicting wind speed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curry, Charles L. [Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Environment Canada, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada); School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada); Kamp, Derek van der [School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada); Pacific Climate Impacts Consortium, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada); Monahan, Adam H. [School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2012-04-15

    Surface wind speed is a key climatic variable of interest in many applications, including assessments of storm-related infrastructure damage and feasibility studies of wind power generation. In this work and a companion paper (van der Kamp et al. 2011), the relationship between local surface wind and large-scale climate variables was studied using multiple regression analysis. The analysis was performed using monthly mean station data from British Columbia, Canada and large-scale climate variables (predictors) from the NCEP-2 reanalysis over the period 1979-2006. Two regression-based methodologies were compared. The first relates the annual cycle of station wind speed to that of the large-scale predictors at the closest grid box to the station. It is shown that the relatively high correlation coefficients obtained with this method are attributable to the dominant influence of region-wide seasonality, and thus contain minimal information about local wind behaviour at the stations. The second method uses interannually varying data for individual months, aggregated into seasons, and is demonstrated to contain intrinsically local information about the surface winds. The dependence of local wind speed upon large-scale predictors over a much larger region surrounding the station was also explored, resulting in 2D maps of spatial correlations. The cross-validated explained variance using the interannual method was highest in autumn and winter, ranging from 30 to 70% at about a dozen stations in the region. Reasons for the limited predictive skill of the regressions and directions for future progress are reviewed. (orig.)

  4. Germanic Settlement Structure in the Middle Danube Region as a Complex System of Agent-Based Modeling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlach, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 1 (2015), s. 741-748 ISSN 0323-9535. [International Congress of Roman Frontier Studies /22./. Ruse, 06.09.2012-11.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA404/09/1054 Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M300011201 Program:M Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : Roman period * Middle Danube region * Germanic settlement structure * Agent Based Modeling * archaeological demography Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  5. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS type-1) in an Adolescent Following Extravasation of Dextrose Containing Fluid-an Underdiagnosed Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Asish; Bhattarai, Balkrishna; Biswas, Binay K; Khatiwada, Sindhu

    2011-06-01

    Due to its complex pathophysiology and wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, the diagnosis of CRPS is often missed in the early stage by primary care physicians. After being treated by a primary care physician for 5 months for chronic cellulitis, a 16-year-old girl was referred to our hospital with features of type-1 CRPS of the right upper extremity. Inability to diagnose early caused prolonged suffering to the girl with all the consequence of CRPS. The patient responded well with marked functional recovery from multimodal therapy. Ability to distinguish CRPS from other pain conditions, referral for specialty care at the appropriate time and full awareness of this condition and its clinical features among various healthcare professionals are essential in reducing patient suffering and stopping its progression towards difficult-to-treat situations.

  6. Strategic objectives and the usage possibility of competitive advantages of the grain crops complex of Chelyabinsk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ol'ga Dmitrievna Rubaeva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the logical scheme of strategy of the grain complex competitive advantages usage. The results of evaluation of financial and economic situation of agricultural enterprises engaged into production of grain are presented. Determination of the level of competitiveness of the agro-grain industry was established on the basis of obtaining an integral point-weighting factor of competitiveness. Evaluation and confirmation of this technique allowed identifying key factors of competitiveness of agricultural enterprises in the grain corns industry. The main conclusion of the study is the following: the use of resource-saving technologies for the cultivation of crops greatly influences the development of competitive advantages. Calculations showed that the application of resource-saving technology increases productivity, reduces labour requirements and the cost of equipment maintenance and repair, fuel costs, improves basic economic indicators of activity: gross revenues from sales is increasing.

  7. First physical volcanological description of a Miocene, silicic, phreatomagmatic fall complex in the Carpatho-Pannonian Region (CPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biró, Tamás; Hencz, Mátyás; Karátson, Dávid; Márton, Emő; Bradák-Hayashi, Balázs; Szalai, Zoltán

    2017-04-01

    The study reports the basic physical volcanological and stratigraphical features of a hitherto unrecognized silicic phreatomagmatic fall succession from the Bükk Foreland Volcanic Area (Hungary), known as part of the extensive Miocene ignimbrite volcanism of the northern CPR. The complex have been identified at two sites, in the vicinity of Bogács and Tibolddaróc villages. Tens of mm to several dm thick layers make up the 20 m thick entire succession. The complex could be subdivided into three eruption cycles by two, intercalated well-developed paleosoil horizons, which indicate longer repose periods. The eruption cycles consist of several individual eruptive events. The volcano-sedimentological field approach was completed by granulometrical and low field anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) studies. Combined dry sieving and laser diffraction particle size analysis were performed to get information on median grain size (MdΦ) and sorting (σΦ) of friable layers. AMS was used to infer the emplacement processes. Based on the following features the succession is proposed to record a large-scale, silicic, phreatomagmatic fall activity: i) Presence of very fine ash and abundant ash aggregates, ii) General poor sorting, and often bimodal grain-size distributions; ii) Extremely weak magnetic fabric compared to dilute, thin pyroclastic density current deposits. On the basis of comparison of the recorded grain size characteristics with data from other silicic phretomagmatic fall deposits worldwide, several units in the succession can be considered as phreatoplinian fall deposit (sensu lato), described for the first time in the CPR.

  8. Methodological approach in determination of small spatial units in a highly complex terrain in atmospheric pollution research: the case of Zasavje region in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukec, Andreja; Boznar, Marija Z; Mlakar, Primoz; Grasic, Bostjan; Herakovic, Andrej; Zadnik, Vesna; Zaletel-Kragelj, Lijana; Farkas, Jerneja; Erzen, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    The study of atmospheric air pollution research in complex terrains is challenged by the lack of appropriate methodology supporting the analysis of the spatial relationship between phenomena affected by a multitude of factors. The key is optimal design of a meaningful approach based on small spatial units of observation. The Zasavje region, Slovenia, was chosen as study area with the main objective to investigate in practice the role of such units in a test environment. The process consisted of three steps: modelling of pollution in the atmosphere with dispersion models, transfer of the results to geographical information system software, and then moving on to final determination of the function of small spatial units. A methodology capable of designing useful units for atmospheric air pollution research in highly complex terrains was created, and the results were deemed useful in offering starting points for further research in the field of geospatial health.

  9. Complexity of the 5′ Untranslated Region of EIF4A3, a Critical Factor for Craniofacial and Neural Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella S. P. Hsia

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Repeats in coding and non-coding regions have increasingly been associated with many human genetic disorders, such as Richieri-Costa-Pereira syndrome (RCPS. RCPS, mostly characterized by midline cleft mandible, Robin sequence and limb defects, is an autosomal-recessive acrofacial dysostosis mainly reported in Brazilian patients. This disorder is caused by decreased levels of EIF4A3, mostly due to an increased number of repeats at the EIF4A3 5′UTR. EIF4A3 5′UTR alleles are CG-rich and vary in size and organization of three types of motifs. An exclusive allelic pattern was identified among affected individuals, in which the CGCA-motif is the most prevalent, herein referred as “disease-associated CGCA-20nt motif.” The origin of the pathogenic alleles containing the disease-associated motif, as well as the functional effects of the 5′UTR motifs on EIF4A3 expression, to date, are entirely unknown. Here, we characterized 43 different EIF4A3 5′UTR alleles in a cohort of 380 unaffected individuals. We identified eight heterozygous unaffected individuals harboring the disease-associated CGCA-20nt motif and our haplotype analyses indicate that there are more than one haplotype associated with RCPS. The combined analysis of number, motif organization and haplotypic diversity, as well as the observation of two apparently distinct haplotypes associated with the disease-associated CGCA-20nt motif, suggest that the RCPS alleles might have arisen from independent unequal crossing-over events between ancient alleles at least twice. Moreover, we have shown that the number and sequence of motifs in the 5′UTR region is associated with EIF4A3 repression, which is not mediated by CpG methylation. In conclusion, this study has shown that the large number of repeats in EIF4A3 does not represent a dynamic mutation and RCPS can arise in any population harboring alleles with the CGCA-20nt motif. We also provided further evidence that EIF4A3 5′UTR is a

  10. Complexity of the 5' Untranslated Region of EIF4A3, a Critical Factor for Craniofacial and Neural Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, Gabriella S P; Musso, Camila M; Alvizi, Lucas; Brito, Luciano A; Kobayashi, Gerson S; Pavanello, Rita C M; Zatz, Mayana; Gardham, Alice; Wakeling, Emma; Zechi-Ceide, Roseli M; Bertola, Debora; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita

    2018-01-01

    Repeats in coding and non-coding regions have increasingly been associated with many human genetic disorders, such as Richieri-Costa-Pereira syndrome (RCPS). RCPS, mostly characterized by midline cleft mandible, Robin sequence and limb defects, is an autosomal-recessive acrofacial dysostosis mainly reported in Brazilian patients. This disorder is caused by decreased levels of EIF4A3 , mostly due to an increased number of repeats at the EIF4A3 5'UTR. EIF4A3 5'UTR alleles are CG-rich and vary in size and organization of three types of motifs. An exclusive allelic pattern was identified among affected individuals, in which the CGCA-motif is the most prevalent, herein referred as "disease-associated CGCA-20nt motif." The origin of the pathogenic alleles containing the disease-associated motif, as well as the functional effects of the 5'UTR motifs on EIF4A3 expression, to date, are entirely unknown. Here, we characterized 43 different EIF4A3 5'UTR alleles in a cohort of 380 unaffected individuals. We identified eight heterozygous unaffected individuals harboring the disease-associated CGCA-20nt motif and our haplotype analyses indicate that there are more than one haplotype associated with RCPS. The combined analysis of number, motif organization and haplotypic diversity, as well as the observation of two apparently distinct haplotypes associated with the disease-associated CGCA-20nt motif, suggest that the RCPS alleles might have arisen from independent unequal crossing-over events between ancient alleles at least twice. Moreover, we have shown that the number and sequence of motifs in the 5'UTR region is associated with EIF4A3 repression, which is not mediated by CpG methylation. In conclusion, this study has shown that the large number of repeats in EIF4A3 does not represent a dynamic mutation and RCPS can arise in any population harboring alleles with the CGCA-20nt motif. We also provided further evidence that EIF4A3 5'UTR is a regulatory region and the size and

  11. Further assessment of seismic hazard/risk in the Bushveld Complex platinum mines and the implication for regional and local support design.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brink, AVZ

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Final Project Report Further assessment of seismic hazard/risk in the Bushveld Complex platinum mines and the implication for regional and local support design. A.v.Z Brink, M.K.C. Roberts, S.M Spottiswoode Research Agency: CSIR: Division of Mining... on the VCR. An industry workshop on local support requirements in areas of higher seismic risk resulted in the specification of support requirements. A maximum design parameter for yielding support in terms of the ground motion velocity is 1 m...

  12. Concurrent Peripheral Pathologies and Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1 as Contributors to Acute Post-Stroke Shoulder Pain: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Majid Akhavan Hejazi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Post-stroke shoulder pain is associated with either a peripheral or central pathology. However, most of the time, it is challenging to establish a cause-and-effect relationship between the suggested pathology and shoulder pain reported. We report a 66 year-old man who developed a right hemiplegic shoulder pain two months post stroke with initial investigations suggestive of peripheral pathologies. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment did not improve his shoulder pain. Later he developed complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS of the right hand and the initial shoulder pain subsequently relieved following resolution of the CRPS.

  13. Functional isotypes are not encoded by the constant region genes of the beta subunit of the T cell receptor for antigen/major histocompatibility complex

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    Human T cell clones and a cDNA probe specific for constant regions of the beta subunit of the antigen/major histocompatibility complex (MHC) receptor, TiC beta 1 and TiC beta 2, were employed to determine whether these genes were differentially used by functional classes of T lymphocytes. DNA from 10 interleukin-2-dependent T cell clones including class I and class II MHC-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (n = 6), T4+ inducer T lymphocytes (n = 2), and T8+ suppressor T lymphocytes (n = 2) show...

  14. [Motivation perception measurement of intermediate directors in three complex hospitals of the Region of the Maule, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante-Ubilla, Miguel Alejandro; del Río-Rivero, María Carolina; Lobos-Andrade, Germán Enrique; Villarreal-Navarrete, Patricia Isabel

    2009-01-01

    In this work, a questionnaire was designed and perceptions of motivation and demotivation of middle managers in three hospitals in the Region del Maule, Chile were measured. The fieldwork was carried out between September and October, 2006. A questionnaire that included 57 statements to measure attitude was administered and qualified according to a five-point Likert-type scale. The population studied included l25 professionals that supervise roughly 3 800 employees. Ten variables were identified, 5 motivational and 5 demotivational. Notable among the motivational variables are vocation and service-oriented spirit; among the demotivational variables are lack of recognition and commitment. It is affirmed that both motivational variables as well as demotivational variables are essentially qualitative and that economic and salary variables are less relevant and less hierarchical.

  15. Status and assessment of risks at the enterprises of industrial complex of the Northern region of the Crimea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Korotitskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In today's unstable economic processes taking place in the country under the influence of a considerable number of factors of the external sector and the mobility of market conditions, the activities of a number of industrial enterprises of Northern Crimea does not ensure a profit necessary for their future development, there is a tendency to a sharp increase in the number and level of danger of the economic risks. The future for companies in such conditions becomes less predictable. Therefore, the success of the enterprise depends on the accurate and timely identification of sources and enterprise risk management, the accuracy of the assessment of future risks, development and implementation of preventive measures to prevent undesirable consequences. In this connection, it is proposed approved methods, which allows to determine the average probability of occurrence of a number of risks and their importance rating. Studies have shown that for a given period, the most severe for the enterprises of Northern Crimea region is the risk of lack of established supply chain of raw materials. For businesses, this can be expressed in interruptions and delays in deliveries, penalties from customers and their loss, as well as additional costs. The proposed method allows us to estimate the probability of occurrence of a risk, but it is not pointing to the possible effect of the risk, both negative and positive. The data obtained can be used in the development of national, regional and sectoral policies and programs, and provide full management of industrial enterprises the tools of risk management.

  16. The crystalline basement of Estonia: rock complexes of the Palaeoproterozoic Orosirian and Statherian and Mesoproterozoic Calymmian periods, and regional correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirs, Juho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available New data on the Fennoscandian Shield and the Baltic area suggest a need for reinterpretation of the stratigraphy of Estonian Precambrian rock complexes. The rocks of the Tallinn Zone formed in the framework of the Fennian orogeny at the margin of the Bergslagen microcontinent 1.90–1.88 Ga ago. The precise age of the Alutaguse Zone is not known. It may have formed either during the 1.93–1.91 Ga Lapland–Savo orogeny or as a rifted eastern part of the Tallinn Zone in the Fennian orogeny. The granulites of western and southern Estonia belong to the volcanic arcs inside the 1.84–1.80 Ga Svecobaltic orogenic belt and show peak metamorphic conditions of 1.78 Ga. Small shoshonitic plutons formed 1.83–1.63 Ga, the small granitic plutons of the Wiborg Rapakivi Subprovince 1.67–1.62 Ga, and the Riga pluton 1.59–1.54 Ga ago.

  17. Relative importance of local habitat complexity and regional factors for assemblages of oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) in Sphagnum peat bogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, M A; Ermilov, S G; Philippov, D A; Prokin, A A

    2016-11-01

    We investigated communities of oribatid mites in five peat bogs in the north-west of the East European plain. We aimed to determine the extent to which geographic factors (latitude, separation distance), local environment (Sphagnum moss species, ground water level, biogeochemistry) and local habitat complexity (diversity of vascular plants and bryophytes in the surrounding plant community) influence diversity and community composition of Oribatida. There was a significant north-to-south increase in Oribatida abundance. In the variance partitioning, spatial factors explained 33.1 % of variability in abundance across samples; none of the environmental factors were significant. Across all bogs, Oribatida species richness and community composition were similar in Sphagnum rubellum and Sphagnum magellanicum, but significantly different and less diverse in Sphagnum cuspidatum. Sphagnum microhabitat explained 52.2 % of variability in Oribatida species richness, whereas spatial variables explained only 8.7 %. There was no distance decay in community similarity between bogs with increased geographical distance. The environmental variables explained 34.9 % of the variance in community structure, with vascular plants diversity, bryophytes diversity, and ground water level all contributing significantly; spatial variables explained 15.1 % of the total variance. Overall, only 50 % of the Oribatida community variance was explained by the spatial structure and environmental variables. We discuss relative importance of spatial and local environmental factors, and make general inferences about the formation of fauna in Sphagnum bogs.

  18. Isolation of a cosmid sublibrary for a region of chromosome 12 frequently amplified in human cancers using a complex chromosome microdissection probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkahloun, A.G.; Meltzer, P.S.; Guan, Xin-Yuan [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [and others

    1996-02-01

    Chromosome-specific cosmid libraries are in extremely useful resource for positional cloning projects. Once a particular region of interest has been identified, it would be of value to have an approach for isolating chromosome band-specific cosmids that could be assembled into a sublibrary for rapid screening. We constructed a region-specific sublibrary of 700 cosmids by screening a chromosome 12-specific cosmid library with a complex probe generated by degenerate oligonucleotide-primed PCR of a microdissected homogeneously staining region containing sequences amplified from chromosome 12q13-q15. Based on fluorescence in situ hybridization, approximately 60% of the cosmids in the sublibrary were derived from the microdissected region. To demonstrate further the utility of the sublibrary, a 150-kb contig containing the SAS and CDK4 genes was constructed, as well as several additional contigs between CDK4 and MDM2. This study demonstrates the possibility of utilizing probes generated by microdissection for assembling band-specific libraries that are amendable to rapid screening with multiple markers.

  19. Removing Regional Trends in Microgravity in Complex Environments: Testing on 3D Model and Field Investigations in the Eastern Dead Sea Coast (Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Al-Zoubi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microgravity investigations are now recognized as a powerful tool for subsurface imaging and especially for the localization of underground karsts. However numerous natural (geological, technical, and environmental factors interfere with microgravity survey processing and interpretation. One of natural factors that causes the most disturbance in complex geological environments is the influence of regional trends. In the Dead Sea coastal areas the influence of regional trends can exceed residual gravity effects by some tenfold. Many widely applied methods are unable to remove regional trends with sufficient accuracy. We tested number of transformation methods (including computing gravity field derivatives, self-adjusting and adaptive filtering, Fourier series, wavelet, and other procedures on a 3D model (complicated by randomly distributed noise, and field investigations were carried out in Ghor Al-Haditha (the eastern side of the Dead Sea in Jordan. We show that the most effective methods for regional trend removal (at least for the theoretical and field cases here are the bilinear saddle and local polynomial regressions. Application of these methods made it possible to detect the anomalous gravity effect from buried targets in the theoretical model and to extract the local gravity anomaly at the Ghor Al-Haditha site. The local anomaly was utilized for 3D gravity modeling to construct a physical-geological model (PGM.

  20. Turbulence structure of the atmosphere in a region of complex terrain and near to a major industrial installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, L.; Teasdale, I.

    1996-01-01

    The Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant in Cumbria discharges a variety of pollutants to both the marine environment and the atmosphere. Understanding the dispersion of this effluence is of prime importance for the industry, which must demonstrate safety to national regulatory bodies. Accurate modelling of the air flow in the region is one of the key ingredients towards correct prediction of the ground level concentrations of emissions. Work is being carried out to assess the suitability of the computer code FLOWSTAR for the task of predicting the atmospheric flow. Its predictions include means of the turbulent statistics within the boundary layer of the atmosphere. This paper will concentrate on the comparison of the predictions of these turbulence statistics at key points with the values measured by sonic anemometry. It is the turbulence, quantified by the standard deviations σ u , σ v and σ w of the wind vector's components that is responsible for the local dispersion of pollution and for inducing many other boundary layer changes. The high frequency variation in the wind vector brings about the necessity for rapid response equipment such as the sonic anemometer

  1. Utilization of manual therapy to the lumbar spine in conjunction with traditional conservative care for individuals with bilateral lower extremity complex regional pain syndrome: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walston, Zachary; Hernandez, Luis; Yake, Dale

    2018-06-06

    Conservative therapies for complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) have traditionally focused on exercise and desensitization techniques targeted at the involved extremity. The primary purpose of this case series is to report on the potential benefit of utilizing manual therapy to the lumbar spine in conjunction with traditional conservative care when treating patients with lower extremity CRPS. Two patients with the diagnosis of lower extremity CRPS were treated with manual therapy to the lumbar spine in conjunction with education, exercise, desensitization, and soft tissue techniques for the extremity. Patient 1 received 13 sessions over 6 weeks resulting in a 34-point improvement in oswestry disability index (ODI) and 35-point improvement in lower extremity functional scale (LEFS). Patient 2 received 21 sessions over 12 weeks resulting in a 28-point improvement in ODI and a 41-point improvement in LEFS. Both patients exhibited reductions in pain and clinically meaningful improvements in function. Manual therapies when applied to the lumbar spine in these patients as part of a comprehensive treatment plan resulted in improved spinal mobility, decreased pain, and reduction is distal referred symptoms. Although one cannot infer a cause and effect relationship from a case series, this report identifies meaningful clinical outcomes potentially associated with manual physical therapy to the lumbar spine for two patients with complex regional pain syndrome type 1.

  2. STAR-FORMING ACTIVITY IN THE H ii REGIONS ASSOCIATED WITH THE IRAS 17160–3707 COMPLEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandakumar, G.; Veena, V. S.; Vig, S.; Tej, A. [Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram 695 547 (India); Ghosh, S. K.; Ojha, D. K. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (Bombay) 400 005 (India)

    2016-11-01

    We present a multiwavelength investigation of star formation activity toward the southern H ii regions associated with IRAS 17160–3707, located at a distance of 6.2 kpc with a bolometric luminosity of 8.3 × 10{sup 5} L {sub ⊙}. The ionized gas distribution and dust clumps in the parental molecular cloud are examined in detail using measurements at infrared, submillimeter and radio wavelengths. The radio continuum images at 1280 and 610 MHz obtained using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope reveal the presence of multiple compact sources as well as nebulous emission. At submillimeter wavelengths, we identify seven dust clumps and estimate their physical properties such as temperature: 24–30 K, mass: 300–4800 M {sub ⊙} and luminosity: 9–317 × 10{sup 2} L {sub ⊙} using modified blackbody fits to the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) between 70 and 870 μ m. We find 24 young stellar objects (YSOs) in the mid-infrared, with a few of them coincident with the compact radio sources. The SEDs of the YSOs have been fitted by the Robitaille models and the results indicate that those having radio compact sources as counterparts host massive objects in early evolutionary stages with best fit age ≤0.2 Myr. We compare the relative evolutionary stages of clumps using various signposts such as masers, ionized gas, presence of YSOs and infrared nebulosity, and find six massive star-forming clumps and one quiescent clump. Of the former, five are in a relatively advanced stage and one in an earlier stage.

  3. Structural models of increasing complexity for icosahedral boron carbide with compositions throughout the single-phase region from first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ektarawong, A.; Simak, S. I.; Alling, B.

    2018-05-01

    We perform first-principles calculations to investigate the phase stability of boron carbide, concentrating on the recently proposed alternative structural models composed not only of the regularly studied B11Cp (CBC) and B12(CBC), but also of B12(CBCB) and B12( B4 ). We find that a combination of the four structural motifs can result in low-energy electron precise configurations of boron carbide. Among several considered configurations within the composition range of B10.5C and B4C , we identify in addition to the regularly studied B11Cp (CBC) at the composition of B4C two low-energy configurations, resulting in a new view of the B-C convex hull. Those are [B12 (CBC)]0.67[B12(B4)] 0.33 and [B12 (CBC)]0.67[ B12 (CBCB)]0.33, corresponding to compositions of B10.5C and B6.67C , respectively. As a consequence, B12(CBC) at the composition of B6.5C , previously suggested in the literature as a stable configuration of boron carbide, is no longer part of the B -C convex hull. By inspecting the electronic density of states as well as the elastic moduli, we find that the alternative models of boron carbide can provide a reasonably good description for electronic and elastic properties of the material in comparison with the experiments, highlighting the importance of considering B12(CBCB) and B12( B4 ), together with the previously proposed B11Cp (CBC) and B12(CBC), as the crucial ingredients for modeling boron carbide with compositions throughout the single-phase region.

  4. Mutations of the interferon sensitivity-determining region (ISDR) correlate with the complexity of hypervariable region (HVR)-1 in the Japanese variant of hepatitis C virus (HCV) type 1b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Isao; Fukuda, Yoshihide; Katano, Yoshiaki; Toyoda, Hidenori; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Kumada, Takashi; Nakano, Satoshi

    2004-09-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1b comprises mainly two subtypes in Japan, each named for its geographic prevalence (Japan-specific, J type; worldwide, W type). Because the newly identified subtypes have not been fully characterized, the present study directed this issue from virological viewpoints such as hypervariable region (HVR)-1 as well as interferon (IFN) sensitivity-determining region (ISDR). Fifty chronic hepatitis patients with HCV 1b (31 men and 19 women; mean age 50.5 years) were enrolled, and J/W type was determined according to envelope 1 (E1) sequence as described previously (23 J type and 27 W type). Correlations between age, number of HVR-1 clones, HVR-1 diversity, and ISDR mutations were analyzed in J and W type patients independently. In addition, the sequences of the three HCV regions obtained for the determination of the above genetic factors were studied phylogenetically. The number of HVR-1 clones was significantly higher for J type in comparison with W type (P = 0.044). In the J type-infected patients, the ISDR mutation number was correlated inversely with HVR-1 clone number (P = 0.0001, r = -0.734) and HVR-1 diversity (P = 0.0001, r = -0.722). However, this correlation was not observed in the W type patients. W type patients showed a significant correlation between age and HVR-1 clone number (P = 0.015, r = 0.462). Phylogenetic study revealed that the nonstructural (NS) 5A sequence, which is obtained for ISDR type determination, can distinguish between J and W types. The inverse correlation in J type patients between ISDR mutations and HVR-1 complexity may explain the usefulness of the ISDR for prediction of IFN response only in Japanese patients. This suggests that the ISDR is not directly related to IFN responsiveness, but the degree of HVR-1 complexity may be more important.

  5. O the Determination of the Complex Refractive Index of Powdered Materials in the 9 TO 11 Micrometer Spectral Region Utilizing AN Attenuated Total Reflectance Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, James Bryce

    1982-03-01

    A specific method of determining the complex refractive index of powdered materials using attenuated total reflectance (ATR) spectroscopy was investigated. A very precise laser/goniometric ATR system was assembled and applied to powdered samples of carbon blacks, graphite, kaolin clay, quartz, calcite, and sodalime glass beads. The reflectivity data fell into two categories: (1) data representative of a medium having a unique effective refractive index and (2) data representative of a scattering medium having no unique refractive index. Data of the first kind were obtained from all the carbon black, graphite, and kaolin clay samples. The Fahrenfort-Visser solution of the Fresnel equations was applied to the goniometric reflectivity data for these samples to obtain the complex refractive index of these effective media. The complex refractive index obtained in this manner is not that of the bulk material but is instead a value which may be related to the bulk material value through some refractive index mixing rule. A systematic experiment using carbon black of particle size 0.0106 mm diameter was conducted to determine the applicability of several mixture rules for the volume packing fraction range of .2 to .6 which is most often encountered. The Bruggemann effective medium theory produced credible results while the Lorentz-Lorenz rule and the empirical Biot-Arago rule were invalid in this volume packing region. The Bruggemann rule was applied to lampblack, Mogul-L carbon black, graphite, and kaolin clay to obtain the complex refractive indices of these materials from the ATR spectroscopy data. Goniometric reflectivity data representative of an inhomogeneous scattering medium were obtained from all the powdered quartz, powdered calcite, and sodalime glass beads samples. These samples all contained particles with diameters nearly as large as the wavelength. These data demonstrate that the ATR technique, coupled with an effective medium analysis, may be used to obtain

  6. Multiple 5' ends of human cytomegalovirus UL57 transcripts identify a complex, cycloheximide-resistant promoter region that activates oriLyt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiehl, Anita; Huang, Lili; Franchi, David; Anders, David G.

    2003-01-01

    The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL57 gene lies adjacent to HCMV oriLyt, from which it is separated by an organizationally conserved, mostly noncoding region that is thought to both regulate UL57 expression and activate oriLyt function. However, the UL57 promoter has not been studied. We determined the 5' ends of UL57 transcripts toward an understanding of the potential relationship between UL57 expression and oriLyt activation. The results presented here identified three distinct 5' ends spread over 800 bp, at nt 90302, 90530, and 91138; use of these sites exhibited differential sensitivity to phosphonoformic acid treatment. Interestingly, a 10-kb UL57 transcript accumulated in cycloheximide-treated infected cells, even though other early transcripts were not detectable. However, the 10-kb transcript did not accumulate in cells treated with the more stringent translation inhibitor anisomycin. Consistent with the notion that the identified 5' ends arise from distinct transcription start sites, the sequences upstream of sites I and II functioned as promoters responsive to HCMV infection in transient assays. However, the origin-proximal promoter region III required downstream sequences for transcriptional activity. Mutation of candidate core promoter elements suggested that promoter III is regulated by an initiator region (Inr) and a downstream promoter element. Finally, a 42-bp sequence containing the candidate Inr activated a minimal oriLyt core construct in transient replication assays. Thus, these studies showed that a large, complex promoter region with novel features controls UL57 expression, and identified a sequence that regulates both UL57 transcription and oriLyt activation

  7. [Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) as a treatment for the spread phenomenon related to complex regional pain syndrome type- I (CRPS-I )].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Shinichi; Taira, Takaomi; Hori, Tomokatsu

    2009-09-01

    The authors describe an experience of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) in a 30-year-old woman who developed complex regional pain syndrome type-I (CRPS-I) with spread phenomenon. She had received lumbar SCS under a diagnosis of CRPS-I in her left leg for 8 years. She had refractory pain in her right arm for the recent two years. There was no new lesion explaining her refractory pain on physical or radiological examination. Thus, the pain in her right upper arm was considered as spread phenomenon of CRPS-I. Test stimulation with cervical epidural spinal electrode showed good results and the pulse generator was implanted. It is suggested that the symptom of CRPS-I involving spread phenomenon was possibly due to a cortical reorganization. But a certain effect of SCS may be contributing to the favorable results of test stimulation for the treatment of CRPS-I with spread phenomenon in this case.

  8. An atypical case of postsurgical complex regional pain syndrome in a patient having nonhealing varicose venous ulcer treated by lumbar sympathectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailash Kothari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS of the lower limb is a relatively uncommon entity as compared to CRPS of the upper extremity. Literature search has revealed only 2 retrospective case series and a single case report of lower extremity CRPS type I from 1975 to 2014 on Pubmed, isolated cases of CRPS type I of lower extremity have also been reported following knee surgeries and arthroscopies. This report presents a case of lower limb CRPS type I, following surgery for varicose vein ulcer. Pain was not relieved with medications. Diagnostic lumbar sympathectomy was done and patient had tremendous relief of pain following that, proving sympathetic mediated pain of the involved limb.

  9. A curative treatment option for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) Type I: dorsal root entry zone operation (report of two cases).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanpolat, Yucel; Al-Beyati, Eyyub; Ugur, Hasan Caglar; Akpinar, Gokhan; Kahilogullari, Gokmen; Bozkurt, Melih

    2014-01-01

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I (CRPS-I) is a debated health problem concerning its pathophysiology and treatment strategies. A 12-year-old boy and a 35-year-old woman were diagnosed with CRPS-I at different times. They had previously undergone various types of interventions with no success. After one year of follow-up and observation, DREZ lesioning operation was performed. Afterwards, both cases had transient lower extremity ataxia. The first case was followed for 60 months with no recurrence and total cure. The second case was pain-free until the 6th month, when she required psychological support; she was followed for 33 months with partial satisfactory outcome. Although not a first-line option, DREZ lesioning procedure can be chosen and may be a curative option in selected cases of CRPS-I who are unresponsive to conventional therapies.

  10. Use of sequential diagnostic pain blocks in a patient of posttraumatic complex regional pain syndrome-not otherwise specified complicated by myofascial trigger points and thoracolumbar pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailash Kothari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We are presenting a case of posttraumatic lower limb Complex regional pain syndrome – Not otherwise specified (CRPS – NOS. As it was not treated in acute phase, the pain became chronic and got complicated by myofascial and thoracolumbar pain syndrome. This case posed us a diagnostic challenge. We used sequential diagnostic pain blocks to identify the pain generators and successfully treat the patient. We used diagnostic blocks step by step to identify and treat pain generators – T12,L1 and L2 Facet joints, Lumbar sympathetic block for CRPS NOS and Trigger point injection with dry needling for myofascial pain syndrome. This case highlights the facet that additional pain generators unrelated to original pain may complicate the presentation. Identifying these pain generators requires out of box thinking and high index of suspicion.

  11. The Açu Port Complex implementation and the marine artisanal fishery activities in the northern region of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil: a socioenvironmental conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Nacif de Souza

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Globalized world is marked by agility of connections related to goods and services’ circulation, composing a net in which ports are essential elements (CUNHA et al., 2007. Port activity directly impacts nearby environment (PORTO & TEIXEIRA, 2002. Once ports are installed in coastal areas, they also affect fishery activities in their influence area. The implementation of the Açu Port Complex will promote an expressive socioenvironmental change in its vicinity, mainly interfering with the life of regional artisanal fi shermen (DI BENEDITTO, 2001. Studies focusing identifi cation of potential socioenvironmental confl icts between marine fi shery and port activities are thus essential to propose appropriate measures for prevention and mitigation of impacts.

  12. Risk Factors for Post-treatment Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS): An Analysis of 647 Cases of CRPS from the Danish Patient Compensation Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Pelle B; Mikkelsen, Kim L; Lauritzen, Jes B; Krogsgaard, Michael R

    2018-03-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome is a challenging condition that includes a broad spectrum of sensory, autonomic, and motor features predominantly in extremities recovering from a trauma. Few large-scale studies have addressed occurrence of and factors associated with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) following orthopedic treatment. The present study aimed to identify factors associated with post-treatment development of CRPS. Using the Danish Patient Compensation Association's database, we identified 647 patients claiming post-treatment CRPS between 1992 and 2015. Age, gender, initial diagnosis, treatment, and amount of compensation were extracted. Multivariate logistic regressions were performed to identify variables associated with approval of the claim. For carpal tunnel