WorldWideScience

Sample records for highway bridge design

  1. Energy harvesting on highway bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    A concept for harvesting energy from the traffic-induced loadings on a highway bridge using piezoelectric : materials to generate electricity was explored through the prototype stage. A total of sixteen lead-zirconate : titanate (PZT) Type 5A piezoel...

  2. Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Enevoldsen, I.

    of heavier trucks moving at larger speeds, and partly because the authorities want to permit transportation of special heavy goods at a larger part of the road net. These needs will in many cases cause the strengthening of the bridges becomes necessary. In order to keep the expenses of such strengthening...... the results obtained using the numerical models given in details in "Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges : dynamic modelling of vehicles and bridges". The models are established using a ordinary vehicle which consists of a 48 t Scania with a 3 axle tractor and a 3 axle trailer, joined in a flexible hinge...

  3. Optimum Maintenance Strategies for Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frangopol, Dan M.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Das, Parag C.

    As bridges become older and maintenance costs become higher, transportation agencies are facing challenges related to implementation of optimal bridge management programs based on life cycle cost considerations. A reliability-based approach is necessary to find optimal solutions based on minimum...... expected life-cycle costs or maximum life-cycle benefits. This is because many maintenance activities can be associated with significant costs, but their effects on bridge safety can be minor. In this paper, the program of an investigation on optimum maintenance strategies for different bridge types...... is described. The end result of this investigation will be a general reliability-based framework to be used by the UK Highways Agency in order to plan optimal strategies for the maintenance of its bridge network so as to optimize whole-life costs....

  4. The Damage Effects in Steel Bridges under Highway Random Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning; Nielsen, Jette Andkjær

    1996-01-01

    In the present investigation, fatigue damage accumulation in steel bridges under highway random loading is studied. In the experimental part of the investigation, fatigue test series on welded plate test specimens have been carried through. The fatigue tests have been carried out using load histo...... indicate that the linear fatigue damage accumulation formula, which is normally used in the design against fatigue in steel bridges, may give results, which are unconservative.......In the present investigation, fatigue damage accumulation in steel bridges under highway random loading is studied. In the experimental part of the investigation, fatigue test series on welded plate test specimens have been carried through. The fatigue tests have been carried out using load...

  5. Fatigue in Aluminum Highway Bridges under Random Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rom, Søren; Agerskov, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue damage accumulation in aluminum highway bridges under random loading is studied. The fatigue life of welded joints has been determined both experimentally and from a fracture mechanics analysis. In the experimental part of the investigation, fatigue test series on welded plate test...... is normally used in the design against fatigue in aluminum bridges, may give results which are unconservative. The validity of the results obtained from Miner’s rule will depend on the distribution of the load history in tension and compression....

  6. Recessed floating pier caps for highway bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Presented are alternate designs for two existing bridges in Virginia - one with steel beams and the other with prestressed concrete beams - whereby the pier caps are recessed within the depth of the longitudinal beams. The purpose of this recession i...

  7. On-the-spot damage detection methodology for highway bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Vibration-based damage identification (VBDI) techniques have been developed in part to address the problems associated with an aging civil infrastructure. To assess the potential of VBDI as it applies to highway bridges in Iowa, three applications of...

  8. Service life assessment of timber highway bridges in USA climate zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Wacker; Brian K. Brashaw; Thomas G. Williamson; P. David Jones; Matthew S. Smith; Travis K. Hosteng; David L. Strahl; Lola E. Coombe; V.J. Gopu

    2014-01-01

    As engineers begin to estimate life-cycle costs and sustainable design approaches for timber bridges, there is a need for more reliable data about their durability and expected service life. This paper summarizes a comprehensive effort to assess the current condition of more than one hundred timber highway bridge superstructures throughout the United States. This...

  9. Risk Mitigation for Highway and Railway Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Performance of the transportation network strongly depends on the performance of bridges. Bridges constitute a vital part of the transportation infrastructure system and they are vulnerable to extreme events such as natural disasters (i.e., hurricane...

  10. Laboratory and field testing of an accelerated bridge construction demonstration bridge : US Highway 6 bridge over Keg Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The US Highway 6 Bridge over Keg Creek outside of Council Bluffs, Iowa is a demonstration bridge site chosen to put into practice : newly-developed Accelerated Bridge Construction (ABC) concepts. One of these new concepts is the use of prefabricated ...

  11. Comparison of Ferry Boat and Highway Bridge Energy Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne D. Cottrell

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Passenger ferries serve a variety of transport needs in the U.S., such as providing vital links across bodies of water, and supplementing highway bridges. In some cases in which there is a ferry connection but no bridge, a bridge would be impractical; in other cases, a bridge might be feasible. The paper compares the energy consumption of ferries and motor vehicles on bridges, to determine which link is more fuel efficient. One finding is that limited data are available on ferry boat fuel consumption: despite there being 208 ferry boat operators in the U.S. as of 2008, only eight were providing energy use data to the National Transit Database. Examinations of three of the systems found that the passenger-MPG of the ferries ranged from 2.61 to 14.00 (1.11 to 5.95 km/L, while that of the motor vehicles on adjacent highway bridge connections ranged from 25.34 to 32.45 (10.77 to 13.79 km/L. Data from the eight systems are used to develop a ferry MPG model. The model is used to show that the Ryer Island and Charles Hall Ferries are less fuel efficient than hypothetical bridges in those locations. The fuel efficiencies and consumptions of the ferries would equal those of motor vehicles on the bridges, however, if smaller vessels were used, and if the frequency of service was reduced.

  12. Fatigue analysis and life prediction of composite highway bridge decks under traffic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando N. Leitão

    Full Text Available Steel and composite (steel-concrete highway bridges are currently subjected to dynamic actions of variable magnitude due to convoy of vehicles crossing on the deck pavement. These dynamic actions can generate the nucleation of fractures or even their propagation on the bridge deck structure. Proper consideration of all of the aspects mentioned pointed our team to develop an analysis methodology with emphasis to evaluate the stresses through a dynamic analysis of highway bridge decks including the action of vehicles. The design codes recommend the application of the curves S-N associated to the Miner's damage rule to evaluate the fatigue and service life of steel and composite (steel-concrete bridges. In this work, the developed computational model adopted the usual mesh refinement techniques present in finite element method simulations implemented in the ANSYS program. The investigated highway bridge is constituted by four longitudinal composite girders and a concrete deck, spanning 40.0m by 13.5m. The analysis methodology and procedures presented in the design codes were applied to evaluate the fatigue of the bridge determining the service life of the structure. The main conclusions of this investigation focused on alerting structural engineers to the possible distortions, associated to the steel and composite bridge's service life when subjected to vehicle's dynamic actions.

  13. Fracture Mechanics Prediction of Fatigue Life of Aluminum Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rom, Søren; Agerskov, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Fracture mechanics prediction of the fatigue life of aluminum highway bridges under random loading is studied. The fatigue life of welded joints has been determined from fracture mechanics analyses and the results obtained have been compared with results from experimental investigations. The fati......Fracture mechanics prediction of the fatigue life of aluminum highway bridges under random loading is studied. The fatigue life of welded joints has been determined from fracture mechanics analyses and the results obtained have been compared with results from experimental investigations...... against fatigue in aluminum bridges, may give results which are unconservative. Furthermore, it was in both investigations found that the validity of the results obtained from Miner's rule will depend on the distribution of the load history in tension and compression....

  14. Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Enevoldsen, I.

    The present paper worked out as a part of a research project on "Dynamic amplification factor of vehicle loadings on smaller bridges" establishes a two-dimensional spectral description of the road roughness surface based on measurements from a Danish road using so-called Profilograph used by Dani...

  15. Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Enevoldsen, I.

    of heavier trucks moving at larger speeds, and partly because the authorities want to permit transportation of special heavy goods at a larger part of the road net. These needs will in many cases cause the strengthening of the bridges becomes necessary. In order to keep the expenses of such strengthening...

  16. Virtual Bridge Design Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitts, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    This design/problem-solving activity challenges students to design a replacement bridge for one that has been designated as either structurally deficient or functionally obsolete. The Aycock MS Technology/STEM Magnet Program Virtual Bridge Design Challenge is an authentic introduction to the engineering design process. It is a socially relevant…

  17. Polynomial friction pendulum isolators (PFPIs) for seismic performance control of benchmark highway bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Arijit; Saha, Purnachandra; Patro, Sanjaya Kumar

    2017-10-01

    The seismic response of a benchmark highway bridge isolated with passive polynomial friction pendulum isolators (PFPIs) is investigated and subjected to six bidirectional ground motion records. The benchmark study is based on a lumped mass finite-element model of the 91/5 highway overcrossing located in Southern California. The PFPI system possesses two important parameters; one is horizontal flexibility and the other is energy absorbing capacity through friction. The evaluation criteria of the benchmark bridge are analyzed considering two parameters, time period of the isolator and coefficient of friction of the isolation surface. The results of the numerical study are compared with those obtained from the traditional friction pendulum system (FPS). Dual design performance of the PFPI system suppressed the displacement and acceleration response of the benchmark highway bridge. The dual design hysteresis loop of the PFPI system is the main advantage over the linear hysteresis loop of the FPS. The numerical result indicates that the seismic performance of the PFPI system is better than that of the traditional FPS isolated system. Further, it is observed that variations of the isolation time period and coefficient of friction of the FPS and PFPI systems have a significant effect on the peak responses of the benchmark highway bridge.

  18. Determination of barge impact probabilities for bridge design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Waterway bridges in the United States are designed to resist vessel collision loads according to design provisions released by the American Association of State : Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO). These provisions provide detailed proced...

  19. Real-time stress monitoring of highway bridges with a secured wireless sensor network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    "This collaborative research aims to develop a real-time stress monitoring system for highway bridges with a secured wireless sensor network. The near term goal is to collect wireless sensor data under different traffic patterns from local highway br...

  20. Superhydrophobic engineered cementitious composites for highway bridge applications : technology transfer and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The strength and durability of highway bridges are two of the key components in maintaining a : high level of freight transportation capacity on the nations highways. Superhydrophobic : engineered cementitious composite (SECC) is a new advanced con...

  1. Students design composite bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stark, J.W.B.; Galjaard, J.C.; Brekelmans, J.W.P.M.

    1999-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of recent research on steel-concrete composite bridge design by students of Delft University of Technology doing their master's thesis. Primary objective of this research was to find possibilities for application of steel-concrete composite bridges in the Netherlands,

  2. Evaluation of seismic damage to bridges and highway systems in Shelby County, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, John Bailey

    Past earthquakes have demonstrated that bridges are one of the most vulnerable components of highway transportation systems. In addition to bridges, roadways may also be subject to damage, particularly in an area prone to earthquake-induced liquefaction. As a consequence, the highway transportation systems after an earthquake might be impaired and the post-earthquake emergency response might be compromised. Furthermore, the impact on the regional economy might be very significant from the damage to highway systems. Since highway transportation systems are critical lifelines for people living in an urban area, it is important to evaluate the vulnerability of bridges and highway systems in earthquake-prone regions. Memphis and Shelby County, Tennessee are located close to the southwestern segment of the New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ). This zone produced three of the largest earthquakes in North America in 1811--1812. Presently, the NMSZ is still active and is considered by engineers, seismologists, and public officials as the most hazardous seismic zone in the central and eastern United States. Bridges in the Memphis area were generally not designed for seismic resistance until 1990. Therefore, the majority of existing bridges might suffer damage from earthquakes occurring in the NMSZ. The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the expected damage to bridges and roadways on the major routes in Memphis and Shelby County resulting from New Madrid earthquakes with the aid of geographic information system (GIS) technology. The road network selected for this study includes all the Interstate highway system, all the primary and secondary routes maintained by the state, and most of the major arterial routes. There are 452 bridges on the selected roadway systems and data pertinent to these bridges and roadway systems were collected and implemented as a GIS database. The bridges in the Memphis area were classified into several types and damage states were determined

  3. Fatigue in Steel Highway Bridges under Random Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning; Nielsen, J.A.; Vejrum, Tina

    1997-01-01

    on welded plate test specimens have been carried through. The materials that have been used are either conventional structural steel with a yield stress of ~ 400-410 MPa or high-strength steel with a yield stress of ~ 810-840 MPa.The fatigue tests have been carried out using load histories, which correspond......In the present investigation, fatigue damage accumulation in steel highway bridges under random loading is studied. The fatigue life of welded joints has been determined both experimentally and from a fracture mechanics analysis.In the experimental part of the investigation, fatigue test series...... to one week's traffic loading, determined by means of strain gage measurements on the orthotropic steel deck structure of the Farø Bridges in Denmark.The test series which have been carried through show a significant difference between constant amplitude and variable amplitude fatigue test results. Both...

  4. Fatigue in Steel Highway Bridges under Random Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning; Nielsen, Jette Andkjær

    1999-01-01

    have been carried through. The materials that have been used are either conventional structural steel with a yield stress of f(y) similar to 400-410 MPa or high-strength steel with a yield stress of f(y) similar to 810-840 MPa. The fatigue tests have been carried out using load histories, which......Fatigue damage accumulation in steel highway bridges under random loading is studied. The fatigue life of welded joints has been determined both experimentally and from a fracture mechanics analysis. In the experimental part of the investigation, fatigue test series on welded plate test specimens...... correspond to one week's traffic loading, determined by means of strain gauge measurements on the orthotropic steel deck structure of the Faro Bridges in Denmark. The test series carried through show a significant difference between constant amplitude and variable amplitude fatigue test results. Both...

  5. Geometric Design of Highways in USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Baričević

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the criteria, standards, and engineeringprocedures used to design principal elements of the highwayalignment, highway cross sections, and adjacent roadside environment.Development of a comprehensive highway design focuseson the establishment of travel lane configuration, alignmentlocation, and all dimensions related to the highway crosssection. A three-dimensional physical location is determinedthrough calculation of a horizontal and vertical alignment ofthe highway centerline, based on a variety of operational considerations.The results of these activities are refe"ed to as thegeometric design and represent all the visible features of a highwayor street. The first and major portion of the paper deals withthe design of motor-vehicle facilities. Specific design elementsare described and discussed with respect to design methodology.

  6. Field dynamic testing on a Cyprus concrete highway bridge using Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votsis, Renos A.; Kyriakides, Nicholas; Tantele, Elia A.; Chrysostomou, Christis Z.; Onoufriou, Toula

    2014-08-01

    The aims of the bridge management authorities are to ensure that bridges fulfil their purpose and functionality during their design life. So, it is important to identify and quantify the deterioration of the structural condition early so that a timely application of an intervention will avoid more serious problems and increased costs at a later stage. A measure to enhance the effectiveness of the existing structural evaluation by visual inspection is instrumental monitoring using sensors. The activities performed in this process belong to the field of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). The SHM offers opportunities for continuous or periodic monitoring on bridges and technological advances allow nowadays the employment of wireless sensors networks (WSN) for this task. A SHM application using WSN was implemented on a multi-span reinforced concrete (RC) highway bridge in Limassol with the objective to study its dynamic characteristics and performance. Part of the specific bridge will be replaced and this offered a unique opportunity for measurements before and after construction so that apparent changes in the dynamic characteristics of the bridge will be identified after the repairing work. The measurements provided indications on the frequencies and mode shapes of the bridge and the response amplitude during the passing of traffic. The latter enabled the investigation of the dependency of the bridge's structural damping to the amplitude of vibration induced by the passing of traffic. The results showed that as the excitation increases the magnitude of modal damping increases as well.

  7. Transition curves for highway geometric design

    CERN Document Server

    Kobryń, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    This book provides concise descriptions of the various solutions of transition curves, which can be used in geometric design of roads and highways. It presents mathematical methods and curvature functions for defining transition curves. .

  8. 23 CFR 661.49 - Can IRRBP funds be spent on Interstate, State Highway, and Toll Road IRR bridges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., and Toll Road IRR bridges? 661.49 Section 661.49 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.49 Can IRRBP funds be spent on Interstate, State Highway, and Toll Road IRR bridges? Yes. Interstate...

  9. Technical Specifications of Structural Health Monitoring for Highway Bridges: New Chinese Structural Health Monitoring Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Moreu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Governments and professional groups related to civil engineering write and publish standards and codes to protect the safety of critical infrastructure. In recent decades, countries have developed codes and standards for structural health monitoring (SHM. During this same period, rapid growth in the Chinese economy has led to massive development of civil engineering infrastructure design and construction projects. In 2016, the Ministry of Transportation of the People’s Republic of China published a new design code for SHM systems for large highway bridges. This document is the first technical SHM code by a national government that enforces sensor installation on highway bridges. This paper summarizes the existing international technical SHM codes for various countries and compares them with the new SHM code required by the Chinese Ministry of Transportation. This paper outlines the contents of the new Chinese SHM code and explains its relevance for the safety and management of large bridges in China, introducing key definitions of the Chinese–United States SHM vocabulary and their technical significance. Finally, this paper discusses the implications for the design and implementation of a future SHM codes, with suggestions for similar efforts in United States and other countries.

  10. Hydrology and modeling of flow conditions at Bridge 339 and Mile 38-43, Copper River Highway, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabets, Timothy P.

    2012-01-01

    The Copper River basin, the sixth largest watershed in Alaska, drains an area of 24,200 square miles in south-central Alaska. This large, glacier-fed river flows across a wide alluvial fan before it enters the Gulf of Alaska. The Copper River Highway, which traverses the alluvial fan, has been affected by channel planform reconfiguration. Currently (2012), two areas of the Copper River Highway are at risk: at Mile 38-43, the road grade is too low and the highway could be flooded by high flows of the Copper River, and at Mile 36, the main channel of the Copper River has migrated directly toward Bridge 339. Because Bridge 339 was not designed and built to convey the main flow of the Copper River, as much as 50 feet of scour occurred at the piers in 2011. The piers can no longer absorb the lateral or vertical loads, resulting in closure of the bridge and the Copper River Highway. The U.S. Geological Survey Flow and Sediment Transport with Morphologic Evolution of Channels (FaSTMECH) model was used to simulate the flow of the Copper River and produce simulations of depth, water-surface elevation, and velocity. At the Mile 38-43 area, FaSTMECH was used to analyze the effects of raising the road grade 5 feet, and at Mile 36, FaSTMECH was used to analyze the effects of constructing a channel to divert flow away from Bridge 339. Results from FaSTMECH indicate that if raising the road grade 5 feet in the Mile 38-43 area, a flood with an annual exceedance probability of 2 percent (400,000 cubic feet per second) would not overtop the highway. In the Bridge 339 area, results from FaSTMECH indicate that a design channel could divert flows as much as 100,000 cubic feet per second away from Bridge 339.

  11. Accelerated bridge construction utilizing precast pier caps on state highway 69 over Turkey Creek, Huerfano County, CO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to document Accelerated Bridge Construction (ABC) techniques on IBRD : (Innovative Bridge Research and Development) project 102470 for the construction of Bridge N-16-Q : on State Highway 69 over Turkey Creek. The constr...

  12. On the spot damage detection methodology for highway bridges during natural crises : tech transfer summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a : low-cost portable damage detection tool to : assess and predict damage areas in highway : bridges. : The proposed tool was based on standard : vibration-based damage identification (VBDI) : techniques but...

  13. Large-scale laboratory observations of wave forces on a highway bridge superstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    The experimental setup and data are presented for a laboratory experiment conducted to examine realistic wave forcing on a highway bridge : superstructure. The experiments measure wave conditions along with the resulting forces, pressures, and struct...

  14. A static analysis method for barge-impact design of bridges with consideration of dynamic amplification : final report, November 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Current practice with regard to designing bridge structures to resist impact loads associated with barge collisions relies upon the : use of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) bridge design specifications....

  15. Performance of stress-laminated timber highway bridges in cold climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Wacker

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes recent laboratory and field data studies on thermal performance of stress-laminated timber highway bridges. Concerns about the reliability of stress-laminated deck bridges when exposed to sub-freezing temperatures triggered several investigations. Two laboratory studies were conducted to study the effects of wood species, preservative, moisture...

  16. Modal Identification and Damage Detection on a Concrete Highway Bridge by Frequency Domain Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Andersen, P.; Zhang, L.

    2002-01-01

    As a part of a research project co-founded by the European Community, a series of 15 damage tests were performed on a prestressed concrete highway bridge in Switzerland. The ambient response of the bridge was recorded for each damage case. A dense array of instruments allowed the identification...

  17. Identification and Level 1 Damage Detection of the Z24 Highway Bridge by Frequency Domain Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Andersen, P.; Cantieni, R.

    2001-01-01

    A series of 15 progressive damage tests were performed on a prestressed concrete highway bridge in Switzerland. The ambient response of the bridge was recorded for each damage case with a relatively large number of sensors. Changes in frequencies, damping ratios and MAC values were determined...

  18. Modal Identification and Damage Detection on a Concrete Highway Bridge by Frequency Domain Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Andersen, Palle; Zhang, Lingmi

    2007-01-01

    As a part of a research project co-founded by the European Community, a series of 15 damage tests were performed on a prestressed concrete highway bridge in Switzerland. The ambient response of the bridge was recorded for each damage case. A dense array of instruments allowed the identification...

  19. Critical traffic loading for the design of prestressed concrete bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.I.U.

    2009-01-01

    A study has been carried out to determine critical traffic loadings for the design of bridge superstructures. The prestressed concrete girder bridge already constructed in Lahore is selected for the analysis as an example. Standard traffic loadings according to AASHTO (American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials) and Pakistan Highway Standards are used for this purpose. These include (1) HL-93 Truck, (2) Lane and (3) Tandem Loadings in addition to (4) Military tank loading, (5) Class-A, (6) Class-B and (7) Class-AA loading, (8) NLC (National Logistic Cell) and (9) Volvo truck loadings. Bridge superstructure including transom beam is analyzed Using ASD and LRFD (Load and Resistance Factor Design) provisions of AASHTO specifications. For the analysis, two longer and shorter spans are selected. This includes the analysis of bridge deck; interior and exterior girder; a typical transom beam and a pier. Dead and live loading determination is carried out using both computer aided and manual calculations. Evaluation of traffic loadings is done for all the bridge components to find out the critical loading. HL-93 loading comes out to be the most critical loading and where this loading is not critical in case of bridge decks; a factor of 1.15 is introduced to make it equivalent with HL-93 -Ioading. SAP-2000 (Structural Engineering Services of Pakistan) and MS-Excel is employed for analysis of bridge superstructure subjected to this loading. Internal forces are obtained for the structural elements of the bridge for all traffic loadings mentioned. It is concluded that HL-93 loading can be used for the design of prestressed concrete girder bridge. Bridge design authorities like NHA (National Highway Authority) and different cities development authorities are using different standard traffic loadings. A number of suggestions are made from the results of the research work related to traffic loadings and method of design. These recommendations may be

  20. Flood Control Minnesota River, Minnesota, Mankato-North Mankato-Le Hillier. Design Memorandum Number 8. Part I. Location Study and Draft Supplement II to the Final Environmental Impact Statement for Bridge Relocations. Main Street, Trunk Highways 60 Bridge over the Minnesota River between Mankato and North Mankato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    topography or in rugged terrain, majur road overcrossings may be attainable only by a forced alinement and rolling gradeline. Where there otherwise...Wisconsin PCB Interagency Task Force in 1976 indicated that the game fish in the Minnesota River near Mankato have higher polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB...Highway River Structures Job Sum 5,920,000.00 TOTAL BRIDGES $6,875,000.00 TOTAL ROADWAY AND BRIDGES $11,674,000.00 Force Accounts CNW T. Co. Track Removal

  1. Continuous prestressed concrete girder bridges volume 1 : literature review and preliminary designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) is currently designing typical highway bridge structures as simply supported using standard precast, pretensioned girders. TxDOT is interested in developing additional economical design alternatives for ...

  2. Cost and Ecological Feasibility of using UHPC in Highway Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-15

    There is a growing interest in expanding the use of Ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) from bridge deck joints for accelerated bridge construction to complex architectural and advanced structural applications. The high costs currently associated ...

  3. Effect of Ground Motion Directionality on Fragility Characteristics of a Highway Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swagata Banerjee Basu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to incorporate multidimensional effect of the ground motion in the design and response analysis of structures. The motion trajectory in the corresponding multi-dimensional space results in time variant principal axes of the motion and defies any meaningful definition of directionality of the motion. However, it is desirable to consider the directionality of the ground motion in assessing the seismic damageability of bridges which are one of the most vulnerable components of highway transportation systems. This paper presents a practice-oriented procedure in which the structure can be designed to ensure the safety under single or a pair of independent orthogonal ground motions traveling horizontally with an arbitrary direction to structural axis. This procedure uses nonlinear time history analysis and accounts for the effect of directionality in the form of fragility curves. The word directionality used here is different from “directivity” used in seismology to mean a specific characteristic of seismic fault movement.

  4. Evaluation of fleet management techniques for timber highway bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent M. Phares; Travis K. Hosteng; Justin Dahlberg; Michael A. Ritter

    2011-01-01

    The general condition of the nation's bridges presents a complex management issue when considering cost, safety, and time. Consequently, the management of those bridges can become an overwhelming task. The need for a management system that is specific to rural systems may help to improve the management of this significant number of bridges. Although individual...

  5. Discussion on runoff purification technology of highway bridge deck based on water quality safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sheng-guang; Liu, Xue-xin; Zou, Guo-ping; Xiong, Xin-zhu; Tao, Shuang-cheng

    2018-06-01

    Aiming at the actual problems existing, including a poor purification effect of highway bridge runoff collection and treatment system across sensitive water and necessary manual emergency operation, three kinds of technology, three pools system of bridge runoff purification, the integral pool of bridge runoff purification and ecological planting tank, are put forward by optimizing the structure of purification unit and system setting. At the same time, we come up with an emergency strategy for hazardous material leakage basing on automatic identification and remote control of traffic accidents. On the basis of combining these with the optimized pool structure, sensitive water safety can be guaranteed and water pollution, from directly discharging of bridge runoff, can be decreased. For making up for the shortages of green highway construction technology, the technique has important reference value.

  6. Comparison and calibration of numerical models from monitoring data of a reinforced concrete highway bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. M. de Andrade

    Full Text Available The last four decades were important for the Brazilian highway system. Financial investments were made so it could expand and many structural solutions for bridges and viaducts were developed. In parallel, there was a significant raise of pathologies in these structures, due to lack of maintenance procedures. Thus, this paper main purpose is to create a short-term monitoring plan in order to check the structural behavior of a curved highway concrete bridge in current use. A bridge was chosen as a case study. A hierarchy of six numerical models is shown, so it can validate the bridge's structural behaviour. The acquired data from the monitoring was compared with the finest models so a calibration could be made.

  7. Comparative analysis of design codes for timber bridges in Canada, the United States, and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Wacker; James (Scott) Groenier

    2010-01-01

    The United States recently completed its transition from the allowable stress design code to the load and resistance factor design (LRFD) reliability-based code for the design of most highway bridges. For an international perspective on the LRFD-based bridge codes, a comparative analysis is presented: a study addressed national codes of the United States, Canada, and...

  8. International Contribution to the Highway Agency's Bridge Related Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nowak, A. S.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    and prediction of the remaining life. However, the parameters, which are involved in the evaluation process, are random variable. Therefore, a considerable research effort has been directed at the development of probability-based methodology. The research projects considered in the paper include the development...... of reliability models for analysis of bridges subjected to corrosion and fatigue, and reliability-based optimization of maintenance strategies for bridges....

  9. Flexibility-based damage detection for in-service highway bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, Sushil; Jang, Shinae; Mensah-Bonsu, Priscilla

    2012-04-01

    Highway bridges are the backbones of a country's road network infrastructure. In order to efficiently maintain these important structures, structural health monitoring (SHM) can be implemented to impart a more deterministic management procedure. To date, many damage detection strategies have been developed and implemented on lab-scale or simple bridge structures however, damage detection research has rarely been conducted taking full scale in-service structures into account with ambient vibration. Among the different approaches modal flexibility method is one of the sensitive tools for damage detection which has been widely used over the last two decades. This paper presents a damage detection based on the stochastic damage locating vector (SDLV) method for an in-service highway bridge using ambient vibration data from long-term SHM. The target bridge was equipped with a long-term SHM system as a part of a research project of the University of Connecticut. The ambient vibration data during 2001 and 2005 are used to identify the damage on the highway bridge. Finally, the potential damage locations are determined using the SDLV method with the limited number of sensors.

  10. Force-based and displacement-based reliability assessment approaches for highway bridges under multiple hazard actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Huang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The strength limit state of American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD Bridge Design Specifications is developed based on the failure probabilities of the combination of non-extreme loads. The proposed design limit state equation (DLSE has been fully calibrated for dead load and live load by using the reliability-based approach. On the other hand, most of DLSEs in other limit states, including the extreme events Ⅰ and Ⅱ, have not been developed and calibrated though taking certain probability-based concepts into account. This paper presents an assessment procedure of highway bridge reliabilities under the limit state of extreme event Ⅰ, i. e., the combination of dead load, live load and earthquake load. A force-based approach and a displacement-based approach are proposed and implemented on a set of nine simplified bridge models. Results show that the displacement-based approach comes up with more convergent and accurate reliabilities for selected models, which can be applied to other hazards.

  11. Application of the multi-dimensional surface water modeling system at Bridge 339, Copper River Highway, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabets, Timothy P.; Conaway, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    The Copper River Basin, the sixth largest watershed in Alaska, drains an area of 24,200 square miles. This large, glacier-fed river flows across a wide alluvial fan before it enters the Gulf of Alaska. Bridges along the Copper River Highway, which traverses the alluvial fan, have been impacted by channel migration. Due to a major channel change in 2001, Bridge 339 at Mile 36 of the highway has undergone excessive scour, resulting in damage to its abutments and approaches. During the snow- and ice-melt runoff season, which typically extends from mid-May to September, the design discharge for the bridge often is exceeded. The approach channel shifts continuously, and during our study it has shifted back and forth from the left bank to a course along the right bank nearly parallel to the road.Maintenance at Bridge 339 has been costly and will continue to be so if no action is taken. Possible solutions to the scour and erosion problem include (1) constructing a guide bank to redirect flow, (2) dredging approximately 1,000 feet of channel above the bridge to align flow perpendicular to the bridge, and (3) extending the bridge. The USGS Multi-Dimensional Surface Water Modeling System (MD_SWMS) was used to assess these possible solutions. The major limitation of modeling these scenarios was the inability to predict ongoing channel migration. We used a hybrid dataset of surveyed and synthetic bathymetry in the approach channel, which provided the best approximation of this dynamic system. Under existing conditions and at the highest measured discharge and stage of 32,500 ft3/s and 51.08 ft, respectively, the velocities and shear stresses simulated by MD_SWMS indicate scour and erosion will continue. Construction of a 250-foot-long guide bank would not improve conditions because it is not long enough. Dredging a channel upstream of Bridge 339 would help align the flow perpendicular to Bridge 339, but because of the mobility of the channel bed, the dredged channel would

  12. Probabilistic assessment of an aged highway bridge under traffic load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.; Maljaars, J.; Morales Nápoles, O.; Abspoel, L.

    2012-01-01

    Existing civil infrastructure represents a large economic value. Within the actions applied to the bridges, the traffic load is, in general, the most significant variable action to be considered when the ultimate limit states are under investigation. Consequently, the traffic load models play an

  13. Road Bridges and Culverts, MDTA Culverts, Culverts on John F. Kennedy Highway (I95), Baltimore Harbor Tunnel Throughway, Francis Scott Key Bridge, Bay bridge, Nice Bridge, Published in 2010, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Maryland Transportation Authority.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Road Bridges and Culverts dataset current as of 2010. MDTA Culverts, Culverts on John F. Kennedy Highway (I95), Baltimore Harbor Tunnel Throughway, Francis Scott Key...

  14. Evaluation of bridge decks using non-destructive evaluation (NDE) at near highway speeds for effective asset management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Remote sensing technologies allow for the condition evaluation of bridge decks at near highway speed. : Data collection at near highway speed for assessment of the top of the concrete deck and proof of : concept testing for the underside of the deck ...

  15. Bathymetric surveys at highway bridges crossing the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers near St. Louis, Missouri, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Bathymetric surveys were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Transportation, on the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers in the vicinity of 12 bridges at 7 highway crossings near St. Louis, Missouri, in October 2010. A multibeam echo sounder mapping system was used to obtain channel-bed elevations for river reaches ranging from 3,280 to 4,590 feet long and extending across the active channel of the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers. These bathymetric scans provide a snapshot of the channel conditions at the time of the surveys and provide characteristics of scour holes that may be useful in the development of predictive guidelines or equations for scour holes. These data also may be used by the Missouri Department of Transportation to assess the bridges for stability and integrity issues with respect to bridge scour.

  16. A visualization method for teaching the geometric design of highways

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-11

    In this project the authors employed state-of-the-art technology for developing visualization tools for teaching highway design. Specifically, the authors used photolog images as the basis for developing dynamic 3-D models of selected geometric eleme...

  17. Safety assessment of existing highway bridges and viaducts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Steenbergen, R.; Abspoel, L.; Kolstein, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of the structural safety of existing br idges and viaducts becomes increasingly important in many countries owing to an increase in traffic loads. Most existing standards, however, are developed for the design of new structures. For this reason, an assessment method for determining

  18. Evaluation of a highway bridge constructed using high strength lightweight concrete bridge girders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    The use of high performance concretes to provide longer bridge spans has been limited due to the capacity of existing infrastructure to handle the load of the girders during transportation. The use of High Strength Lightweight Concrete (HSLW) can pro...

  19. Preliminary bridge design navigation tool for novices

    OpenAIRE

    Boulanger, Sylvie

    1997-01-01

    The motivation of the thesis comes from the frustrations of young engineers confronted with real design problems. The inspiration of the thesis evolved from observations of bridge designers and analyses of bridge design competitions. Not only do designers adopt more than one strategy during design, they rarely perform a fixed sequence of tasks. Not only do designers consider more than one criterion during design, their priorities shift during the determination of parameters. The choice of tas...

  20. Preliminary bridge design navigation tool for novices

    OpenAIRE

    Boulanger, Sylvie; Hirt, Manfred A.

    2008-01-01

    The motivation of the thesis comes from the frustrations of young engineers confronted with real design problems. The inspiration of the thesis evolved from observations of bridge designers and analyses of bridge design competitions. Not only do designers adopt more than one strategy during design, they rarely perform a fixed sequence of tasks. Not only do designers consider more than one criterion during design, their priorities shift during the determination of parameters. The choice of tas...

  1. Remote monitoring as a tool in condition assessment of a highway bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantele, Elia A.; Votsis, Renos A.; Onoufriou, Toula; Milis, Marios; Kareklas, George

    2016-08-01

    The deterioration of civil infrastructure and their subsequent maintenance is a significant problem for the responsible managing authorities. The ideal scenario is to detect deterioration and/or structural problems at early stages so that the maintenance cost is kept low and the safety of the infrastructure remains undisputed. The current inspection regimes implemented mostly via visual inspection are planned at specific intervals but are not always executed on time due to shortcomings in expert personnel and finance. However the introduction of technological advances in the assessment of infrastructures provides the tools to alleviate this problem. This study describes the assessment of a highway RC bridge's structural condition using remote structural health monitoring. A monitoring plan is implemented focusing on strain measurements; as strain is a parameter influenced by the environmental conditions supplementary data are provided from temperature and wind sensors. The data are acquired using wired sensors (deployed at specific locations) which are connected to a wireless sensor unit installed at the bridge. This WSN application enables the transmission of the raw data from the field to the office for processing and evaluation. The processed data are then used to assess the condition of the bridge. This case study, which is part of an undergoing RPF research project, illustrates that remote monitoring can alleviate the problem of missing structural inspections. Additionally, shows its potential to be the main part of a fully automated smart procedure of obtaining structural data, processed them and trigger an alarm when certain undesirable conditions are met.

  2. Design and construction of superstructure in prestressed concrete cable-stayed bridge. ; Aomori Bay Bridge. PC shachokyo jobuko no sekkei to seko. ; Aomori Bay Bridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishibashi, T.; Fujimori, S.; Oba, M.; Tsuyoshi, T. (East Japan Railway Co., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-12-01

    Aomori Bay Bridge is a 1,219m long elevated bridge, a part of No.2 Bay Highway of 1,993m in total length crossing over Aomori railway station which was planned in ordecr to integrate the port facilities of Aomori Harbor and expedite cargo traffic smoothly. Of this Bay Bridge, its main bridge portion crossing over Aomori railway station and the sea area was planned as a continuous prestressed concrete cable-stayed bridge of 498m in total length and consisting of three portions including the central portion in which the main span between the central bridge piers was 240m. It is scheduled to open in the summer of 1992. With regard to the design of this bridge, special care for the view of the bridge has been taken covering from the structure style to the accessories. For this bridge, a large scale underground continuous wall solid base with a box-shaped section consisting of 6 chambers was adopted for the base of a main tower. It has the cantilever suspension structure of the wide girder with the inverted Y-shaped pylons. For its stav cable, was adopted a large capacity stay cable with standard tensile strength of 1,942 fabricated on the site and for its covering tube, a FRP tube was adopted. In this article, the construction of the main girder and stay cables, and the construction control during their installation by projection are reported. 7 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. Multimedia package for LRFD concrete bridge design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    This Project developed a Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) multimedia package to provide a practical introduction and an in-depth understanding of the technological advances in the design of concrete bridges. This package can be used to train ...

  4. Algorithms for highway-speed acoustic impact-echo evaluation of concrete bridge decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeo, Brian A.; Guthrie, W. Spencer

    2018-04-01

    A new acoustic impact-echo testing device has been developed for detecting and mapping delaminations in concrete bridge decks at highway speeds. The apparatus produces nearly continuous acoustic excitation of concrete bridge decks through rolling mats of chains that are placed around six wheels mounted to a hinged trailer. The wheels approximately span the width of a traffic lane, and the ability to remotely lower and raise the apparatus using a winch system allows continuous data collection without stationary traffic control or exposure of personnel to traffic. Microphones near the wheels are used to record the acoustic response of the bridge deck during testing. In conjunction with the development of this new apparatus, advances in the algorithms required for data analysis were needed. This paper describes the general framework of the algorithms developed for converting differential global positioning system data and multi-channel audio data into maps that can be used in support of engineering decisions about bridge deck maintenance, rehabilitation, and replacement (MR&R). Acquisition of position and audio data is coordinated on a laptop computer through a custom graphical user interface. All of the streams of data are synchronized with the universal computer time so that audio data can be associated with interpolated position information through data post-processing. The audio segments are individually processed according to particular detection algorithms that can adapt to variations in microphone sensitivity or particular chain excitations. Features that are greater than a predetermined threshold, which is held constant throughout the analysis, are then subjected to further analysis and included in a map that shows the results of the testing. Maps of data collected on a bridge deck using the new acoustic impact-echo testing device at different speeds ranging from approximately 10 km/h to 55 km/h indicate that the collected data are reasonably repeatable. Use

  5. Design Optimization of Hybrid FRP/RC Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papapetrou, Vasileios S.; Tamijani, Ali Y.; Brown, Jeff; Kim, Daewon

    2018-04-01

    The hybrid bridge consists of a Reinforced Concrete (RC) slab supported by U-shaped Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) girders. Previous studies on similar hybrid bridges constructed in the United States and Europe seem to substantiate these hybrid designs for lightweight, high strength, and durable highway bridge construction. In the current study, computational and optimization analyses were carried out to investigate six composite material systems consisting of E-glass and carbon fibers. Optimization constraints are determined by stress, deflection and manufacturing requirements. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and optimization software were utilized, and a framework was developed to run the complete analyses in an automated fashion. Prior to that, FEA validation of previous studies on similar U-shaped FRP girders that were constructed in Poland and Texas is presented. A finer optimization analysis is performed for the case of the Texas hybrid bridge. The optimization outcome of the hybrid FRP/RC bridge shows the appropriate composite material selection and cross-section geometry that satisfies all the applicable Limit States (LS) and, at the same time, results in the lightest design. Critical limit states show that shear stress criteria determine the optimum design for bridge spans less than 15.24 m and deflection criteria controls for longer spans. Increased side wall thickness can reduce maximum observed shear stresses, but leads to a high weight penalty. A taller cross-section and a thicker girder base can efficiently lower the observed deflections and normal stresses. Finally, substantial weight savings can be achieved by the optimization framework if base and side-wall thickness are treated as independent variables.

  6. Salt bridges: geometrically specific, designable interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Jason E; Kulp, Daniel W; DeGrado, William F

    2011-03-01

    Salt bridges occur frequently in proteins, providing conformational specificity and contributing to molecular recognition and catalysis. We present a comprehensive analysis of these interactions in protein structures by surveying a large database of protein structures. Salt bridges between Asp or Glu and His, Arg, or Lys display extremely well-defined geometric preferences. Several previously observed preferences are confirmed, and others that were previously unrecognized are discovered. Salt bridges are explored for their preferences for different separations in sequence and in space, geometric preferences within proteins and at protein-protein interfaces, co-operativity in networked salt bridges, inclusion within metal-binding sites, preference for acidic electrons, apparent conformational side chain entropy reduction on formation, and degree of burial. Salt bridges occur far more frequently between residues at close than distant sequence separations, but, at close distances, there remain strong preferences for salt bridges at specific separations. Specific types of complex salt bridges, involving three or more members, are also discovered. As we observe a strong relationship between the propensity to form a salt bridge and the placement of salt-bridging residues in protein sequences, we discuss the role that salt bridges might play in kinetically influencing protein folding and thermodynamically stabilizing the native conformation. We also develop a quantitative method to select appropriate crystal structure resolution and B-factor cutoffs. Detailed knowledge of these geometric and sequence dependences should aid de novo design and prediction algorithms. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Structural damage detection for in-service highway bridge under operational and environmental variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chenhao; Li, Jingcheng; Jang, Shinae; Sun, Xiaorong; Christenson, Richard

    2015-03-01

    Structural health monitoring has drawn significant attention in the past decades with numerous methodologies and applications for civil structural systems. Although many researchers have developed analytical and experimental damage detection algorithms through vibration-based methods, these methods are not widely accepted for practical structural systems because of their sensitivity to uncertain environmental and operational conditions. The primary environmental factor that influences the structural modal properties is temperature. The goal of this article is to analyze the natural frequency-temperature relationships and detect structural damage in the presence of operational and environmental variations using modal-based method. For this purpose, correlations between natural frequency and temperature are analyzed to select proper independent variables and inputs for the multiple linear regression model and neural network model. In order to capture the changes of natural frequency, confidence intervals to detect the damages for both models are generated. A long-term structural health monitoring system was installed on an in-service highway bridge located in Meriden, Connecticut to obtain vibration and environmental data. Experimental testing results show that the variability of measured natural frequencies due to temperature is captured, and the temperature-induced changes in natural frequencies have been considered prior to the establishment of the threshold in the damage warning system. This novel approach is applicable for structural health monitoring system and helpful to assess the performance of the structure for bridge management and maintenance.

  8. Design aids of NU I-girders bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Precast prestressed concrete I-Girder bridges have become the most dominant bridge system in the United States. In the early design : stages, preliminary design becomes a vital first step in designing an economical bridge. Within the state of Nebrask...

  9. Comparing Structural Identification Methodologies for Fatigue Life Prediction of a Highway Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai G. S. Pai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurement-data interpretation leads to increased understanding of structural behavior and enhanced asset-management decision making. In this paper, four data-interpretation methodologies, residual minimization, traditional Bayesian model updating, modified Bayesian model updating (with an L∞-norm-based Gaussian likelihood function, and error-domain model falsification (EDMF, a method that rejects models that have unlikely differences between predictions and measurements, are compared. In the modified Bayesian model updating methodology, a correction is used in the likelihood function to account for the effect of a finite number of measurements on posterior probability–density functions. The application of these data-interpretation methodologies for condition assessment and fatigue life prediction is illustrated on a highway steel–concrete composite bridge having four spans with a total length of 219 m. A detailed 3D finite-element plate and beam model of the bridge and weigh-in-motion data are used to obtain the time–stress response at a fatigue critical location along the bridge span. The time–stress response, presented as a histogram, is compared to measured strain responses either to update prior knowledge of model parameters using residual minimization and Bayesian methodologies or to obtain candidate model instances using the EDMF methodology. It is concluded that the EDMF and modified Bayesian model updating methodologies provide robust prediction of fatigue life compared with residual minimization and traditional Bayesian model updating in the presence of correlated non-Gaussian uncertainty. EDMF has additional advantages due to ease of understanding and applicability for practicing engineers, thus enabling incremental asset-management decision making over long service lives. Finally, parallel implementations of EDMF using grid sampling have lower computations times than implementations using adaptive sampling.

  10. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for the effect of vertical ground motions on seismic response of highway bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Zeynep

    earthquakes. Findings from this study will contribute to the development of revised guidelines to address vertical ground motion effects, particularly in the near fault regions, in the seismic design of highway bridges.

  11. Consideration of time-evolving capacity distributions and improved degradation models for seismic fragility assessment of aging highway bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Jayadipta; Sood, Piyush

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology to develop seismic fragility curves for deteriorating highway bridges by uniquely accounting for realistic pitting corrosion deterioration and time-dependent capacity distributions for reinforced concrete columns under chloride attacks. The proposed framework offers distinct improvements over state-of-the-art procedures for fragility assessment of degrading bridges which typically assume simplified uniform corrosion deterioration model and pristine limit state capacities. Depending on the time in service life and deterioration mechanism, this study finds that capacity limit states for deteriorating bridge columns follow either lognormal distribution or generalized extreme value distributions (particularly for pitting corrosion). Impact of column degradation mechanism on seismic response and fragility of bridge components and system is assessed using nonlinear time history analysis of three-dimensional finite element bridge models reflecting the uncertainties across structural modeling parameters, deterioration parameters and ground motion. Comparisons are drawn between the proposed methodology and traditional approaches to develop aging bridge fragility curves. Results indicate considerable underestimations of system level fragility across different damage states using the traditional approach compared to the proposed realistic pitting model for chloride induced corrosion. Time-dependent predictive functions are provided to interpolate logistic regression coefficients for continuous seismic reliability evaluation along the service life with reasonable accuracy. - Highlights: • Realistic modeling of chloride induced corrosion deterioration in the form of pitting. • Time-evolving capacity distribution for aging bridge columns under chloride attacks. • Time-dependent seismic fragility estimation of highway bridges at component and system level. • Mathematical functions for continuous tracking of seismic fragility along service

  12. Long-term behavior of integral abutment bridges : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Integral abutment bridges, a type of jointless bridge, are the construction option of choice when designing highway bridges in many parts of the country. Rather than providing an expansion joint to separate the substructure from the superstructure to...

  13. Update of bridge design standards in Alabama for AASHTO LRFD seismic design requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The Alabama Department of Transportation (ALDOT) has been required to update their bridge design to the LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. This transition has resulted in changes to the seismic design standards of bridges in the state. Multiple bridg...

  14. Assessment of impact of mass movements on the upper Tayyah valley's bridge along Shear escarpment highway, Asir region (Saudi Arabia) using remote sensing data and field investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, A. M.; Al-Kathery, M.; Pradhan, B.

    2015-01-01

    Escarpment highways, roads and mountainous areas in Saudi Arabia are facing landslide hazards that are frequently occurring from time to time causing considerable damage to these areas. Shear escarpment highway is located in the north of the Abha city. It is the most important escarpment highway in the area, where all the light and heavy trucks and vehicle used it as the only corridor that connects the coastal areas in the western part of the Saudi Arabia with the Asir and Najran Regions. More than 10 000 heavy trucks and vehicles use this highway every day. In the upper portion of Tayyah valley of Shear escarpment highway, there are several landslide and erosion potential zones that affect the bridges between tunnel 7 and 8 along the Shear escarpment Highway. In this study, different types of landslides and erosion problems were considered to access their impacts on the upper Tayyah valley's bridge along Shear escarpment highway using remote sensing data and field investigation. These landslides and erosion problems have a negative impact on this section of the highway. Results indicate that the areas above the highway and bridge level between bridge 7 and 8 have different landslides including planar, circular, rockfall failures and debris flows. In addition, running water through the gullies cause different erosional (scour) features between and surrounding the bridge piles and culverts. A detailed landslides and erosion features map was created based on intensive field investigation (geological, geomorphological, and structural analysis), and interpretation of Landsat image 15 m and high resolution satellite image (QuickBird 0.61 m), shuttle radar topography mission (SRTM 90 m), geological and topographic maps. The landslides and erosion problems could exhibit serious problems that affect the stability of the bridge. Different mitigation and remediation strategies have been suggested to these critical sites to minimize and/or avoid these problems in the future.

  15. Implementation of sustainability in bridge design, construction and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The focus of this research is to develop a framework for more sustainable design and construction : processes for new bridges, and sustainable maintenance practices for existing bridges. The framework : includes a green rating system for bridges. The...

  16. Guardrails for Use on Historic Bridges: Volume 2—Bridge Deck Overhang Design

    OpenAIRE

    Frosch, Robert J.; Morel, Adam J.

    2016-01-01

    Bridges that are designated historic present a special challenge to bridge engineers whenever rehabilitation work or improvements are made to the bridges. Federal and state laws protect historically significant bridges, and railings on these bridges can be subject to protection because of the role they play in aesthetics. Unfortunately, original railings on historic bridges do not typically meet current crash-test requirements and typically do not meet current standards for railing height and...

  17. Bathymetric and velocimetric surveys at highway bridges crossing the Missouri River near Kansas City, Missouri, June 2–4, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Richard J.

    2016-06-22

    Bathymetric and velocimetric data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Transportation, near 8 bridges at 7 highway crossings of the Missouri River in Kansas City, Missouri, from June 2 to 4, 2015. A multibeam echosounder mapping system was used to obtain channel-bed elevations for river reaches ranging from 1,640 to 1,660 feet longitudinally and extending laterally across the active channel from bank to bank during low to moderate flood flow conditions. These bathymetric surveys indicate the channel conditions at the time of the surveys and provide characteristics of scour holes that may be useful in the development of predictive guidelines or equations for scour holes. These data also may be useful to the Missouri Department of Transportation as a low to moderate flood flow comparison to help assess the bridges for stability and integrity issues with respect to bridge scour during floods.

  18. A Retro-Analysis of I-40 Bridge Collapse on Freight Movement in the U.S. Highway Network using GIS and Assignment Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saniye Gizem Aydin, Ph.D.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bridges are critical but vulnerable elements of a highway transportation system. A bridge collapse not only affects the freight movement on the bridge but also the flow in the entire network, posing negative impacts on local, regional, and national economy. This study examines the spatial and economic impact of the 2002 I-40 Bridge collapse in Oklahoma on freight flow movement in the U.S. highway network. Freight Analysis Framework (FAF databases, TransCADTM software, and two assignment models (All-or-Nothing and User Equilibrium are used to analyze the freight flow changes before and after the bridge collapse along with two different freight assignment approaches. The first approach assigns the origin-destination freight flow to the network with the collapsed bridge removed. The second involves two successive assignments - first by excluding the pre-hazard freight flow on the bridge and assigning the rest of the flow to the post-disaster network, and second, by assigning the freight flow on the bridge in pre-disaster conditions to the post-disaster-network. The research showed that the bridge collapse did not only impact the freight flows on nearby highway network links, but also affected flows on links further away from the bridge. This finding casts doubts on the conventional models relying on gravity-based spatial distance decay effects, which often overestimate the nearby but underestimate the further-out freight flow changes in the network.

  19. Hierarchical analysis of bridge decision makers : the role of new technology adoption in the timber bridge market : special project fiscal year 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Bridge design engineers and local highway officials make bridge replacement decisions across the : United States. The Analytical Hierarchy Process was used to characterize the bridge material selection : decision of these individuals. State Departmen...

  20. Induced Polarization Surveying for Acid Rock Screening in Highway Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, K. E.; Al, T.; Bishop, T.

    2004-05-01

    Highway and pipeline construction agencies have become increasingly vigilant in their efforts to avoid cutting through sulphide-bearing bedrock that has potential to produce acid rock drainage. Blasting and fragmentation of such rock increases the surface area available for sulphide oxidation and hence increases the risk of acid rock drainage unless the rock contains enough natural buffering capacity to neutralize the pH. In December, 2001, the New Brunswick Department of Transportation (NBOT) sponsored a field trial of geophysical surveying in order to assess its suitability as a screening tool for locating near-surface sulphides along proposed highway alignments. The goal was to develop a protocol that would allow existing programs of drilling and geochemical testing to be targeted more effectively, and provide design engineers with the information needed to reduce rock cuts where necessary and dispose of blasted material in a responsible fashion. Induced polarization (IP) was chosen as the primary geophysical method given its ability to detect low-grade disseminated mineralization. The survey was conducted in dipole-dipole mode using an exploration-style time domain IP system, dipoles 8 to 25 m in length, and six potential dipoles for each current dipole location (i.e. n = 1 - 6). Supplementary information was provided by resistivity and VLF-EM surveys sensitive to lateral changes in electrical conductivity, and by magnetic field surveying chosen for its sensitivity to the magnetic susceptibility of pyrrhotite. Geological and geochemical analyses of samples taken from several IP anomalies located along 4.3 line-km of proposed highway confirmed the effectiveness of the screening technique. IP pseudosections from a region of metamorphosed shales and volcaniclastic rocks identified discrete, well-defined mineralized zones. Stronger, overlapping, and more laterally extensive IP anomalies were observed over a section of graphitic and sulphide-bearing metasedimentary

  1. Use of interactive graphics in bridge analysis and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    This study evaluated the role of computer-aided design (CAD), including interactive graphics, in engineering design applications, especially in the design activities of the Virginia Department of Highways and Transportation. A review of the hardware ...

  2. New conceptual design of portable bamboo bridge for emergency purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musthaffa, A. A.; Nor, N. M.; Yusof, M. A.; Yuhazri, M. Y.

    2018-02-01

    Portable bridges serve as routes for troops during the military operations and the disaster relief operation. Nowadays, bamboo has been regarded as one of the alternative construction materials for building and bridge structures. This paper presents the conceptual design of the portable bridge. Several types of portable bridges and bamboo bridges are reviewed in the current work. The characteristics, capability and method of construction of each bridge are discussed. Finally, the conceptual of the portable bamboo bridge for emergency purposes is presented. The idea of producing portable bridge is proposed in the current work as it is crucial for providing route for communities affected by natural disasters.

  3. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 37 (TOWNTH00290037) on Town Highway 29, crossing Mill Brook, Townshend, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, R.L.; Medalie, Laura

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure TOWNTH00290037 on Town Highway 29 crossing Mill Brook, Townshend, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D.

  4. Highway Design on the Sections Affected by Aquaplaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Reznik

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Pouring rain, snow melting, water condensing, fog and other natural phenomena cause the collection of water on roadway pavement, leading to the decrease of road-holding capacity of a tyre.When a car or a light truck is moving at a high speed on wet road pavement, the water under its wheels cannot be expelled in time.It results in raising of the front wheels of the vehicle above the road surface under the action of a hydrodynamic force and loss of vehicle control.The methods ensuring traffic safety on road sections, where vehicle’s aquaplaning is possible, should be developed by identifying and improving these sections at the stages of highway design, reconstruction and maintenance and by limiting traffic speed of vehicles.Keywords: vehicle, road, road-holding capacity, aquaplaning, reconstruction, maintenance, traffic safety.DOI: 10.3846/mla.2009.6.06

  5. Design and Analysis of Collapsible Scissor Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biro Mohamad Nabil Aklif

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Collapsible scissor bridge is a portable bridge that can be deployed during emergency state to access remote areas that are affected by disaster such as flood. The objective of this research is to design a collapsible scissor bridge which is able to be transported by a 4x4 vehicle and to be deployed to connect remote areas. The design is done by using Solidworks and numerical analysis for structural strength is conducted via ANSYS. The research starts with parameters setting and modelling. Finite element analysis is conducted to analyze the strength by determining the safety factor of the bridge. Kutzbach equation is also analyzed to ensure that the mechanism is able to meet the targeted degree of motion. There are five major components of the scissor structure; pin, deck, cross shaft and deck shaft. The structure is controlled by hydraulic pump driven by a motor for the motions. Material used in simulation is A36 structural steel due to limited library in ANSYS. However, the proposed material is Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP composites as they have a high strength to weight ratio. FRP also tends to be corrosion resistance and this characteristic is useful in flooded area.

  6. A Hierarchical Analysis of Bridge Decision Makers ... The Role of New Technology Adoption in the Timber Bridge Market: Special Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Smith; Robert J. Bush; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1995-01-01

    Bridge design engineers and local highway officials make bridge replacement decisions across the United States. The Analytical Hierarchy Process was used to characterize the bridge material selection decision of these individuals. State Department of Transportation engineers, private consulting engineers, and local highway officials were personally interviewed in...

  7. A bridge with a view, a view with a bridge : Identifying design considerations for bridges to strengthen regional identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.E.P.; van der Hoeven, F.D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses design considerations for creating high quality infrastructural artefacts with an emphasis on bridges. The authors pursue a design study and analysis approach to highlight the specifics of infrastructure design for regional identity, based on their own work on a bridge

  8. Design of bridges against large tectonic deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasopoulos, I.; Gazetas, G.; Drosos, V.; Georgarakos, T.; Kourkoulis, R.

    2008-12-01

    The engineering community has devoted much effort to understanding the response of soil-structure systems to seismic ground motions, but little attention to the effects of an outcropping fault offset. The 1999 earthquakes of Turkey and Taiwan, offering a variety of case histories of structural damage due to faulting, have (re)fueled the interest on the subject. This paper presents a methodology for design of bridges against tectonic deformation. The problem is decoupled in two analysis steps: the first (at the local level) deals with the response of a single pier and its foundation to fault rupture propagating through the soil, and the superstructure is modeled in a simplified manner; and the second (at the global level) investigates detailed models of the superstructure subjected to the support (differential) displacements of Step 1. A parametric study investigates typical models of viaduct and overpass bridges, founded on piles or caissons. Fixed-head piled foundations are shown to be rather vulnerable to faulting-induced deformation. End-bearing piles in particular are unable to survive bedrock offsets exceeding 10 cm. Floating piles perform better, and if combined with hinged pile-to-cap connections, they could survive much larger offsets. Soil resilience is beneficial in reducing pile distress. Caisson foundations are almost invariably successful. Statically-indeterminate superstructures are quite vulnerable, while statically-determinate are insensitive (allowing differential displacements and rotations without suffering any distress). For large-span cantilever-construction bridges, where a statically determinate system is hardly an option, inserting resilient seismic isolation bearings is advantageous as long as ample seating can prevent the deck from falling off the supports. An actual application of the developed method is presented for a major bridge, demonstrating the feasibility of design against tectonic deformation.

  9. Bathymetric and velocimetric surveys at highway bridges crossing the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers on the periphery of Missouri, June 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Bathymetric and velocimetric data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Transportation, in the vicinity of 8 bridges at 7 highway crossings of the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers on the periphery of Missouri from June 3 to 11, 2014. A multibeam echosounder mapping system was used to obtain channel-bed elevations for river reaches ranging from 1,525 to 1,640 feet longitudinally, and extending laterally across the active channel from bank to bank during low- to moderate-flow conditions. These bathymetric surveys indicate the channel conditions at the time of the surveys and provide characteristics of scour holes that may be useful in the development of predictive guidelines or equations for scour holes. These data also may be useful to the Missouri Department of Transportation as a low- to moderate-flow comparison to help assess the bridges for stability and integrity issues with respect to bridge scour during floods.

  10. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 8, (MANCTH00060008) on Town Highway 6, crossing Bourn Brook, Manchester, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ronda L.; Hammond, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure MANCTH00060008 on Town Highway 6 crossing Bourn Brook, Manchester, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  11. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 30, (HUNTTH00220030), on Town Highway 22, crossing Brush Brook, Huntington, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ronda L.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure HUNTTH00220030 on Town Highway 22 crossing Brush Brook, Huntington, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  12. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 16 (GROTTH00170016) on Town Highway 17, crossing the Wells River, Groton, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striker, L.K.; Ivanoff, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure GROTTH00170016 on Town Highway 17 crossing the Wells River, Groton, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  13. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 8 (ATHETH00090008) on Town Highway 9, crossing Bull Creek, Athens, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehmler, Erick M.; Burns, Ronda L.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure ATHETH00090008 on Town Highway 9 crossing Bull Creek in Athens, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  14. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 16, (NEWBTH00500016) on Town Highway 50, crossing Halls Brook, Newbury, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ronda L.; Degnan, James R.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure NEWBTH00500016 on Town Highway 50 crossing Halls Brook, Newbury, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  15. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 37, (BRNETH00740037) on Town Highway 74, crossing South Peacham Brook, Barnet, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ronda L.; Severance, Timothy

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure BRNETH00740037 on Town Highway 74 crossing South Peacham Brook, Barnet, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  16. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 37 (BARTTH00080037) on Town Highway 8, crossing Willoughby River, Barton, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayotte, Joseph D.; Boehmler, Erick M.

    1996-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure BARTTH00080037 on town highway 8 crossing the Willoughby River, Barton, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province

  17. State highways as main streets : a study of community design and visioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    The objectives for this project were to explore community transportation design policy to improve collaboration when state highways serve as local main streets, determine successful approaches to meet the federal requirements for visioning set forth ...

  18. Technical Support Document: 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Highway Lodging Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Wei; Gowri, Krishnan; Lane, Michael D.; Thornton, Brian A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Liu, Bing

    2009-09-28

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process, methodology and assumptions for development of the 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Highway Lodging Buildings, a design guidance document intended to provide recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings in highway lodging properties over the energy-efficiency levels contained in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings.

  19. Standardization of quality control plans for highway bridges in Europe: COST Action TU 1406

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Joan R.; Matos, Jose Campos e.

    2017-09-01

    In Europe, as all over the world, the need to manage roadway bridges in an efficient way led to the development of different management systems. Hence, nowadays, many European countries have their own system. Although they present a similar architectural framework, several differences can be appointed. These differences constitute a divergent mechanism that may conduct to different decisions on maintenance actions. Within the roadway bridge management process, the identification of maintenance needs is more effective when developed in a uniform and repeatable manner. This process can be accomplished by the identification of performance indicators and definition of performance goals and key performance indicators (KPI), improving the planning of maintenance strategies. Therefore, a discussion at a European level, seeking to achieve a standardized approach in this subject, will bring significant benefits. Accordingly, a COST Action is under way in Europe with the aim of standardizing the establishment of quality control plans for roadway bridges.

  20. Modal analysis of a concrete highway bridge : Structural calculations and vibration-based results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, S.; Veerman, R.P.; Koenders, E.A.B.; Knobbe, A.

    2013-01-01

    In the field of civil infrastructure, Structural Health Monitoring systems are implemented more and more frequently with the aim to safeguard the safety and service-life of structures such as bridges and tunnels. Changes in the integrity of the material and/or structural properties of this class of

  1. Effectiveness of polymer bridge deck overlays in highway noise reduction : technical paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT) began placing multi-layer polymer bridge deck overlays in 1999 and at the present time have over 200 in service. A few years after placing the overlays, individuals indicated that they noticed how quiet ...

  2. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 51 (JERITH00590051) on Town Highway 59, crossing The Creek, Jericho, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure JERITH00590051 on Town Highway 59 crossing The Creek, Jericho, Vermont (figures 1– 8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (Federal Highway Administration, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province and the Champlain section of the St. Lawrence physiographic province in northwestern Vermont. The 10.9-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture on the left and right overbanks, upstream and downstream of the bridge while the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation. In the study area, The Creek has a sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.004 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 45 ft and an average bank height of 6 ft. The channel bed material ranges from silt to cobble with a median grain size (D50) of 58.6 mm (0.192 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 3, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 59 crossing of The Creek is a 33-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of a 28-foot steel-stringer span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, December 11, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 26 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 10 degrees to the opening while the computed opening

  3. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 40 (ROCKTH00140040) on Town Highway 14, crossing the Williams River, Rockingham, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ronda L.; Wild, Emily C.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure ROCKTH00140040 on Town Highway 14 crossing the Williams River, Rockingham, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in southeastern Vermont. The 99.2-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture downstream of the bridge. Upstream of the bridge, the left bank is forested and the right bank is suburban. In the study area, the Williams River has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.005 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 154 ft and an average bank height of 11 ft. The channel bed material ranges from silt and clay to cobble with a median grain size (D50) of 45.4 mm (0.149 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on September 4, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 14 crossing of the Williams River is a 106-ft-long, one-lane covered bridge consisting of two steel-beam spans with a maximum span length of 73 ft (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, April 6, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 94.5 ft. The bridge is supported by a vertical, concrete abutment with wingwalls on the left, a vertical, laid-up stone abutment on the right and a concrete pier. The channel is skewed

  4. Verification of LRFD Bridge Design and Analysis Software for INDOT

    OpenAIRE

    Varma, Amit H.; Seo, Jungil

    2009-01-01

    NCHRP Process 12-50 was implemented to evaluate and verify composite steel I-girder bridge design software used commonly in Indiana. A test-bed of twenty one bridges was developed with the guidance from an Indiana Department of Transportation appointed research advisory panel (RAP). The test-bed included five simple-span and sixteen multi-span bridge superstructures. More than 80 parameters were required to define a bridge and they include bridge span, girder spacing, number of beams, section...

  5. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 7H (HUNTTH0001007H) on Town Highway 1, crossing Cobb Brook, Huntington, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure HUNTTH001007H on Town Highway 1 crossing the Cobb Brook, Huntington, Vermont (figures 1–10). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.In August 1976, Hurricane Belle caused flooding at this site which resulted in road and bridge damage (figures 7-8). This was approximately a 25-year flood event (U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, 1978). The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in central Vermont. The 4.20-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest upstream of the bridge. Downstream of the bridge is brushland and pasture.In the study area, the Cobb Brook has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.03 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 43 ft and an average bank height of 6 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to boulders with a median grain size (D50) of 65.5 mm (0.215 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on June 24, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 1 crossing of the Cobb Brook is a 23-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 20-foot concrete slab span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, June 21, 1996). The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 15 degrees

  6. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 46 (LINCTH00060046) on Town Highway 6, crossing the New Haven River, Lincoln, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure LINCTH00060046 on Town Highway 6 crossing the New Haven River, Lincoln, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in west-central Vermont. The 45.9-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly suburban and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest upstream of the bridge. The downstream right overbank near the bridge is suburban with buildings, homes, lawns, and pavement (less than fifty percent). The downstream left overbank is brushland while the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation. In the study area, the New Haven River has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.01 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 95 ft and an average bank height of 7 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to bedrock with a median grain size (D50) of 120.7 mm (0.396 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on June 13, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 34 crossing of the New Haven River is a 85-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of an 80-foot steel arch truss (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, December 14, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 69 feet. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed

  7. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 46 (FFIETH00470046) on Town Highway 47, crossing Black Creek, Fairfield, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.; Flynn, Robert H.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure FFIETH00470046 on Town Highway 47 crossing Black Creek, Fairfield, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gathered from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in northwestern Vermont. The 37.8 mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture upstream and downstream of the bridge while the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation. In the study area, Black Creek has a meandering channel with a slope of approximately 0.0005 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 51 ft and an average bank height of 6 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to bedrock with a median grain size (D50) of 0.189 mm (0.00062 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 12, 1995, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 47 crossing of Black Creek is a 35-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of one 31-ft steel-stringer span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 8, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 28.0 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, laid-up stone abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately zero degrees to the opening and the opening-skew-toroadway is zero degrees. A scour hole 6.0 ft deeper than the mean thalweg depth was observed just downstream of the

  8. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 8 (ANDOTH00010008) on Town Highway 1, crossing Andover Branch, Andover, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Robert H.; Wild, Emily C.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure ANDOTH00010008 on Town Highway 1 crossing the Andover Branch, Andover , Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in south-central Vermont. The 5.30-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover along the immediate banks, both upstream and downstream of the bridge, is grass while farther upstream and downstream, the surface cover is primarily forest.In the study area, the Andover Branch has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.01 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 35 ft and an average bank height of 3 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 63.6 mm (0.209 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 27, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable.The Town Highway 1 crossing of the Andover Branch is a 54-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 51-foot steel-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 28, 1995). The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 45 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is 30 degrees.A scour hole 0.7 ft deeper than the mean thalweg depth was observed

  9. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 13 (LINCTH00010013) on Town Highway 1, crossing Cota Brook, Lincoln, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure LINCTH00010013 on Town Highway 1 crossing Cota Brook, Lincoln, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in west-central Vermont. The 3.0-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest along the upstream right bank and brushland along the upstream left bank. Downstream of the bridge, the surface cover is pasture along the left and right banks. In the study area, Cota Brook has an sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.01 ft/ ft, an average channel top width of 30 ft and an average bank height of 2 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to cobble with a median grain size (D50) of 34.7 mm (0.114 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on June 10, 1996, indicated that the reach was laterally unstable due to cut-banks and wide, vegetated point bars upstream and downstream of the bridge. The Town Highway 1 crossing of Cota Brook is a 38-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of a 36-foot steel-stringer span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, December 14, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 34.4 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments. The channel is skewed approximately 15 degrees to the opening while

  10. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 8 (NEWFTH00010008) on Town Highway 1, crossing Wardsboro Brook, Newfane, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.; Degnan, James

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure NEWFTH00010008 on Town Highway 1 crossing Wardsboro Brook, Newfane, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (Federal Highway Administration, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in southestern Vermont. The 6.91-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest on the upstream right overbank and downstream left and right overbanks. The surface cover on the upstream left overbank is pasture. In the study area, Wardsboro Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.02 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 63 ft and an average bank height of 9 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulders with a median grain size (D50) of 95.4 mm (0.313 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 21, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 1 crossing of the Wardsboro Brook is a 32-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of a 26-foot concrete tee-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, April 6, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 26.7 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 45 degrees to the computed opening while the openingskew-to-roadway is 45 degrees

  11. Design procedure for pollutant loadings and impacts for highway stormwater runoff (Macintosh version) (for microcomputers). Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The interactive computer program was developed to make a user friendly procedure for the personal computer for calculations and guidance to make estimations of pollutant loadings and impacts from highway stormwater runoff which are presented in the Publication FHWA-RD-88-006, Pollutant Loadings and Impacts from Highway Stormwater Runoff, Volume I: Design Procedure. The computer program is for the evaluation of the water quality impact from highway stormwater runoff to a lake or a stream from a specific highway site considering the necessary rainfall data and geographic site situation. The evaluation considers whether or not the resulting water quality conditions can cause a problem as indicated by the violations of water quality criteria or objectives

  12. Design procedure for pollutant loadings and impacts for highway stormwater runoff (IBM version) (for microcomputers). Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The interactive computer program was developed to make a user friendly procedure for the personal computer for calculations and guidance to make estimations of pollutant loadings and impacts from highway stormwater runoff which are presented in the Publication FHWA-RD-88-006, Pollutant Loadings and Impacts from Highway Stormwater Runoff, Volume I: Design Procedure. The computer program is for the evaluation of the water quality impact from highway stormwater runoff to a lake or a stream from a specific highway site considering the necessary rainfall data and geographic site situation. The evaluation considers whether or not the resulting water quality conditions can cause a problem as indicated by the violations of water quality criteria or objectives

  13. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 37 (DUXBTH00120037) on Town Highway 12, crossing Ridley Brook, Duxbury, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.; Ivanhoff, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure DUXBTH00120037 on Town Highway 12 crossing Ridley Brook, Duxbury, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in north central Vermont. The 10.1-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest upstream and downstream of the bridge. In the study area, Ridley Brook has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.04 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 67 ft and an average bank height of 9 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulders with a median grain size (D50) of 123 mm (0.404 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 1, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 12 crossing of Ridley Brook is a 33-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of five 30-ft steel rolled beams (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, October 13, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 30 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 50 degrees to the opening while the measured opening-skew-to-roadway is 20 degrees. A scour hole 2 ft deeper than the mean thalweg depth was observed along the right abutment and downstream

  14. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 18 (SHEFTH00410018) on Town Highway 41, crossing Millers Run, Sheffield, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.; Boehmler, Erick M.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure SHEFTH00410018 on Town Highway 41 crossing Millers Run, Sheffield, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the White Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in northeastern Vermont. The 16.2-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is grass upstream and downstream of the bridge while the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation. In the study area, Millers Run has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.01 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 50 ft and an average bank height of 6 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 50.9 mm (0.167 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 1, 1995, indicated that the reach was laterally unstable, which is evident in the moderate to severe fluvial erosion in the upstream reach. The Town Highway 41 crossing of the Millers Run is a 30-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of a 28-foot steel-stringer span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 28, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 22.2 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 20 degrees to the opening. The computed

  15. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 25 (ROCHTH00400025) on Town Highway 40, crossing Corporation Brook, Rochester, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.; Weber, Matthew A.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure ROCHTH00400025 on Town Highway 40 crossing Corporation Brook, Rochester, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, from Vermont Agency of Transportation files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in central Vermont. The 4.97-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest on the upstream left and right overbanks, and the downstream left overbank. On the downstream right overbank, the surface cover is predominately brushland. In the study area, Corporation Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.04 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 37 ft and an average bank height of 6 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulders with a median grain size (D50) of 101 mm (0.332 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I site visit on April 12, 1995 and Level I and II site visit on July 8, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 40 crossing of Corporation Brook is a 31-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of a 26-foot steel stringer span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 22, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 24 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments. The channel is skewed approximately 15 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is 15 degrees. A scour hole 1

  16. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 32 (TUNBTH00600032) on Town Highway 60, crossing First Branch White River, Tunbridge, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure TUNBTH00600032 on Town Highway 60 crossing the First Branch White River, Tunbridge, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in central Vermont. The 92.9-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture upstream and downstream of the bridge, while woody vegetation sparsely covers the immediate banks. In the study area, the First Branch White River has a sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.001 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 82 ft and an average bank height of 7 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to gravel with a median grain size (D50) of 24.4 mm (0.08 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on October 18, 1995, indicated that the reach was laterally unstable, as a result of block failure of moderately eroded banks. The Town Highway 60 crossing of the First Branch White River is a 74-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of a 71-foot timber thru-truss span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, August 24, 1994). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 64 ft.The bridge is supported by vertical, laid-up stone abutments with upstream wingwalls. The channel is not skewed to the opening

  17. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 31 (JERITH00350031) on Town Highway 35, crossing Mill Brook, Jericho, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure JERITH00350031 on Town Highway 35 crossing Mill Brook, Jericho, Vermont (figures 1– 8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gathered from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province and the Champlain section of the St. Lawrence physiographic province in northwestern Vermont. The 15.7-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest upstream of the bridge. The downstream left overbank is pasture. The downstream right overbank is brushland. In the study area, the Mill Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.02 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 117 ft and an average bank height of 11 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulders with a median grain size (D50) of 81.1 mm (0.266 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 3, 1996, indicated that the reach was laterally unstable. The Town Highway 35 crossing of the Mill Brook is a 53-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of a 50-foot steel-beam span with a wooden deck (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, November 30, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 48 ft. The bridge is supported by a vertical, concrete abutment with wingwalls on the left. On the right, the abutment and wingwalls

  18. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 15 (BOLTTH00150015) on Town Highway 15, crossing Joiner Brook, Bolton, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ronda L.; Wild, Emily C.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure BOLTTH00150015 on Town Highway 15 crossing Joiner Brook, Bolton, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in north central Vermont. The 9.6-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture (lawn) downstream of the bridge and on the upstream right bank. The surface cover on the upstream left bank is shrub and brushland. In the study area, Joiner Brook has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.01 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 61 ft and an average bank height of 7 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to cobble with a median grain size (D50) of 43.6 mm (0.143 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on June 27, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 15 crossing of Joiner Brook is a 39-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 36-foot concrete tee-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, November 3, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 34.6 ft. The bridge is supported by nearly vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 10 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is zero degrees. A scour hole 1.5 ft deeper than the

  19. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 13 (SHARTH00040013) on Town Highway 4, crossing Broad Brook, Sharon, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.; Weber, Matthew A.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure SHARTH00040013 on Town Highway 4 crossing Broad Brook, Sharon, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in central Vermont. The 16.6-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is brushland on the downstream left overbank and row crops on the right overbank, while the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation. Upstream of the bridge, the overbanks are forested.In the study area, Broad Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.02 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 69 ft and an average bank height of 5 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 112 mm (0.369 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I site visit on April 11, 1995 and Level II site visit on July 23, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable.The Town Highway 4 crossing of Broad Brook is a 34-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 31-foot concrete tee beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 23, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 30.1 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 10 degrees to the opening while

  20. Bridges analysis, design, structural health monitoring, and rehabilitation

    CERN Document Server

    Bakht, Baidar

    2015-01-01

    This book offers a valuable guide for practicing bridge engineers and graduate students in structural engineering; its main purpose is to present the latest concepts in bridge engineering in fairly easy-to-follow terms. The book provides details of easy-to-use computer programs for: ·      Analysing slab-on-girder bridges for live load distribution. ·      Analysing slab and other solid bridge components for live load distribution. ·      Analysing and designing concrete deck slab overhangs of girder bridges under vehicular loads. ·      Determining the failure loads of concrete deck slabs of girder bridges under concentrated wheel loads. In addition, the book includes extensive chapters dealing with the design of wood bridges and soil-steel bridges. Further, a unique chapter on structural health monitoring (SHM) will help bridge engineers determine the actual load carrying capacities of bridges, as opposed to their perceived analytical capacities. The chapter addressing structures...

  1. Bathymetric surveys at highway bridges crossing the Missouri River in Kansas City, Missouri, using a multibeam echo sounder, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Bathymetric surveys were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Transportation, on the Missouri River in the vicinity of nine bridges at seven highway crossings in Kansas City, Missouri, in March 2010. A multibeam echo sounder mapping system was used to obtain channel-bed elevations for river reaches that ranged from 1,640 to 1,800 feet long and extending from bank to bank in the main channel of the Missouri River. These bathymetric scans will be used by the Missouri Department of Transportation to assess the condition of the bridges for stability and integrity with respect to bridge scour. Bathymetric data were collected around every pier that was in water, except those at the edge of the water or in extremely shallow water, and one pier that was surrounded by a large debris raft. A scour hole was present at every pier for which bathymetric data could be obtained. The scour hole at a given pier varied in depth relative to the upstream channel bed, depending on the presence and proximity of other piers or structures upstream from the pier in question. The surveyed channel bed at the bottom of the scour hole was between 5 and 50 feet above bedrock. At bridges with drilled shaft foundations, generally there was exposure of the upstream end of the seal course and the seal course often was undermined to some extent. At one site, the minimum elevation of the scour hole at the main channel pier was about 10 feet below the bottom of the seal course, and the sides of the drilled shafts were evident in a point cloud visualization of the data at that pier. However, drilled shafts generally penetrated 20 feet into bedrock. Undermining of the seal course was evident as a sonic 'shadow' in the point cloud visualization of several of the piers. Large dune features were present in the channel at nearly all of the surveyed sites, as were numerous smaller dunes and many ripples. Several of the sites are on or near bends in the river

  2. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 8 (BARTTH00020008) on Town Highway 2, crossing Roaring Brook, Barton, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehmler, Erick M.; Ivanoff, Michael A.

    1996-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure BARTTH00020008 on town highway 2 crossing Roaring Brook, Barton, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from VTAOT files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and can be found in Appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province of North-central Vermont in the town of Barton. The 9.89-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the banks have woody vegetation coverage except for the downstream left bank, which has a few trees and grass and brush coverage. In the study area, Roaring Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.019 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 35 ft and an average channel depth of 3 ft. The predominant channel bed material is gravel/cobble (D50 is 49.1 mm or 0.161 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on October 18, 1994 indicated that the reach was laterally unstable. A cut-bank on the downstream right bank and overall channel configuration in the valley are indications of the lateral instability at this site. The town highway 2 crossing of Roaring Brook is a 30-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 26-foot span concrete T-beam type superstructure (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, August 4, 1994). The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments. The channel is skewed approximately 15 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is

  3. Structural monitoring of a highway bridge using passive noise recordings from street traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvermoser, Johannes; Hadziioannou, Céline; Stähler, Simon C

    2015-12-01

    Structural damage on bridges presents a hazard to public safety and can lead to fatalities. This article contributes to the development of an alternative monitoring system for civil structures, based on passive measurements of seismic elastic waves. Cross-correlations of traffic noise recorded at geophone receiver pairs were found to be sufficiently stable for comparison and sensitive to velocity changes in the medium. As such velocity variations could be caused by damage, their detection would be valuable in structural health monitoring systems. A method, originally introduced for seismological applications and named Passive Image Interferometry, was used to quantify small velocity fluctuations in the medium and thereby observe structural changes. Evaluation of more than 2 months of continuous geophone recordings at a reinforced concrete bridge yielded velocity variations Δv/v in the range of -1.5% to +2.1%. The observed fluctuations correlate with associated temperature time series with a striking resemblance which is remarkable for two completely independent data sets. Using a linear regression approach, a relationship between temperature and velocity variations of on average 0.064% °C(-1) can be identified. This value corresponds well to other studies on concrete structures.

  4. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 17 (LYNDTH00020017) on Town Highway 2, crossing Hawkins Brook, Lyndon, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.; Medalie, Laura

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure LYNDTH00020017 on Town Highway 2 crossing Hawkins Brook, Lyndon, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in northeastern Vermont. The 7.7-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest on the left and right upstream overbanks. The downstream left and right overbanks are brushland.In the study area, Hawkins Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.02 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 78 ft and an average bank height of 7.3 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 46.6 mm (0.153 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 4, 1995, indicated that the reach was laterally unstable with the presence of point bars and side bars.The Town Highway 2 crossing of Hawkins Brook is a 49-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of a 46-foot steel-stringer span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 27, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 43 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 45 degrees to the opening while the computed opening-skew-to-roadway is zero

  5. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 36 (DUXBTH00040036) on Town Highway 4, crossing Crossett Brook, Duxbury, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.; Degnan, James R.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure DUXBTH00040036 on Town Highway 4 crossing the Crossett Brook, Duxbury, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in north-central Vermont. The 4.9-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover on the upstream left overbank is pasture. The upstream and downstream right overbanks are forested. The downstream left overbank is brushland, while the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation.In the study area, the Crossett Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.006 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 55 ft and an average bank height of 9 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to bedrock with a median grain size (D50) of 51.6 mm (0.169 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 1, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable.The Town Highway 4 crossing of the Crossett Brook is a 29-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of a 26-foot concrete slab span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, October 13, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 26 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 35 degrees to the opening while

  6. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 67 (MTHOTH00120067) on Town Highway 12, crossing Freeman Brook, Mount Holly, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.; Severance, Timothy

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure MTHOTH00120067 on Town Highway 12 crossing Freeman Brook, Mount Holly, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in south-central Vermont. The 11.4-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forested. In the study area, Freeman Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.01 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 51 ft and an average bank height of 6 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to boulders with a median grain size (D50) of 55.7 mm (0.183 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on October 5, 1995, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 12 crossing of Freeman Brook is a 34-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of a 30-foot prestressed concrete-slab span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 15, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 29.5 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 50 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is 15 degrees. Along the upstream right wingwall, the right abutment and the downstream right wingwall, a scour hole approximately 1.0 to 2.0 ft deeper than the mean thalweg

  7. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 34 (WWINTH00370034) on Town Highway 37, crossing Mill Brook, West Windsor, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehmler, Erick M.; Wild, Emily C.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure WWINTH00370034 on Town Highway 37 crossing Mill Brook, West Windsor, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in east-central Vermont. The 16.6-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture except for the upstream left bank where there is mostly shrubs and brush. In the study area, Mill Brook has a sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.003 ft/ ft, an average channel top width of 52 ft and an average bank height of 5 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to cobbles with a median grain size (D50) of 43.4 mm (0.142 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on June 5, 1996, indicated that the reach was laterally unstable. Point bars were observed upstream and downstream of this site. Furthermore, slip failure of the bank material was noted downstream at a cut-bank on the left side of the channel across from a point bar. The Town Highway 37 crossing of Mill Brook is a 37-ft-long, one-lane covered bridge consisting of one 32-foot wood thru-truss span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 23, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 29.6 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, laid-up stone abutment walls with

  8. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 29 (DORSTH00100029) on Town Highway 10, crossing the Mettawee River, Dorset, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure DORSTH00100029 on Town Highway 10 crossing the Mettawee River, Dorset, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Taconic section of the New England physiographic province in southwestern Vermont. The 9.5-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest on the upstream left overbank and the upstream and downstream right overbanks. The downstream left overbank is pasture and brushland. In the study area, the Mettawee River has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.02 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 66 ft and an average bank height of 8 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulders with a median grain size (D50) of 79.0 mm (0.259 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 5, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 10 crossing of the Mettawee River is a 26-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of a 24-ft steel-stringer span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, September 28, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 24.1 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 45 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is zero degrees. At the

  9. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 28 (ROCHTH00370028) on Town Highway 37, crossing Brandon Brook, Rochester, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.; Weber, Matthew A.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure ROCHTH00370028 on Town Highway 37 crossing Brandon Brook, Rochester, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from VTAOT files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in central Vermont. The 8.0-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture on the upstream left overbank although the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation. The upstream right overbank and downstream left and right overbanks are forested. In the study area, the Brandon Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.01 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 44 ft and an average bank height of 7 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to cobbles with a median grain size (D50) of 84.2 mm (0.276 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I site visit on April 12, 1995 and Level II site visit on July 8, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 37 crossing of the Brandon Brook is a 33-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of a 31-foot timber-stringer span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 22, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 29.6 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, timber log cribbing abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 5 degrees to the opening while the computed opening-skew-to-roadway is zero

  10. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 34 (ROCHTH00210034) on Town Highway 21, crossing the White River, Rochester, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.; Degnan, James

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure ROCHTH00210034 on Town Highway 21 crossing the White River, Rochester, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, obtained from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in central Vermont. The 74.8-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is suburban on the upstream and downstream left overbanks, though brush prevails along the immediate banks. On the upstream and downstream right overbanks, the surface cover is pasture with brush and trees along the immediate banks.In the study area, the White River has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.002 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 102 ft and an average bank height of 5 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to cobble with a median grain size (D50) of 74.4 mm (0.244 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 23, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable.The Town Highway 21 crossing of the White River is a 72-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of 70-foot steel stringer span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 22, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 67.0 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 15

  11. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 44 (LINCTH00330044) on Town Highway 33, crossing the New Haven River, Lincoln, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ronda L.; Wild, Emily C.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure LINCTH00330044 on Town Highway 33 crossing the New Haven River, Lincoln, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in west-central Vermont. The 6.3-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest.In the study area, the New Haven River has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.02 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 56 ft and an average bank height of 6 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 101.9 mm (0.334 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on June 10, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable.The Town Highway 33 crossing of the New Haven River is a 33-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of one 31-foot timber-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, December 14, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 29.3 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, wood-beam crib abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 25 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is zero degrees.A scour hole 1.0 ft deeper than the mean thalweg depth was observed along the right abutment during the Level I assessment. The

  12. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 38 (JERITH0020038) on Town Highway 20, crossing the Lee River, Jericho, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.; Degnan, James R.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure JERITH00200038 on Town Highway 20 crossing the Lee River, Jericho, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, obtained from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province and the Champlain section of the St. Lawrence physiographic province in northwestern Vermont. The 12.9-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover on the upstream and downstream right overbank is pasture while the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation. The surface cover on the upstream and downstream left overbank is forested. In the study area, the Lee River has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.02 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 89 ft and an average bank height of 14 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 45.9 mm (0.151 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 2, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 20 crossing of the Lee River is a 49-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of a steel through truss span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, December 12, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 44 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is

  13. Continuity diaphragm for skewed continuous span precast prestressed concrete girder bridges : technical summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-01

    Most highway bridges are built as cast-in-place : reinforced concrete slabs and prestressed concrete : girders. The shear connectors on the top of the girders : assure composite action between the slabs and : girders. The design guidelines for bridge...

  14. Improved bridge joint materials and design details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Expansion joints accommodate bridge movements that result from factors such as thermal expansion and contraction, concrete shrinkage, creep effects, live loading, settlement of the foundation and substructure, and environmental stressors. Expansion j...

  15. A Case Study of the Activity Gravitational Deformation Slate Slope on One Newly Rebuild Highway Bridge in Taitung Longitudinal Valley of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Pei-Chen; Weng, Cheng-Hsueh; Lu, An; Lin, Ming-Lang

    2017-04-01

    There are many landslide hazards induced by typhoon and earthquake in Taiwan because Taiwan is located in active orogen zone, where the Taitung Longitudinal Valley is the plate boundary, and also many typhoons hit Taiwan and bring much precipitation. In Japan, where also is located in orogen zone, the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake caused a large landslide which destroyed the Great Aso Bridge. It shows that landslides might have huge influence on the safety of bridges. In Sep. 2016, Typhoon No.14 (Meranti) hit Taiwan and caused a slate slope failure which located in Taitung Longitudinal Valley. It cut the approach road of a highway bridge called Songfeng Bridge and the maximum displacement is about 2 meters. The landslide body might include the bridge, and if this landslide continued move the bridge structure might be destroyed. The attitude of cleavage and joints measured in site investigation are complex and confused, it imply that this landslide event is not only controlled by gravitational deformation, but also affected by release joint and river erosion because the site is located on confluence of two river. The target of site investigation in this research includes finding the border of failure surface and the measurement of cleavage and joints. In this research, we compare the result of site investigation and numerical model to find the mechanism of failure, and try to analysis the possible influence on the bridge structure.

  16. Results of repeat bathymetric and velocimetric surveys at the Amelia Earhart Bridge on U.S. Highway 59 over the Missouri River at Atchison, Kansas, 2009-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Bathymetric and velocimetric data were collected six times by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kansas Department of Transportation, in the vicinity of Amelia Earhart Bridge on U.S. Highway 59 over the Missouri River at Atchison, Kansas. A multibeam echosounder mapping system and an acoustic Doppler current meter were used to obtain channel-bed elevations and depth-averaged velocities for a river reach approximately 2,300 feet long and extending across the active channel of the Missouri River. The bathymetric and velocimetric surveys provide a “snapshot” of the channel conditions at the time of each survey, and document changes to the channel-bed elevations and velocities during the course of construction of a new bridge for U.S. Highway 59 downstream from the Amelia Earhart Bridge. The baseline survey in June 2009 revealed substantial scour holes existed at the railroad bridge piers upstream from and at pier 10 of the Amelia Earhart Bridge, with mostly uniform flow and velocities throughout the study reach. After the construction of a trestle and cofferdam on the left (eastern) bank downstream from the Amelia Earhart Bridge, a survey on June 2, 2010, revealed scour holes with similar size and shape as the baseline for similar flow conditions, with slightly higher velocities and a more substantial contraction of flow near the bridges than the baseline. Subsequent surveys during flooding conditions in June 2010 and July 2011 revealed substantial scour near the bridges compared to the baseline survey caused by the contraction of flow; however, the larger flood in July 2011 resulted in less scour than in June 2010, partly because the removal of the cofferdam for pier 5 of the new bridge in March 2011 diminished the contraction near the bridges. Generally, the downstream part of the study reach exhibited varying amounts of scour in all of the surveys except the last when compared to the baseline. During the final survey, velocities throughout the

  17. Determination of barge impact probabilities for bridge design : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    University of Florida researchers developed a revised barge impact probability expression applicable for the design of bridge structures located on Florida waterways. University of Florida researchers obtained barge flotilla traffic data and barge-to...

  18. Post-Earthquake Traffic Capacity of Modern Bridges in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Evaluation of the capacity of a bridge to carry self-weight and traffic loads after an earthquake is essential for a : safe and timely re-opening of the bridge. In California, modern highway bridges designed using the Caltrans : Seismic Design Criter...

  19. Improved Simplified Methods for Effective Seismic Analysis and Design of Isolated and Damped Bridges in Western and Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval, Viacheslav

    The seismic design provisions of the CSA-S6 Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code and the AASHTO LRFD Seismic Bridge Design Specifications have been developed primarily based on historical earthquake events that have occurred along the west coast of North America. For the design of seismic isolation systems, these codes include simplified analysis and design methods. The appropriateness and range of application of these methods are investigated through extensive parametric nonlinear time history analyses in this thesis. It was found that there is a need to adjust existing design guidelines to better capture the expected nonlinear response of isolated bridges. For isolated bridges located in eastern North America, new damping coefficients are proposed. The applicability limits of the code-based simplified methods have been redefined to ensure that the modified method will lead to conservative results and that a wider range of seismically isolated bridges can be covered by this method. The possibility of further improving current simplified code methods was also examined. By transforming the quantity of allocated energy into a displacement contribution, an idealized analytical solution is proposed as a new simplified design method. This method realistically reflects the effects of ground-motion and system design parameters, including the effects of a drifted oscillation center. The proposed method is therefore more appropriate than current existing simplified methods and can be applicable to isolation systems exhibiting a wider range of properties. A multi-level-hazard performance matrix has been adopted by different seismic provisions worldwide and will be incorporated into the new edition of the Canadian CSA-S6-14 Bridge Design code. However, the combined effect and optimal use of isolation and supplemental damping devices in bridges have not been fully exploited yet to achieve enhanced performance under different levels of seismic hazard. A novel Dual-Level Seismic

  20. Environmental comparison of a railway bridge with alternative designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Guangli; Karoumi, Raid

    2012-01-01

    Railway bridges are complex structures that remain for a long life span and consume large amount of material and energy throughout the life span. All of those lead to considerable resource depletion and environmental burdens. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has proved to be a comprehensive tool...... for quantifying and assessing the environmental impacts of the products through its whole life cycle. This paper presents a comparative case study between two alternative designs of Banafjäl Bridge: ballast track design and fixed slab track design. The methodology of LCA is utilized as a supporting tool...

  1. Implementation of sustainable and green design and construction practices for bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The focus of this research is to develop a framework for more sustainable design and construction : processes for new bridges, and sustainable maintenance practices for existing bridges. The framework : includes a green rating system for bridges. The...

  2. Overview of the National Timber Bridge Inspection Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Wacker; Brian K. Brashaw; Frank Jalinoos

    2013-01-01

    As many engineers begin to implement life cycle cost analyses within the preliminary bridge design phase, there is a significant need for more reliable data on the expected service life of highway bridges. Many claims are being made about the expected longevity of concrete and steel bridges, but few are based on actual performance data. Because engineers are least...

  3. Design and construction of Chiburiko Bridge (stress ribbon bridge). Chiburiko bashi (tsurishoban kyo) no sekkei to seko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamisakoda, K; Tokuyama, S; Sano, K; Onuma, K [Kashima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1992-07-30

    Chiburiko Bridge lies across Chiburiko which is a lake for agricultural water, and is used by people, carts and cars for administration. It is a stressed-ribbon bridge with the road surface made with concrete covered bands of cables stretched between abutments, and is the first highway bridge in Japan. A report is made on the plan and construction of the bridge. Integration of the precast slab with the cast-in-place concrete as well as mutual integration of the precast slabs are validated by the use of a reproduced model of a part of the bridge. Floor slabs are suspended by cables, and can be constructed with no form nor support by integrating cast-in-place concrete with the precast slabs on mutually joined precast slabs. It has been said that the stressed-ribbon bridge has a structure suitable for long span bridges because it has a simple structure. Studies, however, seems to be necessary on the impact caused by running of vehicles and on the wind resisting stability. 3 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Non-Flutter Design Principle for long Span Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Jens; Andersen, Michael Styrk; Starch Øvre, Michele

    velocity for a thin airfoil shows an asymptotical behavior. In traditional bridge design the torsional-to-vertical frequency ratio is increased to obtain higher flutter wind velocities. In the present study, we investigate, what we will label the non-flutter design principle, in which the torsional...

  5. U.S. Geological Survey - Virginia Department of Transportation: Bridge scour pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Samuel H.

    2018-02-27

    BackgroundCost effective and safe highway bridge designs are required to ensure the long-term sustainability of Virginia’s road systems. The streamflows that, over time, scour streambed sediments from bridge piers inherently affect bridge safety and design costs. To ensure safety, bridge design must anticipate streambed scour at bridge piers over the lifespan of a bridge. Until recently Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) guidance provided only for scour estimates of granular, noncohesive, highly erosive material yielding overestimates of scour potential in instances when streambed materials offer some resistance to scour. This study seeks to estimate stream power and streambed scour for these more resistive sites, with bridge piers potentially established in cohesive soil or erodible rock. This new knowledge may provide significant construction cost savings while ensuring design and construction of safe highway bridges.

  6. Technical Support Document: The Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Highway Lodging Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Wei; Jarnagin, Ronald E.; Gowri, Krishnan; McBride, M.; Liu, Bing

    2008-09-30

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process and methodology for development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Highway Lodgings (AEDG-HL or the Guide), a design guidance document intended to provide recommendations for achieving 30% energy savings in highway lodging properties over levels contained in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings. The AEDG-HL is the fifth in a series of guides being developed by a partnership of organizations, including the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE), the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA), the United States Green Buildings Council (USGBC), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  7. Design of Usui bridge (PC cable stayed bridge). Usuihashi (PC shachokyo) no sekkei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kido, M.; Iizuka, Y. (Japan Highway Public Corp., Tokyo (Japan)); Tanaka, S.; Otsuka, K. (P.S. Concrete Co. Ltd. Kajima Corp. Joint Venture, Tokyo (Japan)); Kitakuni, S. (Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-11-30

    Structure and design of single suspension PC cable bridge, which is first kind of high way bridge in Japan and aiming to start for general use by March, 1993, are reported. As a construction outline, main construction quantity and general layout of the whole bridge together with the selective detail and characteristics of the diagonal member, tower, main girder and tower support member, are cited. Design conditions( load, materials, allowable stress and others ), basic plan of the design, and structure analysis( surface stress framed structure analysis, stereoscopic framework analysis and FEM analysis of local stress ) are explained. Design of structure member like main girder is based on diagonal member tension, wave shearing force, level of diagonal strain stress, bending stress when diagonal member anchors the deformed main tower caused by living load during earth quake, principal stress of main tower junction and local stress etc. Main tower support member design is based on the results of corbel shearing force at varied cross section and main stress, and diagonal member design is decided by allowable stress. Diagonal member anchorage traverse beam design depends on bending moment of traverse beam and shearing force. 3 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Research on Multidisciplinary Optimization Design of Bridge Crane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Yifei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bridge crane is one of the most widely used cranes in our country, which is indispensable equipment for material conveying in the modern production. In this paper, the framework of multidisciplinary optimization for bridge crane is proposed. The presented research on crane multidisciplinary design technology for energy saving includes three levels, respectively: metal structures level, transmission design level, and electrical system design level. The shape optimal mathematical model of the crane is established for shape optimization design of metal structure level as well as size optimal mathematical model and topology optimal mathematical model of crane for topology optimization design of metal structure level is established. Finally, system-level multidisciplinary energy-saving optimization design of bridge crane is further carried out with energy-saving transmission design results feedback to energy-saving optimization design of metal structure. The optimization results show that structural optimization design can reduce total mass of crane greatly by using the finite element analysis and multidisciplinary optimization technology premised on the design requirements of cranes such as stiffness and strength; thus, energy-saving design can be achieved.

  9. Design and Construction of Operation Bridge for Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Kwangsub; Choi, Jinbok; Lee, Jongmin; Oh, Jinho

    2015-01-01

    The operation bridge contains a lower working deck mounted on a saddle that travels on rails. Upright members are mounted on the saddle to support the upper structure and two hoist monorails. The saddle contains an anti-derail system that is composed of seismic lugs and guide rollers. The operation bridge travels along the rails to transport the fuel assembly, irradiated object, and reactor components in the pools by using tools. Hoists are installed at the top girder. The hoist is suspended from the monorail by means of a motor driven trolley that runs along the monorail. Movements of hoist and trolley are controlled by using the control pendant switch. Processes of design and construction of the operation bridge for the research reactor are introduced. The operation bridge is designed under consideration of functions of handling equipment in the pool and operational limits for safety. Structural analysis is carried out to evaluate the structural integrity in the seismic events. Tests and inspections are also performed during fabrication and installation to confirm the function and safety of the operation bridge

  10. Inclusive design: Bridging theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, A.H.M.; Neerincx, M.A.; Jong, J.G.M. de

    2013-01-01

    Large groups in society lack the necessary skills to be sufficiently self-reliant and are in need of personal assistance. These groups could be supported by information and information technology (ICT), but only if this technology is designed to fit their (cognitive) abilities. Inclusive design

  11. Development of Secondary Route Bridge Design Plan Guides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-03

    The objective of this study is to develop a set of bridge plan guides for low-volume traffic roads. The purpose of the plans is to facilitate construction of new structures suitable for local agencies. The designs are to specifically address common l...

  12. Design and evaluation of steel bridges with double composite action

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    This report presents findings from a cooperative USF/URS/FDOT research study undertaken to develop design rules for : double composite steel bridges. In the study, a 48 ft long, 16 ft wide, 4 ft. 10 in. deep trapezoidal HPS 70W box section : desig...

  13. On the required complexity of vehicle dynamic models for use in simulation-based highway design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alexander; Brennan, Sean

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents the results of a comprehensive project whose goal is to identify roadway design practices that maximize the margin of safety between the friction supply and friction demand. This study is motivated by the concern for increased accident rates on curves with steep downgrades, geometries that contain features that interact in all three dimensions - planar curves, grade, and superelevation. This complexity makes the prediction of vehicle skidding quite difficult, particularly for simple simulation models that have historically been used for road geometry design guidance. To obtain estimates of friction margin, this study considers a range of vehicle models, including: a point-mass model used by the American Association of State Highway Transportation Officials (AASHTO) design policy, a steady-state "bicycle model" formulation that considers only per-axle forces, a transient formulation of the bicycle model commonly used in vehicle stability control systems, and finally, a full multi-body simulation (CarSim and TruckSim) regularly used in the automotive industry for high-fidelity vehicle behavior prediction. The presence of skidding--the friction demand exceeding supply--was calculated for each model considering a wide range of vehicles and road situations. The results indicate that the most complicated vehicle models are generally unnecessary for predicting skidding events. However, there are specific maneuvers, namely braking events within lane changes and curves, which consistently predict the worst-case friction margins across all models. This suggests that any vehicle model used for roadway safety analysis should include the effects of combined cornering and braking. The point-mass model typically used by highway design professionals may not be appropriate to predict vehicle behavior on high-speed curves during braking in low-friction situations. However, engineers can use the results of this study to help select the appropriate vehicle dynamic

  14. Alternative routes for highway shipments of radioactive materials and lessons learned from state designations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under docket numbers HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select altemative routes. First, the state must establish a ''state routing agency'', defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with DOTs Guidelines for Selecting Preferred Highway Routes for Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice to DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective. The purpose of this report is to discuss the ''lessons learned'' by the five states within the southern region that have designated alternative or preferred routes under the regulations of the Department of Transportation (DOT) established for the transportation of radioactive materials. The document was prepared by reviewing applicable federal laws and regulations, examining state reports and documents and contacting state officials and routing agencies involved in making routing decisions. In undertaking this project, the Southern States Energy Board hopes to reveal the process used by states that have designated alternative routes and thereby share their experiences (i.e., lessons learned) with other southern states that have yet to make designations

  15. Evaluation of bridge decks using non-destructive evaluation (NDE) at near highway speeds for effective asset management - pilot project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-29

    This project piloted the findings from an initial research and development project pertaining to the detection, : quantification, and visualization of bridge deck distresses through the use of remote sensing techniques, specifically : combining optic...

  16. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 81 (MARSUS00020081) on U.S. Highway 2, crossing the Winooski River, Marshfield, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanoff, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure MARSUS00020081 on U.S. Highway 2 crossing the Winooski River, Marshfield, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  17. Data Model and Relational Database Design for Highway Runoff Water-Quality Metadata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Gregory E.; Tessler, Steven

    2001-01-01

    A National highway and urban runoff waterquality metadatabase was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration as part of the National Highway Runoff Water-Quality Data and Methodology Synthesis (NDAMS). The database was designed to catalog available literature and to document results of the synthesis in a format that would facilitate current and future research on highway and urban runoff. This report documents the design and implementation of the NDAMS relational database, which was designed to provide a catalog of available information and the results of an assessment of the available data. All the citations and the metadata collected during the review process are presented in a stratified metadatabase that contains citations for relevant publications, abstracts (or previa), and reportreview metadata for a sample of selected reports that document results of runoff quality investigations. The database is referred to as a metadatabase because it contains information about available data sets rather than a record of the original data. The database contains the metadata needed to evaluate and characterize how valid, current, complete, comparable, and technically defensible published and available information may be when evaluated for application to the different dataquality objectives as defined by decision makers. This database is a relational database, in that all information is ultimately linked to a given citation in the catalog of available reports. The main database file contains 86 tables consisting of 29 data tables, 11 association tables, and 46 domain tables. The data tables all link to a particular citation, and each data table is focused on one aspect of the information collected in the literature search and the evaluation of available information. This database is implemented in the Microsoft (MS) Access database software because it is widely used within and outside of government and is familiar to many

  18. Influences of high-flow events on a stream channel altered by construction of a highway bridge: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Lara B.; Welsh, Stuart A.; Anderson, James T.

    2009-01-01

    Impacts of highway construction on streams in the central Appalachians are a growing concern as new roads are created to promote tourism and economic development in the area. Alterations to the streambed of a first-order stream, Sauerkraut Run, Hardy County, WV, during construction of a highway overpass included placement and removal of a temporary culvert, straightening and regrading of a section of stream channel, and armourment of a bank with a reinforced gravel berm. We surveyed longitudinal profiles and cross sections in a reference reach and the altered reach of Sauerkraut Run from 2003 through 2007 to measure physical changes in the streambed. During the four-year period, three high-flow events changed the streambed downstream of construction including channel widening and aggradation and then degradation of the streambed. Upstream of construction, at a reinforced gravel berm, bank erosion was documented. The reference section remained relatively unchanged. Knowledge gained by documenting channel changes in response to natural and anthropogenic variables can be useful for managers and engineers involved in highway construction projects.

  19. Development of wave and surge atlas for the design and protection of coastal bridges in south Louisiana : [tech summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The failures of highway bridges on the Gulf Coast seen in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in 2005 were unprecedented. : In the past four decades, wind waves accompanied by high surges from hurricanes have damaged a number of coastal : bridges alon...

  20. National Bridge Inventory (NBI) Bridges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The NBI is a collection of information (database) describing the more than 600,000 of the Nation's bridges located on public roads, including Interstate Highways,...

  1. Bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zant, W.

    2017-01-01

    We estimate to what extent bridges in Mozambique lead to transport cost reductions and attribute these reductions to key determinants, in particular road distance, road quality and crossing borders. For identification we exploit the introduction of a road bridge over the Zambezi river, in August

  2. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 30 (NEWHTH00050030) on Town Highway 5, crossing the New Haven River, New Haven, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ronda L.; Wild, Emily C.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure NEWHTH00050030 on Town Highway 5 crossing the New Haven River, New Haven, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (Federal Highway Administration, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D.The site is in the Champlain section of the St. Lawrence Valley physiographic province in west-central Vermont. The 115-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture on the right bank upstream and downstream of the bridge while the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation. The upstream left bank is also pasture. The downstream left bank is forested.In the study area, the New Haven River has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.01 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 127 ft and an average bank height of 5 ft. The channel bed material ranges from silt to cobble with a median grain size (D50) of 20.4 mm (0.067 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on June 19, 1996, indicated that the reach was laterally unstable. The stream bends through the bridge and impacts the left bank where there is a cut bank and scour hole.The Town Highway 5 crossing of the New Haven River is a 181-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of four 45-ft concrete tee-beam spans (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, December 15, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 175.9 ft. The

  3. Christian Menn's recent bridge designs - Reducing structural elements to the simplest solution

    OpenAIRE

    Brühwiler, E.; Mahmoud, Khaled M.

    2009-01-01

    The conceptual designs by Christian Menn of four landmark bridges are presented: 1) a 350-m span cable-stayed bridge with jointless deck girder, 2) a cable-stayed bridge with a single “spindle-shaped” pylon, 3) a bridge with an arch reaching high above the deck (both carrying a horizontally curved deck girder), and 4) a cable stayed bridge with three pylons monolithically connected to the deck girder. All of the original bridge designs are driven by the aim to optimize the flow of force...

  4. APPLICATION OF STEEL PIPE PILE LOADING TESTS TO DESIGN VERIFICATION OF FOUNDATION OF THE TOKYO GATE BRIDGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitou, Yutaka; Kikuchi, Yoshiaki; Kusakabe, Osamu; Kiyomiya, Osamu; Yoneyama, Haruo; Kawakami, Taiji

    Steel sheet pipe pile foundations with large diameter steel pipe sheet pile were used for the foundation of the main pier of the Tokyo Gateway bridge. However, as for the large diameter steel pipe pile, the bearing mechanism including a pile tip plugging effect is still unclear due to lack of the practical examinations even though loading tests are performed on Trans-Tokyo Bay Highway. In the light of the foregoing problems, static pile loading tests both vertical and horizontal directions, a dynamic loading test, and cone penetration tests we re conducted for determining proper design parameters of the ground for the foundations. Design parameters were determined rationally based on the tests results. Rational design verification was obtained from this research.

  5. Design And Implementation Of Pc Based Over Speed Violation Management For Vehicles On Highway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Ni Hlaing

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present day scenario traffic rules are frequently violated by the drivers and over speeding occur due to bad driving behavior. So a driver assistance system is provided to prevent over speeding violation of road rules also to display alert messages and gives alerts like road works steep slope school zone in the form of acoustical messages and also in LCD. The proposed system has a reporting displaying and database systemfor over speed violation management. This designed system has the ability to detect the speed of the vehicle in the roads and the main highways and the places where the drivers can use of more speed while driving. The laser transmitter senses the load entered by the vehicle and then the receiver unit sends to the microcontroller. The receiver unit is used by Light Dependent Resistor LDR. If the speed of vehicle exceeds the permissible speed for the highway this information will sent to PC which starts the camera to capture the vehicle. And all the information of vehicle are sent to database system. Then also shows the speed information on LCD.

  6. A static analysis method for barge impact design of bridges with consideration of dynamic amplification : summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Several hundred Florida bridges span waterways deep enough for barge traffic. To ensure a bridge is capable of withstanding the potential impact of a barge collision, engineers use design specifications recommended by the American Association of Stat...

  7. Design and erection of the MUSEUM BRIDGE; Bijutsu no sekai eno yume no kakehashi. MUSEUM BRIDGE no sekkei seko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, S.; Tsunekawa, M.; Umda, A.; Kishimoto, Y.; Yotsukura, Y.; Miitsu, K.; Okada, S.; Furukawa, M. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1998-12-20

    MUSEUM Projects for the religious corporation of Shinji-Shumeikai, at Shigaraki, Shiga prefecture. Fundamental design was by a project team led by the world-famous architect I.M. Pei. The museum is located in a prefectural park surrounded by forests. The design concept of the bridge aimed to connect Shangri-La (museum) to the real world. In order to satisfy this purpose, a cable-stayed bridge with external tendon was adopted as an original structure style, and details such as handrails, gratings, and gloss painting taken into consideration. The authors report the characteristics of the bridge and the sequence of erection. (author)

  8. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 28 (STRATH00020028) on Town Highway 2, crossing the West Branch Ompompanoosuc River, Strafford, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure STRATH00020028 on Town Highway 2 crossing the West Branch Ompompanoosuc River, Strafford, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gathered from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in central Vermont. The 25.4-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture upstream and downstream of the bridge. In the study area, the West Branch Ompompanoosuc River has a sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.002 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 34 ft and an average bank height of 6 ft. The channel bed material ranges from silt and clay to cobbles with a median grain size (D50) of 20.4 mm (0.0669 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 24, 1996, indicated that the reach was laterally unstable, because of moderate fluvial erosion. The Town Highway 2 crossing of the West Branch Ompompanoosuc River is a 31-ft-long, twolane bridge consisting of a 26-foot concrete tee-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, October 23, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 24.6 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 45 degrees to the opening while the computed opening-skew-toroadway is 5 degrees. A scour hole 3

  9. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 5 (WOLCTH00150005) on Town Highway 15, crossing the Wild Branch Lamoille River, Wolcott, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure WOLCTH00150005 on Town Highway 15 crossing the Wild Branch Lamoille River, Wolcott, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.During the August 1995 and July 1997 flood events, the left roadway was overtopped. Although there was loss of stone fill along the right abutment, the structure withstood both events.The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in north- central Vermont. The 38.3-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture upstream and downstream of the bridge, while the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation.In the study area, the Wild Branch Lamoille River has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.006 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 98 ft and an average bank height of 5 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to bedrock with a median grain size (D50) of 89.1 mm (0.292 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 17, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable.The Town Highway 15 crossing of the Wild Branch Lamoille River is a 46-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of a 43-foot prestressed concrete box-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, October 13, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face

  10. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 23 (WOLCTH00130023) on Town Highway 13, crossing the Wild Branch of the Lamoille River, Wolcott, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.; Degnan, James R.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure WOLCTH00130023 on Town Highway 13 crossing the Wild Branch Lamoille River, Wolcott, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, collected from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in northcentral Vermont. The 27.7-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture on the upstream right overbank. The upstream left overbank is brushland. Downstream of the bridge, the surface cover is forested on the right overbank. The downstream left overbank is pasture while the immediate bank has dense woody vegetation. In the study area, the Wild Branch Lamoille River has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.009 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 65 ft and an average bank height of 7 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to boulders with a median grain size (D50) of 85.3 mm (0.280 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 17, 1996 indicated that the reach was laterally unstable. The Town Highway 13 crossing of the Wild Branch Lamoille River is a 41-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of a 39-foot steel girder span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, October 13, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 38 ft. The bridge is supported by

  11. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 32 (FERRTH00190032) on Town Highway 19, crossing the South Slang Little Otter Creek, Ferrisburgh, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanoff, Michael A.; Wild, Emily C.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure FERRTH00190032 on Town Highway 19 crossing the South Slang Little Otter Creek (Hawkins Slang Brook), Ferrisburg, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the Champlain section of the St. Lawrence Valley physiographic province in west-central Vermont. The 8.00-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover consists of wetlands upstream and downstream of the bridge with trees and pasture on the wide flood plains. In the study area, the South Slang Little Otter Creek has a meandering channel with essentially no channel slope, an average channel top width of 932 ft and an average bank height of 6 ft. The channel bed material ranges from clay to sand. Sieve analysis indicates that greater than 50% of the sample is coarse silt and clay and thus a medium grain size by use of sieve analysis was indeterminate. The median grain size was assumed to be a course silt with a size (D50) of 0.061mm (0.0002 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 2, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 19 crossing of the South Slang Little Otter Creek is a 45-ft-long, twolane bridge consisting of one 42-foot concrete box-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, December 11, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face

  12. Determination of minimum height and lateral design load for MASH test level 4 bridge rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware (MASH) prescribes higher design vehicle impact speed and mass for test level 4 barriers compared to its predecessor National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 350. This has resulted in a 56 p...

  13. Continuous prestressed concrete girder bridges, volume 2 : analysis, testing, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The Texas Department of Transportation designs typical highway bridge structures as simple span systems using : standard precast, pretensioned girders. Spans are limited to about 150 ft due to weight and length restrictions on : transporting the prec...

  14. Comparative durability of timber bridges in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Wacker; Brian K. Brashaw

    2017-01-01

    As engineers begin to utilize life-cycle-cost design approaches for timber bridges, there is a necessity for more reliable data about their durability and expected service life. This paper summarizes a comprehensive effort to assess the current condition of more than one hundred timber highway bridge superstructures throughout the United States. This national study was...

  15. 23 CFR 650.809 - Movable span bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Movable span bridges. 650.809 Section 650.809 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Navigational Clearances for Bridges § 650.809 Movable span bridges. A fixed bridge...

  16. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 29 (ROYATH00920029) on Town Highway 92, crossing the First Branch White River, Royalton, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.; Hammond, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure ROYATH00920029 on Town Highway 92 crossing the First Branch White River, Royalton, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in central Vermont. The 101-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture upstream and downstream of the bridge. In the study area, the First Branch White River has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.001 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 81 ft and an average bank height of 9 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to bedrock with a median grain size (D50) of 1.18 mm (0.00347 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I site visit on July 23, 1996 and Level II site visit on June 2, 1995, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 92 crossing of the First Branch White River is a 59-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of a 57-foot steel-stringer span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 23, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 52.2 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 20 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is zero degrees. A scour hole 4.0 ft deeper than the

  17. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 33 (TUNBTH00450033) on Town Highway 45, crossing the First Branch White River, Tunbridge, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, E.C.; Severance, Timothy

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure TUNBTH00450033 on Town Highway 45 crossing the First Branch White River, Tunbridge, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in central Vermont. The 86.4-mi 2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture upstream and downstream of the bridge, while woody vegetation sparsely covers the immediate banks. In the study area, the First Branch White River has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.003 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 68 ft and an average bank height of 7 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to gravel with a median grain size (D50) of 27.1 mm (0.089 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on October 18, 1995, indicated that the reach was laterally unstable due to a cut-bank present on the upstream right bank and a wide channel bar in the upstream reach. The Town Highway 45 crossing of the First Branch White River is a 67-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of one 54-foot timber thru-truss span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 23, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 53.5 ft. The bridge is supported on the right by a vertical, concrete abutment

  18. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 63 (MTH0TH00120063) on Town Highway 12, crossing Russell Brook, Mount Holly, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.; Severance, Timothy

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure MTHOTH00120063 on Town Highway 12 crossing Russell Brook, Mount Holly, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in south-central Vermont. The 3.6-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest upstream and downstream of the bridge. In the study area, Russell Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.0263 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 29 ft and an average bank height of 3 ft. The channel bed material ranges from cobbles to boulders with a median grain size (D50) of 97.1 mm (0.318 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on October 4, 1995, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 12 crossing of Russell Brook is a 29-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of a 26-foot steel-stringer span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 21, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 23.5 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 40 degrees to the opening while the computed opening-skew-to-roadway is 35 degrees. During the Level I assessment, it was observed that the upstream left wingwall footing was exposed 0.2 ft, in reference to

  19. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 52 (CHESTH00100052) on Town Highway 10, crossing the South branch Williams River, Chester, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.; Ivanoff, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure CHESTH00100052 on Town Highway 10 crossing the South Branch Williams River, Chester, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in southeastern Vermont. The 4.05-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest upstream and downstream of the bridge. In the study area, the South Branch Williams River has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.03 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 35 ft and an average bank height of 4 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulders with a median grain size (D50) of 82.1 mm (0.269 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 21, 1996, indicated that the reach was unstable, as a result of the moderate bank erosion. The Town Highway 10 crossing of the South Branch Williams River is a 32-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of a 29-foot steel-stringer span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 31, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 27.6 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 25 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is 20 degrees. A scour hole 1.0 ft deeper than the

  20. LTBP bridge performance primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    "The performance of bridges is critical to the overall performance of the highway transportation system in the United States. However, many critical aspects of bridge performance are not well understood. The reasons for this include the extreme diver...

  1. An engineering design study of the transfer bridge for the SSC SDC detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Western, J.L.; Tulk, G.W.; Dittert, L.I.

    1993-05-01

    The transfer bridge is a major structural installation component for the large detector proposed by the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC). The transfer bridge is the structural device that allows for installation of the Muon Forward Toroid (MFT) and calorimeter components into the Muon Barrel Toroid (MBT). This paper summarizes the design and construction of the SDC transfer bridge

  2. Design and construction of the Natorigawa Bridge; Natorigawa kyoryo no sekkei/seko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murai, Y.; Oba, M.; Omurata, Y. [JR East Japan Railway Co., Tokyo (Japan); Miyauchi, M.; Iwasaki, I. [Taisei Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-31

    The Natorigawa Bridge is reconstructed. Out of the reconstruction work, a report is made mainly on the design of the superstructure work of the PC panel-stayed bridge and the details of the work. In selecting bridge type, PC simple through beam bridge, steel trussed bridge, PC cable-stayed bridge, and PC panel-stayed bridge are compared, and a 2-span continuous PC panel-stayed bridge is adopted. Its appearance resembles that of the cable-stayed bridge, but the structure resembles a girder bridge. The appropriate span length is the intermediate range between those of the girder bridge and the cable-stayed bridge. Its trafficability is excellent with little deformation by the running of trains because the main beam, diagonal panel, and the main tower are connected rigidly to provide high rigidity of the entire bridge. PRC structure is employed in consideration of the restriction to beam height and economical efficiency. Analyses by a FEM model using two dimensional plane elements and by a few plane frame models as well as comparison of sectional force are performed for this bridge, and a proper plane model is selected. Substructure work, superstructure work and measurement work are described. 3 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Bathymetric and velocimetric surveys at highway bridges crossing the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers near St. Louis, Missouri, May 23–27, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Richard J.

    2017-09-26

    Bathymetric and velocimetric data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Transportation, near 13 bridges at 8 highway crossings of the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers in the greater St. Louis, Missouri, area from May 23 to 27, 2016. A multibeam echosounder mapping system was used to obtain channel-bed elevations for river reaches ranging from 1,640 to 1,970 feet longitudinally and extending laterally across the active channel from bank to bank during low to moderate flood flow conditions. These bathymetric surveys indicate the channel conditions at the time of the surveys and provide characteristics of scour holes that may be useful in the development of predictive guidelines or equations for scour holes. These data also may be useful to the Missouri Department of Transportation as a low to moderate flood flow comparison to help assess the bridges for stability and integrity issues with respect to bridge scour during floods.Bathymetric data were collected around every pier that was in water, except those at the edge of water, and scour holes were observed at most surveyed piers. The observed scour holes at the surveyed bridges were examined with respect to shape and depth.The frontal slope values determined for scour holes observed in the current (2016) study generally are similar to recommended values in the literature and to values determined for scour holes in previous bathymetric surveys. Several of the structures had piers that were skewed to primary approach flow, as indicated by the scour hole being longer on the side of the pier with impinging flow, and some amount of deposition on the leeward side, as typically has been observed at piers skewed to approach flow; however, at most skewed piers in the current (2016) study, the scour hole was deeper on the leeward side of the pier. At most of these piers, the angled approach flow was the result of a deflection or contraction of flow caused by a spur dike

  4. Bridging the gap between building science and design studios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papamichael, Konstantinos; Pal, Vineeta

    2002-02-06

    Design studios and building science courses have been conducted independent of each other, mainly due to a lack of tools that allow quick and easy consideration of building science criteria, such as comfort and energy requirements, during the design process. Existing tools are not user-friendly and their use requires significant effort in gaining familiarity with the input requirements, understanding the modeling assumptions and interpreting the output. This paper is about the Building Design Advisor (BDA), an evolving computer-based tool intended to bridge the gap between design studios and building science considerations by addressing the above-mentioned limitations of existing tools. BDA allows automatic preparation of input files to multiple simulation tools while the user is working in a CAD environment. BDA automatically activates the relevant simulation tools when the user selects performance parameters to be computed and provides the results in a graphical form, allowing comparison of multiple design options with respect to multiple performance criteria. The paper includes considerations for the use of the BDA in the design studio and ends with a description of the current development efforts and future plans.

  5. Highway Passenger Transport Based Express Parcel Service Network Design: Model and Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Highway passenger transport based express parcel service (HPTB-EPS is an emerging business that uses unutilised room of coach trunk to ship parcels between major cities. While it is reaping more and more express market, the managers are facing difficult decisions to design the service network. This paper investigates the HPTB-EPS network design problem and analyses the time-space characteristics of such network. A mixed-integer programming model is formulated integrating the service decision, frequency, and network flow distribution. To solve the model, a decomposition-based heuristic algorithm is designed by decomposing the problem as three steps: construction of service network, service path selection, and distribution of network flow. Numerical experiment using real data from our partner company demonstrates the effectiveness of our model and algorithm. We found that our solution could reduce the total cost by up to 16.3% compared to the carrier’s solution. The sensitivity analysis demonstrates the robustness and flexibility of the solutions of the model.

  6. Bathymetric and velocimetric surveys at highway bridges crossing the Missouri River between Kansas City and St. Louis, Missouri, April-May, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Bathymetric and velocimetric data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Transportation, in the vicinity of 10 bridges at 9 highway crossings of the Missouri River between Lexington and Washington, Missouri, from April 22 through May 2, 2013. A multibeam echosounder mapping system was used to obtain channel-bed elevations for river reaches ranging from 1,640 to 1,840 feet longitudinally and extending laterally across the active channel between banks and spur dikes in the Missouri River during low- to moderate-flow conditions. These bathymetric surveys indicate the channel conditions at the time of the surveys and provide characteristics of scour holes that may be useful in the development of predictive guidelines or equations for scour holes. These data also may be useful to the Missouri Department of Transportation to assess the bridges for stability and integrity issues with respect to bridge scour during floods. Bathymetric data were collected around every pier that was in water, except those at the edge of water or in very shallow water (less than about 6 feet). Scour holes were present at most piers for which bathymetry could be obtained, except at piers on channel banks, near or embedded in lateral or longitudinal spur dikes, and on exposed bedrock outcrops. Scour holes observed at the surveyed bridges were examined with respect to depth and shape. Although exposure of parts of foundational support elements was observed at several piers, at most sites the exposure likely can be considered minimal compared to the overall substructure that remains buried in channel-bed material; however, there were several notable exceptions where the bed material thickness between the bottom of the scour hole and bedrock was less than 6 feet. Such substantial exposure of usually buried substructural elements may warrant special observation in future flood events. Previous bathymetric surveys had been done at all of the

  7. Bathymetric and velocimetric surveys at highway bridges crossing the Missouri River in and into Missouri during summer flooding, July-August 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Bathymetric and velocimetric surveys were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kansas and Missouri Departments of Transportation, in the vicinity of 36 bridges at 27 highway crossings of the Missouri River between Brownville, Nebraska and St. Louis, Missouri, from July 13 through August 3, 2011, during a summer flood. A multibeam echo sounder mapping system was used to obtain channel-bed elevations for river reaches ranging from 1,350 to 1,860 feet and extending across the active channel of the Missouri River. These bathymetric scans provide a "snapshot" of the channel conditions at the time of the surveys and provide characteristics of scour holes that may be useful in the development of predictive guidelines or equations for scour holes. These data also may be used by the Kansas and Missouri Departments of Transportation to assess the bridges for stability and integrity issues with respect to bridge scour during floods. Bathymetric data were collected around every pier that was in water, except those at the edge of water, in extremely shallow water, or surrounded by debris rafts. Scour holes were present at most piers for which bathymetry could be obtained, except at piers on channel banks, those near or embedded in lateral or longitudinal spur dikes, and those on exposed bedrock outcrops. Scour holes observed at the surveyed bridges were examined with respect to depth and shape. Although exposure of parts of foundational support elements was observed at several piers, at most sites the exposure likely can be considered minimal compared to the overall substructure that remains buried in bed material; however, there were several notable exceptions where the bed material thickness between the bottom of the scour hole and bedrock was less than 6 feet. Such substantial exposure of usually buried substructural elements may warrant special observation in future flood events. Previous bathymetric surveys had been done at several of the sites

  8. Highway Electrification And Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Shladover, Steven E.

    1992-01-01

    This report addresses how the California Department of Transportation and the California PATH Program have made efforts to evaluate the feasibility and applicability of highway electrification and automation technologies. In addition to describing how the work was conducted, the report also describes the findings on highway electrification and highway automation, with experimental results, design study results, and a region-wide application impacts study for Los Angeles.

  9. Research notes : listening to bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    The Federal Highway Administration requires owners of structurally deficient bridges to repair, replace, restrict truck loads, or conduct analysis and testing to maintain a safe highway system. Past experiments on reinforced concrete beams showed aco...

  10. Improvement of the Assignment Methodology of the Approach Embankment Design to Highway Structures in Difficult Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chistyy, Y.; Kuzakhmetova, E.; Fazilova, Z.; Tsukanova, O.

    2018-03-01

    Design issues of junction of bridges and overhead road with approach embankment are studied. The reasons for the formation of deformations in the road structure are indicated. Activities to ensure sustainability and acceleration of the shrinkage of a weak subgrade approach embankment are listed. The necessity of taking into account the man-made impact of the approach embankment on the subgrade behavior is proved. Modern stabilizing agents to improve the properties of used soils in the embankment and the subgrade are suggested. Clarified methodology for determining an active zone of compression in the subgrade under load from the weight of the embankment is described. As an additional condition to the existing methodology for establishing the lower bound of the active zone of compression it is offered to accept the accuracy of evaluation of soil compressibility and determine shrinkage.

  11. PARAMETRIC STUDY OF SKEW ANGLE ON BOX GIRDER BRIDGE DECK

    OpenAIRE

    Shrikant D. Bobade *, Dr. Valsson Varghese

    2016-01-01

    Box girder bridge deck, is the most common type of bridges in world and India, it consists of several Slab or girders. The span in the direction of the roadway and connected across their tops and bottoms by a thin continuous structural stab, the longitudinal box girders can be made of steel or concrete. The Simple supported single span concrete bridge deck is presented in present study. Skewed bridges are suitable in highway design when the geometry of straight bridges is not possible. The sk...

  12. On Reliability Based Optimal Design of Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In recent years important progress has been made in assessment of the lifetime behaviour of concrete bridges. Due to the large uncertainties related to the loading and the deterioration of such bridges, an assessment based on stochastic modelling of the significant parameters seems to be only...

  13. Recent design methods for prestressed concrete cable stayed bridge; PC shachokyo no sekkei gijutsu no genjo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, K. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-02-01

    The number of constructed prestressed concrete cable stayed bridges reached nearly 100 in Japan, and the technique has greatly developed. In this article, the current status of design techniques for prestressed concrete cable stayed bridges were introduced along with the examples of constructed bridges for the analysis method and the design method for each structure part while introducing the current examples of constructed bridges. Also, this kind of extra-dosed prestressed concrete bridge and prestressed concrete bridge with prestressed concrete stays were reported. Standards have been prepared including a chapter for the prestressed concrete cable stayed bridges in the Road Bridge Guideline document in February 1990. Load to be noticed as the characteristics peculiar to the prestressed concrete cable stayed bridges includes the shock due to live load, temperature change, and execution error of a tower. For example, 1/1000 of the total tower height is generally considered as the execution error of the tower. A diagonal member is manufactured at factories and in fields and has both advantages and disadvantages. The linear analysis of plane framework is general. Damping of and earthquakeproof designs against the wind and earthquake of the diagonal member were also provided. 11 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Analysis of Static Load Test of a Masonry Arch Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jing-xian; Fang, Tian-tian; Luo, Sheng

    2018-03-01

    In order to know whether the carrying capacity of the masonry arch bridge built in the 1980s on the shipping channel entering and coming out of the factory of a cement company can meet the current requirements of Level II Load of highway, through the equivalent load distribution of the test vehicle according to the current design specifications, this paper conducted the load test, evaluated the bearing capacity of the in-service stone arch bridge, and made theoretical analysis combined with Midas Civil. The results showed that under the most unfavorable load conditions the measured strain and deflection of the test sections were less than the calculated values, the bridge was in the elastic stage under the design load; the structural strength and stiffness of the bridge had a certain degree of prosperity, and under the in the current conditions of Level II load of highway, the bridge structure was in a safe state.

  15. The method of rapid design of the folding bridge based on floating supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Marszałek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article includes a methodology for the rapid design of the folding bridge based on floating supports. This methodology includes an analysis of the possibilities of using blocks from the park pontoon PP-64 as a support for the floating folding DMS-65 bridge, built as a tem-porary crossing for civilian application. The analysis was carried out for the bridge loaded with a moving vehicle. The results of this analysis have been developed in the form of nomograms that enable rapid development of crossings in different structural systems.[b]Keywords[/b]: civil engineering, folding bridges, floating supports

  16. Bridge Failure Due to Inadequate Design of Bed Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Yogita; Kaur, Suneet; Dindorkar, Nitin

    2017-12-01

    The shallow foundation is generally provided on non-erodible strata or where scour depth is less. It is also preferable for low perennial flow or standing water condition. In the present case study shallow foundation is adopted for box type bridge. The total length of the bridge is 132.98 m, consisting of eight unit of RCC box. Each unit is composed of three cell box. The bottom slab of box unit is acted as raft foundation, founded 500 mm below ground level. River bed protection work is provided on both upstream and downstream side along the whole length of the bridge as it is founded above scour level. The bridge collapsed during the monsoon just after two years of service. The present paper explains the cause of failure. This study on failure of the bridge illustrates the importance of bridge inspection before and after monsoon period and importance of the timely maintenance. Standard specifications of Indian Road Congress for the river bed protection work are also included.

  17. Performance and Modelling of a Highway Wet Detention Pond Designed for Cold Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollertsen, Jes; Åstebøl, Svein Ole; Coward, Jan Emil

    2009-01-01

    A wet detention pond in Norway has been monitored for 12 months. The pond receives runoff from a highway with a traffic load of 42,000 average daily traffic. Hydraulic conditions in terms of inflow, outflow, and pond water level were recorded every minute. Water quality was monitored by volume pr...

  18. Salt-bridge networks within globular and disordered proteins: characterizing trends for designable interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sankar; Mukharjee, Debasish

    2017-07-01

    There has been considerable debate about the contribution of salt bridges to the stabilization of protein folds, in spite of their participation in crucial protein functions. Salt bridges appear to contribute to the activity-stability trade-off within proteins by bringing high-entropy charged amino acids into close contacts during the course of their functions. The current study analyzes the modes of association of salt bridges (in terms of networks) within globular proteins and at protein-protein interfaces. While the most common and trivial type of salt bridge is the isolated salt bridge, bifurcated salt bridge appears to be a distinct salt-bridge motif having a special topology and geometry. Bifurcated salt bridges are found ubiquitously in proteins and interprotein complexes. Interesting and attractive examples presenting different modes of interaction are highlighted. Bifurcated salt bridges appear to function as molecular clips that are used to stitch together large surface contours at interacting protein interfaces. The present work also emphasizes the key role of salt-bridge-mediated interactions in the partial folding of proteins containing long stretches of disordered regions. Salt-bridge-mediated interactions seem to be pivotal to the promotion of "disorder-to-order" transitions in small disordered protein fragments and their stabilization upon binding. The results obtained in this work should help to guide efforts to elucidate the modus operandi of these partially disordered proteins, and to conceptualize how these proteins manage to maintain the required amount of disorder even in their bound forms. This work could also potentially facilitate explorations of geometrically specific designable salt bridges through the characterization of composite salt-bridge networks. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  19. Development of LRFD procedures for bridge pile foundations in Iowa - volume III : recommended resistance factors with consideration of construction control and setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) mandated utilizing the Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) approach for all new bridges initiated in the United States after October 1, 2007. As a result, there has been a progressive move among state De...

  20. A Brillouin smart FRP material and a strain data post processing software for structural health monitoring through laboratory testing and field application on a highway bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastianini, Filippo; Matta, Fabio; Galati, Nestore; Nanni, Antonio

    2005-05-01

    Strain and temperature sensing obtained through frequency shift evaluation of Brillouin scattered light is a technology that seems extremely promising for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). Due to the intrinsic distributed sensing capability, Brillouin can measure the deformation of any individual segment of huge lengths of inexpensive single-mode fiber. In addition, Brillouin retains other typical advantages of Fiber Optic Sensors (FOS), such as harsh environment durability and interference rejection. Despite these advantages, the diffusion of Brillouin for SHM is constrained by different factors, such as the high equipment cost, the commercial unavailability of specific SHM oriented fiber products and even some prejudices on the required sensitivity performances. In the present work, a complete SHM pilot application was developed, installed and successfully operated during a diagnostic load test on the High Performance Steel (HPS) bridge A6358 located at the Lake of the Ozarks (Miller County, MO, USA). Four out of five girders were extensively instrumented with a "smart" Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) tape having embedded fibers for strain sensing and thermal compensation. Data collected during a diagnostic load test were elaborated through a specific post-processing software, and the strain profiles retrieved were compared to traditional strain gauges and theoretical results based on the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications for structural assessment purposes. The excellent results obtained confirm the effectiveness of Brillouin SHM systems for the monitoring of real applications.

  1. Structural design guidelines for concrete bridge decks reinforced with corrosion-resistant reinforcing bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This research program develops and validates structural design guidelines and details for concrete bridge decks with : corrosion-resistant reinforcing (CRR) bars. A two-phase experimental program was conducted where a control test set consistent : wi...

  2. Bridge scour and stream instability countermeasures : experience, selection, and design guidance : third edition. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    This document identifies and provides design guidelines for bridge scour and stream instability countermeasures that have been implemented by various State departments of transportation (DOTs) in the United States. Countermeasure experience, selectio...

  3. Bridge scour and stream instability countermeasures : experience, selection, and design guidance : third edition. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    This document identifies and provides design guidelines for bridge scour and stream instability countermeasures that have been implemented by various State departments of transportation (DOTs) in the United States. Countermeasure experience, selectio...

  4. Design and evaluation of a single-span bridge using ultra-high performance concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    "Research presented herein describes an application of a newly developed material called Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) to a : single-span bridge. The two primary objectives of this research were to develop a shear design procedure for possib...

  5. Designing for Anxiety Therapy, Bridging Clinical and Non-Clinical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege; Kramp, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    In this position paper we discuss, in terms of the concept of boundary objects, how a mobile application, the MIKAT.app, bridge between clinical intervention in anxiety therapy, and life and coping strategies outside the clinic and across phases of being a person suffering from, or having suffered...... from anxiety. Thereby, we hope to provide a counterpoint in the discussion on illness trajectories....

  6. FEATURES OF DESIGN OF TIED-ARCH BRIDGES WITH FLEXIBLE INCLINED SUSPENSION HANGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Samosvat

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Investigation and analysis of the hanger arrangement and the structural stability of a Network arch bridge – a tied-arch bridge with inclined hangers that cross each other at least twice. It is also necessary to make a comparative analysis with other types of hanger arrangements. Methodology. The authors in their research investigated a large number of parameters to determine their influence in the force distribution in the arch. Eventually they determined optimal values for all parameters. These optimal values allowed developing a design guide that leads to optimal arch design. When solving this problem, the authors used three-dimensional finite element models and the objective was to determine the most suitable solution for a road bridge, with a span of 100 meters, consisting of two inclined steel arches, located on a road with two traffic lanes, subjected to medium traffic. The virtual prototype of the model is performed by finite element simulator Midas Civil. Findings. In this study, for the bridge deck, a concrete tie appears to be the best solution considering the structural behavior of network arches, but economic advantages caused by easier erection may lead to steel or a composite bridge deck as better alternatives. Design requirements and local conditions of each particular bridge project will decide the most economic deck design.Originality. To ensure passenger comfort and the stability and continuity of the track, deformations of bridges are constricted. A network arch is a stiff structure with small deflections and therefore suitable to comply with such demands even for high speed railway traffic.
A network arch bridge with a concrete tie usually saves more than half the steel required for tied arches with vertical hangers and concrete ties. Practical value. Following the study design advice given in this article leads to savings of about 60 % of structural steel compared with conventional tied arch bridges with

  7. Economic impact of multi-span, prestressed concrete girder bridges designed as simple span versus continuous span : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the economic impact of designing pre-tensioned prestressed concrete beam (PPCB) : bridges utilizing the continuity developed in the bridge deck as opposed to the current Iowa Department of Transportation (...

  8. Economic impact of multi-span, prestressed concrete girder bridges designed as simple span versus continuous span : tech transfer summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the economic impact of : designing pre-tensioned prestressed concrete beam (PPCB) bridges : utilizing the continuity developed in the bridge deck as opposed to the : current Iowa Department of Transportati...

  9. Impact of Plastic Hinge Properties on Capacity Curve of Reinforced Concrete Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Shatarat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pushover analysis is becoming recently the most practical tool for nonlinear analysis of regular and irregular highway bridges. The nonlinear behaviour of structural elements in this type of analysis can be modeled through automated-hinge or user-defined hinge models. The nonlinear properties of the user-defined hinge model for existing highway bridges can be determined in accordance with the recommendations of the Seismic Retrofit Manual by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA-SRM. Finite element software such as the software SAP2000 offers a simpler and easier approach to determine the nonlinear hinge properties through the automated-hinge model which are determined automatically from the member material and cross section properties. However, the uncertainties in using the automated-hinge model in place of user-defined hinge model have never been addressed, especially for existing and widened bridges. In response to this need, pushover analysis was carried out for four old highway bridges, of which two were widened using the same superstructure but with more attention to seismic detailing requirements. The results of the analyses showed noticeable differences in the capacity curves obtained utilizing the user-defined and automated-hinge models. The study recommends that bridge design manuals clearly ask bridge designers to evaluate the deformation capacities of existing bridges and widened bridges using user-defined hinge model that is determined in accordance with the provisions of the FHWA-SRM.

  10. Protein thermal stability enhancement by designing salt bridges: a combined computational and experimental study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Wen Lee

    Full Text Available Protein thermal stability is an important factor considered in medical and industrial applications. Many structural characteristics related to protein thermal stability have been elucidated, and increasing salt bridges is considered as one of the most efficient strategies to increase protein thermal stability. However, the accurate simulation of salt bridges remains difficult. In this study, a novel method for salt-bridge design was proposed based on the statistical analysis of 10,556 surface salt bridges on 6,493 X-ray protein structures. These salt bridges were first categorized based on pairing residues, secondary structure locations, and Cα-Cα distances. Pairing preferences generalized from statistical analysis were used to construct a salt-bridge pair index and utilized in a weighted electrostatic attraction model to find the effective pairings for designing salt bridges. The model was also coupled with B-factor, weighted contact number, relative solvent accessibility, and conservation prescreening to determine the residues appropriate for the thermal adaptive design of salt bridges. According to our method, eight putative salt-bridges were designed on a mesophilic β-glucosidase and 24 variants were constructed to verify the predictions. Six putative salt-bridges leaded to the increase of the enzyme thermal stability. A significant increase in melting temperature of 8.8, 4.8, 3.7, 1.3, 1.2, and 0.7°C of the putative salt-bridges N437K-D49, E96R-D28, E96K-D28, S440K-E70, T231K-D388, and Q277E-D282 was detected, respectively. Reversing the polarity of T231K-D388 to T231D-D388K resulted in a further increase in melting temperatures by 3.6°C, which may be caused by the transformation of an intra-subunit electrostatic interaction into an inter-subunit one depending on the local environment. The combination of the thermostable variants (N437K, E96R, T231D and D388K generated a melting temperature increase of 15.7°C. Thus, this study

  11. The method of rapid design of the folding bridge based on floating supports

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Marszałek; Mieczysław Piechota

    2016-01-01

    The article includes a methodology for the rapid design of the folding bridge based on floating supports. This methodology includes an analysis of the possibilities of using blocks from the park pontoon PP-64 as a support for the floating folding DMS-65 bridge, built as a tem-porary crossing for civilian application. The analysis was carried out for the bridge loaded with a moving vehicle. The results of this analysis have been developed in the form of nomograms that enable rapid development ...

  12. Bridge scour countermeasure assessments at select bridges in the United States, 2014–16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudunake, Taylor J.; Huizinga, Richard J.; Fosness, Ryan L.

    2017-05-23

    In 2009, the Federal Highway Administration published Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 23 (HEC-23) to provide specific design and implementation guidelines for bridge scour and stream instability countermeasures. However, the effectiveness of countermeasures implemented over the past decade following those guidelines has not been evaluated. Therefore, in 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration, began a study to assess the current condition of bridge-scour countermeasures at selected sites to evaluate their effectiveness. Bridge-scour countermeasures were assessed during 2014-2016. Site assessments included reviewing countermeasure design plans, summarizing the peak and daily streamflow history, and assessments at each site. Each site survey included a photo log summary, field form, and topographic and bathymetric geospatial data and metadata. This report documents the study area and site-selection criteria, explains the survey methods used to evaluate the condition of countermeasures, and presents the complete documentation for each countermeasure assessment.

  13. Assuring bridge safety and serviceability in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    U.S. engineers need advanced tools and protocols to better assess and assure safety and serviceability of bridges. The Federal Highway Administration, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, and National Cooperative Highwa...

  14. Design, fabrication and erection of Queen Mall Bridge; Queen mall kyo no sekkei seisaku kasetsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, M.; Ishii, A.; Shinohara, T. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-20

    This paper describes design, fabrication and erection of Queen Mall Bridge, which is a new landmark in Minato-Mirai Yokohama. This bridge is two-span continuous cable stayed pedestrian bridge with a roof, and has a length 72.2 m, a width 18 m and a weight about 1,050 t. This bridge connects between the Queen`s Square and the second floor of Pacifico Yokohama. Achieving harmonious impression of the newly designed bridge in this area, glass roof was employed and all-weld method was applied to the in-site jointing of main girders and main tower in addition to the essential structural design. Since all-weld method was applied to the in-site jointing, highly accurate fabrication was considered during the in-site jointing. Due to the heavy traffic of the road below the bridge, the erection time was shortened under the severe erection conditions at night by large block method. Especially, accuracy control was considered for the whole shape management. Pre-assemble of all members was conducted just near the erection site, only 500 m away from the site, to shorten the construction time. 1 ref., 5 figs.

  15. Winding design of series AC inductor for dual active bridge converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Zhan; Wang, Huai; Shen, Yanfeng

    2018-01-01

    The ac resistance and parasitic capacitance of the inductor are the primary considerations in the winding design for the dual-active bridge converter (DAB). They are dependent of up to four independent structure variables. The interactive restrictions between those variables makes the design diff...

  16. Designing a second language bridging course for university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A. Puhl

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of students, especially black students, enrolling at university and needing to study in a medium of instruction which is not their mother tongue has underlined the need for additional language preparation as one way to reduce the failure and dropout rate. A possible solution is a bridging course aimed at developing academic language competencies to enable students to cope with communicative demands of their chosen course. An effective bridging course must take into account the requirements of the chosen institution and course, the level of student competency already achieved, and the actual student needs. These needs are divided into three areas: cognitive, which includes communicative macro-language skills and problem-solving skills; affective which includes self-confidence, acceptance of responsibility, and motivation; and behavioural, which includes cross-cultural competencies. Issues include duration of the course, the extent to which the course catersfor special purposes, and the didactic strategies employed. Three further considerations are the influence on the course of sponsors from business and industry, the academic level of the course, and effective evaluation methods. Die toenemende aantal studente, vera/ swart studente, wat aan 'n universiteit registreer waar die onderrigmedium nie hul moedertaal is nie, noodsaak bykomende taalvoorbereiding in 'n poging om die druip- en uitsaksyfer te verminder. Een moontlike oplossing is 'n oorbruggingskursus wat gemik is op die ontwikkeling van akademiese taalvermoens om studente in staat te stel om die kommunikatiewe eise van hul gekose kursus die hoof te bied. 'n Effektiewe oorbruggingskursus moet die volgende faktore in ag nee m: die vereistes van die gekose inrigting en kursus, die vaardigheidsvlak wat die student a/reeds bereik het sowel as die werklike studentebehoeftes. Hierdie behoeftes word in drie kategoriee verdeel: kognitief - wat kommunikatiewe makro

  17. Longevity of anterior resin-bonded bridges: survival rates of two tooth preparation designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuzar, M; Locke, J; Burt, G; Clausen, G; Escobar, K

    2018-04-16

    Significant developments have occurred in the design of resin-bonded bridges (RBB) over the past two decades. They are commonly used as an alternative treatment option for a single missing tooth. The longevity of these bridges needs to be further investigated to evaluate long-term outcomes for this option to remain relevant. A cohort of patients who received anterior resin-bonded bridges (ARBB) over two decades was studied retrospectively. Longevity of 206 ARBB was assessed using Kaplan-Meier probability estimates. The two modified tooth preparation designs investigated were: (A) mesial and distal vertical grooves only; and (B) one proximal groove adjacent to the pontic and two palatal grooves. Age and gender of the patient cohort were also recorded. Overall survival rate of ARBB was 98% at 5 years, 97.2% at 10 years, and 95.1% from 12 years till 21 years. Survival curves showed minor differences when compared for the two designs, age groups and gender of ARBB recipients. Differences in the proportion of surviving bridges for design A (95.96%) and design B (98.13%) were not statistically significant (Fisher's exact test). Anterior RBB with described tooth preparation designs demonstrate a high survival rate. © 2018 Australian Dental Association.

  18. Smart Rocks for Bridge Scour Monitoring: Design and Localization Using Electromagnetic Techniques and Embedded Orientation Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchenko, Andro

    River bridge scour is an erosion process in which flowing water removes sediment materials (such as sand, rocks) from a bridge foundation, river beds and banks. As a result, the level of the river bed near a bridge pier is lowering such that the bridge foundation stability can be compromised, and the bridge can collapse. The scour is a dynamic process, which can accelerate rapidly during a flood event. Thus, regular monitoring of the scour progress is necessary to be performed at most river bridges. Present techniques are usually expensive, require large man/hour efforts, and often lack the real-time monitoring capabilities. In this dissertation a new method--'Smart Rocks Network for bridge scour monitoring' is introduced. The method is based on distributed wireless sensors embedded in ground underwater nearby the bridge pillars. The sensor nodes are unconstrained in movement, are equipped with years-lasting batteries and intelligent custom designed electronics, which minimizes power consumption during operation and communication. The electronic part consists of a microcontroller, communication interfaces, orientation and environment sensors (such as are accelerometer, magnetometer, temperature and pressure sensors), supporting power supplies and circuitries. Embedded in the soil nearby a bridge pillar the Smart Rocks can move/drift together with the sediments, and act as the free agent probes transmitting the unique signature signals to the base-station monitors. Individual movement of a Smart Rock can be remotely detected processing the orientation sensors reading. This can give an indication of the on-going scour progress, and set a flag for the on-site inspection. The map of the deployed Smart Rocks Network can be obtained utilizing the custom developed in-network communication protocol with signals intensity (RSSI) analysis. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is applied for map reconstruction. Analysis of the map can provide detailed insight into the scour

  19. Effects of surface design on aerodynamic forces of iced bridge cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koss, Holger

    2014-01-01

    In recent years the relevance of ice accretion for wind-induced vibration of structural bridge cables has been recognised and became a subject of research in bridge engineering. Full-scale monitoring and observation indicate that light precipitation at moderate low temperatures between zero and -...... influences the accretion of ice to an extent that the aerodynamic forces differ significantly amongst the designs. The experiments were conducted in a wind tunnel facility capable amongst others to simulate in-cloud icing conditions........ The determination of these force coefficients require a proper simulation of the ice layer occurring under the specific climatic conditions, favouring real ice accretion over simplified artificial reproduction. The work presented in this paper was performed to study whether the design of bridge cable surface...

  20. Using artificial neural networks in the design of orthotropic bridge decks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Shamel Fahmy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For orthotropic bridge decks a lot of progress has been made in the development of codes to aid in the design process, in addition to software tools for numerical analysis and design. However, professional software tools will not aid the designer in choosing a preliminary economic layout at the conceptual design stage. Designers would go through iterative, lengthy and expensive procedures to reach the best configuration. The present research provides a methodology to investigate the contingency of using artificial neural networks for conceptual design of orthotropic steel-deck bridge. A neural network model was trained with different combinations of dimensions, and eight types of safety checks were performed on all of them. The resulting network can predict whether the deck is safe or not. It is found that this approach for the selection of orthotropic deck dimensions is a better and cost-effective option compared with international codes or expert opinion.

  1. The ReflecTable: Bridging the Gap between Theory and Practice in Design Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hook, Jonathan; Hjermitslev, Thomas; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    The ReflecTable is a digital learning environment that explores how design games and video-led reflection might be combined to bridge the gap between the theoretical and practical components of design education. The concept seeks to leverage the qualities of exploratory design games and video...... to inspire design students to critically reflect upon the relationship between their evolving design practices and the theories and techniques they are taught in lectures, by allowing them to capture, review and reflect upon short videos of a design game. In this paper, we present the ReflecTable design...

  2. A new design of SMES coil for bridging instantaneous voltage dips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurusu, T; Ono, M; Ogata, H; Tosaka, T; Senda, I; Nomura, S

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a new design concept of SMES coil for bridging instantaneous dips and some experimental results. The technical key point of this work is the design of a NbTi coil composed of a monolith NbTi/Cu wire for DC application. In order to cover the disadvantages of the monolith wire, some solutions have been proposed and tested using a fullscale test coil. Experimental results show the validity of the design concept of the SMES coil

  3. Feature of extradosed PC bridge and its design; Daihenshin keburu PC kyo no tokucho to sono sekkei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komiya, M. [Japan Bridge and Structure Institute Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-31

    A PC bridge with the eccentricity of the external cable increased by protruding the deviated member to the outside of the beam for more effective use of the external cable is called a `PC bridge with tendons of large eccentricity.` The extradosed bridge of main beam/cable joint type is a PC bridge with the external cable arranged via a tower-shaped eccentric member provided at the intermediate support, and resembles morphologically a cable stayed bridge having a very low tower. There are two types of extradosed bridges, i.e. a type with concrete coated external cable (cable stayed slab bridge) and the other with non-coated external cable (external cable stayed bridge). Features, structural planning and designing of the general external cable stayed bridge are shown. The features are the possession of intermediate characteristics of those of the PC beam bridge and the PC cable stayed bridge from the viewpoints of structural property, workability, economic efficiency, and scenic property. Outline of the plan, selection of structural data, design of the external cable, and structural characteristics in the ultimate state are discussed. 19 refs., 18 figs., 15 tabs.

  4. Precast concrete elements for accelerated bridge construction : laboratory testing, field testing, evaluation of a precast concrete bridge, Madison County bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The importance of rapid construction technologies has been recognized by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and the Iowa : DOT Office of Bridges and Structures. Recognizing this a two-lane single-span precast box girder bridge was constructed ...

  5. Learning Based on the Project Entitled "Design and Construction of a Wooden Bridge"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barris, Cristina; Torres, Lluís; Simon, Enric

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of a case involving the application of project-based learning carried out with students in the Mechanical Engineering degree program at the University of Girona. The project, entitled "Design and construction of a wooden bridge", was conducted at the Polytechnic School in the third-year Structures…

  6. Bridge-in-a-Backpack(TM) task 3.1: investigating soil - structure interaction - experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This report includes fulfillment of Task 3.1 of a multi-task contract to further enhance concrete filled FRP tubes, or : the Bridge in a Backpack. Task 3 is an investigation of soil-structure interaction for the FRP tubes. Task 3.1 is the : design of...

  7. Learning Axes and Bridging Tools in a Technology-Based Design for Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamson, Dor; Wilensky, Uri

    2007-01-01

    We introduce a design-based research framework, "learning axes and bridging tools," and demonstrate its application in the preparation and study of an implementation of a middle-school experimental computer-based unit on probability and statistics, "ProbLab" (Probability Laboratory, Abrahamson and Wilensky 2002 [Abrahamson, D., & Wilensky, U.…

  8. Characterization of bridge foundations workshop report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    "In 2013, the Federal Highway Administration proposed a new research program for the characterization of bridge foundations. To narrow the focus and develop a research roadmap for the program, a workshop on Characterization of Bridge Foundations...

  9. Values in Design - Building Bridges between RE, HCI and Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Detweiler , Christian; Pommeranz , Alina; Hoven , Jeroen; Nissenbaum , Helen

    2011-01-01

    Part 1: Long and Short Papers; International audience; Designing for values has become increasingly important for technology development. In many technological systems (medical applications, social networks etc.) values (privacy, autonomy, trust etc.) play a role and are sometimes violated. In working with stakeholder requirements or user needs, various design methods in requirements engineering (RE) [3] and human computer interaction (HCI), in specific user-centered (UCD), deal with “soft is...

  10. Revised Rules for Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Jensen, F. M.; Middleton, C.

    This paper is based on research performed for the Highway Agency, London, UK under the project DPU/9/44 "Revision of Bridge Assessment Rules Based on Whole Life Performance: Concrete Bridges" It contains details of a methodology which can be used to generate Whole Life (WL) reliability profiles....... These WL reliability profiles may be used to establish revised rules for Concrete Bridges....

  11. CF60 Concrete Composition Design and Application on Fudiankou Xijiang Super Large Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yi Mei; Wen, Sen Yuan; Chen, Jun Xiang

    2018-06-01

    Guangxi Wuzhou City Ring Road Fudiankou Xijiang super large bridge CF60 concrete is a new multi-phase composite high-performance concrete, this paper for the Fudiankou Xijiang bridge structure and characteristics of the project, in accordance with the principle of local materials and technical specification requirements, combined with the site conditions of CF60 engineering high performance concrete component materials, proportion and the technical performance, quantify the main physical and mechanical performance index. Analysis main influencing factors of the technical indicators, reasonable adjustment of concrete mix design parameters, and the use of technical means of admixture and multi-function composite admixture of concrete, obtain the optimal proportion of good work, process, mechanical properties stability and durability of engineering properties, recommend and verification of concrete mix; to explore the CF60 high performance concrete Soil in the Fudiankou Xijiang bridge application technology, detection and tracking the quality of concrete construction, concrete structure during the construction of the key technology and control points is proposed, evaluation of CF60 high performance concrete in the actual engineering application effect and benefit to ensure engineering quality of bridge structure and service life, and super long span bridge engineering construction to provide basis and reference.

  12. A Review of Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Methods Applied to the Sustainable Bridge Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicent Penadés-Plà

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction of bridges has been necessary for societies since ancient times, when the communication between and within towns, cities or communities was established. Until recently, the economic factor has been the only one considered in the decision-making of any type of construction process for bridges. However, nowadays, the objective should not be just the construction of bridges, but of sustainable bridges. Economic, social and environmental factors, which form the three pillars of sustainability, have been recently added. These three factors usually have conflicting perspectives. The decision-making process allows the conversion of a judgment into a rational procedure to reach a compromise solution. The aim of this paper is to review different methods and sustainable criteria used for decision-making at each life-cycle phase of a bridge, from design to recycling or demolition. This paper examines 77 journal articles for which different methods have been used. The most used methods are briefly described. In addition, a statistical study was carried out on the Multiple Attribute Decision-making papers reviewed.

  13. A study on seismic behavior of pile foundations of bridge abutment on liquefiable ground through shaking table tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Mitsuhiko; Tanimoto, Shunsuke; Ishida, Shuichi; Ohsumi, Michio; Hoshikuma, Jun-ichi

    2017-10-01

    There is risk of bridge foundations to be damaged by liquefaction-induced lateral spreading of ground. Once bridge foundations have been damaged, it takes a lot of time for restoration. Therefore, it is important to assess the seismic behavior of the foundations on liquefiable ground appropriately. In this study, shaking table tests of models on a scale of 1/10 were conducted at the large scale shaking table in Public Works Research Institute, Japan, to investigate the seismic behavior of pile-supported bridge abutment on liquefiable ground. The shaking table tests were conducted for three types of model. Two are models of existing bridge which was built without design for liquefaction and the other is a model of bridge which was designed based on the current Japanese design specifications for highway bridges. As a result, the bending strains of piles of the abutment which were designed based on the current design specifications were less than those of the existing bridge.

  14. Designing for knowledge: bridging socio-hydrological monitoring and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, F.; Clark, J.; Buytaert, W.; Ochoa-Tocachi, B. F.; Hannah, D. M.

    2016-12-01

    Many methods and applications have been developed to research socio-hydrological systems, such as participatory monitoring, environmental big data processing and sensor network data transmission. However, these data-centred activities are insufficient to guarantee successful knowledge co-generation, decision making or governance. This research suggests a shift of attentions in designing socio-hydrological monitoring tools, from designing for data to designing for knowledge (DfK). Compared to the former strategy, DfK has at least three features as follows. (1) Why monitor? DfK demands the data produced by the newly introduced monitoring application to have potentials to generate socio-hydrological knowledge that supports decision making or management. It means that when designing a monitoring tool, we should not only answer how to collect data, but also questions such as how to best use the collected data in the form of knowledge. (2) What is the role of monitoring? DfK admits that the socio-hydrological data and knowledge generated by monitoring is just one of many kinds to support decision making and management. It means that the importance of monitoring and scientific evidence should not be overestimated, and knowledge cogeneration and synthesis should be considered in advance in the monitoring design process. (3) Who participate? DfK implies a wider engagement of stakeholders, which is not restricted between volunteers as data collectors and providers, and scientist and researcher communities as main data users. It requires a broader consideration of users, including not only data collectors, processors and interpreters, but also local and indigenous knowledge providers, and decision makers who use the knowledge and data. In summary, this research proposes a knowledge-centred strategy in designing participatory socio-hydrological monitoring tools, in order to make monitoring more useful and effective.

  15. Computational manufacturing as a bridge between design and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonravov, Alexander V; Trubetskov, Michael K

    2005-11-10

    Computational manufacturing of optical coatings is a research area that can be placed between theoretical designing and practical manufacturing in the same way that computational physics can be placed between theoretical and experimental physics. Investigations in this area have been performed for more than 30 years under the name of computer simulation of manufacturing and monitoring processes. Our goal is to attract attention to the increasing importance of computational manufacturing at the current state of the art in the design and manufacture of optical coatings and to demonstrate possible applications of this research tool.

  16. Transportation Infrastructure: Managing the Costs of Large-Dollar Highway Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The General Accounting Office (GAO) was requested to assess the effectiveness of the Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA's) oversight of the costs of large-dollar highway and bridge projects (those with a total estimated cost of over $100 million)...

  17. Landscape Design Dialogue. Bridging the gap between knowledge and action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de J.M.; Valk, van der A.J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Spatial planners and landscape architects do not excel in theory development. The authors, being a practicing landscape architect-planner and a planning scholar, explore new roads to a middle range theory of landscape design and planning. Building on theories-in-use in regional planning practice

  18. Complementarity and Compensation: Bridging the Gap between Writing and Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingsworth, M. Jimmie; Sanders, Scott P.

    1990-01-01

    Outlines two rhetorical principles for producing iconic-mosaic texts--the principle of complementarity and the principle of compensation. Shows how these principles can be applied to practical problems in coordinating the writing and design processes in student projects. (RS)

  19. Affordability Engineering: Bridging the Gap Between Design and Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, J. D.; DePasquale, Dominic; Lim, Evan

    2010-01-01

    Affordability is a commonly used term that takes on numerous meanings depending on the context used. Within conceptual design of complex systems, the term generally implies comparisons between expected costs and expected resources. This characterization is largely correct, but does not convey the many nuances and considerations that are frequently misunderstood and underappreciated. In the most fundamental sense, affordability and cost directly relate to engineering and programmatic decisions made throughout development programs. Systems engineering texts point out that there is a temporal aspect to this relationship, for decisions made earlier in a program dictate design implications much more so than those made during latter phases. This paper explores affordability engineering and its many sub-disciplines by discussing how it can be considered an additional engineering discipline to be balanced throughout the systems engineering and systems analysis processes. Example methods of multidisciplinary design analysis with affordability as a key driver will be discussed, as will example methods of data visualization, probabilistic analysis, and other ways of relating design decisions to affordability results.

  20. Get synchronized : Bridging the gap between design and volume production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, F.E.H.M.

    2006-01-01

    The interface between Design and Manufacturing forms a locus of frequent interpersonal conflict. Misunderstandings, unwelcome surprises and planning problems are the rule rather than the exception. Within companies that deliver consumer goods in large quantities to the market this interface is also

  1. The Virtual Design Team: Designing Project Organizations as Engineers Design Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond E. Levitt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a 20-year program of research intended to advance the theory and practice of organization design for projects from its current status as an art practiced by a handful of consultants worldwide, based on their intuition and tacit knowledge, to: (1 an “organizational engineering” craft, practiced by a new generation of organizational designers; and (2 an attractive and complementary platform for new modes of “virtual synthetic organization theory research.” The paper begins with a real-life scenario that provided the motivation for developing the Virtual Design Team (VDT, an agent-based project organizational simulation tool to help managers design the work processes and organization of project teams engaged in large, semi-routine but complex and fast-paced projects. The paper sets out the underlying philosophy, representation, reasoning, and validation of VDT, and it concludes with suggestions for future research on computational modeling for organization design to extend the frontiers of organizational micro-contingency theory and expand the range of applicability and usefulness of design tools for project organizations and supply-chain networks based on this theory.

  2. The design, fabrication and maintenance of semi-trailers employed in the highway transport of weight-concentrated radioactive loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, D.S. [Allied-Signal Inc., Metropolis, IL (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Transportation of weight-concentrated radioactive loads by truck is an essential part of a safe and economical nuclear industry. This proposed standard presents guidance and performance criteria for the safe transport of these weight-concentrated radioactive loads. ANSI N14.30 will detail specific requirements for the design, fabrication, testing, in-service inspections, maintenance and certification of the semi-trailers to be employed in said service. Furthermore, guidelines for a quality assurance program are also enumerated. This standard would apply to any semi-trailer that may or may not be specifically designed to carry weight-concentrated loads. Equipment not suitable per the criteria established in the standard would be removed from service. The nature of the nuclear industry and the need for a positive public perception of the various processes and players, mandates that the highway transportation of weight-concentrated radioactive loads be standardized and made inherently safe. This proposed standard takes a giant step in that direction.

  3. Hybrid design tools for conceptual design and design engineering processes: bridging the design gap: towards an intuitive design tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendrich, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid Design Tools; Representation; Computational Synthesis. Non-linear, non-explicit, non-standard thinking and ambiguity in design tools has a great impact on enhancement of creativity during ideation and conceptualization. Tacit-tangible representation based on a mere idiosyncratic and

  4. 3D design terrain models for construction plans and GPS control of highway construction equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Research was conducted with the objectives of 1) identifying and characterizing benefits and technological, institutional, cultural, and : legal impediments associated with adoption of 3D design and construction technologies, identifying strategies t...

  5. Classical and Modern Design Solutions in Conceptual Design of a Pedestrian Bridge over Vistula River in Cracow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryż, Karol; Pańtak, Marek

    2017-10-01

    In the paper the design concept of the steel pedestrian bridge over Vistula river in Cracow, Poland has been characterised. The footbridge was designed as a truss structure with steel pipes, Warren truss configuration, arched bottom chord and spans 15.5+120.0+15.5 m. Intensive tourist traffic around the Wawel Castle in Cracow, directed towards the historic Kazimierz district, Wawel Hill and the Old Town Market Place requires the creation of a bridge structure over the Vistula River that will meet both the communication and recreation functions. An additional aim was to design a structure which architectural form will not unduly and negatively interfere in the environment and will join the technical capabilities of the XXI century with the charm of nearby historic buildings.

  6. Use of co-combustion bottom ash to design an acoustic absorbing material for highway noise barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenas, Celia; Leiva, Carlos; Vilches, Luis F.; Cifuentes, Héctor

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The particle size of bottom ash influenced the acoustic behavior of the barrier. • The best sound absorption coefficients were measured for larger particle sizes. • The maximum noise absorption is displaced to lower frequencies for higher thickness. • A noise barrier was designed with better properties than commercial products. • Recycling products from bottom ash no present leaching and radioactivity problems. - Abstract: The present study aims to determine and evaluate the applicability of a new product consisting of coal bottom ash mixed with Portland cement in the application of highway noise barriers. In order to effectively recycle the bottom ash, the influence of the grain particle size of bottom ash, the thickness of the panel and the combination of different layers with various particle sizes have been studied, as well as some environmental properties including leachability (EN-12457-4, NEN-7345) and radioactivity tests. Based on the obtained results, the acoustic properties of the final composite material were similar or even better than those found in porous concrete used for the same application. According to this study, the material produced presented no environmental risk

  7. Use of co-combustion bottom ash to design an acoustic absorbing material for highway noise barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenas, Celia; Leiva, Carlos; Vilches, Luis F. [University of Seville, School of Industrial Engineering, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Camino de los Descubrimientos s/n, E-41092 Seville (Spain); Cifuentes, Héctor, E-mail: bulte@us.es [University of Seville, School of Industrial Engineering, Continuum Mechanics and Structural Analysis Department, Camino de los Descubrimientos s/n, E-41092 Seville (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • The particle size of bottom ash influenced the acoustic behavior of the barrier. • The best sound absorption coefficients were measured for larger particle sizes. • The maximum noise absorption is displaced to lower frequencies for higher thickness. • A noise barrier was designed with better properties than commercial products. • Recycling products from bottom ash no present leaching and radioactivity problems. - Abstract: The present study aims to determine and evaluate the applicability of a new product consisting of coal bottom ash mixed with Portland cement in the application of highway noise barriers. In order to effectively recycle the bottom ash, the influence of the grain particle size of bottom ash, the thickness of the panel and the combination of different layers with various particle sizes have been studied, as well as some environmental properties including leachability (EN-12457-4, NEN-7345) and radioactivity tests. Based on the obtained results, the acoustic properties of the final composite material were similar or even better than those found in porous concrete used for the same application. According to this study, the material produced presented no environmental risk.

  8. D0 Silicon Upgrade: End Calorimeter Transfer Bridge Design and Installation Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stredde, H.J.

    1991-01-01

    elevated to the level of the transfer bridge. The elevation process is the same as that used for the CC installation. When the correct elevation is attained the transporter extensions are positioned and fastened to the transporter on the south side. Static column supports will be added underneath the transporter to minimize deflections as the NEC is rolled off. The carriage extensions are now put in place and the Hilman rollers transferred into position under the extensions. The NEC is now ready to be pulled off of the transporter and onto the transfer bridge. Again using the Cyl. and chain mechanism, with the anchor point attached to the transporter extension on the north sidewalk, pull the NEC completely off of the transporter and onto the transfer bridge. Once the NEC is on the transfer bridge a rearrangement of equipment must be done. The transporter extension on the north sidewalk is decoupled from the transfer bridge and moved against the wall of the fixed counting area. The transporter extension at the south end of the transporter is removed, the transporter is decoupled from and moved to the north side of the transfer bridge. The transporter is supported from the floor at an elevation equal to the transfer bridge and coupled to it. The transporter extension is fastened to the north end of the transporter. The movement of the NEC now continues until it is back on the transporter. At this time the transfer bridge, concrete shield blocks and steel plates in the pit are removed. The detector is moved back to its normal parked position(cable bridge up). The NEC is lowered to the sidewalk (reverse of elevation procedure). Welding of the heads is then finished prior to final installation on the center beam. The final installation is identical to the CC installation, using all the same equipment. The finite element analysis of the transfer bridge design was done by Kay Weber of the Accelerator Mechanical Support Group.

  9. A Generalized Mathematical Model for the Fracture Problem of the Suspended Highway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Ying

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to answer dangling fracture problems of highway, the suspended pavement equivalent for non - suspended pavement, through the special boundary conditions has been suspended highway stress field of expression, in accordance with the 3D fracture model of crack formation, and establish a vacant, a general mathematics model for fracture problems of highway and analysis in highway suspended segment weight and vehicle load limit of highway capacity of Pu For overturning road inPu is less than the force of carrying more than compared to the work and fruit Bridge Hydropower Station Road engineering examples to verify suspended highway should force field expressions for the correctness and applicability. The results show that: when the hanging ratio R 0. 243177 limits of Pu design axle load 100kN. When the vertical crack in the vacant in the direction of length greater than 0. 1, the ultimate bearing capacity is less than the design axle load 100kN; when the hanging ratio R is less than 0. 5, the road to local fracture, the ultimate bearing capacity of suspended stress field expressions in solution; when the hanging ratio is greater than or equal to 0. 5, the road does not reach the limit bearing capacity of the whole body; torque shear surface of the effect is far less than the bending moments on shear planes.

  10. A predictive Bayesian approach to the design and analysis of bridging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, A Lawrence; Jin, Tian; Zhang, Li Xin; Wang, William W B

    2012-09-01

    Pharmaceutical product development culminates in confirmatory trials whose evidence for the product's efficacy and safety supports regulatory approval for marketing. Regulatory agencies in countries whose patients were not included in the confirmatory trials often require confirmation of efficacy and safety in their patient populations, which may be accomplished by carrying out bridging studies to establish consistency for local patients of the effects demonstrated by the original trials. This article describes and illustrates an approach for designing and analyzing bridging studies that fully incorporates the information provided by the original trials. The approach determines probability contours or regions of joint predictive intervals for treatment effect and response variability, or endpoints of treatment effect confidence intervals, that are functions of the findings from the original trials, the sample sizes for the bridging studies, and possible deviations from complete consistency with the original trials. The bridging studies are judged consistent with the original trials if their findings fall within the probability contours or regions. Regulatory considerations determine the region definitions and appropriate probability levels. Producer and consumer risks provide a way to assess alternative region and probability choices. [Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the Publisher's online edition of the Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics for the following free supplemental resource: Appendix 2: R code for Calculations.].

  11. Access Bridge Design Measures for Safety Increase of the Road Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Micunek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Solid barriers represent danger for the driver in case of traffic lane escape. This threat can be represented by a drainage ditch culvert face. The access bridge is not usually conspicuous enough near the traffic lane so that the driver could ditch and crash this barrier in case of an exceptional situation such as avoidance manoeuvres. This work deals with a technical solution of access bridges with an integrated deformation zone which was designed on the ground of a detailed analysis of current types of the construction. The new technical solution was proved by means of a numerical simulation of passenger car impact and compared with the current design of culvert faces.

  12. Longer Lasting Bridge Deck Overlays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this report is to determine the most effective method for bridge deck overlay construction and repair by assessing current practices; examining new products and technologies; and reviewing NCHRP (National Cooperative Highway Research...

  13. A Cost-Effective Design and Analysis of Full Bridge LLC Resonant Converter

    OpenAIRE

    Kaibalya Prasad Panda; Sreyasee Rout

    2016-01-01

    LLC (Inductor-inductor-capacitor) resonant converter has lots of advantages over other type of resonant converters which include high efficiency, more reliable and have high power density. This paper presents the design and analysis of a full bridge LLC resonant converter. In addition to the operational principle, the ZVS and ZCS conditions are also explained with the DC characteristics. Simulation of the LLC resonant converter is performed in MATLAB/ Simulink and the practical prototype setu...

  14. Bridging the Gap: A Design-based Case Study of a Mathematics Skills Intervention Program

    OpenAIRE

    Safaralian, Leila

    2017-01-01

    Abstract of the DissertationBridge the Gap: A Design-based Case Study of a Mathematics Skills Intervention ProgrambyLeila SafaralianDoctor of Education in Educational LeadershipUniversity of California, San Diego, 2017California State University, San Marcos, 2017Kenneth P. Gonzalez, ChairMany students aspire to continue their educational journey, but far too many enter college without the basic content knowledge, skills, or habits of mind needed to succeed. Research on college readiness indic...

  15. Bridging operation and design. The encounter between practical and discipline-based knowledge in offshore platform design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husemoen, Mette Suzanne

    1998-12-31

    This thesis investigates the relationship between operations and design and the design process, taking as case studies the two new platforms of Phillips Petroleum Company Norway on Ekofisk II, the Ekofisk 2/4 X drilling and wellhead platform and the Ekofisk 2/4 J processing and transportation platform. The emphasis has been on how to take into account operational experience in design. The two research questions are: (1) Are operations and design two communities-of-practice based on different kinds of knowledge?, and (2) What are the conditions for bridging knowledge in operations and design? From the theory reviewed and the field data presented the study concludes that physical closeness and integration of operations and design personnel, experience from the other community-of-practice, and mutual sympathy, trust, and respect, are important factors in bridging knowledge of the operations and design communities-of-practice and creating innovative solutions in design which transcend the existing knowledge in operations and design. 66 refs., 28 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. Bridging operation and design. The encounter between practical and discipline-based knowledge in offshore platform design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husemoen, Mette Suzanne

    1997-12-31

    This thesis investigates the relationship between operations and design and the design process, taking as case studies the two new platforms of Phillips Petroleum Company Norway on Ekofisk II, the Ekofisk 2/4 X drilling and wellhead platform and the Ekofisk 2/4 J processing and transportation platform. The emphasis has been on how to take into account operational experience in design. The two research questions are: (1) Are operations and design two communities-of-practice based on different kinds of knowledge?, and (2) What are the conditions for bridging knowledge in operations and design? From the theory reviewed and the field data presented the study concludes that physical closeness and integration of operations and design personnel, experience from the other community-of-practice, and mutual sympathy, trust, and respect, are important factors in bridging knowledge of the operations and design communities-of-practice and creating innovative solutions in design which transcend the existing knowledge in operations and design. 66 refs., 28 figs., 8 tabs.

  17. An overheight vehicle bridge collision monitoring system using piezoelectric transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, G.; Olmi, C.; Gu, H.

    2007-04-01

    With increasing traffic volume follows an increase in the number of overheight truck collisions with highway bridges. The detection of collision impact and evaluation of the impact level is a critical issue in the maintenance of a concrete bridge. In this paper, an overheight collision detection and evaluation system is developed for concrete bridge girders using piezoelectric transducers. An electric circuit is designed to detect the impact and to activate a digital camera to take photos of the offending truck. Impact tests and a health monitoring test were conducted on a model concrete bridge girder by using three piezoelectric transducers embedded before casting. From the experimental data of the impact test, it can be seen that there is a linear relation between the output of sensor energy and the impact energy. The health monitoring results show that the proposed damage index indicates the level of damage inside the model concrete bridge girder. The proposed overheight truck-bridge collision detection and evaluation system has the potential to be applied to the safety monitoring of highway bridges.

  18. Ambient Modal Testing of the Vestvej Bridge using Random Decrement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.; Brincker, Rune; Rytter, A.

    This paper presents an ambient vibration study of the Vestvej Bridge. The bridge is a typically Danish two-span concrete bridge which crosses a highway. The purpose of the study is to perform a pre-investigation of the dynamic behavior to obtain information for the design of a demonstration project...... concerning application of vibration based inspection of bridges. The data analysis process of ambient vribration testing of bridges has traditionally been based on auto and cross spectral densities estimated using an FFT algorithm. In the pre-analysis state the spectral densities are all averaged to obtain...... measurements might have a low signal to noise ratio. Thus, it might be difficult clearly to identify physical modes from the spectral densities. The Random Decrement (RD) technique is another method to perform the data analysis process in the time domain only. It is basically a very simple and very easily...

  19. Ambient Modal Testing of the Vestvej Bridge using Random Decrement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.; Brincker, Rune; Rytter, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an ambient vibration study of the Vestvej Bridge. The bridge is a typically Danish two-span concrete bridge which crosses a highway. The purpose of the study is to perform a pre-investigation of the dynamic behavior to obtain information for the design of a demonstration project...... concerning application of vibration based inspection of bridges. The data analysis process of ambient vribration testing of bridges has traditionally been based on auto and cross spectral densities estimated using an FFT algorithm. In the pre-analysis state the spectral densities are all averaged to obtain...... measurements might have a low signal to noise ratio. Thus, it might be difficult clearly to identify physical modes from the spectral densities. The Random Decrement (RD) technique is another method to perform the data analysis process in the time domain only. It is basically a very simple and very easily...

  20. The hydrogen highway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigg, A.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' The Hydrogen Highway in British Columbia, Canada, is a coordinated, large-scale demonstration and deployment program aimed at accelerating the commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and products. It will be a showcase for fuel cell vehicles, refuelling stations and stationary power systems leading up to the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games in Whistler, BC. The Hydrogen Highway is designed to help address many of the challenges to commercialization identified in the Canadian Fuel Cell Commercialization Roadmap. The project will create an early adopter network of hydrogen and fuel cell microenvironments where technology developers and users can learn about the technical, economic, environmental and social impacts of products. The Hydrogen Highway will give the public and potential purchasers an opportunity to feel, touch and see the new technology, as well as provide the industry with a venue in which to develop industry standards and supply chains of materials and components. While demonstration and deployment programs are a recognized and necessary component in the process to commercialize hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, there is no handbook describing how it should be done. This paper will describe the history, objectives, project details and some of the challenges associated with establishing Canada's Hydrogen Highway. (author)

  1. The hydrogen highway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigg, A. [Fuel Cells Canada, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    'Full text:' The Hydrogen Highway in British Columbia, Canada, is a coordinated, large-scale demonstration and deployment program aimed at accelerating the commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and products. It will be a showcase for fuel cell vehicles, refuelling stations and stationary power systems leading up to the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games in Whistler, BC. The Hydrogen Highway is designed to help address many of the challenges to commercialization identified in the Canadian Fuel Cell Commercialization Roadmap. The project will create an early adopter network of hydrogen and fuel cell microenvironments where technology developers and users can learn about the technical, economic, environmental and social impacts of products. The Hydrogen Highway will give the public and potential purchasers an opportunity to feel, touch and see the new technology, as well as provide the industry with a venue in which to develop industry standards and supply chains of materials and components. While demonstration and deployment programs are a recognized and necessary component in the process to commercialize hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, there is no handbook describing how it should be done. This paper will describe the history, objectives, project details and some of the challenges associated with establishing Canada's Hydrogen Highway. (author)

  2. The Principle of the Micro-Electronic Neural Bridge and a Prototype System Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zong-Hao; Wang, Zhi-Gong; Lu, Xiao-Ying; Li, Wen-Yuan; Zhou, Yu-Xuan; Shen, Xiao-Yan; Zhao, Xin-Tai

    2016-01-01

    The micro-electronic neural bridge (MENB) aims to rebuild lost motor function of paralyzed humans by routing movement-related signals from the brain, around the damage part in the spinal cord, to the external effectors. This study focused on the prototype system design of the MENB, including the principle of the MENB, the neural signal detecting circuit and the functional electrical stimulation (FES) circuit design, and the spike detecting and sorting algorithm. In this study, we developed a novel improved amplitude threshold spike detecting method based on variable forward difference threshold for both training and bridging phase. The discrete wavelet transform (DWT), a new level feature coefficient selection method based on Lilliefors test, and the k-means clustering method based on Mahalanobis distance were used for spike sorting. A real-time online spike detecting and sorting algorithm based on DWT and Euclidean distance was also implemented for the bridging phase. Tested by the data sets available at Caltech, in the training phase, the average sensitivity, specificity, and clustering accuracies are 99.43%, 97.83%, and 95.45%, respectively. Validated by the three-fold cross-validation method, the average sensitivity, specificity, and classification accuracy are 99.43%, 97.70%, and 96.46%, respectively.

  3. Determination of rheological parameters of pile foundations for bridges for earthquake analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-01

    In the seismic design criteria for highway bridges, there is a significant lack of guidance on ways to incorporate the effect of soil-structure interaction in determining seismic response. For this study, a simple analytical model for pile and pile g...

  4. 76 FR 1663 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ..., Bonner Bridge Replacement Project along NC 12, from Rodanthe to Bodie Island in Dare County, North... Bonner Bridge Replacement Project along Highway NC 12, from Rodanthe to Bodie Island, in Dare County...

  5. Development of an optimized procedure bridging design and structural analysis codes for the automatized design of the SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Wan; Park, Keun Bae; Choi, Suhn; Kim, Kang Soo; Jeong, Kyeong Hoon; Lee, Gyu Mahn

    1998-09-01

    In this report, an optimized design and analysis procedure is established to apply to the SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) development. The development of an optimized procedure is to minimize the time consumption and engineering effort by squeezing the design and feedback interactions. To achieve this goal, the data and information generated through the design development should be directly transferred to the analysis program with minimum operation. The verification of the design concept requires considerable effort since the communication between the design and analysis involves time consuming stage for the conversion of input information. In this report, an optimized procedure is established bridging the design and analysis stage utilizing the IDEAS, ABAQUS and ANSYS. (author). 3 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  6. 23 CFR 650.409 - Evaluation of bridge inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evaluation of bridge inventory. 650.409 Section 650.409... Evaluation of bridge inventory. (a) Sufficiency rating of bridges. Upon receipt and evaluation of the bridge inventory, a sufficiency rating will be assigned to each bridge by the Secretary in accordance with the...

  7. Risk-based asset management methodology for highway infrastructure systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Maintaining the infrastructure of roads, highways, and bridges is paramount to ensuring that these assets will remain safe and reliable in the future. If maintenance costs remain the same or continue to escalate, and additional funding is not made av...

  8. Complex Method Mixed with PSO Applying to Optimization Design of Bridge Crane Girder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In engineer design, basic complex method has not enough global search ability for the nonlinear optimization problem, so it mixed with particle swarm optimization (PSO has been presented in the paper,that is the optimal particle evaluated from fitness function of particle swarm displacement complex vertex in order to realize optimal principle of the largest complex central distance.This method is applied to optimization design problems of box girder of bridge crane with constraint conditions.At first a mathematical model of the girder optimization has been set up,in which box girder cross section area of bridge crane is taken as the objective function, and its four sizes parameters as design variables, girder mechanics performance, manufacturing process, border sizes and so on requirements as constraint conditions. Then complex method mixed with PSO is used to solve optimization design problem of cane box girder from constrained optimization studying approach, and its optimal results have achieved the goal of lightweight design and reducing the crane manufacturing cost . The method is reliable, practical and efficient by the practical engineer calculation and comparative analysis with basic complex method.

  9. Collision loads on bridge piers : phase 2, report of guidelines for designing bridge piers and abutments for vehicle collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    An instrumented, simulated bridge pier was constructed, and two full-scale collisions with an : 80,000-lb van-type tractor-trailer were performed on it. The trailer was ballasted with bags of sand on : pallets. The simulated pier was 36 inches in dia...

  10. Design and fabrication of piezoresistive p-SOI Wheatstone bridges for high-temperature applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kähler, Julian; Döring, Lutz; Merzsch, Stephan; Stranz, Andrej; Waag, Andreas; Peiner, Erwin

    2011-06-01

    For future measurements while depth drilling, commercial sensors are required for a temperature range from -40 up to 300 °C. Conventional piezoresistive silicon sensors cannot be used at higher temperatures due to an exponential increase of leakage currents which results in a drop of the bridge voltage. A well-known procedure to expand the temperature range of silicon sensors and to reduce leakage currents is to employ Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) instead of standard wafer material. Diffused resistors can be operated up to 200 °C, but show the same problems beyond due to leakage of the p-njunction. Our approach is to use p-SOI where resistors as well as interconnects are defined by etching down to the oxide layer. Leakage is suppressed and the temperature dependence of the bridges is very low (TCR = (2.6 +/- 0.1) μV/K@1 mA up to 400 °C). The design and process flow will be presented in detail. The characteristics of Wheatstone bridges made of silicon, n- SOI, and p-SOI will be shown for temperatures up to 300 °C. Besides, thermal FEM-simulations will be described revealing the effect of stress between silicon and the silicon-oxide layer during temperature cycling.

  11. Design and construction of Chichibu-park bridge. Chichibu Koenkyo (kasho) no sekkei to seko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasuike, H.; Azami, Y. (Saitama Prefectural Government Office, Saitama (Japan) New Structural Engineering, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Yamamoto, T.

    1994-01-31

    The design and construction of the Chichibu-Park Bridge in Japan were outlined which is the symmetric 2-span continuous PC cable stayed road bridge with one main tower (530 m in total length, 392 m in main bridge length, 19 m in width) built over the Arakawa River. The double-suspended four-box main girder with wind noses was adopted because of its excellent torsional rigidity of area and wind proof stability, and the rigid-frame main girder was rigidly connected to the middle main tower. The main tower with an H-type hollow section was adopted considering its workability, and was assembled with its divided 18 blocks. Each side of the main girder was suspended at 30 points spaced at 6.0 m, and the tower ends of the diagonal cables were fixed to the partition inside the main tower taking a landscape into account. The thick stranded wires composed of fine PC steel stranded wires and covered with polyethylene were adopted as diagonal cables, and structural beams were used for both ends of the diagonal cables. Damping wires were also adopted to damp the diagonal cables. 9 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. 23 CFR 650.407 - Application for bridge replacement or rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for bridge replacement or rehabilitation... ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Highway Bridge Replacement and Rehabilitation Program § 650.407 Application for bridge replacement or rehabilitation. (a) Agencies participate...

  13. 23 CFR 650.411 - Procedures for bridge replacement and rehabilitation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for bridge replacement and rehabilitation... ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Highway Bridge Replacement and Rehabilitation Program § 650.411 Procedures for bridge replacement and rehabilitation projects. (a) Consideration...

  14. Enhancing the hermeneutic single-case efficacy design: Bridging the research-practice gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Jessie M; Kwee, Janelle L; Hu, Monica; McDonald, Marvin J

    2017-09-01

    Systematic case study designs are emerging as alternative paradigm strategies for psychotherapy and social science research. Through enhanced sensitivity to context, these designs examine idiographic profiles of causal processes. We specifically advocate the use of the hermeneutic single-case efficacy design (HSCED). HSCED has recently been used to investigate the efficacy of an existing therapy with a new population (Observed and Experiential Integration for athlete performance barriers) and an emerging therapy (Lifespan Integration Therapy). We describe innovations in HSCED that were implemented for these studies. These developments include (a) integrating psychotherapists as case developers, (b) incorporating multiple cases in one investigation, and (c) tailoring the repertoire of assessment tools. These extensions strategically incorporated principles of contextual paradigms in HSCED, thus complementing single-case designs that neglect idiographic contexts. We discuss recommendations for using HSCED in practice-based research, highlighting its potential as a bridge to address the research-practice gap.

  15. Design of portable bridge of material access on level 8 m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasibuan, D.

    1999-01-01

    Base on the planning to increase of the working capability of the rabbit system facility, using the design of mentioned portable bridge on material access has been done. Using the designed installation, the transportation of the middle and high active samples from the isotop cell to the scanning room will be easy to be done. The design has been done by using the maximum actual load, and also the chosen steel shape dimension compliance with ASTM standard. The installation required 2 pieces of W 6 x 12 steel beam by 111.82 inches in length, 4 pieces W 6 x 12 steel beam by 47.25'' in length and a piece of steel plate by 111.82'' x 47.25'' x 0.394''. This paper concluded that this design is feasible to be fabricated

  16. Design of Portable Bridge of Material Access on 8 m Level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitompul, Aristarkus

    2000-01-01

    Base on the planning to increase of the working capability of the working capability of the rabbit system facility, the design of mentioned portable bridge on access has been done. Using the designed installation the transportation of the middle and high active samples from the isotop cell to the scanning room will be easy to be done. The design has been done by using the maximum actual load. Determination of maximum actual load, determination of maximum actual load, and also the chosen steel shape dimension compliance with ASTM standard. The installation required 2 peaces of W 6 x 12 steel beam by 111.82 inches in length, 4 peaces W 6 x 12 steel beam by 47.25 i n length and a peace of steel plate by 111.82 x 47.25 x 0,394 . This paper concluded that this design is feasible to be fabricated

  17. Comparative design of the superstructure of timber bridges, using norm np 005 - 2003 and provisions of european standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiotan Corina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The norms and standards for design of timber bridges, as well as other structures built from this material, were obsolete, design standards that were used dated from 1978 to 1980. The introduction of European Standards has created a new legislative framework in the field of designing and building timber bridges. Currently the design of such constructions use Norm NP 005-2003 and SR EN 1995-1-1: 2004 Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures. Part 1-1: General. Common rules and rules for buildings, SR EN 1995-2: 2005 Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures. Part 2: Bridges, along with their national annexes. The aim of this paper is to analyze the design of the beams for timber bridges in parallel, using on one hand Norm NP 005 - 2003, and on the other hand provisions of European standards. The design requirements for both norms as well as the results of a case study for a structural element of a timber bridge will be presented.

  18. Analysis and Design of a Wireless Power Transfer System with Dual Active Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, work on Wireless Power Transfer (WPT systems with dual active bridges is attracting great attention due to their low conduction losses, power regulation, load transformation and reactance compensation. However, in these studies limitations such as overall analysis, design and realization techniques of the system were not considered properly. To address the aforementioned issues, this paper presents a detailed analysis, design and realization of a Series-Series (SS WPT system with dual active bridges, which will improve the overall performance. Three independent Phase Angles (PAs have been analyzed and designed in this study, one PA on the primary side and the other two PAs on the secondary side. This Multiple Degrees of Phase Control (MDPC method can achieve additional reactance compensation, load transformation and output regulation simultaneously. To realize the proposed method in practice, key implementation techniques have been investigated in detail, including additional reactance estimation, mutual inductance estimation, phase detection and synchronization. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed system is verified through simulation and experimental results.

  19. A sensor network system for the health monitoring of the Parkview bridge deck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-31

    Bridges are a critical component of the transportation infrastructure. There are approximately 600,000 bridges in : the United State according to the Federal Highway Administration. Four billion vehicles traverse these bridges daily. : Regular inspec...

  20. Vibration mitigation of a bridge cable using a nonlinear energy sink: design and experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the design and experiment of a cubic nonlinear energy sink (NES for horizontal vibration mitigation of a bridge cable. Modal analysis of horizontal linear modes of the cable is experimentally performed using accelerometers and displacement sensors. A theoretical simplified 2-dof model of the coupled cable-NES system is used to analytically design the NES by mean of multi-time scale systems behaviours and detection its invariant manifold, equilibrium and singular points which stand for periodic and strongly modulated regimes, respectively. Numerical integration is used to confirm the efficiency of the designed NES for the system under step release excitation. Then, the prototype system is built using geometrical cubic nonlinearity as the potential of the NES. Efficiency of the prototype system for mitigation of horizontal vibrations of the cable under for step release and forced excitations is experimentally demonstrated.

  1. Study on load test of 100m cross-reinforced deck type concrete box arch bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jing Xian; Cheng, Ying Jie

    2018-06-01

    Found in the routine quality inspection of highway bridge that many vertical fractures on the main beam (10mT beam) of the steel reinforced concrete arch bridge near the hydropower station. In order to grasp the bearing capacity of this bridge under working conditions with cracks, the static load and dynamic load test of box arch bridge are carried out. The Midas civil theory is calculated by using the special plate trailer - 300 as the calculation load, and the deflection and stress of the critical section are tested by the equivalent cloth load in the test vehicle. The pulsation test, obstacles and no obstacle driving test were carried out. Experimental results show that the bridge under the condition of the test loads is in safe condition, main bearing component of the strength and stiffness meet the design requirements, the crack width does not increase, in the process of loading bridge overall work performance is good.

  2. Design of fuelling machine bridge and carriage to meet seismic qualification requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghare, A.B.; Chhatre, A.G.; Vyas, A.K.; Bhambra, H.S.

    1996-01-01

    During each refuelling operation, the boundary of Primary heat transport system is extended up to Fuelling Machines. A breach in the pressure boundary of Fuelling Machine in this condition would cause a loss of coolant accident. Fuelling Machines are also used for transit storage of spent fuel bundles till discharged to fuel transfer system. Therefore, a fuelling machine, including its support structures, is required to be seismically qualified for both on-reactor ( coupled ) mode and off-reactor (uncoupled) mode. The fuelling machine carriage used in the first generation of Indian PHWRs is a mobile equipment on wheels moving over fixed rails. As this configuration was found unsuitable for withstanding strong seismic disturbances, a bridge type design with fixed columns was evolved for the next generation of reactors. Initially, the seismic analysis of the fuelling machine bridge and carriage was done using static structural analysis and values of natural frequencies for various structures were computed. The structures were suitably modified based on the results of this analysis. Subsequently, a detailed dynamic seismic analysis using finite element model has been completed for both coupled and uncoupled conditions. The qualification of the structure has been carried out as per ASME section 111 Division 1, sub section NF. Details of the significant design features, static and dynamic analysis, results and conclusions are given in the presentation. (author). 4 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs

  3. Design of fuelling machine bridge and carriage to meet seismic qualification requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghare, A B; Chhatre, A G; Vyas, A K; Bhambra, H S [Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd., Mumbai (India)

    1997-12-31

    During each refuelling operation, the boundary of Primary heat transport system is extended up to Fuelling Machines. A breach in the pressure boundary of Fuelling Machine in this condition would cause a loss of coolant accident. Fuelling Machines are also used for transit storage of spent fuel bundles till discharged to fuel transfer system. Therefore, a fuelling machine, including its support structures, is required to be seismically qualified for both on-reactor ( coupled ) mode and off-reactor (uncoupled) mode. The fuelling machine carriage used in the first generation of Indian PHWRs is a mobile equipment on wheels moving over fixed rails. As this configuration was found unsuitable for withstanding strong seismic disturbances, a bridge type design with fixed columns was evolved for the next generation of reactors. Initially, the seismic analysis of the fuelling machine bridge and carriage was done using static structural analysis and values of natural frequencies for various structures were computed. The structures were suitably modified based on the results of this analysis. Subsequently, a detailed dynamic seismic analysis using finite element model has been completed for both coupled and uncoupled conditions. The qualification of the structure has been carried out as per ASME section 111 Division 1, sub section NF. Details of the significant design features, static and dynamic analysis, results and conclusions are given in the presentation. (author). 4 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs.

  4. Design and construction of Ogawa bridge; Ogawa bashi no sekkei to seko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hori, T.; Chigira, F. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Sakao, H.

    1995-09-30

    Ogawa bridge 230m long by 15.5m wide has been planned on the national road No.401 at Katashina-mura in Gunma Prefecture. Structure mode is two spans continuous PC cable-stayed obliquely system, and a main tower is H type (height: 56m from the road surface) and is located at the center of the bridge alone. This place corresponding to the entrance of Oze famous national park, the main tower is designed so as to have bulge, imaging Mizubasho (lysichiton camtschatcense), from the middle part of the pier to the lower part of the main tower. Arrangement of the cables is designed as two faces of hung fun type and one side face is composed of 13 steel strands (dia. 15.2mm wire x 27 (partly 19); covered with PE tube) in front and rear respectively. A main girder is the box type PC block 2.3m height by 4m or 3m long, and 3m long one is for fastening with a cable. Centering on the main tower, the girder blocks are successively connected in front and rare alternatively and are fastened with cables in part. This overhanging connection work is carried out by two special movable conveyers `Wagens`. 26 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Development and validation of deterioration models for concrete bridge decks - phase 1 : artificial intelligence models and bridge management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This research documents the development and evaluation of artificial neural network (ANN) models to predict the condition ratings of concrete highway bridge decks in Michigan. Historical condition assessments chronicled in the national bridge invento...

  6. Load Distribution Factors for Composite Multicell Box Girder Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Sanjay; Bhargava, Pradeep

    2017-12-01

    Cellular steel section composite with a concrete deck is one of the most suitable superstructures in resisting torsional and warping effects induced by highway loading. This type of structure has inherently created new design problems for engineers in estimating its load distribution when subjected to moving vehicles. Indian Codes of Practice does not provide any specific guidelines for the design of straight composite concrete deck-steel multi-cell bridges. To meet the practical requirements arising during the design process, a simple design method is needed for straight composite multi-cell bridges in the form of load distribution factors for moment and shear. This work presents load distribution characteristics of straight composite multi-cell box girder bridges under IRC trains of loads.

  7. Abrasion-resistant concrete mix designs for precast bridge deck panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    The report documents laboratory investigations undertaken to develop high performance concrete (HPC) for precast and pre-stressed bridge deck components that would reduce the life-cycle cost of bridges by improving the studded tire wear (abrasion) re...

  8. Evaluation of concrete bridge mix designs for control of cracking, phase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Cracking of concrete is a common problem with concrete structures such as bridge decks, pavements and bridge : rail. The Agency of Transportation (VTrans) has recently invested in higher performing concrete mixes that are : more impervious and has hi...

  9. INVESTIGATION OF SEISMIC PERFORMANCE AND DESIGN OF TYPICAL CURVED AND SKEWED BRIDGES IN COLORADO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-15

    This report summarizes the analytical studies on the seismic performance of typical Colorado concrete bridges, particularly those with curved and skewed configurations. A set of bridge models with different geometric configurations derived from a pro...

  10. Designing and Inhabiting Virtual Environments: Bridging the gap between physical and virtual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matevž Juvančič

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bringing the trilogy of the Erasmus intensive programme together in 2010, the Faculty of Architecture organised the third workshop in the series “Designing and Inhabiting Virtual Environments - DIVE”, addressing an elusive issue: “Bridging the gap between the physical and virtual” with the reference site of Križanke. During the 10-day intensive workshop, the participants developed a theoretical discussion based on a series of lectures, and afterwards pursued analyses of the reference site and designed spatial interventions with an emphasis on respecting the fragile nature of the site. From the very beginning to the end of their work, the participants analysed the boundaries between physical and virtual reality, examined the pros and cons of each, and sought possible integrations of both entities within a seamless and effective conceptual and actual representation.

  11. Simple heuristics: A bridge between manual core design and automated optimization methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.R.; Delmolino, P.M.

    1993-01-01

    The primary function of RESCUE is to serve as an aid in the analysis and identification of feasible loading patterns for LWR reload cores. The unique feature of RESCUE is that its physics model is based on some recent advances in generalized perturbation theory (GPT) methods. The high order GPT techniques offer the accuracy, computational efficiency, and flexibility needed for the implementation of a full range of capabilities within a set of compatible interactive (manual and semi-automated) and automated design tools. The basic design philosophy and current features within RESCUE are reviewed, and the new semi-automated capability is highlighted. The online advisor facility appears quite promising and it provides a natural bridge between the traditional trial-and-error manual process and the recent progress towards fully automated optimization sequences. (orig.)

  12. Analysis and modelling composite timber-concrete systems: Design of bridge structure according to EN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manojlović Dragan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Timber-concrete composite structures are already applied more than 80 years in engineering practice, went trought the intuitive problem solution to the fully prefabricated hybride assemblies for dry building. The development path of timber-concrete composites was always followed by extensive theoretical and experimental research, whose results were successfully implemented in practice, i.e. on the market, but till presence didn't result in modern designer's code. In expectation of new European codes for timber-concrete composites, the objective of the paper is to provide a comprehensive review of available standards provisions and recent conclusions from literature. The key issues for practical design are highlighted and ilustrated on the example of glulam composite arch bridge structure with concrete deck, according the Eurocodes.

  13. Efficient field testing for load rating railroad bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Jeffrey L.; Brett C., Commander

    1995-06-01

    As the condition of our infrastructure continues to deteriorate, and the loads carried by our bridges continue to increase, an ever growing number of railroad and highway bridges require load limits. With safety and transportation costs at both ends of the spectrum. the need for accurate load rating is paramount. This paper describes a method that has been developed for efficient load testing and evaluation of short- and medium-span bridges. Through the use of a specially-designed structural testing system and efficient load test procedures, a typical bridge can be instrumented and tested at 64 points in less than one working day and with minimum impact on rail traffic. Various techniques are available to evaluate structural properties and obtain a realistic model. With field data, a simple finite element model is 'calibrated' and its accuracy is verified. Appropriate design and rating loads are applied to the resulting model and stress predictions are made. This technique has been performed on numerous structures to address specific problems and to provide accurate load ratings. The merits and limitations of this approach are discussed in the context of actual examples of both rail and highway bridges that were tested and evaluated.

  14. Numerical analysis of dynamic response of vehicle–bridge coupled system on long-span continuous girder bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipeng An

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To systematically study the vehicle–bridge coupled dynamic response and its change rule with different parameters, a vehicle model with seven degrees of freedom was built and the total potential energy of vehicle space vibration system was deduced. Considering the stimulation of road roughness, the dynamic response equation of vehicle–bridge coupled system was established in accordance with the elastic system principle of total potential energy with stationary value and the “set-in-right-position” rule. On the basis of the self-compiled Fortran program and bridge engineering, the dynamic response of long-span continuous girder bridge under vehicle load was studied. This study also included the calculation of vehicle impact coefficient, evaluation of vibration comfort, and analysis of dynamic response parameters. Results show the impact coefficient changes with lane number and is larger than the value calculated by the “general code for design of highway bridges and culverts (China”. The Dieckmann index of bridge vibration is also related to lane number, and the vibration comfort evaluation is good in normal conditions. The relevant conclusions from parametric analyses have practical significance to dynamic design and daily operation of long-span continuous girder bridges in expressways. Safety and comfort are expected to improve significantly with further control of the vibration of vehicle–bridge system.

  15. A probabilistic computational framework for bridge network optimal maintenance scheduling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocchini, Paolo; Frangopol, Dan M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a probabilistic computational framework for the Pareto optimization of the preventive maintenance applications to bridges of a highway transportation network. The bridge characteristics are represented by their uncertain reliability index profiles. The in/out of service states of the bridges are simulated taking into account their correlation structure. Multi-objective Genetic Algorithms have been chosen as numerical tool for the solution of the optimization problem. The design variables of the optimization are the preventive maintenance schedules of all the bridges of the network. The two conflicting objectives are the minimization of the total present maintenance cost and the maximization of the network performance indicator. The final result is the Pareto front of optimal solutions among which the managers should chose, depending on engineering and economical factors. A numerical example illustrates the application of the proposed approach.

  16. Species Identification and Design Value Estimation of Wooden Members in Covered Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; David E. Kretschmann

    2014-01-01

    Covered timber bridges are historic structures with unique aesthetic value. To preserve this value and maintain bridges in service, robust evaluation of their performance and safety is necessary. The strength of the timber found in covered bridges can vary considerably, not only because of age and condition, but also because of species and grade. For the practicing...

  17. 23 CFR 661.21 - When is a bridge eligible for rehabilitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When is a bridge eligible for rehabilitation? 661.21 Section 661.21 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND... rehabilitation? To be eligible for rehabilitation, the bridge must be considered structurally deficient or...

  18. Design and Fabrication of Full Wheatstone-Bridge-Based Angular GMR Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Yan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of the giant magnetoresistive (GMR effect, GMR sensors have gained much attention in last decades due to their high sensitivity, small size, and low cost. The full Wheatstone-bridge-based GMR sensor is most useful in terms of the application point of view. However, its manufacturing process is usually complex. In this paper, we present an efficient and concise approach to fabricate a full Wheatstone-bridge-based angular GMR sensor by depositing one GMR film stack, utilizing simple patterned processes, and a concise post-annealing procedure based on a special layout. The angular GMR sensor is of good linear performance and achieves a sensitivity of 0.112 mV/V/Oe at the annealing temperature of 260 °C in the magnetic field range from −50 to +50 Oe. This work provides a design and method for GMR-sensor manufacturing that is easy for implementation and suitable for mass production.

  19. Asset Management Business Model for Design, Realization, and Maintenance of Fibre Reinforced Polymer Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizal Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper particularly addresses the market implementation of Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP for bridges. It presents the concept of demand and supply chain innovation as being investigated within two ongoing European collaborative research projects (FP7 titled Trans-IND and PANTURA. FRP has emerged as a real alternative structural material based on various sustainability considerations, among others the reduced life-cycle cost due to less maintenance needs, longer lifetime, and easiness to repair, replace, or recycle the components. The Trans-IND research project aims to develop and demonstrate new industrialized processes to use FRP for civil infrastructure projects at a large scale. In order to be cost effective, a new value-chain strategy for the design, realization, and maintenance of FRP bridges is required to replace the fragmented supply chain and the one-off approach to a construction project. This paper focuses on the development of new business models based on asset management strategy, which covers the entire demand and supply chains. Research on new business models is supported by the insight into the market and regulatory frameworks in different EU countries. This is based on field surveys across the EU that have been carried out as a part of the Trans-IND and PANTURA collaborative research projects.

  20. Design and Implementation of Half-Bridge LLC Resonant Converter by FHA Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Salehi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Although in existence for many years, only recently has the LLC resonant converters, in particular in its half-bridge implementation, gained in the popularity it certainly deserve. The advantages such as high efficiency, low level of EMI emissions, and its ability to achieve high power density are such features that suited for power supply demand of many modern applications such as ATX PCs and flat panel TVs. One of the major difficulties in concern with designing such converter is complex model and non-linear equations that cannot be easily used into a design procedure. So in this paper, design is based on the assumption that input-to-output power transfer is essentially due to the fundamental Fourier series components of currents and voltages. This technique known as First Harmonic Approximation (FHA and is a proper method to obtain the voltage gain through solving the equivalent ac circuit of the resonant tank. The design simulated by Pspice and finally the experimental results show design procedure base on FHA technique.

  1. 23 CFR 650.705 - Application for discretionary bridge funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for discretionary bridge funds. 650.705... TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Discretionary Bridge Candidate Rating Factor § 650.705 Application for discretionary bridge funds. Each year through its field offices, the FHWA will...

  2. A survey of Wien bridge-based chaotic oscillators: Design and experimental issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilic, Recai [Erciyes University, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)], E-mail: kilic@erciyes.edu.tr; Yildirim, Fatma [Erciyes University, Civil Aviation School, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2008-12-15

    This paper presents a comparative study on design and implementation of Wien type chaotic oscillators. By making a collection of almost all Wien bridge-based chaotic circuits, we have investigated these oscillators in terms of chaotic dynamics, circuit structures, active building blocks, nonlinear element structures and operating frequency by using PSpice simulations and laboratory experiments. In addition to this comparative investigation, we present our two basic experimental contributions to referred implementations. While the first of our experimental contributions consists of the experimentally implementation of CFOA-based Chua's circuit modified for very high chaotic oscillations, the scope of the second is to experimentally implement a Wien type high frequency chaos generator, which has the diode-inductor composite, in the inductorless form by using CFOA-based synthetic inductor.

  3. A survey of Wien bridge-based chaotic oscillators: Design and experimental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, Recai; Yildirim, Fatma

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study on design and implementation of Wien type chaotic oscillators. By making a collection of almost all Wien bridge-based chaotic circuits, we have investigated these oscillators in terms of chaotic dynamics, circuit structures, active building blocks, nonlinear element structures and operating frequency by using PSpice simulations and laboratory experiments. In addition to this comparative investigation, we present our two basic experimental contributions to referred implementations. While the first of our experimental contributions consists of the experimentally implementation of CFOA-based Chua's circuit modified for very high chaotic oscillations, the scope of the second is to experimentally implement a Wien type high frequency chaos generator, which has the diode-inductor composite, in the inductorless form by using CFOA-based synthetic inductor

  4. Structural health monitoring results on Tsing Ma, Kap Shui Mun, and Ting Kau bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kai-yuen; Chan, Wai-Yee K.; Man, King-Leung; Mak, W. L. N.; Lau, C. K.

    2000-06-01

    A structural health monitoring system has been installed in the cable-supported bridges located in the West of Hong Kong, i.e. the Tsing Ma Control Area. These cable-supported bridges are the Tsing Ma (Suspension) Bridge, the Kap Shu Mun (Cable- Stayed) Bridge and the Ting Kau (Cable-Stayed Bridge) Bridge. The monitoring system of Tsing Ma Bridge and Kap Shui Mun Bridge has been operated since May 1997, whereas the monitoring system of Ting Kau Bridge has been operated since November 1998. In past years, data received from the monitoring systems have been processed, and analyzed and archived. This paper first briefly outlines the operation of the data processing and analysis, and then presents: (1) the load effects monitoring results such as wind, temperature and traffic (highway and railway), and (2) the bridge responses monitoring results such as displacements, stresses/strains, accelerations and cables forces. Comparisons between monitoring results and design parameters and assumptions for the cable-supported bridges are also presented.

  5. Use of co-combustion bottom ash to design an acoustic absorbing material for highway noise barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Celia; Leiva, Carlos; Vilches, Luis F; Cifuentes, Héctor

    2013-11-01

    The present study aims to determine and evaluate the applicability of a new product consisting of coal bottom ash mixed with Portland cement in the application of highway noise barriers. In order to effectively recycle the bottom ash, the influence of the grain particle size of bottom ash, the thickness of the panel and the combination of different layers with various particle sizes have been studied, as well as some environmental properties including leachability (EN-12457-4, NEN-7345) and radioactivity tests. Based on the obtained results, the acoustic properties of the final composite material were similar or even better than those found in porous concrete used for the same application. According to this study, the material produced presented no environmental risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Life cycle costs for Alaska bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    A study was implemented to assist the Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities (ADOT&PF) with life cycle costs for : the Alaska Highway Bridge Inventory. The study consisted of two parts. Part 1 involved working with regional offices...

  7. On the Performance of Super-Long Integral Abutment Bridges: Parametric Analyses and Design Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Lan, Cheng

    2012-01-01

    The concept of "integral abutment bridge" has recently become a topic of remarka-ble interest among bridge engineers, not only for newly built bridges but also during refurbishment processes. The system constituted by the substructure and the superstructure can achieve a composite action responding as a single structural unit; the elimination of expansion joint and bearings on the abutments, greatly reduce the construction and maintenance costs. To maximize the benefits from integral abutment...

  8. Topological design of all-ceramic dental bridges for enhancing fracture resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongpu; Chen, Junning; Li, Eric; Li, Wei; Swain, Michael; Li, Qing

    2016-06-01

    Layered all-ceramic systems have been increasingly adopted in major dental prostheses. However, ceramics are inherently brittle, and they often subject to premature failure under high occlusion forces especially in the posterior region. This study aimed to develop mechanically sound novel topological designs for all-ceramic dental bridges by minimizing the fracture incidence under given loading conditions. A bi-directional evolutionary structural optimization (BESO) technique is implemented within the extended finite element method (XFEM) framework. Extended finite element method allows modeling crack initiation and propagation inside all-ceramic restoration systems. Following this, BESO searches the optimum distribution of two different ceramic materials, namely porcelain and zirconia, for minimizing fracture incidence. A performance index, as per a ratio of peak tensile stress to material strength, is used as a design objective. In this study, the novel XFEM based BESO topology optimization significantly improved structural strength by minimizing performance index for suppressing fracture incidence in the structures. As expected, the fracture resistance and factor of safety of fixed partial dentures structure increased upon redistributing zirconia and porcelain in the optimal topological configuration. Dental CAD/CAM systems and the emerging 3D printing technology were commercially available to facilitate implementation of such a computational design, exhibiting considerable potential for clinical application in the future. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Hydraulic analysis, Mad River at State Highway 41, Springfield, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Ronald I.

    1977-01-01

    A hydraulic analysis of the lad River in a reach at Springfield, Ohio was made to determine the effects of relocating State Highway 41 in 1S76. The main channel was cleaned by dredging in the vicinity cf the new highway bridge and at the Detroit, Toledo and Ironton Railway bridge upstream. The new highway was placed on a high fill with relief structures for flood plain drainage consisting of a 12-foot corrugated metal pipe culvert and a bridge opening to accommodate the Detroit, Toledo and Ironton Railway and a property access road. The effect of the new highway embankment on drainage from the flood plain was requested. Also requested was the effect that might be expected on the elevation of flood waters above the new highway embankment if the access road through the new highway embankment were raised.The study indicates that the improvement in the capacity of the main channel to carry water was such that, up to a discharge equivalent to a 25-year frequency flood, the water-surface elevation in the reach upstream from the Detroit, Toledo and Ironton Railway bridge would be about 0.6 foot lower than under conditions prior to the construction on State Highway 41. Diversion through the Mad River left bank levee break above the Detroit, Toledo and Ironton Railway bridge to the flood Flain would be decreased about one-half in terms of rate of discharge in cubic feet per second. The maximum difference in elevation cf the flood water between the upstream and downstream side of the new State Highway 41 embankment would be about 0.2 foot, with an additional 0.4 foot to be expected if the access road were raised 1.5 feet.

  10. Bridging the Gap: A Manual Primer into Design Computing in the Context of Basic Design Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, V. Safak; Topaloglu, Fulden

    2017-01-01

    Design education is in need of a wider restructuring to accommodate new developments and paradigmatic shifts brought forth by the information age, all of which capitalise a move towards complexity theory, systems science and digital technologies. The intention of this article is to approach one particular aspect of this need: that is, how basic…

  11. Bridging the Design Gap: Towards an intuitive Design Tool (CD ROM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendrich, Robert E.; Tragter, Hendrik; Kokkeler, Frans; van Houten, Frederikus J.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    A main task of industrial designers is the shaping and transformations of ideas or fuzzy notions into abstract or materialized equivalents. These sketches, models or other representations can be described as the sum of form and shape aspects, aesthetics, intuitive qualities as well as technical and

  12. 23 CFR 470.107 - Federal-aid highway systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS... industrial centers, including important routes into, through, and around urban areas, serve the national... importance in Canada and Mexico. (2) The portion of the Interstate System designated under 23 U.S.C. 103 (e...

  13. Skewed steel bridges, part ii : cross-frame and connection design to ensure brace effectiveness : technical summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Skewed bridges in Kansas are often designed such that the cross-frames are carried parallel to the skew angle up to 40, while many other states place cross-frames perpendicular to the girder for skew angles greater than 20. Skewed-parallel cross-...

  14. Skewed steel bridges, part ii : cross-frame and connection design to ensure brace effectiveness : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Skewed bridges in Kansas are often designed such that the cross-frames are carried parallel to the skew angle up to 40, while many other states place cross-frames perpendicular to the girder for skew angles greater than 20. Skewed-parallel cross-...

  15. PCI-VME bridge device driver design of a high-performance data acquisition and control system on LINUX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yan; Ye Mei; Zhang Nan; Zhao Jingwei

    2000-01-01

    Data Acquisition and Control is an important part of Nuclear Electronic and Nuclear Detection application in HEP. The key methods are introduced for designing LINUX Device Driver of PCI-VME Bridge Device based on the realized Data Acquisition and Control System

  16. PCI-VME bridge device driver design of a high-performance data acquisition and control system on LINUX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yan; Ye Mei; Zhang Nan; Zhao Jingwei

    2001-01-01

    Data acquisition and control is an important part of nuclear electronic and nuclear detection application in HEP. The key method has been introduced for designing LINUX device driver of PCI-VME bridge device based on realized by authors' data acquisition and control system

  17. Construction and Design of Post-Tensioned Pearl-Chain Bridges using SL-Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halding, Philip Skov

    2016-01-01

    a filling layer of lower stiffness above the arches to level the road surface. The present Ph.D. thesis is part of a larger development project about Pearl‐Chain Bridges funded by Innovationsfonden. The project also included another Ph.D. study about the developed materials used in Pearl‐Chain Bridges...

  18. Life cycle assessment of a railway bridge: comparison of two superstructure designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Guangli; Karoumi, Raid

    2013-01-01

    Railway bridges currently encounter the challenges of increasing the load capacity while the environmental sustainability should be achieved. However, it has been realised that the environmental assessment of railway bridges has not been integrated into the decision-making process, the standard g...

  19. Comparison Between PCI and Box Girder in BridgesPrestressed Concrete Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, Cut; Zainuddin, Z.; Is, Syafridal; Rahim, Robbi

    2018-04-01

    This research is done by comparing PCI and Box Girder types of prestressed concrete design. The method used is load balance. Previous studies have just discussed the differences in terms of effectiveness and economics. In this study, the researchers want to know the design process by comparing the working forces, the resulting moment, and the losses of the prestressed. As the case in this study, the researchers used the bridge with the span of 31 meters. The tendon pulling system was conducted with post-tensioning system The analysis result showed that prestressed of the Girder box type sustained the greatest moment due to the combination of its own weight, additional dead load, lane load, and wind load of 44,029 kNm, while the biggest moment of PCI Girder was 7,556.75 KNm The Girder beam box experiences greater moment and shear force than PCI Girder. This is the effect of the weight of its own Girderboxwaslarger than PCI Girder. The losses ofprestressed style of Girderboxand PCI Girder type were 24.85% and 26.32%, respectively.Moreover, it showed that the type of Girder box is cheaper, easier, and more efficient than PCI Girder.

  20. Rating of Dynamic Coefficient for Simple Beam Bridge Design on High-Speed Railways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diachenko, Leonid; Benin, Andrey; Smirnov, Vladimir; Diachenko, Anastasia

    2018-06-01

    The aim of the work is to improve the methodology for the dynamic computation of simple beam spans during the impact of high-speed trains. Mathematical simulation utilizing numerical and analytical methods of structural mechanics is used in the research. The article analyses parameters of the effect of high-speed trains on simple beam spanning bridge structures and suggests a technique of determining of the dynamic index to the live load. Reliability of the proposed methodology is confirmed by results of numerical simulation of high-speed train passage over spans with different speeds. The proposed algorithm of dynamic computation is based on a connection between maximum acceleration of the span in the resonance mode of vibrations and the main factors of stress-strain state. The methodology allows determining maximum and also minimum values of the main efforts in the construction that makes possible to perform endurance tests. It is noted that dynamic additions for the components of the stress-strain state (bending moments, transverse force and vertical deflections) are different. This condition determines the necessity for differentiated approach to evaluation of dynamic coefficients performing design verification of I and II groups of limiting state. The practical importance: the methodology of determining the dynamic coefficients allows making dynamic calculation and determining the main efforts in split beam spans without numerical simulation and direct dynamic analysis that significantly reduces the labour costs for design.

  1. Design of pedestrian truss bridge with Sengon-Rubber laminated veneer lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbudiman, B.; Pranata, Y. A.; Pangestu, L.

    2017-12-01

    Timber bridges are one of the bridge that has long been used, but nowadays, large dimension of sawn timber has limited supply and also it is not environmental-friendly. Laminated veneer lumber (LVL) is a engineered wood that becomes one of the promising alternative, because it is made from lower quality wood that processed to be used as a more quality one. The bridge planned to be a pedestrian truss bridge with length of 9 m, width of 3 m, height of 2.5 m, and using bolt and steel plate as its connection system. Mechanical properties of LVL obtained directly from laboratory test result. Bridge modeling and planning for wood construction refers to SNI 7973:2013, while the loading refers to SNI 1725:2016. Based on the modelling and calculation, the dimension of truss frame and girder beam which are 9 cm x 9 cm and 9 cm x 18 cm have adequate strengths and satisfy deflection requirement.

  2. 23 CFR 650.805 - Bridges not requiring a USCG permit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bridges not requiring a USCG permit. 650.805 Section 650... OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Navigational Clearances for Bridges § 650.805 Bridges not... permit is not required for bridge construction. This determination shall be made at an early stage of...

  3. Expected damages of retrofitted bridges with RC jacketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, O.; Jara, J. M.; Jara, M.; Olmos, B. A.

    2015-07-01

    The bridge infrastructure in many countries of the world consists of medium span length structures built several decades ago and designed for very low seismic forces. Many of them are reinforced concrete structures that according to the current code regulations have to be rehabilitated to increase their seismic capacity. One way to reduce the vulnerability of the bridges is by using retrofitting techniques that increase the strength of the structure or by incorporating devices to reduce the seismic demand. One of the most common retrofit techniques of the bridges substructures is the use of RC jacketing; this research assesses the expected damages of seismically deficient medium length highway bridges retrofitted with reinforced concrete jacketing, by conducting a parametric study. We select a suite of twenty accelerograms of subduction earthquakes recorded close to the Pacific Coast in Mexico. The original structures consist of five 30 m span simple supported bridges with five pier heights of 5 m, 10 m, 15 m 20 and 25 m and the analyses include three different jacket thickness and three steel ratios. The bridges were subjected to the seismic records and non-linear time history analyses were carried out by using the OpenSEEs Plataform. Results allow selecting the reinforced concrete jacketing that better improves the expected seismic behavior of the bridge models.

  4. Expected damages of retrofitted bridges with RC jacketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes, O; Jara, J M; Jara, M; Olmos, B A

    2015-01-01

    The bridge infrastructure in many countries of the world consists of medium span length structures built several decades ago and designed for very low seismic forces. Many of them are reinforced concrete structures that according to the current code regulations have to be rehabilitated to increase their seismic capacity. One way to reduce the vulnerability of the bridges is by using retrofitting techniques that increase the strength of the structure or by incorporating devices to reduce the seismic demand. One of the most common retrofit techniques of the bridges substructures is the use of RC jacketing; this research assesses the expected damages of seismically deficient medium length highway bridges retrofitted with reinforced concrete jacketing, by conducting a parametric study. We select a suite of twenty accelerograms of subduction earthquakes recorded close to the Pacific Coast in Mexico. The original structures consist of five 30 m span simple supported bridges with five pier heights of 5 m, 10 m, 15 m 20 and 25 m and the analyses include three different jacket thickness and three steel ratios. The bridges were subjected to the seismic records and non-linear time history analyses were carried out by using the OpenSEEs Plataform. Results allow selecting the reinforced concrete jacketing that better improves the expected seismic behavior of the bridge models. (paper)

  5. Cable Supported Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    Cable supported bridges in the form of suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridges are distinguished by their ability to overcome large spans.The book concentrates on the synthesis of cable supported bridges, covering both design and construction aspects. The analytical part covers simple methods...... to quantify the different structural configurations and allows a preliminary optimization of the main structure.Included are the most recent advances in structural design, corrosion protection of cables, aerodynamic safety, and erection procedures....

  6. Fatigue evaluation for Tsing Ma Bridge using structural health monitoring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hung-tin Tommy; Ko, Jan Ming; Li, Zhao-Xia

    2001-08-01

    Fatigue assessment for the Tsing Ma Bridge (TMB) are presented based on the British standard BS5400 and the real-time structural health monitoring data under railway loading. TMB, as an essential portion of transport network for the Hong Kong airport, is the longest suspension bridge in the world carrying both highway and railway traffic. The bridge design has been mainly based on BS5400. A structural health monitoring system - Wind and Structural Health Monitoring System (WASHMS) for TMB has been operated since the bridge commissioning in May 1997. In order to assess the fatigue behavior of TMB under railway loading, strain gauges were installed on the bridge deck to measure the strain-time histories as soon as the bridge is loaded by a standard railway loading due to the service of an actual train. The strain-time history data at the critical members are then used to determine the stress spectrum, of which the rainflow method recommended for railway bridges by BS5400 is applied to count cycles of stress range. Miner's law is employed to evaluate fatigue damage and remaining service life of the bridge. The evaluated results of fatigue damage and remaining service life would help us to well understand about the fatigue design of the bridge and status in fatigue accumulation.

  7. Engineering nutritious proteins: improvement of stability in the designer protein MB-1 via introduction of disulfide bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Alain; Williams, Martin; Gagnon, Mylene C; Sasseville, Maxime; Beauregard, Marc

    2002-01-02

    Protein design is currently used for the creation of new proteins with desirable traits. In this laboratory the focus has been on the synthesis of proteins with high essential amino acid content having potential applications in animal nutrition. One of the limitations faced in this endeavor is achieving stable proteins despite a highly biased amino acid content. Reported here are the synthesis and characterization of two disulfide-bridged mutants derived from the MB-1 designer protein. Both mutants outperformed their parent protein MB-1 with their bridge formed, as shown by circular dichroism, size exclusion chromatography, thermal denaturation, and proteolytic degradation experiments. When the disulfide bridges were cleaved, the mutants' behavior changed: the mutants significantly unfolded, suggesting that the introduction of Cys residues was deleterious to MB-1-folding. In an attempt to compensate for the mutations used, a Tyr62-Trp mutation was performed, leading to an increase in bulk and hydrophobicity in the core. The Trp-containing disulfide-bridged mutants did not behave as well as the original MB-1Trp, suggesting that position 62 might not be adequate for a compensatory mutation.

  8. Preliminary engineering cost trends for highway projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    Preliminary engineering (PE) for a highway project encompasses two efforts: planning to minimize the physical, social, and human environmental impacts of projects and engineering design to deliver the best alternative. PE efforts begin years in advan...

  9. Soft-switching PWM full-bridge converters topologies, control, and design

    CERN Document Server

    Ruan, Xinbo

    2014-01-01

    Soft-switching PWM full-bridge converters have been widely used in medium-to-high power dc-dc conversions for topological simplicity, easy control and high efficiency. Early works on soft-switching PWM full-bridge converter by many researchers included various topologies and modulation strategies.  However, these works were scattered, and the relationship among these topologies and modulation strategies had not been revealed. This book intends to describe systematically the soft-switching techniques for pulse-width modulation (PWM) full-bridge converters, including the topologies, control and

  10. Precast concrete elements for accelerated bridge construction : laboratory testing, field testing, and evaluation of a precast concrete bridge, Black Hawk County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The importance of rapid construction technologies has been recognized by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and the Iowa : DOT Office of Bridges and Structures. Black Hawk County (BHC) has developed a precast modified beam-in-slab bridge (PMBI...

  11. Bridging the Design-Science Gap with Tools: Science Learning and Design Behaviors in a Simulated Environment for Engineering Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jie; Xie, Charles; Nourian, Saeid; Chen, Guanhua; Bailey, Siobhan; Goldstein, Molly H.; Purzer, Senay; Adams, Robin S.; Tutwiler, M. Shane

    2017-01-01

    Many pedagogical innovations aim to integrate engineering design and science learning. However, students frequently show little attempt or have difficulties in connecting their design projects with the underlying science. Drawing upon the Cultural-Historical Activity Theory, we argue that the design tools available in a learning environment…

  12. Thermal behavior of IDOT integral abutment bridges and proposed design modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) has increasingly constructed integral abutment bridges (IABs) : over the past few decades, similar to those in many other states. Because the length and skew limitations : currently employed by IDOT ha...

  13. Patterns of HCI design and HCI design of patterns bridging HCI design and model-driven software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Seffah, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    As interactive systems are quickly becoming integral to our everyday lives, this book investigates how we can make these systems, from desktop and mobile apps to more wearable and immersive applications, more usable and maintainable by using HCI design patterns. It also examines how we can facilitate the reuse of design practices in the development lifecycle of multi-devices, multi-platforms and multi-contexts user interfaces. Effective design tools are provided for combining HCI design patterns and User Interface (UI) driven engineering to enhance design whilst differentiating between UI

  14. Issues in Designing Tutors for Games of Incomplete Information: a Bridge Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Ray; McKenzie, Ben; Kemp, Elizabeth

    There are a number of commercial packages for playing the game of bridge, and even more papers on possible techniques for improving the quality of such systems. We examine some of the AI techniques that have proved successful for implementing bridge playing systems and discuss how they might be adapted for teaching the game. We pay particular attention to the issue of incomplete information and include some of our own research into the subject.

  15. A New Local Flap Nipple Reconstruction Technique Using Dermal Bridge and Preoperatively Designed Tattoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwahira, Yoshiko

    2017-01-01

    Background: Nipple–areolar reconstruction is the final step in breast reconstruction. Reconstruction using local flaps and tattooing is useful in cases of bilateral reconstruction, a small nipple–areolar complex (NAC) as the donor site, and avoiding disturbance of the normal side and other body parts. However, this method can cause projection loss and color fading of the nipple. Moreover, the breast mound is reconstructed with an implant. Methods: We performed nipple–areolar reconstruction of 90 nipples using clover-designed flaps oriented at 120 degrees and tattooing after breast silicone implantation in 64 women. The tattoo was designed before flap operation and stained darker. Following donor site closure, a dermal flap was made as a bridge for nipple support. The nipple space was separated by the dermal flap from the breast mound and was filled with subcutaneous tissue. The size of the reconstructed nipple projection was measured postoperatively and 1 year later. The projection maintenance rate was calculated. Results: The heights of the nipple projection were 11.3 ± 1.8 mm (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.9–11.7) just after the operation and 6.09 ± 2.4 mm (95% CI: 5.6–6.6) 1 year later. The actual range of nipple projection between these 2 heights was 5.2 ± 2.4 mm (95% CI: 4.7–5.7). The maintenance rate of the reconstructed nipple projection after 12 months was 54.1 ± 20.9 (95% CI: 49.7–58.5). The nipple color was maintained for over a year. Conclusions: Our nipple–areolar reconstruction technique could maintain the projection and color of the reconstructed nipple for a long period. Good outcomes were obtained in this implant-based breast reconstruction. PMID:28507843

  16. Design and parametric study on energy harvesting from bridge vibration using tuned dual-mass damper systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeya, Kouichi; Sasaki, Eiichi; Kobayashi, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    A bridge vibration energy harvester has been proposed in this paper using a tuned dual-mass damper system, named hereafter Tuned Mass Generator (TMG). A linear electromagnetic transducer has been applied to harvest and make use of the unused reserve of energy the aforementioned damper system absorbs. The benefits of using dual-mass systems over single-mass systems for power generation have been clarified according to the theory of vibrations. TMG parameters have been determined considering multi-domain parameters, and TMG has been tuned using a newly proposed parameter design method. Theoretical analysis results have shown that for effective energy harvesting, it is essential that TMG has robustness against uncertainties in bridge vibrations and tuning errors, and the proposed parameter design method for TMG has demonstrated this feature.

  17. Experimental design for the evaluation of high-T(sub c) superconductive thermal bridges in a sensor satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Elaine P.; Lee, Kasey M.

    1994-01-01

    Infrared sensor satellites, which consist of cryogenic infrared sensor detectors, electrical instrumentation, and data acquisition systems, are used to monitor the conditions of the earth's upper atmosphere in order to evaluate its present and future changes. Currently, the electrical connections (instrumentation), which act as thermal bridges between the cryogenic infrared sensor and the significantly warmer data acquisition unit of the sensor satellite system, constitute a significant portion of the heat load on the cryogen. As a part of extending the mission life of the sensor satellite system, the researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Langley Research Center (NASA-LaRC) are evaluating the effectiveness of replacing the currently used manganin wires with high-temperature superconductive (HTS) materials as the electrical connections (thermal bridges). In conjunction with the study being conducted at NASA-LaRC, the proposed research is to design a space experiment to determine the thermal savings on a cryogenic subsystem when manganin leads are replaced by HTS leads printed onto a substrate with a low thermal conductivity, and to determine the thermal conductivities of HTS materials. The experiment is designed to compare manganin wires with two different types of superconductors on substrates by determining the heat loss by the thermal bridges and providing temperature measurements for the estimation of thermal conductivity. A conductive mathematical model has been developed and used as a key tool in the design process and subsequent analysis.

  18. BRIDGING OUTDOOR AND INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL SIMULATION FOR ASSESSING AND AIDING SUSTAINABLE URBAN NEIGHBOURHOOD DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengzhi Peng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban dwellers in cities located in hot-arid or hothumid regions have greater needs to live in between outdoor and indoor environments. The sustainability of urban building design in these regions cannot be fully assessed by indoor environmental simulation not taking into account the microclimatic factors of the surrounding urban neighbourhood. We find that the current suites of outdoor and indoor simulation software do not connect with each other to give us a holistic understanding of both outdoor and indoor simulation results. This paper reports on our current development of a methodological framework for bridging the current gap between outdoor and indoor environmental simulation. Our objective is that assessment of sustainability at an urban neighbourhood level can be carried out more holistically, and hence achieving more valid environmental simulations from an urban  dwelling point of view. The outdoor-indoor coupling methodology is currently modelled on a digital work flow among three key software platforms: (1 ENVImet for urban neighbourhood outdoor simulation, (2 Ecotect for building indoor simulation, (3 uCampus for combined outdoor-indoor 3D visualisation modelling of an entire urban neighbourhood including its individual buildings. A case study of a new neighbourhood development proposed for New Cairo is presented to demonstrate how indoor environmental simulation can be grounded on outdoor environmental simulation of the urban neighbourhood. Graphical outputs from this outdoorindoor coupling approach to neighbourhood simulation can be further brought together onto a Web-based 3D virtual reality modelling platform to enable wider accessibility.

  19. Highway extraction from high resolution aerial photography using a geometric active contour model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xutong

    Highway extraction and vehicle detection are two of the most important steps in traffic-flow analysis from multi-frame aerial photographs. The traditional method of deriving traffic flow trajectories relies on manual vehicle counting from a sequence of aerial photographs, which is tedious and time-consuming. This research presents a new framework for semi-automatic highway extraction. The basis of the new framework is an improved geometric active contour (GAC) model. This novel model seeks to minimize an objective function that transforms a problem of propagation of regular curves into an optimization problem. The implementation of curve propagation is based on level set theory. By using an implicit representation of a two-dimensional curve, a level set approach can be used to deal with topological changes naturally, and the output is unaffected by different initial positions of the curve. However, the original GAC model, on which the new model is based, only incorporates boundary information into the curve propagation process. An error-producing phenomenon called leakage is inevitable wherever there is an uncertain weak edge. In this research, region-based information is added as a constraint into the original GAC model, thereby, giving this proposed method the ability of integrating both boundary and region-based information during the curve propagation. Adding the region-based constraint eliminates the leakage problem. This dissertation applies the proposed augmented GAC model to the problem of highway extraction from high-resolution aerial photography. First, an optimized stopping criterion is designed and used in the implementation of the GAC model. It effectively saves processing time and computations. Second, a seed point propagation framework is designed and implemented. This framework incorporates highway extraction, tracking, and linking into one procedure. A seed point is usually placed at an end node of highway segments close to the boundary of the

  20. 23 CFR 661.51 - Can IRRBP funds be used for the approach roadway to a bridge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bridge? 661.51 Section 661.51 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.51 Can IRRBP funds be used for the approach roadway to a bridge? (a) Yes, costs associated with approach roadway work, as defined in...

  1. Shipping container response to severe highway and railway accident conditions: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, L.E.; Chou, C.K.; Gerhard, M.A.; Kimura, C.Y.; Martin, R.W.; Mensing, R.W.; Mount, M.E.; Witte, M.C.

    1987-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following appendices: Severe accident data; truck accident data; railroad accident data; highway survey data and bridge column properties; structural analysis; thermal analysis; probability estimation techniques; and benchmarking for computer codes used in impact analysis. (LN)

  2. Myocardial Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center > Myocardial Bridge Menu Topics Topics FAQs Myocardial Bridge En español Your heart is made of muscle, ... surface of the heart. What is a myocardial bridge? A myocardial bridge is a band of heart ...

  3. Accident Locations, MDTA Accidents, Accidents on MDTA locations, Accidents on I 95, US 50, I 695, Accident on John F Kennedy Highway, Nice Bridge, Bay Bridge locations, Published in 2011, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Maryland Transportation Authority.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Accident Locations dataset current as of 2011. MDTA Accidents, Accidents on MDTA locations, Accidents on I 95, US 50, I 695, Accident on John F Kennedy Highway, Nice...

  4. Experimental evaluation of the buckling phenomena in the new joint design for upper deck structure of a bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solazzi L.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the experimental mechanical analysis of a new design of a joint for a main components of a upper deck of a road bridge. These components are subject to the compression state stress induced by the weight and the load acting on the road. Each upper deck of a bridge (positioned on each side of the bridge is composed by four tubular structures that must be joint each together. The joint must to take in to account many aspects, for example that the length of each component is not the same (because, obviously, there is a mechanical tolerance. This phenomena induce different compression stress on each component and so is very important non only the critical buckling load but also the post buckling behaviour of the structure. It is very important that if a single tubular structure reaches the critical load of instability, it still has load capacity . This is to avoid that, in the case where a column reaches the instability, the entire load acting on a column increase the load on the remaining three. For this purpose many different geometrical solutions have been designed (elaborated by fem analyses and successively tested experimentally. This work reports the main experimental results on the best joint solution and how this increase the load capacity and the displacement respect to the solution without this flange.

  5. Linking highway improvements to changes in land use with quasi-experimental research design : a better forecasting tool for transportation decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    An important issue for future improvement and extensions of highways will be the ability of projects to sustain challenges to Environmental Impact Statements based upon forecasts of regional growth. A legal precedent for such challenges was establish...

  6. Analytical model and design of spoke-type permanent-magnet machines accounting for saturation and nonlinearity of magnetic bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Peixin; Chai, Feng; Bi, Yunlong; Pei, Yulong; Cheng, Shukang

    2016-11-01

    Based on subdomain model, this paper presents an analytical method for predicting the no-load magnetic field distribution, back-EMF and torque in general spoke-type motors with magnetic bridges. Taking into account the saturation and nonlinearity of magnetic material, the magnetic bridges are equivalent to fan-shaped saturation regions. For getting standard boundary conditions, a lumped parameter magnetic circuit model and iterative method are employed to calculate the permeability. The final field domain is divided into five types of simple subdomains. Based on the method of separation of variables, the analytical expression of each subdomain is derived. The analytical results of the magnetic field distribution, Back-EMF and torque are verified by finite element method, which confirms the validity of the proposed model for facilitating the motor design and optimization.

  7. Synthesis and evaluation of lightweight concrete research relevant to the AASHTO LRFD bridge design specifications : potential revisions for definition and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Much of the fundamental basis for the current lightweight concrete provisions in the AASHTO LRFD Bridge : Design Specifications is based on research of lightweight concrete (LWC) from the 1960s. The LWC that was : part of this research used tradition...

  8. Reliability Assessment of Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Middleton, C. R.

    This paper is partly based on research performed for the Highways Agency, London, UK under the project DPU/9/44 "Revision of Bridge Assessment Rules Based on Whole Life Performance: concrete bridges". It contains the details of a methodology which can be used to generate Whole Life (WL) reliability...... profiles. These WL reliability profiles may be used to establish revised rules for concrete bridges. This paper is to some extend based on Thoft-Christensen et. al. [1996], Thoft-Christensen [1996] et. al. and Thoft-Christensen [1996]....

  9. Design of bridge crane girder strain acquisition system based on virtual instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxue LIU

    Full Text Available Girder is an important part of the bridge crane, which is also the main force element. In order to prevent accidents, it is necessary to collect the bridge crane girder stress data to analyse the fatigue life. This paper constructs a bridge crane girder strain acquisition system. The hardware system consists of sensors, connectors, data acquisition cards, wireless data transmission groups, POE power and host computer. The software system consists of NI MAX to interface with the computer's NI hardware and software resources,and LabVIEW programming to display and storage the girder strain data. Through this system, positions and working days strain data acquisition for the 50/10 t bridge crane girder gets the key positions strain data. The results show that the girder strain data acquisition system runs stably, channel signals of acquisition task transmit accurately, and the terminal data stores competely, meeting the detection requirements, which provides an important data support for the subsequent fatigue analysis and accurate remaining service life prediction of the crane girder.

  10. Asset management business model for design, realization, and maintenance of fibre reinforced polymer bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sebastian, R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper particularly addresses the market implementation of Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) for bridges. It presents the concept of demand and supply chain innovation as being investigated within two ongoing European collaborative research projects (FP7) titled Trans-IND and PANTURA. FRP has

  11. Design and Implementation of a New System for Large Bridge Monitoring—GeoSHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Meng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Structural Health Monitoring (SHM is a relatively new branch of civil engineering that focuses on assessing the health status of infrastructure, such as long-span bridges. Using a broad range of in-situ monitoring instruments, the purpose of the SHM is to help engineers understand the behaviour of structures, ensuring their structural integrity and the safety of the public. Under the Integrated Applications Promotion (IAP scheme of the European Space Agency (ESA, a feasibility study (FS project that used the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS and Earth Observation (EO for Structural Health Monitoring of Long-span Bridges (GeoSHM was initiated in 2013. The GeoSHM FS Project was led by University of Nottingham and the Forth Road Bridge (Scotland, UK, which is a 2.5 km long suspension bridge across the Firth of Forth connecting Edinburgh and the Northern part of Scotland, was selected as the test structure for the GeoSHM FS project. Initial results have shown the significant potential of the GNSS and EO technologies. With these successes, the FS project was further extended to the demonstration stage, which is called the GeoSHM Demo project where two other long-span bridges in China were included as test structures. Led by UbiPOS UK Ltd. (Nottingham, UK, a Nottingham Hi-tech company, this stage focuses on addressing limitations identified during the feasibility study and developing an innovative data strategy to process, store, and interpret monitoring data. This paper will present an overview of the motivation and challenges of the GeoSHM Demo Project, a description of the software and hardware architecture and a discussion of some primary results that were obtained in the last three years.

  12. 75 FR 62181 - Annual Materials Report on New Bridge Construction and Bridge Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Ann Shemaka, Office of Bridge Technology, HIBT-30, (202) 366-1575, or Mr. Thomas Everett, Office of Bridge Technology, HIBT-30, (202) 366-4675, Federal Highway Administration, 1200 New... is categorized by the following material types, which are identified in the NBI: steel, concrete, pre...

  13. 76 FR 55160 - Annual Materials Report on New Bridge Construction and Bridge Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Ann Shemaka, Office of Bridge Technology, HIBT-30, (202) 366-1575, or Mr. Thomas Everett, Office of Bridge Technology, HIBT-30, (202) 366-4675, Federal Highway Administration, 1200 New... is categorized by the following material types, which are identified in the NBI: steel, concrete, pre...

  14. Environmentally Friendly Solution to Ground Hazards in Design of Bridges in Earthquake Prone Areas Using Timber Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, H.

    2015-12-01

    Bridges are major elements of infrastructure in all societies. Their safety and continued serviceability guaranties the transportation and emergency access in urban and rural areas. However, these important structures are subject to earthquake induced damages in structure and foundations. The basic approach to the proper support of foundations are a) distribution of imposed loads to foundation in a way they can resist those loads without excessive settlement and failure; b) modification of foundation ground with various available methods; and c) combination of "a" and "b". The engineers has to face the task of designing the foundations meeting all safely and serviceability criteria but sometimes when there are numerous environmental and financial constrains, the use of some traditional methods become inevitable. This paper explains the application of timber piles to improve ground resistance to liquefaction and to secure the abutments of short to medium length bridges in an earthquake/liquefaction prone area in Bohol Island, Philippines. The limitations of using the common ground improvement methods (i.e., injection, dynamic compaction) because of either environmental or financial concerns along with the abundance of timber in the area made the engineers to use a network of timber piles behind the backwalls of the bridge abutments. The suggested timber pile network is simulated by numerical methods and its safety is examined. The results show that the compaction caused by driving of the piles and bearing capacity provided by timbers reduce the settlement and lateral movements due to service and earthquake induced loads.

  15. Design and fabrication of single-crystal GaN nano-bridge on homogeneous substrate for nanoindentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Shang-Chao

    2014-12-01

    This study reports a simple method to design and fabricate a freestanding GaN nano-bridge over a homogeneous short column as supporting leg. Test samples were fabricated from MOCVD-grown single-crystal GaN films over sapphire substrate using a FIB milling to leave freestanding short spans. We also investigated the nanoindentation characteristics and the corresponding nanoscopic mechanism of the GaN nano-bridge and its short column with a conical indenter inside transmission electron microscopy. The stress-strain mechanical properties and Young's modulus have also been examined and calculated as 108 GPa ± 4.8 % by the strain energy method. The significant slope switch of the L- D curve corresponds to the transition from the single-point bending indentation to the surface stretching indentation and has been interpreted with the evolution of TEM images. This freestanding fabrication and test have key advantages to characterize nanoscale behavior of one-dimensional bridge structure and greater ease of sample preparation over other micro-fabrication techniques.

  16. Optimal Retrofit Scheme for Highway Network under Seismic Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxi Huang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many older highway bridges in the United States (US are inadequate for seismic loads and could be severely damaged or collapsed in a relatively small earthquake. According to the most recent American Society of Civil Engineers’ infrastructure report card, one-third of the bridges in the US are rated as structurally deficient and many of these structurally deficient bridges are located in seismic zones. To improve this situation, at-risk bridges must be identified and evaluated and effective retrofitting programs should be in place to reduce their seismic vulnerabilities. In this study, a new retrofit strategy decision scheme for highway bridges under seismic hazards is developed and seamlessly integrate the scenario-based seismic analysis of bridges and the traffic network into the proposed optimization modeling framework. A full spectrum of bridge retrofit strategies is considered based on explicit structural assessment for each seismic damage state. As an empirical case study, the proposed retrofit strategy decision scheme is utilized to evaluate the bridge network in one of the active seismic zones in the US, Charleston, South Carolina. The developed modeling framework, on average, will help increase network throughput traffic capacity by 45% with a cost increase of only $15million for the Mw 5.5 event and increase the capacity fourfold with a cost of only $32m for the Mw 7.0 event.

  17. Design and construction of a cable-stayed composite girder bridge with precast RC-slabs; Purekyasuto shohan gosei keta shachokoyo no sekkei to seko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, K. [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Technology; Shimura, T.; Tachibana, Y.; Echigo, S. [Kawada Industries Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-09-20

    A report on design and execution of cable-stayed composite girder bridge with precast RC-slabs constructed first in Japan though in small scale was described. This bridge adopted steel slabs relatively low in slab height for main slab and with two boxes slab section, and was designed at an aim of being more economic and shorter in its working term in comparison with steel girder slab type, on a base of the design in a region allowable with the existing design standards. This bridge is mainly in accordance with the regulation on continuous bridge in the prescription of road bridge, and is designed for normal RC-girder selecting between girder supports to direction normal to bridge axis as usual without using specially strong concrete to the girder. And, in order to fill with the regulation on allowable tensile stress on considering effects of creep and drying shrinkage, a method adding prestress to the slabs was adopted. Furthermore, a loop-like overlap joint for cable joint for the precast girders, expansion concrete for joint portion to compose the girder with the steel slab and so forth were adopted. 12 refs., 22 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. A Hierarchical Model and Analysis of Factors Affecting the Adoption of Timber as a Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Smith; Robert J. Bush; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1995-01-01

    The Analytical Hierarchy Process was used to characterize the bridge material selection decisions of highway engineers and local highway officials across the United States. State Department of Transportation engineers, private consulting engineers, and local highway officials were personally interviewed in Mississippi, Virginia, Washington, and Wisconsin to identify...

  19. Design and rationale of the HCC BRIDGE study in China: a longitudinal, multicenter cohort trial in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao You-Lin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than 50% of the worldwide cases of hepatocellular carcinoma occur in China, and this malignancy currently represents the country's second leading cause of cancer death in cities and the leading cause in rural areas. Despite recent advances in the control and management of hepatocellular carcinoma within China, this disease remains a major health care issue. The global HCC BRIDGE study, designed to assess patterns of hepatocellular carcinoma therapy use and associated outcomes across real-world clinical practice, has recently been expanded as a national study in China, allowing a detailed analysis of hepatocellular carcinoma in this important country. Methods/Design The global HCC BRIDGE study is a multiregional longitudinal cohort trial including patients newly diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma between January 1, 2005, and June 30, 2011, who are receiving treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma via sites in the Asia-Pacific, European, and North American regions. The HCC BRIDGE China national study comprises the portion of the global HCC BRIDGE study conducted within mainland China. Patients will be followed from time of diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (post-January 1, 2005 to time of death or December 31, 2011, whichever comes first. Data will be collected on demographic/clinical characteristics, relevant laboratory values, hepatocellular carcinoma/underlying liver disease treatment, tumor response, adverse events, hospitalizations, and overall survival. The primary study end point is overall survival; secondary end points are disease progression, treatment-limiting adverse events, and treatment failure. Results At the time of writing, 15 sites have selected for participation across all 7 traditional regions of China (North, North-East, East, South, South-West, North-West, and Central. The anticipated study population from the China national study is approximately 9000 patients. Discussion Findings from the

  20. 23 CFR 661.57 - How is a list of deficient bridges to be generated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is a list of deficient bridges to be generated? 661... AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.57 How is a list of deficient bridges to be generated? (a) In consultation with the BIA, a list of deficient BIA IRR bridges will be...

  1. 23 CFR 661.55 - How are BIA and Tribal owned IRR bridges inspected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are BIA and Tribal owned IRR bridges inspected? 661... AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.55 How are BIA and Tribal owned IRR bridges inspected? BIA and Tribally owned IRR bridges are inspected in accordance with 25 CFR part...

  2. A technical report on structural evaluation of the Meade County reinforced concrete bridge : research [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Meade County Bridge is a two-lane highway reinforced concrete bridge with two girders each with 20 continuous spans. The bridge was built in 1965. It has been reported that in early years of the bridge service period, a considerable amount of cracks ...

  3. Statistical analysis of fatigue crack propagation data of materials from ancient portuguese metallic bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J A F O. Correia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In Portugal there is a number of old metallic riveted railway and highway bridges that were erected by the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century, and are still in operation, requiring inspections and remediation measures to overcome fatigue damage. Residual fatigue life predictions should be based on actual fatigue data from bridge materials which is scarce due to the material specificities. Fatigue crack propagation data of materials from representative Portuguese riveted bridges, namely the Pinh�o and Luiz I road bridges, the Viana road/railway bridge, the F�o road bridge and the Trez�i railway bridge were considered in this study. The fatigue crack growth rates were correlated using the Pariss law. Also, a statistical analysis of the pure mode I fatigue crack growth (FCG data available for the materials from the ancient riveted metallic bridges is presented. Based on this analysis, design FCG curves are proposed and compared with BS7910 standard proposal, for the Paris region, which is one important fatigue regime concerning the application of the Fracture Mechanics approaches, to predict the remnant fatigue life of structural details

  4. Research on Collapse Process of Cable-Stayed Bridges under Strong Seismic Excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuewei Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to present the collapse process and failure mechanism of long-span cable-stayed bridges under strong seismic excitations, a rail-cum-road steel truss cable-stayed bridge was selected as engineering background, the collapse failure numerical model of the cable-stayed bridge was established based on the explicit dynamic finite element method (FEM, and the whole collapse process of the cable-stayed bridge was analyzed and studied with three different seismic waves acted in the horizontal longitudinal direction, respectively. It can be found from the numerical simulation analysis that the whole collapse failure process and failure modes of the cable-stayed bridge under three different seismic waves are similar. Furthermore, the piers and the main pylons are critical components contributing to the collapse of the cable-stayed bridge structure. However, the cables and the main girder are damaged owing to the failure of piers and main pylons during the whole structure collapse process, so the failure of cable and main girder components is not the main reason for the collapse of cable-stayed bridge. The analysis results can provide theoretical basis for collapse resistance design and the determination of critical damage components of long-span highway and railway cable-stayed bridges in the research of seismic vulnerability analysis.

  5. Maine highway safety plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Each September 1, the MeBHS must provide NHTSA a comprehensive plan to reduce : traffic crashes and resulting deaths, injuries and property damage. The Highway Safety : Plan (HSP) serves as Maines application for available federal funds for these ...

  6. 47 CFR 80.331 - Bridge-to-bridge communication procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bridge-to-bridge communication procedure. 80..., Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.331 Bridge-to-bridge communication procedure. (a) Vessels subject to the Bridge-to-Bridge Act transmitting on the designated navigational frequency must conduct...

  7. 23 CFR 973.210 - Indian lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indian lands bridge management system (BMS). 973.210... HIGHWAYS MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS PERTAINING TO THE BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS AND THE INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Bureau of Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.210 Indian lands bridge management system (BMS...

  8. A comprehensive methodology for the analysis of highway sight distance

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Malpica, María; Santos Berbel, César de; Iglesias Martínez, Luis

    2017-01-01

    As one of the main elements of geometric design, sight distance must be considered carefully for the safe and efficient operation of highways. An application developed on geographic information systems (GIS) was con-ceived for the three-dimensional estimation of sight distance on highways, as opposed to conventional two-dimensional techniques, which may underestimate or overestimate the actual visibility conditions. It is capable of computing the available sight distance of a highway section ...

  9. Long-term behavior of integral abutment bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Integral abutment (IA) construction has become the preferred method over conventional construction for use with typical : highway bridges. However, the use of these structures is limited due to state mandated length and skew limitations. To : expand ...

  10. Smart FRP Composite Sandwich Bridge Decks in Cold Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    In this study, new and integrated Smart honeycomb Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (S-FRP) : sandwich materials for various transportation construction applications, with particular emphasis : on highway bridge decks in cold regions, were developed and teste...

  11. Monitoring bridge scour using fiber optic sensors : research project capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    The interstate highway network is an : important national asset. Bridges : constituting critical nodes within : transportation networks are the : backbone of the transportation : infrastructure. It is well known that : scour is one of the major cours...

  12. Assessment of vehicular live load and load factors for design of short-span bridges according to the new Egyptian Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem M. Seliem

    2015-04-01

    The study shows that concrete box-girders designed according to ECP-201:2012 and ECP-201:2003 using the ultimate limit state method yield almost the same demand. Despite the increase in the VLL of ECP-201:2012, and consequently the live load forces, concrete I-shaped girder bridges will be subjected to less total factored internal forces in comparison to ECP-201:2003 This is attributed to the interaction between the live to dead loads ratio and the load combinations. Design of composite steel plate girder bridges according to ECP-201:2012 using the allowable stress design method yields over designed sections.

  13. Nationwide desert highway assessment: a case study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xuesong; Wang, Fuchun; Wang, Binggang

    2011-07-01

    The natural environment affects the construction of desert highways. Conversely, highway construction affects the natural environment and puts the ecological environment at a disadvantage. To satisfy the variety and hierarchy of desert highway construction and discover the spatio-temporal distribution of the natural environment and its effect on highway construction engineering, an assessment of the natural regional divisions of desert highways in China is carried out for the first time. Based on the general principles and method for the natural region division, the principles, method and index system for desert highway assessment is put forward by combining the desert highway construction features and the azonal differentiation law. The index system combines the dominant indicator and four auxiliary indicators. The dominant indicator is defined by the desert's comprehensive state index and the auxiliary indicators include the sand dune height, the blown sand strength, the vegetation coverage ratio and the annual average temperature difference. First the region is divided according to the dominant indicator. Then the region boundaries are amended according to the four auxiliary indicators. Finally the natural region division map for desert highway assessment is presented. The Chinese desert highways can be divided into three sections: the east medium effect region, the middle medium-severe effect region, and the west slight-medium effect region. The natural region division map effectively paves the way for the route planning, design, construction, maintenance and ongoing management of desert highways, and further helps environmental protection.

  14. Streamflow and streambed scour in 2010 at bridge 339, Copper River, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conaway, Jeffrey S.; Brabets, Timothy P.

    2011-01-01

    The Copper River Highway traverses a dynamic and complex network of braided and readily erodible channels that constitute the Copper River Delta, Alaska, by way of 11 bridges. Over the past decade, several of these bridges and the highway have sustained serious damage from both high and low flows and channel instability. This investigation studying the impact of channel migration on the highway incorporates data from scour monitoring, lidar surveys, bathymetry, hydrology, and time-lapse photography.

  15. Life-Cycle Monitoring of Long-Span PSC Box Girder Bridges through Distributed Sensor Network: Strategies, Methods, and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheheng Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural health monitoring (SHM has attracted much attention in recent years, which enables early warnings of structural failure, condition assessments, and rational maintenance/repair strategies. In the context of bridges, many long-span steel bridges in China have been installed with the SHM systems; however, the applications of the SHM in prestressed concrete (PSC bridges are still rather limited. On the other hand, the PSC box girder bridges are extensively used in highway and railway systems and premature damage of these bridges is often reported, resulting in considerable maintenance and/or replacement costs. First, this paper presents a state-of-art review on the SHM of long-span PSC bridges. Monitoring strategies, methods, and previous applications for these bridges are summarized and discussed. In order to well capture the behavior of the bridge during its whole life and to maximize the use of sensors, a life-cycle monitoring strategy is proposed, in which the sensor layout is determined according to requirements for construction monitoring, completion test, and in-service monitoring. A case study is made on a three-span PSC box girder bridge in China. The system configuration, sensor layout, and data communications, and so forth, are presented. The up-to-date monitored structural responses are analyzed and compared with the design values.

  16. Control and design of full-bridge three-level converter for renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Zhilei; Xu, Jing; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    Output voltage of renewable energy sources, such as fuel cell and PV cell, is often low and varies widely with load and environmental conditions. Therefore, the high step-up DC-DC converter is needed between renewable energy sources and the grid-connected inverter. However, voltage stress...... of rectifier diodes is high and filter is large in traditional voltage-source converters in a wide input-voltage range. In order to solve the aforementioned problems, a full-bridge (FB) three-level (TL) converter is proposed. It can operate at both two-level and three-level modes, so it is suitable for wide...

  17. Railroad Bridges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Bridges-Rail in the United States According to The National Bridge Inspection Standards published in the Code of Federal Regulations (23 CFR 650.3), a bridge isA...

  18. 78 FR 10249 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... relate to a proposed highway project on Georgia Street Bridge over University Avenue in the City of San... San Diego and the bridge spans University Avenue. The federal aide project number is BRLO-5004(009... amended. 19. Executive Order 12898, Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice and Low-Income...

  19. The green highway forum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    In late 2004, as part of American Coal Ash Association's (ACAA) strategic planning process, a plan was approved by its Board of Directors implementing a 'green highways' concept which emphasized use of coal combustion products (CCPs) in highways in a variety of ways including being used alone, in combination with other forms of CCPs, and combined with non ash materials. The incentives behind the developed concept were the derived advantages from beneficial technical economic and environmental impacts. Although the primary use of fly ash is concrete, other forms of CCPs could be considered for more non-traditional highway applications. For example, these might include soils stabilization, binders for in-place pavement recycling, use in flowable fills, aggregates, source materials for structural fills and embankments, components in manufactured soils, and for granular base courses beneath pavements. At this same time, unknown to ACCA, EPA Region 3 in Philadelphia was working with the Wetlands and Watershed Work Group, a non-profit organization involved in wetlands policy and management along with the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) on their own Green Highways initiative. These groups were planning a conference, the 'Green Highway Forum'. This was held in College Park, Maryland at the University of Maryland, Nov 8-10 2005. At the conference a draft 'roadmap' was presented as a guide to executive level participants bringing the diverse viewpoints of many agencies and interest groups together. Ten guiding principals were considered. The 'Green Highways' is a new effort to recognize the 'greenness' of many projects already completed and those to be initiated. 2 photos.

  20. Design, fabrication, erection of Yuge-Ohashi bridge; Yuge ohashi no sekkei seisaku kasetsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagamine, T.; Konishi, T.; Sasaki, K.; Miyakawa, T. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-12-20

    Introduced herein is the construction of Yuge-Ohashi Bridge, a 325-meter long three-span cable-stayed structure. Each tower is provided with deflectors to prevent galloping vibration that the bridge may experience after completion. Because it was afraid that the towers during the erection process would experience at the base sections a bend that would be greater than their withstand strength, vibration dampers TMDs (Tuned Mass Dampers) were installed. To enable the spars to withstand strong wind after completion, wing-type flaps were arranged on their sides. To damp vibration during the spar cantilever erection process, TMDs of the cantilever type were provided capable of responding to the vertical direction vibration, for which weights were caused to travel along the arms for tuning. To prevent the top-stage cables from rain caused vibration, U-shape grooves were provided. To prevent the intermediate-stage cables from rain caused vibration, high-attenuation rubber dampers were installed. A side span spar and a tower were installed en bloc by FC (Floating Crane) boats, and the central span spar was installed by cantilever erection. Thanks to the fuzzy control-aided accuracy management system, cable adjustment was efficiently accomplished and the accuracy fell within the target value range. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Managing commodity risks in highway contracts : quantifying premiums, accounting for correlations among risk factors, and designing optimal price-adjustment contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    It is a well-known fact that macro-economic conditions, such as prices of commodities (e.g. oil, : cement and steel) affect the cost of construction projects. In a volatile market environment, highway : agencies often pass such risk to contractors us...

  2. Comprehensive evaluation of fracture critical bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Two-girder steel bridges are classified as fracture critical bridges based on the definition given in the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. In a fracture critical bridge a failure of a tension member leads to collapse of the bridge. However, ...

  3. An Optimization Algorithm for the Design of an Irregularly-Shaped Bridge Based on the Orthogonal Test and Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanbing Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Irregularly-shaped bridges are usually adopted to connect the main bridge and ramps in urban overpasses, which are under significant flexion-torsion coupling effects and in complicated stress states. In irregular-shaped bridge design, the parameters such as ramp radius, bifurcation diaphragm stiffness, box girder height, and supporting condition could affect structural performance in different manners. In this paper, the influence of various parameters on three indices, including maximum stress, the stress variation coefficient, and the fundamental frequency of torsional vibration, is investigated and analyzed based on orthogonal test method. Through orthogonal analysis, the major influence parameters and corresponding optimal values for these indices are achieved. Combining with the analytic hierarchy process (AHP, the hierarchical structure model of the multi-indices orthogonal test is established and a comprehensive weight analysis method is proposed to reflect the parameter influence on overall mechanical properties of an irregularly-shaped bridge. Influence order and optimal values of parameters for overall mechanical properties are determined based on the weight of factors and levels calculated by the comprehensive weight analysis method. The results indicate that the comprehensive weight analysis method is superior to the overall balance method, which verifies the effectiveness and accuracy of the comprehensive weight analysis in the parameter optimization of the multi-indices orthogonal test for an irregularly-shaped bridge. Optimal parameters obtained in this paper can provide reference and guidance for parameter control in irregularly-shaped bridge design.

  4. A study on traffic weaving segment level of service on Malaysia urban highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Rohaya; Sadullah, Ahmad Farhan Mohd

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this research is to observe weaving problems, analyze the capacity of the weaving segment and to identify the behavior of the Malaysian driver at urban freeway weaving segment. Field data collected during non - peak hours at km. 138.6-138.2 (north bound) Seberang Jaya: Penang Bridge, km.16.8 to km.17.0 Sunway Mentari: Damansara-Puchong Highway and km.21.4 to km.21.9 Puchong Intan: Damansara-Puchong Highway. These segments behave as a bottleneck during peak hour. The data collected are traffic volume, vehicle composition and the road geometry. The drivers behavior pattern at the freeway weaving segment is observed. This research analyses by two different methodologies, the first analysis is by referring to the US Highway Capacity Manual 2010 and the second analysis through a modified method to suit the local traffic composition. The consideration of motorcycle and light heavy vehicle in the analysis lead to a different evaluation of weaving segment capacity. The analysis results show a slight difference between both methods. LOS, weaving speed and density prediction by the modified method is slightly higher than the HCM method. These results, suggest that the numbers of light heavy vehicle and motorcycle contribute to the amount of traffic volume because the value factors of Passenger Car Equivalent (PCE). The adoption of the widely used method without taking consideration of local traffic condition, might lead to improper road planning or design or road operation management.

  5. Life cycle assessment based environmental impact estimation model for pre-stressed concrete beam bridge in the early design phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyong Ju; Yun, Won Gun; Cho, Namho; Ha, Jikwang

    2017-01-01

    The late rise in global concern for environmental issues such as global warming and air pollution is accentuating the need for environmental assessments in the construction industry. Promptly evaluating the environmental loads of the various design alternatives during the early stages of a construction project and adopting the most environmentally sustainable candidate is therefore of large importance. Yet, research on the early evaluation of a construction project's environmental load in order to aid the decision making process is hitherto lacking. In light of this dilemma, this study proposes a model for estimating the environmental load by employing only the most basic information accessible during the early design phases of a project for the pre-stressed concrete (PSC) beam bridge, the most common bridge structure. Firstly, a life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted on the data from 99 bridges by integrating the bills of quantities (BOQ) with a life cycle inventory (LCI) database. The processed data was then utilized to construct a case based reasoning (CBR) model for estimating the environmental load. The accuracy of the estimation model was then validated using five test cases; the model's mean absolute error rates (MAER) for the total environmental load was calculated as 7.09%. Such test results were shown to be superior compared to those obtained from a multiple-regression based model and a slab area base-unit analysis model. Henceforth application of this model during the early stages of a project is expected to highly complement environmentally friendly designs and construction by facilitating the swift evaluation of the environmental load from multiple standpoints. - Highlights: • This study is to develop the model of assessing the environmental impacts on LCA. • Bills of quantity from completed designs of PSC Beam were linked with the LCI DB. • Previous cases were used to estimate the environmental load of new case by CBR model. • CBR

  6. Life cycle assessment based environmental impact estimation model for pre-stressed concrete beam bridge in the early design phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyong Ju, E-mail: kjkim@cau.ac.kr; Yun, Won Gun, E-mail: ogun78@naver.com; Cho, Namho, E-mail: nhc51@cau.ac.kr; Ha, Jikwang, E-mail: wlrhkd29@gmail.com

    2017-05-15

    The late rise in global concern for environmental issues such as global warming and air pollution is accentuating the need for environmental assessments in the construction industry. Promptly evaluating the environmental loads of the various design alternatives during the early stages of a construction project and adopting the most environmentally sustainable candidate is therefore of large importance. Yet, research on the early evaluation of a construction project's environmental load in order to aid the decision making process is hitherto lacking. In light of this dilemma, this study proposes a model for estimating the environmental load by employing only the most basic information accessible during the early design phases of a project for the pre-stressed concrete (PSC) beam bridge, the most common bridge structure. Firstly, a life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted on the data from 99 bridges by integrating the bills of quantities (BOQ) with a life cycle inventory (LCI) database. The processed data was then utilized to construct a case based reasoning (CBR) model for estimating the environmental load. The accuracy of the estimation model was then validated using five test cases; the model's mean absolute error rates (MAER) for the total environmental load was calculated as 7.09%. Such test results were shown to be superior compared to those obtained from a multiple-regression based model and a slab area base-unit analysis model. Henceforth application of this model during the early stages of a project is expected to highly complement environmentally friendly designs and construction by facilitating the swift evaluation of the environmental load from multiple standpoints. - Highlights: • This study is to develop the model of assessing the environmental impacts on LCA. • Bills of quantity from completed designs of PSC Beam were linked with the LCI DB. • Previous cases were used to estimate the environmental load of new case by CBR model. • CBR

  7. Sustainable Bridge Infrastructure Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safi, Mohammed; Du, Guangli; Simonsson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The lack of a flexible but systematic approach for integrating lifecycle aspects into bridge investment decisions is a major obstacle hindering the procurement of sustainable bridge infrastructures. This paper addresses this obstacle by introducing a holistic approach that agencies could use...... to procure the most “sustainable” (lifecycle-efficient) bridge through a fair design-build (D-B) tendering process, considering all the main aspects: life-cycle cost (LCC), service life-span, aesthetic demands and environmental impacts (LCA)....

  8. Educational Game Design. Bridging the gab between computer based learning and experimental learning environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristine

    2007-01-01

    Considering the rapidly growing amount of digital educational materials only few of them bridge the gab between experimental learning environments and computer based learning environments (Gardner, 1991). Observations from two cases in primary school and lower secondary school in the subject...... with a prototype of a MOO storyline. The aim of the MOO storyline is to challenge the potential of dialogue, user involvement, and learning responsibility and to use the children?s natural curiosity and motivation for game playing, especially when digital games involves other children. The paper proposes a model......, based on the narrative approach for experimental learning subjects, relying on ideas from Csikszentmihalyis notion of flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1991), storyline-pedagogy (Meldgaard, 1994) and ideas from Howard Gardner (Gardner, 1991). The model forms the basis for educational games to be used in home...

  9. 23 CFR 661.35 - What percentage of IRRBP funding is available for use on BIA and Tribally owned IRR bridges, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... BIA and Tribally owned IRR bridges, and non-BIA owned IRR bridges? 661.35 Section 661.35 Highways... RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.35 What percentage of IRRBP funding is available for use on BIA and Tribally owned IRR bridges, and non-BIA owned IRR bridges? (a) Up to 80 percent of the available funding...

  10. Intelligent Lane Reservation System for Highway(s)

    OpenAIRE

    Dobre, Ciprian

    2012-01-01

    Highways tend to get congested because of the increase in the number of cars travelling on them. There are two solutions to this. The first one, which is also expensive, consists in building new highways to support the traffic. A much cheaper alternative consists in the introduction of advanced intelligent traffic control systems to manage traffic and increase the efficiency of the already existing highways. Intelligent lane reservation system for highways (ILRSH) is such a software control s...

  11. Analytical model and design of spoke-type permanent-magnet machines accounting for saturation and nonlinearity of magnetic bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Peixin; Chai, Feng [State Key Laboratory of Robotics and System, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Department of Electrical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Bi, Yunlong [Department of Electrical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Pei, Yulong, E-mail: peiyulong1@163.com [Department of Electrical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Cheng, Shukang [State Key Laboratory of Robotics and System, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Department of Electrical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Based on subdomain model, this paper presents an analytical method for predicting the no-load magnetic field distribution, back-EMF and torque in general spoke-type motors with magnetic bridges. Taking into account the saturation and nonlinearity of magnetic material, the magnetic bridges are equivalent to fan-shaped saturation regions. For getting standard boundary conditions, a lumped parameter magnetic circuit model and iterative method are employed to calculate the permeability. The final field domain is divided into five types of simple subdomains. Based on the method of separation of variables, the analytical expression of each subdomain is derived. The analytical results of the magnetic field distribution, Back-EMF and torque are verified by finite element method, which confirms the validity of the proposed model for facilitating the motor design and optimization. - Highlights: • The no-load magnetic field of poke-type motors is firstly calculated by analytical method. • The magnetic circuit model and iterative method are employed to calculate the permeability. • The analytical expression of each subdomain is derived.. • The proposed method can effectively reduce the predesign stages duration.

  12. Analytical model and design of spoke-type permanent-magnet machines accounting for saturation and nonlinearity of magnetic bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Peixin; Chai, Feng; Bi, Yunlong; Pei, Yulong; Cheng, Shukang

    2016-01-01

    Based on subdomain model, this paper presents an analytical method for predicting the no-load magnetic field distribution, back-EMF and torque in general spoke-type motors with magnetic bridges. Taking into account the saturation and nonlinearity of magnetic material, the magnetic bridges are equivalent to fan-shaped saturation regions. For getting standard boundary conditions, a lumped parameter magnetic circuit model and iterative method are employed to calculate the permeability. The final field domain is divided into five types of simple subdomains. Based on the method of separation of variables, the analytical expression of each subdomain is derived. The analytical results of the magnetic field distribution, Back-EMF and torque are verified by finite element method, which confirms the validity of the proposed model for facilitating the motor design and optimization. - Highlights: • The no-load magnetic field of poke-type motors is firstly calculated by analytical method. • The magnetic circuit model and iterative method are employed to calculate the permeability. • The analytical expression of each subdomain is derived.. • The proposed method can effectively reduce the predesign stages duration.

  13. Construction of the Usui bridge. Chodai PC shachokyo no kensetsu (Joshin'etsu jidoshado Usuikyo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otani, S.; Ogata, T. (Japan Highway Public Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-10-01

    The Usui Bridge is a long bridge located at the Usui mountain pass on the Joshinetsu Expressway, completed in March 1993. This paper reports from its planning to the design, construction work, and construction management. The bridge is a first two-span continuous prestressed concrete cable-stayed bridge (with a length of 222 m) with one central cable plane ever constructed as a highway bridge in Japan. Its bridge construction features are represented by the main girder consisted of three-chamber type box girder, and the main tower of reversed Y-letter concrete structure. For the fan-shaped stay cable (9-step double cable), a large capacity cable of non-grouting type fabricated at a factory (with a tensile strength of 1500 tf class) was used to simplify the installation work at the site. The one-plane structure utilizing the center belt as a stay cable fixing portion was adopted because of its economic performance superior to a two-plane structure, easiness in consolidating construction works, and assurance of more open space for car traffic. After the completion, the bridge construction has been awarded with the Tanaka Prize of Japan Society of Civil Engineers and the PC Technology Association prize. 26 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Basic research in support of innovative fuels design for the Generation IV systems (F-BRIDGE project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valot, Carole; Bertolus, Marjorie; Konings, Rudy; Somers, Joe; Groot, Sander de

    2010-01-01

    F-BRIDGE (Basic Research in support of Innovative Fuels Design for the GEN IV systems) is a 4-year project which started in 2008. It seeks to bridge the gap between basic research and technological applications for generation IV nuclear reactor systems. One of the challenges for the next generation of reactors is to significantly increase the efficiency in designing innovative fuels. The object of the F-BRIDGE project is to complement the empirical approach by a physically-based description of fuel and cladding materials to enable a rationalization of the design process and a better selection of promising fuel systems. Advanced modelling and separate effects experiments are carried out in order to obtain more exact physical descriptions of ceramic fuels and cladding, at relevant scales from the atomic to the macroscopic scale. Research is also focused on assessing and improving 'sphere-pac' fuel, a composite-ceramics concept which has shown promise. The project activities can be broken down into four main areas: (i) Basic research investigations using a multi-scale approach in both experimentation and modelling to enable the generation of missing basic data, the identification of relevant mechanisms and the development of appropriate models; (ii) Transfer between technological issues and basic research by bringing together within the same project materials scientists, engineers and end-users; (iii) Assessment of the drawbacks and benefits of the sphere-pac fuel application to various Generation IV systems; (iv) Education and training to promote research in the field of fuel materials, to ensure the exchange of results and ideas among the participants and to link the project with other related European or international initiatives. The project relies on the complementary expertise of 19 partners: nuclear and non nuclear research organisations, universities, a nuclear engineering company, as well as technology and project management consultancy small and medium

  15. 75 FR 19670 - Marine Highway Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Marine Highway Projects ACTION: Solicitation of applications for Marine highway projects. SUMMARY: The Department of Transportation is soliciting applications for Marine Highway Projects as specified in the America's Marine Highway Program Final Rule, MARAD...

  16. Missouri Highway Safety Manual Recalibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-01

    The Highway Safety Manual (HSM) is a national manual for analyzing the highway safety of various facilities, including rural roads, urban arterials, freeways, and intersections. The HSM was first published in 2010, and a 2014 supplement addressed fre...

  17. DOT Official County Highway Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The County Highway Map theme is a scanned and rectified version of the original MnDOT County Highway Map Series. The cultural features on some of these maps may be...

  18. Timber in Bridge Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Detkin, Viktoria

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this final year project was to study the properties of timber as a structural material and the suitability of wood in load bearing members for bridge structures. For a case study, an existing timber bridge was selected. Due to its condition the bridge should be replaced. The design of a new bridge with steel beams holding a glulam deck was made. During the case study the replacement of steel beams by glulam timber ones was discussed. Some calculations were made in order to ...

  19. Load and resistance factor design of bridge foundations accounting for pile group-soil interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Pile group foundations are used in most foundation solutions for transportation structures. Rigorous and reliable pile design methods are : required to produce designs whose level of safety (probability of failure) is known. By utilizing recently dev...

  20. Formal Functional Test Designs: Bridging the Gap Between Test Requirements and Test Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hops, Jonathan

    1993-01-01

    This presentation describes the testing life cycle, the purpose of the test design phase, and test design methods and gives an example application. Also included is a description of Test Representation Language (TRL), a summary of the language, and an example of an application of TRL. A sample test requirement and sample test design are included.

  1. The Information Highway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Al

    1994-01-01

    The new information marketplace is based on a network of wide, two-way highways comprised of private owners and developers, makers of information appliances (televisions, telephones, computers, and combinations of all three), information providers (local broadcasters, digital libraries, information service providers, and entrepreneurs), and…

  2. Highways: Interstate, US & State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains lines for all highways in the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital data structure digitized from a USGS 1:500,000 scale map of the...

  3. Covered Bridge Security Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett Phares; Terry Wipf; Ryan Sievers; Travis Hosteng

    2013-01-01

    The design, construction, and use of covered timber bridges is all but a lost art in these days of pre-stressed concrete, high-performance steel, and the significant growth both in the volume and size of vehicles. Furthermore, many of the existing covered timber bridges are preserved only because of their status on the National Registry of Historic Places or the...

  4. Design of an improved RCD buffer circuit for full bridge circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenyan; Wei, Xueye; Du, Yongbo; Hu, Liang; Zhang, Liwei; Zhang, Ou

    2017-05-01

    In the full bridge inverter circuit, when the switch tube suddenly opened or closed, the inductor current changes rapidly. Due to the existence of parasitic inductance of the main circuit. Therefore, the surge voltage between drain and source of the switch tube can be generated, which will have an impact on the switch and the output voltage. In order to ab sorb the surge voltage. An improve RCD buffer circuit is proposed in the paper. The peak energy will be absorbed through the buffer capacitor of the circuit. The part energy feedback to the power supply, another part release through the resistor in the form of heat, and the circuit can absorb the voltage spikes. This paper analyzes the process of the improved RCD snubber circuit, According to the specific parameters of the main circuit, a reasonable formula for calculating the resistance capacitance is given. A simulation model will be modulated in Multisim, which compared the waveform of tube voltage and the output waveform of the circuit without snubber circuit with the improved RCD snubber circuit. By comparing and analyzing, it is proved that the improved buffer circuit can absorb surge voltage. Finally, experiments are demonstrated to validate that the correctness of the RC formula and the improved RCD snubber circuit.

  5. Field investigations of historic covered timber bridges in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Wacker; Travis Hosteng; Brent. Phares

    2012-01-01

    The Federal Highway Administration is sponsoring a comprehensive research program on Historic Covered Timber Bridges in the USA. This national program's main purpose is to develop improved methods to preserve, rehabililate, and restore the timber bridge trusses that were developed during the early 1800s, and in many cases are still in service today. The overall...

  6. Bridge scour conference shares knowledge and innovations : Tech Transfer Spotlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The National Cooperative Highway Research Programs Domestic Scan (NCHRP Project 20-68A) on bridge scour risk management brought more than 30 national bridge scour experts together for a week in July 2016 to examine ways to prevent and remediate br...

  7. Assessment of the Reliability of Concrete Slab Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Jensen, F. M.; Middleton, C. R.

    This paper is based on research performed for the Highways Agency, London, UK under the project DPU/9/44 "Revision of Bridge Assessment Rules Based on Whole Life Performance: Concrete Bridges". It contains details of a methodology which can be used to generate Whole Life (WL) reliability profiles....

  8. Bridging the Gap between Designers and Consumers: The Role of Effective and Accurate Personas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miaskiewicz, Tomasz

    2010-01-01

    Firms now routinely collect information about the needs of their customers, but this information is not sufficiently considered during product design decisions. This research examines the relationship between designers and consumers to build an understanding of how the consumer should be represented to increase the consumer focus during the…

  9. Bridging the Gap between Actors and Digital tools in a Furnishing Design Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mai; Gade, Anne Nørkjær; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2017-01-01

    The high level of complexity in today’s building design requires a high level of interdisciplinary collaboration, which historically is an uncommon working method in the building industry. To support the interdisciplinary collaboration, new digital tools such as Building Information Models (BIM......) and Virtual Reality (VR) can be implemented in various phases of the building project. The implementation of BIM is expected to support the designers and improve the collaboration among multiple actors, but the social aspects related to the use of BIM in the design process needs further investigation...

  10. Analysis, Design, Modeling, and Control of an Interleaved-Boost Full-Bridge Three-Port Converter for Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mira Albert, Maria del Carmen; Zhang, Zhe; Knott, Arnold

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the design, modeling, and control of an isolated dc-dc three-port converter (TPC) based on an interleaved-boost full-bridge converter with pulsewidth modulation (PWM) and phase-shift control for hybrid renewable energy systems. In the proposed topology, the switches are driven...

  11. Practical cable tension adjustment based upon the satisfaction concept of bridge designers; Sekkeisha no manzokudo wo koryo shita fuzzy cable choryoku choseiho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneyoshi, M.; Tanaka, H. [Hitachi Zosen, Tokyo (Japan)] Furuta, H. [Kansai Univ., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-07-21

    Cable tension adjustment of bridge beam of cable stayed bridge and so forth that uses cable as a structural element is classified into (1) pre-stress adjustment of cable at design level, (2) slim adjustment required at erection level. The former deals with the structurally high dimensional statically indeterminate structures like cable-stayed bridges and is a process for carrying out economical design by making the stress resultant of main girder small due to the introduction of appropriate pre-stress stress on this cable. The later is the process of getting rid off the errors caused in cable tension and camber of girder and tower regarding various errors such as design, fabrication and erection errors. The authors developed analysis method using fuzzy regression analysis and this has been applied in number of practical bridges. In this research, much more practical method is developed where the aspire of designer can be introduced easily by applying the satisfaction concept. By using this, pre-stress adjustment and shim adjustment of cable can be possible in a practical way. 9 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. Development of load and resistance factor design for FRP strengthening of reinforced concrete bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    Externally bonded fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are an increasingly adopted technology for the renewal of existing concrete structures. In order to encourage the further use of these materials, a design code is needed that considers the i...

  13. Enterprise Command, Control, and Design: Bridging C2 Practice and CT Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nissen, Mark E

    2007-01-01

    .... This is particularly the case with research in the area of Contingency Theory (CT). The central premise of CT is that no single enterprise design is ideal for all missions, environments, and contexts...

  14. Environment-behaviour studies: A synergetic bridge between designers and users of open space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Goličnik

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper critically reflects on a kind and use of knowledge about the users of urban open public spaces in urban planning and design. It shows that designers’ perceptions about usage-spatial relationships are inadequate and many times very different form the actual situations. The findings are based on results from workshops with urban landscape designers and on the basis of observation and behavioural mapping in squares and parks of city centres of two European cities, Edinburgh and Ljubljana. As the behavioural maps graphically express structural relationships between physical qualities of places and their users, they represent a useful tool for improvement of designers’ knowledge and perception about potential and actual use of a place. In this respect they represent a basis for better cooperation and synergy between users and planners or designers, as the knowledge about any possible or expected behavioural patterns in places may lead into effective and responsive design.

  15. Bridging the Gap between Eco-Design and the Human Thinking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Komeijani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Technological progress has enabled widespread adoption and use of consumer electronics, changing how global society lives and works. This progress has come with immense environmental cost, including extraction of scarce materials, consumption of fossil fuels, and growing e-waste challenges. Eco-design has emerged as a promising approach to reduce the environmental footprint of electronics by integrating sustainability-oriented decisions early in the product realization process. However, most approaches focus on the product itself, not on the consumer who ultimately decides how to purchase, use, maintain, and dispose of the device. This article presents a new framework to guide designers in developing products with features that encourage consumers to use them in an environmentally sustainable manner. The Sustainable Behavior Design (SBD framework links common design concepts (ergonomic, emotional, preventative, and interaction design with core aspects of the human thinking system to create features to make users aware of their behavior and decisions (reflective thinking or result in sustainable behaviors even when users are unaware (automatic thinking. The SBD framework is demonstrated using a case study on a smartphone, a high demand product. The reimagined smartphone design integrates solutions addressing both automatic and reflective thinking systems, potentially reducing life cycle impacts by almost 30%.

  16. Post-earthquake bridge inspection guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    This report presents a course of action that can be used by New York States Department of Transportation : (NYSDOT) to respond to an earthquake that may have damaged bridges, so that the highway system can be : assessed for safety and functionalit...

  17. Design and Implementation of Battery Charger with Power Factor Correction Using Sepic Converter and Full-bridge DC-DC Converter

    OpenAIRE

    Efendi, Moh. Zaenal; Windarko, Novie Ayub; Amir, Moh. Faisal

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a design and implementation of a converter which has a high power factor for battery charger application. The converter is a combination of a SEPIC converter and a full-bridge DC-DC converter connected in two stages of series circuit. The SEPIC converter works in discontinuous conduction mode and it serves as a power factor corrector so that the shape of input current waveform follows the shape of input voltage waveform. The full-bridge DC-DC converter serves as a regulato...

  18. 23 CFR 661.19 - When is a bridge eligible for replacement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When is a bridge eligible for replacement? 661.19... replacement? To be eligible for replacement, the bridge must be considered structurally deficient or functionally obsolete and must be in accordance with 23 CFR part 650.409(a) for bridge replacement. After an...

  19. Live-load performance evaluation of historic covered timber bridges in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junwon Seo; Travis K. Hosteng; Brent M. Phares; James P. Wacker

    2015-01-01

    The National Historic Covered Bridge Preservation Program (NHCBP), sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), was established to preserve the covered timber bridge structures that were constructed in the early 1800s. Today, many of the approximately 880 covered timber bridges still in existence in the United States are closed to vehicular traffic;...

  20. Simplified Analytical Model of a Covered Burr-Arch-Truss Timber Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Fanous; D. Rammer; T. Wipf

    2013-01-01

    Due to the importance of historical timber covered bridges throughout history, their preservation is necessary. However, conducting an accurate structural evaluation of these types of bridges has always caused difficulties to bridge engineers. This paper summarizes an investigation that was sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration and the USDA Forest Products...

  1. Performance of a Press-Lam bridge : a 5-year load-testing and monitoring program

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. S. Gromala; R. C. Moody; M. M. Sprinkel

    1985-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of load tests on an experimental highway bridge erected and put into service on the George Washington National Forest in Virginia in 1977. The bridge, made entirely of Press-Lam, a laminated veneer lumber (LVL) product, was load tested 1 month, 1 year, and 5 years after erection. The bridge continues to perform quite well and,...

  2. 76 FR 29290 - Environmental Impact Statement: Interstate 64 Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel Corridor, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ...: Interstate 64 Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel Corridor, Virginia AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA... Interstate 64 Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel (HRBT) corridor in Virginia. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Interstate 64 Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel (HRBT) corridor in Virginia. The approximate limits of the study...

  3. Bridging Anticoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clinical centers in the United States, Canada, and Brazil. A more detailed description of the study is ... Your Personal Message Send Message Share on Social Media Bridging Anticoagulation The BRIDGE Study Investigators Circulation. 2012; ...

  4. Planning and design of the Ikedako bride (temporary name); Ikedakokyo (kasho) no keikaku to sekkei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochizuki, H.; Iizuka, Y.; Yukawa, Y. [Japan Highway Public Corporation, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-09-30

    This paper describes the planning and design of the Ikeda-Lake Bridge of the Tokushima Express Way. This bridge is a PC (prestressed concrete) five-span continuous balanced arch bridge with a length 705 m. This bridge transverses prefectural road, Ikeda Dam Lake of Yoshino River, park, JR line, national highway, and town road, and both ends of the bridge are tunnels, resulting in the complicated bridging condition. Various bridging methods were examined from the viewpoint of structural characteristics, workability, profitability, maintenance/management, and aspect. A bridge with PC stiffening girders was adopted. The maximum interval between supports is 200 m. This bridge has the largest scale as a concrete arch bridge in Japan. Basements of bridge piers were constructed by pneumatic caisson method and large-diameter deep basement method. Since basements were located in the dam lake and they were quickly constructed in a short period in a non-flood season, steel caissons were separately fabricated in the dock, towed and placed for excavation. For the construction of upper section, overhang method was adopted using movable working vehicle. For the construction of arch section, the arch was overhung simultaneously in the both sides by composing the truss using stiffened girders, arch ribs, vertical members, and temporary cable stayed members, which was the first in Japan. In 1997, basement construction was completed, and construction of bridge piers and a part of the construction of upper section have been started. 2 refs., 12 figs.

  5. Wireless monitoring of highways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Richard; Hayes-Gill, Barrie; Crowe, John A.; Armitage, Robert; Rodgers, Dale; Hendroff, Adrian

    1999-05-01

    Electronic hardware has been developed to telemetrically transmit temperature and strain measurements from within a public highway in the UK. These measurements provide an important health check for monitoring fatigue damage in pavements. Previous attempts at measuring strain and temperature have required lengths of cable to be installed in the highway. The installation of these cables is both expensive and damaging to the pavement and provides potentially unreliable electrical connections. The new systems consist of a retrofitted instrumented asphalt core which is bonded into the pavement structure. The core contains all the electronics necessary to record two temperatures and two strains. An analogue front end provides signal conditioning which is digitized and passed to microcontroller for endcoding. From there the data is transmitted via a low power radio link to a receiver and data logger positioned by the side of the road. The system has an in-situ operating life of 6 months on AA alkaline batteries. Results are presented of power management and fault tolerant radio protocol techniques, long term temperature variations, dynamic strain measurements within the highway, and RF transmission capabilities through a layer of asphalt.

  6. Intersection how enterprise design bridges the gap between business, technology, and people

    CERN Document Server

    Guenther, Milan

    2012-01-01

    Many organizations struggle with the dynamics and the complexity of today''s social ecosystems that connect everyone and everything, everywhere and all the time. Facing challenges at the intersection of business models, technical developments, and human needs, modern enterprises must overcome the siloed thinking and isolated efforts of the past, and instead address their relationships to people holistically. In Intersection, Milan Guenther introduces a Strategic Design approach that aligns the overarching efforts of Branding, Enterprise Architecture, and Experience Design, and sets them on a

  7. NHDOT : process for municipally managed state aid highway program projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-23

    The design and construction of Municipally Managed State Aid Highway Program projects must comply with the requirements in this guideline in order to receive State Aid under the applicable provisions of RSA 235. Under this process, State Aid Construc...

  8. Determining the Environmental Benefits of Ultra High Performance Concrete as a Bridge Construction Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande Larsen, Ingrid; Granseth Aasbakken, Ida; O'Born, Reyn; Vertes, Katalin; Terje Thorstensen, Rein

    2017-10-01

    Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC) is a material that is attracting attention in the construction industry due to the high mechanical strength and durability, leading to structures having low maintenance requirements. The production of UHPC, however, has generally higher environmental impact than normal strength concrete due to the increased demand of cement required in the concrete mix. What is still not sufficiently investigated, is if the longer lifetime, slimmer construction and lower maintenance requirements lead to a net environmental benefit compared to standard concrete bridge design. This study utilizes life cycle assessment (LCA) to determine the lifetime impacts of two comparable highway crossing footbridges spanning 40 meters, designed respectively with UHPC and normal strength concrete. The results of the study show that UHPC is an effective material for reducing lifetime emissions from construction and maintenance of long lasting infrastructure, as the UHPC design outperforms the normal strength concrete bridge in most impact categories.

  9. Intelligent control for braking-induced longitudinal vibration responses of floating-type railway bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wei-Lian; Qin, Shun-Quan; Tu, Jian-Weia; Liu, Jia; Zhou, Qiang; Cheng, Haibin; Pi, Yong-Lin

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents an intelligent control method and its engineering application in the control of braking-induced longitudinal vibration of floating-type railway bridges. Equations of motion for the controlled floating-type railway bridges have been established based on the analysis of the longitudinal vibration responses of floating-type railway bridges to train braking and axle-loads of moving trains. For engineering applications of the developed theory, a full-scale 500 kN smart magnetorheologic (MR) damper has been designed, fabricated and used to carry out experiments on the intelligent control of braking-induced longitudinal vibration. The procedure for using the developed intelligent method in conjunction with the full-scale 500 kN MR dampers has been proposed and used to control the longitudinal vibration responses of the deck of floating-type railway bridges induced by train braking and axle-loads of moving trains. This procedure has been applied to the longitudinal vibration control of the Tian Xingzhou highway and railway cable-stayed bridge over the Yangtze River in China. The simulated results have shown that the intelligent control system using the smart MR dampers can effectively control the longitudinal response of the floating-type railway bridge under excitations of braking and axle-loads of moving trains.

  10. Application of Composite Structures in Bridge Engineering. Problems of Construction Process and Strength Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaga, Kazimierz; Furtak, Kazimierz

    2015-03-01

    Steel-concrete composite structures have been used in bridge engineering from decades. This is due to rational utilisation of the strength properties of the two materials. At the same time, the reinforced concrete (or prestressed) deck slab is more favourable than the orthotropic steel plate used in steel bridges (higher mass, better vibration damping, longer life). The most commonly found in practice are composite girder bridges, particularly in highway bridges of small and medium spans, but the spans may reach over 200 m. In larger spans steel truss girders are applied. Bridge composite structures are also employed in cable-stayed bridge decks of the main girder spans of the order of 600, 800 m. The aim of the article is to present the cionstruction process and strength analysis problems concerning of this type of structures. Much attention is paid to the design and calculation of the shear connectors characteristic for the discussed objects. The authors focused mainly on the issues of single composite structures. The effect of assembly states on the stresses and strains in composite members are highlighted. A separate part of problems is devoted to the influence of rheological factors, i.e. concrete shrinkage and creep, as well as thermal factors on the stresses and strains and redistribution of internal forces.

  11. Intelligent control for braking-induced longitudinal vibration responses of floating-type railway bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Wei-Lian; Tu, Jian-Weia; Liu, Jia; Zhou, Qiang; Qin, Shun-Quan; Cheng, Haibin; Pi, Yong-Lin

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an intelligent control method and its engineering application in the control of braking-induced longitudinal vibration of floating-type railway bridges. Equations of motion for the controlled floating-type railway bridges have been established based on the analysis of the longitudinal vibration responses of floating-type railway bridges to train braking and axle-loads of moving trains. For engineering applications of the developed theory, a full-scale 500 kN smart magnetorheologic (MR) damper has been designed, fabricated and used to carry out experiments on the intelligent control of braking-induced longitudinal vibration. The procedure for using the developed intelligent method in conjunction with the full-scale 500 kN MR dampers has been proposed and used to control the longitudinal vibration responses of the deck of floating-type railway bridges induced by train braking and axle-loads of moving trains. This procedure has been applied to the longitudinal vibration control of the Tian Xingzhou highway and railway cable-stayed bridge over the Yangtze River in China. The simulated results have shown that the intelligent control system using the smart MR dampers can effectively control the longitudinal response of the floating-type railway bridge under excitations of braking and axle-loads of moving trains

  12. Building Bridges to Connect the Disconnects: An Analysis of Business Program Design Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Debra L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze current trends of design processes and redesign efforts for business programs. A review of the literature suggests business schools are not preparing graduates of their programs with the necessary knowledge, skills and dispositions as deemed appropriate to succeed in the world of work. Some research studies…

  13. Bridging Professional Teacher Knowledge for Science and Literary Integration via Design-Based Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Xavier; Gallagher, Tiffany L.

    2018-01-01

    We offer insights for using design-based research (DBR) as a model for constructing professional development that supports curriculum and instructional knowledge regarding science and literacy integration. We spotlight experiences in the DBR process from data collected from a sample of four elementary teachers. Findings from interviews, focus…

  14. Bridging the gap: The design of bank loan contracts and distance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, Stephan; Verriest, A.J.M.

    How do the distance constraints faced by lenders in acquiring borrower information affect the design of bank loan contracts? Theoretical studies posit that greater information asymmetry leads to the allocation of stronger ex ante decision rights to the lender (the uninformed party). Consistent with

  15. A Design Quality Learning Unit in OO Modeling Bridging the Engineer and the Artist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waguespack, Leslie J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent IS curriculum guidelines compress software development pedagogy into smaller and smaller pockets of course syllabi. Where undergraduate IS students once may have practiced modeling in analysis, design, and implementation across six or more courses in a curriculum using a variety of languages and tools they commonly now experience modeling…

  16. Bridging design and behavioral research with variance-based structural equation modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henseler, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Advertising research is a scientific discipline that studies artifacts (e.g., various forms of marketing communication) as well as natural phenomena (e.g., consumer behavior). Empirical advertising research therefore requires methods that can model design constructs as well as behavioral constructs,

  17. Cybersecurity Protection: Design Science Research toward an Intercloud Transparent Bridge Architecture (ITCOBRA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Joe M.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation uses design science research and engineering to develop a cloud-based simulator for modeling next-generation cybersecurity protection frameworks in the United States. The claim is made that an agile and neutral framework extending throughout the cyber-threat plane is needed for critical infrastructure protection (CIP). This…

  18. Effects of Thinking Style on Design Strategies: Using Bridge Construction Simulation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chuen-Tsai; Wang, Dai-Yi; Chang, Yu-Yeh

    2013-01-01

    Computer simulation users can freely control operational factors and simulation results, repeat processes, make changes, and learn from simulation environment feedback. The focus of this paper is on simulation-based design tools and their effects on student learning processes in a group of 101 Taiwanese senior high school students. Participants…

  19. Creep and shrinkage effects on integral abutment bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munuswamy, Sivakumar

    Integral abutment bridges provide bridge engineers an economical design alternative to traditional bridges with expansion joints owing to the benefits, arising from elimination of expensive joints installation and reduced maintenance cost. The superstructure for integral abutment bridges is cast integrally with abutments. Time-dependent effects of creep, shrinkage of concrete, relaxation of prestressing steel, temperature gradient, restraints provided by abutment foundation and backfill and statical indeterminacy of the structure introduce time-dependent variations in the redundant forces. An analytical model and numerical procedure to predict instantaneous linear behavior and non-linear time dependent long-term behavior of continuous composite superstructure are developed in which the redundant forces in the integral abutment bridges are derived considering the time-dependent effects. The redistributions of moments due to time-dependent effects have been considered in the analysis. The analysis includes nonlinearity due to cracking of the concrete, as well as the time-dependent deformations. American Concrete Institute (ACI) and American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) models for creep and shrinkage are considered in modeling the time dependent material behavior. The variations in the material property of the cross-section corresponding to the constituent materials are incorporated and age-adjusted effective modulus method with relaxation procedure is followed to include the creep behavior of concrete. The partial restraint provided by the abutment-pile-soil system is modeled using discrete spring stiffness as translational and rotational degrees of freedom. Numerical simulation of the behavior is carried out on continuous composite integral abutment bridges and the deformations and stresses due to time-dependent effects due to typical sustained loads are computed. The results from the analytical model are compared with the

  20. Activity-Based Design as a Way to Bridge Artifacts, Professions, and Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brynskov, Martin

    2007-01-01

    This paper will focus on the challenges in designing pervasive computing technology for children’s play, taking into account current trends in popular culture. In search of theoretical support for this work I have been exploring an activity-based approach called ‘habitats’ to describe the conditi......, informational, and pragmatic – together with the ability to describe their relations are a useful platform for practitioners and theorists who are forced to span a heterogeneous mash-up of technologies, theories, and professions.......This paper will focus on the challenges in designing pervasive computing technology for children’s play, taking into account current trends in popular culture. In search of theoretical support for this work I have been exploring an activity-based approach called ‘habitats’ to describe...

  1. Bridging Theory and Practice: Developing Guidelines to Facilitate the Design of Computer-based Learning Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa D. Young

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The design of computer-based learning environments has undergone a paradigm shift; moving students away from instruction that was considered to promote technical rationality grounded in objectivism, to the application of computers to create cognitive tools utilized in constructivist environments. The goal of the resulting computer-based learning environment design principles is to have students learn with technology, rather than from technology. This paper reviews the general constructivist theory that has guided the development of these environments, and offers suggestions for the adaptation of modest, generic guidelines, not mandated principles, that can be flexibly applied and allow for the expression of true constructivist ideals in online learning environments.

  2. Existing Steel Railway Bridges Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vičan, Josef; Gocál, Jozef; Odrobiňák, Jaroslav; Koteš, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The article describes general principles and basis of evaluation of existing railway bridges based on the concept of load-carrying capacity determination. Compared to the design of a new bridge, the modified reliability level for existing bridges evaluation should be considered due to implementation of the additional data related to bridge condition and behaviour obtained from regular inspections. Based on those data respecting the bridge remaining lifetime, a modification of partial safety factors for actions and materials could be respected in the bridge evaluation process. A great attention is also paid to the specific problems of determination of load-caring capacity of steel railway bridges in service. Recommendation for global analysis and methodology for existing steel bridge superstructure load-carrying capacity determination are described too.

  3. Existing Steel Railway Bridges Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vičan Josef

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes general principles and basis of evaluation of existing railway bridges based on the concept of load-carrying capacity determination. Compared to the design of a new bridge, the modified reliability level for existing bridges evaluation should be considered due to implementation of the additional data related to bridge condition and behaviour obtained from regular inspections. Based on those data respecting the bridge remaining lifetime, a modification of partial safety factors for actions and materials could be respected in the bridge evaluation process. A great attention is also paid to the specific problems of determination of load-caring capacity of steel railway bridges in service. Recommendation for global analysis and methodology for existing steel bridge superstructure load-carrying capacity determination are described too.

  4. Bridge maintenance to enhance corrosion resistance and performance of steel girder bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran Yanez, Luis M.

    The integrity and efficiency of any national highway system relies on the condition of the various components. Bridges are fundamental elements of a highway system, representing an important investment and a strategic link that facilitates the transport of persons and goods. The cost to rehabilitate or replace a highway bridge represents an important expenditure to the owner, who needs to evaluate the correct time to assume that cost. Among the several factors that affect the condition of steel highway bridges, corrosion is identified as the main problem. In the USA corrosion is the primary cause of structurally deficient steel bridges. The benefit of regular high-pressure superstructure washing and spot painting were evaluated as effective maintenance activities to reduce the corrosion process. The effectiveness of steel girder washing was assessed by developing models of corrosion deterioration of composite steel girders and analyzing steel coupons at the laboratory under atmospheric corrosion for two alternatives: when high-pressure washing was performed and when washing was not considered. The effectiveness of spot painting was assessed by analyzing the corrosion on steel coupons, with small damages, unprotected and protected by spot painting. A parametric analysis of corroded steel girder bridges was considered. The emphasis was focused on the parametric analyses of corroded steel girder bridges under two alternatives: (a) when steel bridge girder washing is performed according to a particular frequency, and (b) when no bridge washing is performed to the girders. The reduction of structural capacity was observed for both alternatives along the structure service life, estimated at 100 years. An economic analysis, using the Life-Cycle Cost Analysis method, demonstrated that it is more cost-effective to perform steel girder washing as a scheduled maintenance activity in contrast to the no washing alternative.

  5. Design and construction of the Daini-Chikumagawa bridge; Dai ni Chikumagawa kyoryo no sekkei to seko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaba, N.; Takasusuki, K.; Hirasawa, T.; Kanamori, M.

    1996-01-30

    The Daini-Chikumagawa bridge, having spans of 134m {times} 2 which is the largest in Japan as the concrete railroad, is a prestressed concrete (PC) oblique cable-stayed bridge building on the Hokuriku Shinkansen express line which is constructing towards Nagano Olympic (Feb.1998). Regarding adoption of the oblique cable-stayed bridge for the railroad bridge, there are very few examples on a global scale and in Japan besides this bridge there is only one example (Omoto bridge (Iwate pref.), span = 85m). One H type tower (H = 65m from the surface of bridge) is erected at the center of the Chikuma river and then main girders are built at the front and rear of this tower. These main girders, being separated into 5m {times} 24 blocks per one side excepting surroundings of the tower, are fabricated as a three room box type PC block (total width 12.8m; height 3.0m) each on the river beach near the spot. These blocks are jointed from the tower side by the overhanging work using the constructing vehicles and are fixed with oblique materials (cables; two face hanging system) at intervals of 10m. 4 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Bridging the conservation design and delivery gap for wetland bird habitat maintenance and restoration in the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thogmartin, W.E.; Potter, B.; Soulliere, G.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's adoption of Strategic Habitat Conservation is intended to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of conservation delivery by targeting effort in areas where biological benefits are greatest. Conservation funding has not often been allocated in accordance with explicit biological endpoints, and the gap between conservation design (the identification of conservation priority areas) and delivery needs to be bridged to better meet conservation goals for multiple species and landscapes. We introduce a regional prioritization scheme for North American Wetlands Conservation Act funding which explicitly addresses Midwest regional goals for wetland-dependent birds. We developed decision-support maps to guide conservation of breeding and non-breeding wetland bird habitat. This exercise suggested ~55% of the Midwest consists of potential wetland bird habitat, and areas suited for maintenance (protection) were distinguished from those most suited to restoration. Areas with greater maintenance focus were identified for central Minnesota, southeastern Wisconsin, the Upper Mississippi and Illinois rivers, and the shore of western Lake Erie and Saginaw Bay. The shores of Lakes Michigan and Superior accommodated fewer waterbird species overall, but were also important for wetland bird habitat maintenance. Abundant areas suited for wetland restoration occurred in agricultural regions of central Illinois, western Iowa, and northern Indiana and Ohio. Use of this prioritization scheme can increase effectiveness, efficiency, transparency, and credibility to land and water conservation efforts for wetland birds in the Midwestern United States.

  7. Modelling and design of planar Hall effect bridge sensors for low-frequency applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Åsa; Bejhed, R.S.; Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard

    2013-01-01

    .g., disregarding shape anisotropy effects, and also incorporates some approximations. To validate the results, modelled data was compared to measurements on actual PHEBs and was found to predict the measured values within 13% for the investigated geometries. Subsequently, the model was used to establish a design...... that PHEBs can be applicable to several different areas within science including satellite attitude determination and magnetic bead detection in lab-on-a-chip applications, where detectivities down towards 1 nT Hz -0.5 at 1 Hz are required, and maybe even magnetic field measurements in scientific space......The applicability of miniaturized magnetic field sensors is being explored in several areas of magnetic field detection due to their integratability, low mass, and potentially low cost. In this respect, different thin-film technologies, especially those employing magnetoresistance, show great...

  8. Integral Abutment and Jointless Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian-Claudiu Comisu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Integral bridges, or integral abutment and jointless bridges, as they are more commonly known in the USA, are constructed without any movement joints between spans or between spans and abutments. Typically these bridges have stub-type abutments supported on piles and continuous bridge deck from one embankment to the other. Foundations are usually designed to be small and flexible to facilitate horizontal movement or rocking of the support. Integrally bridges are simple or multiple span ones that have their superstructure cast integrally with their substructure. The jointless bridges cost less to construct and require less maintenance then equivalent bridges with expansion joints. Integral bridges present a challenge for load distribution calculations because the bridge deck, piers, abutments, embankments and soil must all be considered as single compliant system. This paper presents some of the important features of integral abutment and jointless bridge design and some guidelines to achieve improved design. The goal of this paper is to enhance the awareness among the engineering community to use integral abutment and jointless bridges in Romania.

  9. Probability Based Evaluation of Vehicular Bridge Load using Weigh-in-Motion Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widi Nugraha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Load and Resistance Factored Design (LRFD method for designing bridge in Indonesia have been implemented for more than 25 years. LRFD method treating loads and strengths variables as random variables with specific safety factors for different loads and strengths variables type. The nominal loads, load factors, reduction factors, and other criteria for bridge design code can be determined to meet the reliability criteria. Statistical data of weigh-in-motion (WIM vehicular loads measurement in Northern Java highway, Cikampek - Pamanukan, West Java (2011, used in as statistical loads variable. A 25 m simple span bridge with reinforced concrete T-girder is used as a model for structural analysis due to WIM measured and nominal vehicular load based on RSNI T-02-2005, with applied bending moment of girder as the output. The distribution fitting result of applied bending moment due to WIM measured vehicular loads is lognormal. The maximum bending moment due to RSNI T-02-2005 nominal vehicular load is 842.45 kN-m and has probability of exceedance of 5x10-5. It can be concluded, for this study, that the bridge designed using RSNI T-02-2005 is safely designed, since it has reliability index, β of 5.02, higher than target reliability, β ranging from 3.50 or 3.72.

  10. 47 CFR 80.309 - Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. 80... Safety Watches § 80.309 Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. In addition to the watch requirement contained in § 80.148, all vessels subject to the Bridge-to-Bridge Act must keep a watch on the designated...

  11. Conceptual design for the thermal shield bridges and multilayer insulation in the interconnect region for the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baritchi, D.; Nicol, T.; Boroski, W.

    1991-01-01

    The interconnect region serves as the connection area between magnets. In order to minimize radiant heat transfer in the interconnect area, the authors used shield bridges which span the 80K and 20K shield gap between adjacent magnets. A sliding joint between bridge sections on adjacent magnets accommodates contraction during cool-down. An investigation was done to determine which attachment schemes (riveted or bolted versus welded) are better for heat transfer. Each shield bridge is covered with the same multilayer insulation scheme used throughout the body of the magnet. These shield bridges also contain pressure reliefs for each shield in the event of an internal piping failure. The reliefs are located in the upper half of the shield section in order to prevent liquid spills from impinging directly onto the vacuum vessel wall

  12. Design and operation of a transistorised bridge-type detector for burn-out in boiling heat transfer experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salt, K J; Wintle, C A [Reactor Development Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1964-04-15

    Theoretical, technical and operational details of an instrument to protect heater rods in heat transfer burn-out experiments from actual rupture under electrical heating, by a Wheatstone bridge method. (author)

  13. Design and operation of a transistorised bridge-type detector for burn-out in boiling heat transfer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salt, K.J.; Wintle, C.A.

    1964-04-01

    Theoretical, technical and operational details of an instrument to protect heater rods in heat transfer burn-out experiments from actual rupture under electrical heating, by a Wheatstone bridge method. (author)

  14. Comparison of using different bridge prosthetic designs for partial defect restoration through mathematical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styranivska, Oksana; Kliuchkovska, Nataliia; Mykyyevych, Nataliya

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the stress-strain states of bone and abutment teeth during the use of different prosthetic designs of fixed partial dentures with the use of relevant mathematical modeling principles. The use of Comsol Multiphysics 3.5 (Comsol AB, Sweden) software during the mathematical modeling of stress-strain states provided numerical data for analytical interpretation in three different clinical scenarios with fixed dentures and different abutment teeth and demountable prosthetic denture with the saddle-shaped intermediate part. Microsoft Excel Software (Microsoft Office 2017) helped to evaluate absolute mistakes of stress and strain parameters of each abutment tooth during three modeled scenarios and normal condition and to summarize data into the forms of tables. In comparison with the fixed prosthetic denture supported by the canine, first premolar, and third molar, stresses at the same abutment teeth with the use of demountable denture with the saddle-shaped intermediate part decreased: at the mesial abutment tooth by 2.8 times, at distal crown by 6.1 times, and at the intermediate part by 11.1 times, respectively, the deformation level decreased by 3.1, 1.9, and 1.4 times at each area. The methods of mathematical modeling proved that complications during the use of fixed partial dentures based on the overload effect of the abutment teeth and caused by the deformation process inside the intermediate section of prosthetic construction.

  15. Ontology Design Patterns: Bridging the Gap Between Local Semantic Use Cases and Large-Scale, Long-Term Data Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Adam; Arko, Robert; Krisnadhi, Adila; Hitzler, Pascal; Janowicz, Krzysztof; Chandler, Cyndy; Narock, Tom; Cheatham, Michelle; Schildhauer, Mark; Jones, Matt; Raymond, Lisa; Mickle, Audrey; Finin, Tim; Fils, Doug; Carbotte, Suzanne; Lehnert, Kerstin

    2015-04-01

    Integrating datasets for new use cases is one of the common drivers for adopting semantic web technologies. Even though linked data principles enables this type of activity over time, the task of reconciling new ontological commitments for newer use cases can be daunting. This situation was faced by the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) as it sought to integrate its existing linked data with other data repositories to address newer scientific use cases as a partner in the GeoLink Project. To achieve a successful integration with other GeoLink partners, BCO-DMO's metadata would need to be described using the new ontologies developed by the GeoLink partners - a situation that could impact semantic inferencing, pre-existing software and external users of BCO-DMO's linked data. This presentation describes the process of how GeoLink is bridging the gap between local, pre-existing ontologies to achieve scientific metadata integration for all its partners through the use of ontology design patterns. GeoLink, an NSF EarthCube Building Block, brings together experts from the geosciences, computer science, and library science in an effort to improve discovery and reuse of data and knowledge. Its participating repositories include content from field expeditions, laboratory analyses, journal publications, conference presentations, theses/reports, and funding awards that span scientific studies from marine geology to marine ecology and biogeochemistry to paleoclimatology. GeoLink's outcomes include a set of reusable ontology design patterns (ODPs) that describe core geoscience concepts, a network of Linked Data published by participating repositories using those ODPs, and tools to facilitate discovery of related content in multiple repositories.

  16. The I-35W bridge Project Website

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    How can websites be used to rebuild trust?  In August 2007, the Interstate Highway 35-W bridge in Minneapolis, MN collapsed during rush hour.  Although many people were rescued and casualties were as limited as could be expected due to quick and effective intervention, the image of a major bridge...... collapsing during rush hour damaged the Minnesota Department of Transportation's reputation and resulted in the loss of public trust for the organization.  The ensuing bridge reconstruction project included a project website intended to rebuild this trust through transparency, community involvement......, and the use of multimodal features.  This paper looks at the I35-W bridge reconstruction project in Minneapolis through web-based communication by the Minnesota Department of Transportation (MnDOT) about the project. The MnDOT bridge reconstruction website will be examined using a combination of 1). Weick...

  17. 75 FR 18095 - America's Marine Highway Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... Marine Highway Transportation. Authority: Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, Sections 1121...] RIN 2133-AB70 America's Marine Highway Program AGENCY: Maritime Administration, Department of... interim final rule that established America's Marine Highway Program, under which the Secretary will...

  18. Comprehensive highway corridor planning with sustainability indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    "The Maryland State Highway Administration (SHA) has initiated major planning efforts to improve transportation : efficiency, safety, and sustainability on critical highway corridors through its Comprehensive Highway Corridor : (CHC) program. This pr...

  19. 78 FR 9771 - Federal Highway Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Action on Proposed Transportation Project in Illinois and Indiana AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration...., Acting Division Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, 3250 Executive Park Drive, Springfield...

  20. 75 FR 18014 - Federal Highway Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Availability regarding a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI): U.S.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Federal Highway Administration, Kentucky Division: Mr. Greg Rawlings...

  1. Research notes : monitoring water quality along highways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    Runoff from highways typically picks up a variety of pollutants from the roadway. These pollutants include sediment, trash, residue from petroleum products, and heavy metals. Depending on the highway and its geographic setting, highway runoff can eva...

  2. Bridge Aesthetics and Structural Honesty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    In bridges the overall form must be chosen with due respect to the transmission of forces if efficient structures shall be created, The design must therefore be governed by experienced structural engineers - in some cases assisted by aesthetic advisers on specific issues. Some basic requirements...... decisive for choosing the form of trusses, arches and cable-stayed bridges are outlined, and several examples show bridges designed without giving priority to the structural aspects....

  3. VEHICLE DRIVING CYCLE OPTIMISATION ON THE HIGHWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinoviy STOTSKO

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the problem of reducing vehicle energy consumption. The authors consider the optimisation of highway driving cycle a way to use the kinetic energy of a car more effectively at various road conditions. The model of a vehicle driving control at the highway which consists of elementary cycles, such as accelerating, free rolling and deceleration under forces of external resistance, was designed. Braking, as an energy dissipation regime, was not included. The influence of the various longitudinal profiles of the road was taken into consideration and included in the model. Ways to use the results of monitoring road and traffic conditions are presented. The method of non-linear programming is used to design the optimal vehicle control function and phase trajectory. The results are presented by improved typical driving cycles that present energy saving as a subject of choice at a specified schedule.

  4. Myocardial Bridging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Myocardial bridging is rare. Myocardial bridges are most commonly localized in the middle segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The anatomic features of the bridges vary significantly. Alterations of the endothelial morphology and the vasoactive agents impact on the progression of atherosclerosis of myocardial bridging. Patients may present with chest pain, myocardial infarction, arrhythmia and even sudden death. Patients who respond poorly to the medical treatment with β-blockers warrant a surgical intervention. Myotomy is a preferred surgical procedure for the symptomatic patients. Coronary stent deployment has been in limited use due to the unsatisfactory long-term results.

  5. Best Practices for Construction and Repair of Bridge Approaches and Departures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) has experienced frequent distresses in bridge approach/departure asphalt pavements in its highway system. Commonly observed distresses include alligator cracking and rutting, which reduce roadway smoothness...

  6. Radioisotopes and their applications in highway testings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, S.C.

    1974-01-01

    Applications of radioisotopes in highway testing are described. Radioisotopic methods have been used to determine : (1) moisture and density of soil and base materials for compaction control, (2) magnesium oxide content of cement, (3) permeability of bituminous coverings and (4) field density of freshly laid hot bituminous concrete surface. Possible uses of nuclear explosives for production of aggregates and of radioisotopes for determination of deflection in the design of flexible pavements are indicated. (M.G.B.)

  7. CAMAC serial highway interface for the LSI-11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, N.H.

    1980-01-01

    A CAMAC Serial Highway Interface has been designed for the Local Control and Instrumentation System of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility. There are over 50 distinguishable systems in the facility, each of which consists of the LSI-11 computer, fiber optic communication links, and the CAMAC system. The LSI-11 computer includes a 32k memory, serial modem interface and the CAMAC Serial Highway Interface

  8. Highway Performance Monitoring System (HPMS) (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) has the responsibility to assure that adequate highway transportation information is available to support its functions and...

  9. Development of Inspection Robots for Bridge Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Bum Yun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the bridge cable inspection robot developed in Korea. Two types of the cable inspection robots were developed for cable-suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridge. The design of the robot system and performance of the NDT techniques associated with the cable inspection robot are discussed. A review on recent advances in emerging robot-based inspection technologies for bridge cables and current bridge cable inspection methods is also presented.

  10. Development of inspection robots for bridge cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hae-Bum; Kim, Se-Hoon; Wu, Liuliu; Lee, Jong-Jae

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the bridge cable inspection robot developed in Korea. Two types of the cable inspection robots were developed for cable-suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridge. The design of the robot system and performance of the NDT techniques associated with the cable inspection robot are discussed. A review on recent advances in emerging robot-based inspection technologies for bridge cables and current bridge cable inspection methods is also presented.

  11. USING TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNERS TO CALCULATE AND MAP VERTICAL BRIDGE CLEARANCE

    OpenAIRE

    C. Zhang; D. Arditi; Z. Chen

    2013-01-01

    The vertical clearance of a bridge over a highway is important in preventing oversized vehicles from hitting the bridge. The vertical clearance of a bridge is traditionally measured by using surveying equipment such as leveling rods and total stations. Typically, measurements are taken at multiple locations in order to determine the minimum vertical clearance under the bridge. This process is time and labor consuming. Also, these measurements may not be accurate because of the traffi...

  12. Using weigh-in-motion data to determine bridge dynamic amplification factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalin Jan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic component of bridge traffic loading is commonly taken into account with a Dynamic Amplification Factor (DAF – the ratio between the maximum dynamic and static load effects on a bridge. In the design codes, this factor is generally higher than in reality. While this is fine for new bridges that must account for various risks during their life-time, it imposes unnecessary conservativism into assessment of the existing well defined bridges. Therefore, analysis of existing bridges should apply more realistic DAF values. One way of obtaining them experimentally is by bridge weigh-in-motion (B-WIM measurements, which use an existing instrumented bridge or culvert to weigh all crossing vehicles at highway speeds. The B-WIM system had been equipped with two methods of obtaining an approximation to the static response of the. The first method uses the sum of influence lines. This method relies on accurate axle identification, the failure of which can have a large influence on the DAF value. The other method uses a pre-determined low-pass filter to remove the dynamic component of the measured signal; however an expert is needed to set the filter parameters. A new approach that tries to eliminate these two drawbacks has been developed. In this approach the parameters for the filter are determined automatically by fitting the filtered response to the sum of the influence lines. The measurement of DAF on a typical bridge site agrees with experiments performed in the ARCHES [1] project: dynamic amplification decreases as static loading increases.

  13. 77 FR 37953 - Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Bridge Replacement in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... Massachusetts Division Office, 55 Broadway, 10th Floor, Cambridge, MA 02142, 617-494-2419, [email protected]dot.gov . For Massachusetts Department of Transportation Highway Division (MassDOT): Michael Furlong, Project... Proposed Bridge Replacement in Massachusetts AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION...

  14. 77 FR 6622 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Action on Proposed Bridge Replacement in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ..., [email protected]dot.gov . For Massachusetts Department of Transportation (MassDOT) Highway Division: James Cerbone, Project Manager, MassDOT Highway Division, 10 Park Plaza, Room 4260, Boston, MA 02116, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m... be undertaken by MassDOT under the Commonwealth's $3 billion Accelerated Bridge Program. The project...

  15. The development of an ecological approach to manage the pollution risk from highway runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, B; Dempsey, P; Johnson, I; Whitehead, M

    2009-01-01

    In the UK, the Highways Agency is responsible for operating, maintaining and improving the strategic road network in England. One focus of the Highways Agency's ongoing research into the nature and impact of highway runoff is aimed at ensuring that the Highways Agency will meet the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive. A research programme, undertaken in partnership with the Environment Agency, is in progress to develop a better understanding of pollutants in highway runoff and their ecological impact. The paper presents the outcome of a study to: (1) monitor pollutants in highway runoff under different climate and traffic conditions; (2) develop standards to assess potential ecological risks from soluble pollutants in highway runoff; and (3) develop a model to predict pollutant concentrations in highway runoff. The model has been embedded in a design tool incorporating risk assessment procedures and receiving water standards for soluble and insoluble pollutants--the latter has been developed elsewhere in another project within the research programme. The design tool will be used to support improved guidance on where, and to what level, treatment of runoff is required for highway designers to manage the risk of ecological impact from highway runoff.

  16. Steel-soil composite bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Guangli; Pettersson, Lars; Karoumi, Raid

    2017-01-01

    viability, while their environmental performance is overlooked. Today’s designers are urged to seek new design options to reduce the environmental burdens. Sweden owns more than 24574 bridges and most of them are short spans. Among them, the slab frame bridge (CFB) is a common solution. Soil steel composite...... bridge (SSCB), alternatively, is a functionally equivalent solution to CFB and shows advantages in low cost and easy construction. This paper compares the environmental performance between these two bridge types based on life cycle assessment (LCA). The analysis and result shows that, the SSCB...

  17. Flexural and Shear Behavior of FRP Strengthened AASHTO Type Concrete Bridge Girders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Yazdani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiber-reinforced polymers (FRP are being increasingly used for the repair and strengthening of deteriorated or unsafe concrete structures, including structurally deficient concrete highway bridges. The behavior of FRP strengthened concrete bridge girders, including failure modes, failure loads, and deflections, can be determined using an analytical finite element modeling approach, as outlined in this paper. The differences in flexural versus shear FRP strengthening and comparison with available design guidelines are also beneficial to design professionals. In this paper, a common AASHTO type prestressed concrete bridge girder with FRP wrapping was analyzed using the ANSYS FEM software and the ACI analytical approach. Both flexural and shear FRP applications, including vertical and inclined shear strengthening, were examined. Results showed that FRP wrapping can significantly benefit concrete bridge girders in terms of flexure/shear capacity increase, deflection reduction, and crack control. The FRP strength was underutilized in the section selected herein, which could be addressed through decrease of the amount of FRP and prestressing steel used, thereby increasing the section ductility. The ACI approach produced comparable results to the FEM and can be effectively and conveniently used in design.

  18. Wireless Smart Sensor Network System Using SmartBridge Sensor Nodes for Structural Health Monitoring of Existing Concrete Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaviña, J. R.; Uy, F. A.; Carreon, J. D.

    2017-06-01

    There are over 8000 bridges in the Philippines today according to the Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH). Currently, visual inspection is the most common practice in monitoring the structural integrity of bridges. However, visual inspections have proven to be insufficient in determining the actual health or condition of a bridge. Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) aims to give, in real-time, a diagnosis of the actual condition of the bridge. In this study, SmartBridge Sensor Nodes were installed on an existing concrete bridge with American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Type IV Girders to gather vibration of the elements of the bridge. Also, standards on the effective installation of SmartBridge Sensor Nodes, such as location and orientation was determined. Acceleration readings from the sensor were then uploaded to a server, wherein they are monitored against certain thresholds, from which, the health of the bridge will be derived. Final output will be a portal or webpage wherein the information, health, and acceleration readings of the bridge will be available for viewing. With levels of access set for different types of users, the main users will have access to download data and reports. Data transmission and webpage access are available online, making the SHM system wireless.

  19. Highway and interline transportation routing models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D.S.; Johnson, P.E.

    1994-01-01

    The potential impacts associated with the transportation of hazardous materials are important issues to shippers, carriers, and the general public. Since transportation routes are a central characteristic in most of these issues, the prediction of likely routes is the first step toward the resolution of these issues. In addition, US Department of Transportation requirements (HM-164) mandate specific routes for shipments of highway controlled quantities of radioactive materials. In response to these needs, two routing models have been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). These models have been designated by DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Transportation Management Division (DOE/EM) as the official DOE routing models. Both models, HIGHWAY and INTERLINE, are described

  20. Design and Implementation of Battery Charger with Power Factor Correction using Sepic Converter and Full-bridge DC-DC Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Zaenal Efendi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a design and implementation of a converter which has a high power factor for battery charger application. The converter is a combination of a SEPIC converter and a full-bridge DC-DC converter connected in two stages of series circuit. The SEPIC converter works in discontinuous conduction mode and it serves as a power factor corrector so that the shape of input current waveform follows the shape of input voltage waveform. The full-bridge DC-DC converter serves as a regulator of output voltage and operates at continuous conduction mode. The experimental results show that the power factor of this converter system can be achieved up to 0.96.

  1. Building a Straw Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teaching Science, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This project is for a team of students (groups of two or three are ideal) to design and construct a model of a single-span bridge, using plastic drinking straws as the building material. All steps of the design, construction, testing and critiquing stages should be recorded by students in a journal. Students may like to include labelled diagrams,…

  2. Probabilistic model of bridge vehicle loads in port area based on in-situ load testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ming; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Jianren; Wang, Rei; Yan, Yanhong

    2017-11-01

    Vehicle load is an important factor affecting the safety and usability of bridges. An statistical analysis is carried out in this paper to investigate the vehicle load data of Tianjin Haibin highway in Tianjin port of China, which are collected by the Weigh-in- Motion (WIM) system. Following this, the effect of the vehicle load on test bridge is calculated, and then compared with the calculation result according to HL-93(AASHTO LRFD). Results show that the overall vehicle load follows a distribution with a weighted sum of four normal distributions. The maximum vehicle load during the design reference period follows a type I extremum distribution. The vehicle load effect also follows a weighted sum of four normal distributions, and the standard value of the vehicle load is recommended as 1.8 times that of the calculated value according to HL-93.

  3. Comparison of System Identification Methods using Ambient Bridge Test Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P.; Brincker, Rune; Peeters, B.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the performance of four different system identification methods is compared using operational data obtained from an ambient vibration test of the Swiss Z24 highway bridge. The four methods are the frequency domain based peak-picking methods, the polyreference LSCE method, the stocha......In this paper the performance of four different system identification methods is compared using operational data obtained from an ambient vibration test of the Swiss Z24 highway bridge. The four methods are the frequency domain based peak-picking methods, the polyreference LSCE method...

  4. 78 FR 44137 - Availability of Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Construction of a Highway...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Construction of a Highway Bridge Across the Manatee River at... for the Manatee River Draft Environmental Impact Statement published in the Federal Register on July 5... published a notice titled, ``Availability of Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed...

  5. Optimum design of large span concrete filled steel tubular arch bridge based on static, stability and modal analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵长军; 胡隽; 徐兴

    2002-01-01

    A three-dimensional finite element model was established for a large span concrete filled steel tubular (CFST) arch bridge which is currently under construction. The arch rib, the spandrel columns, the prestressed concrete box-beam, the cast-in-situ concrete plate of bridge deck, the steel box-beam and the crossbeams connecting the two pieces of arch ribs, were modeled by three-dimensional Timoshenko beam elements (3DTBE). The suspenders were modeled by three-dimensional cable elements (3DCE). Both geometric nonlinearity and prestress effect could be included in each kind of element. At the same time a second finite element model with the same geometric and material properties excepted for the sectional dimension of arch rib was set up. Static dynamic analyses were performed to determine the corresponding characteristics of the structure. The results showed that the arch rib's axial rigidity could be determined by static analysis. The stability and vibration of this system could be separated into in-plane modes, out-of-plane modes and coupled modes. The in-plane stability and dynamic characteristics are determined by the arch rib's vertical stiffness and that of out-of-plane is determined by the crossbeams' stiffness and arch rib's lateral stiffness mainly. The in-plane stiffness is much greater than that of out-of-plane for this kind of bridge . The effect of geometric nonlinearity and prestress effect on bridge behavior is insignificant.

  6. Design and introduction of a disulfide bridge in firefly luciferase: increase of thermostability and decrease of pH sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imani, Mehdi; Hosseinkhani, Saman; Ahmadian, Shahin; Nazari, Mahboobeh

    2010-08-01

    The thermal sensitivity and pH-sensitive spectral properties of firefly luciferase have hampered its application in a variety of fields. It is proposed that the stability of a protein can be increased by introduction of disulfide bridge that decreases the configurational entropy of unfolding. A disulfide bridge is introduced into Photinus pyralis firefly luciferase to make two separate mutant enzymes with a single bridge. Even though the A103C/S121C mutant showed remarkable thermal stability, its specific activity decreased, whereas the A296C/A326C mutant showed tremendous thermal stability, relative pH insensitivity and 7.3-fold increase of specific activity. Moreover, the bioluminescence emission spectrum of A296C/A326C was resistant against higher temperatures (37 degrees C). Far-UV CD analysis showed slight secondary structure changes for both mutants. Thermal denaturation analysis showed that conformational stabilities of A103C/S121C and A296C/A326C are more than native firefly luciferase. It is proposed that since A296 and A326 are situated in the vicinity of the enzyme active site microenvironment in comparison with A103 and S121, the formation of a disulfide bridge in this region has more impact on enzyme kinetic characteristics.

  7. Bridge Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper bridge management systems are discussed with special emphasis on management systems for reinforced concrete bridges. Management systems for prestressed concrete bridges, steel bridges, or composite bridges can be developed in a similar way....

  8. Case study: highly loaded MSE bridge supporting structure, Syncrude NMAPS conveyor overpasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherger, B.; Brockbank, B. [Reinforced Earth Company Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Mimura, W. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    A crusher and conveyor system was constructed at the Mildred Lake Oil Sands Mine near Fort McMurray, Alberta in order to facilitate ore delivery from Syncrude's North Mine. As part of this North Mine Auxiliary Production System (NMAPS), Syncrude Canada and their consultant Cosyn Technology identified the need for 3 overpasses over conveyors in the North Mine in order to provide unrestricted crossing over the operating conveyor system for the heavy hauler trucks and light vehicle mine traffic. The overpasses were designed to support the dead load of the granular fill and the live load of two loaded heavy hauler trucks, with a design load for each loaded hauler of 670 900 kg. This paper reviewed various aspects of the design from planning, structure selection, and overall stability and bearing capacity considerations. The different designs in the 3 new overpasses accommodated foundation and loading requirements. The designs ranged from the use of precast one-piece reinforced concrete arches, Mechanically Stabilized Earth (MSE) bridge abutment technology, and a combination of the two. The MSE retaining walls directly supported the bridge superstructure without the use of piles or other deep structural foundations. The design was challenging because of the significant vertical stresses transferred onto the wall. All 3 overpasses also used MSE walls for the supporting end wing walls. The main focus of this paper was on the heavily loaded MSE walls supporting the bridge abutment style overpasses. This structure has illustrated the capability of properly designed MSE wall structures with steel soil reinforcement and reinforced precast concrete face panels to successfully carry bridge footing pressure loadings up to 545 kPa. It was concluded that this case has good potential for use in future bridge projects in both the industrial and highway sectors. 2 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Soft Budgets And Highway Franchising

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Engel; Ronald Fischer; Alexander Galetovic

    2004-01-01

    Latin American governments progressively substituted build–operate–and–transfer (BOT) contracts for government–provided highways during the nineties. Because under BOT a private franchise holder finances and operates the road in exchange for tolls, it is often claimed that BOT represents a privatization of highways. We argue that, as currently applied, the BOT model is an imperfect and incomplete privatization, because the franchise holders’ budget constraint has been soft, with losses being ...

  10. INSAR For Early Warning Of Possible Highway Instability Over Undermined Area Of Ostrava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazecky, Milan; Kacmarik, Michal; Rapant, Petr

    2012-01-01

    A part of czech highway D1 connecting Ostrava with Prague and Poland, is built over an undermined area of Ostrava-Svinov. Since the end of 2010, this part of the highway is fully operational. Because of undermining, a subsidence can be expected, however with a very slow rate since the mines are no more active in this area. Several TerraSAR-X images from 2011 are investigated interferometrically in order to estimate a precise deformation model. Subjects of interest are movements of newly built highway bridges, banks and close neighbourhood. Existing C-band multitemporal InSAR processing results of ERS and Envisat are available from an earlier period that reveil a slow trend of residual subsidence. In this project, InSAR will be investigated as a tool for an early warning for highway stability.

  11. Ground-water problems in highway construction and maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, W.C.; Haigler, L.B.

    1953-01-01

    This report discusses the occurrence of ground water in relation to certain problems in highway construction and maintenance. These problems are: the subdrainage of roads; quicksand; the arrest of soil creep in road cuts; the construction of lower and larger culverts necessitated by the farm-drainage program; the prevention of failure of bridge abutments and retaining walls; and the water-cement ratio of sub-water-table concrete. Although the highway problems and suggested solutions are of general interest, they are considered with special reference to the State of Delaware, in relation to the geology of that State. The new technique of soil stabilization by electroosmosis is reviewed in the hope that it might find application here in road work and pile setting, field application by the Germans and Russians is reviewed.

  12. Marginal overweight operating scenario for DOE's initiative I highway casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, C.V.; Loud, G.C.; Heitzman, A.C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper assesses the potential transport of high-capacity Initiative I highway casks under development by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) as permitted marginal overweight shipments that: exceed a gross vehicle weight (gvw) limit of 80,000, but weight less than 96,000 pounds; follow axle and axle group weight limits adopted by the Surface Transportation Assistance Act (STAA) of 1982; conform to dimensional restrictions to operate on most major highways; and comply with the Federal Bridge Formula. The marginal overweight tractor-trailer would operate in normal open-quotes over-the-roadclose quotes mode and comply with all laws and regulations. The vehicle would have a sleeper berth and two drivers - one to drive while the other provides escort and communications services and accumulates required off-duty time

  13. Mathematical model of highways network optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhapov, R. L.; Nikolaeva, R. V.; Gatiyatullin, M. H.; Makhmutov, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    The article deals with the issue of highways network design. Studies show that the main requirement from road transport for the road network is to ensure the realization of all the transport links served by it, with the least possible cost. The goal of optimizing the network of highways is to increase the efficiency of transport. It is necessary to take into account a large number of factors that make it difficult to quantify and qualify their impact on the road network. In this paper, we propose building an optimal variant for locating the road network on the basis of a mathematical model. The article defines the criteria for optimality and objective functions that reflect the requirements for the road network. The most fully satisfying condition for optimality is the minimization of road and transport costs. We adopted this indicator as a criterion of optimality in the economic-mathematical model of a network of highways. Studies have shown that each offset point in the optimal binding road network is associated with all other corresponding points in the directions providing the least financial costs necessary to move passengers and cargo from this point to the other corresponding points. The article presents general principles for constructing an optimal network of roads.

  14. Nondestructive testing for bridge diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Toshiyuki; Mikami, Shuichi; Yamazaki, Tomoyuki

    1997-01-01

    There are many motivations for bridge diagnosis using Nondestructive testing (NDT) to monitor its integrity. The measured frequency and damping on real bridge are compared in one figure as a function of span length and general aspects are explained. These date were measured in every construction of bridges and applied to design new bridges. Ultrasonic testing is also well used for concrete and steel members mainly to detect internal damages or delaminations. Detail analysis on reflected waves gives us more accurate information about the defect. Experimental results are shown as examples in this paper.

  15. Highways of the future : a strategic plan for highway infrastructure research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This Highways of the FutureA Strategic Plan for Highway Infrastructure Research and Development was developed in response to a need expressed by the staff of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Office of Infrastructure Research and Developme...

  16. The optimization of concrete mixtures for use in highway applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moini, Mohamadreza

    Portland cement concrete is most used commodity in the world after water. Major part of civil and transportation infrastructure including bridges, roadway pavements, dams, and buildings is made of concrete. In addition to this, concrete durability is often of major concerns. In 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) estimated that an annual investment of 170 billion on roads and 20.5 billion for bridges is needed on an annual basis to substantially improve the condition of infrastructure. Same article reports that one-third of America's major roads are in poor or mediocre condition [1]. However, portland cement production is recognized with approximately one cubic meter of carbon dioxide emission. Indeed, the proper and systematic design of concrete mixtures for highway applications is essential as concrete pavements represent up to 60% of interstate highway systems with heavier traffic loads. Combined principles of material science and engineering can provide adequate methods and tools to facilitate the concrete design and improve the existing specifications. In the same manner, the durability must be addressed in the design and enhancement of long-term performance. Concrete used for highway pavement applications has low cement content and can be placed at low slump. However, further reduction of cement content (e.g., versus current specifications of Wisconsin Department of Transportation to 315-338 kg/m 3 (530-570 lb/yd3) for mainstream concrete pavements and 335 kg/m3 (565 lb/yd3) for bridge substructure and superstructures) requires delicate design of the mixture to maintain the expected workability, overall performance, and long-term durability in the field. The design includes, but not limited to optimization of aggregates, supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs), chemical and air-entraining admixtures. This research investigated various theoretical and experimental methods of aggregate optimization applicable for the reduction of cement content

  17. Fatigue test on aluminium bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Soetens, F.; Straalen, van IJ.J.

    2005-01-01

    Traffic bridges are subjected to variable loads and should therefore be checked on fatigue. Especially low weight materials, like aluminium, are sensitive to fatigue, because the variable load is a substantial part of the total load. This paper shows the structural design of an aluminium bridge

  18. Vulnerability of bridges to fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giuliani, Luisa; Crosti, C.; Gentili, F.

    2012-01-01

    Even if recent effort in developing methodology and measures for design structures against fire and explosions has been mostly focused on buildings, bridges can also be very sensitive to those actions, as witnesses by some recent bridge accidents, which caused major economic losses and also endan...

  19. Isolated Full Bridge Boost DC-DC Converter Designed for Bidirectional Operation of Fuel Cells/Electrolyzer Cells in Grid-Tie Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittini, Riccardo; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2013-01-01

    Energy production from renewable energy sources is continuously varying, for this reason energy storage is becoming more and more important as the percentage of green energy increases. Newly developed fuel cells can operate in reverse mode as electrolyzer cells; therefore, they are becoming...... current. Dc-dc converter efficiency plays a fundamental role in the overall system efficiency since processed energy is always flowing through the converter; for this reason, loss analysis and optimization are a key component of the converter design. The paper presents an isolated full bridge boost dc...

  20. A comparative study of wood highway sound barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan Grgurevich; Thomas Boothby; Harvey Manbeck; Courtney Burroughs; Stephen Cegelka; Craig Bernecker; Michael A. Ritter

    2002-01-01

    Prototype designs for wood highway sound barriers meeting the multiple criteria of structural integrity, acoustic effectiveness, durability, and potential for public acceptance have been developed. Existing installations of wood sound barriers were reviewed and measurements conducted in the field to estimate acoustic insertion losses. A complete matrix of design...