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Sample records for highly selective butanol

  1. Development of a High Temperature Microbial Fermentation Processfor Butanol Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeor, Jeffery D.; Reed, David W.; Daubaras, Dayna L.; Thompson, Vicki S.

    2016-01-01

    Transforming renewable biomass into cost competitive high-performance biofuels and bioproducts is key to US energy security. Butanol production by microbial fermentation and chemical conversion to polyolefins, elastomers, drop-in jet or diesel fuel, and other chemicals is a promising solution. A high temperature fermentation process can facilitate butanol recovery up to 40%, by using gas stripping. Other benefits of fermentation at high temperatures are optimal hydrolysis rates in the saccharification of biomass which leads to maximized butanol production, decrease in energy costs associated with reactor cooling and capital cost associated with reactor design, and a decrease in contamination and cost for maintaining a sterile environment. Butanol stripping at elevated temperatures gives higher butanol production through constant removal and continuous fermentation. We describe methods used in an attempt to genetically prepare Geobacillus caldoxylosiliticus for insertion of a butanol pathway. Methods used were electroporation of electrocompetent cells, ternary conjugation with E. coli, and protoplast fusion.

  2. Development of a High Temperature Microbial Fermentation Processfor Butanol Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeor, Jeffery D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Reed, David W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Daubaras, Dayna L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Thompson, Vicki S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Transforming renewable biomass into cost competitive high-performance biofuels and bioproducts is key to US energy security. Butanol production by microbial fermentation and chemical conversion to polyolefins, elastomers, drop-in jet or diesel fuel, and other chemicals is a promising solution. A high temperature fermentation process can facilitate butanol recovery up to 40%, by using gas stripping. Other benefits of fermentation at high temperatures are optimal hydrolysis rates in the saccharification of biomass which leads to maximized butanol production, decrease in energy costs associated with reactor cooling and capital cost associated with reactor design, and a decrease in contamination and cost for maintaining a sterile environment. Butanol stripping at elevated temperatures gives higher butanol production through constant removal and continuous fermentation. We describe methods used in an attempt to genetically prepare Geobacillus caldoxylosiliticus for insertion of a butanol pathway. Methods used were electroporation of electrocompetent cells, ternary conjugation with E. coli, and protoplast fusion.

  3. Improvement of the butanol production selectivity and butanol to acetone ratio (B:A) by addition of electron carriers in the batch culture of a new local isolate of Clostridium acetobutylicum YM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser Al-Shorgani, Najeeb Kaid; Kalil, Mohd Sahaid; Wan Yusoff, Wan Mohtar; Shukor, Hafiza; Hamid, Aidil Abdul

    2015-12-01

    Improvement in the butanol production selectivity or enhanced butanol:acetone ratio (B:A) is desirable in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by Clostridium strains. In this study, artificial electron carriers were added to the fermentation medium of a new isolate of Clostridium acetobutylicum YM1 in order to improve the butanol yield and B:A ratio. The results revealed that medium supplementation with electron carriers changed the metabolism flux of electron and carbon in ABE fermentation by YM1. A decrease in acetone production, which subsequently improved the B:A ratio, was observed. Further improvement in the butanol production and B:A ratios were obtained when the fermentation medium was supplemented with butyric acid. The maximum butanol production (18.20 ± 1.38 g/L) was gained when a combination of methyl red and butyric acid was added. Although the addition of benzyl viologen (0.1 mM) and butyric acid resulted in high a B:A ratio of 16:1 (800% increment compared with the conventional 2:1 ratio), the addition of benzyl viologen to the culture after 4 h resulted in the production of 18.05 g/L butanol. Manipulating the metabolic flux to butanol through the addition of electron carriers could become an alternative strategy to achieve higher butanol productivity and improve the B:A ratio. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of a high temperature microbial fermentation process for butanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeor, Jeffery D. St. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Reed, David W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Daubaras, Dayna L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Thompson, Vicki S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Transforming renewable biomass into cost-competitive high-performance biofuels and bioproducts is key to the U.S. future energy and chemical needs. Butanol production by microbial fermentation for chemical conversion to polyolefins, elastomers, drop-in jet or diesel fuel, and other chemicals is a promising solution. A high temperature fermentation process could decrease energy costs, capital cost, give higher butanol production, and allow for continuous fermentation. In this paper, we describe our approach to genetically transform Geobacillus caldoxylosiliticus, using a pUCG18 plasmid, for potential insertion of a butanol production pathway. Transformation methods tested were electroporation of electrocompetent cells, ternary conjugation with E. coli donor and helper strains, and protoplast fusion. These methods have not been successful using the current plasmid. Growth controls show cells survive the various methods tested, suggesting the possibility of transformation inhibition from a DNA restriction modification system in G. caldoxylosiliticus, as reported in the literature.

  5. High-Tg Polynorbornene-Based Block and Random Copolymers for Butanol Pervaporation Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Register, Richard A.; Kim, Dong-Gyun; Takigawa, Tamami; Kashino, Tomomasa; Burtovyy, Oleksandr; Bell, Andrew

    Vinyl addition polymers of substituted norbornene (NB) monomers possess desirably high glass transition temperatures (Tg); however, until very recently, the lack of an applicable living polymerization chemistry has precluded the synthesis of such polymers with controlled architecture, or copolymers with controlled sequence distribution. We have recently synthesized block and random copolymers of NB monomers bearing hydroxyhexafluoroisopropyl and n-butyl substituents (HFANB and BuNB) via living vinyl addition polymerization with Pd-based catalysts. Both series of polymers were cast into the selective skin layers of thin film composite (TFC) membranes, and these organophilic membranes investigated for the isolation of n-butanol from dilute aqueous solution (model fermentation broth) via pervaporation. The block copolymers show well-defined microphase-separated morphologies, both in bulk and as the selective skin layers on TFC membranes, while the random copolymers are homogeneous. Both block and random vinyl addition copolymers are effective as n-butanol pervaporation membranes, with the block copolymers showing a better flux-selectivity balance. While polyHFANB has much higher permeability and n-butanol selectivity than polyBuNB, incorporating BuNB units into the polymer (in either a block or random sequence) limits the swelling of the polyHFANB and thereby improves the n-butanol pervaporation selectivity.

  6. Selectivities of rare earth oxide catalysts for dehydration of butanols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, S.; Trillo, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The catalytic dehydration of 2-propanol, 1-butanol, and 2-butanol over La 2 O 3 , CeO 2 , Pr 6 O 11 , Sm 2 O 3 , Eu 2 O 3 , Dy 2 O 3 , Ho 2 O 3 , and Yb 2 O 3 is studied. Because of the gradual variation of the general properties of 4f oxides, the former group has been considered a likely series to analyze the existence of definite correlations between alkene distribution and catalyst properties, often reported in the literature. According to our study, the effect of temperature on product distribution may strongly restrict the validity of such correlations. This point is discussed on the basis of the linear relationships found here between the activation energy (E/sub a/) and the log of the preexponential factor

  7. Low and High Temperature Combustion Chemistry of Butanol Isomers in Premixed Flames and Autoignition Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarathy, S M; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Mehl, M; Yasunaga, K; Curran, H J; Tsujimura, T; Osswald, P; Kohse-Hoinghaus, K

    2010-12-12

    Butanol is a fuel that has been proposed as a bio-derived alternative to conventional petroleum derived fuels. The structural isomer in traditional 'bio-butanol' fuel is n-butanol, but newer conversion technologies produce iso-butanol as a fuel. In order to better understand the combustion chemistry of bio-butanol, this study presents a comprehensive chemical kinetic model for all the four isomers of butanol (e.g., 1-, 2-, iso- and tert-butanol). The proposed model includes detailed high temperature and low temperature reaction pathways. In this study, the primary experimental validation target for the model is premixed flat low-pressure flame species profiles obtained using molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS). The model is also validated against previously published data for premixed flame velocity and n-butanol rapid compression machine and shock tube ignition delay. The agreement with these data sets is reasonably good. The dominant reaction pathways at the various pressures and temperatures studied are elucidated. At low temperature conditions, we found that the reaction of alphahydroxybutyl with O{sub 2} was important in controlling the reactivity of the system, and for correctly predicting C{sub 4} aldehyde profiles in low pressure premixed flames. Enol-keto isomerization reactions assisted by HO{sub 2} were also found to be important in converting enols to aldehydes and ketones in the low pressure premixed flames. In the paper, we describe how the structural features of the four different butanol isomers lead to differences in the combustion properties of each isomer.

  8. Alcohol Selectivity in a Synthetic Thermophilic n-Butanol Pathway Is Driven by Biocatalytic and Thermostability Characteristics of Constituent Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loder, Andrew J; Zeldes, Benjamin M; Garrison, G Dale; Lipscomb, Gina L; Adams, Michael W W; Kelly, Robert M

    2015-10-01

    n-Butanol is generated as a natural product of metabolism by several microorganisms, but almost all grow at mesophilic temperatures. A synthetic pathway for n-butanol production from acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) that functioned at 70°C was assembled in vitro from enzymes recruited from thermophilic bacteria to inform efforts for engineering butanol production into thermophilic hosts. Recombinant versions of eight thermophilic enzymes (β-ketothiolase [Thl], 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase [Hbd], and 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydratase [Crt] from Caldanaerobacter subterraneus subsp. tengcongensis; trans-2-enoyl-CoA reductase [Ter] from Spirochaeta thermophila; bifunctional acetaldehyde dehydrogenase/alcohol dehydrogenase [AdhE] from Clostridium thermocellum; and AdhE, aldehyde dehydrogenase [Bad], and butanol dehydrogenase [Bdh] from Thermoanaerobacter sp. strain X514) were utilized to examine three possible pathways for n-butanol. These pathways differed in the two steps required to convert butyryl-CoA to n-butanol: Thl-Hbd-Crt-Ter-AdhE (C. thermocellum), Thl-Hbd-Crt-Ter-AdhE (Thermoanaerobacter X514), and Thl-Hbd-Crt-Ter-Bad-Bdh. n-Butanol was produced at 70°C, but with different amounts of ethanol as a coproduct, because of the broad substrate specificities of AdhE, Bad, and Bdh. A reaction kinetics model, validated via comparison to in vitro experiments, was used to determine relative enzyme ratios needed to maximize n-butanol production. By using large relative amounts of Thl and Hbd and small amounts of Bad and Bdh, >70% conversion to n-butanol was observed in vitro, but with a 60% decrease in the predicted pathway flux. With more-selective hypothetical versions of Bad and Bdh, >70% conversion to n-butanol is predicted, with a 19% increase in pathway flux. Thus, more-selective thermophilic versions of Bad, Bdh, and AdhE are needed to fully exploit biocatalytic n-butanol production at elevated temperatures. Copyright © 2015, American Society for

  9. Nanostructured composite TiO{sub 2}/carbon catalysts of high activity for dehydration of n-butanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cyganiuk, Aleksandra [Faculty of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Klimkiewicz, Roman [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research PAN, 50-422 Wroclaw (Poland); Bumajdad, Ali [Faculty of Science, Kuwait University, PO Box 5969 Safat, Kuwait 13060 (Kuwait); Ilnicka, Anna [Faculty of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Lukaszewicz, Jerzy P., E-mail: jerzy_lukaszewicz@o2.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University, 87-100 Torun (Poland)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • New biotechnological method for fabrication of composite catalysts. • In situ synthesis of nanosized TiO{sub 2} clusters in the carbon matrix. • High dispersion of TiO{sub 2} in carbon matrix. • High catalytic activity achieved for very low active phase content. • Efficient dehydration of n-butanol to butane-1. - Abstract: A novel method of wood impregnation with titanium ions is presented. Titanium(IV) ions were complexed to peroxo/hydroxo complexes which were obtained by treating a TiCl{sub 4} water solution with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The solution of chelated titanium ions was used for the impregnation of living stems of Salix viminalis wood. Saturated stems were carbonized at 600–800 °C, yielding a microporous carbon matrix, in which nanoparticles of TiO{sub 2} were uniformly distributed. A series of composite TiO{sub 2}–carbon catalysts was manufactured and tested in the process of n-butanol conversion to butane-1. The composite catalysts exhibited very high selectivity (ca. 80%) and yield (ca. 30%) despite a low content of titanium (ca. 0.5% atomic). The research proved that the proposed functionalization led to high dispersion of the catalytic phase (TiO{sub 2}), which played a crucial role in the catalyst performance. High dispersion of TiO{sub 2} was achieved due to a natural transport of complexed titanium ions in living plant stems.

  10. High-temperature oxidation chemistry of n-butanol--experiments in low-pressure premixed flames and detailed kinetic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, N; Harper, M R; Green, W H

    2011-12-07

    An automated reaction mechanism generator is used to develop a predictive, comprehensive reaction mechanism for the high-temperature oxidation chemistry of n-butanol. This new kinetic model is an advancement of an earlier model, which had been extensively tested against earlier experimental data (Harper et al., Combust. Flame, 2011, 158, 16-41). In this study, the model's predictive capabilities are improved by targeting isomer-resolved quantitative mole fraction profiles of flame species in low-pressure flames. To this end, a total of three burner-stabilized premixed flames are isomer-selectively analyzed by flame-sampling molecular-beam time-of-flight mass spectrometry using photoionization by tunable vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron radiation. For most species, the newly developed chemical kinetic model is capable of accurately reproducing the experimental trends in these flames. The results clearly indicate that n-butanol is mainly consumed by H-atom abstraction with H, O, and OH, forming predominantly the α-C(4)H(9)O radical (CH(3)CH(2)CH(2)˙CHOH). Fission of C-C bonds in n-butanol is only predicted to be significant in a similar, but hotter flame studied by Oßwald et al. (Combust. Flame, 2011, 158, 2-15). The water-elimination reaction to 1-butene is found to be of no importance under the premixed conditions studied here. The initially formed isomeric C(4)H(9)O radicals are predicted to further oxidize by reacting with H and O(2) or to decompose to smaller fragments via β-scission. Enols are detected experimentally, with their importance being overpredicted by the model.

  11. High acetone-butanol-ethanol production in pH-stat co-feeding of acetate and glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ming; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Wang, Qunhui; Sakai, Kenji; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    We previously reported the metabolic analysis of butanol and acetone production from exogenous acetate by (13)C tracer experiments (Gao et al., RSC Adv., 5, 8486-8495, 2015). To clarify the influence of acetate on acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production, we first performed an enzyme assay in Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4. Acetate addition was found to drastically increase the activities of key enzymes involved in the acetate uptake (phosphate acetyltransferase and CoA transferase), acetone formation (acetoacetate decarboxylase), and butanol formation (butanol dehydrogenase) pathways. Subsequently, supplementation of acetate during acidogenesis and early solventogenesis resulted in a significant increase in ABE production. To establish an efficient ABE production system using acetate as a co-substrate, several shot strategies were investigated in batch culture. Batch cultures with two substrate shots without pH control produced 14.20 g/L butanol and 23.27 g/L ABE with a maximum specific butanol production rate of 0.26 g/(g h). Furthermore, pH-controlled (at pH 5.5) batch cultures with two substrate shots resulted in not only improved acetate consumption but also a further increase in ABE production. Finally, we obtained 15.13 g/L butanol and 24.37 g/L ABE at the high specific butanol production rate of 0.34 g/(g h) using pH-stat co-feeding method. Thus, in this study, we established a high ABE production system using glucose and acetate as co-substrates in a pH-stat co-feeding system with C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Recent advances on conversion and co-production of acetone-butanol-ethanol into high value-added bioproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Fengxue; Dong, Weiliang; Jiang, Yujia; Ma, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Wenming; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Min; Jiang, Min

    2018-06-01

    Butanol is an important bulk chemical and has been regarded as an advanced biofuel. Large-scale production of butanol has been applied for more than 100 years, but its production through acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation process by solventogenic Clostridium species is still not economically viable due to the low butanol titer and yield caused by the toxicity of butanol and a by-product, such as acetone. Renewed interest in biobutanol as a biofuel has spurred technological advances to strain modification and fermentation process design. Especially, with the development of interdisciplinary processes, the sole product or even the mixture of ABE produced through ABE fermentation process can be further used as platform chemicals for high value added product production through enzymatic or chemical catalysis. This review aims to comprehensively summarize the most recent advances on the conversion of acetone, butanol and ABE mixture into various products, such as isopropanol, butyl-butyrate and higher-molecular mass alkanes. Additionally, co-production of other value added products with ABE was also discussed.

  13. Effects of butanol-diesel fuel blends on the performance and emissions of a high-speed DI diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakopoulos, D.C.; Rakopoulos, C.D.; Giakoumis, E.G.; Dimaratos, A.M.; Kyritsis, D.C.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental investigation is conducted to evaluate the effects of using blends of n-butanol (normal butanol) with conventional diesel fuel, with 8%, 16% and 24% (by volume) n-butanol, on the performance and exhaust emissions of a standard, fully instrumented, four-stroke, high-speed, direct injection (DI), Ricardo/Cussons 'Hydra' diesel engine located at the authors' laboratory. The tests are conducted using each of the above fuel blends or neat diesel fuel, with the engine working at a speed of 2000 rpm and at three different loads. In each test, fuel consumption, exhaust smokiness and exhaust regulated gas emissions such as nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and total unburned hydrocarbons are measured. The differences in the measured performance and exhaust emission parameters of the three butanol-diesel fuel blends from the baseline operation of the diesel engine, i.e., when working with neat diesel fuel, are determined and compared. It is revealed that this fuel, which can be produced from biomass (bio-butanol), forms a challenging and promising bio-fuel for diesel engines. The differing physical and chemical properties of butanol against those for the diesel fuel are used to aid the correct interpretation of the observed engine behavior.

  14. Densities, viscosities, and isobaric heat capacities of the system (1-butanol + cyclohexane) at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torín-Ollarves, Geraldine A.; Martín, M. Carmen; Chamorro, César R.; Segovia, José J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The densities of cyclohexane and its mixtures with 1-butanol were measured. • The excess molar volumes were calculated and correlated. • The viscosities were measured at atmospheric pressure. • The isobaric heat capacities were measured at p = (0.1 to 25) MPa at T = (293.15 and 313.15) K. • A positive deviation from the ideal behavior is observed. - Abstract: The cyclohexane and the system of 1-butanol + cyclohexane have been characterized using densities, viscosities and isobaric heat capacities measurements. For that, the densities were measured in a high-pressure vibrating tube densimeter at five temperatures from (293.15 to 333.15) K and pressures up to 100 MPa. The measurements were correlated with the empirical Tamman–Tait equation. Moreover, the isobaric heat capacities of the binary system were measured in a high-pressure automated flow calorimeter at T = (293.15 and 313.15) K and pressures up to 25 MPa for pure cyclohexane and in admixture with 1-butanol. The excess molar heat capacities were assessed for the mixture and a positive deviation from the ideality was obtained, except for a small part in the region rich in alkanol. The viscosity measurements were carried out, at the calorimeter conditions, for correcting the experimental values of isobaric heat capacities due to friction along the tube. The viscosity was measured at atmospheric pressure in a Stabinger Anton Paar SVM 3000 viscometer in the temperature range of (293.15 to 333.15) K for cyclohexane and the mixtures. At high pressure, the viscosities were estimated using Lucas method

  15. On the high-temperature combustion of n-butanol: Shock tube data and an improved kinetic model

    KAUST Repository

    Vasu, Subith S.

    2013-11-21

    The combustion of n-butanol has received significant interest in recent years, because of its potential use in transportation applications. Researchers have extensively studied its combustion chemistry, using both experimental and theoretical methods; however, additional work is needed under specific conditions to improve our understanding of n-butanol combustion. In this study, we report new OH time-history data during the high-temperature oxidation of n-butanol behind reflected shock waves over the temperature range of 1300-1550 K and at pressures near 2 atm. These data were obtained at Stanford University, using narrow-line-width ring dye laser absorption of the R1(5) line of OH near 306.7 nm. Measured OH time histories were modeled using comprehensive n-butanol literature mechanisms. It was found that n-butanol unimolecular decomposition rate constants commonly used in chemical kinetic models, as well as those determined from theoretical studies, are unable to predict the data presented herein. Therefore, an improved high-temperature mechanism is presented here, which incorporates recently reported rate constants measured in a single pulse shock tube [C. M. Rosado-Reyes and W. Tsang, J. Phys. Chem. A 2012, 116, 9825-9831]. Discussions are presented on the validity of the proposed mechanism against other literature shock tube experiments. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  16. Butanol production by bioconversion of cheese whey in a continuous packed bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raganati, F; Olivieri, G; Procentese, A; Russo, M E; Salatino, P; Marzocchella, A

    2013-06-01

    Butanol production by Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 792 fermentation was investigated. Unsupplemented cheese whey was adopted as renewable feedstock. The conversion was successfully carried out in a biofilm packed bed reactor (PBR) for more than 3 months. The PBR was a 4 cm ID, 16 cm high glass tube with a 8 cm bed of 3mm Tygon rings, as carriers. It was operated at the dilution rate between 0.4h(-1) and 0.94 h(-1). The cheese whey conversion process was characterized in terms of metabolites production (butanol included), lactose conversion and biofilm mass. Under optimized conditions, the performances were: butanol productivity 2.66 g/Lh, butanol concentration 4.93 g/L, butanol yield 0.26 g/g, butanol selectivity of the overall solvents production 82 wt%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The influence of n-butanol blending on the ignition delay times of gasoline and its surrogate at high pressures

    KAUST Repository

    Agbro, Edirin; Tomlin, Alison S.; Lawes, Malcolm; Park, Sungwoo; Sarathy, Mani

    2016-01-01

    between those of stoichiometric gasoline and stoichiometric n-butanol across the temperature range studied. At lower temperatures, delays for the blend were however, much closer to those of n-butanol than gasoline despite n-butanol being only 20

  18. Effect of two-stage injection on combustion and emissions under high EGR rate on a diesel engine by fueling blends of diesel/gasoline, diesel/n-butanol, diesel/gasoline/n-butanol and pure diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Zunqing; Yue, Lang; Liu, Haifeng; Zhu, Yuxuan; Zhong, Xiaofan; Yao, Mingfa

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Two-stage injection using diesel blended fuel at high EGR (46%) was studied. • Blending fuels induce retarded pilot heat release and have less effect on MPRR. • Effects of injection parameters of blended fuels on emissions are similar to diesel. • Different fuels have little influence on post combustion heat release. • Small quantity post injection close to main results in better efficiency and emissions. - Abstract: The effect of two-stage injection on combustion and emission characteristics under high EGR (46%) condition were experimentally investigated. Four different fuels including pure diesel and blended fuels of diesel/gasoline, diesel/n-butanol, diesel/gasoline/n-butanol were tested. Results show that blending gasoline or/and n-butanol in diesel improves smoke emissions while induces increase in maximum pressure rise rate (MPRR). Adopting pilot injection close to main injection can effectively reduce the peak of premixed heat release rate and MPRR. However, for fuels blends with high percentage of low cetane number fuel, the effect of pilot fuel on ignition can be neglected and the improvement of MPRR is not that obvious. Pilot-main interval presents more obvious effect on smoke than pilot injection rate does, and the smoke emissions decrease with increasing pilot-main interval. A longer main-post interval results in a lower post heat release rate and prolonged combustion duration. While post injection rate has little effect on the start of ignition for post injection. The variation in fuel properties caused by blending gasoline or/and n-butanol into diesel does not impose obvious influence on post combustion. The smoke emission increases first and then declines with retard of post injection timing. Compared to diesel, the smoke emissions of blended fuels are more sensitive to the variation of post injection strategy

  19. Problems with the microbial production of butanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yan-Ning; Li, Liang-Zhi; Xian, Mo; Ma, Yu-Jiu; Yang, Jian-Ming; Xu, Xin; He, Dong-Zhi

    2009-09-01

    With the incessant fluctuations in oil prices and increasing stress from environmental pollution, renewed attention is being paid to the microbial production of biofuels from renewable sources. As a gasoline substitute, butanol has advantages over traditional fuel ethanol in terms of energy density and hygroscopicity. A variety of cheap substrates have been successfully applied in the production of biobutanol, highlighting the commercial potential of biobutanol development. In this review, in order to better understand the process of acetone-butanol-ethanol production, traditional clostridia fermentation is discussed. Sporulation is probably induced by solvent formation, and the molecular mechanism leading to the initiation of sporulation and solventogenesis is also investigated. Different strategies are employed in the metabolic engineering of clostridia that aim to enhancing solvent production, improve selectivity for butanol production, and increase the tolerance of clostridia to solvents. However, it will be hard to make breakthroughs in the metabolic engineering of clostridia for butanol production without gaining a deeper understanding of the genetic background of clostridia and developing more efficient genetic tools for clostridia. Therefore, increasing attention has been paid to the metabolic engineering of E. coli for butanol production. The importation and expression of a non-clostridial butanol-producing pathway in E. coli is probably the most promising strategy for butanol biosynthesis. Due to the lower butanol titers in the fermentation broth, simultaneous fermentation and product removal techniques have been developed to reduce the cost of butanol recovery. Gas stripping is the best technique for butanol recovery found so far.

  20. A quantitative metabolomics study of high sodium response in Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinhe; Condruz, Stefan; Chen, Jingkui; Jolicoeur, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Hemicellulose hydrolysates, sugar-rich feedstocks used in biobutanol refinery, are normally obtained by adding sodium hydroxide in the hydrolyze process. However, the resulting high sodium concentration in the hydrolysate inhibits ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) fermentation, and thus limits the use of these low-cost feedstocks. We have thus studied the effect of high sodium on the metabolic behavior of Clostridium acetobutyricum ATCC 824, with xylose as the carbon source. At a threshold sodium concentration of 200 mM, a decrease of the maximum cell dry weight (−19.50 ± 0.85%) and of ABE yield (−35.14 ± 3.50% acetone, −33.37 ± 0.74% butanol, −22.95 ± 1.81% ethanol) were observed compared to control culture. However, solvents specific productivities were not affected by supplementing sodium. The main effects of high sodium on cell metabolism were observed in acidogenesis, during which we observed the accumulation of ATP and NADH, and the inhibition of the pentose phosphate (PPP) and the glycolytic pathways with up to 80.73 ± 1.47% and 68.84 ± 3.42% decrease of the associated metabolic intermediates, respectively. However, the NADP+-to-NADPH ratio was constant for the whole culture duration, a phenomenon explaining the robustness of solvents specific productivities. Therefore, high sodium, which inhibited biomass growth through coordinated metabolic effects, interestingly triggered cell robustness on solvents specific productivity. PMID:27321153

  1. Hydrogen abstraction from n-butanol by the methyl radical: high level ab initio study of abstraction pathways and the importance of low energy rotational conformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsikadakos, D; Hardalupas, Y; Taylor, A M K P; Hunt, P A

    2012-07-21

    Hydrogen abstraction reactions by the methyl radical from n-butanol have been investigated at the ROCBS-QB3 level of theory. Reaction energies and product geometries for the most stable conformer of n-butanol (ROH) have been computed, the reaction energies order α channel more stable than the β-channel? Why do the two C(γ)-H H-abstraction TS differ in energy? The method and basis set dependence of the TS barriers is investigated. The Boltzmann probability distribution for the n-butanol conformers suggests that low energy conformers are present in approximately equal proportions to the most stable conformer at combustion temperatures where ĊH(3) radicals are present. Thus, the relative significance of the various H-abstraction channels has been assessed for a selection of higher energy conformers (ROH'). Key results include finding that higher energy n-butanol conformers (E(ROH') > E(ROH)) can generate lower energy product radicals, E(ROH') < E(ROH). Moreover, higher energy conformers can also have a globally competitive TS energy for H-abstraction.

  2. On the high-temperature combustion of n-butanol: Shock tube data and an improved kinetic model

    KAUST Repository

    Vasu, Subith S.; Sarathy, Mani

    2013-01-01

    The combustion of n-butanol has received significant interest in recent years, because of its potential use in transportation applications. Researchers have extensively studied its combustion chemistry, using both experimental and theoretical

  3. The influence of n-butanol blending on the ignition delay times of gasoline and its surrogate at high pressures

    KAUST Repository

    Agbro, Edirin

    2016-09-24

    The influence of blending n-butanol at 20% by volume on the ignition delay times for a reference gasoline was studied in a rapid compression machine (RCM) for stoichiometric fuel/air mixtures at 20 bar and 678-858 K. Delay times for the blend lay between those of stoichiometric gasoline and stoichiometric n-butanol across the temperature range studied. At lower temperatures, delays for the blend were however, much closer to those of n-butanol than gasoline despite n-butanol being only 20% of the mixture. Under these conditions n-butanol acted as an octane enhancer over and above what might be expected from a simple linear blending law. The ability of a gasoline surrogate, based on a toluene reference fuel (TRF), to capture the main trends of the gasoline/n-butanol blending behaviour was also tested within the RCM. The 3-component TRF based on a mixture of toluene, n-heptane and iso-octane was able to capture the trends well across the temperature range studied. Simulations of ignition delay times were also performed using a detailed blended n-butanol/TRF mechanism based on the adiabatic core assumption and volume histories from the experimental data. Overall, the model captured the main features of the blending behaviour, although at the lowest temperatures, predicted ignition delays for stoichiometric n-butanol were longer than those observed. A brute-force local sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the main chemical processes driving the ignition behaviour of the TRF, n-butanol and blended fuels. The reactions of fuel + OH dominated the sensitivities at lower temperatures, with H abstraction from n-butanol from a and 7 sites being key for both the n-butanol and the blend. At higher temperatures the decomposition of H2O2 and reactions of HO2 and that of formaldehyde with OH became critical, in common with the ignition behaviour of other fiiels. Remaining uncertainties in the rates of these key reactions are discussed. Crown Copyright (C) 2016 Published

  4. Adsorption of water and butanol in silicalite-1 film studied with in situ attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzaneh, Amirfarrokh; Zhou, Ming; Potapova, Elisaveta; Bacsik, Zoltán; Ohlin, Lindsay; Holmgren, Allan; Hedlund, Jonas; Grahn, Mattias

    2015-05-05

    Biobutanol produced by, e.g., acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation is a promising alternative to petroleum-based chemicals as, e.g., solvent and fuel. Recovery of butanol from dilute fermentation broths by hydrophobic membranes and adsorbents has been identified as a promising route. In this work, the adsorption of water and butanol vapor in a silicalite-1 film was studied using in situ attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy to better understand the adsorption properties of silicalite-1 membranes and adsorbents. Single-component adsorption isotherms were determined in the temperature range of 35-120 °C, and the Langmuir model was successfully fitted to the experimental data. The adsorption of butanol is very favorable compared to that of water. When the silicalite-1 film was exposed to a butanol/water vapor mixture with 15 mol % butanol (which is the vapor composition of an aqueous solution containing 2 wt % butanol, a typical concentration in an ABE fermentation broth, i.e., the composition of the gas obtained from gas stripping of an ABE broth) at 35 °C, the adsorption selectivity toward butanol was as high as 107. These results confirm that silicalite-1 quite selectively adsorbs hydrocarbons from vapor mixtures. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive study on the adsorption of water and butanol in silicalite-1 from vapor phase.

  5. Combustion and emissions characteristics of high n-butanol/diesel ratio blend in a heavy-duty diesel engine and EGR impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zheng; Wu, Zhenkuo; Liu, Jingping; Lee, Chiafon

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of EGR on high n-butanol/diesel ratio blend (Bu40) were investigated and compared with neat diesel (Bu00). • Bu40 has higher NOx due to wider combustion high-temperature region. • Bu40 has lower soot due to local lower equivalence ratio distribution. • Bu40 has higher CO due to lower gas temperature in the late expansion process. • For Bu40, EGR reduces NOx emissions dramatically with no obvious influence on soot. - Abstract: In this work, the combustion and emission fundamentals of high n-butanol/diesel ratio blend with 40% butanol (i.e., Bu40) in a heavy-duty diesel engine were investigated by experiment and simulation at constant engine speed of 1400 rpm and an IMEP of 1.0 MPa. Additionally, the impact of EGR was evaluated experimentally and compared with neat diesel fuel (i.e., Bu00). The results show that Bu40 has higher cylinder pressure, longer ignition delay, and faster burning rate than Bu00. Compared with Bu00, moreover, Bu40 has higher NOx due to wider combustion high-temperature region, lower soot due to local lower equivalence ratio distribution, and higher CO due to lower gas temperature in the late expansion process. For Bu40, EGR reduces NOx emissions dramatically with no obvious influence on soot. Meanwhile, there is no significant change in HC and CO emissions and indicated thermal efficiency (ITE) with EGR until EGR threshold is reached. When EGR rate exceeds the threshold level, HC and CO emissions increase dramatically, and ITE decreases markedly. Compared with Bu00, the threshold of Bu40 appears at lower EGR rate. Consequently, combining high butanol/diesel ratio blend with medium EGR has the potential to achieve ultra-low NOx and soot emissions simultaneously while maintaining high thermal efficiency level

  6. Experimental determination of the high-temperature rate constant for the reaction of OH with sec-butanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Genny A; Hanson, Ronald K; Golden, David M; Bowman, Craig T

    2012-10-04

    The overall rate constant for the reaction of OH with sec-butanol [CH(3)CH(OH)CH(2)CH(3)] was determined from measurements of the near-first-order OH decay in shock-heated mixtures of tert-butylhydroperoxide (as a fast source of OH) with sec-butanol in excess. Three kinetic mechanisms from the literature describing sec-butanol combustion were used to examine the sensitivity of the rate constant determination to secondary kinetics. The overall rate constant determined can be described by the Arrhenius expression 6.97 × 10(-11) exp(-1550/T[K]) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), valid over the temperature range of 888-1178 K. Uncertainty bounds of ±30% were found to adequately account for the uncertainty in secondary kinetics. To our knowledge, the current data represent the first efforts toward an experimentally determined rate constant for the overall reaction of OH with sec-butanol at combustion-relevant temperatures. A rate constant predicted using a structure-activity relationship from the literature was compared to the current data and previous rate constant measurements for the title reaction at atmospheric-relevant temperatures. The structure-activity relationship was found to be unable to correctly predict the measured rate constant at all temperatures where experimental data exist. We found that the three-parameter fit of 4.95 × 10(-20)T(2.66) exp(+1123/T[K]) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) better describes the overall rate constant for the reaction of OH with sec-butanol from 263 to 1178 K.

  7. Development of a High-Efficiency Transformation Method and Implementation of Rational Metabolic Engineering for the Industrial Butanol Hyperproducer Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum Strain N1-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Nicolaus A; Li, Jeffrey; Bedi, Ripika; Turchi, Barbara; Liu, Xiaoji; Miller, Michael J; Zhang, Wenjun

    2017-01-15

    While a majority of academic studies concerning acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) production by Clostridium have focused on Clostridium acetobutylicum, other members of this genus have proven to be effective industrial workhorses despite the inability to perform genetic manipulations on many of these strains. To further improve the industrial performance of these strains in areas such as substrate usage, solvent production, and end product versatility, transformation methods and genetic tools are needed to overcome the genetic intractability displayed by these species. In this study, we present the development of a high-efficiency transformation method for the industrial butanol hyperproducer Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum strain N1-4 (HMT) ATCC 27021. Following initial failures, we found that the key to creating a successful transformation method was the identification of three distinct colony morphologies (types S, R, and I), which displayed significant differences in transformability. Working with the readily transformable type I cells (transformation efficiency, 1.1 × 10 6 CFU/μg DNA), we performed targeted gene deletions in C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 using a homologous recombination-mediated allelic exchange method. Using plasmid-based gene overexpression and targeted knockouts of key genes in the native acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) metabolic pathway, we successfully implemented rational metabolic engineering strategies, yielding in the best case an engineered strain (Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum strain N1-4/pWIS13) displaying an 18% increase in butanol titers and 30% increase in total ABE titer (0.35 g ABE/g sucrose) in batch fermentations. Additionally, two engineered strains overexpressing aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenases (encoded by adh11 and adh5) displayed 8.5- and 11.8-fold increases (respectively) in batch ethanol production. This paper presents the first steps toward advanced genetic engineering of the industrial butanol

  8. High solid fed-batch butanol fermentation with simultaneous product recovery: part II - process integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In these studies liquid hot water (LHW) pretreated and enzymatically hydrolyzed Sweet Sorghum Bagasse (SSB) hydrolyzates were fermented in a fed-batch reactor. As reported in the preceding paper, the culture was not able to ferment the hydrolyzate I in a batch process due to presence of high level o...

  9. Isolation of butanol- and isobutanol-tolerant bacteria and physiological characterization of their butanol tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Manabu; Katayama, Taiki; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Mitani, Yasuo; Meng, Xian-Ying; Hori, Tomoyuki; Narihiro, Takashi; Morita, Naoki; Hoshino, Tamotsu; Yumoto, Isao; Kimura, Nobutada; Hanada, Satoshi; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2013-11-01

    Despite their importance as a biofuel production platform, only a very limited number of butanol-tolerant bacteria have been identified thus far. Here, we extensively explored butanol- and isobutanol-tolerant bacteria from various environmental samples. A total of 16 aerobic and anaerobic bacteria that could tolerate greater than 2.0% (vol/vol) butanol and isobutanol were isolated. A 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis revealed that the isolates were phylogenetically distributed over at least nine genera: Bacillus, Lysinibacillus, Rummeliibacillus, Brevibacillus, Coprothermobacter, Caloribacterium, Enterococcus, Hydrogenoanaerobacterium, and Cellulosimicrobium, within the phyla Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. Ten of the isolates were phylogenetically distinct from previously identified butanol-tolerant bacteria. Two relatively highly butanol-tolerant strains CM4A (aerobe) and GK12 (obligate anaerobe) were characterized further. Both strains changed their membrane fatty acid composition in response to butanol exposure, i.e., CM4A and GK12 exhibited increased saturated and cyclopropane fatty acids (CFAs) and long-chain fatty acids, respectively, which may serve to maintain membrane fluidity. The gene (cfa) encoding CFA synthase was cloned from strain CM4A and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant E. coli showed relatively higher butanol and isobutanol tolerance than E. coli without the cfa gene, suggesting that cfa can confer solvent tolerance. The exposure of strain GK12 to butanol by consecutive passages even enhanced the growth rate, indicating that yet-unknown mechanisms may also contribute to solvent tolerance. Taken together, the results demonstrate that a wide variety of butanol- and isobutanol-tolerant bacteria that can grow in 2.0% butanol exist in the environment and have various strategies to maintain structural integrity against detrimental solvents.

  10. Effects of n-butanol on barley microspore embryogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Ana Maria; Nielsen, Nanna; Jensen, Anni

    2014-01-01

    crosses with different microspore embryogenesis capacities were selected for n-butanol application in anther and isolated microspore cultures. Application of 0.1 % n-butanol after a mannitol stress treatment in anther culture significantly increased the number of embryos (up to almost twice) and green...

  11. (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium of {water + phenol + (1-butanol, or 2-butanol, or tert-butanol)} systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadlich de Oliveira, Leonardo; Aznar, Martin

    2010-01-01

    (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) and binodal curve data were determined for the systems (water + phenol + tert-butanol) at T = 298.15 K, (water + phenol + 2-butanol) and (water + phenol + 1-butanol) at T = 298.15 K and T = 313.15 K by the combined techniques of densimetry and refractometry. Type I curve (for tert-butanol) and Type II curves (for 1- and 2-butanol) were found. The data were correlated with the NRTL model and the parameters estimated present root mean square deviations below 2% for the system with tert-butanol and lower than 0.8% for the other systems.

  12. Eco-efficient butanol separation in the ABE fermentation process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patraşcu, Iulian; Bîldea, Costin Sorin; Kiss, Anton A.

    2017-01-01

    Butanol is considered a superior biofuel, as it is more energy dense and less hygroscopic than the more popular ethanol, resulting in higher possible blending ratios with gasoline. However, the production cost of the acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation process is still high, mainly due to the

  13. Butanol Production from Leftover Beverages and Sport Drinks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raganati, Francesca; Procentese, Alessandra; Montagnaro, Fabio; Olivieri, Giuseppe; Marzocchella, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold: (1) to identify an alternative disposal process for the industry of high-sugar-content beverages (HSCBs) and (2) to contribute to the study of butanol production from non-edible feedstocks. HSCBs were used as a renewable feedstock to produce butanol by

  14. Separation of the potential G-quadruplex ligands from the butanol extract of Zanthoxylum ailanthoides Sieb. & Zucc. by countercurrent chromatography and preparative high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tian; Cao, Xueli; Xu, Jing; Pei, Hairun; Zhang, Hong; Tang, Yalin

    2017-07-21

    G-quadruplex DNA structure is considered to be a very attractive target for antitumor drug design due to its unique role in maintaining telomerase activities. Therefore, discovering ligands with high stability of G-quadruplex structure is of great interest. In this paper, pH-zone refining counter current chromatography (CCC) and preparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were employed for the separation of potent G-quadruplex ligands from the n-butanol fraction of the crude extract of Zanthoxylum ailanthoides, which is a traditional Chinese medicine recently found to display high inhibitory activity against several human cancer cells. The 75% aqueous ethanol extract of the stem bark of Z. ailanthoides and its fractions with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and n-butanol displayed almost the same G-quadruplex stabilization ability. Here, pH-zone refining CCC was used for the separation of the alkaloids from the n-butanol fraction by a seldom used solvent system composed of dichloromethane-methanol-water (4:1:2.5) with 10mM TEA in the organic stationary phase as retainer and 10mM HCl in the aqueous mobile phase as eluter. Compounds I, II and III were obtained, with purity greater than 95%, in the quantities of 31.2, 94.0, and 26.4mg respectively from 300mg of lipophilic fraction within 80min, which were identified as three tetrahydroprotoberberines isolated for the first time in this plant. In addition, a phenylpropanoid glycoside compound IV (Syringin), an isoquinoline (Magnoflorine, V), and two lignin isomers (+)-lyoniresiol-3α-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (VI) and (-)-lyoniresinol -3α-O-β-D -glucopyranoside (VII) were isolated by traditional CCC together with preparative HPLC. Compounds IV, V, VI and VII were obtained, with purity greater than 95%, in the quantities of 4.0, 13.2, 6.7, and 6.5mg respectively from 960mg of hydrophilic fraction. Among the seven isolated compounds, tetrahydroprotoberberine I, II and III were found to display remarkable

  15. One-Step Nonaqueous Synthesis of Pure Phase TiO2 Nanocrystals from TiCl4 in Butanol and Their Photocatalytic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tieping Cao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pure phase TiO2 nanomaterials were synthesized by an autoclaving treatment of TiCl4 with butanol as a single alcohol source. It was found that the control of molar ratio of TiCl4 to butanol played an important role in determining the TiO2 crystal phase and morphology. A high molar ratio of TiCl4 to butanol favored the formation of anatase nanoparticles, whereas rutile nanorods were selectively obtained at a low molar ratio of TiCl4 to butanol. Evaluation of the photocatalytic activity of the synthesized TiO2 was performed in terms of decomposition of organic dye rhodamine B under ultraviolet irradiation. It turned out that the as-synthesized TiO2 crystallites possessed higher photocatalytic activities toward bleaching rhodamine B than Degussa P25, benefiting from theirhigh surface area, small crystal size as well as high crystallinity.

  16. Production of Butyric Acid and Butanol from Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, David E. [Environmental Energy Inc., Blacklick, OH (United States); Yang, Shang-Tian [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

    2005-08-25

    Butanol replaced gasoline gallon for gallon in a 10,000 miles trip across the United States without the need to highly modify a ’92 Buick (your existing car today). Butanol can now be made for less than ethanol and yields more Btu’s from the same corn, making the plow to tire equation positive – more energy out than it takes to make it and Butanol is much safer. Butanol when substituted for gasoline gives better gas mileage and does not pollute as tested in 10 states. Butanol should now receive the same recognition as ethanol in U.S. legislation “ethanol/butanol”. There is abundant plant biomass present as low-value agricultural commodities or processing wastes requiring proper disposal to avoid pollution problems. One example is in the corn refinery industry, which processes more than 13% of the ~9.5 billion bushels (~240 million metric tons) of corn annually produced in the U.S. to produce high-fructose-corn-syrup, dextrose, starch, and fuel alcohol, and generates more than 10 million metric tons of corn byproducts that are currently of limited use and pose significant environmental problems. The abundant inexpensive renewable resources as feedstock for fermentation, and recent advances in the fields of biotechnology and bioprocessing have resulted in a renewed interest in the fermentation production of chemicals and fuels, including n-butanol. The historic acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum is one of the oldest known industrial fermentations. It was ranked second only to ethanol fermentation by yeast in its scale of production, and is one of the largest biotechnological processes ever known. However, since the 1950's industrial ABE fermentation has declined continuously, and almost all butanol is now produced via petrochemical routes (Chemical Marketing Reporter, 1993). Butanol is an important industrial solvent and is a better fuel for replacing gasoline – gallon for gallon than ethanol. Current butanol

  17. Process for the fermentative production of acetone, butanol and ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassner, David A.; Jain, Mahendra K.; Datta, Rathin

    1991-01-01

    A process including multistage continuous fermentation followed by batch fermentation with carefully chosen temperatures for each fermentation step, combined with an asporogenic strain of C. acetobutylicum and a high carbohydrate substrate concentration yields extraordinarily high butanol and total solvents concentrations.

  18. Antidiabetic, antioxidant and anti inflammatory properties of water and n-butanol soluble extracts from Saharian Anvillea radiata in high-fat-diet fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandouli, Chouaib; Cassien, Mathieu; Mercier, Anne; Delehedde, Caroline; Ricquebourg, Emilie; Stocker, Pierre; Mekaouche, Mourad; Leulmi, Zineb; Mechakra, Aicha; Thétiot-Laurent, Sophie; Culcasi, Marcel; Pietri, Sylvia

    2017-07-31

    According to Saharian traditional medicine, Anvillea radiata Coss. & Dur. (Asteraceae) has been valued for treating a variety of ailments such as gastro-intestinal, liver and pulmonary diseases, and has gained awareness for its beneficial effect on postprandial hyperglycemia. However, to best of our knowledge, no detailed study of the antidiabetic curative effects of this plant has been conducted yet. To determine the hypoglycemic and antidiabetic effect of dietary supplementation with Anvillea radiata extracts on high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity and insulin resistance in C57BL/6J mice in relation with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, pancreatic beta-cells and skeletal muscle protection, and digestive enzyme inhibiting properties. Six extracts (water soluble and organic) from aerial parts of the plant were analyzed phytochemically (total phenolic and flavonoid content) and screened for in vitro superoxide (by chemiluminescence) and hydroxyl radical (by electron paramagnetic resonance spin-trapping) scavenging, antioxidant (DPPH, TRAP and ORAC assays), xanthine oxidase, metal chelating, α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory property, and protective effects on copper-induced lipoprotein oxidation. Then selected hydroalcoholic and aqueous extracts were assessed for toxicity in normal human lung fibroblasts and A549 cancer cells using FMCA and MTT assays. Two water-soluble extracts having the best overall properties were assessed for their (i) protective effect at 1-15µg/mL on metabolic activity of rat insulinoma-derived INS-1 cells exposed to hyperglycemic medium, and (ii) acute hypoglycemic effect on 16-weeks HFD-induced diabetic mice. Then diabetic mice were administered HFD supplemented by extracts (up to 150mg/kg/day) for 12 additional weeks using standard diet as control and the antidiabetic drug, metformin (150mg/kg), as positive control. Then the antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of extracts were determined. Of the highly efficient

  19. Exploiting endogenous CRISPR-Cas system for multiplex genome editing in Clostridium tyrobutyricum and engineer the strain for high-level butanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Zong, Wenming; Hong, Wei; Zhang, Zhong-Tian; Wang, Yi

    2018-03-09

    Although CRISPR-Cas9/Cpf1 have been employed as powerful genome engineering tools, heterologous CRISPR-Cas9/Cpf1 are often difficult to introduce into bacteria and archaea due to their severe toxicity. Since most prokaryotes harbor native CRISPR-Cas systems, genome engineering can be achieved by harnessing these endogenous immune systems. Here, we report the exploitation of Type I-B CRISPR-Cas of Clostridium tyrobutyricum for genome engineering. In silico CRISPR array analysis and plasmid interference assay revealed that TCA or TCG at the 5'-end of the protospacer was the functional protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) for CRISPR targeting. With a lactose inducible promoter for CRISPR array expression, we significantly decreased the toxicity of CRISPR-Cas and enhanced the transformation efficiency, and successfully deleted spo0A with an editing efficiency of 100%. We further evaluated effects of the spacer length on genome editing efficiency. Interestingly, spacers ≤ 20 nt led to unsuccessful transformation consistently, likely due to severe off-target effects; while a spacer of 30-38 nt is most appropriate to ensure successful transformation and high genome editing efficiency. Moreover, multiplex genome editing for the deletion of spo0A and pyrF was achieved in a single transformation, with an editing efficiency of up to 100%. Finally, with the integration of the alcohol dehydrogenase gene (adhE1 or adhE2) to replace cat1 (the key gene responsible for butyrate production and previously could not be deleted), two mutants were created for n-butanol production, with the butanol titer reached historically record high of 26.2 g/L in a batch fermentation. Altogether, our results demonstrated the easy programmability and high efficiency of endogenous CRISPR-Cas. The developed protocol herein has a broader applicability to other prokaryotes containing endogenous CRISPR-Cas systems. C. tyrobutyricum could be employed as an excellent platform to be engineered for biofuel

  20. Quantitative proteomics reveals dynamic responses of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 to next-generation biofuel butanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaoxu; Chen, Lei; Wang, Jiangxin; Qiao, Jianjun; Zhang, Weiwen

    2013-01-14

    Butanol is a promising biofuel, and recent metabolic engineering efforts have demonstrated the use of photosynthetic cyanobacterial hosts for its production. However, cyanobacteria have very low tolerance to butanol, limiting the economic viability of butanol production from these renewable producing systems. The existing knowledge of molecular mechanism involved in butanol tolerance in cyanobacteria is very limited. To build a foundation necessary to engineer robust butanol-producing cyanobacterial hosts, in this study, the responses of Synechocystis PCC 6803 to butanol were investigated using a quantitative proteomics approach with iTRAQ - LC-MS/MS technologies. The resulting high-quality dataset consisted of 25,347 peptides corresponding to 1452 unique proteins, a coverage of approximately 40% of the predicted proteins in Synechocystis. Comparative quantification of protein abundances led to the identification of 303 differentially regulated proteins by butanol. Annotation and GO term enrichment analysis showed that multiple biological processes were regulated, suggesting that Synechocystis probably employed multiple and synergistic resistance mechanisms in dealing with butanol stress. Notably, the analysis revealed the induction of heat-shock protein and transporters, along with modification of cell membrane and envelope were the major protection mechanisms against butanol. A conceptual cellular model of Synechocystis PCC 6803 responses to butanol stress was constructed to illustrate the putative molecular mechanisms employed to defend against butanol stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Recovery of Butanol by Counter-Current Carbon Dioxide Fractionation with its Potential Application to Butanol Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Solana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A counter-current CO2 fractionation method was applied as a mean to recover n-butanol and other compounds that are typically obtained from biobutanol fermentation broth from aqueous solutions. The influence of operating variables, such as solvent-to-feed ratio, temperature, pressure and feed solution composition was experimentally studied in terms of separation efficiency, butanol removal rate, total removal and butanol concentration in the extract at the end of the continuous cycle. With respect to the temperature and pressure conditions investigated, results show that the highest separation efficiency was obtained at 35 °C and 10.34 MPa. At these operating conditions, 92.3% of the butanol present in the feed solution was extracted, and a concentration of 787.5 g·L−1 of butanol in the extract was obtained, starting from a feed solution of 20 g·L−1. Selectivity was calculated from experimental data, concluding that our column performs much better than a single equilibrium stage. When adding ethanol and acetone to the feed solution, ethanol was detected in the water-rich fraction (raffinate, whereas the highest concentration of acetone was found in the butanol rich fraction (extract.

  2. An economic evaluation of biological conversion of wheat straw to butanol: A biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, N.; Saha, B.C.; Cotta, M.A.; Singh, V.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► An economic evaluation of bioconversion of wheat straw to butanol was performed. ► Wheat straw and utilities impact butanol economics significantly. ► Sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide affect butanol production cost adversely. ► Annexation of butanol plant to an existing distillery improves butanol economics. ► Butanol production cost from wheat straw was estimated to be $1.31–1.00/kg. - Abstract: A cost estimation study was performed for a biological butanol production plant with a capacity of 150 × 10 6 kg butanol/year. Wheat straw (WS) was used as a feedstock. In addition to butanol, acetone (78.05 × 10 6 kg/year) and ethanol (28.54 × 10 6 kg/year) would also be produced. The total capital cost for this plant was $193.07 × 10 6 . This exercise was based in part on data generated in our laboratory and in part on data obtained from literature. The design, mass balance, and energy balance simulations were performed using SuperPro Designer (Version 8.5003, 2012). For butanol production wheat straw would be pretreated with dilute (1% v/v) sulfuric acid at 121 °C for 1 h followed by separate hydrolysis (using enzymes), fermentation and recovery. Enzyme cost for wheat straw hydrolysis was adapted from literature ($0.16/kg butanol). Utilities which included steam/high pressure steam, cooling/chilling water, and electricity represented the major cost of the operation (49.18%) followed by raw materials (26.81%). Based on batch fermentation of wheat straw hydrolysate and distillative recovery of acetone butanol ethanol (ABE), butanol production cost was estimated to be $1.30/kg for a grass-rooted/green-field plant. Application of a membrane recovery process could reduce this price to $1.00/kg for a plant annexed to an existing distillery.

  3. Mixed butanols addition to gasoline surrogates: Shock tube ignition delay time measurements and chemical kinetic modeling

    KAUST Repository

    AlRamadan, Abdullah S.

    2015-10-01

    The demand for fuels with high anti-knock quality has historically been rising, and will continue to increase with the development of downsized and turbocharged spark-ignition engines. Butanol isomers, such as 2-butanol and tert-butanol, have high octane ratings (RON of 105 and 107, respectively), and thus mixed butanols (68.8% by volume of 2-butanol and 31.2% by volume of tert-butanol) can be added to the conventional petroleum-derived gasoline fuels to improve octane performance. In the present work, the effect of mixed butanols addition to gasoline surrogates has been investigated in a high-pressure shock tube facility. The ignition delay times of mixed butanols stoichiometric mixtures were measured at 20 and 40bar over a temperature range of 800-1200K. Next, 10vol% and 20vol% of mixed butanols (MB) were blended with two different toluene/n-heptane/iso-octane (TPRF) fuel blends having octane ratings of RON 90/MON 81.7 and RON 84.6/MON 79.3. These MB/TPRF mixtures were investigated in the shock tube conditions similar to those mentioned above. A chemical kinetic model was developed to simulate the low- and high-temperature oxidation of mixed butanols and MB/TPRF blends. The proposed model is in good agreement with the experimental data with some deviations at low temperatures. The effect of mixed butanols addition to TPRFs is marginal when examining the ignition delay times at high temperatures. However, when extended to lower temperatures (T < 850K), the model shows that the mixed butanols addition to TPRFs causes the ignition delay times to increase and hence behaves like an octane booster at engine-like conditions. © 2015 The Combustion Institute.

  4. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15

    Project Objective: The objectives of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the physical and chemical characteristics of a partner mill pre- and post-oxygen delignified pulp and compare them to lab generated oxygen delignified pulps; (2) Apply the chemical selectivity enhancement system to the partner pre-oxygen delignified pulps under mill conditions (with and without any predetermined amounts of carryover) to determine how efficiently viscosity is preserved, how well selectivity is enhanced, if strength is improved, measure any yield differences and/or bleachability differences; and (3) Initiate a mill scale oxygen delignification run using the selectivity enhancement agent, collect the mill data, analyze it, and propose any future plans for implementation.

  5. Experimental investigation of n-butanol/diesel fuel blends and n-butanol fumigation – Evaluation of engine performance, exhaust emissions, heat release and flammability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Şahin, Zehra; Durgun, Orhan; Aksu, Orhan N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • n-Butanol/diesel fuel blends and n-butanol fumigation investigated experimentally. • Flammability analysis of n-butanol performed. • Smoke decreases significantly for n-butanol/diesel fuel blends and n-butanol fumigation. • HC emission increases significantly for n-butanol/diesel fuel blends and n-butanol fumigation. • 2% n-Butanol/diesel fuel blend decreases slightly BSFC. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to investigate and compare the effects of n-butanol/diesel fuel blends (nBDFBs) and n-butanol fumigation (nBF) on the engine performance and exhaust emissions in a turbocharged automobile diesel engine. Also, evaluations based on heat release and flammability analysis have been done. Experiments have been performed for various n-nBDFBs and nBF at different engine speeds and loads. For nBDFBs and nBF tests; nB2, nB4 and nB6 and nBF2, nBF4 and nBF6n-butanol percentages were selected. Here, for example nB2 and nBF2 contains 2% n-butanol and 98% diesel fuel by volume respectively. The test results showed that smoke decreases significantly by applying both of these two methods. However, decrement ratios of smoke for fumigation method are higher than that of blend method. NO x emission decreases for nB2, but it increases for nB4 and nB6 at selected engine speeds and loads. NO x emission decreases generally for nBF. For nB2 and nB4, BSFC decreases slightly but it increases for nB6. For nBF, BSFC increases at all of the test conditions. Adding n-butanol to diesel fuel becomes expensive for two methods. For nBDFBs, heat release rate (HRR) diagrams exhibit similar typical characteristic to NDF. However, for nBF, HRR shows slightly different pattern from NDF and a double peak is observed in the HRR diagram. The first peak occurs earlier than NDF and the second peak takes places later. In addition, this diagram shows that the first peak becomes larger and the second peak diminishes as n-butanol ratio is increased. Because of pilot injection of

  6. Henry's law constants and infinite dilution activity coefficients of cis-2-butene, dimethylether, chloroethane, and 1,1-difluoroethane in methanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, isobutanol, tert-butanol, 1-pentanol, 2-pentanol, 3-pentanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and 2-methyl-2-butanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyano, Yoshimori; Kobashi, Takahiro; Shinjo, Hiroshi; Kumada, Shinya; Watanabe, Yusuke; Niya, Wataru; Tateishi, Yoko

    2006-01-01

    Henry's law constants and infinite dilution activity coefficients of cis-2-butene, dimethylether, chloroethane, and 1,1-difluoroethane in methanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, isobutanol, tert-butanol, 1-pentanol, 2-pentanol, 3-pentanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and 2-methyl-2-butanol in the temperature range of 250 K to 330 K were measured by a gas stripping method and partial molar excess enthalpies were calculated from the activity coefficients. A rigorous formula for evaluating the Henry's law constants from the gas stripping measurements was used for the data reduction of these highly volatile mixtures. The uncertainty is about 2% for the Henry's law constants and 3% for the estimated infinite dilution activity coefficients. In the evaluation of the infinite dilution activity coefficients, the nonideality of the solute such as the fugacity coefficient and Poynting correction factor cannot be neglected, especially at higher temperatures. The estimated uncertainty of the infinite dilution activity coefficients includes 1% for nonideality

  7. Assessment of in situ butanol recovery by vacuum during acetone butanol ethanol (ABE) fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butanol fermentation is product limiting due to butanol toxicity to microbial cells. Butanol (boiling point: 118 deg C) boils at a greater temperature than water (boiling point: 100 deg C) and application of vacuum technology to integrated acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation and recovery may ...

  8. A novel in situ gas stripping-pervaporation process integrated with acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation for hyper n-butanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chuang; Liu, Fangfang; Xu, Mengmeng; Zhao, Jingbo; Chen, Lijie; Ren, Jiangang; Bai, Fengwu; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2016-01-01

    Butanol is considered as an advanced biofuel, the development of which is restricted by the intensive energy consumption of product recovery. A novel two-stage gas stripping-pervaporation process integrated with acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was developed for butanol recovery, with gas stripping as the first-stage and pervaporation as the second-stage using the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) filled polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mixed matrix membrane (MMM). Compared to batch fermentation without butanol recovery, more ABE (27.5 g/L acetone, 75.5 g/L butanol, 7.0 g/L ethanol vs. 7.9 g/L acetone, 16.2 g/L butanol, 1.4 g/L ethanol) were produced in the fed-batch fermentation, with a higher butanol productivity (0.34 g/L · h vs. 0.30 g/L · h) due to reduced butanol inhibition by butanol recovery. The first-stage gas stripping produced a condensate containing 155.6 g/L butanol (199.9 g/L ABE), which after phase separation formed an organic phase containing 610.8 g/L butanol (656.1 g/L ABE) and an aqueous phase containing 85.6 g/L butanol (129.7 g/L ABE). Fed with the aqueous phase of the condensate from first-stage gas stripping, the second-stage pervaporation using the CNTs-PDMS MMM produced a condensate containing 441.7 g/L butanol (593.2 g/L ABE), which after mixing with the organic phase from gas stripping gave a highly concentrated product containing 521.3 g/L butanol (622.9 g/L ABE). The outstanding performance of CNTs-PDMS MMM can be attributed to the hydrophobic CNTs giving an alternative route for mass transport through the inner tubes or along the smooth surface of CNTs. This gas stripping-pervaporation process with less contaminated risk is thus effective in increasing butanol production and reducing energy consumption. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Fermentation and genomic analysis of acetone-uncoupled butanol production by Clostridium tetanomorphum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Fuyu; Bao, Guanhui; Zhao, Chunhua; Zhang, Yanping; Li, Yin; Dong, Hongjun

    2016-02-01

    In typical acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation, acetone is the main by-product (50 % of butanol mass) of butanol production, resulting in a low yield of butanol. It is known that some Clostridium tetanomorphum strains are able to produce butanol without acetone in nature. Here, we described that C. tetanomorphum strain DSM665 can produce 4.16 g/L butanol and 4.98 g/L ethanol at pH 6.0, and 9.81 g/L butanol and 1.01 g/L ethanol when adding 1 mM methyl viologen. Butyrate and acetate could be reassimilated and no acetone was produced. Further analysis indicated that the activity of the acetate/butyrate:acetoacetyl-CoA transferase responsible for acetone production is lost in C. tetanomorphum DSM665. The genome of C. tetanomorphum DSM665 was sequenced and deposited in DDBJ, EMBL, and GenBank under the accession no. APJS00000000. Sequence analysis indicated that there are no typical genes (ctfA/B and adc) that are typically parts of an acetone synthesis pathway in C. tetanomorphum DSM665. This work provides new insights in the mechanism of clostridial butanol production and should prove useful for the design of a high-butanol-producing strain.

  10. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2005-09-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop improved extended oxygen delignification (EOD) technologies for current U.S. pulp mill operations. This was accomplished by: (1) Identifying pulping conditions that optimize O and OO performance; (2) Identifying structural features of lignin that enhance reactivity towards EOD of high kappa pulps; (3) Identifying factors minimizing carbohydrate degradation and improve pulp strength of EOD high kappa pulps; (4) Developing a simple, reproducible method of quantifying yield gains from EOD; and (5) Developing process conditions that significantly reduce the capital requirements of EOD while optimizing the yield benefits. Key research outcomes included, demonstrating the use of a mini-O sequence such as (E+O)Dkf:0.05(E+O) or Dkf:0.05(E+O)(E+O) without interstage washing could capture approximately 60% of the delignification efficiency of a conventional O-stage without the major capital requirements associated with an O-stage for conventional SW kraft pulps. The rate of formation and loss of fiber charge during an O-stage stage can be employed to maximize net fiber charge. Optimal fiber charge development and delignification are two independent parameters and do not parallel each other. It is possible to utilize an O-stage to enhance overall cellulosic fiber charge of low and high kappa SW kraft pulps which is beneficial for physical strength properties. The application of NIR and multi-variant analysis was developed into a rapid and simple method of determining the yield of pulp from an oxygen delignification stage that has real-world mill applications. A focus point of this program was the demonstration that Kraft pulping conditions and oxygen delignification of high and low-kappa SW and HW pulps are intimately related. Improved physical pulp properties and yield can be delivered by controlling the H-factor and active alkali charge. Low AA softwood kraft pulp with a kappa number 30 has an average improvement of 2% in

  11. Solvents (butanol, acetone, and ethanol)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarovenko, V L; Nakhmanovich, B M

    1963-07-17

    The method involves use of carbohydrate containing plant raw-material, e.g., hydrolyzates of corn cob and pulp. The material is subjected to fermentation with acetone-butanol bacteria with addition of starch-industry wastes as source of proteins (gluten and gluten-containing water) and nutrient salts.

  12. Characterization of an immobilized cell, trickle bed reactor during long term butanol (ABE) fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C H; Okos, M R; Wankat, P C

    1990-06-20

    Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was performed continuously in an immobilized cell, trickle bed reactor for 54 days without, degeneration by maintaining the pH above 4.3. Column clogging was minimized by structured packing of immobilization matrix. The reactor contained two serial glass columns packed with Clostridium acetobutylicum adsorbed on 12- and 20-in.-long polyester sponge strips at total flow rates between 38 and 98.7 mL/h. Cells were initially grown at 20 g/L glucose resulting in low butanol (1.15 g/L) production encouraging cell growth. After the initial cell growth phase a higher glucose concentration (38.7 g/L) improved solvent yield from 13.2 to 24.1 wt%, and butanol production rate was the best. Further improvement in solvent yield and butanol production rate was not observed with 60 g/L of glucose. However, when the fresh nutrient supply was limited to only the first column, solvent yield increased to 27.3 wt% and butanol selectivity was improved to 0.592 as compared to 0.541 when fresh feed was fed to both columns. The highest butanol concentration of 5.2 g/L occurred at 55% conversion of the feed with 60 g/L glucose. Liquid product yield of immobilized cells approached the theoretical value reported in the literature. Glucose and product concentration profiles along the column showed that the columns can be divided into production and inhibition regions. The length of each zone was dependent upon the feed glucose concentration and feed pattern. Unlike batch fermentation, there was no clear distinction between acid and solvent production regions. The pH dropped, from 6.18-6.43 to 4.50-4.90 in the first inch of the reactor. The pH dropped further to 4.36-4.65 by the exit of the column. The results indicate that the strategy for long term stable operation with high solvent yield requires a structured packing of biologically stable porous matrix such as polyester sponge, a pH maintenance above 4.3, glucose concentrations up to 60 g/L and

  13. Synthesis of 2-Butanol by Selective Hydrogenolysis of 1,4-Anhydroerythritol over Molybdenum Oxide-Modified Rhodium-Supported Silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Takahiro; Tamura, Masazumi; Nakagawa, Yoshinao; Tomishige, Keiichi

    2016-07-07

    Rh-MoOx /SiO2 (Mo/Rh=0.13) is an effective catalyst for the hydrogenolysis of 1,4-anhydroerythritol (1,4-AHERY) and provides 2-BuOH in high yield of 51 %. This is the first report of the production of 2-BuOH from 1,4-AHERY by hydrogenolysis. 1,4-AHERY was more suitable as a starting material than erythritol because the 2-BuOH yield from erythritol was low (34 %). Based on the kinetics and comparison of reactivities of the related compounds using Rh-MoOx /SiO2 and Rh/SiO2 catalysts, the modification of Rh/SiO2 with MoOx leads to the high activity and high selectivity to 2-BuOH because of the generation of reactive hydride species and the strong adsorption of 1,4-AHERY on MoOx species. The reaction proceeds by main two routes, (I) the combination of single C-O hydrogenolysis with the desorption of intermediates, a usual route in hydrogenolysis, and (II) multiple C-O hydrogenolysis without the desorption of intermediates from the active site, and the reaction mechanism for Route (II) is proposed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Genetic Engineering In BioButanol Production And Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Rao

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The growing need to address current energy and environmental problems has sparked an interest in developing improved biological methods to produce liquid fuels from renewable sources. Higher-chain alcohols possess chemical properties that are more similar to gasoline. Ethanol and butanol are two products which are used as biofuel. Butanol production was more concerned than ethanol because of its high octane number. Unfortunately, these alcohols are not produced efficiently in natural microorganisms, and thus economical production in industrial volumes remains a challenge. The synthetic biology, however, offers additional tools to engineer synthetic pathways in user-friendly hosts to help increase titers and productivity of bio-butanol. Knock out and over-expression of genes is the major approaches towards genetic manipulation and metabolic engineering of microbes. Yet there are TargeTron Technology, Antisense RNA and CRISPR technology has a vital role in genome manipulation of C.acetobutylicum. This review concentrates on the recent developments for efficient production of butanol and butanol tolerance by various genetically engineered microbes.

  15. Mixed butanols addition to gasoline surrogates: Shock tube ignition delay time measurements and chemical kinetic modeling

    KAUST Repository

    AlRamadan, Abdullah S.; Badra, Jihad; Javed, Tamour; Alabbad, Mohammed; Bokhumseen, Nehal; Gaillard, Patrick; Babiker, Hassan; Farooq, Aamir; Sarathy, Mani

    2015-01-01

    work, the effect of mixed butanols addition to gasoline surrogates has been investigated in a high-pressure shock tube facility. The ignition delay times of mixed butanols stoichiometric mixtures were measured at 20 and 40bar over a temperature range

  16. Effects of humus on acetone-butanol fermentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovats, J

    1963-01-01

    Adding 6 to 8 g humus-rich soil dried at 80/sup 0/ to 100 cc sterilized molasses, containing 3.8 sucrose and 0.1% (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/HPO/sub 4/, inoculated with acetone-butanol fermentative bacteria, increased acetone, butanol, and ethanol yields by 30, 50, and 40%, respectively. The acetone-to-butanol ratio increased from 1.85 to 2.1-2.3 in low and 2.6-2.8 in high sucrose-molasses concentrations. Yields of total organic solvents increased from 25 to 36-8% of the sucrose present. Inorganic salts from ashed humus soils were only 10 to 20% less effective in enhancing fermentation than the whole soil. It is postulated that the fermentation is enhanced by trace elements present in the soil.

  17. Characteristics of Butanol Isomers Oxidation in a Micro Flow Reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Bin Hamzah, Muhamad Firdaus

    2017-05-01

    Ignition and combustion characteristics of n-butanol/air, 2-butanol.air and isobutanol/air mixtures at stoichiometric (ϕ = 1) and lean (ϕ = 0.5) conditions were investigated in a micro flow reactor with a controlled temperature profile from 323 K to 1313 K, under atmospheric pressure. Sole distinctive weak flame was observed for each mixture, with inlet fuel/air mixture velocity set low at 2 cm/s. One-dimensional computation with comprehensive chemistry and transport was conducted. At low mixture velocities, one-stage oxidation was confirmed from heat release rate profiles, which was broadly in agreement with the experimental results. The weak flame positions were congruent with literature describing reactivity of the butanol isomers. These weak flame responses were also found to mirror the trend in Anti-Knock Indexes of the butanol isomers. Flux and sensitivity analyses were performed to investigate the fuel oxidation pathways at low and high temperatures. Further computational investigations on oxidation of butanol isomers at higher pressure of 5 atm indicated two-stage oxidation through the heat release rate profiles. Low temperature chemistry is accentuated in the region near the first weak cool flame for oxidation under higher pressure, and its impact on key species – such as hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide and carbon monoxide – were considered. Both experimental and computational findings demonstrate the advantage of employing the micro flow reactor in investigating oxidation processes in the temperature region of interest along the reactor channel. By varying physical conditions such as pressure, the micro flow reactor system is proven to be highly beneficial in elucidating oxidation behavior of butanol isomers in conditions in engines such as those that mirror HCCI operations.

  18. Impact of higher n-butanol addition on combustion and performance of GDI engine in stoichiometric combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zheng; Yang, Feng; Xue, Shuo; Wu, Zhenkuo; Liu, Jingping

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of 0–50% n-butanol addition on GDI engine are experimentally studied. • Higher n-butanol fractions increase combustion pressure and fasten burning rate. • Higher n-butanol fractions increase BSFC but improve BTE. • Higher n-butanol fractions enhance combustion stability but increase knock intensity. • Higher n-butanol fractions reduce exhaust temperature and NOx emissions. - Abstract: An experimental study was carried out on a turbocharged gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine fueled by n-butanol/gasoline blends. Effects of n-butanol percents (15%, 30%, and 50%) on combustion and performance of the engine operating on stoichiometric combustion condition were discussed and also compared with pure gasoline in this paper. The results indicate that n-butanol/gasoline blends increase combustion pressure and pressure rise rate, fasten burning rate, and shorten ignition delay and combustion duration, as compared to pure gasoline. Moreover, these trends are impacted more evidently with increased n-butanol fraction in the blends. In addition, higher n-butanol percent of gasoline blends increase combustion temperature but decrease the temperature in the later stage of expansion stroke, which contributes to the control of exhaust temperature at high-load. With regards to engine performance, higher n-butanol percent in the blends results in increased brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and higher brake thermal efficiency (BTE). However, higher n-butanol addition helps to improve combustion stability but shows slightly higher knock possibility in high-load. In that case, the knock trend could be weakened by retarding ignition timing. Moreover, higher n-butanol addition significantly decreases NOx emissions, but it increases CO emissions obviously.

  19. Hybrid Vapor Stripping-Vapor Permeation Process for Recovery and Dehydration of 1-Butanol and Acetone/Butanol/Ethanol from Dilute Aqueous Solutions. Part 1. Process Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Fermentative production of butanol is limited to low concentrations, typically less than 2 wt% solvent, due to product inhibition. The result is high separation energy demand by conventional distillation approaches, despite favorable vapor-liquid equilibrium and parti...

  20. Effects of port fuel injection (PFI) of n-butanol and EGR on combustion and emissions of a direct injection diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zheng; Liu, Jingping; Wu, Zhenkuo; Lee, Chiafon

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A DI diesel engine with PFI of n-butanol in combination with EGR is investigated. • Butanol concentration and EGR have a coupled impact on combustion process. • A combination of butanol PFI and EGR can break through tradeoff between NOx and soot. • DI diesel with butanol PFI has lower ITE than DI of diesel–butanol blends. - Abstract: An experimental investigation was conducted on a direct injection (DI) diesel engine with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), coupled with port fuel injection (PFI) of n-butanol. Effects of butanol concentration and EGR rate on combustion, efficiency, and emissions of the tested engine were evaluated, and also compared to a DI mode of diesel–butanol blended fuel. The results show butanol concentration and EGR rate have a coupled impact on combustion process. Under low EGR rate condition, both the peak cylinder pressure and the peak heat release rate increase with increased butanol concentration, but no visible influence was found on the ignition delay. Under high EGR rate condition, however, the peak cylinder pressure and the peak heat release rate both decrease with increased butanol concentration, accompanied by longer ignition delay and longer combustion duration. As regard to the regulated emissions, HC and CO emissions increase with increased butanol concentration, causing higher indicated specific fuel consumption (ISFC) and lower indicated thermal efficiency (ITE). It is also noted that butanol PFI in combination with EGR can change the trade-off relationship between NOx and soot, and simultaneously reduce both into a very low level. Compared with the DI mode of diesel–butanol blended fuel, however, the DI diesel engine with butanol PFI has higher HC and CO emissions and lower ITE. Therefore, future research should be focused on overcoming the identified shortcomings by an improved injection strategy of butanol PFI

  1. Emission, efficiency, and influence in a diesel n-butanol dual-injection engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yanchun; Chen, Zheng; Liu, Jingping

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Dual-injection combustion for diesel n-butanol dual-fuel is investigated. • Higher EGR rate results in lower NOx and ITE, but higher smoke, HC and CO. • Larger butanol fraction results in lower smoke and ITE, but higher NOx, HC and CO. • Advanced injection can decrease smoke, HC and CO, and increase ITE. • Coupling of butanol fraction, EGR and injection timing makes for a better performance. - Abstract: In this work, a dual-injection combustion mode for diesel n-butanol dual-fuel, combined direct injection (DI) of diesel with port fuel injection (PFI) of n-butanol, was introduced. Effects of n-butanol fraction, EGR rate and injection timing on this mode were studied on a modified single-cylinder diesel engine at the speed of 1400 r/min and the IMEP of 1.0 MPa. The results indicate that with increased EGR rate, NOx emissions reduce, but smoke emissions increase. As n-butanol fraction is increased, smoke emissions decrease with a small increase in NOx. However, higher HC and CO emissions, higher indicated specific fuel consumption (ISFC) and lower indicated thermal efficiency (ITE) have to be paid with increased n-butanol fraction, especially at high EGR condition. Advancing diesel injection timing suitably has the capacity of mitigating those costs and further decreasing smoke emissions with a small penalty in NOx emissions. Coupling of large butanol fraction, high EGR rate, and advanced injection suitably contributes to a better balance between emissions and efficiency in the diesel n-butanol dual-injection engine

  2. Mutant strain of C. acetobutylicum and process for making butanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Mahendra K.; Beacom, Daniel; Datta, Rathin

    1993-01-01

    A biologically pure asporogenic mutant of Clostridium acetobutylicum is produced by growing sporogenic C. acetobutylicum ATCC 4259 and treating the parent strain with ethane methane sulfonate. The mutant which as been designated C. acetobutylicum ATCC 55025 is useful in an improved ABE fermentation process, and produces high concentrations of butanol and total solvents.

  3. Extractions of isoquinoline alkaloids with butanol and octanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorová, Jana; Babica, Jan; Marek, Radek; Paulová, Hana; Táborská, Eva; Dostál, Jirí

    2010-09-01

    Six different isoquinoline alkaloids (sanguinarine, chelerythrine, berberine, coptisine, allocryptopine, and protopine) were extracted by butanol and octanol from aqueous solution, pH 4.5. The samples were analyzed by HPLC. Butanol extraction was non-selective, alkaloids passed into organic phase in 83-98%. Octanol extraction provided more selective yields: sanguinarine 99%, chelerythrine 94%, berberine 18%, coptisine 16%, allocryptopine 7.5%, protopine 7%. Further, we tested octanol treatment of extract from Dicranostigma lactucoides. The octanol extraction yields were also selective: sanguinarine 98%, chelerythrine 92%, chelirubine 92.5%, protopine 6% and allocryptopine 3.5%. 6-Butoxy-5,6-dihydrosanguinarine and 6-butoxy-5,6-dihydrochelerythrine were prepared and their NMR and MS data are reported and discussed. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Developing a mesophilic co-culture for direct conversion of cellulose to butanol in consolidated bioprocess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Cao, Guangli; Zheng, Ju; Fu, Defeng; Song, Jinzhu; Zhang, Junzheng; Zhao, Lei; Yang, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of butanol production from cellulosic biomass is a promising strategy for cost saving compared to other processes featuring dedicated cellulase production. CBP requires microbial strains capable of hydrolyzing biomass with enzymes produced on its own with high rate and high conversion and simultaneously produce a desired product at high yield. However, current reported butanol-producing candidates are unable to utilize cellulose as a sole carbon source and energy source. Consequently, developing a co-culture system using different microorganisms by taking advantage of their specific metabolic capacities to produce butanol directly from cellulose in consolidated bioprocess is of great interest. This study was mainly undertaken to find complementary organisms to the butanol producer that allow simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose to butanol in their co-culture under mesophilic condition. Accordingly, a highly efficient and stable consortium N3 on cellulose degradation was first developed by multiple subcultures. Subsequently, the functional microorganisms with 16S rRNA sequences identical to the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profile were isolated from consortium N3. The isolate Clostridium celevecrescens N3-2 exhibited higher cellulose-degrading capability was thus chosen as the partner strain for butanol production with Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC824. Meanwhile, the established stable consortium N3 was also investigated to produce butanol by co-culturing with C. acetobutylicum ATCC824. Butanol was produced from cellulose when C. acetobutylicum ATCC824 was co-cultured with either consortium N3 or C. celevecrescens N3-2. Co-culturing C. acetobutylicum ATCC824 with the stable consortium N3 resulted in a relatively higher butanol concentration, 3.73 g/L, and higher production yield, 0.145 g/g of glucose equivalent. The newly isolated microbial consortium N3 and strain C. celevecrescens N3

  5. Solvent (acetone-butanol: ab) production

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article describes production of butanol [acetone-butanol-ethanol, (also called AB or ABE or solvent)] by fermentation using both traditional and current technologies. AB production from agricultural commodities, such as corn and molasses, was an important historical fermentation. Unfortunately,...

  6. Fuel spray and combustion characteristics of butanol blends in a constant volume combustion chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yu; Li, Jun; Jin, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A sudden drop is observed in spray penetration for B10S10D80 fuel at 800 and 900 K. • With increasing of temperature, auto-ignition timings of fuels become unperceivable. • Low n-butanol addition has little effect on autoignition timings from 800 to 1200 K. • n-Butanol additive can reduce soot emissions at the near-wall regions. • Larger soot reduction is seen at higher ambient temperatures for n-butanol addition. - Abstract: The processes of spray penetrations, flame propagation and soot formation and oxidation fueling n-butanol/biodiesel/diesel blends were experimentally investigated in a constant volume combustion chamber with an optical access. B0S20D80 (0% n-butanol, 20% soybean biodiesel, and 80% diesel in volume) was prepared as the base fuel. n-Butanol was added into the base fuel by volumetric percent of 5% and 10%, denoted as B5S15D80 (5% n-butanol/15% soybean biodiesel/80% diesel) and B10S10D80 (10% n-butanol/10% soybean biodiesel/80% diesel). The ambient temperatures at the time of fuel injection were set to 800 K, 900 K, 1000 K, and 1200 K. Results indicate that the penetration length reduces with the increase of n-butanol volumes in blending fuels and ambient temperatures. The spray penetration presents a sudden drop as fueling B10S10D80 at 800 K and 900 K, which might be caused by micro-explosion. A larger premixed combustion process is observed at low ambient temperatures, while the heat release rate of high ambient temperatures presents mixing controlled diffusion combustion. With a lower ambient temperature, the auto-ignition delay becomes longer with increasing of n-butanol volume in blends. However, with increasing of ambient temperatures, the auto-ignition timing between three fuels becomes unperceivable. Generally, low n-butanol addition has a limited or no effect on the auto-ignition timing in the current conditions. Compared with the base fuel of B0S20D80, n-butanol additive with 5% or 10% in volume can reduce soot

  7. Intermediate species measurement during iso-butanol auto-ignition

    KAUST Repository

    Ji, Weiqi

    2015-10-01

    © 2015 The Combustion Institute.Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. This work presents the time histories of intermediate species during the auto-ignition of iso-butanol at high pressure and intermediate temperature conditions obtained using a rapid compression machine and recently developed fast sampling system. Iso-butanol ignition delays were acquired for iso-butanol/O2 mixture with an inert/O2 ratio of 7.26, equivalence ratio of 0.4, in the temperature range of 840-950 K and at pressure of 25 bar. Fast sampling and gas chromatography were used to acquire and quantify the intermediate species during the ignition delay of the same mixture at P = 25.3 bar and T = 905 K. The ignition delay times and quantitative measurements of the mole fraction time histories of methane, ethene, propene, iso-butene, iso-butyraldehyde, iso-butanol, and carbon monoxide were compared with predictions from the detailed mechanisms developed by Sarathy et al., Merchant et al., and Cai et al. It is shown that while the Sarathy mechanism well predicts the overall ignition delay time, it overpredicts ethene by a factor of 6-10, underpredicts iso-butene by a factor of 2, and overpredicts iso-butyraldehyde by a factor of 2. Reaction path and sensitivity analyses were carried out to identify the reactions responsible for the observed inadequacy. The rates of iso-butanol hydrogen atom abstraction by OH radical and the beta-scission reactions of hydroxybutyl radicals were updated based on recently published quantum calculation results. Significant improvements were achieved in predicting ignition delay at high pressures (25 and 30 bar) and the species concentrations of ethene and iso-butene. However, the updated mechanism still overpredicts iso-butyraldehyde concentrations. Also, the updated mechanism degrades the prediction in ignition delay at lower pressure (15 bar) compared to the original mechanism developed by Sarathy et al.

  8. Intermediate species measurement during iso-butanol auto-ignition

    KAUST Repository

    Ji, Weiqi; Zhang, Peng; He, Tanjin; Wang, Zhi; Tao, Ling; He, Xin; Law, Chung K.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 The Combustion Institute.Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. This work presents the time histories of intermediate species during the auto-ignition of iso-butanol at high pressure and intermediate temperature conditions obtained using a rapid compression machine and recently developed fast sampling system. Iso-butanol ignition delays were acquired for iso-butanol/O2 mixture with an inert/O2 ratio of 7.26, equivalence ratio of 0.4, in the temperature range of 840-950 K and at pressure of 25 bar. Fast sampling and gas chromatography were used to acquire and quantify the intermediate species during the ignition delay of the same mixture at P = 25.3 bar and T = 905 K. The ignition delay times and quantitative measurements of the mole fraction time histories of methane, ethene, propene, iso-butene, iso-butyraldehyde, iso-butanol, and carbon monoxide were compared with predictions from the detailed mechanisms developed by Sarathy et al., Merchant et al., and Cai et al. It is shown that while the Sarathy mechanism well predicts the overall ignition delay time, it overpredicts ethene by a factor of 6-10, underpredicts iso-butene by a factor of 2, and overpredicts iso-butyraldehyde by a factor of 2. Reaction path and sensitivity analyses were carried out to identify the reactions responsible for the observed inadequacy. The rates of iso-butanol hydrogen atom abstraction by OH radical and the beta-scission reactions of hydroxybutyl radicals were updated based on recently published quantum calculation results. Significant improvements were achieved in predicting ignition delay at high pressures (25 and 30 bar) and the species concentrations of ethene and iso-butene. However, the updated mechanism still overpredicts iso-butyraldehyde concentrations. Also, the updated mechanism degrades the prediction in ignition delay at lower pressure (15 bar) compared to the original mechanism developed by Sarathy et al.

  9. The effect of fermentable carbohydrate on sporulation and butanol production by Clostridium acetobutylicum P262

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awang, G.M.; Ingledew, W.M.; Jones, G.A. (Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Applied Microbiology and Food Science)

    1992-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether or not a variation in the type of carbohydrate fermented by Clostridium acetobutylicum could be exploited to inhibit sporulation during the butanol-producing phase of fermentation and thus enhance butanol production. C. acetobutylicum P262 was found to ferment a wide variety of carbohydrates, but butanol production was not necessarily enhanced when percentage sporulation was low. Butanol concentration was more related to the total amount of acidic end-products (acetic and butyric acid) reutilized by the microorganism for solvent production and to the type and amount of carbohydrate utilized. Fermentation of cellobiose led to conditions resulting in complete acid reutilization and the highest butanol concentration (10.4-10.6 g/l). In cultures containing a mixture of glucose and cellobiose, glucose repression of cellobiose utilization resulted in lower butanol concentrations (6.6-7.5 g/l). Sporulation was dependent on the type of carbohydrate utilized by the microorgamism. Glucose had a greater enhancing effect on the sporulation process (22-42%) than starch (9-12%) or cellobiose (22-34%). It was concluded that whereas the type of carbohydrate fermented has a specific effect on the extent of sporulation of a culture, conditions of low sporulation did not enhance butanol concentration unless carbohydrate utilization and the reutilization of acidic products were high. (orig.).

  10. Effect of Si/Al{sub 2} Ratio on 2-butanol Dehydration over HY Zeolite Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Euna; Choi, Hyeonhee; Jeon, Jong-Ki [Kongju National University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Synthesis of butenes through dehydration of 2-butanol was investigated over HY zeolite catalysts. 2-Butanol dehydration reaction was carried out in a fixed bed catalytic reactor. 2-Butanol conversion was increased with increase of Si/Al{sub 2} ratio of HY zeolite catalysts, which can be ascribed to increase of acid strength with increase of Si/Al{sub 2} ratio. Selectivities to 1-butene, trans-2-butene, and cis-2-butene were not greatly influenced by the change of the Si/Al{sub 2} ratio of HY zeolite. As a result, it was advantageous to use a HY zeolite catalyst with 60 Si/Al{sub 2} ratio for maximizing the yield of 1-butene in the dehydration of 2-butanol. The optimal reaction temperature for maximizing the yield of 1-butene was 250 .deg. C over HY (60) catalyst.

  11. Effect of Si/Al2 Ratio on 2-butanol Dehydration over HY Zeolite Catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Euna; Choi, Hyeonhee; Jeon, Jong-Ki

    2015-01-01

    Synthesis of butenes through dehydration of 2-butanol was investigated over HY zeolite catalysts. 2-Butanol dehydration reaction was carried out in a fixed bed catalytic reactor. 2-Butanol conversion was increased with increase of Si/Al 2 ratio of HY zeolite catalysts, which can be ascribed to increase of acid strength with increase of Si/Al 2 ratio. Selectivities to 1-butene, trans-2-butene, and cis-2-butene were not greatly influenced by the change of the Si/Al 2 ratio of HY zeolite. As a result, it was advantageous to use a HY zeolite catalyst with 60 Si/Al 2 ratio for maximizing the yield of 1-butene in the dehydration of 2-butanol. The optimal reaction temperature for maximizing the yield of 1-butene was 250 .deg. C over HY (60) catalyst

  12. Toxicological study of the butanol fractionated root extract of Asparagus africanus Lam., on some blood parameter and histopathology of liver and kidney in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Sintayehu; Afework, Mekbeb; Debella, Asfaw; Ergete, Wondwossen; Makonnen, Eyasu

    2016-01-27

    The butanol fractionated root extract of Asparagus africanus Lam., a traditional herb widely used to treat various ailments were analyzed for the presence of potential toxicity after single (acute) and repeated (subchronic) dose oral administration in adult swiss albino mice using gavages. For the acute study, butanol fractionated extract of the plant was administered in single doses of 1000, 3000 and 5000 mg/kg body weight. In the sub-chronic dose study, the extract was administered at doses of 300 and 600 mg/kg body weight/day for 42 days. Selected hematological and biochemical parameters of the blood followed by histopathological analysis were investigated after 42 days of daily administrations. The results were expressed as M ± SE, and differences at P fraction of the extract has high safety profile when given orally. After 42 days of daily dosing, in the sub-chronic study, no clinically significant changes were observed for hematological and biochemical parameters. Except an occasional small number of focal mononuclear lymphocytic cells infiltrations around the central and portal triad of the liver of a few mice, the histopathological parameters do not show significant change. It is concluded that, the butanol fractionated extract from A. africanus at the given dose does not show significant toxicity. The presence of focal inflammation on the liver of a few mice may be associated to the presence of flavonoid glycoside in the butanol fractionated extract.

  13. Biofuel Production Using Butanol and Used Transformer Oil

    OpenAIRE

    J.Antony Pradeep; K.Kishore Kumar, UG Scholars; D.Balasubramanian Asst Prof

    2016-01-01

    Energy demand of the world increases tremendously. The use of fossil fuels to this extent makes it limited and it is an important cause for global warming. To reduce the emission of greenhouse gases and fossil fuel usage, many developments were made using renewable energy. Ethanol was used as a substitute for gasoline lately but it is highly corrosive and need separate tankers for transportation. Instead of using ethanol, butanol will give high mileage, less corrosive and has higher flash and...

  14. (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium of {l_brace}water + phenol + (1-butanol, or 2-butanol, or tert-butanol){r_brace} systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadlich de Oliveira, Leonardo [School of Chemical Engineering, State University of Campinas, UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6066, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil); Aznar, Martin, E-mail: maznar@feq.unicamp.b [School of Chemical Engineering, State University of Campinas, UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6066, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) and binodal curve data were determined for the systems (water + phenol + tert-butanol) at T = 298.15 K, (water + phenol + 2-butanol) and (water + phenol + 1-butanol) at T = 298.15 K and T = 313.15 K by the combined techniques of densimetry and refractometry. Type I curve (for tert-butanol) and Type II curves (for 1- and 2-butanol) were found. The data were correlated with the NRTL model and the parameters estimated present root mean square deviations below 2% for the system with tert-butanol and lower than 0.8% for the other systems.

  15. Butanol production from concentrated lactose/whey permeate: Use of pervaporation membrane to recover and concentrate product

    Science.gov (United States)

    In these studies butanol (acetone butanol ethanol, or ABE) was produced from concentrated lactose/whey permeate containing 211 gL-1 lactose. Fermentation of such a highly concentrated lactose solution was possible due to simultaneous product removal using a pervaporation membrane. In this system a p...

  16. An Experimental and Numerical Study of N-Dodecane/Butanol Blends for Compression Ignition Engines

    KAUST Repository

    Wakale, Anil Bhaurao; Mohamed, Samah; Naser, Nimal; Jaasim, Mohammed; Banerjee, Raja; Im, Hong G.; Sarathy, Mani

    2018-01-01

    Alcohols are potential blending agents for diesel that can be effectively used in compression ignition engines. This work investigates the use of n-butanol as a blending component for diesel fuel using experiments and simulations. Dodecane was selected as a surrogate for diesel fuel and various concentrations of n-butanol were added to study ignition characteristics. Ignition delay times for different n-butanol/dodecane blends were measured using the ignition quality tester at KAUST (KR-IQT). The experiments were conducted at pressure of 21 and 18 bar, temperature ranging from 703-843 K and global equivalence ratio of 0.85. A skeletal mechanism for n-dodecane and n-butanol blends with 203 species was developed for numerical simulations. The mechanism was developed by combining n-dodecane skeletal mechanism containing 106 species and a detailed mechanism for all the butanol isomers. The new mixture mechanism was validated for various pressure, temperature and equivalence ratio using a 0-D homogeneous reactor model from CHEMKIN for pure base fuels (n-dodecane and butanol). Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, CONVERGE was used to further validate the new mechanism. The new mechanism was able to reproduce the experimental results from IQT at different pressure and temperature conditions.

  17. An Experimental and Numerical Study of N-Dodecane/Butanol Blends for Compression Ignition Engines

    KAUST Repository

    Wakale, Anil Bhaurao

    2018-04-03

    Alcohols are potential blending agents for diesel that can be effectively used in compression ignition engines. This work investigates the use of n-butanol as a blending component for diesel fuel using experiments and simulations. Dodecane was selected as a surrogate for diesel fuel and various concentrations of n-butanol were added to study ignition characteristics. Ignition delay times for different n-butanol/dodecane blends were measured using the ignition quality tester at KAUST (KR-IQT). The experiments were conducted at pressure of 21 and 18 bar, temperature ranging from 703-843 K and global equivalence ratio of 0.85. A skeletal mechanism for n-dodecane and n-butanol blends with 203 species was developed for numerical simulations. The mechanism was developed by combining n-dodecane skeletal mechanism containing 106 species and a detailed mechanism for all the butanol isomers. The new mixture mechanism was validated for various pressure, temperature and equivalence ratio using a 0-D homogeneous reactor model from CHEMKIN for pure base fuels (n-dodecane and butanol). Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, CONVERGE was used to further validate the new mechanism. The new mechanism was able to reproduce the experimental results from IQT at different pressure and temperature conditions.

  18. Synthesis of (1-/sup 11/C)-butanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberdorfer, F; Helus, F; Maier-Borst, W [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany, F.R.); Silvester, D J [Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK). M.R.C. Cyclotron Unit

    1982-09-20

    A method for carrier-free labelling of n-butanol with the positron emitting radionuclide carbon-11 (half-life 20.4 min) is described. Labelling was achieved by carboxylation of n-propyl magnesium chloride with /sup 11/C-labelled carbon dioxide and the subsequent reduction of the resulting free (1-/sup 11/C)-butyric acid with LiAlH/sub 4/ after hydrolysis of the Grignard complex. The procedure permits /sup 11/C-labelled butanol to be prepared in high activity and high radiochemical purity for in vivo biological studies only 25 min after the start of carboxylation of the Grignard compound. Gas chromatography and HPLC were used to assess the purity of the product. To maintain carrier-free conditions, atmospheric carbon dioxide was rigorously excluded from all reagents and every parts of the apparatus.

  19. The synthesis of [1-11C]-butanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberdorfer, F.; Helus, F.; Maier-Borst, W.; Silvester, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    A method for carrier-free labelling of n-butanol with the positron emitting radionuclide carbon-11 (half-life 20.4 min) is described. Labelling was achieved by carboxylation of n-propyl magnesium chloride with 11 C-labelled carbon dioxide and the subsequent reduction of the resulting free [1- 11 C]-butyric acid with LiAlH 4 after hydrolysis of the Grignard complex. The procedure permits 11 C-labelled butanol to be prepared in high activity and high radiochemical purity for in vivo biological studies only 25 min after the start of carboxylation of the Grignard compound. Gas chromatography and HPLC were used to assess the purity of the product. To maintain carrier-free conditions, atmospheric carbon dioxide was rigorously excluded from all reagents and every parts of the apparatus. (author)

  20. Hydrophobic Hyflon® AD/PVDF membranes for butanol dehydration via pervaporation

    KAUST Repository

    Jalal, Taghreed

    2015-10-21

    Novel hydrophobic Hyflon® AD /PVDF membranes were developed and investigated for n-butanol dehydration via pervaporation. The coating protocols for thin defect-free Hyflon® AD selective layer on the PVDF support was optimized. Water and n-butanol transport was measured, analyzing the effect of operating conditions. The water flux through the newly developed membranes was higher than 150 g/m2.h with selectivity for water higher than 99 wt %. The focus was on the use of Hyflon® AD as the selective layer for n-butanol dehydration. The membrane application can be extended to other solvents, supporting an effective and simple method for dehydration with hydrophobic membranes.

  1. Hydrophobic Hyflon® AD/PVDF membranes for butanol dehydration via pervaporation

    KAUST Repository

    Jalal, Taghreed; Bettahalli Narasimha, Murthy Srivatsa; Le, Ngoc Lieu; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Novel hydrophobic Hyflon® AD /PVDF membranes were developed and investigated for n-butanol dehydration via pervaporation. The coating protocols for thin defect-free Hyflon® AD selective layer on the PVDF support was optimized. Water and n-butanol transport was measured, analyzing the effect of operating conditions. The water flux through the newly developed membranes was higher than 150 g/m2.h with selectivity for water higher than 99 wt %. The focus was on the use of Hyflon® AD as the selective layer for n-butanol dehydration. The membrane application can be extended to other solvents, supporting an effective and simple method for dehydration with hydrophobic membranes.

  2. Volumetric properties of ternary (IL + 2-propanol or 1-butanol or 2-butanol + ethyl acetate) systems and binary (IL + 2-propanol or 1-butanol or 2-butanol) and (1-butanol or 2-butanol + ethyl acetate) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahadur, Indra; Deenadayalu, Nirmala; Tywabi, Zikhona; Sen, Sabyasachi; Hofman, Tadeusz

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Experimental densities were determined at T = (298.15, 303.15, and 313.15) K. ► IL: methyl trioctylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide was used. ► Virial Based Mixing Rule correlation of the binary excess molar volume data. ► Binary excess molar volume was both negative and positive. ► Ternary excess molar volume data was correlated with the Cibulka equation. - Abstract: The experimental densities for the binary or ternary systems were determined at T = (298.15, 303.15, and 313.15) K. The ionic liquid methyl trioctylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([MOA] + [Tf 2 N] − ) was used for three of the five binary systems studied. The binary systems were ([MOA] + [Tf 2 N] − + 2-propanol or 1-butanol or 2-butanol) and (1-butanol or 2-butanol + ethyl acetate). The ternary systems were {methyl trioctylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide + 2-propanol or 1-butanol or 2-butanol + ethyl acetate}. The binary and ternary excess molar volumes for the above systems were calculated from the experimental density values for each temperature. The Redlich–Kister smoothing polynomial was fitted to the binary excess molar volume data. Virial-Based Mixing Rules were used to correlate the binary excess molar volume data. The binary excess molar volume results showed both negative and positive values over the entire composition range for all the temperatures. The ternary excess molar volume data were successfully correlated with the Cibulka equation using the Redlich–Kister binary parameters.

  3. A comparative experimental and computational study of methanol, ethanol, and n-butanol flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veloo, Peter S.; Wang, Yang L.; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N. [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1453 (United States); Westbrook, Charles K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Laminar flame speeds and extinction strain rates of premixed methanol, ethanol, and n-butanol flames were determined experimentally in the counterflow configuration at atmospheric pressure and elevated unburned mixture temperatures. Additional measurements were conducted also to determine the laminar flame speeds of their n-alkane/air counterparts, namely methane, ethane, and n-butane in order to compare the effect of alkane and alcohol molecular structures on high-temperature flame kinetics. For both propagation and extinction experiments the flow velocities were determined using the digital particle image velocimetry method. Laminar flame speeds were derived through a non-linear extrapolation approach based on direct numerical simulations of the experiments. Two recently developed detailed kinetics models of n-butanol oxidation were used to simulate the experiments. The experimental results revealed that laminar flame speeds of ethanol/air and n-butanol/air flames are similar to those of their n-alkane/air counterparts, and that methane/air flames have consistently lower laminar flame speeds than methanol/air flames. The laminar flame speeds of methanol/air flames are considerably higher compared to both ethanol/air and n-butanol/air flames under fuel-rich conditions. Numerical simulations of n-butanol/air freely propagating flames, revealed discrepancies between the two kinetic models regarding the consumption pathways of n-butanol and its intermediates. (author)

  4. {alpha}-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 4}-induced improvements of the catalytic behavior of MoO{sub 3}-(010) in the oxygen-assisted dehydration of 2-butanol: implications in selective oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaigneaux, E.M. [Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique of Belgium (Belgium); Naeye, M.L.; Dupont, O.; Ruiz, P.; Delmon, B. [Unite de Catalyse et Chimie des Materiaux Divises, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-La-Neuve (Belgium); Callant, M.; Kartheuser, B. [CERTECH, Senefffe (Belgium)

    1998-12-31

    This article concerns the synergetic effects between an MoO{sub 3} sample composed of crystallites exposing preferentially the (010) basal faces and {alpha}-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 4} in the oxygen-assisted dehydration of 2-butanol at 220 C. The conversion of 2-butanol and the yield to butene improved when MoO{sub 3} was reacted in the presence of {alpha}-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The origin of the synergism is discussed. When reacted in the absence of {alpha}-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 4}, MoO{sub 3} got over-reduced and fragmented to MoO{sub 2}. MoO{sub 2} is intrinsically less active than MoO{sub 3} thus explaining that the deep reduction of MoO{sub 3} corresponds to its tendency to deactivate. In the presence of {alpha}-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 4}, the formation of MoO{sub 2} is inhibited with, as a consequence, the absence of deactivation. This leads to the synergetic effects obtained with the mechanical mixture of MoO{sub 3} with {alpha}-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 4}. (orig.)

  5. Enhancing Butanol Production under the Stress Environments of Co-Culturing Clostridium acetobutylicum/Saccharomyces cerevisiae Integrated with Exogenous Butyrate Addition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhen Luo

    Full Text Available In this study, an efficient acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE fermentation strategy integrating Clostridium acetobutylicum/Saccharomyces cerevisiae co-culturing system with exogenous butyrate addition, was proposed and experimentally conducted. In solventogenic phase, by adding 0.2 g-DCW/L-broth viable S. cerevisiae cells and 4.0 g/L-broth concentrated butyrate solution into C. acetobutylicum culture broth, final butanol concentration and butanol/acetone ratio in a 7 L anaerobic fermentor reached the highest levels of 15.74 g/L and 2.83 respectively, with the increments of 35% and 43% as compared with those of control. Theoretical and experimental analysis revealed that, the proposed strategy could, 1 extensively induce secretion of amino acids particularly lysine, which are favorable for both C. acetobutylicum survival and butanol synthesis under high butanol concentration environment; 2 enhance the utilization ability of C. acetobutylicum on glucose and over-produce intracellular NADH for butanol synthesis in C. acetobutylicum metabolism simultaneously; 3 direct most of extra consumed glucose into butanol synthesis route. The synergetic actions of effective amino acids assimilation, high rates of substrate consumption and NADH regeneration yielded highest butanol concentration and butanol ratio in C. acetobutylicum under this stress environment. The proposed method supplies an alternative way to improve ABE fermentation performance by traditional fermentation technology.

  6. Efficient acetone-butanol-ethanol production by Clostridium beijerinckii from sugar beet pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellido, Carolina; Infante, Celia; Coca, Mónica; González-Benito, Gerardo; Lucas, Susana; García-Cubero, María Teresa

    2015-08-01

    Sugar beet pulp (SBP) has been investigated as a promising feedstock for ABE fermentation by Clostridium beijerinckii. Although lignin content in SBP is low, a pretreatment is needed to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation yields. Autohydrolysis at pH 4 has been selected as the best pretreatment for SBP in terms of sugars release and acetone and butanol production. The best overall sugars release yields from raw SBP ranged from 66.2% to 70.6% for this pretreatment. The highest ABE yield achieved was 0.4g/g (5.1g/L of acetone and 6.6g/L butanol) and 143.2g ABE/kg SBP (62.3g acetone and 80.9g butanol) were obtained when pretreated SBP was enzymatically hydrolyzed at 7.5% (w/w) solid loading. Higher solid loadings (10%) offered higher acetone and butanol titers (5.8g/L of acetone and 7.8g/L butanol). All the experiments were carried out under not-controlling pH conditions reaching about 5.3 in the final samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Butanol production by Clostridium acetobutylicum in a continuous packed bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Fabio; Olivieri, Giuseppe; Russo, Maria Elena; Marzocchella, Antonio; Salatino, Piero

    2010-06-01

    In this study, we report on a butanol production process by immobilized Clostridium acetobutylicum in a continuous packed bed reactor (PBR) using Tygon rings as a carrier. The medium was a solution of lactose (15-30 g/L) and yeast extract (3 g/L) to emulate the cheese whey, an abundant lactose-rich wastewater. The reactor was operated under controlled conditions with respect to the pH and to the dilution rate. The pH and the dilution rate ranged between 4 and 5, the dilution rate between 0.54 and 2.4 h(-1) (2.5 times the maximum specific growth rate assessed for suspended cells). The optimal performance of the reactor was recorded at a dilution rate of 0.97 h(-1): the butanol productivity was 4.4 g/Lh and the selectivity of solvent in butanol was 88%(w).

  8. A Numerical Study of Spray Characteristics in Medium Speed Engine Fueled by Different HFO/n-Butanol Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Nowruzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, nonreacting and nonevaporating spray characteristics of heavy fuel oil (HFO/n-butanol blends are numerically investigated under two different high pressure injections in medium speed engines. An Eulerian-Lagrangian multiphase scheme is used to simulate blend of C14H30 as HFO and 0%, 10%, 15%, and 20% by volume of n-butanol. OpenFOAM CFD toolbox is modified and implemented to study the effect of different blends of HFO/n-butanol on the spray characteristics at 600 and 1000 bar. To validate the presented simulations, current numerical results are compared against existing experimental data and good compliance is achieved. Based on the numerical findings, addition of n-butanol to HFO increases the particles volume in parcels at 600 bar. It was also found that blend fuels increase the number of spray particles and the average velocity of spray compared to pure HFO. Moreover, under injection pressure of 1000 bar, HFO/n-butanol blends compared to pure HFO fuel decrease particles volume in parcels of spray. Another influence of HFO/n-butanol blends is the decrease in average of particles diameter in parcels. Meanwhile, the effect of HFO/n-butanol on spray length is proved to be negligible. Finally, it can be concluded that higher injection pressure improves the spray efficiency.

  9. Solvents (butanol, acetone, and ethanol). [USSR Patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarovenko, V L; Nakhmanovich, B M

    1963-07-17

    The method involves use of carbohydrate-containing plant raw-material, e.g. hydrolyzates of corn cob and pulp. The material is subjected to fermentation with acetone-butanol bacteria with addition of starch-industry wastes as source of proteins (gluten and gluten-containing water) and nutrient salts.

  10. Comparative Autoignition Trends in Butanol Isomers at Elevated Pressure

    KAUST Repository

    Weber, Bryan W.

    2013-03-21

    Autoignition experiments of stoichiometric mixtures of s-, t-, and i-butanol in air have been performed using a heated rapid compression machine (RCM). At compressed pressures of 15 and 30 bar and for compressed temperatures in the range 715-910 K, no evidence of a negative temperature coefficient region in terms of ignition delay response is found. The present experimental results are also compared with previously reported RCM data of n-butanol in air. The order of reactivity of the butanols is n-butanol > s-butanol ≈ i-butanol > t-butanol at the lower pressure but changes to n-butanol > t-butanol > s-butanol > i-butanol at higher pressure. In addition, t-butanol shows preignition heat release behavior, which is especially evident at higher pressures. To help identify the controlling chemistry leading to this preignition heat release, off-stoichiometric experiments are further performed at 30 bar compressed pressure, for t-butanol at φ = 0.5 and φ = 2.0 in air. For these experiments, higher fuel loading (i.e., φ = 2.0) causes greater preignition heat release (as indicated by greater pressure rise) than the stoichiometric or φ = 0.5 cases. Comparison of the experimental ignition delays with the simulated results using two literature kinetic mechanisms shows generally good agreement, and one mechanism is further used to explore and compare the fuel decomposition pathways of butanol isomers. Using this mechanism, the importance of peroxy chemistry in the autoignition of the butanol isomers is highlighted and discussed. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  11. High Entropy Random Selection Protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Buhrman (Harry); M. Christandl (Matthias); M. Koucky (Michal); Z. Lotker (Zvi); B. Patt-Shamir; M. Charikar; K. Jansen; O. Reingold; J. Rolim

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we construct protocols for two parties that do not trust each other, to generate random variables with high Shannon entropy. We improve known bounds for the trade off between the number of rounds, length of communication and the entropy of the outcome.

  12. Growth of Pseudomonas taiwanensis VLB120∆C biofilms in the presence of n-butanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halan, Babu; Vassilev, Igor; Lang, Karsten; Schmid, Andreas; Buehler, Katja

    2017-07-01

    Biocatalytic processes often encounter problems due to toxic reactants and products, which reduce biocatalyst viability. Thus, robust organisms capable of tolerating or adapting towards such compounds are of high importance. This study systematically investigated the physiological response of Pseudomonas taiwanensis VLB120∆C biofilms when exposed to n-butanol, one of the potential next generation biofuels as well as a toxic substance using microscopic and biochemical methods. Initially P. taiwanensis VLB120∆C biofilms did not show any observable growth in the presence of 3% butanol. Prolonged cultivation of 10 days led to biofilm adaptation, glucose and oxygen uptake doubled and consequently it was possible to quantify biomass. Complementing the medium with yeast extract and presumably reducing the metabolic burden caused by butanol exposure further increased the biomass yield. In course of cultivation cells reduced their size in the presence of n-butanol which results in an enlarged surface-to-volume ratio and thus increased nutrient uptake. Finally, biofilm enhanced its extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) production when exposed to n-butanol. The predominant response of these biofilms under n-butanol stress are higher energy demand, increased biomass yield upon medium complements, larger surface-to-volume ratio and enhanced EPS production. Although we observed a distinct increase in biomass in the presence of 3% butanol it was not possible to cultivate P. taiwanensis VLB120∆C biofilms at higher n-butanol concentrations. Thereby this study shows that biofilms are not per se tolerant against solvents, and need to adapt to toxic n-butanol concentrations. © 2016 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. High temperature solar selective coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Cheryl E

    2014-11-25

    Improved solar collectors (40) comprising glass tubing (42) attached to bellows (44) by airtight seals (56) enclose solar absorber tubes (50) inside an annular evacuated space (54. The exterior surfaces of the solar absorber tubes (50) are coated with improved solar selective coatings {48} which provide higher absorbance, lower emittance and resistance to atmospheric oxidation at elevated temperatures. The coatings are multilayered structures comprising solar absorbent layers (26) applied to the meta surface of the absorber tubes (50), typically stainless steel, topped with antireflective Savers (28) comprising at least two layers 30, 32) of refractory metal or metalloid oxides (such as titania and silica) with substantially differing indices of refraction in adjacent layers. Optionally, at least one layer of a noble metal such as platinum can be included between some of the layers. The absorbent layers cars include cermet materials comprising particles of metal compounds is a matrix, which can contain oxides of refractory metals or metalloids such as silicon. Reflective layers within the coating layers can comprise refractory metal silicides and related compounds characterized by the formulas TiSi. Ti.sub.3SiC.sub.2, TiAlSi, TiAN and similar compounds for Zr and Hf. The titania can be characterized by the formulas TiO.sub.2, Ti.sub.3O.sub.5. TiOx or TiO.sub.xN.sub.1-x with x 0 to 1. The silica can be at least one of SiO.sub.2, SiO.sub.2x or SiO.sub.2xN.sub.1-x with x=0 to 1.

  14. Phenotypic characterisation of Saccharomyces spp. for tolerance to 1-butanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, A M; Wimalasena, T T; Greetham, D

    2014-11-01

    Biofuels are expected to play a role in replacing crude oil as a liquid transportation fuel, and research into butanol has highlighted the importance of this alcohol as a fuel. Butanol has a higher energy density than ethanol, butanol-gasoline blends do not separate in the presence of water, and butanol is miscible with gasoline (Szulczyk, Int J Energy Environ 1(1):2876-2895, 40). Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used as a fermentative organism in the biofuel industry producing ethanol from glucose derived from starchy plant material; however, it typically cannot tolerate butanol concentrations greater than 2 % (Luong, Biotechnol Bioeng 29 (2):242-248, 27). 90 Saccharomyces spp. strains were screened for tolerance to 1-butanol via a phenotypic microarray assay and we observed significant variation in response with the most tolerant strains (S. cerevisiae DBVPG1788, S. cerevisiae DBVPG6044 and S. cerevisiae YPS128) exhibiting tolerance to 4 % 1-butanol compared with S. uvarum and S. castelli strains, which were sensitive to 3 % 1-butanol. Response to butanol was confirmed using traditional yeast methodologies such as growth; it was observed that fermentations in the presence of butanol, when using strains with a tolerant background, were significantly faster. Assessing for genetic rationale for tolerance, it was observed that 1-butanol-tolerant strains, when compared with 1-butanol-sensitive strains, had an up-regulation of RPN4, a transcription factor which regulates proteasome genes. Analysing for the importance of RPN4, we observed that a Δrpn4 strain displayed a reduced rate of fermentation in the presence of 1-butanol when compared with the BY4741 background strain. This data will aid the development of breeding programmes to produce better strains for future bio-butanol production.

  15. O-15-butanol PET activation study on declarative memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, B.J.; Schmidt, D.; Mottaghy, F.M.; Mueller-Gaertner, H.W.; Forschungszentrum Juelich; Halsband, U.; Tellmann, L.; Herzog, H.

    1998-01-01

    Aim: In this study, neuroanatomical correlates of encoding and retrieval in paired associate learning were evaluated with positron emission tomography using auditorily presented highly imaginable words. Methods: Six right-handed normal male volunteers took part in the study. Each subject underwent six O-15-butanol PET scans. On each of the six trials the memory task began with the injection of a bolus of O-15-butanol. The subjects had to learn and retrieve twelve word pairs (highly imaginable words, not semantically related). The presentation of nonsense words served as reference condition. Results: Recall accuracy after 2-4 presentations was high during the PET measurement. In both encoding and retrieval we found anterior cingulate activation. We show bilateral dorsalateral prefrontal activation during the encoding of auditorily presented word pair associates, whereas retrieval led to left frontal activation. Furthermore, we demonstrate the importance of the precuneus in the retrieval of highly imaginable world-pair associates. Conclusion: Our results support the hypothesis of the presence of distributed widespread brain structures subserving episodic declarative memory. (orig.) [de

  16. [Particulate distribution characteristics of Chinese phrase V diesel engine based on butanol-diesel blends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Di-Ming; Xu, Ning; Fan, Wen-Jia; Zhang, Tao

    2014-02-01

    With a common rail diesel engine without any modification and the engine exhaust particle number and particle size analyzer EEPS, this study used the air-fuel ratio to investigate the particulate number concentration, mass concentration and number distribution characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with butanol-diesel blends (Bu10, Bu15, Bu20, Bu30 and Bu40) and petroleum diesel. The results show: for all test fuels, the particle number distributions turn to be unimodal. With the increasing of butanol, numbers of nucleation mode particles and small accumulation mode particle decrease. At low speed and low load conditions, the number of large accumulation mode particle increases slightly, but under higher speed and load conditions, the number does not increase. When the fuels contain butanol, the total particle number concentration and mass concentration in all conditions decrease and that is more obvious at high speed load.

  17. Butanol is cytotoxic to Lactococcus lactis while ethanol and hexanol are cytostatic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Anne-Mette Meisner; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Kilstrup, Mogens

    2017-01-01

    resistant lactic acid bacteria. Combined results from alcohol survival rate, live/dead staining, and a novel usage of the beta-galactosidase assay, revealed that while high concentrations of ethanol and hexanol were cytostatic to L. lactis, high concentrations of butanol were cytotoxic, causing irreparable...

  18. How High School Students Select a College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Joseph E., Jr.; And Others

    The college selection process used by high school students was studied and a paradigm that describes the process was developed, based on marketing theory concerning consumer behavior. Primarily college freshmen and high school seniors were interviewed, and a few high school juniors and upper-level college students were surveyed to determine…

  19. Improving Fructose Utilization and Butanol Production by Clostridium acetobutylicum via Extracellular Redox Potential Regulation and Intracellular Metabolite Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Jie; Wu, You-Duo; Xue, Chuang; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2017-10-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (JA) can grow well in marginal lands with high biomass yield, and thus is a potential energy crop for biorefinery. The major biomass of JA is from tubers, which contain inulin that can be easily hydrolyzed into a mixture of fructose and glucose, but fructose utilization for producing butanol as an advanced biofuel is poor compared to glucose-based ABE fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum. In this article, the impact of extracellular redox potential (ORP) on the process is studied using a mixture of fructose and glucose to simulate the hydrolysate of JA tubers. When the extracellular ORP is controlled above -460 mV, 13.2 g L -1 butanol is produced from 51.0 g L -1 total sugars (40.1 g L -1 fructose and 10.9 g L -1 glucose), leading to dramatically increased butanol yield and butanol/ABE ratio of 0.26 g g -1 and 0.67, respectively. Intracellular metabolite and q-PCR analysis further indicate that intracellular ATP and NADH availabilities are significantly improved together with the fructose-specific PTS expression at the lag phase, which consequently facilitate fructose transport, metabolic shift toward solventogenesis and carbon flux redistribution for butanol biosynthesis. Therefore, the extracellular ORP control can be an effective strategy to improve butanol production from fructose-based feedstock. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Butanol biorefineries: simultaneous product removal & process integration for conversion of biomass & food waste to biofuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butanol, a superior biofuel, packs 30% more energy than ethanol on a per gallon basis. It can be produced from various carbohydrates and lignocellulosic (biomass) feedstocks. For cost effective production of this renewable and high energy biofuel, inexpensive feedstocks and economical process techno...

  1. Interaction between amylose and 1-butanol during 1-butanol-hydrochloric acid hydrolysis of normal rice starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiuting; Wei, Benxi; Zhang, Bao; Li, Hongyan; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Tian, Yaoqi

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the interaction between amylose and 1-butanol during the 1-butanol-hydrochloric acid (1-butanol-HCl) hydrolysis of normal rice starch. The interaction model between amylose and 1-butanol was proposed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), (13)C cross polarization and magic angle spinning NMR analysis ((13)C CP/MAS NMR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermalgravimetric analysis (TGA). GC-MS data showed that another form of 1-butanol existed in 1-butanol-HCl-hydrolyzed normal rice starch, except in the form of free molecules absorbed on the starch granules. The signal of 1-butanol-HCl-hydrolyzed starch at 100.1 ppm appeared in the (13)C CP/MAS NMR spectrum, indicating that the amylose-1-butanol complex was formed. DSC and TGA data also demonstrated the formation of the complex, which significantly affected the thermal properties of normal rice starch. These findings revealed that less dextrin with low molecular weight formed might be attributed to resistance of this complex to acid during 1-butanol-HCl hydrolysis. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Butanol biorefineries: Use of novel technologies to produce biofuel butanol from sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to produce butanol biofuel at a competitive price, agricultural residues such as SSB should be used. This feedstock was studied as a substitute to corn to lower feedstock costs and broaden beyond a food crop. In addition, cutting edge science & technology was applied. In these studies we us...

  3. Butanol production from thin stillage using Clostridium pasteurianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Sang, Byoung-In; Um, Youngsoon

    2011-04-01

    The production of butanol from thin stillage by Clostridium pasteurianum DSM 525 was evaluated in the paper. At initial pH values ranging from 5.0 to 7.0 C. pasteurianum DSM 525 produced 6.2-7.2 g/L of butanol utilizing glycerol in thin stillage as the main carbon source, with yields of 0.32-0.44 g butanol produced/g glycerol consumed, which are higher than previously reported yields (e.g., 0.14-0.31 g butanol/g glycerol, Biebl, 2001). Lactic acid in the thin stillage acted as a buffering agent, maintaining the pH of the medium within a range of 5.7-6.1. Lactic acid was also utilized along with glycerol, enhancing butanol production (6.5 g/L butanol vs. 8.7 g/L butanol with 0 and 16 g/L lactic acid, respectively). These results demonstrate the feasibility of cost-effective butanol production using thin stillage as a nutrient-containing medium with a pH buffering capacity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Characteristics of Butanol Isomers Oxidation in a Micro Flow Reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Bin Hamzah, Muhamad Firdaus

    2017-01-01

    Ignition and combustion characteristics of n-butanol/air, 2-butanol.air and isobutanol/air mixtures at stoichiometric (ϕ = 1) and lean (ϕ = 0.5) conditions were investigated in a micro flow reactor with a controlled temperature profile from 323 K

  5. Biobutanol as Fuel for Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells-Investigation of Sn-Modified Pt Catalyst for Butanol Electro-oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthiyapura, Vinod Kumar; Brett, Dan J L; Russell, Andrea E; Lin, Wen-Feng; Hardacre, Christopher

    2016-05-25

    Direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFCs) mostly use low molecular weight alcohols such as methanol and ethanol as fuels. However, short-chain alcohol molecules have a relative high membrane crossover rate in DAFCs and a low energy density. Long chain alcohols such as butanol have a higher energy density, as well as a lower membrane crossover rate compared to methanol and ethanol. Although a significant number of studies have been dedicated to low molecular weight alcohols in DAFCs, very few studies are available for longer chain alcohols such as butanol. A significant development in the production of biobutanol and its proposed application as an alternative fuel to gasoline in the past decade makes butanol an interesting candidate fuel for fuel cells. Different butanol isomers were compared in this study on various Pt and PtSn bimetallic catalysts for their electro-oxidation activities in acidic media. Clear distinctive behaviors were observed for each of the different butanol isomers using cyclic voltammetry (CV), indicating a difference in activity and the mechanism of oxidation. The voltammograms of both n-butanol and iso-butanol showed similar characteristic features, indicating a similar reaction mechanism, whereas 2-butanol showed completely different features; for example, it did not show any indication of poisoning. Ter-butanol was found to be inactive for oxidation on Pt. In situ FTIR and CV analysis showed that OHads was essential for the oxidation of primary butanol isomers which only forms at high potentials on Pt. In order to enhance the water oxidation and produce OHads at lower potentials, Pt was modified by the oxophilic metal Sn and the bimetallic PtSn was studied for the oxidation of butanol isomers. A significant enhancement in the oxidation of the 1° butanol isomers was observed on addition of Sn to the Pt, resulting in an oxidation peak at a potential ∼520 mV lower than that found on pure Pt. The higher activity of PtSn was attributed to the

  6. Fabrication of high efficacy selective solar absorbers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tile, N

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available High efficiency tandem selective solar absorber materials of carbon in nickel oxide (C-NiO) composite were fabricated on an aluminium substrate using a simple and cost effective sol-gel process. The process involved preparation of carbon and nickel...

  7. Butanol production under microaerobic conditions with a symbiotic system of Clostridium acetobutylicum and Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pengfei; Wang, Genyu; Wang, Gehua; Børresen, Børre Tore; Liu, Hongjuan; Zhang, Jianan

    2016-01-14

    One major problem of ABE (acetone, butanol and ethanol) fermentation is high oxygen sensitivity of Clostridium acetobutylicum. Currently, no single strain has been isolated or genetically engineered to produce butanol effectively under aerobic conditions. In our previous work, a symbiotic system TSH06 has been developed successfully by our group, and two strains, C. acetobutylicum TSH1 and Bacillus cereus TSH2, were isolated from TSH06. Compared with single culture, TSH06 showed promotion on cell growth and solvent accumulation under microaerobic conditions. To simulate TSH06, a new symbiotic system was successfully re-constructed by adding living cells of B. cereus TSH2 into C. acetobutylicum TSH1 cultures. During the fermentation process, the function of B. cereus TSH2 was found to deplete oxygen and provide anaerobic environment for C. acetobutylicum TSH1. Furthermore, inoculation ratio of C. acetobutylicum TSH1 and B. cereus TSH2 affected butanol production. In a batch fermentation with optimized inoculation ratio of 5 % C. acetobutylicum TSH1 and 0.5 % B. cereus TSH2, 11.0 g/L butanol and 18.1 g/L ABE were produced under microaerobic static condition. In contrast to the single culture of C. acetobutylicum TSH1, the symbiotic system became more aerotolerant and was able to produce 11.2 g/L butanol in a 5 L bioreactor even with continuous 0.15 L/min air sparging. In addition, qPCR assay demonstrated that the abundance of B. cereus TSH2 increased quickly at first and then decreased sharply to lower than 1 %, whereas C. acetobutylicum TSH1 accounted for more than 99 % of the whole population in solventogenic phase. The characterization of a novel symbiotic system on butanol fermentation was studied. The new symbiotic system re-constructed by co-culture of C. acetobutylicum TSH1 and B. cereus TSH2 showed excellent performance on butanol production under microaerobic conditions. B. cereus TSH2 was a good partner for C. acetobutylicum TSH1 by providing an anaerobic

  8. Optimization Study for Butanol Extraction from Butanol-Water Using Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) as Solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurul Izzati Ab Rahim; Mohd Irfan Hatim Mohamed Dzahir; Wan Nurul Hidayah Wan Othman

    2015-01-01

    The oil crisis, warned the humanity's depends on oil was not sustainable and recently, there are plenty of renewable resources had been developed. Much attention has been given to the solvent extraction process to separate butanol from butanol-water mixture using fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) as a solvent. In this respect, the use of FAME as a green solvent which are locally available has greater potential for butanol extraction process. Therefore, an experimental work has been carried out to study its feasibility as a potential solvent. A single stage extraction process as performed to evaluate the ability to achieve optimal extract butanol. The extraction process was carried out to evaluate the distribution coefficient of butanol with the effects of other parameters such as reaction temperature (50-70 degree Celsius) and butanol-water mixture to solvent ratio (1:1, 1:1.5, 1:2). The constant parameter is the stirring speed (300 rpm). Response Surface Methodology (RSM) in conjunction with the Central Composition Design (CCD) as employed to statistically evaluate and optimize the butanol extraction process. It was found that the distribution coefficient has achieved an optimum level of 1.92 % at the following conditions: (i) butanol-water mixtures to solvent ratio (1:1.48) and (ii) reaction temperature (62.75 degree Celsius). (author)

  9. A new process for the valorisation of a bio-alcohol. The oxidehydration of 1-butanol into maleic anhydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldarelli, A.; Cavani, F.; Garone, O.; Pavarelli, G. [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Industriale e dei Materiali; Bologna Univ. (Italy). CIRCC, Research Unit; Dubois, J.L. [ARKEMA, Colombes (France); Mitsova, I.; Simeonova, L. [JSC, Russe (Bulgaria). Orgachim

    2012-07-01

    This paper deals with a study on the gas-phase transformation of 1-butanol into maleic anhydride, using different types of catalysts. Indeed, catalytic acid properties are needed to dehydrate 1-butanol into 1-butene, whereas redox-type properties are required for the oxidation of the olefin into maleic anhydride. The two types of active sites can be combined in bifunctional systems, showing both acid and redox-type properties. We found that vanadyl pyrophosphate catalyzes the one-pot reaction, giving a maximum selectivity to maleic anhydride of 28%. In fact, various side reactions contributed to the formation of by-products, eg, 1-butanol (oxidative) dehydrogenation into butyraldehyde, formation of light carboxylic acids and carbon oxides, and condensation of unsaturated C{sub 4} intermediates (butenes and butadiene) with the formed maleic anhydride to yield heavier compounds. (orig.)

  10. DOMESTIC BUTANOL-PRODUCING STRAINS OF THE Clostridium GENUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Tigunova

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to summarize the results of own research concerning obtaining butanol producing strains of Clostridium genus, to identify them by physiological, morphological and genetic methods. Further study of characteristics and biological features of the strains, and various approaches in biotechnological process of butanol production are discussed. The work includes methods to increase butanol accumulation by producer strains. Perspectives of using chemical mutagenesis in Clostridia as a method of increasing butanol production are considered. The feasibility of using non-food raw material as a substrate for fermentation is discussed. Different methods of pretreatment and their impact on the accumulation of butanol in the liquid medium are compared. Butanol accumulation is shown to increase significantly if the synthesis precursors are added as components of enzymatic medium, and the “reverse bard” is used to reduce waste production without affecting the level of butanol synthesis. The problem of conservation of producing strains is given, and protective medium for microorganisms during the freeze-drying is defined.

  11. Combustion characteristics of a gasoline engine with independent intake port injection and direct injection systems for n-butanol and gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Bang-Quan; Chen, Xu; Lin, Chang-Lin; Zhao, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Different injection approaches for n-butanol and gasoline affect combustion events. • High n-butanol percentage in the total energy of fuels improves combustion stability. • N-butanol promotes ignition and shortens combustion duration. • Lean burn increases indicated mean effective pressure at fixed total energy of fuels. • Different fuel injection methods slightly affect indicated mean effective pressure. - Abstract: N-butanol, as a sustainable biofuel, is usually used as a blend with gasoline in spark ignition engines. In this study, the combustion characteristics were investigated on a four-cylinder spark ignition gasoline engine with independent port fuel injection and direct injection systems for n-butanol and gasoline in different operating conditions. The results show that in the case of port fuel injection of n-butanol with direct injection gasoline at a given total energy released in a cycle, indicated mean effective pressure is slightly affected by spark timing at stoichiometry while it changes much more with delayed spark timing in lean burn conditions and is much higher in lean burn conditions compared to stoichiometry at given spark timings. With the increase of n-butanol percentage in a fixed total energy released in a cycle at given spark timings, ignition timing advances, combustion duration shortens, indicated mean effective pressure and indicated thermal efficiency increase. For the cases of port fuel injection of n-butanol with direction injection gasoline and port fuel injection of gasoline with direction injection n-butanol at a fixed total energy released in a cycle, their indicated mean effective pressures are close. But their combustion processes are dependent on fuel injection approaches.

  12. Combining regio- and enantioselectivity of lipases for the preparation of (R)-4-chloro-2-butanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Jonh J; Oromi, Mireia; Cervero, Maria; Balcells, Mercè; Torres, Mercè; Canela, Ramon

    2007-01-01

    Preparation of 98% ee (R)-4-chloro-2-butanol was carried out by the enzymatic hydrolysis of chlorohydrin esters, using fungal resting cells and commercial enzymes. Hydrolyzes were carried out using lipases from Candida antarctica (Novozym 435), C. rugosa, Rhizomucor miehei (Lipozyme IM), Burkolia cepacia, and resting cells of Rhizopus oryzae and Aspergillus flavus. The influence of the enzyme, the solvent, the temperature, and the alkyl chain length on the selectivity of hydrolyzes of isomeric mixtures of chlorohydrin esters is described. Regioselectivity was higher than 95% for some of the tested lipases. Novozym 435 allowed preparation of the (R)-4-chloro-2-butanol after 15 min of reaction at 30-40 degrees C. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Butanol production from wheat straw by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using Clostridium beijerinckii: Part II-Fed-batch fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, Nasib; Saha, Badal C.; Cotta, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    In these studies, Clostridium beijerinckii P260 was used to produce butanol (acetone-butanol-ethanol, or ABE) from wheat straw (WS) hydrolysate in a fed-batch reactor. It has been demonstrated that simultaneous hydrolysis of WS to achieve 100% hydrolysis to simple sugars (to the extent achievable under present conditions) and fermentation to butanol is possible. In addition to WS, the reactor was fed with a sugar solution containing glucose, xylose, arabinose, galactose, and mannose. The culture utilized all of the above sugars. It was noticed that near the end of fermentation (286-533 h), the culture had difficulties utilizing xylose. As a result of supplemental sugar feed to the reactor, ABE productivity was improved by 16% as compared with previous studies. In our previous experiment on simultaneous saccharification of WS and fermentation to butanol, a productivity of 0.31 g L -1 h -1 was observed, while in the present studies a productivity of 0.36 g L -1 h -1 was observed. It should be noted that a productivity of 0.77 g L -1 h -1 was observed when the culture was highly active. The fed-batch fermentation was operated for 533 h. It should be noted that C. beijerinckii P260 can be used to produce butanol from WS in integrated fermentations

  14. Impact of zinc supplementation on the improved fructose/xylose utilization and butanol production during acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, You-Duo; Xue, Chuang; Chen, Li-Jie; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass and dedicated energy crops such as Jerusalem artichoke are promising alternatives for biobutanol production by solventogenic clostridia. However, fermentable sugars such as fructose or xylose released from the hydrolysis of these feedstocks were subjected to the incomplete utilization by the strains, leading to relatively low butanol production and productivity. When 0.001 g/L ZnSO4·7H2O was supplemented into the medium containing fructose as sole carbon source, 12.8 g/L of butanol was achieved with butanol productivity of 0.089 g/L/h compared to only 4.5 g/L of butanol produced with butanol productivity of 0.028 g/L/h in the control without zinc supplementation. Micronutrient zinc also led to the improved butanol production up to 8.3 g/L derived from 45.2 g/L xylose as sole carbon source with increasing butanol productivity by 31.7%. Moreover, the decreased acids production was observed under the zinc supplementation condition, resulting in the increased butanol yields of 0.202 g/g-fructose and 0.184 g/g-xylose, respectively. Similar improvements were also observed with increasing butanol production by 130.2 % and 8.5 %, butanol productivity by 203.4% and 18.4%, respectively, in acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentations from sugar mixtures of fructose/glucose (4:1) and xylose/glucose (1:2) simulating the hydrolysates of Jerusalem artichoke tubers and corn stover. The results obtained from transcriptional analysis revealed that zinc may have regulatory mechanisms for the sugar transport and metabolism of Clostridium acetobutylicum L7. Therefore, micronutrient zinc supplementation could be an effective way for economic development of butanol production derived from these low-cost agricultural feedstocks. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. New industrial butanol-producing organism, Clostridium amylovorum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldi, M S

    1964-01-01

    A new Clostridium was isolated from starch-containing substances; it ferments corn and potato starch and sugar molasses, giving important yields of butanol and acetone; it is gram-positive, strictly anaerobic and sporulates in plectron form.

  16. The addition of bio-butanol to GHGenius and a review of the GHG emissions from diesel engines with urea SCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The GHGenius model was developed to analyze the emissions of contaminants associated with the use and production of traditional and alternative transportation fuels. Over 140 vehicle and fuel combinations can be used with the model, which is continuously updated with new information on existing processes, new pathways, and new features. This paper provided details of the addition of a butanol production pathway and a urea system for heavy duty diesel engines. Butanol has recently been proposed as a gasoline additive for use with ethanol or as an alternative to ethanol in low-level gasoline blends. A corn to butanol pathway for low level blends was considered as the most appropriate pathway for North American applications. Estimates of energy required were made based on economic assessments and the estimated cost of energy at the time the estimates were made. In the second approach, an ethanol process model was modified to have the same water and feedstock ratios as a butanol feedstock. Total energy balances for the traditional butanol production system were poor due to the large energy requirement in the butanol production process. Low butanol concentrations were attributed to butanol toxicity to fermentation organisms. However, energy credits from co-products were large compared to many other pathways, and were attributed to the energy intensity of hydrogen and acetone. This report also provided details of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) processes that used ammonia or urea with a catalyst to produce water and gaseous nitrogen. Total energy balances and emissions impacts on the full lifecycle of SCR systems for diesel engines were provided. 13 refs., 17 tabs., 8 figs

  17. Compressed liquid densities of 1-butanol and 2-butanol at temperatures from 313 K to 363 K and pressures up to 25 MPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuniga-Moreno, Abel [Laboratorio de Termodinamica, ESIQIE, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Edif. Z, Secc. 6, 1ER Piso, UPALM, C.P. 07738, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Galicia-Luna, Luis A. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica, ESIQIE, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Edif. Z, Secc. 6, 1ER Piso, UPALM, C.P. 07738, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: lgalicial@ipn.mx; Camacho-Camacho, Luis E. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica, ESIQIE, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Edif. Z, Secc. 6, 1ER Piso, UPALM, C.P. 07738, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-02-15

    (p, {rho}, T) properties were determined in liquid phase for 1-butanol and 2-butanol at temperatures from 313 K to 363 K and pressures up to 25 MPa using a vibrating tube densimeter. The uncertainty is estimated to be lower than {+-}0.2 kg . m{sup -3} for the experimental densities. Nitrogen and water were used as reference fluids for the calibration of the vibrating tube densimeter. Experimental densities of 1-butanol and 2-butanol were correlated with a short empirical equation and the 11-parameter Benedict-Webb-Rubin-Starling equation of state (BWRS EoS) using a least square optimization. Statistical values to evaluate the different correlations were reported. Published densities of 1-butanol and 2-butanol are compared with values calculated with the BWRS EoS using the parameters obtained in this work. The experimental data determined here are also compared with available correlations for 1-butanol and 2-butanol.

  18. Compressed liquid densities of 1-butanol and 2-butanol at temperatures from 313 K to 363 K and pressures up to 25 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuniga-Moreno, Abel; Galicia-Luna, Luis A.; Camacho-Camacho, Luis E.

    2007-01-01

    (p, ρ, T) properties were determined in liquid phase for 1-butanol and 2-butanol at temperatures from 313 K to 363 K and pressures up to 25 MPa using a vibrating tube densimeter. The uncertainty is estimated to be lower than ±0.2 kg . m -3 for the experimental densities. Nitrogen and water were used as reference fluids for the calibration of the vibrating tube densimeter. Experimental densities of 1-butanol and 2-butanol were correlated with a short empirical equation and the 11-parameter Benedict-Webb-Rubin-Starling equation of state (BWRS EoS) using a least square optimization. Statistical values to evaluate the different correlations were reported. Published densities of 1-butanol and 2-butanol are compared with values calculated with the BWRS EoS using the parameters obtained in this work. The experimental data determined here are also compared with available correlations for 1-butanol and 2-butanol

  19. Unravelling the influence of carbon dioxide on the adsorptive recovery of butanol from fermentation broth using ITQ-29 and ZIF-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Calvo, Ana; Van der Perre, Stijn; Claessens, Benjamin; Calero, Sofia; Denayer, Joeri F M

    2018-04-18

    The vapor phase adsorption of butanol from ABE fermentation at the head space of the fermenter is an interesting route for the efficient recovery of biobutanol. The presence of gases such as carbon dioxide that are produced during the fermentation process causes a stripping of valuable compounds from the aqueous into the vapor phase. This work studies the effect of the presence of carbon dioxide on the adsorption of butanol at a molecular level. With this aim in mind Monte Carlo simulations were employed to study the adsorption of mixtures containing carbon dioxide, butanol and ethanol. Molecular models for butanol and ethanol that reproduce experimental properties of the molecules such as polarity, vapor-liquid coexistence or liquid density have been developed. Pure component isotherms and heats of adsorption have been computed and compared to experimental data to check the accuracy of the interacting parameters. Adsorption of butanol/ethanol mixtures has been studied in absence and presence of CO2 on two representative materials, a pure silica LTA zeolite and a hydrophobic metal-organic framework ZIF-8. To get a better understanding of the molecular mechanism that governs the adsorption of the targeted mixture in the selected materials, the distribution of the molecules inside the structures was analyzed. The combination of these features allows obtaining a deeper understanding of the process and to identify the role of carbon dioxide in the butanol purification process.

  20. Investigation of uncertainties associated with the production of n-butanol through ethanol catalysis in sugarcane biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Lucas G; Dias, Marina O S; MacLean, Heather L; Bonomi, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    This study evaluated the viability of n-butanol production integrated within a first and second generation sugarcane biorefinery. The evaluation included a deterministic analysis as well as a stochastic approach, the latter using Monte Carlo simulation. Results were promising for n-butanol production in terms of revenues per tonne of processed sugarcane, but discouraging with respect to internal rate of return (IRR). The uncertainty analysis determined there was high risk involved in producing n-butanol and co-products from ethanol catalysis. It is unlikely that these products and associated production route will be financially attractive in the short term without lower investment costs, supportive public policies and tax incentives coupled with biofuels' production strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The synthesis of [1-11C]-butanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helus, F.; Maier-Borst, W.; Oberdorfer, F.; Silvester, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    11 C-labelled butanol has been synthesised for use as a tracer in the assessment of regional blood supply for substrate utilisation in tumors. 11 CO 2 was produced by the 14 N(p,a) 11 C reactions in a cyclotron. 11 C-butanol was formed by the carboxylation of n-propyl magnesium chlorides with 11 CO 2 , and reduction of the resulting 11 C-butyric acid with LiAlH 4 . (U.K.)

  2. Butanol production from wood pulping hydrolysate in an integrated fermentation-gas stripping process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Congcong; Dong, Jie; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2013-09-01

    Wood pulping hydrolysate (WPH) containing mainly xylose and glucose as a potential substrate for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was studied. Due to the inhibitors present in the hydrolysate, several dilution levels and detoxification treatments, including overliming, activated charcoal adsorption, and resin adsorption, were evaluated for their effectiveness in relieving the inhibition on fermentation. Detoxification using resin and evaporation was found to be the most effective method in reducing the toxicity of WPH. ABE production in batch fermentation by Clostridium beijerinckii increased 68%, from 6.73 g/L in the non-treated and non-diluted WPH to 11.35 g/L in the resin treated WPH. With gas stripping for in situ product removal, ABE production from WPH increased to 17.73 g/L, demonstrating that gas stripping was effective in alleviating butanol toxicity by selectively separating butanol from the fermentation broth, which greatly improved solvents production and sugar conversion in the fermentation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Modular design of metabolic network for robust production of n-butanol from galactose-glucose mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyun Gyu; Lim, Jae Hyung; Jung, Gyoo Yeol

    2015-01-01

    Refactoring microorganisms for efficient production of advanced biofuel such as n-butanol from a mixture of sugars in the cheap feedstock is a prerequisite to achieve economic feasibility in biorefinery. However, production of biofuel from inedible and cheap feedstock is highly challenging due to the slower utilization of biomass-driven sugars, arising from complex assimilation pathway, difficulties in amplification of biosynthetic pathways for heterologous metabolite, and redox imbalance caused by consuming intracellular reducing power to produce quite reduced biofuel. Even with these problems, the microorganisms should show robust production of biofuel to obtain industrial feasibility. Thus, refactoring microorganisms for efficient conversion is highly desirable in biofuel production. In this study, we engineered robust Escherichia coli to accomplish high production of n-butanol from galactose-glucose mixtures via the design of modular pathway, an efficient and systematic way, to reconstruct the entire metabolic pathway with many target genes. Three modular pathways designed using the predictable genetic elements were assembled for efficient galactose utilization, n-butanol production, and redox re-balancing to robustly produce n-butanol from a sugar mixture of galactose and glucose. Specifically, the engineered strain showed dramatically increased n-butanol production (3.3-fold increased to 6.2 g/L after 48-h fermentation) compared to the parental strain (1.9 g/L) in galactose-supplemented medium. Moreover, fermentation with mixtures of galactose and glucose at various ratios from 2:1 to 1:2 confirmed that our engineered strain was able to robustly produce n-butanol regardless of sugar composition with simultaneous utilization of galactose and glucose. Collectively, modular pathway engineering of metabolic network can be an effective approach in strain development for optimal biofuel production with cost-effective fermentable sugars. To the best of our

  4. Prospects and challenges for the recovery of 2-butanol produced by vacuum fermentation - a techno-economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Joana P C; Lopez-Gomez, Gustavo; Reyes, Noelia G; van der Wielen, Luuk A M; Straathof, Adrie J J

    2017-07-01

    The conceptual design of a bio-based process for 2-butanol production is presented for the first time. Considering a hypothetical efficient producing strain, a vacuum fermentation is proposed to alleviate product toxicity, but the main challenge is the energy-efficient product recovery from the vapor. Three downstream scenarios were examined for this purpose: 1) multi-stage vapor recompression; 2) temperature swing adsorption; and 3) vapor absorption. The processes were simulated using Aspen Plus, considering a production capacity of 101 kton/yr. Process optimization was performed targeting the minimum selling price of 2-butanol. The feasibility of the different configurations was analyzed based on the global energy requirements and capital expenditure. The use of integrated adsorption and absorption minimized the energy duty required for azeotrope purification, which represents 11% of the total operational expenditure in Scenario 1. The minimum selling price of 2-butanol as commodity chemical was estimated as 1.05 $/kg, 1.21 $/kg, and 1.03 $/kg regarding the fermentation integrated with downstream scenarios 1), 2), and 3), respectively. Significant savings in 2-butanol production could be achieved in the suggested integrated configurations if more efficient microbial strains were engineered, and more selective adsorption and absorption materials were found for product recovery. Copyright © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Butanol production from food waste: a novel process for producing sustainable energy and reducing environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haibo; Singh, Vijay; Qureshi, Nasib

    2015-01-01

    Waste is currently a major problem in the world, both in the developing and the developed countries. Efficient utilization of food waste for fuel and chemical production can positively influence both the energy and environmental sustainability. This study investigated using food waste to produce acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) by Clostridium beijerinckii P260. In control fermentation, 40.5 g/L of glucose (initial glucose 56.7 g/L) was used to produce 14.2 g/L of ABE with a fermentation productivity and a yield of 0.22 g/L/h and 0.35 g/g, respectively. In a similar fermentation 81 g/L of food waste (containing equivalent glucose of 60.1 g/L) was used as substrate, and the culture produced 18.9 g/L ABE with a high ABE productivity of 0.46 g/L/h and a yield of 0.38 g/g. Fermentation of food waste at higher concentrations (129, 181 and 228 g/L) did not remarkably increase ABE production but resulted in high residual glucose due to the culture butanol inhibition. An integrated vacuum stripping system was designed and applied to recover butanol from the fermentation broth simultaneously to relieve the culture butanol inhibition, thereby allowing the fermentation of food waste at high concentrations. ABE fermentation integrated with vacuum stripping successfully recovered the ABE from the fermentation broth and controlled the ABE concentrations below 10 g/L during fermentation when 129 g/L food waste was used. The ABE productivity with vacuum fermentation was 0.49 g/L/h, which was 109 % higher than the control fermentation (glucose based). More importantly, ABE vacuum recovery and fermentation allowed near-complete utilization of the sugars (~98 %) in the broth. In these studies it was demonstrated that food waste is a superior feedstock for producing butanol using Clostridium beijerinckii. Compared to costly glucose, ABE fermentation of food waste has several advantages including lower feedstock cost, higher productivity, and less residual sugars.

  6. Efficient and Highly Aldehyde Selective Wacker Oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Teo, Peili; Wickens, Zachary K.; Dong, Guangbin; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    A method for efficient and aldehyde-selective Wacker oxidation of aryl-substituted olefins using PdCl 2(MeCN) 2, 1,4-benzoquinone, and t-BuOH in air is described. Up to a 96% yield of aldehyde can be obtained, and up to 99% selectivity can be achieved with styrene-related substrates. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  7. Efficient and Highly Aldehyde Selective Wacker Oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Teo, Peili

    2012-07-06

    A method for efficient and aldehyde-selective Wacker oxidation of aryl-substituted olefins using PdCl 2(MeCN) 2, 1,4-benzoquinone, and t-BuOH in air is described. Up to a 96% yield of aldehyde can be obtained, and up to 99% selectivity can be achieved with styrene-related substrates. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  8. Metabolic network reconstruction and genome-scale model of butanol-producing strain Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Pan-Jun

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Solventogenic clostridia offer a sustainable alternative to petroleum-based production of butanol--an important chemical feedstock and potential fuel additive or replacement. C. beijerinckii is an attractive microorganism for strain design to improve butanol production because it (i naturally produces the highest recorded butanol concentrations as a byproduct of fermentation; and (ii can co-ferment pentose and hexose sugars (the primary products from lignocellulosic hydrolysis. Interrogating C. beijerinckii metabolism from a systems viewpoint using constraint-based modeling allows for simulation of the global effect of genetic modifications. Results We present the first genome-scale metabolic model (iCM925 for C. beijerinckii, containing 925 genes, 938 reactions, and 881 metabolites. To build the model we employed a semi-automated procedure that integrated genome annotation information from KEGG, BioCyc, and The SEED, and utilized computational algorithms with manual curation to improve model completeness. Interestingly, we found only a 34% overlap in reactions collected from the three databases--highlighting the importance of evaluating the predictive accuracy of the resulting genome-scale model. To validate iCM925, we conducted fermentation experiments using the NCIMB 8052 strain, and evaluated the ability of the model to simulate measured substrate uptake and product production rates. Experimentally observed fermentation profiles were found to lie within the solution space of the model; however, under an optimal growth objective, additional constraints were needed to reproduce the observed profiles--suggesting the existence of selective pressures other than optimal growth. Notably, a significantly enriched fraction of actively utilized reactions in simulations--constrained to reflect experimental rates--originated from the set of reactions that overlapped between all three databases (P = 3.52 × 10-9, Fisher's exact test

  9. Combustion performance and pollutant emissions analysis using diesel/gasoline/iso-butanol blends in a diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Mingrui; Li, Song; Xiao, Helin; Guo, Guanlun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The diesel/gasoline/iso-butanol blends were investigated in a CI engine. • Blend with gasoline or iso-butanol produce higher HC emission. • CO increase at low loads and decrease at medium and high loads with blend fuels. • Gasoline or iso-butanol decrease large particles but increase small particles. • Blend fuels reduce total PM number and mass concentrations. - Abstract: In this study, the effects of diesel/gasoline/iso-butanol blends, including pure diesel (D100), diesel (70%)/gasoline (30%) (D70G30, by mass), diesel (70%)/iso-butanol (30%) (D70B30) and diesel (70%)/gasoline (15%)/iso-butanol (15%) (D70G15B15), on combustion and exhaust pollutant emissions characteristics in a four-cylinder diesel engine were experimentally investigated under various engine load conditions with a constant speed of 1800 rpm. The results indicated that D70G30, D70G15B15 and D70B30 delayed the ignition timing and shortened the combustion duration compared to D100. Additionally, CA50 was retarded when engine fuelled with D70G30, D70G15B15 and D70B30 at low engine load conditions, but it was advanced at medium and high engine loads. The maximum pressure rise rates (MPRRs) of D70G30, D70G15B15 and D70B30 were increased compared with D100 except for at engine load of 0.13 MPa BMEP (brake mean effective pressure). Meanwhile, D70G15B15 and D70B30 produced higher brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) than that of D100. The effects of diesel blend with gasoline or iso-butanol on exhaust pollutant emissions were varied with loads. CO emissions were increased obviously and NOx emissions were decreased under low engine loads. However, CO emissions were decreased and NOx emissions were slightly increased under the medium and high engine load conditions. However, D70G30, D70G15B15 and D70B30 leaded to higher HC emissions than D100 regardless the variation of engine load. Moreover, the particulate matter (PM) (diameter, number and mass concentrations) emissions by using

  10. Multitarget global sensitivity analysis of n-butanol combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dingyu D Y; Davis, Michael J; Skodje, Rex T

    2013-05-02

    A model for the combustion of butanol is studied using a recently developed theoretical method for the systematic improvement of the kinetic mechanism. The butanol mechanism includes 1446 reactions, and we demonstrate that it is straightforward and computationally feasible to implement a full global sensitivity analysis incorporating all the reactions. In addition, we extend our previous analysis of ignition-delay targets to include species targets. The combination of species and ignition targets leads to multitarget global sensitivity analysis, which allows for a more complete mechanism validation procedure than we previously implemented. The inclusion of species sensitivity analysis allows for a direct comparison between reaction pathway analysis and global sensitivity analysis.

  11. Experimental investigation on SI engine using gasoline and a hybrid iso-butanol/gasoline fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elfasakhany, Ashraf

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • iso-Butanol–gasoline blends (iB) using up to 10 vol.% butanol were examined in SIE. • iB extensively decrease the greenhouse effect of SI engine. • iB without engine tuning led to a drop in engine performance at all speeds. • iB provide higher performance and lower CO and CO 2 emissions than n-butanol blends. • iB grant lower CO and UHC than gasoline at <2900 r/min, but overturn at >2900 r/min. - Abstract: Experimental investigation on pollutant emissions and performance of SI engine fueled with gasoline and iso-butanol–gasoline blends is carried out. Engine was operated at speed range of 2600–3400 r/min for each blend (3, 7 and 10 vol.% iso-butanol) and neat gasoline. Results declare that the CO and UHC emissions of neat gasoline are higher than those of the blended fuels for speeds less than or equal to 2900 r/min; however, for speeds higher than 2900 r/min, we have an opposite impact where the blended fuels produce higher level of CO and UHC emissions than the gasoline fuel. The CO 2 emission at using iso-butanol–gasoline blends is always lower than the neat gasoline at all speeds by up to 43%. The engine performance results demonstrate that using iso-butanol–gasoline blends in SI engine without any engine tuning lead to a drop in engine performance within all speed range. Without modifying the engine system, overall fuel combustion of iso-butanol–gasoline blends was quasi-complete. However, when engine system is optimized for blended fuels, iso-butanol has significant oxygen content and that can lead to a leaner combustion, which improves the completeness of combustion and therefore high performance and less emissions would be obtained. Finally, the performance and emissions of iso-butanol–gasoline blends are compared with those of n-butanol–gasoline blends at similar blended rates and engine working conditions. Such comparison is directed to evaluate the combustion dissimilarity of the two butanol isomers and also to

  12. Design and economic analysis of a macroalgae-to-butanol process via a thermochemical route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okoli, Chinedu O.; Adams, Thomas A.; Brigljević, Boris; Liu, Jay J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel macroalgae-to-butanol plants are designed and assessed for U.S. and S. Korea. • The lowest MBSP of 1.97 $/L was obtained for the S. Korean natural gas import plant. • S. Korean plant with no fossil utilities had lowest CO_2 avoided cost of 620 $/tCO_2e. • Macroalgae-to-butanol plants CO_2 avoided costs are competitive with other biofuels. • CO_2 avoided costs of assessed plants are most sensitive to changes in gasoline price. - Abstract: In this work, a first of its kind assessment of butanol production from macroalgae through a thermochemical route is carried out. Different process configurations were designed and simulated in Aspen Plus to quantify their mass and energy balances. Furthermore, economic and environmental metrics such as the minimum butanol selling price (MBSP), and cost of CO_2 equivalent emissions (CO_2e) avoided were used to assess the potential of the different configurations under different market scenarios, with comparisons carried out amongst the configurations as well as against standard literature references of similar processes. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was used to assess the impact that changes in key parameters have on the considered metrics. The results show that configurations which import natural gas and electricity as utility sources alongside the macroalgae feedstock offer the lowest MBSP, however they do poorly when cost of CO_2e avoided is considered. On the other hand, the configurations which utilize only macroalgae offer the best potential for cost of CO_2e avoided but have the poorest values for MBSP. In addition, the cost of CO_2e avoided obtained for the best configurations are in line with literature references. However, the MBSP values are higher than literature references for butanol derived from cellulosic feedstock primarily due to the high ash content in seaweed. The sensitivity analyses results show that changes in gasoline prices have a very significant effect on the plant

  13. Experimental investigation of a spark ignition engine fueled with acetone-butanol-ethanol and gasoline blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yuqiang; Meng, Lei; Nithyanandan, Karthik; Lee, Timothy H.; Lin, Yilu; Lee, Chia-fon F.; Liao, Shengming

    2017-01-01

    Bio-butanol is typically produced by acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation, however, the recovery of bio-butanol from the ABE mixture involves high costs and energy consumption. Hence it is of interest to study the intermediate fermentation product, i.e. ABE, as a potentially alternative fuel. In this study, an experimental investigation of the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of a port fuel-injection SI engine fueled with ABE-gasoline blends was carried out. By testing different ABE-gasoline blends with varying ABE content (0 vol%, 10 vol%, 30 vol% and 60 vol% referred to as G100, ABE10, ABE30 and ABE60), ABE formulation (A:B:E of 1:8:1, 3:6:1 and 5:4:1 referred to as ABE(181), ABE(361) and ABE(541)), and water content (0.5 vol% and 1 vol% water referred to as W0.5 and W1), it was found that ABE(361)30 performed well in terms of engine performance and emissions, including brake thermal efficiency (BTE), brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and nitrogen oxides (NO_x) emissions. Then, ABE(361)30 was compared with conventional fuels, including E30, B30 (30 vol% ethanol or butanol blended with gasoline) and pure gasoline (G100) under various equivalence ratios and engine loads. Overall, a higher BTE (0.2–1.4%) and lower CO (1.4–4.4%), UHC (0.3–9.9%) and NO_x (4.2–14.6%) emissions were observed for ABE(361)30 compared to those of G100 in some cases. Therefore, ABE could be a good alternative fuel to gasoline due to the environmentally benign manufacturing process (from non-edible biomass feedstock and without a recovery process), and the potential to improve energy efficiency and reduce pollutant emissions. - Highlights: • ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) was used as a green alternative fuel. • ABE-gasoline blends with various ratios of ABE, ABE component and water were test. • Combustion, performance and emissions characteristics were investigated. • Adding ABE into

  14. Complementary vapor pressure data for 2-methyl-1-propanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol at a pressure range of (15 to 177) kPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejarano, Arturo; Quezada, Nathalie [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Ambiental, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Avda. Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile); Fuente, Juan C. de la [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Ambiental, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Avda. Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile)], E-mail: juan.delafuente@usm.cl

    2009-09-15

    The vapor pressure of pure 2-methyl-1-propanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol, components called congeners that are present in aroma of wine, pisco, and other alcoholic beverages, were measured with a dynamic recirculation apparatus at a pressure range of (15 to 177) kPa with an estimated uncertainty <0.2%. The measurements were performed at temperature ranges of (337 to 392) K for 2-methyl-1-propanol and (358 to 422) K for 3-methyl-1-butanol. Data were correlated using a Wagner-type equation with standard deviations of 0.09 kPa for the vapor pressure of 2-methyl-1-propanol and 0.21 kPa for 3-methyl-1-butanol. The experimental data and correlation were compared with data selected from the literature.

  15. Some problems of local production of acetone and butanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, C; Chang, Y P

    1959-01-01

    Conditions of laboratory and plant cultivation of acetone-butanol fermentation bacteria are considered (effects of pH of the medium, temperature, and starch content in raw material on yield of fermentation products) and also the conditions of isolation of the final products produced.

  16. LYOPHILIZATION EFFECT ON PRODUCTIVITY OF BUTANOL-PRODUCING STRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Tigunova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of lyophilization effect on the productivity of butanol-producing strains was the aim of our research. For this purpose we used butanol-producing strains; technical glycerol; biomass of switchgrass Panicum virgatum L. Lyophilization was performed using a lyophilization-drying. The effect of the protective medium on residual moisture of freezedrying cultures suspensions depending on the concentration of glucose and sucrose was studed. It was shown that the lowest residual moisture was attained by using glucose and sucrose in amount of 10% and if the samples of freeze-drying bacteria had been saved for one month at 4 οC the productivity did not decrease. As temperature preservation was increased the productivity of the cultures was gradually decreased and it was greatly reduced at 30 οC. So the protective medium composition was optimized for lyophilization of butanol-producing strains as follows: sucrose 10.0%; gelatin 10.0%; agar 0.02%. It was shown that the preservation of samples of freeze-drying bacteria for six months at a temperature of 4 οC did not affect the productivity of strains. It was found that cultures could use glycerol as a carbon source for butanol accumulation before lyophilization.

  17. Chemical structures of an n-butanol counterflow flame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarathy, S.M.; Thomson, M.J. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

    2007-07-01

    N-butanol, also known as biobutanol, is an attractive alternative biofuel that can replace gasoline in transportation applications. Biobutanol can be produced via the fermentation of sugars, starches, and lignocellulose obtained from agricultural feedstocks. Although biobutanol offers several advantages over ethanol, its detailed combustion characteristics are not well known. In order to determine the effect of fuel structure on combustion products, this paper presented the results of a study that examined the emission and temperature profiles of an n-butanol counterflow flame. The paper presented the experimental data and discussed the potential reaction mechanisms that rationalized the observed species profiles. It was found that significant quantities of acetylene, acetaldehyde, ethane, and propene were measured in the n-butanol flame and that the reaction pathways leading to the formation of these compounds were yet to be identified. In addition, significant concentrations of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were found. Results will be utilized to validate a detailed chemical kinetic model for n-butanol combustion. 13 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Metabolic engineering toward 1-butanol derivatives in solvent producing clostridia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemerink, M.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Chapter 1 of this thesis gives an overview about the history of the acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE) fermentation. The responsible solventogenic clostridia with their central metabolism are briefly discussed. Despite the fact that scientific research on the key organisms of the ABE process has

  19. Performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of twin-cylinder common rail diesel engine fuelled with butanol-diesel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamani, Venkatesh Tavareppa; Yadav, Ajay Kumar; Gottekere, Kumar Narayanappa

    2017-10-01

    Nitrogen oxides and smoke are the substantial emissions for the diesel engines. Fuels comprising high-level oxygen content can have low smoke emission due to better oxidation of soot. The objective of the paper is to assess the potential to employ oxygenated fuel, i.e., n-butanol and its blends with the neat diesel from 0 to 30% by volume. The experimental and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation is carried out to estimate the performance, combustion, and exhaust emission characteristics of n-butanol-diesel blends for various injection timings (9°, 12°, 15°, and 18°) using modern twin-cylinder, four-stroke, common rail direct injection (CRDI) engine. Experimental results reveal the increase in brake thermal efficiency (BTE) by ~ 4.5, 6, and 8% for butanol-diesel blends of 10% (Bu10), 20% (Bu20), and 30% (Bu30), respectively, compared to neat diesel (Bu0). Maximum BTE for Bu0 is 38.4%, which is obtained at 12° BTDC; however, for Bu10, Bu20 and Bu30 are 40.19, 40.9, and 41.7%, which are obtained at 15° BTDC, respectively. Higher flame speed of n-butanol-diesel blends burn a large amount of fuel in the premixed phase, which improves the combustion as well as emission characteristics. CFD and experimental results are compared and validated for all fuel blends for in-cylinder pressure and nitrogen oxides (NO x ), and found to be in good agreement. Both experimental and simulation results witnessed in reduction of smoke opacity, NO x , and carbon monoxide emissions with the increasing n-butanol percentage in diesel fuel.

  20. Selection and characterisation of high ethanol tolerant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... High level ethanol tolerant Saccharomyces yeast, Orc 6, was investigated for its potential application ... sources include cashew, apple juice (Osho, 2005), palm ... choice for fermentation (Chandra and Panchal, 2003). Yeasts ...

  1. Elucidating the contributions of multiple aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenases to butanol and ethanol production in Clostridium acetobutylicum

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Zongjie; Dong, Hongjun; Zhang, Yanping; Li, Yin

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol and butanol biosynthesis in Clostridium acetobutylicum share common aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenases. However, little is known about the relative contributions of these multiple dehydrogenases to ethanol and butanol production respectively. The contributions of six aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenases of C. acetobutylicum on butanol and ethanol production were evaluated through inactivation of the corresponding genes respectively. For butanol production, the relative contributions from thes...

  2. Selection and characterisation of high ethanol tolerant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    15% ethanol tolerance. High level ethanol tolerant Saccharomyces yeast, Orc 6, was investigated for its potential application in ethanologenic fermentations. Data presented in this study revealed that Orc 6 yeast isolate tolerated osmotic stress above 12% (w/v) sorbitol and 15% (w/v) sucrose equivalent of osmotic pressure ...

  3. Life-cycle assessment of corn-based butanol as a potential transportation fuel.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Liu, J.; Huo, H.; Energy Systems

    2007-12-31

    Butanol produced from bio-sources (such as corn) could have attractive properties as a transportation fuel. Production of butanol through a fermentation process called acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) has been the focus of increasing research and development efforts. Advances in ABE process development in recent years have led to drastic increases in ABE productivity and yields, making butanol production worthy of evaluation for use in motor vehicles. Consequently, chemical/fuel industries have announced their intention to produce butanol from bio-based materials. The purpose of this study is to estimate the potential life-cycle energy and emission effects associated with using bio-butanol as a transportation fuel. The study employs a well-to-wheels analysis tool--the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory--and the Aspen Plus{reg_sign} model developed by AspenTech. The study describes the butanol production from corn, including grain processing, fermentation, gas stripping, distillation, and adsorption for products separation. The Aspen{reg_sign} results that we obtained for the corn-to-butanol production process provide the basis for GREET modeling to estimate life-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. The GREET model was expanded to simulate the bio-butanol life cycle, from agricultural chemical production to butanol use in motor vehicles. We then compared the results for bio-butanol with those of conventional gasoline. We also analyzed the bio-acetone that is coproduced with bio-butanol as an alternative to petroleum-based acetone. Our study shows that, while the use of corn-based butanol achieves energy benefits and reduces greenhouse gas emissions, the results are affected by the methods used to treat the acetone that is co-produced in butanol plants.

  4. Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation in an immobilized cell trickle bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C H; Okos, M R; Wankat, P C

    1989-06-05

    Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was successfully carried out in an immobilized cell trickle bed reactor. The reactor was composed of two serial columns packed with Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 entrapped on the surface of natural sponge segments at a cell loading in the range of 2.03-5.56 g dry cells/g sponge. The average cell loading was 3.58 g dry cells/g sponge. Batch experiments indicated that a critical pH above 4.2 is necessary for the initiation of cell growth. One of the media used during continuous experiments consisted of a salt mixture alone and the other a nutrient medium containing a salt mixture with yeast extract and peptone. Effluent pH was controlled by supplying various fractions of the two different types of media. A nutrient medium fraction above 0.6 was crucial for successful fermentation in a trickle bed reactor. The nutrient medium fraction is the ratio of the volume of the nutrient medium to the total volume of nutrient plus salt medium. Supplying nutrient medium to both columns continuously was an effective way to meet both pH and nutrient requirement. A 257-mL reactor could ferment 45 g/L glucose from an initial concentration of 60 g/L glucose at a rate of 70 mL/h. Butanol, acetone, and ethanol concentrations were 8.82, 5.22, and 1.45 g/L, respectively, with a butanol and total solvent yield of 19.4 and 34.1 wt %. Solvent productivity in an immobilized cell trickle bed reactor was 4.2 g/L h, which was 10 times higher than that obtained in a batch fermentation using free cells and 2.76 times higher than that of an immobilized CSTR. If the nutrient medium fraction was below 0.6 and the pH was below 4.2, the system degenerated. Oxygen also contributed to the system degeneration. Upon degeneration, glucose consumption and solvent yield decreased to 30.9 g/L and 23.0 wt %, respectively. The yield of total liquid product (40.0 wt %) and butanol selectivity (60.0 wt %) remained almost constant. Once the cells were degenerated

  5. Effects of different replicons in conjugative plasmids on transformation efficiency, plasmid stability, gene expression and n-butanol biosynthesis in Clostridium tyrobutyricum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Mingrui; Du, Yinming; Jiang, Wenyan; Chang, Wei-Lun; Yang, Shang-Tian [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). William G. Lowrie Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Tang, I-Ching [Bioprocessing Innovative Company, Dublin, OH (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755 can produce butyric acid, acetic acid, and hydrogen as the main products from various carbon sources. In this study, C. tyrobutyricum was used as a host to produce n-butanol by expressing adhE2 gene under the control of a native thiolase promoter using four different conjugative plasmids (pMTL82151, 83151, 84151, and 85151) each with a different replicon (pBP1 from C. botulinum NCTC2916, pCB102 from C. butyricum, pCD6 from Clostridium difficile, and pIM13 from Bacillus subtilis). The effects of different replicons on transformation efficiency, plasmid stability, adhE2 expression and aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase activities, and butanol production by different mutants of C. tyrobutyricum were investigated. Among the four plasmids and replicons studied, pMTL82151 with pBP1 gave the highest transformation efficiency, plasmid stability, gene expression, and butanol biosynthesis. Butanol production from various substrates, including glucose, xylose, mannose, and mannitol were then investigated with the best mutant strain harboring adhE2 in pMTL82151. A high butanol titer of 20.5 g/L with 0.33 g/g yield and 0.32 g/L h productivity was obtained with mannitol as the substrate in batch fermentation with pH controlled at {proportional_to}6.0. (orig.)

  6. Enzymology of acetone-butanol-isopropanol formation. Final technical report, June 1, 1985--July 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jiann-Shin

    1998-03-01

    Several species of anaerobic bacteria within the genus Clostridium produce acetone, n-butanol, and isopropanol (solvents), which are important industrial chemicals and fuel additives. Commercial production of solvents by the clostridia is a classical example of largescale chemical production by bacterial fermentation. Although the fermentation has been in use for decades, it still faces problems that include strain degeneration, a relatively low final product concentration due to butanol toxicity, and a need to fine-tune the growth conditions to achieve a high yield. The long-term goal of this project was to understand the fundamental properties of bacterial solvent production for the purpose of achieving a positive control on the metabolic switch leading to solvent production and on the proportion of useful products formed as well as of developing strategies for preventing the degeneration of producing strains. The objectives for the project included those approved in 1985 for the initial project period and those approved in 1988, 1991, and 1994 when the project was renewed. The objectives for the entire project period may be summarized as (1) To purify and characterize the enzymes that are specifically required for the formation of acetone, butanol, and isopropanol by the clostridia, (2) To clone and characterize the genes that encode enzymes or regulatory proteins for the production of solvents, and the emphasis was to determine the control mechanism for the transcription of the solvent-production genes, (3) To characterize the onset of solvent production and the intra- and extra-cellular parameters surrounding the metabolic switch to solvent production, and (4) To determine the genetic identity of the strains of solvent-producing clostridia that are currently in use by investigators around the world.

  7. Heat flux characteristics of spray wall impingement with ethanol, butanol, iso-octane, gasoline and E10 fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serras-Pereira, J.; Aleiferis, P.G.; Walmsley, H.L.; Davies, T.J.; Cracknell, R.F.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Heat flux sensors used to characterise the locations of fuel spray wall impingement. • Droplet evaporation modelling used to study the effect of fuel properties. • Behaviour of ethanol and butanol distinctively different to hydrocarbons. -- Abstract: Future fuel stocks for spark-ignition engines are expected to include a significant portion of bio-derived components with quite different chemical and physical properties to those of liquid hydrocarbons. State-of-the-art high-pressure multi-hole injectors for latest design direct-injection spark-ignition engines offer some great benefits in terms of fuel atomisation, as well as flexibility in in-cylinder fuel targeting by selection of the exact number and angle of the nozzle’s holes. However, in order to maximise such benefits for future spark-ignition engines and minimise any deteriorating effects with regards to exhaust emissions, it is important to avoid liquid fuel impingement onto the cylinder walls and take into consideration various types of biofuels. This paper presents results from the use of heat flux sensors to characterise the locations and levels of liquid fuel impingement onto the engine’s liner walls when injected from a centrally located multi-hole injector with an asymmetric pattern of spray plumes. Ethanol, butanol, iso-octane, gasoline and a blend of 10% ethanol with 90% gasoline (E10) were tested and compared. The tests were performed in the cylinder of a direct-injection spark-ignition engine at static conditions (i.e. quiescent chamber at 1.0 bar) and motoring conditions (at full load with inlet plenum pressure of 1.0 bar) with different engine temperatures in order to decouple competing effects. The collected data were analysed to extract time-resolved signals, as well as mean and standard deviation levels of peak heat flux. The results were interpreted with reference to in-cylinder spray formation characteristics, as well as fuel evaporation rates obtained by modelling

  8. Acetone-butanol fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates for the butanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, Tatyana; Semyonov, Sergey

    2017-11-01

    It is known that the use of lignocellulosic hydrolysates reduces the production cost of biofuel such as biobutanol and bioethanol. But for the most successful application of the hydrolysates for the biofuel production, it is necessary to apply an inexpensive and effective detoxification method and to use of cost-effective growth factors. In the present study, we evaluated the use of an acid hydrolysate of spruce and an enzymatic hydrolysate of miscanthus cellulose for the biobutanol production. To remove inhibitors from the hydrolysates, we applied the traditional physicochemical method with overliming and the biodetoxification method based on the use of the specially adapted activated sludge. Calcium hydroxide (150 g/L) was used for the neutralization. The biological method of detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolysates was carried out under non-sterile conditions at room temperature by the specially adapted activated sludge of the urban wastewater treatment plants. The acetone-butanol fermentation was carried out by a strain of bacteria Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. The treatment by overliming removed 84-85 % and 83-86% of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) and furfural from the hydrolysates respectively. Using the method of biodetoxification the content of furfural decreased by 98% and concentration of 5-HMF - by 97-99%. In the present study as an inexpensive source of growth substances for the fermentation of the hydrolysates it has been suggested to use decantate of the brewer's spent grain. The obtained results showed that the brewer's spent grain can be used in the biofuel production as efficiently as the synthetic growth substances.

  9. Recent trends in acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keikhosro Karim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the renewable fuels considered as a suitable substitute to petroleum-based gasoline, butanol has attracted a great deal of attention due to its unique properties. Acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE can be produced biologically from different substrates, including sugars, starch, lignocelluloses, and algae. This process was among the very first biofuel production processes which was commercialized during the First World War. The present review paper discusses the different aspects of the ABE process and the recent progresses made. Moreover, the microorganisms and the biochemistry of the ABE fermentation as well as the feedstocks used are reviewed. Finally, the challenges faced such as low products concentration and products` inhibitory effects on the fermentation are explained and different possible solutions are presented and reviewed.

  10. System-level modeling of acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chen; Seo, Seung-Oh; Lu, Ting

    2016-05-01

    Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation is a metabolic process of clostridia that produces bio-based solvents including butanol. It is enabled by an underlying metabolic reaction network and modulated by cellular gene regulation and environmental cues. Mathematical modeling has served as a valuable strategy to facilitate the understanding, characterization and optimization of this process. In this review, we highlight recent advances in system-level, quantitative modeling of ABE fermentation. We begin with an overview of integrative processes underlying the fermentation. Next we survey modeling efforts including early simple models, models with a systematic metabolic description, and those incorporating metabolism through simple gene regulation. Particular focus is given to a recent system-level model that integrates the metabolic reactions, gene regulation and environmental cues. We conclude by discussing the remaining challenges and future directions towards predictive understanding of ABE fermentation. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. IRIS Toxicological Review of n-Butanol (External Review Draft ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of n-butanol that will appear in the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. EPA is undertaking an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) health assessment for n-butanol. IRIS is an EPA database containing Agency scientific positions on potential adverse human health effects that may result from chronic (or lifetime) exposure to chemicals in the environment. IRIS contains chemical-specific summaries of qualitative and quantitative health information in support of two steps of the risk assessment paradigm, i.e., hazard identification and dose-response evaluation. IRIS assessments are used in combination with specific situational exposure assessment information to evaluate potential public health risk associated with environmental contaminants.

  12. Industrial optimization of acetone-butanol fermentation: A study of the utilization of Jerusalem artichokes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchal, R.; Blanchet, D.; Vandecasteele, J.P.

    1985-12-01

    Acetone-butanol fermentation of the Jerusalem artichoke has been studied as a case for systematic investigation of the industrial optimization of both strain selection and fermentation operation. Hydrolysis of the inulinic oligofructans of the substrate was found necessary for optimal performance but could be achieved with a selected strain using a moderate amount of inulinase added at the beginning of the fermentation. Apart from ammonia, no nutritrional supplementation of the medium was found necessary. The marked influence of pH in the fermentation performance prompted a detailed search for a method of controlling pH during fermentation. With an optimized procedure, solvent production of 23-24 g/l were obtained in 36 h. Detailed fermentation balances are presented. An industrial process for ABE production from Jerusalem artichoke or sugar beet has been defined and tested in the pilot plant. (orig.).

  13. Technical and economic assessment of processes for the production of butanol and acetone

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    This report represents a preliminary technical and economic evaluation of a process which produces mixed solvents (butaol/acetone/ethanol) via fermentation of sugars derived from renewable biomass resources. The objective is to assess the technology of producing butanol/acetone from biomass, and select a viable process capable of serving as a base case model for technical and economic analysis. It is anticipated that the base case process developed herein can then be used as the basis for subsequent studies concerning biomass conversion processes capable of producing a wide range of chemicals. The general criteria utilized in determining the design basis for the process are profit potential and non-renewable energy displacement potential. The feedstock chosen, aspen wood, was selected from a number of potential renewable biomass resources as the most readily available in the United States and for its relatively large potential for producing reducing sugars.

  14. Biocatalyzed processes for production of commodity chemicals: Assessment of future research advances for N-butanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    This report is a summary of assessments by Chem Systems Inc. and a further evaluation of the impacts of research advances on energy efficiency and the potential for future industrial production of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) solvents and other products by biocatalyzed processes. Brief discussions of each of the assessments made by CSI, followed by estimates of minimum projected energy consumption and costs for production of solvents by ABE biocatalyzed processes are included. These assessments and further advances discussed in this report show that substantial decreases in energy consumption and costs are possible on the basis of specific research advances; therefore, it appears that a biocatalyzed process for ABE can be developed that will be competitive with conventional petrochemical processes for production of n-butanol and acetone. (In this work, the ABE process was selected and utilized only as an example for methodology development; other possible bioprocesses for production of commodity chemicals are not intended to be excluded.) It has been estimated that process energy consumption can be decreased by 50%, with a corresponding cost reduction of 15-30% (in comparison with a conventional petrochemical process) by increasing microorganism tolerance to n-butanol and efficient recovery of product solvents from the vapor phase.

  15. Biobutanol as fuel for direct alcohol fuel cells - Investigation of Sn-modified Pt catalyst for butanol electro-oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Puthiyapura, Vinod Kumar; Dan J. L. Brett,; Andrea E. Russell,; Wen-Feng Lin,; Hardacre, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFCs) mostly use low molecular weight alcohols such as methanol and ethanol as fuels. However, short-chain alcohol molecules have a relative high membrane crossover rate in DAFCs and a low energy density. Long chain alcohols such as butanol have a higher energy density, as well as a lower membrane crossover rate compared to methanol and ethanol. Although a significant number of studies have been dedicated to low molecular weight alcohols in DAFCs, very few studies ...

  16. Fuel composition effect on the electrostatically-driven atomization of bio-butanol containing engine fuel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agathou, Maria S.; Kyritsis, Dimitrios C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sprays of alcohol-containing blends are amenable to electrostatic manipulation. ► Monodispersion is non-achievable for conditions pertaining to automotive applications. ► Electrical conductivity and surface tension do not determine fully the spray behavior. ► Non-dimensional analysis was performed to classify flow regimes for each blend. ► We numbers revealed the possibility of droplet secondary break-up. - Abstract: Electrostatically assisted sprays of three fuel blends of bio-butanol, ethanol and heptane were studied experimentally. Mixture composition was selected such that electrical conductivity and surface tension were kept constant for all three mixtures. In this manner, the effect of fuel composition was investigated in a context that broadens the classical focus on the effective decrease of surface tension through the action of electrostatic fields. High-speed visualization was used in order to capture e-spray morphology. In addition, probability density functions of the e-spray droplet size and velocity were measured using Phase-Doppler Anemometry for a variety of flow rates and applied voltages. The dependence of droplet average diameter on both flow rate and applied electric field was highlighted. Polydisperse sprays were observed which was rationalized through the calculation of droplet Weber numbers that pointed to the possibility of a secondary droplet break-up.

  17. LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS AFTER EXPLOSIVE AUTOHYDROLYSIS AS SUBSTRATE TO BUTANOL OBTAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigunova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was investigation of the effect of the explosive autohydrolysis on lignocellulosic biomass (saving, switchgrass biomass for consequent use as a substrate to produce biofuels such as butanol. Butanol-producing strains, switchgrass Panicum virgatum L. biomass and its components after autohydrolysis were used in study. The thermobaric pressure pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass was carried out using specially designed equipment. The effect of explosive autohydrolysis on lignocellulosic biomass for further use in producing biofuels using microbial conversion was studied. Components of lignocellulosic biomass were fractionated after undergoing thermobaric treatment. The possibility of using different raw material components after using explosive autohydrolysis processing to produce biobutanol was found. Products of switchgrass biomass autohydrolysis were shown to need further purification before fermentation from furfural formed by thermobaric pretreatment and inhibiting the growth of microorganisms. The ability of strains of the genus Clostridium to use cellulose as a substrate for fermentation was proved. It was found that using explosive autohydrolysis pretreatment to savings allowed boosting the butanol accumulation by 2 times.

  18. Fragrance material review on 2-methyl-4-phenyl-2-butanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-methyl-4-phenyl-2-butanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-methyl-4-phenyl-2-butanol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a tertiary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-methyl-4-phenyl-2-butanol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. assessment of aryl alkyl alcohols when used as fragrance ingredients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. IRIS Toxicological Review of n-Butanol (Interagency Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    On September 8, 2011, the Toxicological Review of n-Butanol (External Review Draft) was released for external peer review and public comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and White House Offices before public release. In the new IRIS process, introduced by the EPA Administrator, all written comments on IRIS assessments submitted by other federal agencies and White House Offices will be made publicly available. Accordingly, interagency comments with EPA's response and the interagency science consultation draft of the IRIS Toxicological Review of n-Butanol and the charge to external peer reviewers are posted on this site. EPA is undertaking an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) health assessment for n-butanol. IRIS is an EPA database containing Agency scientific positions on potential adverse human health effects that may result from chronic (or lifetime) exposure to chemicals in the environment. IRIS contains chemical-specific summaries of qualitative and quantitative health information in support of two steps of the risk assessment paradigm, i.e., hazard identification and dose-response evaluation. IRIS assessments are used in combination with specific situational exposure assessment information to evaluate potential public health risk associated with environmental contaminants.

  20. Study on the knock tendency and cyclical variations of a HCCI engine fueled with n-butanol/n-heptane blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Gang; Zhang, Chunhua; Zhou, Jiawang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The HCCI combustion was achieved on an engine fueled by n-butanol/n-heptane blends. • The knock tendency and cyclical variation of the HCCI combustion were studied. • The knock tendency can be weakened by increasing the blending ratio of n-butanol. • The knock tendency and cyclical variation are sensitive to the combustion phasing. • Cyclical variation always shows an opposite trend with the knock tendency. - Abstract: The homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion operation is conducted in the 2nd cylinder of a natural-aspirated four-stroke diesel engine. In the HCCI combustion mode, the n-butanol, n-heptane and their blends are injected into the intake port to form a lean homogeneous air-fuel mixture, which is consumed by the autoignition after compression. The objective of this study is to investigate the knock tendency and the cyclical variations of the HCCI engine. Experimental results show that the volume fraction of n-butanol affects the knock tendency greatly, which obviously decreases as the n-butanol volume fraction increases. The knocking combustion in the HCCI combustion is characterized by the high heat release rate (HRR). Both elevating the engine speed and raising the intake temperature contributes to an obvious increase in HRR and the knock tendency. But the HRR and knock tendency may slightly decrease when the engine speed reaches to 1400 rev/min and intake temperature reaches to 160 °C. Furthermore, the knock tendency can be weakened by increasing the excess air-fuel ratio. Cyclical variations of the HCCI engine are quantified by the coefficient of variation for the peak pressure (COV_P_m_a_x) and it exhibits an almost opposite trend to the knock tendency. The COV_P_m_a_x may considerably increase along with either increasing the blending ratio of n-butanol or increasing the excess air-fuel ratio. Moreover, it is reveled that the COV_P_m_a_x is sensitive to the relative position of peak HRR. The cyclical

  1. Conceptual design of heterogeneous azeotropic distillation process for ethanol dehydration using 1-butanol as entrainer

    OpenAIRE

    Paritta Prayoonyong

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of a heterogeneous azeotropic distillation process for ethanol dehydration using 1-butanol as entrainer is presented. The residue curve map of the ethanol/water/1-butanol mixture is computationally generated using non-random twoliquid thermodynamic model. It is found that 1-butanol leads to a residue curve map topological structure different from that generated by typical entrainers used in ethanol dehydration. Synthesis...

  2. Biotransformation of furfural and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 during butanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Han, Bei; Ezeji, Thaddeus Chukwuemeka

    2012-02-15

    The ability of fermenting microorganisms to tolerate furan aldehyde inhibitors (furfural and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF)) will enhance efficient bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates to fuels and chemicals. The effect of furfural and HMF on butanol production by Clostridium acetobutylicum 824 was investigated. Whereas specific growth rates, μ, of C. acetobutylicum in the presence of furfural and HMF were in the range of 15-85% and 23-78%, respectively, of the uninhibited Control, μ increased by 8-15% and 23-38% following exhaustion of furfural and HMF in the bioreactor. Using high performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometric assays, batch fermentations revealed that furfural and HMF were converted to furfuryl alcohol and 2,5-bis-hydroxymethylfuran, respectively, with specific conversion rates of 2.13g furfural and 0.50g HMF per g (biomass) per hour, by exponentially growing C. acetobutylicum. Biotransformation of these furans to lesser inhibitory compounds by C. acetobutylicum will probably enhance overall fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates to butanol. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cardiovascular activity of the n-butanol fraction of the methanol extract of Loranthus ferrugineus Roxb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Z. Ameer

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the vascular responses and the blood pressure reducing effects of different fractions obtained from the methanol extract of Loranthus ferrugineus Roxb. (F. Loranthaceae. By means of solvent-solvent extraction, L. ferrugineus methanol extract (LFME was successively fractionated with chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The ability of these LFME fractions to relax vascular smooth muscle against phenylephrine (PE- and KCl-induced contractions in isolated rat aortic rings was determined. In another set of experiments, LFME fractions were tested for blood pressure lowering activity in anesthetized adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 g, 14-18 weeks. The n-butanol fraction of LFME (NBF-LFME produced a significant concentration-dependent inhibition of PE- and KCl-induced aortic ring contractions compared to other fractions. Moreover, NBF-LFME had a significantly higher relaxant effect against PE- than against high K+-induced contractions. In anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats, NBF-LFME significantly lowered blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner and with a relatively longer duration of action compared to the other fractions. HPLC, UV and IR spectra suggested the presence of terpenoid constituents in both LFME and NBF-LFME. Accordingly, we conclude that NBF-LFME is the most potent fraction producing a concentration-dependent relaxation in vascular smooth muscle in vitro and a dose-dependent blood pressure lowering activity in vivo. The cardiovascular effects of NBF-LFME are most likely attributable to its terpenoid content.

  4. Optimization strategies based on sequential quadratic programming applied for a fermentation process for butanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto Mariano, Adriano; Bastos Borba Costa, Caliane; de Franceschi de Angelis, Dejanira; Maugeri Filho, Francisco; Pires Atala, Daniel Ibraim; Wolf Maciel, Maria Regina; Maciel Filho, Rubens

    2009-11-01

    In this work, the mathematical optimization of a continuous flash fermentation process for the production of biobutanol was studied. The process consists of three interconnected units, as follows: fermentor, cell-retention system (tangential microfiltration), and vacuum flash vessel (responsible for the continuous recovery of butanol from the broth). The objective of the optimization was to maximize butanol productivity for a desired substrate conversion. Two strategies were compared for the optimization of the process. In one of them, the process was represented by a deterministic model with kinetic parameters determined experimentally and, in the other, by a statistical model obtained using the factorial design technique combined with simulation. For both strategies, the problem was written as a nonlinear programming problem and was solved with the sequential quadratic programming technique. The results showed that despite the very similar solutions obtained with both strategies, the problems found with the strategy using the deterministic model, such as lack of convergence and high computational time, make the use of the optimization strategy with the statistical model, which showed to be robust and fast, more suitable for the flash fermentation process, being recommended for real-time applications coupling optimization and control.

  5. Autoignition characterization of primary reference fuels and n-heptane/n-butanol mixtures in a constant volume combustion device and homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgardner, Marc E.; Sarathy, Mani; Má rchese, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    -octane, n-heptane, and n-butanol were tested in the FIT - 28 test runs with 25 ignition measurements for each test run, totaling 350 individual tests in all. These experimental results supported previous findings that fuel blends with high alcohol content

  6. Efficient production of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) from cassava by a fermentation-pervaporation coupled process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Chen, Xiangrong; Qi, Benkun; Luo, Jianquan; Zhang, Yuming; Su, Yi; Wan, Yinhua

    2014-10-01

    Production of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) from cassava was investigated with a fermentation-pervaporation (PV) coupled process. ABE products were in situ removed from fermentation broth to alleviate the toxicity of solvent to the Clostridium acetobutylicum DP217. Compared to the batch fermentation without PV, glucose consumption rate and solvent productivity increased by 15% and 21%, respectively, in batch fermentation-PV coupled process, while in continuous fermentation-PV coupled process running for 304 h, the substrate consumption rate, solvent productivity and yield increased by 58%, 81% and 15%, reaching 2.02 g/Lh, 0.76 g/Lh and 0.38 g/g, respectively. Silicalite-1 filled polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) membrane modules ensured media recycle without significant fouling, steadily generating a highly concentrated ABE solution containing 201.8 g/L ABE with 122.4 g/L butanol. After phase separation, a final product containing 574.3g/L ABE with 501.1g/L butanol was obtained. Therefore, the fermentation-PV coupled process has the potential to decrease the cost in ABE production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Selective excitation of atoms or molecules to high-lying states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducas, T.W.

    1978-01-01

    This specification relates to the selective excitation of atoms or molecules to high lying states and a method of separating different isotopes of the same element by selective excitation of the isotopes. (U.K.)

  8. Ceramic-supported thin PVA pervaporation membranes combining high flux and high selectivity : contradicting the flux-selectivity paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, T.A.; Poeth, C.H.S.; Benes, N.E.; Buijs, H.C.W.M.; Vercauteren, F.F.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.

    2006-01-01

    Thin, high-flux and highly selective cross-linked poly(vinyl)alcohol waterselective layers have been prepared on top of hollow fibre ceramic supports. The supports consist of an alpha-Al2O3 hollow fibre substrate and an intermediate gamma-Al2O3 layer, which provides a sufficiently smooth surface for

  9. Novel developments in butanol fermentation: Microbial genetics to agricultural substrates, process technology, and downstream processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butanol is the major product of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE; ratio 3:6:1) fermentation. It can be produced from various carbohydrates such as glucose, corn, molasses, and whey permeate (a by-product of the dairy industry) using microbial strains such as Clostridium beijerinckii and/or C. acetobuty...

  10. Conceptual design of heterogeneous azeotropic distillation process for ethanol dehydration using 1-butanol as entrainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paritta Prayoonyong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of a heterogeneous azeotropic distillation process for ethanol dehydration using 1-butanol as entrainer is presented. The residue curve map of the ethanol/water/1-butanol mixture is computationally generated using non-random twoliquid thermodynamic model. It is found that 1-butanol leads to a residue curve map topological structure different from that generated by typical entrainers used in ethanol dehydration. Synthesised by residue curve map analysis, the distillation flowsheet for ethanol dehydration by 1-butanol comprises a double-feed column integrated with an overhead decanter and a simple column. The double-feed column is used to recover water as the top product, whereas the simple column is used for recovering ethanol and 1-butanol. The separation feasibility and the economically near-optimal designs of distillation columns in the flowsheet are evaluated and identified by using the boundary value design method. The distillation flowsheet using 1-butanol is compared with the conventional process using benzene as entrainer. Based on their total annualised costs, the ethanol dehydration process using 1-butanol is less economically attractive than the process using benzene. However, 1-butanol is less toxic than benzene.

  11. Production of n-butanol from whey filtrate using Clostridium acetobutylicum NCIB 2951

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddox, I S

    1980-01-01

    Production of the important solvent n-butanol by traditional fermentation of corn mash or molasses by Clostridium acetobutylicum produces a mixed end product in the ratio butanol:acetone:ethanol 6:3:1. Laboratory experiments have shown that H2SO4 casein whey after ultrafiltration to remove protein (DSA 40, 5658) is a possible substrate for butanol fermentation, which would also reduce a major waste disposal problem. The organism was maintained in the casein whey permeate; inocula were heat-shocked at 70 degrees Celcius for 90 s, followed by incubation at 30 degrees Celcius for 3 days to provide working cultures. Whey permeate supplemented with 0.5% (w/v) yeast extract was adjusted to pH 6.5 with 1 M NH4OH, inoculated with 5% culture and incubated at 30 degrees Celcius. Cell counts were recorded daily, together with residual lactose concentration and production of butyric acid, acetic acid, butanol, acetone and ethanol (determined by GLC). Initially butyric and acetic acids were produced, but after 2 days conversion to butanol and acetone began. Cell growth ceased after 3 days, but conversion continued to reach a maximum yield of butanol after 5 days, in the favourable ratio of butanol:acetone:ethanol of 10:1:1. Inhibition by end products prevented complete utilization of the lactose. Omission of the yeast supplement produced a slower but similar fermentation reaching a butanol yield of 1.3% after 7 days. The ultrafiltration may not be necessary. (Refs. 3).

  12. Experimental and kinetic modeling investigation of rich premixed toluene flames doped with n-butanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuyang; Yuan, Wenhao; Li, Tianyu; Li, Wei; Yang, Jiuzhong; Qi, Fei

    2018-04-25

    n-Butanol is a promising renewable biofuel and has a lot of advantages as a gasoline additive compared with ethanol. Though the combustion of pure n-butanol has been extensively investigated, the chemical structures of large hydrocarbons doped with n-butanol, especially for aromatic fuels, are still insufficiently understood. In this work, rich premixed toluene/n-butanol/oxygen/argon flames were investigated at 30 Torr with synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry (SVUV-PIMS). The blending ratio of n-butanol was varied from 0 to 50%, while the equivalence ratio was maintained at a quite rich value (1.75) for the purpose of studying the influence of n-butanol on the aromatic growth process. Flame species including radicals, reactive molecules, isomers and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were identified and their mole fraction profiles were measured. A kinetic model of toluene/n-butanol combustion was developed from our recently reported toluene and n-butanol models. It is observed that the production of most toluene decomposition products and larger aromatics was suppressed as the blending ratio of n-butanol increases. Meanwhile, the addition of n-butanol generally enhanced the formation of most observed C2-C4 hydrocarbons and C1-C4 oxygenated species. The rate of production (ROP) analysis and experimental observations both indicate that the interaction between toluene and n-butanol in their decomposition processes mainly occurs at the formation of small intermediates, e.g. acetylene and methyl. In particular, the interaction between toluene and n-butanol in methyl formation influences the formation of large monocyclic aromatics such as ethylbenzene, styrene and phenylacetylene, making their maximum mole fractions decay slowly upon increasing the blending ratio of n-butanol compared with toluene and benzyl. The increase of the blending ratio of n-butanol reduces the formation of key PAH precursors such as benzyl, fulvenallenyl

  13. Molecular dynamics of tert-butanol studied by neutron transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, L.Q.; Fulfaro, R.; Vinhas, L.A.

    1974-01-01

    Neutron transmission of the globular compound tert-butanol (CH 3 ) 3 COH have been measured in the temperature interval O 0 C to 40 0 C for 6.13 A neutrons and in the neutron wavelength range 4A to 7.5A in the liquid and solid states. Results show that the cross-section difference at the state transition in 24 0 C is 13%, while it is only approximately 1% at the first order phase transition in 14 0 C. Evidence of existence of third crystalline phase with the lowest cross-section has been found. The barrier to interval methyl rotation in the solid states is estimated as (3.=+ - 0.5) Kcal/mol and does change much over the phase and state transitions. The observed dynamical changes must be due to movements of the whole molecule and evidence that tert-butanol is not in the strict sense a plastic crystal. Correlation with heat capacity results is discussed

  14. High-throughput selection for cellulase catalysts using chemical complementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta-Yahya, Pamela; Carter, Brian T; Lin, Hening; Tao, Haiyan; Cornish, Virginia W

    2008-12-24

    Efficient enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic material remains one of the major bottlenecks to cost-effective conversion of biomass to ethanol. Improvement of glycosylhydrolases, however, is limited by existing medium-throughput screening technologies. Here, we report the first high-throughput selection for cellulase catalysts. This selection was developed by adapting chemical complementation to provide a growth assay for bond cleavage reactions. First, a URA3 counter selection was adapted to link chemical dimerizer activated gene transcription to cell death. Next, the URA3 counter selection was shown to detect cellulase activity based on cleavage of a tetrasaccharide chemical dimerizer substrate and decrease in expression of the toxic URA3 reporter. Finally, the utility of the cellulase selection was assessed by isolating cellulases with improved activity from a cellulase library created by family DNA shuffling. This application provides further evidence that chemical complementation can be readily adapted to detect different enzymatic activities for important chemical transformations for which no natural selection exists. Because of the large number of enzyme variants that selections can now test as compared to existing medium-throughput screens for cellulases, this assay has the potential to impact the discovery of improved cellulases and other glycosylhydrolases for biomass conversion from libraries of cellulases created by mutagenesis or obtained from natural biodiversity.

  15. Cyclic cholecystokinin analogues with high selectivity for central receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpentier, B.; Pelaprat, D.; Durieux, C.; Dor, A.; Roques, B.P.; Reibaud, M.; Blanchard, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Taking as a model the N-terminal folding of the cholecystokinin tyrosine-sulfated octapeptide deduced from conformational studies, two cyclic cholecystokinin (CCK) analogues were synthesized by conventional peptide synthesis. The binding characteristics of these peptides were investigated on brain cortex membranes and pancreatic acini of guinea pig. Compounds I and II were competitive inhibitors of [ 3 H]Boc[Ahx 28,31 ]CCK-(27-33) binding to central CCK receptors and showed a high degree of selectivity for these binding sites. This high selectivity was associated with a high affinity for central CCK receptors. Similar affinities and selectivities were found when 125 I Bolton-Hunter-labeled CCK-8 was used as a ligand. Moreover, these compounds were only weakly active in the stimulation of amylase release from guinea pig pancreatic acini and were unable to induce contractions in the guinea pig ileum. The two cyclic CCK analogues, therefore, appear to be synthetic ligands exhibiting both high affinity and high selectivity for central CCK binding sites. These compounds could help clarify the respective role of central and peripheral receptors for various CCK-8-induced pharmacological effects

  16. Butanol fermentation of the brown seaweed Laminaria digitata by Clostridium beijerinckii DSM-6422

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaoru; From, Nikolaj; Angelidaki, Irini

    2017-01-01

    Seaweed represents an abundant, renewable, and fast-growing biomass resource for 3rd generation biofuel production. This study reports an efficient butanol fermentation process carried out by Clostridium beijerinckii DSM-6422 using enzymatic hydrolysate of the sugar-rich brown seaweed Laminaria...... digitata harvested from the coast of the Danish North Sea as substrate. The highest butanol yield (0.42g/g-consumed-substrates) compared to literature was achieved, with a significantly higher butanol:acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) molar ratio (0.85) than typical (0.6). This demonstrates the possibility...... of using the seaweed L. digitata as a potential biomass for butanol production. For the first time, consumption of alginate components was observed by C. beijerinckii DSM-6422. The efficient utilization of sugars and lactic acid further highlighted the potential of using this strain for future development...

  17. Comparison of combustion characteristics of n-butanol/ethanol–gasoline blends in a HCCI engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Bang-Quan; Liu, Mao-Bin; Zhao, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The blends with alcohol autoignite early in the conditions highly diluted by exhaust. • n-Butanol is more reactive than ethanol in the blend with the same alcohol content. • Autoignition timing delays with retarding IVO timing for all alcohol–gasoline blends. • Advanced autoignition for the blends with alcohol leads to lower thermal efficiency. - Abstract: As a sustainable biofuel, n-butanol can be used in conventional spark ignition (SI) and compression ignition (CI) engines in order to reduce the dependence on fossil fuel. Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is a novel combustion to improve the thermal efficiency of conventional SI engines at part loads. To understand the effect of alcohol structure on HCCI combustion under stoichiometric conditions highly diluted by exhaust gases, the combustion characteristics of n-butanol, ethanol and their blends with gasoline were investigated on a single cylinder port fuel injection gasoline engine with fixed intake/exhaust valve lifts at the same operating conditions in this study. The results show that autoignition timing for alcohol–gasoline blends is dependent on alcohol types and its concentration in the blend, engine speed and intake valve opening (IVO)/exhaust valve closing (EVC) timing. In the operating conditions with the residual gases more than 38% by mass in the mixture, alcohol–gasoline blends autoignite more easily than gasoline. Autoignition timing for n-butanol–gasoline blend is earlier than that for ethanol–gasoline blend with the same alcohol volume fraction at 1500 rpm in most cases while the autoignition timings for the blends with alcohol are relatively close at 2000 rpm at the same IVO/EVC timing. Combustion stability is improved with advanced EVC timing at a fixed IVO timing, which is benefit for the improvement in the thermal efficiency in the case of alcohol–gasoline blends. In addition, n-butanol–gasoline blends autoignite earlier than their ethanol

  18. Liquid-Liquid Extraction in Systems Containing Butanol and Ionic Liquids – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubiczek Artur

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs are a moderately new class of liquid substances that are characterized by a great variety of possible anion-cation combinations giving each of them different properties. For this reason, they have been termed as designer solvents and, as such, they are particularly promising for liquid-liquid extraction, which has been quite intensely studied over the last decade. This paper concentrates on the recent liquid-liquid extraction studies involving ionic liquids, yet focusing strictly on the separation of n-butanol from model aqueous solutions. Such research is undertaken mainly with the intention of facilitating biological butanol production, which is usually carried out through the ABE fermentation process. So far, various sorts of RTILs have been tested for this purpose while mostly ternary liquid-liquid systems have been investigated. The industrial design of liquid-liquid extraction requires prior knowledge of the state of thermodynamic equilibrium and its relation to the process parameters. Such knowledge can be obtained by performing a series of extraction experiments and employing a certain mathematical model to approximate the equilibrium. There are at least a few models available but this paper concentrates primarily on the NRTL equation, which has proven to be one of the most accurate tools for correlating experimental equilibrium data. Thus, all the presented studies have been selected based on the accepted modeling method. The reader is also shown how the NRTL equation can be used to model liquid-liquid systems containing more than three components as it has been the authors’ recent area of expertise.

  19. A novel method to produce solid lipid nanoparticles using n-butanol as an additional co-surfactant according to the o/w microemulsion quenching technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojahedian, Mohammad M; Daneshamouz, Saeid; Samani, Soliman Mohammadi; Zargaran, Arman

    2013-09-01

    Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN) and Nanostructured Lipid Carriers (NLC) are novel medicinal carriers for controlled drug release and drug targeting in different roots of administration such as parenteral, oral, ophthalmic and topical. These carriers have some benefits such as increased drug stability, high drug payload, the incorporation of lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs, and no biotoxicity. Therefore, due to the cost-efficient, proportionally increasable, and reproducible preparation of SLN/NLC and the avoidance of organic solvents used, the warm microemulsion quenching method was selected from among several preparation methods for development in this research. To prepare the warm O/W microemulsion, lipids (distearin, stearic acid, beeswax, triolein alone or in combination with others) were melted at a temperature of 65°C. After that, different ratios of Tween60 (10-22.5%) and glyceryl monostearate (surfactant and co-surfactant) and water were added, and the combination was stirred. Then, 1-butanol (co-surfactant) was added dropwise until a clear microemulsion was formed and titration continued to achieve cloudiness (to obtain the microemulsion zone). The warm o/w microemulsions were added dropwise into 4°C water (1:5 volume ratio) while being stirred at 400 or 600 rpm. Lipid nanosuspensions were created upon the addition of the warm o/w microemulsion to the cold water. The SLN were obtained over a range of concentrations of co-surfactants and lipids and observed for microemulsion stability (clearness). For selected preparations, characterization involved also determination of mean particle size, polydispersity and shape. According to the aim of this study, the optimum formulations requiring the minimum amounts of 1-butanol (1.2%) and lower temperatures for creation were selected. Mono-disperse lipid nanoparticles were prepared in the size range 77 ± 1 nm to 124 ± 21 nm according to a laser diffraction particle size analyzer and transmission electron

  20. Excess Molar Volumes and Viscosities for Binary Mixtures of 1-Alkoxypropan-2-ols with 1-Butanol,and 2-Butanol at 298.15 K and Atmospheric Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAL Amalendu; GABA Rekha

    2007-01-01

    Excess molar volumes VEm and kinematic viscosities v have been measured as a function of composition for binary mixtures of propylene glycol monomethyl ether (1-methoxy-2-propanol),MeOCH2CH(OH)Me,propylene glycol monoethyl ether (1-ethoxy-2-propanol), EtOCH2CH(OH)Me,propylene glycol monopropyl ether (1-propoxy-2-propanol), PrOCH2CH(OH)Me, propylene glycol monobutyl ether (1-butoxy-2-propanol),BuOCH2CH(OH)Me,and propylene glycol tert-butyl ether (1-tert-butoxy-2-propanol),t-BuOCH2CH(OH)Me with 1-butanol,and 2-butanol,at 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure.The excess molar volumes are negative across the entire range of composition for all the systems with 1-butanol,and positive for the systems 2-butanol+1-methoxy-2-propanol,and +1-propoxy-2-propanol,negative for the systems 2-butanol+1-butoxy-2-propanol,and change sign for the systems 2-butanol+1-ethoxy-2-propanol,and +1-tert-butoxy-2-propanol.From the experimental data,the deviation in dynamic viscosity η from Σxiηi has been calculated.Both excess molar volumes and viscosity deviations have been correlated using a Redlich-Kister type polynomial equation by the method of least-squares for the estimation of the binary coefficients and the standard errors.

  1. Investigation on the lean combustion performance of a hydrogen-enriched n-butanol engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Bo; Ji, Changwei; Wang, Shuofeng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • H_2 addition avails improving thermal efficiency of n-butanol engines. • Lean burn limit of n-butanol engine is extended by H_2 addition. • H_2 addition shortens the n-butanol engine combustion duration. • HC and CO from the n-butanol engine are decreased by H_2 addition. - Abstract: n-Butanol is a feasible fuel candidate for spark-ignition engines. The current paper carried out an experiment to explore effects of hydrogen addition on further improving the performance of a n-butanol engine under the part load and lean conditions. Within the test, the engine intake pressure and speed were respectively kept at 61.5 kPa and 1400 rpm. The volumetric fractions of hydrogen in the total intake gas (hydrogen + air) were constrained at 0 and 3%, respectively. Under a certain hydrogen blending level, the global excess air ratio of in-cylinder charge which was changed from the stoichiometric to near the lean burn limit was adjusted by varying the n-butanol injection duration. The experimental results confirmed that the brake thermal efficiency was heightened and the lean burn limit was extended after the hydrogen addition. Besides, compared with the pure n-butanol combustion, the hydrogen enrichment enables the engine to gain dropped ignition delay and rapid combustion duration. Moreover, CO and HC from the pure n-butanol engine were reduced by the hydrogen addition. NOx were generally reduced when the excess air ratio was raised. This suggested that NOx from the hydrogen-enriched butanol engine could also be controlled by lean combustion.

  2. Selection of Highly Expressed Gene Variants in Escherichia coli Using Translationally Coupled Antibiotic Selection Markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rennig, Maja; Daley, Daniel O.; Nørholm, Morten H. H.

    2018-01-01

    Strategies to select highly expressed variants of a protein coding sequence are usually based on trial-and-error approaches, which are time-consuming and expensive. We address this problem using translationally coupled antibiotic resistance markers. The system requires that the target gene can...

  3. High selectivity ZIF-93 hollow fiber membranes for gas separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacho-Bailo, Fernando; Caro, Guillermo; Etxeberría-Benavides, Miren; Karvan, Oğuz; Téllez, Carlos; Coronas, Joaquín

    2015-06-30

    Zeolitic imidazolate framework-93 (ZIF-93) continuous membranes were synthesized on the inner side of P84 co-polyimide hollow fiber supports by microfluidics. MOFs and polymers showed high compatibility and the membrane exhibited H2-CH4 and CO2-CH4 separation selectivities of 97 (100 °C) and 17 (35 °C), respectively.

  4. High-level radioactive waste repositories site selection plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castanon, A.; Recreo, F.

    1985-01-01

    A general vision of the high level nuclear waste (HLNW) and/or nuclear spent fuel facilities site selection processes is given, according to the main international nuclear safety regulatory organisms quidelines and the experience from those countries which have reached a larger development of their national nuclear programs. (author)

  5. Production of acetone, butanol, and ethanol from biomass of the green seaweed Ulva lactuca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, Hetty; Sperber, Bram L H M; Houweling-Tan, Bwee; Bakker, Robert R C; Brandenburg, Willem; López-Contreras, Ana M

    2013-01-01

    Green seaweed Ulva lactuca harvested from the North Sea near Zeeland (The Netherlands) was characterized as feedstock for acetone, ethanol and ethanol fermentation. Solubilization of over 90% of sugars was achieved by hot-water treatment followed by hydrolysis using commercial cellulases. A hydrolysate was used for the production of acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE) by Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium beijerinckii. Hydrolysate-based media were fermentable without nutrient supplementation. C. beijerinckii utilized all sugars in the hydrolysate and produced ABE at high yields (0.35 g ABE/g sugar consumed), while C. acetobutylicum produced mostly organic acids (acetic and butyric acids). These results demonstrate the great potential of U. lactuca as feedstock for fermentation. Interestingly, in control cultures of C. beijerinckii on rhamnose and glucose, 1,2 propanediol was the main fermentation product (9.7 g/L). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Modulation of the Acetone/Butanol Ratio during Fermentation of Corn Stover-Derived Hydrolysate by Clostridium beijerinckii Strain NCIMB 8052.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zi-Yong; Yao, Xiu-Qing; Zhang, Quan; Liu, Zhen; Wang, Ze-Jie; Zhang, Yong-Yu; Li, Fu-Li

    2017-04-01

    stress and modulating electron flow as electron donors. Production of H 2 and acetone was stimulated, while butanol production remained unchanged, which led to a high A/B ratio during C. beijerinckii fermentation using corn stover-derived hydrolysate as the carbon source. These observations provide insight into utilizing C. beijerinckii to produce butanol from a lignocellulosic biomass. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. Experimental investigation of particle emissions under different EGR ratios on a diesel engine fueled by blends of diesel/gasoline/n-butanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Haozhong; Liu, Qingsheng; Wang, Qingxin; Zhou, Chengzhong; Mo, Chunlan; Wang, Xueqiang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The effects of EGR and blend fuels on particulate emission were studied in CI engine. • EGR ⩽ 20%, gasoline or n-butanol increases total particulate number concentration. • EGR ⩾ 30%, gasoline or n-butanol reduces total particulate number concentration. • As EGR ratio increased, the particulate mass concentrations of four fuels increased. • Gasoline or n-butanol increases the ratio of sub-25 nm particles number concentration. - Abstract: The particle emission characteristics of a high-pressure common-rail engine under different EGR conditions were investigated, using pure diesel (D100), diesel/gasoline (with a volume ratio of 70:30, D70G30), diesel/n-butanol (with a volume ratio of 70:30, D70B30) and diesel/gasoline/n-butanol (with a volume ratio of 70:15:15, D70G15B15) for combustion. Our results show that, with increasing EGR ratios, the in-cylinder pressure peak decreases and the heat release is delayed for the combustion of each fuel. At an EGR ratio of 30%, the combustion pressure peaks of D70G30, D70B30, D70G15B15 and D100 have similar values; with an EGR ratio of 40%, the combustion pressure peaks and release rate peaks of D70G30 and D70G15B15 are both lower with respect to D100. For small and medium EGR ratios (⩽20%), after the addition of gasoline and/or n-butanol to the fuel, the total particle number concentration (TPNC) increases, while both the soot emissions and the average geometric size of particles decrease. At large EGR ratios (30% and 40%), the TPNC of D70B30, D70G15B15 and D70G20 compared to D100 are reduced by a maximum amount of 74.7%, 66.7% and 28.6%, respectively. As the EGR ratio increases, the total particle mass concentration increases gradually for all four fuels. Blending gasoline or/and n-butanol into diesel induces an increase in the number concentration of sub-25 nm particles (PN25) which may be harmful in terms of health. However, the PN25 decreases with increasing the EGR ratio for all the tested fuels

  8. Optical diagnostics of early flame development in a DISI (direct injection spark ignition) engine fueled with n-butanol and gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merola, Simona Silvia; Tornatore, Cinzia; Irimescu, Adrian; Marchitto, Luca; Valentino, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Given the instability in supply and finite nature of fossil fuels, alternative renewable energy sources are continuously investigated throughout the production–distribution-use chain. Within this context, the research presented in this work is focused on using butanol as gasoline replacement in a Direct Injection Spark Ignition engine. The impact of this fuel on the combustion processes was investigated using optical diagnostics and conventional methods in a transparent single cylinder engine. Three different load settings were investigated at fixed engine speed, with combined throttling and mixture strength control. The engine was operated in homogenous charge mode, with commercial gasoline and pure n-butanol fueling. High spatial and temporal resolution visualization was applied in the first phase of the combustion process in order to follow the early flame development for the two fuels. The optical data were completed with conventional measurements of thermodynamic data and pollutants emission at the exhaust. Improved performance was obtained in throttled stoichiometric mode when using the alternative fuel, while at wide open throttle, gasoline featured higher indicated mean effective pressure at both air–fuel ratio settings. These overall findings were correlated to flame characteristics; the alcohol was found to feature more distorted flame contour compared to gasoline, especially in lean conditions. Differences were reduced during throttled stoichiometric operation, confirming that mass transfer processes, along with fuel chemistry and physical properties, exert a significant influence on local phenomena during combustion. - Highlights: • Butanol can replace gasoline without performance penalties in throttled, stoichiometric operation. • Butanol induces higher flame contour distortion than gasoline, especially in lean case. • Fuel chemical–physical properties strongly influence local phenomena during combustion. • Butanol ensured lower smoke

  9. Highly selective enrichment of phosphorylated peptides using titanium dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Tine; Jørgensen, Thomas J D; Jensen, Ole N

    2006-01-01

    -column. Although phosphopeptide enrichment can be achieved by using TFA and acetonitrile alone, the selectivity is dramatically enhanced by adding DHB or phthalic acid since these compounds, in conjunction with the low pH caused by TFA, prevent binding of nonphosphorylated peptides to TiO2. Using an alkaline...... a protocol for selective phosphopeptide enrichment using titanium dioxide (TiO2) chromatography. The selectivity toward phosphopeptides is obtained by loading the sample in a 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) or phthalic acid solution containing acetonitrile and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) onto a TiO2 micro...... solution (pH > or = 10.5) both monophosphorylated and multiphosphorylated peptides are eluted from the TiO2 beads. This highly efficient method for purification of phosphopeptides is well suited for the characterization of phosphoproteins from both in vitro and in vivo studies in combination with mass...

  10. A Primer on High-Throughput Computing for Genomic Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Lin eWu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available High-throughput computing (HTC uses computer clusters to solve advanced computational problems, with the goal of accomplishing high throughput over relatively long periods of time. In genomic selection, for example, a set of markers covering the entire genome is used to train a model based on known data, and the resulting model is used to predict the genetic merit of selection candidates. Sophisticated models are very computationally demanding and, with several traits to be evaluated sequentially, computing time is long and output is low. In this paper, we present scenarios and basic principles of how HTC can be used in genomic selection, implemented using various techniques from simple batch processing to pipelining in distributed computer clusters. Various scripting languages, such as shell scripting, Perl and R, are also very useful to devise pipelines. By pipelining, we can reduce total computing time and consequently increase throughput. In comparison to the traditional data processing pipeline residing on the central processors, performing general purpose computation on a graphics processing unit (GPU provide a new-generation approach to massive parallel computing in genomic selection. While the concept of HTC may still be new to many researchers in animal breeding, plant breeding, and genetics, HTC infrastructures have already been built in many institutions, such as the University of Wisconsin – Madison, which can be leveraged for genomic selection, in terms of central processing unit (CPU capacity, network connectivity, storage availability, and middleware connectivity. Exploring existing HTC infrastructures as well as general purpose computing environments will further expand our capability to meet increasing computing demands posed by unprecedented genomic data that we have today. We anticipate that HTC will impact genomic selection via better statistical models, faster solutions, and more competitive products (e.g., from design of

  11. Design of highly selective ethanol dehydration nanocatalysts for ethylene production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Natalie; Kostetskyy, Pavlo; Mpourmpakis, Giannis

    2018-02-22

    Rational design of catalysts for selective conversion of alcohols to olefins is key since product selectivity remains an issue due to competing etherification reactions. Using first principles calculations and chemical rules, we designed novel metal-oxide-protected metal nanoclusters (M 13 X 4 O 12 , with M = Cu, Ag, and Au and X = Al, Ga, and In) exhibiting strong Lewis acid sites on their surface, active for the selective formation of olefins from alcohols. These symmetrical nanocatalysts, due to their curvature, show unfavorable etherification chemistries, while favoring the olefin production. Furthermore, we determined that water removal and regeneration of the nanocatalysts is more feasible compared to the equivalent strong acid sites on solid acids used for alcohol dehydration. Our results demonstrate an exceptional stability of these new nanostructures with the most energetically favorable being Cu-based. Thus, the high selectivity and stability of these in-silico-predicted novel nanoclusters (e.g. Cu 13 Al 4 O 12 ) make them attractive catalysts for the selective dehydration of alcohols to olefins.

  12. High selection pressure promotes increase in cumulative adaptive culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Vegvari

    Full Text Available The evolution of cumulative adaptive culture has received widespread interest in recent years, especially the factors promoting its occurrence. Current evolutionary models suggest that an increase in population size may lead to an increase in cultural complexity via a higher rate of cultural transmission and innovation. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the role of natural selection in the evolution of cultural complexity. Here we use an agent-based simulation model to demonstrate that high selection pressure in the form of resource pressure promotes the accumulation of adaptive culture in spite of small population sizes and high innovation costs. We argue that the interaction of demography and selection is important, and that neither can be considered in isolation. We predict that an increase in cultural complexity is most likely to occur under conditions of population pressure relative to resource availability. Our model may help to explain why culture change can occur without major environmental change. We suggest that understanding the interaction between shifting selective pressures and demography is essential for explaining the evolution of cultural complexity.

  13. Experimental investigation on CRDI engine using butanol-biodiesel-diesel blends as fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divakar Shetty, A. S.; Dineshkumar, L.; Koundinya, Sandeep; Mane, Swetha K.

    2017-07-01

    In this research work an experimental investigation of butanol-biodisel-diesel blends on combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a direct injection (DI) diesel engine is carried out. The blends are prepared at different proportions and fuel properties such as calorific value, viscosity, flash point and fire point, cloud point, pour point of butanol (B), biodiesel (B), diesel (D), biodiesel-diesel (BD) blends and butanol-biodiesel-diesel (BBD) blends are determined. The engine test is conducted at different speed and load. From the results obtained for fuel properties we can observe that the flash, fire and pour point, viscosity and density are decreasing by increasing the percentage of butanol in BBD blends. It is also observed that the performance parameters such as brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and exhaust gas temperature increases with increase in the proportion of butanol in BBD blend. However, the brake specific fuel consumption (BFSC) decreases with increase in the proportion of butanol in BBD blend. The increase of butanol in BBD blends also influence to increase on emission characteristic such as carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx).

  14. Acetone-butanol-ethanol production from substandard and surplus dates by Egyptian native Clostridium strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Alla, Mohamed Hemida; Zohri, Abdel-Naser Ahmed; El-Enany, Abdel-Wahab Elsadek; Ali, Shimaa Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    One hundred and seven mesophilic isolates of Clostridium were isolated from agricultural soils cultivated with different plants in Assuit Governorate, Egypt. Eighty isolates (out of 107) showed the ability to produce ABE (Acetone, butanol and ethanol) on T6 medium ranging from 0.036 to 31.89 g/L. The highest numbers of ABE producing isolates were obtained from soil samples of potato contributing 27 isolates, followed by 18 isolates from wheat and 10 isolates from onion. On the other hand, there were three native isolates that produced ABE more than those produced by the reference isolate Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 (11.543 g/L). The three isolates were identified based on phenotypic and gene encoding 16S rRNA as Clostridium beijerinckii ASU10 (KF372577), Clostridium chauvoei ASU55 (KF372580) and Clostridium roseum ASU58 (KF372581). The highest ABE level from substandard and surplus dates was produced by C. beijerinckii ASU10 (24.07 g/L) comprising butanol 67.15% (16.16 g/L), acetone 30.73% (7.4 g/L) and ethanol 2.12% (0.51 g/L), while C. roseum ASU58 and C. chauvoei ASU55 produced ABE contributing 20.20 and 13.79 g/L, respectively. ABE production by C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 was 15.01 g/L. This study proved that the native strains C. beijerinckii ASU10 and C. roseum ASU58 have high competitive efficacy on ABE production from economical substrate as substandard and surplus date fruits. Additionally, using this substrate without any nutritional components is considered to be a commercial substrate for desired ABE production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation and selection of candidate high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    Seven candidate waste forms being developed under the direction of the Department of Energy's National High-Level Waste (HLW) Technology Program, were evaluated as potential media for the immobilization and geologic disposal of high-level nuclear wastes. The evaluation combined preliminary waste form evaluations conducted at DOE defense waste-sites and independent laboratories, peer review assessments, a product performance evaluation, and a processability analysis. Based on the combined results of these four inputs, two of the seven forms, borosilicate glass and a titanate based ceramic, SYNROC, were selected as the reference and alternative forms for continued development and evaluation in the National HLW Program. Both the glass and ceramic forms are viable candidates for use at each of the DOE defense waste-sites; they are also potential candidates for immobilization of commercial reprocessing wastes. This report describes the waste form screening process, and discusses each of the four major inputs considered in the selection of the two forms

  16. Central depressant activity of butanol fraction of Securinega virosa root bark in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaji, Mohammed Garba; Yaro, Abdullahi Hamza; Musa, Aliyu Muhammad; Anuka, Joseph Akponso; Abdu-Aguye, Ibrahim; Hussaini, Isa Marte

    2012-05-07

    Securinega virosa is a commonly used medicinal plant in African traditional medicine in the management of epilepsy and mental illness. Previous studies in our laboratory showed that the crude methanol root bark extract of the plant possesses significant behavioral effect in laboratory animals. In an attempt to isolate and characterize the biological principles responsible for the observed activity, this study is aimed at evaluating the central depressant activity of the butanol fraction of the methanol root bark extract of Securinega virosa. The medial lethal dose of the butanol fraction was estimated using the method of Lorke. Preliminary phytochemical screening was conducted on the butanol fraction using standard protocol. The behavioral effect of the butanol fraction (75, 150 and 300mg/kg) was evaluated using diazepam induced sleep test, hole-board test, beam walking assay, staircase test, open field test and elevated plus maze assay, all in mice. The median lethal dose of the butanol fraction was estimated to be 1256.9mg/kg. The preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, similar to those found in the crude methanol extract. The butanol fraction significantly (Ptime taken to complete the task and number of foot slips in the beam walking assay, suggesting that it does not induce significant motor coordination deficit. Diazepam (2mg/kg), the standard agent used significantly (Popen field test, the butanol fraction significantly reduced the number of square crossed as well as the number of rearing. However, the butanol fraction did not significantly alter the behavior of mice in the elevated plus maze assay, while diazepam (0.5mg/kg) significantly (Ptime spent in the open arm and reduced the number of closed arm entry. The findings of this study suggest that the butanol fraction of Securinega virosa root bark contains some bioactive principles that are sedative in nature. Copyright

  17. Reaction Mechanisms and HCCI Combustion Processes of Mixtures of n-Heptane and the Butanols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu eWang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A reduced primary reference fuel (PRF-Alcohol-Di-tert-butyl Peroxide (DTBP mechanism with 108 species and 435 reactions, including sub-mechanisms of PRF, methanol, ethanol, DTBP and the four butanol isomers, is proposed for homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI engine combustion simulations of butanol isomers/n-heptane mixtures. HCCI experiments fuelled with butanol isomer/n-heptane mixtures on two different engines are conducted for the validation of proposed mechanism. The mechanism has been validated against shock tube ignition delays, laminar flame speeds, species profiles in premixed flames and engine HCCI combustion data, and good agreements with experimental results are demonstrated under various validation conditions. It is found that although the reactivity of neat tert-butanol is the lowest, mixtures of tert-butanol/n-heptane exhibit the highest reactivity among the butanol isomer/n-heptane mixtures if the n-heptane blending ratio exceeds 20% (mole. Kinetic analysis shows that the highest C-H bond energy in the tert-butanol molecule is partially responsible for this phenomenon. It is also found that the reaction tC4H9OH+CH3O2 =tC4H9O+CH3O2H plays important role and eventually produces the OH radical to promote the ignition and combustion. The proposed mechanism is able to capture HCCI combustion processes of the butanol/n-heptane mixtures under different operating conditions. In addition, the trend that tert-butanol /n-heptane has the highest reactivity is also captured in HCCI combustion simulations. The results indicate that the current mechanism can be used for HCCI engine predictions of PRF and alcohol fuels.

  18. High-dimensional model estimation and model selection

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    I will review concepts and algorithms from high-dimensional statistics for linear model estimation and model selection. I will particularly focus on the so-called p>>n setting where the number of variables p is much larger than the number of samples n. I will focus mostly on regularized statistical estimators that produce sparse models. Important examples include the LASSO and its matrix extension, the Graphical LASSO, and more recent non-convex methods such as the TREX. I will show the applicability of these estimators in a diverse range of scientific applications, such as sparse interaction graph recovery and high-dimensional classification and regression problems in genomics.

  19. A primer on high-throughput computing for genomic selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Lin; Beissinger, Timothy M; Bauck, Stewart; Woodward, Brent; Rosa, Guilherme J M; Weigel, Kent A; Gatti, Natalia de Leon; Gianola, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    High-throughput computing (HTC) uses computer clusters to solve advanced computational problems, with the goal of accomplishing high-throughput over relatively long periods of time. In genomic selection, for example, a set of markers covering the entire genome is used to train a model based on known data, and the resulting model is used to predict the genetic merit of selection candidates. Sophisticated models are very computationally demanding and, with several traits to be evaluated sequentially, computing time is long, and output is low. In this paper, we present scenarios and basic principles of how HTC can be used in genomic selection, implemented using various techniques from simple batch processing to pipelining in distributed computer clusters. Various scripting languages, such as shell scripting, Perl, and R, are also very useful to devise pipelines. By pipelining, we can reduce total computing time and consequently increase throughput. In comparison to the traditional data processing pipeline residing on the central processors, performing general-purpose computation on a graphics processing unit provide a new-generation approach to massive parallel computing in genomic selection. While the concept of HTC may still be new to many researchers in animal breeding, plant breeding, and genetics, HTC infrastructures have already been built in many institutions, such as the University of Wisconsin-Madison, which can be leveraged for genomic selection, in terms of central processing unit capacity, network connectivity, storage availability, and middleware connectivity. Exploring existing HTC infrastructures as well as general-purpose computing environments will further expand our capability to meet increasing computing demands posed by unprecedented genomic data that we have today. We anticipate that HTC will impact genomic selection via better statistical models, faster solutions, and more competitive products (e.g., from design of marker panels to realized

  20. Selection of high hectolitre weight mutants of winter wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, C.; Jones, P.

    1989-01-01

    Grain quality in wheat includes hectolitre weight (HLW) besides protein content and thousand-grain weight (TGW). The British winter wheat variety ''Guardian'' has a very high yield potential. Although the long grain of ''Guardian'' results in a desirable high TGW the HLW is too low. To select mutants exhibiting increased HLW the character was first analyzed to identify traits that could more easily be screened for using M 2 seeds. In comparison of 6 wheat cultivars, correlation analyses with HLW resulted in coefficients of -0.86 (grain length, L:P 2 seeds for shorter, less prolate grains. Mutagenesis was carried out using EMS sulphonate (1.8 or 3.6%), sodium azide (2 or 20 mM) or X-rays (7.5 or 20 kR). 69 M 2 grains with altered shape were selected. Examination of the M 3 progeny confirmed 6 grain-shape mutants, most of them resulting from EMS treatment (Table). Two of the mutants showed TGW values significantly below the parental variety, but three mutants exhibited HLW and TGW values significantly greater than those of the parental variety. Microplot yield trails on selected M 3 lines are in progress. The influence of physical grain characteristics on HLW offers prospects for mechanical fractionation of large M 2 populations. The application of gravity separators (fractionation on the basis of grain density) and sieves (fractionation on the basis of grain length) in screening mutants possessing improved grain quality is being investigated

  1. Material Selection and Characterization for High Gradient RF Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Arnau-Izquierdo, G; Heikkinen, S; Ramsvik, T; Sgobba, Stefano; Taborelli, M; Wuensch, W

    2007-01-01

    The selection of candidate materials for the accelerating cavities of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is carried out in parallel with high power RF testing. The maximum DC breakdown field of copper, copper alloys, refractory metals, aluminium and titanium have been measured with a dedicated setup. Higher maximum fields are obtained for refractory metals and for titanium, which exhibits, however, important damages after conditioning. Fatigue behaviour of copper alloys has been studied for surface and bulk by pulsed laser irradiation and ultrasonic excitation, respectively. The selected copper alloys show consistently higher fatigue resistance than copper in both experiments. In order to obtain the best local properties in the device a possible solution is a bi-metallic assembly. Junctions of molybdenum and copper-zirconium UNS C15000 alloy, achieved by HIP (Hot Isostatic Pressing) diffusion bonding or explosion bonding were evaluated for their mechanical strength. The reliability of the results obtained wit...

  2. Detoxification of furfural residues hydrolysate for butanol fermentation by Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM 13864.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jin-Jun; Han, Rui-Zhi; Xu, Guo-Chao; Gong, Lei; Xing, Wan-Ru; Ni, Ye

    2018-07-01

    The toxicity of furfural residues (FRs) hydrolysate is a major obstacle in its application. This work focused on the detoxification of FRs hydrolysate and its application in butanol fermentation. Combination of activated carbon and resin 717 was appropriate for the detoxification of hydrolysate. Mixed sterilization of FRs hydrolysate and corn steep liquor (CSL) was better than the separate ones, since proteins in CSL could adsorb and remove toxic components during sterilization. The results further confirmed that simultaneous sterilization of activated carbon + resin and fermentation medium was more efficient for detoxification and butanol production, in which 76.4% of phenolic compounds and 99.3% of Maillard reaction products were removed, 8.48 g/L butanol and 12.61 g/L total solvent were obtained. This study provides feasible and economic approaches for the detoxification of FRs hydrolysate and its application in butanol production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Role of Calcination Temperature on the Hydrotalcite Derived MgO–Al2O3 in Converting Ethanol to Butanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Gray, Michel J.; Job, Heather M.; Santosa, Daniel M.; Li, Xiaohong S.; Devaraj, Arun; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Wang, Yong

    2015-10-09

    In the base catalyzed ethanol condensation reactions, the calcined MgO-Al2O3 derived hydrotalcites used broadly as catalytic material and the calcination temperature plays a big role in determining the catalytic activity. The characteristic of the hydrotalcite material treated between catalytically relevant temperatures 450ºC and 800ºC have been studied with respect to the physical, chemical, and structural properties and compared with catalytic activity testing. With the increasing calcination temperature, the total measured catalytic basicity dropped linearly with the calcination temperature and the total measured acidity stayed the same for all the calcination temperatures except 800ºC. However, the catalyst activity testing does not show any direct correlation between the measured catalytic basicity and the catalyst activity to the ethanol condensation reaction to form 1-butanol. The highest ethanol conversion of 44 percent with 1-butanol selectivity of 50 percent was achieved for the 600ºC calcined hydrotalcite material.

  4. Effect of n-Butanol on Chromosomal Damage in Mice Bone Marrow Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Mansouri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: n-Butanol is a four-carbon alcohol used widely in foods, cosmetics industries, biology and chemistry research laboratories, and other fields. Long time-effects of inhalation or consumption of small amounts of Butanol on human health are still unknown. On the other hand, numerous reports about the development of n-Butanol toxicity are available. The main objective of the study was to investigate the effects of inhaled and oral administration of n-Butanol as a long-term in vivo investigation.Materials and Methods: Small white laboratory, male mice (20-30 g were used in 11 groups (n=4 including experimental 1 to 6, 1 to 4 control "A” and positive control groups. Experimental groups 1-3, for 10, 20, and 40 days; 5 hours a day were inside a box with ventilation facilities exposed to air saturated with n-Butanol vapor. Experimental groups 4 to 6, received water containing n-Butanol 0.2%, 1% and 5% for 10 days. Control groups B, 1 to 3 was placed for 10, 20, and 40 days inside a similar box exposed to normal air, respectively. Control group B 4 received water without any particular substance for 10 days. The positive control group received 30µl subcutaneous vinblastine. Bone marrow cells were extracted 24 hours after treatments and stained by May-Grünwald-Giemsa staining and the number of micronucleus was counted. Vinblastine, as a positive control, increased an average of micronucleus numbers significantly compared to control group (P<0.001.Results: n-Butanol inhalation caused no significant difference in 1-3 experimental groups in the average numbers of micronucleus compared to control group, even in the 40 days treatment group, average numbers of micronucleus was decreased comparing to control group (P<0.05. Also, oral administration of 0.2% and 1% n-Butanol had no effect on the average micronucleus numbers compared to the control group, while oral administration of 5% n-Butanol caused even decrease in average numbers of micronucleus

  5. Characterization of selective solar absorber under high vacuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Roberto; Monti, Matteo; di Giamberardino, Francesco; Palmieri, Vittorio G

    2018-05-14

    Total absorption and emission coefficients of selective solar absorbers are measured under high vacuum conditions from room temperature up to stagnation temperature. The sample under investigation is illuminated under vacuum @1000W/m 2 and the sample temperature is recorded during heat up, equilibrium and cool down. During stagnation, the absorber temperature exceeds 300°C without concentration. Data analysis allows evaluating the solar absorptance and thermal emittance at different temperatures. These in turn are useful to predict evacuated solar panel performances at operating conditions.

  6. An objective method for High Dynamic Range source content selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narwaria, Manish; Mantel, Claire; Da Silva, Matthieu Perreira

    2014-01-01

    With the aim of improving the immersive experience of the end user, High Dynamic Range (HDR) imaging has been gaining popularity. Therefore, proper validation and performance benchmarking of HDR processing algorithms is a key step towards standardization and commercial deployment. A crucial...... component of such validation studies is the selection of a challenging and balanced set of source (reference) HDR content. In order to facilitate this, we present an objective method based on the premise that a more challenging HDR scene encapsulates higher contrast, and as a result will show up more...

  7. Solubility of carbon dioxide, methane, and ethane in 1-butanol and saturated liquid densities and viscosities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kariznovi, Mohammad; Nourozieh, Hossein; Abedi, Jalal

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental solubilities of CH 4 , C 2 H 6 , and CO 2 in 1-butanol and saturated liquid properties. • Solubilities and saturated liquid densities were predicted with SRK and PR EOS. • Solubility of C 2 H 6 in 1-butanol is higher than CH 4 and CO 2 . • Liquid density and viscosity reduces with dissolution of CH 4 and C 2 H 6 . • Dissolution of CO 2 increases liquid density and reduces liquid viscosity. -- Abstract: A designed pressure–volume–temperature (PVT) apparatus has been used to measure the (vapor + liquid) equilibrium properties of three binary mixtures (methane +, ethane +, and carbon dioxide + 1-butanol) at two temperatures (303 and 323) K and at the pressures up to 6 MPa. The solubility of the compressed gases in 1-butanol and the saturated liquid densities and viscosities were measured. In addition, the density and viscosity of pure 1-butanol were measured at two temperatures (303 and 323) K and at the pressures up to 10 MPa. The experimental results show that the solubility of the gases in 1-butanol increases with pressure and decreases with temperature. The dissolution of gases in 1-butanol causes a decline in the viscosity of liquid phase. The saturated liquid density follows a decreasing trend with the solubility of methane and ethane. However, the dissolution of carbon dioxide in 1-butanol leads to an increase in the density of liquid phase. The experimental data are well correlated with Soave–Redlich–Kwong (SRK) and Peng–Robinson (PR) equations of state (EOSs). SRK EOS was slightly superior for correlating the saturated liquid densities

  8. Elucidating the contributions of multiple aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenases to butanol and ethanol production in Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zongjie; Dong, Hongjun; Zhang, Yanping; Li, Yin

    2016-06-20

    Ethanol and butanol biosynthesis in Clostridium acetobutylicum share common aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenases. However, little is known about the relative contributions of these multiple dehydrogenases to ethanol and butanol production respectively. The contributions of six aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenases of C. acetobutylicum on butanol and ethanol production were evaluated through inactivation of the corresponding genes respectively. For butanol production, the relative contributions from these enzymes were: AdhE1 > BdhB > BdhA ≈ YqhD > SMB_P058 > AdhE2. For ethanol production, the contributions were: AdhE1 > BdhB > YqhD > SMB_P058 > AdhE2 > BdhA. AdhE1 and BdhB are two essential enzymes for butanol and ethanol production. AdhE1 was relatively specific for butanol production over ethanol, while BdhB, YqhD, and SMB_P058 favor ethanol production over butanol. Butanol synthesis was increased in the adhE2 mutant, which had a higher butanol/ethanol ratio (8.15:1) compared with wild type strain (6.65:1). Both the SMB_P058 mutant and yqhD mutant produced less ethanol without loss of butanol formation, which led to higher butanol/ethanol ratio, 10.12:1 and 10.17:1, respectively. To engineer a more efficient butanol-producing strain, adhE1 could be overexpressed, furthermore, adhE2, SMB_P058, yqhD are promising gene inactivation targets. This work provides useful information guiding future strain improvement for butanol production.

  9. Combustion of n-butanol/diesel mixtures in prechamber diesel engines. Die Verbrennung von n-Butanol-Dieselkraftstoff-Gemischen im Vorkammer-Dieselmotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperling, E

    1989-01-01

    Systematic tests showed that n-butane was the most promising diesel fuel substitute. Mixtures of n-butanol and diesel fuel were tested on an engine test bench, and the performance was compared with commercial diesel fuels. Pollutant concentrations in the exhaust (soot, particulates, and NO/sub x/) were lower than with unmixed diesel fuel, while the engine performance remained more or less constant. In the problematic operating ranges, partial thermal insulation of the combustion chamber improved the performance of the n-butanol/diesel fuel mixture. (orig.) With 60 figs.

  10. N-butanol and isobutanol as alternatives to gasoline: Comparison of port fuel injector characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenkl Michael

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on an experimental investigation of the relationship between the pulse width of a gasoline engine port fuel injector and the quantity of the fuel injected when butanol is used as a fuel. Two isomers of butanol, n-butanol and isobutanol, are considered as potential candidates for renewable, locally produced fuels capable of serving as a drop-in replacement fuel for gasoline, as an alternative to ethanol which poses material compatibility and other drawbacks. While the injected quantity of fuel is typically a linear function of the time the injector coil is energized, the flow through the port fuel injector is complex, non ideal, and not necessarily laminar, and considering that butanol has much higher viscosity than gasoline, an experimental investigation was conducted. A production injector, coupled to a production fueling system, and driven by a pulse width generator was operated at various pulse lengths and frequencies, covering the range of engine rpm and loads on a car engine. The results suggest that at least at room temperature, the fueling rate remains to be a linear function of the pulse width for both n-butanol and isobutanol, and the volumes of fuel injected are comparable for gasoline and both butanol isomers.

  11. Butanol fermentation of the brown seaweed Laminaria digitata by Clostridium beijerinckii DSM-6422.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiaoru; From, Nikolaj; Angelidaki, Irini; Huijgen, Wouter J J; Bjerre, Anne-Belinda

    2017-08-01

    Seaweed represents an abundant, renewable, and fast-growing biomass resource for 3rd generation biofuel production. This study reports an efficient butanol fermentation process carried out by Clostridium beijerinckii DSM-6422 using enzymatic hydrolysate of the sugar-rich brown seaweed Laminaria digitata harvested from the coast of the Danish North Sea as substrate. The highest butanol yield (0.42g/g-consumed-substrates) compared to literature was achieved, with a significantly higher butanol:acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) molar ratio (0.85) than typical (0.6). This demonstrates the possibility of using the seaweed L. digitata as a potential biomass for butanol production. For the first time, consumption of alginate components was observed by C. beijerinckii DSM-6422. The efficient utilization of sugars and lactic acid further highlighted the potential of using this strain for future development of large-scale cost-effective butanol production based on (ensiled) seaweed. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Performance and emission characteristics of compression ignition engine operating with false flax biodiesel and butanol blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Atakan Akar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, fuel properties, engine performance, and emission characteristics of diesel fuel, false flax biodiesel, and their blends with butanol have been evaluated. Blend ratios used in this study were diesel–biodiesel–butanol (70% diesel–20% biodiesel–10% butanol and 60% diesel–20% biodiesel–20% butanol by volume and biodiesel–diesel (20% biodiesel–80% diesel and 100% biodiesel by volume. Experiments showed that 10% alcohol addition to diesel and biodiesel fuels caused a decrease in torque value up to 8.57%. When butanol ratio raised to 20%, torque value decreased to an average of 12.7% and power values decreased to an average of 13.57%. Specific fuel consumption increased to an average of 10.63% and 12.80% with 10% and 20% butanol addition, respectively. Alcohol addiction into conventional diesel and biodiesel fuel slightly increased NOX emissions. Supplement of alcohol decreased CO and CO2 emissions when it was entrained to diesel and increased it when it was added to biodiesel. It means that addition of alcohol to diesel changed CO and CO2 emissions.

  13. Analyse des memdranes de déshydratation du melange eau t butanol par procede de pervaporation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahacine Amrani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of commercially available polymeric membranes was investigated respect to the dehydration of binary mixtures of t-butanol and water by pervaporation process. The range of concentration investigated  CH2O  20 wt%   was selected according to industrial needs. Fluxes and selections were monitored as dehydratation proceeded, and the performances of both membranes were compared. In addition, the effect of temperature was investigated in the 60 to 100°C range, covering the pervaporation operating conditions. Increasing the operating temperature resulted, as expected, in larger water pervaporation fluxes for both membranes. For the range of the investigated conditions, water fluxes through the polymeric 2510 PERVAP membrane were found to be larger than those of the silica 2000 US membrane. The difference in performances becomes much more marked for higher temperatures.

  14. On dark matter selected high-scale supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Sibo [Department of Physics, Chongqing University,Chongqing 401331 (China)

    2015-03-11

    The prediction for the Higgs mass in the dark matter selected high-scale SUSY is explored. We show the bounds on SUSY-breaking scale in models of SM +w-tilde and SM +h-tilde/s-tilde due to the observed Higgs mass at the LHC. We propose that effective theory below scale m-tilde described by SM +w-tilde is possibly realized in gauge mediation with multiple spurion fields that exhibit significant mass hierarchy, and that by SM +h-tilde/s-tilde can be realized with direct singlet-messenger-messenger coupling for singlet Yukawa coupling λ∼(v/m-tilde){sup 1/2}g{sub SM}. Finally, the constraint on high-scale SUSY is investigated in the light of inflation physics if these two subjects are directly related.

  15. Frequency selective surfaces based high performance microstrip antenna

    CERN Document Server

    Narayan, Shiv; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on performance enhancement of printed antennas using frequency selective surfaces (FSS) technology. The growing demand of stealth technology in strategic areas requires high-performance low-RCS (radar cross section) antennas. Such requirements may be accomplished by incorporating FSS into the antenna structure either in its ground plane or as the superstrate, due to the filter characteristics of FSS structure. In view of this, a novel approach based on FSS technology is presented in this book to enhance the performance of printed antennas including out-of-band structural RCS reduction. In this endeavor, the EM design of microstrip patch antennas (MPA) loaded with FSS-based (i) high impedance surface (HIS) ground plane, and (ii) the superstrates are discussed in detail. The EM analysis of proposed FSS-based antenna structures have been carried out using transmission line analogy, in combination with the reciprocity theorem. Further, various types of novel FSS structures are considered in desi...

  16. Plans, Patterns, and Move Categories Guiding a Highly Selective Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippen, Gerhard

    In this paper we present our ideas for an Arimaa-playing program (also called a bot) that uses plans and pattern matching to guide a highly selective search. We restrict move generation to moves in certain move categories to reduce the number of moves considered by the bot significantly. Arimaa is a modern board game that can be played with a standard Chess set. However, the rules of the game are not at all like those of Chess. Furthermore, Arimaa was designed to be as simple and intuitive as possible for humans, yet challenging for computers. While all established Arimaa bots use alpha-beta search with a variety of pruning techniques and other heuristics ending in an extensive positional leaf node evaluation, our new bot, Rat, starts with a positional evaluation of the current position. Based on features found in the current position - supported by pattern matching using a directed position graph - our bot Rat decides which of a given set of plans to follow. The plan then dictates what types of moves can be chosen. This is another major difference from bots that generate "all" possible moves for a particular position. Rat is only allowed to generate moves that belong to certain categories. Leaf nodes are evaluated only by a straightforward material evaluation to help avoid moves that lose material. This highly selective search looks, on average, at only 5 moves out of 5,000 to over 40,000 possible moves in a middle game position.

  17. Highly selective electrocoagulation therapy: an innovative treatment for lymphangioma circumscriptum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi; Jin, Yunbo; Chen, Hui; Li, Suolan; Ma, Gang; Hu, Xiaojie; Qiu, Yajing; Yu, Wenxin; Chang, Lei; Wang, Tianyou; Lin, Xiaoxi

    2014-08-01

    Lymphangioma circumscriptum (LC) is a type of microcystic lymphatic malformation involving the skin and mucosa that presents as translucent vesicles of varying size with a pink, red, or black hue. Lymphangioma circumscriptum causes not only cosmetic problems but also refractory rupture, infection, lymphorrhea, and bleeding. Various invasive methods, such as surgical excision, lasers, and sclerotherapy, have been used in the past to treat LC with varying success. Herein, we report a new treatment for the management of LC. This study reports the outcomes of 12 patients (aged 4-31 years) with LC treated by electrocoagulation using a special isolated needle. Patient demographics, lesion characteristics, radiologic findings, treatment course, and clinical responses are recorded. All 12 patients who were treated with the highly selective electrocoagulation therapy achieved near-complete clearance. Minimal intra- and postoperative sequelae were observed. The local complications included mild pain (n = 9), proliferous scarring (n = 1), and ulceration (n = 1) with no systemic side effects. The mean follow-up period was 8.25 months (3-14 months). Highly selective electrocoagulation therapy is an innovative, minimally invasive technique that seems to be safe and effective for the treatment of LC; the results from our limited study population seem promising, and the observed complications are acceptable.

  18. The effect of CTAB on synthesis in butanol of samaria and gadolinia doped ceria - nickel oxide ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakaki, A.R.; Cunha, S.M.; Yoshito, W.K.; Ussui, V.; Lazar, D.R.R.

    2011-01-01

    In this work it was synthesized doped ceria and Samaria gadolinia - nickel oxide ceramics, mainly applied as anodes Fuel Cells Solid Oxide. Powders of composition Ce 0,8 (SmGd) 0,2 O 1,9 /NiO and mass ratio of 40: 60% were initially synthesized by hydroxides coprecipitation and then treated solvo thermically in butanol. Cerium samarium, gadolinium and nickel chlorides and CTAB with molar ratio metal / CTAB ranging from 1 to 3, were used as raw materials Powders were treated in butanol at 150 deg C for 16h. The powders were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, specific surface area for adsorption of nitrogen and particle size distribution by laser beam scattering. The ceramics were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and density measurements by immersion technique in water. The results showed that the powders had the characteristic crystalline structures of ceria and nickel hydroxide, and high specific surface area (80 m 2 / g). The characterizations of ceramics demonstrated high chemical homogeneity and porosity values of 30%. (author)

  19. (3-aminopropyl)-4-methylpiperazine end-capped poly(1,4-butanediol diacrylate-co-4-amino-1-butanol)-based multilayer films for gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuicui; Tzeng, Stephany Y; Tellier, Liane E; Green, Jordan J

    2013-07-10

    Biodegradable polyelectrolyte surfaces for gene delivery were created through electrospinning of biodegradable polycations combined with iterative solution-based multilayer coating. Poly(β-amino ester) (PBAE) poly(1,4-butanediol diacrylate-co-4-amino-1-butanol) end-capped with 1-(3-aminopropyl)-4-methylpiperazine was utilized because of its ability to electrostatically interact with anionic molecules like DNA, its biodegradability, and its low cytotoxicity. A new DNA release system was developed for sustained release of DNA over 24 h, accompanied by high exogenous gene expression in primary human glioblastoma (GB) cells. Electrospinning a different PBAE, poly(1,4-butanediol diacrylate-co-4,4'-trimethylenedipiperidine), and its combination with polyelectrolyte 1-(3-aminopropyl)-4-methylpiperazine end-capped poly(1,4-butanediol diacrylate-co-4-amino-1-butanol)-based multilayers are promising for DNA release and intracellular delivery from a surface.

  20. (3-Aminopropyl)-4-methylpiperazine End-capped Poly(1,4-butanediol diacrylate-co-4-amino-1-butanol)-based Multilayer Films for Gene Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuicui; Tzeng, Stephany Y; Tellier, Liane E.; Green, Jordan J

    2013-01-01

    Biodegradable polyelectrolyte surfaces for gene delivery were created through electrospinning of biodegradable polycations combined with iterative solution-based multilayer coating. Poly(β-amino ester) (PBAE) poly(1,4-butanediol diacrylate-co-4-amino-1-butanol) end-capped with 1-(3-aminopropyl)-4-methylpiperazine was utilized due to its ability to electrostatically interact with anionic molecules like DNA, its biodegradability, and its low cytotoxicity. A new DNA release system was developed for sustained release of DNA over 24 hours, accompanied by high exogenous gene expression in primary human glioblastoma (GB) cells. Electrospinning a different PBAE, poly(1,4-butanediol diacrylate-co-4,4′-trimethylenedipiperidine), and its combination with polyelectrolyte 1-(3-aminopropyl)-4-methylpiperazine end-capped poly(1,4-butanediol diacrylate-co-4-amino-1-butanol)-based multilayers are promising for DNA release and intracellular delivery from a surface. PMID:23755861

  1. Comparative studies of citric acid, acetone-butanol, and alcohol fermentation processes in beet molasses from several sugar factories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovats, J; Zuckerind, Z

    1963-01-01

    Citric acid (I) fermentation is the most sensitive to volatile acids and coloring matter contents of molasses, and butanol fermentation, the least. Citric acid and alcohol production decrease as volatile acids and coloring matter increase, but this last factor has a favorable effect on the acetone-butanol fermentation. Molasses which are suitable for citric acid production are also suitable for alcohol but not always for acetone-butanol.

  2. Autoignition characterization of primary reference fuels and n-heptane/n-butanol mixtures in a constant volume combustion device and homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgardner, Marc E.

    2013-12-19

    In this study, the autoignition behavior of primary reference fuels (PRF) and blends of n-heptane/n-butanol were examined in a Waukesha Fuel Ignition Tester (FIT) and a Homogeneous Charge Compression Engine (HCCI). Fourteen different blends of iso-octane, n-heptane, and n-butanol were tested in the FIT - 28 test runs with 25 ignition measurements for each test run, totaling 350 individual tests in all. These experimental results supported previous findings that fuel blends with high alcohol content can exhibit very different ignition delay periods than similarly blended reference fuels. The experiments further showed that n-butanol blends behaved unlike PRF blends when comparing the autoignition behavior as a function of the percentage of low reactivity component. The HCCI and FIT experimental results favorably compared against single and multizone models with detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms - both an existing mechanism as well as one developed during this study were used. The experimental and modeling results suggest that that the FIT instrument is a valuable tool for analysis of high pressure, low temperature chemistry, and autoignition for future fuels in advanced combustion engines. Additionally, in both the FIT and engine experiments the fraction of low temperature heat release (fLTHR) was found to correlate very well with the crank angle of maximum heat release and shows promise as a useful metric for fuel reactivity in advanced combustion applications. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  3. Advances in consolidated bioprocessing systems for bioethanol and butanol production from biomass: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Salehi Jouzani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, lignocellulosic biomass as the most abundant renewable resource has been widely considered for bioalcohols production. However, the complex structure of lignocelluloses requires a multi-step process which is costly and time consuming. Although, several bioprocessing approaches have been developed for pretreatment, saccharification and fermentation, bioalcohols production from lignocelluloses is still limited because of the economic infeasibility of these technologies. This cost constraint could be overcome by designing and constructing robust cellulolytic and bioalcohols producing microbes and by using them in a consolidated bioprocessing (CBP system. This paper comprehensively reviews potentials, recent advances and challenges faced in CBP systems for efficient bioalcohols (ethanol and butanol production from lignocellulosic and starchy biomass. The CBP strategies include using native single strains with cellulytic and alcohol production activities, microbial co-cultures containing both cellulytic and ethanologenic microorganisms, and genetic engineering of cellulytic microorganisms to be alcohol-producing or alcohol producing microorganisms to be cellulytic. Moreover, high-throughput techniques, such as metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, next generation sequencing and synthetic biology developed to explore novel microorganisms and powerful enzymes with high activity, thermostability and pH stability are also discussed. Currently, the CBP technology is in its infant stage, and ideal microorganisms and/or conditions at industrial scale are yet to be introduced. So, it is essential to bring into attention all barriers faced and take advantage of all the experiences gained to achieve a high-yield and low-cost CBP process.

  4. Production of butanol (a biofuel) from agricultural residues: Part II - Use of corn stover and switchgrass hydrolysates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qureshi, Nasib; Saha, Badal C.; Hector, Ronald E.; Dien, Bruce; Iten, Loren; Bowman, Michael J.; Cotta, Michael A. [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research (NCAUR), Bioenergy Research, 1815 N. University Street, Peoria, IL 61604 (United States); Hughes, Stephen; Liu, Siqing [USDA-ARS-NCAUR, Renewable Product Technology, 1815 N. University Street, Peoria, IL 61604 (United States); Sarath, Gautam [USDA-ARS, Grain, Forage, and Bioenergy Research Unit, University of Nebraska, 314 Biochemistry Hall, East Campus, Lincoln, NE 68583 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Acetone butanol ethanol (ABE) was produced from hydrolysed corn stover and switchgrass using Clostridium beijerinckii P260. A control experiment using glucose resulted in the production of 21.06 g L{sup -1} total ABE. In this experiment an ABE yield and productivity of 0.41 and 0.31 g L{sup -1} h{sup -1} was achieved, respectively. Fermentation of untreated corn stover hydrolysate (CSH) exhibited no growth and no ABE production; however, upon dilution with water (two fold) and wheat straw hydrolysate (WSH, ratio 1:1), 16.00 and 18.04 g L{sup -1} ABE was produced, respectively. These experiments resulted in ABE productivity of 0.17-0.21 g L{sup -1} h{sup -1}. Inhibitors present in CSH were removed by treating the hydrolysate with Ca(OH){sub 2} (overliming). The culture was able to produce 26.27 g L{sup -1} ABE after inhibitor removal. Untreated switchgrass hydrolysate (SGH) was poorly fermented and the culture did not produce more than 1.48 g L{sup -1} ABE which was improved to 14.61 g L{sup -1}. It is suggested that biomass pretreatment methods that do not generate inhibitors be investigated. Alternately, cultures resistant to inhibitors and able to produce butanol at high concentrations may be another approach to improve the current process. (author)

  5. Controlling Citrate Synthase Expression by CRISPR/Cas9 Genome Editing for n-Butanol Production in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heo, Min-Ji; Jung, Hwi-Min; Um, Jaeyong

    2017-01-01

    Genome editing using CRISPR/Cas9 was successfully demonstrated in Esherichia coli to effectively produce n-butanol in a defined medium under microaerobic condition. The butanol synthetic pathway genes including those encoding oxygen-tolerant alcohol dehydrogenase were overexpressed in metabolically...... prediction program, UTR designer, and modified using the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing method to reduce its expression level. E. coli strains with decreased citrate synthase expression produced more butanol and the citrate synthase activity was correlated with butanol production. These results demonstrate...

  6. Selective gettering of hydrogen in high pressure metal iodide lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuus, G.

    1976-01-01

    One of the main problems in the manufacture of high pressure gas discharge lamps is the elimination of gaseous impurities from their arc tubes. Long degassing processes of all the lamp components are necessary in order to produce lamps with a low ignition voltage and good maintenance of the radiation properties. The investigation described deals with a selective getter place in the arc tube which can replace the long degassing process. The getter consists of a piece of yttrium encapsulated in thin tantalum foil. By this way it is possible to use the gettering action of tantalum and yttrium without having reaction between the metal iodide of the arc tube and yttrium. Yttrium is used because this metal can adsorb a large quantity of hydrogen even at a temperature of 1000 0 C. Hydrogen forms the main gaseous impurity in the high pressure metal iodide lamp. For this reason the adsorption properties like adsorption rate and capacity of the tantalum--yttrium getter for hydrogen are examined, and the results obtained from lamp experiments are given

  7. Forensic Analysis of High Explosive Residues from Selected Cloth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Afiq Mohamed Huri; Umi Kalthom Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Increased terrorist activities around the Asian region have resulted in the need for improved analytical techniques in forensic analysis. High explosive residues from post-blast clothing are often encountered as physical evidence submitted to a forensic laboratory. Therefore, this study was initiated to detect high explosives residues of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) on selected cloth in this study. Cotton swabbing technique was employed as a simple and rapid method in recovering analytes from the sample matrix. Analytes were analyzed using Griess spot test, TLC and HPLC. TLC separation employed toluene-ethyl acetate (9:1) as a good solvent system. Reversed phase HPLC separation employed acetonitrile-water (65:35) as the mobile phase and analytes detected using a programmed wavelength. RDX was detected at 235 nm for the first 3.5 min and then switched to 215 nm for PETN. Limits of detection (LODs) of analytes were in the low ppm range (0.05 ppm for RDX and 0.25 ppm for PETN). Analyte recovery studies revealed that the type of cloth has a profound effect on the extraction efficiency. Analytes were recovered better for nylon as compared to cotton cloth. However, no analytes could be recovered from denim cloth. For post-blast samples, only RDX was detected in low concentration for both nylon and cotton cloth. (author)

  8. Response surface methodology based optimization of diesel–n-butanol –cotton oil ternary blend ratios to improve engine performance and exhaust emission characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmanlı, Alpaslan; Yüksel, Bedri; İleri, Erol; Deniz Karaoglan, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • RSM based optimization for optimum blend ratio of diesel fuel, n-butanol and cotton oil was done. • 65.5 vol.% diesel fuel, 23.1 vol.% n-butanol and 11.4 vol.% cotton oil (DnBC) was determined. • DnBC decreased brake torque, brake power, BTE and BMEP, while increased BSFC. • DnBC decreased NO x , CO and HC emissions. - Abstract: Many studies declare that 20% biodiesel is the optimum concentration for biodiesel–diesel fuel blends to improve performance. The present work focuses on finding diesel fuel, n-butanol, and cotton oil optimum blend ratios for diesel engine applications by using the response surface method (RSM). Experimental test fuels were prepared by choosing 7 different concentrations, where phase decomposition did not occur in the phase diagram of −10 °C. Experiments were carried out at full load conditions and the constant speed (2200 rpm) of maximum brake torque to determine engine performance and emission parameters. According to the test results of the engine, optimization was done by using RSM considering engine performance and exhaust emissions parameters, to identify the rates of concentrations of components in the optimum blend of three. Confirmation tests were employed to compare the output values of concentrations that were identified by optimization. The real experiment results and the R 2 actual values that show the relation between the outputs from the optimizations and real experiments were determined in high accordance. The optimum component concentration was determined as 65.5 vol.% diesel, 23.1 vol.% n-butanol and 11.4 vol.% cotton oil (DnBC). According to engine performance tests brake torque, brake power, BTE and BMEP of DnBC decreased while BSFC increased compared to those of diesel fuel. NO x , CO and HC emissions of DnBC drastically decreased as 11.33%, 45.17% and 81.45%, respectively

  9. Highly selective determination of methylmercury with methylmercury-imprinted polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yongwen [Department of Chemistry, Shanxi Datong University, Datong 037009 (China)]. E-mail: dtlyw@263.net; Zai Yunhui [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Chang Xijun [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Guo Yong [Department of Chemistry, Shanxi Datong University, Datong 037009 (China); Meng Shuangming [Department of Chemistry, Shanxi Datong University, Datong 037009 (China); Feng Feng [Department of Chemistry, Shanxi Datong University, Datong 037009 (China)

    2006-08-11

    Methylmercury-imprinted and non-imprinted polymers were prepared by formation monomer complex of methylmercury with (4-ethenylphenyl)-4-formate-6-phenyl-2,2'-bipyridine and thermally polymerizing with divinylbenzene (crosslinker) in the presence of 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile as initiator and subsequently leached with the acidic thiourea solution (1.0 mol L{sup -1} of thiourea and 4.0 mol L{sup -1} of HCl). In the same way, non-imprinted copolymers were prepared without methylmercury chloride added. The separation and preconcentration characteristics of the polymers for methylmercury were investigated by batch and column procedures. The results demonstrated that the methylmercury-imprinted polymers had higher adsorption capacity (170 {mu}mol g{sup -1} of dry microbeads) and good selectivity for methylmercury compared to non-imprinted polymers. The distribution ratio (D) values of the methylmercury-imprinted polymers increased for methylmercury with respect to both D values of Hg(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and non-imprinted polymers. The relatively selective factor ({alpha} {sub r}) values of CH{sub 3}Hg{sup +}/Hg(II), CH{sub 3}Hg{sup +}/Cu(II), CH{sub 3}Hg{sup +}/Zn(II), and CH{sub 3}Hg{sup +}/Cd(II) are 24.0, 46.7, 50.7, and 40.2, which are greater than 1. The methylmercury-imprinted polymers can be used at least twenty times with recoveries no less than 95%. Based on the packed columns with methylmercury-imprinted polymers, a highly selective solid-phase extraction (SPE) and preconcentration method for methylmercury was developed. The metal ion imprinted polymer solid-phase extraction (MIIP-SPE) preconcentration procedure showed a linear calibration curve within concentration range from 0.093 to 22 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The detection limit and quantification limit were 0.041 and 0.093 {mu}g L{sup -1} (3{sigma}) for cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). The relative standard deviation of the 10 replicate determinations was 3.5% for the

  10. Highly Selective Synthesis of Catalytically Active Monodisperse Rhodium Nanocubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.; Grass, M.E.; Kuhn, J.N.; Tao, F.; Habas, S.E.; Huang, W.; Yang, P.; Somorjai, G.A.

    2009-02-21

    Synthesis of monodisperse and shape-controlled colloidal inorganic nanocrystals (NCs) is of increasing scientific interest and technological significance. Recently, shape control of Pt, Pd, Ag, Au, and Rh NCs has been obtained by tuning growth kinetics in various solution-phase approaches, including modified polyol methods, seeded growth by polyol reduction, thermolysis of organometallics, and micelle techniques. Control of reduction kinetics of the noble metal precursors and regulation of the relative growth rates of low-index planes (i.e. {l_brace}100{r_brace} and {l_brace}111{r_brace}) via selective adsorption of selected chemical species are two keys for achieving shape modification of noble metal NCs. One application for noble metal NCs of well-defined shape is in understanding how NC faceting (determines which crystallographic planes are exposed) affects catalytic performance. Rh NCs are used in many catalytic reactions, including hydrogenation, hydroformylation, hydrocarbonylation, and combustion reactions. Shape manipulation of Rh NCs may be important in understanding how faceting on the nanoscale affects catalytic properties, but such control is challenging and there are fewer reports on the shape control of Rh NCs compared to other noble metals. Xia and coworkers obtained Rh multipods exhibiting interesting surface plasmonic properties by a polyol approach. The Somorjai and Tilley groups synthesized crystalline Rh multipods, cubes, horns and cuboctahedra, via polyol seeded growth. Son and colleagues prepared catalytically active monodisperse oleylamine-capped tetrahedral Rh NCs for the hydrogenation of arenes via an organometallic route. More recently, the Somorjai group synthesized sizetunable monodisperse Rh NCs using a one-step polyol technique. In this Communication, we report the highly selective synthesis of catalytically active, monodisperse Rh nanocubes of < 10 nm by a seedless polyol method. In this approach, Br{sup -} ions from trimethyl

  11. Butanol production from lignocellulose by simultaneous fermentation, saccharification, and pervaporation or vacuum evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Víctor Hugo Grisales; Tost, Gerard Olivar

    2016-10-01

    Techno-economic study of acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE) fermentation from lignocellulose was performed. Simultaneous saccharification, fermentation and vacuum evaporation (SFS-V) or pervaporation (SFS-P) were proposed. A kinetic model of metabolic pathways for ABE fermentation with the effect of phenolics and furans in the growth was proposed based on published laboratory results. The processes were optimized in Matlab®. The end ABE purification was carried out by heat-integrated distillation. The objective function of the minimization was the total annualized cost (TAC). Fuel consumption of SFS-P using poly[1-(trimethylsilyl)-1-propyne] membrane was between 13.8 and 19.6% lower than SFS-V. Recovery of furans and phenolics for the hybrid reactors was difficult for its high boiling point. TAC of SFS-P was increased 1.9 times with supplementation of phenolics and furans to 3g/l each one for its high toxicity. Therefore, an additional detoxification method or an efficient pretreatment process will be necessary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) production in fermentation of enzymatically hydrolyzed cassava flour by Clostridium beijerinckii BA101 and solvent separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lépiz-Aguilar, Leonardo; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Arias, María Laura; Lutz, Giselle

    2013-08-01

    Cassava constitutes an abundant substrate in tropical regions. The production of butanol in ABE fermentation by Clostridium beijerinckii BA101 using cassava flour (CF) was scaled-up to bioreactor level (5 L). Optimized fermentation conditions were applied; that is, 40℃, 60 g/l CF, and enzymatic pretreatment of the substrate. The batch fermentation profile presented an acidogenic phase for the first 24 h and a solventogenic phase afterwards. An average of 37.01 g/l ABE was produced after 83 h, with a productivity of 0.446 g/l/h. Butanol production was 25.71 g/l with a productivity of 0.310 g/l/h, high or similar to analogous batch processes described for other substrates. Solvent separation by different combinations of fractioned and azeotropic distillation and liquid-liquid separation were assessed to evaluate energetic and economic costs in downstream processing. Results suggest that the use of cassava as a substrate in ABE fermentation could be a cost-effective way of producing butanol in tropical regions.

  13. Microfluidic sensor for ultra high redox cycling amplification for highly selective electrochemical measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odijk, Mathieu; Straver, Martin; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2011-01-01

    In this contribution a SU8/glass-based microfluidic sensor is described with two closely spaced parallel electrodes for highly selective measurements using the redox cycling (RC) effect. Using this sensor, a RC amplification of ~2000x is measured using the ferrocyanide redox couple, which is much

  14. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the production of n-butanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steen, EricJ.; Chan, Rossana; Prasad, Nilu; Myers, Samuel; Petzold, Christopher; Redding, Alyssa; Ouellet, Mario; Keasling, JayD.

    2008-11-25

    BackgroundIncreasing energy costs and environmental concerns have motivated engineering microbes for the production of ?second generation? biofuels that have better properties than ethanol.Results& ConclusionsSaccharomyces cerevisiae was engineered with an n-butanol biosynthetic pathway, in which isozymes from a number of different organisms (S. cerevisiae, Escherichia coli, Clostridium beijerinckii, and Ralstonia eutropha) were substituted for the Clostridial enzymes and their effect on n-butanol production was compared. By choosing the appropriate isozymes, we were able to improve production of n-butanol ten-fold to 2.5 mg/L. The most productive strains harbored the C. beijerinckii 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, which uses NADH as a co-factor, rather than the R. eutropha isozyme, which uses NADPH, and the acetoacetyl-CoA transferase from S. cerevisiae or E. coli rather than that from R. eutropha. Surprisingly, expression of the genes encoding the butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase from C. beijerinckii (bcd and etfAB) did not improve butanol production significantly as previously reported in E. coli. Using metabolite analysis, we were able to determine which steps in the n-butanol biosynthetic pathway were the most problematic and ripe for future improvement.

  15. Treatment of Waste Lubricating Oil by Chemical and Adsorption Process Using Butanol and Kaolin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyanto; Ramadhan, B.; Wiyanti, D.

    2018-04-01

    Treatment of waste lubricating oil by chemical and adsorption process using butanol and kaolin has been done. Quality of lubricating oil after treatment was analysis using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The effects of the treatment of butanol, KOH, and kaolin to metals contain in waste lubricating oil treatment have been evaluated. Treatment of waste lubricating oil has been done using various kaolin weight, butanol, and KOH solution. The result of this research show metal content of Ca, Mg, Pb, Fe and Cr in waste lubricating oil before treatment are 1020.49, 367.02, 16.40, 36.76 and 1,80 ppm, respectively. The metal content of Ca, Mg, Pb, Fe and Cr in the waste lubricating oil after treatment are 0.17, 9.85, 34.07, 78.22 and 1.20 ppm, respectively. The optimum condition for treatment of waste lubricating oil using butanol, KOH, and kaolin is 30 mL, 3.0 g and 1.5 g, respectively. Chemical and adsorption method using butanol and kaolin can be used for decrease of metals contain in waste lubricating oil.

  16. Study of alcohol fuel of butanol and ethanol effect on the compression ignition (CI) engine performance, combustion and emission characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, M. A.; Yusop, A. F.; Mat Yasin, M. H.; Hamidi, M. A.; Alias, A.; Hussin, H.; Hamri, S.

    2017-10-01

    speed. Thus, D90BU10 had higher BSFC compared to mineral diesel and D90E10. In general, the addition of alcohol blend in diesel fuel had increase the BSFC. In term of in cylinder pressure, as the engine speed is increased, the crank angle noted to move away from TDC for all test fuel. The maximum cylinder pressure increased at low and medium speed, but decrease in higher engine speed. The addition of 10% of butanol and ethanol in the mineral diesel decreased the maximum cylinder pressure. Meanwhile, O2 emission of D90E10 is higher compared to D90BU10 due to higher oxygen content found in ethanol. The CO2 emission of D90BU10 recorded higher compared to mineral diesel due to the high oxygen contents in the alcohol. CO emission of alcohol blend on the other hand had lower emission at higher engine speed compared to mineral diesel. As engine speed is increased, NOx emission of mineral diesel and D90E10 had decreased gradually. However, D90BU10 had increased of NOx emission at lower to medium engine speed, than gradually decreased at higher engine speed.

  17. Novel pyridylmethylamines as highly selective 5-HT(1A) superagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollinger, Stefan; Hübner, Harald; Heinemann, Frank W; Meyer, Karsten; Gmeiner, Peter

    2010-10-14

    To further improve the maximal serotonergic efficacy and better understand the configurational requirements for 5-HT(1A) binding and activation, we generated and biologically investigated structural variants of the lead structure befiradol. For a bioisosteric replacement of the 3-chloro-4-fluoro moiety, a focused library of 63 compounds by solution phase parallel synthesis was developed. Target binding of our compound collection was investigated, and their affinities for 5-HT(2), α(1), and α(2)-adrenergic as well as D(1)-D(4) dopamine receptors were compared. For particularly interesting test compounds, intrinsic activities at 5-HT(1A) were examined in vitro employing a GTPγS assay. The investigation guided us to highly selective 5HT(1A) superagonists. The benzothiophene-3-carboxamide 8bt revealed almost exclusive 5HT(1A) recognition with a K(i) value of 2.7 nM and a maximal efficacy of 124%. To get insights into the bioactive conformation of our compound collection, we synthesized conformationally constrained bicyclic scaffolds when SAR data indicated a chair-type geometry and an equatorially dispositioned aminomethyl substituent for the 4,4-disubstituted piperidine moiety.

  18. Synthesis of mesoporous SAPO-34 molecular sieves and their applications in dehydration of butanols and ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Jong Won; Jeon, Jaewoo; Kim, Chul-Ung; Jeong, Kwang-Eun; Jeong, Soon-Yong; Jhung, Sung Hwa

    2013-04-01

    Microporous SAPO-34 molecular sieves were hydrothermally synthesized with microwave irradiation in the presence of tetraethylammonium hydroxide (TEAOH) as a template. SAPO-34 molecular sieves with mesoporosity were also prepared in the presence of carbon black as a hard template. By increasing the content of the carbon black template in the synthesis, the mesopore volume increased. Dehydration of alcohols (butanols and ethanol) was carried out with the synthesized SAPO-34 molecular sieves, and the lifetime of the catalysts for the dehydration reaction increased as the mesoporosity increased. Moreover, the performance of the microporous catalyst synthesized with microwave was better than that of the catalyst obtained with conventional electric heating. The relative performance of the catalytic dehydration may be explained by the mesoporosity and the crystal size. Therefore, it may be concluded that small-sized SAPO-34 molecular sieves with high mesoporosity can be produced efficiently with microwave irradiation in the presence of carbon black template, and the molecular sieves are effective in the stable dehydration of alcohols.

  19. High throughput in vivo protease inhibitor selection platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The invention relates to a recombinant microbial cell comprising a selection platform for screening for a protease inhibitor, wherein the platform comprises transgenes encoding a protease having selective peptide bond cleavage activity at a recognition site amino acid sequence; and transgenes...... platform for screening for a protease inhibitor....

  20. A highly selective dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction approach based on the unique fluorous affinity for the extraction and detection of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances coupled with high performance liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Shi, Yali; Cai, Yaqi

    2018-04-06

    In the present study, a highly selective fluorous affinity-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) technique was developed for the extraction and analysis of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) followed by high performance liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry. Perfluoro-tert-butanol with multiple C-F bonds was chosen as the extraction solvent, which was injected into the aqueous samples with a dispersive solvent (acetonitrile) in a 120:800 (μL, v/v) mixture for PFASs enrichment. The fluorous affinity-based extraction mechanism was confirmed by the significantly higher extraction recoveries for PFASs containing multiple fluorine atoms than those for compounds with fewer or no fluorine atoms. The extraction recoveries of medium and long-chain PFASs (CF 2  > 5) exceeded 70%, except perfluoroheptanoic acid, while those of short-chain PFASs were lower than 50%, implying that the proposed DLLME may not be suitable for their extraction due to weak fluorous affinity. This highly fluoroselective DLLME technique can greatly decrease the matrix effect that occurs in mass spectrometry detection when applied to the analysis of urine samples. Under the optimum conditions, the relative recoveries of PFASs with CF 2  > 5 ranged from 80.6-121.4% for tap water, river water and urine samples spiked with concentrations of 10, 50 and 100 ng/L. The method limits of quantification for PFASs in water and urine samples were in the range of 0.6-8.7 ng/L. Furthermore, comparable concentrations of PFASs were obtained via DLLME and solid-phase extraction, confirming that the developed DLLME technique is a promising method for the extraction of PFASs in real samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative analysis of the Performance and Emission Characteristics of ethanol-butanol-gasoline blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Sumit; Singh, Perminderjit, Dr; Singh, Gurtej

    2018-02-01

    Global warming and energy security being the global problems have shifted the focus of researchers on the renewable sources of energy which could replace petroleum products partially or as a whole. Ethanol and butanol are renewable sources of energy which can be produced through fermentation of biomass. A lot of research has already been done to develop suitable ethanol-gasoline blends. In contrast very little literature available on the butanol-gasoline blends. This research focuses on the comparison of ethanol-gasoline fuels with butanol-gasoline fuels with regard to the emission and performance in an SI engine. Experiments were conducted on a variable compression ratio SI engine at 1600 rpm and compression ratio 8. The experiments involved the measurement of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and unburned hydrocarbons emission and among performance parameters brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency were recorded at three loads of 2.5kgs (25%), 5kgs (50%) and 7.5kgs (75%). Results show that ethanol and butanol content in gasoline have decreased brake specific fuel consumption, carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emissions while the brake thermal efficiency and oxides of nitrogen are increased. Results indicate thatbutanol-gasoline blends have improved brake specific fuel consumption, carbon monoxide emissions in an SI engine as compared to ethanol-gasoline blends. The carbon dioxide emissions and brake thermal efficiencies are comparable for ethanol-gasoline blends and butanol-gasoline blends. The butanol content has a more adverse effect on emissions of oxides of nitrogen than ethanol.

  2. Investigation of n-butanol as fuel in a four-cylinder MPFI SI engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhamodaran, Gopinath; Esakkimuthu, Ganapathy Sundaram; Pochareddy, Yashwanth Kutti; Sivasubramanian, Harish

    2017-01-01

    Global concern over rising greenhouse gas emission levels and the availability of fossil fuels has led to the development of biofuels, and the use of gasoline formulations with oxygenated compounds has become common practice for improving fuel quality. This empirical study evaluated the effects of oxygenated gasoline fuel blends on air quality. Tests were conducted on a four-stroke, four-cylinder multi-point fuel injection (MPFI) spark ignition (SI) engine using an eddy current dynamometer to investigate the combustion and emissions behaviour of n-butanol blends. Blends comprising n-butanol (N10, N20, and N30) and unleaded gasoline were tested over a rotational speed range of 1400 rpm–2800 rpm under a constant load of 20 Nm. The results obtained indicate that use of n-butanol blends produced lower hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) levels than unleaded gasoline but nitrogen oxide (NO_x) emissions were found to be higher. When ignition timing was retarded, NOx emissions for all n-butanol blends decreased. The peak in-cylinder pressures and heat release rates for the blends were also found to be higher than for unleaded gasoline (UG). COV_I_M_E_P of gasoline was higher than that of n-butanol/gasoline blends. - Highlights: • Using oxygenated compound gasoline formulations is common for improving fuel quality. • Blends of n-butanol with unleaded gasoline were tested between 1400 rpm and 2800 rpm. • Blends increased brake thermal efficiency and produced lower HC and CO but higher NOx. • Lower NOx was observed when ignition timing was retarded. • Peak in-cylinder pressures and heat release rates for blends were higher.

  3. Acetone-butanol fermentation of blackstrap molasses. An effective factor of some symbiotic organisms against an abnormal fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiga, A; Kinoshita, S; Okumura, T

    1954-01-01

    There were three types of abnormal fermentation in the industrial acetone-butanol fermentation of blackstrap molasses; one of them called B type, was characterized by the extremely prolonged acidity peak, and sluggishness experiments were carried out to find some symbiotic organisms among various aerobic bacteria and yeasts for several strains of Clostridium acetobutylicum. Torula utilis showed an outstanding effectiveness for a rapid completion of the fermentation, and the yields of solvents was much increased. Culture filtrate of T. utilis contained a soluble and thermolabile effective factor, and showed high invertase activity. A close relation was found between high yields of solvents and the degree of inversion of molasses medium. Thus, the effective factor against sluggishness was ascribed to the invertase activity of the yeast. Some inhibiting factors to invertase of C. acetobutylicum were presumed to be present in molasses as the principal cause of the sluggishness.

  4. Isolasi Dan Identifikasi Terpenoid dari Fraksi n-Butanol Herba Lampasau (Diplazium esculentum Swartz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dewi Astuti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Telah dilakukan penelitian yang bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi senyawa kimia yang diisolasi dari fraksi n-butanol ekstrak metanol herba lampasau (Diplazium esculentum Swartz. Ekstrak metanol diperoleh secara maserasi dan difraksinasi berturut-turut denganpetroleum eter, etil asetat, dan n-butanol. Fraksi n­-butanol difraksinasidengan kromatografi kolom dengan fase diam silika gel dihasilkan fraksi A, B, C, dan D. Fraksi B dimurnikan dengan kromatografi lapis tipis preparatif pada silika geldihasilkan isolat B1. Isolat B1 berupa padatan tidak berwarna danberfluoresensi putih di bawah lampu UV 366 nm. Panjang gelombang maksimum pada spektra UV  isolat B1 adalah 225 nm dan 272.5 nm yang menunjukkan adanya ikatan rangkap tak terkonjugasi. Spektra IR isolat B1 menunjukkan adanya gugus C=C, –OH, C=O lakton, –CO, C–H ulur, dan C–H tekuk. Spektra 1H-NMR isolat B1 menunjukkan sinyal proton pada ikatan rangkap, proton –OH, proton pada –CH2 yang terikat atom oksigen, serta proton gugus metil –CH3. Berdasarkan data spektra UV, IR, dan 1H-NMR maka isolat B1 disarankan sebagai turunan senyawa triterpenoid hopan-lakton. Kata kunci : diplazium esculentum Swartz, fraksi n-butanol, triterpenoid hopan-lakton  Abstract The research  aims to identify chemical compounds isolated fromn-butanol fraction methanol extract of lampasau herbs (Diplazium esculentum Swartz. The methanol extract was obtained by maceration and fractioned by petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, andn-butanol. N-butanol fraction was fractionated using column chromatography on silica gel produced fractions A, B, C, and D. Fraction B was purified by preparative thin layer chromatography on silica gel produced isolate B1. Isolate B1was colorless solid and has white fluorescent under UV lamp 366 nm. The maximum wavelength on UV spectra of B1 are 225 nm and 272,5 nm indicates the unconjugated double bond. IR spectra of B1 showed the vibration of C=C, –OH, C=O lactone, –CO, C

  5. Estimation of VLE of binary systems (tert-butanol + 2-ethyl-1-hexanol) and (n-butanol + 2-ethyl-1-hexanol) using GMDH-type neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketabchi, S.; Ghanadzadeh, H.; Ghanadzadeh, A.; Fallahi, S.; Ganji, M.

    2010-01-01

    The group method of data handling (GMDH) method was used to estimate (vapour + liquid) equilibrium (VLE) for the binary systems of (tert-butanol + 2-ethy1-1-hexanol) and (n-butanol + 2-ethy1-1-hexanol). Using this method, a new model was proposed, which is suitable for predicting the VLE data. In this publication, the proposed model was 'trained' before requested predictions. The data set was divided into two parts: 70% were used as data for 'training' (either 10 or 12), and 30% were used as a test set, which were randomly extracted from the database (either 14 or 16). After the training on the input-output process, the predicted values were compared with those of experimental values in order to evaluate the performance of the GMDH neural network method. The model values showed a very good regression with the experimental results.

  6. Densities, Ultrasonic Speeds, and Excess Properties of Binary Mixtures of Diethylene Glycol with 1-Butanol, 2-Butanol, and 1,4-Butanediol at Different Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Anwar; Ansari, Sana; Uzair, Sahar; Tasneem, Shadma; Nabi, Firdosa

    2015-11-01

    Densities ρ and ultrasonic speeds u for pure diethylene glycol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, and 1,4-butanediol and for their binary mixtures over the entire composition range were measured at 298.15 K, 303.15 K, 308.15 K, and 313.15 K. Using these data, the excess molar volumes, VE_m, deviations in isentropic compressibilities, {\\varDelta }ks, apparent molar volumes, V_{φi} , partial molar volumes, overline{V}_{m,i} , and excess partial molar volumes, overline{V}_{m,i}^E , have been calculated over the entire composition range, and also the excess partial molar volumes of the components at infinite dilution, overline{V}_{m,i}^{E,infty } have been calculated. The excess functions have been correlated using the Redlich-Kister equation at different temperatures. The variations of these derived parameters with composition and temperature are presented graphically.

  7. Acetone-butanol fermentation of blackstrap molasses. An effective factor of some symbiotic organisms against an abnormal fermentation. [Torula utilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shige, A; Kinoshita, S; Okumura, T

    1954-01-01

    There were three types of industrial acetone-butanol fermentation of blackstrap molasses; one of them, called B type, was characterized by the extremely prolonged acidity peak, and sluggishness experiments were carried out to find some symbiotic organisms among various aerobic bacteria and yeasts for several strains of Clostridium acetobutylicum. Torula utilis showed an outstanding effectiveness for a rapid completion of the fermentation, and the yields of solvents was much increased. Culture filtrate of T. utilis contained a soluble and invertase activity. A close relation was found between high yields of solvents and the degree of inversion of molasses medium. Thus, the effective factor against sluggishness was ascribed to the invertase activity of the yeast. Some inhibiting factors to invertase of C. acetobutylicum were presumed to be present in molasses as the principal cause of the sluggishness.

  8. Phase equilibria of microemulsion forming system n-decyl-(beta)-D-glucopyranoside/water/n-octane/1-butanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahl, Heike; Quitzsch, Konrad; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1997-01-01

    of multicomponent system is the coexistence of a highly structural liquid phase enriched with amphiphilic compounds and an excess water or an excess oil phase or both of them. The phase behaviour was studied experimentally by use of turbidity titration and HPLC measurements and theoretically by application...... of the UNIQUAC-equation and the UNIFAC-method. The UNIFAC-method is able to describe the phase behaviour in the quaternary system qualitatively, without fitting parameters. However, by applying the UNIQUAC-method, with adjustable parameters, it was only possible to model the ternary subsystems. The modelling......A systematic investigation of the phase behaviour involving microemulsions is presented with respect to experimental and calculated data for the four-component system n-decyl-(beta)-D-glucopyranoside/water/n-octane/1-butanol and its corresponding ternaries at 25°C. The main feature of this kind...

  9. An experimental investigation into combustion and performance characteristics of an HCCI gasoline engine fueled with n-heptane, isopropanol and n-butanol fuel blends at different inlet air temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyumaz, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Combustion was retarded with the increase of the amount of isopropanol and n-butanol in the test fuels. • Combustion was advanced with the increase of air inlet temperature on HCCI combustion. • Isopropanol seems more suitable fuel due to controlling the HCCI combustion and preventing knocking. • Almost zero NO emissions were measured when alcohol used except for n-heptane and B20 test fuels. - Abstract: An experimental study was conducted in a single cylinder, four stroke port injection Ricardo Hydra test engine in order to determine the effects of pure n-heptane, the blends of n-heptane and n-butanol fuels B20, B30, B40 (including 20%, 30%, 40% n-butanol and 80%, 70%, 60% n-heptane by vol. respectively) and the blends of n-heptane and isopropanol fuels P20, P30, P40 (including 20%, 30%, 40% isopropanol and 80%, 70%, 60% n-heptane by vol. respectively) on HCCI combustion. Combustion and performance characteristics of n-heptane, n-butanol and isopropanol were investigated at constant engine speed of 1500 rpm and λ = 2 in a HCCI engine. The effects of inlet air temperature were also examined on HCCI combustion. The test results showed that the start of combustion was advanced with the increasing of inlet air temperature for all test fuels. Start of combustion delayed with increasing percentage of n-butanol and isopropanol in the test fuels. Knocking combustion was seen with B20 and n-heptane test fuels. Minimum combustion duration was observed in case of using B40. Almost zero NO emissions were measured with test fuels apart from n-heptane and B20. The test results also showed that CO and HC emissions decreased with the increase of inlet air temperature for all test fuels. Isopropanol showed stronger resistance for knocking compared to n-butanol in HCCI combustion due to its higher octane number. It was determined that n-butanol was more advantageous according to isopropanol as thermal efficiency. As a result it was found that the HCCI

  10. Alternative fuels in domestic heating markets. Experimental testing of n-butanol as component in domestic heating oil; Alternative fluessige Energietraeger im Raumwaermemarkt. Experimentelle Ueberpruefung von n-Butanol als Beimischung zu Heizoel EL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, H.; Dohn, N.; Rheinberg, O. van [RWTH Aachen (Germany). OWI Oel-Waerme-Inst. GmbH

    2012-02-15

    N-butanol has already been tested successfully as partial substitute for diesel fuel. However, to date there are no corresponding studies available regarding the use of n-butanol as bio-component in domestic heating oil. Thus, physical and chemical norm parameters of n-butanol/heating oil blends and their combustion specific characteristics in steady operation were examined. The combustion of blends of domestic heating oil and butanol (up to 20 % (v/v)) in a common yellow burner did not indicate negative influence and did not yield a significant change in emissions of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides or soot. All tests were conducted without any modifications of the burner to the use of n-butanol. The flash point drops below the limit of 55 C with 1 % (v/v) butanol already and is therefore a flammable liquid. Its use as a substitute for heating oil is therefore limited by safety regulations. Practical applications of n-butanol as bio-component could be its utilization in low concentrations or in facilities providing suitable storage capabilities. (orig.)

  11. Fermentation of sweet sorghum syrup to butanol in the presence of natural nutrients and inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet sorghum syrups represent a renewable raw material that can be available year-round for production of biofuels and biochemicals. Sweet sorghum sugars have been used as sources for butanol production in the past but most often the studies focused on sweet sorghum juice and not on sweet sorghum s...

  12. Chiral recognition in electron scattering by S- and R-2-butanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Nykola C.; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning; Field, David

    2015-01-01

    Experiments are described involving the low energy scattering of electrons from the two optical enantiomers S- and R- 2-butanol. Using a synchrotron radiation photoionization source on the ASTRID storage ring, scattering spectra are reported between a few meV and 140 meV at an electron energy...

  13. Influence of concentration of sucrose on the acetone-butanol fermentation by different strains of Clostridium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahadue, K; Saroj, K K

    1959-01-01

    To culture media containing (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ (0.34 g) and MgSO/sub 4/ (0.16 g), were added 5, 10, and 20% sucrose, respectively; the pH was adjusted to 6.4 with KH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/-NaOH buffer; the volume of each medium was made up to 200 ml. The media were sterilized. After cooling, the media at the 5, 10, 20% sucrose levels were inoculated separately with C. butyricum, C. butyricum 6084, C. acetobutylicum NRRL B-527, C. pasteurianum NRRL B-598, C. butylicus NRRL B-592, and C. pasteurianum ATCC 6013. The cultures were incubated for 20 days at 35 degrees. For maximum butanol yield the 5% sucrose level was optimum for all the strains tested. At the 10% sucrose level great increase in sugar consumption occurred with C. butyricum Frolund, C. pasteurianum ATCC-6013, and C. butylicus IAL 15-152. Twice as much sucrose was consumed with C. acetobutylicum ATCC 6013, and NRRL B-572, and C. pasteurianum NRRL B-598. The increased sucrose consumption did not result in increased production of butanol or acetone. No acetone or butanol was formed with C. butyricum Frolund when the sucrose concentration was increased from 5 to 10%. With the increase in sucrose concentration, the formation of butanol and acetone decreased; acid formation was also inhibited.

  14. Chemical constituents in n-butanol fractions of Costus afer ker Gawl leaf and stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godswill Nduka Anyasor

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: The bioactive compounds identified in the n-butanol fractions of C. afer leaves and stem may explain the folkloric use of C. afer plant in the treatment of chronic inflammatory and oxidative stress related diseases. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 78-84

  15. A mesophilic Clostridium species that produces butanol from monosaccharides and hydrogen from polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramono, Sandhi Eko; Lam, Yuen Sean; Ong, Say Leong; He, Jianzhong

    2011-10-01

    A unique mesophilic Clostridium species strain BOH3 is obtained in this study, which is capable of fermenting monosaccharides to produce butanol and hydrolyzing polysaccharides to produce hydrogen (H(2)) and volatile fatty acids (VFAs). From 30 g/L of glucose and xylose each, batch culture BOH3 was able to produce 4.67 and 4.63 g/L of butanol. Enhancement treatments by increasing the inoculated cells improved butanol production to 7.05 and 7.41 g/L, respectively. Hydrogen production (2.47 and 1.93 mmol) was observed when cellulose and xylan (10 g/L each) were used, suggesting that strain BOH3 possesses xylanolytic and cellulolytic capabilities. These unique features reveal the strain's novelty as most wild-type solventogenic strains have not been reported to have such properties. Therefore, culture BOH3 is promising in generating butanol and hydrogen from renewable feedstock. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Bio-butanol recovery using non-fluorinated task-specific ionic liquids (TSILs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Chavez, L.Y.; Garsia, C.M.; Schuur, Boelo; de Haan, A.B.

    2012-01-01

    Biobutanol has received major attention as an alternative for and additive to fossil fuels. Biobutanol produced via fermentation is hampered by low butanol concentrations in the fermentation broth. An efficient separation process is required to make biobutanol production economically viable. In this

  17. Performance and fuel conversion efficiency of a spark ignition engine fueled with iso-butanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irimescu, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Iso-butanol use in a port injection spark ignition engine. ► Fuel conversion efficiency calculated based on chassis dynamometer measurements. ► Combined study of engine efficiency and air–fuel mixture temperature. ► Excellent running characteristics with minor fuel system modifications. ► Up to 11% relative drop in part load efficiency due to incomplete fuel vaporization. -- Abstract: Alcohols are increasingly used as fuels for spark ignition engines. While ethanol is most commonly used, long chain alcohols such as butanol feature several advantages like increased heating value and reduced corrosive action. This study investigated the effect of fueling a port injection engine with iso-butanol, as compared to gasoline operation. Performance levels were maintained within the same limits as with the fossil fuel without modifications to any engine component. An additional electronic module was used for increasing fuel flow by extending the injection time. Fuel conversion efficiency decreased when the engine was fueled with iso-butanol by up to 9% at full load and by up to 11% at part load, calculated as relative values. Incomplete fuel evaporation was identified as the factor most likely to cause the drop in engine efficiency.

  18. Nesterenkonia sp. strain F, a halophilic bacterium producing acetone, butanol, and ethanol under aerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Hamid; Azarbaijani, Reza; Parsa Yeganeh, Laleh; Shahzadeh Fazeli, Abolhassan; Tabatabaei, Meisam; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini; Karimi, Keikhosro

    2016-01-04

    The moderately halophilic bacterium Nesterenkonia sp. strain F, which was isolated from Aran-Bidgol Lake (Iran), has the ability to produce acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) as well as acetic and butyric acids under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. This result is the first report of ABE production with a wild microorganism from a family other than Clostridia and also the first halophilic species shown to produce butanol under aerobic cultivation. The cultivation of Nesterenkonia sp. strain F under anaerobic conditions with 50 g/l of glucose for 72 h resulted in the production of 105 mg/l of butanol, 122 mg/l of acetone, 0.2 g/l of acetic acid, and 2.5 g/l of butyric acid. Furthermore, the strain was cultivated on media with different glucose concentrations (20, 50, and 80 g/l) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Through fermentation with a 50 g/l initial glucose concentration under aerobic conditions, 66 mg/l of butanol, 125 mg/l of acetone, 291 mg/l of ethanol, 5.9 g/l of acetic acid, and 1.2 g/l of butyric acid were produced. The enzymes pertaining to the fermentation pathway in the strain were compared with the enzymes of Clostridium spp., and the metabolic pathway of fermentation used by Nesterenkonia sp. strain F was investigated.

  19. Experimental investigations of butanol-gasoline blends effects on the combustion process in a SI engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merola, Simona Silvia; Tornatore, Cinzia; Machitto, Luca; Valentino, Gerardo; Corcione, Felice Esposito [Istituto Motori-CNR, Naples (Italy)

    2012-07-01

    Fuel blend of alcohol and conventional hydrocarbon fuels for a spark-ignition engine can increase the fuel octane rating and the power for a given engine displacement and compression ratio. In this work, the influence of butanol addition to gasoline in a port fuel-injection, spark ignition engine was investigated. The experiments were realized in a single cylinder ported fuel injection SI engine with an external boosting device. The optical accessible engine was equipped with the head of commercial SI turbocharged engine with the same geometrical specifications (bore, stroke, compression ratio) as the research engine. The effect on the spark ignition combustion process of 20% and 40% of n-butanol blended in volume with pure gasoline was investigated through cycle resolved visualization. The engine worked at low speed, medium boosting and wide open throttle. Fuel injections both in closed valve and open valve conditions were considered. Comparisons between the parameters related to the flame luminosity and the pressure signals were performed. Butanol blends allowed working in more advanced spark timing without knocking occurrence. The duration of injection for Butanol blends was increased to obtain stoichiometric mixture. In open valve injection condition, the fuel deposits on intake manifold and piston surfaces decreased, allowing a reduction in fuel consumption. BU40 granted the performance levels of gasoline and in open valve injection allowed to minimize the abnormal combustion effects including the emission of ultrafine carbonaceous particles at the exhaust. In-cylinder investigations were correlated to engine out emissions. (orig.)

  20. IRIS Toxicological Review of Tert-Butyl Alcohol (Tert-Butanol) (External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The IRIS Toxicological Review of tert-Butyl Alcohol (tert-Butanol) was released for external peer review in June 2017. EPA’s Science Advisory Board’s (SAB) Chemical Assessment Advisory Committee (CAAC) will conduct a peer review of the scientific basis supporting ...

  1. IRIS Toxicological Review of Tert-Butyl Alcohol (Tert-Butanol) (Public Comment Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is developing an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) assessment of tert-butyl Alcohol (tert-butanol) and has released the public comment draft assessment for public comment and external peer review. When final, the assessment will appear on the IRIS databa...

  2. The Influence of Water on Butanol Isomers Pervaporation Transport through Polyethylene Membrane..

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petričkovič, Roman; Setničková, Kateřina; Uchytil, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 107, APR 2 (2013), s. 85-90 ISSN 1383-5866 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/09/1165 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : pervaporation * binary mixtures butanol iso mers-water * polyethylene membranes Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.065, year: 2013

  3. Butanol production from food waste: a novel process for producing sustainable energy and reducing environmental pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efficient utilization of food waste for fuel and chemical production can positively influence both the energy and environmental sustainability. In these studies we investigated use of food waste to produce butanol by Clostridium beijerinckii P260. In control fermentation, 40.5 g/L of glucose (initia...

  4. Selection of common bean lines with high grain yield and high grain calcium and iron concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerinéia Dalfollo Ribeiro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic improvement of common bean nutritional quality has advantages in marketing and can contribute to society as a food source. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability for grain yield, calcium and iron concentrations in grains of inbred common bean lines obtained by different breeding methods. For this, 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Pedigree method and 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Single-Seed Descent (SSD method. The lines showed genetic variability for grain yield, and concentrations of calcium and iron independently of the method of advancing segregating populations. The Pedigree method allows obtaining a greater number of lines with high grain yield. Selection using the SSD method allows the identification of a larger number of lines with high concentrations of calcium and iron in grains. Weak negative correlations were found between grain yield and calcium concentration (r = -0.0994 and grain yield and iron concentration (r = -0.3926. Several lines show genetic superiority for grain yield and concentrations of calcium and iron in grains and their selection can result in new common bean cultivars with high nutritional quality.

  5. High carotenoids content can enhance resistance of selected Pinctada fucata families to high temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zihao; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Baosuo; Li, Haimei; Fan, Sigang; Yu, Dahui

    2017-02-01

    Carotenoids are a class of natural antioxidants widely found in aquatic, and they have significant effects on the growth, survival, and immunity of these organisms. To investigate the mechanisms of carotenoids in high temperature resistance, we observed the immune response of selected pearl oyster Pinctada fucata (Akoya pearl oyster) families with different carotenoids contents to high temperature stress. The results indicated that the survival rate (SR) of P. fucata decreased significantly with increase in temperature from 26 °C to 34 °C and with the decrease of total carotenoids content (TCC); when the TCC was higher, the SR tended to be higher. TCC and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) decreased significantly at 30 °C with increasing stress time. Correlation analysis indicated that TAC was positively and linearly correlated with TCC, and SR was S-type correlated with TCC and TAC. Immune analysis indicated that levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in selected families (with higher TCC) under temperature stress (at 30 °C) were generally significantly lower than in the control group (with lowest TCC) and from 0 to 96 h, the levels of each of these substances varied significantly. Levels of SOD, CAT, and MDA within each family first rose from 0 to 3 h, then decreased to their lowest point after 24 h, and then rose again to their highest levels at 96 h. When TCC was higher, the levels of SOD, CAT, and MDA tended to be lower. These findings indicated that carotenoids play an important role in improving survival rates of P. fucata under high temperature stress by enhancing animals' antioxidant system, and could serve as an index for breeding stress-resistant lines in selective breeding practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Feature selection for high-dimensional integrated data

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Charles; Schwartz, Scott; Chapkin, Robert S.; Carroll, Raymond J.; Ivanov, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the problem of identifying correlations between genes or features of two related biological systems, we propose a model of feature selection in which only a subset of the predictors Xt are dependent on the multidimensional variate Y, and the remainder of the predictors constitute a “noise set” Xu independent of Y. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we investigated the relative performance of two methods: thresholding and singular-value decomposition, in combination with stochastic optimization to determine “empirical bounds” on the small-sample accuracy of an asymptotic approximation. We demonstrate utility of the thresholding and SVD feature selection methods to with respect to a recent infant intestinal gene expression and metagenomics dataset.

  7. Feature selection for high-dimensional integrated data

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Charles

    2012-04-26

    Motivated by the problem of identifying correlations between genes or features of two related biological systems, we propose a model of feature selection in which only a subset of the predictors Xt are dependent on the multidimensional variate Y, and the remainder of the predictors constitute a “noise set” Xu independent of Y. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we investigated the relative performance of two methods: thresholding and singular-value decomposition, in combination with stochastic optimization to determine “empirical bounds” on the small-sample accuracy of an asymptotic approximation. We demonstrate utility of the thresholding and SVD feature selection methods to with respect to a recent infant intestinal gene expression and metagenomics dataset.

  8. Green chemistry: highly selective biocatalytic hydrolysis of nitrile compounds

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brady, D

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available ambient temperatures and moderate pH, thereby reducing environmental impact, minimising the cost of equipment and improving reaction safety2. A further benefit is that biocatalysts can synthesise complex chemicals selectively3. This avoids... nitrile group in a dinitrile molecule permits the incorporation of the unreacted nitrile into the final product or further functionalisation, such as reduction to an amino group. Hence, these enzymes can be used to provide access to specific complex...

  9. Selection of a tool to decision making for site selection for high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madeira, J.G.; Alvin, A.C.M.; Martins, V.B.; Monteiro, N.A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to create a panel comparing some of the key decision-making support tools used in situations with the characteristics of the problem of selecting suitable areas for constructing a final deep geologic repository. The tools addressed in this work are also well known and with easy implementation. The decision-making process in matters of this kind is, in general, complex due to its multi-criteria nature and the conflicting opinions of various stakeholders. Thus, a comprehensive study was performed with the literature in this subject, specifically in documents of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), regarding the importance of the criteria involved in the decision-making process. Therefore, we highlighted six judgment attributes for selecting a decision support tool, suitable for the problem. For this study, we have selected the following multi-criteria tools: AHP, Delphi, Brainstorm, Nominal Group Technique and AHP-Delphi. Finally, the AHP-Delphi method has demonstrated to be more appropriate for managing the inherent multiple attributes to the problem proposed. (authors)

  10. Selection of a tool to support decision making for site selection for high level waste - 15010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madeira, J.G.; Alvim, A.C.M.; Martins, V.B.; Monteiro, N.A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to create a panel comparing some of the key decision-making support tools used in situations with the characteristics of the problem of selecting suitable areas for constructing a final deep geologic repository. The tools presented in this work are also well-known and with easy implementation. The decision making process in issues of this kind is, in general, complex due to its multi-criteria nature and the conflicting opinions of various of stakeholders. Thus a comprehensive study was performed with the literature on this subject, specifically documents of the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA, regarding the importance of the criteria involved in the decision making process. Therefore, we highlighted 6 judgments attributes for selecting an adequate support tool: -) transparency and reliability, -) subjectivity, -) updating and adapting, -) multi-criteria analysis, -) ease of deployment, and -) application time. We have selected the following key decision-making support tools: AHP, Delphi, Brainstorm, Nominal Group Technique, and AHP-Delphi. Finally, the AHP-Delphi method has demonstrated to be more appropriate for managing the inherent multiple attributes to the problem proposed

  11. Metabolic risk factors in mice divergently selected for BMR fed high fat and high carb diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowska, Julita; Gębczyński, Andrzej K; Konarzewski, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Factors affecting contribution of spontaneous physical activity (SPA; activity associated with everyday tasks) to energy balance of humans are not well understood, as it is not clear whether low activity is related to dietary habits, precedes obesity or is a result of thereof. In particular, human studies on SPA and basal metabolic rates (BMR, accounting for >50% of human energy budget) and their associations with diet composition, metabolic thrift and obesity are equivocal. To clarify these ambiguities we used a unique animal model-mice selected for divergent BMR rates (the H-BMR and L-BMR line type) presenting a 50% between-line type difference in the primary selected trait. Males of each line type were divided into three groups and fed either a high fat, high carb or a control diet. They then spent 4 months in individual cages under conditions emulating human "sedentary lifestyle", with SPA followed every month and measurements of metabolic risk indicators (body fat mass %, blood lipid profile, fasting blood glucose levels and oxidative damage in the livers, kidneys and hearts) taken at the end of study. Mice with genetically determined high BMR assimilated more energy and had higher SPA irrespective of type of diet. H-BMR individuals were characterized by lower dry body fat mass %, better lipid profile and lower fasting blood glucose levels, but higher oxidative damage in the livers and hearts. Genetically determined high BMR may be a protective factor against diet-induced obesity and most of the metabolic syndrome indicators. Elevated spontaneous activity is correlated with high BMR, and constitutes an important factor affecting individual capability to sustain energy balance even under energy dense diets.

  12. Inflammatory Mediator Profiling of n-butanol Exposed Upper Airways in Individuals with Multiple Chemical Sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Meinertz Dantoft

    Full Text Available Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS is a chronic condition characterized by reports of recurrent symptoms in response to low level exposure to various chemical substances. Recent findings suggests that dysregulation of the immune system may play a role in MCS pathophysiology.The aim of this study was to examine baseline and low dose n-butanol-induced upper airway inflammatory response profiles in MCS subjects versus healthy controls.Eighteen participants with MCS and 18 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Epithelial lining fluid was collected from the nasal cavity at three time points: baseline, within 15 minutes after being exposed to 3.7 ppm n-butanol in an exposure chamber and four hours after exposure termination. A total of 19 cytokines and chemokines were quantified. Furthermore, at baseline and during the exposure session, participants rated the perceived intensity, valence and levels of symptoms and autonomic recordings were obtained.The physiological and psychophysical measurements during the n-butanol exposure session verified a specific response in MCS individuals only. However, MCS subjects and healthy controls displayed similar upper airway inflammatory mediator profiles (P>0.05 at baseline. Likewise, direct comparison of mediator levels in the MCS group and controls after n-butanol exposure revealed no significant group differences.We demonstrate no abnormal upper airway inflammatory mediator levels in MCS subjects before or after a symptom-eliciting exposure to low dose n-butanol, implying that upper airways of MCS subjects are functionally intact at the level of cytokine and chemokine production and secretory capacity. This suggests that previous findings of increased cytokine plasma levels in MCS are unlikely to be caused by systemic priming via excessive upper airway inflammatory processes.

  13. Inflammatory Mediator Profiling of n-butanol Exposed Upper Airways in Individuals with Multiple Chemical Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz; Skovbjerg, Sine; Andersson, Linus; Claeson, Anna-Sara; Lind, Nina; Nordin, Steven; Brix, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) is a chronic condition characterized by reports of recurrent symptoms in response to low level exposure to various chemical substances. Recent findings suggests that dysregulation of the immune system may play a role in MCS pathophysiology. The aim of this study was to examine baseline and low dose n-butanol-induced upper airway inflammatory response profiles in MCS subjects versus healthy controls. Eighteen participants with MCS and 18 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Epithelial lining fluid was collected from the nasal cavity at three time points: baseline, within 15 minutes after being exposed to 3.7 ppm n-butanol in an exposure chamber and four hours after exposure termination. A total of 19 cytokines and chemokines were quantified. Furthermore, at baseline and during the exposure session, participants rated the perceived intensity, valence and levels of symptoms and autonomic recordings were obtained. The physiological and psychophysical measurements during the n-butanol exposure session verified a specific response in MCS individuals only. However, MCS subjects and healthy controls displayed similar upper airway inflammatory mediator profiles (P>0.05) at baseline. Likewise, direct comparison of mediator levels in the MCS group and controls after n-butanol exposure revealed no significant group differences. We demonstrate no abnormal upper airway inflammatory mediator levels in MCS subjects before or after a symptom-eliciting exposure to low dose n-butanol, implying that upper airways of MCS subjects are functionally intact at the level of cytokine and chemokine production and secretory capacity. This suggests that previous findings of increased cytokine plasma levels in MCS are unlikely to be caused by systemic priming via excessive upper airway inflammatory processes.

  14. Low Cost High Performance Nanostructured Spectrally Selective Coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Sungho [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2017-04-05

    Sunlight absorbing coating is a key enabling technology to achieve high-temperature high-efficiency concentrating solar power operation. A high-performance solar absorbing material must simultaneously meet all the following three stringent requirements: high thermal efficiency (usually measured by figure of merit), high-temperature durability, and oxidation resistance. The objective of this research is to employ a highly scalable process to fabricate and coat black oxide nanoparticles onto solar absorber surface to achieve ultra-high thermal efficiency. Black oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized using a facile process and coated onto absorber metal surface. The material composition, size distribution and morphology of the nanoparticle are guided by numeric modeling. Optical and thermal properties have been both modeled and measured. High temperature durability has been achieved by using nanocomposites and high temperature annealing. Mechanical durability on thermal cycling have also been investigated and optimized. This technology is promising for commercial applications in next-generation high-temperature concentration solar power (CSP) plants.

  15. Lifecycle Prognostics Architecture for Selected High-Cost Active Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Lybeck; B. Pham; M. Tawfik; J. B. Coble; R. M. Meyer; P. Ramuhalli; L. J. Bond

    2011-08-01

    There are an extensive body of knowledge and some commercial products available for calculating prognostics, remaining useful life, and damage index parameters. The application of these technologies within the nuclear power community is still in its infancy. Online monitoring and condition-based maintenance is seeing increasing acceptance and deployment, and these activities provide the technological bases for expanding to add predictive/prognostics capabilities. In looking to deploy prognostics there are three key aspects of systems that are presented and discussed: (1) component/system/structure selection, (2) prognostic algorithms, and (3) prognostics architectures. Criteria are presented for component selection: feasibility, failure probability, consequences of failure, and benefits of the prognostics and health management (PHM) system. The basis and methods commonly used for prognostics algorithms are reviewed and summarized. Criteria for evaluating PHM architectures are presented: open, modular architecture; platform independence; graphical user interface for system development and/or results viewing; web enabled tools; scalability; and standards compatibility. Thirteen software products were identified and discussed in the context of being potentially useful for deployment in a PHM program applied to systems in a nuclear power plant (NPP). These products were evaluated by using information available from company websites, product brochures, fact sheets, scholarly publications, and direct communication with vendors. The thirteen products were classified into four groups of software: (1) research tools, (2) PHM system development tools, (3) deployable architectures, and (4) peripheral tools. Eight software tools fell into the deployable architectures category. Of those eight, only two employ all six modules of a full PHM system. Five systems did not offer prognostic estimates, and one system employed the full health monitoring suite but lacked operations and

  16. Lifecycle Prognostics Architecture for Selected High-Cost Active Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lybeck, N.; Pham, B.; Tawfik, M.; Coble, J.B.; Meyer, R.M.; Ramuhalli, P.; Bond, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    There are an extensive body of knowledge and some commercial products available for calculating prognostics, remaining useful life, and damage index parameters. The application of these technologies within the nuclear power community is still in its infancy. Online monitoring and condition-based maintenance is seeing increasing acceptance and deployment, and these activities provide the technological bases for expanding to add predictive/prognostics capabilities. In looking to deploy prognostics there are three key aspects of systems that are presented and discussed: (1) component/system/structure selection, (2) prognostic algorithms, and (3) prognostics architectures. Criteria are presented for component selection: feasibility, failure probability, consequences of failure, and benefits of the prognostics and health management (PHM) system. The basis and methods commonly used for prognostics algorithms are reviewed and summarized. Criteria for evaluating PHM architectures are presented: open, modular architecture; platform independence; graphical user interface for system development and/or results viewing; web enabled tools; scalability; and standards compatibility. Thirteen software products were identified and discussed in the context of being potentially useful for deployment in a PHM program applied to systems in a nuclear power plant (NPP). These products were evaluated by using information available from company websites, product brochures, fact sheets, scholarly publications, and direct communication with vendors. The thirteen products were classified into four groups of software: (1) research tools, (2) PHM system development tools, (3) deployable architectures, and (4) peripheral tools. Eight software tools fell into the deployable architectures category. Of those eight, only two employ all six modules of a full PHM system. Five systems did not offer prognostic estimates, and one system employed the full health monitoring suite but lacked operations and

  17. Yakima tribal perspectives on high level selection process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jim, R.; Wittman, J.; Tousley, D.R.; Hovis, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    When Congress went through the arduous process of fashioning a comprehensive plan for resolution of the nation's long-standing nuclear waste problem, it explicitly recognized that past federal efforts in this area had been inadequate. Congress also recognized that the primary reasons for the failure of earlier federal efforts was failure on the part of the federal government to seriously deal with very real technical questions about the geologic adequacy of prospective repository sites, and failure to address the concerns of state, tribal, and local governments in the repository selection and development process

  18. Selection of local extremophile lactic acid bacteria with high capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is related to the isolation and identification of strains of local thermophilic lactic acid bacteria belonging to the species, Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus. These bacteria can exist under extreme conditions of the digestive tract (acidity and high concentration of bile salts) and have a high ...

  19. Copper-based nanocatalysts for 2-butanol dehydrogenation: Screening and optimization of preparation parameters by response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geravand, Elham; Shariatinia, Geravand; Yaripour, Fereydoon [Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sahebdelfar, Saeed [National Iranian Petrochemical Company, P. O. Box 1493, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Two types of copper-based dehydrogenation nanocatalysts (Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Cu/SiO{sub 2}) were prepared from various precursors by impregnation (IM), sol-gel (SG) and co precipitation (COPRE) methods. The structures of samples were characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, XRD, XRF, TPR, N{sub 2}O-Titration, FT-IR, FE-SEM and TEM techniques. The catalytic performance tests in vapor-phase dehydrogenation of 2-butanol to methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) were carried out in a fixed-bed reactor at a temperature of 260 .deg. C under atmospheric pressure and LHSV of 4mL/(h·g cat). The experimental results indicated that (i) the copper oxide over the COPRE nanocatalyst was reduced at a lower temperature (222 .deg. C) in comparison with the CuO reduced on the SG and IM samples (243 and 327 .deg. C, respectively). Also, the percentage of reduction of CuO species on COPRE catalyst was the highest (98.8%) in comparison with the two other samples, (ii) the COPRE nanocatalyst exhibited the highest activity for the dehydrogenation of 2-butanol to MEK, and (iii) co-precipitation method was selected as an optimum method for preparation of nanocatalyst. The central composite experimental design method was applied for investigation of the effects of four critical preparation factors on the MEK selectivity of Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocatalyst. The results showed that Cu/Zn molar ratio and precipitation pH are the most effective factors on the response and the optimum conditions for synthesis of Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocatalyst with maximum selectivity of MEK were T(pre)=67.5 .deg. C, T(aging)=68.8 .deg. C, pH(pre)=7.27 and Cu/Zn molar ratio=1.38. The performance of the prepared nanocatalyst at the optimum conditions was comparable to the commercially available nanocatalyst.

  20. A Novel Ion - selective Polymeric Membrane Sensor for Determining Thallium(I) With High Selectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassim, Anuar; Rezayi, Majid; Ahmadzadeh, Saeid; Yusof, Noor Azah; Tee, Tan Wee; Abdullah, Abd Halim; Rounaghi, Gholamhossein; Mohajeri, Masoomeh; Heng, Lee Yook

    2011-01-01

    Thallium is a toxic metal that introduced into the environment mainly as a waste from the production of zinc, cadmium, and lead and by combustion of coal. Thallium causes gastrointestinal irritation and nerve damage when people are exposed to it for relatively short period of time. For long term, thallium has the potential to cause the following effects: change in blood chemistry, damage to liver, kidney, intestinal and testicular tissue, and hair loss. In this work a membrane was prepared by use of 4'-nitrobenzo -18-crown-6 (4'NB18C6) as an ion carrier, polyvinylchloride (PVC) as a matrix, and diocthylphetalate (DOP) as a plasticizer for making an ion selective electrode for measurement of Tl + cation in solutions. The amount of 4'-nitrobenzo-18C6 and polyvinylchloride were optimized in the preparation of the membrane. The response of the electrode was Nernstian within the concentration range 1.0 x 10 -8 to 1.0 x 10 -1 M. This sensor displays a drift in Nernstian response for this cation with increasing the amount of ionophore and decreasing the amount of polyvinylchloride.The results of potentiometric measurements showed that, this electrode also responses to Cu 2+ Ni 2+ and Pb 2+ cations, but the electrode has a wider dynamic range and a lower detection limit to Tl + cation. The effects of various parameters such as pH, different cations interferences, effect of the amount of ionophore and polyvinylchloride and time on response of the coated ion selective electrode were investigated. Finally the constructed electrode was used in complexometric and precipitation titrations of Tl + cation with EDTA and KBr, respectively. The response of the fabricated electrode at concentration range from 1.0 x 10 -8 to 1.0 x 10 -1 M is linear with a Nernstian slope of 57.27 mV.

  1. A Novel Ion - selective Polymeric Membrane Sensor for Determining Thallium(I) With High Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Anuar; Rezayi, Majid; Ahmadzadeh, Saeid; Rounaghi, Gholamhossein; Mohajeri, Masoomeh; Azah Yusof, Noor; Tee, Tan Wee; Yook Heng, Lee; Halim Abdullah, Abd

    2011-02-01

    Thallium is a toxic metal that introduced into the environment mainly as a waste from the production of zinc, cadmium, and lead and by combustion of coal. Thallium causes gastrointestinal irritation and nerve damage when people are exposed to it for relatively short period of time. For long term, thallium has the potential to cause the following effects: change in blood chemistry, damage to liver, kidney, intestinal and testicular tissue, and hair loss. In this work a membrane was prepared by use of 4'-nitrobenzo -18-crown-6 (4'NB18C6) as an ion carrier, polyvinylchloride (PVC) as a matrix, and diocthylphetalate (DOP) as a plasticizer for making an ion selective electrode for measurement of Tl+ cation in solutions. The amount of 4'-nitrobenzo-18C6 and polyvinylchloride were optimized in the preparation of the membrane. The response of the electrode was Nernstian within the concentration range 1.0 × 10-8 to 1.0 × 10-1M. This sensor displays a drift in Nernstian response for this cation with increasing the amount of ionophore and decreasing the amount of polyvinylchloride.The results of potentiometric measurements showed that, this electrode also responses to Cu2+ Ni2+ and Pb2+ cations, but the electrode has a wider dynamic range and a lower detection limit to Tl+ cation. The effects of various parameters such as pH, different cations interferences, effect of the amount of ionophore and polyvinylchloride and time on response of the coated ion selective electrode were investigated. Finally the constructed electrode was used in complexometric and precipitation titrations of Tl+ cation with EDTA and KBr, respectively. The response of the fabricated electrode at concentration range from 1.0 × 10-8 to 1.0 × 10-1M is linear with a Nernstian slope of 57.27 mV.

  2. The Draft Genome Sequence of Clostridium sp. Strain NJ4, a Bacterium Capable of Producing Butanol from Inulin Through Consolidated Bioprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yujia; Lu, Jiasheng; Chen, Tianpeng; Yan, Wei; Dong, Weiliang; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Wenming; Ma, Jiangfeng; Jiang, Min; Xin, Fengxue

    2018-05-23

    A novel butanogenic Clostridium sp. NJ4 was successfully isolated and characterized, which could directly produce relatively high titer of butanol from inulin through consolidated bioprocessing (CBP). The assembled draft genome of strain NJ4 is 4.09 Mp, containing 3891 encoded protein sequences with G+C content of 30.73%. Among these annotated genes, a levanase, a hypothetical inulinase, and two bifunctional alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenases (AdhE) were found to play key roles in the achievement of ABE production from inulin through CBP.

  3. Chemiluminescence analysis of the effect of butanol-diesel fuel blends on the spray-combustion process in an experimental common rail diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merola Simona Silvia S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Combustion process was studied from the injection until the late combustion phase in an high swirl optically accessible combustion bowl connected to a single cylinder 2-stroke high pressure common rail compression ignition engine. Commercial diesel and blends of diesel and n-butanol (20%: BU20 and 40%: BU40 were used for the experiments. A pilot plus main injection strategy was investigated fixing the injection pressure and fuel mass injected per stroke. Two main injection timings and different pilot-main dwell times were explored achieving for any strategy a mixing controlled combustion. Advancing the main injection start, an increase in net engine working cycle (>40% together with a strong smoke number decrease (>80% and NOx concentration increase (@50% were measured for all pilot injection timings. Compared to diesel fuel, butanol induced a decrease in soot emission and an increase in net engine working area when butanol ratio increased in the blend. A noticeable increase in NOx was detected at the exhaust for BU40 with a slight effect of the dwell-time. Spectroscopic investigations confirmed the delayed auto-ignition (~60 ms of the pilot injection for BU40 compared to diesel. The spectral features for the different fuels were comparable at the start of combustion process, but they evolved in different ways. Broadband signal caused by soot emission, was lower for BU40 than diesel. Different balance of the bands at 309 and 282 nm, due to different OH transitions, were detected between the two fuels. The ratio of these intensities was used to follow flame temperature evolution.

  4. A Novel Ion - selective Polymeric Membrane Sensor for Determining Thallium(I) With High Selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassim, Anuar; Rezayi, Majid; Ahmadzadeh, Saeid; Yusof, Noor Azah; Tee, Tan Wee; Abdullah, Abd Halim [Department of Chemistry Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Rounaghi, Gholamhossein; Mohajeri, Masoomeh [Department of Chemistry, Factuality of Sciences, Islamic Azad University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Heng, Lee Yook, E-mail: anuar@science.upm.edu.my [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor D.E. (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    Thallium is a toxic metal that introduced into the environment mainly as a waste from the production of zinc, cadmium, and lead and by combustion of coal. Thallium causes gastrointestinal irritation and nerve damage when people are exposed to it for relatively short period of time. For long term, thallium has the potential to cause the following effects: change in blood chemistry, damage to liver, kidney, intestinal and testicular tissue, and hair loss. In this work a membrane was prepared by use of 4'-nitrobenzo -18-crown-6 (4'NB18C6) as an ion carrier, polyvinylchloride (PVC) as a matrix, and diocthylphetalate (DOP) as a plasticizer for making an ion selective electrode for measurement of Tl{sup +} cation in solutions. The amount of 4'-nitrobenzo-18C6 and polyvinylchloride were optimized in the preparation of the membrane. The response of the electrode was Nernstian within the concentration range 1.0 x 10{sup -8} to 1.0 x 10{sup -1}M. This sensor displays a drift in Nernstian response for this cation with increasing the amount of ionophore and decreasing the amount of polyvinylchloride.The results of potentiometric measurements showed that, this electrode also responses to Cu{sup 2+} Ni{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} cations, but the electrode has a wider dynamic range and a lower detection limit to Tl{sup +} cation. The effects of various parameters such as pH, different cations interferences, effect of the amount of ionophore and polyvinylchloride and time on response of the coated ion selective electrode were investigated. Finally the constructed electrode was used in complexometric and precipitation titrations of Tl{sup +} cation with EDTA and KBr, respectively. The response of the fabricated electrode at concentration range from 1.0 x 10{sup -8} to 1.0 x 10{sup -1}M is linear with a Nernstian slope of 57.27 mV.

  5. Filler metal selection for welding a high nitrogen stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Toit, Madeleine

    2002-06-01

    Cromanite is a high-strength austenitic stainless steel that contains approximately 19% chromium, 10% manganese, and 0.5% nitrogen. It can be welded successfully, but due to the high nitrogen content of the base metal, precautions have to be taken to ensure sound welds with the desired combination of properties. Although no matching filler metals are currently available, Cromanite can be welded using a range of commercially available stainless steel welding consumables. E307 stainless steel, the filler metal currently recommended for joining Cromanite, produces welds with mechanical properties that are generally inferior to those of the base metal. In wear applications, these lower strength welds would probably be acceptable, but in applications where full use is made of the high strength of Cromanite, welds with matching strength levels would be required. In this investigation, two welding consumables, ER2209 (a duplex austenitic-ferritic stainless steel) and 15CrMn (an austenitic-manganese hardfacing wire), were evaluated as substitutes for E307. When used to join Cromanite, 15CrMn produced welds displaying severe nitrogen-induced porosity, and this consumable is therefore not recommended. ER2209, however, outperformed E307, producing sound porosity-free welds with excellent mechanical properties, including high ductility and strength levels exceeding the minimum limits specified for Cromanite.

  6. High-density nanopore array for selective biomolecule transport.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Kamlesh D.

    2011-11-01

    Development of sophisticated tools capable of manipulating molecules at their own length scale enables new methods for chemical synthesis and detection. Although nanoscale devices have been developed to perform individual tasks, little work has been done on developing a truly scalable platform: a system that combines multiple components for sequential processing, as well as simultaneously processing and identifying the millions of potential species that may be present in a biological sample. The development of a scalable micro-nanofluidic device is limited in part by the ability to combine different materials (polymers, metals, semiconductors) onto a single chip, and the challenges with locally controlling the chemical, electrical, and mechanical properties within a micro or nanochannel. We have developed a unique construct known as a molecular gate: a multilayered polymer based device that combines microscale fluid channels with nanofluidic interconnects. Molecular gates have been demonstrated to selectively transport molecules between channels based on size or charge. In order to fully utilize these structures, we need to develop methods to actively control transport and identify species inside a nanopore. While previous work has been limited to creating electrical connections off-channel or metallizing the entire nanopore wall, we now have the ability to create multiple, separate conductive connections at the interior surface of a nanopore. These interior electrodes will be used for direct sensing of biological molecules, probing the electrical potential and charge distribution at the surface, and to actively turn on and off electrically driven transport of molecules through nanopores.

  7. Highly sensitive and selective detection of dopamine using one-pot synthesized highly photoluminescent silicon nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Chen, Xiaokai; Kai, Siqi; Wang, Hong-Yin; Yang, Jingjing; Wu, Fu-Gen; Chen, Zhan

    2015-03-17

    A simple and highly efficient method for dopamine (DA) detection using water-soluble silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) was reported. The SiNPs with a high quantum yield of 23.6% were synthesized by using a one-pot microwave-assisted method. The fluorescence quenching capability of a variety of molecules on the synthesized SiNPs has been tested; only DA molecules were found to be able to quench the fluorescence of these SiNPs effectively. Therefore, such a quenching effect can be used to selectively detect DA. All other molecules tested have little interference with the dopamine detection, including ascorbic acid, which commonly exists in cells and can possibly affect the dopamine detection. The ratio of the fluorescence intensity difference between the quenched and unquenched cases versus the fluorescence intensity without quenching (ΔI/I) was observed to be linearly proportional to the DA analyte concentration in the range from 0.005 to 10.0 μM, with a detection limit of 0.3 nM (S/N = 3). To the best of our knowledge, this is the lowest limit for DA detection reported so far. The mechanism of fluorescence quenching is attributed to the energy transfer from the SiNPs to the oxidized dopamine molecules through Förster resonance energy transfer. The reported method of SiNP synthesis is very simple and cheap, making the above sensitive and selective DA detection approach using SiNPs practical for many applications.

  8. Operation and design selection of high temperature superconducting magnetic bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werfel, F N; Floegel-Delor, U; Riedel, T; Rothfeld, R; Wippich, D; Goebel, B

    2004-01-01

    Axial and radial high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnetic bearings are evaluated by their parameters. Journal bearings possess advantages over thrust bearings. High magnetic gradients in a multi-pole permanent magnet (PM) configuration, the surrounding melt textured YBCO stator and adequate designs are the key features for increasing the overall bearing stiffness. The gap distance between rotor and stator determines the specific forces and has a strong impact on the PM rotor design. We report on the designing, building and measuring of a 200 mm prototype 100 kg HTS bearing with an encapsulated and thermally insulated melt textured YBCO ring stator. The encapsulation requires a magnetically large-gap (4-5 mm) operation but reduces the cryogenic effort substantially. The bearing requires 3 l of LN 2 for cooling down, and about 0.2 l LN 2 h -1 under operation. This is a dramatic improvement of the efficiency and in the practical usage of HTS magnetic bearings

  9. Focus point in dark matter selected high-scale supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Sibo [Department of Physics, Chongqing University,Chongqing, 401331 P.R. (China)

    2015-03-19

    In this paper, we explore conditions for focus point in the high-scale supersymmetry with the weak-scale gaugino masses. In this context the tension between the naturalness and LHC 2013 data about supersymmetry as well as the cold dark matter candidate are addressed simultaneously. It is shown that the observed Higgs mass can be satisfied in a wide classes of new models, which are realized by employing the non-minimal gauge mediation.

  10. Supported polytertiary amines: highly efficient and selective SO2 adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tailor, Ritesh; Abboud, Mohamed; Sayari, Abdelhamid

    2014-01-01

    Tertiary amine containing poly(propyleneimine) second (G2) and third (G3) generation dendrimers as well as polyethyleneimine (PEI) were developed for the selective removal of SO2. N-Alkylation of primary and secondary amines into tertiary amines was confirmed by FTIR and NMR analysis. Such modified polyamines were impregnated on two nanoporous supports, namely, SBA-15PL silica with platelet morphology and ethanol-extracted pore-expanded MCM-41 (PME) composite. In the presence of 0.1% SO2/N2 at 23 °C, the uptake of modified PEI, G2, and G3 supported on SBA-15PL was 2.07, 2.35, and 1.71 mmol/g, respectively; corresponding to SO2/N ratios of 0.22, 0.4, and 0.3. Under the same conditions, the SO2 adsorption capacity of PME-supported modified PEI and G3 was significantly higher, reaching 4.68 and 4.34 mmol/g, corresponding to SO2/N ratios of 0.41 and 0.82, respectively. The working SO2 adsorption capacity decreased with increasing temperature, reflecting the exothermic nature of the process. The adsorption capacity of these materials was enhanced dramatically in the presence of humidity in the gas mixture. FTIR data before SO2 adsorption and after adsorption and regeneration did not indicate any change in the materials. Nonetheless, the SO2 working capacity decreased in consecutive adsorption/regeneration cycles due to evaporation of impregnated polyamines, rather than actual deactivation. FTIR and (13)C and (15)N CP-MAS NMR of fresh and SO2 adsorbed modified G3 on PME confirmed the formation of a complexation adduct.

  11. High Dietary Fat Selectively Increases Catalase Expression within Cardiac Mitochondria*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindler, Paul M.; Plafker, Scott M.; Szweda, Luke I.; Kinter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a predictor of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. One consequence of obesity is dyslipidemia characterized by high blood triglycerides. It has been proposed that oxidative stress, driven by utilization of lipids for energy, contributes to these diseases. The effects of oxidative stress are mitigated by an endogenous antioxidant enzyme network, but little is known about its response to high fat utilization. Our experiments used a multiplexed quantitative proteomics method to measure antioxidant enzyme expression in heart tissue in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. This experiment showed a rapid and specific up-regulation of catalase protein, with subsequent assays showing increases in activity and mRNA. Catalase, traditionally considered a peroxisomal protein, was found to be present in cardiac mitochondria and significantly increased in content and activity during high fat feeding. These data, coupled with the fact that fatty acid oxidation enhances mitochondrial H2O2 production, suggest that a localized catalase increase is needed to consume excessive mitochondrial H2O2 produced by increased fat metabolism. To determine whether the catalase-specific response is a common feature of physiological conditions that increase blood triglycerides and fatty acid oxidation, we measured changes in antioxidant expression in fasted versus fed mice. Indeed, a similar specific catalase increase was observed in mice fasted for 24 h. Our findings suggest a fundamental metabolic process in which catalase expression is regulated to prevent damage while preserving an H2O2-mediated sensing of diet composition that appropriately adjusts insulin sensitivity in the short term as needed to prioritize lipid metabolism for complete utilization. PMID:23204527

  12. Preparation of H-mordenite/MCM-48 composite and its catalytic performance in the alkylation of toluene with tert-butanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiwei; Cheng, Fuling; Qin, Juan; Yu, Pengcheng; Xu, Lin; Gu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Xiaoqin; Wu, Wenliang

    2017-09-01

    A series of HM/MCM-48 samples with different SiO2/Al2O3 molar ratio were prepared by sol-gel method. The prepared catalysts were characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption, NH3-TPD, FT-IR, SEM, and TEM techniques, and their catalytic performance was investigated in alkylation of toluene with tert-butanol. The adsorption capacity and the acid sites amount of HM/MCM-48-4 sample prepared by growing MCM-48 on the surface of HM zeolite are much higher than that of their mechanical mixture (HM/MCM-48(4) sample) due to its biporous structure; it shows higher catalytic performance than other HM/MCM-48 samples. The influence of reaction conditions on the catalytic performance of HM/MCM-48-4 zeolite was discussed. Toluene conversion of 41.4% and p-tert-butyltoluene selectivity of 73.5% were obtained at the weight ratio of toluene to HM/MCM-48-4 of 5, reaction temperature of 453 K, reaction time of 5 h and the molar ratio of toluene to tert-butanol of 0.5.

  13. Selected topics in high temperature chemistry defect chemistry of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Johannesen, Ø

    2013-01-01

    The properties of materials at high temperature play a vital role in their processing and practical use. The real properties of materials at elevated temperatures are very often governed by defects in their structure. Lattice defects may consist of point defects like vacancies, interstitial atoms or substituted atoms. These classes are discussed in general and specifically for oxides, nitrides, carbides and sulfides. Defect aggregates, shear structures and adaptive structures are also described. Special attention is paid to hydrogen defects which seem to play an important role in several mater

  14. A narrow pH range supports butanol, hexanol, and octanol production from syngas in a continuous co-culture of Clostridium ljungdahlii and Clostridium kluyveri with in-line product extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanno Richter

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Carboxydotrophic bacteria (CTB have received attention due to their ability to synthesize commodity chemicals from producer gas and synthesis gas (syngas. CTB have an important advantage of a high product selectivity compared to chemical catalysts. However, the product spectrum of wild-type CTB is narrow. Our objective was to investigate whether a strategy of combining two wild-type bacterial strains into a single, continuously fed bioprocessing step would be promising to broaden the product spectrum. Here, we have operated a syngas-fermentation process with Clostridium ljungdahlii and Clostridium kluyveri with in-line product extraction through gas stripping and product condensing within the syngas recirculation line. The main products from C. ljungdahlii fermentation at a pH of 6.0 were ethanol and acetate at net volumetric production rates of 65.5 and 431 mmol C•L-1•d-1, respectively. An estimated 2/3 of total ethanol produced was utilized by C. kluyveri to chain elongate with the reverse β-oxidation pathway, resulting in n-butyrate and n-caproate at net rates of 129 and 70 mmol C•L-1•d-1, respectively. C. ljungdahlii likely reduced the produced carboxylates to their corresponding alcohols with the reductive power from syngas. This resulted in the longer-chain alcohols n-butanol, n-hexanol, and n-octanol at net volumetric production rates of 39.2, 31.7, and 0.045 mmol C•L-1•d-1, respectively. The continuous production of the longer-chain alcohols occurred only within a narrow pH spectrum of 5.7-6.4 due to the pH discrepancy between the two strains. Regardless whether other wild-type strains could overcome this pH discrepancy, the specificity (mol carbon in product per mol carbon in all other liquid products for each longer-chain alcohol may never be high in a single bioprocessing step. This, because two bioprocesses compete for intermediates (i.e., carboxylates: 1 chain elongation; and 2 biological reduction. This innate

  15. Phase associations and potential selective extraction methods for selected high-tech metals from ferromanganese nodules and crusts with siderophores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohwinkel, Dennis; Kleint, Charlotte; Koschinsky, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Phase associations of metals in marine Fe–Mn nodules and crusts were determined. • Selective leaching experiments with siderophore desferrioxamine B were conducted. • Siderophores selectively mobilize high-tech metals associated with Fe carrier phases. • Base metal liberation including Fe and Mn is limited. • Siderophores have promising potential for application in ore processing industries. - Abstract: Deep-sea ferromanganese deposits contain a wide range of economically important metals. Ferromanganese crusts and nodules represent an important future resource, since they not only contain base metals such as Mn, Ni, Co, Cu and Zn, but are also enriched in critical or rare high-technology elements such as Li, Mo, Nb, W, the rare earth elements and yttrium (REY). These metals could be extracted from nodules and crusts as a by-product to the base metal production. However, there are no proper separation techniques available that selectively extract certain metals out of the carrier phases. By sequential leaching, we demonstrated that, except for Li, which is present in an easily soluble form, all other high-tech metals enriched in ferromanganese nodules and crusts are largely associated with the Fe-oxyhydroxide phases and only to subordinate extents with Mn-oxide phases. Based on this fact, we conducted selective leaching experiments with the Fe-specific organic ligand desferrioxamine-B, a naturally occurring and ubiquitous siderophore. We showed by leaching of ferromanganese nodules and crusts with desferrioxamine-B that a significant and selective extraction of high-tech metals such as Li, Mo, Zr, Hf and Ta is possible, while other elements like Fe and the base metals Mn, Ni, Cu, Co and Zn are not extracted to large extents. The set of selectively extracted elements can be extended to Nb and W if Mn and carbonate phases are stripped from the bulk nodule or crust prior to the siderophore leach by e.g. a sequential leaching technique. This

  16. Multi-year high-frequency hydrothermal monitoring of selected high-threat Cascade Range volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crankshaw, I. M.; Archfield, S. A.; Newman, A. C.; Bergfeld, D.; Clor, L. E.; Spicer, K. R.; Kelly, P. J.; Evans, W. C.; Ingebritsen, S. E.

    2018-05-01

    From 2009 to 2015 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) systematically monitored hydrothermal behavior at selected Cascade Range volcanoes in order to define baseline hydrothermal and geochemical conditions. Gas and water data were collected regularly at 25 sites on 10 of the highest-risk volcanoes in the Cascade Range. These sites include near-summit fumarole groups and springs/streams that show clear evidence of magmatic influence (high 3He/4He ratios and/or large fluxes of magmatic CO2 or heat). Site records consist mainly of hourly temperature and hydrothermal-flux data. Having established baseline conditions during a multiyear quiescent period, the USGS reduced monitoring frequency from 2015 to present. The archived monitoring data are housed at (doi:10.5066/F72N5088). These data (1) are suitable for retrospective comparison with other continuous geophysical monitoring data and (2) will provide context during future episodes of volcanic unrest, such that unrest-related variations at these thoroughly characterized sites will be more clearly recognizable. Relatively high-frequency year-round data are essential to achieve these objectives, because many of the time series reveal significant diurnal, seasonal, and inter-annual variability that would tend to mask unrest signals in the absence of baseline data. Here we characterize normal variability for each site, suggest strategies to detect future volcanic unrest, and explore deviations from background associated with recent unrest.

  17. Thermophysical properties of N, N-dimethylacetamide mixtures with n-butanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharolkar, Aruna P.; Murugkar, A. G.; Khirade, P. W.; Mehrotra, S. C.

    2017-09-01

    The refraction, dielectric, viscosity, density, data of the binary mixtures of N, N-dimethylacetamide (DMA) with n-butanol at 308.15 and 313.15 K. The measured parameters used to obtain derived properties like Bruggeman factor, molar refraction and excess static dielectric constant, excess inverse relaxation time, excess molar volume and excess viscosity, excess molar refraction. The variation in magnitude with composition and temperature of these quantities has been used to discuss the type, strength and nature of binary interactions. Results confirm that there are strong hydrogen-bond interactions between unlike molecules of DMA+ n-butanol mixtures and that 1: 1 complexes are formed and strength of intermolecular interaction increases with temperature.

  18. Investigation of hydrolysis products in the acetone-butanol fermentation of vegetable agricultural waste materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakhmanovich, B M

    1960-01-01

    Determinations of the fundamental chemical composition of corn stalk, sunflower husk, and hemp scutch by chromatography were reported, e.g. pentoses (1.98, 1.98, 2.01%), hexoses (1.59, 1.72, 2.01% respectively.) and various amino acids (arginine, asparagine, histidine, glutamine, glycine, lysine, proline, serine, tyrosine, threonine, cysteine, cystine, alanine, and aspartic and glutamic acids). The sterilized products from the hydrolysis (pentoses, hexoses) in a combined mixture with a meal mash were normally fermented at 37/sup 0/ in the presence of acetone-butanol bacteria for 40 to 48 hours, yielding 10.46 to 12.50% of acetone, 15.09 to 18.0% of butanol, 3.79 to 6.08% of ethanol (a total yielding being 30 to 42% of solvents).

  19. When selection ratios are high: predicting the expatriation willingness of prospective domestic entry-level job applicants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, S.T.; Born, M.P.; Willemsen, M.E.; van der Molen, H.T.; Derous, E.

    2009-01-01

    High expatriate selection ratios thwart the ability of multinational organizations to select expatriates. Reducing the selection ratio may be accomplished by selecting those applicants for entry level domestic positions who have expatriate aspirations. Regression analyses conducted on data from a

  20. High-capacity, selective solid sequestrants for innovative chemical separation: Inorganic ion exchange approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, L.

    1995-01-01

    The approach of this task is to develop high-capacity, selective solid inorganic ion exchangers for the recovery of cesium and strontium from nuclear alkaline and acid wastes. To achieve this goal, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) is collaborating with industry and university participants to develop high capacity, selective, solid ion exchangers for the removal of specific contaminants from nuclear waste streams

  1. [Employees in high-reliability organizations: systematic selection of personnel as a final criterion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oubaid, V; Anheuser, P

    2014-05-01

    Employees represent an important safety factor in high-reliability organizations. The combination of clear organizational structures, a nonpunitive safety culture, and psychological personnel selection guarantee a high level of safety. The cockpit personnel selection process of a major German airline is presented in order to demonstrate a possible transferability into medicine and urology.

  2. Carbon isotope discrimination as a selection tool for high water use efficiency and high crop yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumarasinghe, K S; Kirda, C; Bowen, G D [Joint FAO/IAEA Div. of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna (Austria). Soil Fertility, Irrigation and Crop Production Section; Zapata, F; Awonaike, K O; Holmgren, E; Arslan, A; De Bisbal, E C; Mohamed, A R.A.G.; Montenegro, A [FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Lab., Seibersdorf (Austria). Soils Science Unit

    1996-07-01

    Results of back-up research conducted at the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory in support of the FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Use of Isotope Studies on Increasing and Stabilizing Plant Productivity in Low Phosphate and Semi-arid and Sub-humid Soils of the Tropics and Sub-tropics, are presented here. Neutron probe measurements confirmed the earlier reports of a strong correlation of {Delta} with grain yield and water use efficiency of wheat. High soil gypsum content and soil salinity, a wide spread problem in soils of arid and semi-arid climatic zones, do not interfere with the association of {Delta} with crop yields, provided plants are grown in similar soil water status and soil fertility level. Results of a glasshouse experiment using selected cowpea genotypes showed that {Delta} values measured at flowering stage positively correlated with total dry matter production and percent N{sub 2} derived from atmosphere (%Ndfa), contributing to an earlier report from the laboratory that it may be possible to use {Delta} values for screening of leguminous crops for high N{sub 2} fixation potential. {sup 13}C isotope discrimination in the leaves of Gliricidia sepium was measured to examine if the technique could be extended to studies with trees. Results of a glasshouse experiment with 18 provenances of Gliricidia sepium showed highly significant correlations of {Delta} with total dry matter production, water use efficiency and total N accumulated through biological nitrogen fixation. Although the correlation of {Delta} with water use efficiency and dry matter yield are relatively clear and better understood, the correlation with nitrogen fixation still needs a closer examination under different environmental conditions and with different species. (Abstract Truncated)

  3. High-consequence analysis, evaluation, and application of select criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutmanis, I.; Jaksch, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    A number of characteristics distinguish environmental risk from pollution problems. The characteristics make environmental risk problems harder to manage through existing regulatory, legal, and economic institutions. Hence, technologies involving environmental risk impose on society extremely difficult collective decisions. This paper is concerned with the process of reaching social decisions that involve low-probability, high-consequence outcomes. It is divided into five major parts. Part I contains the introduction. Part II reviews the two main classes of criteria that have been proposed for social decisions: approaches based on market mechanisms and their extension, and approaches associated with Rawls and Buchanan, which not only focus on outcomes, but also impose a set of minimal constraints on the process for reaching decisions and social consensus. Part III proposes a set of eight criteria for evaluating social decision processes. In Parts IV and V we investigate applying the criteria to two case studies -- one on nuclear waste disposal and the other on transportation of liquefied natural gas

  4. Novel furosemide cocrystals and selection of high solubility drug forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goud, N Rajesh; Gangavaram, Swarupa; Suresh, Kuthuru; Pal, Sharmistha; Manjunatha, Sulur G; Nambiar, Sudhir; Nangia, Ashwini

    2012-02-01

    Furosemide was screened in cocrystallization experiments with pharmaceutically acceptable coformer molecules to discover cocrystals of improved physicochemical properties, that is high solubility and good stability. Eight novel equimolar cocrystals of furosemide were obtained by liquid-assisted grinding with (i) caffeine, (ii) urea, (iii) p-aminobenzoic acid, (iv) acetamide, (v) nicotinamide, (vi) isonicotinamide, (vii) adenine, and (viii) cytosine. The product crystalline phases were characterized by powder x-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, infrared, Raman, near IR, and (13) C solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Furosemide-caffeine was characterized as a neutral cocrystal and furosemide-cytosine an ionic salt by single crystal x-ray diffraction. The stability of furosemide-caffeine, furosemide-adenine, and furosemide-cytosine was comparable to the reference drug in 10% ethanol-water slurry; there was no evidence of dissociation of the cocrystal to furosemide for up to 48 h. The other five cocrystals transformed to furosemide within 24 h. The solubility order for the stable forms is furosemide-cytosine > furosemide-adenine > furosemide-caffeine, and their solubilities are approximately 11-, 7-, and 6-fold higher than furosemide. The dissolution rates of furosemide cocrystals were about two times faster than the pure drug. Three novel furosemide compounds of higher solubility and good phase stability were identified in a solid form screen. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Vapor-liquid equilibria for the acetone-ethanol-n-propanol-tert-butanol-water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tochigi, K.; Uchida, K.; Kojima, K.

    1981-12-01

    This study deals with the measurement of vapor-liquid equilibria for the five-component system acetone-ethanol-n-propanol-tert-butanol-water at 760 mmHg and prediction of vapor-liquid equilibria by the ASOG group contribution method. The five-component system in this work is composed of a part of the components obtained during ethanol production by vapor-phase hydration of ethylene. 6 refs.

  6. Fermentation of molasses-flour mashes by acetone-butanol bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekasina, E V

    1962-01-01

    With Clostridium acetobutylicum used in a continuous fermentation, where the mash passes through 5 to 12 fermenters, sufficient conversion of starch to mono- and disaccharides will occur; the number of fermenters were chosen and mash changed so that fresh mash remains for 34 hours in the cycle. After a 29 hour fermentation average yields were: acetone 4.5, ethanol 3.0, butanol 7.5%.

  7. EFFECT OF COMPOSITION OF FUEL CONTAINING BUTANOL ON WORKING PROCESS PARAMETERS OF DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Hershan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Computational researches the effect of composition of fuel containing butanol on working process parameters of 4ЧН 11/12,5 diesel engine on the external speed characteristic have been conducted. Nominal power is 140 kW at engine speed 2300 min–1. The engine is equipped with gas turbine pressure charging with intercooling of charging air, accumulator-type fuel-handling system. Calculations of the working process have been made in accordance with the developed computer program and models. Investigations have been carried out in two stages: without any changes in regulation of fuel-handling system and with cyclic fuel delivery that ensure such value of excess air factor at various operational modes which corresponds to the operation with diesel fuel. All the obtained results have been analyzed in the paper. The paper shows changes in mean indicated pressure, specific indicated fuel consumption, indicated efficiency, specific nitrogen oxides emissions for various modes in question while using 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 % mixture of diesel fuel with butanol. Dependences of parameters pertaining to diesel operation have been determined according to external speed characteristic for various mixtures and the obtained data make it possible to justify parameters of the fuel-handling system. It has been recommended to use a diesel fuel-butanol mixture containing 15 % of butanol without any changes in regulating and design engine parameters. It has been revealed that in order to improve parameters of the engine operational process mixture composition must be changed while changing the operational mode. An injector nozzle with a compound needle for the fuel-handling system has been developed and it allows to change fuel composition according to engine operational mode.

  8. Direct Visualization of 2-Butanol Adsorption and Dissociation on TiO2(110)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhenrong; Bondarchuk, Olexsandr; Kay, Bruce D.; White, J. M.; Dohnalek, Zdenek

    2007-01-01

    Atomically resolved scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images of identical regions of a TiO2(110) surface were gathered before and after controlled doses of 2-butanol (CH3CH2CH(OH)CH3) at ambient temperature (∼300 K). When dosing is initiated, 2-butanol preferentially adsorbs at bridge-bonded oxygen vacancy (BBOv) sites and dissociates via O-H, not C-O, bond scission to form paired 2-butoxy and hydroxyl species evidenced by two local maxima in STM line profiles. The measured separation is 0.4 nm, slightly larger than the measured separation (0.3 nm) between neighboring bridge-bonded oxygen anions in the surface unit cell of TiO2(110). As the dose increases, but before all the BBOv are occupied, there is direct STM evidence of hydroxyl proton hopping to an adjacent oxygen anion row. This process is facilitated by species bound to 5-coordinate Ti4+ rows, presumably undissociated 2-butanol, that hop slowly compared the STM imaging time scale. The backbones of these mobile species are centered over the Ti4+ rows with preference for lying parallel to these rows. On the other hand, the carbon backbones of the 2-butoxy species that fill BBOv's are centered over the O2- rows and prefer an orientation perpendicular to these rows. As the oxygen vacancy concentration increases from 0.4 to 11% and 2-butanol is dosed the ratio of mobile species to 2-butoxy species decreases for doses that do not fill all the BBOv

  9. Carbon isotope discrimination as a selection tool for high water use efficiency and high crop yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumarasinghe, K.S.; Kirda, C.; Bowen, G.D.; Zapata, F.; Awonaike, K.O.; Holmgren, E.; Arslan, A.; De Bisbal, E.C.; Mohamed, A.R.A.G.; Montenegro, A.

    1996-01-01

    Results of back-up research conducted at the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory in support of the FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Use of Isotope Studies on Increasing and Stabilizing Plant Productivity in Low Phosphate and Semi-arid and Sub-humid Soils of the Tropics and Sub-tropics, are presented here. Neutron probe measurements confirmed the earlier reports of a strong correlation of Δ with grain yield and water use efficiency of wheat. High soil gypsum content and soil salinity, a wide spread problem in soils of arid and semi-arid climatic zones, do not interfere with the association of Δ with crop yields, provided plants are grown in similar soil water status and soil fertility level. Results of a glasshouse experiment using selected cowpea genotypes showed that Δ values measured at flowering stage positively correlated with total dry matter production and percent N 2 derived from atmosphere (%Ndfa), contributing to an earlier report from the laboratory that it may be possible to use Δ values for screening of leguminous crops for high N 2 fixation potential. 13 C isotope discrimination in the leaves of Gliricidia sepium was measured to examine if the technique could be extended to studies with trees. Results of a glasshouse experiment with 18 provenances of Gliricidia sepium showed highly significant correlations of Δ with total dry matter production, water use efficiency and total N accumulated through biological nitrogen fixation. Although the correlation of Δ with water use efficiency and dry matter yield are relatively clear and better understood, the correlation with nitrogen fixation still needs a closer examination under different environmental conditions and with different species. While 13 C isotope discrimination may be a valuable tool for identifying annual crops with high water use efficiency and high yield potential, it may be more attractive for tree species considering the long growth periods taken for trees

  10. UVC-mutagenesis in acetogens: resistance to methanol, ethanol, acetone, or n-butanol in recombinants with tailored genomes as the step in engineering of commercial biocatalysts for continuous CO₂/H₂ blend fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiriukhin, Michael; Tyurin, Michael; Gak, Eugene

    2014-05-01

    Time- and cost-efficient six-step UVC-mutagenesis was developed and validated to generate acetogen mutants with preliminary reduced genomes to prevent product inhibition in the to-be-engineered commercial biocatalysts. Genome reduction was performed via elimination of pta, ack, spo0A, spo0J and some pro-phage genes. UVC-mutants such as Clostridium sp. MT1784RG, Clostridium sp. MT653RG, Clostridium sp. MT896RG, and Clostridium sp. MT1962RG (all 4 share 97 % DNA homology with Clostridium ljungdahlii ATCC 55383) were selected based on resistance to methanol (3 M), ethanol (3.6 M), acetone (2.5 M), or n-butanol (0.688 M), respectively. As a part of the biocatalyst engineering algorithm, genome reduction step was associated with integration of attTn7 recognition sequence to the chromosomes of each of the above strains to prepare the defined integration sites for future integration of multi-copy synthetic operons encoding biosynthesis of methanol, ethanol, acetone or n-butanol. Reduced genome mutants had cell duplication times decreased compared to the same for the respective parental strains. All groups of mutants had decreased share of palmitic (C16:0) and increased share of oleic (C18:1) acids along with detection of isopropylstearate (C20) compared to the parental strains. Mutants resistant to acetone and n-butanol also had monounsaturated fatty acid (C20:1) not found in parental strains. Cyclopropane fatty acid (C21) was identified only in n-butanol resistant mutants.

  11. Selection and Physical Properties of High-redshift Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, G. W.

    2014-09-01

    galaxies; and the clustering amplitude of OGs is a factor of ˜2 larger than DGs. In Chapter 3, we pick out 1609 star-forming galaxies (sgzKs: gzK=(z-K)_{AB}-1.4(g-z)_{AB}≥ 0.2) and 422 passively evolving galaxies (pgzKs: gzK2.7) at z˜2 in the AEGIS field (K_{AB} rate (SFR) and specific SFR (sSFR) of sgzKs increase with redshift at all masses, implying that star-forming galaxies were much more active on average in the past. Moreover, the sSFR of massive galaxies is lower at all redshifts, suggesting that the mass growth of low-mass galaxies is more attributed to the star formation while comparing with high-mass galaxies. From the HST WFC3/F160W imaging data, we find that gzKs not only have diffuse structures, but also have single-object morphologies, implying that there are morphological variety and different formation processes for these galaxies at z˜2. In addition, we also find ˜ 10% of 828 gzKs can be classified as AGNs. In Chapter 4, we present Spitzer/IRS spectra of a sample of 14 ULIRGs with 0.2 {mJy} 10^{11} M_{⊙} and 410 M_⊙\\cdot yr^{-1}< SFR <1022 M_⊙\\cdot yr^{-1}, respectively. Their rest-frame optical morphologies are very diversified including string-like, extended/diffused, and even early type spiral morphologies, implying that there are different formation processes for these galaxies. We also search for active galactic nucleus (AGN) signature in our sample using X-ray, radio, and mid-infrared (MIR) observations. EGS22, EGS25, EGS27, and EGS34 are detected in the X-ray imaging. The X-ray luminosities for EGS22 and EGS34 can be accounted for by their intensive star formation. EGS25 and EGS27 have higher L_{2-10 keV}, indicating that they harbor AGNs. About 14% to 29% of the sample show signatures of AGNs in X-ray, MIR or radio. Finally, the summary of the whole thesis and outlook are presented in Chapter 5.

  12. Effect of dilute alkaline pretreatment on the conversion of different parts of corn stalk to fermentable sugars and its application in acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Di; Li, Ping; Luo, Zhangfeng; Qin, Peiyong; Chen, Changjing; Wang, Yong; Wang, Zheng; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the effect of dilute alkaline pretreatment on different parts of biomass, corn stalk was separated into flower, leaf, cob, husk and stem, which were treated by NaOH in range of temperature and chemical loading. The NaOH-pretreated solid was then enzymatic hydrolysis and used as the substrate for batch acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. The results demonstrated the five parts of corn stalk could be used as potential feedstock separately, with vivid performances in solvents production. Under the optimized conditions towards high product titer, 7.5g/L, 7.6g/L, 9.4g/L, 7g/L and 7.6g/L of butanol was obtained in the fermentation broth of flower, leaf, cob, husk and stem hydrolysate, respectively. Under the optimized conditions towards high product yield, 143.7g/kg, 126.3g/kg, 169.1g/kg, 107.7g/kg and 116.4g/kg of ABE solvent were generated, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Alkalization of steam and condensate with 2-amino-1-butanol and hydrazine; Alkalisering av aanga och kondensat med butanolamin och hydrazin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falk, I [Studsvik Material AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1996-04-01

    To maintain a low corrosion level in steam- and condensate systems at power and industrial plants, an alkalization of the steam is needed. A low corrosion level lowers the risk of operation disturbances and reduces the cost of the condensate clean up. A better knowledge in the behavior of the alkalis will improve the possibilities to avoid the corrosion attacks. In this work experimental measurements have been carried out during steam boiler conditions as temperature, continuous steam generation and condensation. It has been found that the volatility of 2-amino-1-butanol is very low during stationary dynamic conditions at 250 deg C and 120 deg C. To achieve a high ph-value in the final condensate a very high concentration of 2-amino-1-butanol is thus needed especially when the steam contains acidic compounds. The alkalization effect is obtained from ammonia which is created by thermal decomposition of hydrazine in the boiler water. It is necessary to carry out experimental investigations showing the thermal stability of organic compounds in boiler water before it is possible to recommend them as better volatile alkalis than ammonia and hydrazine. 6 refs, 13 figs

  14. Study on the partner selecting method of strategic alliance in high and new technology enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏起; 唐宇; 迟运领

    2004-01-01

    A successful and effective strategic alliance involves many factors, of which selecting a proper partner is the most important factor to achieve the success of the alliance. In view of the characteristics of strategic alliance in high and new technology enterprises and according to the analysis on the standards of partner selecting and the factors of the success of alliance, this paper does some deeper research on the partner selecting and the alliance evaluation process from the perspective of different strategic levels by using a fuzzy comprehensive evaluating method, thus providing a method to select the alliance partner for high and new technology enterprises in China.

  15. Stock selection of high-dose-irradiation-resistant materials for filter press under high-dose irradiation operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiyama, Shintaro; Minami, Mamoru; Hara, Kouji; Yamashita, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    In a volume reduction process for the decontamination of contained soil, the performance degradation of a filter press is expected owing to material deterioration under high-dose irradiation. Eleven-stock selection of candidate materials including polymers, fibers and rubbers for the filter press was conducted to achieve a high performance of volume reduction of contaminated soil and the following results were derived. Crude rubber and nylon were selected as prime candidates for packing, diaphragm and filter plate materials. Polyethylene was also selected as a prime candidate for the filter cloth material. (author)

  16. Impact of nanoparticles and butanol on properties and spray characteristics of waste cooking oil biodiesel and pure rapeseed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad K. H.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable biofuels can offset greenhouse gases by replacing fossil fuels destined for internal combustion engines. However, biofuels have their own setbacks and may lead to poor combustion inside the engine cylinder. In this study, nanoparticles and butanol were blended either separately or together with waste cooking oil biodiesel and neat rape seed oil to investigate the impact of these additives on the properties and spray characteristics. The investigation comprised of three stages, with each having an effect on how the next stage of the investigation was conducted. Initially, the physicochemical characteristics of 25ppm, 50ppm, 75ppm and 100ppm concentrations of aluminium oxide and copper oxide nanoparticle blends with fossil diesel, waste cooking oil biodiesel and rapeseed oil were investigated. The results from first stage investigation showed that, in general, blends containing aluminium oxide nanoparticles gave better results for almost all the concentrations when compared with copper oxide nanoparticle blends with the same nanoparticle concentrations. Overall, waste cooking oil biodiesel blended with 100ppm aluminium oxide nanoparticle showed most promising results like the flash point of 159.3°C, kinematic viscosity @40°C of 4.66 cSt, and gross calorific value of 44.43 MJ/kg. These values were 61.6% higher, 51.3% higher and 3.2% lower than that of corresponding fossil diesel values. Subsequently, in the second stage of the study, the addition of butanol was investigated to assess its ability to enhance the emulsion of biofuel-nanoparticles blends. Four blends containing 90% biodiesel & 10% butanol, and 90% rapeseed oil & 10% butanol, with and without 100ppm Al2O3 were prepared. Results showed that the kinematic viscosity of the fuel blends containing 100ppm aluminium oxide nanoparticles were decreased by 0.4% and 3.3%, for 90% biodiesel & 10% butanol and 90% rapeseed oil & 10% butanol blends respectively, when compared to without

  17. Impact of nanoparticles and butanol on properties and spray characteristics of waste cooking oil biodiesel and pure rapeseed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, K. H.; Hossain, A. K.

    2017-11-01

    Renewable biofuels can offset greenhouse gases by replacing fossil fuels destined for internal combustion engines. However, biofuels have their own setbacks and may lead to poor combustion inside the engine cylinder. In this study, nanoparticles and butanol were blended either separately or together with waste cooking oil biodiesel and neat rape seed oil to investigate the impact of these additives on the properties and spray characteristics. The investigation comprised of three stages, with each having an effect on how the next stage of the investigation was conducted. Initially, the physicochemical characteristics of 25ppm, 50ppm, 75ppm and 100ppm concentrations of aluminium oxide and copper oxide nanoparticle blends with fossil diesel, waste cooking oil biodiesel and rapeseed oil were investigated. The results from first stage investigation showed that, in general, blends containing aluminium oxide nanoparticles gave better results for almost all the concentrations when compared with copper oxide nanoparticle blends with the same nanoparticle concentrations. Overall, waste cooking oil biodiesel blended with 100ppm aluminium oxide nanoparticle showed most promising results like the flash point of 159.3°C, kinematic viscosity @40°C of 4.66 cSt, and gross calorific value of 44.43 MJ/kg. These values were 61.6% higher, 51.3% higher and 3.2% lower than that of corresponding fossil diesel values. Subsequently, in the second stage of the study, the addition of butanol was investigated to assess its ability to enhance the emulsion of biofuel-nanoparticles blends. Four blends containing 90% biodiesel & 10% butanol, and 90% rapeseed oil & 10% butanol, with and without 100ppm Al2O3 were prepared. Results showed that the kinematic viscosity of the fuel blends containing 100ppm aluminium oxide nanoparticles were decreased by 0.4% and 3.3%, for 90% biodiesel & 10% butanol and 90% rapeseed oil & 10% butanol blends respectively, when compared to without the nanoparticles. The

  18. High-throughput screening of metal-porphyrin-like graphenes for selective capture of carbon dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    Hyeonhu Bae; Minwoo Park; Byungryul Jang; Yura Kang; Jinwoo Park; Hosik Lee; Haegeun Chung; ChiHye Chung; Suklyun Hong; Yongkyung Kwon; Boris I. Yakobson; Hoonkyung Lee

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructured materials, such as zeolites and metal-organic frameworks, have been considered to capture CO2. However, their application has been limited largely because they exhibit poor selectivity for flue gases and low capture capacity under low pressures. We perform a high-throughput screening for selective CO2 capture from flue gases by using first principles thermodynamics. We find that elements with empty d orbitals selectively attract CO2 from gaseous mixtures under low CO2 pressures...

  19. The interplay of covalency, hydrogen bonding, and dispersion leads to a long range chiral network: The example of 2-butanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liriano, Melissa L.; Lewis, Emily A.; Murphy, Colin J.; Lawton, Timothy J.; Marcinkowski, Matthew D.; Therrien, Andrew J.; Sykes, E. Charles H.; Carrasco, Javier; Michaelides, Angelos

    2016-01-01

    The assembly of complex structures in nature is driven by an interplay between several intermolecular interactions, from strong covalent bonds to weaker dispersion forces. Understanding and ultimately controlling the self-assembly of materials requires extensive study of how these forces drive local nanoscale interactions and how larger structures evolve. Surface-based self-assembly is particularly amenable to modeling and measuring these interactions in well-defined systems. This study focuses on 2-butanol, the simplest aliphatic chiral alcohol. 2-butanol has recently been shown to have interesting properties as a chiral modifier of surface chemistry; however, its mode of action is not fully understood and a microscopic understanding of the role non-covalent interactions play in its adsorption and assembly on surfaces is lacking. In order to probe its surface properties, we employed high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory (DFT) simulations. We found a surprisingly rich degree of enantiospecific adsorption, association, chiral cluster growth and ultimately long range, highly ordered chiral templating. Firstly, the chiral molecules acquire a second chiral center when adsorbed to the surface via dative bonding of one of the oxygen atom lone pairs. This interaction is controlled via the molecule’s intrinsic chiral center leading to monomers of like chirality, at both chiral centers, adsorbed on the surface. The monomers then associate into tetramers via a cyclical network of hydrogen bonds with an opposite chirality at the oxygen atom. The evolution of these square units is surprising given that the underlying surface has a hexagonal symmetry. Our DFT calculations, however, reveal that the tetramers are stable entities that are able to associate with each other by weaker van der Waals interactions and tessellate in an extended square network. This network of homochiral square pores grows to cover the whole Au(111) surface. Our

  20. The interplay of covalency, hydrogen bonding, and dispersion leads to a long range chiral network: The example of 2-butanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liriano, Melissa L.; Lewis, Emily A.; Murphy, Colin J.; Lawton, Timothy J.; Marcinkowski, Matthew D.; Therrien, Andrew J.; Sykes, E. Charles H., E-mail: charles.sykes@tufts.edu [Department of Chemistry, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155 (United States); Carrasco, Javier [CIC Energigune, Albert Einstein 48, 01510 Miñano, Álava (Spain); Michaelides, Angelos [Thomas Young Centre, London Centre for Nanotechnology and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-07

    The assembly of complex structures in nature is driven by an interplay between several intermolecular interactions, from strong covalent bonds to weaker dispersion forces. Understanding and ultimately controlling the self-assembly of materials requires extensive study of how these forces drive local nanoscale interactions and how larger structures evolve. Surface-based self-assembly is particularly amenable to modeling and measuring these interactions in well-defined systems. This study focuses on 2-butanol, the simplest aliphatic chiral alcohol. 2-butanol has recently been shown to have interesting properties as a chiral modifier of surface chemistry; however, its mode of action is not fully understood and a microscopic understanding of the role non-covalent interactions play in its adsorption and assembly on surfaces is lacking. In order to probe its surface properties, we employed high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory (DFT) simulations. We found a surprisingly rich degree of enantiospecific adsorption, association, chiral cluster growth and ultimately long range, highly ordered chiral templating. Firstly, the chiral molecules acquire a second chiral center when adsorbed to the surface via dative bonding of one of the oxygen atom lone pairs. This interaction is controlled via the molecule’s intrinsic chiral center leading to monomers of like chirality, at both chiral centers, adsorbed on the surface. The monomers then associate into tetramers via a cyclical network of hydrogen bonds with an opposite chirality at the oxygen atom. The evolution of these square units is surprising given that the underlying surface has a hexagonal symmetry. Our DFT calculations, however, reveal that the tetramers are stable entities that are able to associate with each other by weaker van der Waals interactions and tessellate in an extended square network. This network of homochiral square pores grows to cover the whole Au(111) surface. Our

  1. Experimental study on emissions and performance of an internal combustion engine fueled with gasoline and gasoline/n-butanol blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elfasakhany, Ashraf

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Using of 3 and 7 vol.% n-butanol blends in SI engine is studied for the first time. • Engine performance and emissions depend on both engine speed and blend rates. • CO and UHC for blended fuels are maximum at 3000–3100 r/min. • The higher the rate of n-butanol, the lower the emissions and performance. • This study strongly supports using low blend rates of n-butanol (<10 vol.%) in ICE. - Abstract: In this paper, exhaust emissions and engine performance have been experimentally studied for neat gasoline and gasoline/n-butanol blends in a wide range of working speeds (2600–3400 r/min) without any tuning or modification on the gasoline engine systems. The experiment has the ability of evaluating performance and emission characteristics, such as break power, torque, in-cylinder pressure, volumetric efficiency, exhaust gas temperature and concentrations of CO 2 , CO and UHC. Results of the engine test indicated that using n-butanol–gasoline blended fuels slightly decrease the output torque, power, volumetric efficiency, exhaust gas temperature and in-cylinder pressure of the engine as a result of the leaning effect caused by the n-butanol addition; CO, CO 2 and UHC emissions decrease dramatically for blended fuels compared to neat gasoline because of the improved combustion since n-butanol has extra oxygen, which allows partial reduction of the CO and UHC through formation of CO 2 . It was also noted that the exhaust emissions depend on the engine speed rather than the n-butanol contents

  2. Bio-butanol vs. bio-ethanol: A technical and economic assessment for corn and switchgrass fermented by yeast or Clostridium acetobutylicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfromm, Peter H.; Amanor-Boadu, Vincent; Nelson, Richard; Vadlani, Praveen; Madl, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Fermentation-derived butanol is a possible alternative to ethanol as a fungible biomass-based liquid transportation fuel. We compare the fermentation-based production of n-butanol vs. ethanol from corn or switchgrass through the liquid fuel yield in terms of the lower heating value (LHV). Industrial scale data on fermentation to n-butanol (ABE fermentation) or ethanol (yeast) establishes a baseline at this time, and puts recent advances in fermentation to butanol in perspective. A dynamic simulation demonstrates the technical, economic and policy implications. The energy yield of n-butanol is about half that of ethanol from corn or switchgrass using current ABE technology. This is a serious disadvantage for n-butanol since feedstock costs are a significant portion of the fuel price. Low yield increases n-butanol's life-cycle greenhouse gas emission for the same amount of LHV compared to ethanol. A given fermenter volume can produce only about one quarter of the LHV as n-butanol per unit time compared to ethanol. This increases capital costs. The sometimes touted advantage of n-butanol being more compatible with existing pipelines is, according to our techno-economic simulations insufficient to alter the conclusion because of the capital costs to connect plants via pipeline.

  3. Reference satellite selection method for GNSS high-precision relative positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Gao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Selecting the optimal reference satellite is an important component of high-precision relative positioning because the reference satellite directly influences the strength of the normal equation. The reference satellite selection methods based on elevation and positional dilution of precision (PDOP value were compared. Results show that all the above methods cannot select the optimal reference satellite. We introduce condition number of the design matrix in the reference satellite selection method to improve structure of the normal equation, because condition number can indicate the ill condition of the normal equation. The experimental results show that the new method can improve positioning accuracy and reliability in precise relative positioning.

  4. Analysis of severe feather pecking behavior in a high feather pecking selection line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labouriau, R; Kjaer, J B; Abreu, G C G

    2009-01-01

    Even though feather pecking (FP) in laying hens has been extensively studied, a good solution to prevent chickens from this behavior under commercial circumstances has not been found. Selection against FP behavior is possible, but for a more effective selection across different populations......, it is necessary to characterize the genetic mechanism associated with this behavior. In this study, we use a high FP selection line, which has been selected for 8 generations. We present evidence of the presence of a major dominant allele affecting the FP behavior by using an argument based on the presence...

  5. Effects of 1-butanol, neomycin and calcium on the photosynthetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    Institute of Food Crops, Jiangsu High Quality Rice R&D Center, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing,. Jiangsu Province, 210014, China. Accepted 31 October, 2011. The effects .... and blue light source under the open system, with the following conditions: 1200 µmol m-2s-1 photosynthetic photon flux density.

  6. Selective high-affinity polydentate ligands and methods of making such

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denardo, Sally J.; Denardo, Gerald L.; Balhorn, Rodney L.

    2018-02-06

    This invention provides novel polydentate selective high affinity ligands (SHALs) that can be used in a variety of applications in a manner analogous to the use of antibodies. SHALs typically comprise a multiplicity of ligands that each bind different region son the target molecule. The ligands are joined directly or through a linker thereby forming a polydentate moiety that typically binds the target molecule with high selectivity and avidity.

  7. Enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis and acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation of sugarcane bagasse by combined diluted acid with oxidate ammonolysis pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hailong; Xiong, Lian; Chen, Xuefang; Wang, Can; Qi, Gaoxiang; Huang, Chao; Luo, Mutan; Chen, Xinde

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to propose a biorefinery pretreatment technology for the bioconversion of sugarcane bagasse (SB) into biofuels and N-fertilizers. Performance of diluted acid (DA), aqueous ammonia (AA), oxidate ammonolysis (OA) and the combined DA with AA or OA were compared in SB pretreatment by enzymatic hydrolysis, structural characterization and acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. Results indicated that DA-OA pretreatment improves the digestibility of SB by sufficiently hydrolyzing hemicellulose into fermentable monosaccharides and oxidating lignin into soluble N-fertilizer with high nitrogen content (11.25%) and low C/N ratio (3.39). The enzymatic hydrolysates from DA-OA pretreated SB mainly composed of glucose was more suitable for the production of ABE solvents than the enzymatic hydrolysates from OA pretreated SB containing high ratio of xylose. The fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysates from DA-OA pretreated SB produced 12.12g/L ABE in 120h. These results suggested that SB could be utilized efficient, economic, and environmental by DA-OA pretreatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Selection of design basis event for modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Ohashi, Hirofumi

    2016-06-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been investigating safety requirements and basic approach of safety guidelines for modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) aiming to increase internarial contribution for nuclear safety by developing an international HTGR safety standard under International Atomic Energy Agency. In this study, we investigate a deterministic approach to select design basis events utilizing information obtained from probabilistic approach. In addition, selections of design basis events are conducted for commercial HTGR designed by JAEA. As a result, an approach for selecting design basis event considering multiple failures of safety systems is established which has not been considered as design basis in the safety guideline for existing nuclear facility. Furthermore, selection of design basis events for commercial HTGR has completed. This report provides an approach and procedure for selecting design basis events of modular HTGR as well as selected events for the commercial HTGR, GTHTR300. (author)

  9. Numerical analysis of a downsized spark-ignition engine fueled by butanol/gasoline blends at part-load operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scala, F.; Galloni, E.; Fontana, G.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Bio-fuels will reduce the overall CO_2 emission. • The properties of butanol/gasoline–air mixtures have been determined. • A 1-D model of a SI engine has been calibrated and validated. • The butanol content reduces the combustion duration. • The optimal ignition timing slightly changes. - Abstract: In this paper, the performance of a turbocharged SI engine, firing with butanol/gasoline blends, has been investigated by means of numerical simulations of the engine behavior. When engine fueling is switched from gasoline to alcohol/gasoline mixture, engine control parameters must be adapted. The main necessary modifications in the Electronic Control Unit have been highlighted in the paper. Numerical analyses have been carried out at partial load operation and at two different engine speeds (3000 and 4000 rpm). Several n-butanol/gasoline mixtures, differing for the alcohol contents, have been analyzed. Such engine performances as torque and indicated efficiency have been evaluated. Both these characteristics decrease with the alcohol contents within the mixtures. On the contrary, when the engine is fueled by neat n-butanol, torque and efficiency reach values about 2% higher than those obtained with neat gasoline. Furthermore, the optimal spark timing, for alcohol/gasoline mixture operation, must be retarded (up to 13%) in comparison with the correspondent values of the gasoline operation. In general, engine performance and operation undergo little variations when fuel supplying is switched from gasoline to alcohol/gasoline blends.

  10. Kinetic Study of Esterification of Acetic Acid with n-butanol and isobutanol Catalyzed by Ion Exchange Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrit Pal Toor

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Esters are an important pharmaceutical intermediates and very useful perfumery agents. In this study the esterification of acetic acid with n-butanol and iso-butanol over an acidic cation exchange resin, Amberlyst 15 were carried out. The effects of certain parameters such as temperature, catalyst loading, initial molar ratio between reactants on the rate of reaction were studied. The experiments were conducted in a stirred batch reactor in the temperature range of 351.15 K to 366.15K.Variation of parameters on rate of reaction demonstrated that the reaction was intrinsically controlled.The activation energy for the esterification of acetic acid with n-butanol and iso butanol is found to be 28.45 k J/mol and 23.29 kJ/mol respectively. ©2011 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.(Received: 16th December 2010, Revised: 19th March 2011; Accepted: 7th April 2011[How to Cite: A.P. Toor, M. Sharma, G. Kumar, and R. K. Wanchoo. (2011. Kinetic Study of Esterification of Acetic Acid with n-butanol and isobutanol Catalyzed by Ion Exchange Resin. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 6(1: 23-30. doi:10.9767/bcrec.6.1.665.23-30][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.6.1.665.23-30 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/665 ] | View in 

  11. Fermentation of sugar solutions to butanol, acetone, and ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karsch, W; Schoeder, K

    1956-04-05

    A three-stage (two preliminary and one main stage) fermentation process with a high yield of fermentation products (BuOH, Me/sub 2/CO, and EtOH) due to the addition of Ca(OAc)/sub 2/ or AcOH is described. According to this the acetate is added in the first and second stages only; this saves a large amount of acetate. The acetate level of the solution can also be regulated by mixing fermentable solutions of different AcOH content.

  12. Separation of xylose oligomers using centrifugal partition chromatography with a butanol-methanol-water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ching-Shuan; Clausen, Edgar C; Lay, Jackson O; Gidden, Jennifer; Carrier, Danielle Julie

    2013-01-01

    Xylose oligomers are the intermediate products of xylan depolymerization into xylose monomers. An understanding of xylan depolymerization kinetics is important to improve the conversion of xylan into monomeric xylose and to minimize the formation of inhibitory products, thereby reducing ethanol production costs. The study of xylan depolymerization requires copious amount of xylose oligomers, which are expensive if acquired commercially. Our approach consisted of producing in-house oligomer material. To this end, birchwood xylan was used as the starting material and hydrolyzed in hot water at 200 °C for 60 min with a 4 % solids loading. The mixture of xylose oligomers was subsequently fractionated by a centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) with a solvent system of butanol:methanol:water in a 5:1:4 volumetric ratio. Operating in an ascending mode, the butanol-rich upper phase (the mobile phase) eluted xylose oligomers from the water-rich stationary phase at a 4.89 mL/min flow rate for a total fractionation time of 300 min. The elution of xylose oligomers occurred between 110 and 280 min. The yields and purities of xylobiose (DP 2), xylotriose (DP 3), xylotetraose (DP 4), and xylopentaose (DP 5) were 21, 10, 14, and 15 mg/g xylan and 95, 90, 89, and 68 %, respectively. The purities of xylose oligomers from this solvent system were higher than those reported previously using tetrahydrofuran:dimethyl sulfoxide:water in a 6:1:3 volumetric ratio. Moreover, the butanol-based solvent system improved overall procedures by facilitating the evaporation of the solvents from the CPC fractions, rendering the purification process more efficient.

  13. Experimental determination of critical data of multi-component mixtures containing potential gasoline additives 2-butanol by a flow-type apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Maogang; Xin, Nan; Wang, Chengjie; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Xiangyang

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Experimental critical pressures of 2-butanol + hexane + heptane system. - Highlights: • Critical properties of six binary systems and two ternary systems were measured. • Six binary systems containing 2-butanol show non-ideal behavior in their T c –x 1 curves. • Non-ideal behavior of mixtures with 2-butanol relies on azeotropy. • Experimental data for binary systems were fitted well with Redlich–Kister equation. • Critical surfaces of ternary systems were plotted using the Cibulka’s expressions. - Abstract: In this work, we used a flow method for measurement of critical properties of six binary mixtures (2-butanol + cyclohexane, 2-butanol + hexane, 2-butanol + heptane, 2-butanol + octane, 2-butanol + nonane and 2-butanol + decane) and two ternary mixtures (2-butanol + hexane + heptane and 2-butanol + octane + decane). The critical properties were determined by observing the disappearance and reappearance of the gas–liquid phase meniscus in a quartz glass tube. The standard uncertainties of temperatures and pressures for both binary and ternary mixtures were estimated to be less than 0.2 K and 5.2 kPa, respectively. These critical data provide the boundaries of the two-phase regions of the related mixture systems. Six binary systems show non-ideal behaviors in the loci of critical temperatures. We used the Redlich–Kister equations to correlate the critical temperatures and pressures of these systems and listed the binary interaction parameters. The maximum average absolute deviation (AAD) of each binary system between experimental data and calculated results from Redlich–Kister equations is 0.038% for critical temperatures, and 0.244% for critical pressures. Moreover, the two ternary systems were newly reported and correlated by Cibulka’s and Singh’s expressions. The maximum AAD of critical temperatures and critical pressures are 0.103% and 0.433%, respectively.

  14. Green chemistry: Efficient epoxides ring-opening with 1-butanol under microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Vidal, Jesus A.; Duran-Valle, Carlos J.; Ferrera-Escudero, Santiago

    2006-01-01

    Two activated carbons treated with mineral acids (HNO 3 and sulfonitric mixture) have been tested as acid catalysts in the epoxides (1,2-epoxyhexane and styrene oxide) ring-opening reaction with 1-butanol under microwave (MW) irradiation. The mayor obtained product is that resulting of the alcohol addition to the most substituted carbon in the epoxide ring. The most active catalyst is that treated with sulfonitric mixture. The use of a MW oven allows achieving to the complete conversion of styrene oxide in only 2 min

  15. Modeling the Fate of Groundwater Contaminants Resulting from Leakage of Butanol-blended Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Toyama et al., 1995) ADH IIG N.R. 14.7 11.12 (Toyama et al., 1995) Pichia pastoris N.R. 4.8 N.R. (Borzeix et al., 1995) Mixed culture ( trickle - bed ... reactor ) 16.8 0.10 42.2 (Heinze and Friedrich, 1997) ( ) ( )1 min ˆ ˆ( ); ; molS S Smg protein mg Ld q Kµµ − ⋅ ; N.R.: not reported Mariano et...Research. 32(7): 2065-2072, 1998. Dagaut, P. and C. Togbe. Oxidation kinetics of butanol-gasoline surrogate mixtures in a jet-stirred reactor

  16. Surface chemistry of 2-butanol and furfural on Cu, Au and Cu/Au single crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Megginson, Rory

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the adsorption of 2-butanol and furfural was investigated on Au (111), Cu (111) and Cu/Au (111) surfaces. It was hoped that by studying how these species adsorbed on these surfaces , insight would be provided into the roles of Cu and Au in the “hydrogen free” hydrogenation of furfural to furfuryl alcohol. This is a valuable process as currently furfuryl alcohol is derived from crude oil but it is possible to derive furfural from corn husk making it a greener process...

  17. Inflammatory Mediator Profiling of n-butanol Exposed Upper Airways in Individuals with Multiple Chemical Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz; Skovbjerg, Sine; Andersson, Linus

    2015-01-01

    Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) is a chronic condition characterized by reports of recurrent symptoms in response to low level exposure to various chemical substances. Recent findings suggests that dysregulation of the immune system may play a role in MCS pathophysiology. The aim of this study...... inflammatory mediator profiles (P>0.05) at baseline. Likewise, direct comparison of mediator levels in the MCS group and controls after n-butanol exposure revealed no significant group differences. We demonstrate no abnormal upper airway inflammatory mediator levels in MCS subjects before or after a symptom...

  18. Green chemistry: Efficient epoxides ring-opening with 1-butanol under microwave irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Vidal, Jesus A. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, Campus Universitario, Avda. de Elvas, s/n, E-06071-Badajoz (Spain); Duran-Valle, Carlos J. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, Campus Universitario, Avda. de Elvas, s/n, E-06071-Badajoz (Spain)]. E-mail: carlosdv@unex.es; Ferrera-Escudero, Santiago [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica y Quimica Tecnica, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, C/Senda del Rey, 9, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-06-30

    Two activated carbons treated with mineral acids (HNO{sub 3} and sulfonitric mixture) have been tested as acid catalysts in the epoxides (1,2-epoxyhexane and styrene oxide) ring-opening reaction with 1-butanol under microwave (MW) irradiation. The mayor obtained product is that resulting of the alcohol addition to the most substituted carbon in the epoxide ring. The most active catalyst is that treated with sulfonitric mixture. The use of a MW oven allows achieving to the complete conversion of styrene oxide in only 2 min.

  19. Effect of Fuel Injection Strategy on the Carbonaceous Structure Formation and Nanoparticle Emission in a DISI Engine Fuelled with Butanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Silvia Merola

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the context of ever wider expansion of direct injection in spark ignition engines, this investigation was aimed at improved understanding of the correlation between fuel injection strategy and emission of nanoparticles. Measurements performed on a wall guided engine allowed identifying the mechanisms involved in the formation of carbonaceous structures during combustion and their evolution in the exhaust line. In-cylinder pressure was recorded in combination with cycle-resolved flame imaging, gaseous emissions and particle size distribution. This complete characterization was performed at three injection phasing settings, with butanol and commercial gasoline. Optical accessibility from below the combustion chamber allowed visualization of diffusive flames induced by fuel deposits; these localized phenomena were correlated to observed changes in engine performance and pollutant species. With gasoline fueling, minor modifications were observed with respect to combustion parameters, when varying the start of injection. The alcohol, on the other hand, featured marked sensitivity to the fuel delivery strategy. Even though the start of injection was varied in a relatively narrow crank angle range during the intake stroke, significant differences were recorded, especially in the values of particle emissions. This was correlated to the fuel jet-wall interactions; the analysis of diffusive flames, their location and size confirmed the importance of liquid film formation in direct injection engines, especially at medium and high load.

  20. Bayesian Multiresolution Variable Selection for Ultra-High Dimensional Neuroimaging Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yize; Kang, Jian; Long, Qi

    2018-01-01

    Ultra-high dimensional variable selection has become increasingly important in analysis of neuroimaging data. For example, in the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) study, neuroscientists are interested in identifying important biomarkers for early detection of the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using high resolution brain images that include hundreds of thousands voxels. However, most existing methods are not feasible for solving this problem due to their extensive computational costs. In this work, we propose a novel multiresolution variable selection procedure under a Bayesian probit regression framework. It recursively uses posterior samples for coarser-scale variable selection to guide the posterior inference on finer-scale variable selection, leading to very efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms. The proposed algorithms are computationally feasible for ultra-high dimensional data. Also, our model incorporates two levels of structural information into variable selection using Ising priors: the spatial dependence between voxels and the functional connectivity between anatomical brain regions. Applied to the resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) data in the ABIDE study, our methods identify voxel-level imaging biomarkers highly predictive of the ASD, which are biologically meaningful and interpretable. Extensive simulations also show that our methods achieve better performance in variable selection compared to existing methods.

  1. Effective method of fermentation of Riga hydrolyzates of corn cobs and other vegetable waste products for butanol and acetone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakhmanovich, B M; Kameneva, L; Kalnina, V

    1963-01-01

    A simplified method is described for the production of butanol and acetone. The acid mixture (H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/, 10 to 20%; H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, 90 to 80%) used to hydrolyze corn cobs and other vegetable waste products served also to invert the sugar of molasses which was added in 3 parts to 1 part hydrolyzate on the basis of reducing sugar content. The mixture was then diluted and neutralized with NH/sub 4/OH to pH 6.3 to 6.8. In this way a suitable hydrolyzate medium containing the appropriate amounts of mineral salts as well as invert sugar was provided for fermentation by Clostridium butyricum Prazmowsky. Lignin which precipitated during hydrolysis served as a solid phase which helped to accelerate fermentation. Combined yields of butanol, acetone, and small amounts of ethanol amounted to 30 to 38% of the available sugar; approximately 67% consisted of butanol.

  2. Nutrition Information at the Point of Selection in High Schools Does Not Affect Purchases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainville, Alice Jo; Choi, Kyunghee; Ragg, Mark; King, Amber; Carr, Deborah H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Nutrition information can be an important component of local wellness policies. There are very few studies regarding nutrition information at the point of selection (POS) in high schools. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of posting entree nutrition information at the POS in high schools nationwide.…

  3. NEW STRAIN PRODUCERS OF BIOBUTANOL. III. METHODS OF INCREASED BUTANOL ACCUMULATION FROM BIOMASS OF SWITCHGRASS Panicum virgatum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigunova O. O.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to enlarge accumulation of butanol from switchgrass Panicum virgatum L. biomass using strains-producers obtained from grounds and silts of Kyiv lakes. The objects of the study were strains of C. acetobutylicum ІМВ B-7407 (IFBG C6H, Clostridium acetobutylicum IFBG C6H 5М and Clostridium tyrobutyricum IFBG C4B from the "Collections of microbial strains and lines of plants for food and agricultural biotechnology" of the Public Institution "Institute of Food Biotechnology and Genomics" of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Gas chromatography was used to determine the alcohol concentration at the stage of solvent synthesis. To determine the effect of butanol precursors during cultivation, butyric, lactic and acetic acids were used. Optimization of processing parameters, which was based on the needs of cultures, allowed us to increase the yield by 20 and 50% for the initial and mutant strain respectively. Using synthetic precursors (such as lactic, butyric and acetic acid during cultivation increased total concentration of butanol by 1.7 times. To optimize the process, a study was carried out using acetone- butyl grains. Using of acetone-butyl grains in concentrations up to 60% does not affect the synthesis of butanol by C. acetobutylicum IFBG C6H 5M. Increasing the concentration of grains led to decrease in accumulation of butanol. Almost double increase in accumulation of the target product (butanol was achieved using two-stage fermentation and/or precursors of synthesis. It was shown the possibility of using acetone-butyl grains in fermentation. As a result the mass fraction of the waste was reduced.

  4. Minimization of storage and disposal volumes by treatment of liquids by highly selective ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tusa, E.; Harjula, R.; Lehto, J.

    2000-01-01

    Novel highly selective inorganic ion exchangers provide new efficient methods for the treatment of nuclear waste liquids. These methods have several advantages compared to conventional technologies such as evaporation, direct solidification or treatment by organic ion exchange resins. Due to high selectivity, the radionuclides can be concentrated to a very small volume even from high-salt effluents. This means that the volume waste will be very small compared to other methods, which brings considerable savings in the cost of intermediate storage and final disposal. Process equipment are highly compact and require little supervision, which brings down the capital and operation costs. The new selective inorganic ion exchangers CsTreat, SrTreat and CoTreat (manufactured by Fortum Engineering Ltd., Finland) have the highest selectivities and processing capacities, exceeding those of zeolites by several orders of magnitude. The materials are now in use in a number of nuclear sites worldwide, including those in the USA, Europe and Japan. Installations include mobile and stationary systems. Considerable experience has been gained in the use of these new materials. Lessons learned, as well as advantages and economic benefits of these highly selective exchangers will be discussed in this paper. (authors)

  5. Natural Selection on Genes Related to Cardiovascular Health in High-Altitude Adapted Andeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jacob E; Amaru, Ricardo; Song, Jihyun; Julian, Colleen G; Racimo, Fernando; Cheng, Jade Yu; Guo, Xiuqing; Yao, Jie; Ambale-Venkatesh, Bharath; Lima, João A; Rotter, Jerome I; Stehlik, Josef; Moore, Lorna G; Prchal, Josef T; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2017-11-02

    The increase in red blood cell mass (polycythemia) due to the reduced oxygen availability (hypoxia) of residence at high altitude or other conditions is generally thought to be beneficial in terms of increasing tissue oxygen supply. However, the extreme polycythemia and accompanying increased mortality due to heart failure in chronic mountain sickness most likely reduces fitness. Tibetan highlanders have adapted to high altitude, possibly in part via the selection of genetic variants associated with reduced polycythemic response to hypoxia. In contrast, high-altitude-adapted Quechua- and Aymara-speaking inhabitants of the Andean Altiplano are not protected from high-altitude polycythemia in the same way, yet they exhibit other adaptive features for which the genetic underpinnings remain obscure. Here, we used whole-genome sequencing to scan high-altitude Andeans for signals of selection. The genes showing the strongest evidence of selection-including BRINP3, NOS2, and TBX5-are associated with cardiovascular development and function but are not in the response-to-hypoxia pathway. Using association mapping, we demonstrated that the haplotypes under selection are associated with phenotypic variations related to cardiovascular health. We hypothesize that selection in response to hypoxia in Andeans could have vascular effects and could serve to mitigate the deleterious effects of polycythemia rather than reduce polycythemia itself. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. FOOD SECURITY SITUATION OF SELECTED HIGHLY DEVELOPED COUNTRIES AGAINST DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Karolina Pawlak

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to present the food security situation in selected highly developed countries and to identify consumption disparities between them and developing countries. The research is based on the data from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the Statistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat), the United Nations Statistics Division, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), World Food Programme (WFP) and selected measures used...

  7. Quantitative Analysis of High-Quality Officer Selection by Commandants Career-Level Education Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    impact on the organization and allocate resources to improve the human capital of this select group. From 2011 onward, CCLEB revamped the application...ANALYSIS OF HIGH-QUALITY OFFICER SELECTION BY COMMANDANT’S CAREER - LEVEL EDUCATION BOARD by Clifton N. Rateike March 2017 Thesis Advisor...of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington, DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE March

  8. Synthesis of sulfated titania supported on mesoporous silica using direct impregnation and its application in esterification of acetic acid and n-butanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuhong; Gan Yunting; Whiting, Roger; Lu Guanzhong

    2009-01-01

    A new method has been developed for the preparation of sulfated titania (S-TiO 2 ) supported on mesoporous silica. The use of direct exchange of metal containing precursors for the surfactants in the as-synthesized MCM-41 substrate produced a product with high sulfur content without serious blockage of the pore structure of MCM-41. The pore sizes and volumes of the resultant S-TiO 2 /MCM-41 composites were found to vary markedly with the loading of TiO 2 . The strong acidic character of the composites obtained was examined by using them as catalysts for the esterification of acetic acid and n-butanol. - Abstract: XRD profiles of the composites of S-TiO 2 /MCM-41 with different TiO 2 contents. The low angle peaks indicate the MCM-41-like structure retained and a TiO 2 phase appeared at high angle region. Display Omitted

  9. Site selection and characterization processes for deep geologic disposal of high level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costin, L.S.

    1997-10-01

    In this paper, the major elements of the site selection and characterization processes used in the US high level waste program are discussed. While much of the evolution of the site selection and characterization processes have been driven by the unique nature of the US program, these processes, which are well defined and documented, could be used as an initial basis for developing site screening, selection, and characterization programs in other countries. Thus, this paper focuses more on the process elements than the specific details of the US program

  10. Site selection and characterization processes for deep geologic disposal of high level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costin, L.S.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, the major elements of the site selection and characterization processes used in the U. S. high level waste program are discussed. While much of the evolution of the site selection and characterization processes have been driven by the unique nature of the U. S. program, these processes, which are well-defined and documented, could be used as an initial basis for developing site screening, selection, and characterization programs in other countries. Thus, this paper focuses more on the process elements than the specific details of the U. S. program. (author). 3 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  11. Site selection and characterization processes for deep geologic disposal of high level nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costin, L.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In this paper, the major elements of the site selection and characterization processes used in the U. S. high level waste program are discussed. While much of the evolution of the site selection and characterization processes have been driven by the unique nature of the U. S. program, these processes, which are well-defined and documented, could be used as an initial basis for developing site screening, selection, and characterization programs in other countries. Thus, this paper focuses more on the process elements than the specific details of the U. S. program. (author). 3 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  12. Application of high Tc superconductors as frequency selective surfaces: Experiment and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawei Zhang; Yahya Rahmat-Samii; Fetterman, H.R.

    1993-01-01

    YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x and Tl 2 CaBa 2 Cu 2 O 8 high temperature superconducting thin films were utilized to fabricate frequency selective surfaces (FSS) at millimeter-wave frequencies (75--110 GHz). An analytical/numerical model was applied, using a Floquet expansion and the Method of Moments, to analyze bandstop superconducting frequency selective surfaces. Experimental results were compared with the model, and showed a good agreement with resonant frequency prediction with an accuracy of better than 1%. The use of the superconducting frequency selective surfaces as quasi-optical millimeter-wave bandpass filters was also demonstrated

  13. Differential modification of oxic and anoxic components of radiation damage by t-butanol, an. OH radical scavenger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afzal, S M.J.; Kesavan, P C [Jawaharlal Nehru Univ., New Delhi (India). School of Life Sciences

    1979-03-01

    Caryopses of a hull-less barley strain (IB 65) were gamma-irradiated (10 to 45 krad) in oxygenated and oxygen-free water in the presence of t-butanol (5 x 10/sup -3/ to 10/sup -1/M), and eight-day seedling growth was then measured. The results showed that t-butanol afforded partial radio-protection against oxic damage and potentiated the anoxic damage in both dry and metabolizing barley seeds. Attention is given to the possible basic differences in the oxygen effect(s) in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and to the involvement of .OH radicals under these conditions.

  14. Prediction-Oriented Marker Selection (PROMISE): With Application to High-Dimensional Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soyeon; Baladandayuthapani, Veerabhadran; Lee, J Jack

    2017-06-01

    In personalized medicine, biomarkers are used to select therapies with the highest likelihood of success based on an individual patient's biomarker/genomic profile. Two goals are to choose important biomarkers that accurately predict treatment outcomes and to cull unimportant biomarkers to reduce the cost of biological and clinical verifications. These goals are challenging due to the high dimensionality of genomic data. Variable selection methods based on penalized regression (e.g., the lasso and elastic net) have yielded promising results. However, selecting the right amount of penalization is critical to simultaneously achieving these two goals. Standard approaches based on cross-validation (CV) typically provide high prediction accuracy with high true positive rates but at the cost of too many false positives. Alternatively, stability selection (SS) controls the number of false positives, but at the cost of yielding too few true positives. To circumvent these issues, we propose prediction-oriented marker selection (PROMISE), which combines SS with CV to conflate the advantages of both methods. Our application of PROMISE with the lasso and elastic net in data analysis shows that, compared to CV, PROMISE produces sparse solutions, few false positives, and small type I + type II error, and maintains good prediction accuracy, with a marginal decrease in the true positive rates. Compared to SS, PROMISE offers better prediction accuracy and true positive rates. In summary, PROMISE can be applied in many fields to select regularization parameters when the goals are to minimize false positives and maximize prediction accuracy.

  15. Polybenzimidazole-based mixed membranes with exceptional high water vapor permeability and selectivity

    KAUST Repository

    Akhtar, Faheem Hassan

    2017-09-13

    Polybenzimidazole (PBI), a thermal and chemically stable polymer, is commonly used to fabricate membranes for applications like hydrogen recovery at temperatures of more than 300 °C, fuel cells working in a highly acidic environment, and nanofiltration in aggressive solvents. This report shows for the first time use of PBI dense membranes for water vapor/gas separation applications. They showed an excellent selectivity and high water vapor permeability. Incorporation of inorganic hydrophilic titanium-based nano-fillers into the PBI matrix further increased the water vapor permeability and water vapor/N2 selectivity. The most selective mixed matrix membrane with 0.5 wt% loading of TiO2 nanotubes yielded a water vapor permeability of 6.8×104 Barrer and a H2O/N2 selectivity of 3.9×106. The most permeable membrane with 1 wt% loading of carboxylated TiO2 nanoparticles had a 7.1×104 Barrer water vapor permeability and a H2O/N2 selectivity of 3.1×106. The performance of these membranes in terms of water vapor transport and selectivity is among the highest reported ones. The remarkable ability of PBI to efficiently permeate water versus other gases opens the possibility to fabricate membranes for dehumidification of streams in harsh environments. This includes the removal of water from high temperature reaction mixtures to shift the equilibrium towards products.

  16. Polybenzimidazole-based mixed membranes with exceptional high water vapor permeability and selectivity

    KAUST Repository

    Akhtar, Faheem Hassan; Kumar, Mahendra; Villalobos, Luis Francisco; Shevate, Rahul; Vovusha, Hakkim; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2017-01-01

    Polybenzimidazole (PBI), a thermal and chemically stable polymer, is commonly used to fabricate membranes for applications like hydrogen recovery at temperatures of more than 300 °C, fuel cells working in a highly acidic environment, and nanofiltration in aggressive solvents. This report shows for the first time use of PBI dense membranes for water vapor/gas separation applications. They showed an excellent selectivity and high water vapor permeability. Incorporation of inorganic hydrophilic titanium-based nano-fillers into the PBI matrix further increased the water vapor permeability and water vapor/N2 selectivity. The most selective mixed matrix membrane with 0.5 wt% loading of TiO2 nanotubes yielded a water vapor permeability of 6.8×104 Barrer and a H2O/N2 selectivity of 3.9×106. The most permeable membrane with 1 wt% loading of carboxylated TiO2 nanoparticles had a 7.1×104 Barrer water vapor permeability and a H2O/N2 selectivity of 3.1×106. The performance of these membranes in terms of water vapor transport and selectivity is among the highest reported ones. The remarkable ability of PBI to efficiently permeate water versus other gases opens the possibility to fabricate membranes for dehumidification of streams in harsh environments. This includes the removal of water from high temperature reaction mixtures to shift the equilibrium towards products.

  17. Enhancing cellulose accessibility of corn stover by deep eutectic solvent pretreatment for butanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guo-Chao; Ding, Ji-Cai; Han, Rui-Zhi; Dong, Jin-Jun; Ni, Ye

    2016-03-01

    In this study, an effective corn stover (CS) pretreatment method was developed for biobutanol fermentation. Deep eutectic solvents (DESs), consisted of quaternary ammonium salts and hydrogen donors, display similar properties to room temperature ionic liquid. Seven DESs with different hydrogen donors were facilely synthesized. Choline chloride:formic acid (ChCl:formic acid), an acidic DES, displayed excellent performance in the pretreatment of corn stover by removal of hemicellulose and lignin as confirmed by SEM, FTIR and XRD analysis. After optimization, glucose released from pretreated CS reached 17.0 g L(-1) and yield of 99%. The CS hydrolysate was successfully utilized in butanol fermentation by Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM 13864, achieving butanol titer of 5.63 g L(-1) with a yield of 0.17 g g(-1) total sugar and productivity of 0.12 g L(-1)h(-1). This study demonstrates DES could be used as a promising and biocompatible pretreatment method for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into biofuel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Continuous acetone-ethanol-butanol fermentation by immobilized cells of Clostridium acetobutylicum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badr, H.R.; Toledo, R.; Hamdy, M.K. [University of Georgia, Athens (Greece). Food Science and Technology Dept.

    2001-07-01

    Eight Clostridium acetobutylicum strains were examined for {alpha}-amylase and strains B-591, B-594 and P-262 had the highest activities. Defibered-sweet-potato-slurry (DSPS), containing 39.7 g starch l{sup -1}, supplemented with potassium phosphate (1.0 g l{sup -1}), cysteine-HCl (5.0 g l{sup -1}), the antifoam (polypropylene glycol, 0.1 mg ml{sup -1}), was used a continuous feedstock (FS) to a multistage bioreactor system for acetone-ethanol-butanol (AEB) fermentation. The system consisted on four columns (three vertical and one near horizontal) packed with beads containing immobilized cells of C. acetobutylicum P-262. When DSPS was pumped into the bioreactor system, at a flow rate of 2.36 ml min{sup -1}, the effluent has 7.73 g solvents l{sup -1} (1.56, acetone; 0.65, ethanol; 5.52 g, butanol) and no starch. Productivity of total solvents synthesized during continuous operation were 1.0 g 1{sup -1}h{sup -1} and 19.5 % yield compared to 0.12 g l{sup -1}h{sup -1} with 29% yield using the batch system. We proposed using DSPS for AEB fermentation in a continuous mode with immobilized P-262 cells that are active amylase producers which will lead to cost reduction compared to the batch system. (Author)

  19. Combustion and emissions characteristics of a compression ignition engine fueled with n-butanol blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusri, I. M.; Mamat, R.; Ali, O. M.; Aziz, A.; Akasyah, M. K.; Kamarulzaman, M. K.; Ihsan, C. K.; Mahmadul, H. M.; Rosdi, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    The use of biomass based renewable fuel, n-butanol blends for compression ignition (CI) engine has attracted wide attention due to its superior properties such as better miscibility, higher energy content, and cetane number. In this present study the use of n-butanol 10% blends (Bu10) with diesel fuel has been tested using 4-cylinder, 4-stroke common rail direct injection CI engine to investigate the combustion and emissions of the blended fuels. Based on the tested engine at BMEP=3.5Bar Bu10 fuel indicates lower first and second peak pressure by 5.4% and 2.4% for engine speed 1000rpm and 4.4% and 2.1% for engine speed 2500rpm compared to diesel fuel respectively. Percentage reduction relative to diesel fuel at engine speeds 1000rpm and 2500rpm for Bu10: Exhaust temperature was 7.5% and 5.2% respectively; Nitrogen oxides (NOx) 73.4% and 11.3% respectively.

  20. Gas-phase rate coefficients for the OH + n-, i-, s-, and t-butanol reactions measured between 220 and 380 K: non-Arrhenius behavior and site-specific reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillen, Max R; Baasandorj, Munkhbayar; Burkholder, James B

    2013-06-06

    Butanol (C4H9OH) is a potential biofuel alternative in fossil fuel gasoline and diesel formulations. The usage of butanol would necessarily lead to direct emissions into the atmosphere; thus, an understanding of its atmospheric processing and environmental impact is desired. Reaction with the OH radical is expected to be the predominant atmospheric removal process for the four aliphatic isomers of butanol. In this work, rate coefficients, k, for the gas-phase reaction of the n-, i-, s-, and t-butanol isomers with the OH radical were measured under pseudo-first-order conditions in OH using pulsed laser photolysis to produce OH radicals and laser induced fluorescence to monitor its temporal profile. Rate coefficients were measured over the temperature range 221-381 K at total pressures between 50 and 200 Torr (He). The reactions exhibited non-Arrhenius behavior over this temperature range and no dependence on total pressure with k(296 K) values of (9.68 ± 0.75), (9.72 ± 0.72), (8.88 ± 0.69), and (1.04 ± 0.08) (in units of 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)) for n-, i-, s-, and t-butanol, respectively. The quoted uncertainties are at the 2σ level and include estimated systematic errors. The observed non-Arrhenius behavior is interpreted here to result from a competition between the available H-atom abstraction reactive sites, which have different activation energies and pre-exponential factors. The present results are compared with results from previous kinetic studies, structure-activity relationships (SARs), and theoretical calculations and the discrepancies are discussed. Results from this work were combined with available high temperature (1200-1800 K) rate coefficient data and room temperature reaction end-product yields, where available, to derive a self-consistent site-specific set of reaction rate coefficients of the form AT(n) exp(-E/RT) for use in atmospheric and combustion chemistry modeling.

  1. Tracking and flavour tagging selection in the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Calvetti, Milene; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In high-energy physics experiments, track based selection in the online environment is crucial for the efficient real time selection of the rare physics process of interest. This is of particular importance at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), where the increasingly harsh collision environment is challenging the experiments to improve the performance of their online selection. Principal among these challenges is the increasing number of interactions per bunch crossing, known as pileup. In the ATLAS experiment the challenge has been addressed with multiple strategies. Firstly, specific trigger objects have been improved by building algorithms using detailed tracking and vertexing in specific detector regions to improve background rejection without loosing signal efficiency. Secondly, since 2015 all trigger areas have benefited from a new high performance Inner Detector (ID) software tracking system implemented in the High Level Trigger. Finally, performance will be further enhanced in future by the installation...

  2. vuv fluorescence from selective high-order multiphoton excitation of N2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffee, Ryan N.; Gibson, George N.

    2004-01-01

    Recent fluorescence studies suggest that ultrashort pulse laser excitation may be highly selective. Selective high-intensity laser excitation holds important consequences for the physics of multiphoton processes. To establish the extent of this selectivity, we performed a detailed comparative study of the vacuum ultraviolet fluorescence resulting from the interaction of N 2 and Ar with high-intensity infrared ultrashort laser pulses. Both N 2 and Ar reveal two classes of transitions, inner-valence ns ' l ' . From their pressure dependence, we associate each transition with either plasma or direct laser excitation. Furthermore, we qualitatively confirm such associations with the time dependence of the fluorescence signal. Remarkably, only N 2 presents evidence of direct laser excitation. This direct excitation produces ionic nitrogen fragments with inner-valence (2s) holes, two unidentified transitions, and one molecular transition, the N 2 + :X 2 Σ g + 2 Σ u + . We discuss these results in the light of a recently proposed model for multiphoton excitation

  3. Directional enhancement of selected high-order-harmonics from intense laser irradiated blazed grating targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guobo; Chen, Min; Liu, Feng; Yuan, Xiaohui; Weng, Suming; Zheng, Jun; Ma, Yanyun; Shao, Fuqiu; Sheng, Zhengming; Zhang, Jie

    2017-10-02

    Relativistically intense laser solid target interaction has been proved to be a promising way to generate high-order harmonics, which can be used to diagnose ultrafast phenomena. However, their emission direction and spectra still lack tunability. Based upon two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we show that directional enhancement of selected high-order-harmonics can be realized using blazed grating targets. Such targets can select harmonics with frequencies being integer times of the grating frequency. Meanwhile, the radiation intensity and emission area of the harmonics are increased. The emission direction is controlled by tailoring the local blazed structure. Theoretical and electron dynamics analysis for harmonics generation, selection and directional enhancement from the interaction between multi-cycle laser and grating target are carried out. These studies will benefit the generation and application of laser plasma-based high order harmonics.

  4. Strategic project selection based on evidential reasoning approach for high-end equipment manufacturing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Guangyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of science and technology, emerging information technologies have significantly changed the daily life of people. In such context, strategic project selection for high-end equipment manufacturing industries faces more and more complexities and uncertainties with the consideration of several complex criteria. For example, a group of experts rather than a single expert should be invited to select strategic project for high-end equipment manufacturing industries and the experts may feel difficulty to express their preferences towards different strategic projects due to their limited cognitive capabilities. In order to handle these complexities and uncertainties, the criteria framework of strategic project selection is firstly constructed based on the characteristics of high-end equipment manufacturing industries and then evidential reasoning (ER approach is introduced in this paper to help experts express their uncertain preferences and aggregate these preferences to generate an appropriate strategic project. A real case of strategic project selection in a high-speed train manufacturing enterprise is investigated to demonstrate the validity of the ER approach in solving strategic project selection problem.

  5. On the mechanism of high product selectivity for HCOOH using Pb in CO2 electroreduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Seoin; Kim, Jun-Hyuk; Kim, Yong-Tae; Jung, Yousung

    2016-04-14

    While achieving high product selectivity is one of the major challenges of the CO2 electroreduction technology in general, Pb is one of the few examples with high selectivity that produces formic acid almost exclusively (versus H2, CO, or other byproducts). In this work, we study the mechanism of CO2 electroreduction reactions using Pb to understand the origin of high formic acid selectivity. In particular, we first assess the proton-assisted mechanism proposed in the literature using density functional calculations and find that it cannot fully explain the previous selectivity experiments for the Pb electrode. We then suggest an alternative proton-coupled-electron-transfer mechanism consistent with existing observations, and further validate a new mechanism by experimentally measuring and comparing the onset potentials for CO2 reduction vs. H2 production. We find that the origin of a high selectivity of the Pb catalyst for HCOOH production over CO and H2 lies in the strong O-affinitive and weak C-, H-affinitive characteristics of Pb, leading to the involvement of the *OCHO species as a key intermediate to produce HCOOH exclusively and preventing unwanted H2 production at the same time.

  6. Macroalgae Butanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-02-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company (DuPont) and Bio Architecture Lab, Inc. (BAL) are exploring the commercial viability of producing fuel-grade isobutanol from macroalgae (seaweed). Making macroalgae an attractive substrate for biofuel applications however, will require continued technology development. Assuming these developments are successful, initial assessments suggest macroalgae aquafarming in our oceans has the potential to produce a feedstock with cost in the same range as terrestrial-based substrates (crop residuals, energy crops) and may be the feedstock of choice in some locations. The use of macroalgae also diversifies the sources of U.S. biomass in order to provide more options in meeting demand for biofuels. The process being developed will use a robust industrial biocatalyst (microorganism) capable of converting macroalgal-derived sugars directly into isobutanol. Biobutanol is an advanced biofuel with significant advantages over ethanol, including higher energy content, lower greenhouse gas emissions, and the ability to be blended in gasoline at higher levels than ethanol without changes to existing automobiles or the fuel industry infrastructure. Butamax™ is currently commercializing DuPont’s biobutanol fermentation technology that uses sugar and starch feedstocks.

  7. Selection of DNA aptamers against epidermal growth factor receptor with high affinity and specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Deng-Liang; Song, Yan-Ling; Zhu, Zhi; Li, Xi-Lan; Zou, Yuan; Yang, Hai-Tao; Wang, Jiang-Jie; Yao, Pei-Sen; Pan, Ru-Jun; Yang, Chaoyong James; Kang, De-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This is the first report of DNA aptamer against EGFR in vitro. • Aptamer can bind targets with high affinity and selectivity. • DNA aptamers are more stable, cheap and efficient than RNA aptamers. • Our selected DNA aptamer against EGFR has high affinity with K d 56 ± 7.3 nM. • Our selected DNA aptamer against EGFR has high selectivity. - Abstract: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/HER1/c-ErbB1), is overexpressed in many solid cancers, such as epidermoid carcinomas, malignant gliomas, etc. EGFR plays roles in proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis of malignant cancer cells and is the ideal antigen for clinical applications in cancer detection, imaging and therapy. Aptamers, the output of the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), are DNA/RNA oligonucleotides which can bind protein and other substances with specificity. RNA aptamers are undesirable due to their instability and high cost of production. Conversely, DNA aptamers have aroused researcher’s attention because they are easily synthesized, stable, selective, have high binding affinity and are cost-effective to produce. In this study, we have successfully identified DNA aptamers with high binding affinity and selectivity to EGFR. The aptamer named TuTu22 with K d 56 ± 7.3 nM was chosen from the identified DNA aptamers for further study. Flow cytometry analysis results indicated that the TuTu22 aptamer was able to specifically recognize a variety of cancer cells expressing EGFR but did not bind to the EGFR-negative cells. With all of the aforementioned advantages, the DNA aptamers reported here against cancer biomarker EGFR will facilitate the development of novel targeted cancer detection, imaging and therapy

  8. Selection of DNA aptamers against epidermal growth factor receptor with high affinity and specificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Deng-Liang [The First Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Song, Yan-Ling; Zhu, Zhi; Li, Xi-Lan; Zou, Yuan [State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, and Department of Chemical Biology, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Yang, Hai-Tao; Wang, Jiang-Jie [The First Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Yao, Pei-Sen [Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Pan, Ru-Jun [The First Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Yang, Chaoyong James, E-mail: cyyang@xmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, and Department of Chemical Biology, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Kang, De-Zhi, E-mail: kdzy99988@163.com [The First Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China)

    2014-10-31

    Highlights: • This is the first report of DNA aptamer against EGFR in vitro. • Aptamer can bind targets with high affinity and selectivity. • DNA aptamers are more stable, cheap and efficient than RNA aptamers. • Our selected DNA aptamer against EGFR has high affinity with K{sub d} 56 ± 7.3 nM. • Our selected DNA aptamer against EGFR has high selectivity. - Abstract: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/HER1/c-ErbB1), is overexpressed in many solid cancers, such as epidermoid carcinomas, malignant gliomas, etc. EGFR plays roles in proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis of malignant cancer cells and is the ideal antigen for clinical applications in cancer detection, imaging and therapy. Aptamers, the output of the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), are DNA/RNA oligonucleotides which can bind protein and other substances with specificity. RNA aptamers are undesirable due to their instability and high cost of production. Conversely, DNA aptamers have aroused researcher’s attention because they are easily synthesized, stable, selective, have high binding affinity and are cost-effective to produce. In this study, we have successfully identified DNA aptamers with high binding affinity and selectivity to EGFR. The aptamer named TuTu22 with K{sub d} 56 ± 7.3 nM was chosen from the identified DNA aptamers for further study. Flow cytometry analysis results indicated that the TuTu22 aptamer was able to specifically recognize a variety of cancer cells expressing EGFR but did not bind to the EGFR-negative cells. With all of the aforementioned advantages, the DNA aptamers reported here against cancer biomarker EGFR will facilitate the development of novel targeted cancer detection, imaging and therapy.

  9. Phenylmercuric hydroxide. A highly selective reagent for the hydration of nonconjugated terminal alkynes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janout, V.; Regen, S.L.

    1982-01-01

    This article describes an unusual and highly selective method for hydrating nonconjugated terminal alkynes based on the use of phenylmercuric hydroxide as a reagent. Unlike classical mercury catalyzed procedures, sigma-bonded mercury acetylides are formed initially as stable intermediates and subsequently reacted with water under neutral pH to form the corresponding methyl ketone. Isolated yields which have been obtained by using this approach lie in the range of 49-65%. The high selectivity toward nonconjugated terminal alkynes which characterizes the procedure described herein should make it a useful supplement to existing hydration methods

  10. A High-throughput Selection for Cellulase Catalysts Using Chemical Complementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta-Yahya, Pamela; Carter, Brian T.; Lin, Hening; Tao, Haiyan; Cornish, Virginia W.

    2010-01-01

    Efficient enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic material remains one of the major bottlenecks to cost-effective conversion of biomass to ethanol. Improvement of glycosylhydrolases however is limited by existing medium-throughput screening technologies. Here, we report the first high-throughput selection for cellulase catalysts. This selection was developed by adapting chemical complementation to provide a growth assay for bond cleavage reactions. First, a URA3 counter selection was adapted to link chemical dimerizer activated gene transcription to cell death. Next, the URA3 counter selection was shown to detect cellulase activity based on cleavage of a tetrasaccharide chemical dimerizer substrate and decrease in expression of the toxic URA3 reporter. Finally, the utility of the cellulase selection was assessed by isolating cellulases with improved activity from a cellulase library created by family DNA shuffling. This application provides further evidence that chemical complementation can be readily adapted to detect different enzymatic activities for important chemical transformations for which no natural selection exists. Due to the large number of enzyme variants selections can test compared to existing medium-throughput screens for cellulases, this assay has the potential to impact the discovery of improved cellulases and other glycosylhydrolases for biomass conversion from libraries of cellulases created by mutagenesis or obtained from natural biodiversity. PMID:19053460

  11. Inference for feature selection using the Lasso with high-dimensional data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink-Jensen, Kasper; Ekstrøm, Claus Thorn

    2014-01-01

    Penalized regression models such as the Lasso have proved useful for variable selection in many fields - especially for situations with high-dimensional data where the numbers of predictors far exceeds the number of observations. These methods identify and rank variables of importance but do...... not generally provide any inference of the selected variables. Thus, the variables selected might be the "most important" but need not be significant. We propose a significance test for the selection found by the Lasso. We introduce a procedure that computes inference and p-values for features chosen...... by the Lasso. This method rephrases the null hypothesis and uses a randomization approach which ensures that the error rate is controlled even for small samples. We demonstrate the ability of the algorithm to compute $p$-values of the expected magnitude with simulated data using a multitude of scenarios...

  12. Design of Highly Selective Gas Sensors via Physicochemical Modification of Oxide Nanowires: Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Sik Woo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Strategies for the enhancement of gas sensing properties, and specifically the improvement of gas selectivity of metal oxide semiconductor nanowire (NW networks grown by chemical vapor deposition and thermal evaporation, are reviewed. Highly crystalline NWs grown by vapor-phase routes have various advantages, and thus have been applied in the field of gas sensors over the years. In particular, n-type NWs such as SnO2, ZnO, and In2O3 are widely studied because of their simple synthetic preparation and high gas response. However, due to their usually high responses to C2H5OH and NO2, the selective detection of other harmful and toxic gases using oxide NWs remains a challenging issue. Various strategies—such as doping/loading of noble metals, decorating/doping of catalytic metal oxides, and the formation of core–shell structures—have been explored to enhance gas selectivity and sensitivity, and are discussed herein. Additional methods such as the transformation of n-type into p-type NWs and the formation of catalyst-doped hierarchical structures by branch growth have also proven to be promising for the enhancement of gas selectivity. Accordingly, the physicochemical modification of oxide NWs via various methods provides new strategies to achieve the selective detection of a specific gas, and after further investigations, this approach could pave a new way in the field of NW-based semiconductor-type gas sensors.

  13. Periodic peristalsis increasing acetone-butanol-ethanol productivity during simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of steam-exploded corn straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingwen; Wang, Lan; Chen, Hongzhang

    2016-11-01

    The acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation of lignocellulose at high solids content has recently attracted extensive attention. However, the productivity of high solids ABE fermentation of lignocellulose is typically low in traditional processes due to the lack of efficient intensifying methods. In the present study, periodic peristalsis, a novel intensifying method, was applied to improve ABE production by the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of steam-exploded corn straw using Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC824. The ABE concentration and the ABE productivity of SSF at a solids content of 17.5% (w/w) with periodic peristalsis were 17.1 g/L and 0.20 g/(L h), respectively, which were higher than those obtained under static conditions (15.2 g/L and 0.14 g/(L h)). The initial sugar conversion rate over the first 12 h with periodic peristalsis was 4.67 g/(L h) at 10 FPU/g cellulase dosage and 15% (w/w) solids content, an increase of 49.7% compared with the static conditions. With periodic peristalsis, the period of batch fermentation was shortened from 108 h to 84 h. The optimal operating regime was a low frequency (6 h -1 ) of periodic peristalsis in the acid-production phase (0-48 h) of SSF. Therefore, periodic peristalsis should be an effective intensifying method to increase the productivity of ABE fermentation at high solids content. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. ERP markers of target selection discriminate children with high vs. low working memory capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andria eShimi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Selective attention enables enhancing a subset out of multiple competing items to maximize the capacity of our limited visual working memory (VWM system. Multiple behavioral and electrophysiological studies have revealed the cognitive and neural mechanisms supporting adults’ selective attention of visual percepts for encoding in VWM. However, research on children is more limited. What are the neural mechanisms involved in children’s selection of incoming percepts in service of VWM? Do these differ from the ones subserving adults’ selection? Ten-year-olds and adults used a spatial arrow cue to select a colored item for later recognition from an array of four colored items. The temporal dynamics of selection were investigated through EEG signals locked to the onset of the memory array. Both children and adults elicited significantly more negative activity over posterior scalp locations contralateral to the item to-be-selected for encoding (N2pc. However, this activity was elicited later and for longer in children compared to adults. Furthermore, although children as a group did not elicit a significant N2pc during the time-window in which N2pc was elicited in adults, the magnitude of N2pc during the adult time-window related to their behavioral performance during the later recognition phase of the task. This in turn highlights how children’s neural activity subserving attention during encoding relates to better subsequent VWM performance. Significant differences were observed when children were divided into groups of high vs. low VWM capacity as a function of cueing benefit. Children with large cue benefits in VWM capacity elicited an adult-like contralateral negativity following attentional selection of the to-be-encoded item, whereas children with low VWM capacity did not. These results corroborate the close coupling between selective attention and VWM from childhood and elucidate further the attentional mechanisms constraining VWM

  15. ERP markers of target selection discriminate children with high vs. low working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimi, Andria; Nobre, Anna Christina; Scerif, Gaia

    2015-01-01

    Selective attention enables enhancing a subset out of multiple competing items to maximize the capacity of our limited visual working memory (VWM) system. Multiple behavioral and electrophysiological studies have revealed the cognitive and neural mechanisms supporting adults' selective attention of visual percepts for encoding in VWM. However, research on children is more limited. What are the neural mechanisms involved in children's selection of incoming percepts in service of VWM? Do these differ from the ones subserving adults' selection? Ten-year-olds and adults used a spatial arrow cue to select a colored item for later recognition from an array of four colored items. The temporal dynamics of selection were investigated through EEG signals locked to the onset of the memory array. Both children and adults elicited significantly more negative activity over posterior scalp locations contralateral to the item to-be-selected for encoding (N2pc). However, this activity was elicited later and for longer in children compared to adults. Furthermore, although children as a group did not elicit a significant N2pc during the time-window in which N2pc was elicited in adults, the magnitude of N2pc during the "adult time-window" related to their behavioral performance during the later recognition phase of the task. This in turn highlights how children's neural activity subserving attention during encoding relates to better subsequent VWM performance. Significant differences were observed when children were divided into groups of high vs. low VWM capacity as a function of cueing benefit. Children with large cue benefits in VWM capacity elicited an adult-like contralateral negativity following attentional selection of the to-be-encoded item, whereas children with low VWM capacity did not. These results corroborate the close coupling between selective attention and VWM from childhood and elucidate further the attentional mechanisms constraining VWM performance in children.

  16. Test methods for selection of materials of construction for high-level radioactive waste vitrification. Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickford, D.F.; Corbett, R.A.; Morrison, W.S.

    1986-01-01

    Candidate materials of construction were evaluated for a facility at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant to vitrify high-level radioactive waste. Limited operating experience was available under the corrosive conditions of the complex vitrification process. The objective of the testing program was to provide a high degree of assurance that equipment will meet or exceed design lifetimes. To meet this objective in reasonable time and minimum cost, a program was designed consisting of a combination of coupon immersion and electrochemical laboratory tests and pilot-scale tests. Stainless steels and nickel-based alloys were tested. Alloys that were most resistant to general and local attack contained nickel, molybdenum (>9%), and chromium (where Cr + Mo > 30%). Alloy C-276 was selected as the reference material for process equipment. Stellite 6 was selected for abrasive service in the presence of formic acid. Alloy 690 and ALLCORR were selected for specific applications

  17. Selection of the Mutants with High Hydroquinone Degradation Ability of Serratia Marcesscen by Plasma Mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Risheng; You Qidong; He Weijing; Zhu Huixia

    2009-01-01

    In this study, an efficient way by plasma induced mutation was applied to improve the hydroquinone degradation capacity of Serratia marcescens AB 90027 (SM27). The results showed that combined with the selection of hydroquinone tolerance, the mutant with high hydroquinone degradation ability induced by plasma could be achieved. The best dose for plasma mutation was 15 s, which showed a 47.0% higher positive mutation ratio. Besides, the aimed mutant was markedly different from the parent strain (SM27) in colonial traits while cultivated on Kings media. Finally, the hydroquinone degradation ratio reached 70.5% using the induced mutant strain with 1500 mg/L hydroquinone (HQ) after 15 days of cultivation as the selective conditions; however, it was only 46.7% for SM27. The improvement of the degradation capacity by the induced mutant with a high concentration of HQ selection was attributed to its faster growth and higher hydroquinone tolerance compared with that of the parent strain.

  18. Metal-organic framework based highly selective fluorescence turn-on probe for hydrogen sulphide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarkar, Sanjog S.; Saha, Tanmoy; Desai, Aamod V.; Talukdar, Pinaki; Ghosh, Sujit K.

    2014-11-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is known to play a vital role in human physiology and pathology which stimulated interest in understanding complex behaviour of H2S. Discerning the pathways of H2S production and its mode of action is still a challenge owing to its volatile and reactive nature. Herein we report azide functionalized metal-organic framework (MOF) as a selective turn-on fluorescent probe for H2S detection. The MOF shows highly selective and fast response towards H2S even in presence of other relevant biomolecules. Low cytotoxicity and H2S detection in live cells, demonstrate the potential of MOF towards monitoring H2S chemistry in biological system. To the best of our knowledge this is the first example of MOF that exhibit fast and highly selective fluorescence turn-on response towards H2S under physiological conditions.

  19. High-Lift Propeller System Configuration Selection for NASA's SCEPTOR Distributed Electric Propulsion Flight Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Michael D.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Borer, Nicholas K.

    2016-01-01

    Although the primary function of propellers is typically to produce thrust, aircraft equipped with distributed electric propulsion (DEP) may utilize propellers whose main purpose is to act as a form of high-lift device. These \\high-lift propellers" can be placed upstream of wing such that, when the higher-velocity ow in the propellers' slipstreams interacts with the wing, the lift is increased. This technique is a main design feature of a new NASA advanced design project called Scalable Convergent Electric Propulsion Technology Operations Research (SCEPTOR). The goal of the SCEPTOR project is design, build, and y a DEP aircraft to demonstrate that such an aircraft can be much more ecient than conventional designs. This paper provides details into the high-lift propeller system con guration selection for the SCEPTOR ight demonstrator. The methods used in the high-lift propeller system conceptual design and the tradeo s considered in selecting the number of propellers are discussed.

  20. Rhodium Nanoparticle-mesoporous Silicon Nanowire Nanohybrids for Hydrogen Peroxide Detection with High Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhiqian; Chang, Hucheng; Zhu, Weiqin; Xu, Chenlong; Feng, Xinjian

    2015-01-01

    Developing nanostructured electrocatalysts, with low overpotential, high selectivity and activity has fundamental and technical importance in many fields. We report here rhodium nanoparticle and mesoporous silicon nanowire (RhNP@mSiNW) hybrids for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) detection with high electrocatalytic activity and selectivity. By employing electrodes that loaded with RhNP@mSiNW nanohybrids, interference caused from both many electroactive substances and dissolved oxygen were eliminated by electrochemical assaying at an optimal potential of +75 mV. Furthermore, the electrodes exhibited a high detection sensitivity of 0.53 μA/mM and fast response (< 5 s). This high-performance nanohybrid electrocatalyst has great potential for future practical application in various oxidase-base biosensors. PMID:25588953

  1. Isolation of a solventogenic Clostridium sp. strain: fermentation of glycerol to n-butanol, analysis of the bcs operon region and its potential regulatory elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panitz, J C; Zverlov, V V; Pham, V T T; Stürzl, S; Schieder, D; Schwarz, W H

    2014-02-01

    A new solventogenic bacterium, strain GT6, was isolated from standing water sediment. 16S-rRNA gene analysis revealed that GT6 belongs to the heterogeneous Clostridium tetanomorphum group of bacteria exhibiting 99% sequence identity with C. tetanomorphum 4474(T). GT6 can utilize a wide range of carbohydrate substrates including glucose, fructose, maltose, xylose and glycerol to produce mainly n-butanol without any acetone. Additional products of GT6 metabolism were ethanol, butyric acid, acetic acid, and trace amounts of 1,3-propanediol. Medium and substrate composition, and culture conditions such as pH and temperature influenced product formation. The major fermentation product from glycerol was n-butanol with a final concentration of up to 11.5 g/L. 3% (v/v) glycerol lead to a total solvent concentration of 14 g/L within 72 h. Growth was not inhibited by glycerol concentrations as high as 15% (v/v). The solventogenesis genes crt, bcd, etfA/B and hbd composing the bcs (butyryl-CoA synthesis) operon of C. tetanomorphum GT6 were sequenced. They occur in a genomic arrangement identical to those in other solventogenic clostridia. Furthermore, the sequence of a potential regulator gene highly similar to that of the NADH-sensing Rex family of regulatory genes was found upstream of the bcs operon. Potential binding sites for Rex have been identified in the promoter region of the bcs operon of solvent producing clostridia as well as upstream of other genes involved in NADH oxidation. This indicates a fundamental role of Rex in the regulation of fermentation products in anaerobic, and especially in solventogenic bacteria. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Highly selective coulometric method and equipment for the automated determination of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.D.; Hollen, R.M.; Roensch, F.R.; Rein, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    A highly selective, controlled-potential coulometric method has been developed for the determination of plutonium. An automated instrument, consisting of commercial electronic components under control of a programmable calculator, is being constructed. Half-cell potentials and interfering anions are listed

  3. Highly Selective Liquid-Phase Benzylation of Anisole with Solid-Acid Zeolite Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poreddy, Raju; Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan; Riisager, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Zeolites were evaluated as solid acid catalysts for the liquid-phase benzylation of anisole with benzyl alcohol, benzyl bromide, and benzyl chloride at 80 °C. Among the examined zeolites, H-mordenite-10 (H-MOR-10) demonstrated particular high activity (>99 %) and excellent selectivity (>96...

  4. The Impact of Legalized Abortion on High School Graduation through Selection and Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    This analysis examines whether the legalization of abortion changed high school graduation rates among the children selected into birth. Unless women in all socio-economic circumstances sought abortions to the same extent, increased use of abortion must have changed the distribution of child development inputs. I find that higher abortion ratios…

  5. A highly selective and sensitive "turn-on" fluorescence chemodosimeter for the detection of mustard gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavender Goud, D; Purohit, Ajay Kumar; Tak, Vijay; Dubey, Devendra Kumar; Kumar, Pravin; Pardasani, Deepak

    2014-10-21

    A new chemodosimetric protocol based on a tandem S-alkylation followed by desulfurisation reaction of rhodamine-thioamide with mustard gas is reported. The chemodosimeter is highly selective for potential DNA alkylating agents like sulfur mustard, over other simple alkyl halides with the limit of detection of 4.75 μM.

  6. Highly Selective Continuous Gas-Phase Methoxycarbonylation of Ethylene with Supported Ionic Liquid Phase (SILP) Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khokarale, Santosh Govind; Garcia Suárez, Eduardo José; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    Supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) technology was applied for the first time to the Pd-catalyzed continuous, gas-phase methoxycarbonylation of ethylene to selectively produce methyl propanoate (MP) in high yields. The influence of catalyst and reaction parameters such as, for example, ionic liquid...

  7. A terbium(III)-organic framework for highly selective sensing of cytidine triphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xi Juan; He, Rong Xing; Li, Yuan Fang

    2012-11-21

    Highly selective sensing of cytidine triphosphate (CTP) against other triphosphate nucleosides including ATP, GTP and UTP is successfully achieved with a luminescent terbium(III)-organic framework (TbOF) of [Tb(2)(2,3-pzdc)(2)(ox)(H(2)O)(2)](n) (2,3-pzdc(2-) = 2,3-pyrazinedicarboxylate, ox(2-) = oxalate).

  8. Genetic and nutrient modulation of acetyl-CoA levels in Synechocystis for n-butanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anfelt, Josefine; Kaczmarzyk, Danuta; Shabestary, Kiyan

    2015-01-01

    There is a strong interest in using photosynthetic cyanobacteria as production hosts for biofuels and chemicals. Recent work has shown the benefit of pathway engineering, enzyme tolerance, and co-factor usage for improving yields of fermentation products. An n-butanol pathway was inserted into a ...

  9. Process economics of renewable biorefineries: butanol and ethanol production in integrated bioprocesses from lignocellulosics and other industrial by-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter provides process economic details on production of butanol from lignocellulosic biomass and glycerol in integrated bioreactors where numerous unit operations are combined. In order to compare various processes, economic evaluations were performed using SuperPro Designer Software (versio...

  10. Binary, ternary and quaternary liquid-liquid equilibria in 1-butanol, oleic acid, water and n-heptane mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkelman, J. G. M.; Kraai, G. N.; Heeres, H. J.

    2009-01-01

    This work reports on liquid-liquid equilibria in the system 1-butanol, oleic acid, water and n-heptane used for biphasic, lipase catalysed esterifications. The literature was studied on the mutual solubility in binary systems of water and each of the organic components. Experimental results were

  11. Two-stage pervaporation process for effective in situ removal acetone-butanol-ethanol from fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Di; Hu, Song; Miao, Qi; Chen, Changjing; Chen, Huidong; Zhang, Changwei; Li, Ping; Qin, Peiyong; Tan, Tianwei

    2017-01-01

    Two-stage pervaporation for ABE recovery from fermentation broth was studied to reduce the energy cost. The permeate after the first stage in situ pervaporation system was further used as the feedstock in the second stage of pervaporation unit using the same PDMS/PVDF membrane. A total 782.5g/L of ABE (304.56g/L of acetone, 451.98g/L of butanol and 25.97g/L of ethanol) was achieved in the second stage permeate, while the overall acetone, butanol and ethanol separation factors were: 70.7-89.73, 70.48-84.74 and 9.05-13.58, respectively. Furthermore, the theoretical evaporation energy requirement for ABE separation in the consolidate fermentation, which containing two-stage pervaporation and the following distillation process, was estimated less than ∼13.2MJ/kg-butanol. The required evaporation energy was only 36.7% of the energy content of butanol. The novel two-stage pervaporation process was effective in increasing ABE production and reducing energy consumption of the solvents separation system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Efficient Catalytic Conversion of Ethanol to 1-Butanol via the Guerbet Reaction over Copper- and Nickel-Doped Porous

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Zhuohua; Vasconcelos, Anais Couto; Bottari, Giovanni; Stuart, Marc C. A.; Bonura, Giuseppe; Cannilla, Catia; Frusteri, Francesco; Barta, Katalin

    The direct conversion of ethanol to higher value 1-butanol is a catalytic transformation of great interest in light of the expected wide availability of bioethanol originating from the fermentation of renewable resources. In this contribution we describe several novel compositions of porous metal

  13. Acetone enhances the direct analysis of total condensed tannins in plant tissues by the butanol-HCl-iron assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    The butanol-HCl spectrophotometric assay is widely used to quantify extractable and insoluble forms of condensed tannin (CT, syn. proanthocyanidin) in foods, feeds, and foliage of herbaceous and woody plants. However, this method underestimates total CT content when applied directly to plant materia...

  14. Microbial production of a biofuel (acetone-butanol-ethanol) in a continuous bioreactor: impact of bleed and simultaneous product removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acetone butanol ethanol (ABE) was produced in an integrated continuous fermentation and product recovery system using a microbial strain Clostridium beijerinckii BA101 for ABE production and fermentation gases (CO2 and H2) for product removal by gas stripping. This represents a continuation of our ...

  15. Experimental investigation on the knocking combustion characteristics of n-butanol gasoline blends in a DISI engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Haiqiao; Feng, Dengquan; Pan, Mingzhang; Pan, JiaYing; Rao, XiaoKang; Gao, Dongzhi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • N-butanol shows better knock resistance characterized by improved KLST. • Bu20 blend fuel slightly degrades the knock resistance compared with gasoline. • Knock oscillation frequency depends on combustion chamber resonance modes. • Probability distribution is applied to evaluate variation of knock intensity. - Abstract: n-Butanol is a very competitive alternative biofuel for spark ignition (SI) engines given its many advantages. Current researches are mainly concentrated on the overall combustion and emissions performance concerning the feasibility of n-butanol gasoline blends in SI engines. In this work, focus was given on the knocking combustion characteristics of operation with pure n-butanol as well as a blend fuel with 20% volume content of n-butanol (Bu20), which was investigated experimentally in a direct-injection spark ignition (DISI) single cylinder engine. Operation condition is fixed at a constant engine speed of 1500 r/min, using three throttle openings with stoichiometric air–fuel ratio. Spark timing was swept to achieve different knocking levels. The results of n-butanol and Bu20 were benchmarked against those obtained by the research octane number (RON) 92 commercial gasoline. Compared with the baseline fuel gasoline, neat n-butanol shows better anti-knock ability with more advanced knock limited spark timing, whereas slightly deteriorative knock resistance can be found for Bu20. It is hypothesized Bu20 has higher end gas temperature due to its higher brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) and faster burning rate compared with gasoline, which indicates the knock tendency depends not only on the fuel octane number, but also on the factors that affect the end gas thermodynamic state. The heavier knock propensity of Bu20 is furthermore confirmed by its more advanced knock onset and higher peak oscillation pressure. Results of fast fourier transform (FFT) indicate the knocking oscillation frequencies are mainly determined by the

  16. An Augmented Common Weight Data Envelopment Analysis for Material Selection in High-tech Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Shokr

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Material selection is a challenging issue in manufacturing processes while the inappropriate selected material may lead to fail the manufacturing process or end user experience especially in high-tech industries such as aircraft and shipping. Every material has different quantitative and qualitative criteria which should be considered simultaneously when assessing and selecting the right material. A weighted linear optimization method (WLOM in the class of data envelopment analysis which exists in literature is adopted to address material selection problem while accounting for both qualitative and quantitative criteria. However, it is demonstrated the adopted WLOM method is not able to produce a full ranking vector for the material selection problems borrowed from the literature. Thus, an augmented common weight data envelopment analysis model (ACWDEA is developed in this paper with the aim of eliminating deficiencies of WLOM model. The proposed ACWDEA is able to produce full ranking vector in decision making problems with less computational complexities in superior to the WLOM. Two material selection problems are solved and results are compared with WLOM and previous methods. Finally, the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed ACWDEA method are evaluated through Spearman’s correlation tests.

  17. High amino acid diversity and positive selection at a putative coral immunity gene (tachylectin-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellberg Michael E

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes involved in immune functions, including pathogen recognition and the activation of innate defense pathways, are among the most genetically variable known, and the proteins that they encode are often characterized by high rates of amino acid substitutions, a hallmark of positive selection. The high levels of variation characteristic of immunity genes make them useful tools for conservation genetics. To date, highly variable immunity genes have yet to be found in corals, keystone organisms of the world's most diverse marine ecosystem, the coral reef. Here, we examine variation in and selection on a putative innate immunity gene from Oculina, a coral genus previously used as a model for studies of coral disease and bleaching. Results In a survey of 244 Oculina alleles, we find high nonsynonymous variation and a signature of positive selection, consistent with a putative role in immunity. Using computational protein structure prediction, we generate a structural model of the Oculina protein that closely matches the known structure of tachylectin-2 from the Japanese horseshoe crab (Tachypleus tridentatus, a protein with demonstrated function in microbial recognition and agglutination. We also demonstrate that at least three other genera of anthozoan cnidarians (Acropora, Montastrea and Nematostella possess proteins structurally similar to tachylectin-2. Conclusions Taken together, the evidence of high amino acid diversity, positive selection and structural correspondence to the horseshoe crab tachylectin-2 suggests that this protein is 1 part of Oculina's innate immunity repertoire, and 2 evolving adaptively, possibly under selective pressure from coral-associated microorganisms. Tachylectin-2 may serve as a candidate locus to screen coral populations for their capacity to respond adaptively to future environmental change.

  18. Selection of variables for neural network analysis. Comparisons of several methods with high energy physics data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proriol, J.

    1994-01-01

    Five different methods are compared for selecting the most important variables with a view to classifying high energy physics events with neural networks. The different methods are: the F-test, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), a decision tree method: CART, weight evaluation, and Optimal Cell Damage (OCD). The neural networks use the variables selected with the different methods. We compare the percentages of events properly classified by each neural network. The learning set and the test set are the same for all the neural networks. (author)

  19. THE ANALYSIS OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS`BEHAVIOUR IN THE SELECTION OF HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina SUSANU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is to examine the Romanian education system and it focuses on the most important aspects of the education marketing and marketing research. A survey instrument was designed to include the research upon high school student’s behavior in selecting a higher education institution. The results shown that the Romanian education system has some drawbacks, the most important being the weak implementation of marketing in the education institutions. Therefore, the purpose of the marketing researches is to establish a connection between the public which education services are dedicated to and the necessary information used to select a higher education institution.

  20. Study of performance and emission characteristics of a partially coated LHR SI engine blended with n-butanol and gasoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitesh Mittal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To meet the present requirements of the automotive industry, there is continuous search to improve the performance, exhaust emission, and life of the IC engines. The meet the first two challenges, researchers are working both on newer engine technologies and fuels. Some of the published work indicates that coating on the combustion surface of the engine with ceramic material results in improved performance and reduced emission levels when fueled with alternate fuel blended fuels, and this serves as a base for this work. Normal-Butanol has molecular structure that is adaptable to gasoline, and it is considered as one of the alternative fuels for SI engines. Blending butanol with gasoline changes the properties of the fuel and alters the engine performance and emission characteristics. This is because heat which is released at a rate as a result of combustion of the compressed air–fuel mixture in the combustion chamber gets changed with respect to change fuel properties, air fuel ratio, and engine speed. An experimental investigation is carried out on a partially insulated single cylinder SI engine to study the performance and emission characteristics when fueled with two different blends of butanol and gasoline. The cylinder head surface and valves are coated with a ceramic material consisting of Zirconium dioxide (ZrO2 with 8% by weight of Yttrium Oxide (Y2O3 to a thickness of 0.3 mm by plasma spray method. Two different fuel blends containing 10% and 15% by volume of butanol in Gasoline are tested on an engine dynamometer using the uncoated and ceramic coated engines. The results strongly indicate that combination of ceramic coated engine and butanol gasoline blended fuel has potential to improve the engine performance.

  1. In situ hydrogen, acetone, butanol, ethanol and microdiesel production by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 from oleaginous fungal biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Elhagag Ahmed; Abd-Alla, Mohamed Hemida; Bagy, Magdy Mohamed Khalil; Morsy, Fatthy Mohamed

    2015-08-01

    An in situ batch fermentation technique was employed for biohydrogen, acetone, butanol, ethanol and microdiesel production from oleaginous fungal biomass using the anaerobic fermentative bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Oleaginous fungal Cunninghamella echinulata biomass which has ability to accumulate up to 71% cellular lipid was used as the substrate carbon source. The maximum cumulative hydrogen by C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 from crude C. echinulata biomass was 260 ml H2 l(-1), hydrogen production efficiency was 0.32 mol H2 mole(-1) glucose and the hydrogen production rate was 5.2 ml H2 h(-1). Subsequently, the produced acids (acetic and butyric acids) during acidogenesis phase are re-utilized by ABE-producing clostridia and converted into acetone, butanol, and ethanol. The total ABE produced by C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 during batch fermentation was 3.6 g l(-1) from crude fungal biomass including acetone (1.05 g l(-1)), butanol (2.19 g l(-1)) and ethanol (0.36 g l(-1)). C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 has ability to produce lipolytic enzymes with a specific activity 5.59 U/mg protein to hydrolyze ester containing substrates. The lipolytic potential of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 was used as a biocatalyst for a lipase transesterification process using the produced ethanol from ABE fermentation for microdiesel production. The fatty acid ethyl esters (microdiesel) generated from the lipase transesterification of crude C. echinulata dry mass was analyzed by GC/MS as 15.4% of total FAEEs. The gross energy content of biohydrogen, acetone, butanol, ethanol and biodiesel generated through C. acetobutylicum fermentation from crude C. echinulata dry mass was 3113.14 kJ mol(-1). These results suggest a possibility of integrating biohydrogen, acetone, butanol and ethanol production technology by C. acetobutylicum with microdiesel production from crude C. echinulata dry mass and therefore improve the feasibility and commercialization of bioenergy production

  2. Partial hydrogenation of alkynes on highly selective nano-structured mesoporous silica MCM-41 composite catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojoori, R.K.

    2016-01-01

    In this research, we have developed a silica MCM-41/Metformin/Pd (II) nano composite catalyst for the selective hydrogenation of alkynes to the corresponding (Z)-alkenes under a mild condition of atmospheric pressure and room temperature. Firstly, functionalized Si-MCM-41 metformin catalyst with the optimum performance was prepared. Then, the synthesized catalyst was elucidated by X-ray powder diffraction, BET surface area, FT-IR spectrophotometer, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and applied in partial hydrogenation of different alkynes, with high selectivity and high yield. The products were characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, FT-IR, and Mass Spectrometry (MS) that strongly approved the (Z)-double bond configuration of produced alkenes. This prepared catalyst is competitive with the best palladium catalysts known for the selective liquid phase hydrogenation of alkynes and can be easily recovered and regenerated with keeping high activity and selectivity over at least three cycles with a simple regeneration procedure. (author)

  3. High-throughput phenotyping and genomic selection: the frontiers of crop breeding converge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Bosquet, Llorenç; Crossa, José; von Zitzewitz, Jarislav; Serret, María Dolors; Araus, José Luis

    2012-05-01

    Genomic selection (GS) and high-throughput phenotyping have recently been captivating the interest of the crop breeding community from both the public and private sectors world-wide. Both approaches promise to revolutionize the prediction of complex traits, including growth, yield and adaptation to stress. Whereas high-throughput phenotyping may help to improve understanding of crop physiology, most powerful techniques for high-throughput field phenotyping are empirical rather than analytical and comparable to genomic selection. Despite the fact that the two methodological approaches represent the extremes of what is understood as the breeding process (phenotype versus genome), they both consider the targeted traits (e.g. grain yield, growth, phenology, plant adaptation to stress) as a black box instead of dissecting them as a set of secondary traits (i.e. physiological) putatively related to the target trait. Both GS and high-throughput phenotyping have in common their empirical approach enabling breeders to use genome profile or phenotype without understanding the underlying biology. This short review discusses the main aspects of both approaches and focuses on the case of genomic selection of maize flowering traits and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and plant spectral reflectance as high-throughput field phenotyping methods for complex traits such as crop growth and yield. © 2012 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. Vast Volatility Matrix Estimation using High Frequency Data for Portfolio Selection*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Li, Yingying; Yu, Ke

    2012-01-01

    Portfolio allocation with gross-exposure constraint is an effective method to increase the efficiency and stability of portfolios selection among a vast pool of assets, as demonstrated in Fan et al. (2011). The required high-dimensional volatility matrix can be estimated by using high frequency financial data. This enables us to better adapt to the local volatilities and local correlations among vast number of assets and to increase significantly the sample size for estimating the volatility matrix. This paper studies the volatility matrix estimation using high-dimensional high-frequency data from the perspective of portfolio selection. Specifically, we propose the use of “pairwise-refresh time” and “all-refresh time” methods based on the concept of “refresh time” proposed by Barndorff-Nielsen et al. (2008) for estimation of vast covariance matrix and compare their merits in the portfolio selection. We establish the concentration inequalities of the estimates, which guarantee desirable properties of the estimated volatility matrix in vast asset allocation with gross exposure constraints. Extensive numerical studies are made via carefully designed simulations. Comparing with the methods based on low frequency daily data, our methods can capture the most recent trend of the time varying volatility and correlation, hence provide more accurate guidance for the portfolio allocation in the next time period. The advantage of using high-frequency data is significant in our simulation and empirical studies, which consist of 50 simulated assets and 30 constituent stocks of Dow Jones Industrial Average index. PMID:23264708

  5. Vast Volatility Matrix Estimation using High Frequency Data for Portfolio Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Li, Yingying; Yu, Ke

    2012-01-01

    Portfolio allocation with gross-exposure constraint is an effective method to increase the efficiency and stability of portfolios selection among a vast pool of assets, as demonstrated in Fan et al. (2011). The required high-dimensional volatility matrix can be estimated by using high frequency financial data. This enables us to better adapt to the local volatilities and local correlations among vast number of assets and to increase significantly the sample size for estimating the volatility matrix. This paper studies the volatility matrix estimation using high-dimensional high-frequency data from the perspective of portfolio selection. Specifically, we propose the use of "pairwise-refresh time" and "all-refresh time" methods based on the concept of "refresh time" proposed by Barndorff-Nielsen et al. (2008) for estimation of vast covariance matrix and compare their merits in the portfolio selection. We establish the concentration inequalities of the estimates, which guarantee desirable properties of the estimated volatility matrix in vast asset allocation with gross exposure constraints. Extensive numerical studies are made via carefully designed simulations. Comparing with the methods based on low frequency daily data, our methods can capture the most recent trend of the time varying volatility and correlation, hence provide more accurate guidance for the portfolio allocation in the next time period. The advantage of using high-frequency data is significant in our simulation and empirical studies, which consist of 50 simulated assets and 30 constituent stocks of Dow Jones Industrial Average index.

  6. Rapid and simple preparation of rhodamine 6G loaded HY zeolite for highly selective nitrite detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viboonratanasri, Duangkamon; Pabchanda, Suwat; Prompinit, Panida

    2018-05-01

    In this study, a simple, rapid and relatively less toxic method for rhodamine 6G dye adsorption on hydrogen-form Y-type zeolite for highly selective nitrite detection was demonstrated. The adsorption behavior was described by Langmuir isotherm and the adsorption process reached the equilibrium promptly within a minute. The developed test papers characterized by fluorescence technique display high sensing performance with wide working range (0.04-20.0 mg L-1) and high selectivity. The test papers show good reproducibility with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 7% for five replicated determinations of 3 mg L-1 of nitrite. The nitrite concentration determined by using the test paper was in the same range as using ion chromatography within a 95% confidence level. The test papers offer advantages in terms of low cost and practical usage enabling them to be a promising candidate for nitrite sensor in environmental samples, food, and fertilizers.

  7. Tracking and flavour tagging selection in the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Calvetti, Milene; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In high-energy physics experiments, track based selection in the online environment is crucial for the detection of physics processes of interest for further study. This is of particular importance at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), where the increasingly harsh collision environment is challenging participating experiments to improve the performance of their online selection. Principle among these challenges is the increasing number of interactions per bunch crossing, known as pileup. In the ATLAS experiment the challenge has been addressed with multiple strategies. Firstly, individual trigger groups focusing on specific physics objects have implemented novel algorithms which make use of the detailed tracking and vertexing performed within the trigger to improve rejection without losing efficiency. Secondly, since 2015 all trigger areas have also benefited from a new high performance inner detector software tracking system implemented in the High Level Trigger. Finally, performance will be further enhanced i...

  8. A synbio approach for selection of highly expressed gene variants in Gram-positive bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferro, Roberto; Rennig, Maja; Hernández Rollán, Cristina

    2018-01-01

    with a long history in food fermentation. We have developed a synbio approach for increasing gene expression in two Gram-positive bacteria. First of all, the gene of interest was coupled to an antibiotic resistance gene to create a growth-based selection system. We then randomised the translation initiation...... region (TIR) preceding the gene of interest and selected clones that produced high protein titres, as judged by their ability to survive on high concentrations of antibiotic. Using this approach, we were able to significantly increase production of two industrially relevant proteins; sialidase in B....... subtilis and tyrosine ammonia lyase in L. lactis. Gram-positive bacteria are widely used to produce industrial enzymes. High titres are necessary to make the production economically feasible. The synbio approach presented here is a simple and inexpensive way to increase protein titres, which can be carried...

  9. High throughput route selection in multi-rate wireless mesh networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Yi-fei; GUO Xiang-li; SONG Mei; SONG Jun-de

    2008-01-01

    Most existing Ad-hoc routing protocols use the shortest path algorithm with a hop count metric to select paths. It is appropriate in single-rate wireless networks, but has a tendency to select paths containing long-distance links that have low data rates and reduced reliability in multi-rate networks. This article introduces a high throughput routing algorithm utilizing the multi-rate capability and some mesh characteristics in wireless fidelity (WiFi) mesh networks. It uses the medium access control (MAC) transmission time as the routing metric, which is estimated by the information passed up from the physical layer. When the proposed algorithm is adopted, the Ad-hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing can be improved as high throughput AODV (HT-AODV). Simulation results show that HT-AODV is capable of establishing a route that has high data-rate, short end-to-end delay and great network throughput.

  10. Studies on physical properties of cadmium soaps. Part 2. Conductance behavior in 1-butanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, R.P.; Virmani, A.K.

    1981-01-01

    Specific conductance of cadmium soap solutions in 1-butanol has been measured at temperatures 308-323 K. These soaps form micellar aggregates and the c.m.c. which increases with decreasing chain length of the soaps (C 18 -C 5 ) has been found to be independent of temperature. Conductance behavior of soaps is given by the equation: log lambda = A+B log C. log lambda = A+B log C. Constant A decreases with increasing temperature, whereas B is found independent. These constants, however, increase with an increase in the chain length of the soaps. Dissociation constant K, molecular conductance at infinite dilution lamda infinity, activation energy of conductance ΔE lamda, and activation parameters of dissociation ΔH 0 , ΔG 0 and ΔS 0 have been evaluated. (author)

  11. Kinetic Study of Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol Fermentation in Continuous Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Edward A.; Mesbah, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by clostridia has shown promise for industrial-scale production of biobutanol. However, the continuous ABE fermentation suffers from low product yield, titer, and productivity. Systems analysis of the continuous ABE fermentation will offer insights into its metabolic pathway as well as into optimal fermentation design and operation. For the ABE fermentation in continuous Clostridium acetobutylicum culture, this paper presents a kinetic model that includes the effects of key metabolic intermediates and enzymes as well as culture pH, product inhibition, and glucose inhibition. The kinetic model is used for elucidating the behavior of the ABE fermentation under the conditions that are most relevant to continuous cultures. To this end, dynamic sensitivity analysis is performed to systematically investigate the effects of culture conditions, reaction kinetics, and enzymes on the dynamics of the ABE production pathway. The analysis provides guidance for future metabolic engineering and fermentation optimization studies. PMID:27486663

  12. Spray-combustion process characterization in a common rail diesel engine fuelled with butanol-diesel blends by conventional methods and optical diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Silvia Merola

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The target of a sustainable mobility has led to investigate advanced combustion modes and fuels technologies. On the other side, the increasing global energy demand and the decreasing fossil-energy resources are enhancing the interest in the use of renewable alternative fuels for compression ignition engines with the target of near-zero emission levels. Although performance and emissions of alternative-fuel within light-duty diesel engines have been extensively investigated, results of fuel chemical composition impact on combustion by integrated optical methodologies are lacking. In order to meet this challenge, one of the main objectives of the research efforts is to characterize the combustion and species evolution. In this investigation, conventional tests and optical diagnostics were employed to enhance the comprehension of the combustion process and chemical markers in a common rail compression ignition engine powered by butanol-diesel blends. The investigation was focused on the effect of the injection strategy and blend composition on in-cylinder spray combustion and soot formation, through UV-visible digital imaging and natural emission spectroscopy. Experiments were performed in an optically accessible single cylinder high swirl compression ignition engine, equipped with a common rail multi-jets injection system. UV-visible emission spectroscopy was used to follow the evolution of the combustion process chemical markers. Spectral features of OH were identified and followed during the spray combustion process examining different pilot-main dwell timings. Soot spectral evidence in the visible wavelength range was correlated to soot engine out emissions. In this work, conventional and optical data related to diesel fuel blended with 40 % of n-butanol will be presented.

  13. Selective population of high-j states via heavy-ion-induced transfer reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, P.D.

    1982-01-01

    One of the early hopes of heavy-ion-induced transfer reactions was to populate states not seen easily or at all by other means. To date, however, I believe it is fair to say that spectroscopic studies of previously unknown states have had, at best, limited success. Despite the early demonstration of selectivity with cluster transfer to high-lying states in light nuclei, the study of heavy-ion-induced transfer reactions has emphasized the reaction mechanism. The value of using two of these reactions for spectroscopy of high spin states is demonstrated: 143 Nd( 16 O, 15 O) 144 Nd and 170 Er( 16 O, 15 Oγ) 171 Er

  14. Site selection procedure for high level radioactive waste disposal in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evstatiev, D.; Vachev, B.

    1993-01-01

    A combined site selection approach is implemented. Bulgaria's territory has been classified in three categories, presented on a 1:500000 scale map. The number of suitable sites has been reduced to 20 using the method of successive screening. The formulated site selection problem is a typical discrete multi-criteria decision making problem under uncertainty. A 5-level procedure using Expert Choice Rating and relative models is created. It is a part of a common procedure for evaluation and choice of variants for high level radwaste disposal construction. On this basis 7-8 more preferable sites are demonstrated. A new knowledge and information about the relative importance of the criteria and their subsets, about the level of criteria uncertainty and the reliability are gained. It is very useful for planning and managing of the next final stages of the site selection procedure. 7 figs., 8 refs., 4 suppls. (author)

  15. Highly Selective Fluorescent Sensing of Proteins Based on a Fluorescent Molecularly Imprinted Nanosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A fluorescent molecularly imprinted nanosensor was obtained by grafting imprinted polymer onto the surface of multi-wall carbon nanotubes and post-imprinting treatment with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC. The fluorescence of lysozyme-imprinted polymer (Lys-MIP was quenched more strongly by Lys than that of nonimprinted polymer (NIP, which indicated that the Lys-MIP could recognize Lys. The resulted imprinted material has the ability to selectively sense a target protein, and an imprinting factor of 3.34 was achieved. The Lys-MIP also showed selective detection for Lys among other proteins such as cytochrome C (Cyt C, hemoglobin (HB and bovine serum albumin (BSA due to the imprinted sites in the Lys-MIP. This approach combines the high selectivity of surface molecular imprinting technology and fluorescence, and converts binding events into detectable signals by monitoring fluorescence spectra. Therefore, it will have further applications for Lys sensing.

  16. High resolution x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy - a new technique for site- and spin-selectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xin

    1996-12-01

    X-ray spectroscopy has long been used to elucidate electronic and structural information of molecules. One of the weaknesses of x-ray absorption is its sensitivity to all of the atoms of a particular element in a sample. Through out this thesis, a new technique for enhancing the site- and spin-selectivity of the x-ray absorption has been developed. By high resolution fluorescence detection, the chemical sensitivity of K emission spectra can be used to identify oxidation and spin states; it can also be used to facilitate site-selective X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) and site-selective Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS). The spin polarization in K fluorescence could be used to generate spin selective XANES or spin-polarized EXAFS, which provides a new measure of the spin density, or the nature of magnetic neighboring atoms. Finally, dramatic line-sharpening effects by the combination of absorption and emission processes allow observation of structure that is normally unobservable. All these unique characters can enormously simplify a complex x-ray spectrum. Applications of this novel technique have generated information from various transition-metal model compounds to metalloproteins. The absorption and emission spectra by high resolution fluorescence detection are interdependent. The ligand field multiplet model has been used for the analysis of Kα and Kβ emission spectra. First demonstration on different chemical states of Fe compounds has shown the applicability of site selectivity and spin polarization. Different interatomic distances of the same element in different chemical forms have been detected using site-selective EXAFS

  17. Enhanced Butanol Production by Clostridium acetobutylicum NCIMB 13357 Grown on Date Fruit as Carbon Source in P2 Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emran I. Khamaiseh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of biobutanol was studied by the cultivation of Clostridium acetobutylicum NCIMB 13557 in P2 medium including date fruit as the sole substrate. The effect of P2 medium and the effect of different concentrations of date fruit ranging from 10 to 100 g/L on biobutanol production were investigated. Anaerobic batch culture was carried out at 35°C incubation temperature and pH 7.0 ± 0.2 for 72 h. Experimental results showed that the lowest yield of biobutanol and acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE was 0.32 and 0.35 gram per gram of carbohydrate consumed (g/g, respectively, when an initial date fruit concentration of 10 g/L was utilized. At this fruit date concentration a biobutanol production value of 1.56 g/L was obtained. On the other hand, the maximum yield of biobutanol (0.48 g/g and ABE (0.63 g/g was produced at 50 g/L date fruit concentration with a biobutanol production value as high as 11 g/L. However, when a higher initial date fruit concentration was used, biobutanol and ABE production decreased to reach the yield of 0.22 g/g and 0.35 g/g, respectively, where 100 g/L date fruit was used. Similar results also revealed that 10.03 g/L biobutanol was produced using 100 g/L date fruit.

  18. Direct conversion of CO2 into liquid fuels with high selectivity over a bifunctional catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Li, Shenggang; Bu, Xianni; Dang, Shanshan; Liu, Ziyu; Wang, Hui; Zhong, Liangshu; Qiu, Minghuang; Yang, Chengguang; Cai, Jun; Wei, Wei; Sun, Yuhan

    2017-10-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in carbon dioxide (CO2) hydrogenation to various C1 chemicals, it is still a great challenge to synthesize value-added products with two or more carbons, such as gasoline, directly from CO2 because of the extreme inertness of CO2 and a high C-C coupling barrier. Here we present a bifunctional catalyst composed of reducible indium oxides (In2O3) and zeolites that yields a high selectivity to gasoline-range hydrocarbons (78.6%) with a very low methane selectivity (1%). The oxygen vacancies on the In2O3 surfaces activate CO2 and hydrogen to form methanol, and C-C coupling subsequently occurs inside zeolite pores to produce gasoline-range hydrocarbons with a high octane number. The proximity of these two components plays a crucial role in suppressing the undesired reverse water gas shift reaction and giving a high selectivity for gasoline-range hydrocarbons. Moreover, the pellet catalyst exhibits a much better performance during an industry-relevant test, which suggests promising prospects for industrial applications.

  19. Frequency-Wavenumber (FK)-Based Data Selection in High-Frequency Passive Surface Wave Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feng; Xia, Jianghai; Xu, Zongbo; Hu, Yue; Mi, Binbin

    2018-04-01

    Passive surface wave methods have gained much attention from geophysical and civil engineering communities because of the limited application of traditional seismic surveys in highly populated urban areas. Considering that they can provide high-frequency phase velocity information up to several tens of Hz, the active surface wave survey would be omitted and the amount of field work could be dramatically reduced. However, the measured dispersion energy image in the passive surface wave survey would usually be polluted by a type of "crossed" artifacts at high frequencies. It is common in the bidirectional noise distribution case with a linear receiver array deployed along roads or railways. We review several frequently used passive surface wave methods and derive the underlying physics for the existence of the "crossed" artifacts. We prove that the "crossed" artifacts would cross the true surface wave energy at fixed points in the f-v domain and propose a FK-based data selection technique to attenuate the artifacts in order to retrieve the high-frequency information. Numerical tests further demonstrate the existence of the "crossed" artifacts and indicate that the well-known wave field separation method, FK filter, does not work for the selection of directional noise data. Real-world applications manifest the feasibility of the proposed FK-based technique to improve passive surface wave methods by a priori data selection. Finally, we discuss the applicability of our approach.

  20. Frequency-Wavenumber (FK)-Based Data Selection in High-Frequency Passive Surface Wave Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feng; Xia, Jianghai; Xu, Zongbo; Hu, Yue; Mi, Binbin

    2018-07-01

    Passive surface wave methods have gained much attention from geophysical and civil engineering communities because of the limited application of traditional seismic surveys in highly populated urban areas. Considering that they can provide high-frequency phase velocity information up to several tens of Hz, the active surface wave survey would be omitted and the amount of field work could be dramatically reduced. However, the measured dispersion energy image in the passive surface wave survey would usually be polluted by a type of "crossed" artifacts at high frequencies. It is common in the bidirectional noise distribution case with a linear receiver array deployed along roads or railways. We review several frequently used passive surface wave methods and derive the underlying physics for the existence of the "crossed" artifacts. We prove that the "crossed" artifacts would cross the true surface wave energy at fixed points in the f- v domain and propose a FK-based data selection technique to attenuate the artifacts in order to retrieve the high-frequency information. Numerical tests further demonstrate the existence of the "crossed" artifacts and indicate that the well-known wave field separation method, FK filter, does not work for the selection of directional noise data. Real-world applications manifest the feasibility of the proposed FK-based technique to improve passive surface wave methods by a priori data selection. Finally, we discuss the applicability of our approach.

  1. A Study on Site Selecting for National Project including High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kilyoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Many national projects are stopped since sites for the projects are not determined. The sites selections are hold by NIMBY for unpleasant facilities or by PYMFY for preferable facilities among local governments. The followings are the typical ones; NIMBY projects: high level radioactive waste disposal, THAAD, Nuclear power plant(NPP), etc. PIMFY projects: South-east new airport, KTX station, Research center for NPP decommission, etc. The site selection for high level radioactive waste disposal is more difficult problem, and thus government did not decide and postpone to a dead end street. Since it seems that there is no solution for site selection for high level radioactive waste disposal due to NIMBY among local governments, a solution method is proposed in this paper. To decide a high level radioactive waste disposal, the first step is to invite a bid by suggesting a package deal including PIMFY projects such as Research Center for NPP decommission. Maybe potential host local governments are asked to submit sealed bids indicating the minimum compensation sum that they would accept the high level radioactive waste disposal site. If there are more than one local government put in a bid, then decide an adequate site by considering both the accumulated PESS point and technical evaluation results. By considering how fairly preferable national projects and unpleasant national projects are distributed among local government, sites selection for NIMBY or PIMFY facilities is suggested. For NIMBY national projects, risk, cost benefit analysis is useful and required since it generates cost value to be used in the PESS. For many cases, the suggested method may be not adequate. However, similar one should be prepared, and be basis to decide sites for NIMBY or PIMFY national projects.

  2. Open-field behavior of house mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronikowski, A M; Carter, P A; Swallow, J G; Girard, I A; Rhodes, J S; Garland, T

    2001-05-01

    Open-field behavioral assays are commonly used to test both locomotor activity and emotionality in rodents. We performed open-field tests on house mice (Mus domesticus) from four replicate lines genetically selected for high voluntary wheel-running for 22 generations and from four replicate random-bred control lines. Individual mice were recorded by video camera for 3 min in a 1-m2 open-field arena on 2 consecutive days. Mice from selected lines showed no statistical differences from control mice with respect to distance traveled, defecation, time spent in the interior, or average distance from the center of the arena during the trial. Thus, we found little evidence that open-field behavior, as traditionally defined, is genetically correlated with wheel-running behavior. This result is a useful converse test of classical studies that report no increased wheel-running in mice selected for increased open-field activity. However, mice from selected lines turned less in their travel paths than did control-line mice, and females from selected lines had slower travel times (longer latencies) to reach the wall. We discuss these results in the context of the historical open-field test and newly defined measures of open-field activity.

  3. Detecting selection signatures between Duroc and Duroc synthetic pig populations using high-density SNP chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edea, Z; Hong, J-K; Jung, J-H; Kim, D-W; Kim, Y-M; Kim, E-S; Shin, S S; Jung, Y C; Kim, K-S

    2017-08-01

    The development of high throughput genotyping techniques has facilitated the identification of selection signatures of pigs. The detection of genomic selection signals in a population subjected to differential selection pressures may provide insights into the genes associated with economically and biologically important traits. To identify genomic regions under selection, we genotyped 488 Duroc (D) pigs and 155 D × Korean native pigs (DKNPs) using the Porcine SNP70K BeadChip. By applying the F ST and extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH-Rsb) methods, we detected genes under directional selection associated with growth/stature (DOCK7, PLCB4, HS2ST1, FBP2 and TG), carcass and meat quality (TG, COL14A1, FBXO5, NR3C1, SNX7, ARHGAP26 and DPYD), number of teats (LOC100153159 and LRRC1), pigmentation (MME) and ear morphology (SOX5), which are all mostly near or at fixation. These results could be a basis for investigating the underlying mutations associated with observed phenotypic variation. Validation using genome-wide association analysis would also facilitate the inclusion of some of these markers in genetic evaluation programs. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  4. Examining applying high performance genetic data feature selection and classification algorithms for colon cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rajab, Murad; Lu, Joan; Xu, Qiang

    2017-07-01

    This paper examines the accuracy and efficiency (time complexity) of high performance genetic data feature selection and classification algorithms for colon cancer diagnosis. The need for this research derives from the urgent and increasing need for accurate and efficient algorithms. Colon cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, hence it is vitally important for the cancer tissues to be expertly identified and classified in a rapid and timely manner, to assure both a fast detection of the disease and to expedite the drug discovery process. In this research, a three-phase approach was proposed and implemented: Phases One and Two examined the feature selection algorithms and classification algorithms employed separately, and Phase Three examined the performance of the combination of these. It was found from Phase One that the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm performed best with the colon dataset as a feature selection (29 genes selected) and from Phase Two that the Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm outperformed other classifications, with an accuracy of almost 86%. It was also found from Phase Three that the combined use of PSO and SVM surpassed other algorithms in accuracy and performance, and was faster in terms of time analysis (94%). It is concluded that applying feature selection algorithms prior to classification algorithms results in better accuracy than when the latter are applied alone. This conclusion is important and significant to industry and society. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Highly Selective TiN-Supported Highly Dispersed Pt Catalyst: Ultra Active toward Hydrogen Oxidation and Inactive toward Oxygen Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Junming; Tang, Haibo; Tian, Xinlong; Hou, Sanying; Li, Xiuhua; Du, Li; Liao, Shijun

    2018-01-31

    The severe dissolution of the cathode catalyst, caused by an undesired oxygen reduction reaction at the anode during startup and shutdown, is a fatal challenge to practical applications of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. To address this important issue, according to the distinct structure-sensitivity between the σ-type bond in H 2 and the π-type bond in O 2 , we design a HD-Pt/TiN material by highly dispersing Pt on the TiN surface to inhibit the unwanted oxygen reduction reaction. The highly dispersed Pt/TiN catalyst exhibits excellent selectivity toward hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions. With a Pt loading of 0.88 wt %, our catalyst shows excellent hydrogen oxidation reaction activity, close to that of commercial 20 wt % Pt/C catalyst, and much lower oxygen reduction reaction activity than the commercial 20 wt % Pt/C catalyst. The lack of well-ordered Pt facets is responsible for the excellent selectivity of the HD-Pt/TiN materials toward hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions. Our work provides a new and cost-effective solution to design selective catalysts toward hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions, making the strategy of using oxygen-tolerant anode catalyst to improve the stability of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells during startup and shutdown more affordable and practical.

  6. Phase equilibrium properties of binary and ternary systems containing di-isopropyl ether + 1-butanol + benzene at 313.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villamanan, Rosa M.; Martin, M. Carmen; Chamorro, Cesar R.; Villamanan, Miguel A.; Segovia, Jose J.

    2006-01-01

    (Vapour + liquid) equilibria data of (di-isopropyl ether + 1-butanol + benzene) (di-isopropyl ether + 1-butanol) and (1-butanol + benzene) have been measured at T = 313.15 K using an isothermal total pressure cell. Data reduction by Barker's method provides correlations for the excess molar Gibbs energy using the Margules equation for the binary systems and the Wohl expansion for the ternary. The Wilson, NRTL and UNIQUAC models have been applied successfully to both the binary and the ternary systems reported here

  7. A Feature Subset Selection Method Based On High-Dimensional Mutual Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Keong Kwoh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Feature selection is an important step in building accurate classifiers and provides better understanding of the data sets. In this paper, we propose a feature subset selection method based on high-dimensional mutual information. We also propose to use the entropy of the class attribute as a criterion to determine the appropriate subset of features when building classifiers. We prove that if the mutual information between a feature set X and the class attribute Y equals to the entropy of Y , then X is a Markov Blanket of Y . We show that in some cases, it is infeasible to approximate the high-dimensional mutual information with algebraic combinations of pairwise mutual information in any forms. In addition, the exhaustive searches of all combinations of features are prerequisite for finding the optimal feature subsets for classifying these kinds of data sets. We show that our approach outperforms existing filter feature subset selection methods for most of the 24 selected benchmark data sets.

  8. High-throughput screening of metal-porphyrin-like graphenes for selective capture of carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyeonhu; Park, Minwoo; Jang, Byungryul; Kang, Yura; Park, Jinwoo; Lee, Hosik; Chung, Haegeun; Chung, ChiHye; Hong, Suklyun; Kwon, Yongkyung; Yakobson, Boris I; Lee, Hoonkyung

    2016-02-23

    Nanostructured materials, such as zeolites and metal-organic frameworks, have been considered to capture CO2. However, their application has been limited largely because they exhibit poor selectivity for flue gases and low capture capacity under low pressures. We perform a high-throughput screening for selective CO2 capture from flue gases by using first principles thermodynamics. We find that elements with empty d orbitals selectively attract CO2 from gaseous mixtures under low CO2 pressures (~10(-3) bar) at 300 K and release it at ~450 K. CO2 binding to elements involves hybridization of the metal d orbitals with the CO2 π orbitals and CO2-transition metal complexes were observed in experiments. This result allows us to perform high-throughput screening to discover novel promising CO2 capture materials with empty d orbitals (e.g., Sc- or V-porphyrin-like graphene) and predict their capture performance under various conditions. Moreover, these findings provide physical insights into selective CO2 capture and open a new path to explore CO2 capture materials.

  9. High-throughput screening of metal-porphyrin-like graphenes for selective capture of carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyeonhu; Park, Minwoo; Jang, Byungryul; Kang, Yura; Park, Jinwoo; Lee, Hosik; Chung, Haegeun; Chung, Chihye; Hong, Suklyun; Kwon, Yongkyung; Yakobson, Boris I.; Lee, Hoonkyung

    2016-02-01

    Nanostructured materials, such as zeolites and metal-organic frameworks, have been considered to capture CO2. However, their application has been limited largely because they exhibit poor selectivity for flue gases and low capture capacity under low pressures. We perform a high-throughput screening for selective CO2 capture from flue gases by using first principles thermodynamics. We find that elements with empty d orbitals selectively attract CO2 from gaseous mixtures under low CO2 pressures (~10-3 bar) at 300 K and release it at ~450 K. CO2 binding to elements involves hybridization of the metal d orbitals with the CO2 π orbitals and CO2-transition metal complexes were observed in experiments. This result allows us to perform high-throughput screening to discover novel promising CO2 capture materials with empty d orbitals (e.g., Sc- or V-porphyrin-like graphene) and predict their capture performance under various conditions. Moreover, these findings provide physical insights into selective CO2 capture and open a new path to explore CO2 capture materials.

  10. High temperature and bacteriophages can indirectly select for bacterial pathogenicity in environmental reservoirs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ville-Petri Friman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The coincidental evolution hypothesis predicts that traits connected to bacterial pathogenicity could be indirectly selected outside the host as a correlated response to abiotic environmental conditions or different biotic species interactions. To investigate this, an opportunistic bacterial pathogen, Serratia marcescens, was cultured in the absence and presence of the lytic bacteriophage PPV (Podoviridae at 25°C and 37°C for four weeks (N = 5. At the end, we measured changes in bacterial phage-resistance and potential virulence traits, and determined the pathogenicity of all bacterial selection lines in the Parasemia plantaginis insect model in vivo. Selection at 37°C increased bacterial motility and pathogenicity but only in the absence of phages. Exposure to phages increased the phage-resistance of bacteria, and this was costly in terms of decreased maximum population size in the absence of phages. However, this small-magnitude growth cost was not greater with bacteria that had evolved in high temperature regime, and no trade-off was found between phage-resistance and growth rate. As a result, phages constrained the evolution of a temperature-mediated increase in bacterial pathogenicity presumably by preferably infecting the highly motile and virulent bacteria. In more general perspective, our results suggest that the traits connected to bacterial pathogenicity could be indirectly selected as a correlated response by abiotic and biotic factors in environmental reservoirs.

  11. New detection systems of bacteria using highly selective media designed by SMART: selective medium-design algorithm restricted by two constraints.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Kawanishi

    Full Text Available Culturing is an indispensable technique in microbiological research, and culturing with selective media has played a crucial role in the detection of pathogenic microorganisms and the isolation of commercially useful microorganisms from environmental samples. Although numerous selective media have been developed in empirical studies, unintended microorganisms often grow on such media probably due to the enormous numbers of microorganisms in the environment. Here, we present a novel strategy for designing highly selective media based on two selective agents, a carbon source and antimicrobials. We named our strategy SMART for highly Selective Medium-design Algorithm Restricted by Two constraints. To test whether the SMART method is applicable to a wide range of microorganisms, we developed selective media for Burkholderia glumae, Acidovorax avenae, Pectobacterium carotovorum, Ralstonia solanacearum, and Xanthomonas campestris. The series of media developed by SMART specifically allowed growth of the targeted bacteria. Because these selective media exhibited high specificity for growth of the target bacteria compared to established selective media, we applied three notable detection technologies: paper-based, flow cytometry-based, and color change-based detection systems for target bacteria species. SMART facilitates not only the development of novel techniques for detecting specific bacteria, but also our understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of the targeted bacteria.

  12. The role of weak selection and high mutation rates in nearly neutral evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Daniel John; Jensen, Henrik Jeldtoft

    2009-04-21

    Neutral dynamics occur in evolution if all types are 'effectively equal' in their reproductive success, where the definition of 'effectively equal' depends on the population size and the details of mutations. Empirically observed neutral genetic evolution in extremely large clonal populations can only be explained under current models if selection is completely absent. Such models typically consider the case where population dynamics occurs on a different timescale to evolution. However, this assumption is invalid when mutations are not rare in a whole population. We show that this has important consequences for the occurrence of neutral evolution in clonal populations. In highly connected type spaces, neutral dynamics can occur for all population sizes despite significant selective differences, via the forming of effectively neutral networks connecting rare neutral types. Biological implications include an explanation for the high diversity of rare types that survive in large clonal populations, and a theoretical justification for the use of neutral null models.

  13. Gastric emptying for solids in patients with duodenal ulcer before and after highly selective vagotomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mistiaen, W.; Van Hee, R.; Blockx, P.; Hubens, A. (Univ. of Antwerp (Belgium))

    1990-03-01

    In a series of 31 duodenal ulcer patients (23 males and 8 females), who underwent a highly selective vagotomy, gastric emptying characteristics of a solid meal, labeled with (99mTc)stannous colloid, were assessed before, two weeks and six months after operation. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by endoscopy and x-ray; failure of treatment with H2 antagonists or antacids during 1-18 (mean 5) years was the direct indication for operative treatment. A temporary delay in gastric emptying is noted two weeks after operation (T1/2: 124 vs 57 min). After six months, gastric emptying time has practically normalized. It appears that this is the result of the preservation of the antropyloric vagal nerve supply. In these patients, a 10% recurrence rate is noted, comparable to the results in the literature. Highly selective vagotomy proves to be a safe and effective procedure with few side effects. It does not impair gastric motility.

  14. Initial characterisation of low and high seed dormancy populations of Lolium rigidum produced by repeated selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goggin, Danica E; Emery, R J Neil; Powles, Stephen B; Steadman, Kathryn J

    2010-10-15

    The physiological and biochemical bases of seed dormancy in Lolium rigidum (annual ryegrass) are largely unknown, and study of this process is complicated by the outcrossing nature of the species and the strong influence of environment on seed dormancy. In order to identify heritable biochemical factors contributing to seed dormancy in L. rigidum, seeds from a field-collected population were used to select sub-populations with consistently low or high seed dormancy over four generations. Low-dormancy seeds showed constitutive alpha-amylase activity prior to imbibition, higher concentrations of polyphenols and cis-zeatin, and lower abscisic acid and cis-zeatin riboside concentrations than high-dormancy seeds. Selection for high dormancy was associated with a reduction in response to dark-stratification for 21d at 20 degrees C (an effective means of releasing dormancy in the original, unselected population) over successive generations, but fluridone remained effective in breaking dormancy. Crossing of low- and high-dormancy populations indicated that dormancy level was not dependent upon the maternal genotype of the seed, and that the constitutive alpha-amylase activity and high seed anthocyanin concentrations characteristic of the low-dormancy populations were not correlated to high basal germination ability. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Highly efficient cobalt-doped carbon nitride polymers for solvent-free selective oxidation of cyclohexane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Fu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Selective oxidation of saturated hydrocarbons with molecular oxygen has been of great interest in catalysis, and the development of highly efficient catalysts for this process is a crucial challenge. A new kind of heterogeneous catalyst, cobalt-doped carbon nitride polymer (g-C3N4, was harnessed for the selective oxidation of cyclohexane. X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra and high resolution transmission electron microscope revealed that Co species were highly dispersed in g-C3N4 matrix and the characteristic structure of polymeric g-C3N4 can be retained after Co-doping, although Co-doping caused the incomplete polymerization to some extent. Ultraviolet–visible, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy further proved the successful Co doping in g-C3N4 matrix as the form of Co(IIN bonds. For the selective oxidation of cyclohexane, Co-doping can markedly promote the catalytic performance of g-C3N4 catalyst due to the synergistic effect of Co species and g-C3N4 hybrid. Furthermore, the content of Co largely affected the activity of Co-doped g-C3N4 catalysts, among which the catalyst with 9.0 wt% Co content exhibited the highest yield (9.0% of cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol, as well as a high stability. Meanwhile, the reaction mechanism over Co-doped g-C3N4 catalysts was elaborated. Keywords: Selective oxidation of cyclohexane, Oxygen oxidant, Carbon nitride, Co-doping

  16. Thermal-hydraulic code selection for modular high temperature gas-cooled reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komen, E M.J.; Bogaard, J.P.A. van den

    1995-06-01

    In order to study the transient thermal-hydraulic system behaviour of modular high temperature gas-cooled reactors, the thermal-hydraulic computer codes RELAP5, MELCOR, THATCH, MORECA, and VSOP are considered at the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECN. This report presents the selection of the most appropriate codes. To cover the range of relevant accidents, a suite of three codes is recommended for analyses of HTR-M and MHTGR reactors. (orig.).

  17. High efficiency thermal to electric energy conversion using selective emitters and spectrally tuned solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Flood, Dennis J.; Lowe, Roland A.

    1992-01-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems are attractive possibilities for direct thermal-to-electric energy conversion, but have typically required the use of black body radiators operating at high temperatures. Recent advances in both the understanding and performance of solid rare-earth oxide selective emitters make possible the use of TPV at temperatures as low as 1500 K. Depending on the nature of parasitic losses, overall thermal-to-electric conversion efficiencies greater than 20 percent are feasible.

  18. Designing the nanobiointerface of fluorescent nanodiamonds: highly selective targeting of glioma cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slegerova, Jitka; Hajek, Miroslav; Rehor, Ivan; Sedlak, Frantisek; Stursa, Jan; Hruby, Martin; Cigler, Petr

    2015-01-14

    Core-shell nanoparticles based on fluorescent nanodiamonds coated with a biocompatible N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide copolymer shell were developed for background-free near-infrared imaging of cancer cells. The particles showed excellent colloidal stability in buffers and culture media. After conjugation with a cyclic RGD peptide they selectively targeted integrin αvβ3 receptors on glioblastoma cells with high internalization efficacy.

  19. Selection of High Performance Alloy for Gas Turbine Blade Using Multiphysics Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Khawaja

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the extensive increase in the utilization of energy resources in the modern era, the need of energy extraction from various resources has pronounced in recent years. Thus comprehensive efforts have been made around the globe in the technological development of turbo machines where means of energy extraction is energized fluids. This development led the aviation industry to power boost due to better performing engines. Meanwhile, the structural conformability requirements relative to the functional requirements have also increased with the advent of newer, better performing materials. Thus there is a need to study the material behavior and its usage with the idea of selecting the best possible material for its application. In this work a gas turbine blade of a small turbofan engine, where geometry and aerodynamic data was available, was analyzed for its structural behavior in the proposed mission envelope, where the engine turbine is subjected to high thermal, inertial and aerodynamic loads. Multiphysics Finite Element (FE linear stress analysis was carried out on the turbine blade. The results revealed the upper limit of Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS for the blade. Based on the limiting factor, high performance alloys were selected from the literature. The two most recommended alloy categories for gas turbine blades are NIMONIC and INCONEL from where total of 21 types of INCONEL alloys and 12 of NIMONIC alloys, available on commercial bases, were analyzed individually to meet the structural requirements. After applying selection criteria, four alloys were finalized from NIMONIC and INCONEL alloys for further analysis. On the basis of stress-strain behavior of finalized alloys, the Multiphysics FE nonlinear stress analysis was then carried out for the selection of the individual alloy by imposing a restriction of Ultimate Factor of Safety (UFOS of 1.33 and yield strength. Final selection is made keeping in view other factors

  20. High-capacity thermo-responsive magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers for selective extraction of curcuminoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Qingping; Zhang, Yuping; Zhang, Qingwen; Guo, Junfang; Huang, Weihua; Shi, Shuyun; Chen, Xiaoqin

    2014-08-08

    Thermo-responsive magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (TMMIPs) for selective recognition of curcuminoids with high capacity and selectivity have firstly been developed. The resulting TMMIPs were characterized by TEM, FT-IR, TGA, VSM and UV, which indicated that TMMIPs showed thermo-responsiveness [lower critical solution temperature (LCST) at 33.71°C] and rapid magnetic separation (5s). The polymerization, adsorption and release conditions were optimized in detail to obtain the highest binding capacity, selectivity and release ratio. We found that the adopted thermo-responsive monomer [N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm)] could be considered not only as inert polymer backbone for thermo-responsiveness but also as functional co-monomers combination with basic monomer (4-VP) for more specific binding sites when ethanol was added in binding solution. The maximum adsorption capacity with highest selectivity of curcumin was 440.3μg/g (1.93 times that on MMIPs with no thermosensitivity) at 45°C (above LCST) in 20% (v/v) ethanol solution on shrunk TMMIPs, and the maximum release proportion was about 98% at 20°C (below LCST) in methanol-acetic acid (9/1, v/v) solution on swelled TMMIPs. The adsorption process between curcumin and TMMIPs followed Langumuir adsorption isotherm and pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics. The prepared TMMIPs also showed high reproducibility (RSD<6% for batch-to-batch evaluation) and stability (only 7% decrease after five cycles). Subsequently, the TMMIPs were successfully applied for selective extraction of curcuminoids from complex natural product, Curcuma longa. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cocaine-induced locomotor activity in rats selectively bred for low and high voluntary running behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jacob D; Green, Caroline L; Arthur, Ian M; Booth, Frank W; Miller, Dennis K

    2015-02-01

    The rewarding effects of physical activity and abused drugs are caused by stimulation of similar brain pathways. Low (LVR) and high (HVR) voluntary running lines were developed by selectively breeding Wistar rats on running distance performance on postnatal days 28-34. We hypothesized that LVR rats would be more sensitive to the locomotor-activating effects of cocaine than HVR rats due to their lower motivation for wheel running. We investigated how selection for LVR or HVR behavior affects inherited activity responses: (a) open field activity levels, (b) habituation to an open field environment, and (c) the locomotor response to cocaine. Open field activity was measured for 80 min on three successive days (days 1-3). Data from the first 20 min were analyzed to determine novelty-induced locomotor activity (day 1) and the habituation to the environment (days 1-3). On day 3, rats were acclimated to the chamber for 20 min and then received saline or cocaine (10, 20, or 30 mg/kg) injection. Dopamine transporter (DAT) protein in the nucleus accumbens was measured via Western blot. Selecting for low and high voluntary running behavior co-selects for differences in inherent (HVR > LVR) and cocaine-induced (LVR > HVR) locomotor activity levels. The differences in the selected behavioral measures do not appear to correlate with DAT protein levels. LVR and HVR rats are an intriguing physical activity model for studying the interactions between genes related to the motivation to run, to use drugs of abuse, and to exhibit locomotor activity.

  2. Silver nanoparticles supported on alumina-​a highly efficient and selective nanocatalyst for imine reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poreddy, Raju; Garcia-Suarez, Eduardo J.; Riisager, Anders

    2014-01-01

    in the synthesis of secondary amines from primary amines in a tandem reaction protocol (oxidation–imination–reduction) using air and molecular hydrogen as oxidizing and reducing agents, respectively. The reported synthesis is performed under mild reaction conditions, which complies with the demands of modern...... organic synthesis. Due to the mild reaction conditions and high conversion as well as high selectivity, we consider that the utilization of silver nanoparticles supported on alumina represents an attractive and environmentally friendly alternative to the current synthesis of N-alkyl amines....

  3. Prompting one low-fat, high-fiber selection in a fast-food restaurant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, J L; Winett, R A

    1988-01-01

    Evidence increasingly links a high-fat, low-fiber diet to coronary heart disease and certain site cancers, indicating a need for large-scale dietary change. Studies showing the effectiveness of particular procedures in specific settings are important at this point. The present study, using an A-B-A-B design and sales data from computerized cash registers, replicated and extended previous work by showing that inexpensive prompts (i.e., signs and fliers) in a national fast-food restaurant could increase the sales of salads, a low-fat, high-fiber menu selection. Suggestions also are made pertinent to more widespread use of the procedures.

  4. Selection of the host rock for high level radioactive waste repository in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Yuanxin; Wang Wenguang; Chen Zhangru

    2001-01-01

    The authors has briefly introduced the experiences of the host rock selection and the host rock types in other countries for high level radioactive waste repository. The potential host rocks in China are investigated. They include granite, tuff, clay, basalt, salt, and loess. The report has expounded the distributions, scale, thickness, mineral and chemical composition, construction, petrogenesis and the ages of the rock. The possibility of these rocks as the host rock has been studied. The six pieces of distribution map of potential rocks have been made up. Through the synthetical study, it is considered that granite as the host rock of high level radioactive waste repository is possible

  5. A copper ion-selective electrode with high selectivity prepared by sol-gel and coated wire techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazloum Ardakani, M; Salavati-Niasari, M; Khayat Kashani, M; Ghoreishi, S M

    2004-03-01

    A sol-gel electrode and a coated wire ion-selective poly(vinyl chloride) membrane, based on thiosemicarbazone as a neutral carrier, were successfully developed for the detection of Cu (II) in aqueous solutions. The sol-gel electrode and coated electrode exhibited linear response with Nernstian slopes of 29.2 and 28.1 mV per decade respectively, within the copper ion concentration ranges 1.0 x 10(-5) - 1.0 x 10(-1) M and 6.0 x 10(-6) - 1.0 x 10(-1) M for coated and sol-gel sensors. The coated and sol-gel electrodes show detection limits of 3.0 x 10(-6) and 6.0 x 10(-6) M respectively. The electrodes exhibited good selectivities for a number of alkali, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal ions. The proposed electrodes have response times ranging from 10-50 s to achieve a 95% steady potential for Cu2+ concentration. The electrodes are suitable for use in aqueous solutions over a wide pH range (4-7.5). Applications of these electrodes for the determination of copper in real samples, and as an indicator electrode for potentiometric titration of Cu2+ ion using EDTA, are reported. The lifetimes of the electrodes were tested over a period of six months to investigate their stability. No significant change in the performance of the sol-gel electrode was observed over this period, but after two months the coated wire copper-selective electrode exhibited a gradual decrease in the slope. The selectivity of the sol-gel electrode was found to be better than that of the coated wire copper-selective electrode. Based on these results, a novel sol-gel copper-selective electrode is proposed for the determination of copper, and applied to real sample assays.

  6. Performance analyses of a spark-ignition engine firing with gasoline–butanol blends at partial load operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloni, E.; Fontana, G.; Staccone, S.; Scala, F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The potential of butanol has been investigated at partial load operation. • Torque and thermal efficiency slightly decrease when the alcohol content increases. • At part load, spark advance does not require changes when alcohol content increases. - Abstract: Biofuels seem to represent one of the most promising means for the limitation of the greenhouse gas emissions coming from traditional energy systems. In this paper, the performance of a “downsized” spark-ignition engine, fueled by gasoline and bio-butanol blends (20% and 40% butanol mass percentage), has been analyzed. In the first phase of this activity, the experimental tests have been carried out at operating points ranging from low to medium engine speed and load. The first investigations were aimed to assess the main differences among the different fuels in terms of output torque, thermal efficiency, combustion duration and optimal spark timing. In order to study the engine behavior in a wide range of fuel mixtures, these parameters have been evaluated for equivalence ratio values ranging from 1.25 to 0.83. The results obtained in this step show that both the engine torque and thermal efficiency slightly decrease (meanly about 4%) when the blend alcohol content increases. However, butanol increases the burning rate of lean mixtures and an interesting result is that the spark advance does not require adjustments when fueling changes from neat gasoline to bio-butanol/gasoline blends. Later, the pollutant emissions and the CO_2 emissions, for both rich and lean mixtures of pure gasoline and gasoline bio-butanol blends, have been measured. In general, firing with alcohol blends, NO_x and CO emissions remain quite the same, HC emissions slightly decrease while the CO_2 emissions slightly increase. At the end, in order to reproduce the real world urban driving cycle, stoichiometric mixtures have been analyzed. In these conditions, the engine thermal efficiency, at given speed and torque

  7. A selective electrocatalyst-based direct methanol fuel cell operated at high concentrations of methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan; Liu, Hui; Yang, Jun

    2017-06-01

    Owing to the serious crossover of methanol from the anode to the cathode through the polymer electrolyte membrane, direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) usually use dilute methanol solutions as fuel. However, the use of high-concentration methanol is highly demanded to improve the energy density of a DMFC system. Instead of the conventional strategies (for example, improving the fuel-feed system, membrane development, modification of electrode, and water management), we demonstrate the use of selective electrocatalysts to run a DMFC at high concentrations of methanol. In particular, at an operating temperature of 80°C, the as-fabricated DMFC with core-shell-shell Au@Ag 2 S@Pt nanocomposites at the anode and core-shell Au@Pd nanoparticles at the cathode produces a maximum power density of 89.7 mW cm -2 at a methanol feed concentration of 10 M and maintains good performance at a methanol concentration of up to 15 M. The high selectivity of the electrocatalysts achieved through structural construction accounts for the successful operation of the DMFC at high concentrations of methanol.

  8. A selective electrocatalyst–based direct methanol fuel cell operated at high concentrations of methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan; Liu, Hui; Yang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Owing to the serious crossover of methanol from the anode to the cathode through the polymer electrolyte membrane, direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) usually use dilute methanol solutions as fuel. However, the use of high-concentration methanol is highly demanded to improve the energy density of a DMFC system. Instead of the conventional strategies (for example, improving the fuel-feed system, membrane development, modification of electrode, and water management), we demonstrate the use of selective electrocatalysts to run a DMFC at high concentrations of methanol. In particular, at an operating temperature of 80°C, the as-fabricated DMFC with core-shell-shell Au@Ag2S@Pt nanocomposites at the anode and core-shell Au@Pd nanoparticles at the cathode produces a maximum power density of 89.7 mW cm−2 at a methanol feed concentration of 10 M and maintains good performance at a methanol concentration of up to 15 M. The high selectivity of the electrocatalysts achieved through structural construction accounts for the successful operation of the DMFC at high concentrations of methanol. PMID:28695199

  9. AVN-492, A Novel Highly Selective 5-HT6R Antagonist: Preclinical Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivachtchenko, Alexandre V; Okun, Ilya; Aladinskiy, Vladimir; Ivanenkov, Yan; Koryakova, Angela; Karapetyan, Ruben; Mitkin, Oleg; Salimov, Ramiz; Ivashchenko, Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Discovery of 5-HT6 receptor subtype and its exclusive localization within the central nervous system led to extensive investigations of its role in Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and obesity. In the present study, we present preclinical evaluation of a novel highly-potent and highly-selective 5-HT6R antagonist, AVN-492. The affinity of AVN-492 to bind to 5-HT6R (Ki = 91 pM) was more than three orders of magnitude higher than that to bind to the only other target, 5-HT2BR, (Ki = 170 nM). Thus, the compound displayed great 5-HT6R selectivity against all other serotonin receptor subtypes, and is extremely specific against any other receptors such as adrenergic, GABAergic, dopaminergic, histaminergic, etc. AVN-492 demonstrates good in vitro and in vivo ADME profile with high oral bioavailability and good brain permeability in rodents. In behavioral tests, AVN-492 shows anxiolytic effect in elevated plus-maze model, prevents an apomorphine-induced disruption of startle pre-pulse inhibition (the PPI model) and reverses a scopolamine- and MK-801-induced memory deficit in passive avoidance model. No anti-obesity effect of AVN-492 was found in a murine model. The data presented here strongly indicate that due to its high oral bioavailability, extremely high selectivity, and potency to block the 5-HT6 receptor, AVN-492 is a very promising tool for evaluating the role the 5-HT6 receptor might play in cognitive and neurodegenerative impairments. AVN-492 is an excellent drug candidate to be tested for treatment of such diseases, and is currently being tested in Phase I trials.

  10. Predictive distractor context facilitates attentional selection of high, but not intermediate and low, salience targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Töllner, Thomas; Conci, Markus; Müller, Hermann J

    2015-03-01

    It is well established that we can focally attend to a specific region in visual space without shifting our eyes, so as to extract action-relevant sensory information from covertly attended locations. The underlying mechanisms that determine how fast we engage our attentional spotlight in visual-search scenarios, however, remain controversial. One dominant view advocated by perceptual decision-making models holds that the times taken for focal-attentional selection are mediated by an internal template that biases perceptual coding and selection decisions exclusively through target-defining feature coding. This notion directly predicts that search times remain unaffected whether or not participants can anticipate the upcoming distractor context. Here we tested this hypothesis by employing an illusory-figure localization task that required participants to search for an invariant target amongst a variable distractor context, which gradually changed--either randomly or predictably--as a function of distractor-target similarity. We observed a graded decrease in internal focal-attentional selection times--correlated with external behavioral latencies--for distractor contexts of higher relative to lower similarity to the target. Critically, for low but not intermediate and high distractor-target similarity, these context-driven effects were cortically and behaviorally amplified when participants could reliably predict the type of distractors. This interactive pattern demonstrates that search guidance signals can integrate information about distractor, in addition to target, identities to optimize distractor-target competition for focal-attentional selection. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Sparse Bayesian classification and feature selection for biological expression data with high correlations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Yang

    Full Text Available Classification models built on biological expression data are increasingly used to predict distinct disease subtypes. Selected features that separate sample groups can be the candidates of biomarkers, helping us to discover biological functions/pathways. However, three challenges are associated with building a robust classification and feature selection model: 1 the number of significant biomarkers is much smaller than that of measured features for which the search will be exhaustive; 2 current biological expression data are big in both sample size and feature size which will worsen the scalability of any search algorithms; and 3 expression profiles of certain features are typically highly correlated which may prevent to distinguish the predominant features. Unfortunately, most of the existing algorithms are partially addressing part of these challenges but not as a whole. In this paper, we propose a unified framework to address the above challenges. The classification and feature selection problem is first formulated as a nonconvex optimisation problem. Then the problem is relaxed and solved iteratively by a sequence of convex optimisation procedures which can be distributed computed and therefore allows the efficient implementation on advanced infrastructures. To illustrate the competence of our method over others, we first analyse a randomly generated simulation dataset under various conditions. We then analyse a real gene expression dataset on embryonal tumour. Further downstream analysis, such as functional annotation and pathway analysis, are performed on the selected features which elucidate several biological findings.

  12. Comparison of a rational vs. high throughput approach for rapid salt screening and selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collman, Benjamin M; Miller, Jonathan M; Seadeek, Christopher; Stambek, Julie A; Blackburn, Anthony C

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, high throughput (HT) screening has become the most widely used approach for early phase salt screening and selection in a drug discovery/development setting. The purpose of this study was to compare a rational approach for salt screening and selection to those results previously generated using a HT approach. The rational approach involved a much smaller number of initial trials (one salt synthesis attempt per counterion) that were selected based on a few strategic solubility determinations of the free form combined with a theoretical analysis of the ideal solvent solubility conditions for salt formation. Salt screening results for sertraline, tamoxifen, and trazodone using the rational approach were compared to those previously generated by HT screening. The rational approach produced similar results to HT screening, including identification of the commercially chosen salt forms, but with a fraction of the crystallization attempts. Moreover, the rational approach provided enough solid from the very initial crystallization of a salt for more thorough and reliable solid-state characterization and thus rapid decision-making. The crystallization techniques used in the rational approach mimic larger-scale process crystallization, allowing smoother technical transfer of the selected salt to the process chemist.

  13. Selective Loss of Early Differentiated, Highly Functional PD1high CD4 T Cells with HIV Progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M Paris

    Full Text Available The role of PD-1 expression on CD4 T cells during HIV infection is not well understood. Here, we describe the differential expression of PD-1 in CD127high CD4 T cells within the early/intermediate differentiated (EI (CD27highCD45RAlow T cell population among uninfected and HIV-infected subjects, with higher expression associated with decreased viral replication (HIV-1 viral load. A significant loss of circulating PD-1highCTLA-4low CD4 T cells was found specifically in the CD127highCD27highCD45RAlow compartment, while initiation of antiretroviral treatment, particularly in subjects with advanced disease, reversed these dynamics. Increased HIV-1 Gag DNA was also found in PD-1high compared to PD-1low ED CD4 T cells. In line with an increased susceptibility to HIV infection, PD-1 expression in this CD4 T cell subset was associated with increased activation and expression of the HIV co-receptor, CCR5. Rather than exhaustion, this population produced more IFN-g, MIP1-a, IL-4, IL-10, and IL-17a compared to PD-1low EI CD4 T cells. In line with our previous findings, PD-1high EI CD4 T cells were also characterized by a high expression of CCR7, CXCR5 and CCR6, a phenotype associated with increased in vitro B cell help. Our data show that expression of PD-1 on early-differentiated CD4 T cells may represent a population that is highly functional, more susceptible to HIV infection and selectively lost in chronic HIV infection.

  14. A novel route to synthesis of glycerol dimethyl ether from epichlorohydrin with high selectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Xiaoshu; Liu, Hao; Yang, Qiusheng; Li, Naihua; Dong, Xiangmo; Wang, Shufang; Zhao, Xinqiang; Wang, Yanji

    2014-01-01

    The effective utilization of glycerol, a by-product in the production of biodiesel, into useful chemicals is desirable from the viewpoint of green chemistry. With this in mind, a novel and highly selective route to synthesizing glycerol dimethyl ether (2,3-dimethoxy-1-propanol), a potential fuel additive, from glycerol was proposed. This route uses both glycerol and methanol as starting materials, takes epichlorohydrin as an intermediate product, and utilizes HCl as a recycling agent. Hereinto, the key step of this route is the reaction between epichlorohydrin and methanol to produce 2,3-dimethoxy-1-propanol which is identified by GC–MS, ESI-MS, IR and NMR. The thermodynamics of this reaction was analyzed and the result showed that the thermodynamics of a reaction was favorable and a high product yield was expected. The effect of various parameters such as kind of acid catalyst, molar ratio of epichlorohydrin to methanol, reaction temperature and reaction time was studied. Among various acid catalysts investigated, the acidic ionic liquid [HSO 3 -b-N(CH 3 ) 3 ]HSO 4 exhibited the highest activity and selectivity: conversion of epichlorohydrin of 100% and selectivity of 2,3-dimethoxy-1-propanol of 99% at 393 K, 10 h, an initial pressure of 0.1 MPa and a molar ratio of catalyst:ECH:CH 3 OH of 0.01:1:5. After the reaction, [HSO 3 -b-N(CH 3 ) 3 ]HSO 4 was separated by vacuum distillation and then reused for the next cycle directly. The results showed that the product selectivity remained at about 94% but the conversion of epichlorohydrin dropped to 75% after being used five times. Subsequently, a reaction mechanism for the synthesis of 2,3-dimethoxy-1-propanol from epichlorohydrin and methanol was proposed. - Highlights: • Epichlorohydrin was converted effectively into glycerol dimethyl ether used as potential fuel additive. • The selectivity of 99% and the conversion of 100% under the mild reaction condition. • The reaction was high product selectivity and

  15. The n-Butanol Fraction and Rutin from Tartary Buckwheat Improve Cognition and Memory in an In Vivo Model of Amyloid-β-Induced Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Yeon; Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Dong Gu; Cho, Sunghun; Yoon, Young-Ho; Cho, Eun Ju; Lee, Sanghyun

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the beneficial effects of the n-butanol fraction and rutin extracted from tartary buckwheat (TB) on learning and memory deficits in a mouse model of amyloid β (Aβ)-induced Alzheimer's disease (AD). Learning and memory were assessed using the T-maze, object recognition, and Morris water maze tests. Animals administered Aβ showed impaired cognition and memory, which were alleviated by oral administration of an n-butanol fraction and rutin extracted from TB. Similarly, Aβ-induced increases in nitric oxide formation and lipid peroxidation in the brain, liver, and kidneys were attenuated by treatment with n-butanol fraction and rutin from TB in addition to antioxidant effects observed in control (nonAβ-treated) animals. The results of the present study suggest that the n-butanol fraction and rutin extracted from TB are protective against and have possible therapeutic applications for the treatment of AD.

  16. Data re-arranging techniques leading to proper variable selections in high energy physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kůs, Václav; Bouř, Petr

    2017-12-01

    We introduce a new data based approach to homogeneity testing and variable selection carried out in high energy physics experiments, where one of the basic tasks is to test the homogeneity of weighted samples, mainly the Monte Carlo simulations (weighted) and real data measurements (unweighted). This technique is called ’data re-arranging’ and it enables variable selection performed by means of the classical statistical homogeneity tests such as Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Anderson-Darling, or Pearson’s chi-square divergence test. P-values of our variants of homogeneity tests are investigated and the empirical verification through 46 dimensional high energy particle physics data sets is accomplished under newly proposed (equiprobable) quantile binning. Particularly, the procedure of homogeneity testing is applied to re-arranged Monte Carlo samples and real DATA sets measured at the particle accelerator Tevatron in Fermilab at DØ experiment originating from top-antitop quark pair production in two decay channels (electron, muon) with 2, 3, or 4+ jets detected. Finally, the variable selections in the electron and muon channels induced by the re-arranging procedure for homogeneity testing are provided for Tevatron top-antitop quark data sets.

  17. Ultrathin and Ion-Selective Janus Membranes for High-Performance Osmotic Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Sui, Xin; Li, Pei; Xie, Ganhua; Kong, Xiang-Yu; Xiao, Kai; Gao, Longcheng; Wen, Liping; Jiang, Lei

    2017-07-05

    The osmotic energy existing in fluids is recognized as a promising "blue" energy source that can help solve the global issues of energy shortage and environmental pollution. Recently, nanofluidic channels have shown great potential for capturing this worldwide energy because of their novel transport properties contributed by nanoconfinement. However, with respect to membrane-scale porous systems, high resistance and undesirable ion selectivity remain bottlenecks, impeding their applications. The development of thinner, low-resistance membranes, meanwhile promoting their ion selectivity, is a necessity. Here, we engineered ultrathin and ion-selective Janus membranes prepared via the phase separation of two block copolymers, which enable osmotic energy conversion with power densities of approximately 2.04 W/m 2 by mixing natural seawater and river water. Both experiments and continuum simulation help us to understand the mechanism for how membrane thickness and channel structure dominate the ion transport process and overall device performance, which can serve as a general guiding principle for the future design of nanochannel membranes for high-energy concentration cells.

  18. Different Levels of DNA Methylation Detected in Human Sperms after Morphological Selection Using High Magnification Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nino Guy Cassuto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze DNA methylation levels between two groups of spermatozoa taken from the same sample, following morphological selection by high magnification (HM at 6100x microscopy. A prospective study was conducted and studied 876 spermatozoa from 10 randomly selected men. Sperm morphology was characterized at HM according to criteria previously established. High-scoring Score 6 and low-scoring Score 0 sperm were selected. Sperm DNA methylation level was assessed using an immunoassay method targeting 5-methylcytosine residues by fluorescence microscopy with imaging analysis system to detect DNA methylation in single spermatozoon. Results. In total, 448 S6 spermatozoa and 428 S0 spermatozoa were analyzed. A strong relationship was found between sperm DNA methylation levels and sperm morphology observed at HM. Sperm DNA methylation level in the S6 group was significantly lower compared with that in the S0 group (p<10-6, OR = 2.4; and p<0.001, as determined using the Wilcoxon test. Conclusion. Differences in DNA methylation levels are associated with sperm morphology variations as observed at HM, which allows spermatozoa with abnormal levels to be discarded and ultimately decrease birth defects, malformations, and epigenetic diseases that may be transmitted from sperm to offspring in ICSI.

  19. Selecting Optimal Feature Set in High-Dimensional Data by Swarm Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Fong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Selecting the right set of features from data of high dimensionality for inducing an accurate classification model is a tough computational challenge. It is almost a NP-hard problem as the combinations of features escalate exponentially as the number of features increases. Unfortunately in data mining, as well as other engineering applications and bioinformatics, some data are described by a long array of features. Many feature subset selection algorithms have been proposed in the past, but not all of them are effective. Since it takes seemingly forever to use brute force in exhaustively trying every possible combination of features, stochastic optimization may be a solution. In this paper, we propose a new feature selection scheme called Swarm Search to find an optimal feature set by using metaheuristics. The advantage of Swarm Search is its flexibility in integrating any classifier into its fitness function and plugging in any metaheuristic algorithm to facilitate heuristic search. Simulation experiments are carried out by testing the Swarm Search over some high-dimensional datasets, with different classification algorithms and various metaheuristic algorithms. The comparative experiment results show that Swarm Search is able to attain relatively low error rates in classification without shrinking the size of the feature subset to its minimum.

  20. Highly Selective and Sensitive Self-Powered Glucose Sensor Based on Capacitor Circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Gymama; Kulkarni, Tanmay

    2017-05-03

    Enzymatic glucose biosensors are being developed to incorporate nanoscale materials with the biological recognition elements to assist in the rapid and sensitive detection of glucose. Here we present a highly sensitive and selective glucose sensor based on capacitor circuit that is capable of selectively sensing glucose while simultaneously powering a small microelectronic device. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) is chemically modified with pyrroloquinoline quinone glucose dehydrogenase (PQQ-GDH) and bilirubin oxidase (BOD) at anode and cathode, respectively, in the biofuel cell arrangement. The input voltage (as low as 0.25 V) from the biofuel cell is converted to a stepped-up power and charged to the capacitor to the voltage of 1.8 V. The frequency of the charge/discharge cycle of the capacitor corresponded to the oxidation of glucose. The biofuel cell structure-based glucose sensor synergizes the advantages of both the glucose biosensor and biofuel cell. In addition, this glucose sensor favored a very high selectivity towards glucose in the presence of competing and non-competing analytes. It exhibited unprecedented sensitivity of 37.66 Hz/mM.cm 2 and a linear range of 1 to 20 mM. This innovative self-powered glucose sensor opens new doors for implementation of biofuel cells and capacitor circuits for medical diagnosis and powering therapeutic devices.

  1. Highly selective gas sensor arrays based on thermally reduced graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipatov, Alexey; Varezhnikov, Alexey; Wilson, Peter; Sysoev, Victor; Kolmakov, Andrei; Sinitskii, Alexander

    2013-06-21

    The electrical properties of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) have been previously shown to be very sensitive to surface adsorbates, thus making rGO a very promising platform for highly sensitive gas sensors. However, poor selectivity of rGO-based gas sensors remains a major problem for their practical use. In this paper, we address the selectivity problem by employing an array of rGO-based integrated sensors instead of focusing on the performance of a single sensing element. Each rGO-based device in such an array has a unique sensor response due to the irregular structure of rGO films at different levels of organization, ranging from nanoscale to macroscale. The resulting rGO-based gas sensing system could reliably recognize analytes of nearly the same chemical nature. In our experiments rGO-based sensor arrays demonstrated a high selectivity that was sufficient to discriminate between different alcohols, such as methanol, ethanol and isopropanol, at a 100% success rate. We also discuss a possible sensing mechanism that provides the basis for analyte differentiation.

  2. Development, evaluation, and selection of candidate high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernadzikowski, T.A.; Allender, J.S.; Gordon, D.E.; Gould, T.H. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The seven candidate waste forms, evaluated as potential media for the immobilization and gelogic disposal of high-level nuclear wastes were borosilicate glass, SYNROC, tailored ceramic, high-silica glass, FUETAP concrete, coated sol-gel particles, and glass marbles in a lead matrix. The evaluation, completed on August 1, 1981, combined preliminary waste form evaluations conducted at Department of Energy (DOE) defense waste-sites and at independent laboratories, peer review assessments, a product performance evaluation, and a processability analysis. Based on the combined results of these four inputs, two of the seven forms, borosilicate glass and a titanate-based ceramic, SYNROC, were selected as the reference and alternative forms, respectively, for continued development and evaluation in the National HLW Program. The borosilicate glass and ceramic forms were further compared during FY-1982 on the basis of risk assessments, cost comparisons, properties comparisons, and conformance with proposed regulatory and repository criteria. Both the glass and ceramic forms are viable candidates for use at DOE defense HLW sites; they are also candidates for immobilization of commercial reprocessing wastes. This paper describes the waste form screening process, discusses each of the four major inputs considered in the selection of the two forms in 1981, and presents a brief summary of the comparisons of the two forms during 1982 and the selection process to determine the final form for SRP defense HLW

  3. Review of Mid- to High-Temperature Solar Selective Absorber Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, C. E.

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the concentrating solar power (CSP) systems using solar absorbers to convert concentrated sunlight to thermal electric power. It is possible to achieve solar absorber surfaces for efficient photothermal conversion having high solar absorptance (a) for solar radiation and a low thermal emittance (e) at the operational temperature. A low reflectance (?'' 0) at wavelengths (?) 3 mm and a high reflectance (?'' 1) at l 3 mm characterize spectrally selective surfaces. The operational temperature ranges of these materials for solar applications can be categorized as low temperature (T< 100 C), mid-temperature (100 C< T< 400 C), and high-temperature (T> 400 C). High- and mid-temperature applications are needed for CSP applications. For CSP applications, the ideal spectrally selective surface would be low-cost and easy to manufacture, chemically and thermally stable in air at elevated operating temperatures (T= 500 C), and have a solar absorptance= 0.98 and a thermal emittance= 0.05 at 500 C.

  4. Microalgal process-monitoring based on high-selectivity spectroscopy tools: status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podevin, Michael; Fotidis, Ioannis A; Angelidaki, Irini

    2018-08-01

    Microalgae are well known for their ability to accumulate lipids intracellularly, which can be used for biofuels and mitigate CO 2 emissions. However, due to economic challenges, microalgae bioprocesses have maneuvered towards the simultaneous production of food, feed, fuel, and various high-value chemicals in a biorefinery concept. On-line and in-line monitoring of macromolecules such as lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, and high-value pigments will be more critical to maintain product quality and consistency for downstream processing in a biorefinery to maintain and valorize these markets. The main contribution of this review is to present current and prospective advances of on-line and in-line process analytical technology (PAT), with high-selectivity - the capability of monitoring several analytes simultaneously - in the interest of improving product quality, productivity, and process automation of a microalgal biorefinery. The high-selectivity PAT under consideration are mid-infrared (MIR), near-infrared (NIR), and Raman vibrational spectroscopies. The current review contains a critical assessment of these technologies in the context of recent advances in software and hardware in order to move microalgae production towards process automation through multivariate process control (MVPC) and software sensors trained on "big data". The paper will also include a comprehensive overview of off-line implementations of vibrational spectroscopy in microalgal research as it pertains to spectral interpretation and process automation to aid and motivate development.

  5. Improved n-butanol production via co-expression of membrane-targeted tilapia metallothionein and the clostridial metabolic pathway in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Wei-Chih; Lin, Kuo-Hsing; Liu, Chun-Chi; Tsuge, Kenji; Huang, Chieh-Chen

    2017-04-11

    N-Butanol has favorable characteristics for use as either an alternative fuel or platform chemical. Bio-based n-butanol production using microbes is an emerging technology that requires further development. Although bio-industrial microbes such as Escherichia coli have been engineered to produce n-butanol, reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated toxicity may limit productivity. Previously, we show that outer-membrane-targeted tilapia metallothionein (OmpC-TMT) is more effective as an ROS scavenger than human and mouse metallothioneins to reduce oxidative stress in the host cell. The host strain (BUT1-DE) containing the clostridial n-butanol pathway displayed a decreased growth rate and limited n-butanol productivity, likely due to ROS accumulation. The clostridial n-butanol pathway was co-engineered with inducible OmpC-TMT in E. coli (BUT3-DE) for simultaneous ROS removal, and its effect on n-butanol productivity was examined. The ROS scavenging ability of cells overexpressing OmpC-TMT was examined and showed an approximately twofold increase in capacity. The modified strain improved n-butanol productivity to 320 mg/L, whereas the control strain produced only 95.1 mg/L. Transcriptomic analysis revealed three major KEGG pathways that were significantly differentially expressed in the BUT3-DE strain compared with their expression in the BUT1-DE strain, including genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation, fructose and mannose metabolism and glycolysis/gluconeogenesis. These results indicate that OmpC-TMT can increase n-butanol production by scavenging ROS. The transcriptomic analysis suggested that n-butanol causes quinone malfunction, resulting in oxidative-phosphorylation-related nuo operon downregulation, which would diminish the ability to convert NADH to NAD + and generate proton motive force. However, fructose and mannose metabolism-related genes (fucA, srlE and srlA) were upregulated, and glycolysis/gluconeogenesis-related genes (pfkB, pgm) were

  6. Highly selective enrichment of phosphorylated peptides from peptide mixtures using titanium dioxide microcolumns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Røssel; Thingholm, Tine E; Jensen, Ole N

    2005-01-01

    based on TiO2microcolumns and peptide loading in 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB). The effect of DHB was a very efficient reduction in the binding of nonphosphorylated peptides to TiO2 while retaining its high binding affinity for phosphorylated peptides. Thus, inclusion of DHB dramatically increased...... the selectivity of the enrichment of phosphorylated peptides by TiO2. We demonstrated that this new procedure was more selective for binding phosphorylated peptides than IMAC using MALDI mass spectrometry. In addition, we showed that LC-ESI-MSMS was biased toward monophosphorylated peptides, whereas MALDI MS...... was not. Other substituted aromatic carboxylic acids were also capable of specifically reducing binding of nonphosphorylated peptides, whereas phosphoric acid reduced binding of both phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated peptides. A putative mechanism for this intriguing effect is presented....

  7. Selection criteria for container materials at the proposed Yucca Mountain high level nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsey, W.G.

    1989-11-01

    A geological repository has been proposed for the permanent disposal of the nation's high level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain in the Nevada desert. The containers for this waste must remain intact for the unprecedented service lifetime of 1000 years. A combination of engineering, regulatory, and licensing requirements complicate the container material selection. In parallel to gathering information regarding the Yucca Mountain service environment and material performance data, a set of selection criteria have been established which compare candidate materials to the performance requirements, and allow a quantitative comparison of candidates. These criteria assign relative weighting to varied topic areas such as mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, fabricability, and cost. Considering the long service life of the waste containers, it is not surprising that the corrosion behavior of the material is a dominant factor. 7 refs

  8. Computer simulation of the optical properties of high-temperature cermet solar selective coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nejati, M. Reza [K.N. Toosi Univ. of Technology, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Tehran (Iran); Fathollahi, V.; Asadi, M. Khalaji [AEOI, Center for Renewable Energy Research and Applications (CRERA), Tehran (Iran)

    2005-02-01

    A computer simulation is developed to calculate the solar absorptance and thermal emittance of various configurations of cermet solar selective coatings. Special attention has been paid to those material combinations, which are commonly used in high-temperature solar thermal applications. Moreover, other material combinations such as two-, three- and four-cermet-layer structures as solar selective coatings have been theoretically analyzed by computer simulation using three distinct physical models of Ping Sheng, Maxwell-Garnett and Bruggeman. The novel case of two-cermet-layer structure with different cermet components has also been investigated. The results were optimized by allowing the program to manipulate the metal volume fraction and thickness of each layer and the results compared to choose the best possible configuration. The calculated results are within the range of 0.91-0.97 for solar absorptance and 0.02-0.07 for thermal emittance at room temperature. (Author)

  9. Highly selective population of two excited states in nonresonant two-photon absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hui; Zhang Shi-An; Sun Zhen-Rong

    2011-01-01

    A nonresonant two-photon absorption process can be manipulated by tailoring the ultra-short laser pulse. In this paper, we theoretically demonstrate a highly selective population of two excited states in the nonresonant two-photon absorption process by rationally designing a spectral phase distribution. Our results show that one excited state is maximally populated while the other state population is widely tunable from zero to the maximum value. We believe that the theoretical results may play an important role in the selective population of a more complex nonlinear process comprising nonresonant two-photon absorption, such as resonance-mediated (2+1)-three-photon absorption and (2+1)-resonant multiphoton ionization. (atomic and molecular physics)

  10. Magnetically-focusing biochip structures for high-speed active biosensing with improved selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Haneul; Lee, Dong Jun; Kim, Daesan; Park, Juhun; Chen, Xing; Hong, Seunghun

    2018-06-01

    We report a magnetically-focusing biochip structure enabling a single layered magnetic trap-and-release cycle for biosensors with an improved detection speed and selectivity. Here, magnetic beads functionalized with specific receptor molecules were utilized to trap target molecules in a solution and transport actively to and away from the sensor surfaces to enhance the detection speed and reduce the non-specific bindings, respectively. Using our method, we demonstrated the high speed detection of IL-13 antigens with the improved detection speed by more than an order of magnitude. Furthermore, the release step in our method was found to reduce the non-specific bindings and improve the selectivity and sensitivity of biosensors. This method is a simple but powerful strategy and should open up various applications such as ultra-fast biosensors for point-of-care services.

  11. Reversible Assembly of Graphitic Carbon Nitride 3D Network for Highly Selective Dyes Absorption and Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuye; Zhou, Zhixin; Shen, Yanfei; Zhou, Qing; Wang, Jianhai; Liu, Anran; Liu, Songqin; Zhang, Yuanjian

    2016-09-27

    Responsive assembly of 2D materials is of great interest for a range of applications. In this work, interfacial functionalized carbon nitride (CN) nanofibers were synthesized by hydrolyzing bulk CN in sodium hydroxide solution. The reversible assemble and disassemble behavior of the as-prepared CN nanofibers was investigated by using CO2 as a trigger to form a hydrogel network at first. Compared to the most widespread absorbent materials such as active carbon, graphene and previously reported supramolecular gel, the proposed CN hydrogel not only exhibited a competitive absorbing capacity (maximum absorbing capacity of methylene blue up to 402 mg/g) but also overcame the typical deficiencies such as poor selectivity and high energy-consuming regeneration. This work would provide a strategy to construct a 3D CN network and open an avenue for developing smart assembly for potential applications ranging from environment to selective extraction.

  12. Bis-pyridinium quadrupolar derivatives. High Stokes shift selective probes for bio-imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salice, Patrizio; Versari, Silvia; Bradamante, Silvia; Meinardi, Francesco; Macchi, Giorgio; Pagani, Giorgio A.; Beverina, Luca

    2013-11-01

    We describe the design, synthesis and characterization of five high Stokes shift quadrupolar heteroaryl compounds suitable as fluorescent probes in bio-imaging. In particular, we characterize the photophysical properties and the intracellular localization in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC) and Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (HMSCs) for each dye. We show that, amongst all of the investigated derivatives, the 2,5-bis[1-(4-N-methylpyridinium)ethen-2-yl)]- N-methylpyrrole salt is the best candidates as selective mitochondrial tracker. Finally, we recorded the full emission spectrum of the most performing - exclusively mitochondrial selective - fluorescent probe directly from HUVEC stained cells. The emission spectrum collected from the stained mitochondria shows a remarkably more pronounced vibronic structure with respect to the emission of the free fluorophore in solution.

  13. Novel extractants with high selectivity for valuable metals in seawater. Calixarene derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakoi, Takahiko; Goto, Masahiro

    1997-01-01

    Seawater contains various valuable metals such as uranium and lithium. Therefore, attempts are being made to develop highly selective extractants which recognize target metal ions in reclaimed seawater. In this review, we have focused our study on the application of novel cyclic compound calixarene based extractants. A novel host compound calixarene, which is a cyclic compound connecting some phenol rings, is capable of forming several different extractant ring sizes and introducing various kinds of functional groups towards targeting of metal ions in seawater. Therefore, calixarene derivatives are capable of extracting valuable metals such as uranium, alkaline metals, heavy metals, rare earth metals and noble metals selectively by varying structural ring size and functional groups. The novel host compound calixarene has given promising results which line it up as a potential extractant for the separation of valuable metal ions in seawater. (author)

  14. Some selection criteria for computers in real-time systems for high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolpakov, I.F.

    1980-01-01

    The right choice of program source is for the organization of real-time systems of great importance as cost and reliability are decisive factors. Some selection criteria for program sources for high energy physics multiwire chamber spectrometers (MWCS) are considered in this report. MWCS's accept bits of information from event pattens. Large and small computers, microcomputers and intelligent controllers in CAMAC crates are compared with respect to the following characteristics: data exchange speed, number of addresses for peripheral devices, cost of interfacing a peripheral device, sizes of buffer and mass memory, configuration costs, and the mean time between failures (MTBF). The results of comparisons are shown by plots and histograms which allow the selection of program sources according to the above criteria. (Auth.)

  15. Fractional Stark state selective electric field ionization of very high-n Rydberg states of molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, H.; Mueller-Dethlefs, K.; Baranov, L.Y.

    1996-01-01

    For the first time fractional Stark state selective electric field ionization of very high-n (n approx-gt 250) molecular Rydberg states is observed. An open-quote open-quote offset close-quote close-quote electric pulse selectively ionizes the more fragile open-quote open-quote red close-quote close-quote (down shifted in energy) Stark states. The more resilient open-quote open-quote bluer close-quote close-quote, or up-shifted, ones survive and are shifted down in energy upon application of a second (open-quote open-quote probe close-quote close-quote) pulse of opposite direction (diabatic Stark states close-quote inversion). Hence, even for smaller probe than offset fields ionization is observed. The offset/probe ratio allows one to control spectral peak shapes in zero-kinetic-energy photoelectron spectroscopy. copyright 1995 The American Physical Society

  16. Crossfostering in mice selectively bred for high and low levels of open-field thigmotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, Pia K; Ewalds-Kvist, S Béatrice M

    2005-02-01

    The main purpose of this research was to investigate whether the difference in open-field (OF) thigmotaxis between mice selectively bred for high and low levels of wall-seeking behavior originated from genetic or acquired sources. Unfostered, infostered, and crossfostered mice were compared in two experiments in which the effects of strain, sex, and fostering on ambulation, defecation, exploration, grooming, latency to move, radial latency, rearing, thigmotaxis, and urination were studied. These experiments revealed that OF thigmotaxis was unaffected by the foster condition and thus genetically determined. The selected strains of mice also diverged repeatedly with regard to exploration and rearing. The findings are in line with the previously described existence of an inverse relationship between emotionality and exploration.

  17. Highly selective oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane with supported molten chloride catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaertner, C.A.; Veen, A.C. van; Lercher, J.A. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Catalysis Research Center

    2011-07-01

    Ethene production is one of the most important transformations in chemical industry, given that C{sub 2}H{sub 4} serves as building block for many mass-market products. Besides conventional thermal processes like steam cracking of ethane, ethane can be produced selectively by catalytic processes. One of the classes of catalysts that have been reported in literature as active and highly selective for the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane is that of supported molten chloride catalysts, containing an alkali chloride overlayer on a solid support. This work deals with fundamental aspects of the catalytic action in latter class of catalysts. Results from kinetic reaction studies are related to observations in detailed characterization and lead to a comprehensive mechanistic understanding. Of fundamental importance towards mechanistic insights is the oxygen storage capacity of the catalysts that has been determined by transient step experiments. (orig.)

  18. Fearfulness and feather damage in laying hens divergently selected for high and low feather pecking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodenburg, T Bas; de Haas, Elske N; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm

    2010-01-01

    Feather pecking (FP) remains a major welfare and economic problem in laying hens. FP has been found to be related to other behavioural characteristics, such as fearfulness. There are indications that fearful birds are more likely to develop FP. Furthermore, FP can lead to increased fearfulness...... in the victims. To investigate further the relationship between FP and fearfulness, feather damage and behavioural fear responses were recorded in three White Leghorn lines of laying hens: a line selected for high FP (HFP line), a line selected for low FP (LFP line) and an unselected control line (10th...... in fear responses between the HFP and LFP lines were not found, neither in the TI-test, nor in the HA or NO test. As expected, birds from the HFP line had considerably more feather damage than birds from the LFP line and birds from the unselected control line were intermediate. Cages that withdrew from...

  19. Sympathoadrenal, cardiovascular and blood gas responses to highly selective mu and delta opioid peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiritsy-Roy, J A; Marson, L; Van Loon, G R

    1989-12-01

    The relative importance of mu and delta opioid receptors in brain regulation of sympathoadrenal, cardiovascular and respiratory function was investigated using highly selective mu and delta opioid peptide analogs. Groups of conscious rats received i.c.v. injections of either the mu-selective agonist, [D-Ala2, MePhe4, Gly-ol5]enkephalin (DAMGO) or the delta-selective agonist, [D-Pen2, D-Pen5]enkephalin (DPDPE). Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded continuously via a chronic catheter in the carotid artery, and arterial blood samples were taken at intervals through the same catheter for determination of blood pH, pCO2, pO2 and plasma catecholamine concentrations. Both DAMGO and DPDPE increased plasma catecholamine levels and blood pressure in a dose-related manner. The slopes of the dose-response lines were parallel, but the delta compound was about 250 times less potent than DAMGO. Only the highest dose of 5 nmol of DAMGO caused a significant bradycardia, mediated by parasympathetic (vagal) activation. DAMGO and DPDPE also induced dose-dependent acidosis, with DAMGO again being much more potent than DPDPE. The effects of both DAMGO and DPDPE on plasma catecholamines, blood pressure and blood gases were antagonized by a mu-selective dose of naloxone (0.4 mg/kg i.a.). Intracerebroventricular administration of the delta-selective antagonist, ICI 174,864, only partially attenuated sympathoadrenal and blood gas responses to DAMGO or DPDPE. The pressor responses to DAMGO or DPDPE were resistant to antagonism by ICI 174,864. These results indicate that brain opioid receptors regulating autonomic outflow, cardiovascular and respiratory function are mainly of the mu type, although a delta opioid system may contribute to sympathoadrenal and respiratory effects of opioids.

  20. Habitat selection of a large carnivore along human-wildlife boundaries in a highly modified landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihiro Takahata

    Full Text Available When large carnivores occupy peripheral human lands conflict with humans becomes inevitable, and the reduction of human-carnivore interactions must be the first consideration for those concerned with conflict mitigation. Studies designed to identify areas of high human-bear interaction are crucial for prioritizing management actions. Due to a surge in conflicts, against a background of social intolerance to wildlife and the prevalent use of lethal control throughout Japan, Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus are now threatened by high rates of mortality. There is an urgent need to reduce the frequency of human-bear encounters if bear populations are to be conserved. To this end, we estimated the habitats that relate to human-bear interactions by sex and season using resource selection functions (RSF. Significant seasonal differences in selection for and avoidance of areas by bears were estimated by distance-effect models with interaction terms of land cover and sex. Human-bear boundaries were delineated on the basis of defined bear-habitat edges in order to identify areas that are in most need of proactive management strategies. Asiatic black bears selected habitats in close proximity to forest edges, forest roads, rivers, and red pine and riparian forests during the peak conflict season and this was correctly predicted in our human-bear boundary maps. Our findings demonstrated that bears selected abandoned forests and agricultural lands, indicating that it should be possible to reduce animal use near human lands by restoring season-specific habitat in relatively remote areas. Habitat-based conflict mitigation may therefore provide a practical means of creating adequate separation between humans and these large carnivores.

  1. Habitat selection of a large carnivore along human-wildlife boundaries in a highly modified landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahata, Chihiro; Nielsen, Scott Eric; Takii, Akiko; Izumiyama, Shigeyuki

    2014-01-01

    When large carnivores occupy peripheral human lands conflict with humans becomes inevitable, and the reduction of human-carnivore interactions must be the first consideration for those concerned with conflict mitigation. Studies designed to identify areas of high human-bear interaction are crucial for prioritizing management actions. Due to a surge in conflicts, against a background of social intolerance to wildlife and the prevalent use of lethal control throughout Japan, Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus) are now threatened by high rates of mortality. There is an urgent need to reduce the frequency of human-bear encounters if bear populations are to be conserved. To this end, we estimated the habitats that relate to human-bear interactions by sex and season using resource selection functions (RSF). Significant seasonal differences in selection for and avoidance of areas by bears were estimated by distance-effect models with interaction terms of land cover and sex. Human-bear boundaries were delineated on the basis of defined bear-habitat edges in order to identify areas that are in most need of proactive management strategies. Asiatic black bears selected habitats in close proximity to forest edges, forest roads, rivers, and red pine and riparian forests during the peak conflict season and this was correctly predicted in our human-bear boundary maps. Our findings demonstrated that bears selected abandoned forests and agricultural lands, indicating that it should be possible to reduce animal use near human lands by restoring season-specific habitat in relatively remote areas. Habitat-based conflict mitigation may therefore provide a practical means of creating adequate separation between humans and these large carnivores.

  2. Selective CO Methanation on Highly Active Ru/TiO2 Catalysts: Identifying the Physical Origin of the Observed Activation/Deactivation and Loss in Selectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdel-Mageed, Ali M.; Widmann, Daniel; Olesen, Sine Ellemann

    2018-01-01

    Ru /TiO2 catalysts are highly active and selective in the selective methanation of CO in the presence of large amounts of CO2, but suffer from a considerable deactivation and loss of selectivity during time on stream. Aiming at a fundamental understanding of these processes, we have systematically...... different effects such as structural effects, adlayer effects such as site blocking effects and changes in the chemical (surface) composition of the catalysts. Operando XANES / EXAFS measurements revealed that an initial activation phase is largely due to the reduction of oxidized Ru species, together...

  3. Gene expression profiling in persons with multiple chemical sensitivity before and after a controlled n-butanol exposure session

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz; Skovbjerg, Sine; Andersson, Linus

    2017-01-01

    was that unexposed and symptom-free MCS participants have similar gene expression patterns to controls and a second hypothesis that MCS participants can be separated from controls based on differential gene expression upon a controlled n-butanol exposure. Participants were exposed to 3.7 ppm n-butanol while seated...... min after being exposed to and 4 hours after the exposure. Participants suffering from MCS and healthy controls were recruited through advertisement at public places and in a local newspaper. 36 participants who considered themselves sensitive were prescreened for eligibility. 18 sensitive persons...... displayed similar gene expression levels both at baseline and after the exposure and the computed AUC values were likewise comparable between the 2 groups. The intragroup variation in expression levels among MCS participants was noticeably greater than the controls. MCS participants and controls have...

  4. Experimental study on the performance and emissions of a compression ignition engine fuelled with butanol diesel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, Duraid F.; Prabhakaran, P.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental investigation on the application of the blends of butanol with diesel to a direct injection diesel engine was carried out. Experimental tests were carried out to study the performance and emissions of the engine fuelled with the blends compared with those fuelled by diesel. The test results show that it is feasible and applicable for the blends with butanol to replace conventional diesel as the fuel for diesel engine; the fuel consumption, brake efficiency, exhaust temperature, and volumetric efficiency of the engine fuelled by the blends were comparable with that fuelled by diesel. The characteristics of the emissions were also studied. CO, CO 2 , HC and NO X are measured and compared with the base fuel case when the conventional diesel is used alone. The results were different for different speeds, loads and blends. (author)

  5. High-dimensional orbital angular momentum entanglement concentration based on Laguerre–Gaussian mode selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wuhong; Su, Ming; Wu, Ziwen; Lu, Meng; Huang, Bingwei; Chen, Lixiang

    2013-01-01

    Twisted photons enable the definition of a Hilbert space beyond two dimensions by orbital angular momentum (OAM) eigenstates. Here we propose a feasible entanglement concentration experiment, to enhance the quality of high-dimensional entanglement shared by twisted photon pairs. Our approach is started from the full characterization of entangled spiral bandwidth, and is then based on the careful selection of the Laguerre–Gaussian (LG) modes with specific radial and azimuthal indices p and ℓ. In particular, we demonstrate the possibility of high-dimensional entanglement concentration residing in the OAM subspace of up to 21 dimensions. By means of LabVIEW simulations with spatial light modulators, we show that the Shannon dimensionality could be employed to quantify the quality of the present concentration. Our scheme holds promise in quantum information applications defined in high-dimensional Hilbert space. (letter)

  6. Experimental High Speed Milling of the Selected Thin-Walled Component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Zajac

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In a technical practice, it is possible to meet thin-walled parts more and more often. These parts are most commonly used in the automotive industry or aircraft industry to reduce the weight of different design part of cars or aircraft. Presented article is focused on experimental high speed milling of selected thin-walled component. The introduction of this article presents description of high speed machining and specification of thin – walled parts. The experiments were carried out using a CNC machine Pinnacle VMC 650S and C45 material - plain carbon steel for automotive components and mechanical engineering. In the last part of the article, described are the arrangements to reduction of deformation of thin-walled component during the experimental high speed milling.

  7. Selection of process parameters for producing high quality defatted sesame flour at pilot scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikantan, M R; Sharma, Rajiv; Yadav, D N; Gupta, R K

    2015-03-01

    The present work was undertaken to study the effect of pearling duration, soaking time, steaming duration and drying temperature on the quality of sesame seeds and mechanically extracted partially defatted sesame cake. On the basis of quality attributes i.e. high protein, low crude fibre, low residual oil and low oxalic acid, the optimum process parameters were selected. The combination of 20 min of pearling duration, 15 min of soaking, 15 min of steaming at 100 kPa pressure and drying at 50 °C yielded high quality partially defatted protein rich sesame flour as compared to untreated defatted sesame flour. The developed high quality partially defatted protein rich sesame flour may be used in various food applications as a vital ingredient to increase the nutritional significance of the prepared foodstuffs.

  8. Highly Sensitive and Selective Gas Sensor Using Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Graphenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some, Surajit; Xu, Yang; Kim, Youngmin; Yoon, Yeoheung; Qin, Hongyi; Kulkarni, Atul; Kim, Taesung; Lee, Hyoyoung

    2013-01-01

    New hydrophilic 2D graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets with various oxygen functional groups were employed to maintain high sensitivity in highly unfavorable environments (extremely high humidity, strong acidic or basic). Novel one-headed polymer optical fiber sensor arrays using hydrophilic GO and hydrophobic reduced graphene oxide (rGO) were carefully designed, leading to the selective sensing of volatile organic gases for the first time. The two physically different surfaces of GO and rGO could provide the sensing ability to distinguish between tetrahydrofuran (THF) and dichloromethane (MC), respectively, which is the most challenging issue in the area of gas sensors. The eco-friendly physical properties of GO allowed for faster sensing and higher sensitivity when compared to previous results for rGO even under extreme environments of over 90% humidity, making it the best choice for an environmentally friendly gas sensor. PMID:23736838

  9. Selective suppression of high-order harmonics within phase-matched spectral regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Gavriel; Diskin, Tzvi; Neufeld, Ofer; Kfir, Ofer; Cohen, Oren

    2017-04-01

    Phase matching in high-harmonic generation leads to enhancement of multiple harmonics. It is sometimes desired to control the spectral structure within the phase-matched spectral region. We propose a scheme for selective suppression of high-order harmonics within the phase-matched spectral region while weakly influencing the other harmonics. The method is based on addition of phase-mismatched segments within a phase-matched medium. We demonstrate the method numerically in two examples. First, we show that one phase-mismatched segment can significantly suppress harmonic orders 9, 15, and 21. Second, we show that two phase-mismatched segments can efficiently suppress circularly polarized harmonics with one helicity over the other when driven by a bi-circular field. The new method may be useful for various applications, including the generation of highly helical bright attosecond pulses.

  10. Economic and environmental assessment of n-butanol production in an integrated first and second generation sugarcane biorefinery: Fermentative versus catalytic routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, L.G.; Dias, M.O.S.; Mariano, A.P.; Maciel Filho, R.; Bonomi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Financial and environmental impacts of n-butanol production were investigated. • Analysis showed promising economic results for ABE fermentation scenarios. • Ethanol catalysis to butanol presented discouraging figures. • n-Butanol use as fuel demonstrated favorable GHG emissions results. - Abstract: n-Butanol produced from renewable resources has attracted increasing interest, mostly for its potential use as liquid biofuel for transportation. Process currently used in the industry (Acetone–Butanol–Ethanol fermentation – ABE) faces major technical challenges, which could be overcome by an alternative production through ethanol catalysis. In this study, both routes are evaluated by means of their financial viabilities and environmental performance assessed through the Virtual Sugarcane Biorefinery methodological framework. Comparative financial analysis of the routes integrated to a first and second generation sugarcane biorefinery shows that, despite the drawbacks, ABE process for fermentation of the pentoses liquor is more attractive than the catalysis of ethanol to n-butanol and co-products. n-Butanol use as fuel demonstrated favorable environmental results for climate change as figures showed over 50% reduction in greenhouse gas emission compared with gasoline.

  11. Enhanced robustness in acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation with engineered Clostridium beijerinckii overexpressing adhE2 and ctfAB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Congcong; Yu, Le; Varghese, Saju; Yu, Mingrui; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2017-11-01

    Clostridium beijerinckii CC101 was engineered to overexpress aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (adhE2) and CoA-transferase (ctfAB). Solvent production and acid assimilation were compared between the parental and engineered strains expressing only adhE2 (CC101-SV4) and expressing adhE2, ald and ctfAB (CC101-SV6). CC101-SV4 showed an early butanol production from glucose but stopped pre-maturely at a low butanol concentration of ∼6g/L. Compared to CC101, CC101-SV6 produced more butanol (∼12g/L) from glucose and was able to re-assimilate more acids, which prevented "acid crash" and increased butanol production, under all conditions studied. CC101-SV6 also showed better ability in using glucose and xylose present in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate, and produced 9.4g/L solvents (acetone, butanol and ethanol) compared to only 2.6g/L by CC101, confirming its robustness and better tolerance to hydrolysate inhibitors. The engineered strain of C. beijerinckii overexpressing adhE2 and ctfAB should have good potential for producing butanol from lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Catalytic Upgrading of bio-oil using 1-octene and 1-butanol over sulfonic acid resin catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhijun; Wang, Qingwen; Tripathi, Prabhat; Pittman, Charles U.

    2011-02-04

    Raw bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of biomass must be refined before it can be used as a transporation fuel, a petroleum refinery feed or for many other fuel uses. Raw bio-oil was upgraded with the neat model olefin, 1-octene, and with 1-octene/1-butanol mixtures over sulfonic acid resin catalysts frin 80 to 150 degrees celisus in order to simultaneously lower water content and acidity and to increase hydrophobicity and heating value. Phase separation and coke formation were key factors limiting the reaction rate during upgrading with neat 1-octene although octanols were formed by 1-octene hydration along with small amounts of octyl acetates and ethers. GC-MS analysis confirmed that olefin hydration, carboxylic acid esterification, acetal formation from aldehydes and ketones and O- and C-alkylations of phenolic compounds occurred simultaneously during upgrading with 1-octene/1-butanol mixtures. Addition of 1-butanol increased olefin conversion dramatically be reducing mass transfer restraints and serving as a cosolvent or emulsifying agent. It also reacted with carboxylic acids and aldehydes/ketones to form esters, and acetals, respectively, while also serving to stabilize bio-oil during heating. 1-Butanol addition also protected the catalysts, increasing catalyst lifetime and reducing or eliminationg coking. Upgrading sharply increased ester content and decreased the amounts of levoglucosan, polyhydric alcohols and organic acids. Upgrading lowered acidity (pH value rise from 2.5 to >3.0), removed the uppleasant ordor and increased hydrocarbon solubility. Water content decreased from 37.2% to < 7.5% dramatically and calorific value increased from 12.6 MJ kg to about 30.0 MJ kg.

  13. Highly Localized Acoustic Streaming and Size-Selective Submicrometer Particle Concentration Using High Frequency Microscale Focused Acoustic Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, David J; Ma, Zhichao; Ai, Ye

    2016-05-17

    Concentration and separation of particles and biological specimens are fundamental functions of micro/nanofluidic systems. Acoustic streaming is an effective and biocompatible way to create rapid microscale fluid motion and induce particle capture, though the >100 MHz frequencies required to directly generate acoustic body forces on the microscale have traditionally been difficult to generate and localize in a way that is amenable to efficient generation of streaming. Moreover, acoustic, hydrodynamic, and electrical forces as typically applied have difficulty manipulating specimens in the submicrometer regime. In this work, we introduce highly focused traveling surface acoustic waves (SAW) at high frequencies between 193 and 636 MHz for efficient and highly localized production of acoustic streaming vortices on microfluidic length scales. Concentration occurs via a novel mechanism, whereby the combined acoustic radiation and streaming field results in size-selective aggregation in fluid streamlines in the vicinity of a high-amplitude acoustic beam, as opposed to previous acoustic radiation induced particle concentration where objects typically migrate toward minimum pressure locations. Though the acoustic streaming is induced by a traveling wave, we are able to manipulate particles an order of magnitude smaller than possible using the traveling wave force alone. We experimentally and theoretically examine the range of particle sizes that can be captured in fluid streamlines using this technique, with rapid particle concentration demonstrated down to 300 nm diameters. We also demonstrate that locations of trapping and concentration are size-dependent, which is attributed to the combined effects of the acoustic streaming and acoustic forces.

  14. CLASH: EXTREME EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES AND THEIR IMPLICATION ON SELECTION OF HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xingxing; Wang, Junxian; Shu, Xinwen; Zheng, Wei; Ford, Holland; Lemze, Doron; Moustakas, John; Van der Wel, Arjen; Zitrin, Adi; Frye, Brenda L.; Postman, Marc; Bradley, Larry; Coe, Dan; Bartelmann, Matthias; Benítez, Narciso; Broadhurst, Tom; Donahue, Megan; Infante, Leopoldo

    2015-01-01

    We utilize the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble observations of 25 clusters to search for extreme emission-line galaxies (EELGs). The selections are carried out in two central bands: F105W (Y 105 ) and F125W (J 125 ), as the flux of the central bands could be enhanced by the presence of [O III] λλ4959, 5007 at redshifts of ∼0.93-1.14 and 1.57-1.79, respectively. The multiband observations help to constrain the equivalent widths (EWs) of emission lines. Thanks to cluster lensing, we are able to identify 52 candidates down to an intrinsic limiting magnitude of 28.5 and to a rest-frame [O III] λλ4959, 5007 EW of ≅ 3700 Å. Our samples include a number of EELGs at lower luminosities that are missed in other surveys, and the extremely high EW can only be found in such faint galaxies. These EELGs can mimic a dropout feature similar to that of high-redshift galaxies and contaminate the color-color selection of high-redshift galaxies when the signal-to-noise ratio is limited or the band coverage is incomplete

  15. A synbio approach for selection of highly expressed gene variants in Gram-positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Roberto; Rennig, Maja; Hernández-Rollán, Cristina; Daley, Daniel O; Nørholm, Morten H H

    2018-03-08

    The market for recombinant proteins is on the rise, and Gram-positive strains are widely exploited for this purpose. Bacillus subtilis is a profitable host for protein production thanks to its ability to secrete large amounts of proteins, and Lactococcus lactis is an attractive production organism with a long history in food fermentation. We have developed a synbio approach for increasing gene expression in two Gram-positive bacteria. First of all, the gene of interest was coupled to an antibiotic resistance gene to create a growth-based selection system. We then randomised the translation initiation region (TIR) preceding the gene of interest and selected clones that produced high protein titres, as judged by their ability to survive on high concentrations of antibiotic. Using this approach, we were able to significantly increase production of two industrially relevant proteins; sialidase in B. subtilis and tyrosine ammonia lyase in L. lactis. Gram-positive bacteria are widely used to produce industrial enzymes. High titres are necessary to make the production economically feasible. The synbio approach presented here is a simple and inexpensive way to increase protein titres, which can be carried out in any laboratory within a few days. It could also be implemented as a tool for applications beyond TIR libraries, such as screening of synthetic, homologous or domain-shuffled genes.

  16. Selection of DNA aptamers against epidermal growth factor receptor with high affinity and specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Deng-Liang; Song, Yan-Ling; Zhu, Zhi; Li, Xi-Lan; Zou, Yuan; Yang, Hai-Tao; Wang, Jiang-Jie; Yao, Pei-Sen; Pan, Ru-Jun; Yang, Chaoyong James; Kang, De-Zhi

    2014-10-31

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/HER1/c-ErbB1), is overexpressed in many solid cancers, such as epidermoid carcinomas, malignant gliomas, etc. EGFR plays roles in proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis of malignant cancer cells and is the ideal antigen for clinical applications in cancer detection, imaging and therapy. Aptamers, the output of the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), are DNA/RNA oligonucleotides which can bind protein and other substances with specificity. RNA aptamers are undesirable due to their instability and high cost of production. Conversely, DNA aptamers have aroused researcher's attention because they are easily synthesized, stable, selective, have high binding affinity and are cost-effective to produce. In this study, we have successfully identified DNA aptamers with high binding affinity and selectivity to EGFR. The aptamer named TuTu22 with Kd 56±7.3nM was chosen from the identified DNA aptamers for further study. Flow cytometry analysis results indicated that the TuTu22 aptamer was able to specifically recognize a variety of cancer cells expressing EGFR but did not bind to the EGFR-negative cells. With all of the aforementioned advantages, the DNA aptamers reported here against cancer biomarker EGFR will facilitate the development of novel targeted cancer detection, imaging and therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Holey graphene frameworks for highly selective post-combustion carbon capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Shamik; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2016-02-01

    Atmospheric CO2 concentrations continue to rise rapidly in response to increased combustion of fossil fuels, contributing to global climate change. In order to mitigate the effects of global warming, development of new materials for cost-effective and energy-efficient CO2 capture is critically important. Graphene-based porous materials are an emerging class of solid adsorbents for selectively removing CO2 from flue gases. Herein, we report a simple and scalable approach to produce three-dimensional holey graphene frameworks with tunable porosity and pore geometry, and demonstrate their application as high-performance CO2 adsorbents. These holey graphene macrostructures exhibit a significantly improved specific surface area and pore volume compared to their pristine counterparts, and can be effectively used in post-combustion CO2 adsorption systems because of their intrinsic hydrophobicity together with good gravimetric storage capacities, rapid removal capabilities, superior cycling stabilities, and moderate initial isosteric heats. In addition, an exceptionally high CO2 over N2 selectivity can be achieved under conditions relevant to capture from the dry exhaust gas stream of a coal burning power plant, suggesting the possibility of recovering highly pure CO2 for long-term sequestration and/or utilization for downstream applications.

  18. Highly Selective Photothermal Therapy by a Phenoxylated-Dextran-Functionalized Smart Carbon Nanotube Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seungmin; Kwon, Taeyun; Um, Jo-Eun; Haam, Seungjoo; Kim, Woo-Jae

    2016-05-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) photothermal therapy using biocompatible single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) is advantageous because as-produced SWNTs, without additional size control, both efficiently absorb NIR light and demonstrate high photothermal conversion efficiency. In addition, covalent attachment of receptor molecules to SWNTs can be used to specifically target infected cells. However, this technique interrupts SWNT optical properties and inevitably lowers photothermal conversion efficiency and thus remains major hurdle for SWNT applications. This paper presents a smart-targeting photothermal therapy platform for inflammatory disease using newly developed phenoxylated-dextran-functionalized SWNTs. Phenoxylated dextran is biocompatible and efficiently suspends SWNTs by noncovalent π-π stacking, thereby minimizing SWNT bundle formations and maintaining original SWNT optical properties. Furthermore, it selectively targets inflammatory macrophages by scavenger-receptor binding without any additional receptor molecules; therefore, its preparation is a simple one-step process. Herein, it is experimentally demonstrated that phenoxylated dextran-SWNTs (pD-SWNTs) are also biocompatible, selectively penetrate inflammatory macrophages over normal cells, and exhibit high photothermal conversion efficiency. Consequently, NIR laser-triggered macrophage treatment can be achieved with high accuracy by pD-SWNT without damaging receptor-free cells. These smart targeting materials can be a novel photothermal agent candidate for inflammatory disease. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. CLASH: EXTREME EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES AND THEIR IMPLICATION ON SELECTION OF HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xingxing; Wang, Junxian; Shu, Xinwen [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galax